New Music Strategies
The 20 Things You
Must Know About
by Andrew Dubber
Andrew Dubber is the Degree Leader for
Music Industries at UCE Birmingham, UK.
He is a senior lecturer and researcher with
a particular interest in online music, radio
and new media technology.
Dubber’s background is in both radio and
the music industry, and he has written
numerous articles, book chapters, and
conference presentations about these
sorts of new strategies and technologies
in both of those sectors. He is the coauthor of a book about new technologies
for broadcasters in developing nations,
commissioned by UNESCO, and is a
member of the steering committee for the Radio Studies Network.
New Music Strategies is a website devoted to helping small-medium music
businesses and independent artists use new online technologies and
strategies in order to make money and thrive in the new environment. The
site also provides a Newswire service that delivers daily links to articles about
the latest developments in the music industry.
Dubber also maintains a personal blog, an mp3 blog and a tumblelog.
Somehow, he still finds time to go to work and talk to his family.
This free e-book is yours to keep, read, distribute, turn into newsletters, give away
on your website or otherwise do with what you will in any non-commercial
When doing those things, please remember to credit my authorship and provide
a link to the New Music Strategies website (http://newmusicstrategies.com). Much
Should you wish to use the contents of this e-book for commercial purposes,
please get in touch and we can come to some arrangement that will be mutually
You’re always hearing that the music business has changed. That’s not quite
true. In fact, it’s changing – and that’s quite a different thing.
Facing that change, and negotiating it as it happens, is one of the biggest
challenges for independent music businesses. The best way to navigate in
such interesting times is to really understand what’s going on around you, so
you can adapt and respond appropriately.
You don’t have to be a computer whiz – you just have to understand some
basic principles. I reckon there are about 20 of them. If you understand
these, and apply their principles, you’re off to a good start in the new media
They’re in no particular order. They’re all important. I’ll start by listing them,
and then I’ll go into each in a bit more detail.
Don’t Believe the Hype:
Hear / Like / Buy:
Opinion Leaders Rule:
Sandi Thom, the Arctic Monkeys and Lily Allen are not super famous,
rich and successful just because of MySpace, and nor because they
miraculously drew a crowd of thousands to their homegrown webcast.
PR, traditional media, record labels and money were all involved.
It’s the golden rule. People hear music, then they like music, then they
buy music. It’s the only order it can happen in. If you try to do it in any
other sequence, it just won’t work.
We know the importance of radio and press. There are now new
opinion leaders who will tell your story with credibility. You need to
find out who they are — or better yet, become one of them.
A tailored solution at best, or at the very least a bespoke kitset approach
to your web presence is crucial. An off-the-shelf number will almost
guarantee your anonymity.
The Long Tail:
Chris Anderson has pretty much proved that the future of retail is
selling less of more. Put everything online. Expand your catalogue. You
will make more money selling a large number of niche products than
you will selling a few hits.
Forget being a destination — become an environment. Your website
is not a brochure — it’s a place where people gather and connect with
you and with each other.
Your website is not a promotional strategy. Learn how to tell a story, and
learn how to tell it in an appropriate fashion for web communication.
Think about how that could be translated for both new media and
mainstream PR outlets.
Your online stuff is not a replacement for your offline stuff, and nor does
it exist independently of it. Figure out how to make the two genuinely
This is especially true if you want somebody to part with their money. If
I have to fill in a form, navigate through three layers of menu and then
enter a password, I don’t want your music any more.
The Death of Scarcity:
If this is your business, you need to be businesslike. Treat your
online profile the same way you would treat any of your business
The economics of the internet is fundamentally different to the
economics of the world of shelves and limited stock. You can give away
a million copies of your record in order to sell a thousand.
From a PR perspective, you are better off scattering yourself right across
the internet, than you are staying put in one place. Memberships,
profiles, comments, and networks are incredibly helpful.
You need to understand how Search Engine Optimisation works, and
how you can maximise your chances of being found. Be both findable
— and searchable.
Your message must be welcome, relevant and personally useful. Letting
people choose to engage with you is a far more effective targetting
strategy than spamming them.
Provide it, use it and teach it. RSS is the single most important aspect of
your site. Treat it as such - but remember it’s still new for most people.
Help your audience come to grips with it.
Not everyone has a fast computer or high speed access. Not everybody
has the gift of sight. Make everything you do online accessible. It’s easy
to do, it’s important, and it stops you from turning people away at the
Reward & Incentivise:
Frequency is everything:
Make it viral:
Forget product — sell relationship:
Everything is now available all of the time. Give people a reason to
consider you as part of their economic engagement with music.
Repeat business is one of the most successful commercial strategies
in the cultural industries. You want people to come back? Give them
something to come back to that they haven’t seen before.
Whatever you do, make it something that people will want to send to
other people. Your best marketing is word of mouth, because online,
word of mouth is exponentially more powerful.
The old model of music business is dominated by the sale of an
individual artefact for a set sum of money. The new model is about
starting an ongoing economic relationship with a community of fans.
Thing 1: Don’t believe the hype
There’s a great deal of discussion about music online in the mainstream
press, and there are a couple of predominant threads to that coverage.
Mostly, it’s not true.
It pays to be able to separate fact from fiction and hype from reality when
it comes to the online music environment. Especially when your livelihood
depends on it. Here are the two most important things to watch out for:
1) Technological determinism
There is a popular idea, particularly in the mainstream press, that technology
drives history. According to this idea, changes to technology alter the rules
that govern the ways in which we operate our lives, our businesses and our
leisure. Usually this manifests as either progress or decline: a brave new world
of opportunity, or a loss of an older, more natural way of operating.
In the case of online music, we see these things very clearly:
MySpace ‘gave us’ the Arctic Monkeys and Lily Allen. Home-spun
web streaming led to the Sandi Thom success story. Technological
determinism says that the new internet environment allowed
for the traditional gatekeepers to be circumvented, and that a
groundswell of public support grew up as a result of the sheer
power of a great artist connected directly to the masses.
There is also the story about how the internet is ‘killing’ the
record industry. Downloading, and the practice of burning CDs
is single-handedly responsible for the impending demise of
the major labels, causing the decline of high street retail and is
undermining traditional, ‘natural’ models of music distribution
and consumption — and consequently preventing rights
holders from receiving their deserved reward for their part in
the creative process.
In fact, technology does not ’cause’ these things. Technology changes and
we choose our response. We have agency and can negotiate these shifts in
media, as long as we understand them as they happen.
2) People tend to lie
Well, maybe ‘lie’ is too strong a word, but if you’re reading about music
online, chances are you’re reading PR and marketing. Don’t be fooled —
conservatively around 70% of what makes it to the media starts its life as a
press release. Probably that figure is higher in reality.
Assuming that what you read began as a press release allows you to look for
bias, spin and partiality. This should not be a new skill for you, but it seems
that most people forget it when it comes to things they think they don’t quite
understand — and technology is one of those areas.
So… if, for instance, you read that bands are making it big on MySpace, the
first thing that should pop into your head is the question ‘who stands to gain if
I think that’s true?’. Then you remember that what sells a band is a great story.
The more that story is about them being genuinely great, rather than simply
marketed, the more successful that sell becomes. You might even recall that
the guy who owns Fox News is also the guy who owns MySpace.
So when you hear that Sandi Thom was signed to Sony because 100,000
people were tuning in to her nightly live webstream from her flat in London,
you first remember that you only heard that story AFTER she had signed to
Sony. The first thing you think of is the press release, and you wonder who
might have sent that press release, bringing all those photographers to the
Then you recall that bandwidth costs money, and that there are technical
limitations on upstream internet bandwidth from home connections. If Sandi
Thom had that many listeners / viewers without corporate support, she was
pretty much running her own ISP, with outgoings in the thousands of pounds,
and no income of which to speak.
Finally, you begin to realise that Sandi Thom had a publicist early on — and,
most likely, was already signed to Sony when she started.
The groundswell of unsolicited support thing is a great story, and has the
same impact as that story that everyone seemed to buy into about Norah
Jones being a word-of-mouth phenomenon — when actually, there were
billboards, tv ads and radio airplay all over the place.
The moral of the story here is that hype prevents us from understanding
what’s really going on, and to what extent. If we don’t understand those
processes, then navigating them ourselves becomes problematic.
If you want to make any headway in the music business in this day and age,
you cannot be relying upon a magical MySpace success story, and nor can
you fear the dangers of a hostile environment littered with thieves and ‘lost
Better to distrust the stories about online success and calamity, and simply
view the new technologies as a range of tools that you can adopt, and a series
of changes to the business environment to which you can adapt.
Thing 2: Hear / Like / Buy
There are lots of sophisticated tricks and tips for marketing music,
online and off. But if you mess up this one fundamental principle, you
might as well not bother at all.
Music is pretty much unique when it comes to media consumption. You
don’t buy a movie ticket because you liked the film so much, and while it’s
conceivable that you might buy a book because you enjoyed reading it so
much at the library, typically you’ll purchase first, then consume.
DVDs are, perhaps, a little closer to the music buying experience. You love a
film, so you buy the disc. But equally, you tend to love the film because you
once took a chance and paid to see it in the cinema.
But music is different — and radio proves that. By far the most reliable way
to promote music is to have people hear it. Repeatedly, if possible — and
for free. After a while, if you’re lucky, people get to know and love the music.
Sooner or later, they’re going to want to own it.
This isn’t just true for pop music. It’s not just about getting a hook stuck in
someone’s brain so they hum it to themselves as they take out the rubbish.
So-called ’serious’ music also benefits from familiarity — perhaps even more
so. The more challenging a work, the more exposure is required to really get
inside it and appreciate it.
Likewise, liking music is not just about entertainment. Music consumption,
to many people, is a serious business. And by consumption, I don’t just mean
buying or listening. It also involves collecting, organising and making sense
of the music in relation to a personal canon. It takes more than an impulse
purchase to break into that sphere.
But either way — whether it’s a pop tune, a heavily political punk album, or
an experimental, avant-garde suite — the key is very simple: people have to
hear music, then they will grow to like it, and then finally, if you’re lucky, they
will engage in an economic relationship in order to consume (not just buy
and listen to) that music.
That’s the order it has to happen in. It can’t happen in any other order. There’s
no point in hoping that people will buy the music, then hear it, then like it.
They just won’t.
This is not, I trust you’ll agree, rocket science. It’s perfectly obvious,
straightforward and practical. And yet it’s the one mistake that most people
make when promoting music online.
Nobody really wants to buy a piece of music they don’t know — let alone
one they haven’t heard. Especially if it’s by someone who lies outside their
usual frame of reference.
And a 30-second sample is pretty much a waste of your time and bandwidth.
In fact, it’s worse than useless. That’s not enough to get to like your music. Let
them hear it, keep it, live with it. And then bring them back as a fan.
More than ever before, you have to build that relationship, because it’s easier
than ever before to just not bother and simply go elsewhere. No matter how
good your music, it’s competing with millions of other choices. Millions.
The simplest way to promote music and build an economic relationship
with a consumer is to let them hear it. Let them hear it repeatedly, without
restriction. Let them grow to love your music and hear it as a part of their
collection. Then they will want you to have their money.
This is not just a truism about music online — it’s also just how capitalism
works. You provide value, then you are rewarded with money.
You don’t get the money first — and you don’t get to decide what value is.
3: Opinion Leaders Rule
How do you know what music to buy? Often, another person tells you
- generally in some mediated way. Different media, different people,
Other than hearing, then liking, the most common and reliable way to find
out about music is via the opinion leader. Often this will take the form of a
press review or column — or some sort of radio feature. Occasionally, it’ll
come from the telly. If you happen to respect the opinion of the person or
institution telling you that the record is great, the chances you’ll be persuaded
are reasonably high.
You can’t beat the persuasive power of an informed opinion — and this is the
reason record labels spend so much time and effort getting their music into
the hands of the people whose opinion is respected on these matters.
This is not new information.
But what has changed online is the proliferation of opinion sources. There are
internet-only publications with readerships in the tens of thousands, whose
writers may wish to say nice things about your music. You should know, for
instance, about PopMatters and Pitchfork Media.
Bloggers, too, are becoming increasingly important. With daily visits and
subscriptions in the hundreds of thousands, some of the top blogs need
only mention the coolness of something, and that thing’s web traffic will
soar through the roof. Look at Boing Boing for instance. They don’t talk about
music and records per se — but when they mention something, it becomes
the most read about and actively pursued topic on the internet.
More important still are the bloggers who do specifically discuss music. The
ones worth paying attention to have developed a level of trust amongst their
readers over time. When Jim from Quick Before It Melts says something is
good, those of us who read what he has to say will likely be persuaded.
It’s even more interesting when you consider that you’re unlikely ever
to see a bad review on an mp3 blog. This does not mean a complete
lack of discrimination — quite the reverse. An mp3 blogger will not
even bother mentioning something unless it is absolutely, unreservedly recommended. In the traditional music press, the good, the bad
and the indifferent all take equal space and the target audience is as
broad as it can possibly be. Most mp3 blogs are narrowly focused on
the niche, and will only mention the truly great.
So who’s likely to want talk about your music? Well, the best place to
start are a couple of comprehensive lists online, courtesy of The Hype
Machine and MonkeyFilter.
But going through a list like that and finding the hundred or so who are
likely to intersect with the tastes of those your music targets seems a tricky
business. Perhaps a better way is to focus on the blogs who are talking about
the people who are like what you do.
This is where The Hype Machine comes in handy.
Let’s say your music shares broad areas of similarity with Green Day. A quick
search of The Hype Machine reveals a bunch of blogs who have recently
posted about Green Day. Those would seem like reasonable people with
whom to initiate conversations about your music. Send them a promo. They
already nearly like your music and may be inclined to say favourable things to
the people who respect their opinions on these matters.
You might even consider becoming an opinion leader yourself. I’ll talk about
the power of blogging in more depth later, but for now, just plant that seed in
the back of your mind. What better way to surround yourself with an audience
of people likely to like your music, than to become a reliable expert on the
kinds of music that people who might like your music, might also like?
Blogging’s easy to start, and easy to do — but can I direct your attention
towards MOG? It’s an online community — a bit like MySpace, only good
— and all about the discussion of music. Becoming an authority in that
environment, I’m told, can be a smart way to sell records.
But opinion leaders don’t have to just be knowledgeable individuals. Online,
a crowd can be an opinion leader — if it’s the right crowd. One of the most
effective ways of upselling online (though it might more accurately be termed
‘cross-selling’) is the Amazon model of ‘People who bought THIS also bought
THAT’ (or, as one cynical friend would have it: ‘People who bought crap, also
I know one very smart cookie who bought up a hundred or so of a very
popular record on Amazon.co.uk in the same genre as the one he was trying
to sell — and each time he did, he also bought a copy of his own label’s
record. Before long, the website knew for a fact that people who bought this
particular THIS also bought his particular THAT.
Selling the unwanted extra copies at a bit of a loss was a little time consuming,
but he factored it in as part of the cost of promotion — and by all accounts, it
turned into a successful strategy.
I’m not recommending this to everyone, but it does illustrate a point. Reliable
opinions, whether generated by consumer activity like an Amazon cross-sell,
or the considered musings of an informed individual, are powerful tools.
The moral of the story is that other than Hear/Like/Buy1, a trusted
recommendation is the best promotion your music can get — and that sort
of recommendation is far more readily available online than off.
See Thing 2
Thing 4: Customise
All this talk about the music industry online overlooks one simple fact:
there isn’t one. There are many. One size does not fit all.
You’ve seen the website. It has a landing page with a photo on it and a little
bit of blurb. It has a fairly simple navigation system along the top or down
the side. The links say things like About Us, Gallery, Downloads, Contact, Our
MySpace — and the links take you to exactly the things you might expect
when you get there.
These things are not, in themselves, bad things. In fact, it’s desirable that you
don’t try and reinvent the wheel. People have expectations, and they don’t
want to have to learn a new navigation system just for your website. This is
not the problem I’m identifying here.
The problem I want to draw your attention to is the uncritical default position
about what a website should be. In fact, the website should communicate
you and what you do. More importantly, it should do it in such a way that
your target audience has the perceptions about you that you would like them
Your music company is unlike any other. You do things others do not. You
deliberately avoid things others do. If nothing else, your music (at least
hopefully) says something unique. Having a cookie cutter website does that
no justice at all.
So your website should do a few things. One of those things — perhaps
the most important — is to reflect you and the ways in which you wish to
communicate. Because that will be different for everyone, all I can say is “think
carefully about what that means”.
That said, I can give you some examples to try and show you what I mean.
I think of the artist website that allows her fans to communicate with each
other on a message board that resembles notes pinned to a board. That’s the
front page. Everything else stems from there, because the board is the main
thing return visitors come for. It’s not on the ‘discussion’ page — it’s first and
There’s the venue that has a ‘TONIGHT’ flyer as their front page, with
information about that evening’s gig taking up the first page. That’s a reason to
bookmark and revisit that page — because that’s what they found everyone
wanted from the website: “who’s on tonight?” Having to click half a dozen
times to get at that information, once you’d gone past the lovely photo of
the front of the bar with the smiling staff, and the page about live music and
There’s the music publishing company that wanted to focus specifically on
getting synchronisation deals for their artists, and so played different video
clips with different music attached to give an idea of the ways in which those
sorts of things would work.
There’s the record label that decided they didn’t want a website, but opted
instead to build websites for each of their artists — with links to each of the
others — on the basis that people don’t go looking for music by specific
labels as much as they go looking for interrelated music.
And you don’t have to stick with building your own site. These days you can
cobble together so many pre-existing ingredients that will effortlessly embed
themselves into your own framework. This is one of the joys of Web 2.0 (about
which, I will speak in more detail soon).
You can have Google Maps embedded on your website — perhaps on your
touring page so people can find your gigs easily. You can put a customised
Amazon store right into your site and make money on the commission. Or
you can sell t-shirts through somebody like Spreadshirt.
You can use RSS Feeds (again, more on that soon) to embed the latest news
and content that’s relevant to your audience from all over the web and
customise it to make it your own.
You can even publish a ‘Skype Me’ button, so that users of your website can
speak to a real human at the click of a mouse, if that works for what you do.
It’ll even let them know when you’re not available.
This is just the beginning. The web is a kitset – or, if you prefer, a bit like Lego.
You can pretty much put it together however you like. But don’t lose sight of
the design aspect. If you can’t find the piece you want, you can always build
from scratch. A combination of those two things is usually best.
What’s most important here is that you don’t simply get an off-the-shelf
number. It might be enough to get you up and running and on the net —
but if this is your livelihood, then you’ll want to differentiate yourself in a
positive way. Having the same website as everyone else, following the same
old formula will not help. Not in the way you want it to.
Thing 5: The Long Tail
The economics of the internet are different to the economics of the
offline world. The ways in which it’s different are still being shaken out,
but the most well-established principle is that of The Long Tail.
Originally an article by Wired Magazine editor Chris Anderson, and then
a blog and a very successful book, The Long Tail is actually a very simple
concept. It’s a model for describing an important characteristic of the online
The top left of the graph represents a
very small number of popular items
that have a very high number of sales.
These are the hits. The tail towards
the bottom right represents the vast
number of items that sell in smaller
The main point of Anderson’s article is that the internet enables the large
number of non-hits to expand to the extent that they economically outweigh
the hits. And, he argues, this is exactly what’s happened.
In a sense, it’s all about physical space. In the offline environment, there’s only
a certain amount of shelf space. Online, storage is not a problem. In traditional
record shops and bookstores, only the most popular items can be offered.
Online, far more things can be made available, and that raises some issues.
The first issue that arises from this is that the more things you make available,
the more people will explore the non-hits. The repercussion of this is that the
sales of the most popular items suffer. If 100 things are available, those 100
things will enjoy sales success. If a million things are available for sale, the 100
most popular things will still enjoy sales success, but a greater proportion of
people will explore the tail instead of consuming the hits.
The second issue is that the more things you make available, the more
things people will consume overall. Amazon.com sells more books than any
other bookstore because it sells a greater range of books than any other
The third, and perhaps most important aspect, is that the Long Tail provides
not only greater potential for mass market retailers moving online by reducing
the problem of shelf space, but also a route to market for a wide range of
niche products that might not otherwise have been made available by more
The book has had two subtitles (in the American and UK versions), each with
different emphasis. The first is: ‘Why the Future of Business is Selling Less
of More’ — that is, the trick is to make everything available, and sell a small
quantity of a large number of items, rather than the other way around. The
second subtitle is: ‘How Endless Choice Is Creating Unlimited Demand’ — a
slightly more problematic assertion, but it does carry a message of hope to
The simple fact is that economics are transformed online. An online music
retailer will never sell out of a record. They will never have to stop stocking an
item in order to stock another. There is no reason for labels to delete catalogue
and every reason to reissue everything.
And the more easily searchable you make it, the more you will benefit at the
The real reason the major record labels are experiencing problems is not the
issue of piracy or filesharing. It’s that they no longer have only to compete
with other hits. Now they have to compete with a range of choice that is
exponentially greater than anything they’ve ever come across. The age of the
hit is over.
Because the simple, powerful fact is this: for the first time in history, the sum
total of the economic value of the tail is now greater than the sum total of the
economic value of the head. Amazon sells more books overall that are not in
the top 100 bestseller list than those 100 combined. Probably more outside
the top 1000 than in it.
Add all the sales of all the records that made it into the charts in the last year,
and the economic value of everything that never made it close eclipses it.
This is something that requires more reading — because understanding
these concepts could radically transform both how you approach what you
do for a living, and how much money you could make doing it.
Search out the book – or at least read Anderson’s blog.
Thing 6: Web 2.0
Your website is not a brochure — it’s a place where people gather and
connect with you and with each other. No? Well, it should be.
The internet is in phase two of its existence. The old version was about
documents, and the way that we talked about it was in terms of transporting
ourselves from place to place: we’d visit a webpage, use Netscape Navigator,
go on the information superhighway and the activity it most resembled was
surfing. Advertisements would ask us where we want to go today.
When we got there, we would read the website, or look at it. Sometimes we’d
even listen to it or watch it — maybe even buy something — but we had
travelled to another place, and what we did there was inspect the document
that awaited us. And then we’d go somewhere else.
That’s web 1.0.
Web 2.0 brings a new model, and it’s one that has little use for navigation
metaphors or the inspection of documents.
These new websites are environments within which we do something. They are
not the document, they are the tool with which to create our own documents,
organise them according to our own preferences, and connect with other
people over them.
Examples with which you may (or should) be familiar include:
•MySpace - social network, teeming with bands
•Flickr - photo sharing
•Facebook – networking and social applications
•Google Reader – RSS feed aggregator
•Tumblr – scrapbook blogs, or ‘tumblelogs’
•Wikipedia - all of human knowledge in editable form
•Google Docs - spreadsheets and wordprocessing
•Del.icio.us - social bookmarking
•YouTube - video sharing
•Bloglines - RSS feed aggregator
•Writeboard - collaborative document creation
•Netvibes - personalised homepage
•Last.FM - customised music consumption
•Odeo - create and share audio & podcasts
•Streampad - Internet audio player
•MP3Tunes - backup and archive your music online
•Clipmarks - collaborative web clippings
•Dropcash - make your own fundraiser
•43Things - share your goals and ambitions
•Ta-Da Lists - to-do lists
•Twitter - microblogging what you’re up to right now
•Backpack - collaborative working
•Feedburner - customise and enhance your feed
•YouSendIt - send big files without clogging email
•Amie Street - price-per-popularity music community
•Wordpress - blogging platform
•Omnidrive - free online storage
•Vimeo - video sharing and management
•Imeem - music playlist, video and photo sharing
•Jumpcut - online video editing and remixing
•Reddit - popular links shared and commented
•PBWiki - make your own wiki
•Gmail - webmail that’s better than webmail
•Feed43 - make an RSS feed out of any site
•Cambrian House - Crowdsourcing community
•Dropload - send big files
•RunFatBoy - make your own exercise programme
•Diigo - social bookmarking and annotation
•Slideshare - Youtube for Powerpoint presentations
•Vox - social networking through blogging
•Workhack - whiteboard to-do list
•Mog - music sharing through blogging
These websites, and others like them, do a wide variety of things — but here’s
what they tend to have in common:
1) They are more like software than like documents;
2) They are social, rather than solitary;
3) They are environments within which you do something;
4) They involve user-generated content;
5) They allow users to organise and tag content;
6) They are different every time you turn up;
7) They make use of RSS feeds (this will get its own ‘Thing’ - don’t worry).
This is how the web is now. These are some of the things that will make your
website better. Allow the users of your website to interact with you and each
other. Let them provide some of the content — make it their own space.
The analogy I like to use is the record shop that is also a cafe. It’s the centre of
my community. I go there to socialise, to work, to listen to music, to talk about
music and to connect with people I like. Sometimes I also buy records.
People like to spend time, hang out, find their space, form groups, discuss
common interests and contribute. Your website can provide those things for
people. A Web 2.0 approach to your site means it’s not just a brochure with a
cash register attached. It’s a place where people come and spend time. Chat
to other music fans. Write their own reviews. Maybe remix your music.
But Web 2.0 can also provide you with a range of tools with which to connect
your music business to the world. Building a web page that has web 2.0
elements is one thing — but you can also join, use and adapt the existing web
2.0 tools mentioned above to help you connect with a community, engage in
the conversation, and make and organise media.
You can incorporate Flickr slideshows and badges into your site. You can
connect using social networks. You can embed Youtube videos. You can
upload your music to Last.FM so people can discover it, connect with it and
integrate it into their own maps of music-they-like. You can use Backpack to
collaborate on projects.
Web 2.0 isn’t the answer to all of the music industry’s little online problems —
but it does give us an ever-growing range of tools and a much broader set of
concepts around using the web that surpass the simple Web 1.0-style static
Thing 7: Connect
It might seem an obvious thing to say about using the internet, but if
you don’t connect, then you might as well not bother switching the
damn thing on.
A friend of mine once made the very sensible observation that making a
webpage, putting it online and expecting people to read it is a bit like writing
a book, sticking it in the library — and then coming back a year later only to
wonder why nobody had ever checked it out.
Having a website is not a promotional strategy. If you’re going to have a
website, you need to have a promotional strategy.
Your promotional strategy should generate traffic — and, more importantly,
repeat business. In order to get people to check out your website, it can’t just
be tucked away on its own little shelf in the world-wide-library (to stretch the
You need it to connect.
There are three main ways in which your website must connect:
1) Your website must connect to other websites
In order for your website to be found, it must connect to a network of other
interlinked sites. The more external links you have coming into your site,
the better — but likewise, it’s important to have outgoing links too.
Having outgoing links (ie: links to websites other than your own) provides
users with a sense of where you fit in with the rest of the world. It makes you
part of something — and, if you’re lucky, to some of your visitors you will
become central to that little world: a place to start when dealing with that
conceptual territory. Perhaps not a ‘home’, but at least a base camp.
If you do it right, then rather than simply become a regular destination —
which is good in itself — you’ll be the bookmarked leaping-off point. And
that’s easily better.
2) Your website must connect with itself
Clear and obvious navigation is incredibly important. If someone has taken
the trouble to find you, make sure that locating what they want from you
is nice and easy. Your site should be searchable, the links within your site
should be entirely obvious, and the structure of your site should be entirely
If, when you put new content on the page, you refer back to something you
said in a previous post on your website, then you must link to that. Don’t expect
that all of your website visitors are returning to your site. Assume they’ve never
been there before, and everything you tell them is new information.
Having said that, do make sure that you do reward repeat visits. If your website
looks exactly the same and says exactly the same thing everytime I go back,
why bother visiting?
3) Your website must connect with other media
This is, perhaps, the most important connection to make, because it brings
people who aren’t already hunting for you to your website, where you can
give them the opportunity to engage with you in an economic fashion.
By other media environments, I mean anywhere else communication is going
on: print, radio, television, posters, flyers, live events. Everything should crosspromote everything else (on which, more in the next section), and your web
presence should be an integral part of what you do.
When you think about it in this way, you start to approach a lot of things
differently. You start to think about how your band bio might look if cutand-paste by a lazy journalist into a piece in the local rag. You wonder what
it might look like if someone pointed a camera at a computer and showed
your website on the telly. You think about the US college radio DJ looking for
something interesting to say about one of your acts.
The most important thing is to have a story to tell. While the internet may
be a world of information, facts in themselves — even gig dates — aren’t
that interesting. People connect with a story — a real one with characters
and development, plot and human interest. If you can work conflict and
resolution in there as well, you’re on to a good thing.
People connect with stories.
In order to make these kinds of connections, you need to be clear about your
story, be able to tell it in a way that suits the web environment, and present it
in a manner that can be adapted for every other medium. Not the simplest of
instructions, I’ll admit — but it’s certainly something to aim for.
Brevity’s a good start (yeah – I’m one to talk…).
Finally, there’s a fourth means of connection that needs to be considered —
and it’s so powerful, it gets its own ‘Thing’ further down the line. It’s letting
the people who come to your website do the connecting for you. That’s the
whole viral thing, and if you can make that work, then you’ve moved to the
Thing 8: Cross-promote
Your online stuff is not a replacement for your offline stuff, and nor does
it exist independently of it. Figure out how to make the two genuinely
This one’s not rocket science, so I’ll try and keep it brief. Everything you do —
online and off — should link back to your website.
If you make posters or flyers, they should include the name of your website.
If you write emails, your web address should be in the signature. If you talk
about what you do, you should mention the website. If you stand up on a
stage, you should direct people to your website. If you have sleeve notes for
your CD, they should include the URL. Stick it on your t-shirts. Write it into the
lyrics of your songs (I’m only half-kidding here).
These are some simple and obvious things that reinforce your website as the
centre for your activity and engagement with the outside world. They’re what
I call passive cross-promotional strategies. But there are some fairly active ones
you could employ too.
I’m going by some examples I’ve encountered in the past, and they apply
specifically to live performance, but these should act as springboards into
new ideas for you as well:
Photoshoot: The band, on stage, takes a photo of the audience. Next
day, it’ll be up on the website for the punters to download, save to their
desktop or email to their friends.
Photoshoot with contest: As before, but with the lure of a free
download or CD. The artist circles a punter or two in the photo. If they
identify themselves in that photo, and reply to the website, they win.
Ringtone: Live on stage, the artist records a quick, impromptu 30-second
musical ‘This is (name of artist) / telling you to pick up your phone / pick
up the phone / your phone is ringing… (etc.)’.
I don’t know why people like ringtones either, but they seem to.
As before, upload it to the website after the gig so attendees can have
the ringtone they witnessed being recorded before their eyes.
Promo card: Give an mp3 away to the people who turned up to the gig.
On the night, distribute a card with a direct link for punters to go to your
website and download.
You might also want to ask them for their email address while they’re
there, so you can build up a relationship with them as customers / fans.
These things take a bit of thought, preparation and effort. They also apply
specifically, as I mentioned, to cross-promoting live performance with the
website. Naturally, this is a two-way street. The website should promote the
live event, obviously.
I’ve just mentioned a few, and there are many variations on this theme. I’d be
interested in your ideas — or instances you’ve come across that we should
add to the list. Feel free to get in touch with me via the New Music Strategies
website with your suggestions.
Thing 9: Fewer Clicks
The fewer clicks required to do anything at your website, the more
likely your visitors are to take that action. Exponentially. Think how
important that is if you’re asking them for money.
I’ve taken my own advice here with a redesign of the New Music Strategies
website. Things that don’t need their own page have ended up in the sidebar,
or have been dumped. Why would I make you navigate to a whole new page
just to subscribe to the blog, or sign up for the Newswire email newsletter?
The guiding principle has been to reduce, where possible, the effort of
navigation on your part, for the maximum benefit.
The same applies — only more so — if you want people to use your website
as a means to give you money. I’m delighted to say I have an example of good
practice to share with you.
I bought some music on the internet recently. I’m pleased with my purchase,
and I’m particularly happy with the difference between this experience and
the experience I had at another website the last time I attempted to buy
music from an independent label’s online presence.
The music I just bought (and am now happily listening to) was from Type
Records whose purchasing interface is a model of ease. They do some
other things very well too (podcasts, RSS feeds, user interface, ‘breadcrumb’
navigation) — and I really like what they release. Kind of a perfect storm of
online music experience.
One of the smartest things they do is to use Paypal.
It’s an internationally accepted method of payment, it’s comparatively hasslefree, safe and reliable and — most importantly — pretty much everyone who
has ever done anything on eBay (tens, if not hundreds of millions) already
have an account.
This eases up the process considerably.
The next thing they do well is to make it entirely clear what the purchasing
procedure entails. There is a graphical display at the top of the download
shop page that lays out the process as follows:
Browse Music > Your Basket > Checkout > Get Your Downloads
And the process is exactly that simple.
In fact, it would be difficult to find a way to simplify it further. The ‘Get Your
Downloads’ page was duplicated with an email containing a link, but there’s
nothing wrong with that. In fact, this assures the purchaser that if anything
goes wrong with the download (plug gets pulled from the wall — that sort
of thing), then there is still the opportunity to go direct to the download
without having to appeal to the site or the e-Commerce provider for a second
Better still, whole albums were zipped (with artwork) for my convenience.
Instead of having to click to place a tick to select each of the songs, I could
instead simply click once to download the album in its entirety. This was
easier (and considerably cheaper) to do — and so it’s exactly what I did.
A single zip file is better than 13 individual mp3s. Fewer clicks.
But there are other areas in which the fewer clicks principle applies. In fact, it
should apply everywhere to everything.
Don’t make me look for things. Show them to me. Drilling down through
layers is not what I’m here for.
Don’t make me work for things. Give them to me. I shouldn’t have to
jump through hoops, navigate using arcane drop down menus or pass
by your advertising to get to where I want to go.
I won’t tell you who it was that provided me with the example of bad user
experience. Suffice it to say that it broke all of these guidelines with gusto,
and used a payment method that was, frankly, convoluted. And they didn’t
end up with my money.
Above all, this is a matter of website usability. For further reading, I strongly
recommend Jakob Nielsen’s UseIt.com website.
Thing 10: Professionalism
If you want to make a living from music — online or off — you need
to be appropriately professional. More than anywhere else, the web is
where you can manage perception and leave an impression that says
‘Let’s do business’.
You might not have a terribly impressive office. You might not have an office
at all. I’m hoping you have business cards and that you carry them around (I
don’t care whether you’re a drummer in a metal band or a music publisher, a
music teacher, retailer, manager or roadie — you will always stumble across
people who will be both willing and able to help you or work with you, or
will remember and recommend you as long as they have the details). Generally
speaking, though, the impression you leave is not a corporate one. It’s a
Online, you don’t get to make that impression personally. Your website has
to do that for you. And what most people think of you depends entirely on
what they encounter when they find you online.
Here are some of the things to remember to think about when creating the
impression that you’re for real, trustworthy and long-term.
Remember perception is everything
You’re eventually going to have to back up the impression you give with actual
results — but there’s nothing that says your website has to give an accurate
picture of your current circumstances. It’s the easiest thing in the world to
give the impression that you have a decent budget when actually, you could
stick your entire online and PR budget under a glass.
You know you’re worth spending money on, but you have to convince other
people of that.
I know it sounds hokey, but give the outward impression of the kind of success
you aspire to, and the universe will rearrange itself to make that a reality. The
universe doesn’t like inconsistency.
Another, slightly less embarrassingly ‘Law of Attraction’-ish way to think of that
is just that something is true if enough people believe it.
Simply put: fake it till you make it.
Have a proper domain
I’ve written in the past about the kind of mistakes that people make when
choosing a domain name for their website, but most important of all is to
actually spend the few quid, dollars, euros or shiny beads it takes to get a
domain name in the first place.
It’s about the price of a pint of beer, and at the very least, you can set it up to
redirect to whatever free hosting service you’re currently using. For the extra
price of a couple of CDs, you can get out of the free hosting service and have
a grown-up website.
Spend some time thinking about colour palette
I happen to be colourblind (red and green). It’s something I have in common
with 40% of the male population of the planet — and most of them don’t
realise it. But it’s still important to match colours and think about the message
that different colours send in relation to your message.
You’re not going to put pastels in a page about punk music — but does it
always have to be white text on black with some red in it? I found this very
helpful page that will help you find colours that work together — and you
don’t have to be an interior decorator to spot the improvement. I’ve gone for
a sandstone thing on the New Music Strategies site. You like?
MySpace is not your website
I can’t say this often enough. If you’re relying on MySpace for your web
presence, then you’re just not in the game.
I once wrote about the five mistakes you’re probably making with your
MySpace page, and I put this as the number one transgression. I’m starting to
question whether MySpace is more trouble than it’s worth, but if you’re using
it, think of it like it’s the pub. Meet people there, socialise, exchange details —
and then, if you think you can do business with them, take them back to your
office — or in this case, your real, professional website.
Learn to spell
Seriously. This is important. Grammar makes an impression. Apostrophes
Yes, the language is changing and developing and that’s what a living language
should absolutely do. But using affect instead of effect or your instead of you’re
makes you look like an idiot — and while you might think that most of your
customers don’t care, they’re not the only people looking to give you money.
If you don’t give proper consideration to your written communication, then
you’re probably going to be lazy or unreliable elsewhere.
Yes, I’m a university lecturer. Yes, this probably concerns me more than it does
most people — but you’re trying to business here, right?
If you get stuck, there’s always Grammar Girl.
Use high-quality photography
Photography is a professional skill. People devote their lives to the study of
the craft and to developing a style. If you want photography on your music
website (hint: you do), then find someone who knows what they’re doing.
Taking snaps on your cellphone or cheap digital camera is not going to cut
it. You may not be able to afford to commission a professional photographer
right from the outset — but there are levels above enthusiastic amateur that
you can make good use of. Some newcomers to the industry are trying to
build a portfolio, and music-related shots can add to that.
One way to track down a talented photographer is to trawl through Flickr. Do
a search on your town, or on your type of music, and see what you come up
There are some stock photography websites that have free images along
with the paid one. They’re worth hunting out too.
Get a web designer who understands design — not just
Looking at other people’s websites might give you an idea of the sort of thing
to ask for, but do bear in mind that most web developers are code monkeys
first, and visual designers second. The cheaper they are, the more true that
But design is not just about look — it’s about user interface, accessibility, search
engine optimisation — and other things that I’m going to be talking about
shortly. If you’re getting a website built, refurbished, updated, overhauled or
worked on, make sure that the person who’s doing it has an understanding
that goes beyond CSS, PHP, MySQL, XHTML and Python — or which button
to press in Dreamweaver.
And if anyone says the words Microsoft FrontPage — just smile and back
Your website is not a brochure
I’ll end with one of the most important conceptual leaps that so many
businesses fail to make: Your website is not an electronic pamphlet about
your business. It’s not promotion for your business. It’s not a way of generating
Your website IS your business.
Thing 11: The Death of Scarcity
Declaring the death of scarcity to an economist would be like declaring
the death of gravity to a physicist. But the fact remains: the Internet
breaks Economics. How the world used to work is not how the world
works any more.
I studied Economics at school when I was 15. And I remember that there was
one fundamental, unbreakable law. It was the law of Supply and Demand —
and it had to do with scarcity. It was clearly an important concept. It seemed
the more time you wrote the word ’scarcity’ in an Economics essay, the more
marks you were awarded.
As you may not have attended the fifth form at Edgewater College in
Pakuranga yourself, and so are not privy to the same kind of sophisticated
understanding of the field of Economics, allow me to explain.
There’s a limited amount of stuff. Stuff is scarce. If there are 3 packets of
cornflakes on the supermarket shelf, and the supermarket sells 3 packets of
cornflakes, then there are no more cornflakes. If nobody buys the 3 packets
of cornflakes, then the supermarket is stuck with the cornflakes. If cornflakes
are really popular, the supermarket can put the price of cornflakes up. If the
price of cornflakes is too high, people won’t want the cornflakes as much. If
the cornflakes aren’t moving off the shelf, you can create more of a demand
for cornflakes by cutting the price. These were the natural laws of economics
in simpler times.
Enter the internet, where it all breaks down.
If an online music store wants to sell a song, they keep one instance of that
song ‘in stock’. If they sell 1 copy or a million, they still only ever have one
copy of that song in stock. It’s like a magical packet of cornflakes. There is
no need to worry about being stuck with the leftover shelf space, and nor is
there concern about ever running out. There is no scarcity of that song.
So for someone who wants to make a living through the business of music, it
means everything changes.
There may have been a time where you would press a thousand copies of a
CD, give away a couple of hundred as promos, and try and sell the other eight
hundred. Now, you can press a thousand, give away a million, and still sell the
The death of scarcity makes a nonsense of the notion of the ‘lost sale’. If
someone would never have bought your music in the first place, but acquires
the music through some other means (perhaps as a recipient of one of
those million promotional copies), you haven’t “lost a sale”, you’ve gained a
More importantly, you’ve gained attention (remember that word — it
The death of scarcity in the online environment also means that super-serving
niches is now a better market strategy than banking on hits. We’ve already
discussed The Long Tail. Just to recap, it’s Chris Anderson’s fairly indisputable
idea that the future of business is selling less of more.
Well, Anderson has taken his ideas a step further, and has introduced the
phrase The Economics of Abundance.
As David Hornik explains:
The basic idea is that incredible advances in technology have driven the
cost of things like transistors, storage, bandwidth, to zero. And when
the elements that make up a business are sufficiently abundant as to
approach free, companies appropriately should view their businesses
differently than when resources were scarce (the Economy of Scarcity).
They should use those resources with abandon, without concern for
waste. That is the overriding attitude of the Economy of Abundance —
don’t do one thing, do it all; don’t sell one piece of content, sell it all; don’t
store one piece of data, store it all. The Economy of Abundance is about
doing everything and throwing away the stuff that doesn’t work. In the
Economy of Abundance you can have it all.
Best of all, abundance means that the tools of production and distribution
are far more widely distributed. I’m not saying we live in a utopian media
landscape where all messages are equally conveyed, but the balance has
certainly shifted in what most of us would consider to be the right direction.
Look at broadcasting. There’s a scarcity of broadcast spectrum, so the way
to become a radio or television broadcaster was always to either be a major
corporation, or a government (or a ‘criminal’ and a pirate).
Leaving aside whether I think streaming audio online is ‘radio’ or not, there
are certainly far more channels available to far more people than ever there
were — simply because there is an abundance of ‘space’ online, and so the
price of entry is considerably lower.
Maximum capacity for FM stations in any given town? Probably about 50.
Maximum number of online audio streams available for reception in that
same town? Practically infinite.
And not only are things abundant by nature online, they are increasingly
abundant. Look at hard drive space and bandwidth. The 56kbps dial-up
modem was a revelation. Now, it’s unthinkably slow. Ethan Zuckerman gives
the example of online mail storage:
Hard drive storage has become abundant to the point where GMail is
able to give users 2 gigabytes of mail, instead of the 2 megabytes Hotmail
used to give you. “Your mailbox is full? What was that about?”
Moreover, as Michael Goldhaber points out, the basis for economics online
shifts from a concern with the scarcity of goods and services to an economy
primarily centred around attention (there’s that word again).
Attention is the basis on which success is measured online, because there is
no shortage of the goods and services. But this is not to say that money is not
part of the equation:
…money now flows along with attention, or, to put this in more general
terms, when there is a transition between economies, the old kind of
wealth easily flows to the holders of the new2.
It’s no accident that Google spent in excess of US$1.5b on YouTube — and
more than twice as much on its recent acquisition of DoubleClick. Money
flows to the attention — and both of these services, while providing no actual
content themselves, generate masses of attention. Google itself is the most
looked-at site online.
That’s not to say that money will automatically turn up in the pockets of
whoever gets the most eyeballs (or ears) to take note online. Rishab Aiyer
Ghosh critiques this position in an article entitled Economics is Dead! Long
Live Economics!. Have a read if you wish to go deeper with this. Suffice it to
say his position is “well, actually, it’s more complicated than that.”
And this is a topic you should read about. Despite what I thought when I was 15,
Economics is actually important. Understanding the economic environment
within which you work is crucial for your survival as a music enterprise — or
any enterprise for that matter.
I’ll talk about how to get that attention in an upcoming section about Search
Engine Optimisation. But for now, have a quick ponder about how the death
of scarcity might impact upon what it is you do for a living. Just remember
that you’re not going to run out of music, and there’s no shortage of products,
services, or — for that matter — customers.
For more on this, you should have a good read of the excellent series of articles
available at TechDirt.
The Attention Economy and the Net, M. Goldhaber, First Monday (2:4), 1997
Thing 12: Distributed Identity
From a PR perspective, you are better off scattering yourself right
across the internet, than you are staying put in one place. Memberships,
profiles, comments, and networks are powerful online marketing
Ze Frank once joked that the reason MySpace pages are so ugly is that they’re
designed to send people away. And, of course, he was right. Membership sites
like MySpace provide an opportunity to direct traffic to your own professional
The return on investment seems to be diminishing in that respect (for a
number of reasons, that I’ll go into at a later date) but it serves to demonstrate
the principle: having a website is important — but it’s unlikely that people
will just stumble across it, unless you’re finding those people in other places.
In marketing there’s a phrase that goes along the lines of ‘You’ve just got to
get yourself out there’. That’s so much easier on the internet — where you
can be pretty much everywhere at once. Who you are online — your internet
‘identity’ — needs to be distributed far and wide.
There are many ways to make yourself visible — just as you might make
yourself known in the ‘real world’ by turning up at events and networking
What follows are some of the best ways to distribute yourself online, so that
you can be in many places at once, inviting people back to your place for a
spot of music business.
Try these strategies for a start:
1. Email signature
You probably send more e-mail than you make phonecalls, write letters
and have meetings with people combined. If you have a website, and
you want people to visit it, then at the end of your email is the ideal place
to put the link. Email tends to go beyond your immediate network of
friends, and expand to a wider, but related, community. Putting the
address at the bottom of your mail won’t guarantee they’ll click the link but not putting it there guarantees they won’t.
Better still, write a short line that says what they’ll find when they go
there. Something like this, perhaps:
Thanks for all your help. Much appreciated.
Advice for independents at New Music Strategies:
Whatever email software or webmail platform you use, there’ll be a way of
putting together an email signature file that will be automatically attached
to the bottom of every email you send. Keep it short and sweet, give them
a reason to click it — and get yourself in the desktop of everyone you ever
IMPORTANT: Don’t spam. Sending unsolicited marketing emails is not only rude
and offputting, it’s also illegal. Put your links in the signature of legitimate emails
that people will actually want or expect to receive.
2. Blog comments
Another way to get your identity out there is to leave comments in relevant
blogs. Feel free to try it here. Most blog sites give you the opportunity to
include your URL, and whatever you write in as your name will act as a link back
to your website. Other people who read the blog, and then are interested in
what you have to say in response to it will often click on the link to go back to
your site and find out more about you.
Again — the spam rule applies. Write something appropriate, interesting and
relevant. People won’t click on the link of someone who just posts to get the
link. Besides, most of us use comment spam filtering systems like Akismet.
A related strategy is to link to other people’s blogs on your own site. Most
blogs publish ‘Trackbacks’ - which are snippet quotes and links to other sites
that have linked to their own. With Wordpress (the blogging software I use),
it happens automatically. If you link to this page from your blog, this page will
automatically have a link back to your blog on it.
3. Forum activity
Another excellent strategy for providing links back to your own site is the
activity of posting in a relevant forum.
In a forum, you can build a reputation, get people genuinely interested in
your contribution to whatever the conversation happens to be, and then
want to look at your profile and head back to the page that you put in there
to find out more about you and your interesting personality.
Tolerance of time-wasters and spammers is especially low in this environment,
and punishments for transgression are swift and harsh. Spend your time
finding the right conversation, and contribute to it as you would if the people
were in the room with you. Nobody likes a troll.
4. Social networking
This is where the idea of distributed online identity really comes into play.
There are so many web 2.0 sites online (some listed above), and many of them
require that you construct and maintain an ‘identity’ or ‘profile’.
You have a profile on MySpace already, no doubt, and it links back to your
site. You can also have a profile on Mog, Last.FM, Flickr, Delicious, 43 Things,
Facebook and more.
There’s a list of social networking sites at Wikipedia. Go and hand pick a few,
set yourself up an account and start using them.
Do bear in mind that there’s a time commitment associated with the success
of each of these. You can’t just open a MySpace page and expect people to
read it any more than you can expect to launch a website and expect people
to just find it. They are social networking sites. Be sociable. Network.
Each of these sites has its own rules, culture and expectations. Get to know
them, and the people there. Then there’ll be a reason to belong to those sites
— and the effort will have been worthwhile.
Above all, remember that becoming an ‘identity’ in each of these arenas
strengthens your overall online presence. What do you want to project
about who you are as an individual, a company, an artist, a group or an
5. Multiple sites
This one’s a bit of an ‘advanced user’ tip — and it can have its problems —
but it’s definitely worth mentioning. Having more than one related website
can really help your cause. This is particularly true of independent music
companies that do more than one core activity.
Let’s say you’re a promoter, a distributor, a record label, and you manage a
handful of bands. Each of those should have its own website, and those are
the sites that you should direct people towards in regard to those specific
If your company is (let’s say) Plank Music, you should have plankrecords.com,
plankdistribution.com, plankpromotions.com — and they should link back
to each of the others, with a simple home page (plankmusic.com) that directs
outwards to each of the different branches.
Those links between each of those pages strengthens the identity of each
aspect of the business — and also the main brand.
As I say, it can cause you problems — especially if it’s unclear to your visitors
which of your sites they should be going to — but ultimately, with some careful
planning, you can distribute your own identity under your own umbrella.
Thing 13: SEO — My top 10 tips
You’ve got your website. Now all you need is for people to find it. You
can email links to people till the cows come home, but the way most
people are going to find you is through a search engine.
Spend any time trying to do business on the internet, and you’ll come across
the acronym SEO. It stands for Search Engine Optimisation, and it pretty much
does what it says on the tin. It’s a strategy for optimising your website so that
search engines will favour it over other, similar sites.
In other words, if you run a record label that sells ambient electronic music
online, you want to be at or near the top of the search engine results when
anyone types the words ‘ambient’ or ‘electronic music’ into Google or any
of the more than 200 other search engines around these days. Even if you’re
the only game in town — say, an avant-garde remixer of 1930s bluegrass
recordings — you still want to be found by your niche audience.
Fortunately, there are some very proactive things you can do so that when
somebody types the name of your band into a search engine, your band is
what they find. I’ve compiled a list of the Top 10 Things That Will Affect
Your SEO — in no particular order.
1. Meta tags
In the code of each page of your website, between the <head> and the </
head> tags, is a place to put metadata information. Metadata is information
about the information that can be found on your website.
There are three main categories of web page metadata: Title, description,
The title metadata on your page is crucial. That’s what shows up in the blue
bar at the top of your browser and it’s what your browser’s bookmarking and
navigation remembers. To a search engine, that is what your page is essentially
all about. There’s a real art to writing a good search-engine-friendly title.
Copyblogger has some great tips about how to write headlines that get
So… knowing this, it should come as no surprise to you that having the same
title on each page of your website is a complete waste of time. If the titlebar of
your browser doesn’t change as you click from page to page in your website,
it needs fixing. You need title metadata on each page.
This is particularly important if you have a record label, and each page is about
a different artist. If the name of the record label is all that shows up in the title
bar on every page, you can be assured that people are searching for your
artists by name in Google and not finding them on your site.
Search engines will use the description metadata as the text it uses to describe
your page in its results. This also counts toward the overall relevance of your
site for the topic in question.
The keyword metadata is where you should put a list all those things (including
misspellings) that you think people will be searching for when they want to
find your page.
Overdoing the metatags can be counterproductive though. Google knows
when you’re just trying it on. Go for half a dozen to a dozen really relevant
keywords. Think about the kinds of searches that your website would be a
good answer to.
2. Header tags / bulletpoints
Search engines are pretty clever. They’re not just looking at the keywords and
metatags to figure out what the important terms in your site are. They’re also
interested in anything that is a header of some description — either with an
<h1>, <h2>, <h3> descriptor tag — or even just something that’s in bold or
Headings, subheadings and emphasised words are a good indicator that
this is what’s important on the page, and so that’s what the Search engine
algorithms remember. You should bear that in mind when composing a page
on your website. Ask: “what are the most important phrases, and would they
be the kind of thing I’d like people to have been searching for when they
Again, word has it that overdoing the emphasised words can be
counterproductive. A good rule of thumb is five per page.
3. Link text
What you link to is very important, as it connects you to a network of other
similar sites. While you may not wish to help your competitor by linking from
your site to theirs, bear in mind that it helps you as much as it does them.
More importantly, carefully consider the words you use to link to the other
sites. Using the phrase click here or this link is next to useless, because it
contains no information other than the URL itself. However if you link the
words Birmingham punk label to an actual punk record label in Birmingham,
then you’re giving good information, for which you will be Googlingly
4. Site map
This requires a bit of extra expertise in the web design department. You have
a website, and it has sections, pages and subpages. One of the most helpful
things you can do for your website visitors is to provide a sitemap like this
one at Flickr. It helps them find their way around, and locate the content they
Better still, it helps the search engine ’spiders’ (software that crawls through
websites, indexing the pages for the search engine) to do the same thing. A
sitemap is an addition to your website that will improve your findability, and
increase the profile of each individual page on your site.
Wikipedia has a good, brief article about sitemaps — and, more importantly,
some good links to places that will generate a sitemap for you with little or no
effort at all. There’s also a good sitemap plugin for Wordpress — the blogging
software I use on this site.
5. Relevant inbound links
This one, of course, is a little more tricky than most — but it’s the pot of gold
at the end of the SEO rainbow. This is when websites other than yours link
to your pages with helpful linking keywords. To the search engines, this is
evidence of relevance, authority and reliability. The more inbound links you
have, the more reliable your site will appear to Google & co. — and up the
rankings you will go.
Even more importantly, people need to be clicking on those inbound links.
If my site sends a person to your site, your search engine rankings improve.
You become exponentially more trustworthy the more sites link to you. After
all, if 1000 people are linking to your website, you must really know all about
that topic that’s described in your keywords — and so, you’d better go right
up the top of those results.
It’s a bit of a black art with closely guarded secrets – but there are people
who know what they’re talking about. Have a read of some of the top SEO
Here’s the one thing you probably have more control over than anything
else: the words on your site. If your website only has 20 or so words on each
page, and the rest is made up of images, mp3s and videos, then there’s not
too much a search engine can do with that (though Google are addressing it
with their new “universal search”).
Likewise, if you have screeds of dates, venues and times, but no actual
descriptive information or narrative, there’s no real meat for a search engine
(or a human brain, for that matter) to grasp hold of.
Having said that, images can be of use to you if you remember about the
ALT tags. That’s the alternative text information that shows up if the image
doesn’t load, if your visitor is using a screen reader (for the visually impaired,
usually) or even if the visitor just hovers the mouse over the image.
Make your ALT tags descriptive and keyword-laden.
7. Choose the right keywords
It’s all very well writing great headlines and putting good metadata in. It’s
great that you’re linking relevant-sounding phrases to the pages that will
be helpful. But, as you know, people are a problem. They’re unpredictable.
They’re likely to choose poorly when searching for sites like yours.
I think that a good search term that should help you find this site is ‘online
music business’. In fact, far more people will search for ‘internet record
label promotion’. Having the right keywords is a bit of a guessing game, and
something of a juggling act.
There are some websites online that will help you find the keywords that
people are using to search for sites like yours. Most of them will charge you
money. You can search for them online if you want to use them — but my rule
of thumb would be to anticipate unfocused thinking, and you’re probably
about 80% there. And you can keep your money.
8. Updating content
It turns out that having good, relevant content is not enough. Nor is having
large quantities of content. As far as Google is concerned, a far more worthy
indicator of relevance is how regularly updated that content is (this is why
blogs are so great for SEO).
You could create the perfect website and not want to touch it for years
because you think it does and says everything you want it to. Give it a few
months, and Google will think it’s a ghost town and not send people there
Write and post often. If your website doesn’t change every week, you’re not
doing something right. Daily is even better.
9. Beware Flash & Java
If pages with animated Flash intros have to have ‘Skip’ buttons on them,
why would you bother with the Flash animation in the first place? In fact,
if you ask me, Flash is of limited use other than for distracting web games
and video embedding. Generally speaking, search engines can’t read your
flash animation, so they’re just ignoring it. If that’s where all the good content
lies, then it might look great — but you have successfully hidden it from the
Relying on Java to make a website sing and dance might be impressive to the
eye and ear, but it means little to the search engine spiders.
10. Stick with your domain name
While it’s true that newly updated content will result in smiles and benevolence
from the search engine people, your site itself should be well established. The
older your site, the more trusted it seems to the search engine people. This is
why changing your domain name is never a decision to be taken lightly. You’ll
have to build up that track record from scratch again.
Sometimes that’s worth doing — but hardly ever.
And here’s a free bonus tip:
Google’s pretty smart about tricks. Putting in lots of keywords, generating
hidden text (white on a white background) with screeds of SEO-facing
keyword-riddled content or making links on all your social networking sites
and clicking on them hundreds of times each will only result in a downgrading
— if not an outright ban — of your site on the search engines. After all this
effort, that would be a disaster.
It might seem back to front, but if you write with your target audience in mind,
rather than try and play the game to get noticed on the search engines, then
you’re probably going to be far more successful with SEO for your website.
Do it right, but just make sure you do it. No point spending all that money on
a website if you’re just going to hide it like that, is there?
Thing 14: Permission and personalisation
This is very basic stuff — the stuff of etiquette and ethics, rather than of
technology and innovation. There is a special level in hell reserved for
those who spam.
I don’t need to tell you the importance of permission marketing. One person
who has asked you for information is easily worth ten thousand people who
haven’t heard of you and aren’t interested. Sending unsolicited messages
will generally result in a negative, rather than a positive impact upon your
Let people opt-in.
More importantly, make the information you send them relevant, useful and
welcome. People like to be spoken to as if they are the only person being
spoken to. That’s true of pretty much all media communication (I ban my radio
students from using the phrase ‘all you people out there’), but it’s especially
true of online communication.
Online media consumption is mostly a solitary affair. Even though Web 2.0
is all about socialisation, when you step back and look at it, there’s only ever
one person sitting at that computer. They’re not designed to be shared. So
talk to the one person looking at that screen.
Personalise your content
You’ll probably notice now that that’s what I’ve been doing here all along. I
don’t talk to an audience. I talk to you. We’re in this together, you and me.
The same should go for anything you do online — whether it’s your website, a
mass e-newsletter mailout or a podcast. Don’t just think about the information
you need to get out there — think about what the person you’re talking to
wants to know.
That rules out long lists of dates and catalogues of upcoming events. Those
should never be emailed. Think about it: how much attention do you give to
We come across so much text in out lives these days, we’ve all developed
coping strategies that involve scanning and ignoring all but the most
personally relevant information. We prioritise personal messages.
That’s not to say the information shouldn’t be available, but put it online in
some searchable format.
Instead of sending out a long list of upcoming gigs listed by date, why not
email your (opt-in) mailing list members and say something like: ‘Hey — we’re
coming to play in your town soon. Looking forward to seeing you there. Check this
page for details’ – and then give them a link?
Introductions are important
One of the best ways to get your message out to people that you don’t know
is to get people they DO know to introduce you.
One of the ways you can do that is to encourage them to send your message
on to their friends that might appreciate it. I hate unsolicited communication
from complete strangers, but generally speaking, I welcome messages from
helpful friends who have clearly been thinking of me as they surf the web.
Having the ‘Email this’ link at the end of each blog post (made with the help of
this Wordpress plugin) will hopefully help you forward New Music Strategies
on to someone you think might find it useful, if I ever write something you
think is of sufficient value or is particularly noteworthy for an individual you
have in mind.
Even better, why not send this e-book to someone who might appreciate it. I
bet you can think of two people right now who could use this sort of advice.
Just copy and paste this link into an email, and send it to them:
See how easy that was?
Don’t be longwinded
Remember too that people tend to scan. Before this was an ebook, readers
of this section on the New Music Strategies blog didn’t absorb every word. In
fact, chances are you’re skimming yourself right now — but I know that your
eyes have landed on certain key phrases along the way, right?
Knowing that important piece of information, it becomes clear that it’s a
good idea to drop in paragraph breaks. Don’t run all your text together in
one big, long scroll. Break it up. That way, scanning eyes have got clues as to
which bits are important (usually the first sentence of each para) and your
communication can be long without being longwinded.
Subheadings can be really useful in that respect too.
It’s also a good idea to keep it simple. Tell one story (and it should be a story).
If you have half a dozen things to tell people in a mailout, try sending slightly
more frequent emails with one important thing in each, rather than one long
occasional post that makes you seem like hard work.
It’s quite simple
As I said, this is simple stuff. Just communicate in the way you’d like to be
spoken to by the kind of person who does what you do. Put yourself in your
audience’s shoes and take it from there.
Got any thoughts or recommendations for further personalisation or use
of permission? I’d love to hear your comments. Drop me a note at the New
Music Strategies website.
Thing 15: RSS
RSS is quite simply the single most useful technology to come about
since the invention of email. If it hasn’t already, it’s going to change
everything about the way you use the internet.
If you had the time and energy, you could locate hundreds of useful news
and information websites, and then every day, you could visit each of those
websites, one after another, and check to see if there’s anything new that
might be of interest.
It would be time consuming of course, but just think how informed and
ahead of the game you’d be.
Wouldn’t it be nice if you could do exactly that, but without having to actually
visit any of the websites?
You see where I’m going with this…
RSS is a way of bringing that content to you, and it can be assembled into
something not entirely unlike a customised newspaper that only includes
things that you’re genuinely interested in — delivered direct to you.
But that’s just the tip of the iceberg. RSS can make you money, find you new
audiences, position you as an opinion leader and quite possibly make you
more attractive. It’s really very clever stuff.
RSS stands for Rich Site Summary or, more usefully, Really Simple Syndication.
It’s a way of distributing regularly updated web content like blogs, news sites
From the user’s perspective, it’s a way of subscribing to interesting content,
and getting it delivered without having to seek it out.
Bear in mind, when you see the word subscription, it doesn’t mean that
somebody is going to ask you for money in order to receive these feeds.
It’s subscription in the sense that you put your hand up and say “Yes please
— I’d like to receive this from now on, whenever you have something new to
News sites like the BBC, entertaining and distracting blogs such as I Can Has
Cheezburger?, useful sources of geekery like Techdirt and helpful online
music business information and consultancy sites like New Music Strategies
tend to provide RSS feeds, so that the articles and updates we provide can be
delivered directly to you as and when they become available, without you
having to pop in every now and then to see if we’ve got anything new.
In order to read those RSS feeds, you use a piece of software or a web service
called a Feed Reader or RSS Aggregator. The Feed Reader does the work
for you, regularly checking on all of those websites and updating the list of
‘what’s new and interesting’.
Sites will usually let you know if they publish a feed of their content by
putting a little badge or button on their page that contains the words ‘feed’
or ’subscribe’, or the acronyms ‘RSS’, ‘RDF’ or ‘XML’. You might also see the
word ‘Atom’. Same thing, really. For our purposes today, these terms are pretty
I’m a little less subtle than most people and I’ve opted for a
giant orange button, featuring the standard RSS feed logo
that you’ll often see in a much smaller size on other, more
Go on, click it. See what happens.
Some people don’t publicise their feed — but generally speaking, if they’re
running a blog or a news site, they have one -- they’re just not very smart. A
little bit of digging will find it. Put their website’s URL into your feed reader
and see what turns up.
There’s quite a number of RSS readers available. Some are sophisticated
pieces of software that look like email programmes. Some cost a little bit of
money, and many of them are very popular. Personally, I prefer the free ones.
I’ve used most of them, and there are a few I can recommend unreservedly:
1. Google Reader — I’ve recently switched to this one and I’m completely
sold on it. Google have really thought this through well, and will get you
started with subscription packages around topics of interest for you. I
chose ‘Geeky’ and ‘Technology’ among others. No surprises there…
2. Sage — this is a plugin for the Firefox web browser, and it loads the
feeds in the sidebar. Sage will search for a feed in any page and will usually
find it. I recommend you try this one if you’re using Firefox. I only let go of
it reluctantly, and it does some things that many users will prefer. If you’re
still using Internet Explorer to browse the web, then download Firefox
3. Bloglines — this is a website that’s been delivering RSS aggregation
to members longer than most. Better still, it’s loosely configured as a
social network, so you can read other people’s favourite sites and use
that as a way of discovering new and interesting things to subscribe to.
Not as mind-bogglingly simple as Google Reader, but friendly and useful
Personally, RSS enables me to selectively read a far greater number of
websites a day than I could if I had to go to each individual site to get the
latest information about the online music world (and pictures of cats with
funny captions). At last count it was around 950 sites -- and I do it all over my
morning cup of coffee.
Warning: be careful with coffee near laptops. I learned this the hard way recently.
RSS is also the technology that enables podcasting. The media file is enclosed
within the RSS feed, and is automatically delivered to your podcast software
(iTunes is a popular choice).
Best of all, once you understand what RSS feeds can do, you can implement
them in all sorts of interesting ways for your own ends.
For instance, you may have noticed that New Music Strategies has a Newswire
service. It’s simply a list of links to articles from around the internet that have
to do with music business online.
To provide that service, I use RSS in a number of ways:
• First, I find the pages to link to in my morning laptop coffee ritual (the drinking and reading — not the spilling and panicking).
• Next, I bookmark those pages using del.icio.us (strongly recommended) and I tag those articles with the word ‘newswire‘.
• Del.icio.us provides an RSS feed of every page and so there’s one automatically generated for my bookmarks tagged with that word.
• I then embed that RSS feed into a webpage on this site.
By so doing, I end up with an incredibly useful page on this site that has all the
latest links to all the latest articles about music online, and I don’t even have
to update that page.
Just by bookmarking the articles I find useful, the page automatically updates,
and I end up looking helpful with almost no effort at all.
Better still, I use Feedburner to manage the RSS feed, and they even provide
an email subscription option. Just by typing your email address into the
Newswire signup in the sidebar of the website, you can get a daily list of the
latest links sent directly to you. Automatically. Free.
It might sound a bit complicated when I lay it out like that, but actually, this
is a set-and-forget proposition, and it’s one of those things that you can put
together in all sorts of different and useful ways.
From a business perspective, you can use RSS to establish an ongoing
relationship with your customers, without having to rely on them to keep
It’s a way of alerting people to your new releases and concert information.
You could do the embedded RSS news thing, and become the one-stop
source for all things to do with your particular scene.
But best of all, by using an RSS aggregator (or feed reader, if you prefer
the term), you could stay absolutely ahead of the game without having to
laboriously visit all the same websites day after day. Just open your Google
Reader, Sage or Bloglines — and see what’s new in your world.
Just watch your elbow near that coffee cup.
Thing 16: Accessibility
Not everyone has a fast computer or high speed access. Not everybody
has the gift of sight. Make everything you do online accessible.
I’ve said this before, and I’ll no doubt say it again: There’s nothing that irritates
me more than a website with a purposeless landing page. Especially ones
with complicated animation, long loading times and a ‘Skip Intro’ link. Every
time I have to go back to that website, my annoyance increases exponentially,
and my likelihood of returning is reduced even further.
The likelihood of parting with me from my money under those circumstances
is precisely nil.
If you have to put a Skip Intro link on your front page, then you should have
simply have skipped it yourself in the first place. You are not only wasting my
time and bandwidth with your inane flash show, you’ve also clearly wasted
your money on it. The only person you’ve made happy is the person you paid
to make the logo whiz around like that.
But my grumpiness is not your problem — and nor is it the issue. Putting a
large flash animation on your website is the equivalent of putting a couple
of big, burly guys in shades on the door, and having them say ‘Not in those
shoes, mate’ to everyone who doesn’t have the latest of the latest computer
You’re turning your customers away with your inaccessible, high-spec, high
Worse, building your whole website in Flash might look cool on the display
screen, but you manage to discriminate against nearly everyone in the
process. Well over half the internet-connected world still operates at dialup
speeds on computers three years old or more. More importantly, you’re
actively discriminating against disabled people.
Putting a rope ladder where your wheelchair ramp
Considering accessibility on your website is as important as considering
accessibility within your workplace. It’s actually the law – in the UK you’re
looking at a fine in the thousands of pounds for not getting this right.
More to the point, it seems counterintuitive to assume that people who don’t
have the ability to see don’t like music enough to get any value out of your
Maybe it’s just my experience, but the visually impaired people I know are
avid consumers of music, and they are continually frustrated that the worst
offenders in terms of not being able to use their screen reader on a particular
website are often music businesses.
Fortunately, it’s not difficult to make your website accessible, and there are
handy guidelines to help you do that. The Web Accessibility Initiative has a
range of useful documents on its website. You can also check to see if your
website is XHTML compliant, as it should be.
You may be interested to know that there’s also a strong correlation between
usability and accessibility. The more thought you give to one, the more likely
you are to be doing the other well.
Jakob Nielsen’s Use It website has a wealth of helpful tips on web usability.
He talks about browser compatibility, how people use websites and he has
helpful top 10 things people do wrong lists.
Accessible does not mean vanilla
There’s no need for an accessible site to be an ugly site. CSS is a great way
to style a web page (check out the CSS Zen Garden), and any web designer
worth their salt has brushed up on all the latest standards in this respect —
and knows how to make it sing, visually speaking.
But most of all, your site should be well thought-out, intuitive to use, quick to
load and fit-for-purpose.
I’m not saying that if people like and can use your website easily they’re more
likely to give you money — I’m just saying that if people don’t like it and
can’t use it easily — they simply won’t.
Thing 17: Reward and Incentivise
Let’s face it, there’s a lot of choice on the internet. No matter what you’re
offering, there’s an alternative somewhere else that will do just fine.
I’ve said before that people hear music, then they like music, then they buy
music. It’s important to realise that you need to go a step further than just
allowing that to happen. You have to remove all the friction in between.
People may love your music. They might be enormous fans. But let’s not forget
they’re no longer a captive audience, enslaved to the tyrranies of geography
or time. You might be the most specialist baroque chamber music retailer or
bhangra act — chances are you’re not the only game in town anymore.
You have to give people a reason to choose you — and then keep giving
In these days of mp3 blogs, streaming radio and on-demand services, the
low-quality 30-second sample just isn’t going to cut it any more. It was never
really enough to give people a good idea of whether they like your music or
not, and now it’s pretty much laughable.
In fact, it’s worse than useless. The 30-second (or 1-minute) lo-fi streaming
sample makes you look mean and suspicious. You don’t have to give away
the whole catalogue, but a couple of full tracks of each album’s a great start.
This is particularly true for customers who have bought from you in the past
(or engaged with you in some other economic fashion — substitute your
own business model here). There’s nothing that encourages an ongoing
economic relationship than gifts, rewards and incentives.
It doesn’t even have to be the music itself. Popular gifts and incentives include
ringtones, wallpapers, preferential bookings for events, discounts… anything
that will turn an interested punter into a repeat customer.
And one of the best rewards is to make the customer / audience feel as if they
are part of something. Membership is its own reward.
One of the ways to incorporate your audience — whether you’re a musician,
label, retailer, promoter, venue or some other music business — is to
encourage them to participate in your website. A forum — or better yet, a
group blog — that allows communities to form around what you make and
do can quickly take on a life of its own.
But be careful: without critical mass, a forum can seem like a bit of a wasteland,
and then you just look a bit Johnny-no-mates. Get a decent conversation
going, and you can turn your satisfied customers into your best advocates.
You just need to give them a reason to get going.
Reward. Incentivise. Enjoy the economic karma.
Thing 18: Frequency is everything
It’s not enough that people come to your website. You need them to
come BACK to your website. And they’re only going to do that so many
times unless there’s something new to see when they get there.
It’s important to have a good looking website with great content. It’s far more
important to have content that changes on a regular basis. I’ve talked about
the value of an RSS feed, and hooking people as subscribers of your content.
But even for the occasional visitor, it’s far more compelling to be met with a
bunch of stuff that constitutes new information. It might even prompt them
to pop back from time to time… perhaps with their credit cards.
Just as there’s nothing that says ‘active, happening and vibrant’ like a website
that seems to have updates every day — there’s nothing as despondent and
neglected as an abandoned-looking website or a disused forum. Here are
some hints to keep you fresh and up to date.
1. Use a Content Management System
Is your website hard to amend? Do you have to go through your web designer
every time you need to change something or add a concert date?
These days, there are great CMS packages that can either be integrated into
your existing site or (let’s face it, it’s getting on a bit now) replace your current
site all together. A CMS will let you update your own website easily — with
no tech skill required — at the drop of a hat. Day or night. It’ll even do all the
layout and design stuff for you. Easier than sending email.
Some content management systems are even free. I use Wordpress for this
site — and I can thoroughly recommend it. Joomla’s supposedly very good
too — especially if you need more bells and whistles (I didn’t).
Tell your web developer, if you have one, that you want a Content Management
System. Insist on it. Tell them you know that you can get one for free if the
2. Preplan things to talk about
Don’t just post when you think you have something to say. Plan the things
you’re going to talk about in advance. Depends on what you do, of course,
but how about having posts up your sleeve on ‘why I like this brand of guitar
strings’ or ’something you may not know about the artists on our label’ or ‘an
interview with the work experience kid who puts your CDs in the envelope’.
3. Drag in content from elsewhere
It’s not a sin to republish content, as long as it’s properly accredited.
Naturally, as an academic, I would encourage you to contextualise, explain
and comment on the wise words of others you bring into your site, rather
than simply cut and paste — but honestly, the bulk of the hard work can be
done (at least some of the time) by other people who are talking about issues
from your sector of the industry.
Don’t tell anyone I said that.
4. Talk about current stuff
Draw from current events and relate them to what you do. As with dragging
in content from elsewhere, you should add a bit of value for your customers,
but springboard off the work of others.
5. Capture everything and post it online
Play a gig? Do a promotion? Send out a press release? Sell your thousandth
unit? Find an interesting pebble? Take a photo, write a paragraph and put it
on the internet. Everything you do — not just putting out an EP or playing a
There is something magical about frequency. It makes you look professional,
busy and popular. If you publish something that says ‘Hooray — our album
has been lauched!’ and then that message is still there a year later, people will
rightly assume that nothing happened, and that the nothing that happened
was something you deserved.
People want to spend time and money with something that’s happening
now. Not something they’ve missed, and wasn’t good enough to keep on
Because more than anything else, economic engagement is the result of
Thing 19: Make it viral
We’ve talked at some length now about how to get your customers to come
and visit your website repeatedly, and engage with you in some economic
form through your internet activity. Now it’s time to get them to bring their
To: Everyone I’ve ever met
From: Andrew Dubber
Date: 14 May 2007
Subject: FWD: Check this out!
I posted a music video on the New Music Strategies website a while back. A
clever and cute music clip in which a band called the Sneaks take their public
funding to the racetrack and bet it on a horse. It’s a funny, surprising idea, and
it’s ended up doing the rounds.
I found it on a website that I read often, and people that read New Music
Strategies have sent it to friends of theirs.
As a matter of fact, not much later I was sent a link to the YouTube video by
somebody in Australia who knows someone who knows someone who
reads the blog. They wanted to know if I’d seen it, because they thought I’d
be interested. They even put the phrase ‘Check this out’ in the subject line.
The Sneaks video had gone viral.
Not Nizlopi viral, perhaps – but viral nonetheless. And, you know, there’s still
Perhaps someone will submit the video to Boing Boing or Neatorama — and
that will put a rocket under it (if jet propulsion is indeed the way to make
viruses more virulent).
Personally, I hope it becomes huge.
I have no doubt that the key to success online is effective marketing. And the
good news for our purposes today is that like many things, effective marketing
can be magnified many times over by the involvement of the internet.
It’s a friction-reduced environment for word-of-mouth advertising, where
it’s just as easy to tell 100 people a good story as it is to tell one. And as for
flyering — imagine if everyone you gave a flyer to your gig was able to give a
dozen of their friends the exact same flyer. And then they could do the same.
That’s what perfect endless replication of digital media allows for.
But you’ve got to do the marketing right. And the laws of marketing do not
It’s about having a good story — something that people will want to tell
other people. That story can be in video form, as was the case of the Nizlopi
and Sneaks viral marketing — but it can just as easily (or, rather, almost as
easily) be done with text or audio.
There are many examples. Here’s one of each to get you started:
The Lascivious Biddies did very well out of their podcast, in which they
bring the audience behind the scenes — to rehearsals, trips to the gig,
backstage moments — as well as excerpts of live performances and
conversations. Not only was the podcast itself a hit, it was an internet
word-of-mouth phenomenon. Every other podcaster talked about it,
and you could listen to the steep curve of their success show by show.
Bloggers make a point of creating flagship content: helpful or fascinating
articles that people like to send each other links to. Copyblogger’s
Copywriting 101 is something I’m always referring people to.
Good marketing’s not a secret — although there are secrets of good marketing.
At its most simple, though, it’s about connecting the right message to the
right people using the right channels at the right time.
But this goes to an earlier observation: your website is not a promotional
strategy. You need a promotional strategy for your website.
Have a compelling story. A Unique Selling Proposition. What is different,
unusual, special or otherwise notable about what you do?
Telling people that what’s cool about your band is that you sound like Green
Day is not a USP. Sounding like Green Day might be a plus for your target
audience — but there has to be a different story to be told.
The thing that makes you different as a band, a company, a product or a
service is the thing you want to be putting out there. And you need to be
putting it out there in a way that will encourage other people to send it on.
Find a strategy to get people to retell your story, and re-retell it.
My Own Attempt
For me, the strategy I’m trying out is what you’re reading right now. This
As a pdf file, it can be downloaded from the website, emailed to friends,
printed off and filed away for reference.
If you like The 20 Things, you can simply email the link to other people you
think might be interested — or just forward the pdf file as an attachment to
your entire address book, if you felt so inclined.
More importantly, I’m doing a couple of extra things with it to help make it
First, I’m not making people jump through hoops to get it. You just go to the
website, ask for it, and I’ll send it to you. It’s free, gratis, no catches.
Once you have it, you can always give The 20 Things away from your own
website if you like. I have no problem with that.
You can even print it up, change all the fonts, put lots of pictures in it, get it
bound, stick your logo all over it and give it to — well, whoever you want to
give it to. Hell, you could make an audiobook version, set it to music, or work
it into an interpretive dance routine, if you like. Knock yourself out.
I only ask a couple of things:
1) you say it was written by me;
2) you include a link to New Music Strategies;
More importantly… see what’s in it for me? Exactly.
Obviously if you want to use it in a commercial context, we can have a
conversation and work something out. But for the vast majority of people
who just want to read it and refer to it to make sure their music business (or,
actually, pretty much any small-medium business) is on track, this is my gift
Hope you find it useful.
Check This Out
Whatever you do or make, give a thought to making it something that people
will want to send to other people. Your best marketing is word of mouth,
because online, word of mouth is exponentially more powerful.
Whatever it is you do, try and think of a way to encourage people to include it
in an email with the subject line: ‘Check this out!’… and then look forward to
seeing it come round again in a week or so with the subject line ‘FWD: FWD:
FWD: FWD: Check this out!’
Thing 20: Forget product - sell relationship
There have been several major phases in the history of music as a
business. All of them have quite different models of monetisation.
Welcome to the newest one.
While there are still transcribers and publishers of sheet music, they are no
longer the dominant force in the music business they once were. Nor is
performing in the Music Hall the career it once was.
Let’s look at some of the main ways in which people have made money from
music over the years. All still exist in some form or another — but each has
had its day. Every time a new technological development comes along, the
ratio has been shuffled around in order to make room for the new player in
And every time it happens — the dominant force in the industry kicks up
such a fuss…
We think of Bach as having existed in the age of the dinosaurs, but honestly, it
was just a few generations ago that the most revered musical talents of their
day were dependent on the indulgence and enthusiasm of a rich benefactor.
Usually these were members of royalty or nobility, and their patronage was
hard to come by — but as keepers of culture, it was only right and proper that
they selected and encouraged music by artists whose works glorified God —
and their paymasters.
Of course, the patrons of the arts were horrified when music performance
became a commodified entertainment for the masses, rather than an edifying
or uplifting cultural health food for those worthy of culture. But musicians,
and their new business associates, found they could do better when their pay
came from the pockets of the many, rather than of the few. And entry to the
profession was suddenly much more open.
The birth of sheet music was, of course, the death of the music industry. If
people could play the music themselves at home on their pianos, then who
would attend concerts? Mass production of popular song changed the way
that audiences engaged with and consumed music. It didn’t kill the concert
hall, but it was certainly witness to its serious injuries.
Famous artists who had made names for themselves in the concert halls could
enjoy renewed revenue with the birth of recording. Not only could you now
have the music of the stars of stage and screen in your home… you could
hear the stars themselves performing it. Magical. Sadly, the entire industry
was more or less built on sheet music, and the “death of music business”
With the birth of radio came the newest threat to the music business. If people
could hear music at home without buying the recordings, then why on earth
would they spend money on music any more? This latest development led
to boycotts, lawsuits and charges of piracy. Of course, we now know that
radio is the single strongest driver of music retail sales, and it also generates
performance royalties, even absent a music hall.
Getting played on radio was one thing — but having your song used in a film,
a TV show, commercial or videogame is something else again. Suddenly one
of the quickest and best ways to make money out of music was to associate
your music with something that large numbers of people will see, rather than
just listen to. And the interesting thing was that it was no longer the audience
who was parting with cash.
So there’s this new technology…
Each time a new technological environment for music comes along,
everything shifts. What was dominant recedes into the background. What
was once lost is retrieved. And it never quite turns out the way you expect it
to. When the music industry was doing its best to shut down radio stations
and prevent them from distributing their music for free, who knew they were
strangling their cash cow?
This is classic McLuhan stuff.
But these transitions are always problematic. The recording ban of 1942 is just
like the imposition of strict needle time in British music radio, which is just like
the Home Taping is Killing Music debacle in the 1980s, which is just like the
suing of customers the major record labels are trying these days. That’ll end
The best news for music business — and particularly for yours — is that the
winners in this game are those who understand the new environment, and
find a way to connect an audience with an artist. It really is as simple as that.
Just as patronage is old fashioned, other aspects of the music industry
become less significant as we move into the new media environment. The
notion of giving money to someone in exchange for a piece of music that
you can come home and listen to repeatedly is quite quickly going to be seen
While we will always want to sell an individual recording to an individual
consumer in some kind of physical form, the writing is well and truly on the
wall: this is no longer going to be the main way in which money is made from
In that respect, despite its current success, the iTunes Music Store is still
completely old school.
The new model is about starting an ongoing economic relationship with a
community of enthusiasts. It’s about attention and repeat engagement. It’s
about letting go of the idea of the individual transaction and the ‘lost sale’ of a
pirate download. CDs and mp3s are increasingly souvenirs of an engagement
with a musical experience, rather than the occasion for the experience itself.
Become the dominant paradigm
Anyone who’s ever used MySpace or Facebook or Mog or Last.FM or iLike or
Twitter or Skype or Second Life or Tumblr or Vox or Blogger or Live Messenger
or Yahoo! Groups or Flickr or Google Reader or Bloglines will happily tell you:
It’s about the conversation.
It’s about connectivity.
It’s about relationship.
It’s not a top-down, one-to-many distribution model. It’s not a customer off
the street happening by and exchanging money for a product. This is about
trust, recommendation and reputation. This is a many-to-many dialogue, and
the money goes where the attention lies.
If I could sum up The 20 Things in one, I guess I’d have to echo McLuhan and
say it’s about a reshuffle of ratios.
Certain ways of operating have been enhanced. Others have been obsolesced.
Some older models have been retrieved – and some things are turned
back to front. What is really happening is the opposite of what looks like is
happening: People are not stealing your music – they’re showing you how to
make money from it.
And these things are still shaking themselves out. The music industry has not
changed — it is changing.
Naturally, we will see a change of ratios within business models:
•Patronage has already made something of a comeback through
•Attendance at live gigs has shot through the roof in the last few years.
•Amateur performance and a demand for online music education (including sheet music) is growing rapidly.
•CDs are dying out as the primary method of consumption of music.
We may live in scary and uncertain times — but it’s exactly these sorts of
times in which the bold and the innovative thrive. The major players, at times
like these, either adapt — or they diminish. Slowly but surely.
But the truth is, whoever puts music into the ears of a willing public, whoever
can leverage the new environment to add value and aid the music creators
and performers in communicating their art, and whoever can stake their
claim on the new territory and make it their own — they are the ones who
will thrive and grow.
The digital age is profoundly different from everything that has come before
it. And this is your chance to find your way in that new environment. Are you
Do you get it yet? This is not a format shift.
It’s not like moving from records to CDs.
This is like what happened when we moved from sheet music to
recorded music – only more so.
Start with that principle and move forward from there.
A personal message from Andrew Dubber:
Thanks for downloading this e-book. I hope that there’s something in there
that will be of use to you in your music business. I’d love to hear any stories
you have about ways in which you’ve applied some of these concepts and
tips – and I’d be very happy to celebrate your success with you.
I wish you the best of luck with your music enterprise in the online environment.
If there’s anything you think I could do that would be helpful to you in that
respect, please don’t hesitate to drop me a line.
See you at the New Music Strategies website.