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PowerPoint® Lecture Slides
prepared by
Meg Flemming
Austin Community College
CHAPTER
13
The
Cardiovascular
System: Blood
Vessels and
Circulation
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 13 Learning Outcomes
•
•
•
13-1
• Distinguish among the types of blood vessels based on their
structure and function.
13-2
• Explain the mechanisms that regulate blood flow through blood
vessels, and discuss the mechanisms that regulate movement of
fluids between capillaries and interstitial spaces.
13-3
• Describe the control mechanisms that interact to regulate blood
flow and pressure in tissues, and explain how the activities of the
cardiac, vasomotor, and respiratory centers are coordinated to
control blood flow through tissues.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 13 Learning Outcomes
•
•
•
•
13-4
• Explain the cardiovascular system's homeostatic response to
exercising and hemorrhaging.
13-5
• Describe the three general functional patterns in the pulmonary and
systemic circuits.
13-6
• Identify the major arteries and veins of the pulmonary circuit.
13-7
• Identify the major arteries and veins of the systemic circuit.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 13 Learning Outcomes
•
•
•
13-8
• Identify the differences between fetal and adult circulation patterns,
and describe the changes in the patterns of blood flow that occur at
birth.
13-9
• Discuss the effects of aging on the cardiovascular system.
13-10
• Give examples of interactions between the cardiovascular system
and the other organ systems.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Vascular Pathway of Blood Flow (13-1)
• Arteries leave the heart and branch into:
• Arterioles - feed parts of organs and branch into:
• Capillaries - where chemical and gaseous exchange
occurs, and which drain into:
• Venules, the smallest vessels of the venous
system, which drain into:
• Veins, which return blood to the atria of the
heart
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Three Layers of Vessel Walls (13-1)
1. Tunica intima (or tunica interna)
•
Has endothelial lining and elastic connective tissue
2. Tunica media
•
Has smooth muscle with collagen and elastic fibers
•
Controls diameter of vessel
3. Tunica externa (or tunica adventitia)
•
Sheath of connective tissue may anchor to other
tissues
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 13-1 A Comparison of a Typical Artery and a Typical Vein.
Tunica externa
Tunica externa
Tunica media
Tunica media
Tunica intima
Tunica intima
Smooth muscle
Lumen
of vein
Smooth
Muscle
Endothelium
Lumen
of
artery
Endothelium
Elastic fiber
ARTERY
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Artery and vein
LM x 60
VEIN
Elastic Arteries (13-1)
• First type of arteries leaving the heart
• Examples are pulmonary trunk, aorta, and major
branches
• Have more elastic fibers than smooth muscle
• Absorb pressure changes readily
• Stretched during systole, relaxed during diastole
• Prevent very high pressure during systole
• Prevent very low pressure during diastole
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Muscular Arteries and Arterioles (13-1)
• Muscular arteries
• Examples are external carotid arteries
• Tunica media contains high proportion of smooth
muscle, little elastic fiber
• Arterioles
• Tunica media has only 1–2 layers of smooth muscle
• Ability to change diameter controls BP and flow
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Capillaries (13-1)
• Tunica interna only
• Endothelial cells with basement membrane
• Ideal for diffusion between plasma and IF
• Thin walls provide short diffusion distance
• Small diameter slows flow to increase diffusion rate
• Enormous number of capillaries provide huge surface
area for increased diffusion
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 13-2 The Structure of the Various Types of Blood Vessels.
Large Vein
Elastic Artery
Internal
elastic layer Tunica
Endothelium intima
Tunica externa
Tunica media
Tunica media
Endothelium
Tunica intima
Tunica externa
Muscular Artery
Medium-Sized Vein
Tunica externa
Tunica media
Endothelium
Tunica intima
Tunica externa
Tunica media
Endothelium
Tunica intima
Arteriole
Venule
Smooth muscle cells
(Tunica media)
Tunica externa
Endothelium
Endothelium
Basement membrane
Capillary
Endothelial
cells
Basement membrane
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Capillary Beds (13-1)
• An interconnected network of capillaries
• Entrance to bed is regulated by precapillary
sphincter, a band of smooth muscle
• Relaxation of sphincter allows for increased flow
• Constriction of sphincter decreases flow
• This occurs cyclically, referred to as vasomotion
• Control is local through autoregulation
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 13-4 The Organization of a Capillary Bed.
Vein
Smooth
muscle cells
Collateral
arteries
Venule
Small
artery
Arteriole
Capillaries
Arteriole
Section of a
precapillary
sphincter
Small
venule
Capillary bed
Precapillary
sphincters
Arteriovenous
anastomosis
Features of a typical capillary bed. Solid arrows
indicate consistent blood flow; dashed arrows
indicate variable or pulsating blood flow.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
LM x 125
This micrograph shows a number of capillary beds.
KEY
Consistent
blood flow
Variable
blood flow
Capillary
beds
Alternate Routes for Blood Flow (13-1)
• Formed by anastomosis, a joining of blood
vessels
• Arteriovenous anastomosis bypasses capillary
bed, connecting arteriole to venule
• Arterial anastomosis occurs where arteries fuse
before branching into arterioles
• Ensures delivery of blood to key areas, brain, and heart
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Veins (13-1)
• Collect blood from tissues and organs and return it
to the heart
• Venules are the smallest and some lack tunica media
• Medium-sized veins
• Tunica media has several smooth muscle layers
• In limbs, contain valves
• Prevent backflow of blood toward the distal ends
• Increase venous return
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Veins (13-1)
• If the walls of veins near the valves weaken or become
stretched and distorted, valves may not work properly
• Blood then pools in veins, which become distended
• Mild discomfort and cosmetic problems
• Superficial varicose veins in thighs and legs
• Painful distortion of adjacent tissues
• hemorrhoids, swollen veins in the lining of the
anal canal
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Veins (13-1)
• Large veins
• Thin tunica media and thick collagenous tunica externa
• Thinner walls than arteries because of low pressure
• Example: the two vena cavae
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 13-5 The Function of Valves in the Venous System.
Valve
closed
Valve opens above
contracting muscle
Valve
closed
Valve closes below
contracting muscle
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Checkpoint (13-1)
1. List the five general classes of blood vessels.
2. A cross section of tissue shows several small,
thin-walled vessels with very little smooth muscle
tissue in the tunica media. Which type of vessels
are these?
3. What effect would relaxation of precapillary
sphincters have on blood flow through a tissue?
4. Why are valves found in veins, but not in
arteries?
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Maintaining Adequate Blood Flow (13-2)
• Flow maintains adequate perfusion of tissues
• Normally, blood flow equals cardiac output (CO)
• Increased CO leads to increased flow through
capillaries
• Decreased CO leads to reduced flow
• Capillary flow influenced by pressure and
resistance
• Increased pressure increases flow
• Increased resistance decreases flow
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Pressure (13-2)
• Liquids exert hydrostatic pressure in all directions
• A pressure gradient exists between high and low
pressures at different points
• Circulatory pressure, high in aorta vs. low in venae
cavae
• Arterial pressure is blood pressure
• Capillary pressure
• Venous pressure
• Flow is proportional to pressure gradients
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Resistance (13-2)
• Any force that opposes movement
• Circulatory pressure must be high enough to
overcome total peripheral resistance
• Highest pressure gradient exists in arterioles due to
high peripheral resistance
• Vascular resistance
• Viscosity
• Turbulence
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Vascular Resistance (13-2)
• Largest component of peripheral resistance
• Caused mostly by friction between blood and vessel
walls
• Amount of friction due to length and diameter of vessel
• Length doesn't normally change
• The longer the vessel, the higher the resistance
• Arteriolar diameter is primary source of vascular
resistance
• The smaller the diameter, the greater the resistance
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Viscosity (13-2)
• Due to interactions between molecules and
suspended materials in a liquid
• Low-viscosity fluids flow at low pressures
• High-viscosity fluids flow only under high pressures
• Blood viscosity is normally stable
• Changes in plasma proteins or hematocrit can alter
viscosity and, therefore, flow
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Turbulence (13-2)
• Eddies and swirls in fluid flow
• In smooth-walled vessels turbulence is low
• Slow flow near the walls, faster flow in center
• Injured or diseased vessels or heart valves show
increase in turbulence and decrease in flow
• Turbulent blood flow across valves produces the
sound of heart murmurs
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Interplay of Pressure and Resistance (13-2)
• Blood pressure is maintained by hormonal and
neural mechanisms
• Adjusting diameter of arterioles to specific organs:
• Regulates peripheral resistance
• Regulates flow
• Allows for matching flow and perfusion to tissue needs
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Blood Pressure (13-2)
• Arterial pressures fluctuate
• Systolic pressure (SP) is peak and occurs during
ventricular contraction
• Diastolic pressure (DP) is the minimum and occurs at
the end of ventricular relaxation
• Recorded as systolic over diastolic (e.g., 120/80
mm Hg)
• Pulse is alternating changes in pressures
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Pulse Pressure (13-2)
• The difference between systolic and diastolic
pressures
• Pulse pressure = SP – DP
• Diminishes over distance, eliminated at the capillary
level
• Arterial recoil or elastic rebound occurs during diastole
• Adds additional push or squeeze on blood
• Results in fluctuation of pressures
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 13-6 Pressures within the Systemic Circuit.
Systolic
120
Pulse
pressure
100
80
60
Diastolic
Blood
pressure
(mm Hg)
40
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Venae cavae
Large veins
Mediumsized veins
Venules
Capillaries
Arterioles
Muscular
arteries
Elastic
arteries
0
Aorta
20
Capillary Pressures (13-2)
• Drops from 35 to 18 mmHg along capillary length
• Capillaries are permeable to ions, nutrients,
wastes, gases, and water
• Capillary pressures cause filtration out of
bloodstream and into tissues
• Some materials are reabsorbed into blood
• Some materials are picked up by lymphatic vessels
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Four Functions of Capillary Exchange (13-2)
1. Maintains constant communication between
plasma and IF
2. Speeds distribution of nutrients, hormones, and
gases
3. Assists movement of insoluble molecules
4. Flushes bacterial toxins and other chemicals to
lymphatic tissues for immune response
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Mechanisms of Capillary Exchange (13-2)
• Diffusion of solutes down concentration gradients
• Filtration down fluid pressure gradients
• Osmosis down osmotic gradient
• Water is filtered out of capillary by fluid or
hydrostatic pressures
• Water is reabsorbed into capillary due to osmotic
pressure
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Capillary Exchange and Pressure Balances
(13-2)
• Capillary hydrostatic pressure (CHP) is high at
arteriolar end, low at venous end
• Tends to push water out of plasma into tissues at
arteriolar end, favoring filtration
• Blood osmotic pressure (BOP) is higher than in
interstitial fluid
• As CHP drops over length of capillary, BOP remains the
same, favoring reabsorption
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 13-7 Forces Acting Across Capillary Walls.
KEY
CHP (Capillary
hydrostatic pressure)
Return to
circulation
BOP (Blood
osmotic pressure)
3.6 L/day flows
into lymphatic
vessels
Arteriole
Venule
Filtration
24 L/day
35
25
mm mm
Hg
Hg
CHP > BCOP
Fluid forced
out of capillary
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Reabsorption
No net fluid
movement
25
25
mm mm
Hg Hg
20.4 L/day
18
mm
Hg
25
mm
Hg
CHP = BCOP BCOP > CHP
Fluid moves
No net
movement into capillary
of fluid
Venous Pressure (13-2)
• Gradient is low compared to arterial side
• Large veins provide low resistance ensuring
increase in flow despite low pressure
• When standing, blood flow must overcome gravity
• Muscular compression pushes on outside of veins
• Venous valves prevent backflow
• Respiratory pump due to thoracic pressures
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Checkpoint (13-2)
5. Identify the factors that contribute to total
peripheral resistance.
6. In a healthy individual, where is blood pressure
greater: at the aorta or at the inferior vena cava?
Explain.
7. While standing in the hot sun, Sally begins to feel
light-headed and then faints. Explain what
happened.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Homeostatic Regulation of Perfusion (13-3)
• Affected by:
• Cardiac output, peripheral resistance, and blood
pressure
• Regulated to ensure blood flow changes occur at:
• Appropriate time, in right location, and without negative
effect on pressure and flow to vital organs
• Accomplished through:
• Autoregulation, neural and hormonal input
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Autoregulation of Perfusion (13-3)
• Immediate and localized changes in:
• Vasoconstrictors, factors that stimulate
constriction
• Vasodilators, factors that promote dilation
• Tissue temperature, low O2 or pH, high CO2 cause:
• Capillary sphincter dilation causing:
• Peripheral resistance decrease causing:
• Increase in flow through capillary beds
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Neural Control of Blood Pressure and Perfusion
(13-3)
• Triggered by changes in arterial pressure or blood
gas levels
• Cardiovascular (CV) centers in medulla oblongata
• Adjust cardiac output
• Vasomotor center in medulla oblongata
• Controls diameter of arterioles and peripheral resistance
• Controls venoconstriction
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 13-9 Short-Term and Long-Term Cardiovascular Responses.
Autoregulation
HOMEOSTASIS DISTURBED
Inadequate
local blood
pressure and
blood flow
Start
• Physical stress (trauma,
high temperature)
• Chemical changes
(decreased O2 or pH,
increased CO2 or
prostaglandins)
• Increased tissue activity.
HOMEOSTASIS
Normal
blood pressure
and volume
Local decrease
in resistance
and increase in
blood flow
HOMEOSTASIS
RESTORED
HOMEOSTASIS
RESTORED
If autoregulation is ineffective
Neural and Hormonal Mechanisms
Endocrine
response (see
Figure 13-12a)
Long-term increase
in blood volume
and blood pressure
Endocrine mechanisms
Neural
mechanisms
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Stimulation of
receptors sensitive
to changes in
systemic blood
pressure or
chemistry
Activation of
cardiovascular
centers in the
medulla
oblongata
Short-term elevation
of blood pressure
by sympathetic
stimulation of the
heart and peripheral
vasoconstriction
Baroreceptor Reflexes (13-3)
• Receptors monitor degree of stretch
• Aortic sinuses
• Located in pockets in walls of ascending aorta
• Aortic reflex adjusts flow through systemic circuit
• Carotid sinuses
• Very sensitive to ensure adequate flow to, and perfusion
of, brain
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 13-10 The Baroreceptor Reflexes of the Carotid and Aortic Sinuses.
Cardioinhibitory
centers stimulated
Responses to Increased
Baroreceptor Stimulation
Cardioacceleratory
centers inhibited
Vasomotor center
inhibited
Vasodilation
occurs
Baroreceptors
stimulated
HOMEOSTASIS
RESTORED
HOMEOSTASIS
DISTURBED
Blood pressure
declines
Rising blood
pressure
Start
HOMEOSTASIS
Start
Normal range
of blood
pressure
HOMEOSTASIS
DISTURBED
HOMEOSTASIS
RESTORED
Falling blood
pressure
Blood pressure
rises
Vasoconstriction occurs
Baroreceptors
inhibited
Responses to Decreased
Baroreceptor Stimulation
Vasomotor center
stimulated
Cardioacceleratory
centers stimulated
Cardioinhibitory
centers inhibited
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Decreased
cardiac
output
Increased
cardiac
output
Chemoreceptor Reflexes (13-3)
• Receptors
• Sensitive to changes in carbon dioxide, oxygen, and pH
in blood and CSF
• Located in carotid and aortic bodies, medulla
oblongata
• Decrease in pH or plasma O2, increase in plasma CO2
stimulate increase in heart rate and arteriolar
constriction
• Result is increase in BP
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Hormonal Control of Cardiovascular
Performance (13-3)
• Short-term
• E and NE trigger rapid increase of cardiac output and
vasoconstriction
• Long-term
• Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), angiotensin II, EPO
• Raise BP when too low
• Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
• Lowers BP when too high
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Antidiuretic Hormone and Cardiovascular
Regulation (13-3)
• Released from posterior pituitary in response to:
• Decrease in blood volume
• Increase in blood osmolarity
• Presence of angiotensin II
• Results in:
• Vasoconstriction
• Conserving water by kidneys, increasing blood volume
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Angiotensin II and Cardiovascular Regulation
(13-3)
• When BP decreases, kidney secretes renin
• Cascade of reactions forms angiotensin II
• Angiotensin II
• Stimulates CO, arteriolar constriction
• Immediately increases BP
• Stimulates release of ADH and aldosterone
• Stimulates thirst center
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Erythropoietin and Cardiovascular Regulation
(13-3)
• Released by kidney when:
• BP drops
• Plasma oxygen drops
• Stimulates:
• RBC production
• Increases blood volume
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Atrial Natriuretic Peptide and Cardiovascular
Regulation (13-3)
• Released by atrial walls when BP increases
• From stretch of atrial wall due to more venous return
• Effects
• Increases sodium (and therefore water) loss by kidneys
• Reduces thirst
• Blocks release of ADH, aldosterone, E, NE
• Stimulates arteriolar dilation
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 13-12a The Hormonal Regulation of Blood Pressure and Blood Volume.
HOMEOSTASIS
Start
Normal blood
pressure and
volume
HOMEOSTASIS
DISTURBED
HOMEOSTASIS
RESTORED
Blood pressure
and volume fall
Decreasing blood
pressure and
volume
Blood pressure
and volume rise
Short-term
Long-term
Sympathetic activation
and release of adrenal
hormones E and NE
Endocrine Response
of Kidneys
Renin release leads
to angiotensin II
activation
Erythropoietin (EPO)
is released
Increased cardiac
output and
peripheral
vasoconstriction
Angiotensin II Effects
Antidiuretic hormone
released
Aldosterone secreted
Factors that compensate for decreased
blood pressure and
volume
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Thirst stimulated
Increased red blood
cell formation
Combined Short-Term
and Long-Term Effects
Increased
blood
pressure
Increased
blood
volume
Figure 13-12b The Hormonal Regulation of Blood Pressure and Blood Volume.
Responses to ANP
Increased Na+ loss in urine
Increased water loss in urine
Reduced thirst
Atrial natriuretic
peptide (ANP)
released by
the heart
Inhibition of ADH, aldosterone,
epinephrine, and
norepinephrine release
Combined Effects
Reduced blood
volume
Peripheral vasodilation
HOMEOSTASIS
DISTURBED
HOMEOSTASIS
RESTORED
Rising blood
pressure and
volume
Declining blood
pressure and
volume
HOMEOSTASIS
Increasing blood
pressure and
volume
Normal
blood pressure
and volume
Factors that compensate for increased
blood pressure and volume
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Checkpoint (13-3)
8. Describe the actions of vasodilators and
vasoconstrictors.
9. How would slightly compressing the common
carotid artery affect your heart rate?
10. What effect would vasoconstriction of the renal
artery have on systemic blood pressure and
blood volume?
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Four Cardiovascular Responses to the Stress of
Exercise (13-4)
1. Extensive vasodilation
•
Increased O consumption
•
Causes lower peripheral resistance
•
Resulting in increased flow
2. Increased venous return
•
Due to skeletal muscle and respiratory "pumps"
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Four Cardiovascular Responses to the Stress of
Exercise (13-4)
3. Increased cardiac output
•
Frank-Starling principle due to increased venous return
•
Arterial pressures are maintained
•
Increased CO balances out decrease in peripheral resistance
4. Shunting of blood flow away from nonessential
organs
•
Ensures adequate perfusion of heart and skeletal
muscles
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Short-Term Cardiovascular Response to
Hemorrhage (13-4)
• Loss of blood causes decrease in BP
• Carotid and aortic reflexes increase cardiac output and
peripheral resistance
• Venoconstriction accesses venous reserve
• Sympathetic activation triggers arteriolar constriction
• All mechanisms function to elevate BP
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Long-Term Cardiovascular Response to
Hemorrhage (13-4)
• May take several days to restore blood volume to
normal
• Fluids are accessed from interstitial space
• ADH and aldosterone promote fluid retention
• Thirst increases
• EPO triggers RBC production
• All mechanisms lead to increase in volume and BP
•
Figure 13-12
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Checkpoint (13-4)
11. Why does blood pressure increase during
exercise?
12. Name the immediate and long-term problems
related to the cardiovascular response to
hemorrhaging.
13. Explain the role of aldosterone and ADH in
long-term restoration of blood volume.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Three Functional Patterns of the Cardiovascular
System (13-5)
1. Distribution of arteries and veins nearly identical
except near heart
2. Single vessel may undergo name changes as it
crosses anatomical boundaries
3. Anastomoses of arteries and veins reduce threat
of temporary blockage of vessel to organ
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 13-13 An Overview of the Pattern of Circulation.
Brain
Upper limbs
Pulmonary
circuit
(arteries)
Pulmonary
circuit
(veins)
Lungs
LA
RA
Systemic
circuit
(veins)
Left
Right ventricle
ventricle
Systemic
circuit
(arteries)
Kidneys
Spleen
Liver
Digestive
organs
Gonads
Lower limbs
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Checkpoint (13-5)
14. Identify the two circuits of the cardiovascular
system.
15. Identify the three general functional patterns of
the body's blood vessels.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Pulmonary Circuit (13-6)
• Blood exits right ventricle through pulmonary
trunk
• Branches into left and right pulmonary arteries
• Enter lungs, arterial branching nearly parallels
branching of respiratory airways
• Smallest arteriole feeds capillary surrounding alveolus
• Oxygenated blood returns to left atrium through
left and right, superior and inferior pulmonary
veins
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 13-14 The Pulmonary Circuit.
Aortic arch
Ascending aorta
Pulmonary trunk
Superior vena cava
Left lung
Left pulmonary
arteries
Right lung
Right pulmonary
arteries
Left pulmonary
veins
Right pulmonary
veins
Alveolus
Alveolar
capillary
O2
Inferior vena cava
Descending aorta
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
CO2
Checkpoint (13-6)
16. Name the blood vessels that enter and exit the
lungs, and indicate the relative oxygen content of
the blood in each.
17. Trace the path of a drop of blood through the
lungs, beginning at the right ventricle and ending
at the left atrium.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Systemic Circuit (13-7)
• Supplies oxygenated blood to all non-pulmonary
tissues
• Oxygenated blood leaves left ventricle through
aorta
• Returns deoxygenated blood to right atrium
through superior and inferior venae cavae, and
coronary sinus
• Contains about 84 percent of total blood volume
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 13-15 An Overview of the Major Systemic Arteries.
Vertebral
Right subclavian
Brachiocephalic
trunk
Aortic arch
Ascending
aorta
Celiac trunk
Brachial
Radial
Ulnar
External
iliac
Palmar
arches
Right common carotid
Left common carotid
Left subclavian
Axillary
Descending aorta
Diaphragm
Renal
Superior mesenteric
Gonadal
Inferior mesenteric
Common iliac
Internal iliac
Deep
femoral
Femoral
Popliteal
Posterior tibial
Anterior tibial
Fibular
Dorsalis pedis
Plantar arch
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Aorta (13-7)
• Ascending aorta is first systemic vessel
• Begins at aortic semilunar valve
• Left and right coronary arteries branch off near
base of aorta
• Aortic arch curves across top of heart
• Descending aorta drops down through
mediastinum
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Three Elastic Arteries of the Aortic Arch (13-7)
1. Brachiocephalic trunk
•
Branches to form right common carotid artery and
right subclavian artery
2. Left common carotid
3. Left subclavian
•
This is an example of non-mirror-image
arrangement
•
From here on, arteries are the same on both sides of
the body
•
Designation of right and left not necessary
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Subclavian Arteries (13-7)
• Supply arms, chest wall, shoulders, back, and CNS
• Internal thoracic artery
  Vertebral artery
  Thyrocervical trunk
• Supply pericardium, chest, neck, shoulder, CNS
• Becomes axillary artery
  Brachial artery
  Radial and ulnar arteries
  Form anastomoses, the superficial and deep palmar arches.
  Digital artery
• Supply upper limbs
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 13-16 Arteries of the Chest and Upper Limb.
Thyrocervical trunk
Right subclavian
Axillary
Deep brachial
Intercostal arteries
Brachial
Right common carotid
Left common carotid
Vertebral
Brachiocephalic trunk
Left subclavian
Aortic arch
Ascending aorta
Descending aorta
Heart
Internal thoracic
Descending aorta
Radial
Ulnar
Palmar arch
Digital arteries
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Carotid Arteries (13-7)
• Common carotids ascend up into the neck and
divide
• External carotid artery
• Supplies pharynx, esophagus, larynx, and face
• Internal carotid artery
• Enters skull, supplies brain and eyes
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Blood Supply to the Brain (13-7)
• Two pathways
• Vertebral arteries enter skull and fuse to form one
basilar artery
  Posterior cerebral artery
  Posterior communicating artery
• Cerebral arterial circle
• Ring-shaped anastomosis encircling the infundibulum of the
pituitary
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 13-18a Arteries of the Neck, Head, and Brain.
Anterior cerebral
Middle cerebral
Cerebral arterial
circle
Posterior
cerebral
Basilar
Internal carotid
Branches of the
External Carotid
Superficial
temporal
Maxillary
Occipital
Facial
External
carotid
Carotid sinus
Vertebral
Thyrocervical
trunk
Subclavian
Internal
thoracic
Common carotid
Brachiocephalic
trunk
Second rib
The general circulation pattern of arteries supplying the neck
and superficial structures of the head
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 13-18b Arteries of the Neck, Head, and Brain.
Cerebral Arterial Circle
Anterior
cerebral
Internal
carotid (cut)
Middle
cerebral
Posterior
cerebral
Anterior
communicating
Anterior cerebral
Posterior
communicating
Posterior cerebral
Basilar
Vertebral
The arterial supply to the brain
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Major Arteries of the Trunk (13-7)
• Descending aorta
• Thoracic aorta within thoracic cavity
• Abdominal aorta after passing through diaphragm
• Phrenic artery
• First branch off abdominal aorta
• Supplies diaphragm
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Unpaired Arteries of Digestive Organs (13-7)
• Supply blood to all digestive organs
• Celiac trunk
  Left gastric artery
  Splenic artery
  Common hepatic artery
• Superior mesenteric artery
• Inferior mesenteric artery
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Paired Major Arteries of the Trunk (13-7)
• Gonadal arteries
• Testicular in male, ovarian in female
• Adrenal arteries
• Supply adrenal glands
• Renal arteries
• Supply kidneys
• Lumbar arteries
• Supply spinal cord and abdominal wall
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Iliac Arteries (13-7)
• Abdominal aorta branches to the:
• Common iliac artery
• Branches to:
• Internal iliac artery
• Supplies pelvis
• External iliac artery
• Supplies lower limbs
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 13-19b Major Arteries of the Trunk.
Bronchial
arteries
Conducting
passages of
respiratory
tract
Pericardial
arteries
Pericardium
Esophageal
arteries
Esophagus
Mediastinal
arteries
Mediastinal
structures
Left
gastric
Stomach,
adjacent
portion of
esophagus
Splenic
Spleen,
stomach,
pancreas
Intercostal
arteries
(paired,
segmental)
Vertebrae,
spinal cord,
back muscles,
body wall,
and skin
Superior
phrenic
arteries
Diaphragm
ABDOMINAL
AORTA
Celiac
trunk
Inferior
phrenic
arteries
Diaphragm,
inferior portion
of esophagus
Adrenal
arteries
Adrenal
glands
Renal
arteries
Kidneys
Gonadal
arteries
Gonads (testes
or ovaries)
Liver,
Common stomach,
gallbladder,
hepatic duodenum,
pancreas
Superior
mesenteric
Pancreas, small
intestine, appendix,
and first two-thirds
of large intestine
Last third of large
intestine (left third
Inferior
of transverse colon,
mesenteric descending colon,
sigmoid colon, and
rectum)
Lumbar
Vertebrae,
arteries
spinal cord,
(paired,
and abdominal
segmental) wall
Pelvis
Left
common
iliac
Right common and right
lower
iliac
limb
Pelvis and
left lower
limb
Pelvic muscles, skin,
Right viscera of pelvis (urinary Left
Right external
Left external
internal and reproductive organs), internal
iliac
iliac
perineum, gluteal region,
iliac
iliac
and medial thigh
Superior
gluteal
Hip muscles,
hip joint
Ilium, hip
and thigh
Internal
pudendal
Lateral rotators of
hip; rectum, anus,
perineal muscles,
external genitalia
Lateral
sacral
Skin and
muscles of
sacrum
hip
Obturator muscles,
joint and
femoral head
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
A flowchart showing major arteries of the trunk
Paired
Unpaired (single)
Unpaired (multiple)
THORACIC
AORTA
Figure 13-19b Major Arteries of the Trunk. (1 of 3)
Bronchial
arteries
Conducting
passages of
respiratory
tract
Pericardial
arteries
Pericardium
Esophageal
arteries
Esophagus
Mediastinal
arteries
Mediastinal
structures
Intercostal
arteries
(paired,
segmental)
Vertebrae,
spinal cord,
back muscles,
body wall,
and skin
Superior
phrenic
arteries
Diaphragm
A flowchart showing major arteries of the trunk
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Paired
Unpaired (multiple)
THORACIC
AORTA
Left
gastric
Stomach,
adjacent
portion of
esophagus
Splenic
Spleen,
stomach,
pancreas
Common
hepatic
ABDOMINAL
AORTA
Celiac
trunk
Liver,
stomach,
gallbladder,
duodenum,
pancreas
Superior
mesenteric
Pancreas, small
intestine, appendix,
and first two-thirds
of large intestine
Inferior
mesenteric
Last third of large
intestine (left third
of transverse colon,
descending colon,
sigmoid colon, and
rectum)
Inferior
phrenic
arteries
Diaphragm,
inferior portion
of esophagus
Adrenal
arteries
Adrenal
glands
Renal
arteries
Kidneys
Gonadal
arteries
Gonads
(testes
or ovaries)
Lumbar
arteries
(paired,
segmental)
Vertebrae,
spinal cord,
and abdominal
wall
A flowchart showing major arteries of the
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
trunk
Paired
Unpaired (single)
Figure 13-19b Major Arteries of the Trunk. (2 of 3)
Figure 13-19b Major Arteries of the Trunk. (3 of 3)
Right common
iliac
Right external
iliac
Pelvis
and right
lower
limb
Right
internal
iliac
Superior
gluteal
Hip muscles,
hip joint
Obturator
Ilium, hip
and thigh
muscles, hip
joint and
femoral head
Left
common
iliac
Pelvic muscles, skin,
viscera of pelvis (urinary
and reproductive organs),
perineum, gluteal region,
and medial thigh
Left
internal
iliac
Internal
pudendal
Lateral rotators of
hip; rectum, anus,
perineal muscles,
external genitalia
Lateral
sacral
Skin and
muscles of
sacrum
A flowchart showing major arteries of the trunk
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Pelvis and
left lower
limb
Left external
iliac
Lower Limb Arteries (13-7)
• External iliac artery forms:
• Deep femoral artery
• Femoral artery
  Popliteal artery
  Anterior tibial, posterior tibial, and fibular arteries
• Two anastomoses connect anterior tibial
  Dorsalis pedis arteries and two branches of posterior tibial
  Dorsal arch on top of foot
  Plantar arch on bottom of foot
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 13-20 An Overview of the Major Systemic Veins.
Vertebral
External jugular
Subclavian
Axillary
Cephalic
Basilic
Brachial
Hepatic veins
Internal jugular
Brachiocephalic
Superior vena cava
Intercostal veins
Inferior vena cava
Renal
Gonadal
Lumbar veins
Median cubital
Radial
Median antebrachial
Ulnar
Left and right
common iliac
External iliac
Internal iliac
Palmar venous arches
Digital veins
Great saphenous
Deep
femoral
Femoral
Popliteal
Small saphenous
Fibular
Posterior tibial
Anterior tibial
KEY
Plantar venous arch
Dorsal venous arch
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Superficial veins
Deep veins
Systemic Veins (13-7)
• Venous network returns blood to heart
• Arteries and veins run parallel, often similar names
• Major veins in neck and limbs different than
arteries
• Arteries are located deep
• Veins usually a set of two
• One deep and the other superficial
• Aids in body temperature control
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Superior Vena Cava (13-7)
• SVC
• Receives blood from:
• Head and neck
• Upper limbs, shoulders, and chest
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Venous Return from Head and Neck (13-7)
• Small veins in brain drain into dural sinuses
• Largest is superior sagittal sinus
•  Internal jugular veins
• External jugular veins
• Collect blood from superficial head and neck
• Vertebral veins
• Collect blood from cervical spinal cord and posterior
skull
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 13-21 Major Veins of the Head and Neck.
Superior
sagittal sinus
Great cerebral
Temporal
Maxillary
Dural sinuses
Facial
Vertebral
External jugular
Internal jugular
Right
subclavian
Right brachiocephalic
Left brachiocephalic
Superior vena cava
Internal thoracic
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Venous Return from the Upper Limbs and Chest
(13-7)
• Digital vein drains into venous network in palms
•  Cephalic vein
•  Basilic vein
• Median cubital
• Connects cephalic and basilic veins
• Site of venous blood sample tap
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Venous Return from the Upper Limbs and Chest
(13-7)
• Deeper forearm veins are radial veins and ulnar
veins
  Brachial vein joins basilic vein to form:
  Axillary vein
  Subclavian vein
• Meet and merge with internal and external jugular veins
• Creates large brachiocephalic vein  SVC
• Azygos vein drains chest wall  SVC
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Inferior Vena Cava (13-7)
• IVC
• Collects blood from organs below diaphragm
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Venous Return from the Lower Limbs (13-7)
• Plantar veins on the sole of the foot
•  Plantar venous arch drains into:
 Anterior tibial vein
 Posterior tibial vein
 Fibular vein
• Dorsal venous arch drains into:
 Great saphenous vein and small saphenous vein
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Venous Return from the Lower Limbs (13-7)
• Behind knee small saphenous, tibial, and fibular veins
connect
•  Popliteal vein
•  Femoral vein
• Great saphenous and deep femoral vein join femoral vein
•  External iliac vein
• Joins internal iliac vein to become common iliac vein
•  IVC
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Veins of the Abdominopelvic Organs (13-7)
• As IVC ascends toward heart it collects blood
from:
• Lumbar vein
• Gonadal vein
• Renal and adrenal veins
• Phrenic vein
• Hepatic vein
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 13-22 The Venous Drainage of the Abdomen and Chest.
SUPERIOR
VENA CAVA
Mediastinal
veins
Esophageal
veins
Azygos
Internal
thoracic
Hepatic
veins
Renal veins
Gonadal
veins
Lumbar
veins
Common iliac
Vertebral
Internal jugular
External jugular
Subclavian
Highest intercostal
Brachiocephalic
Axillary
Cephalic
Hemiazygos
Brachial
Intercostals
INFERIOR VENA CAVA
Basilic
Phrenic veins
Adrenal veins
Median cubital
Cephalic
Internal iliac
External iliac
KEY
Superficial veins
Deep veins
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Radial
Basilic
Ulnar
Palmar venous
arches
Digital veins
Median antebrachial
Figure 13-23a A Flowchart of the Tributaries of the Superior and Inferior Venae Cavae.
Left
vertebral
Right
vertebral
Right
external
jugular
Right
subclavian
Right
internal
jugular
Right
brachiocephalic
Left
internal
jugular
Left and
right internal
thoracic
veins
Collects blood
from cranium, face,
and neck
Collect blood
from structures
of anterior
thoracic wall
Right
axillary
Mediastinal
veins
Veins of the
right upper
limb
Right
intercostal
veins
Collect blood
from the
mediastinum
SUPERIOR
VENA CAVA
Collects blood
from cranium, spinal
cord, vertebrae
Left
external
jugular
Left
brachiocephalic
KEY
Superficial veins
Deep veins
Azygos
Esophageal
veins
Left
axillary
Left cephalic
Collects blood
from lateral
surface of upper
limb
Hemiazygos
Collect blood
from the
esophagus
Left
subclavian
Through
highest
intercostal vein
RIGHT
ATRIUM
Collect blood
from vertebrae
and body wall
Collects blood from
neck, face, salivary
glands, scalp
Left
intercostal
veins
Tributaries of the superior vena cava
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Collects blood from
forearm, wrist, and
hand
Left basilic
Collects blood
from medial
surface of upper
limb
Interconnected by median
cubital vein and median
antebrachial network
Collect blood
from vertebrae
and body wall
Left
brachial
Left
radial
Radial
side of
forearm
Left
ulnar
Ulnar
side of
forearm
Venous network
of wrist and hand
Figure 13-23b A Flowchart of the Tributaries of the Superior and Inferior Venae Cavae.
RIGHT
ATRIUM
INFERIOR
VENA CAVA
Hepatic
veins
Collect blood from
the liver
Gonadal
veins
Collect blood from
the gonads (testes
or ovaries)
Lumbar
veins
Collect blood from
the spinal cord
and body wall
Right
common
iliac
Right
external
iliac
Right internal
iliac
Phrenic
veins
Collect blood from
the diaphragm
Adrenal
veins
Collect blood from
the adrenal
glands
Renal
veins
Collect blood from
the kidneys
Left
common
iliac
Collect blood from the pelvic muscles,
skin, urinary and reproductive organs
of pelvic cavity
Blood from
veins in right
lower limb
Superior
gluteal
veins
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Internal
pudendal
veins
Left
external
iliac
Left internal
iliac
Obturator
veins
Blood from
veins in left
lower limb
Lateral
sacral
veins
Tributaries of the inferior vena cava
Hepatic Portal System (13-7)
• Portal system is two capillary beds in series
connected by portal vessel
• Blood going through capillaries of digestive organs
absorbs nutrients, some wastes, some toxins
• Blood is processed by liver before entering
general circulation
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Hepatic Portal System (13-7)
• Capillaries from:
• Lower large intestine  inferior mesenteric vein
• Spleen, stomach, pancreas  splenic vein
• Stomach, small and large intestines  superior
mesenteric vein
• All three  hepatic portal vein
• Blood from gastric vein and cystic vein added
• Blood enters liver capillaries  hepatic vein 
IVC
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 13-24 The Hepatic Portal System.
Esophagus
Inferior vena cava
Aorta
Hepatic veins
Liver
Stomach
Cystic
Hepatic portal
Gastric veins
Spleen
Gastroepiploic veins
Pancreas
Superior mesenteric
Colic veins
Ascending colon
Intestinal veins
Splenic
Left colic
Inferior mesenteric
Descending colon
Sigmoid veins
Small intestine
Superior rectal
veins
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Checkpoint (13-7)
18. A blockage of which branch of the aortic arch would
interfere with blood flow to the left arm?
19. Why would compression of the common carotid
arteries cause a person to lose consciousness?
20. Grace is in an automobile accident, and her celiac
trunk is ruptured. Which organs will be affected
most directly by this injury?
21. Describe the general distribution of major arteries
and veins in the neck and limbs. What functional
advantage does this distribution provide?
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Fetal Circulation (13-8)
• Biggest difference is sources of respiratory and
nutritional support
• All nutrients and blood gases supplied from
mother through diffusion across placenta
• Placenta is unique part of uterine wall
• Maternal and fetal circulatory systems in close contact
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Placental Blood Supply (13-8)
• Low O2 fetal blood flows through umbilical
arteries
• At placenta:
• CO2 and wastes cross to mother
• O2 diffuses into fetal blood
• Returns to fetal circulation through umbilical vein
• Some blood goes to liver
• Rest goes to IVC through ductus venosus
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Fetal Circulation in the Heart and Great Vessels
(13-8)
• Foramen ovale
• An interatrial opening
• Flap that acts as one-way valve from right to left atrium
• Allows blood to bypass pulmonary circuit
• Ductus arteriosus
• Short vessel that takes most of blood from right ventricle
directly to aortic arch of systemic circuit
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 13-25a Fetal Circulation.
Aorta
Foramen ovale (open)
Ductus arteriosus (open)
Pulmonary trunk
Umbilical
vein
Liver
Placenta
Umbilical
cord
Blood flow to and from the
placenta in full-term fetus (before
birth)
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Inferior
vena cava
Ductus
venosus
Umbilical
arteries
Figure 13-25b Fetal Circulation.
Ductus arteriosus
(closed)
Pulmonary trunk
Left atrium
Foramen ovale
(closed)
Right atrium
Inferior
vena
cava
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Left ventricle
Right ventricle
Blood flow through the heart of a
newborn baby after delivery
Circulatory Changes at Birth (13-8)
• Infant takes first breath
• Pulmonary vessels expand
• Ductus arteriosus contracts
• Blood flows into pulmonary trunk
• Remnants convert to ligamentum arteriosum
• Flap across foramen ovale closes
• Residual indentation is the fossa ovalis
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Checkpoint (13-8)
22. Name the umbilical vessels that constitute the
placental blood supply.
23. A blood sample taken from the umbilical cord
contains high levels of oxygen and nutrients, and
low levels of carbon dioxide and waste products. Is
this sample from an umbilical artery or from the
umbilical vein? Explain.
24. Name the structures that are vital to fetal circulation
but cease to function at birth. What becomes of
each of these structures?
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Effects of Aging on Blood (13-9)
• Lower hematocrit
• Formation of a thrombus, or stationary blood clot
• Can detach becoming an embolism
• Pooling of blood in veins of leg
• Due to ineffective venous valves
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Effects of Aging on the Heart (13-9)
• Reduction in maximum cardiac output
• Changes in nodal and conducting cells
• Reduction of elasticity of cardiac skeleton
• Progressive atherosclerosis
• Serious if found in coronary circulation
• Replacement of damaged cardiac muscle with
scar tissue
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Effects of Aging on the Vessels (13-9)
• Arteriosclerosis or thickening and toughening of
wall
• Inelastic walls of arteries less tolerant of pressure
increase
• Can lead to local dilation, an aneurysm
• Calcium salts deposited on walls
• Can lead to stroke or myocardial infarction
• Thrombi can form at atherosclerotic plaques
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Checkpoint (13-9)
25. Identify components of the cardiovascular
system that are affected by age.
26. Define thrombus.
27. Define aneurysm.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Cardiovascular System Linked to All Other
Systems (13-10)
• Cardiovascular system supplies all others with:
• Oxygen
• Hormones
• Nutrients
• White blood cells
• Removes:
• Carbon dioxide and metabolic wastes
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 13-26
Cardiovascular System
SYSTEM INTEGRATOR
Cardiovascular System
Body System
Stimulation of mast cells produces
localized changes in blood flow and
capillary permeability
Delivers immune system cells to injury sites;
clotting response seals breaks in skin surface;
carries away toxins from sites of infection;
provides heat
Provides calcium needed for normal cardiac muscle
contraction; protects blood cells developing in red
bone marrow
Transports calcium and phosphate for bone
deposition; delivers EPO to red bone marrow,
parathyroid hormone, and calcitonin to
osteoblasts and osteoclasts
Skeletal muscle contractions assist in moving blood
through veins; protects superficial blood vessels,
especially in neck and limbs
Delivers oxygen and nutrients, removes carbon
dioxide, lactic acid, and heat during skeletal
muscle activity
Controls patterns of circulation in peripheral
tissues; modifies heart rate and regulates blood
pressure; releases ADH
Endothelial cells maintain blood–brain barrier;
helps generate CSF
Erythropoietin (EPO) regulates production of
RBCs; several hormones elevate blood pressure;
epinephrine stimulates cardiac muscle, elevating
heart rate and contractile force
Distributes hormones throughout the body; heart
secretes ANP
InteguEndocrNervous Muscular Skeletal Mentary
Ine
302)
(Page
241)
(Page
188)
(Page
(Page 138)
(Page 376)
EndocrInteguine
Nervous Muscular Skeletal mentary
Body System
The section on vessel
distribution demonstrated the
extent of the anatomical
connections between the
cardiovascular system and other
organ systems. This figure summarizes some of the physiological
relationships involved.
The most extensive communication
occurs between the cardiovascular and
lymphatic systems. Not only are the two
systems physically interconnected, but
cells of the lymphatic system also move
from one part of the body to another
within the vessels of the cardiovascular
system. We examine the lymphatic
system in detail, including its role in the
immune response, in the next chapter.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
ReproduDigesRespiraLymphUrinary
ctive
tive
tory
atic
(Page 671) (Page 637) (Page 572) (Page 532) (Page 500)
The CARDIOVASCULAR
System
Checkpoint (13-10)
28. Describe what the cardiovascular system
provides for all other body systems.
29. What is the relationship between the skeletal
system and the cardiovascular system?
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
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