Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and pulmonary edema – a rare

Document technical information

Format pdf
Size 421.4 kB
First found May 22, 2018

Document content analysis

Category Also themed
Language
English
Type
not defined
Concepts
no text concepts found

Persons

Organizations

Places

Transcript

International Journal of Reproduction, Contraception, Obstetrics and Gynecology
Mishra V et al. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol. 2017 Mar;6(3):1154-1157
www.ijrcog.org
pISSN 2320-1770 | eISSN 2320-1789
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-1770.ijrcog20170607
Case Report
Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and pulmonary
edema – a rare complication
Vineet Mishra*, Priyankur Roy, Sumesh Choudhary, Rohina Aggarwal,
Shaheen Hokabaj, Suwa Ram Saini
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, IKDRC-ITS, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India
Received: 03 January 2017
Accepted: 03 February 2017
*Correspondence:
Dr. Vineet Mishra,
E-mail: [email protected]
Copyright: © the author(s), publisher and licensee Medip Academy. This is an open-access article distributed under
the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial
use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
ABSTRACT
Background: Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS) is a life-threatening complication of controlled ovarian
stimulation almost exclusively associated with gonadotropins but occasionally with clomiphene citrate. Prevention of
this syndrome lies in the recognition of risk factors and individualizing the treatment regimens. Causes of respiratory
distress in patients with OHSS are pleural effusion, pulmonary embolism, and acute respiratory distress syndrome
(ARDS). Pulmonary edema is rare but a grave complication of OHSS.
Case report: We report, a case of severe OHSS with tense ascites and anasarca after controlled ovarian
hyperstimulation (COH) for IVF. She was managed conservatively followed by paracentesis after which she
developed pulmonary edema during the course of the treatment.
Conclusion: OHSS is an iatrogenic complication which can be prevented by individualizing stimulation protocols
and should be managed urgently with a multidisciplinary approach
Keywords: Gonadotropins, Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, Pulmonary edema
INTRODUCTION
OHSS is an iatrogenic complication which is usually selflimiting but may be life threatening in severe cases.
Overstimulation of the ovaries results in marked ovarian
enlargement and is manifested by massive ascites,
hypovolemia, hemoconcentration, pleural effusion,
electrolyte imbalance, oliguria and thromboembolism in
severe cases.1 The incidence of moderate to severe OHSS
has been found to be 0.2% to 2% of all ovarian
stimulation cycles.2
The pathophysiology of OHSS is not completely known
but is characterized by increased capillary permeability
resulting in a fluid shift from the vascular compartment to
the third space leading to extra vascular fluid
accumulation
and
intravascular
dehydration.
Accumulation of protein-rich fluid in the peritoneal
cavity leads to increased intra-abdominal pressure which
may compromise respiratory, cardiovascular, renal,
gastrointestinal and hepatic system homeostasis.3 Human
chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is the main factor that
triggers OHSS by increasing the production of various
vasoactive substances including vascular endothelial
growth factor (VEGF) resulting in increased vascular
permeability.4 Pulmonary edema (both low and high
pressure) has been reported in patients with OHSS and is
attributed to excessive capillary permeability.5
CASE REPORT
A 26-year-old infertile female having body mass index
(BMI) of 24 with polycystic ovaries underwent in vitro
fertilization (IVF) using long luteal protocol at IKDRC,
March 2017 · Volume 6 · Issue 3 Page 1154
Mishra V et al. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol. 2017 Mar;6(3):1154-1157
Ahmedabad. Recombinant FSH 225 IU was administered
for 10 days for ovarian stimulation after which she
developed multiple follicles with enlarged ovaries and
fluid in POD (Figure 1).
Her abdominal girth increased from 89 cm to 99 cm
within 5 days with USG showing free fluid in POD and
moderate ascites (Figure 2 and 3).
She was managed conservatively with crystalloids,
intravenous albumin 20% (100 cc) 12 hourly infusion,
monitoring of vital parameters and input output charting.
In the following days, she developed tense ascites with
bilateral lower limb edema which progressed to
generalized swelling all over the body. Injection Low
molecular weight heparin (LMWH) was started to
prevent thrombotic complications.
Figure 1: Stimulated ovary
with multiple follicles.
Injection hCG 10,000 IU was administered intra
muscularly followed by ovum pick up after 36 hours in
which 26 oocytes were retrieved. Injection leuprolide
acetate depot 3.6 mg was administered intramuscularly
following oocyte retrieval and tablet cabergoline 0.5 mg
daily was advised for 8 days to prevent OHSS. Her
oocytes were fertilized and embryos were cryopreserved.
She was admitted for observation. On day-2 of
admission, she complained of abdominal pain. On
examination, her abdomen was soft and abdominal girth
was 89 cm with stable vital parameters and adequate
urine output. Ultrasonography (USG) was showing
bilateral enlarged stimulated ovaries with mild free fluid
in pelvis or abdomen. Over the next few days, she
became progressively symptomatic with increasing
abdominal pain, bloating sensation, abdominal distension,
constipation, nausea and vomiting.
Figure 3: Gross ascites
Color Doppler study of lower limbs was normal with
USG showing lymphatic dilatation in bilateral lower
limbs. She developed progressive dyspnea and oliguria.
Her USG thorax was normal with no evidence of pleural
effusion. Although hemodynamic improvement started,
oliguria persisted with tense ascites and abdominal girth
of 110 cm. Her clinical and laboratory parameters are
shown in Table 1.
Decision of therapeutic paracentesis was taken to relieve
compression of inferior vena cava and renal veins.
Paracentesis was done and 1.5 litres of ascitic fluid
drained out. Her urine output increased over the next 2
days but she developed dyspnea with cough and pink
frothy sputum. On auscultation, there were bilateral
inspiratory crackles and expiratory wheeze with
diminished air entry. Supportive therapy with fluid
restriction, diuretics (frusemide), intravenous antibiotics
and
nebulisation
were
started.
She
became
symptomatically better over next 5 days with decreasing
abdominal distension, disappearance of respiratory
symptoms and no evidence of ascites on USG. She was
discharged after 19 days of admission. On follow up after
10 days, she was asymptomatic with normal USG
findings.
Figure 2: Enlarged ovary with free fluid in pelvis
International Journal of Reproduction, Contraception, Obstetrics and Gynecology
Volume 6 · Issue 3 Page 1155
Mishra V et al. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol. 2017 Mar;6(3):1154-1157
Table 1: Clinical and laboratory parameters.
Abdominal
girth (cm)
Hb (g/dl)
PCV (%)
Total proteins
(mg/dl)
S. Albumin
(mg/dl)
S. Creatinine
(mg/dl)
Na/K (mEq/l)
USG
Abdomen
USG Thorax
Day 1
Day 3
Day 5
Day 7
Day 9
Day 11
Day 13
Day 16
Day 19
89
95
99
106
110
107
102
99
92
11.5
35
15.3
47.6
13.2
40
10.3
31.9
8.3
24.5
8.1
25.3
8.5
26.6
8.4
26.4
9.2
30
5.0
5.1
4.0
4.9
5.8
6.3
6.1
6.0
6.2
2.0
2.2
1.9
2.1
3.7
4.0
3.7
3.6
3.7
0.76
0.89
1.07
0.94
0.7
0.6
0.74
0.62
0.68
132/4.1
Stimulated
Ovaries.
No ascites
Normal
133/5.3
Free
fluid in
POD
Normal
130/4.4
131/4.0
134/4.2
138/4.1
140/3.8
141/4
136/3.8
Moderate
ascites
Severe
ascites
Severe
ascites
No
ascites
Normal
Normal
Normal
DISCUSSION
Young women with PCOS have a higher incidence of
OHSS after gonadotropin therapy than women with other
causes of anovulatory infertility. OHSS is a self-limiting
disorder but requires hospitalization in severe cases.
Diuretics should be avoided in the initial phases of
hemoconcentration as they may cause further
intravascular volume depletion but may be used with
careful hemodynamic monitoring if oliguria persists,
despite intravascular volume expansion. Paracentesis
should be considered in patients with significant
discomfort due to marked ascites or when oliguria
persists
despite
adequate
volume
expansion.
Thromboprophylaxis may be administered in all patients
with severe OHSS. Intravenous albumin should be
administered only when hypo-albuminemia is proven
because of risk of hepatitis, excessive albumin overload,
renal function impairment, potential viral contamination,
potential for worsening OHSS, and the risk of pulmonary
edema in patients with diminished cardiac reserve6.
Possible causes of dyspnea are ascites and rare
manifestations of OHSS such as pleural effusion,
pulmonary edema, atelectasis, pulmonary embolism,
ARDS and pericardial effusion.7 Pulmonary edema, a rare
but fatal complication of OHSS is thought to be due to
increased capillary permeability. Strict fluid management
and diuresis may prevent serious respiratory sequelae in
these patients. In our case, pulmonary edema occurred in
the last few days of treatment when patient was
improving hemodynamically. From the outset of
treatment, our patient, who had severe dyspnea, ascites
and edema in both legs and back, low molecular heparin
was administered as a preventive measure for deep vein
thrombosis and protection against possibility of
pulmonary embolism. As patient had difficulty in
breathing and bilateral severe pedal edema, paracentesis
was performed after which patient started improving.
Urine output improved, edema reduced and patient
became symptomatically better. But then, she developed
pulmonary edema which was treated with fluid restriction
and diuretics. The cause of pulmonary edema during
recovery phase is an increase in intravascular volume due
to shifting of fluid from extravascular to intravascular
compartment. In patients of OHSS, pulmonary
complications should be suspected on clinical grounds
and identified early to allow for appropriate diagnosis and
management.
CONCLUSION
The risk of OHSS can be reduced by proper patient
selection, individualizing stimulation protocols, cautious
use of medications and by withholding hCG. Patients
with OHSS must be treated urgently and with
multidisciplinary management.
Funding: No funding sources
Conflict of interest: None declared
Ethical approval: Not required
REFERENCES
1.
2.
3.
4.
Madill JJ, Mullen NB, Harrison BP. Ovarian
hyperstimulation syndrome: A potentially fatal
complication of early pregnancy. J Emerg Med.
2008;35(3):283-6.
Binder H, Dittrich R, Einhaus F, Krieg J, Muller A,
Strauss R. Update on ovarian hyperstimulation
syndrome: Incidence and pathogenesis. Int J Fertil
Womens Med. 2007;52:11-26.
Selgas R, Del Peso G, Bajo MA. Intra-abdominal
hypertension favors ascites. Perit Dial Int.
2010;30:156-7.
Chen SU, Chen RJ, Shieh JY, Chou CH, Lin CW, Lu
H. Human chorionic gonadotropin up-regulates
International Journal of Reproduction, Contraception, Obstetrics and Gynecology
Volume 6 · Issue 3 Page 1156
Mishra V et al. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol. 2017 Mar;6(3):1154-1157
5.
6.
expression of myeloid cell leukemia-1 protein in
human granulosa-lutein cells: implication of corpus
luteum rescue and ovarian hyperstimulation
syndrome.
J
Clin
Endocrinol
Metab.
2010;95:3982-92.
Hammam AS. Pulmonary edema complicating
ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: Low pressure
edema, high pressure edema, or mixed edema? Ann
Saudi Med. 2005;25:335-8.
Ben-Chetrit A, Eldar-Geva T, Gal M, Huerta M,
Mimon T, Algur N. The questionable use of albumin
for the prevention of ovarian hyperstimulation
syndrome in an IVF programme: A randomized
7.
placebo-controlled
trial.
Hum
Reprod.
2001;16:1880-4.
Abramov Y, Elchalal U, Schenker JG. Pulmonary
manifestations of severe ovarian hyperstimulation
syndrome: A multicenter study. Fertil Steril.
1999;71:645-51.
Cite this article as: Mishra V, Roy P, Choudhary S,
Aggarwal R, Hokabaj S, Saini SR. Ovarian
hyperstimulation syndrome and pulmonary edema –
a rare complication. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet
Gynecol 2017;6:1154-7.
International Journal of Reproduction, Contraception, Obstetrics and Gynecology
Volume 6 · Issue 3 Page 1157
×

Report this document