Nationalist Revolutions

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Nationalist Revolutions
Sweep the West, 1789–1900
Connect History and Geography
Inspired by Enlightenment ideas, the people of Latin America
rebelled against Spanish and Portuguese rule in the early 19th
century. Rebels in the Spanish colonies waged a series of hardfought military campaigns to gain their independence, while Brazil
carried out a peaceful revolution to free itself from Portugal. The
map at the right shows the countries of Latin America and their
dates of independence. Use the map to answer the questions below.
1. What were the first two countries in Latin America and the
Caribbean to win their independence?
2. How do the independence dates for Mexico and Central
America differ?
3. Which colonies were still under Spanish rule in 1841?
For more information about nationalism,
romanticism, realism, and related topics . . .
CLASSZONE.COM
In 1810, Padre Miguel Hidalgo issued his Grito
de Dolores (Cry of Dolores). In it, he called for
the poor of Mexico to revolt against Spanish
rule. In this 20th-century mural by Mexican
artist Juan O’Gorman, Mexicans of all classes
revolt—which was not the case. O’Gorman also
slips in his own politics: he inserts a Communist
symbol (the sickle) next to the religious banner.
1804
1810 Padre Hidalgo issues
Haiti wins
Grito de Dolores, calling for
freedom from France. Mexican independence.
600
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Regions of Nationalist Revolutions, 1789–1900
60°W
30°N
30°W
Tropic of Cancer
MEXICO
1821
HAITI
1804
CUBA
1898
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
1844
BRITISH
HONDURAS
PUERTO RICO
HONDURAS
1838
ATLANTIC
OCEAN
JAMAICA
Caribbean Sea
GUATEMALA
1838
EL SALVADOR
1838
NICARAGUA
1838
BRITISH GUIANA
COSTA RICA
1838
DUTCH GUIANA
VENEZUELA
1830
PANAMA
1903
FRENCH GUIANA
COLOMBIA
1830
0°
Equator
ECUADOR
1830
A
er
m a z on Ri v
Riv
BRAZIL
1822
PA C I F I C
OCEAN
er
F r an
cisco
0°
Sao
PERU
1824
BOLIVIA
1825
Former Colonies
Portuguese
PARAGUAY
1811
Tropic of Capricorn
er
Spanish
v
a Ri
Para
n
Other
Gran Colombia, 1819-1830
United Provinces of
Central America, 1823-1838
30°S
ARGENTINA
1816
1824 Date of Independence
as a nation-state
N
0
0
500
500
30°S
CHILE
1818
URUGUAY
1828
1000 Miles
1000 Kilometers
Robinson Projection
90°W
1830
Greece gains
independence.
1848
Revolts shake
Europe.
60°W
1861
Russia
frees serfs.
1870 1871
Italy
Wilhelm I crowned kaiser
unites. of united Germany.
30°W
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Interact with History
Y
ou are an artist in a nation that has just freed itself from
foreign rule. The new government is asking you to design
a symbol that will show what your country stands for. It’s up to
you to design the symbol that best suits the spirit of your
people. Will your symbol be peaceful or warlike, dignified or
joyful? Or will it be a combination of these and other qualities?
AUSTRIA
The hammer and sickle symbolize
agriculture and industry. The
broken chains celebrate Austria’s
liberation from Germany at the
end of World War II.
Your country is
free. What kind
of national symbol
will you design?
PERU
The country’s wealth is shown by
the vicuña (with its silky fur), the
quinine tree (which helps to cure
malaria), and a horn of plenty.
BOTSWANA
Industry and livestock are connected by
water, the key to the country’s prosperity.
Pula in the Setswana language means
“rain,” “water,” “wealth.”
EXAMINING
• What values and goals of your
new country do you want to
show?
URUGUAY
The shield features symbols of
justice, strength, freedom, and
prosperity.
• What symbol will you use?
• Will your symbol represent your
country’s past or future? Its land?
Its goals?
• Will your design have words that
also express values?
602 Chapter 24
UNITED STATES
The olive branch and arrows
symbolize a desire for peace but
a readiness for war. The Latin
phrase E pluribus unum means
“Out of many, one,” expressing
unity in diversity.
the
ISSUES
As a class, discuss these questions.
During the discussion, think of the role
played by symbols in expressing a
country’s view of itself and the world.
As you read about the rise of new
nations in Latin America and Europe,
think of how artists encourage national
pride.
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Latin American Peoples
Win Independence
MAIN IDEA
WHY IT MATTERS NOW
Spurred by discontent and
Enlightenment ideas, peoples in Latin
America fought colonial rule.
Sixteen of today’s Latin American
nations gained their independence at
this time.
TERMS & NAMES
•
•
•
•
•
peninsulares
creoles
mulattos
Simón Bolívar
José de San
Martín
• Miguel Hidalgo
• José Morelos
SETTING THE STAGE By the late 1700s, the Americas, already troubled by
Enlightenment ideas, were electrified by the news of the French Revolution. The
French ideals of liberty, equality, and fraternity inspired many Latin Americans to rise
up against their French, Spanish, and Portuguese masters.
Revolution in Haiti
Background
About 35,000
Europeans stood at
the top of the social
ladder in Haiti in the
late 1700s. They were
mainly French.
The French colony called Saint Domingue was the first Latin American territory to
free itself from European rule. Saint Domingue, now known as Haiti, occupied the
western third of the island of Hispaniola in the Caribbean Sea.
Nearly 500,000 enslaved Africans—the vast
majority of Saint Domingue’s population—lived
HISPANIOLA
at the bottom of the social system. Most slaves
worked on plantations, and they outnumbered
HAITI
their masters dramatically. White masters thus
used brutal methods to terrorize slaves and keep
Caribbean Sea
them powerless.
The Fight for Freedom The slaves soon showed that, in fact, they were not powerless.
In August 1791, an African priest named Boukman raised a call for revolution. Within a
few days, 100,000 slaves rose in revolt. A leader soon emerged, Toussaint L’Ouverture
(too SAN loo vair TOOR), an ex-slave. Toussaint was untrained in the military and in
diplomacy. Even so, he rose to become a skilled general and diplomat. It is said that he
got the name L’Ouverture (“opening” in French) because he was so skilled at finding
openings in the enemy lines. By 1801, Toussaint had moved into
Spanish Santo Domingo (the eastern two-thirds of Hispaniola).
He took control of the territory and freed the slaves.
In January 1802, 16,000 French troops landed in Saint
Domingue to depose Toussaint. In May, Toussaint agreed to
halt the revolution if the French would end slavery. Despite
the agreement, the French soon accused him of planning
another uprising. They seized him and sent him to a prison in
the French Alps. In that cold mountain jail, he died 10 months
later, in April 1803.
•
Background
By 1600, almost the
entire Arawak population had disappeared
because of European
conquest, warfare,
disease, or slavery.
•
•
Haiti’s Independence Toussaint’s general, Jean-Jacques
Dessalines (zhahn ZHAHK day sah LEEN), took up the fight for
freedom where Toussaint had left off. On January 1, 1804, General
Dessalines declared the colony an independent country. It was the
first black colony to free itself from European control. He called
the country Haiti, which meant “mountainous land” in the language of the native Arawak inhabitants of the island.
•
•
•
This statue, called
The Unknown
Maroon of Saint
Domingue, stands
in front of Haiti’s
National Palace.
Maroon was a
name for runaway
slaves. Using a
shell as a trumpet,
the maroon is
sounding the call to
freedom.
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Latin America Sweeps to Freedom
Latin American colonial society was sharply divided into classes based on birth. At the
top of Spanish American society were the peninsulares (peh neen soo LAH rehs),
men who had been born in Spain. Only peninsulares could hold high office in Spanish
colonial government. In this way, Spain
kept the loyalty of its colonial leaders.
Creoles, Spaniards born in Latin
America, ranked after the peninsulares.
Creoles could not hold high-level political
office. But they could rise as officers in
Spanish colonial armies. Together these
two minority groups controlled wealth and
power in the Spanish colonies.
Below the peninsulares and creoles
came the mestizos (persons of mixed
European and Indian ancestry) Next were
the mulattos (persons of mixed European
and African ancestry) and Africans. At the
bottom of the social ladder stood Indians.
Unlike enslaved Africans, Indians were of
little economic value to the Spaniards. As
a result, they were more severely
oppressed than any other group.
•
This 18th-century
painting shows a
lower-class
mestizo family in
Mexico. Like many
of the poor, this is a
family of vendors.
They are setting up
their stand for
market day.
•
•
•
THINK THROUGH HISTORY
A. Recognizing
Effects How might
creole officers serving
in colonial armies
become a threat to
Spanish rule?
A. Possible Answer
Since they received
training in war, creoles might use it
against the Spanish in
a revolution.
Creoles Spearhead Independence Even though they could not hold high public
office, creoles were the least oppressed of those born in Latin America. They were
also the best educated. In fact, many wealthy young creoles traveled to Europe for
their education. In Europe, they read about and adopted Enlightenment ideas. When
they returned to Latin America, they brought ideas of revolution with them.
The Divisions in Spanish Colonial Society in 1789
Mestizos (7.3%)
1,030,000
Mulattos (7.6%)
1,070,000
EUROPEANS
{
Peninsulares (0.1%)
15,000
Creoles (22.8%)
3,070,000
Indians (55.8%)
7,860,000
Africans (6.4%)
900,000
SKILLBUILDER:
Interpreting Charts
1. Which two groups made up the
vast majority of the population
in Spanish America?
2. Looking at the chart, what was
one possible reason that
creoles felt resentful of the
privileges of the peninsulares?
Creoles not only held revolutionary ideas. They also felt that Spain had inflicted
serious injustices on them. A creole aristocrat wrote this complaint to the king of Spain:
A V O I C E F R O M T H E PA S T
[T]he Viceroys here and their retainers . . . mock, humiliate and oppress us. . . . The more
distinguished the unhappy Americans are, the more they suffer. . . . Their honor and
reputations are attacked, insulting them by depriving them of any honorific office of
consequence.
MARQUÉS DE SAN JORGE, quoted in Americas: The Changing Face of Latin America and the Caribbean
Spanish royal officials suppressed actions and ideas that might fuel creole discontent. For example, Colombian patriot Antonio Nariño published a translation of the
French Declaration of the Rights of Man. He was quickly sentenced to exile in Africa.
604 Chapter 24
Background
The peninsulares got
their name because
they came from the
Iberian Peninsula,
where Spain is
located.
Background
Of the 170 Spanish
viceroys (colonial governors) between 1492
and 1810, 166 were
peninsulares; only
four were creoles.
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THINK THROUGH HISTORY
B. Summarizing
What factors caused
the revolutions in
Spanish America?
B. Possible Answer
Creole discontent over
the privileges of the
peninsulares;
Enlightenment ideas
from Europe; the
Napoleonic Wars;
Ferdinand VII deposed
from the Spanish
throne.
4:31 PM
Page 605
Page 3 of 6
Events in Europe Trigger Latin American Revolutions Napoleon’s conquest of
Spain in 1808 finally triggered revolts in the Spanish colonies. After he had removed
Spain’s King Ferdinand VII, Napoleon made his brother Joseph king of Spain. Many
creoles might have supported a Spanish king. However, they felt no loyalty to a king
imposed by the French. Creoles argued that when the real king was removed, power
shifted to the people.
In 1810, rebellion broke out in several parts of Latin America. In 1814, with the
defeat of Napoleon, King Ferdinand VII returned to Spain. But the creoles had
already begun their drive for independence. And they would continue until victory.
The Libertadores End Spanish Rule
The South American wars of independence produced two brilliant generals. Their
leadership largely achieved victory for the rebels. One was Simón
Bolívar (see MAWN boh LEE vahr), a wealthy Venezuelan creole.
Called Libertador (Liberator), Bolívar was at the same time
romantic and practical, a writer and a fighter.
The other great liberator was José de San Martín (hoh SAY
day san mahr TEEN). Unlike the dashing Bolívar, San Martín
was a simple, modest man. But he too displayed great
courage in battle. Though born in Argentina, he spent much
of his youth in Spain as a career military officer. San Martín
believed in strict military discipline. However, he also
showed concern for the well-being of his troops.
•
•
•
•
•
Bolívar’s Route to Victory Simón Bolívar’s native
Venezuela declared its independence from Spain in 1811. But
the struggle for independence had only begun. Bolívar’s volunteer army of revolutionaries suffered numerous defeats. Twice
he had to go into exile. A turning point came in August 1819.
Bolívar led over 2,000 soldiers on a daring march through the
Andes into what is now Colombia. (See the 1830 map on page 608.)
Coming from this direction, Bolívar took the Spanish army in Bogotá completely by surprise. There he won a decisive victory.
By 1821, Bolívar had won Venezuela’s independence. He then marched south into
Ecuador. In Ecuador, Bolívar would finally meet with José de San Martín. Together
they would decide the future of the Latin American revolutionary movement.
San Martín Triumphs and Withdraws San Martín’s Argentina had declared its
independence in 1816. However, Spanish forces in nearby Chile and Peru still posed a
threat. In 1817, San Martín led his army on a grueling march across the Andes to
Chile. He was joined there by forces led by Bernardo O’Higgins, son of a former
viceroy of Peru. With O’Higgins’s help, San Martín finally freed Chile.
Next, in 1821 San Martín took his army north by sea to Lima, Peru. His plan was to
drive out the remaining Spanish forces there. However, he needed a much larger
force to accomplish this. This was the problem that faced both San Martín and Bolívar
as they met at Guayaquil, Ecuador, in 1822.
No one knows how the two men reached an agreement. But San Martín left his
army for Bolívar to command. Soon after, San Martín sailed for Europe. He died,
almost forgotten, on French soil in 1850.
With unified revolutionary forces, Bolívar’s army went on to defeat the Spanish at
the Battle of Ayacucho (Peru) on December 9, 1824. In this last major battle of the
war for independence, the Spanish colonies in Latin America won their freedom.
Educated in Spain
from the age of six,
José de San Martín
returned to Latin
America as a man
in his early 30s.
Fighting for 10
years, he became
the liberator of
Argentina, Chile,
and Peru.
Nationalist Revolutions Sweep the West 605
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GlobalImpact : Struggling Toward Democracy
Ideas and Revolution
Revolutions are as much a matter of ideas as they are of weapons. And
Simón Bolívar, the hero of Latin American independence, was both a
thinker and a fighter. Through his education, readings, travels, and
friendships, Bolívar was able to combine Enlightenment political ideas,
ideas from Greece and Rome, and his own original thinking. The result
was a system of democratic ideas that would help spark revolutions
throughout Latin America.
Enlightenment Ideas Spread
to Latin America: 1789–1810
EUROPE
London
Paris
e
uie
sq
Pa
in
nte
Madrid
Bolívar, after
after watching
watching the
the crowning
crowning
Bolívar,
of Napoleon
Napoleon
of
-Ja
cq
ue
sR
ou
ss
ea
u
Mo
om
de
Th
e,
ron
ck
Ba
Lo
e,
an
hn
air
Jo
Je
Bolívar’s 1807 return from
Europe by way of the United
States allowed him to study
the American system of
government.
Vo
lt
Mexico City
rson,
Thomas Jeffe nklin
Benjamin Fra
PACIFIC
OCEAN
as
Washington
NORTH
AMERICA
u
ATLANTIC
OCEAN
“I will
will not
not rest
rest until
until II have
have
“I
broken the
the chains
chains that
that bind
bind
broken
us to
to the
the will
will of
of Spain.”
Spain.”
us
AFRICA
Besides being a military leader, Bolívar was also a
superb speaker and statesman. He is shown here
presenting his plans for a new government.
Caracas
Bogotá
Lima
SOUTH
AMERICA
La Paz
Asunción
Santiago
In 1810, Bolívar went to London to seek
support for the revolution in Latin
America. At the same time, he studied
British institutions of government.
Montevideo
Buenos Aires
By 1800, the writings of Enlightenment authors were widely
read throughout the Spanish American colonies.
After winning independence in 1819, Simón
Bolívar organized the Republic of Venezuela and
wrote the Constitution of Bolivia. Like many
successful revolutionaries, Simón Bolívar became
disillusioned with Latin America’s chaos after
independence. Before his death in 1830, he commented bitterly: “Those who worked for South
American independence have plowed the sea.”
Patterns of Interaction
The Latin American independence movement is just
one example of how the Enlightenment spread
democratic ideals throughout the world. In countries
facing oppressive conditions, a leader frequently
emerges to establish a popular government. Even
today, as can be seen in South Africa, democratic ideals
inspire people to struggle for political independence
and to overthrow oppressive governments.
VIDEO Struggling Toward Democracy: Revolutions
Bolívar admired Napoleon. But later,
he was disappointed by Napoleon’s
betrayal of democracy.
606 Chapter 24
in Latin America and South Africa
Connect
to History
Making Inferences How is
Enlightenment thought reflected in
Bolívar’s ideas on Latin American
independence and government?
SEE SKILLBUILDER
HANDBOOK, PAGE R16
Connect
to Today
Comparing What recent events
in today’s world could be
compared to Simón Bolívar’s
movement for Latin American
independence?
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Mexico Ends Spanish Rule
In most Latin American countries, creoles led the revolutionary movements. In
Mexico, ethnic and racial groups mixed more freely. There Indians and mestizos
played the leading role.
A Cry for Freedom In 1810, Padre Miguel Hidalgo (mee•GEHL ee•THAHL•goh),
Background
Soon after his grito,
Father Hidalgo
declared an end to
slavery and called for
other sweeping social
and economic
reforms.
a priest in the small village of Dolores, took the first step toward independence.
Hidalgo was a poor but well-educated man. He firmly believed in Enlightenment ideals.
On September 16, 1810, he rang the bells of his village church. When the peasants
gathered in the church, he issued a call for rebellion against the Spanish. Today, that
call is known as the grito de Dolores (the cry of Dolores).
The very next day, Hidalgo’s Indian and mestizo followers began a ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■
■ ■ ■ ■MAKERS
■ ■ ■ ■
march toward Mexico City. This unruly army soon numbered 60,000 ■HISTORY
■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■
men. The Spanish army and creoles were alarmed by this uprising of
the lower classes. In reaction, they joined forces against Hidalgo’s
army. Hidalgo was defeated in 1811. The rebels then rallied around
another strong leader, Padre José María Morelos (moh RAY lohs).
Morelos led the revolution for four years. However, in 1815, he was
defeated by a creole officer, Agustín de Iturbide (ah goos TEEN day
ee toor BEE day).
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Mexico’s Independence Events in Mexico took yet another turn in
1820 when a revolution in Spain put a liberal group in power there.
Mexico’s creoles feared the loss of their privileges. So they united in
support of Mexico’s independence from Spain. Ironically, Agustín de
Iturbide—the man who had defeated Padre Morelos—made peace
with the last rebel leader. He proclaimed independence in 1821.
Before the Mexican revolution, Central America had been governed from Mexico. In 1821, several Central American states
declared their independence from Spain and thus from Mexico as
well. Iturbide, however, refused to recognize those declarations.
Iturbide (who had declared himself emperor) was finally overthrown in 1823. Central America then pulled together. The region
declared its absolute independence from Mexico. It took the name
the United Provinces of Central America.
C. Possible
Answers The royal
family might spend
more money there,
since Brazil was now
their home. They
might take more interest in their Brazilian
subjects and improve
education, health,
roads, etc. They might
build palaces, libraries,
museums, universities,
etc., to improve the
quality of life.
THINK THROUGH HISTORY
C. Making
Inferences How do
you think the royal
family’s living in Brazil
might have helped
Portugal’s largest
colony?
Brazil’s Royal Liberator
With no violent upheavals or bloody atrocities, Brazil’s quest for
independence was unique in this period of Latin American history.
In fact, a member of the Portuguese royal family actually played a
key role in freeing Brazil from Portugal.
The Portuguese Royal Family in Brazil In 1807, Napoleon’s
Padre José Morelos
1765–1815
Born into poverty, José Morelos
did not begin to study for the
priesthood until he was 25. In his
parish work, he mainly served poor
Indians and mestizos. In 1811, he
joined Padre Hidalgo, along with his
parishioners. After Hidalgo’s death,
the skillful Morelos took command
of the peasant army.
By 1813, his army controlled all
of southern Mexico except for the
largest cities. Morelos then called
a Mexican congress to set up a
democratic government. The
supporters of Spain, however,
finally caught up with the congress.
As the rebels fled, Morelos stayed
behind to fight. The Spanish finally
captured and shot Morelos in 1815.
Napoleon knew of this priestrevolutionary and said: “Give me
three generals like him and I can
conquer the world.”
armies swarmed across the Pyrenees mountains to invade both Spain
and Portugal. Napoleon’s aim was to close the ports of these countries to British shipping. As French troops approached Lisbon, the
Portuguese capital, Prince John (later King John VI) and the royal
family boarded ships to escape capture. They also took their court and royal treasury
with them. The royal family then sailed to Portugal’s largest colony, Brazil. For 14
years, Brazil was the center of the Portuguese empire. During that time, Brazilians
had developed a sense of their own uniqueness. Many of them could not imagine
their country becoming a colony again. However, after Napoleon’s defeat in 1815, the
Portuguese government wanted exactly that.
By 1822, creoles demanded Brazil’s independence from Portugal. Eight thousand
Brazilians signed a petition asking Dom Pedro, King John’s son, to rule. He agreed.
Nationalist Revolutions Sweep the West 607
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Latin America, 1830
Latin America, 1800
Mexico
City
SAINT
DOMINGUE SANTO
DOMINGO
BR. HONDURAS
PACIFIC
OCEAN
C
Tropic of Cancer
n Sea
aribbea
Caracas
VICEROYALTY OF
NEW GRANADA
DUTCH GUIANA
FRENCH GUIANA
Bogotá
Quito
0° Equator
UNITED
STATES
ATLANTIC
OCEAN
MEXICO
CAPTAINCY-GENERAL
OF VENEZUELA
JAMAICA
0° Equator
Gulf of
Mexico
CUBA (Sp)
SANTO
HAITI DOMINGO (Sp)
Mexico City
PUERTO
JAMAICA (Br) RICO (Sp)
BRITISH HONDURAS
a
e
S
n
a
e
b
BRITISH
Carib
GUIANA
UNITED PROVINCES OF
Caracas
DUTCH
CENTRAL AMERICA
Boyacá
GUIANA
GRAN COLOMBIA (1819)
FRENCH
Bogotá
Pichincha
GUIANA
Quito
Guayaquil
(1822)
Guayaquil
British colonies
Dutch colonies
French colonies
Portuguese
Tropic
of Capricorncolonies
Spanish colonies
Lima
European colonies
San Martín
Bolívar
Major battle
(Sp) Spanish
(Br) British
VICEROYALTY
OF
La Paz BRAZIL
Potosí
VICEROYALTY
OF PERU
Mendoza
Santiago
40°S
Asunción
Rio de
Janeiro
40°S
VICEROYALTY OF
RIO DE LA PLATA
0
PERU
Lima
Ayacucho
(1824)
BOLIVIA
Tropic of Capricorn
CHILE
Montevideo
Buenos
Aires
40°W
Gulf of
Mexico
40°N
ATLANTIC
OCEAN
80°W
Dolores
Tropic of Cancer
UNITED
STATES
120°W
VICEROYALTY OF
NEW SPAIN
40°W
80°W
120°W
40°N
PACIFIC
OCEAN
Chacabuco
(1817)
Santiago
Maipú
(1818)
BRAZIL
La Paz
Rio de
Janeiro
Asunción
PARAGUAY
Mendoza
URUGUAY
Montevideo
Buenos
Aires
UNITED
PROVINCES
OF LA PLATA
2,000 Miles
G E O G R A P H Y S K I L L B U I L D E R : Interpreting Maps
0
4,000 Kilometers
1. Region What two European countries held the largest colonial empires in
Latin America in 1800?
2. Region Comparing the two maps, which independent countries had
emerged by 1830 from Spanish territory in the Americas?
FALKLAND
ISLANDS (Br)
On September 7, 1822, he officially declared Brazil’s independence. Brazil had won
its independence through a bloodless revolution.
Independence Brings Disunity
Throughout Latin America, independence actually brought an increase in poverty.
The wars had disrupted trade and devastated cities and countryside. After all the
destruction, the dream of a united Latin America quickly fell apart. In South America,
Bolívar’s united Gran Colombia divided into Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela in
early 1830. And by 1841, the United Provinces of Central America had split into the
republics of El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Guatemala, and Honduras.
Meanwhile, the ideas of the French Revolution and the aftermath of the
Napoleonic Wars were causing upheaval in Europe, as you will learn in Section 2.
Section 1 Assessment
1. TERMS & NAMES
Identify
• peninsulares
• creoles
• mulattos
• Simón Bolívar
• José de San Martín
• Miguel Hidalgo
• José Morelos
2. TAKING NOTES
Using a chart like the one below,
compare independence
movements in Latin America.
Where?
Haiti
Spanish
South
America
Mexico
Brazil
608 Chapter 24
Who
rebelled?
Why?
What
happened?
3. FORMING AND
SUPPORTING OPINIONS
4. ANALYZING THEMES
Power and Authority
Think about the background of
many creole revolutionaries. What
do you think might have been their
tendencies as government leaders: toward democracy or authoritarianism? Explain your answer.
Consider the following statement:
“Through its policies, Spain gave
up its right to rule in South
America.” Do you agree or
disagree? Explain. Did Spain ever
have the right to rule?
THINK ABOUT
THINK ABOUT
• their education
• their professions
• their economic interests
• Spanish colonial society
• why independence movements
arose
• who gained the power that
Spain lost
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Revolutions
Disrupt Europe
MAIN IDEA
WHY IT MATTERS NOW
Liberal and nationalist uprisings
challenged the old conservative order
of Europe.
The system of nation-states established
in Europe during this period continues
today.
TERMS & NAMES
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
conservatives
liberals
radicals
nationalism
nation-state
the Balkans
Louis-Napoleon
Alexander II
SETTING THE STAGE As revolutions shook the colonies in Latin America, Europe
was also undergoing dramatic changes. Under the leadership of Austrian Prince
Metternich, the Congress of Vienna tried to restore the old monarchies and territorial
divisions that had existed before the French Revolution. On an international level, this
attempt to turn back history succeeded. For the next century, Europeans seldom
turned to war to solve their differences. Within these countries, however, the effort
failed. Revolutions erupted across Europe between 1815 and 1848.
Nationalism Changes Europe
In the first half of the 1800s, three forces struggled for supremacy in European societies. Conservatives—usually wealthy property owners and nobility—argued for
protecting the traditional monarchies of Europe. In certain cases, as in France, conservatives approved of constitutional monarchies. Liberals—mostly middle-class
business leaders and merchants—wanted to give more power to elected parliaments,
but only to parliaments in which the educated and the landowners could vote.
Radicals favored drastic change to extend democracy to the people as a whole. They
believed that governments should practice the ideals of the French Revolution. This
was still a radical idea, even 30 years after the Revolution.
The Idea of the Nation-State As conservatives, liberals, and radicals debated issues
Background
In 1815, only France,
England, and Spain
could be called
nation-states. Ethnic
unrest would soon
change that.
of government, a new movement called nationalism was emerging. This movement would blur the lines that separated these political theories. Nationalism is
the belief that one’s greatest loyalty should not be to a king or an empire but to a
nation of people who share a common culture and history. When the
nation also had its own independent government, it became a
nation-state.
Modern nationalism and the nation-state grew out of the
French Revolution. Revolutionary leaders stressed the
equality of all French people. The idea of equality
fostered a sense of national pride in the French. That
pride, in turn, helped French citizens’ armies win
stunning victories for the Revolution.
Nationalism Sparks Revolts in the Balkans The first
Background
Serbs revolted against
the Ottomans in 1804
and 1815, winning
self-rule within the
Ottoman Empire in
1829. Full independence for Serbia came
in 1878.
people to win self-rule during this period were the
Greeks. For centuries, Greece had been part of the
Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans controlled most of
the Balkans. That region includes all or part of presentday Greece, Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, and Turkey, and
the former Yugoslavia. Greeks, however, had kept alive the
memory of their ancient history and culture. Spurred on
by the nationalist spirit, Greeks demanded that their
Carved on
Napoleon’s Arc de
Triomphe, a fierce
goddess of war
leads French
revolutionary
volunteers into
battle.
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This 1839 lithograph
shows Greeks in
blue coats battling
Ottoman Turks
during the war
for Greek
independence.
country take its place among the nation-states of Europe. Because of this movement,
a major Greek revolt broke out against the Ottoman Turks in 1821.
The most powerful governments opposed revolution in all its forms. However, the
cause of Greek independence was popular with people around the world. Russians, for
example, felt a connection to Greek Orthodox Christians, who were
CONNECT to TODAY ruled by the Muslim Ottomans. Educated Europeans and Americans
loved and respected ancient Greek culture, which they spent years
Greeks and Turks on Cyprus
studying in school. In his poetry, British romantic poet Lord Byron
The hostility between Greeks and
compared modern Greek nationalists to the ancient Spartans:
Turks continues to this day—with the
island nation of Cyprus as its focal
point. In 1974, Turkish troops invaded
this island off the coast of Turkey
with its majority Greek population.
The Turks justified their invasion by
saying that they were defending the
rights of the minority of Turkish
Cypriots. They captured the northern
third of the island and declared the
region an independent state.
The United Nations later
established a “green line” on
Cyprus—separating the Turkish
north and the Greek south.
However, the arrangement satisfies
no one today. The Greek Cypriot
government accuses the Turks of
illegally seizing its territory. The
Turks, in turn, maintain that they
have the right to defend Turkish
Cypriots from harm. The situation
currently remains deadlocked.
A V O I C E F R O M T H E PA S T
The sword, the banner, and the field,
Glory and Greece, around us see!
The Spartan, borne upon his shield,
Was not more free.
LORD BYRON, from the poem “On this day I complete my thirty-sixth year”
In 1823, Byron made a large personal gift of £4,000 to
the Greek fleet. After that, he went to Greece. There, he
volunteered as a soldier for the Greek cause. He soon commanded a group of Greek soldiers. Unfortunately, he would not
live to see the victory of the cause he fought for. In February of
1824, a cold Greek rain drenched the poet. Soon afterward, he
caught a fever. He died from his illness in April.
Eventually, with growing popular sympathy for Greece, the powerful nations of Europe took the side of the Greeks. In 1827, a combined
British, French, and Russian fleet destroyed the Ottoman fleet at the
Battle of Navarino. By 1830, Britain, France, and Russia signed a
treaty recognizing the full independence of Greece.
The Tide of Reform in Western Europe
By the 1830s, the return to the old order—carefully arranged at the Congress of
Vienna—was breaking down. Liberals and nationalists throughout Europe were
openly revolting against conservative governments. In most cases, the liberal middle
class—teachers, lawyers, and businesspeople—led the struggle for constitutional government and the formation of nation-states.
Waves of Failed Revolutions Revolutionary zeal swept across Europe. Nationalist
riots broke out against Dutch rule in the Belgian city of Brussels. In November 1830,
Belgians finally declared their independence from Dutch control. In Italy, nationalists
610 Chapter 24
Lord Byron wears
the uniform of a
Greek freedom
fighter.
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worked to unite the many separate states on the Italian peninsula. Some were independent. Others were ruled by Austria, others by the pope. Eventually, Prime
Minister Metternich sent Austrian troops to restore order in Italy. The Poles living
under the rule of Russia staged a revolt in Warsaw late in 1830. Russian armies took
an entire year to crush the Polish uprising. By the mid-1830s, it seemed as if the old
order had reestablished itself. But with the political instability of the period, that
impression did not last long.
In 1848, ethnic uprisings erupted throughout Europe. In Budapest, nationalist
leader Louis Kossuth called for a parliament and self-government for Hungary. In
Prague, Czech liberals demanded Bohemian independence. An unruly mob in Vienna
itself clashed with police. That forced Metternich to resign and set off liberal uprisings throughout the German states.
But European politics continued to seesaw. Many of these liberal gains were lost to
conservatives within a year. In one country after another, the revolutionaries failed to
unite themselves or their nation. And conservatives regained their nerve and their
power. By 1849, Europe had practically returned to the conservatism that had controlled governments before 1848.
Reform and Revolution in France Radicals participated in many of the 1848
revolts. Only in France, however, was the radical demand for democratic government
the main goal of revolution. In 1830, France’s King Charles X tried to stage a return to
absolute monarchy. The attempt sparked riots that forced Charles to flee to Great
Britain. He was replaced by Louis-Philippe, who had long supported liberal reforms in
France. One French noble looked down on Louis. The aristocrat thought the king had
“the manners of a citizen and the plainness of dress and demeanor very suitable to an
American president, but unbecoming a descendant of Louis XIV [the Sun King].”
However, in 1848, after a lengthy reign of almost 18 years, Louis-Philippe fell from
popular favor. Once again, a Paris mob overturned a monarchy and established a
republic. Alphonse de Lamartine (lah mahr TEEN), one of France’s leading poets, led
the temporary government. After the victory of the Revolution of 1848, Lamartine
proclaimed: “We are making together the most sublime of poems.”
Far from being inspiring, the new republican government began to fall apart
almost immediately. The radicals soon split into factions. One side, led by Lamartine,
wanted only political reform. The other, led by Louis Blanc, also wanted social and
economic reform. The differences set off bloody battles in Parisian streets. The
violence turned French citizens away from the radicals. As a result, a moderate constitution was drawn up later in 1848. It called for a parliament and a strong president to
be elected by the people.
•
•
France Accepts a Strong Ruler In December 1848,
A. Possible Answer
Absolute monarchy
(Charles X) to liberal
monarchy (LouisPhilippe) to radical
republic (1848 revolution) to constitutional
government (LouisNapoleon Bonaparte)
to monarchy (Emperor
Napoleon III).
THINK THROUGH HISTORY
A. Summarizing
How would you outline the political
swings occurring in
France between 1830
and 1852?
Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte, the nephew of Napoleon
Bonaparte, won the presidential election. Four years
later, Louis-Napoleon took the title of Emperor
Napoleon III, which a large majority of French
voters surprisingly accepted. The French were
weary of instability and welcomed a strong
ruler who would bring peace to France.
As France’s emperor, Louis-Napoleon
built railroads, encouraged industrialization, and promoted an ambitious program
of public works. Gradually, because of
Louis-Napoleon’s policies, unemployment
decreased in France, and the country
experienced real prosperity.
This color engraving of the time
shows Parisian
revolutionaries
fighting and dying
behind the barricades in the
Revolution of 1848.
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Reform in Russia Unlike France, Russia in the
1800s had yet to make its leap into the modern
industrialized world. Under Russia’s feudal system,
serfs were bound to the nobles whose land they
worked. And nobles enjoyed almost unlimited
power over them. By the 1820s, many Russians
believed that serfdom must end. In their eyes, the
system was morally wrong. It also prevented the
empire from advancing economically. The czars,
however, were reluctant to free the serfs. Freeing
them would anger the landowners, whose support
the czars needed.
SPOTLIGHT ON
Emancipation
On March 3, 1861, Czar Alexander II
issued the Edict of Emancipation,
freeing 20 million serfs with the
stroke of a pen. Alexander, in fact,
signed his edict one day before
Abraham Lincoln became president
of the United States. Less than two
years later, President Lincoln issued
the Emancipation Proclamation,
freeing slaves in the United States.
Lincoln's proclamation, like
Alexander's edict, was issued on
his authority alone.
Nonetheless, emancipation did
not entirely fulfill the hopes of
Russian serfs or former slaves in
the United States. The peasant
communities, like the one pictured
above, still bound many Russian
serfs to the land, while others
earned poor livings as laborers in
the cities. And Lincoln did not free
all slaves—only those living under
the Confederacy.
Defeat Brings Change Eventually, Russia’s lack
of development became obvious to Russians and to
the whole world. In 1853, Czar Nicholas I threatened to take over
part of the Ottoman Empire in the Crimean War. However, Russia’s
industries and transportation system failed to provide adequate supplies for the country’s troops. As a result, in 1856, Russia lost the war
against the combined forces of France, Great Britain, Sardinia, and
the Ottoman Empire. This was a humiliating defeat for the czar.
After the war, Nicholas’s son, Alexander II, decided to move
Russia toward modernization and social change. Through his
reforms, Alexander and his advisers believed that Russia would compete with western Europe for world power.
Reform and Reaction The first and boldest of Alexander’s reforms
was a decree freeing the serfs in 1861. The abolition of serfdom,
however, went only halfway. Peasant communities—rather than individual peasants—received about half the farmland in the country.
Nobles kept the other half. The government paid the nobles for their
land. Each peasant community, on the other hand, had 49 years to
pay the government for the land it had received. So, while the serfs
were legally free, the debt still tied them to the land.
Political and social reforms ground to a halt when terrorists assassinated Alexander II in 1881. His successor, Alexander III, tightened
czarist control on the country. Alexander III and his ministers, however, encouraged
industrial development to expand Russia’s power. A major force behind Russia’s drive
toward industrial expansion was nationalism. Nationalism also stirred other ethnic
groups. During the 1800s, such groups were uniting into nations and building industries to survive among other nation-states.
Background
In December 1825,
when Nicholas
became czar, a group
of army officers (the
“Decembrists”)
demanded liberal
reforms. Nicholas
crushed the
Decembrists and then
ruled with an iron fist.
B. Possible Answer
The czars needed to
reform Russia to bring
its power up to the
level of Western
European powers.
Nonetheless, czarist
power rested on
authoritarianism, as
well as on the support
of landowners who
wanted to keep the
feudal system.
THINK THROUGH HISTORY
B. Analyzing Issues
Why were czars torn
between social and
economic reforms in
their country?
Section 2 Assessment
1. TERMS & NAMES
Identify
• conservatives
• liberals
• radicals
• nationalism
• nation-state
• the Balkans
• Louis-Napoleon
• Alexander II
2. TAKING NOTES
3. DRAWING CONCLUSIONS
Using a chart like the one below,
list the major uprisings that challenged the old order of Europe in
the first half of the 1800s. Group
them under the year they occurred.
1821
1830
Revolts Against
the Old Order
1848
What ideal sparked most of these
revolts? Explain.
612 Chapter 24
Why do you think some liberals
might disapprove of the way
Louis-Napoleon ruled France after
the uprisings of 1848?
THINK ABOUT
• who the liberals were and what
they believed in
• conditions in France in 1848
• Louis-Napoleon’s actions and
policies
4. THEME ACTIVITY
Cultural Interaction Imagine
that you are a conservative,
liberal, or radical in 1848. You have
just heard that revolts have
broken out in Europe. Write a
letter to a friend, stating your
political position and expressing
your feelings about the uprisings.
Then, express your thoughts about
the future of Europe.
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TERMS & NAMES
Nationalism
•
•
•
•
•
•
CASE STUDIES: Italy and Germany
MAIN IDEA
WHY IT MATTERS NOW
The force of nationalism contributed to
the formation of two new nations and a
new political order in Europe.
Nationalism is the basis of world
politics today and has often caused
conflicts and wars.
Camillo di Cavour
Giuseppe Garibaldi
Red Shirts
Otto von Bismarck
realpolitik
kaiser
SETTING THE STAGE Nationalism was the most powerful ideal of the 1800s. Its
influence stretched throughout Europe. Nationalism shaped countries. It also upset
the balance of power set up at the Congress of Vienna in 1815, and affected the lives
of millions.
The Ideal of Nationalism
Background
Nationalists often
spoke of a “national
character.” Thus, they
saw the French as
“civilized”; the
Germans as “scientific”; the English as
“practical.”
Nationalism during the 1800s fueled efforts to build nation-states. Nationalists were
not loyal to kings, but to their people—to those who shared common bonds. These
bonds might include a common history, culture, world-view, or language. Nationalists
believed that people of a single “nationality,” or ancestry, should unite under a single
government. People would then identify with their government to create a united
nation-state.
Romantic nationalists preached that a nation, like a person, has the right to independence. Independence would allow a nation’s identity to develop.
As nationalists saw it, a number of links bound a people together as a nation.
Some—though not all—had to exist before a nation-state would evolve and survive.
The chart below summarizes those nationalist links.
PATTERNS OF CHANGE: Nationalism
Bonds That Create a Nation-State
Nationality
Language
• A belief in a common ethnic ancestry—a belief that may or may not be true
Culture
History
Religion
Territory
• A shared way of life (food, dress, behavior, ideals)
Nation-State
• Different dialects (forms) of one language; one dialect chosen as the
“national language”
• A common past; common experiences
• A religion shared by all or most of the people
• A certain territory that belongs to the ethnic group; its “land”
• Defends the nation’s territory and its way of life
• Represents the nation to the rest of the world
• Embodies the people and its ideals
S K I L L B U I L D E R : Interpreting Charts
1. Besides food, dress, behavior, and ideals, what are two other elements that could fall under
the category of “culture”?
2. Which factors listed in the upper part of the chart are absolutely necessary to form a
nation-state?
PATTERNS OF CHANGE
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Nationalism Shakes Aging Empires
Three aging empires—the Austro-Hungarian Empire of the Hapsburgs, the Russian
Empire of the Romanovs, and the Ottoman Empire of the Turks—were a jumble of
ethnic groups. After all, territory and peoples had for centuries been pawns in a political
chess game for these empires. Land and ethnic groups moved back and forth, depending on victories or defeats in war and on royal marriages. When nationalism emerged in
the 19th century, ethnic unrest threatened and eventually toppled these empires.
A Force for Disunity or Unity? Nationalist movements were capable of tearing
apart long-established empires. They could also create new, unified nation-states.
Those who wanted to restore the old order from before the French Revolution saw
nationalism as a force for disunity. The kingdoms and empires of the old order often
ruled over a variety of ethnic groups. Conservatives of the old order reasoned that if
each ethnic group wanted its own state, empires would split and crumble.
Gradually, however, rulers began to see that nationalism could also unify masses of
people. The rulers of Europe had seen how the nationalist spirit inspired French citizen armies to conquer the armies of other European powers. Authoritarian rulers
soon began to use nationalist feelings for their own purposes. They built nation-states
in areas where they remained firmly in control. Nationalism worked as a force for disunity, shaking centuries-old empires. But it also worked as a force for unity. It gave
rise to the nation-state that is basic to our world today.
In 1903, Ottoman
troops moved
against rebellious
subjects in
Salonika, Greece.
A drawing of the
period illustrates
the event.
The Breakup of the Austro-Hungarian Empire The Austro-Hungarian Empire
brought together Hungarians, Germans, Czechs, Slovaks, Croats, Poles, Serbs, and
Italians. In 1866, Prussia defeated Austria in the Austro-Prussian War. With its victory,
Prussia gained control of the new North German Federation. Then, pressured by the
Hungarians, Emperor Francis Joseph of Austria split his empire in half, declaring
Austria and Hungary independent states—with himself as ruler of both.
Nevertheless, nationalist disputes continued to plague the empire for more than 40
years. Finally, after World War I, Austria-Hungary crumbled into separate nation-states.
The Russian Empire Crumbles Nationalism also helped break
up the 400-year-old empire of the czars in Russia. In addition to
the Russians themselves, the czar ruled over 22 million
Ukrainians, 8 million Poles, and smaller numbers of Lithuanians,
Latvians, Estonians, Finns, Jews, Romanians, Georgians,
Armenians, and Turks. Each group had its own culture.
The ruling Romanov dynasty of Russia was determined to
maintain iron control over this diversity. However, their severe
policy of Russification—imposing Russian culture on all the ethnic groups in the empire—strengthened nationalist feelings. The
rise in nationalism then helped to disunify Russia. The weakened
czarist empire finally could not withstand the double shock of
World War I and the communist revolution. The last Romanov
czar gave up his power in 1917.
The Ottoman Empire Weakens The Ottomans controlled
Greeks, Slavs, Arabs, Bulgarians, and Armenians, in addition to the
ruling Turks. In 1856, under pressure from the British and the
French, the Ottomans issued reforms to grant equal citizenship to all
the people under their rule. That measure, however, angered conservative Turks, who wanted no change in the situation, and caused
tensions in the empire. For example, in response to nationalism in
Armenia, the Ottomans carried out massacres and deportations of
Armenians in 1894 to 1896 and in 1915. Like Austria-Hungary, the
Ottoman Empire broke apart soon after World War I.
614 PATTERNS OF CHANGE
Background
In 1867, the Czechs
demanded self-rule in
the empire, like the
Austrians and
Hungarians. Ethnic
groups in Hungary
demanded their own
states.
THINK THROUGH HISTORY
A. Making
Inferences Why
would a policy like
Russification tend to
produce results that
are the opposite of
those intended?
A. Possible Answer
Trying to force a culture or language on a
group of people will
probably create
resentment. As a
reaction, the group
will probably take
even greater pride in
its own language and
culture.
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The Unification of Italy,
1858–1870
CASE STUDY: Italy
FR A NCE
ALPS
eR
Venice
o R.
PIEDMONT PARMAP
Genoa
R.
ve
R.
.
M
NICE
S av
VENETIA
nube
Milan
Turin LOMBARDY
Da
D ra
SAVOY
To
France,
1860
A USTR IA N EMP IR E
Florence
Pisa Arno
R
PAPAL
TUSCANY STATES
LUCCA
(Fr.)
Mediterranean
Sea
Rome
ria
tic
Se
a
42° N
Naples
SARDINIA
Kingdom of Sardinia, 1858
Added to Sardinia, 1859–1860
Added to Italy, 1866
Added to Italy, 1870
Kingdom of Italy
Ad
16° E
R
Tiber .
CORSICA
Papal States
OTTOM A N
EM PIR E
.
The Movement for Unity Begins
SWITZERLAND
R.
While nationalism destroyed empires, it
also built nations. Italy was one of the
countries to form from the territory of
crumbling empires. After the Congress
of Vienna in 1815, Austria ruled the
Italian provinces of Venetia and
Lombardy in the north, and several
small states. In the south, the Spanish
Bourbon family ruled the Kingdom of
the Two Sicilies.
Nevertheless, between 1815 and
1848, increasing numbers of Italians
were no longer content to live under
foreign rulers. Amid growing discontent, two leaders appeared—one was
idealistic, the other practical. They had
different personalities and pursued different goals. But each contributed to
the unification of Italy.
L o i re
Cavour Unites Italy
OD
EN
A
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.
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K I N G D OM
Tyrrhenian
Sea
OF THE
TWO
Palermo
S I C I L IES
0 SICILY
0
200 Miles
400 Kilometers
GEOGRAPHY SKILLBUILDER:
Interpreting Maps
In 1832, an idealistic 26-year-old
1. Region During what time period was the greatest
Italian named Giuseppe Mazzini
amount of territory unified in Italy?
(maht TSEE nee) organized a nationalist group
2. Region What territory did the Italians actually lose
called Young Italy. No one older than 40 was
during their process of unification?
allowed to join.
During the violent year of 1848, revolts broke out in eight states on the Italian
peninsula. Mazzini briefly headed a republican government at Rome. He believed that
nation-states were the best hope for social justice, democracy, and peace in Europe.
However, the 1848 rebellions failed in Italy as they did elsewhere in Europe. The former rulers of the Italian states drove Mazzini and other nationalist leaders into exile.
•
•
Sardinia Leads Italian Unification After 1848, Italian nationalists looked to the
Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia for leadership. Piedmont-Sardinia was the largest and
most powerful of the Italian states.The kingdom had also adopted a liberal constitution in 1848. So, to the Italian middle classes, unification under Piedmont-Sardinia
seemed a sensible alternative to Mazzini’s democratic idealism.
In 1852, Sardinia’s King Victor Emmanuel II named Count Camillo di Cavour
(kuh VOOR) as his prime minister. Cavour was a wealthy, middle-aged aristocrat, who
worked tirelessly to expand Piedmont-Sardinia’s power. With careful diplomacy and
well-chosen alliances, he achieved that expansion. Almost as a coincidence, he also
achieved the unification of Italy. Mazzini distrusted Cavour. He believed correctly that
Cavour wanted to strengthen Sardinia’s power, not to unite Italy.
At first, Cavour’s major goal was to get control of northern Italy for Sardinia. He
carefully went about achieving this territorial goal through diplomacy and cunning.
Cavour realized that the greatest roadblock to annexing northern Italy was Austria. To
help him expel the Austrians from the north, Cavour found an ally in France. In 1858,
the French emperor Napoleon III agreed to help drive Austria out of the northern
provinces of Lombardy and Venetia. Cavour soon after provoked a war with Austria. A
combined French-Sardinian army won two quick victories against Austria. Sardinia
succeeded in taking over all of northern Italy, except Venetia, from the Austrians.
•
PATTERNS OF CHANGE
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Cavour Looks South As Cavour was uniting the north of Italy, he began to consider
the possibility of controlling the south. He secretly started helping nationalist rebels in
■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ southern Italy. In May 1860, a small army of Italian nationalists led by a
■HISTORY
■ ■ ■ ■MAKERS
■ ■ ■ ■ bold and romantic soldier, Giuseppe Garibaldi (gar uh BAWL dee),
■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ captured Sicily. In battle, Garibaldi always wore a bright red shirt, as
did his followers. As a result, they became known as the Red Shirts.
From Sicily, Garibaldi crossed to the Italian mainland and
marched north. Volunteers flocked to his banner. In an election, voters gave Garibaldi permission to unite the southern areas he conquered with the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia. Cavour arranged
for King Victor Emmanuel II to meet Garibaldi in Naples. “The Red
One” willingly agreed to step aside and let the Sardinian king rule.
•
•
•
Challenges After Unification In 1866, the Austrian province of
Giuseppe Garibaldi
1807–1882
Giuseppe Garibaldi might have been
a character out of a romantic novel.
Fisherman, trader, naval commander, guerrilla fighter, poet, rancher,
teacher, idealistic revolutionary in
Europe and South America—
Garibaldi captured the imagination
of Europe. The red shirts of his soldiers helped spread his fame, but
they started out simply as the
cheapest way to clothe his soldiers.
The independence of Italy was
Garibaldi’s great dream. The French
writer Alexandre Dumas wrote of
him: “Once mention the word independence, or that of Italy, and he
becomes a volcano in eruption.”
Garibaldi’s bravery attracted the
attention of U.S. President Abraham
Lincoln. In 1861, Lincoln offered him
a command in the Civil War.
Garibaldi declined for two reasons:
he felt Lincoln did not condemn
slavery strongly enough, and he told
Lincoln that he wanted to command
the entire Union Army!
Venetia, which included the city of Venice, became part of Italy. In
1870, Italian forces took over the last part of a territory known as the
Papal States. The Roman Catholic popes had governed the territory
as both its spiritual and earthly rulers. With this victory, the city of
Rome came under Italian control. Soon after, Rome became the capital of the united Kingdom of Italy. The pope, however, would continue to govern a section of Rome known as Vatican City.
Despite unification, Italy suffered from many unsolved problems.
Centuries of separation had bred fierce rivalries among the different
Italian provinces. The greatest tension arose between the industrialized north and the agricultural south. The people of these two
regions had very different ways of life, and they scarcely understood
each other’s versions of the Italian language. In the Italian parliament, disorganized parties with vague policies constantly squabbled.
As a result, prime ministers and cabinets changed frequently.
In addition to its political instability, Italy also faced severe economic problems. Bloody peasant revolts broke out in the south. At the
same time, strikes and riots troubled the northern cities. Meanwhile,
the Italian government could not deal with the country’s economic
problems. As a result, Italy entered the 20th century as a poor country.
CASE STUDY: Germany
The Rise of Prussia
Like Italy, Germany also achieved national unity in the mid-1800s.
Since 1815, 39 German states had formed a loose grouping called
the German Confederation. The two largest states, the Austro-Hungarian Empire and
Prussia, dominated the confederation.
Prussia enjoyed several advantages that would eventually help it forge a strong
German state. First of all, unlike the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Prussia had a mainly
German population. As a result, nationalism actually unified Prussia, while ethnic groups
in Austria-Hungary tore it apart. Moreover, Prussia’s army was by far the most powerful
in central Europe. Finally, Prussia industrialized more quickly than other German states.
Prussia Leads German Unification Like many other European powers, Prussia
experienced the disorder of the revolutions of 1848. In that year, Berlin rioters forced
the frightened and unstable Prussian king, Frederick William IV, to call a constitutional convention. The convention then drew up a liberal constitution for the kingdom.
In 1861, Wilhelm I succeeded Frederick William to the throne. The strong-minded
Wilhelm first moved to reform the army and double the already powerful Prussian
616 PATTERNS OF CHANGE
THINK THROUGH HISTORY
B. Analyzing
Causes Besides their
old rivalries, what is
another reason why
the Italian provinces
might have a hard
time cooperating?
B. Possible
Answers The
provinces had no
experience in working
together. In fact, some
had been independent
and were used to acting alone.
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The Unification of Germany,
military. However, his liberal parliament
refused him the money for his reforms.
1865 – 1871
Wilhelm saw the parliament’s refusal as a
major challenge to his authority. He was
supported in his view by the Junkers
DENMARK
North
Baltic
(YUNG kuhrz), members of Prussia’s
Memel
S
e
a
Sea
wealthy landowning class. The Junkers were
SCHLESWIG
N e m a n R.
strongly conservative and opposed liberal
HOLSTEIN
EAST
Hamburg
ideas. For that reason, Wilhelm drew all his
S
PRUSSIA
D
MECKLENBURG
N
WEST
ministers and army officers from the Junker
LA
R
PRUSSIA
VE
ER
BRANDENBURG
R US S IAN
H
NO
T
A
class. In 1862, to help solve his problem
H
E
E MP IR E
N
Vis
Berlin
t u la R.
WESTPHALIA
E
with parliament, Wilhelm chose a conservaWarsaw
Od
tive Junker named Otto von Bismarck as
.
SAXONY
Ems HESSE
his prime minister. Bismarck was a master of
Frankfurt
Sedan
SILESIA
Prague
what came to be known as realpolitik. This
LUX.
50° N
BOHEMIA
LO
German term means “the politics of reality.”
BAVARIA
RR
AI
A
U
S
T
R
I
A
N
NE WÜRTTEMBURG
The word described tough power politics
Prussia, 1865
EMPIRE
FRANCE
HOHENZOLLERN
Annexed by Prussia, 1866
with no room for idealism. With realpolitik
Munich
Vienna
Dan
Joined Prussia
ube
R.
as his style, Bismarck would become one of
in North German
Confederation, 1867
the commanding figures of German history.
SWITZERLAND
South German States
Unable to persuade parliament to grant
(joined Prussia to form
German Empire, 1871)
Wilhelm’s desires, Bismarck took a dramatic
ITALY
Conquered from France,
0
200 Miles
step. With the king’s approval, he declared
1871
German Empire, 1871
0
400 Kilometers
that he would rule without the consent of
parliament and without a legal budget.
GEOGRAPHY SKILLBUILDER:
Interpreting Maps
Those actions were in direct violation of the
1. Location What was unusual about the territory of
constitution. In his first speech as prime
Prussia as it existed in 1865?
minister, he defiantly told members of the
2. Regions After 1865, what year saw the biggest
Prussian parliament, “The great questions of the
expansion of Prussian territory?
day will not be settled by speeches or by majority decisions—that was the great mistake of 1848 and 1849—but by blood and iron.”
8° E
16° E
613-618-0524s3
OLD
EN
BU
RG
•
lbe
er
R
ALS
AC
E
M
R.
IU
R.
LG
Rhine
BE
THINK THROUGH HISTORY
C. Drawing
Conclusions
Bismarck succeeded
in ignoring both the
parliament and constitution of Prussia. How
do you think his success would affect
Prussian government?
C. Possible Answer
The parliament and
constitution would
grow weaker. The
king and prime minister would grow
stronger.
Germany Expands Though he was devoted to country and king, Bismarck was also
ambitious. One contemporary described him as a man “who is striving after supreme
power, including military power.” By working to expand Prussia, he could satisfy both
his patriotism and his desire for power. In 1864, Bismarck took the first step toward
molding an empire. He formed an alliance between Prussia and Austria. They then
went to war against Denmark to win two border provinces, Schleswig and Holstein.
A quick victory increased national pride among Prussians. It also won new respect
from other Germans and lent support for Prussia as head of a unified Germany. After
the victory, Prussia governed Schleswig, while Austria controlled Holstein. Bismarck
suspected that this arrangement would soon lead to friction between the two powers.
And such tensions would suit his plans perfectly.
Bismarck Eliminates Austria To disable his powerful rival, Bismarck purposely
Background
Many Germans looked
on Austria as their
natural leader. Vienna
had been capital of
the Holy Roman
Empire and was a center of German music,
art, and literature.
stirred up border conflicts with Austria over Schleswig and Holstein. The tensions
provoked Austria into declaring war on Prussia in 1866. This conflict became known
as the Seven Weeks’ War. As the name suggests, the war was over quickly. The
Prussians used their superior training and equipment to win a smashing victory. They
humiliated Austria. The Austrians lost the region of Venetia, which was given to Italy.
They also had to accept Prussian annexation of yet more German territory.
With its victory in the Seven Weeks’ War, Prussia took control of northern
Germany. For the first time, the eastern and western parts of the Prussian kingdom
were joined. In 1867, the remaining states of the north joined a North German
Confederation, which Prussia dominated completely.
PATTERNS OF CHANGE
617
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■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ The Franco-Prussian War By 1867, a few southern German states
■HISTORY
■ ■ ■ ■MAKERS
■ ■ ■ ■
■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ remained independent of Prussia. The majority of southern Germans
Otto von Bismarck
1815–1898
Germans have still not decided how
to judge Otto von Bismarck. To
some Germans, he was the greatest and noblest of Germany’s
statesmen. They say he almost
single-handedly unified the nation
and raised it to greatness. To
others, he was a devious politician
who abused his powers and led
Germany into dictatorship.
Bismarck’s complex personality
has also fascinated historians. By
1895, 650 books had already been
written about his life. His speeches,
letters, and his memoirs do not
help to simplify him. They show him
to be both cunning and deeply
religious. At one moment, he could
declare “It is the destiny of the
weak to be devoured by the
strong.” At another moment he
could claim “We Germans shall
never wage aggressive war,
ambitious war, a war of conquest.”
were Catholics. So, many in the region resisted domination by a Protestant Prussia. However, Bismarck felt he could win the support of
southerners if they faced a threat from outside. He reasoned that a
war with France would rally the south.
Bismarck was an expert at manufacturing “incidents” to gain his
ends. And he was successful with France. He published an altered version of a diplomatic telegram he had received. The telegram gave a
false description of a meeting between Wilhelm I and the French
ambassador. In the description, Wilhelm seemed to insult the French.
Reacting to the insult, France declared war on Prussia on July 19, 1870.
At once, the Prussian army poured into northern France. In
September 1870, the Prussian army surrounded the main French
force at Sedan. Among the 80,000 French prisoners taken was
Napoleon III himself—a beaten and broken man. Only Paris held
out against the Germans. For four months, Parisians withstood a
German siege. Finally, hunger forced them to surrender.
The Franco-Prussian War was the final stage in German unification. Now the nationalistic fever also seized people in southern
Germany. They finally accepted Prussian leadership.
On January 18, 1871, at the captured French palace of Versailles,
King Wilhelm I of Prussia was crowned kaiser (KY zuhr), or emperor.
Germans called their empire the Second Reich. (The Holy Roman
Empire was the first.) Bismarck had achieved Prussian dominance over
Germany and Europe “by blood and iron,” as he had set out to do.
•
Background
Food became so
scarce during the
siege of Paris that
people ate sawdust,
leather, and rats.
Parisians even
slaughtered animals
in the zoo for food.
The Balance of Power Shifts
The 1815 Congress of Vienna established five Great Powers in
Europe—Britain, France, Austria, Prussia, and Russia. The wars of
the mid-1800s greatly strengthened one of the Great Powers, as
Prussia became Germany. In 1815, the Great Powers were nearly
equal in strength. By 1871, however, Britain and Germany were
clearly the most powerful—both militarily and economically. Austria,
Russia, and Italy lagged far behind. France struggled along somewhere in the middle. The European balance of power had broken down. This shift
also found expression in the art of the period. In fact, during that century, artists,
composers, and writers pointed to paths that European society should follow.
Section 3 Assessment
1. TERMS & NAMES
Identify
• Camillo di Cavour
• Giuseppe Garibaldi
• Red Shirts
• Otto von Bismarck
• realpolitik
• kaiser
2. TAKING NOTES
3. ANALYZING ISSUES
On your own paper, make a time
line like the one below. On it, show
the development of independent
nation-states in Europe.
Congress of
Vienna 1815
Look at the quotation from
Bismarck’s “blood and iron”
speech (page 617). How would
you say his approach to settling
political issues differed from the
approach of liberals?
THINK ABOUT
1800
618 PATTERNS OF CHANGE
1820
1840
1860
1880
1900
• the goals of liberals
• the meaning of the phrase
“blood and iron”
• Bismarck’s goals and how he
attained them
4. ANALYZING THEMES
Revolution How might Cavour
and Garibaldi have criticized each
other as contributors to Italian
unity?
THINK ABOUT
• the personalities of the two men
• methods used by Cavour and
Garibaldi to win Italian unity
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Revolutions in the Arts
MAIN IDEA
WHY IT MATTERS NOW
Artistic and intellectual movements
both reflected and fueled changes in
Europe during the 1800s.
Romanticism and realism continue to
dominate the novels, dramas, and films
produced today.
SETTING THE STAGE European countries passed through severe political troubles
during the 1800s. At the same time, two separate artistic and intellectual movements
divided the century in half. Thinkers and artists focused on ideas of freedom, the
rights of individuals, and an idealistic view of history during the first half of the century. After the great revolutions of 1848, political focus shifted to men who practiced
realpolitik. Similarly, intellectuals and artists expressed a “realistic” view of the world.
In their view of the world, the rich pursued their selfish interests while ordinary people struggled and suffered.
The Romantic Movement
At the beginning of the 19th century, the Enlightenment idea of reason gradually gave
way to another major movement: romanticism. Romanticism was a movement in art
and ideas. It showed deep interest both in nature and in the thoughts and feelings of
the individual. In many ways, romantic thinkers and writers reacted against the ideals
of the Enlightenment. Romantics rejected the rigidly ordered world of the middleclass. They turned from reason to emotion, from society to
nature. Nationalism also fired the romantic imagination. For
example, a fighter for freedom in Greece, Lord Byron also
ranked as one of the leading romantic poets of the time.
TERMS & NAMES
• romanticism
• realism
• impressionism
Though created in
the early 20th
century, this
watercolor of
British artist Arthur
Rackham is full of
romantic fantasy. It
illustrates the tale
“The Old Woman in
the Wood” by
Jakob and Wilhelm
Grimm.
The Ideas of Romanticism Emotion, sometimes wild emotion, was a key element of romanticism. Nevertheless, romanticism went beyond feelings. Romantics expressed a wide range
of ideas and attitudes. In general, romantic thinkers and artists
A. Possible Answer
Romantics idealized
the past as a simpler
nobler time; glorified
heroes and their
actions; cherished folk
traditions, music, and
stories.
THINK THROUGH HISTORY
A. Analyzing Causes
Which ideas of romanticism would encourage nationalism?
Background
The Grimm brothers
also collected tales
from other countries:
England, Scotland,
Ireland, Spain, the
Netherlands, Scandinavia, and Serbia.
• emphasized inner feelings, emotions, imagination
• focused on the mysterious and the supernatural; also,
on the odd, exotic, and grotesque or horrifying
• loved the beauties of untamed nature
• idealized the past as a simpler and nobler time
• glorified heroes and heroic actions
• cherished folk traditions, music, and stories
• valued the common people and the individual
• promoted radical change and democracy
Not all romantics gave the same emphasis to these features. The brothers Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm, for example,
concentrated on history and the sense of national pride it
fostered. During the first half of the 19th century, they collected German fairy tales. They also created a dictionary and
grammar of the German language. Both the tales and the
dictionary of the Grimm brothers celebrated the spirit of
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being German. And they celebrated the German spirit long before Germans had
united into a single country.
Other writers and artists focused on strong individuals. They glorified real or mythical rebels and leaders, such as Napoleon or the legendary King Arthur. Still others
celebrated the beauty and mystery of unspoiled nature. For example, one of France’s
leading romantic novelists, Amandine Aurore Dupin (better known as George Sand),
lovingly described the French countryside and country life. British writer Emily
Brontë set her powerful romantic novel, Wuthering Heights, in the windswept moors
of northern England. The British poet William Blake believed he could “see a World
in a Grain of Sand/And a Heaven in a Wild Flower.” In painting, English romantic
artist Joseph Turner captured the raging of the sea. Another English artist, John
Constable, celebrated the peaceful English countryside. Whatever their particular
emphasis, romantic writers and artists affected all the arts.
Background
Dupin used the pen
name George Sand
because she knew
that critics would not
take a woman writer
seriously.
Romanticism in Literature Germany produced one of the earliest and greatest
romantic writers. In 1774, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (YO hahn VUHLF gahng fuhn
GER tuh) published The Sorrows of Young Werther. Goethe’s novel told of a sensitive
young man whose hopeless love for a virtuous married woman drives him to suicide.
Victor Hugo led the French romantics. Hugo’s huge output of poems, plays, and
novels expressed romanticism’s revolutionary spirit. His works also reflect the romantic fascination with history and support for the individual. His novels Les Misérables
and The Hunchback of Notre Dame both show the struggles of individuals against a
hostile society.
The British romantic poets William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge both
honored nature as the source of truth and beauty. To Wordsworth, nature was richly
alive. Coleridge, on the other hand, put the accent on horror and the supernatural in
his poem “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner.” Later English romantic poets, such as
Byron, Shelley, and Keats, wrote poems celebrating rebellious
heroes, passionate love, and the mystery and beauty of nature. Like
POTLIGHT N
many romantics, many of these British poets lived stormy lives and
Frankenstein
died young. Byron, for example, died at the age of 36, while Shelley
In Frankenstein, a rational scientist,
died at 29.
•
•
•
S
O
Dr. Frankenstein, oversteps the
limits of humanity by creating life
itself. Since his goal is unnatural, he
succeeds only in creating a physical monster who cannot live with
humans because of his ugliness.
In addition to Gothic horror, the
novel embodies a number of major
romantic themes. Mary Shelley
warns of the danger of humans
meddling with nature. Also, despite
his horrible appearance, the creature is sensitive and gentle. Like
many romantics of Shelley’s day,
the creature feels lost in an unsympathetic and alien world. Finally, his
solitude drives him to madness.
The story of Frankenstein,
originally published in 1818, still
enjoys an enormous readership.
The book has inspired many films—
some serious, such as Frankenstein
with actor Boris Karloff, and some
satirical, such as producer Mel
Brooks’s Young Frankenstein.
The Gothic Novel The Gothic horror story was a form that became
hugely popular. These novels often took place in medieval Gothic
castles. They were also filled with fearful, violent, sometimes
supernatural events. Mary Shelley, wife of the poet Percy
Shelley, wrote one of the earliest and most successful Gothic
horror novels, Frankenstein. The novel told the story of a
monster created from the body parts of dead human beings.
The following passage shows Mary Shelley’s romantic imagination at work. She describes how the idea for the monster
took shape. After an evening telling ghost stories with her husband and Lord Byron, the following vision appeared to her:
A V O I C E F R O M T H E PA S T
Night waned upon this talk, and even the witching hour had gone by,
before we retired to rest. When I placed my head on my pillow, I did
not sleep, nor could I be said to think. My imagination, unbidden, possessed and guided me. . . . I saw—with shut eyes, but acute mental
vision—I saw the pale student of [unholy] arts kneeling beside the
thing he had put together. I saw the hideous phantasm of a man
stretched out, and then, on the working of some powerful engine,
show signs of life, and stir with an uneasy, half-vital motion.
MARY SHELLEY, Introduction to Frankenstein
620 Chapter 24
Background
Victor Hugo championed the cause of
freedom in France.
When Napoleon III
overthrew the Second
Republic, Hugo left
France in protest.
B. Possible
Answers Beauty,
mystery, terror, heroism, passion, love,
tragedy, isolation.
THINK THROUGH HISTORY
B. Summarizing
What are some of the
feelings that are key
to romantic literature
and art?
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Romantic Composers Emphasize Emotion Emotion dominated the music proBackground
To express powerful
emotions, romantic
composers increased
the size of symphony
orchestras. They added
large numbers of wind,
brass, and percussion
instruments.
duced by romantic composers. Romantic composers moved away from the tightly
controlled, formal compositions of the Enlightenment period.
■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■
■ ■ ■ ■MAKERS
■ ■ ■ ■
Instead, they celebrated heroism and villainy, tragedy and joy, with a ■HISTORY
■
■
■
■
■
■ ■ ■ ■
■
new power of expression.
One of romanticism’s first composers rose to become its greatest: Ludwig van Beethoven (LOOD vihg vahn BAY toh vuhn).
In his early years, Beethoven wrote the classical music of the
Enlightenment. But in later years, he turned to romantic compositions. His Ninth Symphony soars, celebrating freedom, dignity,
and triumph.
While they never matched Beethoven’s greatness, later romantic
composers also appealed to the hearts and souls of their listeners.
Robert Schumann’s compositions sparkle with merriment. Like many
romantic composers, Felix Mendelssohn drew on literature, such as
Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream, as the inspiration for his
Ludwig van Beethoven
music. Polish composer and concert pianist Frederic Chopin
1770–1827
(SHOH pan) was popular both with other musicians and with the
A genius of European music,
Beethoven suffered the most tragic
public. Chopin’s compositions, such as his first and second piano
disability a composer can endure.
concertos, contain melodies that are still familiar today.
At the age of 30, he began to go
Romanticism made music a popular art form. As music became
deaf. His deafness grew worse for
part of middle-class life, musicians and composers became popular
19 years. By 1819, it was total.
heroes of romanticism. Composer and pianist Franz Liszt (lihst),
At first, Beethoven’s handicap
barely affected his career. His
for example, achieved earnings and popularity equal to that of
composing and concerts went on
today’s rock stars.
•
•
•
•
The Shift to Realism
By the middle of the 19th century, rapid industrialization had a deep
effect on everyday life in Europe. And this change began to make the
dreams of the romantics seem pointless. In literature and the visual
arts, realism tried to show life as it is, not as it should be. Realist
painting reflected the increasing political importance of the working
class in the 1850s. The growing class of industrial workers lived grim
lives in dirty, crowded cities. Along with paintings, novels proved
especially suited to describing workers’ suffering. The interest in science and the scientific method during this period encouraged this
“realistic” approach to art and literature. Science operated through
objective observation and the reporting of facts. That new invention,
the camera, also recorded objective and precise images. In the same
way, realist authors observed and reported as precisely and objectively as they could.
as before. By 1802, however, he
knew that his hearing would only
worsen. He suffered then from
bouts of depression. The
depressions would bring him to the
brink of suicide. Nonetheless, he
would rebound:
. . . It seemed unthinkable for
me to leave the world forever
before I had produced all that I
felt called upon to produce. . . .
After 1819, Beethoven’s friends
had to write their questions to him
in notebooks. He continued to
compose, however, and left many
“sketchbooks” of musical ideas he
would never hear.
Writers Study Society Realism in literature flourished in France with writers such
as Honoré de Balzac and Emile Zola. Balzac wrote a massive series of almost one
hundred novels entitled The Human Comedy. These stories detail the lives of over
2,000 people from all levels of French society following the Revolution. They also
describe in detail the brutal struggle for wealth and power among France’s business
class. Zola’s explosive novels scandalized France at the end of the 1800s. He exposed
the miseries of French workers in small shops, factories, and coal mines. His revelations shocked readers. His work spurred reforms of labor laws and working conditions
in France.
The famous English realist novelist, Charles Dickens, created unforgettable characters and scenes. Many were humorous, but others showed the despair of London’s
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HISTORY THROUGH ART: Fine Art
Artistic Movements
In the 19th century, as always, artistic movements reflected the social conditions of
the time. During the first half of the century, common people began to fight for
political power. During that same period, romanticism was the dominant artistic style.
By mid-century, political realism had taken over.
At the same time, art began to celebrate working,
sweating, everyday people. But the romantic ideal
did not die. By the end of the century, a new
movement called impressionism portrayed the life
of middle-class people as a beautiful dream.
Romanticism
Romantic landscape artists idealized nature. Some emphasized
the harmony between humans and nature. Others showed
nature’s power and mystery, as in this painting, Moonrise Over
the Sea, by German artist Caspar David Friedrich. Still other
romantic artists focused on heroes and scenes from history,
legend, or literature.
Realism
Realist artists reacted against the dreams of the romantics. These artists
believed that their art should portray people as they really were, not as they
should be. The Winnowers, by Gustave Courbet, the most famous realist,
shows the world of everyday work. The winnowers are removing hulls from
newly harvested grain. Courbet does not romanticize the work. He records it.
Impressionism
Impressionists aimed at capturing
their immediate “impression” of a
brief moment. They used bright
colors and loose brushwork to
catch the fleeting light that
sparkles and shimmers. As a
result, Poppies at Argenteuil by
Claude Monet shows less attention
to exact “realistic” detail than
does The Winnowers. It also does
not express the sense of serene
mystery of Moonrise Over the Sea.
Connect
to History
Synthesizing Artists choose
specific elements for their paintings to create the world they want
to show. Compare the settings,
use of color and light, sharpness
of line, and atmosphere of these
paintings.
SEE SKILLBUILDER
HANDBOOK, PAGE R18
Connect
to Today
Comparing Look for examples
of modern art in books and magazines. Show examples of paintings
where artists still use techniques
that could be called romantic or
realist or impressionist.
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working poor. In this passage, Dickens describes the gloom of working-class life:
Vocabulary
despondency: lack
of hope
THINK THROUGH HISTORY
C. Analyzing
Causes Why do you
think a description of
London like Dickens’s
might lead to social
change?
A V O I C E F R O M T H E PA S T
It was a Sunday evening in London, gloomy, close, and stale. . . . Melancholy streets, in
a penitential garb of soot, steeped the souls of the people who were condemned to
look at them out of windows, in dire despondency. . . . No pictures, no unfamiliar animals, no rare plants or flowers. . . . Nothing for the spent toiler to do, but to compare
the monotony of his seventh day with the monotony of his six days, think what a weary
life he led, and make the best of it.
CHARLES DICKENS, Little Dorrit
Photographers Capture the Passing Moment As realist painters and writers
detailed the lives of actual people, photographers could record an instant in time with
scientific precision. The first practical photographs
were called daguerreotypes (duh GEHR uh typs).
They were named after their French inventor, Louis
Daguerre. Daguerre was an artist who created
scenery for theaters. To improve the realism of his
scenery, Daguerre developed his photographic
invention. The images produced in his daguerrotypes
were startlingly real and won him worldwide fame.
Daguerrotype prints were made on metal.
However, the British inventor William Talbot
invented a light-sensitive paper that he used to
produce photographic negatives. The advantage of
paper was that many prints could be made from
one negative. The Talbot process also allowed photos to be reproduced in books and newspapers.
Mass distribution gained a wide audience for the
realism of photography. With its scientific, mechanical, and mass-produced features, photography was the art of the new industrial age.
•
Background
Daguerre’s photo process required about
20–30 minutes exposure time—a big
advance over a previous method that took
eight hours.
C. Possible Answer
His dark description
might make people
think of how social
conditions could be
changed to bring some
hope and prosperity to
British workers.
•
•
Impressionists React Against Realism Beginning in the 1860s, a group of
painters in Paris reacted against the realistic style. Instead of showing life “as it really
is,” they tried giving their impression of a subject or a moment in time. For this reason,
this style of art came to be known as impressionism. Fascinated by light, impressionist artists used pure, shimmering colors to capture a moment seen at a glance.
Artists like Edouard Manet (mah NAY), Claude Monet (moh NAY), Edgar Degas
(duh GAH), and Pierre-Auguste Renoir (ruhn WHAR) also found new subjects for their
art. Unlike the realists, impressionists showed a more positive view of the new urban
society in western Europe. Instead of abused workers, they showed shop clerks and dock
workers enjoying themselves in dance halls and cafés. They painted performers in the
theater and circuses. And they glorified the delights of the life of the rising middle class.
•
•
“Ships at Low
Tide,” an early
photograph taken in
1844 by William
Talbot.
•
•
Section 4 Assessment
1. TERMS & NAMES
Identify
• romanticism
• realism
• impressionism
2. TAKING NOTES
3. ANALYZING CAUSES
Using a chart like the one below,
contrast romanticism, realism, and
impressionism. For each movement, provide a brief description,
the social conditions that each reflects, and representative artists.
Social
Movement Description Conditions
Romanticism
Realism
Impressionism
Artists
How might a realist novel bring
about changes in society?
Describe the steps by which this
might happen.
THINK ABOUT
• the conditions described in
realist novels
• who reads realist novels
• how political change takes place
4. THEME ACTIVITY
Revolution Listen to a
symphony or concerto by
Beethoven. Imagine that you are a
music critic who has previously
heard only formal classical
compositions. Write a review of
Beethoven’s piece. Make the
theme of your review the
revolutionary quality of
Beethoven’s music—which you
may admire or dislike.
Nationalist Revolutions Sweep the West 623
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Chapter 24 Assessment
TERMS & NAMES
REVIEW QUESTIONS
Briefly explain the importance of each of the following
to the revolutions in Latin America or Europe.
1. creoles
6. Camillo di Cavour
SECTION 1 (pages 603–608)
Latin American Peoples
Win Independence
2. Simón Bolívar
7. Otto von Bismarck
11. What caused the creoles in South America to rebel against Spain?
3. conservatives
8. realpolitik
4. liberals
9. romanticism
12. What role did Agustín de Iturbide play in the independence of Mexico
and of the countries of Central America?
5. nationalism
10. realism
13. Who was Dom Pedro, and what role did he play in Brazil’s move to
independence?
SECTION 2 (pages 609–612)
Revolutions Disrupt Europe
14. Why did so many people in Europe and North America support the
revolution of Greek nationalists against the Ottoman Empire?
15. How successful were the revolts of 1848? Explain.
Interact
with History
On page 602, you were asked to
create a symbol for your newly
independent country. Show your
symbol to the class. Explain the elements of your design and what they
are intended to express. With your
classmates’ comments in mind,
what might you change in your
design?
SECTION 3 (pages 613–618)
Nationalism
Case Studies: Italy and Germany
16. How did nationalism in the 1800s work as a force both for disunity and
for unity?
17. What approaches did Camillo di Cavour use to try to acquire more
territory for Piedmont-Sardinia?
18. What strategy did Otto von Bismarck use to try to make Prussia the
leader of a united Germany?
SECTION 4 (pages 619–623)
Revolutions in the Arts
19. Name two ideas or attitudes of the romantic movement that reflected
the ideals of nationalism.
20. What new conditions caused a change in the arts from romanticism to
realism?
Visual Summary
Nationalist Revolutions Sweep the West
Politics
Milestones of the 1800s
1804 Haiti gains independence from France
1814 The Congress of Vienna begins
1821 Bolívar wins Venezuela’s independence from Spain
1824 Bolívar completes the liberation of Latin America
1830 Greece wins full independence; revolts break
out in France, Belgium, and Poland
1800 Beethoven completes his First Symphony
1810
1812 The Brothers Grimm publish a collection
of fairy tales
1818 Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein is published
1824 Lord Byron dies in Greece; Beethoven
completes the Ninth Symphony—his last
1831 Victor Hugo publishes The Hunchback of
Notre Dame
1836 Charles Dickens becomes an overnight success
with his novel Pickwick Papers
1839 Louis Daguerre reveals his photographic process
1820
1830
1840
1848 Revolutions sweep Europe
1850
1861 Alexander II frees the serfs in Russia
1860
1870 Italy is unified
1871 The Franco-Prussian War ends; Germany is unified
1870
1880
624 Chapter 24
Arts
1800
1849 Gustave Courbet’s early paintings
receive public recognition
1867 Claude Monet begins painting in the
impressionist style
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CRITICAL THINKING
CHAPTER ACTIVITIES
1. GARIBALDI’S CHOICE
1. LIVING HISTORY: Unit Portfolio Project
Giuseppe Garibaldi
stepped aside to let Victor Emmanuel II rule areas
that Garibaldi had conquered in southern Italy. Why
do you think he made that choice?
THEME POWER AND AUTHORITY
2. NATIONALISM
Using a chart like the one below, describe the
nationalist movement in each of the following
countries and the results of those movements.
Country
Nationalism and its Results
Mexico
Greece
Italy
Germany
THEME REVOLUTION Your unit portfolio project focuses on showing the
similarities and differences among revolutions (see page 509). For Chapter
24, you might use one of the following ideas.
• Ask classmates to role-play bystanders present at Padre Hidalgo’s grito de
Dolores. Ask them to share their feelings. Audiotape their comments and
use them to write a newspaper report about reactions to the event.
• Write a speech that might have been delivered to a rally somewhere in
Europe. Urge the country’s leaders to help the Greeks in their struggle for
independence from the Ottoman Empire.
• Create a “How-to Booklet for Nationalists,” based on the strategies used
either by Cavour or by Bismarck.
2. CONNECT TO TODAY: Research Project
THEME CULTURAL INTERACTION Romanticism and realism in the arts reflected
social and political conditions. These two artistic movements still exist today.
Create a chart comparing romantic and realistic aspects of modern films.
3. THE MEANS TO VICTORY
In the 1800s, revolutionaries often fought with
inferior weapons and scarce supplies. How do you
think nationalism might help revolutionaries
overcome the disadvantages of old weapons and
poor supplies to win a war for national
independence? Explain.
4. ANALYZING PRIMARY SOURCES
In a speech to the German parliament in 1888, Otto
von Bismarck called for further expansion of the
army. In the following quote from that speech, “the
Iron Chancellor” explains why Germany must always
be prepared for war.
Use the Internet, newspapers, magazines, or your own personal
experience to search for romantic and realistic portrayals of social and
political conditions in movies today.
• For your chart, list examples of modern films that are romantic and list films
that are realistic. Include still shots from movies that support your findings.
• In your search, consider movies from at least three countries.
3. INTERPRETING A TIME LINE
Revisit the unit time line on pages 508–509. If you were shown only the
period from 1820 to 1848, what fate would you predict for Europe’s old
order? Why?
FOCUS ON POLITICAL CARTOONS
A V O I C E F R O M T H E PA S T
When I say that we must strive continually to
be ready for all emergencies, I advance the
proposition that, on account of our geographical position, we must make greater
efforts than other powers would be obliged
to make in view of the same ends. We lie in
the middle of Europe. We have at least three
fronts on which we can be attacked. France
has only an eastern boundary; Russia only its
western, exposed to assault. . . . So we are
spurred forward on both sides to endeavors
which perhaps we would not make otherwise.
OTTO VON BISMARCK, speech to the German parliament on
February 6, 1888.
• According to Bismarck, what key factor makes
Germany a potential target for invasion? Why?
• Do you think Bismarck might have been
overstating the threat to Germany? Explain.
Additional Test Practice,
pp. S1–S33
The 19th-century French cartoonist Charles Philipon was
testing a law to see how far
away an artist could get from
the true features of LouisPhilippe before being condemned to prison and a fine.
Since the French word poire
(“pear”) also means “fool,”
• how does the cartoonist
show King Louis-Philippe
developing as a monarch?
• what do you think was the
legal fate of the cartoonist?
Connect to History What
right was Charles Philipon
standing up for by drawing his
cartoon and testing the law?
TEST PRACTICE
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