What is Ecology?

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Ecology
Interactions between organisms and their
environment
Ecology
What is Ecology?
• Ecology is the scientific
study of interactions among
organisms and between
organisms and their
physical environment.
Physical EnvironmentBiosphere
• The biosphere consists of all
life on Earth and all parts
of the Earth in which life
exists, including land,
water, and the atmosphere.
Interdependence in the Biosphere
Interdependence in the Biosphere
•
Organisms respond to their environments and can change their environments,
producing an ever-changing biosphere.
Levels of Organization
•
Individual organism
•
Population—a group of individuals that belong to
the same species and live in the same area
•
Community—an assemblage of different
populations that live together in a defined area
•
Ecosystem—all the organisms that live in a place,
together with their physical environment
•
Biome—a group of ecosystems that share similar
climates and typical organisms
•
Biosphere—our entire planet, with all its organisms
and physical environments
Biotic and Abiotic Factors
What are biotic and abiotic factors?
• The living influences on organisms are called
biotic factors. Non-living components of an
ecosystem are called abiotic factors.
Biotic Factors
•
A biotic factor is any living part of the environment with which an
organism might interact, including animals, plants, mushrooms and
bacteria.
•
Biotic factors relating to a bullfrog might include algae it eats as a
tadpole, the herons that eat bullfrogs, and other species competing
for food or space.
Abiotic Factors
•
An abiotic factor is any nonliving part of the environment, such
as sunlight, heat, precipitation, humidity, wind or water currents, soil
type, etc.
•
For example, a bullfrog could be affected by abiotic factors such
as water availability, temperature, and humidity.
Biotic and Abiotic Factors Together
•
Trees and shrubs affect the amount of sunlight the shoreline
receives, the range of temperatures it experiences, the humidity of
the air, and even the chemical conditions of the soil.
•
A dynamic mix of biotic and abiotic factors shapes every
environment.
Exit Ticket
• Give one example of a biotic and abiotic relationship in the
ecosystem below.
Ecology
Interactions between organisms and their
environment
Notes: Energy Producers and Consumers
•
Where does energy in living systems come from?
•
How is it transferred from one organism to another?
Primary Producers
• Primary producers are the first producers of energy-rich compounds that are later
used by other organisms.
Primary Producers
• No organism can create
energy—organisms can
only use energy from
other sources.
• For most life on Earth,
sunlight is the ultimate
energy source.
Primary Producers
• Plants, algae, and certain
bacteria can capture
energy from sunlight or
chemicals and convert it
into food or forms that
living cells can use.
• These organisms are
called autotrophs.
Primary Producers
• Primary producers
store energy in forms
that make it available
to other organisms
that eat them.
Energy From the Sun
• Most primary producers use solar
energy through the process of
photosynthesis.
• Photosynthesis captures light
energy and uses it to power
chemical reactions that convert
carbon dioxide and water into
oxygen and energy-rich
carbohydrates.
Energy From the Sun- Examples
• Plants are the main
photosynthetic producers on
land. Algae fill that role in
freshwater ecosystems and the
sunlit upper ocean.
•
Photosynthetic bacteria, most
commonly cyanobacteria, are
important primary producers in
tidal flats and salt marshes.
Consumers
• Organisms that rely on
other organisms for
energy and nutrients are
called consumers.
• Organisms that must
acquire energy from other
organisms by ingesting in
some way are known as
heterotrophs.
Types of Consumers
•
Herbivores, such as a military macaw, obtain energy and nutrients by eating plant
leaves, roots, seeds, or fruits
•
Carnivores kill and eat other animals, and include snakes, dogs, cats, and this giant
river otter.
•
Omnivores are animals whose diets naturally include a variety of different foods that
usually include both plants and animals.
•
Decomposers, such as bacteria and fungi, feed by chemically breaking down
organic matter.
Types of Consumers
Exit Ticket
• Is the organism a Primary Producer or a Consumer?
• Where does each organism get their energy from?
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oVavgmveyY&list=PLwL0Myd7Dk1GGOPNLiAod6tzrN_1An-4t
Ecology
Interactions between species and their
environment
Notes: Food Webs
×

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