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The electronic instructions that govern a computer’s actions
to provide a computing service.
Today it’s more important than ever to learn
about the apps available, how they work, and
how they are created.
In this section: Software Development, System Software, Application software and Managing
10 Best Android Apps
Concepts > Software
Software Development
The systematic process of transforming a software idea into
functional software.
In this section: Computer Programming, Programming Languages
and Application Programming Interface (API)
How to Make an iPhone 5 App in Xcode 4.5
Concepts > Software > Software Development
Computer Programming or Coding
The process of creating software through the use of logic, algorithms, and
programming languages.
Computer programming, has
become a valuable skill in
many professions. It teaches
logical thinking and problem
solving; useful skills no matter
what your profession.
Computer programming has
gotten substantially easier
over the years, making it
increasingly accessible to
people in every profession.
Video: What Most Schools Don't Teach
Concepts > Software > Software Development > Computer Programming
Programming Languages
A set of symbols, commands, and rules (syntax) used to write program
Programming languages automate the tedious process of creating the detailed
step-by-step machine instructions used in software. This language has
transformed the programming process from tedious labor to a creative
intellectual endeavor for problem solving.
Video: Computer Programming for Beginners
Concepts > Software > Software Development > Programming Languages
Application Programming Interface (API)
A set of programming tools specifically designed for developing apps for
a particular platform.
An API allows others besides the manufacturer to develop software to
run on the system or device. APIs provide users with a rich variety of
software and provide an opportunity for less experienced programmers
to make valuable software contributions.
Video: Developing Apps for iPhone
Concepts > Software > Software Development > Application Programming Interface (API)
Software Development Terms
• Software
• Software engineers
• Source code
• Software development
• Integrated
environment (IDE)
• Object code
• Software development life
cycle (SDLC)
• Computer programming
• Program code
• Computer
• Programming
• Syntax
• Object-oriented
programming (OOP)
• Objects
• Compiler
• Interpreter
• Application
interface (API)
• Software
development kit
Concepts > Software > Software Development > See your eBook for more information about these terms
System Software
Software that coordinates the
activities of the hardware and
assists the computer in functioning
safely, effectively, and efficiently.
In this section: Boot Process, Operating System, User Interface, File Management,
Microsoft Windows, Mac OS, Linux, Virtual Machine Software, Mobile Operating Systems,
Industrial Operating Systems, Embedded O[erating Systems and Utility Software.
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Concepts > Software > System Software
Boot Process
Also known as booting, booting up, or bootstrapping, is the sequence of
instructions in the BIOS. It is executed when a computer is powered on
to check the system and load the operating system into memory.
When computers are powered off, all instructions are cleared from the CPU
and memory. When powered back on, there are no instructions available in the
CPU or memory to execute. The boot process instructions are part of the BIOS
(the basic input/output system), which is burned into ROM rather than stored
electronically so that it is always ready for the processor to execute when the
computer—server, PC, smartphone, or tablet—is powered on.
Video: MacBook Pro: Boot Up, ...
Concepts > Software > System Software > Boot Process
Operating System
A set of computer programs that runs or controls the computer hardware,
and acts as a user interface.
The operating system plays a central role in the functioning of any
computer system. Operating systems run on most digital devices. The
operating systems also provides networking functionality.
Video: Mac vs PC vs Linux #1
Concepts > Software > System Software > Operating System
User Interface
Allows one or more people to have access to and command of a computer
system or computer software.
One of the most important functions of any operating system is providing a
user interface. It defines the computing experience for the user.
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Concepts > Software > System Software > User Interface
File Management
The physical and logical storage system and practices provided for
managing data on a computer.
Mac OS X provides several
options for viewing files, including
“cover flow,” which provides a
preview of the file contents.
When you save a file to a hard drive or flash drive, store it in the cloud, or burn it to a CD
or DVD, the operating system finds space on the device to store the file in an efficient
manner and records the location so the file can be accessed later.
Maintaining an organized file system makes it easy to find files and information.
Windows 8: Managing Your Files and Folders
Concepts > Software > System Software > File Management
Microsoft Windows & Windows Phone
The Microsoft Windows platform includes the Microsoft Windows OS
for PCs and tablets and Windows Phone for smartphones.
Microsoft Windows runs on
roughly 91 percent of all
personal computers. The latest
version of Windows provides a
single platform across all
devices, altering features to
suit the device. Since Windows
is by far the dominant OS and
is found in most business
environments, it is useful for
everyone to be fluent in its use.
Video: Windows 8 Demo
Concepts > Software > System Software > Microsoft Windows
Apple Mac OS and IOS
The native operating systems for Apple PCs and mobile devices,
The Mac OS has gained
popularity as Mac computers
have grown in market share.
The most recent version of the
Mac OS is called OS X (10.10)
Yosemite, and it is competitive
with Windows 10 in terms of
performance and capabilities.
Mac users prefer OS X over
Windows because of its ease of
use and relative smooth and
safe operation.
Windows 8: Managing Your Files and Folders
Concepts > Software > System Software > Mac OS
Google Chrome and Android
Operating systems that extend over phones, tablets, laptops, desktops,
wearable devices, TV, and autos.
Android is the most popular mobile OS, controlling around 85 percent of the
global smartphone market and 46 percent of the global tablet market.
Android’s open and free architecture is popular with many users on a budget. Its
market share has attracted developers who are interested in selling more apps.
Concepts > Software > System Software > Mobile Operating Systems
A free, open-source operating system for PCs, servers, and other types
of computers.
Linux owns a small percentage
of the PC operating system
market but is mostly popular
with technically inclined
individuals, with users looking
for free and open-source
software, and with some
corporations. Linux is growing
in popularity as a lightweight
and inexpensive operating
system for mobile computing
devices such as laptops,
tablets, and smartphones.
Video: Linux vs Windows
Video: Ubuntu Touch is a touch of class
Concepts > Software > System Software > Linux
Virtual Machine Software
(virtualization software)
Allows one operating system to run on top of another by creating a virtual
machine on which the guest operating system can run.
It can allow Windows to run on a
Mac, and practically any OS to
run on any other. Parallels
Desktop VM and VMware are
other popular virtual machine
software packages. Because of
the amount of resources required
for two operating systems to run
simultaneously, VM software is
most successful when run on
more powerful PCs.
Video: Seamless Windows 8 on Mac
Concepts > Software > System Software > Virtual Machine Software
Industrial Operating Systems
Control large networked systems and servers.
Industrial computers operate in a much more
complex manner than PCs and require an
operating system that can manage multiple
processors- sometimes hundreds or even
thousands of processors- and many users.
Companies that manufacture the systems,
such as IBM and Oracle, typically design and
provide the operating system with the
Concepts > Software > System Software > Industrial Operating Systems
Embedded Operating Systems
Hardwired into a computer component, such as ROM or flash memory,
to control a special-purpose computer.
Because embedded systems
are developed for specific
tasks, they can be optimized
more easily, which increases
reliability and performance,
and reduces size and cost.
Concepts > Software > System Software > Embedded Operating Systems
Utility Software
A software, besides the OS, that assists in maintaining, managing, and
protecting computer system resources.
Utility software helps keep computers
running smoothly and safely.
With operating systems growing more
complex and risks associated with
Internet-connected computers
increasing, utilities are more
important than ever before.
Video: How to Clean Your Registry with CCleaner
Concepts > Software > System Software > Utility Software
System Software Terms
• System software
• Software platform
• Boot process
• Operating system
• Multitask
• Graphical user
interface (GUI)
• Linux
• File management
• Virtual machine (VM)
• Logical view
• Mobile operating
• Physical view
• File system
• Industrial operating
• Device driver
• New technology file
systems (NTFS)
• User interface (UI)
• Microsoft Windows
• Command-based user
• Mac OS
• Real-time operating
system (RTOS)
• Linux
• Utility software
• Embedded operating
Concepts > Software > System Software > See your eBook for more information about these terms
Apps, Desktop, Mobile, and Web
Programs written to perform tasks or solve problems for
people, groups, and organizations on PCs and mobile devices.
In this section: Business Software, Personal Software and Mobile Apps.
Concepts > Software > Apps, Desktop, Mobile, and Web
Office Suites
Software collections that include a word processor, a spreadsheet
app, presentation software, and sometime database and other useful
Office suites are the most
common type of software used at
work, school, and home.
Common uses are recording
ideas (word processing), making
calculations (spreadsheet),
creating graphic depictions
(presentation), and organizing
information (database).
These apps provide many useful
functions for many different
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Concepts > Software > Application Software > Business Software
Information Apps
Useful information on a variety of topics.
The Internet provides seemingly
limitless amounts of information on
every topic. Some information is more
useful than others. For this purpose,
apps have been developed to deliver
valued information on demand.
Video: Google Now - Boarding pass card
Concepts > Software > Application Software > Information Software
Communication Apps
Support communication between people and groups
through text, voice, and video.
The Internet supports all kinds of
communication between people.
There have been many apps
developed to support forms of
communication. Learning about
the communication apps available
provides many options for staying
close and connected to others.
Skype is a popular app for
communicating via video, voice,
and text.
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Concepts > Software > Application Software > Communication Software
Creativity Apps
Apps that are used for enjoyable leisure time activities, including
listening to music; watching TV, videos, and movies; reading books and
magazines; and playing games. Creating items of value like art, music,
video, and even software used to create software.
Apple’s GarageBand app
includes guitar lessons that
allow you to play along; it even
corrects your mistakes.
Apple GargageBand
Concepts > Software > Application Software > Creativity Software
Personal Information Apps
Assist people in managing their personal lives, including their contacts,
calendar, to-do list, health, and money.
New software has emerged
to assist people with all
aspects of their personal,
at-home lives.
Two growth areas in
personal information
management software are
financial software and
health software. These have
arisen in parallel with new
hardware technologies.
Concepts > Software > Application Software > Personal Software
Entertainment Apps
Used for enjoyable leisure time activities, including listening to music;
watching TV, videos, and movies; reading books and magazines; and
playing games.
Xbox SmartGlass
turns your mobile
phone or tablet into a
second screen that
intelligently interacts
with your Xbox to
elevate your
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Concepts > Software > Application Software > Entertainment Software
Professional Apps
General-purpose, custom apps required for use at work.
Software designed for more
specific activities, such as
project management,
graphics design, and
customer management are
used depending on the
Employees of large
corporations often use
custom-designed software
on their computers and
mobile devices to access
and manipulate corporate
Concepts > Software > Application Software > Professional Software
Application Software Terms
• Application software
• Collaborative software
• Gadget/widget
• Business software
• Software suite
• Personal software
• Mobile software/apps
Concepts > Software > Application Software > See your eBook for more information about these terms
Managing Software
Activities required to acquire, install, maintain, and remove
software from a computer system.
Computers and mobile devices are only as
useful as the software that runs on them. To
get maximum benefits of a mobile phone,
tablet, or PC, users should research software
that will be most useful to their lifestyle,
interests, and activities.
Selecting and managing software is one of the
most important responsibilities of a computer
In this section: Acquiring Software, Software Licensing, Installing Software, Maintaining
Software and Uninstalling Software.
Concepts > Software > Managing Software
Acquiring Software
Methods by which software can be purchased or accessed, including
packaged software, downloaded software, cloud apps, and custom
designed software.
Today’s PC
users typically
use both
software and
apps accessed
on the Web.
Video: What's on my iPhone 6 Plus!? | iJustine :
Concepts > Software > Managing Software > Acquiring Software
Software Licensing
Defines the permissions, rights, and restrictions assigned to the person
who purchases a copy of software.
A software license allows the owners of the software (their intellectual property) to
define legal use of the software and exercise legal authority over its distribution and use.
Software may be protected by a traditional license, may incorporate a more liberal
license policy like Creative Commons or the General Public License (GPL), or may be
Video: Creative Commons - Get Creative
Concepts > Software > Managing Software > Software Licensing
Installing Software
The process by which software is added to a computer so it is available to
Installing software on PCs, tablets, and smartphones is a common activity for
computer users. Installing software allows computers to be customized to meet
the user’s needs. All computer users should be familiar with the process.
Video: Windows 8 Installation Guide
Concepts > Software > Managing Software > Installing Software
Maintaining Software
Applying software updates to correct software bugs, improve the
software, or add new features.
To get the most out of your software
investment, and to keep your
computer safe and secure, it is wise to
update both system software and
application software as soon as
updates are made available.
Updates are provided by software
companies in order to fix bugs, patch
security holes, improve functionality,
and add features. Updates to apps on
tablets and smartphones are important
as well.
Concepts > Software > Managing Software > Maintaining Software
Uninstalling Software
The process of completely removing software from a computer.
Because installed software
maintains a presence in
many areas of an operating
system, it is important to use
proper procedures to
remove all of it. Removing
software requires a special
process that deletes all files
and references related to the
The process varies slightly
between computing
platforms and mobile
Concepts > Software > Managing Software > Uninstalling Software
Managing Software Terms
• Managing software
• Open-source software
• Acquiring software
• GNU General Public License (GPL)
• Software licensing
• Installing software
• Copyright
• Maintaining software
• Creative Commons license
• Software patches
• Freeware
• Software bugs
• Free software
• Uninstalling software
Concepts > Software > Managing Software > See your eBook for more information about these terms

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