OA in an oasis: The growth of open access in the MENA

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OA in an oasis: The growth of open
access in the MENA region
Thursday, September 17th, 2014
COASP2014 - Paris - France
Alwaleed Alkhaja, PhD.
Senior Editor - Commissioning & Outreach - QScience.com
(Bloosmbury Qatar Foundation Journals)
@alwaleeed
Overview of presentation content
•
•
•
•
•
Defining MENA and the Arab world
Research output in the Arab world
Landscape of open access publishing
Challenges of open access publishing
Perspectives....
MENA = "Middle East and North Africa"
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MENA#mediaviewer/File:MENA.png
MENA CC BY-SA 3.0 DanPMK - Own work adapted from Africa in the World (grey).svg by TUBS
The Arab world
Text
Countries: 22
Population (Total): 369.8 million 2013
GDP (current US$) : $2.851 trillion 2013
Research output in the Arab
world
http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/seind14/index.cfm/chapter-4/c4s2.htm
Landscape of open access
publishing
Growth of open access journals from the Arab
world in DOAJ
Number of open access journals from the Arab
world in DOAJ
480
551 journals from the Arab world
5.5% of total DOAJ journals
1217 journals from United States
(population of 318,736,000)
Number of (Arabic language)
open access journals in DOAJ
•
•
•
1 Journal Arabic online (Historical Kan Periodical) - Egypt
10 Journals Arabic + English and/or French - Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq,
Jordan, Qatar, Saudi Arabic
21 Journals Arabic + other language(s) - India, Iran, Malaysia, Spain,
Turkey, United Kingdom
0.3% of total DOAJ journals published in Arabic
12% of total DOAJ journals published in Portuguese
Number of open access repositories in Arab world
Registry of Open Access Repositories
Egypt
11
Algeria
7
Saudi Arabia
7
Sudan
5
Morocco
3
Tunisia
2
Lebanon
1
Qatar
1
37 OA repositories in Arab
world
Belgium = 34
Greece = 33
Malaysia =33
Mexico =33
Number of open access repositories in MENA
Data provided by: ROAR & OpenDOAR
Number of open access repositories in Europe
Data provided by: ROAR & OpenDOAR
Research funders' open access policies in the Arab
world
Number of policies from Arab World = 0
Europe = 130
North America = 29
Asia = 4
Oceania = 3
Challenges of open access
publishing
Challenges of open access publishing in the Arab world
•
•
•
Low number of (Arabic) open access journals
Low number of open access repositories
Absence of research funders' open access policies
Survey (i)
Open access in Egypt
•
Study: Reality of open Access movement to information in Egyptian
Universities: Cairo University model, Iman Hussein 2013*
•
•
•
•
Lack of faculty’s OA awareness
OA articles not recognized in assessment for academic promotion
General fear of intellectual theft /copyright infringement
Lack of policies and/or mandates for OA publishing or selfarchiving.
*10th Cairo University Scientific Conference for Libraries, Documents, and Information (Article in Arabic):
http://bit.ly/1xxkIum
Survey (ii) Open access in Saudi
Arabia
•
Survey: ‘Academic open access publishing and its role in Arabic
online content enrichment’ Abdullah Almubariz, Imam Muhammad ibn
Saud Islamic University:
36%
disagree about
publishing research
in OA journals
63%
58%
skeptical about peer
review process
OA publications not
considered in promotion
AFLI publication (Article in Arabic): imamur.com/files/12.doc (Word File
Survey (iii)
Open access in Iraq
•
Study: Study of the Views of a Sample of Faculty Members at the
University of Mosul, Aldabbagh and Al Obidy 2012 (in Arabic)
•
Majority faculty surveyed reluctant to publish OA due to lack of
awareness
82%
unsure of quality of OA journal
editorial board members
64%
45%
fearful of intellectual theft /
copyright infringement
OA articles not recognized in
academic career promotion
Article in Arabic: http://www.iasj.net/iasj?func=fulltext&aId=81807
Survey (iv)
Open access in Syria
•
Survey, Syrian Researcher’s Views on Open Access to Information.
Damascus University Magazine.
10%
40%
25%
20%
consider OA publishing
would lower impact of
their research
5%
worried about
believe OA published
intellectual theft /
articles not recognized by
copyright infringement their institutes academic
committees
do not know how to
publish OA
do not know how to
archive work
http://www.damascusuniversity.edu.sy/mag/human/images/stories/3-2013/a/483-510.pdf
Survey (iv)
Others...
79%
Have not published in OA journals*
69%
Have not published in OA journals+
71%
* AFLI publication (Article in Arabic): imamur.com/files/12.doc (Word File)
+10th Cairo University Scientific Conference for Libraries, Documents, and Information (Article in Arabic): http://bit.ly/1xxkIum
# http://usir.salford.ac.uk/29413/1/Zuwainah_Thesis_Final_2013.pdf
“In many developing countries still, the monthly salary of a senior
science faculty (Professor) in public sector institutes is less than
$1000 / month. How is it possible the researchers from the developing
countries can publish their papers in such journals?”
Meo, S. A. "Open access journals: open for rich, closed for poor." Journal of the College of
Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan: JCPSP 24.8 (2014): 611.
Challenges of open access publishing in the Arab world:
article processing charges fee waivers
Low-income
Lower-middleincome
Upper-middleincome
High-income
Comoros
Syria
Libya
Qatar
Somalia
Egypt
Tunisia
Saudi Arabia
Palestine
Lebanon
Kuwait
Morocco
Jordan
United Arab Emirates
Djibouti
Algeria
Oman
Sudan
Iraq
Bahrain
Yemen
Mauritania
*based on Gross national income per capita 2013 (US Dollars), Atlas method
Challenges of open access publishing in the Arab world
•
•
•
Low number of (Arabic) open access journals
Low number of open access repositories
Absence of research funders' open access policies
Challenges of open access publishing in the Arab world
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Low number of (Arabic) open access journals
Low number of open access repositories
Absence of research funders' open access policies
Lack of OA awareness
Lack of institutional encouragement to OA
Skepticism about quality/impact
Inability to pay article processing charges
Perspectives
An enabling environment for an
exciting future?
What does the Arab world need
for open access to flourish?
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•
•
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•
Improve OA awareness
More OA journals for Arabic content
Establishment of more institutional repositories
Institutional support for OA - (policies, mandates)
Research funder support for OA (policies, mandates,
repositories)
Open Access Week
2014 events
•
•
•
•
Open Access week Egypt
Open Access week Saudi Arabia
Open access week Qatar
Open access week Tunisia
Arab Initiatives of Open Access
AIOA
- To disseminate the benefits of publishing in open access.
- To promote the practices of open access in the Arab and other world
- To attract and convince the concept of information for all.
- To provide a platform for the authors and publishers for open access
publishing
- To encourage the idea of Book Endowment
Website:
Twitter:
aioablogspot.com
aioatweets
Slide courtesy of Sulieman S. Alshuhri. PhD
Nidae Al-Ryadh
(Declaration of Riyadh for Free Access to Scientific and
Technical Information)
•
•
First Arabic declaration in support of OA by the
participants in the Second Gulf-Maghreb Scientific
Congress (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, February 25-26,
2006),
Calls for free access to all scientific literature on the
internet. It supports the idea that scientific literature
should be disseminated without any financial, legal, or
technological barriers except those concerned with the
intellectual property for the author.
http://openaccess.inist.fr/?Nidae-Al-Ryadh (Arabic, English, French translations
Rise of institutional mandates? 2014...
ROARMAP: Registry of Open Access
Repositories Mandatory Archiving
Policies
AlgeriaInstitutional Mandate
Date Deposited: 29 Jun 2014
Saudi Arabia
Institutional Mandate
Date Deposited: 3 Sept 2014
Scientific boom in the Gulf
Cooperation Council Countries
KACST OA Scientific Journals with
Springer
6 open access journals - launched 2011
Qatar Foundation collaboration with
Bloomsbury
14 OA journals in English / Arabic
14 OA journals in English / Arabic
Output / million
Summary
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•
•
•
Open access adoption in Arab states is weaker than
other regions/nations
Arab states face many challenges with respect to OA
Arab world has witnessed various OA initiatives in the
last couple of years
Several countries are investing more in R&D therefore
enabling a change in scientific landscape
Thank you for
your attention

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