Citric acid Cycle:

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Citric acid Cycle:
1. Go for malate dehydrogenase reaction of CAC is
Malate + NAD+ = Oxaloacetate + NADH
a. Which way will this reaction go in standard condition,
forward or backward?
b. How does this reaction proceeds in forward direction?
c. Calculate the G for this reaction in forward direction if
concentration of oxaloacetate is 1x 10-8 M, malate 0.2 mM, and
NAD+/NADH ratio in rat liver mitochondria is 10.
2. a. What enzymes are activated by insulin-stimulated protein
kinase in glucose catabolism?
b. Insulin generally promotes anabolic pathway i.e. synthesis of
glycogen then why should it activate PDC?
3. What side reaction would take place if E1 was separated
from PDC?
4. Which of the dehydrogenases have FAD cofactor?
5. How many oxygen molecules are used for the complete
oxidation of glucose to CO2 during Glycolysis, PDC and citric
acid cycle pathway?
6. Where do the additional 6 oxygen atoms come from, to
generate 6 molecules of carbon dioxide?
7. How many grams of glucose is needed to elevate an object of
50 Kg to the height of 100 meters. Assume that all the energy
released by ATP hydrolysis is used with 100% efficiency in this
work, and G = - 50KJ/Mole in physiological condition.
8. Deficiency of thiamine or arsenate poisoning lead to the
similar symptoms and mostly brain functions are affected in
these diseases. Why?
9. Which enzymes are affected by thiamine deficiency?
10. How many net ATP molecules are produced by substrate
level phosphorylation during complete catabolism of one
glucose molecule?
11. CAC is referred as amphibolic pathway Why?

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