ch04-Networking

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Chapter 4
Networking: Discovery,
Communication,
Collaboration
Information Technology For Management 6th Edition
Turban, Leidner, McLean, Wetherbe
Lecture Slides by L. Beaubien, Providence College
John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Chapter 4
1
Computer Network
The communications media,
devices, and software needed to
connect two or more computer
systems.
Chapter 4
2
Intranets and Extranets
 Intranet – an internal corporate network built using
Internet and WWW standards and products
 Extranet - a network based on Web technologies
that links selected resources of the company’s
intranet with its customers, suppliers, or other
business partners
 Internet - composed of thousands of interconnected
networks, managed by multiple Internet service
providers (ISPs) who control the routing of packets
and their performance.
 The same protocols are used in all of the above
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3
Network Protocols
 Devices that are nodes in a network must access and share the
network to transmit and receive data. These components work together
by adhering to a common set of rules that enable them to communicate
with each other.This set of rules and procedures governing transmission
across a network is a protocol.
 TCP/IP (Network layer protocol)
 Transport Control Protocol (TCP) – a widely used transport-layer
protocol that is used to in combination with IP by most Internet
applications. TCP performs



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
Packetizing, breaking the data into smaller packets (Max 1492 bytes
Numbering them
Ensuring each packet is reliably delivered
Putting them in the proper order at the destination
Needs to be active at the sender and receiver
 Internet Protocol (IP) – the communications standard that enables
traffic to be routed from one network to another as needed. IP performs
 Routing
 Addressing
 Is used at each of the intervening computer
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4
Addressing
 Before you can send a message, you must know the
destination address
 Each computer has several addresses
Layer
Example Software
Example Address
Application
Web Browser
www.boun.edu.tr
Network Layer
TCP/IP
128.192.98.5 (4 bytes)
Data Link Layer Ethernet
00-0C-00-F5-03-5A
 Network layer determines the best route through the
network to the final destination. Based on this routing,
the network layer identifies the data link layer
address of the next computer
Chapter 4 to which the message
needs to be sent
5
Assigning Addresses
 In general, the data link layer address is permanently
encoded as a part of the hardware (eg. Ethernet card)
 Network managers can assign any network layer
address (IP) and application layer address they want as
long as they are unique
 Virtually all internet servers have application layer
address but most client computers don’t.
 Network layer (IP) and application layer addresses go
hand in hand and assigned at the same time
 On the internet InterNIC is responsible for network layer
addresses
 Class A: The first byte is fixed (Ex: 128.X.X.X , 16M addresses)
 Class B: The first two bytes are fixed (Ex: 128.23.X.X, 65000)
 Class C: The first three bytes are fixed (Ex: 128.37.58.X, 254)
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Example 1: Known Addresses, Same Subnet
 Suppose that a user on a client computer in LAN A requests a Web
page from the web server located in the same LAN
 Web browser (application layer software) passes URL to the TCP/IP
software (Network Layer.
 TCP/IP then will search its network layer address table and find the
IP address for this server (Ex: 255.55.65.32).
 This address will be compared to the subnet mask (Ex:
255.55.65.x), indicating that this computer is on the same LAN.
 TCP/IP then searches its data link layer address table and find the
matching data link layer address (00-23-R5-33-4R-F6)
 Then, the message is sent to the webserver.
 Webserver performs error checking and sends an acknowledgement
 The web server software then passes the web page to its network
layer software (TCP/IP).
 TCP breaks the webpage into several smaller packets.
 Each packet gets a packet number to indicate the order and IP
packet specifying IP address of the requesting client.
 Then, each packet is given to tha data link layer with the clients data
link layer address (Ethernet address)
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 The Data Link Layer of the Webserver transmits the packets
Example 2: Known Addresses, Different Subnet
 Suppose that a user on a client computer in LAN A requests a Web
page from the web server located in a different LAN
 Web browser (application layer software) passes URL to the TCP/IP
software (Network Layer).
 TCP/IP then will search its network layer address table and find the IP
address for this server (Ex: 255.55.67.32).
 This address will be compared to the subnet mask (Ex: 255.55.66.x),
indicating that this computer is on different Subnet.
 Any messages going outside the subnet must be sent to the Gateway
 TCP/IP then searches its address table and find the data link layer
address of the Gateway (00-34-R5-63-4R-F5)
 Then, the message is sent to the Gateway.
 The gateway would receive the message and recognizes that this
message needs to got to the 255.55.67.x subnet. It knows the
gateway for this subnet is 255.55.67.5. It would pass the packet to its
data link layer with the ethernet address of this gateway
 This Gateway receive the packet and recognizes that the
255.55.67.32 is inside its subnet and searches its addressbook for the
Ethernet address of the destination computer. It then transmits the
packet
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 Webserver receives the packetChapter
and4 performs error checking
 TCP breaks the webpage into several smaller packets.
Example 3: Unknown Addresses, Same Subnet
 Suppose that a user on a client computer in subnet A requests a Web
page from the web server located in the same subnet but doesnot know
web server’s IP
 Web browser (application layer software) passes URL to the TCP/IP
software (Network Layer.
 TCP/IP then will search its address table and realize that it doesnot have
the IP address for this server
 In this case, it will issue a DNS request to its DNS server(124.143.46.54)
 TCP/IP then searches its address table and find the data link layer
address of the Gateway (00-34-R5-63-4R-F5)
 Then, the message is sent to the Gateway.
 The gateway would receive the message and transmits it to the DNS
server using DNS’s ethernet address.
 DNS server processes the requet and send the matching IP address
back to the client.
 Once the client receives the IP address (255.55.65.32) for the web
server, it stores the address in address table.
 Then this address will be compared to the subnet mask (Ex:
255.55.65.x), indicating that this computer is on the same LAN.
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Example 3 cont’d
 However, TCP/IP realizes that its address table does not have the
data link layer address of the web server
 Then, the client broadcasts a request to all computers on its subnet
requesting the computer with the IP address of 255.55.65.32 to
respond with its Ethernet address
 Then, the message is sent to the webserver.
 Webserver performs error checking and sends an acknowledgement
 The web server software then passes the web page to its network
layer software (TCP/IP).
 TCP breaks the webpage into several smaller packets.
 Each packet gets a packet number to indicate the order and IP
packet specifying IP address of the requesting client.
 Then, each packet is given to the data link layer with the clients data
link layer address (Ethernet address)
 The Data Link Layer of the Webserver transmits the packets
 This process would work in the same way for web servers located
outside the organization on the Internet. In this case the message
would be routed through the internet
from gateway to gateway until 11it
Chapter 4
reached its destination.
Routing
 Routing is a process of determining the route or path
through the network that a message will travel from the
sending computer to the receiving computer.
 Routing table specifies how messages will travel through
the network.
 Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is a dynamic
routing protocol used in Internet.
 Initial routing table is created by the network managers, but is
continuously updated by computers (requiring additional
capacity)
 It attempts to improve network performance by avoiding busy
circuits.
 Prioritizing messages (Video conferansing gets higher priority
than email)
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Routing (cont’d)
 Connectionless Routing: Each packet is treated
separately and makes its way through the
network(TCP/IP)
 Connection oriented routing sets up a virtual
circuit between the sender and receiver. The
connection appears to be a point to point circuit
Only one routing decision is made by network layer.
All the packets arrive at the destination in the same
order in which they were sent (Sequence number is
not needed)
Virtual Private Network (VPN) is based on connection
oriented routing. Two computers believe they have a
dedicated point to point circuit. A VPN may include
Chapter 4 It also utilizes encryption
13
more than two computers.
methods to provide security.
Telecommunications Devices
 Hubs are simple devices that pass all traffic in both
direction between the LAN sections they link
 Bridges connect two or more network segments that use
the same data link and network protocol. They only
forward those messages that need to go to other
network segments
 Routers connect two or more networks that use same or
different data link layer protocol but the same network
protocols.
 The incoming message is specifically addressed to the router
 Routers choose the best route between networks when there are
several routes available.
 Because a router knows its own location as well as the packet’s
final destination, it looks in a routing table to identify the best
path.
 Gateways connect two or more networks that use same
or different data link and network protocols by translating
one protocol to another.
4
 All of the above devices also Chapter
function
as repeaters strengthening14
the signal
Privacy & Security
 Cryptography – the process of converting a message
into a secret code and changing the encoded message
back to regular text. (encryption/decryption)
 Firewall - a router, gateway or special purpose computer
 examines flowing into and out of a network, limiting access into
organization’s network
 only allows the packets with acceptable source and destination
 Spoofing is done by changing the source address on incoming
packets from their real address to an address inside the
organization’s network
 Proxy server is a new type of firewall. It uses an address table to
translate network addresses inside the organization into fake
addresses. This way systems outside the organization never see
the actual internal IP addresses
Chapter 4
15
Analog Transmission of digital data
Chapter 4
17
 Modems converts digital signals to analog signals that
has amplitude and frequency
 Modem is an acronym for MOdulature / DEModulator
 Modulation
 Amplitude Modulation (AM): one amplitude is defined to be a 0
and another is defined to be 1
 Frequency Modulation (FM)
 Phase Modulation (PM)
 Multiplexing ( Frequency division and Time Division)
 Digital transformation of analog data (Ex: Analog
voice data can be sent over digital network using
digital transmission)
 Pulse amplitude Modulation: Analog signal is approximated
Chapter 4
using different Pulse levels
18
DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)
 DSL uses digital transmission techniques over copper
wires to connect the subscribers to network equipment
located at the telephone company central office (local
loop)
 DSL network interface device is placed in customer
location and carrier’s end office.
 The end office DSL device is then connected to a high
speed digital line from the end office to elsewhere
 Asymetric DSL (ADSL) create three channels over the
local loop. One analog (4000 Hz) and two digital (one for
upstream and one for down stream data traffic).
Chapter 4
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VoIP (Voice over internet protocol)

Chapter 4
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Cable Media
 Twisted-pair
 is the most prevalent form of communication wiring, because it is used for almost all
business telephone wiring.
 Inexpensive
 Slow (low bandwidth)
 Widely available Subject to interference
 Easy to work with Easily tapped (low security)
 Coaxial cable
 consists of insulated copper wire surrounded by a metallic shield and wrapped in a plastic
cover.
 Higher bandwidth than twisted pair
 Relatively expensive and inflexible
 Less susceptible to electromagnetic interference
 Easily tapped (low-to-medium security)
 Fiber-optic cable


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
is made of glass.
Light pulses are used (laser)
Very high bandwidth
Relatively inexpensive
Resistant to corrosion
Difficult to tap (good security)
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Wireless Communication
 Cable media (with the exception of fiber-optic
cables) present several problems, notably the
expense of installation and change, as well as a
fairly limited capacity.
 The alternative is wireless communication.
Common uses of wireless data transmission
include pagers, cellular telephones, microwave
transmissions, communications satellites, mobile
data networks, personal communications
services, and personal digital assistants (PDAs).
Chapter 4
22
Wireless Communication (con’t)
 Microwave. Microwave systems are widely used for high-volume, longdistance, point-to-point communication.
 These systems were first used extensively to transmit radio signals at
the speed of light in a line-of-sight path between relay stations spaced
approximately 30 miles apart (due to the earth’s curvature).
 To minimize line-of-sight problems, microwave antennas were usually
placed on top of buildings, towers, and mountain peaks.
 Long-distance telephone carriers adopted microwave systems because
they generally provide about 10 times the data-carrying capacity of a
wire without the significant efforts necessary to string or bury wire.
 Compared to 30 miles of wire, microwave communications can be set up
much more quickly (within a day) and at much lower cost.
 Communications Satellites
 A major advance in communications in recent years is the use of
communications satellites for digital transmissions.
 Although the radio frequencies used by satellite data communication
transponders are also line-of-sight, the enormous “footprint” of a
satellite’s coverage area from high altitudes overcomes the limitations of
microwave data relay stations.
 For example, a network of just three evenly spaced communications
Chapter 4
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satellites in stationary “geosynchronous”
orbit 22,241 miles above the
equator is sufficient to provide global coverage.
Wireless Communication (con’t)
 Global Positioning Systems (GPS) is a wireless
system that uses satellites to enable users to determine
their position anywhere on the earth.
 GPS software computes the latitude and longitude and converts
it to an electronic map.
 GPS is supported by 24 U.S. government satellites that are
shared worldwide.
 Each satellite orbits the earth once in 12 hours,
 At any point in time, the exact position of each satellite is known,
because the satellite broadcasts its position and a time signal
from its on-board atomic clock, accurate to 1-billionth of a
second. Receivers also have accurate clocks that are
synchronized with those of the satellites. Knowing the speed of
signals (186,272 miles per second), it is possible to find the
location of any receiving station (latitude and longitude) within an
accuracy of 50 feet by triangulation, using the distance of three
satellites for the computation.
Chapter 4
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