The MIT Investment Management Company supports MIT through the

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The MIT Investment Management Company supports MIT through the
returns generated from investing MIT’s endowment in a small number
of investment managers worldwide with whom we aim to establish
long-term partnerships. Here are a fe w things you might not know
about us that could make us an attractive long-term partner to your
We actively seek out opportunities that most others avoid. For
example, we love to engage with firms without any institutional
investors, firms with unusually long time horizons, firms with small
amounts of AUM, firms pursuing niche market sectors, and one - and
two -person investment shops.
We enjoy partnering with firms early. Investing early in a
firm’s e volution allows us to enjoy stronger and longer-duration
partnerships. We have historically invested in firms with as little as
$5 million of assets under management . We also have put managers
in business on numerous occasions, and do so without asking for any
ownership in the firm.
We share your long time horizon. With a time horizon measured in
decades if not centuries, MIT can endure ine vitable short-term market
fluctuations and wait patiently for the long-term realization of value.
S ET H.A L EX A ND [email protected] M I TIMCO.MIT.EDU. NO
We work hard to be great partners. While we recognize that
investment managers will be the primar y drivers of our partnerships’
success, we hope we can contribute in small ways by seeking to be
great partners. We have helped our managers by being a stable source
of capital, by acting as a sounding board for organizational and
structural decisions, by introducing ne w managers to experienced
managers, by sharing reading recommendations, and by linking
managers to knowledgeable experts within our network .
Your hard work would support MIT. MIT’s endowment supports
cutting-edge research, innovative education, entrepreneurialism and
a host of other activities that provide ser vice to society. Please keep
going to read more about a fe w of the many activities investment
returns help support at MIT as well as our investment principles and
due diligence process, or visit our website at
MIT’s Mission
The mission of MIT is to advance knowledge and educate students in science,
technology, and other areas of scholarship that will best serve the nation and the
world in the 21st century.
The returns achieved by our investment manager partners directly advance MIT’s
mission by supporting a broad range of activities. We describe a small selection of
these activities here:
Through MIT’s Deshpande Center (which teaches faculty and researchers to
form companies and commercialize technology), innovation contests, venture
mentoring, corporate collaborations, and technology licensing, the Institute
encourages faculty, students, and alumni to translate work in the academic
setting into improvements in everyday life by starting new initiatives and
setting up new companies. A recent study by the Kauffman Foundation of
Entrepreneurialism estimated that active companies founded by MIT alumni
employ approximately 3.3 million people and generate annual sales of $2 trillion
Service to Society
MIT is strongly committed to public service. The Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty
Action Lab (J-PAL) is one example of the impact MIT would like to have in
the arena of public service. Founded in 2003 by faculty in MIT’s Department of
Economics, J-PAL’s goal is to reduce poverty by ensuring that policy is based on
scientific evidence. The lab runs randomized evaluations of poverty programs in
over 30 countries, builds capacity of others to run these evaluations, and works
to disseminate results and promote the scale-up of effective policies. Working
on issues as diverse as boosting girls’ attendance at school, improving the output
of farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa, and overcoming racial bias in employment
in the U.S., the lab’s objective is to provide policy makers with clear scientific
results that will enable them to improve the effectiveness of programs designed
to combat poverty.
World-class education
MIT offers students from diverse backgrounds incredible preparation in today’s most advanced fields of
study. To ensure MIT remains accessible, the Institute recruits and enrolls students without regard to
their financial circumstances and offers robust financial aid packages. In recent years, MIT has provided
over 60% of undergraduates with financial aid and covered over 50% of the overall cost of tuition and fees.
With an MIT education, every student has an equal chance at success. Studies have shown that an MIT
education is an economic equalizer with the initial financial circumstances of a student’s family having no
impact on the starting salary that student achieves upon leaving MIT.
One significant concern to the MIT community has been the limit on the number of students who are
able to avail themselves of the traditional educational experience on campus. Recognizing the need to
broaden the availability of education opportunities to more people, MIT launched Open CourseWare
(OCW) in 2002 to provide free access to MIT course materials on line ( To further
extend this effort, MIT and Harvard joined forces in 2012 to create EdX (, a new
technology platform that offers online versions of university courses. EdX features video lessons, quizzes,
student-ranked questions and answers, and online laboratories. Over 7,000 students passed MIT’s first
EdX class (Introduction to Circuits and Electronics), approximately the same number of people who
would take the course in person at MIT over forty years.
Cutting-edge research
MIT’s faculty and students undertake massive
efforts to help meet society’s challenges. A very
limited selection of current efforts at MIT include:
autism studies, cancer eradication efforts, safer
nuclear power, radio wave detection studies (to better
understand the formation of the universe), advanced
solar power projects, synthetic vocal cords (to help
people with voice disorders caused by disease or other
factors), a re-design of high performance computing
architecture, water desalination efforts, more efficient
drug manufacturing, wearable robotic prosthetic
devices to help amputees, collision detection
algorithms for the FAA, neutrino studies, improved
cyber security, satellite tracking, better vaccine
delivery methods, novel Alzheimer’s treatments, and
new methods of energy storing for the power grid.
Our Core Investment Principles:
Earn High Real Returns
Partner with Exceptional People
Invest with A Value Orientation
Focus on the Micro
Think Independently
Be Long Term
Learn from our Mistakes
Concentrate where Prudent
MIT’s Investment Philosophy
The goal of our investment philosophy is to support current and future generations of MIT scholars with significant
resources. To meet this goal, we have built our investment policy for the Endowment around several core principles. Each
is described in more detail here.
We earn returns through longterm business ownership, the
application of specialized skills, and
the allocation of capital into market
On a long-term basis, we see three
primary ways to earn high real rates
of return. First, we want to partake in
the long-term returns of high quality
businesses. To the extent we can invest
with managers who buy holdings at
attractive prices in well-managed
businesses with strong and sustainable
competitive positions, good growth
prospects, and high returns on capital,
we can earn significant rates of return
through the patient compounding of
Second, we want to participate
with exceptional people applying
specialized skills to add value to
assets. Examples of this would include
real estate operators who buy and fix
properties, venture capitalists who
help start-up entrepreneurs grow
businesses, energy firms that discover
and extract commodity reserves, and
private capital managers who buy
and improve the operations of well
established companies. In these cases,
the investment returns consist of both
the underlying intrinsic growth of the
asset and the value added by applied
expertise. In this way, even lower
quality, low growth assets can offer
substantial rates of return.
Third, we want to allocate capital into
market dislocations. During periods of
uncertainty or severe economic stress,
markets often experience significant
price declines. While price declines
usually are rational responses to
new information, certain securities
may decline in price due to fear
and other short-term concerns not
relevant to long-term intrinsic value.
In these circumstances, we have the
opportunity to earn excellent returns
by maintaining a long-time horizon
and having the fortitude to buy when
others are fleeing the market.
We partner with exceptional
investment managers
We execute the vast majority of
our investments through external
third-party managers. To earn high
returns, we may decide we want to
invest in arenas as diverse as stocks in
China, real estate in Rio de Janeiro,
and start-up companies in Silicon
Valley. Rather than attempt to hire
in-house experts in all of these areas,
we instead seek to identify the world’s
best investors in each area and partner
with them. In this way, we are able
The hiring of an
exceptional manager
can impact the portfolio
for decades as these
managers compound
capital through a variety
of market conditions.
to work with the people who have
the best competitive advantages in
executing their investments given their
specialized insights and deep market
knowledge. While it can be a long and
difficult search to find these unusually
talented external managers, we have
the opportunity to earn very high rates
of return over many years when we do.
In looking for investment managers,
we seek exceptional people with a
well-defined, investment process and
superior investment judgment. We
look for managers with a differentiated
investment focus and a circle of
competence matched by their abilities,
resources, and personality. We focus
on managers with strong leadership
characteristics, motivations beyond
money, and acute awareness of their
strengths and weaknesses. We search
for good partners willing to align
themselves with their investors and
act in their investors’ best interest.
We look for people with the highest
standards of ethical behavior and
strong reputations of fair dealings with
MIT will undertake direct investments
only if we possess the necessary
expertise and competitive advantages.
For example, we manage a portfolio
of real estate in Cambridge around
the MIT campus. Because MIT owns
a critical mass of land holdings in
Cambridge and is a large driver of
demand for real estate space, we have
advantages in this arena that third
parties cannot match. In this particular
circumstance, it also is important
for MIT to take direct control of
these investments because our goal
is not simply to seek the highest
financial returns with the properties.
While it is important for a real estate
project to be financially viable for it
to be sustainable, we also want to
attract innovative companies to the
Cambridge area and to create a lively
interactive environment that benefits
local residents, local businesses and the
MIT community.
We maintain a value-oriented
investment approach
MIT is a value investor with a focus
on fundamental analysis. A value
approach emphasizes the ability of
investors to calculate the intrinsic
value of assets by forecasting expected
cash flows across a range of potential
future outcomes. Value investors
look to purchase investments at a
significant discount to intrinsic value
to account for the uncertainty inherent
in any attempt to predict the future.
Determining that a sufficient “margin
of safety” exists between the price
paid for an asset and a conservative
projection of future value is the
primary determinant for potential
inclusion in the portfolio. Intrinsic
value provides a framework around
which value investors can act. Rather
than being swayed by emotions,
market sentiment, or short-term news,
a thoughtful, deliberate value investor
can assess if investments are priced
below or above long-term intrinsic
fair value and decide to buy or sell as
Our approach leads us to prefer certain
types of investment strategies. We
prefer strategies in which managers are
willing to hold cash if opportunities
to buy assets at a compelling discount
to intrinsic value are not available. We
prefer strategies in which managers can
easily articulate why their advantage in
buying assets with a margin of safety
is repeatable and sustainable over time.
We prefer strategies with long-time
horizons because it usually is easier to
identify which assets and businesses
will revert to their intrinsic value
over the next few years rather than
those likely to revert over the next few
months. Finally, we prefer strategies
in which investment managers have
Investment Principles
an analytical or behavioral advantage
over other market participants in
determining the intrinsic value of a
security. For example, an analytical
advantage could arise from a manager’s
focus on a large
specialized and
complex market niche
such as energy or from
a focus on a small
subsector of securities
that most other
investment managers
ignore. A behavioral
advantage could result
from a manager’s focus
on long-term business
value regardless
of current market
Our approach causes
us to avoid many
types of investment
strategies. We avoid
strategies that are fully
invested regardless
of asset valuations.
We avoid strategies
that define success as
beating a benchmark
even if that benchmark
loses money. We avoid
short-term trading
strategies that attempt
to capture small
pricing anomalies.
We avoid strategies that depend on
financial engineering to generate
returns. We avoid purely momentum
based strategies that buy and sell
positions depending only on recent
Investment Principles
stock price or earnings trends. We
avoid strategies that are too opaque or
too complicated for us to understand.
We avoid strategies that focus on
areas in which pricing is determined
by sentiment such as works of fine
art because we do not know how to
calculate long-term intrinsic value if
the assets do not produce cash flows.
A value orientation does not preclude
high growth investments. On the
contrary, growth potential is often the
primary driver of long-term intrinsic
value. For example, venture capital
investments in companies such as
Google, Facebook, and LinkedIn meet
our value criteria when the expected
value of their future cash flows is
multiples of our entry valuation. Of
course, once the growth potential in
these companies is recognized by the
market and asset pricing builds in
overly rosy projections of the future,
we want to allocate capital elsewhere.
Our approach leads us to be contrarian.
As markets appreciate in price and
reduce the margin of safety between
asset pricing and future expected
value, we want to reduce our exposure.
We are not comfortable maintaining
exposures at overly expensive
valuations no matter how much longer
we believe the euphoria might last.
In contrast, when markets decline in
price, investors become frightened, and
press articles turn negative, our interest
increases. While we will never blindly
add exposure simply because prices
We believe in
independent thinking
and are willing to have
significant exposure to
individual securities and
strategies that behave
nothing like peers or
broad benchmarks.
have fallen or because other investors
are fleeing, we believe that investment
managers are much more likely to
generate returns from finding bargains
in the overlooked, underappreciated
areas than attempting to time their
way in and out of frothy, overheated
We have confidence in independent
We believe in independent thinking
and seek to build our portfolio
without regard to peer positioning or
benchmark weightings. This stance is
not oblivious to the reality that MIT
competes with other institutions for
faculty and student talent. Nor does
it ignore the fact that occasional
comparisons to a passively-managed
benchmark can be an important
measure of investment effectiveness
over the long term. However,
worrying about the consequences
of deviating from other investors or
indexes would limit our ability to
make the meaningful investments that
provide the best way to produce high
returns. We believe this stance to be
a significant potential differentiation
for us as most investors are forced to
stay close to peers and benchmarks
given that they are subjected to
frequent relative return comparisons.
In practical terms this principle means
that MIT is willing to have significant
exposure to securities and strategies
that behave nothing like peers or broad
benchmarks and that our returns may
deviate significantly from others.
We focus our time on microeconomic
We spend significant time
understanding microeconomic
situations. Our focus on
microeconomic situations consists
of reviewing and understanding the
underwriting of specific investments
at the asset or company level. These
activities improve our capability to
underwrite investment managers,
inform our capital allocation decisions,
and help us identify potential tactical
We believe the focus on
microeconomics is the best way for us
to generate compelling returns over
time. In microeconomic situations,
we have the opportunity to build
an advantage over other capital
allocators. Because there are many
thousands of micro-opportunities
worldwide, we can selectively focus
and understand more about a subset of
these than other investors. With this
knowledge, we have the opportunity
to identify significant and compelling
opportunities that other market
participants miss or misunderstand.
Of course, we do not ignore
macroeconomic factors as they play
a key role in determining investment
outcomes. Here, however, our
approach is very different. We view it
as very difficult and perhaps impossible
for us to generate an edge forecasting
macroeconomic events. As a result, we
undertake no primary macroeconomic
research. Instead, we seek to construct
our portfolio with diversification
and margin of safety in mind so
that our portfolio will be resilient
and perform well under a variety of
macroeconomic conditions. To remain
aware of macroeconomic downside
scenarios that could overwhelm our
microeconomic work, we stress test
the portfolio on a periodic basis to
estimate the impact of extreme events.
Where the impact on the portfolio
is unbearably large or significant
positions appear unusually vulnerable,
we look to moderate exposures or
add new positions to mitigate these
possible impacts. One of our favorite
managers summed up this philosophy
very well when he said: “we invest
bottom-up and worry top-down.”
We concentrate our investments
as much as is prudent while
maintaining a risk framework to
create the resilient portfolio necessary
to survive in an uncertain world
Our investment process is designed
to pressure capital into our best ideas.
Not surprisingly, we have discovered
exceptional investment ideas to be
extremely rare. As a result, when
we find them, we want to invest a
significant amount of money.
To ensure that we do not become
over-concentrated and expose MIT to
overly adverse outcomes, we maintain a
risk framework designed to ensure our
bottom-up bets do not aggregate into
imprudent overall exposures. The risk
framework is focused on six metrics:
currency exposure, geographic
exposure, leverage, liquidity,
manager concentration, and potential
drawdown. We track currency and
geographic exposure to ensure we
are not overly exposed to a single
monetary regime or political system.
We track leverage to ensure that we do
not accept undue re-financing risk or
interest rate risk. We track liquidity to
Exceptional investment opportunities are rare, so
we believe in taking full advantage of those we find.
This means that when the stars align and we find an
opportunity that can absorb meaningful dollars, we
must be prepared to concentrate our capital. At the
same time, many if not most exceptional investment
opportunities are highly capacity constrained,
and we are more than happy to maintain smaller
relationships in these cases.
Investment Principles
Investment Principles
To be valuable, mistakes must be made
net present value positive.1 To make
mistakes net present value positive,
we commit to openly admitting,
recording, analyzing, and discussing
our errors so that we may learn from
them. We can further increase the net
present value of a mistake by sizing
forays into new areas with small dollars
or by waiting for an unusual margin
of safety that offers an extra cushion
against unknown factors. Once we
have developed better judgment and
further expertise, we can act more
boldly in bigger size.
We maintain a long time horizon
ensure we have sufficient liquid assets
on hand to meet the spending needs
of the Institute. We track manager
concentration to ensure that we are
not unduly exposed to fraud or other
idiosyncratic events. We track our
expected drawdown exposure under
various stress scenarios to understand
the impact investment volatility could
have on the flow of funds provided to
the Institute’s operating budget.
We view mistakes as the inevitable
result of an innovative investment
Successful innovation requires the
willingness to make mistakes. By
definition, growth and learning require
us to expand our circle of competence
Successful innovation
requires the willingness to
make mistakes, which we
view as the cost human
beings pay to develop
judgement and expertise.
Rather than eradicating all
mistakes, we seek to make
them net present value
positive by committing
to openly admitting,
recording, analyzing, and
discussing our errors.
We borrowed this nice turn of phrase from an investor letter written by a London-based stock picker.
into areas we have never tried before.
We view mistakes as the cost human
beings pay to develop judgment and
expertise. As a result, the pursuit
of a mistake free environment is
Of course, not all mistakes are created
equal. Bad mistakes are those that
result from sloppy thinking, lack
of effort, poorly designed decisionmaking processes, and careless
execution. These kinds of mistakes
teach us only that we have developed
a poor foundation for success. Good
mistakes, on the other hand, are those
that result from a thoughtful and
carefully considered stretching of our
capabilities. These kinds of mistakes
teach us interesting new lessons and
prepare us for greater achievement.
MIT maintains a long-term
investment horizon. Most market
participants are forced to show results
over short time horizons to stay in
business. As a result, we have a vastly
reduced level of competition for ideas
that take many years to realize and
we regularly invest in opportunities
that take time to mature. An excellent
example is MIT’s biotechnology
stocks. While many investors trade
these stocks based on news flow, we
prefer to take long-term positions in
companies that are well-positioned
to create innovative new products.
Many of these companies are cash
flow negative and require significant
patience to hold through the discovery
process and regulatory approval cycle
but can pay off handsomely in the
Our Due Diligence Process
We aim to establish investment
management relationships that last
decades. As a result, we do a lot of
work upfront before entering into
a new partnership with a manager.
We generally have a number of inperson meetings and make reference
calls. Our goal is to achieve a deep
understanding of the manager’s
investment philosophy and practices,
business structure, vision for the firm,
and temperament in order to identify
and underwrite the competitive
advantages that allow sustained
outperformance and to make ourselves
aware of potential weaknesses.
Since exceptional judgment is crucial
to virtually all investment strategies,
a critical element of our due diligence
process is to evaluate historical decision
points. At the end of our investment
process, we produce an internal
investment memo that outlines the
evidence we have obtained that show
the manager is an exceptional investor,
as well as the critical risks and issues
we want to monitor going forward.
We try very hard to use the manager’s
time as efficiently as possible by
reviewing any written materials
the manager might have, preparing
agendas for meetings and calls
beforehand, and doing our own
research on a manager’s portfolio
holdings. The more transparency
we have on the firm’s current and
historical positions and investment
decisions, the better we can prepare
and the more easily we can focus
on the critical questions during our
interactions with the manager. We
maintain deep respect for the need to
keep the information we receive from a
manager strictly confidential.
Our due diligence process is designed
to help us avoid the common pitfalls
of institutional decision making while
still taking advantage of the benefits
of the full range of perspectives
and opinions across the team. We
incorporate numerous check points
and have broad discussions throughout
the due diligence process to provide
plenty of opportunities to catch
mistakes or oversights and to enable us
to keep the bar for manager selection
consistently high across our portfolio.
However, each manager is primarily
underwritten by a small group of
two to three staff members, and the
ultimate investment decision is made
by this group in conjunction with our
Chief Investment Officer.
Once we have made an investment,
we work hard to play a supportive
but non-obtrusive role. While we
must continue to follow and interact
with the manager in order to monitor
organizational developments and
watch for changes in the competitive
advantages we underwrote, we are
happy to tailor the nature of the
relationship and frequency of contact
We aim to establish
investment management
relationships that last
decades. As a result, we
do a lot of work upfront
before entering into a
new partnership with a
manager. Once invested,
our primary goal is to build
a trusted relationship
with shared and open
communications, and to
find new ways to be great
partners to our investment
to the specific manager. In certain
circumstances, we are comfortable
developing relationships where we are
always available but interact formally
as little as once per year to allow
managers to concentrate on their work.
Our primary goal is to build a trusted
relationship with shared and open
communications and to find ways to
be great partners to our investment
Due Diligence Process
Board of Directors
Our Board of Directors
One significant competitive
advantage we possess is our Board
of Directors. Through its large
and accomplished alumni base and
the many friends of the Institute
who want to help our mission,
MIT is able to assemble a superb
investment committee. We focus
our discussions with the Board on
important long-term strategic and
policy issues rather than individual
investment outcomes.
Current Directors:
Armen A. Avanessians, Global Head of Goldman Sachs Asset Management
Denis A. Bovin (Chair), Co-Chairman and Co-CEO of Stone Key Partners
Gururaj Deshpande, Co-Founder and Chairman of Sycamore Networks
Jeffrey S. Halis, President and Partner of Tyndall Management LLC
Cathy E. Minehan, Dean of the Simmons College School of Management
Dr. Sung Cheng Chih, Consultant to the Government of Singapore Investment Corp. (GIC)
John A. Thain, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of CIT Group
Helmut Weymar, Managing General Partner of Baxter Partners
Robert B. Millard, Chairman of the MIT Corporation (ex-officio)
L. Rafael Reif, President of MIT (ex-officio)
Seth D. Alexander, President of MITIMCo (ex-officio)
Israel Ruiz, Executive Vice President and Treasurer of MIT (ex-officio)
238 Main Street, Suite 200
Cambridge, MA 02142-1016

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