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Healthy Caribbean 2012
Rallying for Action on NCDs
Regional Strategy and Plan of Action for
Cervical Cancer
27 May, 2012, Kingston, Jamaica
Dr Tomo Kanda
Advisor on Chronic Diseases & Mental Health
PAHO Office for Barbados and Eastern Caribbean Countries
CONTENTS
CONTENTS
•
•
•
•
Background (Challenges)
Cervical Cancer Screening Strategies
PAHO’s Regional Strategy and Plan of Action
Opportunities
CERVICAL CANCER: THE CHALLENGE
Invasive cervical cancer affects an estimated 530,000 additional women
worldwide each year and leads to more than 275,000 deaths annually
Europe
28,181
North
America
Eastern
mediterranean
11,123
4,413
Caribbean
2,245
Central and
South
America
71,862
Asia
Africa
148,910
78,897
About 88% of these deaths occur in developing countries
CERVICAL CANCER: THE CHALLENGE
IN THE REGION OF THE AMERICAS…
80,000
new cases
36,000
deaths
20.9
CARIBBEAN
9.4
22.2
CENTRAL AMERICA
11.1
23.9
SOUTH AMERICA
10.7
5.7
NOTHERN AMERICA
1.7
0
5
Age standardized incidence rate
10
15
20
25
30
Age standardized mortality rate
Cervical cancer highlights the existing inequities in wealth,
gender and access to health services
CERVICAL CANCER: THE CHALLENGE
CERVICAL CANCER DEATHS IN THE CARIBBEAN
4000
3500
3000
1872
2500
2000
60% of deaths in
1500
women <65 yrs
1000
500
≥65
952
1293
1701
<65
0
2008
2030
Cervical cancer affects women during their most productive years
If current trends continue, cervical cancer deaths in the Caribbean
are projected to increase to over 3,500 in 2030
COMPREHENSIVE CERVICAL CANCER PROGRAMS:
THE OPPORTUNITY
COMMUNITY
PRIMARY
PREVENTION
-Health education
-Counselling
-HPV
VACCINATION
PRIMARY
HEALTH
CARE
SCREENING &
EARLY DETECTION
SECONDARY
HEALTH
CARE
TERCIARY
HEALTH
CARE
DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT &
PALLIATIVE CARE
-Screening of
women at risk: Pap
or HPV or VIA
-Colposcopy/biopsy
-Screen and treat
-Surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy
-Cytology Labs
-Palliative care
-Pathology labs
-Cryotherapy/LEEP
ORGANIZED PROGRAM
Information system/Call-recall/Monitoring-Evaluation
CERVICAL CANCER SCREENING
Screening is a way of secondary prevention and consists on the
early identification and treatment of precancerous lesions.
1
2
3
CYTOLOGY
VIA
HPV DNA
Testing
Regardless of the test used, the key to an effective program is to reach the
largest proportion of women at risk (high coverage) with quality
screening and adequate and timely follow up and treatment.
VIA: Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid
1
CERVICAL CANCER SCREENING
CYTOLOGY , CERVICAL SMEAR OR PAP SMEAR
A sample of cells is taken from the transformation zone of the cervix,
spread on a slide, and examined under the microscope to look for
precacerous changes.
Results in developed countries have been impresive, with incidence
and mortality reductions of 80% in Canada, the USA and some Nordic
countries, and 50-60% in other European countries.
CYTOLOGY , CERVICAL SMEAR OR PAP SMEAR
1
Barriers to the succes of cytology-based programs in low-resource settings:
Test
limitations
•
•
It is a subjective test based on the interpretation of morphologic alterations
present in cervical cancer.
Low sensitivity compensated by repeated testing. Pooled sensitivity and
specificity of 55.2% and 96.7%, respectively in a 2008 meta-analysis (Arbyn et
al. Obstet Gynecol 2008;111:167-77).
Equipment and personnel
requirements
•
Cytology based screening programs require highly trained personnel, well
equipped labs, transport of specimens, and an effective system for collecting
information and following up patients, and therefore are difficult to mount and
sustain in low resource settings.
Multiple visits approach
•
The need for follow-up medical appointments to present the results and manage
any abnormalities can negatively affect treatment rates.
2
NEW TECHNOLOGIES FOR CERVICAL CANCER
SCREENING
VISUAL INSPECTION WITH ACETIC ACID (VIA)
Visual inspection of the cervix with the naked eye after application of 3-5%
diluted acetic acid. When acetic acid is applied to abnormal cervical tissue it
temporarily turns white (acetowhite) allowing the provider to make an
immediate assessment
ACETOWHITE AREAS ARE CONSIDERED INDICATIVE OF
PRECANCEROUS LESIONS
2
NEW TECHNOLOGIE S FOR CE RVICAL CANCE R
SCREENING
VISUAL INSPECTION WITH ACETIC ACID (VIA)
ADVANTAGES
•
•
•
•
•
Simple, widely feasible and affordable.
Minimal infrastructural requirements.
It can be provided by a wide rage of
health professionals.
Similar of better sensitivity is as good
as or better than the Pap smear.
Results are immediately available,
allowing treatment with cryotherapy
(“SCREAN AND TREAT”) during a
single visit and thus reducing loss to
patient follow-up.
LIMITATIONS
•Visual inspection is
subjective and needs
supervision for quality
control.
•It might not work as well in
postmenopausal women
because the transformation
zone recedes into the cervical
canal at menopause.
3
NEW TECHNOLOGIE S FOR CE RVICAL CANCE R
SCREENING
HPV DNA TESTING
A sample of cells is collected from the cervix or vagina using a small
brush or swab and sent to laboratory for processing
DETECTION OF DNA FROM HIGH-RISK HPV TYPES
3
HPV DNA TESTING
•
Samples can be collected by a trained provider or, in the case of vaginal
sampling, by the woman herself.
•
It is not as subjective as VIA and cytology.
•
It can identify women who already have cervical disease in addition to those
who are at increased risk for developing it.
•
More “upstream” in the carcinogenic process, thus enabling for longer
safety margin for screening.
•
Higher sensitivity than Pap smear but somewhat lower specificity: estimated
pool sensitivity and specificity of 90% and 86.5%, respectively in a systematic
review and meta-analysis including 25 studies.
•
More effective among women aged 30 years or older, because of the greater
likelihood that a positive result at that age signals a persistent HPV infection that
could progress to cancer.
HPV DNA TESTING
3
Limitations
•
It is expensive , requiring laboratory
facilities, special equipment, and
trained personnel.
•
It takes six to eight hours for results and
requires follow-up visits for results and
treatment.
CareHPV TEST
•Specifically developed for use in low-resource
settings
•It will detect 14 high risk types
•Results available in 2-2 .5 hours
PAHO’S RESPONSE
REGIONAL STRATEGY AND PLAN OF ACTION FOR
CERVICAL CANCER PREVENTION AND CONTROL
…was developed by PAHO and endorsed by the Ministers of Health
of the Americas during the 2008 Directing Council…
REGIONAL STRATEGY AND PLAN OF ACTION FOR
CERVICAL CANCER PREVENTION AND CONTROL
1. Conduct a situation assessment
2. Intensify information, education and
counseling
3. Fortify screening and pre-cancer treatment
programs
4. Establish or stengthen information systems
and cancer registries
5. Improve access and quality of cancer
treatment and of palliative care
6. Generate evidence to facilitate decision
making regarding HPV vaccine introduction
7. Advocate for equitable access and
affordable comprehensive cervical cancer
prevention
REGIONAL STRATEGY AND PLAN OF ACTION FOR
CERVICAL CANCER PREVENTION AND CONTROL
In settings with sufficient resources to sustain quality Pap
test screening and guarantee timely and appropriate follow
up for women screened positive, strengthen screening
programs by :
Improving the quality of screening tests, and consider
introducing HPV DNA testing
Increasing the screening coverage of women in the at risk
age group (>30 years)
Increasing the proportion of timely and appropriate
follow up care for women with abnormal screening test
results
REGIONAL STRATEGY AND PLAN OF ACTION FOR
CERVICAL CANCER PREVENTION AND CONTROL
In settings where resources are not sufficient to sustain
quality Pap test screening and where there are high rates of
women who do not have access to timely and appropriate
follow-up care :
Consider incorporating a single visit screen and treatment
approach
This involves screening women with VIA followed by
immediate treatment of precancerous lesions with
cryotherapy
This approach can be easily carried out from primary
health care services or through outreach campaigns
IMPLEMENTATION OF THE REGIONAL STRATEGY
PAP
PAP/VIA
PAP/HPV DNA testing
followed by triage with PAP
VIA
LANDMARKS IN CANCER PREVENTION AND CONTROL
IN THE AMERICAS
1997-RedPAC
PAHO network of
cytology
laboratories to
improve quality of
cytology screening
in LAC
2005
2008
2011
PAHO
Resolution
on Chronic
Disease
Prevention
and Control
PAHO
Resolution
on Cervical
Cancer
Prevention
and Control
Regional
declaration
on NCDs
UNHLM on
NCDS
2012
PostUNHLM
1995
2005
NCD unit
established
WHA
Resolution
on cancer
prevention
and control
2007
2010
PAHO joins CCA
Region wide
meeting on
cervical cancer
prevention and
control
RESCAD resolution
on cancer
prevention and
control
ACHIEVEMENTS:
Higher level political commitment for NCDs
CARMEN network, CARMEN Policy Observatory
and CARMEN subregional meetings
Preparation of the Member States in the lead up to the
UNHLM on NCDs
Regional Consultation, Mexico
Policy Observatory Meeting, Trinidad
&Tobago
Andean CARMEN Subregional Meeting
High-level of commitment to address NCDs by
leaders as a result of the UNHLM
High participation from the region: 8 heads of states
and government as well as 24 countries out of 36
Political declaration on the Prevention and Control of
NCDs approved
ACHIEVEMENTS: New communications products
RAISED AWARENESS ON NCDs THROUGH STRATEGIC COMMUNICATIONS
-Media coverage of the UNHLM and PAHOs side events by more than 95 media companies.
-Blog set up with multiple authors for participants to share knowledge and information in the run-up to the UN
High-Level Meeting (UNHLM) and increased of +21.3% on facebook, +26.3% on twitter followers and +54.2% in
Blog visits.
-Wellness week in 12 countries in LAC
-Videos on succesful stories of NCDs projects in the countries
-Celebration of World Cancer day activities
- “Get the Message Campaign”: Over 500,000 SMS of support in 4 months
ACHIEVEMENTS: Strengthened surveillance of NCDs
and its risk factors
NCD IN THE AMERICAS BASIC INDICATORS 2011
Approval for the establishment of the
MERCOSUR and Caribbean framework
surveillance system
2010 NCD National Capacity
Survey conducted in 32 countries
COSTA RICA: STEPS Survey
National surveillance system for chronic diseases
and their risk factors. The first report included a
cluster sample of 103 centers and 4,200 people
from a target population of 113,000 inhabitants
across the country. The surveillance system is
expected to produce data every 4 years.
ACHIEVEMENTS: Guides, norms & practical
“hands-on” tools
Practical “hands-on” tools
•CERVIVAC model in collaboration with the ProVac
Initiative to evaluate strategies for cervical cancer
screening and HPV vaccination
•Chronic Care Passport, a patient held card
containing a care plan, healthy lifestyle advice, a
healthy meal personalized plan and preventive
measures including the Global Cardiovascular Risk
assessment.
•AIEPI modules: Early detection of childhood
cancers, Childhood obesity & diabetes
Guides and norms developed,
translated and disseminated to support
disease management at the country
level
ACHIEVEMENTS: DISEASE MANAGEMENT
Knowledge transfer and exchange of experiences
Review and dissemination of scientific evidence and best practices in the region
NEW TECHNOLOGIES FOR CERVICAL CANCER PREVENTION AND CONTROL, PANAMA, 2010
VIA AND CRYOTHERAPY FOR CERVICAL CANCER PREVENTION, GUATEMALA, 2011
PALLIATIVE CARE WORKSHOP FOR CENTRAL AMERICA AND DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, HONDURAS, 2011
CANCER REGISTRY MEETINGS: BRAZIL 2009, ECUADOR 2010, CHILE 2011
CERVIVAC REGIONAL WORKSHOP, COLOMBIA, 2011
CHRONIC CARE MODEL LEARNING SESSIONS TO IMPROVE QUALITY OF CARE
ACHIEVEMENTS: DISEASE MANAGEMENT
Training and capacity building
CARMEN School
•EPH Evidence Based Chronic Illness Care
Stronger capacity to address NCDs through a multi-stakeholder
approach developed
29 participants from 25 countries of the Americas
•Policy analysis & development course
1st Virtual Course "Management of Palliative
Care Program”
48 students from different provinces of Panama 165 hours
with over 115 hours of networking and 50 face work hours
Radiology and mamography courses
-Virtual course on oncologic ragiology for RESSCAD countries
-National course on Digital Radiology in Guatemala
-Mamography training for radiotechnicians and ragiologists
CARIBBEAN
Caribbean cervical cancer initiative:
Guidelines, program assessment, cytology training
TRINIDAD &
TOBAGO
-Assist with national cancer control plan
JAMAICA
-HPV prevalence study
-ProVaC cost effectiveness study on
HPV vaccines and cxca screening
SURINAME
-Operational research project on cervical cancer (VIA
and cryotherapy)
-Needs assessment for cervical cancer program
-Review of the National norms for cervical cancer
prevention and control
CENTRAL AMERICA
Central America Subregional Plan for Cancer Prevention and Control
Pediatric cancer: guideline and professional development through AHOPCA
HONDURAS
GUATEMALA
DOMINICAN
REPUBLIC
-Assist with national cancer control plan
-Cervical cancer program
strengthening
-Radiotherapy services
evaluation
-Mammography training
-Cervical cancer program strengthening
-Cancer registry and HIS strengthening
-Radiotherapy services evaluation
-Mammography training
Assist with national cancer
control plan
-Palliative Care
NICARAGUA
-Assist National Cancer Plan
-Cervical cancer program strengthening
EL
-Operational
research project on
SALVADOR
VIA and cryotherapy
-Radiotherapy services
evaluation
-Mammography training
-ProVac cost-effectiveness study on HPV
vaccines and cxca screening to begin in
2012
PANAMA
-Assist with development of national
cancer control plan and palliative care
national plan
-Mammography training
-Radiotherapy services evaluation
COSTA RICA
-Radiotherapy services evaluation
-ProVac cost-effectiveness study on HPV
vaccines and cxca screening to begin in
2012
SOUTH AMERICA
ECUADOR
PERU
-Operational research project on
cervical cancer (VIA and
cryotherapy)
-Assistance with national cancer
control plan
-Breast cancer cost-effectiveness
study
BOLIVIA
-Cervical cancer program
strengthening
-Assist with national plan for
cervical cancer
-ProVac cost-effectiveness study on
HPV vaccines and cxca screening to
begin in 2012
CHILE
-RedPAC: quality improvement for
cytology in LAC
-ProVac cost-effectiveness study on HPV
vaccines and cxca screening to begin in
2012
PARAGUAY
-Cervical cancer program strengthening
-ProVac cost-effectiveness study on HPV
vaccines and cxca screening to begin in
2012
URUGUAY
-ProVac cost-effectiveness study on HPV vaccines and
cxca screening to begin in 2012
ARGENTINA
-Cervical cancer program strengthening
-ProVac cost effectiveness study on HPV vaccines and
cxca screening
KEY MESSAGES
• Evidence and tools are available to improve effectiveness of
cervical cancer programs.
• A comprehensive, integrated approach to cervical cancer
prevention and control is essential (best utilization of existing
programs at PHC)
• Organized screening programs designed and managed at the
central level to reach most women at risk are preferable to
opportunistic screening.
• Regardless of the test used, the key to an effective program is to
reach the largest proportion of women at risk (high coverage)
with quality screening and adequate and timely follow up and
treatment.
• Advocacy for public education through multisectoral approach is
important.
Multisectoral Approach as
a Key to conquer
Partnership
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