2015 INTERNATIONAL POULTRY SCIENTIFIC FORUM JANUARY 26 – 27

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2015
INTERNATIONAL POULTRY
SCIENTIFIC FORUM
JANUARY 26 – 27
ABSTRACTS
2015 International Poultry Scientific Forum
Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, Georgia
January 26-27, 2015
Table of Contents
SYMPOSIA AND ORAL SESSIONS
Monday, January 26, 2015
Milton Y Dendy Keynote Address........................................................................................................................................................ 1
Pathology.............................................................................................................................................................................................. 2
Physiology/SCAD I.............................................................................................................................................................................. 6
Processing & Products........................................................................................................................................................................ 10
Environment Management I............................................................................................................................................................... 15
Metabolism & Nutrition I................................................................................................................................................................... 20
Metabolism & Nutrition II.................................................................................................................................................................. 24
SCAD II.............................................................................................................................................................................................. 27
Metabolism & Nutrition III................................................................................................................................................................. 31
Environment Management II.............................................................................................................................................................. 34
Metabolism & Nutrition IV................................................................................................................................................................ 36
Tuesday, January 27, 2015
Metabolism & Nutrition V.................................................................................................................................................................. 40
SCAD III............................................................................................................................................................................................. 45
Metabolism & Nutrition VI................................................................................................................................................................ 49
Environment & Management III......................................................................................................................................................... 55
Metabolism & Nutrition VII............................................................................................................................................................... 59
POSTER PRESENTATIONS................................................................................................................................................ 64
Author Index....................................................................................................................................................................................... 99
ABSTRACTS
2015 International Poultry Scientific Forum
Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, Georgia
January 26-27, 2015
Milton Y Dendy Keynote Address
B-313Can vaccines create hot viruses? Lessons from Marek’s disease Andrew Read* Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA, USA
Could some vaccines drive the evolution of more virulent pathogens? Conventional wisdom is that natural selection will remove highly lethal pathogens
if host death greatly reduces transmission. Vaccines that keep hosts alive but still allow transmission could thus allow very virulent strains to circulate in
a population. I will describe experiments which show that immunization of chickens against Marek’s disease virus enhances the fitness of more virulent
strains, making it possible for hyperpathogenic strains to transmit. Immunity elicited by direct vaccination or by maternal vaccination prolongs host
survival but does not prevent infection, viral replication or transmission, thus extending the infectious periods of strains otherwise too lethal to persist.
Our data show that anti-disease vaccines that do not prevent transmission can create conditions that promote the emergence of pathogen strains that
cause more severe disease in unvaccinated hosts.
Key Words:
1
2
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
*Author presenting paper
GS Denotes Graduate Student Competition
UG Denotes Undergraduate Presentation
Pathology
M1 Antibacterial Activity of Ethanol and Methanol Extracts of
Date Pits Against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli Sherif
Hassan*, Yousef Al-Yousef King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, 31982, Saudi
Arabia
M3 Coccidiostat withdrawal from broiler diets containing refined
functional carbohydrates (RFC) from enzymatically hydrolyzed yeast
John Brake*1, S. Auttawong1, S. Jalukar2, J. Oppy2 1North Carolina State
University, Raleigh, NC, USA; 2VI-COR, Mason City, IA, USA
This study was undertaken to evaluate the antibacterial activity antibacterial activity of ethanol and methanol extracts of date pits against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli by disc diffusion technique using six
concentrations ranged from 300 to 9.375 μg methanol or ethanol extract/
mL Nutrient broth. The results obtained exhibited that methanol extract
inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus at the concentration level
of 75 μg/mL and Escherichia coli at the concentration level of 150 μg/
mL with inhibition zone diameter of 10 mm and 17 mm, respectively.
While the ethanol extract of date pits inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus at the concentration level of 18.75 μg/mL with inhibition zone
diameter of 10 mm. The growth of Escherichia coli was not inhibited by
all the ethanol extract concentration levels used in this experiment. This
revealed that methanol extracts have antimicrobial activity on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, while the ethanol extracts showed
antimicrobial activity on Staphylococcus aureus with no effect on Escherichia coli. Results obtained suggested that methanol and ethanol extracts
of date pits probably might be used to control infections associated with
these common poultry pathogenic organisms.
Appropriate enzymatic hydrolysis of yeast can produce RFCs that have
protective activities against a range of bacterial and protozoal species.
Specifically, Aviator (Aviator SCP, Vi-COR, Mason City, IA) possesses a
complex sugar that reduces the ability of Eimeria sporozoites to attach to
intestinal epithelial cells, which should provide an opportunity to modify
usage of coccidiostats in broiler feed. To test this theory, three scenarios
were developed that covered a range of commercial environments and involved growing Ross 708 male broilers from a 26-wk-old breeder flock to
49 d on either new litter with clean water and coccidiostat (Salinomycin),
used litter with dirty water and coccidiostat, or used litter with dirty water
and no coccidiostat after 16 d of age. These scenarios were termed Best,
Intermediate, and Worst, respectively. Aviator was included in the starter,
grower, and finisher feeds at either 0 or 50 g/MT in each of the three scenarios. Feed consumption and BW were determined at 35 and 49 d of age.
Average BW was 2332 and 4061 g at 35 and 49 d, respectively, which
generally represented small and larger broilers at marketing. BW did not
differ by scenario but feed intake was greatest (P<0.05) in the Worst scenario as compared to the Intermediate scenario, with the Best scenario
intermediate at both 35 and 49 d. The FCR was poorest (P<0.05) in the
Worst scenario at 35 and 49 d. Addition of Aviator to the Worst scenario
improved FCR (P<0.05) to that observed in the Best scenario containing
coccidiostat without affecting feed intake and BW. This demonstrated the
capacity of this RFC to maintain feed efficiency in the absence of a coccidiostat in grower-finisher diets.
Key Words: Antibacterial activities, date pits, Staphylococcus aureus,
Escherichia coli
M2 Control of complicated respiratory distress in broilers using a
synergistic effect with Ma5 and 4/91 IB vaccine strains at different
ages. Francisco Rios-Cambre*1, Jesus Cabriales-Jimenez1, Alejandro
García-Cantú1, Francisco Zorrilla-Fierro2 1MSD Animal Health Mexico,
Santiago Tianguistenco, Mexico; 2MSD Salud Animal Mexico, Santiago
Tianguistenco, Mexico
Mortality due to respiratory disease in broilers in the Mexican poultry industry has been a common problem for several years. The most frequent
lesion found is tracheal plugs, usually between 20 and 30 days of age.
This pathology can cause an increase in mortality than may be up to 20%
or more in broiler flocks that up until they reached such age, it had been
within the normal parameters. This paper describes the sampling design,
monitoring and results; followed by vaccination program adjustments,
conducted according to a synergistic effect previously described, by using
a combination of Ma5 and 4/91 IB vaccine strains; as well as subsequent
sampling, lab monitoring and production results of such adjustments,
which can be attributable to a significant improvement from the previous
conditions to the application of the aforementioned concept. According to
the available literature, both vaccines can be applied either at one day of
age, mixed together, or Ma5 strain applied at one day of age, whilst 4/91
strain is applied at farm level, in this case at 12 days of age. In this is a report a significant difference in body weight and uniformity was observed
between both vaccination programs, being the flock vaccinated with both
vaccine viruses simultaneously showing the most favorable results, with
an average 100 g more in body weight and 1% less coefficient of variation.
Key Words: Respiratory, Infectious bronchitis, Ma5 strain, 4/91 strain,
Synergistic effect
Key Words: coccidiostat, broilers, functional carbohydrates, yeast
M4 Is white striping of the breast affected by the coccidiosis control
program? Corrado Longoni*1, Elisa Russo2, Mattia Cecchinato3, Giulia
Tasoniero3, Antonella Dalle Zotte3 1Merck Animal Health, Rivarolo
Canavese, Italy; 2Merck Animal Health, Legnaro, Italy; 3Department of
Animal Medicine, Production and Health, University of Padova, Legnaro,
Italy
White Striping (WS) is an alteration of breast muscle characterized by the
presence of visible white stripes between muscle fibers that is becoming
increasingly important in meat-type heavy chickens (Bauermeister et al.,
2009). The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of coccidiosis control program and diet on WS. Four groups of 140 broiler chickens
were randomly allotted to the four experimental treatments: Control (C),
Coccidiostat (Cox), Vaccinated (V), and Vaccinated fed a Low Energy
diet (VLE) were slaughtered at 51 days of age and all breasts have been
scored for WS (0= no WS, 1= mild WS, 2= severe WS). Mean BW were
3.5±0.3, 3.7±0.3, 3.6±0.3 and 3.7±0.3 kg, and mean DWG were 67.6±5.8,
71.1±5.5, 69.6±6.9 and 71.2±6.3 g/day, for C, Cox, V and VLE, respectively, being significant (P<0.05) the difference C vs Cox and VLE. No
BW differences were observed between Cox and V groups that received
the same diet, nor between the two vaccinated groups fed different diets.
Mean FCR were 1.97±0.07, 1.92±0.10, 1.90±0.08, 1.84±0.10, for C, Cox,
V and VLE, respectively (ns).
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
The WS prevalence was above 90% in all groups. The prevalence of WS
score 2 was 54.0, 81.2, 62.5 and 68.6% whereas the mean WS scores were
1.50, 1.79, 1.58 and 1.63, for C, Cox, V and VLE, respectively, being significant (P<0.001) the difference Cox vs C and V. The prevalence of WS
grade 2 causes breast downgrade that results in economic losses, and the
mean WS score was higher in birds treated with coccidiostat than in vaccinated ones, but no difference was observed due to the diet. These results
could be explained by the different growing curves of the groups.
This study provided a new perspective for the control of WS prevalence
and a starting point for further studies.
References
Bauermeister, L. J., A. U. Morey, E. T. Moran, M. Singh, C. M. Owens,
and S. R. McKee. 2009. Occurrence of white striping in chicken breast
fillets in relation to broiler size. Poult. Sci. 88(Suppl. 1):33.
Key Words: White striping, coccidiosis, broiler
M5 An evaluation of the anticoccidial efficacy of the feed additives
Algamune™ AM or Algamune™ ZPC fed to commercial broiler
chickens exposed to a mixed challenge of Eimeria acervulina, E.
maxima, and E. tenella Robert Levine*1, B. Lumpkins2, Greg Mathis2
1
Algal Scientific Corporation, Northville, MI, USA; 2Southern Poultry
Research, Athens, GA, USA
Coccidiosis can have significant adverse effects on performance in commercial broiler operations. The objective of the current study was to
determine how dietary inclusion of a new feed additive made from microalgae containing beta-1,3-glucan impacts performance and gut heath
in birds challenged by Eimeria. This study was carried out in cages at
Southern Poultry Research, with 4 cages per treatment group and 8 male
birds (Cobb X Cobb) per cage (0.63 sq.ft/bird). The eight treatment groups
included a non-infected, non-treated control and an infected, non-treated control, along with groups fed 50, 100, or 200 g/MT of Algamune™
AM or Algamune™ ZPC. Both products are similar in that they contain
about 50 wt.% beta-1,3-glucan derived from the algae Euglena gracilis,
but Algamune™ ZPC contains 2% zinc in the form of a zinc polysaccharide complex (ZPC). On day 14, all birds, except the non-infected control, were orally dosed with coccidia from a mixed inoculum containing
Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima, and E. tenella. Fecal samples were collected 120-144 hours post infection to determine oocysts per gram (OPG).
Performance (feed consumption, feed conversion efficiency (FCR), and
weight gain) was measured on day 14 and day 20; all birds were lesion
scored on day 20.
All birds fed Algamune™ AM and ZPC-2 and challenged with Eimeria
demonstrated a trend towards improved D0-20 FCR compared to the
infected control. Birds receiving 50 or 100 g/MT Algamune™ AM and
200 g/MT Algamune ZPC-2 demonstrated statistically significant FCR
improvement of 16 to 19 points (cf. 1.856 FCR for infected control vs.
1.676, 1.692, and 1.660 for AM 50 g/MT, AM 100 g/MT, and ZPC-2 200
g/MT, respectively). Birds fed Algamune™ AM at 50 and 100 g/MT demonstrated a strong trend of improved D0-20 weight gain compared to the
infected control, though no differences were statistically significant. Birds
fed Algamune™ AM at 50 and 100 g/MT and Algamune™ ZPC-2 at 50
g/MT demonstrated a trend for reduced lesion scores compared to the infected control, but there were no statistically significant differences among
the treatment groups. Finally, birds fed Algamune AM™ at 200 g/MT and
Algamune™ ZPC-2 at 100 g/MT demonstrated significantly reduced
OPG (63% reduction compared to infected control). Overall, these data
suggest that low inclusion levels of beta-1,3-glucan derived from algae
can promote improved performance and gut health while reducing oocyst
shedding in commercial broilers challenged with Eimeria.
Key Words: beta glucan, Coccidiosis, Eimeria, broiler performance,
lesions
3
M6Experimental co-infection of SPF chickens with low
pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV), subtypes H9N2, H5N2
and H7N9, and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) Mar Costa-Hurtado*1,
Diane Smith1, Mark W. Jackwood2, Erica Spackman1, Eric Shepherd1,
Mary Pantin-Jackwood3 1Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory USDA/
ARS, Athens, GA, USA; 2Poultry Diagnostic and Research Center, Athens,
GA, USA; 3SEPRL-ARS_USDA, Athens, GA, USA
Avian influenza virus (AIV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) are two
of the most important respiratory viruses affecting poultry worldwide, but
little is known about the effect of co-infection with of these two viruses
in poultry. Low pathogenicity (LP) AIV can produce from mild to moderate upper respiratory disease that can be exacerbated by other factors
in the field. Since commercial poultry is routinely vaccinated with live
IBV vaccines we evaluated the dynamics of LPAIV-IBV co-infections
and the effect on disease outcome in chickens. Four-week-old specific
pathogen free (SPF) white leghorn chickens were intraocular and intranasally inoculated with a live IBV Mass vaccine strain and with one of
three different subtype LPAIV’s: A/chicken/Egypt/12/2013 (H9N2), A/
chicken/HK/2212982/2014 (H7N9), and A/chicken/Mexico-Coahuila/
IA20/11/2011 (H5N2), by simultaneous or sequential inoculation (LPAIV
given 3 days after IBV). Viruses were also given individually. No clinical
signs were observed in any of the experimental groups. However, differences in the titers of virus shed by the oropharyngeal route were observed
and depended on the LPAIV strain used. No effect on H5N2 LPAIV shedding was observed in co-infected birds, this virus being shed in high titers
from all inoculated birds. However, birds previously or simultaneously inoculated with IBV shed higher titers of the H9N2 LPAIV when compared
to the single LPAIV infected birds. On the other hand, lower titers of the
H7N9 LPAIV were shed by birds previously infected with IBV, but titers
were higher in birds simultaneously inoculated. In conclusion, the effect
of co-infection in chickens with IBV and LPAIV varies depending on the
LPAIV and the timing of co-infection, with exacerbation, reduction, or no
effect on virus shedding.
Key Words: Low pathogenicity avian influenza, Infectious Bronchitis
Virus, co-infection, chickens
M7 Effects of Fermentation Product of S. cerevisiae XPCTM in
Chicken Diets on Resistance against Infectious Bronchitis Virus
Cassandra Breedlove*, Aly Ghetas, Stephen Gulley, Frederick van Ginkel,
Kellye Joiner, Vicky van Santen, Haroldo Toro Auburn University, Auburn,
AL, USA
The commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product XPCTM,
often used as feed additive in poultry production, has been associated with
enhanced immune functions. We evaluated immune responses and protection after IBV challenge in naïve and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV)vaccinated specific-pathogen-free white leghorn chickens (groups n=50
each) receiving XPC at feed-additive concentrations of 2 lb/ton or 3 lb/ton.
Naïve chickens receiving XPC and challenged at 21 days of age showed
reduced respiratory signs and a tendency of less histological damage in the
trachea 5 days after challenge. Treated birds also showed increased IgA+
and CD44+CD8+ lymphocytes in the spleen 10 days after challenge. Viral
load in the trachea, serum IBV antibody levels, and numbers of splenic
CD3+/ CD8+ and CD3+/CD4+ lymphocytes did not show significant differences between treated and untreated challenged controls. In experiment 2,
birds received the same XPC treatments but were vaccinated with a live
attenuated IBV vaccine at 10 days of age and subjected to homologous
challenge at 25 days of age. Evaluations performed 5 days after challenge
showed reduced adverse respiratory reactions and significantly increased
IgM+ and IgA+ lymphocytes in the Harderian gland in XPC treated chickens. XPC-treated chickens also showed significantly increased serum IBV
antibody levels 20 and 27 days post challenge. Tracheal histopathology
and viral load, and numbers of spleen CD44+ and CD3+ cells did not differ
significantly between treated and untreated challenged controls. Some of
the differences in response to IBV vaccination and/or challenge observed
4
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
between XPC-treated and untreated chickens provide evidence for a beneficial effect and thus merit further study.
Key Words: infectious bronchitis, chickens, immune response
M8 Cytokine and chemokine gene expression in footpad dermatitis
in chickens affected by incubation temperatures and litter conditions
Edgar Oviedo-Rondón*1, Jenna Scott2, Abdoullah Oufkir2, Albaraa
Sarsour2, Shelly Nolin2 1Prestage Department of Poultry Science, North
Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA; 2North Carolina State
University, Raleigh, NC, USA
Footpad dermatitis (FPD) incidence can be affected by litter conditions,
and it was recently demonstrated that suboptimal incubation temperature
profiles (INC) make chicks more susceptible to FPD. The objective of this
experiment was to measure cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6, IL8L2) and interferon-γ
(Iγ) gene expression (GE) in the footpad skin of 4 d-old Cobb 500 chicks
coming from eggs incubated under 3 INC and placed in floor pens with
either new wood shavings or used litter. The first INC maintained eggshell
temperatures close to 38.0oC (S) for 21 d. The second profile (LH) had
low (36.9oC) eggshell temperatures for the first 3 d and standard INC until
the last 3 d when eggs were subjected to elevated (38.9oC) eggshell INC
(H), as is observed in multistage machines. The third INC profile (SH)
had S incubation until the last 3 d when eggs had H INC. At hatch, 180
chicks, 60 per INC treatment, were placed in 18 pens with either new pine
wood shavings or used litter, each with 5 males and 5 females. At 4 d of
age, 3 chicks per sex and per pen, 18 per treatment, were sacrificed and
footpad skin samples were taken. The GE was determined by RT-PCR,
and the S-new litter treatment combination was considered a control for
fold-change comparisons. Data were analyzed in a CRBD in a 3x2x2 factorial arrangement with INC (S, LH, SH), litter type (new or used) and sex
as main factors. Results indicated two-way interaction effects (P<0.05). In
females, higher fold changes were observed on the GE of IL-1β (22-fold)
and IL8L2 (5 to 18-fold) when chicks came from sub-optimal INC (SH
or LH) and were exposed to used litter. Additionally, a 5-fold increase on
the GE of Iγ occurred in females only when they were from the SH or
LH profiles and exposed to new or used litter. In males, significant foldchanges were observed on GE of IL-1β (3.7-fold) and IL8L2 (2.7-fold)
when LH and SH chickens were placed in new litter, but there was no
effect on Iγ GE. It was concluded that sub-optimal INC make chicks more
susceptible to developing a non-specific inflammatory response, and this
effect is mainly observed in females.
Key Words: Footpad dermatitis, Gene expression, Cytokine, Incubation,
Litter
sociated with bacteria and spermatozoa were disrupting the architecture of
phalluses. Severe multifocal lymphoid nodules were seen histologically
in the mucosa around the spermatic and ejaculatory ducts. Three different species of Mycoplasma were isolated from the phalluses, and these
isolates were further characterized. In addition, Pasteurella multocida was
isolated in combination with other bacteria. The P. multocida isolate was
serotyped as well as further characterized. Hence, we report the history,
histo-pathological observations, test results, identification and characterization of the microorganisms isolated.
Key Words: Goose, Venereal Disease, Mycoplasma, P. multocida,
fertility
M10 Effects of in ovo injection of Inovocox EM1 vaccine and turn-out
times on broiler performance Adebayo Sokale*GS1, E. David Peebles1,
Christopher Williams2 1Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS,
USA; 2Zoetis Animal Health, Durham, NC, USA
The response of broiler chickens to 2 doses of the Inovocox EM1 vaccine
and 2 turn-out times was determined from 0 d of incubation (doi) to d 35
posthatch (poh). The EM1 vaccine containing Eimeria oocysts was injected on 19 doi into Ross x Ross 708 hatching eggs. Birds were subjected
to one of the following 6 treatments: treatment 1- non-injected control and
turn-out on d 7 poh (NIC7); treatment 2- non-injected control and turn-out
on d 10 poh (NIC10); treatment 3- 1× dose of EM1 vaccine and turn-out
on d 7 poh (1× VI7); treatment 4- 1× dose of EM1 vaccine and turn-out on
d 10 poh (1× VI10); treatment 5- 10× dose of EM1 vaccine and turn-out
on d 7 poh (10× VI7); and treatment 6- 10× dose of EM1 vaccine and turnout on d 10 (10× VI10). Site of injection (SOI) and embryonic stage score
(ES) were determined on 19 doi. Hatchability of injected eggs (HI), hatchling BW (HBW), and chick yield were determined on d 0 poh. Feed intake
(FI), BW, body weight gain (BWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were
determined from d 0 to 35 poh. Data were analyzed by the MIXED procedure of SAS 9.3, with global and LS means comparisons considered
significant at P ≤ 0.05. There was a significant treatment effect on BWG
(P=0.003) and FCR (P=0.03) from d 21 to 28 poh. BWG was highest in
the NIC7 group, and lowest in the 10× VI7 group. FCR was highest in
the 10× VI10 group, and lowest in the NIC10 group. ES score and SOI
accuracy were 4.60 ± 0.99 and 81.66 %, respectively. The ES and SOI results suggest that the developmental stage of the embryos corresponded to
between 19.0 and 19.5 doi, with vaccine deposition primarily in the right
breast muscle. The injection of EM1 vaccine at either a 1× or 10× dose
had no detrimental effect on chick quality. However, growth performance
may be negatively affected during peak oocyst cycling between d 21 and
28 poh. This effect may be related to the vaccine dose administered rather
than the turn-out time employed.
M9 An outbreak of Goose Venereal Disease in a commercial
breeder operation in California. Silvia Carnaccini*GS1, Naola FergusonNoel2, Richard Chin1, Mark Bland3, Bruce Charlton1, Arthur Bickford1,
Gabriel Sentíes-Cué.1 1California Animal Health & Food Safety (CAHFS)
Laboratory System, University of California, Davis., Turlock, CA, USA;
2
Poultry Diagnostic & Research Center, University of Georgia., Athens,
GA, USA; 3Cutler Veterinary Associates International., Moorpark, CA,
USA
M11 Establishing the correlation between broiler body weight gain,
gross lesion score, and microscores in three anticoccidial sensitivity
tests Miguel Barrios*GS1, Manuel Costa1, Emily Kimminau1, Lorraine
Fuller1, Steven Clark2, Gene Pesti1, Robert Beckstead1 1The University of
Georgia, Athens, GA, USA; 2Zoetis, West Jefferson, NC, USA
Six live male Toulouse breeder geese were submitted to the California
Animal Health and Food Safety laboratory, Turlock Branch, due to poor
fertility and hatchability during 2014 spring breeding season. The farm is
a medium-large scale, multi-age and multi-breed duck and goose breeding
commercial operation, which supplies eggs, baloots, meat, and relatedproducts to ethnic markets in California. Only a Toulouse flock was affected, which consisted of approximately 360 birds, 90 males and 270 females. In March 2014 the fertility registered was below 40%, whereas no
impact on egg production was observed. Hence, 40 of 90 male geese were
removed (44.4%) consequent to phallic alterations. The lesions observed
were confined exclusively to the male genital tract and severely compromised the possibility of mating. Severe granulomatous inflammation as-
Coccidiosis costs the poultry industry $3.2 billion worldwide every year.
Anticoccidial Sensitivity Tests (AST) serve to determine the efficacy of
several anticoccidials against Eimeria field isolates by measuring body
weight gain, feed conversion ratio, gross intestinal lesions, and mortality
in battery pen studies. Microscopic oocyst counts of intestinal scrapings
(microscores) are often investigated. The goal of this study was to determine the correlation between broiler body weight, gross lesion score, and
microscore in 3 AST. Day old broiler chicks were raised for 12 days on a
standard corn-soy diet. On day 13, chicks were placed in Petersime batteries and treatment diets were provided. There were 6 birds per pen, 4 pens
per treatment, and 12 treatments for a total of 288 chicks per AST. The
treatments were as follows: 1: Non-medicated, non-infected, 2: Non-med-
Key Words: broiler, coccidiosis, in ovo injection
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
icated, infected, 3: Lasalocid, 4: Salinomycin, 5: Diclazuril, 6: Monensin,
7: Decoquinate, 8: Narasin + Nicarbazin, 9: Narasin, 10: Nicarbazine, 11:
Robenidine, and 12: Zoalene. On day 15, chicks were challenged with
oocysts of Eimeria field isolates by oral gavage. On day 21, broilers were
weighed, and gross lesion scores and microscores for Eimeria maxima
were classified from 0 to 4 according to the Johnson and Reid (1970)
methodology. All data were statistically analyzed using a logarithmic regression model. There was no correlation (P=0.12) between microscore
and body weight gain. There was a positive correlation between gross lesions and microscores (P=0.004). However, there was also an interaction
between microscore and isolate (P<0.001). This may be due to the differing pathogenicity of the challenge isolates. These results indicate that
gross lesion scores are predictors of microscores. Additionally, the interaction between isolate and gross lesions demonstrates that the significance
of the correlation between microscores and gross lesion scores may be
dependent of the Eimeria strain. Future work should focus on more Eimeria isolates to establish a database, which would allow to build a model for
population prediction.
Key Words: Coccidiosis, gross lesion score, microscore, AST, broiler
M12 Adaptation of Embryo Attenuated Infectious Bronchitis Virus
Arkansas to Kidney Cells Aly Ghetas*GS, Grace Thaxton, Cassandra
Breedlove, Vicky van Santen, Haroldo Toro Auburn University, Auburn,
AL, USA
The population structure of an embryo-attenuated infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) Arkansas (Ark) Delmarva Poultry Industry (DPI)-derived vaccine was characterized during serial passages in chicken embryo kidney
(CEK) cells and after back-passage in embryonated chicken eggs (ECE)
and in chickens. Both conventional and deep sequencing results consistently showed population changes occurred during adaptation to CEK
cells. Specifically, thirteen amino acid (aa) positions seemed to be targets
of selection when comparing the vaccine genome prior to and after 7 passages in CEK (CEKp7). Amino acid changes occurred at four positions
in the S gene, and at two positions in the S gene large shifts in frequencies of aa encoded were observed. CEK adaptation shifted the virus population towards homogeneity in S. The changes achieved in the S1 gene
in CEKp7 were maintained after a back-passage in ECE. Outside the S
gene, amino acid changes at three positions and large shifts in frequencies at four positions were observed. Synonymous nucleotide changes and
changes in non-coding regions of the genome were observed at eight genome positions. Inoculation of early CEK passages into chickens induced
higher antibody levels and CEKp4 induced increased respiratory signs
compared to CEKp7.
Key Words: infectious bronchitis virus, coronavirus, virus adaptation,
genetic variation, Arkansas
M13 Evaluation of the infection and transmission of wild type and
recombinant strains of Newcastle Disease Virus in Japanese Quail
Valerie Marcano*GS1, Tim Olivier2, Claudio Afonso2 1Southeast Poultry
Research Laboratory (SEPRL) ARS, USDA, Athens, GA, USA; 2SEPRL,
ARS, USDA, Athens, GA, USA
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes a range of clinical disease ranging
from asymptomatic infection to severe disease with high mortality. Vaccination for NDV is practiced almost worldwide in commercial chickens.
Attenuated live vaccines are most commonly used, with recombinant vaccines becoming increasingly popular. The target species for a NDV vectored vaccine are poultry species. However, since NDV infects at least 250
bird species, non-target species (wild birds) could be exposed and infected
with these vaccine viruses. In spite of that, the infectivity and transmissibility of recombinant NDV and recombinant NDV vectored vaccines have
not been examined in any species besides chickens. The widespread use of
these vaccines and the routes of administration –which include aerosol or
drinking water, pose an extremely high risk of exposure of the vaccine to
5
wild birds. This study is part of a series of pathogenesis studies that aims
to evaluate the infection and transmission of wild type and vaccine strains
of NDV in non-target species. If these species can transmit the virus, this
could result in the unrestricted spread of potentially pathogenic variants to
other poultry farms and to wildlife. In this portion of the study, Japanese
quail are being evaluated. Quail are often kept with other poultry species,
and could potentially increase transmission and magnify outbreaks. In
fact, ND outbreaks have occurred in Japanese quail in Nigeria in 2004 and
in 2008. Two experiments were conducted. The first experiment aimed to
study transmission and replication of recombinant NDV. In this experiment, 4 week old Japanese quail were divided into groups of 5 birds and
infected with either virulent recombinant ZJ1-L , lentogenic recombinant
ZJ1 (rZJ1-L), recombinant LaSota (rLaSota) or recombinant LaSota containing the H5 influenza insert (rLaSota-H5) at day 0 post infection (dpi).
At 2 dpi four un-inoculated birds were placed with each group of inoculated birds. Clinical signs and mortality were recorded daily and birds
were swabbed every other day until 14 dpi. The second experiment aimed
to study the transmission and clinical signs caused by wild type strains
of NDV. 4 week old Japanese quail were divided into groups of 7 birds
and each group was infected with either CA02, Nigeria 2, Nigeria 23,
Pk/karichi/33 or Israel 826. 3 un-inoculated birds were placed with each
of the groups at 0dpi. Similar to the first experiment, clinical signs and
mortality were recorded daily and birds were swabbed every other day
until 14 dpi. Clinical disease, mortality, number of birds shedding, number
of contact birds infected, amount of virus shed and seroconversion rates
were examined.
Key Words: Newcastle Disease Virus, Japanese Quail, vaccine,
recombinant
M14 Use of histomorphometric area measurements for determination
of intestinal villus/crypt ratios in broiler chickens: comparisons to
routine linear methods and documentation of age-associated intestinal
changes Floyd Wilson*1, Timothy Cummings2, Taylor Barbosa3, Chris
Williams3, John Dickson4, Amanda Lawrence5, David Peebles6 1MVRDL,
College of Veterinary Medicine,. Mississippi State University, Pearl, MS,
USA; 2Zoetis, Starkville, MS, USA; 3Zoetis - Global Poultry, Durham,
NC, USA; 4Zoetis Poultry Health, Durham, NC, USA; 5Mississippi State,
MS 39762, Starkville, MS, USA; 6Mississippi State University, Starkville,
MS, USA
The determination of intestinal villus to crypt ratios [V:C ratio] is a common method utilized to evaluate effects of various diet regimens on gut
microanatomy and for the histologic quantification of intestinal responses
to disease processes. Two methods for the determination of small intestinal V:C ratios were compared for early age chickens. A standard method
for ratio determination based on ten length measurements of the two intestinal regions was compared to a new approach based on a single histomorphometric determination of the crypt and total mucosa areas using
image analysis software. Subtraction of the crypt area from the total area
provided the villus area and allowed for subsequent calculation of the V:C
ratio. Villus micro-anatomic changes were also evaluated using scanning
electron microscopic methods and those results for villus height were
compared to the routine histological data. In general very close agreement
was observed between ratio results using both the routine length and the
new area method measurements. A similar major and highly significant reduction in the V:C ratio was observed occurring between hatch and day 7
using the two methods. The area method has the advantage of reduction in
measurements required [only two area measurements required, compared
to twenty length measurements]: and also facilities a larger intestinal segment evaluation; which is of particular advantage for studies on intestinal
disease conditions resulting in marked multifocal variation in villus stature. The study also further documents age-associated changes occurring in
the V:C ratios of the small intestine during early post-hatch periods.
Key Words: Intestine Key Words: Intestine, Histomorphometrics,
Poultry, Broiler, Aging, Histomorphometrics, Poultry, Broiler, Aging
6
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
Physiology/SCAD I
M15 Immunolesions of melanopsin receptive neurons in the adult
Pekin drake attenuates the hormonal reproductive axis. Gregory
S Fraley*, Kelly Frazier, Erin Alenciks, Amanda Porter Hope College,
Holland, MI, USA
Several light sensitive receptors have been described in the avian brain
that are thought to regulate the reproductive axis independently from the
eyes and pineal gland. Recently, my lab has described the presence of
three of these photoneuroendocrine systems in the Pekin duck: opsin, opsin 5, and melanopsin. We set out to test the hypothesis that melanopsin receptive neurons are necessary to maintain seasonal reproductive
status in the Pekin drake. To accomplish this, 50-week-old Pekin drakes
were housed in the aviary at Hope College under long day length (18 hrs
lights on) conditions in floor pens (5 drakes per pen). To specifically lesion melanopsin-receptive neurons, drakes were anethestized (8 mg/kg
Propofol, IV), given analgesics (2 mg/kg ketfen, SC) skin incised and a
trephine hole drilled 10 mm caudal to bony orbits and 1 mm to the left of
midline. A 33 gauge stainless steel needle attached to a Hamilton syringe
was lowered stereotactically 3.5 mm ventral to dura into the lateral ventricle. Three microliters of an anti-melanopsin-saporin conjugate (MSAP,
100 ng/ul) was injected into the lateral ventricle (n = 10). Control drakes
were injected with 3 ul of equimolar unconjugated anti-melanopsin and
saporin (SAP, n = 10). The incision was closed with VetBond, and the
drakes returned to the aviary after complete recovery from anesthesia. After 4 weeks, birds were euthanized (400 mg/kg FatalPlus, IP) and body
weight measured, and brains, pituitaries, and testes collected and stored
for analyses. MSAP-treated drakes had significantly (p < 0.001) reduced
relative teste weights compared to SAP controls. qRT-PCR analyses (n =
5 per treatment) of anterior pituitary showed a significant reduction (p <
0.001) in both LH-beta and FSH mRNA’s. Immunoctyochemical analyses
(n = 5 per treatment) showed a significant reduction in melanopsin and
GnRH-immunoreactivities. These data underscore the importance of the
photoneuroendocrine system in maintaining the reproductive axis in seasonally breeding birds.
Key Words: deep brain photoreceptors, seasonal breeder, GnRH, GnIH
M16Chronic feed administration of Dexamethasone increase
intestinal permeability similar to feed restriction stress in broiler
chickens Eduardo Vicuna*GS, Viviek Kuttappan, Rosario Seeber-Galarza,
Juan-David Latorre, Olivia Faulkner, Guillermo Tellez, Billy Hargis, Lisa
Bielke University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA
We have previously shown that intestinal barrier function can be adversely
affected by stress, poorly digested diets, or feed restriction, resulting in
increased intestinal inflammation-associated permeability. Presently, three
Exp were conducted to evaluate the effect of dexamethasone (DEX) treatment on systemic (serum) Fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FITC-d;
3-5kDa) absorption, indicative of increased gut epithelial leakage. In Exp
1, we compared DEX injection at a known stress-response-inducing dose
of 1mg/kg on d3, 5, and 9 with feed administration at 0.57, 1.7, or 5.1
ppm d4-10, on FITC-d serum concentrations 2.5 hr after gavage with 4.16
mg/kg FITC-d. DEX administration, regardless of route or dose, resulted
in marked (P<0.05) increased FITC-d passage into blood and detection
in serum. Feed administration of DEX at any dose resulted in greater
(P<0.05) gut permeability than injection, with numerically optimal effects
at the lowest dose tested. In Exp 2-3, chicks were randomly assigned to
shaving-bedded pens (Exp 2) or wire brooders (Exp 3) with starter ration containing either unmedicated Control (CON) or Treated (TRT) feed
(0.57 ppm/kg, d3-10 Exp 2, d4-10 Exp 3), with feed and water provided
ad libitum for 10 days. At d10, all chicks were treated by oral gavage with
FITC-d and serum samples were obtained 2.5h post-gavage as described
above. Additional samples of the right half of the liver were aseptically
collected, diluted 1:4 wt/vol, serially diluted and plated on tryptic soy
agar to evaluate total numbers of aerobic bacteria in liver as an index of
bacterial translocation (BT). In both experiments, FITC-d absorption was
significantly enhanced in DEX-treated chicks, again indicating increased
paracellular leakage across the gut epithelium associated with dissolution
of tight junctions. Dietary DEX administration resulted in numerically
(Exp 2) or significantly (P<0.05) increased enteric BT to liver tissue, supporting the observation that dietary DEX causes a stress-like inflammatory
GI response, which may contribute to subclinical or clinical disease, and
may be a useful model for ongoing disease mitigation research related to
stress-related diseases of GIT origin.
Key Words: Enteric inflammation, Dexamethasone, FITC-dextran,
Bacterial translocation, Permeability
M17 Effect of in ovo feeding of dextrin-iodinated casein on
mitochondrial and autophagy associated molecules in broiler embryos
Shaymaa Abou-Saad*GS1, Elizabeth Greene2, Alissa Piekarski2, Kentu
Lassiter2, Billy M. Hargis2, Lisa R. Bielke2, Parag Chary3, Sami Dridi2,
Walter Bottje2 1University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA; 2Dept.
of Poultry Science, Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA; 3Zoetis,
Kalamazoo, MI, USA
This study was conducted to determine effects of in ovo feeding of dextrin
and iodinated casein on expression of genes and proteins associated with
mitochondrial- and autophagy-related mechanisms in broiler embryos.
This experiment was conducted using a commercial InovojectTM system
at a commercial hatchery. Eggs, obtained from a 54 wk old broiler breeder
flock on a single day, were treated at ~18.5 d of embryonic development
in a 2 x 3 factorial design with 0, 240, or 480 mg iodinated casein (Ic)/mL
in a control solution (saline diluent) or dextrin (Dxt: 18% malto-dextrin
and 10% potato starch dextrin); ~2500 eggs per group. The eggs were
placed in hatch baskets (100 eggs/ basket, 5 baskets/ treatment) in an experimental incubator in a randomized block design. At 24 h post-injection,
eggs were randomly selected (8 eggs/group). Portions of liver and heart
from the 20 d embryos were obtained and flash frozen in liquid nitrogen. Using appropriate primers, mRNA expression was determined by
QPCR for PGC1-α, AMPK-α, orexin, ATG3, ATG12, LC3B, and Beclin1
in liver and heart. Protein expression was determined by western blot in
the heart for ANT, ATG7 AMPK-α and Beclin. In the liver, ATG3, LC3B,
and PGC1-α gene expression was elevated by Ic480 whereas DxtIc240
increased mRNA expression of orexin, PGC1- α and ATG3. However, Dxt
alone decreased expression of orexin and AMPK-α in the liver compared
to Controls. In the heart, Ic240 up-regulated mRNA expression of orexin
and AMPK-α, but ATG3, ATG12, Beclin 1 and LC3B expression were
down-regulated by the Ic480 treatment. ATG7 and AMPK-α protein expression were up-regulated by Ic240, DxtIc240, and DxtIc480 treatments.
In addition, Dxt, Ic480 and DxtIc480 increased the protein expression of
Beclin 1. Dxt alone also decreased ANT and AMPK-α protein expression
compared to the control group. The results indicate that in ovo feeding
of dextrin-iodinated casein affects expression of mitochondrial and autophagy-related proteins that in turn could impact energetics in late term
embryos. Supported in part by Zoeitis, Inc (Kalamazoo MI).
Key Words: In ovo feeding, dextrin-iodinated casein, mitochondrial,
autophagy, gene and protein expression
M18 Parental sex effect of parthenogenesis on hatchability of Chinese
Painted quail Holly Parker*, Aaron Kiess, Chris McDaniel Mississippi
State University, Mississippi State, MS, USA
Embryonic development of unfertilized eggs is known as parthenogenesis
(P). In virgin and mated quail, P decreases albumen pH. Also in mated
hens, hatchability as well as sperm-egg penetration are negatively impacted by P. However, it is unknown if the dam or sire is responsible for
the decline in hatchability due to P. Therefore, the objective of this study
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
was to determine which parental sex has the greatest impact on hatchability of quail selected for P. In the current study to determine P in virgin
hens, males were separated from females at 4 wk of age prior to sexual
maturity. Dams and sires from 2 lines of birds were used: one selected for
P and one not selected for P (controls, C). A 2 dam (C and P) x 2 sire (C
and P) factorial arrangement of treatments was utilized with the following
breeding pairs: C dams + C sires (CC), C dams + P sires (CP), P dams + C
sires (PC), and P dams + P sires (PP). Parthenogenetic dams were selected
based on their incidence of P as virgins, and sires were selected based on
their sister’s incidence of P. Means were separated at P<0.05. Daily, eggs
were collected and incubated at 37.5°C for 18 d. At 10 d of incubation
(DOI) eggs were candled, and eggs showing little or no development were
removed and broken to determine infertility, stage of embryonic failure,
and albumen pH. After 18 DOI, eggs that did not hatch were broken to
determine at what stage of embryonic development the hatching failure
occurred. At 10 DOI, eggs from P dams yielded a higher percentage of
parthenogens and early embryonic mortality as compared to eggs from
C dams. However, eggs from P dams exhibited a lower albumen pH than
did eggs from C dams after 10 DOI. Hatch of eggs set and hatch of fertilized eggs were less for P as compared to C dams. Also after 18 DOI, a
greater percentage of eggs from P dams contained parthenogens and early
embryonic mortality than did eggs from C dams. Interestingly, selection
of the sire for P did not impact any hatching parameter. In conclusion,
the presence of P in the dam has the greatest impact on hatchability. Because selection of P in the hen alone negatively impacts hatchability, it is
possible that alterations within the oviduct due to the P trait may inhibit
normal embryonic development.
Key Words: Parthenogenesis, hatchability, fertility, albumen pH,
embryonic mortality
M19 Both Bifidobacterium animalis and its metabolites impact
broiler breeder sperm motility Melissa Triplett*GS1, Christopher
McDaniel1, Aaron Kiess2 1Mississippi State University, Mississippi State,
MS, USA; 2Mississippi State, Mississippi State, MS, USA
The use of antibiotics in poultry production is being challenged due to
public concern. The poultry industry has started exploring alternatives to
antibiotics such as probiotics. Probiotics have been shown to enhance performance, stimulate immune function, and reduce pathogenic bacteria in
the GI tract of poultry. However, previous research from our laboratory
has revealed that when rooster semen is exposed to Bifidobacterium animalis (B. animalis) overall semen quality is reduced immediately upon exposure. Therefore, the objective of this research was to determine if B. animalis itself or its metabolites decrease semen quality by reducing sperm
viability or sperm motility. Semen was collected from 35, Ross 344 broiler
breeders by the abdominal massage method and pooled. B. animalis was
cultured overnight in reinforced clostridial broth prior to semen exposure.
The treatments included semen exposed to: saline (control), reinforced
clostridial broth alone, a 12 h culture of B. animalis, a centrifuged pellet
of B. animalis resuspended in saline, and the supernatant. All 5 treatments
were analyzed on a sperm quality analyzer to determine the sperm quality
index (SQI), a fluorometer to determine the percentage of dead sperm, and
a scanning electron microscope to visualize sperm-bacteria interactions.
The reinforced clostridial broth treatment had a lower SQI compared to
saline (216 vs 344 respectively); however, the B. animalis culture, the
pellet, and the supernatant reduced the SQI drastically (53, 15, and 14,
respectively; P = 0.0001). Additionally, all treatments that contained the
reinforced clostridial broth, including the broth, B. animalis culture, and
the supernatant treatments, increased percent dead sperm when compared
to the pellet and saline treatments (41.9, 43, 42.8, vs 15 and 7.6% respectively; P = 0.0016). Electron microscopy revealed sperm bounded with
bacterial cells. In conclusion, the addition of reinforced clostridial broth to
any treatment increased the percentage of dead sperm and reduced the SQI
compared to saline. However, the B. animalis culture, the pellet, and the
supernatant reduced the SQI much further, demonstrating that B. animalis
7
and its metabolites actually reduce sperm motililty directly and not sperm
viability.
Key Words: Bifidobacterium, Broiler Breeder, Semen, Sperm Quality
Index, Percent Dead Sperm
M20 The sperm storage tubule epithelium (SST-E) and its role in
sperm storage Murray Bakst* ARS, USDA, Beltsville, MD, USA
Despite playing an integral role in hen fertility, little is known about the
cellular and molecular interactions between sperm and the SST-E. While
sperm motility has been shown to be important in sperm storage in and
release from the SST (Froman 2003), the role of the SST-E in mediating
these activities is not known. Presentations at the past two IPSF meetings
revealed that (1) microvillous vesicles (MV) blebbing from the SST-E are
released into the SST lumen and interact with sperm and (2) glycoconjugates are present on SST-E microvilli. In this presentation, it will be
argued that these two observations enable the SST-E to interact with resident sperm. The presence of specific terminal sugars on glycoconjugates
observed on SST-E microvilli suggests that, like that observed in the mammalian oviduct, avian sperm may bind to the SST-E. If so, this could be the
basis for a paracrine-like signal or a means of communicating endocrine
signals. For example, progesterone recently has been shown to induce the
release of sperm from SSTs. The MVs may supply resident sperm with
metabolic substrates utilized by resident sperm (fatty acids), macromolecules necessary for membrane stabilization (inhibit lipid peroxidation),
and be a source of cholesterol-rich lipid rafts. Lipid rafts would be incorporated into the sperm plasmalemma and possibly organize signalling
molecules, influence membrane fluidity (increased membrane cholesterol
will decrease membrane fluidity inhibiting an acrosome reaction). The following is suggested with regard to sperm in the SSTs: sperm metabolize
exogenous fatty acids that may be derived from the MV; macromolecules
associated with MVs suppress both lipid peroxidation and the acrosome
reaction; sperm binding may initiate communication between the SSTE and resident sperm; the sperm residing in the SSTs swim against a
fluid current and as sperm motility wanes sperm are carried out of the
SST(Froman 2003); and the same fluid current disperses signals from the
SST-E and the MV throughout the SST lumen.
Key Words: poultry, oviduct, fertility, sperm
M21 Assessing total body surface area of broiler chickens utilizing
Computed Tomography (CT) technology Jonathan Morris*GS1, Ajay
Sharma2, Wayne Daley3, Robert Beckstead1 1The University of Georgia,
Athens, GA, USA; 2The University of Georgia College of Veterinary
Medicine, Athens, GA, USA; 3Georgia Tech Research Institute, Atlanta,
GA, USA
The husbandry of poultry species is a complex process plagued by numerous challenges that must be overcome for optimal performance. One of
these challenges is the retention or dispersion of heat as the birds grow.
The single greatest influence on body heat loss is surface area to volume
ratio. There appears to be a lack of information relevant to the modern
broiler concerning an efficient method to calculate total surface area
(TSA) and volume in order to optimize rearing conditions. The purpose
of this study is to develop such a method whereby these variables may be
accurately calculated directly from body weight and other easy to measure parameters. Starting at day of age, five male and five female Ross
708 broilers were weighed and imaged by CT scan (also called Computer
Axial Tomography or CAT scan) each week from to eight weeks of age.
The images were loaded into OsiriX, an open-source DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) viewer, in order to measure the
length of the right and left humerus, radius, femur, tibia, and middle toe of
each bird. The images were exported to and processed in Mimics. These
processed images were then imported into a CAD program by way of a
point cloud conversion to obtain TSA and volume. All parameters measured were found to be highly correlated (r2 ≤ .96) with each other. These
data were used to evaluate the accuracy of existing formulas for predict-
8
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
ing TSA such as Meeh’s formula and the Dubois-Dubois formula. Based
on the variability of the accuracy of prediction of these methods, a new
formula was developed incorporating additional parameters that can be
calculated from measurements that are easily taken in the field. These images will be further analyzed to include different organs and tissues such
as heart, lungs, muscle, and fat to provide deeper insights into differential
growth patterns of broilers.
Key Words: CT scan, total surface area, volume, growth, broiler
M23 Salmonella emerging serotypes for poultry industry: Salmonella
Infantis identified in a broiler vertical integration Martha PulidoLandinez*1, Alejandro Banda2, Jean Guard3 1National University of
Colombia, Bogota, DC., Colombia; 2Mississippi State University, Brandon,
MS, USA; 3USDA, Athens, GA, USA
Salmonella Infantis (SI) was identified in a broiler vertical integration
causing high mortality and poor productive performance in broiler chickens older than 14 days. During 2013, Salmonella was isolated from different sources across the vertical integration (n=169); 70% of these isolates belonged to the O9 group. S. Infantis was identified by Intergenic
Sequence Ribotyping as the predominant serotype. SI was isolated from
samples collected in feed mills, breeders, fertile eggs, broiler hatchery,
baby chickens, broiler farms and slaughter plant. In broiler farms 60%
of SI was isolated from organs of sick birds (liver, spleen, intestine, trachea and infraorbital sinus), and from environmental samples (feces,
litter). When unusual serotypes for poultry (emerging and re-emerging)
cause problems, frequently it is not easy to determine the proper control
measures. Furthermore, several of these unusual serotypes have been determined to cause food related intoxications from different products of
animal or vegetal origin. The importance of these results is the identification of SI causing disease in broilers that may cause further public health
problems.
Key Words: Salmonella, Salmonella Infantis, Emerging serotypes,
Broiler vertical integration
M24 Effects of BioMos, Natustat, or AGP program Broiler Chicken
Performance Greg Mathis*1, Brett Lumpkins1, Ted Sefton2 1Southern
Poultry Research, Inc., Athens, GA, USA; 2Alltech, Inc., Nicholasville, KY,
USA
The objective of the study was to determine if a BioMos, Natustat, or
BMD program would improve performance when fed to coccidial vaccinated broiler chickens. BioMos (mannanoligosaccharides) is a pre-biotic
feed additive used to improve immune function and support beneficial
bacteria. Natustat is a feed additive that is a proprietary mixture of organic minerals, yeast cell wall oligosaccharides, and plant extracts. BMD
(bacitracin methylene disalicylate) is an antibiotic feed additive. A floor
pen trial was run on built-up litter topped with pine shavings. The trial
used a randomized complete block design (LSD P≤0.05). Cobb 500 male
broiler chicks were vaccinated for coccidia at hatch and then randomly
assigned to 32 pens (8 blocks) of 50 chicks/pen providing 0.93 sq. ft per
chick. A three phase dietary program was used based on commercial feed
formulation standards; starter d0-18, grower d18-35, and finisher d35-42.
Chicks were assigned to 4 treatments and fed one of the following diets: 1.
negative control, no feed additive (CON); 2. BioMos 4 lbs/t d0-18, 2 lbs/t
d18-35, 1 lb/t d35-42; 3. Natustat 2 lbs/t d0-35, BioMos 1 lb/t d35-42; 4.
AGP program (AGP): BMD® 50 g/t d0-35, no additive d35-42. For each
weigh period, the adjusted feed conversion ratio (FCR) and weight gain
(WT) for the Natustat fed birds were significantly better than the CON. All
treatments had significantly better FCR and WT on d35 and d42 compared
to CON. There were no significant differences (P≤0.05) in FCR and WT
between Natustat and AGP program fed birds at all weigh periods. The results show that all of these programs improved performance in vaccinated
broiler chickens. Thus in an antibiotic free program (where BMD cannot
be used) BioMos and Natustat can be effective non-antibiotic feed additives with coccidia vaccinated birds.
Key Words: BioMos, Natustat, BMD, Coccidia
M25 Original XPCTM improves performance in broilers receiving a
live coccidiosis vaccine. Stephanie Frankenbach*, Don McIntyre Diamond
V, Cedar Rapids, IA, USA
Birds given a live coccidiosis vaccine often show signs of diminished appetite and slower-than-expected growth rate soon after vaccination. This
study was conducted to compare the effects of a live coccidiosis vaccine
in broilers, with and without the dietary inclusion of XPC (1.25 kg/mt).
Ross 708 male broilers (n=1,280) were allocated to one of four treatments: Cocci-vaccine (T1), Cocci-vaccine + XPC (T2), Cocci-vaccine +
Salinomycin (T3), Cocci-vaccine + Salinomycin + XPC (T4). A threephase feeding program was fed to 16 pens per treatment, 20 birds per pen.
All birds were vaccinated in the hatchery with Marek’s, IBD, NCDV &
IBV, then sprayed with Coccivac-B (Merck) at 0d of age. Salinomycin
(Sal) was used as a sub-therapeutic coccidiostat (40 g/t) in the Grower diet
(16-28d). Birds and feed were weighed by pen at 16, 28, and 42d. Fecal
samples were taken by pen at 14, 21, 28, and 35d to estimate oocysts per
gram (OPG) of fecal matter. Birds consuming diets containing XPC (T2
& T4) had increased feed intake and significantly higher body weight at
28d (1.70 & 1.75 kg vs. 1.63 & 1.67 kg, respectively) and at 42d (3.29 &
3.31 kg vs. 3.20 & 3.26 kg, respectively) compared to their paired control
treatments (T1 & T3). Feed conversion ratio was significantly (P<0.05)
improved by adding XPC to diets (T2 & T4) in birds given live coccidiosis
vaccine, compared to control diets (T1 & T3) with and without salinomycin (40g) in the Grower feed by 28d (1.43 & 1.40 vs. 1.47 & 1.44, respectively), during the colonization of coccidia following vaccination. By 42d
feed conversion values were both 1.67 for T2 & T4 compared to 1.70 &
1.69 for T1 & T3, respectively. No differences were observed between
treatments in OPG, indicating that addition of XPC to T2 & T4 did not
interfere with colonization of coccidiosis and development of immunity
during the trial. Results from this study demonstrate that XPC can be used
in conjunction with a live coccidia vaccine to restore appetite, growth rate
and improve feed conversion of broilers given a live cocci-vaccine.
Key Words: Broiler, Cocci-vaccine, Original XPC, performance,
coccidiosis
M26 Evaluation of Original XPC™ and its effects on Clostridial
Dermatitis induced mortality and performance of tom turkeys Dan
Moore*1, Don McIntyre2, Jonathan Broomhead2, Steve Davis1, Sam
Hendrix1 1Colorado Quality Research, Wellington, CO, USA; 2Diamond V,
Cedar Rapids, IA, USA
Clostridial Dermatitis (CD) is a major concern for turkey producers due
to the acute onset of the disease, high incidence of mortality, difficulty in
predicting an outbreak and lack of antibiotic alternatives for treatment.
One of the reasons for the lack of new CD treatments has been the limited
availability of consistent CD models in research settings. The objective of
this study was to determine the impact of a broad-spectrum immune modulator, Original XPC™ (XPC), currently available to the poultry industry
on mortality and performance of tom turkeys naturally challenged with
CD. Nicholas tom poults (n=450) were placed on study at day of hatch and
subjected to one of two feed treatments: 1) Control and 2) XPC (2.5 lbs/
ton). Treatments contained 9 replicate pens each and were assigned using
a complete randomized block design. At 42d of age, each pen containing
22 birds was challenged with infected litter that had been previously used
during a CD outbreak. Signs of CD appeared by 83d with a majority of
the outbreak occurring after 94d until the end of the study at 109d. CD
was diagnosed through gross examination and necropsy by a veterinarian
and trained technicians. CD induced mortality (42-109d) was 19.19% for
the control birds and 14.14% for the XPC fed birds (P=0.24). No statistical difference was observed in 42-109d body weight gains of 11.26 kg
vs. 10.95 kg (P>0.05), and gross feed conversions were 2.96 vs. 2.64 for
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
the control and XPC birds, respectively. Body weight gains were similar
at 14.1 kg and 13.8 kg (P>0.05), and gross feed conversions of 2.46 and
2.28 were observed from 0-109d for control and XPC birds, respectively.
Overall, statistical differences in performance or mortality could not be
seen due to variation within treatments. However, XPC decreased CD induced mortality by 26% resulting in practical improvements of 31pts in
feed conversion during the challenge period (42-109d).
Key Words: Clostridial Dermatitis, turkey, mortality, model
M27 Field Studies: Preharvest Salmonella Control Using the
Immune Modulator Original XPCTM in Broilers and Commercial
Turkeys Charles Hofacre*1, Roy Berghaus1, Don McIntyre2, Doug Smith2
1
The University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA; 2Diamond V, Cedar Rapids,
IA, USA
Statement of Purpose: Broiler and turkey processing plant interventions
have successfully lowered Salmonella sp. prevalence from the initial incoming load of 45.9% (feathers) to 2.4% (post chill) (Berghaus). Higher
incoming Salmonella levels may require additional interventions on the
farm. Many controlled studies have been conducted evaluating the effectiveness of probiotics, prebiotics, vaccines, etc. for lowering Salmonella
in the live bird.
Experimental Design: Two separate commercial field studies were conducted in broilers and turkeys to evaluate the efficacy of Diamond V Original XPC, a broad-spectrum immune modulator. In each study an equal
number of houses on each farm were assigned one of two treatments, 2.5
lbs XPC/ton fed continuously (XPC), or non-treated control (CON). Two
16 house farms (1 broiler and 1 turkey) had half of the houses feed treated
and the other half a normal diet with no additive. There were four boot
socks taken from each house the week of slaughter and were cultured for
Salmonella prevalence. There were 25 broiler carcasses at rehang rinsed
with 400 ml BPW using USDA-FSIS method. There were 25 ceca removed from the turkeys at rehang. In both carcass (broilers) and ceca
(turkeys) the laboratory cultured for both Salmonella sp. prevalence and
enumeration by Most Probable Number (MPN).
Results: There was a significant reduction in positive carcass rinses from
XPC broilers (1/200, 0.5%) vs. CON broilers (17/200, 8/5%) P = .011.
Furthermore, the load detected on the positive XPC carcass (n=1) was
numerically less at 2.20 log10 MPN, compared to the average of 2.43 log10
MPN per carcass for CON. Commercial turkey Toms, ceca collected in
the plant; XPC had a lower prevalence of 83/200 (41.7%) positive vs.
control hens 133/200 (66.5%) positive (P≤ 0.14). The mean Salmonella
MPN (load) of the culture-positive samples was 0.43 log10 lower in XPC
compared to CON (P=0.017).
*The University of Georgia
**Diamond V
Key Words: Salmonella, Colonization, Immune Modulation, Food Safety
M28 Immunomodulatory effects of Diamond V Original XPCTM
supplementation on immune gene expression in broilers W. K. Chou*1,
J. W. Park1, J. B. Carey1, D. R. McIntyre2, L. R. Berghman3 1Poultry Science
Department Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA; 2Diamond
V Mills, Cedar Rapids, IA, USA; 3Departments of Poultry Science and
Veterinary Pathobiology Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA
A study was conducted to evaluate the molecular and cellular immunomodulatory effects of Diamond V Original XPC (XPC), a broad-spectrum
immune modulator, in broilers. Our lab has demonstrated that broilers
fed XPC generate faster and stronger antigen-specific humoral immune
responses to Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) vaccination. One-day-old
broilers were randomly assigned one of two treatments: 1.25 kg/ton XPC
(T1) or control diet (T2). Birds were vaccinated against NDV at d1 (B1
strain) and d21 (LaSota strain) post-hatch. Innate and adaptive immunerelated gene expression profiles in central (thymus and bursa of Fabri-
9
cius) and peripheral immune organs (spleen) were investigated at d14
and d28 post-hatch by qPCR array. Fold changes larger than 1.2 (p<0.05)
between T1 and T2 were considered significant. Lymphocyte subpopulations in central and peripheral immune organs, and blood leukocytes were
analyzed by flow cytometry on days 14, 21, 28, and 42 post-hatch. In the
spleen, Th1 immune responses and anti-viral genes, such as IFN-γ, and
its downstream genes STAT4 and NFκB, were significantly up-regulated
in T1 on d14 post-hatch. In the thymus, different functional gene groups
were influenced at different time points. Cytokine genes associated with
lymphocyte maturation, differentiation, and proliferation, such as IL-1,
IL-2, IL-8, and IL-15 were significantly up-regulated in T1 on d28 posthatch. Genes preferentially expressed in the medulla and mature thymocytes, such as Myxovirus resistance gene 1, interferon regulatory factor-1
(IRF-1), IRF-7, and STAT1, were up-regulated in T1. Birds supplemented
with XPC had significantly higher percentages of CD3+, CD4+, and
CD8+ T-cells in the thymus on d28, indicating production of more mature
T-cells, which was consistent with gene expression results. Results suggest that XPC supplementation primes broilers to become more immunocompetent, without compromising growth performance.
Key Words: XPC, Immunomodulation, qPCR, Spleen, Thymus
M29 Effects of Diamond V Original XPCTM on modulating adaptive
immune function in broilers Jung-Woo Park*GS1, W.K. Chou1, L. R.
Berghman1, D.R. McIntyre2, J. B. Carey1 1Poultry Science Department
Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA; 2Diamond V Mills,
Cedar Rapids, IA, USA
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of Diamond V Original
XPC (XPC), a broad-spectrum immune modulator, on immune function
in broilers. One-day-old broilers were randomly assigned one of two treatments: 1.25 kg/ton XPC (T1), or control diet (T2). All broilers were vaccinated for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) on d1 (B1 strain) and d21 (LaSota strain) via eye drop. Body weight, feed consumption, feed conversion
ratio, and mortality were recorded to monitor growth performance. There
was no significant difference in body weights (P < 0.05) between T1 and
T2. Due to only one pen per group, no statistical analysis was conducted
for feed consumption or feed conversion. Blood and immune organ samples (thymus, bursa of Fabricius, and spleen) were collected to evaluate
immune system development on days 14, 21, 28, 35 (blood only), and 42.
Birds supplemented with XPC had significantly greater thymus indices on
days 28, and 42. Birds in T2 had significantly greater bursa of Fabricius
indices on days 14 and 42, and a significantly greater spleen index on
d21. The result of NDV antibody titer measurement showed the Immunoglobulin G level of T1 was significantly higher than T2 after 1st vaccination on day 14, and increased faster than T2 after boost on day 21. Cell
proliferation results from blood had the same trend with NDV antibody
titer results; T1 had significantly stronger T-lymphocyte abilities than T2
at d28. Through histology observation, there was no significant difference
in the thymus medulla and cortex ratio between T1 and T2. In the spleen,
T1 contained significantly more white pulps at d14 than T2. These results
demonstrate that XPC supplementation influenced broiler immune system
development at an early stage.
Key Words: XPC, Immune function, antibody titer, spleen, thymus
M30 PCR Eimeria diagnostics from broiler complexes across the
United States and Canada Emily Kimminau*GS1, Lorraine Fuller1, Greg
Mathis2, Steven Clark3 1University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA; 2Southern
Poultry Research, Athens, GA, USA; 3Zoetis, Durham, NC, USA
Twenty-nine Anticoccidial Sensitivity Tests sponsored by Zoetis Inc.
(Durham, NC) were conducted in 2014 at the University of Georgia and
Southern Poultry Research (Athens, GA). Field isolate Eimeria species
were confirmed using Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCR). In contrast to
morphological comparison, PCR offers reliable and relatively easy discrimination between the species. Along with running PCR, samples were
10
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
diagnosed morphologically and the results from PCR and morphology
were compared. PCR primers used were unique to each species and ran
with positive controls for confirmation of desired band size. The primers
used were for E. maxima, E. tenella, E. necatrix, E. praecox, E. brunetti,
E. mitis and E. acervulina. E. acervulina was seen in 96% of the samples
(n=28), E. brunetti 86%(n=25), E. maxima 93% (n=27), E. mitis 48%
(n=14), E. necatrix 24% (n=7), E. praecox 86% (n=25) and E. tenella
89% (n=26). Vaccination records were also used to compare the species
variation between the farms. With 24% prevalence, pathogenic E. necatrix
warrants further investigation as a potential vaccine addition. Future plans
include comparison of the species at the same farms over several years and
observe any changes over time.
Key Words: Coccidia, PCR, Anticoccidial Sensitivity Test
Processing & Products
M31 Ultrasonic for Disinfection Aklilu G Giorges*, Doug Britten, John
Pierson Food Processing Technology Division Georgia Tech Research
Institute, Atlanta, GA, USA
The pathogens intervention system is a key part of poultry processing. A
disinfection system that can use chemical disinfectants effectively, reduce
and/or eliminate harmful byproducts is in demand more than ever. The
goal of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of sonication (ultrasound) for inactivation of Salmonella with and without a disinfection
agent (chlorine, peracetic acid) in poultry (chiller) water.
The experiment was designed to investigate the ultrasonic effect of various power intensities, volumes, and exposure times with several repetitions. All ultrasound experiments were conducted in isothermal conditions
to eliminate disinfection via indirect heat input from the ultrasonic probe.
The data from the Salmonella inoculated DI water tests showed a correlation between an increase in ultrasonic energy, increase in exposure
time, and decrease in volume that led to better disinfection of Salmonella.
The data demonstrates that ultrasound can be used to inhibit Salmonella
growth.
This study also evaluated the effectiveness of ultrasound and chemical
disinfection agents (chlorine or peracetic acid (PAA)) in Salmonella
inoculated water, surrogate chiller water and poultry chiller water. The
synergy effect for chlorine (1.66, 3.32 and 4.98ppm) and PAA (0.75, 1.5
and 2.25ppm) in water is evaluated by assessing the disinfection agents
with approximately 40kJ of ultrasonic energy (65W for 10 minutes) in
Salmonella inoculated DI water. When comparing the data of chemical
disinfection with the combination of ultrasonic and chemical, the disinfection is greater for the combined system than the disinfection observed
with chemicals only. Surrogate chiller water (5g of chicken skin and fat
per litter of DI water) was treated with combined chlorine (16.6 ppm) and
ultrasound in parallel to chlorine treatment alone. The experiment of surrogated chiller water was also repeated using peracetic acid concentrations
of 0.75, 1.5, and 2.25ppm. A similar trend of log reduction was observed
for combination ultrasound and chemicals treatment for all concentrations
of chlorine and PAA.
The ultrasonic disinfection trend in poultry chiller water was found to be
similar to that of DI water experiments. Furthermore, the poultry chiller
water with additional chemicals (16.6ppm chlorine and 2.25ppm PAA)
and ultrasonic were also tested. The data show the combined system disinfection better than the chemical alone. However, more work is needed
to characterize the actual chiller water. In all cases, samples treated with
combined ultrasound and chemicals exhibited better disinfection than
samples treated with chemical alone.
Key Words: sonication, disinfection agents, Salmonella
M32 Dissolved Air Flotation as superior pre-treatment for poultry
waste water Wilbert Menkveld*1, Sipke Verbeek2 1Nijhuis Water
Technology B.V., Doetinchem, Netherlands; 2Nijhuis Water Technology
Inc., 560 West Washington Blvd, Unit 320, Chicago, Illinois, 60661, IL,
USA
Dissolved air flotation (DAF) has been successfully applied as industrial
wastewater treatment for many years. Recent technological improvements
have expanded the applicability to the pre-treatment of wastewater. Nijhuis Water Technology, known for supplying more than 1700 DAF systems worldwide developed a new ‘Intelligent DAF’ which achieved better
COD and TSS removal compared to current DAF systems due to smarter
flow pattern, smaller bubble size and intelligent aeration control. Up to
60% of the total suspended solids can be removed by DAF from poultry
slaughterhouse wastewater. With chemical additives the removal increases up to 99% removal of suspended solids and up to 85% COD removal.
Extensive research with the Intelligent DAF proved that the energy usage
of the recirculation and aeration could be decreased up to 30% in comparison to older DAF installations at similar suspended solids and COD
removal. Due to the large contribution of the recirculation and aeration
to the total energy demand of a DAF system, a significant energy reduction up to 25% is obtained by the ‘Intelligent DAF’ system. This yields
an energy usage of 0.03 kWh/m3 and 0.05 kWh/m3 wastewater for DAF
systems with and without chemical additives, respectively. The research
and the first full scale Intelligent DAF installations have proven that treatment of industrial wastewaters gives higher removal efficiencies at lower
energy use per m3 treated waste water.
Key Words: DAF, poultry slaughterhouse wastewater, energy efficiency,
flocculation, flotation
M33 The AecomixTM system: converting waste and waster in one
reactor towards clean water and biogas Wilbert Menkveld* Nijhuis
Water Technology B.V., Doetinchem, Netherlands
Food and beverage production plants are major wastewater contributors
and often have food waste. Particularly plants with wastewaters with a
significant total suspended solids and/or fats, oils and greases like in the
dairy, redmeat and chicken industry needs to pre-treat their wastewater before high rate anaerobic reactors can be applied. This pre-treatment generally includes undesirable chemical treatment and generates a concentrated
side stream which needs to be dealt with.
The AecomixTM reactor is an innovative anaerobic reactor with solids retention, particularly suited to treat such effluents, together with available
organic wastes. In this manner two waste streams are dealt with in one
system and a high level of conversion to biogas is achieved. The solids retention is achieved by Dissolved Biogas Flotation. A full scale AecomixTM
reactor treated the effluent of a chocolate/candy factory with a COD concentration varying between 10,000 – 60,000 mg/l at an average of 30,000
mg/l. The removal for COD and TSS was more than 95% on average.
To meet with local discharge regulations a post aerobic biological treatment may be required. The excess sludge from this aerobic system can be
returned to the AecomixTM reactor, which is another advantage over high
rate (UASB type) reactors. The AecomixTM is approximately 20% lower
in operational costs compared to a chemical treatment plant followed by
an UASB reactor. The AecomixTM system provides a single step process
solution for different substrates from dairy, redmeat and other food industrie, with a high removal efficiency (on organic matter). It is proven to be a
robust process with advantages such as integrated gas storage.
Frozen pre-stuffed turkeys are convenient and may be cooked either after
thawing or direct from solid state. All carcasses (4.35kg) were from 12wk
heavy hens of common background. Each was cooked in a raised-wire
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
shallow Al pan using a standard oven (163C) to an 85C internal breast.
Prior to freezing, all crop and body cavities had been filled with bread
cubes having 50% added water by weight to increase RTW by 20%. Each
of 4 treatments involved 7 RTC carcasses: 7 thawed to +5C when cooking
was initiated with frozen repetitions at -5, -15 and -25 to enable regression
analysis. Time to attain breast end-point was 44 min when starting temp
was +5C which increased to 63 min when -5C with similar values at lower
starting temperatures (P<***Q). Total cooking loss was similar among
all treatments when stuffing was included (20.4%, P>NS), but calculation
after its removal indicated a loss from +5C carcasses of 26.6% while it
was greater those that had been frozen with similar values among treatments (28.3%, P<*Q). Total drip of cooking loss from stuffed carcasses
was 26.2% when +5C but lower and similar among frozen treatments
22.9% (P<*,Q). Analysis of stuffing removed from a thawed +5C carcass
that was not cooked indicated 64.9% moist and 16.6% fat , 11.8% CP,
and 7.0% ash on a DM basis. Cooking led to 10.2% gain in weight for the
crop-body cavity composite that was similar among treatments (P>NS);
however, their moist content decreased from the level at initiation of cooking, particularly when frozen (crop, 59.4% at +5C vs 55.8% frozen,P<*Q:
Body cavity, 56.9% at +5C vs 52.8% frozen,P<*Q). Accretion of fat accounted part of the reduction in moist with crop being similar to body cavity which was similar among treatments (21% DM, P<NS). while CP increase with crop was greater than body cavity (13.7% DM vs 11.7%, P<*)
with each being similar, regardless of starting temperature (P<*,Q).Yield
of parts as well as breast and thigh meat proportions were not affected nor
were their compositions altered by method of cooking. Caloric increase
for solid-liquid phase change dominated the increased cooking time when
frozen and marginal changes in losses, yields, and compositions of stuffing occurred, regardless of starting carcass temperature.
Key Words: Biogas production, COD reduction, Dissolved Biogas
Flotation, High Rate Anaerobic treatment, wastewater
M34 Cooking Frozen Turkey Containing Stuffing: Preparation
Characteristics Once Thawed and From Progressively Reduced
Solid Temperatures Ed Moran*, Laura Bauermeister Auburn University,
Auburn, AL, USA
Frozen pre-stuffed turkeys are convenient and may be cooked either after
thawing or direct from solid state. All carcasses (4.35kg) were from 12wk
heavy hens of common background. Each was cooked in a raised-wire
shallow Al pan using a standard oven (163C) to an 85C internal breast.
Prior to freezing, all crop and body cavities had been filled with bread
cubes having 50% added water by weight to increase RTW by 20%. Each
of 4 treatments involved 7 RTC carcasses: 7 thawed to +5C when cooking
was initiated with frozen repetitions at -5, -15 and -25 to enable regression
analysis. Time to attain breast end-point was 44 min when starting temp
was +5C which increased to 63 min when -5C with similar values at lower
starting temperatures (P<***Q). Total cooking loss was similar among all
treatments when stuffing was included (20.4%, P>NS), but calculation after its removal indicated a loss from +5C carcasses of 26.6% while it was
greater those that had been frozen with similar values among treatments
(28.3%, P<*Q). Total drip of cooking loss from stuffed carcasses was
26.2% when +5C but lower and similar among frozen treatments 22.9%
(P<*,Q). Analysis of stuffing removed from a thawed +5C carcass that
was not cooked indicated 64.9% moist and 16.6% fat , 11.8% CP, and
7.0% ash on a DM basis. Cooking led to 10.2% gain in weight for the
crop-body cavity composite that was similar among treatments (P>NS);
however, their moist content decreased from the level at initiation of cooking, particularly when frozen (crop, 59.4% at +5C vs 55.8% frozen,P<*Q:
Body cavity, 56.9% at +5C vs 52.8% frozen,P<*Q). Accretion of fat accounted part of the reduction in moist with crop being similar to body cavity which was similar among treatments (21% DM, P<NS). while CP increase with crop was greater than body cavity (13.7% DM vs 11.7%, P<*)
with each being similar, regardless of starting temperature (P<*,Q).Yield
of parts as well as breast and thigh meat proportions were not affected nor
11
were their compositions altered by method of cooking. Caloric increase
for solid-liquid phase change dominated the increased cooking time when
frozen and marginal changes in losses, yields, and compositions of stuffing occurred, regardless of starting carcass temperature.
Key Words: Turkey Cooking, Cooking Temperature, Cooking Loss
M35 Post-mortem pH decline in broiler carcasses subjected to either
air or ice chill environments Sara Orlowski*GS, Audrianna Rogers,
Alex Gilley, Fred Pohlman, Nicholas Anthony University of Arkansas,
Fayetteville, AR, USA
When muscle is converted to meat, post-mortem pH decline occurs. If this
decline occurs too slowly or too rapidly, meat quality suffers. Previous
research has shown that cooling rates may have an effect on pH decline.
This study characterizes pH change over a 24 h period for divergently
selected lines (24 h color L*) and evaluates the response of these lines to
different chill methods. The broiler lines used included the random bred
control (RBC) as well as the High L* (HMC) and Low L* (LMC) meat
color lines. It is hypothesized that the HMC line would have a faster rate
of decline and a lower ultimate pH than the LMC line. In addition, a faster
chill rate would result in a slower pH decline. The study consisted of three
replications of twenty-four male broilers, eight from each line. Broilers
were reared on litter floor pens to 8 wk at which time they were processed.
Carcasses were equally and randomly assigned by line to either open air
or ice-bath chilling. Temperature and pH measurements were collected on
the breast and thigh muscles immediately after exsanguination, 15 minutes post-mortem and every hour until deboning at 4 h. Temperature and
pH measurements were recorded at 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20 and 24 h. Breast
meat color was measured at 4, 12 and 24 h. Within the HMC and LMC
lines, no treatment differences were observed for pH decline or 24 h breast
meat color. When averaged across treatments, the rate of pH decline was
greatest with the HMC line and lowest with the LMC line with the RBC
line being an intermediate. For all lines, pH decline stopped between 6
and 8 h post mortem indicating the completion of rigor mortis. Differences
were observed between lines for 24 hour L* indicating that the divergent
lines behaved as expected. Understanding of the interaction of pH and
temperature decline for lines known to vary in meat characteristics will
allow for management techniques that can be implemented ante and postmortem to help improve meat quality.
Key Words: broiler carcass, chill method, meat color, meat quality, pH
M36 Meat quality of broiler breast fillets with white striping and
woody breast muscle myopathies Vishwesh V. Tijare*GS1, Famous Yang1,
Christine Z. Alvarado2, Craig Coon1, Casey M. Owens1 1University of
Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA; 2Texas A&M University, College Station,
TX, USA
The global poultry industry has been faced with emerging broiler breast
meat quality issues including conditions known as white striping (WS)
and woody (WD) breast. White striping is characterized by white striations parallel to muscle fibers primarily in breast fillets while woody
breasts are characterized by a hardness of the raw fillets. This study was
conducted to evaluate effects of WS and WD hardness on meat quality
traits in broiler breast fillets. A total of 285 birds were processed at 61 d of
age and deboned at 4h postmortem. All fillets were scored for severity of
white striping based on Kuttappan et al. (2012). Additionally, fillets were
evaluated for degree of hardness based on tactile evaluation. Fillets were
then scored as hard (WD1), slightly harder (WD2) and hardest (WD3)
along with normal (no hardness or striping, NORM), moderate and severe
white striping. For meat quality analyses, 135 fillets which were categorized as normal for both WS and WD (CONT), mild for WS and WD
(MILD), severe for WS and mild for WD (SEVWS), severe for woody and
mild for WS (SEVWD), and severe for both WS and WD (SEVBOTH).
Fillets were used to assess sarcomere length (SL), gravimetric fragmentation index (GFI), marination uptake (MU), cook loss (CL), and Meul-
12
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
lenet-Owens razor shear energy values (MORSE) on non-marinated and
marinated (vacuum tumbled, 15% marinade addition; targeted 0.75%
NaCl and 0.45% phosphate for final concentration) fillets. The incidence
of WD in 285 breast fillets was NORM= 3.9%, W1-48.1%, W2-28.0%,
W3-20.0% and incidence of WS was normal= 3.9, moderate = 63.8 and
severe=32.3%. Interestingly, SL slightly increased (P=0.09) as the degree
of severity of either WS or WD (SEVWS, SEVWD or SEVBOTH) increased compared to CONT fillets, and GFI was not impacted (P>0.05).
As severity of WS or WD increased, MU decreased (P<0.05), and cook
loss of non-marinated and marinated fillets both increased with increasing severity of WS or WD (P<0.05). The MORSE of SEVBOTH fillets
was higher (P<0.05) compared to other fillets; however, no differences for
MORSE of non-marinated fillets were noted. Results of this study suggest
that severe degrees of white striping and woody (hardness) together or
alone negatively impact meat quality.
Key Words: broiler, myopathy, white striping, woody breast, meat quality
M37 Evaluating breast meat tenderness using a blunt version of the
Meullenet-Owens Razor Shear method of broilers raised for small or
big bird market programs. Famous L. Yang*GS1, Vishwesh V. Tijare1,
Aline Giampietro2, Casey M. Owens1 1University of Arkansas, Fayetteville,
AR, USA; 2FCAVE-UNESP, Jaboticabal, Brazil
Broiler breast meat tenderness is an important meat quality attribute and
previous research has suggested that older market broilers have tougher
meat at times compared to younger broilers (e.g., 8 vs. 6 weeks). The
Muellenet-Owens Razor Shear (MORS) method was developed to assess
broiler meat tenderness in recent years. A blunt version of MORS has been
reported to be a more sensitive method at higher degrees of toughness. An
experiment was conducted using standard breast yielding (SY) and high
breast yielding (HY) commercial male broilers. Of each strain, 108 birds
were commercially processed at 40 d age and 95 birds were commercially
processed at 54 d age in 2 replicates per day. Breast fillets were deboned at
2, 4, 6, and 24 h postmortem (PM). Muscle pH, color (L*, a*, and b*), sarcomere length (SL), myofibrillar diameter (MD) were measured. Breast
fillets were cooked to 76°C and cook loss, MORS and a blunt version of
MORS measuring energy (MORSE, BMORSE) were determined. Birds
grown to 40 d had a higher live weight than 54 d (2.7 vs 4.3 kg, P<0.05).
Muscle pH decreased (P<0.05) over time at both ages. There was little
impact of debone, strain or age on color or GFI. SL increased as deboning
time increased (P<0.05). The HY strain had greater SL overall than SY
(P<0.05). Older birds (54d) had greater (P<0.05) MD than younger birds
(40d), but there was no impact of strain or debone time. The HY strains
had overall higher cook loss (P<0.05) than SY birds, but age and debone
time had no impact. At 40 d, MORSE and BMORSE decreased over time
with fillets deboned at 2 and 4 h being higher than those deboned 6 and 24
h (P<0.05). At 54 d, fillets deboned at 2, 4 and 6 h were similar (P>0.05)
for MORSE and BMORSE while 6 and 24 h were similar (P>0.05) to each
other and less than those deboned at 2 h (P<0.05). Using the MORSE, value BMORSE values were higher than MORSE values overall (P<0.05).
Additionally, BMORSE was positively correlated to MORSE (r=0.74 and
0.65 at 40 and 54 d, respectively; P<0.0001). Data suggest that BMORS
could be used to differentiate shear values, but more research is needed to
determine its relationship to sensory at a wide range of shear values resulting from deboning at multiple debone times and/or varying broiler ages.
Key Words: MORS, BMORS, tenderness, broiler breast, shear
M38 Salmonella presence and counts on different skin parts from
turkey carcasses Ye Peng*GS1, Walid Q Alali2, Mark A. Harrison2, Xiangyu
Deng2 1University of Georgia Department of Food Science and Technology,
Griffin, GA, USA; 2
Turkey skin of drumstick, thigh and wing is currently utilized as a source
of fat in ground products. Salmonella contamination in the three parts of
skin is thought to be a potential source of this pathogen in ground tur-
key. The goal of this study is to determine the prevalence and numbers of
Salmonella in skin of turkey parts (drumstick, thigh, and wing). Turkey
flocks predicted to be highly contaminated with Salmonella based on results of boot-sock tests are sampled. From each flock, fifteen samples per
part type are collected at post-chill and tested for Salmonella using most
probable number (MPN) and enrichment methods. So far, samples from
five flocks have been collected and tested. Salmonella prevalence in skin
of drumstick, thigh and wing was 16%, 16%, 20%, respectively. Mean
Salmonella number per gram of skin per sample type was 0.29 MPN/g
(drumstick), 0.17 MPN/g (thigh), 0.14 MPN/g (wing), which were not
significantly different (p>0.05). Therefore, skin of turkey wing might be
a more significant source of contamination in ground turkey compared to
the thigh and drumstick skin.
Key Words: Salmonella, ground turkey contamination, skin types,
prevalence, MPN method
M39 Effect of sub-lethal oxidative stress of chlorine on biofilm
forming ability of various Salmonella strains Janak Dhakal*GS, Chander
Sharma Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS, USA
The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of sub lethal oxidative stress (generated by sub inhibitory chlorine concentration) on the ability of different Salmonella strains to form biofilm on polystyrene surface
at two different temperatures (300C and 40C). Three Salmonella serotypes
S. Enteritidis (ATCC 4931), S. Heidelberg (ATCC 8326), S. Typhimurium
(ATCC 14028) and 12 other Salmonella strains (isolated from poultry
products) were exposed to the sublethal chlorine concentration (150 ppm)
in Tryptic Soy Broth (TSB) for 2 h at 300C and 40C. The biofilm forming
ability of the strains was assessed by incubating the chlorine exposed and
untreated control cells in TSB in a 96 wells polystyrene microtiter plate for
48 h at 300C and 40C. Biofilm formation evaluation was carried by crystal
violet staining method and quantified by the optical density measurements
at 600 nm. Six wells for each strain and control were used for the experiment and the whole experiment was repeated three times. The results of
the study revealed that there were strain variations on biofilm formation
by Salmonella on polystyrene surface in response to sub-lethal chlorine/
oxidative stress. Out of 15 strains tested, chlorine exposed S. Heidelberg
(ATCC 8326) at 40C formed stronger (P < 0.05) biofilm as compared to
control that was not exposed to chlorine stress. At 300C, S. Heidelberg
(strain ID 72) and S. Newport (strain ID 107) formed stronger (P < 0.05)
biofilm as compared to the non-treated controls. Sub-lethal chlorine exposure to some of the other Salmonella strains enhanced their ability to
form biofilm but the difference was not statistically significant (P> 0.05)
compared to control. S. Heidelberg showed increased biofilm formation
at both at 40C and 300C after exposure to sub-lethal chlorine. These findings indicate the potential of stronger biofilm formation by some Salmonella strains upon exposure to sub lethal chlorine concentrations in food
processing environments. Further studies are undergoing to determine the
effect of sub lethal oxidative stress on the ability of different Salmonella
strains to form biofilm on different food contact surfaces under different
temperatures.
Key Words: Salmonella, Biofilm, Chlorine, Sublethal concentration,
Polystyrene surface
M40Addition of charcoals to broilers feeds did not impact
Salmonella Typhimurium colonization or persistence, or the pH of
the crop or duodenum during a 6 wk growout Kimberly Wilson*GS1,
Dianna Bourassa2, Adam Davis1, Elizabeth Freeman1, R.Jeff Buhr2 1The
University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA; 2USDA-ARS Russell Research
Center, Athens, GA, USA
The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of 3 types of charcoals added to feeds at 0.3% on Salmonella colonization and persistence,
and the pH of the crop and duodenum during a 6 wk growout. A total of
1,280 male chicks (32/pen) were placed into 40 pens (10 pens for each
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
of the 4 dietary treatments). On the day of placement, 2 seeder chicks/
pen were orally gavaged with 3 x 107 nalidixic acid resistant Salmonella
Typhimurium, and returned to the pens to commingle with penmates. The
feed treatments were: basal control, 0.3% bamboo charcoal, 0.3% activated bamboo charcoal, and 0.3% pine charcoal that were added to both
starter (1 to 14 d) grower (14 to 28 d), and finisher (28 to 42 d) feeds. At
wk 1 and 2, ceca from 1 seeder and 1 penmate broiler/pen were sampled
and cultured for Salmonella. From the penmate broiler the crop and duodenum were exposed to record the luminal pH. Ceca were Salmonella
positive in all chicks (both seeders and penmates) sampled at wk 1 and
2. By wk 3 Salmonella prevalence in ceca detected by direct plating had
begun to decrease to 34%, at wk 4 to 24%, at wk 5 to 23%, and by wk 6
to 12%. Following defeathering the Salmonella prevalence for enriched
breast skin samples was significantly higher (P<0.05) at 40% for the control, compared to 10% for bamboo charcoal, 15% for activated bamboo
charcoal, and 0% for pine charcoal. The pH of the crop decreased weekly
but there were no detected feed treatment differences in pH within any wk.
The pH at 1 wk for the crop ranged from 5.84 to 6.44 across treatments
and differed compared to wk 2 to 6 (3.83 to 6.12). Duodenal pH varied
minimally from 5.8 to 6.1. Overall, the small amount of feed chicks consume in the first wk may contribute to the higher pH of the crop and enable
Salmonella from the seeders to spread to and colonize penmate chicks.
Adding charcoals at 0.3% to broiler starter diets did not prevent Salmonella colonization, but charcoals added to grower diets may have hastened
Salmonella elimination from ceca and resulted in significantly lower Salmonella recovery from breast skin samples following defeathering.
Key Words: charcoal, feed, Salmonella, pH crop, broiler
M41 Effect of Original XPC on prevalence and numbers of
Salmonella (S.) from ceca of turkey hens inoculated at 1 d of age with
S. Typhimurium and at 56 d with S. Heidelberg D. P. Smith*1, G. F.
Mathis2, C. L. Hofacre3, R. D. Berghaus3, D. R. McIntyre1 1Diamond V,
Cedar Rapids, IA, USA; 2SPR Group, Athens, GA, USA; 3University of
Georgia, Athens, GA, USA
Salmonella (S.) contamination of live poultry may occur early or late during the growout period, and may involve different serovars. Pre-harvest
interventions must be evaluated for their efficacy against multiple exposures and serovars of S. during the life of the flock. This study was conducted to determine the effect of XPC (a broad-spectrum immune modulator) on the prevalence and cecal colonization of commercial turkey hens
from early and late exposure to Salmonella (Typhimurium and Heidelberg, respectively). One day-old turkey hen poults (n=60) were placed in
each of 24 pens (n=1440). Twelve pens of hens were fed a diet including
XPC at a level of 1.25 kg/mT (trt = XPC); the remaining 12 pens were
fed the same diet without XPC (Control). On d 1, 20 birds in each pen
were orally inoculated with S. Typhimurium (log 106 CFU). On d 42, ten
(10) hens that had not been inoculated were euthanized and ceca collected
aseptically to determine S. prevalence. On d 56, 20 additional birds (not
previously inoculated) in each pen were orally inoculated with a nalidixic
acid-resistant strain of S. Heidelberg (log 108 CFU). On d 84, 10 hens from
each pen that were not inoculated with either serovar were euthanized and
ceca collected aseptically for S. prevalence and MPN. There was no difference (P>0.05) in cecal S. prevalence observed between Control and
XPC hens at 42 d (mean of 22% positive), nor was Control and XPC cecal prevalence different at 84 d (mean of 91% positive). Turkey hens fed
XPC had significantly lower numbers of S. (P<0.05) compared to Control
hens (mean MPN of 1.1 vs. 2.9, respectively). XPC was an effective preharvest intervention against two inoculations of two different S. serovars
in turkey hens.
Key Words: turkey hens, Salmonella, XPC, pre-harvest food safety
13
M42 Evaluation of a novel biologic formulation to reduce Salmonella
in market age broilers Jose Luis Vicente*, Jacob Lum, Matthew Faulkner,
Ross Wolfenden Pacific Vet Group USA Inc., Fayetteville, AR, USA
Salmonella has long been known to be a common foodborne pathogen.
Poultry meat, while not the only source of Salmonella, is one of the most
commonly implicated sources in outbreaks of human salmonellosis.
Poultry companies are currently taking extraordinary efforts within the
processing plants to reduce carcass contamination, but since the source
of Salmonella in poultry meat is from the bird itself, not the plant, it is
prudent to begin interventions in the field. Several field interventions have
been evaluated in the past with varying levels of success. Presently, a specifically selected bacteriophage cocktail and a specifically selected probiotic formulation were evaluated alone or in combination. Briefly, market
age broilers were challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis (SE), then later
treated with the Probiotic (PRO), bacteriophage (PG), or the combination
of the two (COMBO). The crops were aseptically removed and cultured
for the presence and quantification of SE. SE was found to be significantly
reduced (p<0.05) in all treatment groups as compared to the untreated control (CON). While 3.30Log10 cfu SE/g crop content was enumerated from
the CON, 1.74Log10, 1.95Log10 and 1.12Log10 were isolated from the
PRO, PG, and COMBO groups respectively. This indicates that all three
treatment groups may be potential candidates to reduce SE in commercial
broiler flocks.
Key Words: Salmonella, Bacteriophage, Probiotic, Poultry
M43 Inhibition of Salmonella Typhimurium by Cultures of Cecal
Bacteria during Aerobic Incubation Arthur Hinton Jr*1, Gary Gamble1,
Kimberly Ingram1, Ensaf Taha2, Ronald Holser1 1Russell Research Center,
Athens, GA, USA; 2Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL, Afghanistan
Two trials were conducted to examine the ability of cecal bacterial cultures from broilers to inhibit growth of Salmonella Typhimurium during
aerobic incubation. Cecal broth media was inoculated with 10 µl of cecal
contents from 6 week old broilers taken from 2 separate flocks. Cultures
were incubated aerobically at 37oC for 48 h. Supplemented cecal media
was prepared by the addition of: #1) 0 mM ethanol, lactate, and succinate;
#2) 104 mM ethanol and 50 mM lactate and succinate; #3) 208 mM ethanol and 100 mM lactate and succinate; or #4) 312 mM ethanol and 150
mM lactate and succinate. Each medium was inoculated with 0.25 ml of
the cecal culture, 104 cfu/ml of Salmonella, or the cecal culture and Salmonella. Inoculated media were incubated aerobically at 37oC for 21 days,
and aliquots of media were collected on days 0, 7, 14, and 21 for analysis.
Cecal bacteria and Salmonella were enumerated, and cecal colonies were
selected for identification by the Biolog Bacterial Identification System.
Results from Trials 1 and 2 indicated that after 21 days of incubation,
between log 6 and 7 cfu/ml of Salmonella were recovered from all media
inoculated with Salmonella only. Conversely, in Trial 1 after 21 days, log
4 to 5 cfu/ml Salmonella were recovered from all media inoculated with
Salmonella and cecal cultures. However in Trial 2, no Salmonella were
recovered on days 14 or 21 from supplemented medium #4 inoculated
with Salmonella and cecal cultures. Furthermore, log 0.74, 2.27, and 4.67
more Salmonella were recovered from Trial 1 than Trial 2 from supplemented media #2, 3, and 4, respectively, inoculated with Salmonella and
cecal cultures. Cecal isolates were identified primarily as Enterococcus
spp. in addition to Proteus mirabilis, Bacillus lentus, Paenibacillus wynnii, Streptococcus gallolyticus, and several isolates not identified by the
Biolog. Findings indicate that cecal cultures incubated aerobically may
possess anti-Salmonella activity related to the ability to utilize metabolites
produced by intestinal bacteria. However, cultures from different flocks
may vary in their ability to inhibit the growth of Salmonella; therefore, all
cecal cultures may not be suitable sources of bacterial isolates required to
formulate effective, defined probiotic cultures.
Key Words: Broilers, competitive inhibition, cecal bacteria, lactate,
succinate
14
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
M44Re-evaluation of broiler carcass scalding protocols on the
recovery of Campylobacter from breast skin after defeathering
Amanda Howard*UG1, Kimberly Wilson1, Dianna Bourassa2, R.Jeff Buhr2
1
The University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA; 2USDA-ARS Russell
Research Center, Athens, GA, USA
This research re-evaluated the impact of scalding protocols on the recovery of Campylobacter from breast skin following defeathering after preliminary processing trials detected Campylobacter from breast skin for 4/8
carcasses that had vents plugged and sutured prior to scalding. Published
research indicated that when fecal expulsion during defeathering was prevented carcass breast skin was Campylobacter negative when sampled
following immersion scalding at 58.3ºC/137ºF for 90 s and defeathering.
Five days after oral challenge with a gentamycin resistant strain of Campylobacter coli (108 cells), broilers were subjected to a 12 h feed withdrawal and transported (5 broilers per solid bottom coop) to the pilot plant.
Batches of 5 broilers (2 batches for each scalding protocol) were stunned
at 15 V for 10 s, bled for 2 min, and during bleeding vents were plugged
and sutured closed. Carcasses were hard scalded at 60ºC/140ºF for a total immersion time 90 s in either a single, double, or triple tanks. The
picker had been adjusted to achieve acceptable defeathering with minimal
overpicking of the hips and elbows. All carcasses were defeathered for
30 s in a single 4 bank picker, and breast skin (including the sternal and
pectoral feather tracts) was aseptically excised. The picker was rinsed with
82ºC/180ºF water between each batch of carcasses and the scalders were
drained and rinsed after completion of 1 batch for each scalding protocol.
With direct plating, Campylobacter was not recovered from any carcasses
that were single tank scalded (0/10), but was recovered from 2/10 carcasses that were double tank scalded, and from 4/10 that were triple tank
scalded. Breast skin from all carcasses was Campylobacter positive when
samples were plated after 24 h enrichment. These results agree with the
published results, that when the carcasses vents are plugged and sutured
and then are single tank scalded for 90 s no Campylobacter was recovered
from breast skin sampled by direct plating. However, comparable results
are not obtained when scalding immersion time is subdivided in double
(45 s each) or triple (30 s each) tanks.
Key Words: Campylobacter, broilers, scalding, defeathering
M45 Detection of Campylobacter on the outer surface of retail broiler
meat packages and from the exudate within Mark Berrang*1, Brian
Oakley2, Richard Meinersmann1 1USDA-Agricultural Research Service,
Athens, GA, USA; 2Western University, Pomona, CA, USA
Previous work has suggested that outer surfaces of retail broiler meat
packaging may be contaminated with Campylobacter presenting a potential hazard to the consumer through direct transfer or by cross contamination of other products or surfaces. The objectives of this study were
to measure the prevalence of Campylobacter detected on the outside of
retail broiler meat packages and compare that to the prevalence detected
on exudate from inside those same packages. Chicken meat products were
purchased at retail, one package individually bagged per store per sample
day. Effort was made to exclude packages that showed obvious signs of
leaking or exposure to other leaky packages. Samples included: whole
carcasses, wings, drum-sticks, bone-in thighs, boneless-skinless thighs
and bone-in breast halves. Ten packages of each type of product were
purchased (N=60). The exterior surface of each package was sampled by
pre-moistened sponge, the package was sanitized, opened and exudate
was collected from within the package. Sponge diluent and exudate were
direct plated and enriched for the presence of Campylobacter spp. Overall,
27 of 60 packages (45%) had detectable numbers of Campylobacter in
the exudate within. This included some of each type of product. Despite
efforts to avoid leaking packages, upon arrival at the lab and further examination three packages were found to be leaking small amounts of exudate. Overall, 1 of 60 packages had detectable numbers of Campylobacter
on the outer surfaces. This package was one of the three characterized
as leaky. Campylobacter isolates from inside and outside of the positive
package were characterized using multi-locus sequence typing and found
to be indistinguishable. Although a substantial percentage of retail broiler
meat packages may have Campylobacter on the inside, the outer surface
of intact, non-leaky packages can be reasonably expected to be free of
Campylobacter.
Key Words: Campylobacter, packaged broiler meat, retail, package
surface, product exudate
M46 Comparison of Selective Campylobacter Media for Detection
and Enumeration of Naturally Occurring Campylobacter spp.
on Poultry Charlotte Steininger*GS1, Mark Berrang2, Mark Harrison1
1
University of Georgia, Food Science and Technology, Athens, GA, USA;
2
USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Athens, GA, USA
Campylobacter spp. are among the most common cause of bacterial foodborne diarrheal illness; poultry has been linked as a primary source of
contamination. Detection and enumeration of low numbers of naturally
occurring Campylobacter spp. on poultry is difficult due to the presence
of competing microflora that are not eliminated by selective media. This
study compared the effectiveness of various combinations of enrichment
broths and plating media to detect naturally occurring Campylobacter
spp. in broiler carcass rinse samples. Campy-Cefex Agar (CCA) and RF
Campylobacter Agar (RFA) were used for enumeration of Campylobacter
spp. recovered from 100 mL broiler carcass rinses. These two selective
plating media were also used for Campylobacter detection following enrichment in Bolton broth and Bolton broth supplemented with 0.1 µg/mL
triclosan (T-Bolton). On average, enumeration of carcass rinsate on RFA
resulted in a 2.5-3.5 cfu/mL log recovery of Campylobacter spp. with little
contamination by background microflora, while enumeration on CampyCefex agar resulted in a 1.5-3.0 cfu/mL log recovery of Campylobacter
spp. with a significant amount of contamination by background microflora. When enriching for positive or negative, the combination of Bolton
broth and CCA resulted in 0-10% positive, the addition of triclosan to
the Bolton broth improved recovery on CCA to 30-40% positive. Enrichment in Bolton and plating on RFA resulted in 90-100% positive samples,
and enrichment using T-Bolton paired with RFA plating media was the
most effective combination resulting in 95-100% positive samples. When
enumerating or enriching for naturally occurring Campylobacter spp. in
broiler carcass rinsate, RFA or T-Bolton broth followed by plating on RFA
proved to be most effective in the elimination of background microflora,
therefore allowing for more accurate enumeration and enrichment procedures.
Key Words: Campylobacter spp., Campy-cefex agar, RF agar,
supplemented Bolton broth, Campylobacter methodology
M47 Quantifying moisture content on eggs that have been sweated in
various environments Janet Gradl*GS1, Pat Curtis1, Kevin Keener2 1Auburn
University, Auburn, AL, USA; 2Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA
There are instances where shell eggs may be moved from cold storage into
ambient temperature with high humidity such as before wash and before
or during transportation. Under these conditions it is of concern that bacteria can grow and migrate through the shell pores into the egg. Objectives
of this experiment were to 1) Compare three methods of quantifying condensate on sweated eggs and 2) to quantify moisture content on refrigerated shell eggs sweated at two different temperatures (22 oC and 32 oC) and
60% humidity. For Objective 1, 90 fresh, unwashed eggs were obtained
from the Auburn University Poultry Farm. These eggs were individually
weighed and placed in plastic flats in a refrigerator at 7 oC stored for four
weeks. The eggs were then set out in plastic flats at room temperature (22
°C, 50% RH) for approximately one hour to form maximum condensation. 30 of the eggs that were previously weighed were weighed again. 30
paper towels were weighed, and then the condensate was wiped from the
surface of the next 30 eggs. The wet paper towels were re-weighed. Both
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
tests were repeated three times. A pinless moisture meter was also tested.
ANOVA was run on this data. The results indicated that there was no significant difference in quantifying egg sweat by egg weight or weight of
moisture absorbed on a paper towel (P≤0.05). For objective 2, a single egg
was sweated in two environments (32 oC, 60% RH and 32 oC, 60% RH)
on a tared scientific scale. The egg weight was recorded from beginning of
condensation formation to the point where the egg dried. This was repeated three times for each environment. A greater amount of sweat is formed
at a faster rate (0.2177 g/min compared to 0.1311 g/min) at 32 oC, 60%
RH than at 22 oC, 60% RH. A greater amount of condensate is formed on
eggs sweated in a warmer environment compared to room temperature
(0.653 g and .0393 g). In conclusion, both weighing an egg before and
after sweat and wiping the surface moisture off a wet egg and weighing the
paper towel are adequate methods to quantify moisture on sweated eggs.
The rate of adsorption is greater than the rate of desorption on sweated
eggs. A greater amount of condensation is formed on eggs sweated in a
warmer environment compared to room environments. Temperature and
humidity influence the rate of condensate formation and the total amount
of condensate formed on eggs.
Key Words: shell eggs, egg sweating, egg safety, food safety, egg
processing
M48 Impact of extended stun duration and voltage on the recovery
of consciousness in broilers C.E. Harris*UG1, Dianna Bourassa2, Kimberly
Wilson3, R. Jeff Buhr2 1The University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA;
2
USDA-ARS Russell Research Center, Athens, GA, USA; 3University of
Georgia, Athens, GA, USA
Typical electrical stun duration for broilers in the United States is from 5
to 15 s (depending on voltage), but would be considerably longer if and
15
when the kill-line stopped. The welfare and conscious/unconscious status
of broilers within the stunner cabinet is a concern while the line is stopped
and when the line restarts. Therefore, the effect of stun duration (60, 90, or
120 s) at two voltages (15 or 20 V pulse DC at 550 Hz) was investigated
in a pilot processing facility. Two d prior broilers were selected by weight
between 2.9 to 3.1 Kg and were subjected to a 12 h feed withdrawal. Individual broilers were hung on the shackle line, feet wet to maximize ground
contact, and line was started. The standard stun duration in this pilot plant
stunner is 10 s, so at 5 s when the broilers were at the middle of the stunner cabinet (brine depth 2.5 cm) the line was stopped for an additional 50,
80, or 110 s. The line was then restarted and the broilers stunned for the
remaining 5 s. Upon exiting the stunner cabinet the broilers were immediately removed from the shackle line and placed on the floor on their side to
enable observation of ventilation and/or mandibular movements. Within
120 s, if the broiler did not exhibit any skeletal muscle movements and
the comb became pale, they were recorded as not recovered. Recovered
broilers initiated movement within 15 s and were able to maintain vertical posture at 120 s when placed on their feet. Broilers were individually
stunned in sequential batches of 5 broilers at the same voltage setting and
duration before changing parameters. All broilers stunned at 15 V for 60 s
recovered (5/5 broilers). However, broilers stunned at 15 V for 90 s did not
recover (0/5 broilers) and no broilers stunned at 15 V for 120 s recovered
(0/5 broilers). Broilers stunned at 20 V for 60 s only 3/6 broilers recovered,
unexpectedly those broilers stunned at 20 V for 90 s 2/10 recovered, and
no broilers were tested at 20 v for 120 s. For stun durations of 60, 90, or
120 s for either 15 or 20 V, recovery of consciousness did not appear to
be related to a lower stunning amperage (21 to 49 mA) compared to those
that did not recover (23 to 44 mA).
Key Words: electrical stunning, stun duration, consciousness, broiler
Environment Management I
M49 The Growth Performance of A Synthetic Naked-Neck Chicken
Line under A Natural Hot Environment Essam A. El-Gendy* Cairo
University, Cairo, Egypt
There are ample evidences that the bird performance is retarded when
environmentally heated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the
growth performance under a natural hot environment of a local synthetic
naked-neck line (CE3) and its genetic control line (CE4). Line CE3 has
been selected for 10 generations for increased 6-week body weight. In
the 10th generation, three hatches were obtained during the summer season in Egypt. For each hatch, the chicks of both lines were intermingled
and raised in an ambient temperature of 35˚C during the first three days,
and lowered to 33˚C by the end of first week and then the chicks were
subjected to the natural temperature of summer, and the ambient temperature ranged 30-33˚C (day time) and 19-21˚C (night time). Individual body
weights were obtained at hatch and then biweekly until 20 weeks of age.
Individual body weight gain (BWG) and growth rate (GR) were also obtained. The data set was statistically analyzed for the effects of line and
hatch. Line CE3 was significantly heavier than line CE4 by 34.23% at
hatch, 72.82% at 6 weeks, 55.30% at 10 weeks and 60.2% at 18 weeks of
age. Line CE3 showed an increasing trend in BWG during early ages and
reached its maximal during the 6-8 week period. In comparison, BWG in
the control line CE4 was significantly less and reached its maximal during
the 8-10 weeks. Line CE3 was fast grown during the early four weeks of
age and GR reached to 91.90% during the 2-4 week period. The GR of
line CE4 was increased until 6 weeks and reached to 86.71% during the
4-6 week period, and then retarded. The results indicated that the selection progress in line CE3 was mainly during the early growth period. The
selected line CE3 grew faster than line CE4 under the heating conditions,
hence the negative impact of the hot temperature was less.
Key Words: Growth Performance, Hot temperature, Naked-necks,
Selection
M50 Effect of AviLighting™ LED Feeder Light on light intensity
near feed & water areas, broiler body weight uniformity & litter
consumption at time of housing to 3 weeks of age in an antibioticfree chicken program. J.L. McNaughton*1, M. Roberts1, M. Barnas1, S.
Holland2 1AHPharma, Inc., Salisbury, MD, USA; 2i-lighting LLC, North
East, MD, USA
Incandescent bulbs (INC), compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) & light
emitting diodes have traditionally been mounted on 7.5’-9’ high ceilings.
Maximum broiler-chicken & turkey performance light intensity (LIN) is
achieved by emitting >3 foot candles (fc) of light in the feed/water areas;
a benchmark that typical ceiling-mounted lights rarely meet. Three trials (chicks reared on 32’x50’ research floor pens & 42’x340’ commercial
chicken houses (paired) with pine-shaving litter bedding) were conducted
to determine the effect of the AviLighting™ Feeder Light (LEDf, 50%
of feeders, lights 5’ apart) on broiler body weight uniformity, visual bird
behavior & litter consumption at time of housing to 21d; compared to INC
12’ apart & CFL (55W first 6d & 7.2W remaining 15d, 12’ apart). Lighting
goals (at water-line) were >4fc initial & 1fc 11-21d.
During all trials, LIN at water measured 4.8fc (LEDf), 1.6fc (INC), 3.47fc
(55W CFL) & 1.72fc (7.2W CFL). Chick crop ‘filling’ was measured 8 &
24hr post-housing; no affects were found. Litter bedding-eaters (8hr posthousing) measured 5% for LEDf & >20% for both INC & CFL. Video &
sound recording demonstrated that light attraction around feed/water for
the initial 72hr post-housing was 96% of birds (LEDf), 82% (CFL) & 58%
(INC). 48hr mortality average was 0.22% (LEDf) & 1.15% (CFL).
DC current consumption was 3.6Wh, 7.2Wh, & 60.0Wh output for LEDf,
CFL & INC lamps, respectively. During the entire 21d trial (42’x340’
16
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
chicken house) total energy consumption of LEDf was 54% less than the
combination of CFLs (55W 6d & 7.2W 15d).
Ceiling mounted lamps with widely distributed light caused birds to scatter. LEDf provided concentrated light intensity & improved 21d body
weight uniformity. By emitting intense light (>12.8fc) only at the feeder,
LEDf attracts & retains birds in critical areas.
Key Words: AviLighting™, Light Emitting Diode, incandescent,
chicken, antibiotic free
M51 The effect of Brazilian propolis on leg health in broilers reared
under heat stress Usama Mahmoud*GS1, Mootaz Abdel-Rahman2, Madeha
Darwish2, Todd Applegate1, Heng-Wei Cheng3 1Purdue University,
Lafayette, IN, USA; 2Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt; 3Livestock Behavior
Research Unit, USDA-ARS, Lafayette, IN, USA
This experiment was conducted to examine the effect of dietary supplement with green Brazilian propolis on latency to lie test for leg strength,
gait score and leg abnormalities in broiler chickens exposed to chronic
heat stress (from 15 to 42 d of age). Fifteen-d-old, male broiler chickens
(Ross 708) were randomly allocated to 6 treatments (4 pens/treatment; 21
birds/pen). The dietary treatments were basal diet (control) and 5 concentrations of propolis (100, 250, 500, 1000, and 3000 mg /kg diet, respectively). The average temperature and relative humidity during the day time
was (31.7±0.3˚C and 56±4) while at night was (28.8±0.4˚C and 58±3)
respectively. At 42 d of age the all birds were scanned for leg abnormalities (slipped tendon, curled toes and crooked toes). Additionally, 10 birds/
pen randomly selected for gait scoring (0 - 2) and 5 bird/pen were used for
latency to lie test. The data was analyzed by means of SPSS 22.00 Software using the general linear models (GLM) followed by simple regression model procedure. Supplementation of broiler chickens diets with 250
mgkg-1 propolis significantly (P= 0.025) reduced the percentage of incidence of leg abnormalities, and significantly (P=0.046, regression linear
P=0.05) increased latency to lie time. Propolis supplementation, however,
had no significant effects (P=0.12) on the gait score, in comparison to
the control group. Other doses had no effect on the measured parameters
compared to controls, and there were no significant differences among the
different doses. In conclusion, the results indicate that dietary supplement
with 250 mgkg-1 green Brazilian propolis improved the leg health indicators of broilers reared under heat stress condition.
Key words: Broiler, propolis, heat stress, leg health
M52Leel of corticosterone in chicks from commercial strains
subjected to embryonic thermal stimulation Fernanda Flores*GS1,
Irenilza de Alencar Nääs1, Rodrigo Garofallo Garcia2, Wanderley Moreno
Quinteiro- Filho3, Thomas Calil4, Lenise Souza4 1College of Agricultural
Engineering - University of Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brazil; 2Federal
University of Grande Dourados, Dourados, MS, Brazil; 3University of São
Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 4PasReform of the Brazil, Rio Claro, Brazil
Thermal stimulation during incubation is an alternative to reach broilers
more adaptable to heat stress, and therefore, more efficient birds during
production. However, there is a concern about possible harmful effects
in embryos caused by thermal stress exposure. It is known that chickens
which produce higher metabolic heat the body respond with more physiological corticosterone release, which is related to stress. Furthermore, it is
considered a critical factor in the endogenous metabolism and behavior of
the embryo during the incubation process. The objective of this experiment
was to evaluate the level of corticosterone present in the embryo plasma
of broilers from Cobb and Ross strain subjected to thermal stimulation
by heat (2.5oF above the set point and cold (1.0 °F), with cold stimulus
below the hormone set point. The recording was done in the days of embryonic development from the 14th to 18th day, during three hours, based
on the hatchery program. The stimulus was applied in pre peak of female
breeders’ egg production (33, 34 and 35 weeks) and after peak production
(61, 62 and 63 weeks). Tests were conducted in an incubator SmartPro -
4 modular single-stage commercial-scale machines being fully charged.
Data were subjected to analysis of variance using the GLM program of
the SAS ® statistical significance of 5 %. Means were compared by Tukey
test. Thermal stimuli were applied at the time the hypothalamic-pituitary
adrenal axis is being activated. Data showed no differences (p≥0.05) between the age of breeders, strain and heat stress applied during incubation.
Key Words: Thermal stimulation, corticosterone, thermal stress
M53 Bacterial Prevalence on Broiler Farms from an Integrator in
Alabama Katrina English*GS1, Kenneth Macklin1, Manpreet Singh2, Laci
Olivia1, James Krehling1, Amnuay Segrest1 1Auburn University, Auburn,
AL, USA; 2Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA
Poultry are common sources for the pathogens Salmonella, Clostridium
perfringens, and Campylobacter. Some of these pathogens are often identified during processing but the exact source of contamination can come
from several sources, including the poultry house environment, hatchery,
and through vectors such as equipment and personnel. In this study we
focused on the bacterial prevalence in the average poultry house environment over the course of a single grow-out period.
A survey was sent out to all of the growers for a single integrator in Alabama to determine what the average farm for this integrator was based off
of flock history, litter, house, farm, and management characteristics. Based
off of the survey, four poultry farms were selected for bacterial sampling.
All farms had chicks placed within one day of each other and were sampled three separate times at even intervals throughout the grow-out cycle
(D1, 14, 30). For each sampling, each house was sampled in quadrants
by using drag swabs and by taking grab litter samples. A representative
sample of twelve birds from each house was also cloacally swabbed. Drag
swabs and cloacal swabs were enriched and tested for the presence of Salmonella and Campylobacter, respectively. Litter samples were diluted and
plated on the appropriate media to enumerate total - Salmonella, Clostridium perfringens, anaerobic bacteria, and aerobic bacteria.
Salmonella incidence for each sampling period from the litter samples
ranged from 1.6% - 10.9%, from drag swabs Salmonella incidence was
between 18.8% - 56.3%, and the incidence of Salmonella from the cloacal
swabs was between 4.2% - 6.3%. Clostridium perfringens was found to
vary from 2.82 Logs to 4.034 Logs, and only two samples, both from the
second sampling were positive for Campylobacter.
Based off the sampling results, it is evident that both Salmonella and Clostridium perfringens are available and present in the poultry house environment and are a potential reservoir for these bacteria.
Key Words: prevalence, Salmonella, Campylobacter, Clostridium
perfringens, poultry house
M54 Isolation, screening and identification of Bacillus spp. as directfed microbial (DFM) candidates for aflatoxin B1 biodegradation
Rosario Galarza-Seeber*GS, Juan Latorre, Billy Hargis, Guillermo Tellez
University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA
Aflatoxins are commonly found in cereals worldwide and bring significant threats to the food industry and animal production. The limitations
of present physical and chemical methods to decrease aflatoxin in feed
ingredients encouraged research on biological methods of degradation.
Some Bacillus spp. are identified as generally recognized as safe (GRAS)
organisms with probiotic properties in humans and animals. The purpose
of the present study was to evaluate the ability of Bacillus spp. as directfed microbials (DFM) to biodegrade aflatoxin B1 using an in vitro digestive model simulating in vivo conditions. Sixty nine Bacillus isolates
obtained from intestinal and soil samples were screened using a selective
media method against 0.25 and 1.0 µg/mL of aflatoxin B1 (AB1) in modified Czapek-Dox medium. Plates were incubated at 37°C and observed
every two days during two weeks. Selection criteria was based on growth,
reduction of fluorescence and area of clearance around each colony. Three
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
candidates showed an inhibitory halo clearly visible after 48 hours of
evaluation. Analysis of 16s-DNA identified the strains as B. amyloliquefaciens, B. megaterium and B. subtilis. In vitro compatibility test among the
strains was also conducted. Isolates were individually sporulated using a
solid fermentation method and combined. Spores were incorporated into
1 of 3 experimental feed groups: 1) Negative control, unmedicated starter
broiler feed with no AB1; 2) Positive control (PCON), negative control
feed contaminated with 1 ppm of AB1; 3) Treated (TRT), positive control
feed supplemented with 109 spores/gram. Following digestion (3:15h), supernatants and digesta were collected for high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis by triplicate. No significant differences (P > 0.05)
were observed in the concentrations of AB1 in neither the supernatants nor
digesta samples evaluated by HPLC between PCON or TRT groups. Further studies to evaluate the possible biodegradation effects of the BacillusDFM in broiler chickens fed with naturally contaminated feed ingredients
are in progress.
Key Words: Aflatoxins, Bacillus, DFM, biodegradation, broiler feed
M55 Effect of prolonged administration of dexamethasone in feed
on intestinal permeability in broiler chicks Eduardo Vicuña*GS, Vivek
Kuttappan, Rosario Seeber-Galarza, Juan-David Latorre, Olivia Faulkner,
Guillermo Tellez, Billy Hargis, Lisa Bielke University of Arkansas,
Fayetteville, AR, USA
We have previously shown that intestinal barrier function can be adversely affected by stress, poorly digested diets, or feed restriction, resulting
in increased intestinal inflammation-associated permeability. Presently,
three Exp were conducted to evaluate the effect of dexamethasone (DEX)
treatment on systemic (serum) Fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran 4kDa
(FITC-d) levels, indicative of increased gut epithelial leakage. In Exp 1,
we compared DEX injection, a known stress-response-inducing dose of
1mg/kg, once per day, on d3, 5, and 9 with feed administration at 0.57,
1.7, or 5.1 ppm d4-10, on FITC-d serum concentrations 2.5 h after gavage with 4.16 mg/kg FITC-d. DEX administration, regardless of route or
dose, resulted in marked (2-6X; P<0.05) increased serum FITC-d levels.
Feed DEX administration resulted in greater (P<0.05) gut permeability
than injection at any dose, with numerically optimal effects at the lowest
dose tested. In Exp 2-3, chicks were randomly assigned to shaving-bedded
pens (Exp 2) or wire brooders (Exp 3) with starter ration containing either control (CON) or DEX treated (TRT) feed (0.57 ppm/kg; d3-10 Exp
2, d4-10 Exp 3), with feed and water provided ad libitum for 10 days.
At d10, all chicks were treated by oral gavage with FITC-d and serum
samples were obtained 2.5h post-gavage as described above. Samples of
the right half of the liver were aseptically collected, homogenized, diluted
1:4 wt/vol in sterile saline, and serial dilutions were plated tryptic soy
agar to evaluate total numbers of aerobic bacteria in liver as an index of
bacterial translocation (BT). In both experiments, FITC-d absorption was
significantly enhanced (P<0.05) in DEX-treated chicks, again indicating
increased paracellular leakage across the gut epithelium associated with
dissolution of tight junctions. In Exp 2 and 3, dietary DEX administration
resulted in numerically (Exp 2) or significantly (P<0.05) increased enteric
BT to liver tissue, supporting the observation that dietary DEX causes a
stress-like inflammatory GI response, which may contribute to subclinical
or clinical disease, and may be a useful model for ongoing disease mitigation research related to stress-related diseases of GIT origin.
Key Words: chicken, dexamethasone, stress, bacterial translocation,
gastrointestinal permeability
M57 Effects of feeding dried distillers grains with solubles to broilers
challenged with C. perfringens and Eimeria on necrotic enteritis Laci
MacKay*GS, James Krehling, William Dozier III, Kenneth Macklin Auburn
University, Auburn, AL, USA
Necrotic enteritis (NE) is an enterotoxemia that affects flocks worldwide.
Broiler diets which rely heavily on inclusions of indigestible non-starch
17
polysaccharides increase the prevalence of NE due to augmented viscosity
of the intestines. Dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) has become
a popular additive included in broiler diet due to its availability in large
quantities however, it is less-digestible for poultry. A total of 480 male
Ross x Ross 708 chicks were randomly assigned one of two experimental
levels of DDGS (0 or 15%) for both the starter and grower phases. There
were four different levels of C. perfringens (0, 104, 106, 108 CFU/ml) to
accompany each of the experimental diets, giving six replicates (10 birds/
rep) for each of the eight treatments. On day 18, all challenged birds were
orally inoculated with an Eimeria spp. cocktail (20,000 sporulated oocysts) consisting of a mixture of E. maxima and E. acervulina. C. perfringens (CP) was administered on day 21, 22, and 23 at the above-mentioned
levels by 1 ml oral gavage. On day 28 birds were necropsied and scored
for NE and coccidia lesions. The ceca was removed for recovery of CP. All
performance data along with lesion scoring and CP counts were analyzed
using GLM, if significant (p<0.05) means were further separated using
Duncan’s Multiple Comparison Method. NE scores for the treatments
dosed with CP 108 CFU/ml (0.4285) were significantly higher (p<0.05)
than those of any lower dosed treatments (none=0.2565, low=0.3395,
med=0.383). Eimeria spp. did not show any significant differences between treatments. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) day 14-28, was significantly greater for the high dosed treatments (1.641) than those receiving
lower doses (none=1.4959, low= 1.5689, med= 1.5537). Diets with 15%
DDGS had a greater FCR compared to diets consisting of 0% DDGS with
the same CP challenge dose. Diet with high DDGS level and CP challenge
had a significantly higher FCR. These data support the hypothesis that
dietary inclusion of 15% DDGS have an effect on development of NE and
negative effect on overall performance.
Key Words: Necrotic enteritis, broiler, coccidia
M58 Gastrointestinal parasitic prevalence and associated risk factors
in backyard poultry at three ecological zones of Nepal Bibek Regmi*GS
Agriculture and Forestry University, Bhutaha, Nepal
A study was conducted in backyard poultry at Chitwan (160 – 164 masl),
Myagdi (1600 – 1620 masl) and Mustang (2650 – 2710 masl) from the
three ecological regions of Nepal viz. terai, hill and mountain respectively
from November, 2012 to February, 2013 to know the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and the associated risk factors. Sample size was randomly selected 35 households from each ecological zone for questionnaire
survey. The fecal samples of birds aged greater than 1 month proportional
to the number of birds in respective households were collected as per the
sampling frame; 1 from 1 to 3 birds, 2 from 4 to 6 birds, 3 from 7 to 9 birds
and so on. The questionnaire and the microscopic observation data were
collected, coded, computed and analyzed by SPSS-16 and MS-EXCEL
2007. Descriptive statistics like frequencies and percentages were used to
represent the data and chi-squared test was used to find out the association
of prevalence with the risk factor variables. The overall gastrointestinal
parasitic prevalence was found to be 82.87 percentage with highest infection rate in terai (94.83%) followed by infection rates in hill (89.37%) and
then in mountain (69.74%). The difference in prevalence was statistically
highly significant (P = 0.00: P < 0.01) for different ecological zones. The
prevalence rates for different ages, sexes and management systems were
slightly different but the differences were not statistically significant (P >
0.05). With regards to the number of species of parasite per chicken, most
chickens (61.88%) were harboring multiple species i.e. two to six different
species of parasites which is 74.67 percentage of the positive samples. The
highest percentage of infection was due to Raillietina spp. (42.54%) followed by Amoebotaenia sphenoides (33.70%), Ascaridia galli (30.39%)
and Heterakis spp. (19.89%). This can be concluded here that there is a
high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitic infestation in backyard poultry of Nepal. The gastrointestinal parasitic prevalence is significantly influenced by the varying altitude of the ecological zones but unaffected by
the age and sex of birds, and the type of their housing system. Descriptive
statistics reveals that the overall status of management, feeding, nutrition
and health care of backyard poultry is very poor in Nepal.
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ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
Key Words: gastrointestinal, risk factors, backyard poultry, ecological
zones, households
M59 Cecal Salmonella and indigenous microflora reponse to Original
XPCTM-fed broilers Stephanie Roto*GS, Sang In Lee, Peter Rubinelli, Si
Hong Park, Steven Ricke University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA
The objectives of this research were to assess the response among the gut
microflora of broiler chickens, and to determine the prevalence of Salmonella in broilers fed antibiotic-free commercial broiler diets, with and
without the addition of salinomycin, and observe the effects of supplementing Diamond V Original XPCTM (Diamond V, Cedar Rapids, IA).
Male broilers (n=1280) were randomly assigned to floor pens. Sixteen
replications of twenty male birds per pen were fed one of four possible
treatments: control (T1), XPC (T2), salinomycin (T3), or XPC + salinomycin (T4). All broiler chicks were spray-vaccinated in the hatchery with
a standard dose of coccidiosis vaccine (Coccivac-B, Merck). At 0, 2, 4
and 6 weeks of age, 24 birds were randomly selected from each treatment
group for cecal content analysis. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to compare microflora in cecal contents among the
treatments, and Quantity One software was used to generate phylogenetic
trees. DGGE gels exhibited characteristic banding patterns, indicating the
cecal microflora achieved detectable stability as the birds matured. Phylogenetic analyses at week 2 showed stabilization in T2 and T4 groups,
while week 4 data indicated further stabilization in T4. Based on preliminary sequencing of select DGGE bands, Bacteroides appeared to be common at weeks 4 and 6. To determine Salmonella prevalence, XLT-4 and
BG media were used; 22.2, 13.9, 16.7, and 2.8% of samples tested positive for Salmonella in treatment groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 respectively. After
statistically pooling all treatments as two groups, based on the presence or
absence of XPC in the diets, JMP genomics software was used to compare
Salmonella prevalence. Salmonella prevalence was significantly lower (p
< 0.05) in XPC-supplemented treatment groups (T2 and T4).
Key Words: XPC, cecal microflora, broiler, Salmonella, DGGE
M60 Antimicrobial Effect of an Essential Oil Blend on Surfaceattached Salmonella on Polyvinyl Chloride Sangyoon Song*GS1, Walid
Alali1, Joseph Frank2, Charles Hofacre3 1University of Georgia Center for
Food Safety, Griffin, GA, USA; 2University of Georgia Department of Food
Science & Technology, Athens, GA, USA; 3University of Georgia Poultry
Diagnostic and Research Center, Athens, GA, USA
Introduction: Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is basic material for drinking water lines for chickens. Inner surface of PVC pipe can be susceptible to
surface-attachment of Salmonella, the 1st stage of biofilm development.
Biofilm which can cause Salmonella infection to chickens are known to
have great resistance against antimicrobials. Chlorine is used to control the
biofilm, but it cannot efficiently decrease the Salmonella cells of internal
organs of chickens by intake. However, essential oils are proven they can
reduce the Salmonella cells of internal organs of chickens. Hence, efficacy
of essential oils (EO) to prevent the slime formation can be tested.
Purpose: The objective was to compare the efficacy of an essential oil
blend to reduce attached Salmonella cells on PVC with chlorinated water
and untreated control.
Methods: PVC coupons (n=30) sanitized with ethanol were prepared and
3.0 × 107 CFU/mL of Salmonella cocktail (Enteritidis, Heidelberg, and
Typhimurium) were incubated with the coupons in 30mL TSB per sample
for 96h at 37°C with 100 rpm to develop the attachment. Antimicrobial
treatments were performed for coupons (n=10/group) with EO (500 µg/
mL), sodium hypochlorite (5 µg/mL), or sterile deionized water, and they
were incubated at 25°C for 24 h with 100 rpm. The surfaces of the coupons after rinsing with PBS were swabbed with sterile sponges and stomached in 50mLs of D/E neutralizing broth. Next, enumeration with XLT-4
and enrichment with BPW and TT was conducted. Furthermore, pHs of
the antimicrobials were measured at three different conditions (without
Salmonella cells, before the treatment, and after the treatment).
Results: Average log10 CFU/cm2 (± standard error) of EO treated group
and sodium hypochlorite treated group were 0.19 ± 0.13 and 0.86 ± 0.22
respectively. On the other hand, the control group showed 3.87 ± 0.054
indicating statistically significant reduction of Salmonella cells by two antimicrobials. The number of Salmonella positive samples per group was 2
(EO), 9 (chlorine), and 20 (sterile deionized water) out of total 20 samples
per group, indicating statistically significant difference among the three
groups. Finally, EO group did not show remarkable changes in pH showing around pH 3.6~3.7. However, chlorine group showed different pH depending on the timing; pH 8.00 when no Salmonella cells existed, pH 6.96
before the treatment and pH 6.38 after the treatment. Sterile deionized
treated group showed consistent pH value no matter when the measurement timing was, indicating pH around 6~6.3.
Significance: The potential of EO to substitute chlorine to both prevent
biofilm and control Salmonella cells in chicken internal organs was verified.
Key Words: Salmonella Biofilm, Essential Oil, Microbial Attachment,
Drinking Water, Polyvinyl chloride
M61 A non-invasive approach for predicting 4-day percent breast
yield in broilers Alex Gilley*GS, Sara Orlowski, Adrianna Rogers, Judith
England, Nicholas Anthony University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA
Abstract Traditional selection for breast yield in broilers occurs relatively
late on the growth curve and during a time of hypertrophic muscle growth.
Recently we have developed three research lines, including a random bred
control (RBC), H4D, and L4D selected for high and low percent breast
yield at 4 days of age. Selecting for 4-day percent breast yield shifts the
focus from hypertrophic muscle growth to hyperplasic muscle growth.
Recent work has shown the selection for 4-day percent breast yield to
result in increased percent breast yield as early as E19 (19 days of incubation) and continuing to d42. The current method for determining percent
breast yield is highly invasive and requires the bird to be sacrificed to
obtain parts weight. Sacrificing the bird for data collection forces sib selection to occur and while sib selection is effective, direct selection would
result in more rapid genetic progress and higher practicality for industry
use. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine if multiple and
logistic regression could be used to predict 4-day percent breast yield, and
categorize birds with high and low percent breast yield through the use
of external and non-invasive body measurements. The explanatory variables include body weight, length, and girth, breast width and length, and
body composition measurements collected from a DEXA (Dual Energy
X-ray Absorptiometry) machine. The data set included 15 measurements
taken from all lines at 4 days of age, with 266 birds used for training the
models and 67 birds used for validation. The prediction ability of the multiple regression models was determined by evaluating R-Square, Adjusted
R-Square, and MSE, while the evaluation of logistic regression included
AIC, BIC, AUC, and misclassification rate. Adjusted R-Square values
ranged from 0.76 to 0.82 implying that external body measurements along
with body composition measurements via the DEXA, offer an accurate
and non-invasive alternative for determining 4-day percent breast yield.
Key Words: broilers, breast, yield, regression, DEXA
M62 Variation in water usage between different drinker lines in
a broiler house. Cody Brown*GS, Michael Czarick, Brian Fairchild
University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA
Water and feed consumption are correlated, making water intake an effective method of monitoring feed consumed. However, there is a deficiency of research on drinking habits in field conditions. The objective of
the current study was to monitor water usage of all drinker lines within a
commercial broiler house. The 40’x500’ broiler house had eight enclosed
drinker lines with four in the front and back halves (full house brooded).
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
Ultralow flow water meters were attached to each individual drinker line
and water usage was recorded every minute with a data logging system
starting at day 7 through a 39 day flock. Drinker line height and water
pressure were recorded and efforts were made to minimize variation between them throughout the flock. Water usage patterns of the 4 drinker
lines were compared in both the front and back halves of the house.
There was no significant difference in water usage between the front and
back halves of the house. Water usage tended to be symmetrical across the
width of the house. Initially, day 7-10 approximately, the birds tended to
use more water from the two outside drinker lines than the inside drinker
lines. Between 14-34 days of age, the birds used more water from the inside drinker lines than the outside drinker lines. Water usage between the
lines was similar the last six days of the flock. Chicks were unloaded between the wall and the feed line when they were placed in the house which
may explain the slightly higher water consumption during the first period.
As the chicks spread out using the larger area in the middle of the house
they began to use the inside drinkers more. There were some disruptions in
the pattern that appeared to be due to feeder and drinker line management.
Key Words: Drinker utilization, Water consumption, Drinking patterns
M63 Comprehensive study of the effects of egg storage, floor and
nest eggs, and broiler breeder flock age on hatchability and 14-day
livability, feed conversion ratio, and body weight in broiler chicks.
Emily Lhamon*GS1, D. E. Yoho2, L. Butler3, R. K. Bramwell2 1University
of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA; 2Center of Excellence for Poultry
Science, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA; 3Cobb-Vantress,
Inc., Siloam Springs, AR, USA
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of egg treatment
and handling on the viability and efficiency of Cobb broilers. Three experimental trials were set up: egg storage duration, floor versus nest eggs,
and broiler breeder flock age. In the egg storage trial, eggs were collected
from the same flock and stored for four, eight, twelve, or sixteen days. In
the floor versus nest egg trial, eggs were collected from a flock notorious
for laying outside of the nest box and eggs from a sister flock that laid
inside the nest box. The broiler breeder flock age trial, hatching eggs were
obtained from four breeder flocks aged 27, 37, 46, and 56 weeks. Each
trial was completed at the University of Arkansas Research Farm. Eggs
were procured from Cobb-Vantress, Inc., set, and hatched at the University Hatchery. Birds were grown out in replicate pens by treatment for
14 days according to industry standards and provided feed and water ad
libitum. An initial trial and a replicate were performed for each experiment. Data was collected and analyzed at weeks one and two for: feed
conversion; average bird weight (including placement weight); mortality
(livability); percent hatch; percent hatch of fertile; and percent fertility. For
the egg storage Trial 1, significant differences were found in percent hatch
(P < 0.0009), percent hatch of fertile (P < 0.0014), and percent fertility (P
< 0.0288). Trial 2 found significant differences in feed conversion ratio
for weeks one and two (P < 0.0002 and P < 0.0236, respectively), average
bird weight at placement (P < 0.0002), percent hatch (P < 0.0001), percent
hatch of fertile (P < 0.0001), and percent fertility (P < 0.0209). No statistical differences were found for any of the criteria in either trial of the floor
versus nest egg treatments. Research for the flock age trials is currently
ongoing. We can conclude the storage of eggs has more impact on hatchability than on grow out performance. However, where the egg was laid
(floor or nest), has no significant effect.
Key Words: egg storage, floor and nest eggs, flock age, broiler
performance, hatchability
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M64Distribution and Effects of Probiotic Spray on Microbial
Properties of Hatcher Cabinets Lucas Graham*UG1, Johel Bielke1, Kyle
Teague1, Guillermo Tellez1, Billy Hargis1, Ross Wolfenden2, Lisa Bielke1
1
University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA; 2Pacific Vet Group-USA,
Fayetteville, AR, USA
Control of microbial bloom in hatcher cabinets may have an effect on
GIT colonization in neonatal chicks, and may be an optimal time for administration of beneficial bacteria. Two experiments testing the effect of a
selected probiotic administration in commercial hatch cabinets on microbial recovery were conducted. In Exp 1, combinations of either dry (D) or
aqueous suspension (W) of Bacillus spores (BS) plus lactic acid bacteria
(W; LAB) were sprayed at transfer only, or 3 time points (transfer, 20%
hatch, 50% hatch). Combinations included a single spray of D BS + LAB
(W;Trt 1), a single spray of W spores + LAB (Trt 2), or 3 applications of
W spores + LAB (Trt 3). Six (each) Tryptic soy agar (TSA), Rogosa agar
(RA), and MacConkey’s agar (MCA) plates were distributed in cabinets
for 5min before spray treatment at transfer, ~50% pip, ~20% hatch, ~50%
hatch, and ~75% hatch. At ~20% pip and ~20% hatch Enterobacteriaceae
recovery on MCA was suppressed (P<0.05) in cabinets in all treatments.
At ~50% hatch, Trt 1 had 1.0 log10 lower CFU on MCA compared to controls, and Trt 3 resulted in increased LAB CFU on RA and TSA (P<0.05).
By ~75% hatch, MCA CFU were the same for all treatments, but Trt 1
increased Bacillus recovery and Trt 3 increased LAB CFU on RA. Trt 2
did not result in differences at any time points, suggesting that multiple
applications of probiotic are best for survival of LAB in hatch cabinets,
and spray of D BS is optimal for persistence. Thus, for Exp 2, commercial
hatcher cabinets were sprayed 3X (transfer, 20% and 50% hatch) with D
BS and W LAB; control cabinets received a formaldehyde spray. CFU recovery on all media was higher in treated cabinets (P<0.05) at 20% hatch,
RA incidence of 6% in control vs. 70% in treated cabinets. Throughout
the test period, diminution of differences between control and treated
recovery of Enterobacteriaceae on MCA became apparent as formaldehyde control cabinets increased CFUs. Bacillus recovery remained high
throughout the time period. These results suggest that probiotic spray into
hatcher cabinets may decrease bloom of Enterobacteriaceae and increase
levels of Bacillus and LAB, which may increase colonization of GIT with
beneficial microflora.
Key Words: probiotics, hatcher cabinets, Bacillus, Lactic acid bacteria
M65Effect of a lactic acid bacteria-based probiotic in ovo on
hatchability and recovery of bacteria in broiler chicks Kyle Teague*UG1,
Lucas Graham1, Lisa Bielke1, Ross Wolfenden2, Billy Hargis1, Guillermo
Tellez1 1University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA; 2Pacific Vet GroupUSA, Fayetteville, AR, USA
Early colonization of beneficial bacteria in chicks may improve GIT development and performance parameters such as early mortality and feed
conversion ratios and in ovo injection has been suggested as a potential
efficient mechanism of administration. Presently, we evaluated the effects
of either two co-administered egg shell-origin MRS-recoverable bacteria
(MRSR; Exp 1) or a single MRSR or FloraMax® (FM; Exp 2) on hatchability and GIT recovery of selected bacterial groups on d1 post-hatch. In
Exp 1, d18 embryos were injected into the amnion with either saline (CON)
or 2x108 CFU of MRSR. After hatch, intestinal samples were collected for
microbial recovery on MRS and tryptic soy agar (TSA). Hatchability was
not affected by in ovo treatement (93% CON vs. 94% MRSR). Foregut
(duodenum-Meckel’s diverticulum) MRS recovery was 6.05±0.32 Log10
CFU, which was higher (P<0.05) than CON at 3.25±0.63, and followed
a similar trend on TSA. In the hindgut (Meckel’s diverticulum – cecum),
MRSR treatment resulted in 8.71±0.16 Log10 CFU vs. 5.57±1.01 Log10
MRS-recoverable in CON (P<0.05), and also followed a similar trend on
TSA. The analogous results on MRS and TSA may reflect growth of administered bacteria capable of growing on both types of media. In Exp
2, in ovo injection of MRSR (8x103 CFU), FM (6x103 CFU), or saline
on hatchability and GIT colonization were evaluated. FM had the highest
20
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
hatchability at 98%, followed by saline at 96%, and MRSR at 91%. FM
and MRSR both increased MRS recoverable bacteria over CON (P<0.05),
while only MRSR increased TSA growth in the foregut. No differences in
microbial colonization were noted on MRS and TSA in the hindgut. Enterobacteriaceae were not suppressed on MacConkey’s agar in either the
foregut or hindgut by either in ovo treatment (evaluated Exp 2 only), possibly due to low administration levels of probiotic, suggesting that higher
doses are necessary for GIT colonization effects and may be related to
survivability of bacteria during final stages of embryogenesis. Taken together, these studies show that appropriate probiotics can be administered
in ovo without significant effects on hatchability and may promote early
enteric colonization of beneficial microflora throughout the GIT.
Key Words: in ovo, probiotics, hatchability, lactic acid bacteria
Metabolism & Nutrition I
M66 Growth and carcass characteristics of broilers fed varying levels
of processed cassava waste meal Stanley Omoikjoje*, Dick Obasoyo
Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria
An eight week feeding trial was conducted to assess the replacement value
of processed cassava waste meal (PCWM) on the growth performance
and carcass characteristics of one hundred and forty four day-old Anak
2000 broiler chickens. Thirty six chicks each were randomly selected per
treatment group based on their average initial weights and was assigned
to each of the four treatment diets (1,2,3 and 4) in a complete randomized
design (CRD). Each treatment group contained three replicates of twelve
chicks. The dietary treatments significantly (P<0.05) affected the performance and carcass traits of the broiler chickens at both starter and finisher
phases. Results on the growth performance of broiler chickens showed
that only the average live weight was not significantly (P>0.05) increased
with a corresponding increase in the inclusion levels of (CWM) up to 45%
at the starter phase, whereas, at the finisher phase, all the performance indices except feed: gain ratio were significantly (P<0.05) influenced. Liveweight, defeathered and eviscerated weights were significantly (P< 0.05)
influenced by the test diets. The results suggest that processed cassava
waste meal can be included in broiler diets up to 45% without any adverse
effect on the growth performance and carcass quality of the birds.
Key Words: Broilers, Cassava waste meal, Growth, Carcass yield
M67 Nitrogen corrected apparent metabolizable energy and lipid
digestibility of distillers corn oil sources varying in free fatty acid
content fed to growing broilers William Dozier*1, Kurt Perryman1,
Brian Kerr2 1Auburn University, Auburn, AL, USA; 2USDA-Agricultural
Research Service, Ames, IA, USA
Ethanol manufacturers are extracting approximately 2 to 6% distillers
corn oil (DCO) from distillers dried grains with solubles as an additional
source of revenue. However, these oil sources can have variable concentrations of free fatty acids (FFA), which may limit their application as a
suitable dietary energy source for broilers. Therefore, the objective of this
experiment was to determine the AMEn and lipid digestibility of DCO
samples with different concentrations of FFA. Eight hundred sixty-four
Ross × Ross 708 male broilers were placed in 96 battery cages and fed a
practical starter diet until 19 d of age. Broilers then received 1 of 9 dietary
treatments consisting of 94% corn-soybean meal basal diet (3,025 kcal/
kg; 20% CP) and 6% test oil source. Oil sources included refined corn
oil, 95% FFA product produced from DCO feedstock, 5, 10, and 15%
FFA DCO, poultry oil, animal-vegetable oil blend, and soybean oil. A dietary treatment of 94% basal diet and 6% dextrose was used to determine
the AMEn of the basal diet required to calculate the AMEn of each test oil
source. Following a 7 d dietary adaptation phase, a 48 h balance assay was
conducted to determine lipid digestibility and AMEn of each oil source.
The 95% FFA product produced from DCO had lower (P < 0.05) AMEn
(6,276 kcal/kg) than all other oil sources (7,930 kcal/kg). Lipid digestibility was lowest (P < 0.001) for 95% DCO (83.0%) and highest (P < 0.001)
for the refined corn oil (91.6%) and soybean oil (91.4%). No linear or lack
of fit effects (P > 0.05) were observed for any response variable between
the 5, 10, and 15% FFA DCO sources. These data demonstrated that DCO
sources with less than 15% FFA content are suitable as an energy source
for growing broilers, whereas the 95% FFA product had poor AMEn value
as a result of reduced lipid digestibility.
Key Words: distillers corn oil, free fatty acid, apparent metabolizable
energy, broiler
M68 Efficacy of β-mannanase on broiler growth performance and
energy utilization in the presence of increasing dietary galactomannan
Rocky Latham*GS1, Brandon Carter2, Jake Pieniazek1, Jason T. Lee1 1Texas
A&M University, College Station, TX, USA; 2Elanco Animal Health,
Greenfield, IN, USA
An experiment was conducted to investigate the impact of β-mannanase
inclusion on growth performance, viscosity, and energy utilization in
broilers fed diets varying in galactomannan (GM) concentrations. A 3
(GM concentration) x 3 (β-mannanase inclusion) factorial randomized
complete block designed included 12 replicates of 29 male broilers per
replicate for a 42 day experiment. Efforts were made to reduce the amount
of soybean meal, and thus GM, in the basal diet. Guar gum was included
in the diet at 0, 0.15, or 0.30%. Beta-mannanase was included at 0, 200,
or 400 g/ton. Broilers were fed a starter (d 0-14), grower (d 15-28), and
finisher (d 29-42). Growth performance was monitored and ileal contents
collected on d 14, 28, and 42 to determine ileal digestible energy (IDE)
and intestinal viscosity. Increasing levels of GM negatively (P<0.05) influenced body weight (BW) following the starter and grower periods and
increased mortality corrected feed conversion ratio (FCR) throughout
the study. This reduction in growth performance was related to increases (P<0.05) in intestival viscosity and decreases (P<0.05) in IDE associated with GM inclusion. Inclusion of β-mannanase in GM containing
diets improved average male BW to levels similar to diets without GM.
Improvements in FCR were also observed with β-mannanase inclusion,
however, only in diets containing supplemental GM. Increases (P<0.05)
were observed in IDE with β-mannanase inclusion. Beta-mannanase inclusion resulted in multiple observed significant interactions in growth
performance, intestival viscosity, and IDE. In conclusion, β-mannanase
improved IDE, reduced intestival viscosity, and improved growth performance. The observed benefit in this study was dependent upon dietary
GM inclusion rate.
Key Words: Broiler Performance, Ileal Digestible Energy, Intestinal
Viscosity, Beta-mannanase, Galactomannan
M69 Effect of chronic cold stress on hypothalamic neuropeptide
gene expression in young chicks Phuong Nguyen*GS1, Elisabeth Greene1,
Geraldine Huff2, Sonia Tsai Hsiu-Chuan2, Peter Ishola1, Annie Donoghue2,
Sami Dridi1 1University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA; 2USDA,
Fayetteville, AR, USA
Extreme temperature has significant impact on the growth performance
of poultry, especially young birds by causing stress. Studies showed that
acute and chronic cold stresses affect the chickens in different aspects such
as physiology, metabolism, production, health and welfare. This study
aimed to assess the effect of chronic cold exposure on hypothalamic neuropeptide gene expression, circulating metabolites, body temperature and
growth performance in young chicks.
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
In the experiment, 80 male broiler chicks (one day old) were randomly
assigned in four floor pens (20 birds/pen), which are located in two different temperature rooms (2 pens/room). The temperature of control room
was 32oC, while the cold room temperature started at 26.7oC and reduced
gradually every day to 20oC at the seventh day of the experiment. On
the first day of the study, average body temperature (bt) of cold-exposed
chicks was remarkably higher than the control group (P<0.05), and then
it was lower than the body temperature of control birds from day 2 to day
7. Cold exposure reduced feed intake and paradoxically increased body
weight, resulting in 19 points increase in FCR compared to the control
group. Moreover, cholesterol blood level in chronic cold stress chicks was
significantly higher than in the normal condition chicks (P<0.05). Chronic
cold exposure significantly down regulated the hypothalamic expression
of NPY, CART and adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 compared to the control
chicks.
In conclusion, cold exposure of chicks during first week of age affects
hypothalamic neuropeptide gene expression and growth performance.
21
brain, testis, and ovary and its physiological role and regulation are still
unknown. In the present study, we found that prepro-orexin and its related
receptors are expressed (mRNA and protein) in chicken and quail liver
and LMH cell line using PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively.
Acute heat exposure significantly down regulated the hepatic expression
(mRNA and protein) of orexin and its receptors (ORXR1 and 2) in quail
lines divergently selected for susceptibility or resistance to restraint stress.
The same effect was observed in vitro using LMH cells, indicating that
heat stress has a direct effect on hepatic orexin transcription. Exposure
of LMH cells to oxidative stress using several doses of H2O2 (10, 50 and
100 µM) or 4-HNE (10, 20 and 30 µM) affects also the hepatic expression
of orexin and its receptors. H2O2 increased Orexin and ORXR1/2 mRNA
abundance in a dose-dependent manner, but decreased the protein levels.
4-HNE, however, had a biphasic effect with up regulation of orexin and
ORXR1 with low doses (10 and 20 µM) and down regulation with high
dose (30 µM). In summary, the orexin system is expressed in chicken hepatocyte and it is regulated by heat and oxidative stress.
Key Words: cold stress, hypothalamic neuropeptide, gene expression,
chick
Key Words: Orexin, Orexin Receptors, Heat Stress, Oxidative Stress,
Gene Expression
M70 Effect of heat and enzymes on nitrogen-corrected apparent
metabolizable energy (AMEn) of mechanically-pressed soybean meal
(MPS) and the use of MPS on production performance of broiler
chickens Banuka Rajapakse*GS, Derek Anderson Department of Plant and
Animal Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Dalhousie University, Truro, NS,
Canada
M72 Dietary Supplementation of Choline and Betaine in HeatStressed Broilers Kouassi Kpodo*GS, J. Summers, R. Ray, R. Beckford
University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA
Two trials were conducted to determine the effect of heat and enzymes
on AMEn of MPS and to evaluate the effect of graded levels of MPS on
production performance of broilers. The cage trial was a completely randomized design (510 chicks) with 2 (7 or 11% oil level) x 2 (heat or noheat) x 4 (carbohydrase, protease, lipase or no-enzyme (NE)). The AMEn
values determined using excreta and diets, were used to formulate starter,
grower and finisher diets for the floor trial with 0.05% Superzyme®. The
floor trial was as a randomized complete block design with 2 (heated 9
or 13% oil meal) x 4 (0, 5, 10 or 15% inclusion). A total of 2560 day-old
broiler chicks were placed within 64 floor pens. In the cage trial, carbohydrase improved (P<0.05) AMEn of 11% heated (1775 kcal/kg) and nonheated (1687 kcal/kg) MPS than in NE meals with heat (1120 kcal/kg)
and no-heat (1357 kcal/kg). In 7% heated MPS, enzymes did not improve
(P>0.05) AMEn (1430-1766 kcal/kg). Lipase increased (P<0.05) AMEn
(1904 kcal/kg) of 7% non-heated MPS compared to NE (1587 kcal/kg).
In floor trial, compared to 0%, 15% inclusion reduced (P<0.05) the body
weight (BW) from 465 to 429 g and 1444 to 1354 g respectively in starter
and grower for 2 oil levels. In finisher, 10% inclusion, reduced (P<0.05)
BW (2538 g) compared to 0% (2624 g). In starter, feed consumption
(FC) per day at 9% (37 g/d) and 13% (36-38 g/d) meals, was not affected
(P>0.05) with inclusions. At 0%, FC in 9% (grower: 135 g/d, finisher:
212 g/d) and 13% MPS (grower: 136 g/d, finisher: 212 g/d) was reduced
(P<0.05) respectively at 15% (grower: 126 g/d, finisher: 201 g/d) and 10%
(grower: 128 g/d, finisher: 204 g/d) inclusions. With oil and inclusion levels, FCR was not affected (P>0.05) in starter (1.26-1.30), grower (1.351.39) and finisher (1.60-1.62) phases. Weight gain reflected FC because
all resulting FCR were equal.
Key Words: energy, enzyme, heat, production performance, soybean
meal
M71 Effects of heat and oxidative stress on the expression of orexin
and its related receptors in avian liver Stephanie Khaldi*GS, Elizabeth
Greene, Walter Bottje, Sami Dridi University of Arkansas - Fayetteville,
Fayetteville, AR, USA
The orexigenic peptide Orexin or hypocretin is mainly expressed in mammalian brain and has been shown to increase wakefulness, food intake,
and lipid metabolism. In birds, however, orexin has been confined to the
A study was conducted to examine the effect of supplemental choline and
betaine on broiler performance under different temperature conditions,
thermo neutral (TN) and heat stress (HS). Eight hundred day-old mixed
sex commercial broilers were weighed, wing tagged and equally divided
into the two environments. Eight replicates of ten chicks were randomly
assigned to one of five dietary treatments: Treatment 1, basal diet; Treatment 2, basal diet plus 500 ppm methyl equivalents added choline; Treatment 3, basal diet plus 1000 ppm methyl equivalents added choline; Treatment 4, basal diet plus 500 ppm methyl equivalents added betaine and
Treatment 5, basal diet plus 1000 ppm methyl equivalents added betaine.
The corn-soybean meal basal diet was formulated to meet the NRC requirements for broiler chickens. This study showed that high temperature
had a negative impact on the feed intake and feed conversion days 21 to
42 (P<0.05) and supplemental choline and betaine above recommended
amounts may be beneficial.
Key Words: Broilers, Heat-Stress, Environment, Choline, Betaine
M73 Immunomodulatory effects of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol
treatment in a chicken macrophage and T-cell line Antrison Morris*GS,
Ramesh Selvaraj The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH, USA
Biosynthesis of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)2D), is mediated
by the enzyme 1α-hydroxylase using 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)
D) as a substrate. This experiment investigated the effect of 25(OH)D in
vitro treatment on a chicken macrophage cell line (HD11 cells) stimulated
with coccidial antigens and or chicken T-cell line (ConA-B1-VICK) stimulated with Con A. HD11 cells were grown in a medium supplemented
with either 200 nM of 25(OH)D or 1,25(OH)2D and stimulated with coccidial antigen for 12 h. ConA-B1-VICK cells were grown in a medium
supplemented with either 200 nM of 25(OH)D or supernatant from HD11
cells treated with 25(OH)D and stimulated with LPS or with 100 nM of
1,25(OH)2D and stimulated with Con A for 120 h. At 12 h post-coccidial
antigen stimulation, HD11 cells treated with 200 nM of 1,25(OH)2D had
increased nitrite production (P < 0.01) compared to HD11 cells treated
with 0 or 200 nM of 25(OH)D that had amounts below the limits of quantification. Post-coccidial antigen stimulation, HD11 cells treated with 200
nM of 25(OH)D or 1,25(OH)2D had 28 and 14-fold less (P<0.01) IL-1β
and 1.5- fold less (P <0.01) 1α-hydroxylase mRNA amounts compared to
the control group treated with 0 nM of 25(OH)D or 1,25(OH)2D. Treatment of HD11 cells with 25(OH)D decreased IL-10 mRNA by 1.7 –fold,
but 1,25(OH)2D treatment increased the amounts of IL-10 mRNA by
2.7-fold (P < 0.01) compared to the control group. ConA-B1-VICK cells
22
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
stimulated with Con-A for 120 h, had 1.7 to 4.4- fold less (P < 0.01 )
1α-hydroxylase mRNA amounts across all treatment groups compared to
the group treated with 25(OH)D. ConA-B1-VICK cells treated with 100
nM of 1,25(OH)2D, or supernatants from HD11 cells treated with 25(OH)
D and stimulated with LPS, there was 1.3 to 1.4- fold less (P < 0.01 )
IFN-γ mRNA. In conclusion, both 25(OH) and 1,25(OH)2D could suppress the inflammatory gene IL-1β mRNA in HD11 cells post- coccidial
antigen stimulation, but Con-A stimulated ConA-B1-VICK cells required
1,25(OH)2D to suppress the IFN-γ mRNA.
Key Words: 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, Chicken macrophages, Chicken
T-cells, Interleukin-1beta, IFN-gamma
M74 Lutein has anti-inflammatory effect in LPS-challenged broiler
chickens Mariana Lemos de Moraes*GS1, Elizabeth Santin2, Andréa
Machado Leal Ribeiro1, Kirk Charles Klasing3 1Federal University of
Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil; 2Federal University of Paraná,
Curitiba, Brazil; 3University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, USA
We investigated the effect of lutein on the inflammatory response of
broiler chickens subjected to an immune challenge using Salmonella
LPS. Cobb chicks (360; 1 - 22 days of age) were allotted in a completely
randomized design with or without dietary supplementation of lutein at
50 mg/kg (ORO GLO, Kemin Industries, Inc., USA). At day 20, half of
the birds were injected with LPS. Samples of liver, spleen and duodenum
were collected at 3 and 16 h post-LPS challenge for RT-qPCR analysis
of RXRα, RXRγ, TLR-4, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-10, and IL-12 gene expression
quantification. Lutein promoted a positive effect on immunomodulation.
While LPS upregulated IL-1β (P < 0.05) and IL-12 (P ≤ 0.09) mRNA
expression, lutein decreased (P ≤ 0.07) these pro-inflammatory cytokines
in the liver. Lutein also downregulated splenic TLR-4 mRNA (P ≤ 0.09)
and plasmatic nitric oxide (P < 0.05) 16 hours after the LPS challenge.
The LPS increased (P < 0.01) the liver:BW ratio at 3 h post-injection and
decreased (P < 0.01) the BWG at 3, 16 and 40 h, this response was not
affected by dietary treatment. Our findings suggest that lutein has an antiinflammatory effect in broiler chickens.
Key Words: broiler chicken, inflammatory response, lutein, nitric oxide,
RT-qPCR
M75 Effect of breeder age on yolk fatty acid composition and yolk
absorption during embryonic development Nirun Boonsinchai*GS1,
Justina Caldas1, Phiphob Sodsee2, Karen Vignale1, Monticha Putsakum3,
Ethan Holt1, Andrew Magnuson1, Jinrong Wang1, Judith England1, Craig
Coon1 1University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA; 2Charoen Pokphand
Foods, Bangkok, Thailand; 3Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University,
Nonthaburi, Thailand
The objectives of the present study were to determine the effect of breeder
hen age on yolk absorption and fatty acid profiles in yolk at different stages of development (fresh yolk, E18, and at hatch). Hatching eggs (n=125)
were obtained from breeder hens (Cobb 500) in the same flock at 28, 35,
and 49wk of age. Egg weights were selected with a range of 5g difference for each age: 53-57g, 58-62g, and 66-70g for 28, 35, and 49wk hens,
respectively). Twenty five eggs (or hatched chicks) were used for each
sampling, and 6 yolks were saved for fatty acid determination. Fatty acid
compositions in blood plasma were also determined (n=6). As expected,
yolk weights in all stages, and yolk free body weight at hatch showed the
same patterns as their original egg weights, which significantly increased
by age (P<.0001). Yolk absorption from E1 to E18 significantly increased
(P<0.05) by age (23.52, 25.02, and 28.04% for 28, 35, and 49wk, respectively). However, rate of yolk absorption from E18 to hatch slowed down
by age, resulting in the lowest (P<.0001) total yolk absorption in embryo
from 49wk hens, as compared to those from 28 and 35wk hens (65.14
vs. 75.90 and 75.48%, respectively). Fatty acid concentrations (mg/g dry
yolk) decreased throughout embryo development period (P<.0001). Fatty
acid concentrations in fresh yolk increased from 28wk to 35wk and re-
duced again at 49wk of age (P<.0001), which is in agreement with fatty
acid contents in plasma. In addition, concentrations of fatty acids were
higher in yolk from older hens at E18 and at hatch (P<.0001). Although
percent of total yolk absorption was lower in 49wk-old hens, the total
amounts of fatty acids being absorbed were higher (P<.0001) in older
hens (4.87, 6.11, and 6.53g for 28, 35, and 49wk, respectively). The higher
amount of residual yolk at hatch together with its higher concentrations
of fatty acid contents in chicks hatched from older hens may result in the
better growth rate as has been documented. In conclusion, the rate of yolk
absorption was higher in embryo from younger hens, but the concentration of yolk fatty acids and the quantitative size of available yolk for embryo was larger from older breeders thus providing more fat for embryo
gain and livability.
Key Words: yolk absorption, fatty acid profiles, breeder age, embryonic
development
M76 The effects of incubation conditions and trace mineral source
in broiler breeder and broiler progeny diets on the live performance
of Ross 708 male broilers. Coltin Caraway*GS1, Stacey Homen2, Greg
Page3, Wilbert Litjens4, John Brake1 1North Carolina State University,
Raleigh, NC, USA; 2Nutreco; Trouw Nutrition USA, Highland, IL, USA;
3
Nutreco; Canada Agresearch, Guelph, ON, Canada; 4Nutreco; Selko Feed
Additives, Tilburg, Netherlands
The effects of trace mineral (Zn, Mn, Cu, and Se) source and incubation
humidity on feed intake (FI), BW, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of
male broilers reared to 42 d were evaluated in a 2x3 factorial arranged
experiment with 2 incubation humidity (RH) profiles and 3 trace mineral
(TM) sources in both 40-wk-old broiler breeder and progeny diets. Ross
708 broiler breeder diets were supplemented with TM composed of either
inorganic (INO), organic (ORG), or a combination of organic and inorganic (MIX) trace minerals from 21 wk of age. Eggs were divided into
2 groups for incubation at HIGH and LOW RH of 70% and 53% RH,
respectively, from E0 to E10 but similarly thereafter. The RH profiles were
selected to represent the range of industry practice. Chicks were randomly
assigned to 72 floor pens, with 12 birds per pen. Broilers were fed a starter,
grower, and finisher diet containing the same TM source as their respective parents. Incubation RH affected (P<0.05) BW of chicks at placement,
with HIGH RH chicks exhibiting the greatest BW. At 42 d, TM source
increased BW stepwise with ORG < INO < MIX (P<0.01; 3134 g < 3188
g < 3252 g). The MIX broilers consumed the most (P<0.05) feed through
42 d with MIX > INO > ORG (5243 g > 5153 g > 5077 g). Additionally,
HIGH incubation RH decreased (P<0.01) FI of INO broilers through 42
d, which led to a significant decrease (P<0.05) in BW through 28 d. In
contrast, there were no significant FI or BW differences due to incubation
RH in MIX or ORG broilers. At 42 d, ORG broilers incubated at LOW RH
exhibited an improved (P<0.05) FCR when compared to all other treatment interactions (1.59 vs 1.61/1.62).
Key Words: trace minerals, organic minerals, incubation humidity,
broilers, broiler breeders
M77 Effect of Escalating Level of Guar Meal Supplemented with
or without β-Mannanases on Productive Performance of Broilers
Munawar Hussain*GS University of animal and veterinary and Animal
Sciences Lahore, Okara, Pakistan
Experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of escalating level of
guar meal supplemented with or without β-mannanases on productive performance of broilers. Seven hundred and fifty day old male broiler chicks
were used in 2×3 factorial arrangement under completely randomized design. Birds were weighed and randomly divided into six groups of five
replicates (twenty five, birds/replicate) each. Six iso-nitrogenous and isocaloric broiler diets were formulated using two levels of guar meal (GM),
i.e., 3 and 6% (GM3 and GM6, respectively) and three types of enzyme
i.e., 0, Fermented product of Bacillus Lentus and other one is fermented
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
product of Bacillus Subtitis WL-1 (E0, E1 and E2 respectively). Birds
were fed experimental diets for forty two days. Weight gain (WG) during
1-21 and 1-42 day was affected (P<0.05) by enzyme × GM. Feed intake
(FI) found to be unaffected by all treatments during 1-21 days. During 2142 days of age WG was affected (P<0.05) by both GM and enzyme type.
Highest WG was observed in birds fed diets having 3% GM which was
5% higher than 6% GM. With respect to enzyme lowest WG was found in
birds fed diets supplemented with enzymes (either E1 or E2), which was
4 and 3% lower than E0. Similarly FI were significantly affected by the
enzyme during 21-42 and 1-42 days. Higher values (7 and 3% for E1 or
E2 as compared to control) were found with enzyme supplementation as
compared to the control. Level of GM did not affect FI during any phase
of growth. However, during all phases feed conversion ratio (FCR) and
European production index (EPI) was significantly (P<0.05) affected by
GM level. During 21-42 and 1-42 days, significantly different FCR and
EPI were also observed with enzyme supplementation while, EPI only
affected during 21-42 days due to enzyme type. Energy efficiency ratio
(EER) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) were affected (P<0.05) only by
GM during 1-21 days. The EER and PER by the birds during 1-42 days
were different (P<0.05) due to both of the factors also, only EPI during 2142 day. Guar meal level did not affect (P>0.05) EER while significantly
decrease due to enzyme during 21-42 days. Enzyme × GM was non-significant (P>0.05) for FI, FCR, EPI, EER and PER during all phases. On
the bases of results, it is concluded that enzyme supplementation does not
influence the performance of birds receiving diets containing GM. Furthermore, application of enzyme and increasing GM level negatively affect the production performance of broilers.
Key Words: Guar Meal, β-Mannanase, Bacillus Lentus, Bacillus Subtitis
WL-1, Broiler
M78 Phosphorus and phytase application to broiler breeder grower
and layer diets affect egg weight and body weight during production
Yun Mei Lin*GS1, John Brake1, Peter Plumstead2 1North Carolina State
University, Raleigh, NC, USA; 2Department of Animal and Wildlife
Sciences, University of Pretoria, SA Danisco Animal Nutrition, DuPont
Industrial Biosciences. Marlborough, UK., Pretoria, South Africa
Malborough, UK, South Africa
The effects on egg weight, egg components, and broiler breeder female
BW of a 6-phytase derived from Buttiauxella spp. expressed in Trichoderma reesei in corn-soy-wheat bran grower (7-26 wk of age) and layer
(27-64 wk of age) diets that varied in available phosphorus (AvP) were determined. Dietary treatments for the grower and layer diets, respectively,
were: (A) 0.45% AvP and 0.42% AvP, (B) 0.3% AvP and 0.15 AvP, (C)
0.3% AvP and 0.15 AvP, each with 250 FTU/kg phytase, (D) 0.3% AvP
and 0.15 AvP, each with 500 FTU/kg phytase. Dietary Ca was provided
on a 2:1 basis with AvP in grower diets while dietary Ca was 2.7% in the
layer diets as adjusted for phytase contribution. Weight of all eggs laid on
a single day was determined weekly from 29 to 36 wk of age, and at 41,
53, 64, and 65 wk of age. Shell thickness, and percentage yolk, albumen,
and shell were determined at 31, 41, 50, and 60 wk of age. Egg weight was
reduced (P<0.05) by the (B) 0.3% AvP grower + 0.15 AvP layer treatment
relative to the (A) 0.45% AvP grower + 0.42% AvP layer treatment while
phytase in C and D treatments restored (P<0.05) egg weight at 30, 34, 41,
64, and 65 wk of age, with remaining sampling times reflecting a similar
trend. Cumulatively, average egg weight was 63.2, 62.0, 63.2, and 63.1 for
treatments A, B, C, and D, respectively. This demonstrated that AvP and
phytase significantly influenced egg weight. Female BW did not differ
between treatments.
Key Words: broiler breeder, phytase, egg weight, available phosphorous,
albumen
23
M79 Impact of variable corn nutrient content, AME prediction, and
xylanase inclusion on broiler growth performance Rocky Latham*GS1,
Helen V. Masey O’Neill2, Tara York2, Cody Flores1, Jason T. Lee1 1Texas
A&M University, College Station, TX, USA; 2AB Vista, Marlborough,
United Kingdom
An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of corn nutrient
value associated with geographical location (Iowa, Minnesota, and Texas),
xylanase inclusion, and formulation based on an AME prediction equation
on broiler performance. A 3 (corn source) x 2 (NIR AME prediction vs
NRC fixed value) x 2 (xylanase inclusion, 0 vs 16,000 BXU/kg) factorial randomized complete block designed study included 10 replicates of
20 male broilers per replicate for a 42 day experiment. In the fixed corn
diets, each dietary treatment contained the same concentration of each
corn source while the AME prediction treatments were formulated based
on corn NIR nutrient analysis and AME prediction equation (ABVista,
Marlborough, UK). The dietary program consisted of three dietary phases;
starter (d 1-18), grower (d 19-33), and finisher (d 34-41) with growth performance monitored at feed changes. Xylanase increased (p<0.05) starter
feed consumption and d 18 BW (2.1%), and an increase in BW (4.6%)
was observed using the predicted AME values. Corn source continued to
impact broiler performance throughout the remainder of the trial as Texas
consistently outperformed (p<0.05) IA with increased BW and reduced
mortality corrected FCR. Dietary adjustment with AME predicted values
for each corn source consistently improved (p<0.05) growth performance.
The TX corn source had the highest average BW with a 2.9% increase
(p<0.05) over the IA corn source. Early FCR was improved (p<0.05) with
the predicted AME value diet fed broilers, decreasing FCR by 3%. Multiple significant interactions were observed between the corn source and
the adjustment method. For example with d42 FCR, making the adjustment had an impact of 9 or ten points for MN or IA respectively but only 2
for TX. This experiment demonstrates the impact of variable corn nutrient
content and the potential improvement when using NIR technology for
ingredient nutrient specifications.
Key Words: Broiler Performance, Xylanase, AME, Corn Source
M80 Liquid application method (LAM), feed form (FF) and feed pan
location effects on D28-56 Ross x Ross 708 male broiler performance
and processing characteristics Robert B Sellers*GS1, John Boney2, Chris
McDaniel1, Joseph S. Moritz2, Kelley G. S. Wamsley1 1Mississippi State
University, Starkville, MS, USA; 2West Virginia University, Morgantown,
WV, USA
Previous research manufactured diets to quantify the effects of FF (75 or
55% pellets) and LAM (Mixer or Post-Pellet addition of fat and liquid
phytase) on feed quality and phytase segregation as diets were augered
throughout a commercial poultry house feed system. Six feed pan sampling locations were identified throughout the line at 0, 15, 30, 32, 44, and
58m. Overall, percent fines increased as feed was augered throughout the
commercial feed line, with the beginning and end of the feed line exhibiting the largest fluctuations. Phytase activity varied based on FF and LAM.
For diets manufactured utilizing Post-Pellet LAM, areas with increased
fines also had increased analyzed phytase. Diets utilized in this previous
research were collected from Locations 1 (0-30 m) and 2 (32-58 m) for
use in the current study to create a 2 FF (55 or 75% pellets) x 2 LAM
(Mixer or Post-Pellet) x 2 Location (0-30 or 32-58 m) factorial arrangement to determine effects on D28-56 broiler performance. On D0, Ross x
Ross 708 male broilers were placed in floor pens and fed common diets
until D28. On D28, pen weights were equalized (density of 0.09 m2/bird)
and each of the eight treatments were randomly assigned to twelve pens
(96 total). The experimental period was from D28-56; on D56, birds were
weighed individually to determine bird weight uniformity, and 4 birds/
pen were selected for processing. A FF x LAM x Location interaction established that birds fed 75% pellet diets yielded higher D28-42 BW gain
as compared to all treatment combinations except for birds fed 55% pellet diets manufactured utilizing Mixer LAM for Location 2 (P=0.028).
24
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
Birds fed 75% pellet diets had improved D28-56 BW gain, as well as
increased D57 carcass and total breast weight, as compared to birds 55%
pellet diets (P=0.015, 0.028, and 0.048, respectively). A 3-way interaction
for D56 bird uniformity revealed that for Post-Pellet LAM, birds fed 75%
pellets had improved uniformity for Location 1 as compared to both birds
fed 75% pellets for Location 2 and birds fed 55% pellets for Location 1
(P=0.037). Overall, feed quality at the point of consumption affected both
performance and yield; however with Post-Pellet LAM, weight uniformity
of birds was affected by the distance feed traveled within a broiler house.
Key Words: broiler performance, bird uniformity, nutrient segregation,
phytase, feed manufacture
M81 Effect of enzyme complex in pellet or mash feeds with different
nutritional levels on the performance of broilers from 1 to 21 days old
Bruno Carvalho*GS, Melissa Hannas, Luiz Fernando Albino, Victor Barros,
Bruna Kreuz Federal University of Viçosa, Viçosa, Brazil
The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of an enzyme
complex, in pelleted or mashed feeds with two nutritional levels, on broilers performance. A total of 1920 Cobb male broilers were randomly assigned into 8 treatments (a factorial 23) with 10 replicates of 24 birds each,
from 1 to 21 days old. The treatments consisted of two diets with nutritional levels (NL) differing in metabolizable energy, digestible amino acids
and available phosphorus (recommended for the age or reduced according
to the nutritional matrix of the enzyme complex) in 2 feeds forms (FF),
with or without the enzyme complex (EC). Birds and feed were weighed
at day 1 and 21 to determine the weight gain (WG), feed intake (FI) and
feed conversion (FC). Data were subjected to ANOVA and compared by
SNK test (P<0,05).
Better FC were observed in diets with recommended NL or with EC.
There were three-way interaction for WG and FI (Table 1). Pelletizing is
an important tool to increase WG in broilers. However, a higher WG is
also accompanied by higher FI. The EC is more efficient in mashed feeds,
with the best performance parameters observed in reduced NL. The reduc-
tion in NL cause loss in animal performance and can be alleviated by the
addition of the EC and / or pelletizing.
Table 1: Triple Interaction between diet form (DF), nutrient levels (NL),
and enzyme complex (EC) on weight gain (WG) and feed intake (FI) of
broilers from 1 to 21 days old.
EC
Mashed
Pelleted
Recommended
Reduced
Recommended
Reduced
743aAx
765aAx
1072aAx
1048aAx
661bBx
741aAx
1009aAx
1066aAx
854aAy
876aAy
1188aAy
1218aAy
842aAy
852aAy
1317aBy
1283aAy
WG
<0.001
<0.001
<0.001
0.028
0.027
0.145
0.029
FI
<0.001
0.016
0.607
<0.001
0.521
0.751
0.019
FC
0.333
<0.001
0.037
0.112
0.245
0.316
0.648
+
FI
+
P-value
WG
FF
NL
EC
FF x NL
FF x EC
NL x EC
FF x NL x EC
a, b - Means followed by different letters in the same column are different from each other in EC factor.
A, B - Means followed by different letters in the same line are different
from each other in NL factor.
x, y - Means followed by different letters in the same line are different
from each other in FF factor.
Key Words: Enzyme Complex, Feed Form, Nutritional Level, Enzyme
Matrix, Broiler
Metabolism & Nutrition II
M82 Effects of varying coccidiosis control and inclusions of algal beta1,3-glucan (ABG) on D0-59 Ross x Ross 708 male broiler performance
and processing Cameron Cardenas*GS1, Wei Zhai1, Robert Levine2, Kelley
Wamsley1 1Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS, USA; 2Algal
Scientific, Northville, MI, USA
The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of inclusion
of algal beta-1,3-glucan (ABG) in diets using an ionophore regimen (IR)
or a live coccidiosis vaccine (LCV), with and without antibiotics (AB), on
D0-59 male Ross x Ross 708 performance. Diets were of commercial formulation, containing corn, soybean meal, as well as a meat and bone meal
blend. Two ABG products were tested, with the only difference being that
one contained 2% zinc as a zinc polysaccharide complex (ABG1) and the
other contained no zinc (ABG2). Treatments requiring IR utilized an ionophore (lasalocid) at 68g/t for D0-46 and AB (virginiamycin) at 15g/t for
D0-52. Experimental diets were as follows: Treatment (Trt) 1 (LCV only),
Trt 2 (LCV+AB), Trt 3 (LCV+AB+100g/t ABG1), Trt 4 (LCV+50g/t
ABG1), Trt 5 (LCV+100g/t ABG1), Trt 6 (LCV+90g/t ABG2), Trt 7 (IR
only), and Trt 8 (IR+100g/t ABG1). Basal diets (without additives) were
initially batched; feed additives were added prior to pelleting. Birds fed
Trt 1-6 received a LCV at the hatchery, while birds fed Trt 7-8 did not
receive the LCV. On d of hatch, 16 male Ross x Ross 708 chicks were
randomly assigned to one of 96 pens (0.08 m2/bird) containing used litter.
The experimental period was from D0-59 with processing of 4 birds/pen
on D60. Blood collection and intestinal tissue sampling was conducted on
D28 and 59; samples were stored until trial conclusion. Birds fed diets uti-
lizing IR (Trt 7 and 8) demonstrated early live performance benefits such
as improved D14 (P=0.0227) and D28 BW (P=0.0001), D14-28 BWG
(P=0.0009), D0-28 BWG (P=0.0003), as well as D0-14 (P=0.0217), D1428 FCR (P=0.0017), and D0-28 FCR (P=0.0015). These benefits did not
translate to overall improved performance (D0-59); however, birds fed
Trt 5 (LCV+100g/t ABG1) exhibited increased pectoralis major + minor
(P=0.042) and pectoralis major (P=0.055) yield compared to Trt 3, 4, 6, 7
and 8. These data warrant future research to determine the efficacy of early
coccidiosis control and/or AB inclusion used in conjunction with ABG.
Key Words: Beta Glucan, Ionophores, Antibiotics, Live Coccidiosis
Vaccine, Broiler Performance
M83 Effects of commercially available antibiotic alternatives on 0
to 41 d male broiler chicken intestinal morphology and microflora
Xi Wang*GS, Yuhua Farnell, Aaron Kiess, Kelley Wamsley, Wei Zhai
Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, USA
In a companion study, a total of 1,040 one-day-old male Ross × Ross
708 broilers were randomly assigned 1 of 5 experimental diets: a basal
diet (served as a negative control diet, NC), a basal diet supplemented
with mannanoligosaccharides and β-glucans (Pre), a basal diet supplemented with 3 Bacillus subtilis strains (Pro), a basal diet supplemented
with prebiotics and probiotics (Pre + Pro), and a basal diet supplemented
with antibiotics and anticoccidials (PC). The basal diet contained corn,
soybean meal, and meat and bone blend. There were 16 replicate pens
per treatment and 13 birds per pen. Broilers fed PC diets exhibited early
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
benefit in terms of increased BW gain from d 15 to 27, while those fed
diets containing Pre + Pro exhibited compensatory growth from d 28 to
41. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to explain observed
performance using intestinal morphology and microflora. On d 14, 27 and
41, weights and lengths of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were recorded.
In addition, ileum samples were collected for histology and PCR analysis
of Lactobacillus and Escherichia coli. Broilers fed PC diets exhibited the
lowest relative weights of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum as percentages
of BW at d 27 (P = 0.035, 0.002, and 0.025 respectively). Dietary treatment did not affect any ileum morphology parameters at any age. Relative
to NC, broilers fed Pre diets at d 14 exhibited increased ileal Lactobacillus
attachment as compared to those fed NC, Pro, and PC diets, but similar
to those fed Pre + Pro diets (P = 0.045). In contrast, ileal Escherichia coli
attachment was not affected by dietary treatment at any age. Observed
increase in BW gain from d 15 to 28 for birds fed PC diets may in part
be explained by the observed decrease in relative intestine weight at d 27
via decreased maintenance energy and consequent increased energy partitioned toward growth. Improvement of Lactobacillus inhabiting the ileum
in young broilers fed diets containing Pre alone may not facilitate their
growth; however, the current study does suggest that inclusions of Pre +
Pro in broiler diets may improve their growth.
Key Words: broiler, intestine morphology, microflora, prebiotics,
probiotic
M84 Response of broilers to Virginiamycin and a Xylanase enzyme
under summer condition Derek Elmor*UG1, H. M. Cervantes2, G. M.
Pesti1, M. J. Da Costa1, K. W. Bafundo3 1University of Georgia, Athens,
GA, USA; 2Phibro Animal Health Corp., Teaneck, NJ, USA; 3Phibro
Animal Health Corp., Teaneck, GA, USA
The objective of this study was to compare responses of 22 ppm Virginiamycin (VM) and a commercial xylanase (XYL) reported to improve the
digestibility of typical complex diets fed in the United States. The treatments included a negative control, VM, the XYL, and a combination of
the two. Diets recommended by the XYL manufacturer were fed containing distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and poultry by-product
meal. The basal diets contained 3035, 3115 and 3170 kcal/kg in the starter
(0 to 14d), grower (14 to 35d) and finisher (35 to 36d), respectively; Diets
were balanced to 1.20, 1.05 and 0.98% total lysine, respectively. A total
of 960 Cobb 500 male chicks were housed in 48 floor pens with built-up
litter. Each pen had 20 birds. Birds and feed were weighed at the end of
each dietary phase for performance analysis. Data were analyzed as completely randomized design with a factorial arrangement of treatments. At
14d VM inclusion improved (P<0.01) both BW (411 vs. 437) and FCR
(1.412 vs. 1.250). For the grower phase an interaction (P<0.05) of treatments was observed. When VM was present, the XYL decreased FCR
by 0.03. Additionally at 35d VM increased (P<0.01) BW by 0.111 kg. At
44 days the control birds weighed 2.743 kg, the VM-fed birds weighed
more (2.829 kg; P<0.05) but the enzyme-fed birds had similar weights,
(2.676 kg; P=0.415). VM improved feed conversion ratio (FCR main effect means; 1.70 versus 1.64), but the enzyme was without significant effect (main effect means, 1.66 versus 1.68). However, when both products
were supplemented, FCR was improved by an additional 0.02 over VM
alone (1.65 versus 1.63; significant interaction; P<0.004). Even though
BW were below breeder performance objectives the FCRs were better
(1.71). This was likely due to the reduction in feed intake induced by hot
summer conditions. VM was effective at promoting general health and
performance (growth and feed utilization), while the XYL was effective
at improving feed utilization when combined with VM. The significant
interaction for FCR demonstrates that healthier birds are better able to
utilize feed to maximize performance.
Key Words: Virginiamycin, Xylanase, Broiler, Performance
25
M85 Influences of Virginiamycin and Magni-Phi on broiler
performance M. J. Da Costa*GS1, K.W. Bafundo2, H. M. Cervantes2, G.
M. Pesti1 1University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA; 2Phibro Animal Health
Corp., Teaneck, NJ, USA
The usage of antibiotics in broiler diets as health and performance promoters is widely recognized. However, industry has been looking for alternatives to these products due to consumer demands. The objective of this
experiment was to evaluate the effects and interactions of supplementing
diets with Virginiamycin (VM) and Magni-Phi (Phibro Animal Health)
on broiler performance. Magni-Phi is a proprietary blend of triterpenoid
saponins primarily prepared from the quillaja tree, Quillaja saponaria.
1,920 day-old male Cobb 500 were placed in 48 pens with used litter divided among two rooms. There were 3 dietary phases starter (0 to 18d),
grower (19 to 32d), and finisher (33 to 42d). Dietary treatments consisted
of two levels of VM (0 and 22 ppm) combined with 4 levels of Magni-Phi
(0, 150, 200 and 250 ppm). Birds and feed were weighed at the end of
each phase for performance evaluation. Data were analyzed as a CRBD
with a 2 x 4 factorial arrangements of treatments with the two rooms used
as blocks. At 18d a treatment interaction (P<0.01) was observed in BW
gain. Both Magni-Phi and VM increased BW gain, however the effect
of Magni-Phi was much greater when VM was not present. No effects
(P>0.05) on FCR or mortality were observed for the starter phase. For
the grower phase, VM increased (P<0.05) BW gain by 25g and decreased
(P≤0.05) FCR by 0.02. From 0 to 32d 200 ppm of Magni-Phi increased
(P<0.05) BW gain by 50 g compare to birds fed 0 ppm. Again, supplementation of VM increased (P<0.01) BW gain by 26g during the finisher
phase. From 0 to 42d a treatment interaction (P<0.05) was observed. In
this phase inclusion of VM and Magni-Phi increased BW gain; however
the effect of Magni-Phi was much greater when VM was not present and
had maximum effects at 200 ppm. The FCR at 42d was reduced (P<0.05)
by 0.03 by the inclusion of VM. In conclusion, the overall performance
was improved by the inclusion of VM or Magni-Phi. Also, optimum level
of Magni-Phi was shown to be dependent on the presence of VM. Across
all the dietary phases, Magni-Phi showed a quadratic effect on BW gain
when VM was not present, with the maximum gain obtained when birds
were fed 200 ppm.
Key Words: Magni-Phi, Virginiamycin, broiler, performance
M86 Where do probiotics live and work? Anne Ballou*GS, Rizwana Ali,
Jim Croom, Matthew Koci North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC,
USA
While producers are heavily invested in improving the health of American food animals, consumer pressure is driving them to do so while also
minimizing the use of antibiotics. Consequently, probiotics have become a
popular way to modify the gut microbiome to improve host health, but the
intestinal niches in which they are most active are still largely unknown.
Though most intestinal microbiome studies focus on the fermentative regions (rumen, cecum, colon) where bacterial load is highest, these bacteria
may also affect the pregastric and small intestine regions where environmental conditions and lower concentrations of established bacteria may be
more conducive to colonization or growth. Using a broiler chicken model,
our laboratory evaluated the impact of a probiotic consortium (PrimaLac;
Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Enterococcus faecium,
and Bifidobacterium thermophilus) on location-specific gut microbiomes.
Following continuous supplementation of feed with PrimaLac (0.3%
w/w) from hatch to 28 days of age, digesta samples were collected from 6
sites in the intestinal tract. Microbial 16S rDNA from digesta samples was
sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq and analyzed with Qiime and PrimerE. Analysis of the microbiome in each location reveals a high proportion of Lactobacillus and Streptophyta in the upper GI, and Rikenellaceae
and a variety of Clostridiales genera in the cecum. Percent dissimilarity
analysis (SIMPER) of treatments and locations shows a significant change
in ileal composition (P<0.01) as probiotic supplementation increases total Lactobacillus (22% to 83%) while decreasing Candidatus Arthromi-
26
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
tus, Enterococcus, and Streptophyta. Cecal composition is also affected
(P<0.05), with the probiotic treatment increasing Lactobacillus (1% to
14%), decreasing Rikenellaceae and Clostridiales. Further research is underway to determine the significance of some of these changes, but it is
clear that to fully understand the value of direct fed microbial products, we
need to evaluate their impact on the length of the intestinal tract, not only
the fermentative regions.
Key Words: Gut, Microbiome, Probiotic, Chicken, Lactobacillus
M87 Evaluation of multiple direct fed microbial (DFMs) on male
broiler growth performance Kolton Page*UG1, Cody Flores1, Ray
Poureslami2, Jason Lee1 1Texas A&M University, College Station, TX,
USA; 2Kerry Inc, Dallas, TX, USA
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of multiple DFMs
on male broiler growth performance. The experimental design consisted
of six dietary treatments with 10 replicates including 46 male broilers per
replicate pen. Broilers were fed a three phase dietary program to include
a starter (d 1-14), grower (d 15-30), and finisher (d 31-42). Diets were
non-medicated and fed in mash form. All broilers received coccidiosis
vaccination at d 0 of age for the control of coccidiosis and reared on litter from three previous flocks. The dietary treatments included a positive
control containing bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD) at 55g/MT,
negative control (NC – non-medicated), NC + Lactic acid producing bacteria (DFM LAB) at 100 g/MT, NC + LAB at 1000 g/MT, NC + combined
Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis (DFM B) at 100 g/MT, and NC
+ DFM LAB 50 g/MT + DFM B 50 g/MT. Body weight (BW), mortality
corrected feed conversion ratio (FCR), and feed consumption (FC) were
determined on d 7, 14, 21, 30, and 42. The inclusion of BMD increased
BW through 30 d of age, increased FC throughout the experiment, and
reduced FCR through the grower phase of production. An early impact
on BW was observed with the inclusion of both DFMs separately increasing (p<0.05) d 7 BW as compared to the NC diet fed broilers. Increases
(p<0.05) in BW continued through 30 d of age with inclusion of DFM
LAB (100 g/MT) and DFM B (100g/MT). At the conclusion of the trial,
the inclusion of DFM LAB (100 g/MT) increased (p<0.05) d 42 BW and
FC compared to the NC fed broilers. The increases in BW resulted in reductions in FCR in DFM LAB and DFM B included at 100 g/MT through
the grower phases. Simultaneous inclusion of both DFMs did not provide
any benefit during the experiment. These data support the benefits of DFM
inclusion in poultry diets, demonstrate that inclusion rate is critical to benefit, and indicate that combinations of multiple DFM do not necessarily
result in additional benefits.
Key Words: broiler, direct fed microbial, performance
M88 Evaluation of a direct fed microbial (DFMs) on broiler growth
performance and processing yield Kyle Smith*UG1, Hunter Walters1, Jacob
Price1, Nathan Augspurger2, Michael King3, Sona Son3, Jason Lee1 1Texas
A&M University, College Station, TX, USA; 2JBS United, Inc., Sheridan,
IN, USA; 3Microbial Discovery Group/ JBS United, Inc., Franklin, WI,
USA
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of a Bacillusbased DFM on broiler growth performance. In both experiments, diets
were non-medicated and fed as a crumble (starter) or pellet. All broilers
received coccidiosis vaccination at d 0 of age for the control of coccidiosis
and reared on litter from three previous flocks. In experiment 1, broilers
were fed a three phase dietary program to include a starter (d 1-14), grower
(d 15-28), and finisher (d 29-42). Experiment 1 included three treatments
with 10 replicates of 35 straight run broilers per replicate. The treatment
groups included a non-medicated control, and the DFM fed at two levels
of 100 and 250 g/ton. No impact of DFM inclusion was observed on BW
throughout the experiment. Inclusion of DFM at the lower level of inclusion decreased (P<0.05) starter mortality corrected feed conversion ratio
(FCR) as compared to the control diet (1.370 vs 1.309). Feed conversion
was also reduced (P<0.05) through 28 d of age with the inclusion of the
low level of DFM as compared to the control (1.499 vs 1.457), however,
no statistical separation was observed at 42 d of age. In experiment 2, only
the low level of DFM inclusion (100 g/ton) was evaluated as compared to
a non-medicated control diet and the growout period was extended to 48 d
of age. Each treatment included 10 replicate pens with each containing 35
male broilers per replicate pen. Broilers were fed a four phase dietary program to include a starter (d 1-14), grower (d 15-28), finisher 1 (d 29-42),
and finisher 2 (d 43-48). The response to DFM inclusion was a BW weight
and feed consumption driven response as compared to an FCR response
in experiment 1. Inclusion of the DFM increased (P<0.05) BW on 42 (133
g increase) and 48 d (222 g increase) of age, increased (P<0.05) feed consumption during the grower and finisher 2 phases, and increased (P<0.05)
breast filet weight (65 g increase) and yield (0.94% increase) as compared
to the control fed broilers. These data support the benefits of Bacillus
based-DFM inclusion in poultry diets to improve growth performance.
Key Words: Broiler, Direct Fed Microbial, Performance, Yield
M89 Inclusion of Bacillus direct-fed microbials in a broiler diet
containing corn-DDGS: Effect on performance parameters,
microbiota population and bone quality Juan Latorre*GS1, Jose Vicente2,
Xochitl Hernandez-Velazco3, Ross Wolfenden2, Billy Hargis1, Guillermo
Tellez1 1University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA; 2Pacific Vet GroupUSA, Inc., Fayetteville, AR, USA; 3Universidad Nacional Autonoma de
Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico
Distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) have increasingly been used
in poultry diets as consequence of increasing grain costs. DDGS have a
variable compositional value and a high inclusion of this co-product has
been considered as a risk factor for GI diseases such as necrotic enteritis.
Presently, two experiments were conducted using a starter corn-soybean
diet (0-7d) and a corn-soybean-DDGS (8%) grower diet (7-28d) with or
without inclusion of a Bacillus-DFM. In both experiments, day-of-hatch
chicks were randomly assigned to three different groups: Control group
without DFM (CON), commercial-DFM group (DFM1) and candidateDFM group (DFM2), previously selected based on in-vitro digestion
model enzyme profile. Eight pens of 20 chicks (n=160/group) in each experiment. Bacillus-DFM spores were included to reach a concentration
of 106 spores/g of feed. Performance parameters of body weight (BW),
feed intake (FI) and feed conversion (FCR) were evaluated. Additionally,
in experiment 2, one broiler per pen was humanely killed and intestinal
samples were collected to determine the microbiota population of total
lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and total gram negative bacteria (GNB) at day
28. Simultaneously, both tibias were evaluated for bone strength (kg/mm2)
and bone composition (Ca%, P%). In experiment 1, treatment with DFM2
improved BW and FCR (P<0.05). However, in experiment 2, intake of
both DFM1 and DFM2 resulted in higher BW and lower FCR than CON
group (P<0.05). Broilers from DFM2 in experiment 2 showed increase
colony forming units (CFU) of LAB, and reduction in CFU of GNB. Both
DFM 1 and DFM2 treatments resulted in increased bone strength; however, bone composition was only improved by DFM2 (P<0.05; Ca%, P%).
Results of this study suggest that consumption of a selected Bacillus-DFM
producing a variable set of enzymes, could contribute to enhanced performance, intestinal microbial balance and bone quality in broiler chickens
consuming a diet that contains DDGS.
Key Words: Bacillus-DFM, DDGS, enzymes, microbiota, bone quality
M90 Understanding white striping using protein turnover Karen
Vignale*GS1, Justina V. Caldas1, Judith England1, Nirun Boonsinchai1,
Andrew Magnuson1, Erik D. Pollock2, Casey M. Owens1, Sami Dridi1,
Craig N. Coon1 1University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA; 2University
of Arkansas Stable Isotope Lab, Fayetteville, AR, USA
A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of white striping on protein turnover and gene expression of genes related to protein degradation
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
and fatty acid synthesis. The objective of this study was to elucidate why
white stripes appear in heavy market broilers. A total of 560 1 day old
male broiler chickens were allocated in a total of 16 pens, 35 broilers per
pen. Birds were fed under Cobb nutritional recommendations and were
raised until 60 days of age. A CRD was conducted with a 2X3 factorial
arrangement (two scores: severe and normal, and 3 samples sites).At day
60, 17 birds (16 infused one control) were randomly selected and infused
with a 150 mM solution of 15N Phen 40% APE (atom percent excess). A
small piece of breast muscle tissue was taken for gene expression analysis
of the following genes: murf-1, atrogin-1, IGF-1, insulin receptor (IR),
fatty acid synthetase, and acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC). Blood samples
were also taken from the same birds for insulin and VLDL plasma level
analysis. Each bird was euthanized after 10 minutes of infusion and scored
for white striping (NORM or SEV). Samples of the breast muscle were
taken at different layers (ventral, mid, dorsal). A sample of excreta of each
bird was also taken. Out of the 16 samples taken, only ten were selected
for analysis based on the white striping score (5 NORM and 5 SEV).
Fractional synthesis rate (FSR) and Fractional breakdown rate (FBR)
were determined using GCMS. No significant differences (P>0.05) were
found in fractional synthesis rate (FSR) between with SEV and NORM
or samples sites. The muscle IR was significantly higher (P<0.05) and the
plasma insulin showed a trend of being higher in the SEV birds (13.10
µl/ml compared to 11.50 µl/ml; P=0.17) indicating enhanced anabolic
conditions. There was a SEV score effect on FBR. This parameter was
significantly higher in SEV birds compared to NORM (8.2 and 4.28, respectively, P<0.0001). Birds with SEV white striping showed significantly
higher (P<0.05) relative expression of murf-1 and higher (P=0.08) relative expression of atrogin-1 than the NORM birds. These SEV birds also
showed lower relative expression of IGF-1 than NORM birds. SEV birds
showed significantly lower relative expression of fatty acid synthetase
and ACC than the NORM indicating lipid synthesis is not enhanced in
muscle tissue. Results of this study suggest that white striping is related
to increased muscular protein degradation, consistent with previous histological reports, which allows infiltration of fat through fat deposition
or fat mobilization. Further studies are needed to better understand why
birds with severe white striping are degrading more muscular protein and
mobilizing more fat.
27
M91 Effects of quantitative feed restriction on myopathies of the
Pectoralis major muscles in broiler chickens at 32, 42, and 50 days of
age Kathryn Meloche*GS, Sacit Bilgili, William Dozier Auburn University,
Auburn, AL, USA
Recently, increased incidences of white striping (WS), wooden breast
(WB), and idiopathic necrosis (N) of the breast fillet have been observed in
multiple commercial broiler strains. Although numerous anecdotal reports
indicate that these issues are associated with growth rate, limited formal
research has been conducted to investigate this relationship. Therefore,
an experiment was conducted to determine if myopathies of the Pectoralis major muscles are influenced by differences in growth rate obtained
through quantitative feed restriction. Male broiler chicks of a high-yielding commercial strain were placed into 28 pens (25 birds/pen) equipped
with plastic slats to prevent coprophagy. All birds received identical starter
(1 to 10 d), grower (11 to 32 d), finisher (33 to 42 d), and withdrawal (43 to
50 d) diets that were formulated to meet or exceed nutrient recommendations from the primary breeder. Each pen of birds was randomly assigned
to 1 of 4 pair-feeding programs (TRT 1: ad libitum; TRT 2: 95% of TRT 1
intake; TRT 3: 90% of TRT 1 intake; TRT 4: 85% of TRT 1 intake) with
7 replicate pens per treatment. Feed intake and mortality were recorded
daily. Individual BW was recorded at 10, 31, 42, and 49 d of age. Blood
samples were collected from 4 birds per pen at 31, 41, and 48 d of age
and subsequently analyzed for plasma creatine kinase (CK) and lactate
dehydrogenase (LDH). At 32, 43, and 50 d of age, 4 birds per pen were
euthanized for necropsy. The right breast fillet of each bird was visually
scored for WS, WB, and N. Feed intake, BW gain, and mortality were
reduced (P ≤ 0.01) with decreasing feed allocation. No differences in feed
conversion ratio (unadjusted for common BW) were observed. At all ages
evaluated, severity of WB, WS and N was reduced with decreasing feed
allocation (P ≤ 0.05). Plasma CK and LDH levels were significantly (P ≤
0.05) elevated in birds with WB at 32 and 41 d of age. These results show
the effect of quantitative feed restriction on broiler growth performance
and breast muscle myopathies. Practical feeding programs which might
reduce the incidence of breast myopathies while maintaining optimal performance require further evaluation.
Key Words: broiler, feed restriction, breast fillet, myopathy
Key Words: white striping, protein turnover, gene expression, VLDL,
insulin
SCAD II
M92Effect of vaccination for coccidia and Sporulin® inclusion
on broiler performance during natural exposure to Clostridium
perfringens Alamanda Calvert*GS1, Christa Honaker1, Chris Ott1, Diego
Paiva1, Marie Schirmacher1, Kendre Stringfellow2, Audrey McElroy3
1
Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA; 2Novus International, St. Charles,
MO, USA; 3Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA
Management of intestinal integrity following coccidia vaccination is
critical to optimizing bird performance as well as preventing secondary complications, such as necrotic enteritis (NE). Inclusion of probiotics to promote beneficial intestinal microflora in combination with coccidial vaccination programs is a possible means to support intestinal
function and bird performance during intestinal challenges. This experiment evaluated two coccidia vaccines combined with a probiotic in
an environment with naturally occurring NE. Cobb 500 male broilers
obtained on day of hatch were divided into 6 treatment groups with 12
replicate pens of each (n=30 birds/pen). Bacitracin methylene disalicylate was included in each treatment group, and they were Salinomycin
(SAL), SAL+Sporulin® (Combination of three Bacillus subtilis isolates), Vaccine 1 (VAC1), VAC1+Sporulin®, Vaccine 2 (VAC2), and
VAC2+Sporulin®. Birds were placed on litter from a previous flock with
NE. Birds and feed were weighed by pen on d0 and with feed changes
on d14, 28, and trial end on d42. Significance is reported at P<0.05. On
d14, BW of broilers in the groups SAL, SAL+Sporulin®, and VAC1
were significantly higher than VAC1+Sporulin® and VAC2+Sporulin®.
On d28, BW was similar between all treatments with the exception of
SAL being significantly higher than the VAC2+Sporulin® group. On
d35, broilers in the VAC2+Sporulin® group weighed significantly less
than those in SAL, VAC1+Sporulin®, and VAC2. A similar response was
seen on d42 with SAL and VAC1+Sporulin® group broilers heavier than
VAC2+Sporulin®. Significant differences in feed conversion (FC) occurred from d14-28 and d28-35. From d14-28, SAL+Sporulin® resulted
in the most efficient FC, while VAC2 and VAC2+Sporulin® were less efficient. From d28-35, VAC1 resulted in the least efficient FC and all other
groups were significantly better. The only difference in mortality was seen
from d28-35 with VAC2+Sporulin® having significantly higher mortality than VAC1 or VAC1+Sporulin®. Results from this study suggest that
bird performance was differentially affected by two coccidial vaccines and
inclusion of Sporulin®, however, in combination with VAC1, Sporulin®
appeared to result in improved performance of broilers during a natural
necrotic enteritis episode.
Key Words: coccidia, bacillus subtilis, clostridium perfringens
28
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
M93 Determination of the minimum infectious dose of the Arkansas
DPI-type Infectious Bronchitis vaccine administered via hatchery
spray cabinet Christina Leyson*GS, Deborah Hilt, Brian Jordan, Mark
Jackwood University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a highly infectious pathogen that
causes infectious bronchitis (IB) in chickens. IB is one of the most economically important respiratory diseases in poultry and all commercial
broilers are vaccinated against it. IBV vaccines are live-attenuated virus
and confer protection in a serotype specific manner, making appropriate
vaccination protocols critical for preventing disease. Previous studies have
shown that the ArkDPI type IBV vaccines do not protect against virulent
Ark challenge when the vaccine is applied by mass spray, and the cause
can be correlated to poor infection and replication at early time points post
vaccination in chicks. When the vaccine is applied at the same dose by
eye drop, however, early replication of vaccine virus is achieved and the
vaccine protects against challenge. It is our hypothesis that the minimum
infectious dose of ArkDPI vaccine needed to achieve adequate protection
when administered by hatchery spray cabinet is inherently higher than by
eye drop administration. To test this hypothesis, several groups of 100
broiler chicks were vaccinated with increasingly higher doses of vaccine
using a commercial spray cabinet. The level of replication was monitored
and compared to eye drop administration. To confirm that protection was
achieved, chickens were challenged with pathogenic Arkansas virus Determining the minimum infectious dose of ArkDPI vaccine needed to
properly immunize birds when applied by mass spray is critical for preventing this disease in the field and will have an immediate impact on the
commercial poultry industry.
Key Words: Infectious bronchitis virus, Minimum infectious dose,
Hatchery spray cabinet, ArkDPI
M94 Transmission of heterologous IBV challenge after bivalent
vaccination in broiler chickens Eric Shepherd*GS1, Christian Lapp1,
Deborah Hilt2, Mark Jackwood2, Brian Jordan2 1The University of Georgia
College of Veterinary Medicine, Athens, GA, USA; 2The University of
Georgia Poultry Diagnostic and Research Center, Athens, GA, USA
Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV) is a gammaCoronavirus (CoV)
that is highly infective and causes an economically significant upper respiratory tract disease in chickens. To combat this disease, all commercial chickens are vaccinated against IBV in a serotype specific manner.
To combat variant IBV serotypes, the poultry industry has begun using
multivalent (multiple serotype) vaccine protocols in an attempt to generate cross-protection against heterologous IBV serotypes. Previous work in
our laboratory has shown that multivalent vaccination can protect chickens from clinical signs and lesions associated with IBV infection, but the
chickens still shed virus into the environment. Whether shed virus is significant is currently unknown. We hypothesize that the viral load shed into
the environment after challenge with a heterologous IBV is not significant
in well-vaccinated birds, but may be in birds where proper immunity was
not developed. To test this hypothesis, we housed 40, 1-day-old broilers at
industry stocking density in a colony room. Twenty broilers were vaccinated with Ma5 and De072 commercial vaccines by eye drop and the other
20 were left unvaccinated to serve as contacts for vaccine transmission in
a broiler flock. Separately, 20, 1-day-old broilers were housed in isolators
as unvaccinated controls. At 35 days of age, directly vaccinated birds were
challenged with 1x104 EID50 of pathogenic Arkansas serotype IBV and
unvaccinated controls were added to the floor with the challenged group.
Every 5 days post challenge, all broilers were evaluated for viral load and
respiratory signs and 5 birds from each group were necropsied for lesion
scoring. Based on respiratory signs and lesions, directly vaccinated birds
were protected from challenge at all time points. Unvaccinated and unchallenged contact birds were protected from signs and lesions at all time
points except 10 dpc and unvaccinated and unchallenged controls were
protected at 5 and 20 dpc, but not 10 and 15 dpc. Viral loads were detected
in all birds at different time points post challenge. Based on this data, it
would seem that challenge virus shed into the environment by infected
birds is not significant if the population is well vaccinated, but can cause
signs and lesions in naïve birds.
Key Words: Infectious Bronchitis Virus, Arkansas, Mulitvalent
Vaccination, Transmission, Ciliostasis
M95 Potential of glycoprotein J gene deleted infectious
laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) strain as a live attenuated vaccine
Gustavo Henrique Schneiders*GS, Sylva M. Riblet, Maricarmen Garcia
University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a serious and widespread respiratory
disease of chickens caused by gallid herpesvirus type I (GaHV-1), commonly known as infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). The disease
is controlled by vaccination with live and recombinant viral vector vaccines. Although ILTV live attenuated vaccines are capable of containing
outbreaks, their residual virulence cause undesirable vaccine reactions. In
this context there is a need to develop more stable, efficacious and cost
effective live attenuated ILTV vaccines. Our hypothesis is that attenuation
of ILTV by deletion of virulence determinants will yield more stable attenuated strains than those obtained by continuous passages in embryos or
cells. Our long-term goal is to evaluate the potential of ILTV gene deleted
strains as live vaccines for in ovo and mass application. The specific aim
of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficiency of vaccination with
an ILT virus lacking glycoprotein J (NΔgJ) when applied in ovo followed
by boost vaccination at 2 and 8 days of age. Specific pathogen free (SPF)
and commercial layer embryos were vaccinated at 19.5 days of incubation
with a 3000 TCID50 dose of the NΔgJ, followed by a boost vaccination, via
gavage/ intranasally., Hatchability, mortality, clinical sings, and transmission of the NΔgJ virus will be assessed. At 28 days of age, all groups of
vaccinated birds and one group of non-vaccinated birds (positive control)
were challenged with a virulent ILTV strain (GA isolate 63140 Genotype
V). Mortality, clinical sings, weight gain, and viral loads of the challenge
virus will be assessed. Preliminary data showed no differences in hatchability between groups of birds, 5% mortality was recorded during the
first week for SPF birds, while no mortalities were recorded for layers.
Mortality after challenge varied from 0% to 4% among vaccinated groups
of birds and reached a 12% in non-vaccinated challenged group of birds.
Quantitative real time PCR analysis will be performed in tracheal swabs
collected at 4 dpc to determine the loads of 63140 virus in the trachea
post-challenge.
Key Words: Gallid herpesvirus, protection, glycoprotein J, live vaccines,
gene deletion
M96 Replication of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) in
the conjunctiva, nasal cavity, and harderian gland after eye-drop,
intranasal and gavage inoculation Gabriela Beltran*GS, Guillermo
Zavala, Maricarmen Garcia The University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA
Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) belongs to the Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily, genus Iltovirus, Gallid herpesvirus 1 species. ILT is an
acute respiratory disease of chickens that can result in severe losses due to
mortality and/or decrease in egg production. ILTV is controlled through
vaccination with either live attenuated or recombinant viral vector vaccines. ILTV live attenuated vaccines tissue culture origin (TCO) vaccine
and chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccines are administered via eye drop,
water and spray, routes that are intended to trigger mucosal immunity.
Although studies on ILTV replication and tissue tropism had been conducted, a lack of knowledge still exists on ILTV tropism for respiratory tissues other than the trachea. The mucosal tissues of the nasal cavity and the
conjunctiva as well as the paraocular harderian gland are the first to come
in contact with the virus during vaccination or natural infection. These
structures contain associated lymphoid tissues and most-likely play an important role in the induction of innate immune responses. Therefore it is
of vital importance to determine the level of viral replication that occurs
in these tissues and how the route of inoculation influences replication.
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
The long-term goal of this project is to determine the associations between
viral replication, inoculation route, and the nature of the innate immune
responses in these tissues and how they relate to disease resistance.
The immediate aim of this study is to investigate the replication patterns of
virulent ILTV isolate 63140 in conjunctiva, nasal tissues, harderian gland
and trachea after eye drop, intranasal and gavage inoculations of SPFs
birds. Tissue samples will be collected at days 1, 3, 5, and 7 post-inoculation. Viral replication will be evaluated by detection of viral antigens using
immunohistochemistry (IHC). Viral replication will be also assessed by
quantification of viral genomes using real time PCR.
Key Words: Innate Immuneity, Associated lymphoid tissues, Replication
patterns
M97 Characterization of Histomonas meleagridis in peafowl. Lorelei
Clarke*GS1, H.L. Shivaprasad2, Silvia Carnaccini3, Robert Beckstead4,
Daniel Rissi1 1University of Georgia, Department of Pathology, Athens,
GA, USA; 2University of California at Davis, California Animal Health
and Food Safety Laboratory, Tulare, CA, USA; 3University of California,
Davis, California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory, Turlock,
CA, USA; 4University of Georgia, Department of Poultry Science, Athens,
GA, USA
This study sought to characterize Histomonas meleagridis infestation in
peafowl with special focus on the genotyping profile of the agents. H.
meleagridis is a flagellate protozoan organism that causes severe necrotizing typhlitis in chickens and turkeys as part of the condition known as
“blackhead disease”. It typically uses the cecal nematode Heterakis gallinarum as a vector and reservoir for infection, but direct transmission
has been both naturally observed and experimentally induced in turkey
poults. While it is commonly recognized that other gallinaceous birds are
susceptible to H. meleagridis infection, there is only a single report in
the veterinary literature describing the disease and its transmission by H.
gallinarum in peafowl. In that report, transmission of H. meleagridis was
accomplished by feeding young peafowl embryonated eggs of H. gallinarum, and resulted in high morbidity and mortality rates, indicating that
peafowl are likely more susceptible to infection than chickens or pheasants and that it poses a significant concern for peafowl producers.
A review of the archived cases at the University of Georgia Athens Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory and the California Animal Health and Food
Safety Laboratory System yielded 4 cases (2 from each institution) of
young (1 week old to 19 weeks old) peafowl with gross and histological
findings characteristic of H. meleagridis infestation, including a bilateral,
transmural fibrinonecrotic typhlitis and multifocal necrotizing hepatitis
with intralesional trophozoites morphologically consistent with H. meleagridis. The 2 cases diagnosed at UGA also had concomitant necrotizing
air sacculitis with intralesional trophozoites, and one of these 2 cases had
pulmonary granulomas with intralesional Aspergillus spp. hyphae. Cases
were further analyzed using immunohistochemistry and locus sequencing
of extracted H. meleagridis DNA from the paraffin-embedded tissues.
Immunohistochemistry for Trichomonas spp., which cross-reacts with H.
meleagridis, confirmed the diagnosis in all four cases. There was no evidence of H. gallinarum infestation in all 4 cases. Three cases were also
confirmed by sequencing of extracted DNA using multiple sets of DNA
primers, including a novel primer set designed for diagnostic sensitivity.
It was concluded based on these findings that infection in these cases likely occurred by ingestion of embryonated H. gallinarum eggs. The source
of infection, based on isolate DNA sequences, was likely chickens with
which these peafowl were comingled.
Key Words: Histomonas meleagridis, peafowl, transmission, genotyping,
immunohistochemistry
29
M98Reducing the incidence of bacterial chondronecrosis with
osteomyelitis in broilers with a dietary combination of Bacillus subtilis
C-3102 (Calsporin) and IMW50 yeast cell wall preparation John
Schleifer*1, A. Al-Rubaye2, R. F. Wideman2, Y.M. Kwon2, T. Lohrmann1
1
Quality Technology International, Inc., Elgin, IL, USA; 2University of
Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA
Bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis (BCO) is the leading cause
of lameness in commercial broilers produced in North America. BCO has
been experimentally reproduced at a high incidence in male broilers reared
on wire flooring. The wire flooring enhances the torque and shear stress
on the growth plates of the proximal femora and tibiae. A diverse population of bacteria has been identified in association with this syndrome. The
hypothesis is that bacteria enter the blood stream by translocating from
the intestinal tract. The hematogenous circulation of these bacteria infect
micro-fractures and clefts in the growth plate region of rapidly growing
bones. In this study, BacPackTM 2X was fed prophylactically, starting at
one day-of-age to reduce intestinal bacterial translocation. This treatment
was compared to hatch-mates that received a control diet and were reared
in the same environmental and management conditions. BacPack 2X is a
proprietary blend of Calsporin® (Bacillus subtilis C-3102) direct-fed microbial and yeast cell wall product IMW50TM, which is incorporated into
rations prior to feed pelleting. BacPack 2X is resistant to pelleting temperatures up to 194°F. Male broilers reared on wire flooring resulted in a
significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in the incidence of BCO compared to hatchmates reared on wood shavings. The prophylactic feeding of BacPack 2X
resulted in a significant (P ≤ 0.05) reduction in the incidence of BCO in
broilers reared on wire flooring at 56 days-of-age compared to broilers
receiving a control feed. The feeding of BacPack 2X also significantly (P
≤ 0.05) delayed the age of onset of BCO compared with broilers fed the
control feed. Clinically healthy broilers that had been reared on wire flooring for 56 days had higher body weights when they had been fed the diet
containing BacPack 2X. The results of this study indicate that the prophylactic feeding of BacPack 2X provides a mechanism toward the reduction
of BCO-related lameness in broilers.
Key Words: BCO, Calsporin, Direct-fed microbial, yeast cell wall,
lameness
M99 Enteric Inflammation Modeling for Induction of
Spondylolisthesis (Kinky Back) in Broilers Lisa Bielke*1, Johel Bielke1,
Vivek Kuttappan1, Eduardo Vicuña1, Randle Moore2, Rosario SeeberGalarza1, Juan-David Latorre1, Amanda Wolfenden1, Olivia Faulkner1,
Guillermo Tellez1, Billy Hargis1 1University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR,
USA; 2Poultry Diagnostic Laboratory, Texas A&M Veterinary Medical
Diagnostic Laboratory, Center, TX, USA
Spondylolisthesis (kinky back) lameness is related to abscess of T4 vertebrae (T4V) in heavy broilers, and has been linked to Enterococcus cecorum (EC), a common GIT microbe. Kinky back incidence occurs at a
rate of 3-9% in affected flocks, and can manifest as early as 6 weeks of
age. We evaluated the effect of early induction of enteric inflammation,
using potential non-infectious models, on EC recovery from T4V region.
Experiment 1 compared levels of dexamethasone (DEX) feed inclusion
(DEXf; 1X=0.57mg/kg of feed; 3X=1.7mg/kg of feed; 9X=5.1mg/kg of
feed d4-d15) or injections (DEXi; 1 mg/kg BW, 6 injections every 48h,
d4-14) on serum Fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FITC-d, d11) and
Gram+ microbial recovery from T4V region on d15. Serum levels of
FITC-d in all DEX feed groups were higher (P<0.05) than control, while
DEXi group was higher than control but lower than DEXf. Gram+ recovery from T4V followed a similar pattern with increased CFU in all
DEXf groups (P<0.05) from both DEXi and control. Experiment 2 evaluated multiple enteric inflammation models for effect on serum FITC-d and
Enterococcus recovery from T4V. Inflammation groups included DEXf
(0.57mg/kg d4-15), rye-based diet (RBD; d7-15), or 15% dried distiller’s
grain with solubles diet (DDGS; d1-15) and all birds were challenged with
a cocktail of 5 different EC on d11. A negative control (CON, no EC) and
30
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
EC only control (ECC) were included. Serum levels of FITC-d (d11) were
higher (P<0.05) in all inflammation groups than CON and ECC. Incidence
of T4V EC recovery on d15 was 75%, 50%, and 55% for DEXf, RBD,
and DDGS, respectively, which was significantly higher than CON (10%)
and ECC (15%). These studies suggest early enteric inflammation models may increase gut leakage of EC to T4V region and markers such as
serum FITC-d and EC T4V recovery in young broilers may predict kinky
back. Ongoing studies are investigating whether early enteric inflammation increases the incidence of kinky back in heavy broilers to validate
the model.
Key Words: kinky back, enteric inflammation, Fluorescein
isothiocyanate-dextran, Dexamethasone, DDGS
M100Case report: Isolated masculinization of commercial leghorn
hens in production Blayne Mozisek* Merck Animal Health, Austin, TX,
USA
The investigation and clinical workup of poor production and shell quality
with masculinization in an 80 week-old commercial layer flock will be
discussed. The chief complaint within this flock was decreased production
and poor shell quality primarily isolated to a single row of a modern, two
story, commercial layer house. When examined the flock was three weeks
post-molt and mortality was significantly increased. Grossly, birds exhibited signs of masculinization including aggression with varying degrees
of comb and spur development. Upon necropsy, all affected birds showed
excessive amounts of adipose tissue for their life stage. Follicular development was reduced and birds with the most significant masculine features
had complete regression of the ovarian follicles. Fixed and fresh tissue as
well as serum was collected. Histologic evaluation of reproductive tract
revealed ovotesticle with the gonad parenchyma being testicular and having seminiferous tubules, intestinal cells, and rudimentary male accessory
glands. The magnum and uterus were hypoplastic with normal anatomy,
but only minimal to mild maturation. Virus isolation of fresh tissues collected from affected birds and sentinel birds was unsuccessful. Hemagglutination inhibition titers of specific infectious bronchitis virus serotypes
were elevated. The vaccination history, late-life flock performance, and
suspected cause will also be discussed.
Key Words: leghorn, intersex, ovotesticle, case report, masculinization
M101In vivo test tube: the growing feather as a dermal test-site to
monitor temporal, qualitative and quantitative aspects of innate and
adaptive immune responses. Gisela Erf*1, Olfat Alaamri1, Hyeonmin
Jang1, Kristen Byrne1, Daniel Falcon1, Mikaila Wilson1, Zoraida Aguilar2,
Robert Dienglewicz1 1University of Arkansas, Division of Agriculture,
Department of Poultry Science, Fayetteville, AR, USA; 2Zystein, LLC,
Springdale, AR, USA
We developed a method using the dermis (pulp) of growing feathers
(GF) as a test-tissue to monitor cellular immune responses in vivo (USPatent 8,216,551). Micro-injection of several GF with test-material [e.g.
(recall)-antigens, adjuvants, immunomodulators, etc.] and GF-collection
at various times post-injection, enables monitoring of local immune activities to test-materials. Using this minimally invasive procedure together
with blood sampling we have the ability to examine immune activities
to test-materials in poultry, both at the local injection-site and in the peripheral blood circulation. In a recent study we immunized 7-week-old
male Light-brown Leghorn chickens intra-muscularly (i.m.) with 3 different formulations of test-antigen (T-Ag = mouse IgG; n = 6/treatment). Another group of chickens was immunized in the same manner
at 7-weeks of age and again 4 weeks later (secondary immunization). We
monitored antibody production (IgM, IgG) to T-Ag over 4 weeks following both the primary and secondary i.m. immunizations. To examine the
local effector response to T-Ag in the same individuals, mouse IgG or
vehicle (PBS) was injected into 20 GF per bird (10 uL/GF) at 10 days or
5 days post-primary or post-secondary immunization, respectively. Three
GF were collected before (0h) and at various times (0.25 to 7days) postGF-injection. At each time-point, one GF was used to prepare pulp cell
suspensions for immunofluorescent staining and leukocyte-population
analysis by flow cytometry. The other two GF were either snap frozen
for gene-expression (qRT-PCR) analysis or placed in buffered formalin
for histological examination. Cell-population analysis of GF pulp-cell suspensions revealed temporal, qualitative and quantitative differences (P <
0.05) in leukocyte-infiltration between immunization treatments and primary/memory effector-responses. Analysis of plasma samples by ELISA
also revealed temporal, qualitative, and quantitative differences (P < 0.05)
in the humoral responses to T-Ag following the different i.m. primary/
secondary immunizations. Minimally invasive, non-terminal procedures
such as sampling of injected GF and blood provides for the first time insight into cellular and humoral immune activities in the same individual
over time. The use of GF as an “in vivo test-tube” will find direct application in the development of vaccines and immunomodulators, as well as,
in the assessment of immune system development and function in poultry.
Funding: NIH-NIBIB, AES-Animal Health
Key Words: cell-mediated immune response, humoral immune response,
leukocytes, antibodies, vaccine
M102Genotypic analysis of S class genome segments of two novel
avian reoviruses associated with tenosynovitis in chickens Vijay
Durairaj*, Erich Linnemann, Vanessa Gauthiersloan, Alan Icard, Holly
S. Sellers Poultry Diagnostic and Research Center, The University of
Georgia, Athens, GA, USA
Reovirus induced tenosynovitis is primarily observed in meat type chickens and result in swollen hock joints and tendons. Increased incidences
of tenosynovitis associated with avian reoviruses have been documented
since 2011. The avian reovirus genome is segmented and comprised of 10
segments (L1-L3, M1-M3, S1-S4). The S1 gene encodes for three viral
proteins namely P10, P17 and Sigma C. S2, S3 and S4 segments encode
for Sigma A, Sigma B and Sigma NS proteins respectively. Genotypic
characterization of the Sigma C from recent reovirus field isolates, from
clinical cases of tenosynovitis, revealed two groups of novel reoviruses,
namely variant group 1 and group 2. Group 1 variants were <50% similar to commercial U.S. vaccine strains, whereas Group 2 variants were
80% similar to vaccine strains. Progeny from commercial reovirus vaccinated breeders were not protected against challenge with Group 1 or
Group 2 variants, suggesting that current commercial vaccines do not
provide adequate protection against these variants. Thus new isolates of
reoviruses should be evaluated for use in the next generation of vaccines.
The main objectives of this project were to plaque purify representative
isolates from Group 1 and Group 2 and genetically characterize these viruses. In this study, we report the results of genotypic analysis of S class
gene segments of two variant avian reoviruses isolated and plaque purified
from field cases of tenosynovitis. RT-PCR was performed with primers
encompassing S1, S2, S3 and S4 gene segments. The extracted DNA was
cloned and sequenced. RT-PCR products were cloned and sequenced. The
sequences were analyzed and phylogenetic analysis was performed for
all S class segments (S1-S4). P10 and P17 amino acid sequence analysis
revealed that Group 1 variants were >86% similar to Australian isolate
RAM-1 and Group 2 variants were >90% similar to Canadian isolate
ARV-138. Sigma A amino acid sequences of Group 1 and Group 2 variants were 99% similar to each other. Sigma B amino acid sequences from
Group 1 and Group 2 variants were >93% similar, while their similarity
to turkey, duck and goose isolates was <79%. Sigma NS amino acid sequences of Group 1 and Group 2 variants were >98% similar to US isolate
chicken/AR/SEP-843/05. Overall, genetic heterogeneity was observed in
all S class gene segments
Key Words: Tenosynovitis, Variant avian reoviruses, Genotypic analysis,
Sigma C, S class segments
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
31
Metabolism & Nutrition III
M103Dietary Threonine Requirement of Pekin Ducks from 1 to 14
Days of Age Based on Performance, Serum Immune Activity and
Intestinal Mucin Secretion Qian Zhang*GS1, Qiufeng Zeng2, Paul Cotter3,
Todd Applegate1 1Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA; 2Sichuan
Agriculture University, Ya’an, China; 3Cotter Laboratory, Arlington, MA,
USA
A study was conducted to establish the dietary threonine (Thr) requirement of Pekin ducks from 1 to 14 d of age. Experimental diets were formulated to contain 0.78, 0.84, 0.90, 0.96, and 1.02% Thr (0.74, 0.83, 0.88,
0.92, and 1.00% on an analyzed basis) and were fed to 8 replicate pens
of 6 male ducks per pen. Body weight and feed intake from each pen
were recorded weekly. At 14 d of age, breast meat, ileal digesta and serum
were collected to determine breast meat yield, mucin secretion and serum
immune parameters. The maximal Thr responses for BW gain (mg Thr
intake/bird basis; P < 0.05 for linear broken line regression) were 25.27,
67.76 and 85.25 mg/bird at 0-7 d, 7-14 d and 0-14 d, respectively. As the
average FI was 266.92, 661.71 and 927.67 g/bird at 0-7 d, 7-14 d and
0-14 d, the estimated maximal Thr responses for BW gain expressed as %
dietary Thr basis were 0.95, 1.02 and 0.92% at 0-7 d, 7-14 d and 0-14 d,
respectively. The maximal Thr response for breast meat yield (% dietary
analyzed Thr basis; P = 0.09 for linear broken line regression) was 0.96%
at 0-14 d. In addition, the ileal mucin secretion was estimated to be highest
when 0.90% (% dietary analyzed Thr basis; P < 0.05 for quadratic regression) dietary Thr were fed. Serum natural antibody titers and complement
mediated lysis to human (HuO) and horse (Ho) erythrocytes were not affected by dietary Thr. However, the IgY natural antibody to rabbit (Rb)
erythrocytes was significantly affected by dietary Thr in a cubic response
(P = 0.03). The complement mediated lysis of rabbit (Rb) erythrocytes by
the alternate pathway was highest with 0.92 % Thr (% dietary analyzed
Thr basis; P = 0.05 for linear broken line regression).
Key Words: Pekin duck, threonine, mucin, serum immune activity
M104Efficacy of two adsorbents in ameliorating the toxic effects of
aflatoxin in broiler chicks Tiffany Shannon*GS1, David Ledoux1, George
Rottinghaus1, Daniel Shaw1, Aleksandra Daković2, Mirjana Stojanović2,
Vera Dondur3 1University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA; 2Institute
for Technology of Nuclear and Other Mineral Raw Materials, Belgrade,
Serbia; 3University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
An experiment was conducted to determine the efficacy of two adsorbents
in ameliorating the toxic effects of aflatoxin (AF) in broiler chicks. Adsorbent 1 (ADSB-1) was a raw clay product, whereas adsorbent 2 (ADSB-2)
was a concentrated product manufactured from the raw clay product. One
hundred and eighty day-old male broiler chicks were assigned to 6 dietary
treatments (6 replicate pens of 5 chicks per treatment) that included: 1)
positive control basal diet (BD); 2) BD plus 0.50% ADSB-1; 3) BD plus
0.50% ADSB-2; 4) BD plus 2 mg AFB1 /kg diet; 5) BD plus 2 mg AFB1
/kg diet plus 0.50% ADSB-1; and 6) BD plus 2 mg AFB1 /kg diet plus
0.50% ADSB-2. The addition of ADSB-1 and ADSB-2 to the BD at a
level of 0.50% did not negatively affect (P > 0 .05) chick performance,
organ weight, liver color, serum chemistries, or liver lesion scores. Feed
intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG) and liver color were depressed (P
< 0.01), whereas liver and kidney weights, serum gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), and liver lesion scores were increased (P < 0.01) in chicks
fed 2 mg AFB1/kg diet. Addition of both ADSB-1 and ADSB-2 to the BD
plus AFB1 restored FI and BWG values to control levels. Addition of both
ADSB-1 and ADSB-2 to the BD plus AFB1 reduced the effect of AFB1 on
liver and kidney weights (P < 0.01) but values did not return to control
values. Addition of both ADSB-1 and ADSB-2 to the BD plus AFB1 reduced the liver lesion scores (P < 0.01) caused by AFB1 with ADSB-1 being more effective (P < 0.01) than ADSB-2. Addition of ADSB-1 but not
ADSB-2 prevented the increase in serum GGT caused by AFB1. Results
indicate that both ADSBs were effective in reducing the toxic effects of
AFB1. Data also indicate that the raw product (ADSB-1) was just as effective as the concentrated product (ADSB-2).
Key Words: Aflatoxin, Adsorbent, Broilers, Liver lesion score
M105Impact of dietary Black Soldier Fly prepupae meal on broiler
performance Shurong Li*GS, Fengchun Yang, Heather Burley, Paul
Patterson, R. Michael Hulet The Pennsylvania State University, State
College, PA, USA
Black Soldier Fly (Hermetiu illucens) prepupae, can be considered as an
alternative insect-based protein source for poultry nutrition because of
its high protein (44% DM basis), methionine and lysine content (0.89%,
2.79% respectively, DM basis) comparable to meat and bone meal. The
prepupae for this feeding trial was produced by inoculating fly eggs into
nutrient trays comprised of mixtures of hen manure collected from manure
belts at the Penn State Poultry Education and Research Center (PERC).
After providing hen manure nutrients for approximately 12 days, the larva
gradually turned to the black prepupae then crawled up a ramp to a selfcollection tray. The prepupae were washed, dried then ground to pass
through a 1-mm screen and then mixed to obtain a homogeneous meal.
In the current study, Black Soldier Fly prepupae meal (FPM) contained
42.2% crude protein, 4.08 % moisture, 26.61 % crude fat, 0.59 % phosphorus and 6.09 % calcium (as is basis). Four dietary treatments with 0, 2,
4, and 6% FPM were formulated to meet Cobb 500 recommendations and
fed as organic diets to evaluate their protein and amino acid contribution
for broiler chicken growth performance. A total of 280 day-old Cobb 500
straight run broilers were randomly allocated to each treatment diet with 7
replicate battery cages per treatment (10 birds/replicate). Birds received a
starter diet from 0-7 d of age and a grower diet from 8-21 d of age. Birds
and feed were weighted weekly with cage as the experimental unit and at
21 d the birds were slaughtered and processed to determine carcass and
parts yield. The data was analyzed as a one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s test
for means comparison with a P ≤ 0.05 level deemed statistically significant. For the entire experimental period, different inclusion levels of FPM
had no significant effect (P>0.05) on body weight (BW), body weight gain
(BWG), mortality or processing yields. Feed intake was reduced at 7-14
and 14-21 d and over the entire experimental period at the highest level
of FPM (6%) compared to the corn/soy control and other dietary FPM
levels (P<0.05). Feed to gain ratio follow a similar significant trend with
birds fed the 6% FPM having a better FCR than the other treatments. In
conclusion, the current study indicated that FPM was a beneficial nutrient supplement in broiler diets at a moderate inclusion rate and was only
limited by its high ash and calcium content. Because of its favorable fat,
energy, protein and amino acid profile, Black Soldier Fly prepupae meal
might be a feasible dietary ingredient for organic poultry production.
Key Words: Black Soldier Fly prepupae meal, methionine, broiler,
organic diets
M106Effects of dietary amino acid density and tribasic copper
chloride supplementation in Eimeria acervulina-infected chicks
Samuel Rochell*GS1, Terri Parr2, James Usry2, Carl Parsons1, Ryan Dilger1
1
University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, USA; 2Micronutrients, Indianapolis, IN,
USA
The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the influence of tribasic
copper chloride (TBCC) supplementation in diets varying in amino acid
density on the growth performance, oocyst shedding, lesion scores, plasma carotenoid concentrations, and apparent ileal amino acid digestibility
(AIAAD) in broiler chicks infected with Eimeria acervulina. Ross 308
male chicks (480 total) were housed in battery cages in an experiment that
included 8 treatments in a factorial arrangement of 2 dietary AA densities
[1.00% (LAA) or 1.20% (HAA) digestible Lys], 2 supplemental TBCC
32
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
concentrations (0 or 200 mg/kg), and 2 E. acervulina infection levels. Six
replicate cages of 10 chicks received each of the 8 treatments. At 2 d of
age, chicks were weighed, allotted, and provided the experimental diets
through 21 d of age. At 15 d of age, chicks were weighed before inoculation with 1 mL of water containing 0 (SHAM) or 6.3 × 105 sporulated
E. acervulina oocysts. At 21 d of age, chick and feeder weights were recorded, and all chicks were euthanized for collection of blood (2 birds
per pen) and ileal digesta (10 birds per pen). An AA density × TBCC interaction indicated that TBCC supplementation increased (P < 0.05) feed
intake from 2 to 15 d of age, which tended to increase body weight gain of
chicks fed the LAA diet, but not for those fed the HAA diet. There were
no interactive effects of dietary treatments with E. acervulina infection on
growth performance, oocyst shedding, or lesions scores of chicks during
the infection period. On average, E. acervulina infection reduced AIAAD
values by 7.3 percentage units compared with chicks in the SHAM group,
but interactive effects of AA density, TBCC supplementation, and infection status on AIAAD varied among AA. In conclusion, these data demonstrate the potential for TBCC supplementation to improve the growth
performance of chicks fed diets low in AA density, and that reductions in
AIAAD during E. acervulina infection may be influenced by dietary AA
supply or copper supplementation.
Key Words: coccidiosis, Eimeria, copper, amino acid, digestibility
M107The effect of feed processing of novel, low trypsin inhibitor,
whole soybeans on the performance of turkey hens reared from 0-21
days C. E. Evans*GS1, J. L. Grimes1, C. R. Stark2, A. C. Fahrenholz1, J.
D. Garlich1 1North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA; 2Kansas
State University, Manhattan, KS, USA
Soybeans (SB) and corn are the major ingredients in poultry diets. However, unlike corn, SB must be extensively processed to reduce anti-nutritional factors such as heat sensitive trypsin inhibitors (TI). Recently nonGM SB have been selected for reduced levels of TI, potentially allowing
their inclusion in turkey diets without further processing. The objectives
of this study were to evaluate the novel low TI SB for its efficacy as a
feedstuff for turkeys as well as to determine the optimal inclusion level
& feed form of the diets. A total of 6 dietary treatments (TRT) were determined based on inclusion level of the novel SB (0%, 20%, & 40%)
and feed form, either mash (M) or crumble (CR). The novel SB (w/hulls)
& grains were roller milled to yield M TRT diets of 700 microns, while
CR TRT diets were pelleted at 180°F prior to crumbling. All diets were
iso-caloric & iso-nitrogenous. TRT were randomly assigned to 48 pens,
each containing 7 female LW poults (336), yielding 8 TRT replicates per
diet. Poults were raised from hatch to 21 d and allowed ad libitum access
to feed & water. Feed intake (FI) & body weight (BW) were measured at
7, 14, & 21 d. Data were analyzed using JMP with means separated using
LS means (P <0.05). Birds fed the novel SB (20% & 40%) as a CR exhibited greater BW (656.9 & 617.5±13.7g, respectively) compared to the
same diet in M form (583.6 & 559.6±13.7g). In addition, the 20 & 40%
novel SB diets as CR resulted in comparable BW to both 0% M & CR
diets (651.5 & 659.6±13.17g). Overall, inclusion of the novel SB (M or
CR) decreased BW, however, as the bird aged the effect was minimized.
At 7 d, 20% novel SB TRT had 97% BW gain as compared to the 0%
TRT (79.2 & 76.7±3.0 g), while 40% novel SB TRT had 84% of the BW
gain (66.5±3.0g). By 14 d, 20% & 40% novel SB TRT had 88 & 84% of
the BW gain (151.7 & 143.7±4.1g) of the 0% TRT (171.5±4.1g), which
increased at 21 d to 100 & 94% of the BW gain (341.3 & 320.5±6.0g)
when compared to 0% TRT (340.5±6.0g). Thus it would appear that age
improved the bird’s ability to process the higher inclusions of the novel
SB. Poults receiving 20 & 40% novel SB TRT as M consistently had the
lowest FI (321.1 & 315.04±6.8g from 14-21d), while the other diets resulted in similar performance. FCR reflected the same trend with the 0,
20, & 40% novel SB diets as CR resulting in the lowest FCR (1.39, 1.44,
1.38±0.06, respectively) and the 0, 20, & 40% novel SB diets as M exhibiting greater FCR (1.56, 1.64, 1.69±0.06). Based on BW & FCR we
conclude that the novel, low TI SB is a viable ingredient for use in turkey
diets. Its effectiveness as an ingredient is improved by feed processing, as
shown through improved performance after pelleting. Further improvements may be possible by other actions such as the inclusion of enzymes.
Key Words: turkey, soybeans, trypsin-inhibitor, pelleting
M108Evaluation of Pennycress Meal as a feed ingredient for broilers
Rashed Alhotan*GS1, Gene Pesti1, Ronald Holser2 1Department of Poultry
Science; University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA; 2United States
Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Athens, GA,
USA
Pennycress (Thlaspi arvense) is an annual winter plant found in North
America that is being evaluated as a potential source of biodiesel. Pennycress meal (PM) is the by-product of pennycress seeds after oil extraction. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effect of PM
inclusion and feed form on the live performance of starting broiler chicks
(0-18 d). The diets were formulated to contain four levels of PM (0, 5,
10, and 15% of the diet) and provided in two forms (mash or crumbles),
resulting in 8 dietary treatments (6 replicate pens/ treatment). A total of
480 day-old Cobb 700 male chicks were randomly assigned according
to treatment to 48 battery brooders each containing 10 birds. Feed intake
(FI), body weight gain (BWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) data were
measured during the periods 0-10 d and 0-18 d of age and were subjected
to two-way ANOVA using the GLM procedure of SAS software to determine the effects of PM inclusion, feed form and any possible interactions. Increasing the inclusion level of PM from 0 to 15% resulted in a
linear decrease in FI during 0-10 d (P = 0.001) and 0-18 d (P = 0.016).
There was no difference in FI (P > 0.05) due to feed form. There was no
significant interaction between feed form and PM on FI. Increasing the
inclusion level of PM resulted in a linear decrease (P < 0.001) in BWG
during 0-10 d. BWG decreased at an increasing rate (P = 0.028) with increasing inclusion levels of PM during 0-18 d. Chicks fed the crumbled
diets had increased BWG compared to those fed the mash diets during
0-10 d (P = 0.007) and 0-18 d (P = 0.017). A quadratic interaction effect
of PM by form (P = 0.033) during 0-10 d was observed for BWG. There
were no significant interactions of feed form by PM on BWG. Increasing
PM levels depressed FCR linearly (P < 0.001) during 0-10 d. However
increasing PM inclusion had no impact on FCR during the period 0-18 d.
FCR was improved when feeding crumbled diets compared to mash diets
during 0-10 d (1.195 vs. 1.151; P = 0.002) and 0-18 d (1.282 vs. 1.245; P =
0.015). Feed form by PM interaction on FCR was found to be not significant. No differences were found in mortality rates due to PM feeding (P
= 0.533; Overall = 2.5%). The results indicate that feeding broiler starters
PM up to 10% produced chicks similar to 0% PM, but 15% PM depressed
growth; and the performance of chicks fed crumbled diets was superior to
those fed mash diets.
Key Words: Pennycress, broiler, performance, crumbles, mash
M109The use of low-tannin grain sorghum in broiler diets Park
Waldroup*1, Samantha Shelton2, Deepthi Gadde2, Joel Thompson2, Susan
Watkins2 1University of Arkansas Poultry Science Department, Fayetteville,
AR, USA; 2University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA
Use of grain sorghum in the past has been hampered by lack of pigmenting ability and by the development of high-tannin “bird resistant” varieties
that reduce the nutirent value of the grain. The increase in the percentage
of birds that are further processed has reduced the pigmenting demands,
and sorghum growers in the United States have ceased producing the hightannin varieties. Therefore, grain sorghum (milo) should be considered as
a potential grain source for broiler diets. In the present study, a supply of
grain sorghum grown in Arkansas was analyzed for CP. EE. ash, and crude
fiber to adjust nutrient value. Diets were formulated for starter, grower,
and finisher periods in which grain sorghum replaced 0, 20, 40, 60, 80,
and 100% of the grain component of the diet. Each treatment was assigned
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
to ten pens of 25 male broilers each (Cobb 500). Body weights and feed
conversion were determined at 14, 28, and 41 d of age. At 42 d samples
of birds had shank pigmentation measured and were processed with scald
water at 130 F. Dressing percentage and parts yield were determined along
with skin pigmentation. No significant differences were noted for BW,
feed conversion, mortality, dressing percentage, or breast meat yield. As
expected, shank and skin pigment scores were linearly reduced with each
increment of grain sorghum in the diet. These results indicate that low tannin grain sorghum is a suitable replacement for part or all of the grain in a
broiler diet when skin pigmentation is not a determining factor.
Key Words: broilers, grain sorghum, milo, pigmentation, alternative
grain
M110Evaluation of NSP enzymes for broiler diets Park Waldroup*,
Changji Lu, Sarah Goodgame, Franco Mussini, Danny Bradley University
of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA
Many NSP enzymes are offered for sale to the poultry industry, often with
little or no published data to support their use. Fifteen enzymes presently
offered for sale were obtained and evaluated against a negative and a positive control. The positive control diet was similar to that common in the
poultry industry, while the negative control was 40 kcal/lb (89 kcal/kg)
lower in energy. No attempt was made to verify the enzymes stated present
by the manufacturer or to assess enzyme activity. In the first trial, twelve
of the enzymes were added to aliquots of the negative control diet with
each treatment fed to 18 replicate pens of five male chicks in battery pens
to 18 d of age. In the second trial, 9 of the enzymes fed in the first study
and three more additional enzymes were fed in the same manner. In the
first study, none of the enzyme treatments differed significantly from the
negative control in body weight while one enzyme treatment did not differ significantly from the positive control. In the second study, none of
the treatments were significantly better in body weight than the negative
control while one was significantly worse; all were significantly different
from the positive control group. When enzymes common to both studies
were compared, none were significantly different in BW than those fed the
negative control and all were significantly different from those fed the positive control. In the first study, three enzyme treatments had significantly
better FCR than those fed the negative control while one was not different
from the positive control group. In the second trial no treatment was significantly better than the negative control group and all were significantly
worse than those fed the positive control. When enzymes common to both
groups were compared, none was significantly different from the negative
control group while all were different from those fed the positive control
diet. In conclusion, when fed at their recommended level, none of the NSP
enzymes evaluated had a consistent improvement in BW of FCR in starting broiler chick diets.
Key Words: broilers, enzymes, nonstarch polysaccharides, body weight,
feed conversion
M111
Comparative performance of different broiler genotypes
and morphometric analysis Park Waldroup*1, Franco Mussini1, Sarah
Goodgame1, Changji Lu1, Danny Bradley1, Julia Dibner2 1University of
Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA; 2Novus International, St. Louis, MO,
USA
Intense genetic selection has brought about major changes in growth, feed
conversion, breast meat yield, and many other structural and metabolic
changes. This study was conducted to compare performance of a heritage
strain cross with two major current strains and an experimental strain to
evaluate not only growth and feed conversion but also to compare different organs and intestinal composition. A cross of NH x Columbian White
Rock that has been maintained at the University of Illinois was compared
to Ross 308 and 708 strains as well as a Ross Test Product. The NH x Col
cross was the bird used to determine many of the nutrient requirements
used in the industry today. One hundred and sixty two males of each strain
were placed in battery brooders and fed typical starter, grower, and finisher
33
diets. Every 7 days, two birds per pen were killed by CO2 inhalation. One
was frozen for body composition determination and the other subjected
to morphometric analysis. At 56 d all surviving birds were processed.
Weights were taken of heart, spleen, proventriculus, breast, wing, and leg
weekly, along with length of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Samples of
each segment at 28 d were used to measure villus length and width. At 56
d dressing percentage, leg and wing yield were determined.As expected,
BW and FCR were far superior for the modern strains. Tibia break force
was significantly higher for the modern strains at 21, 35, and 42 d, indicating the emphasis placed on leg strength by geneticists. Heart weight as a
percent of body weight was significantly higher for the heritage bird only
after 21 d; no significant differences were noted for spleen, proventriculus,
gizzard, or liver weights among strains. There was no significant difference in length of the duodenum at 49 d, but the modern strains had significantly longer jejunal and ileal segments than the heritage bird. When
body weight was compared as a ratio of length of the intestinal segment,
the modern strains had significantly greater BW than the heritage strains,
although ileal nutrient digestibility at 28 d was similar for all strains. The
modern strains had significantly greater villus height and villus surface
area than the heritage strain. Overall, these data indicate that genetic selection for body weight gain, feed conversion, and breast meat yield has not
come at the expense of nutrient digestibility or overall body health.
Key Words: broilers, genetic improvement, breast yield, morphometric
analysis
M112Evaluation of calcium levels in broiler grower diets with normal
and extended levels of phytase Park Waldroup*, Sarah Goodgame, Danny
Bradley, Franco Mussini, Changji Lu University of Arkansas, Fayetteville,
AR, USA
The use of phytase has become almost universal in the poultry industry.
As the cost of phytase has dropped concomitant with the increase in price
of phosphate supplements, more producers are using higher levels of phytase, commonly known as “superdosing”. A question that has not been
fully answered is the relationship of dietary Ca to the response to phytase,
especially to the higher levels of phytase supplementation. A meta-analysis stated that it is important to determine the concentrations of Ca that are
required for maximum response to specific levels of phytase. In the present study, diets fed included a positive control (0.35% NPP and 0.90% Ca)
and also a 3 x 3 x 5 factorial arrangement with phytase levels of 500, 1000,
and 2000 FTU/kg with a phytase of known activity (Quantum, ABVista)
using phosphorus release factors of 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20% respectively
(Target levels); values of 0.05% NPP above and below Target level, and
Ca levels of 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, and 0.9%. Each treatment was assigned to
three pens of 5 male broilers from 14 to 35 d in two consecutive trials.
Four basal diets were prepared including low NPP-low Ca, low NPP-high
Ca, high NPP-low Ca, and high NPP-high Ca. After analysis for Ca and
P levels, these four diets were blended as needed to provide the test diets.
ANOVA indicated that none to the main effects or interactions had any
significant effect on BW gain, FCR, or mortality. Both phytase level and
Ca level had a significant effect on bone breaking force, with a significant
interaction of phytase level and Ca level. Tibia breaking force of birds fed
2000 FTU/kg was significantly higher than that of birds fed 500 FTU/kg,
with that of birds fed 1000 FTU intermediate. This suggests that the phosphorus release value assigned to the 2000 FTU/kg dosage was perhaps
lower than it should be. However, feeding levels of 0.05% above or below
the assigned values not support this supposition. Rather, it appears that
the higher phytase levels released a greater amount of Ca, thus supporting
greater breaking strength. Birds fed the 500 FTU/kg phytase appeared to
require 0.9% Ca for maximum breakage, while birds fed the 1000 FTU/
kg phytase appeared to require 0.8% Ca and birds fed 2000 FTU/kg appeared to require only 0.7% Ca for maximum bone strength. Thus, when
using superdosing levels of phytase the Ca level of the diet can be reduced
commensurately.
Key Words: Broilers, phytase, superdosing, calcium
34
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
Environment Management II
M113Microbial efficacy of a new water sanitation technology as
compared to hydrogen peroxide and chlorine Pramir Maharjan*1,
Samantha Cox2, Tyler Clark2, Susan Watkins2 1University of Arkansas,
Fayetteville, AR, USA; 2U of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA
A bench top experiment was conducted to test three commercially available drinking water sanitizers for residuals and microbial reduction over
time when used in water that contains a naturally occurring microbial
population. Product A uses modified ambient oxygen to create hydroxyl
ions and free radicals in water and works based on the Advance Oxidation Process concept. Product B was a 50 % stabilized hydrogen peroxide
and Product C was 5.25 % sodium hypochlorite. Stock solutions were
prepared for Product B at two different doses, 2ml and 4ml of the product,
each respectively mixed with deionized water (Cl = 0 ppm) to a volume
of 128ml. For Product C, the stock solution was created by mixing 4ml
of the product to a volume of 128ml also using deionized water. Next,
7.81ml of each stock solution was added to the uniformly blended microbial rich water (> 4. 47 log 10 units cfu/ml; Cl =0 ppm) to prepare 1000
ml aliquots for each (1:128 dosing rate). Three replicates were prepared
for each. Three replicates of test solutions for Product A were made by directly infusing the AOP gas at 1 liter per minute (LPM) main line divided
into three sub lines diffusing each into 1000 ml of the microbial rich water.
Water samples were pulled at 0 hr (pretreatment), and then at 15 min, 1, 6,
18 and 24 hours post treatment (PT) and plated for enumeration of aerobic bacteria (APC), and mold using 3M Petrifilm TM. Sanitizer residuals
were measured at each sampling period. For the AOP technology, there
were significant APC reductions (>2 log 10 cfu/ml) starting at 18 hours ( P
<0.05). The Cl test solutions experienced a 1 log 10 reduction by 6 hours
and remained there for the rest of the test. Product B tested at the higher
rate reduced APC levels >1 log 10 at 6 hours and did not reduce further
while the lower rate never reduced the APC greater than 1 log 10. Results
indicate that continuous infusion of Product A was the most effective water treatment option for APC reduction at the tested dose.
Key Words: water, microbes, sanitation
M114Incubation temperature profiles affect litter moisture in broilers
Albaraa Sarsour*1, Edgar Oviedo-Rondón2, Jenna Scott2 1Prestage
Department of Poultry Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh,
NC, USA; 2North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA
Incubation temperature profiles (INC) affect live performance and footpad
dermatitis (FPD) incidence in broilers. In two experiments (Exp.) the effect of INC on litter moisture was evaluated. Two factorial arrangements
of treatments were used. In Exp. 1 eggs from hens of 3 genetic lines with
different FPD incidence were subjected to two INC. In Exp. 2 eggs from
Cobb 500 hens were incubated under 3 INC and placed in floor pens with
either new wood shavings or used litter. In both Exp. the first INC treatment maintained eggshell temperatures close to 38.0oC (S) for 21 d. The
second profile (LH) had low (36.9oC) eggshell temperatures for the first
3 d, and standard INC until the last 3 d when eggs were subjected to elevated (38.9oC) eggshell INC (H), as is observed in multistage machines.
For Exp. 2 the third INC profile (SH) had S INC until the last 3 d when
eggs had H INC. At hatch, 180 or 210 broilers per treatment combination,
respectively, were placed in 15 pens with either new pine wood shavings
in Exp. 1, and with new or used litter in Exp. 2. Five litter samples per
pen were collected at 13, 28 and 42 d in Exp. 1 and at 7, 13, 21 and 37 d
in Exp. 2. Litter moisture was obtained after drying litter in a forced-air
oven. Data was analyzed in two randomized complete block designs with
a 3x2 factorial arrangement of treatments with incubation (S, LH, or S,
LH, SH) and either genetics (3) or litter type (new or used) as main factors and 15 replicates . In both Exp. INC consistently affected (P<0.001)
litter moisture. In Exp. 1, litter moisture was one to two percentage points
higher for the S treatment at 13 and 28 d of age, but at 42 d this situation
reversed and pens containing broilers from the LH treatment had higher
litter moisture. In Exp. 2, pens with chickens from the S INC had the lowest (P<0.001) litter moisture, which was similar to the LH INC at 37 d
only. One interaction effect (P<0.001) was observed with genetics in Exp.
1 at 28 d, and interaction effects (P<0.001) with litter type were detected in
Exp. 2. While higher litter moisture in Exp. 1 was associated with higher
broiler feed intake and BW gain (P<0.05), this link was not evident in
Exp. 2. In conclusion, incubation temperature profiles indirectly affected
the litter moisture of broilers.
Key Words: Litter moisture, Incubation, Genetics, Litter type
M115Effect of propolis supplementations on behavioral activities
of heat stressed broiler chickens Usama Mahmoud*1, Mootaz AbdelRahman2, Madeha Darwish2, Todd Applegate1, Heng-Wei Cheng1 1Purdue,
Lafayette, IN, USA; 2Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt
Abstract
This experiment investigated effects of dietary supplementation of green
Brazilian propolis on behavioral exhibitions of heat stressed broiler chickens. Five hundred and four 15-day old male Ross 708 broiler chicks were
randomly allotted to six dietary treatments containing 0, 100, 250, 500,
1000 or 3000 mg kg-1 propolis. Each diet was fed to four replicates of
21 birds/pen. Heat stress was applied for 9 hrs/day at 32 oC from 15 to 42
days. Three birds from each replicate were randomly selected and marked
with livestock color for individually recording their activities by using direct observation instantaneous scan sampling technique (2hrs/day). The
behavioral patterns of standing, walking, sitting, feeding, drinking, preening and feather pecking were recorded weekly for three consecutive days.
The frequency of each behavior were presented as a percentage of total
activities and analyzed by means of SPSS 22.00 Software. The data were
tested for normality prior to analysis using a two-way ANOVA using the
GLM procedure followed by multiple regression models. Results indicated that propolis at both 250 and 3000 mg kg-1 significantly (p<0.05)
increased broilers’ mobility activities (walking, standing) but reduced
panting. While, 100 mg kg-1 propolis significantly (p<0.05) increased
broilers’ standing activity only. There were no treatment effects on sitting,
preening, feeding, drinking, wing elevations and feather pecking activities. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of propolis treatment may be
considered as a protective management practice in broilers by reducing
the negative effects of heat stress, but it still needs further investigation to
determine the affecting factors, such as the type and dose of propolis, and
the time and duration of its application.
Key words: Broiler, Heat Stress, Propolis, Behavior
M116Relationship among feed form, behavior and welfare, and
growth performance using male broilers Xianjiang Wen*, A.F. Liu,
M.M. Beck, K.G.S. Wamsley, B. Sellers, X. Wang, W. Zhai Mississippi
State University, Mississippi State, MS, USA
In a companion study, birds fed 75% intact-pellet diets had improved d 28
to 56 BW gain and d 57 carcass and breast weights, as compared to birds
fed 55% intact-pellet diets. These birds were used in the current study to
determine the relationship among feed form, behavior and welfare, and
growth performance. A total of 144, 28-day-old male Ross × Ross 708
chicks were randomly distributed into 12 floor pens in 6 blocks after equalizing BW. Common diets that varied in feed form (intact pellet:ground
pellet ratios of 75:25 and 55:45) were fed to birds in one of two pens in
each block. Three chicks were randomly selected and marked from each
pen. Behavior of birds was monitored for 60 m by video recording from
4 to 5 am, 9 to 10 am, and 2 to 3 pm each day at the 5th, 6th and 7th wk.
Feather, footpad and hock burn score, as well as fluctuating asymmetry
(FA) was evaluated at d 48. Body weights were determined at d 48 and
56 and carcass traits at d 57. A three-way ANOVA (PROC GLM) was
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
used to determine the significance of responses to feed form, bird age,
time observation and their interactions. Partial correlation analyses were
conducted among behavior, feather score, footpad score, FA, BW and carcass traits. Improved feed form (75% intact-pellet) decreased eating time
(P=0.0004), increased walking time (P=0.010), and lowered fat pad weight
(P=0.053). Moreover, longer walking time was associated with lower fat
pad weight (P=0.024) and percentage of fat pad/BW (P=0.024). In addition, longer standing time was associated with heavier leg quarter weight
(P=0.036). Longer resting time was associated with lighter leg quarter
weight (P=0.049), but increased percentage of tender/BW (P=0.014) and
tender/carcass (P=0.009). Feed form did not affect feather, footpad and
hock burn scores, nor FA; however, longer walking time was associated
with increased footpad lesion (P=0.007). Longer preening time was associated with decreased chest feather damage (P=0.015). Longer standing
time and shorter eating time were associated with less vent feather damage (P=0.006; P=0.043). These data may in part explain observed performance benefits associated with improved feed form from the companion
study via alteration of bird behavior and subsequent nutrient partitioning
and growth.
Key Words: behavior, broiler, carcass traits, feed form, welfare
M117Stress assessment by hematology - The requirements Paul Cotter*
Cotter Laboratory, Arlington, MA, USA
The purpose of the presentation is to describe requirements needed for
establishing stress by hematology. Since stress is included in welfare assessment of caged animals, a recognition scheme is necessary. A simple,
hematology based premise, suggests a “tranquil hemogram” as a prerequisite. In its absence, stress exists. The following criteria give the requirements: 1. Total white blood counts (TWBC) (thousands/μL (K), < 25)
if TWBC > 25 < 50 “leukocytosis” exists; if TWBC > 50 “leukemoid”
reaction exists; stress is established. 2. Lymphocytes: the majority in peripheral circulation are small “resting” types. If > 2 lymphocytes / 200
cell differential, are “reactive” (N/C ratio < 0.75), or if > 2 are frank plasmacytes, or if > 2 are “atypical”; stress exists. 3. Heterophils: absence of
leukergy, classic, variant, and typical types are distinct types; and present
in numbers ranging between, 5 – 10 K. More than 2 atypical heterophils
/ 200 cell differential indicates stress. 4. Basophils: > 5% of total granulocytes indicates stress. If > 2 basophils are atypical, reactive, toxic, or
degenerate, stress exists. 5. Eosinophils are infrequent in normal chicken
blood; higher frequencies are in ducks and geese. Circulating eosinophil
meso or metamyelocytes in these species indicate a complex hemogram,
a likely indication of stress. 6. Sentinel cells: cyanophils, coccinocytes,
large plasmacytoid lymphocytes, Mott cells; if found during a standard
differential (200 cell) count indicate stress. If detected after a more extensive exam stress is likely. 7. Heterophil/lymphocyte ratios (H/L): at least 2
calculations are required. The first divides the sum of all heterophils by the
number of small lymphocytes (H/L 1). The second divides the sum of all
heterophils by all lymphocytes (H/L 2). 8. If the difference between H/L 1
and H/L 2 is > 10 %, stress exists. The values are derived from Lohmann
LSL commercial laying hen data. It may be necessary to establish distinct
value sets for other strains.
Key Words: Hematology, Stress, Welfare, Criteria, Sentinal cells
M118Sustainability: Key parameters to measure ecological impact
of the feed industry Franco Mussini*1, John Thomson2, Michael Binder3,
Thomas Kaufmann3 1Evonik Industries, Cave Springs, AR, USA; 2Evonik
Industries, Kennesaw, GA, USA; 3Evonik Industries, Hanau, Germany
Increasing consumer awareness of the ecological impact products make
on the environment have triggered discussions of the responsibility food
producers have for the environmental footprint of their finished products.
As a consequence, all the members of the production chain are developing
programs to understand and minimize their ecological impact in order to
become more sustainable. Though most companies have developed sustainability programs, these programs state actions but often fail to quan-
35
tify how these actions modify the footprint of production processes on the
environment.
TTo correct this, each step of the production process is studied to measure the different ways in which the process affects the environment. Life
Cycle Assesment (LCA) uses three different indicators developed to properly measure this impact. Global Warming Potential (GWP), Eutrophication Potential (EP), and Acidification Potential (AP) accurately assess the
environmental impact quantifying greenhouse gases emissions but also
the eutrophication of lakes and rivers, and acidification of rain and fog
through pH reduction by the transformation of air pollutants into acids.
In this way an accurate, quantitative impact is obtained presented as Kilograms of CO2e (GWPl) , Kgs of SO2e (APl), and Kgs of PO4e (EP) per unit
produced. A proper understanding of how these indicators are calculated is
indispensable to identifying how changes in the production process affect
the LCA, and consequently the environmental footprint.
Key Words: Sustainability, raw materials, Life cycle Assessment,
Environmental footprint
M119
AMINOFootprint®: A novel tool to accurately measure
sustainability progress in the poultry industry Franco Mussini*1, John
Thomson1, Michael Binder2, Thomas Kaufmann2 1Evonik Industries,
Kennesaw, GA, USA; 2Evonik Industries, Hanau, Germany
The topic of sustainability has grown in importance over the years to a
point where most poultry and swine companies have included it among
their core values. Consumers and customers constantly request actions
from these companies to become more environmental friendly and modify
their production processes to be more sustainable. Companies understand
their responsibility and take measures in this direction but many times fail
to quantify this progress.
In regard to feed production, Life cycle assessment (LCA) makes it possible to determine the impact that each feed ingredient has on the environment from cradle to grave, but it is very difficult to show how finished feed
and variations in the feed ingredient origin and inclusion affect the environmental impact of animal feed. Evonik Corporation has developed a
software tool to accurately calculate these variations and provide customers with a quantifiable proof of their progress. AMINOFootprint® calculates the ecological impact of finished feed based on certified LCA data of
each ingredient along with its inclusion rate. This software takes into account the origin of each ingredient, since the impact will change based on
variables such as origination point and mode or modes of transportation.
Results are expressed as three different, standardized key indicators of environmental footprint. Global warming potential (expressed as Kilograms
of CO2e/MT of feed), Acidification potential (Kgs of SO2e/MT of feed),
and Eutrophication potential (Kgs of PO4e/MT of feed) provide reliable
data on how ingredients and changes in their inclusion rates can modify
the impact animal feed has on the environment.
Key Words: Sustainability, global warming potential, acidification
potential, acidification potential, animal feed
M120
Seasonal US broiler integrator performance history vs.
coccidiosis control program: practical epidemiology and economics
Linnea Newman* Merck Animal Health, Summit, NJ, USA
US broiler integrators provided multi-year weight and feed conversion
histories, as well as the coccidiosis control programs and the precise rotation dates during the same time period. The integrators represented birds
slaughtered at < 4 lbs. Performance data consisted of the weekly average
weight and feed conversion ratio (FCR) representing approximately one
million broilers slaughtered each week over a time period of 2 to 5 years.
All of the integrators were in the US southern states, and the weekly performance was graphed against the weekly high temperature for the integration. Weekly high temperatures ranged from a low of 32°F in the winter
to 99°F in the summer, with individual days reaching 104°F.
36
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
US broiler brooding and ventilation conditions vary by season of the year.
The stocking density and number of flocks per year vary by the bird size
at slaughter. To minimize fuel costs, ventilation is minimized and birds
are brooded in the ½ house for the first 14 days during cold weather. The
impact of these winter management changes is seen as a steady rise in
FCR from fall through winter, peaking in the spring in the flocks weighing
3.5 to 4.0 lbs.
was lowest in uCON (2.016). All groups including nCON had NE lesions
on day 35. BSBL+FLV had both significantly lower score than uCON
(1.389) and numerically lowest score (0.833) of all infected treatments.
Lesion scores in BSBL and FLV were 1.056 and 1.028, respectively. Overall mortality did not differ significantly between treatments, uCON had
the lowest mortality (2.48%). EPEF was highest in the BSBL group (241)
closely followed by UCON (240) and BSBL+FLV (237).
The pattern of rising FCR can be seen year after year. The magnitude of
the FCR increase ranged from 8 points to 22 points for the 4 lb broiler.
FCR steadily declined through the warmer months until it reached the
lowest point in the fall of the year. The duration of the rise was 21 to 26
weeks. Therefore, a 14 point rise over 26 weeks would be an average increase of 7 points for half of the year: a highly significant economic impact
to a small bird broiler integrator.
This study demonstrated that a combination of B. subtilis and B. licheniformis improved bird performance and EPEF by up to 5.0%. When the
DFM combination was used with Flavomycin there was a synergistic effect resulting in improved lesion score and EPEF by up to 3.0% compared
to Flavomycin alone.
Three pieces of evidence point to coccidiosis as the cause for the seasonal pattern of rising FCR: clinical coccidiosis outbreaks (1 company),
response to robenidine (2 companies), and the fact that the seasonal pattern could be broken by using a coccidiosis vaccine for 3 to 4 flock cycles
before the winter season (3 companies).
M122Improving turkey performance using a Bacillus-based feed
additive Anee Berg Kehlet*1, Krzysztof Kozlowski2, Vlastislav Machander3
1
Chr. Hansen A/S, Hørsholm, Denmark; 2Uniwersytet Warmińsko-Mazurski
w Olsztynie, Olsztyn, Poland; 3MTD, s.p., Ústrašice, Poland
The declining efficacy of anticoccidials means that we must recognize and
understand the impact of stocking density, flock cycles per year, bird size,
humidity and Eimeria population dynamics. Small bird integrators are the
most impacted by seasonal performance decline due to higher stocking
density and a higher number of flock cycles per year. Awareness of the
seasonal effect may enable integrators to adopt management strategies
aimed at limiting the adverse seasonal effect on performance.
Key Words: coccidiosis, Eimeria, FCR, Seasonal, Performance
M121Efficacy of a combination of Bacillus subtilis and B. licheniformis
on the performance of broilers under intestinal stress Michael Sims*1,
Anee Berg Kehlet2, David Harrington2 1Virginia Diversified Research,
Corp., Harrisonburg, VA, USA; 2Chr. Hansen A/S, Hørsholm, Denmark
Recent pressure to reduce the use of in feed antibiotics has left a requirement for alternative solutions. In periods of extreme intestinal stress a
combination of direct fed microbials (DFM) and antibiotics might prove
desirable. A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of a DFM comprising Bacillus subtilis and B. licheniformis with and without Flavomycin on
broiler performance under conditions of intestinal stress.
A total of 2,475 chicks were allocated to 5 treatment groups, 35 chicks per
pen (7 replicates/treatment). All birds were fed a basal corn-soy based diet.
Treatments were: 1) Non-infected Control (nCON); 2) Infected control
(iCON; 3) B. subtilis and B. licheniformis (BSBL); 4) Flavomycin (FLV);
5) BSBL and FLV. FLV was administered at 2 ppm and BL at 1.6 x 106
CFU/g feed. At 7 days, old litter was introduced into each pen. At 31 days
birds in treatments 2-5 were orally administered 1ml Clostridium perfringens (109 CFU/ml). Performance was recorded at 42 days and NE lesion
score determined at day 35. Data were analyzed by ANOVA.
At 42 days BSBL and BSBL+FLV had significantly heavier bodyweights
(2.131 and 2.128 kg, respectively) than the other treatments. FCR did not
differ significantly between treatments in any feeding periods. On Day 35
FCR in BSBL+FLV was numerically lowest (1.75), while on Day 42 FCR
Key Words: Bacillus, Flavomycin, Probiotic, Poultry, Performance
Two feeding trials were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a direct fed
microbial (DFM) comprising B. licheniformis and B. subtilis in a ratio of
1:1 (1.28E+6 cfu/g ) in female turkey diets.
Trial A consisted of 18 pens of 35 1-day-old Big 6 turkeys from day old
until 56 days of age. The treatments were replicated in 6 blocks of 3 pens
each. The treatment groups were AT1: Untreated control, AT2: Day 1-28
DFM, AT3: Day 1-56 DFM. Liveweight, feed conversion ratio and mortality were measured at day 1, 28 and 56. Data were analyzed by ANOVA
and Scheffé test (P≤0.05). Trial B consisted of 20 pens of 15 1-day-old
Hybrid Converter female turkeys. The treatments were replicated in 10
blocks of 2 pens each. The treatment groups were BT1: Untreated control,
BT2: Day 1-84 Liveweight, feed conversion ratio and Productive Efficiency Index (PEI) were measured at day 1 and 84. Data were analyzed by
ANOVA and GLM test (P≤0.05).
Both trials showed significant improvement of production parameters in
birds fed diets containing DFM. In trial A at day 28 turkeys fed diets containing DFM had a significant higher body weight of 5.2% and 3.4% for
AT2 and AT3 (1005.38 and 988.00 g respectively) compared to the control
(955.81 g). At 56 days weight gain was numerically improved by 2.7%
and 2.8% for AT2 and AT3 (4409.19 and 4416.00 g respectively) compared to the control group (4295.24 g). Furthermore a numerical improvement in the FCR between AT1 and AT3 of 4.5 points (1.901 and 1.856
respectively) was seen. There were no dead birds in any of the treatment
groups during the course of the study. In trial B the final weight of turkeys fed the DFM was significantly improved by 4% compared to control
group (7659 and 7363 g respectively). FCR did not differ significantly but
a 4 point improvement in the DFM group compared to the control (1.90
and 1.94 respectively) was seen. The PEI was significantly improved in
the DFM group compared to the control, 453 and 481 respectively, a 6%
increase. In conclusion the probiotic feed additive shows a significant
effect on production performance in female turkeys in two independent
studies performed under commercial like conditions.
Key Words: Bacillus, Poultry, DFM, Turkey, Performance
Metabolism & Nutrition IV
M123Evaluation of a thermotolerant xylanase on broiler growth
performance and ileal digestible energy Cody Flores*GS1, Rocky Latham1,
Patrick Biggs2, Jason Lee1 1Texas A&M University, College Station, TX,
USA; 2BioResource International, Inc., Durham, NC, USA
This study evaluated the effect of a thermotolerant xylanase (XYL) on
male broiler growth performance and ileal digestible energy (IDE). A randomized complete block design study included four treatments with 10
replicates of 44 male broilers per replicate for a total of 1760 broilers for
a 41-d assay period. The dietary treatments consisted of a positive control
(PC) based on corn/soy that contained DDGs, negative control (NC) diet
(-150 kcal/kg ME), NC+10,000 XU/kg XYL (XYL10), and NC+20,000
XU/kg XYL (XYL20). All diets contained a phytase and were pelleted at
80C. The dietary program consisted of 3 phases: starter (1-14 d), grower
(15-27 d) and finisher (28-41 d). Growth performance was determined at
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
14, 27 and 41 d. Ileal contents were collected from 5, 4 and 3 birds at 14,
27 and 41 d, respectively, and pooled on a per pen basis. All data were
subjected to one-way ANOVA using GLM (SPSS) with means deemed
significantly different at P<0.05. The 150 kcal/kg reduction in energy resulted in a decreased (P<0.05) body weight (BW) at 14 and 27 d between
the PC and NC diets. Supplementing XYL20 improved BW at 14 and 27
d making it similar to the PC while greater than (P<0.05) the NC. Birds fed
XYL10 had a BW that was greater than (P<0.05) the NC and similar to the
PC at 27 d. At 41 d, BW gain (BWG) of birds fed XYL20 (2.871 kg) was
significantly higher than the NC (2.797 kg) yet similar to the PC (2.856
kg), whereas the BWG of birds fed XYL10 (2.856 kg) were similar to both
the PC and NC. The 41-d weight-adjusted FCR was different (P<0.05) for
the PC (1.67) and NC (1.72) while the two XYL treatments were intermediate (both at 1.68). The reduction in metabolizable energy between the
PC and NC was evident in the IDE between those two treatment at 14, 27
and 41 d with the NC showing an IDE that was 244, 166, and 256 kcal/
kg lower than the PC (P<0.05). When XYL10 was supplemented to the
NC, the IDE at 14 and 41 d was increased (P<0.05) 121 and 84 kcal/kg,
respectively, while being similar to the PC. Birds fed XYL20 showed a
similar response with an increase (P<0.05) in IDE of 138 and 166 kcal/kg
over the NC that was also similar to the PC. Xylanase inclusion increased
IDE which correlated to improvements in growth performance in male
broilers fed a reduced energy diet.
Key Words: Xylanase, Broiler, Performance, Digestible Energy
M124Evaluation of NSPase inclusion in diets manufactured with
high and low quality corn on male broilers Hunter Walters*UG1, Jake
Pienziazek1, Blyn Brown2, Roy Brister3, Shivaram Rao4, Jason Lee1 1Texas
A&M University, College Station, TX, USA; 2JBS United, Sheridan, IN,
USA; 3Tyson Foods, Springdale, AR, USA; 4Foster Farms, Livingston, CA,
USA
The objective of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of NSPase
inclusion in diets manufactured with high and low quality corn on male
broilers. Low quality corn was achieved with the inclusion of 20% corn
screenings and formulations were made on an isonitrogenous and isocaloric basis. A total of 1,920 male broilers were assigned to 6 diets in a 2 X 3
factorial arrangement consisting of 16 replicates of 20 broilers: diet type
(with corn screenings or without corn screenings) and enzyme inclusion.
The enzyme inclusion factor included a positive control (PC), negative
control (NC) (PC -110 kcal/kg in AME), and NC + NSPase supplementation. All diets were corn and soybean meal based and included LO-DDGS
and meat and bone meal. Birds were fed a starter (d1-14), grower (d 1427), and finisher (d 27-42) and all diets were pelleted at 70 C with a 25
second conditioning time. Average body weight (BW), mortality adjusted
feed conversion ratio (FCR) and feed consumption (FC) were determined
on days 14, 27, and 42 which coincided with dietary changes. Inclusion
of corn screenings decreased (p<0.05) starter diet FC and thus negatively
impacted (p<0.05) d 14 BW. Reduction of AME increased (p<0.05) starter
diet FCR. A significant interaction (p<0.05) was observed on d 27 related
to BW and FC between diet type and enzyme inclusion as benefits associated with NSPase inclusion were more pronounced in diets containing corn screenings. Addition of corn screenings increased grower and
cumulative FCR (d 1-27) as compared to diets that did not include corn
screenings. Similar to the starter diet, reduction of dietary AME increased
(p<0.05) grower and cumulative (d1-27) FCR in the NC fed broilers as
compared to the PC broilers. Inclusion of NSPase in the NC diet improved
(p<0.05) FCR during the grower phase and through 27 d of age. During
the finisher phase of production, broilers fed diets containing corn screenings exhibited a lower (p<0.05) FCR as compared to broiler fed diets without corn screenings. The reduction in dietary AME increased (p<0.05) observed FCR (d1-42), however, inclusion of NSPase in the NC diet reduced
(p<0.05) FCR to a level comparable to the PC. In conclusion, the use of
corn screenings did not impact final growth performance and the inclusion
of NSPase reduced FCR when fed in reduced energy diets.
37
Key Words: corn screenings, NSPase, broiler, performance, energy
M125Evaluation of an enzyme composite on growth performance and
ileal digestible energy Austin Jasek*UG1, Kolton Page1, Rocky Latham1,
Nelson Ward2, Jason Lee1 1Texas A&M University, College Station, TX,
USA; 2DSM Nutritional Products, Parsippany, NJ, USA
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an enzyme
combination on growth performance and energy digestibility in Ross 708
male broilers. The enzyme was a product comprised of NSP enzymes for
cereal and leguminous protein sources, as well as debranching enzymes
for NSPs and protease. The 17 d experiment was conducted in battery
pens and consisted of three dietary treatments including a positive control
(PC) diet, a negative control (NC) diet (PC less 77 kcal/kg AME, 0.10%
aP, 0.12% Ca, 0.03% dLys, 0.03% dThr, and 0.01% dTSAA), and 3) NC
+ enzyme composite consisting of (phytase and Victus®). Each treatment consisted of 12 replicates containing 15 birds per replicate (540 total
broilers). The dietary program consisted of one dietary phase of crumble
starter feed pelleted at 75 C. The diet was composed of corn, soybean
meal, DDGS (3%), wheat midds (3%), and an animal vegetable blend fat
source. Body weights and feed consumption were collected on d10 and
17. On d 17, ileal contents were collected from all broilers and pooled
within replicate. The PC treatment maintained higher (P<0.05) body
weight as compared with the NC diet throughout the study indicating that
the reductions in energy, aP, and amino acid concentration were sufficient
to reduce body weight. The PC and NC diets produced similar mortality
corrected feed conversion ratios; however, the NC fed broilers consumed
less feed (P<0.05). The inclusion of the enzyme composite into the NC
diet increased (P<0.05) body weight throughout the study as compared
with the PC and NC fed broilers. Inclusion of the enzyme composite also
resulted in lower (P<0.05) observed FCR throughout the study. Ileal digestible energy was reduced (P<0.05) in the NC diet as compared with the
PC fed broilers when evaluated on d 17. Inclusion of the Victus® enzyme
increased (P<0.05) ileal digestible energy to levels similar to the PC diet.
These data confirm the efficacy of Victus® enzyme to overcome significant decreases in AME, aP and digestible amino acids imposed in the NC
diet, while outperforming the PC-fed birds in body weight gains and FCR,
over the 17-d period.
Key Words: Broiler, Energy, Enzyme Composite, Performance,
Digestibility
M126Evaluation of multiple levels of phytase and non phytase
enzyme inclusion on broiler growth performance Tucker Allcorn*GS1,
Mallori Williams1, Rocky Latham1, Milan Hruby2, Jason Lee1 1Texas A&M
University, College Station, TX, USA; 2Danisco Animal Nutrition, DuPont
Industrial Biosciences, St. Louis, MO, USA
An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of two levels of phytase (analyzed average 700 and 1400 FTU/kg) and three levels of multienzyme product inclusion (low/medium/high) in low energy corn-soybean
meal diets containing DDGS on broiler growth performance. The experimental design consisted of seven treatments including a reference control
diet, and the remaining six treatments composing a two by three factorial
of the varying levels of enzymes included in a reduced energy (-88 kcal/
kg) diet. Each treatment included 10 replicates with 37 male chicks per
treatment group (2590 total placement). Dietary program consisted of a
three phase program, starter (5% DDGS), grower (10% DDGS), and finisher (15% DDGS). Broilers were weighed and feed consumption determined on days 15, 28, and 42. At the conclusion of the trial average body
weight of each treatment was similar to the reference diet. One way analysis indicated that the individual treatment of high phytase x low multienzyme and high phytase x medium multienzyme, both reduced (p<0.05)
cumulative FCR similar compared to the reference diet. Factorial analysis
confirmed that 1400 FTU/kg of phytase reduced (p<0.05) starter FCR.
Phytase inclusion at 700 FTU/kg reduced (p<0.05) finisher phase mortality. Low multienzyme inclusion fed broilers consumed elevated levels of
38
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
feed as compared to broiler fed the medium level of multienzyme. These
data confirm that the use of combination inclusion of phytase and multinezyme can compensate for reductions in dietary available phosphorus and
metabolizable energy.
Key Words: broiler, performance, multienzyme, phytase, DDGS
M127Energetic efficiency and body composition of broilers fed diets
with exogenous enzymes during starter, grower and finisher Justina
Caldas*GS, Nirun Boonsinchai, Ethan Holt, Andrew Magnuson, Jinrong
Wang, Judith England, Craig Coon University of Arkansas, Fayetteville,
AR, USA
Diet composition and enzyme inclusion significantly influences body
composition in broilers (Caldas et al., 2014) from which a lean carcass
is the main trait desired by the consumer The aim of the study was to
determine the effect of adding exogenous enzymes on body composition
and heat production (HP, kcal) through the use of DEXA (dual energy
X-ray absorptiometry) and indirect calorimetry, respectively. Two diets
were studied: T1 Negative control (NC); and T2 NC + Enzyme composite
(phytase + xylanase + glucanase + protease + pectinase); protease and
pectinase were removed from the finisher. 2000 Cobb male chicks were
fed the respective dietary treatments during 5-13 d starter; 14-28d grower
and 32- 49d finisher period. Birds were moved to the respiratory chambers
3 d before evaluation for adaptation. The evaluations were accomplished 2
times in starter, 3 times in the grower and 2 times in the finisher. The statistical analysis was achieved using JMP pro 11 (SAS, 2013). A CRD was
used with 6, 9 and 6 replications in the starter, grower and finisher respectively. In the starter period the diet with enzyme composite increased body
protein (150.2 vs 152.2 g/Kg) (p=0.0127)* and decreased body fat (93.6
vs 79.2 g/Kg) (p= 0.002)*. It also showed more HP (153.31 vs 164.36
Kcal/Kg0.7) (p=0.038*) because of the higher body protein composition
as expected. In the Grower the body composition showed a transition
(previously showed by our group in Caldas et al., 2014), the 2 first parts
(during d15-d22) the enzyme treatment had higher body protein content
(p=0.11) and less body fat (p=0.19) and in the last period of the grower
(d25-d28) the body composition switched to less protein (168 vs 163.6 g/
Kg) (p=0.06) and more fat (72.6 vs 85.1 g/Kg) (p=0.08); it also showed
less Heat Kcal/Kg 0.7 because of the fat gain (p=0.0482)* as expected. During the finisher the enzyme treatment produced higher body protein (176.6
vs 180.4 g/Kg DM) (p=0.0267)* and decreased body fat (103.43 vs 95.2
g/Kg DM) (p= 0.0091)*. Also the HP Kcal/Kg0.7 was higher because of
the higher protein deposition (p=0.08); however HP (kcal/ kg feed intake)
was lower (2438 vs 2180) (p=0.0154)* because of the higher feed intake
with the enzyme composite treatment (129 vs 159 g/d) (p = 0.0298)* with
improved FCR (p = 0.0348)* during the finisher period. The metabolic
chamber and body DEXA data shows that body composition in broilers
can be affected with the addition of exogenous enzymes. This study suggests the enzymes may be releasing more amino acids to allow higher
body protein deposition at the same body weight and also improving the
efficiency on energy utilization in the finisher period because of the lower
heat production per kg of feed intake
Key Words: Enzyme composite, Indirect calorimetry, body composition
M128Evaluation of xylanase enzyme efficacy in broiler diets. Marissa
Kost*GS, A. C. Fahrenholz, J. Brake Prestage Department of Poultry
Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA
The effects of xylanase supplementation on feed intake, BW, and feed
conversion ratio (FCR) of male broilers reared to 43 d of age were evaluated. A total of 2,304 Ross 344 × Ross 708 male broilers were provided 9
wheat-DDGS-corn-SBM based dietary treatments with 8 replicates each.
The diets included a positive control (PC) reference diet, a negative control
(NC) basal diet with a lower energy density, and 7 xylanase supplemented
diets ranging in dose from 125 to 2000 IU added to the negative control
(NC+Xyl 1-7). The NC and NC+Xyl 1-7 starter diets contained 1.5% total added fat [1% mixer + 0.5% Post Pellet Liquid Application (PPLA)],
whereas the grower and finisher diets contained 1% total fat added in the
mixer only. The PC starter diet contained 4.05% total added fat (1% mixer + 3.05% PPLA) and the grower and finisher diets contained 3% total
added fat (1% mixer + 2% PPLA). All data were calculated and analyzed
using PROC GLM to determine least squares means. Modified PDI values
were determined for all treatments and all grower and finisher diets, with
the exclusion of the crumbled starter diets. Modified PDI values for the
PC, NC, and NC+Xyl 1-7 grower diets were 70.9, 69.0, 68.2, 67.5, 65.5,
70.1, 73.8, 72.8, and 71.0, and the finisher diets were 72.6, 75.0, 69.9,
52.2, 69.0, 70.3, 75.3, 72.7, and 72.4, respectively. Birds that received the
NC diet exhibited numerically poorer cumulative FCR (8 points; P < 0.10)
compared with those fed the PC diet, confirming the lower energy density
of the NC diet. Further, the PC diet exhibited a significant improvement in
FCR (P< 0.01) compared to the NC and all NC+Xyl 1-7 diets from both
14 to 35 d and 0 to 35 d of age. The mean ileal digestibility for the PC,
NC, and NC+Xyl 1-7 diets calculated on a dry matter basis was 46.2, 50.9,
52.9, 53.6, 58.2, 56.4, 54.2, 50.5, and 46.0, respectively, and described
a quadratic response (P<0.01). This may have been due to net negative
energy values caused by the release of excess pentose molecules at the
greater dosages in comparison to hexose molecules, which compete for
absorption in this particular formulation. However, improvements in digestibility did not correspond with improved FCR as compared to the PC
diet. The overall FCR for the PC, NC, and NC+Xyl 1-7 were 1.64, 1.72,
1.69, 1.71, 1.69, 1.69, 1.68, 1.72, and 1.70, respectively. Evidently, energy
derived from carbohydrates released from enzyme activity did not equate
to the differences in dietary fat content. There were no significant differences in mortality. There were no significant differences in carcass traits.
Key Words: broilers, xylanase, low energy diets, ileal digestibility, PPLA
M129Effect of adding phytase to broiler diets containing low phytatelow stachyose and normal phytate soybean meal on live performance,
total phosphorus digestibility, and bone ash Basheer Nusairat*GS1,
John Brake1, Adam Fahrenholz1, Saghai Marouf2 1North Carolina State
University, Raleigh, NC, USA; 2Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg,
VA, USA
This study evaluated the effects of phytase in diets containing normal phytate (NP) versus low phytate-low stachyose (LP-LS) soybean meal (SBM)
on BW, feed intake, FCR, total phosphorus (P) digestibility, and bone ash
of broilers grown from 22-35 d. A total of 216 Ross 708 female broiler
chicks were assigned to 36 cages in 2 batteries with 6 birds per cage. From
1-21 d, a common corn-SBM starter diet was fed. From 22-35 d, a 2x3 factorial arrangement of SBM type (LP-LS and NP SBM) and phytase additions were used with 6 cages per diet. Phytase treatments were no phytase
(CON), matrix phytase in which phytase was given a matrix value (MX),
and on-top (OT) phytase in which phytase was not given a matrix value.
Birds and feed were weighed at 1, 21, 28, and 35 d, and all birds were necropsied at 35 d to determine gizzard and proventriculus weights, ileal total
P digestibility, and percentage bone ash. Data from 22-35 d were analyzed
as a randomized complete block design. The BW gain was greater (P ≤
0.05) in birds that consumed LP-LS SBM from 22-35 d (763 versus 733
g), which was reflected in an improved (P ≤ 0.05) FCR for the same period
(1.93 versus 2.00 g:g). Feeding LP-LS SBM also produced a smaller (P
≤ 0.0001) gizzard (18.7 versus 20.3 g) compared to NP SBM, which may
have reflected reduced digestive demand. Total P digestibility (58.4 versus
68.5%) and bone ash were both reduced (P ≤ 0.0001) when birds were fed
LP-LS SBM, which reflected the altered dietary P in the LP-LS diet. Adding phytase either as MX or OT improved (P ≤ 0.0001) total P digestibility
compared to the CON diet (65.6 and 68.6 versus 56.3%, respectively).
Key Words: Broilers, low phytate SBM, low stachyose SBM, phytase
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
M130Effect of a heat-stable xylanase, alone and in combination, with
a commercial phytase on broiler performance from day-of-hatch until
42 days of age Ilana Barasch*GS1, Jesse Grimes1, Jim Garlich1, Patrick
Biggs2 1North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA; 2BioResource
International, Inc., Durham, NC, USA
Higher prices and decreased availability of corn have increased an interest
in replacing corn with alternatives such as wheat or DDGS. This has also
increased the interest and use of exogenous carbohydrases in poultry feed
to improve nutrient digestibility from these alternative sources. A study
was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of an exogenous, heat-stable xylanase (XylamaxTM, BioResource International, Inc.) in broiler chicken diets
when supplemented in combination with a commercial phytase (Axtra®
PHY TPT, DuPont). Eight wheat-based diets (60%) containing DDGS
(10%) were fed to Ross 708 male broiler chicks from hatch until 42 d.
The treatments were arranged in a 2x2x2 factorial of energy level (breeder
recommended energy level or 200 kcal ME reduction), xylanase inclusion (0 or 20,000 XU/kg of feed), and phytase inclusion (0 or 500 FTU/
kg feed). In diets containing phytase, available phosphorus and Ca were
reduced 0.1%. Birds were housed in 96 litter-floor pens with each treatment replicated 12 times with 16 birds per pen in a curtain-sided house.
Bird and feeder weights were collected at 14, 28, and 42d to obtain BW
gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Data were
analyzed using JMP 10 with treatment means separated by LSMeans;
treatment effects were considered significant at P<0.05. Higher (P<0.005)
BWG (0-42d) was observed with the addition of xylanase (3233 vs. 3195
g) and phytase (3268 vs. 3161g) when added individually compared to
diets containing no enzymes. When xylanase and phytase were added in
combination, BWG was higher than birds fed no enzymes or xylanase
alone but were not different than the treatments receiving only phytase.
FCR was improved (P<0.0001) with the inclusion of xylanase (1.76 vs.
1.81) and phytase (1.75 vs. 1.81) alone compared to the control. When
birds were fed a diet containing xylanase and phytase, regardless of energy
content, FCR was improved (P<0.001) to 1.73 versus birds receiving no
enzymes (1.84). This exogenous xylanase improved broiler performance
from hatch until 42d when included in a wheat-based diet alone and additional improvements were observed when added in combination with a
commercial phytase.
Key Words: xylanase, enzyme, heat-stable, phytase, broilers
M131Effects of intermittent wheat inclusion on broiler performance,
gastrointestinal tract health, and footpad dermatitis during a 46 d
production period Klint McCafferty*UG1, Craig Wyatt2, Kenneth Macklin1,
William Dozier, III1 1Auburn University, Auburn, AL, USA; 2AB Vista Feed
Ingredient, Chesterfield, MO, USA
Wheat may be used as a substitute for a proportion of corn in broiler diets
when economically viable. Anecdotal evidence has suggested that switching wheat for a proportion of corn in a corn-soybean meal (CSBM) based
diet within a single production period may negatively impact performance
objectives. Compared with corn, wheat contains higher concentrations of
soluble non-starch polysaccharides, which may increase digesta viscosity
leading to the development of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and footpad lesions. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the effects of
intermittent wheat inclusion on growth performance of male broilers, as
well as on the incidence of GIT and pododermatitis (PD) lesions, during
a 46 d production period. Male broilers (1,980; Ross × Ross 708) were
placed into 60 floor pens (33 birds/pen) and were randomly assigned to 1
of the following 6 dietary treatments for the starter, grower, and finisher
phases, respectively: 1) CSBM, CSBM, and CSBM; 2) wheat-soybean
meal (WSBM), WSBM, and WSBM; 3) CSBM, CSBM + 20% wheat,
and CSBM + 30% wheat; 4) CSBM, CSBM, and CSBM + 30% wheat;
5) CSBM + 10%, + 20%, and + 30% wheat; or 6) WSBM, WSBM, and
WSBM + 30% corn. Broilers and feed were weighed at 13, 27, and 46 d
of age in order to determine BW gain, feed intake, and feed conversion
ratio. Additionally, broilers were scored for GIT lesions (5 birds/pen) at
39
each weighing period and PD (25 birds/pen) lesions at 46 d of age. No
overall treatment effects (P > 0.05) on performance were observed at 46 d
of age. Additionally, orthogonal contrasts indicated that broilers receiving
treatment 1 had similar (P > 0.05) BW gain and feed intake than those receiving treatment 2. Wheat-based diets had a higher (P < 0.05) incidence
of GIT lesions at 27 d of age, but treatment type did not affect (P > 0.05)
PD or GIT lesions at 46 d of age. These results indicated that wheat may
be substituted for corn in broiler diets with limited negative effects on
performance, gut health, and incidences of PD.
Key Words: wheat, corn, pododermatitis, broiler
M132Effects of calcium concentration on true ileal phosphorus
digestibility and true phosphorus retention determined using the
regression technique in growing broilers Kurt Perryman*GS1, Helen
Masey O’Neill2, Mike Bedford2, William Dozier, III1 1Auburn University,
Auburn, AL, USA; 2AB Vista Feed Ingredients, Marlborough, United
Kingdom
A standard assay for the determination of P availability of feedstuffs has
not been established. Proposed protocols indicate P availability values
should be derived using regression, which negates the need to correct for
endogenous P losses. However, very limited research has been published
on the determination of true ileal P digestibility (TIPD) and true P retention (TPR) of corn. Furthermore, dietary Ca concentrations are critical
when determining P availability, and the role of Ca concentration on P
availability has not been assessed using these assays. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary Ca concentration on TPR and TIPD of corn. Experimental diets were isocaloric and
isonitrogenous and formulated to contain either 0, 25, 50, or 75% corn
with dietary Ca concentrations of 0.95%, 0.13%, or variable Ca concentrations to ensure a 2:1 Ca:P ratio. A practical, corn-soybean meal diet (1.4:1
Ca:P ratio) was fed as a control. After receiving a common starter diet,
experimental diets were fed from 19 to 26 d of age. After 48 h of dietary
adaptation, a total of 960 Ross × Ross 708 male broilers were used in a
48 h balance assay. Ileal digesta was then collected from 8 birds per pen
at 25 and 26 d of age. Broilers consuming the control diet had higher (P <
0.001) BW gain, feed intake, digesta P, and excreta P and Ca than broilers
consuming the corn titration diets. Digesta and excreta P increased linearly
(P < 0.05), while no linear or quadratic effects (P > 0.05) were observed
for ileal P digestibility or P retention with increasing dietary corn for all 3
dietary Ca concentrations. True ileal P digestibility and TPR were highest
(P < 0.05) for diets with 0.13% Ca (57.3 and 69.5%, respectively) compared with diets formulated with 2:1 Ca:P (41.2 and 37.8%, respectively)
or 0.95% Ca (25.4 and 39.0%, respectively). These data demonstrated that
the regression method may be applicable to estimate true P availability of
corn, and that P availability was significantly influenced by Ca concentration of the diet.
Key Words: phosphorus, digestibility, calcium, broiler
40
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
Metabolism & Nutrition V
T133 Effect of ß-mannanase (Hemicell-HT) feed enzyme on postmolted layer performance in 11 white egg strains Mark Jackson*1, Ken
Anderson2 1Elanco Animal Health, Fayetteville, AR, USA; 2North Carolina
State University, Raleigh, NC, USA
The efficacy of ß-mannanase has been tested in a number of layer trials.
Improvements in egg production, feed efficiency, and early egg size have
been observed. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of
ß-mannanase in conjunction with the 38th North Carolina Layer Performance and Management Test using 11 white egg strains. Two cage density
combinations of 73 in2 (471 cm2) and 77 in2 (497 cm2) were used. The
Hemicell® and control diets were randomly allocated in a restricted manner so that each strain and density were approximately equally represented
within the dietary treatment groups. A total of 5564 layers were molted
at 69 wks of age. The post-molt hens were tested for 6, 4-week periods
starting when the birds were 73 weeks of age. A completely randomized
design was used with 6 periods, 11 strains, 2 diets (control and 0.4 lb/ton
Hemicell-HT added on top), and 9 replications. Corn-soybean meal diets
were provided over the course of the study. Across all strains, Hemicell
significantly increased hen-day egg production and egg weight during the
first 4-week period only (P<0.05). Across all periods and strains, Hemicell significantly (P<0.05) improved feed conversion (g feed/g egg) from
2.15 to 2.10 (a difference of 2.4%) and percentage grade A eggs from
94.33 to 95.21 (a difference of 0.88%). Egg income and feed costs were
determined from feed consumption, enzyme cost, eggs produced, and the
percentage of each egg grade using market prices at the conclusion of this
study. Hemicell significantly increased egg income minus feed cost from
3.62 to 3.89 cents/bird housed (P<0.05). The experiment demonstrates
that Hemicell can significantly improve live performance of post-molted
layers as measured by feed conversion and percentage grade A eggs and
can significantly increase net egg income (total egg income minus feed
cost).
Key Words: Layers, B-mannanase, Feed efficiency, Grade A eggs,
Economics
T134Canthaxanthin improves the productivity of the layer hen: A
meta-analysis approach Murtala Umar Faruk*1, Franz Roos2, Fernando
Cisneros2 1DSM Nutritional Products, France, Village-Neuf, France;
2
DSM Nutritional Products Ltd, Kaiseraugst, Switzerland
The major use of carotenoids in layer hen diet has been to enhance yolk
colour as this greatly influences consumer purchasing behaviour. In addition, other functionalities such as antioxidant effect, enhanced reproduction and immune-modulation are attributed to carotenoids. In the present
work, a meta-analysis approach was employed to evaluate the effect of the
carotenoid canthaxanthin on egg production performance in layer hen. A
data base was assembled with individual performance measurements of
633 cages in 41 trials, all of which were conducted according to a similar
experimental protocol from 1997 to 2012. The age of the animals involved
in the studies ranges from 21 to 65 weeks with a mean age of 44 weeks. A
linear mixed model meta-analysis was performed on the cage-level data
with the canthaxanthin dose defined as fixed effect and the trial as random
effect.
It was observed that the dietary canthaxanthin supplementation of layer
hen diet improved production parameters. Each unit of inclusion of canthaxanthin (ppm) increased feed intake by 0.32%, egg production by
0.28%, egg weight by 0.17% and reduced FCR by 0.24% compared to
control diet without canthaxanthin. Egg mass was significantly (P<0,05)
improved by 0.47%.
These results reveal that in addition to yolk coloration, antioxidant effect,
enhanced reproduction and immune-modulation, canthaxanthin can sig-
nificantly increase egg mass, thereby enhancing the productivity of egg
farms.​​​
Key Words: Carotenoids, Canthaxanthin, Egg mass, Laying hens
T135 The protective effects of lycopene on the spontaneous ovarian
cancer through inhibiting the pathway of NF-kB pathway in laying
hen model Kazim Sahin*1, Engin Yenice2, Mehmet Tuzcu1, Cemal Orhan1,
Cengizhan Mizrak2, Ibrahim Hanifi Ozercan1, Nurhan Sahin1, Bahaddin
Yilmaz3, Omer Kucuk4 1Firat University, Elazig, Turkey; 2Poultry Research
Institute, Ankara, Turkey, Ankara, Turkey; 3fWinship Cancer Institute of
Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, Atlanta, GA, USA; 4Winship
Cancer Institute of Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
Ovarian cancer represents the most lethal gynecological cancer, and the
high mortality rate makes this malignancy a major health concern. Poor
prognosis results from an inability to detect ovarian cancers at an early,
curable stage, as well as from the lack of an effective therapy. Lycopene,
one of the major carotenoids present in tomatoes, has been shown to exert antioxidant properties and to inhibit cancer cell proliferation. Laying
hen, Gallus domesticus, is the only available animal that develops ovarian
cancer spontaneously; however, detail information on the prevention of
lycopene in ovarian cancer is not available. We conducted a study to determine the role of lycopene-rich diet in the development of ovarian cancer
in the laying hen model. Three groups of hens (104 weeks old) were fed
for 12 months diets including 0 mg/kg (Group A), 200 mg/kg (Group B)
and 400 mg/kg (Group C) lycopene. We found significantly decreased tumor incidence and size in the hens fed a lycopene enriched diet compared
to control animals. We also found significantly increased levels of serum
lycopene in the lycopene fed animals as well as significantly decreased
malondialdehyde levels. NF-kB expression was significantly decreased
and Nrf-2 and HO-1 were significantly increased in the ovarian tissues
of lycopene fed animals. We conclude that lycopene could have a role in
the prevention of ovarian cancer and that preventive effects may be mediated by anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of lycopene. Laying
hen model is a very good model to investigate the efficacy of potential
chemopreventive agents against spontaneous ovarian cancer. This model
could be useful in future studies investigating other nutritional and botanical agents.
Key Words: lycopene, ovarian cancer, NF-κB, Nrf2, laying hen
T136Curcumin prevents the development of spontaneous ovarian
tumors through the Keap1-Nrf2/ARE signaling in laying hen model
Kazim Sahin*1, Mehmet Tuzcu1, Cemal Orhan1, Nurhan Sahin1, Hakki
Tastan2, Osman Guler3, Ibrahim H Ozercan1, Omer Kucuk4 1Firat
University, Elazig, Turkey; 2Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey; 3Veterinary
Control Institute, Elazig, Turkey; 4Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
Early reports about ovarian tumor incidence in the White leghorn chicken
showed that laying hens are subject to the spontaneous development of
ovarian and oviductal adenocarcinomas, which are related to the extended
maintenance of egg production in laying flocks. Clear advantages of the
hen model compared with a typical animal model include spontaneous
tumor formation without the need for an exogenous carcinogen. Curcumin, a natural polyphenol in the spice turmeric, exhibits antioxidant
and antiinflammatory properties. We investigated the effects of curcumin
supplementation on the development of ovarian tumors, oxidative stress
markers, Nrf2-Keap1 pathway in laying hen model. Two hundred seventy
laying hens (104 weeks old) were assigned to 3 treatment groups. Birds
were fed either a basal diet (Control) or the basal diet supplemented with
200 mg or 400 mg of curcumin per kilogram of diet. The animals were
sacrificed after 12 months and the tumors were identified. Curcumin supplementation decreased the tumor incidence and size of tumors compared
with control animals. The tumors in curcumin-fed birds were smaller than
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
those found in control birds. NF-kB protein expression was significantly
decreased and IκBα and Nrf-2 were significantly increased in the ovarian
tissues of curcumin fed animals. The results indicate that curcumin supplementation with reduces the incidence and size of spontaneously occurring spontaneous ovarian cancer in the laying hens. Clinical trials should
be conducted to investigate the efficacy of curcumin supplementation in
the prevention and treatment of ovarian cancer in humans.
Authors thank The Scıentıfıc and Technologıcal Research Councıl of
Turkey for supporting this study (TUBİTAK-113O622).
Key Words: Curcumin, Ovarian cancer, laying hen
T137 Effects of dietary nonphytate phosphate and phytase treatment
on first-cycle laying hen performance and bone ash Michael E. Persia*1,
Melanie Roux2, Greg Engelke3, Neva Nachtrieb1 1Iowa State University,
Ames, IA, USA; 2Enzyvia, LLC, Sheridan, IN, USA; 3Cornerstone Resources
LLC, New Brighton, MN, USA
A 40-wk experiment was performed using Hy-Line W-36 laying hens to
exam the effects of dietary nonphytate phosphorus (nPP) and phytase on
laying hen performance and bone ash. In total, 432 24-wk old hens were
divided into 12 experimental units (EU) of 6 hens (68 sq in/h) for each
of the 6 treatments. Treatments included a positive control (PC) diet that
contained 0.45%nPP, a negative control (NC) diet that was similar to the
PC with the exception of a 0.31% reduction in nPP (0.14% nPP total) and
the same NC diet with either an additional 0.10%nPP (0.24% nPP total or
100, 120 or 250 FTU of bacterial phytase/kg diet (OptiPhos®). Feed intake was provided ad libitum for the first 8 wk before feed intake was limited to encourage equal intake across diets at intakes similar to expected
industry. Hen-housed egg production (HHEP) was determined over the 40
wk period. At wk 40, hens were euthanized for fat-free tibia ash percentage determination (2 hens/EU). Statistical analysis was carried out using
ANOVA and repeated measures analysis for criteria with multiple sample
collections. When significant differences were noted, Tukey’s Test was
used to separate means for repeated measures analysis and Fisher’s LSD
test was used for remaining comparisons. Reducing dietary nPP from 0.45
to 0.14% nPP resulted in a significant reduction in feed intake from 95.7
to 94.8 g/hen/d, respectively. The addition of either 0.10% nPP or phytase
returned intake to that of the PC fed birds (95.2-95.5 g/hen/d), with the
exception of the 120 phytase treatment that resulted in 94.9 g/hen/d feed
intake still somewhat below the PC fed birds (P = 0.07). Phosphorus or
phytase status of the diet had no significant effect on HHEP over the 40 wk
period as responses ranged from 89.5%-91.3%, again with the exception
of the 120 FTU fed hens that resulted in HHEP of 86.9 that was significantly lower than all other treatments. Hens fed the NC diet did result in a
significant reduction in fat-free tibia ash of 59.2% in comparison to the PC
fed birds (59.8%), the 100 and 250 FTU phytase treatments (61.1%). The
0.24% nPP fed birds (60.6%) and the 120 FTU/kg fed birds (60.1) were
intermediate. The response of the hens fed the 120 FTU/kg phytase is perplexing and unexplained by P deficiency as egg production was reduced
in comparison to the NC fed hens. Overall, these responses indicate that
hens fed diets with 0.14% nPP were deficient in phosphorus (reduced feed
intake and bone ash, but not egg production) and that 0.10% supplemental
nPP, 100 or 250 FTU of bacterial phytase were adequate to maintain egg
production and bone ash to those of the PC (0.45% nPP) fed hens.
Key Words: Laying Hen, Phosphorus, Phytase, Performance, Bone ash
T138 The effect of adding magnesium oxide to pullet and layer diets
on body weight, bone characteristics, egg production and manure
moisture E. Ernest M. Pierson*1, Michael Lilburn2, Darrin Karcher3, Dan
Nason4 1The Pierson Consulting Group, University City, MO, USA; 2The
Ohio State University, Wooster, OH, USA; 3Michigan State University, East
Lansing, MI, USA; 4Premier Magnesia, LLC, Overland Park, KS, USA
The trial objective was to evaluate the effect of supplementing pullet
and layer diets with 0.1% magnesium oxide-MgO (MAGOX® Magne-
41
sium Oxide, Premier Magnesia, LLC). Day-old Hy-Line W-36 Pullets
(n=400) were placed (10/cage) into 40 conventional pullet rearing cages.
Birds were fed diets (Mg level ~ 0.15%) without phytase formulated to
Hy-Line® W-36 commercial pullet and layer diet specifications which
contained 0.0% (CON), or, 0.1% MgO (MgO) with 20 replicate cages/
treatment. Each bird was weighed at 6, 12, 18, and 21 weeks of age. Tibias
were collected from one bird of average pen body weight per replicate
cage at 6 and 12 weeks to measure length, and, proximal/middle/distal
(P/M/D) cortical width and density using Quantitative Computed Tomography (GE BrightSpeed Scanner). Hen day production, shell weight and
shell as per cent of egg weight were measured in the 4 initial 28-day periods of lay. Excreta was collected from 10 cages of each treatment to
determine moisture at in pullets and hens. MgO increased body weight approximately 2% at 18 weeks (MgO 1,216 g; CON 1,193 g; P < 0.039) and
21 weeks (MgO: 1,370 g: CON: 1,343 g; P = 0.077). At both ages, MgO in
pullet diets had no effect on tibia length and significantly increased P/M/D
cortical tibia density suggesting increased bone strength while P/M/D tibia
widths of CON pullets were greater than those of MgO pullets. MgO addition to hen diets increased (1.1%) egg weight during the final production
period (MgO 61.9; CON 61.2; P < 0.071); there were no significant differences between treatments for any of the other variables measured. The
addition of MgO to pullet diets increased cortical density and body weight
of older pullets and had no effect on litter moisture during either the pullet
or layer phases.
®
Key Words: Magnesium oxide, Pullets, Body weight, Bone strength,
Layers
T139 The effect of four different feeding programs from rearing period
to sexual maturity on protein turnover in parent stock broiler breeders
Karen Vignale*1, Justina V. Caldas1, Judith England1, Nirun Boonsinchai1,
Phiphob Sodsee2, Erik D Pollock3, Sami Dridi1, Craig N. Coon1 1University
of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA; 2CP, Bangkok, Thailand; 3University of
Arkansas Stable Isotope Lab, Fayetteville, AR, USA
A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of four different feeding
programs on muscular protein turnover in pullet parent stock (PS) broiler
breeders. The four feeding programs based on body weight curves utilized
for the study were as follows: Everyday feeding, skip a day feeding (Cobb
Standard body weight curve), under feeding (body weight curve 20 % under) and over feeding (body weight curve 20% over). Each pullet feeding
program (Treatment) consisted of 150 day old pullets and were from 4 wk
to 20 wk of age. Protein turnover was determined in PS pullets/breeders
at 6, 10, 12, 16, 21, 25, 31, 37, 46, and 66 wk of age. A complete randomized design was used with a 4x10 factorial arrangement (four feeding
programs, 10 ages), containing forty treatments with five replications, and
each pullet represented a replicate. Analysis of variance was performed
using JMP software. Five pullets/breeders at each age were given an intravenous flooding-dose of 15N-Phe (150 mM, 40% APE) with 10 ml/kg for
protein turnover determination. After 10 min, birds were slaughtered and
the breast muscle (pectotalis major) excised and frozen in liquid nitrogen
for protein turnover and gene expression analysis. Excreta was also collected and frozen. Protein synthesis and degradation was determined via
GCMS. Gene expression was measured using real-time quantitative PCR.
There was an age effect regarding fractional synthesis rate (FSR). The
FSR significantly increased from 6 week pullets to 10 and 12 week pullets
(3.62 %, 10.65 % and 10.93 %, respectively; P. value = 0.01) and then decreased at 16, 21, 25 and 31 weeks of age (6.81 %, 8.67%, 4.69%, 5.77%,
respectively), then increased significantly at week 46 and 66 (6.25 %/day
and 11.76 %/day, respectively; P. value = 0.002) . There was an age effect
regarding fractional breakdown rate (FBR). FBR was also significantly
higher for the pullets underfed when contrasted to the other treatments
at 10 and 12 weeks of age (P. value = 0.03). FBR significantly increased
from week 21 (5.70%) to week 25 (13.81 %, first egg) and 31(22.46%,
peak egg production) (P. value < 0.001), then it significantly decreased
at week 46 and 66 (5.44 %/day and 6.53%/day, respectively; P. value <
42
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
0.0001). The expression of the genes related to protein degradation (atrogin-1, murf-1) was significantly higher at peak egg production. There is a
large increase in FBR during the transition for the pullet to sexual maturity
with increases in FBR through peak egg production, which is related to
the decreased % lean mass body content during this period of time. Broiler
breeders may rely on skeletal muscle tissue as a source of nutrients for egg
production especially during the early laying period.
Key Words: Fractional breakdown rate, Fractional synthesis rate, Protein
turnover, 15N phenylalanine, GC-MS
T140Evaluation of feeding programs on broiler performance and
financial return Douglas Faria*1, Renata Trevisan2, Vanessa Nakagi2,
Paulo Bravo2, Daniel Faria Filho2 1Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia
de Alimentos (FZEA) - Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Pirassununga,
Brazil; 2FZEA/USP, Pirassununga, Brazil
One factor important in poultry production is feed costs, currently standing at about 70 percent. Changes in the prices of key input such as corn
and soybeans can be observed, therefore, it is necessary to define strategies that allow for better financial results. The purpose of this study was
to compare feeding programs and evaluate their effects on the broilers’
performance and economic indexes of male Cobb 500 Slow Feathering™
broilers. 1,200 birds were subjected to a completely randomized experimental design with 5 treatments and 8 replicates with 30 birds per experimental unit. The feeding programs consisted of: Cobb 500™ Manual
(2008); National Research Council - NRC (1994); Rostagno et al. (2005);
Rostagno et al. (2011) and Rostagno et al. (2011) modified. Feed intake,
body weight, weight gain, feed conversion, viability, energy consumption,
caloric conversion, productive efficiency index, and carcass characteristics were evaluated in the period from 1 to 46 days of age. The gross trade
margin was calculated based on Gameiro (2009) for economic analysis,
considering the ingredients prices from 2007 to 2011. The results were
evaluated based on a variance analysis, and the Tukey test (P<0.05) was
used to compare treatment means. Considering the main performance
characteristics, there were no statistical effects among the nutritional programs. NRC (1994) showed the worst breast yield (P<0.05) among the
treatments. It is concluded that the feeding program based on the Cobb
500™ Manual (2008) showed the best trade gross margin (0.821 US$/
kg), while NRC (1994) the worst (0.762 US$/kg). Therefore, the recommendations contained in the Cobb 500™ Manual (2008) should be used as
a means of achieving greater profitability in broiler production.
Key Words: carcass yield, economic analysis, nutritional requirements,
performance, poultry
T141Strain and feed form (FF) effects on D28-49 male broiler
performance and D43 and 50 processing characteristics Robert B.
Sellers*1, Paul B. Tillman2, Joseph S. Moritz3, Kelley G. S. Wamsley1
1
Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS, USA; 2Poultry Technical
Nutrition Services LLC, Buford, GA, USA; 3West Virginia University,
Morgantown, WV, USA
Previous research demonstrated that feeding diets of increasing FF (0, 30,
60, and 90% intact pellets) improved D21-42 broiler performance and
processing. The most benefit was established when birds were fed 90%
pellets; however, it may not be feasible for commercial mills to attain this
quality. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to determine the
effects of small improvements of FF (50, 60, 70, or 80% intact pellets)
on two different modern strains of commercial broilers (Strain A or B) on
performance and processing variables throughout a D28-49 grow-out period. From D0-28, male broilers of both strains were placed in floor pens
(divided within the house based on strain); common starter and grower
diets were fed. For experimental diet manufacture, one common diet was
initially created to contain 80% intact pellets; a portion of this was ground
to create the remaining 3 FF, varying in intact pellet: ground pellet ratios
of 50:50, 60:40, and 70:30. On D28, birds were weighed individually by
strain and pen weights were equalized; stocking density was 0.09 m2/bird.
One of four diets varying in FF were then equally and randomly assigned
to pens of Strain A and B birds, based on location; 12 replications/treatment. Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block utilizing a 2
Strain x 4 FF factorial arrangement. Birds fed 80% intact pellets demonstrated an 8 point improvement in D28-42 FCR as compared to birds
fed 50% intact pellets (P=0.024). Birds fed 80% intact pellets had a significantly higher D42 body weight (BW) (P=0.002) and D28-42 BW gain
(P=0.004) than birds fed any other FF. Significant Strain x FF interactions for D49 BW and D50 pectoralis minor weight established that Strain
B was not affected by FF; however, Strain A was more sensitive to FF
(P=0.016 and 0.007, respectively). Day 49 performance was not affected
by FF, possibly due to decreased stocking density when 4 birds/pen were
removed on D43 for processing (0.09 to 0.14 m2/bird); thus, decreasing
feeder space competition and increasing access to intact pellets. Data suggests a distinct benefit for feeding improved FF from D28-42 to modern
broilers, regardless of strain; however, more research is needed to appreciate effects on heavy broilers.
Key Words: feed form, pellet quality, bird strain, bird performance,
processing
T142Replacement of corn by sorghum at grower phase diets for
broilers and the effect of an enzymatic blend containing protease,
xylanase and phytase to improve nutrient utilization Guilherme Aguiar
Mateus Pasquali*1, Rafael Gustavo Hermes2, Vitor Barbosa Fascina3,
Monica Megui Aoyagi1, Amanda Lapa Silva1, Everton Moreno Muro1, José
Roberto Sartori1 1UNESP, Botucatu, Brazil; 2DSM Nutritional Products,
São Paulo, Brazil; 3DSM Nutritional Products, Mairinque, Brazil
The aims of this study were to evaluate the corn replacement by sorghum
and, from the other side, if an enzymatic blend could improve the nutrient
utilization by grower broilers. It were used 120 male Cobb-500 broiler
chicks randomly assigned in a 2 x 3 factorial design to 6 dietary treatments and 5 replicates with 4 birds each one. Treatments: levels of corn
replacement with sorghum (0, 50, and 100%) and inclusion (ENZ) or not
(NC) of exogenous enzymes. Enzyme products were included at levels of
200 ppm (RONOZYME ProAct), 150 ppm (RONOZYME WX), and 100
ppm (RONOZYME HiPhos GT). Total excreta collection were performed
from 25 to 35 days of age. Samples were analyzed to calculate the apparent metabolizability of dry matter (AMDM, %), crude protein (AMCP,
%) and energy corrected by nitrogen (AMEn, %). Data were submitted to
ANOVA in a 2x3 factorial arrangement and considered statistically different among treatments when P<0.05. It was not observed any interactions
between factors at this phase. Corn replacement by sorghum did not affected (P>0.05) the AMDM and AMEn. However, total corn replacement
by sorghum reduced (P<0.05) the AMCP compared to corn based diets
(42.4 vs 57.3%), but it was not significantly different from 50% sorghum
treatment (55.0%). The blend inclusion did not improved (P>0.05) the
AMDM and AMCP, but it was able to improved (P<0.05) the AMEn when
compared to NC (3,150 vs 3,206). It can be concluded that in the grower
phase of broiler production is possible to replace corn by sorghum if an
enzymatic blend is used aiming to not cause negative impact on nutrient
utilization.
Key Words: enzymes, metabolizable energy, metabolizability
T143 Sorghum inclusion, particle size and adding a protease affects
broiler performance Albaraa Sarsour*1, Edgar Oviedo-Rondón1, Thays
Quadros2, Fabiana Luiggi3, Nadia Bassi4 1North Carolina State University,
Raleigh, NC, USA; 2Universidade Estadual Paulista, Campus Jaboticabal,
Jaboticabal, Brazil; 3Universidade Estadual Paulista, Campus Botucatu,
Botucatu, Brazil; 4EMBRAPA, Suinos e Aves, Concordia, Brazil
Sorghum can replace corn but due to several factors that affect nutrient
digestibility it generally has a lower nutritional value. Particle size is important for digestibility in poultry and with sorghum good results have
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
been shown with 400 µm or whole grain. Proteases that degrade kafirins
could also improve sorghum starch digestibility. One experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of sorghum inclusion levels, particle size
and protease addition on chicken live performance from 1 to 21 d of age.
Eighteen treatments were obtained from a 4x2x2 factorial arrangement
of treatments with 4 inclusion levels of sorghum (25, 50, 75, and 100%
replacement of corn), 2 particle sizes (400 or 800 µm), serine protease
(0 or 500 g/ton for 300 U/g; BioResource International), as main factors,
plus 2 control treatments both with 100% corn ground to obtain 800 µm of
particle size and with or without protease. A total of 720 Ross 708 day-old
male chicks were placed in 144 Petersime battery cages with 5 chicks per
cage. The individual BW and feed intake (FI) were recorded at 7, 14 and
21 d. FCR, BW gain, and uniformity were calculated at the end of each
phase. Data was analyzed as a randomized complete block design with a
4x2x2 factorial arrangement of treatments with nested effects of sorghum
level and 8 replicate cages per treatment combination. There was only one
three-way interaction effect (P<0.05) on FCR up to 14 d. However there
were several two-way interaction effects (P<0.05). From 1 to 21 d, sorghum at 25% inclusion showed the highest (P<0.001) feed intake, (1,440
g) and BW gain, 1,062 g (P<0.05). Sorghum at 25% and 50% inclusion
had the best FCR similar to 100% corn (P<0.05). The best FCR from 1
to 21 d (1.305 g:g) was observed with 100% corn and protease, but it was
similar to sorghum at 400 µm without protease (1.339g:g) and at 800µm
with protease (1.329g:g), and only significantly (P<0.01) better than corn
100% without protease (1.351g:g). No effect (P>0.05) of treatments on
BW uniformity was observed. In conclusion, sorghum can replace 25%
to 50% of corn without reducing live performance, and coarse sorghum
grinding while adding a serine protease had the best live performance results.
Key Words: Sorghum, Particle Size, Protease, Digestibility
T144 Effects of the Level and Relationship of Calcium and Available
Phosphorus on Starter Broiler Chickens Alejandro Diaz Alonso*1,
Sergio Gomez Rosales2, Maria De Lourdes Angeles2 1Vimifos Sa De CV,
Guadalajara Jal., Mexico; 2Inifap, Ajuchitlan, Qro, Mexico
The objective was to evaluate the growth performance and tibia ash of
chicks with diets supplemented with increasing levels of available phosphorus (AP) and adjusted or fixed to AP levels of Ca. One hundred and
sixty eight male Ross 308 chicks from 8 to 19 d of age and allocated in
holding crates, in groups of 2 chicks per crate were used. Birds were randomly assigned to 12 treatments under a factorial arrangement of six dietary levels of AP (0.13, 0.23, 0.33, 0.43, 0.53 and 0.63%) and adjusted or
fixed levels of Ca (A-Ca and F-Ca diets). In the A-Ca series of diets, the
Ca:AP relationship was kept at 2:1 over the increasing levels of AP while
in the F-Ca series Ca was kept at 1% inclusion over the increasing levels
of AP. On the fixed diets, the Ca:AP relationship diminished from 7.69 to
1.59 from the lowest to the highest AP levels. Monodicalcium phosphate
was used as a source of Ca and P in all diets. Diets were based on corn
and soybean meal and were offered ad libitum. Chicks were weighed at
the begining and end of the experiment. The last day of the trial all chicks
were killed to determine the tibia ash. For data analysis, there were 7 replicate pens/treatment for the growth performance and 14 replicate tibias/
treatment. Data was subjected to ANOVA and linear regression analysis.
The final body weight, feed intake and weight gain were similar regarding
the increaing levels of AP in the F-Ca diets whereas the final body weight,
feed intake and weight gain showed quadratic responses (P < 0.01) in the
A-Ca diets with a plateau at an AP level of 0.5%. The feed conversion
showed a cubic response (P < 0.01) regarding the increaing levels of AP
in the F-Ca diets whereas it had a linear decrease in the A-Ca diets. The
weight and ash of the tibia showed quadratic patterns (P < 0.01) in both the
F-Ca and A-Ca diets across the different levels of AP.It was also evident
that chicks fed F-Ca diets had lower final body weight, feed intake weight
gain, weight and ash on the tibia and higher feed conversion ratio than the
chicks fed the A-Ca diets. In summary, the growth performance and tibia
43
ash were enhanced in chicks fed diets in which the Ca:P relationship was
kept at 2:1 and the variable responses were maximized at a dietary AP
level of 0.5%.
Key Words: Starter chicks, Ca:P relationships, Available phosphorus,
Growth performance, Tibia ash
T145 A value based approach to compare the optimum dose of an E.
coli and a Buttiauxella phytase in broiler diets Luke Barnard*1, Luis
Romero1, Velmurugu Ravindran2 1Danisco Animal Nutrition - DuPont
Industrial Biosciences, Marlborough, United Kingdom; 2Massey University
- Institute of Vet, Animal and Biomedical Sciences, Palmerston North, New
Zealand
A study was carried out using day old, male Ross 308 broilers, measuring
ileal phosphorus (P) digestibility, with the aim of determining and comparing the optimal inclusion level of an E. coli and a Buttiauxella phytase.
Optimum inclusion was determined based on the law of diminishing marginal utility. The study lasted 21d and comprised of 7 treatments, with 8
replicates and 8 birds per replicate. A starter feed, based on corn/ soybean
meal was fed to all birds from d0-7 (nPP = 0.40% and Ca = 0.90%), from
d7, treatment diets containing a titanium dioxide marker were fed. Treatments consisted of a negative control diet (NC; nPP = 0.20% and Ca =
0.73%) and the NC diet supplemented with 250, 500 and 1500 FTU/kg
feed of either Buttiauxella or E. coli phytase. Differences between treatment means were determined using ANCOVA with phytase source as the
covariate, and non-linear regression was carried out using JMP 11.0. Optimum phytase dose was determined using the marginal decision rule, the
value of the incremental P from phytase was assumed to be equal to the
value of the same amount of P from DCP.
Buttiauxella phytase supplemented diets had significantly (P<0.05) higher
P digestibility than E.coli supplemented diets. The following non-linear
equations were determined for the data: E.coli phytase P dig = (69.44+
(-11.68*(0.998PhytaseFTU’s))) and Buttiauxella phytase P dig = (90.0+
(-31.73*(0.999PhytaseFTU’s))). The optimal dose of Buttiauxella phytase
(1468 FTU/kg) was higher than the E. coli phytase (597 FTU/kg). At 500
FTU/kg feed Buttiauxella phytase delivered 51% more profit than the E.
coli phytase. Comparing the two phytases at the optimal dose calculated using this method, a further 178% profit could be achieved with the
Buttiauxella phytase compared to the E.coli phytase. Buttiauxella phytase
liberates more P and therefore more value than the E.coli phytase.
Key Words: broilers, Buttiauxella phytase, dose optimisation, profit
maximisation, phosphorus digestibility
T146 Response of Broilers Fed with Graded Levels of DL-2-Hydroxy(4-methylthio)Butanoic Acid (HMTBA) form 15 to 28 days of age
Raquel Araujo*1, Ricardo Gonzalez-Esquerra1, Sergio Luiz Vieira2,
Cesar Pontin2 1Novus do Brasil Com. e Imp. LTDA., São Paulo, Brazil;
2
Departamento de Zootecnia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul,
Porto Alegre, Brazil
This trial aims at developing information relevant to the use of SAA when
feeding HMTBA as a synthetic Met source in the grower phase. Chicks
were fed a common dietary program until 14d of age. At 15d, test diets
were fed ad libitum until 28d of age (experimental phase). Thereafter, all
birds were fed a common diet sufficient in AA and AMEn. 10 treatments
with 9 floor pens of 26 birds each were used (2,340 male Cobb500 birds).
Nine levels of SAA were obtained by blending a dilution and a summit
corn/SBM /MBM diets formulated to have 3.15 MCal/kg and 1.15% Dig
Lys and balanced with ideal ratios to Lys for other AA. A control corn/
SBM/MBM diet formulated at Dig Lys 1.27%, and ideal AA ratios, was
used to test AA deficiency of titrated diets. The SAA level dose-response
of broilers to SAA was calculated using the GLM procedure of SAS®
(Y = β0 + β1X + β2X2 where: Y= dependent variable; X = SAA level; βn =
regression coefficients; β0 = Intercept).
44
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
Table 1. Performance of broilers fed graded levels of SAA from 15 to
28d of age*
SAA Levels
(%)
0.60
0.66
0.72
0.78
0.84
0.9
0.96
1.02
1.08
Control
CV
P value
BW
(g)
1,540 a
1,596 b
1,630 b
1,686 c
1,684 c
1,693 c
1,704 c
1,715 c
1,703 c
1,703 c
1.83
<.0001
BWG (g)
1,062 a
1,113 b
1,149 b
1,201 c
1,198 c
1,211 c
1,220 c
1,230 c
1,223 c
1,220 c
2.27
<.0001
Intake
(g)
1,657 a
1,651 a
1,632 ab
1,658 a
1,620 ab
1,626 ab
1,610 ab
1,633 ab
1,613 ab
1,597 b
2.12
0,0024
FCR
(g:g)
1,560 a
1,483 b
1,421 c
1,380 d
1,353 de
1,343 ef
1,319 fg
1,328 efg
1,319 fg
1,299 g
1.52
<.0001
Carcass
28d (g)
1,091 d
1,147 cd
1,187 bc
1,243 ab
1,228 ab
1,228 ab
1,227 ab
1,242 ab
1,249 a
1,252 a
2.98
<.0001
*Tukey test (P<0.05) Table 2. Level of SAA to maximize the performance of growing broilers
Parameter
BWG
(g)
FCR
(g/g)
Carcass
(g)
Breast
(g)
SAA%
Survey
at Max Y
(SAA%)
Response
0.82
0.831
0.72
0.843
0.78
0.851
0.78
0.863
Equation
Y= -1.87x² +3.1087 x
+0.2511
Y= 1.6955x² - 2.8593 x
+ 3.0497
Y= -1947.5x2 + 3313.3
x + 951.5
Y= -1091.9 x2 + 1884
x + 16.06 P
R2
0.0001 0.29
0.0001 0.39
<.0001 0.38
<.0001 0.46
It was concluded that SAA levels needed to attain maximum performance
in finisher broilers were between 0.831 and 0.863% when using HMTBA
in diets with 0.95 Dig Lys levels.
Key Words: Methionine, Broilers, Performance, HMTBA, Requirements
T147 Response of Broilers Fed Graded Levels of DL-2-Hydroxy-(4methylthio)Butanoic Acid (HMTBA) During the Finisher Phase Raquel
Araujo*1, Ricardo Gonzalez-Esquerra1, Sergio Luiz Vieira2, Cesar Pontin2
1
Novus do Brasil Com. e Imp. LTDA., São Paulo, Brazil; 2Departamento
de Zootecnia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre,
Brazil
Guidelines for digestible Met + Cys (SAA) used have been developed
with DL-methionine as the source of Met. The present trial series attempts
at developing guidelines for SAA when using HMTBA as the Met source.
The present trial studied the response of birds to HMTBA from 29 to
42d.10 treatments with 9 floor pens of 26 birds each were used (2,340 male
Cobb500 birds). Chicks were fed a common dietary program until 28d of
age. At 29d, test diets were fed ad libitum until 42d of age (experimental
phase). Nine levels of SAA (from 0.52 to 1.00% in grades of 0.06%) were
obtained by blending a dilution and a summit corn/SBM diets formulated
to have 3.2 MCal/kg and 0.95% Dig Lys. Other AA were balanced according to Lys ratios. A control corn/SBM/MBM diet formulated at Dig
Lys 1.15%, and ideal AA ratios, was used to test AA deficiency of titrated
diets. A total of 56 animal nutritionists from Latin America and South Africa were shown the treatment means of key parameters plotted in graphs
without treatment descriptions, ANOVA, trend-lines or grades on the X
axis (levels of SAA used) and marked with an “X” for each parameter
the level of SAA they would feed commercially based on the responses
observed in the graphs. The SAA level dose-response of broilers to SAA
was calculated using Proc GLM of SAS® (Y = β0 + β1X + β2X2 where:
Y= dependent variable; X = SAA level; βn = regression coefficients; β0 =
Intercept).
*Tukey test (P<0.05)
It was concluded that SAA levels needed to attain maximum performance
in finisher broilers were between 0.831 and 0.863% when using HMTBA
in diets with 0.95 Dig Lys levels.
Key Words: Methionine, Broilers, Performance, HMTBA, Requirements
T148 Response of Starter Broilers Fed Graded Levels of Methionine
using DL-2-Hydroxy-(4-methylthio)Butanoic Acid (HMTBA) as Its
Synthetic Form Ricardo Gonzalez-Esquerra*1, Raquel Araujo1, Sergio
Luiz Vieira2, Cesar Pontin2 1Novus do Brasil Com. e Imp. LTDA., São
Paulo, Brazil; 2Departamento de Zootecnia, Universidade Federal do Rio
Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil
Ten treatments with 7 floor pens of 30 birds each were used (2,300 male
Cobb500) aiming at developing information relevant to feeding SAA
when using HMTBA as the synthetic Met source during the first two
weeks of life. Nine levels of SAA (from 0.61 to 1.17%) were obtained
by blending a dilution and a summit corn/SBM/MBM diets formulated to
have 3.05 MCal/kg and 1.25% Dig Lys and balanced AA profile except for
SAA. A control corn/SBM/MBM diet formulated at Dig Lys 1.35% and
ideal protein was used to test if the titrated diets were deficient in DigLys
+ Ideal protein. Test diets were fed from 1 to 14d of age, and a common
dietary program was fed to all treatments thereafter, until 35d in order to
study both: the influence of SAA in the starter period (1 to 14d), and the
possible carryover effect in future phases. The dose-response of broilers
to SAA was calculated using Proc GLM of SAS® (Y = β0 + β1X + β2X2
where: Y= dependent variable; X = SAA (%); βn = regression coefficients;
β0 = Intercept).
Table 1. Effect of feeding graded levels of SAA from 1 to 14d of age*
SAA (%)
0.61
0.68
0.75
0.82
0.89
0.96
1.03
1.10
1.17
Control
P value
C.V.(%)
BWG_7d
114 d
129 c
131 bc
137 ab
139 a
138 ab
134 abc
134 abc
134 abc
136 abc
<.0001
3.17
BWG_14d
381 f
424 e
438 d
454 bc
462 ab
463 ab
453 bc
452 bc
449 cd
466 a
<.0001
1.46
FCR_7d
1.312 a
1.211 ab
1.201 b
1.174 b
1.170 b
1.142 b
1.142 b
1.143 b
1.143 b
1.110 b
<.0001
5.09
FCR_14d
1.416 a
1.313 b
1.283 bc
1.281 bc
1.261 bc
1.256 c
1.253 c
1.258 c
1.246 cd
1.197 d
<.0001
2.41
*Tukey test (P<0.05); *Values in grams
Table 2: Level of SAA to maximize the response performance of broilers
Key Words: Methionine, Broilers, Performance, HMTBA, Requirements
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
45
T149 Profitability of the Response of Broilers to Graded Levels of DL2-Hydroxy-(4-methylthio)Butanoic Acid (HMTBA) Fed as the Sole
Source of Synthetic Methionine Ricardo Gonzalez-Esquerra*1, Raquel
Araujo1, Sergio Luiz Vieira2, Cesar Pontin2 1Novus do Brasil Com. e Imp.
LTDA., São Paulo, Brazil; 2Departamento de Zootecnia, Universidade
Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil
The level of SAA(%) that maximized profits (PMax) was calculated using the Solver function of a dynamic table built in Excel® software using
variables as in Table 1. Changes in PMax were tested in scenarios of high
or low methionine prices and high and low salable products prices (±20%
from those in Table 1). When one cost/price component was evaluated, the
rest were kept at values in Table 1 (Mid).
Responses of broilers to graded levels of dig Met+Cys (SAA) fed HMTBA were obtained in two trials (Trial 1: from 15 to 28d of age or grower;
and Trial 2: from 28 to 42d or finisher). Live and carcass performance
equations obtained were reported elsewhere in these proceedings, and
were used to calculate HMTBA economic return in a dose-dependent
manner. The following equation was used: Profit = Revenue – Feeding
Costs - Farm Costs - Processing Costs. Each of these components are detailed in Table 1.
Table 2. SAA(%) at optimal profitability (PMax) vs. optimal biologic performance, in grower and finisher broilers
Table 1. Economic components used
USD
FEEDING COSTS COMPONENTS
Diet cost 1_14d*
Diet cost 15_28d (Excuding HMTBA)*
Diet cost 1_28d**
Diet cost 29_42d (excluding HMTBA)**
Operational mill costs
Feed transportation cost to the farm
Average cost of HMTBA 100%
FARM COSTS
Farm costs @ 28d*
Farm costs @ 42d**
PROCESSING COSTS
Processing Costs -Carcass @ 28d*
Processing costs -Carcass @ 42d**
Processing costs -Cuts @ 42d**
TOTAL REVENUE COMPONENTS
Live 42d**
Carcass @ 28d*
Carcass @ 42d*
Breast @ 42d**
Drumsticks @ 42d**
Thigh @ 42d**
Wings @ 42d**
Units
325.55
304.37
320.63
297.82
13.10
9.61
3.49
/MT
/MT
/MT
/MT
/MT
/MT
/kg
0.64
0.80
/bird
/bird
0.41
0.62
0.67
/bird
/bird
/bird
1.03
1.75
1.61
2.79
1.91
1.45
2.46
/kg
/kg
/kg
/kg
/kg
/kg
/kg
*Trial 1; **Trial 2
Key Words: Methionine, HMTBA, Broilers, Profitability, Requirements
T150 Effect of a unique carrier-based organic acid blend (Salkil) on
the performance of broiler breeders and their progeny Leon Broom*1,
Lúcio Araújo2, Cristiane Araújo2, Luciano Sá3, Ian Cockshott4, Emma
Graystone5 1Anpario, Worksop, United Kingdom; 2University of Sao
Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Kiotechagil, São Paulo, Brazil; 4Kiotechagil,
Nottinghamshire, United Kingdom; 5Anpario, Nottinghamshire, United
Kingdom
The profitability of breeding operations is determined by broiler breeder
performance. The antimicrobial effects of organic acids mean that their
supplementation into the diets of poultry is recognised as an effective
method of controlling microbial growth, leading to improved bird health
and performance, and safer meat products. Moreover, organic acids improve nutrient digestibility, mineral availability and immune responses.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a commercially available organic acid-based product (Salkil) on the performance of
broiler breeders. At 25 weeks of age, 64 Cobb 500 broiler breeders were
randomly allocated to one of two treatments, with 8 replicates of 4 birds
per treatment. The treatments were standard broiler breeder diets with or
without the addition of an organic acid blend (Salkil, 2kg/t). At 35 and 45
weeks of age, the birds were artificially inseminated and eggs were collected between the third and tenth day following insemination and incubated. Candling was performed 10 days after incubation for the detection
of infertile eggs. One-day old male broilers from both treatment groups
and both breeder hen ages were then followed through to 42 days of age,
with all birds receiving the same starter, grower and finisher diets (i.e. no
organic acid (Salkil) supplementation). In terms of breeder performance,
organic acid supplementation improved fertility at 35 weeks (91.23 vs
86.28%, P = 0.004) and 45 weeks (96.64 vs. 94.32%, P=0.038). Egg production and hatchability of fertile eggs were not different between treatment groups for either week 35 or 45. With regards to broiler performance,
birds from organic acid supplemented breeders had better weight gain to
42 days from breeders of 35 (2910 vs 2837g , P=0.011) and 45 weeks of
age (2934 vs. 2842g, P=0.024). Feed intake was not different. Salkil improved broiler feed conversion ratio at 45 weeks (1.74 vs. 1.80; P=0.033).
The organic acid product improved broiler breeder fertility and the performance of their progeny. The magnitude of the responses observed would
equate to a return on investment of up to 20:1, thus significantly improving
profitability for either a breeder and/or broiler operation.
Key Words: Organic acids, Breeder, Broiler, Performance, Salkil
SCAD III
T151 Avian Pneumovirus (APV) - A new respiratory disease challenge
in Poultry in India Pratap Rananavare* Merck Animal Health, Summit, NJ,
USA
India has a rapidly growing poultry population, but relatively little diagnostic information about the key diseases that cause losses in the largely
non-integrated industry. Layers, broiler breeders and broilers suffer from
problems of head swelling and respiratory noise, and in the case of birds
in lay, production drops of 20 – 30% accompanied by some egg deformity. All flocks are vaccinated against Newcastle Disease and infectious
bronchitis, and, in the case of production birds, also Infectious Coryza and
Mycoplasma gallisepticum. The problem is often assumed to be Infectious
Coryza and producers attempt to control losses with antibiotics, but flocks
are non-responsive to the treatment. Avian pneumovirus (APV), also
known as Swollen Head Syndrome (SHS) or turkey rhinotracheitis (TRT)
was suspected, but nothing was known about the presence or prevalence
of this virus in poultry flocks in India. None of the flocks are currently
vaccinated with APV vaccine.
46
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
A serological survey was conducted in 119 flocks from different geographical areas of India (102 breeder farms, 17 broiler farms). The farms were
selected based upon clinical presentation with the typical signs of head
swelling, respiratory noise and/or production losses. Acute samples were
collected and paired with convalescent samples two to three weeks later.
The IDEXX APV ELISA kit was used to evaluate the serum samples.
The survey revealed a 56% sero-prevalence for APV in breeding flocks
and a 22.3% sero-prevalence in broiler flocks. The data is not yet confirmed with virus isolation due to the difficulty in obtaining appropriate
samples under the field conditions in India. The serological evidence,
however, supports the use of an APV vaccination program for broilers,
breeders and commercial laying flocks to reduce losses due to mortality
and a decline in egg production.
Key Words: APV, Respiratory, Swollen head, Serology, India
T152 Evaluation of different vaccination approach to control MPV,
IBV, NDV and IBDV infections in broiler flocks- Polish experience in
diverse field conditions Danuta Furmanek* MSD Animal Health, Niemcz,
Poland
Clinical problems associated with MPV (metapneumovirus) infection
have been observed in broiler flocks in Poland for the last few years. Serological surveys confirm MPV challenge in the field. These results raise
the question of whether avian pneumovirus (APV) immunization should
be incorporated into the common vaccination schedule and, if so, what
combination of vaccination viruses result in the best broiler performance.
Three different vaccination regimens were observed, including two using
MPV vaccine strain at one day of age.
Chicks were vaccinated with APV (Nobilis RHINO CV – MSD AH) and
combinations of Newcastle (ND) and infectious bronchitis (IB) vaccines.
The trial was run from April through July 2014 and involved 37 flocks/
farms from all over Poland. Altogether, one million broilers were vaccinated and tested. Production parameters were evaluated along with serological monitoring of titres, using commercial ELISA test kits from Idexx
Laboratories Inc. (USA). 24,000 assays were completed.
The best results were achieved in flocks vaccinated on one day of age
with APV + Mass IB + C2 ND (Nobilis Rhino CV+Ma5+NDC2) followed by field spray on day 14 with LaSota ND and 4-91 IB ( Nobilis ND
Cl30+ Nobilis IB 4/91). Flocks also received IBD vaccine (Nobilis D78)
via drinking water between day 18 and day 21 (vaccination according to
Deventer formula – software XchekPlus Idexx Laboratories Inc.)
Serological and production results will be presented
Key Words: metapneumovirus infection, vaccination programs
T153 Protection of Ma5, DE07 and GA08 Live IBV Vaccines against
a Highly Pathogenic GA08 Field Isolate in Broilers. Ivan Alvarado*1,
Alejandro Banda2, Lifang Yan2, Obiageli Chukwulobe2, Floyd Wilson2
1
Merck Animal Health, Athens, GA, USA; 2Mississippi State University,
Pearl, MS, USA
The synergistic protective effect of the Ma5, DE072 and/or GA08 live
infectious bronchitis (IB) vaccines against a highly pathogenic GA08
field isolate was evaluated. Commercial broilers with maternal antibodies against infectious bronchitis virus were equally divided in 6 treatment
groups and placed in positive pressure isolation units. At 1 and 14 days of
age, four treatment groups were vaccinated with Ma5, GA08, Ma5+DE072
and Ma5+DE072+GA08 live attenuated vaccines. Two treatment groups,
non-vaccinated/challenged and non-vaccinated/non-challenged, remained
as controls. At 35 days of age, all the treatment groups, except the negative
control group, were challenged by eye-drop with 10^4 EID50 of a highly
pathogenic GA08 strains isolated from a field clinical case in Mississippi.
Typical clinical signs associated with bronchitis infection, such as lacrimation, head inflammation, tracheal rales and sneezing were observed in the
non vaccinated and chalenged birds. When all the vaccinated groups were
compared with the non-vaccinated/challenged group, no significant differences in clinical signs were observed five days post-challenge. At 40 days
of age, all the birds were humanely sacrificed and necropsied. Protection
against the GA08 field strain was evaluated based on clinical presentation,
cilliostasis scores, virus re-isolation and histopathology.
Key Words: Infectious Bronchitis, Ma5, DE072, GA08, Protection
T154Understanding ArkDPI vaccination failure when applied by
hatchery spray cabinet Brian Jordan*, Eric Shepherd, Giselle Rossa,
Erin Anderson, Debbie Hilt, Mark Jackwood The University of Georgia,
Athens, GA, USA
Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV) causes a highly contagious, economically significant upper-respiratory tract disease in chickens. Control
of IBV is achieved by vaccinating chickens with live-attenuated virus of
the predominant regional serotype. Chicks are spray vaccinated with IBV
on the day of hatch, and are often vaccinated with multiple serotypes to
induce broader protection. Previous work in our laboratory has shown that
the Arkansas serotype vaccine (ArkDPI) does not provide adequate protection from challenge when applied by spray but when delivered by eyedrop administration it provides protection from challenge. We hypothesize
that the ArkDPI vaccine virus is somehow damaged during spray application, making it unable to infect chicks. To test this hypothesis, ArkDPI vaccines from three different manufacturers were sprayed at 7, 14, and 21ml
volumes with increasingly larger spray nozzles using a commercial spray
cabinet. Six-well tissue culture plates were placed 7 cm above the bottom
of the chick basket, mimicking the height of a chick, to collect samples
at chick level after spray. Five plates were placed in each chick basket:
one in each corner and one in the middle. All samples from each replicate including the working solution dilution and directly from the spray
nozzle were analyzed by qRT-PCR. All samples from a single replicate
were also analyzed by titration in embryonated eggs. Comparing working
solution and spray nozzle samples revealed no consistent drop in titer for
any volume, indicating that spraying did not destroy virus particles. There
was not a significant difference in Ct values for any spray volume when
comparing the working solution to the spray nozzle sample. Ct values and
titers were consistent at all points tested in the chick box for all volumes
also. There was an average drop of 1.4 log10 EID50 in titer at the level of
the chick box in the 7ml spray, a .7 log10 drop for the 14ml spray and a .3
log10 drop for the 21ml spray, though only 29% of the total volume in the
7 and 14 ml spray and 48% of the total volume in the 21ml spray reached
the level of the chicks. This effect may be due to the larger nozzle size for
the 21ml spray system. In total, spraying 21ml of vaccine delivered more
volume and higher titers of vaccine to the chick level. This also correlated
to higher replication in chicks sprayed with 21ml of ArkDPI vaccine. This
data shows that higher volumes of ArkDPI vaccine are needed for proper
vaccination of chicks, but the cause for this is still unclear.
Key Words: ArkDPI, IBV, Spray Application, Volume, Titer
T155 Combining recombinant and live vaccines in-ovo for infectious
bursal disease protection Elise Myers*1, Tom Inglis2, Darko Mitevski2
1
Merck Animal Health Canada, Kirkland, QC, Canada; 2Poultry Health
Services, Airdrie, AB, Canada
An experiment was conducted at a commercial broiler hatchery to determine if improved infectious bursal disease (IBD) protection could be
achieved by using the combination of a recombinant IBD vaccine and live
IBD vaccine administered in-ovo. Phase one of the study established a
baseline for the two farms examined. Farm 1 had vaccinated with recombinant IBD vaccine only, and Farm 2 had vaccinated with recombinant
in-ovo, followed by live IBD vaccine in the field. An evaluation of current IBD control program efficacy was accomplished using bursal histology and serology. Bursas from 10 random healthy birds from 5 different
flocks were collected at 14, 21, and 28 days of age. Sera were collected
from 10 birds at 1,14,21,28, and 35 days of age. Results showed histologic
evidence of lesions consistent with acute IBD in one flock. Bursas from
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
the other flocks had evidence of nonspecific lymphocytic depletion and
apoptosis in bursal follicles, not suggestive of IBD. Serological response
was variable between flocks. Phase two of the study took place over three
placement periods and examined 14 flocks. All flocks were vaccinated inovo with a combination of recombinant and a live IBD vaccine. Bursal tissue and sera were collected at the same frequency, handled, and evaluated
in the same manner as in the baseline study. Flock serology performed
at day of age suggested maternal antibody levels that were in alignment
with company standard. Variable titres were present at all other sampling
points. All 14 flocks sampled demonstrated non-specific lymphocytic
depletion or bursal atrophy not consistent with IBD, and showed no other
histologic lesions consistent with IBD challenge. These findings suggest
enhanced protection against IBD challenge on the farms vaccinated with
the combination of live and recombinant vaccines in-ovo. Further investigation into serological response is warranted. Prior to widespread use,
confirmation of program efficacy should take place in multiple locales, as
protection will likely be dependent on IBD virus challenge level, circulating strain, and level of maternal antibody conferred to progeny.
Key Words: recombinant, infectious bursal disease, vaccine, chicken,
immune
T156 Comparison of early onset of protection given by Bursaplex®
or Vaxxitek® against IBDV Kalen Cookson*1, A. Avakian2, T. Barbosa3,
J. Dickson3, J. Giambrone4, T. Villalobos3 1Zoetis, Lawrenceville, GA,
USA; 2Zoetis, Kalamazoo, MI, USA; 3Zoetis, Durham, NC, USA; 4Auburn
University, Auburn, AL, USA
Chickens with low maternal immunity to IBDV are susceptible to early infections and permanent immune suppression. Recombinant and antibodycomplex vaccines can be used to achieve active immunity from hatchery
vaccination. Because these two vaccines work by different mechanisms,
the goal of this study was to compare their onset of immunity.
Study Design: 240 SPF leghorns were selected at hatch from three in
ovo vaccine treatments: 1) Bursaplex®, 2) Vaxxitek® and 3) None. Four
rooms were used for the challenge treatments—3 replications of STC
(classic) challenge and 1 rep of No challenge. Each room contained 3
Horsfal isolator units which housed the 3 respective vaccine treatments.
At 13 days of age, birds were individually weighed and IBDV challenge
was given intraocularly using 10^3.0 EID50 STC challenge. All birds
were weighed again and necropsied at 17 days. Spleens were weighed
and bursas were scored for edema and/or hemorrhage. IBD protection was
measured using three criteria: 1) acute bursal lesions, 2) splenomegaly
and 3) weight gain post challenge. Two-sided tests were used to establish
statistical significance at the 0.05 level.
Results: Weight gain post challenge was significantly lower in non-vaccinated controls (21.0g) compared to Vaxxitek® (42.6g) and Bursaplex®
(45.9g) groups. Protection from bursal lesions was significantly different
between all three vaccine treatments with challenge controls having the
lowest protection (8.3%) followed by Vaxxitek® (78.3%) and then Bursaplex® (100%). Spleen to body weight ratios were significantly different
between all three vaccine treatments, with the highest ratio seen in challenge controls (2.95), followed by Vaxxitek® (2.46) and then Bursaplex®
(2.11). Splenomegaly—defined as individual birds with Spl:BW > 2 StDv
higher than the non-challenged control mean—was also significantly
different between all three vaccine treatments, with challenged controls
having the lowest protection (8.3%), followed by Vaxxitek® (76.7%) and
then Bursaplex® (95%).
Discussion: The STC challenge was predictably hard on the 13 day old
leghorn controls, resulting in >50% weight gain depression and >90%
birds with acute bursal lesions and splenomegaly. Bursaplex® birds
showed complete bursal protection from STC challenge, demonstrating
that active immunity had been established by 13 days of age. Vaxxitek®,
while showing significantly lower STC protection than Bursaplex® based
on all three criteria, showed that it had established active immunity in
47
about three-quarters of vaccinates by 13 days. Splenomegaly is a good
indicator of active IBD viremia and correlated with birds having acute
bursal lesions in this study.
Key Words: IBDV, Bursaplex®, Vaxxitek®, early, protection
T157 The impact of H9N2 avian influenza virus vaccine antigenic
variation on virus infectious dose in chickens Yue Wang*, Erica
Spackman USDA-ARS Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Athens,
GA, USA
The H9 subtype of avian influenza virus is wide-spread in the areas of Asia
and Middle East. Selection of effective vaccines that provide effective
protection mainly depends on the antigenic match of the hemagglutinin
protein (HA), between the vaccine and the field strain. To determine how
the antigenic variations affect the vaccine efficacy, a vaccine-challenge
study with different doses was conducted. Based on the antigenic cartography, three isolates from Israel: the current vaccine virus and two other
antigenic variants were selected for the studies. Specific-pathogen-free
(SPF) chickens were vaccinated with each of the three isolates separately
and challenged either against the same isolate or the other two antigenically heterologous isolates at 10-fold serial doses from 103 mean embryo
infectious dose (EID50) through 107 EID50 per bird. The control group of
chickens was unvaccinated and challenged similarly. Pre-challenge sera
were collected for hemagglutination inhibition assays to evaluate antibody
titers. Virus shedding was quantitated by real-time reverse-transcriptionPCR (rRT-PCR) of oral swabs. The mean infectious dose was calculated
for each vaccine-challenge group. This study quantifies the differences in
susceptibility to infection with H9 avian influenza virus based on antigenic
variation between the vaccine and challenge virus.
Key Words: Low pathogenic avian influenza virus, H9N2, Poultry
disease, Vaccination, Antigenic cartography
T158 Measurement of airborne influenza virus during hen
slaughtering in an ABSL-3E bioBUBBLE® Kateri Bertran*, Kira
Moresco, David E Swayne Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory USDA/
Agricultural Research Service, Athens, GA, USA
Several avian viral diseases, including avian influenza, Newcastle disease,
infectious bronchitis and laryngotracheitis, are transmitted via respiratory
droplets or by contact with contaminated fomites. Using high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus as a model, the objective of the present study was to standardize and optimize the air sampling method in a
negative pressure containment enclosure (bioBUBBLE®) meeting the
regulatory requirements for enhanced animal biosafety level 3 (ABSL3E) facilities. Adult White Leghorn chickens were inoculated intranasally
with 106 EID50/0.1ml of HPAI A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1). At 24 hours
post-inoculation, oral swabs were collected to ensure infection and viral
shedding, and all the birds were slaughtered following a simulated home
slaughter protocol which includes the following steps (5 min per bird):
kill, scald, defeather, eviscerate, and cleanup. Previously, this protocol
generated airborne particles containing HPAI virus. A cyclone-type air
sampler was used to collect large (>4 µm), small (1-4 µm), and fine (<1
µm) airborne particles. Virus isolation was performed on oral swabs and
air samples. The following variables were tested: slaughter method (manual versus mechanical defeatherer), location of the cyclone samplers, cyclone samplers’ flow, bioBUBBLE® flow speed, temperature and relative
humidity within the bioBUBBLE®, and running time of the cyclone samplers. The best setting conditions included: the use of one cyclone sampler at 3.5 l/min air flow; the bioBUBBLE® flow speed at 9 feet/min; the
slaughter of all birds in parallel, rotating them through the different steps;
and constant temperature of 24±1C and relative humidity of <80% within
the bioBUBBLE®. Under these conditions, small and large airborne particles containing infectious HPAI virus were successfully recovered. The
present study sets up the method to explore airborne transmission dynamics of avian influenza virus and other diseases.
48
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
Key Words: airborne, influenza, bio containment, ABSL-3E,
transmission
T159Mucosal immune response in broilers following vaccination
with inactivated influenza and recombinant Bacillus subtilis Olivia
Faulkner*1, Darrell Kapczynski2, Lisa Bielke1, Amanda Wolfenden1,
Vivek Kuttappan1, Luc Berghman3, Billy Hargis1 1University of Arkansas,
Fayetteville, AR, USA; 2Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, USDAARS, Athens, GA, USA; 3Texas A&M University, College Station, AR, USA
Mucosal and systemic immunity were observed in broilers vaccinated
with mannosylated chitosan adjuvated (MCA) inactivated A/Turkey/
Virginia/158512/2002 (H7N2) and administered with and without recombinant Bacillus subtilis to elicit heterologous influenza strain protection.
Previously, mucosal immunity was significantly elevated after broilers
were subcutaneously (SQ) injected with a commercial inactivated influenza vaccine followed by drinking water administration of MCA inactivated
influenza on d4 and d14. Currently, inactivated recombinant Bacillus subtilis expressing full length high mobility box group 1 (HMGB1), truncated
CD154, and multiple universal avian influenza antigenic proteins were
combined with MCA β-propriolactone-inactivated H7N2 to vaccinate
broilers. CD154 is the T lymphocyte-expressed ligand for CD40 receptors on B lymphocytes and macrophages. HMGB1 binds to the receptor for advanced glycation end products to activate macrophage-lineage
cells. Vaccines were administered by SQ on day of hatch (DOH) and d
14, followed by oral gavage on d4 and d14. Systemic immunity was measured by hemagglutination inhibition assay and mucosal immunity was
determined using a nucleoprotein specific ELISA. Mucosal immunity was
measured in the homogenates of ileal scrapings. Systemic immunity was
measured in serum collected 7-and 14-d after boost vaccination. Nucleoprotein specific mucosal antibodies were significantly higher than control
broilers that received a combination of MCA, H7N2, and recombinant
Bacillus subtilis SQ on DOH, and drinking water administration on d4 and
d14 (P=0.015). H7N2 specific serum antibodies were highest (6.3±0.43
log2) among vaccinates in broilers 14d after second vaccination in broilers that received SQ injection on DOH and SQ d14 (P<0.001). Mucosal
immune stimulation using inactivated recombinant Bacillus subtilis and
influenza suggests that protection from circulating influenza viruses can
be achieved without a live vaccination.
Key Words: mucosal immunity, influenza, vaccination, broiler
T160 Optimizing Marek’s Diseases vaccination protocols with in ovo
vaccination Taylor Barbosa*1, Tarsicio Villalobos1, John Dickson1, Aneg
Lucia Cortes2, Nik Faiz2, Isabel Gimeno2 1Zoetis Global Poultry, Durham,
NC, USA; 2North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA
Marek’s Disease is one of the major viral diseases in poultry, with great
impact in productivity when birds are not well protected. Vaccination given in ovo has become common for broilers in many countries. However,
for breeders and layers, where only females are used, there are still some
questions on the benefits on the early vaccination. The present study compared vaccination protocols either in ovo or subcutaneous injection.
Study Design: 1100 embryos from a single flock of Cobb 500 were divided at ED18 in six groups according to the vaccination schedule. The
rHVT-IBD+SB1 vaccines were given either in ovo (Group #1) or at hatch
(Group #2). Group #3 received CVI-988 combined with rHVT-IBD+SB1
in ovo. Group #4 received CVI-988 in ovo and rHVT-IBD+SB1 at hatch
and Group #5 received rHVT-IBD+SB1 in ovo then CVI-988 at hatch.
Group #6 was kept as non-vaccinated controls. The Inovoject system was
used for in ovo vaccination at ED18 and subcutaneous vaccination was
done at hatch. Only females were placed in isolator rooms in contact with
two week-old SPF shedder birds challenged with vv+MDV 648A strain.
Groups #1 and #2 comingle into two rooms and kept separated from
Groups #3, #4 and #5, which comingle in two other rooms. Non-challenge
control birds were kept in a 5th room. Feather pulp samples were taken at 7
and 21 days of age. All birds were weighed at 7, 21 and 49 days of age. All
mortality and survivals at 49 days of age were scored for MDV lesions.
Results: Body Weight (BW) gain at D21 was significantly higher for
groups that received CVI-988 when compared to rHVT+SB1 (p>0.05),
with no differences between non-vaccinated and rHVT+SB1 only groups.
At D49 Group #3 had the highest BW, with groups #1, #4 and #5 intermediate and the lowest BW was found on non-vaccinated controls which
were no different than the group #2 (p>0.05). Group #3 has the highest
protection index (92%) followed by group #4 (89%), group #5 (82%) and
group #1 (78%). Group #2 had only 34% protection. All birds in the nonvaccinated group (#6) developed MDV tumors.
Discussion: The MDV challenge model used herein was able to produce
100% positive MDV lesions in non-vaccinated birds. Body weight gain
and protection evaluations demonstrated the benefits of using an adequate
CVI-988 vaccine for best protection. The time between vaccination and
exposure to MDV has been described as important factor for protection.
Our findings confirmed that the in ovo vaccination of female breeders
improved the protection given by all vaccines tested. The difference was
markedly important for the rHVT-IBD+SB1 combination. The results
demonstrate the benefits of the in ovo vaccination for all birds susceptible
to early exposure with field MDV strains.
Key Words: MDV, in ovo, subcutaneous, CVI-988, vaccine protection
T161 Comparison of protection using two CVI988 commercial
vaccines against very virulent plus Marek’s Disease virus challenge
Tarsicio Villalobos*1, Taylor Barbosa1, John Dickson1, Aneg Lucia Cortes2,
Nik Faiz2, Isabel Gimeno2 1Zoetis Inc., Durham, NC, USA; 2North Carolina
State University, Raleigh, NC, USA
Marek’s disease (MD) vaccines are in most cases cell-associated and require special care in the handling, storage, and administration. Failures in
the cold chain, improper thawing conditions, and reconstitution in inadequate diluents can severely reduce vaccine titers. Differences in the protection ability of CVI988 from different manufacturers have being reported. It is possible that higher dose of a less protective vaccine is necessary
to achieve proper protection and lower PFUs might be needed to achieve
the same level of protection when using a more protective vaccine. The
present study aims to compared two commercial available CVI-988 vaccines at two dose levels and their ability to generate protection against
very virulent plus MD virus.
Study Design: Cobb 500 eggs were vaccinated in ovo at the Zoetis Avian
Research Center (ARC) by the Inovoject System at 18 days of embryonation (E18) using two commercial available CVI988 vaccines (Vaccine 1
and Vaccine 2) at two doses levels. The high dose (HD) is a full dose as
per manufacturer recommendation and the low dose (LD) is a diluted dose
(2000 PFU/dose) in order to mimic titer loss in commercial conditions.
On E21 chicks were hatched, vent sexed and female chicks transported
to North Carolina State University (NCSU). Challenge was done by commingled shedder birds that were previously infected with vv+MDV 648A
strain. Body weights were recorded on days 7, 21 and 56. All mortalities
were also necropsied for MD lesions. Samples of feather pulp were collected at 1 and 3 weeks of age. Any mortality during the first week of age
was considered not related to the challenge virus.
Results: All hypothesis tests were conducted as two sided tests at the
p≤.05 level of significance. For D56 challenged birds both Vaccine 1 and
Vaccine 2 high and low doses weighed significantly more than non-vaccinated challenged. For challenged birds both vaccines high and low dose
showed significantly lower MD incidence than non-vaccinated.. For the
challenged high dose Vaccine 1 showed significantly lower MD incidence
than Vaccine 2. Vaccine 1 vaccinated non-challenged birds were found to
have a significantly higher spleen to body ratio than Vaccine 2 and nonvaccinated on D7. No significant differences in DNA load or proportion
positive were found by vaccine type or dose for D7 CVI 988 or D21 oncogenic MDV.
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
Discussion: When vaccines are given at the manufacturer recommended
doses, birds were better protected. The significant lower incidence of MD
lesions on vaccinated birds with vaccine 1 at HD may be explained by
the differences on CVI988 strain origin, passage levels and manufacturing
process.
Key Words: MDV, in vo, CVI988, Vaccine protection
T162Recombinant vaccine could control ND problem in high ND
challenged area Husam Bakri*1, Entisar Al-Hallaq2 1MSD-Animal Health,
Dubai, United Arab Emirates; 2MSD-Animal Health, Amman, Jordan
Newcastle Disease (ND) is a disease caused by a Paramyxovirus 1, in
broilers, layers and breeders. it can cause respiratory disease but infections with very virulent strains may result in severe mortality and drop in
production in the affected flocks. The disease is controlled by vaccination
with live and/or inactivated vaccines.
ND is found in the Middle East (ME) region for long time but during last
3-5 years it became more aggressive, more prevalent with higher rates
of mortality with average broiler mortality increases to more than 20%.
Therefore, it was a must to find a solution for controlling the ND problem
in highly challenged area and based on this new ND approach was tried by
using recombinant vaccine-Innovax- to be sure that ND field challenges
are covered according to below vaccination program.
49
First dose at In-Ovo18 days prior to hatching
Clone 30 @ day 1
Titers were monitored at different ages through taking serum samples and
analyzed using HI tests. In addition, different parameters were monitored
such as mortality rate, body weight and feed conversion before and after
implementation of the above vaccination program.
After implementation of the Innovax –ND recombinant vaccine no clinical signs due to ND were observed and there was a decline in mortality
from 20% to 9%, increase in body weight at 34 days from 1.60 kg to 1.68
Kg, improvement in the FCR from 1.9 to 1.7 and increase in EPI vending
relations to become 282 compared to 200. The laboratory results showed
that the farm was challenged by NDV - but the birds were protected.
Therefore, it was concluded that vaccination protocol including ND vaccine Nobilis® Clone 30 (at 1 day of age) in combination with the InnovaxND vaccine Nobilis® ND Broiler In ovo was able to induce a level of
protection suitable for the local challenge.
The adaptation of the mentioned vaccination program against ND resulted
in improved production parameters (lower mortality, better weights and
lower feed conversion).
Key Words: ND, Middle East, Recombinant vaccine
Metabolism & Nutrition VI
T163 Effects of fumonisins on turkey and the efficacy of a mycotoxin
deactivating enzyme Verena Starkl*1, Sabine Masching2, Simone
Schaumberger3 1BIOMIN Holding GmbH, Austria, Herzogenburg, Austria;
2
BIOMIN Holding GmbH, Austria, St. Pölten, Austria; 3BIOMIN Holding
GmbH, Austria, Vienna, Austria
Several different fungi, predominantly from Fusarium spp., are known to
produce fumonisins, a group of carcinogenic fugal metabolites. Fumonisins are highly prevalent around the world and are mostly identified in
corn and corn products. A recent conducted multi-mycotoxin screening
via Liquid Chromatography coupled with tandem Mass Spectrometry
(LC-MS/MS) in Latin America found fumonisins in all corn samples
present with an average concentration of 2,800 ppb and 1,100 ppb for
fumonisin B1 and FB2, respectively. On a global basis, about half of all
investigated samples (corn to finished feed) were positive for this group of
Fusarium toxins. The high prevalence of fumonisins as well as the negative impact on poultry’s health and performance reveals the necessity on
successful counteraction of these toxins.
A trial was conducted with the aim to evaluate the efficacy of a mycotoxin deactivating enzyme (FUMzyme®, FDE) in turkey diets to reduce
the adverse effects of FUM on the different biomarkers evaluated. This
fumonisin esterase catalyzes hydrolytic release of two tricarballylic acid
side chains from the core chain of fumonisin B1 (FB1), which results in
the much less toxic hydrolyzed fumonisin B1 (HFB1).
A total of 15 10 weeks old turkeys were obtained and divided in three
experimental groups.
- A negative control without additive or contaminant was used to establish the baseline of the diet.
- A positive control diet contained fumonisins to detect detrimental
effects caused by the mycotoxin.
- A test group received fumonisins and FDE to detect the effect of
the additive.
Parameters recorded comprise fumonisin B1 and degradation products in
feces and sphinganine/sphingosine ratio (Sa/So) in serum. Statistical calculations were carried out using IBM SPSS 19.0 and IBM SPSS Sample
Power. Effective biotransformation of fumonisin to hydrolyzed fumonisin
in turkeys was shown using FDE. Effects could be observed regarding
toxin and metabolite residues in feces and on using the biomarker the
sphinganine/sphingosine ratio in serum.
Key Words: Mycotoxins, Fumonisins, Turkey, Enzyme, Deactivation
T164Effects of soybean meal source and protease on energy and
nutrient digestibility in broiler chickens Catarina Stefanello*1, Sergio
Luiz Vieira1, Barbara Mallmann1, Heitor Rios1, Liliane Borsatti1, José
Otávio Berti Sorbara2, Rafael Gustavo Hermes3 1UFRGS, Porto Alegre,
Brazil; 2DSM Nutritional Products, São Paulo, Brazil; 3DSM Nutritional
Products, Porto Alegre, Brazil
A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of an exogenous protease
on soybean meal (SBM) grown in two geographic areas in Brazil (South
or North). A total of 224 Cobb 500 male broilers were placed in 32 battery
cages, with 4 treatments and 8 replications of 7 birds each. Treatments
were distributed in a factorial arrangement of SBM origin, supplemented
or not with Protease at 15,000 PROT Units/kg (RONOZYME® ProAct,
DSM Nutritional Products). Birds were fed the same diets to 14 d and
experimental diets were provided from 15 to 24 d. South and North SBM
had, respectively, 44.8% and 46.7% CP, 5.0% and 3.9% crude fiber, and
3.9% and 1.6% fat. A Test diet (55.5% SBM, 40.8% corn starch, 0.96% dicalcium phosphate, 1.1% limestone, 0.15% mineral and vitamin premixes,
0.5% salt, 0.01% phytase and 1% Celite) was prepared with each SBM
source. Data were submit to analysis of variance and means were compared by Tukey test. Total excreta was collected from 21 to 24 d whereas
all birds were slaughtered at 24 d for ileal content collection. Feed, excreta
and ileum content were submitted to combustion using an IKA calorimeter as well as analysis of CP, amino acids and dry matter to calculate
their digestibility coefficients, apparent metabolizable energy (AME), and
apparent ileal digestible energy (AIDE). No interactions were found for
SBM and Protease supplementation (P>0.05). Protease supplementation
led to improvements (P<0.05) in AIDE for the two SBM (South=162 kcal/
kg and North=80 kcal/kg). The same improvement was obtained to coefficient of digestibility of CP by 2.1% and 2.5%, respectively. Supplementation with Protease also led to improvements in the digestibility of essential
and nonessential amino acids (P<0.05). Additionally, the coefficient of
digestibility of CP and essential amino acids as Met, Lys, Thr, Trp, Val,
50
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
Leu and Ile were higher with Protease supplementation, and with SBM
of North region (P<0.05). Soybean meal effects varied with its origin supposedly due to differences in their indigestible composition and Protease
supplementation improved the digestibility of energy, protein and amino
acids.
Key Words: broiler, protease, soybean meal
T165Evaluation of a thermostable xylanase in broilers fed
different types of diets Fenglan Yan*1, Mercedes Vazquez-Anon1, Drew
Lichtenstein1, Jonny Lyon2 1Novus International Inc., St. Charles, MO,
USA; 2Verenium Corporation, San Diego, CA, USA
A floor pen trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of a newly developed hyper-thermostable xylanase (CIBENZA® XYLAVERSE®, Novus
International, Inc.) in broilers as affected by diet type. Three types of diets
employed were corn soy (CS), corn soy DDGS poultry byproduct meal
mixed (CSM), and wheat soy (WS) based diets. Within each diet type,
there were 3 treatments: positive control (PC), negative control with 100
kcal/kg less ME (NC), and 1000 U/kg xylanase on top of NC, resulting 9
dietary treatments. Positive control diets were formulated to reflect Agri
Stats average nutrient specifications for starter (0-18 d), grower (18-35 d)
and finisher (35-43 d) phases. Diets were in pellet form except starter diets
which were crumbled after pelleting. Each treatment had 9 replicate pens
of 22 male broilers. Body weight, feed intake, FCR, and mortality were
determined at 18, 35, and 43 d. On d 42, one bird per pen was sacrificed
to measure proventriculus, gizzard, pancreas weight and digesta viscosity. Carcass parameters were obtained on d 44 from 5 birds per pen. Data
were analyzed with one way ANOVA and a P-value ≤0.05 was considered
significantly different. Reduction of 100 kcal/kg in ME resulted in higher
0-43 d FCR in birds fed WS or CSM diet, and with xylanase supplementation the compromised FCR was improved to a level comparable to PC
treatment. Xylanase reduced overall feed intake in broilers fed WS diet
only. With 100 kcal/kg ME reduction, fat pad weight was decreased significantly in broilers fed WS diet by 21% and numerically in broilers fed
CSM diet by 9%, and xylanase supplementation significantly increased
fat pad weight by 25% in WS diet and by 17% in CSM diet to a level that
was not different from PC birds, an indication of improvement in energy
utilization with xylanase. The digesta viscosity in WS birds was higher
than that in CS or CSM birds; xylanase reduced digesta viscosity in WS
birds by 67%, which was equivalent to CS or CSM diets. In summary,
the study demonstrated efficacy of the thermostable xylanase in broilers
fed either wheat or corn based diets in terms of growth performance and
processing parameters.
Key Words: xylanase, broilers, growth performance, processing,
viscosity
T166The use of carbohydrases on broilers diets including 10%
barley leads to the same productive performance as a standard CornSBM based diet. Rafael Hermes*1, Sebastiana C. C. Azevedo2, Joao Luiz
Kill3, Vitor B. Fascina1, Douglas Haese2, Dailton P. Rosin1, Jose Otavio
B. Sorbara1 1DSM Nutritional Products, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Universidade
Vila Velha, Vila Velha, Brazil; 3Centro de Tecnologia Animal - CTA, Vila
Velha, Brazil
Animal feed industry are constantly looking for alternative ingredients for
feed costs reduction.In Brazil the main cereal used for poultry production
is corn, however barley are seasonably available by cheper price. Thus,
this study aimed to evaluate the inclusion of 10% barley on standard broilers diets and if the use of carbohydrases can overcome the expected reduction on animal performance by the use of this less digestible ingredient.
It was used 480 male chicks randomly distributed in 5 treatments of 8
replicates (12 birds each one). Treatments were a positive control diet (PC)
based corn/soybean meal; a PC replacing 10% of corn by barley (BRL);
a BRL + xylanase (XYL, 250 ppm of RONOZYME WX); and a BRL +
β-glucanase (BGL, 400 ppm of RONOZYME VP). Data were submit to
analysis of variance and means were compared by Tukey test (P<0.05). At
the end of the trial (42 days) it was measured the feed intake (FI), weight
gain (WG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Barley inclusion significantly
reduced (P<0.05) the FI (5.043kg), WG (2.836kg) and presented the worst
FCR (1.78), compared to the PC diet (5.049kg, 3.023kg and 1.67, respectively). However, the inclusion of carbohydrases on barley diets, were
able to overcome this productive losses and presented the same (P>0.05)
results as the positive control, where: XYL = 5.166kg, 3.022 and 1.71;
and BGL = 5.124kg, 2.977kg and 1.72 for FI, WG and FCR, respectively.
The inclusion of barley may represent and feed reduction cost and the use
of xylanase and β-glucanase could keep the same productive results as a
standard corn/SBM diets for broilers.
Key Words: Barley, xylanase, glucanase, carbohydrase, broiler
T167 A phytogenic feed additive with esters of short and medium
chain fatty acids can replace in-feed antibiotics in broilers Jan Dirk
van der Klis*, Leopold Jungbauer Delacon Biotechnik GmbH, Steyregg,
Austria
The use of antimicrobial growth promoters (AGP) as in-feed antibiotics is
restricted in different parts of the world by existing or upcoming legislation. Positive effects of AGPs are based on 1) control of the intestinal microbial ecosystem, 2) improved intestinal health and 3) reduced intestinal
inflammation. Feed additives developed to replace AGPs should reflect
these modes of action. Therefore, a combination of a phytogenic feed additive (PFA, Biostrong® 510) based on essential oils, herbs, spices and
saponins with esters of short and medium chain fatty acids (SMCFA) was
evaluated. Two broiler challenge studies (successive inoculation with Eimeria spp at about 9 days of age and Cl. perfringens 5, 6 and 7 days later)
were done. Treatments in challenge study 1 were non-infected non-treated
(NINT), infected non-treated (INT) and infected treated (IT) groups (8
replicates per treatment) with two dose levels of the SMCFA esters (2000
mg/kg and 3000 mg/kg). Stafac 20 was used as a positive control (PC). In
challenge study 2, NINT, INT and IT groups (6 replicates per treatment)
with SMCFA esters (700 mg/kg feed) alone and in combination with the
PFA (150 mg/kg feed) were tested.
In challenge study 1, SMCFA esters improved lesions scores (p<0.05)
and reduced NE related mortality from 11% to 5% and 3% (p<0.05) at
2000 mg/kg and 3000 mg/kg, respectively. Moreover, they improved feed
efficiency (p<0.05) by 8.8% compared to INT birds, resulting in values
similar (P>0.05) to PC. Results on lesion scores were confirmed in the second challenge experiment: SMCFA esters decreased necrotic lesion scores
by 15% on Day 16, whereas the combination of PFA and SMCFA esters
reduced these scores by 36% (p<0.05), from 2.0 in INT to 1.2 in IT. During the challenge period SMCFA esters alone or in combination with PFA
improved FCR by 1.3 and 2.4%, respectively compared to INT.
The combination of PFA with SMCFA esters improved the resistance of
broilers against necrotic enteritis and their feed efficiency during challenge in an AGP free diet.
Key Words: necrotic enteritis, health, performance, broiler
T168 The efficacy of a xylanase vs. a complex of carbohydrases on
the growth performance of turkey hens fed a wheat-soybean meal
based diet from 0 to 84 days-of-age J.L. Grimes*1, A.C. Fahrenholz1, I.B.
Barasch1, C.E. Evans1, S. Gately2, N. Sriperm2, S.B. Essick1, R.B. Shirley2
1
North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA; 2Adisseo USA, Inc.,
Alpharetta, GA, USA
This study evaluated the efficacy of a single xylanase (Belfeed; 48 g/MT)
vs. a multi-enzyme carbohydrase (Rovabio Excel LC; 200 ml/MT) on the
performance of Hybrid-Converter turkey hens from 0 to 84 days-of-age
when fed on-top in a wheat-soy diet. The treatments included 1. a Control
diet that was surfeit in all nutrients, 2. the Control diet plus the single xylanase, and 3. the Control diet plus the multi-enzyme carbohydrase. The
phases included a Starter 1 (day-of-hatch to 21 days; crumble), Starter
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
2 (21-42 days; small pellet), Grower 1 (42-63 days; pellet) and Grower
2 (63-84 days; pellet). Using a randomized block design, each treatment
was replicated three times within each of four blocks, and each replicate
pen contained 25 day-of-hatch female poults. Data were analyzed using
ANOVA and deemed significant at a p<0.05. Comparing the performance
data of treatments within phases and across cumulative periods of the
study, there were no statistical differences in body weight (BW), body
weight gain (BWG), feed consumption (FC) or feed conversion ratio
(FCR) between the three treatments in Starter phase 1 and 2. The same
was observed in the Grower 1 and 2 phases for BW and BWG; however,
significant differences in FCR were observed for the respective Grower 1
and 2 phases and their cumulative periods (i.e. 0 to 63 and 0 to 84 days,
respectively). In Grower 1, feeding the Control and xylanase treatments
resulted in a FCR of 2.11 and 2.12, respectively, while using the multienzyme carbohydrase resulted in a FCR of 2.05 (p=0.019); the total 0 to
63 day FCR were 1.90 for treatments 1 and 2, and 1.85 for treatment 3
(p=0.001). In the Grower 2 phase, hens fed treatment 1 had a higher FCR
(2.66; p=0.002) vs. treatment 2 (2.56) and treatment 3 (2.55). Comparing
FCR across the 0 to 84 day growout, treatment 1 had a FCR of 2.16, treatment 2 had a FCR of 2.14 and treatment 3 had a FCR of 2.10 (P=0.001). In
conclusion, the on-top addition of the multi-enzyme carbohydrase resulted
in a more consistent and significantly improved feed conversion response
when compared to the nutritionally adequate Control and the single xylanase treatments.
Key Words: Turkey hen, Multi-enzyme carbohydrase, Xylanase,
Rovabio, Wheat-soybean meal diet
T169 Fiber and nutrient retention responses of supplemental xylanase
in broiler chickens fed wheat based diets are independent of the
acclimatization period to test diets Elijah Kiarie*1, Luis Romero1, Ravi
Ravindran2 1DuPont Industrial Biosciences-Danisco Animal Nutrition,
Marlborough, United Kingdom; 2Massey University, Palmerston North,
New Zealand
Protocols for measuring efficacy of fiber degrading enzymes such as xylanase on the retention of fiber and nutrients rarely examine the impact
of the duration of exposure to treatment diets. In the current study, we
evaluated the effects of exposing broilers to xylanase-supplemented diets
for 7 or 21 d on fiber and nutrient retention at 21 d of age. Six treatments,
arranged in two levels of exposure to experimental diets (starting at d 0
or d 14 of age) by three levels of xylanase (0 or 2,500 or 5,000 xylanase
units (XU)/kg feed) were used. Xylanase was added to a wheat-based diet
with 500 phytase U/kg and 0.3% TiO2 as indigestible marker. Enzymes
were provided by Danisco UK Ltd, Marlborough, UK. A total of 384 d
old male broiler (Ross 308) chicks were divided into two groups. The first
group was assigned on weight basis to 24 cages (8 chicks per cage) and
allocated to the diets from d 0. Birds in the second group were reared on
a commercial feed in the same environmentally controlled room for 13 d.
On d 14, the birds were individually weighed and assigned on weight basis
to 24 cages (8 chicks per cage) and allocated to the diets. Birds had free access to experimental diets and water. Feed intake and excreta output were
recorded per cage from d 18 to 21. On d 21, six birds per cage were euthanized to access the ileal digesta. There was no interaction (P > 0.05) between acclimatization period and supplemental xylanase for the apparent
ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent retention (AR) of fiber, nutrients and
energy. The main effect of acclimatization was such that the birds exposed
to diets for 7 d had higher (P< 0.01) AID of energy than those exposed
for 21 d. In contrast, birds exposed to diets for 21 d had higher (P < 0.05)
AMEn and AR of neutral detergent fiber (NDF). Xylanase improvements
(P < 0.01) in the AID of energy and AMEn were dose dependent. The AID
of energy of the birds fed the control and 5,000 XU/kg diets were 66.9 and
70.8, respectively. The corresponding values for the AMEn were 3035 and
3202 kcal/kg DM, respectively. The improvements in the AID of energy
with xylanase supplementation coincided with linear improvements (P <
0.05) in the AID of nitrogen, fat and starch. Birds fed diets with xylanase
51
had higher (P > 0.05) AR of dry matter, fat and NDF. In particular, birds
fed 5,000 XU/kg diets retained 85% more NDF (36.2 vs. 19.6 g/kg DM)
than the control birds. The results suggested xylanase responses at d 21
on the retention of fiber, nutrients and energy were independent of the
duration (7 or 21 d) that the birds were exposed to the diets. The data also
showed that longer exposure resulted in more retained fiber suggesting
possible microbial adaptation.
Key Words: Acclimatization, broilers, nutrient retention, phytase,
xylanase
T170 Effects of protease and glucanase on nutrient digestibility
of soybean meal in broiler chickens Sergio Luiz Vieira*1, Catarina
Stefanello1, Gabriela de Oliveira Santiago1, Natália Chaves Serafini1, José
Otávio Berti Sorbara2, Rafael Gustavo Hermes2 1UFRGS, Porto Alegre,
Brazil; 2DSM Nutritional Products, São Paulo, Brazil
A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different enzymes on
soybean meal (SBM). A total of 280 Cobb 500 male broilers were placed
in 40 battery cages, with 5 treatments and 8 replications of 7 birds each.
Birds were fed the same diets to 14 d, and experimental diets were provided from 15 to 24 d. SBM had 46.7% CP, 3.9% crude fiber, and 1.6%
fat. A Test diet (55.5% SBM, 40.8% corn starch, 0.96% dicalcium phosphate, 1.1% limestone, 0.15% mineral and vitamin premixes, 0.5% salt,
0.01% phytase (RONOZYME HiPhos) and 1% Celite) was prepared.
Four enzyme products were individually added to the Test diet: Carbohydrase complex (RONOZYME VP with 100 Fungal β-glucanase Units/
kg), Protease (RONOZYME ProAct with 15,000 PROT Units/kg), Commercial Protease PROT 1 and Commercial Protease PROT 2. Total excreta was collected from 21 to 24 d whereas all birds were slaughtered
at 24 d for ileal content collection. Feed, excreta and ileum content were
submitted to combustion using an IKA calorimeter as well as analysis of
crude protein (CP), amino acids and dry matter to calculate their digestibility coefficients, apparent metabolizable energy (AME), and apparent
ileal digestible energy (AIDE). An Anova with Dunnet test was conducted
(5% significance). Supplementation with Carbohydrase complex, Protease and the Commercial product PROT 2 increased the AME, respectively
of 51, 47 and 19 kcal/kg (P<0.05). The addition of Carbohydrase complex
and Protease led to improvements in the apparent ileal digestibility of CP
of 1.5% and 2.5%, respectively (P<0.05). The coefficient of digestibility
of essential and nonessential amino acids increased with Carbohydrase
complex and Protease supplementation (P<0.05). Additionally, Protease
supplementation improved the coefficient of digestibility of Met, Lys, Thr,
Arg, Trp and Val, respectively in 2.7%, 2.2%, 2.9%, 1.3%, 1.9% and 2.2%.
It is concluded that Carbohydrase and Proteases supplementation was efficient to improve the digestibility of energy, protein and amino acids.
Key Words: broiler, carbohydrase, protease, soybean meal
T171 The effect of a protease and a carbohydrase on true ileal amino
acids digestibility. Rodrigo Knop Guazzi Messias*1, Luiz Fernando
Teixeira Albino1, Sandra Carolina Salguero1, Horácio Santiago Rostagno1,
José Otávio Sorbara2, Rafael Hermes2 1Universidade Federal de Viçosa,
Viçosa, Brazil; 2DSM Nutritional Products, São Paulo, Brazil
The objective of this trial was to evaluate the isolated or combined effect
of a protease and a carbohydrase on protein amino and acids digestibility
of two broiler diets differing in the crude protein (CP) content. It were
used 504 broilers chick from 20 to 24 days of age, randomly allocated in
blocks (repeated over time) in a factorial design 4x2 (enzymes and crude
protein levels), resulting in 8 treatments, with 6 replications and 7 birds
per pen. A group were kept receiving a protein free diet to determine the
endogenous losses and then calculate the true ileal digestibility indexes
(TID, %). Also, it were prepared 2 different diets with 14.7 and 21% of
CP, supplemented or not by protease (200 ppm of RONOZYME ProAct)
and carbohydrase (300 ppm of RONOZYME VP) or its combination. Ileal
samples were collected at 24 days and it was analyzed the aminoacids
52
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
(AAs), CP and TID. Data were submitted to ANOVA in a 4x2 factorial
arrangement and considering treatment as statistically different when the
probability of 5% (P<0.05). It was observed an interaction (P<0.05) between factors for CP, Met, Lys, Ala, Pro, Ser, Gli, Leu, Phe, and the sum
of AAs digestibility, where is possible to see that enzymes had a low effect
when used individuality in 14.7% CP diet, but when used in association,
it promotes improvements of amino acids digestibility in both diets for
the most amino acids. The poorest CP diet presented higher (P<0.05) AAs
digestibility indexes for Arg, Treo, Val, Met, Lys and the AAs Sum (90.4;
79.5; 82.0; 94.2; 86.5 and 82.2, respectively), compared to the richest one
(87.8; 77.1; 78.9; 94.0; 85.5, 79.7); however presented a lower (P<0.05)
CP digestibility (81.8 vs. 82.4). The combined use of both enzymes presented the highest (P<0.05) AAs digestibility indexes for Arg, Treo, Met,
Lys, AAs Sum and CP (90.8; 80.1; 94.9; 87.5; 83.7 and 84.5, respectively),
compared to a non-treated diet (87.5; 75.9; 94.1; 83.7; 78.5 and 79.7). It
can be concluded that a CP-deficient diet may lead to a higher digestibility indexes, likely due to a compensatory mechanism. Also, from data
presented, it can be clearly see the effect of a combination of protease and
carbohydrase to improve the protein metabolism.
Key Words: Enzymes, Protease, Carbohydrase, Enzyme Combination,
Amino acids
T172 Eimeria acervulina infection decreases growth, plasma
carotenoids, and apparent ileal amino acid digestibility in broiler
chicks Samuel Rochell*1, Ariane Helmbrecht2, John Thomson3, Terri
Parr4, James Usry4, Carl Parsons1, Ryan Dilger1 1University of Illinois,
Urbana, IL, USA; 2Evonik Industries, Hanau-Wolfgang, Germany; 3Evonik
Corporation, Kennesaw, GA, USA; 4Micronutrients, Indianapolis, IN, USA
An experiment was conducted to evaluate growth performance, plasma
carotenoid concentrations, and apparent ileal amino acid digestibility
(AIAAD) in broiler chicks inoculated with graded doses of E. acervulina
oocysts. Ross 308 male chicks (400 total) were housed in battery cages
and received a common starter diet upon arrival. At 9 d of age, chicks were
weighed, allotted to 4 treatment groups, and provided a common cornsoybean meal-based grower diet. At 15 d of age, all chicks were weighed
and received an oral inoculation of 1 mL of distilled, deionized water that
contained 0 (SHAM), 2.5 × 105 (250K), 5.0 × 105 (500K), or 1.0 × 106
(1MIL) sporulated E. acervulina oocysts. There were 10 replicate cages
of 10 chicks for each of the 4 experimental treatment groups. At 21 d of
age, chick and feeder weights were recorded, and all chicks were euthanized for collection of blood (2 birds per pen) and ileal digesta (10 birds
per pen). Body weight gain, feed intake, and feed efficiency decreased
linearly (P < 0.05) from 15 to 21 d of age with increasing E. acervulina
dose. Body weight gain and feed efficiency were reduced by 20.0 and
10.6%, respectively, for chicks in the 1MIL group compared with those
in the SHAM group. Infection with E. acervulina induced a quadratic decrease (P < 0.05) in plasma carotenoid concentrations with values of 5.01,
3.34, 1.82, and 1.55 µg/mL for chicks in the SHAM, 250K, 500K, and
1MIL groups, respectively. Compared with the SHAM group, AIAAD
values were decreased by an average of 0.9, 3.1, and 2.6 percentage units
for chicks in the 250K, 500K, and 1MIL groups, respectively. Average
AIAAD values for chicks inoculated with the 2 highest E. acervulina
doses were 2.5, 5.3, 3.0, 3.6, and 3.6 percentage units lower for Met, Cys,
Lys, Thr, and Val, respectively, than for chicks in the SHAM group. In
conclusion, these data demonstrate the dose-dependent impact of an acute
E. acervulina infection on amino acid digestibility in broilers.
Key Words: broiler, coccidiosis, Eimeria, amino acid, digestibility
T173 Evaluation of Xylanase and Poultrygrow 250™ (a Protease
Enzyme) Alone or in Combination in a Reduced Density Broiler Diet
Brett Lumpkins*1, Greg Mathis1, J.C. Bodin2, Ludovic Lahaye2 1Southern
Poultry Research, Inc., Athens, GA, USA; 2Jefo, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC,
Canada
The effectiveness of exogenous enzyme use has now been proven to poultry nutritionists but most of the time alone and their benefits in combination in standard broiler diets are still sometimes questioned. The objective
of this study was to evaluate the potential of Xylanase (Xyl) from bacterial
origin and Poultrygrow 250™ individually or in combination when added
to broiler diets with a reduced density based on live performance and carcass and breast yield. A 42d broiler floor-pen study was conducted using
Cobb 500 male chicks that were fed one of the following 5 treatments:
T1) positive control (commercial grade diet without enzymes), T2) negative control (NC) (positive control minus 80 kcal/kg and 5% AA from 0
to 42d) T3) NC+ Xyl (100g/Mton), T4) NC + Poultrygrow 250™ (125g/
Mton), and T5) NC + Xyl and Poultrygrow 250™. A randomized block
design with 12 replications of 20 birds per pen was used. Feed and water
were available ad libitum. Bird weights and feed consumption (kg) by pen
were recorded at 0, 19, 35, and 42d. At 43d, 4 birds from each pen were
randomly selected for processing to measure carcass and breast yield.
Throughout the study, a significant difference (p<0.05) in BWG and FCR
was observed between T1 and T2 at all measuring periods demonstrating a
formulation of decreased nutrient density between diets. During the starter
period (0 to 19d) the birds fed T5 had improved BWG and FCR over the
NC diets and were similar to (p<0.05) T1 fed birds. However, when Xyl or
the Poultrygrow 250™ was fed alone there was no difference in BWG and
FCR to the T2 fed birds. The birds fed T5, Xylanase-Poultrygrow 250™
combination, had improved (p<0.05) FCR over T2 fed birds and the birds
fed either of the enzyme alone diets at 35 d and 42d of age. Furthermore,
at 35d of age the BWG of birds fed the NC diet with either enzyme alone
or in combination was improved over the T2 fed birds. There was no difference (p>0.05) in FI between T1 fed birds and the birds fed the T5 diet at
the 19 and 42d periods. The birds fed the Xyl diet had similar carcass and
breast yield to the T1 fed birds. Therefore, based on the current research
the combination of Xyl and Poultrygrow 250™ had the greatest improvement in performance on birds fed a low density diet.
Key Words: Xylanase, Poultrygrow 250™, protease, enzyme, carcass
yield
T174 The effect of exogenous phytase and xylanase on dietary energy
and nutrient digestibility for broiler chickens Waseem Mirza*1, Vasil
PIRGOZLIEV1, PAUL ROSE1, Mike Bedford2 1The National Institute of
Poultry Husbandry, Harper Adams University, Newport, Shropshire TF10
8NB, Shropshire, United Kingdom; 2AB Vista Feed Ingredients, Woodstock
Court, Blenheim Road, Marlborough Business Park, Marlborough,
Wiltshire, SN8 4AN, UK, Marlborough, United Kingdom
The study was conducted to determine the effects on dietary N-corrected
apparent metabolisable energy (AMEn), dry matter (DMD), nitrogen
(ND) and P digestibility and growth performance when wheat-soybean
mash diet supplemented with exogenous xylanase and phytase individually or in combination was fed to male 308 Ross broiler chickens from
day old to 21d age. Six hundred and forty day old chickens were allocated
to 4 dietary treatments. The treatments were as follows: 1) control with
0.33% available P (C); 2) C plus 100 g/t of a 5000 FTU/g phytase (500
FTU/kg feed, Finase, ABVista Feed Ingredients); 3) C plus 100 g/t of a
160,000 BXU/g xylanase (16,000 BXU/kg feed Econase XT, ABVista
Feed Ingredients); 4) C plus 500 FTU and 16,000 BXU/kg feed. Each
diet was fed to 8 floor pens per treatment (20 birds in a pen) following
randomisation. Diets included TiO2 as indigestible marker. At 18 d age
three birds from each pen were placed in a metabolism cages and fed the
same diets for another two to ensure their gastrointestinal tracts were free
from potential bedding consumption. Excreta were collected over night
when birds were 21d old and subjected to analysis. Data was analysed
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
by ANOVA as a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. The main effects were the two enzymes used in the study. Feeding phytase or xylanase
improved (P<0.001) feed intake, weight gain and feed efficiency of the
birds, and whereas adding phytase to the xylanase diet further improved
performance, the magnitude of improvement was not additive (significant
interactions noted). Similarly, feeding individual enzymes also improved
(P<0.001) dietary AMEn, DMR and ND and whilst feeding a combination of both enzymes improved (P<0.05) these variables further, the magnitude of improvement was not additive (significant phytase x xylanase
interactions). However, digestibility of dietary P was improved by feeding
phytase (P<0.001) and xylanase (P<0.05) individually and in combination
(no interaction P>0.05). The current study shows that feeding phytase and
xylanase to growing broilers improves performance, energy and nutrient
availability of diets. The combination of enzymes resulted in further improvements in digestibility parameters, particularly P digestibility, which
may benefit performance further if these nutrients were limiting and/or the
growth model was more sensitive.
Key Words: Phytase, Xylanase, Broilers, ME, P digestibility
T175 Effects of β-mannanase on nutrient utilization in young broilers
fed diets containing variable levels of β-mannan Justina Caldas*1,
Jinrong Wang1, Karen Vignale1, Nirun Boonsinchai1, Andrew Magnuson1,
Monticha Putsakum2, Judith England1, Craig Coon1 1University of
Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA; 2School of Agriculture and Cooperatives,
Nonthaburi, Thailand
This experiment was conducted to determine the negative effects of
β-mannan from soybean meal (SBM) and guar gum (GG) on live performance and nutrient metabolism and to determine the positive effect if
β-mannanase is included. 504 Cobb male chickens were allocated to 72
cages for a 7-21 d study. 3 diets [low SBM (18%); high SBM (31%); and
high SBM + 0.5% GG] with 3 levels of β-mannanase (0, 200 and 400 ppm)
were mixed to produce 9 diets. Nutrient digestibility, viscosity, glucose,
insulin and IGF-1 were analyzed. A factorial design 3x3 was analyzed
with JMP pro 11 (SAS, 2013); when ANOVA was significant means were
separated by t-student or contrast analysis at p-value <0.05. β-mannanase
improved FCR 7 points with inclusion of 400 ppm in high SBM diet (pvalue = 0.018) and improved FCR 18 and 19 points with 200 and 400
ppm, respectively, in the high SBM + GG diet (p-value <0.001). Viscosity
was decreased from 19.2 cps to 7 cps with both enzyme doses in the high
SBM + GG diet (p-value <0.0001). Digestible energy was increased 200
Kcal/kg with 400 ppm β-mannanase in the high SBM diet and 220 kcal/kg
with both levels of enzyme in high SBM + GG diet. Digestibility of amino
acids was improved from 0.8% - 3.6% with β-mannanase in high SBM +
GG diet (p-value = 0.02 – 0.05). Glucose levels were higher for 200 ppm
β-mannanase compared to control chicks (190 mg/dl vs 182 mg/dl) in the
fasted state (p-value <0.036). Glucose levels in chicks in the re-fed state
were lower for the high SBM and high SBM + GG diets (p-value < 0.001).
Insulin was higher for chicks fed test diets with 200 and 400 ppm added
β-mannanase in the fed state at p-value = 0.019. Insulin was lower in the
fasted state for chicks fed high SBM diets (p-value = 0.043). IGF-1 was
increased in chicks in fed state that were fed high SBM and high SBM +
GG diets. The contrast analysis shows higher values of IGF-1 with 200
and 400 ppm added β-mannanase in chicks fed high SBM + GG diets (pvalues =0.046 and 0.006, respectively) in the re-fed state. In conclusion,
chicks fed high SBM and high SBM + GG diets with added β-mannanase
significantly improved blood glucose and anabolic hormone homeostasis,
FCR, digestible energy, and digestible amino acids compared to chicks fed
same diets without β-mannanase.
Key Words: Broilers, B-mannanase, blood parameters, viscosity
53
T176 Protease supplementation and reduction of crude protein and
methionine + cystine in diets of laying hens from 21 to 44 weeks of
age Diana Suckeveris*1, Douglas Emygdio de Faria1, Daniel Faria Filho1,
Leandro Félix Demuner1, Julian Andres Muñoz1, José Otávio Sorbara2,
Rafael Hermes2, Vitor Barbosa Fascina2 1Faculty of Animal Science and
Food Engineering, University of Sao Paulo, Pirassununga, Brazil; 2DSM
Nutritional Products, Pirassununga, Brazil
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of reduction of crude
protein and methionine + cystine (RCPMC), and protease (PRO) in cornsoybean meal diets for laying hens, according to Hy-Line W36 Manual
(2013), on performance and egg quality (EQ) characteristics. 168 hens
from 21 to 32 (Phase I) and 33 to 44 (Phase II) weeks of age were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 3 x 2 factorial scheme
(RCPMC x PRO), with 6 treatments and 7 replicates of 4 birds each. The
enzyme was RONOZYME® ProAct (CT) included at 9000 PROT/kg and
the matrix enzyme was valued once and twice, with or without PRO. Feed
intake (FI), egg production (EP), egg weight (EW), egg mass (EM), feed
conversion ratio per egg mass (FCREM) and per dozen (FCRDZ) were
evaluated at the end of each production period (28 days). 3 eggs per experimental unit were collected for internal EQ: Haugh Unit (HU), index
yolk (IY), yolk percent (YP) and albumen percent (AP) and external EQ:
specific gravity (SG), shell percent (SP) and shell thickness (ST). Data
were subjected to analysis of variance and Tukey test (5%) using SAS®
9.2. In the Phase I no differences were found among treatments for FI, EP,
EM, FCREM, FCRDZ and internal EQ. There was interaction (P<0.05)
of the effects of RCPMC and PRO on EW showing improvements results
when included PRO with diet control and enhancing the nutritional matrix
once. Hens fed diets using PRO promoted best results for SG, SP and ST
than diets without PRO. In the Phase II there were not differences among
treatments for FI, EP, EM and FCREM. For FCRDZ was significantly
better using enhancing the nutritional matrix twice. For AP was significantly higher for control and enhancing the nutritional matrix once than
twice. Hens fed diets using PRO obtained greater results for SG and ST
compared with diets without PRO. In conclusion, the reduction of crude
protein and methionine + cystine and ProAct supplementation promoted
the same performance as the diet control and the use of ProAct improved
eggshell quality.
Key Words: Avian, Egg quality, Enzymes, Nutrition, Performance
T177 Influence of a phytogenic blend on nutrient digestibility and
growth performance in broiler chickens Ganapathi Raj Murugesan*1,
Christine Hunger2, Carina Schieder2, Klaus Manner3, Jurgen Zentek3
1
BIOMIN America Inc., San Antonio, TX, USA; 2BIOMIN Holding GmbH,
Herzogenburg, Austria; 3Freie University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a phytogenic
blend containing matrix-encapsulated essential oils (PFA) on the apparent ileal nutrient and amino acid digestibility and growth performance of
broiler chickens. Day-old Cobb-500 chicks were assigned to 16 floor pens
based on body weight with 8 pens per group and 20 birds per pen from
day 1-42 in experiment 1 and 1-21 days in experiment 2. The corn-soywheat based control diet was formulated to meet the breeder requirements,
while the treatment diet was prepared by adding 0.01% of PFA with the
control diet. Weekly body weight gain (BWG), feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were determined in both the experiments. In addition,
apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of crude ash (CA), crude protein (CP),
amino acids (AA), ether extract (EE), calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P)
were determined using TiO2 (0.5%) as dietary inert marker on day 21.
Data were analyzed using ANOVA in SPSS and each floor pen was treated
as an experimental unit. Protected least square means of the groups were
compared against each other using the Tukey’s test. Overall BWG was
increased (P ≤ 0.02) in birds fed PFA compared to the control. However,
the feed intake and mortality did not differ between the groups. An overall
trend (P ≤ 0.08) of lowered FCR in the group of birds fed the PFA was
observed. Moreover, the supplementation of PFA enhanced the AID of
54
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
CP (P ≤ 0.01), total AA (P ≤ 0.05), and P (P ≤ 0.03) in comparison to the
birds fed the control diet. These results suggest that supplementation of
the matrix-encapsulated PFA used in the present experiment enhanced the
ileal nutrient digestibility as well as the growth performance of modern
broiler chickens.
Key Words: apparent ileal digestibility, essential oils, crude protein,
amino acids, phosphorus
T178 Effect of Hemicell HT® enzyme on the immune system of
chickens and their performance Nannette Olmeda Geniec*1, Fatemeh
Alemi2, Kirk Klasing2 1Elanco Animal Helath, Aston, PA, USA; 2University
of California Davis, Davis, CA, USA
A pilot efficacy study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding
a commercially produced enzyme Hemicell HT on the immune responsiveness of chickens during their first 21 days of life. Three experimental
diets were studied: Treatment A-Basal diet minus 40kcal/lb, Treatment BBasal diet plus 40 kcal/lb, and Treatment C-Basal diet minus 40 kcal/lb
plus Hemicell HT enzyme at inclusion rate of 100MU/ton. Chicks were
provided experimental diets for 21 days. Pen weights, feeder weights and
tissue samples from one bird/pen were taken at 7D, 14D and 21D. Performance data showed the most robust effect of Hemicell HT on gain and
efficiency during the first and second weeks of the study. Histology results
showed that the diets A and B had very similar intestinal morphology indicating that additional energy had no apparent effects on intestinal health.
The effect of Treatment C was greatest on day 7, where an increase in the
length of the villi and a decrease in the thickness of the lamina propria in
the duodenum, jejunum and ileum were observed. Treatment C decreased
the number of intra-epithelial lymphocytes in the cecum as well as heterophils in the blood on day 21. No treatment effect was found on acute phase
proteins. Diets A and B had very similar levels of cytokine expression in
all regions of the intestines, indicating that additional energy had no apparent effects on intestinal inflammation. In contrast, Treatments C showed
an anti-inflammatory effect as indicated by decreasing IL-1 and IL-6 and
increasing IL-10 mRNA. In conclusion, Treatment C demonstrated significant improvement compared to control diets A and B. Changes in histological indices and cytokine expression indicate decreased inflammation
in the intestines by the inclusion of the enzyme in the diet. These results
are consistent with the idea that a reduction of intestinal inflammation is
the mechanism for improved performance when birds are fed Hemicell
HT in the presence of mannan content in the diet.
Key Words: enzyme, mannan, immunity, cytokines, broiler
T179 Impact of dietary mannan-oligosaccharide (Bio-mos®) on
productive performance, immune status and control of necrotic
enteritis in broiler chickens Mohamed Ahmed Tony*1, Ahmed Abd
El-Hadi2, Mohamed Mamdouh Hamoud3 1Department of Nutrition and
Clinical Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza,
Egypt; 2Poultry Production Following Sector, Agrarian Reform, Giza,
Egypt; 3Department of Poultry Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,
Cairo University, Giza, Egypt
The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different levels of mannan-oligosaccharide (Bio-mos®) as feed additive on productive
performance, immune status and control of necrotic enteritis in broiler
chickens. A total of 300 one-day-old broiler chicks (Cobb local breed)
as hatched were allocated randomly to three dietary treatments on floor
pens (100 birds/group). Control group was fed on three stages basal diets
without supplementation. The second and third groups (T1 and T2) were
reared on the same basal diets supplemented with Bio-mos® 250 and 500
g/ton feed respectively. Feed and water were available ad-libitum for 35
days experimental period. Feed consumption and live body weight were
recorded weekly to calculate body gain and feed conversion. Birds were
subjected to a vaccination program, including Newcastle Disease (ND)
and Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD). Immune status was determined
by hemagglutination inhibition test and ELISA assay. At day 16 of age
10 birds from each group were isolated and challenged orally with 1 ml
containing Clostridium perferingens (107 cfu/mL) daily for 3 consecutive
days. Post-challenge, lesion scores, mortalities and intestinal C. Perfringens levels were assessed. Feed intake and live body gain were improved
significantly (p<0.05) and feed conversion was reduced in broiler chickens consumed diets containing Bio-mos®. The best feed conversion was
recorded in T2 group. Bio-mos® significantly enhanced immune responses
measured against vaccines. The log10 C. perfringens/g of intestinal contents was significantly reduced (p<0.05) in the Bio-mos® treated groups.
T2 group showed the best results. Mortality was reduced in both treated
groups in contrast to the control group. The present study revealed that
the birds consumed Bio-mos® showed a reduction in the severity of lesion score. In conclusion, mannan-oligosaccharide (Bio-mos®) has positive effects on production performance, enhancing immunity and disease
resistance in broiler chickens. Bio-mos® feed additive can be used as a safe
alternative to antibiotics and attractive aid for prevention and control of
Clostridium perferingens infections in broilers.
Key Words: Mannan-oligosaccharide, Bio-mos®, broiler chicken,
performance, necrotic enteritis
T180
Performance evaluation of commercial broilers fed
Algamune™-ZPC10, a zinc polysaccharide complex containing beta1,3-glucan derived from microalgae Geoff Horst*1, Robert Levine1,
Karen Christensen2 1Algal Scientific Corporation, Northville, MI, USA;
2
OK Industries, Fort Chaffee, AZ, USA
Beta glucan is a well-known immunomodulator that has been shown to
reduce the effects of stress and disease in broilers. The objective of the
current study was to evaluate the performance effects of a new feed additive containing beta-1,3-glucan derived from microalgae when included in
the diet of broilers. The study was carried out at O.K. Foods’ commercial
research facility in a house containing 96 pens arranged in 8 blocks of 12
pens. Each pen was 4’1” square and contained 22 birds (males, Ross x
Ross 708). Algamune™ ZPC10, which is a zinc polysaccharide complex
that contains 35% beta-1,3-glucan and 10% zinc, was incorporated into
each diet at a rate of 125, 250, or 500 grams per metric ton of feed (g/MT).
The control group received the standard diets without Algamune™ ZPC.
In total, seven different inclusion levels of Algamune™ ZPC were examined in this performance study. In treatment groups 2, 3, and 4, a consistent
level of Algamune™ ZPC (125, 250, or 500 g/MT, respectively) was included in each diet from day 0 to day 49. In treatment groups 5 and 6, the
starter diet contained 500 g/MT Algamune™ ZPC and the dose decreased
thereafter to 125 g/MT (treatment 5) or 0 g/MT (treatment 6) in the grower
diet. Likewise, the starter dose in treatments 7 and 8 was 250 g/MT and
decreased thereafter to 125 g/MT in treatment 7 or 0 g/MT in treatment 8.
Performance was significantly affected by inclusion of various amounts
of beta glucan. Treatment 2 (125 g/MT Algamune™ ZPC for the full 49
days) demonstrated the largest improvement in performance relative to the
control group (Treatment 1): the growth rate was 3.4% faster and the overall mortality-adjusted feed conversion ratio was 1.9% lower (3.4 points).
When this FCR was standardized to a 7.5 lb bird, this treatment group
showed a 4.3% improvement (7.8 points) relative to the control. Treatment 6 (500 g/MT in the starter only) showed a 0.5% improvement in
adjusted FCR compared to the control, which equates to a 2.9% improvement (5.2 points) when standardized to a 7.5 lb bird. Likewise, Treatment
7 (250 g/MT in the starter, 125 g/MT in grower, none in finisher) showed
a 0.4% improvement in adjusted FCR which equates to a 1.7% improvement (3 points) when standardized to a 7.5 lb bird. Both Treatment 6 and
7 showed significant improvement in D0-49 growth rate (3.4% and 2.0%,
respectively) compared to the control group. Taken together, these data
suggest that the beta glucan in Algamune™ ZPC is likely highly bioavailable and serves as a growth-promoting immunomodulator when used at
relatively low doses. An economic analysis based on typical feed costs
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
revealed that a producer can expect over a 4 times return on investment
using Algamune™ ZPC at 125 g/MT in all feeds.
55
Key Words: beta glucan, broiler performance, microalgae
Environment Management III
T181 Unique Gasification Process for Litter Generating Energy and
Fertilizer Jerod Smeek* DenYon LLC, Webster, IA, USA
DenYon Energy, LLC and Frontline BioEnergy, LLC are developing an
advanced gasification system for the conversion of poultry litter into usable energy and soil amendments. A lab-scale demonstration system was
built and tested using turkey litter and layer manure and demonstrated
substantial process improvements over prior art. The system includes
Frontline’s unique fluid bed gasifier that produces a combustible gas free
of higher hydrocarbons (also known as tars), enabling the capture of feedstock nitrogen as ammonium sulfate fertilizer, a nutrient rich char-ash
material that is also a fertilizer/soil amendment, and clean, combustible
fuel gas for conversion into thermal or electric energy. The use of a fluid
bed enables excellent temperature control to greatly reduce the potential
for clinkering typically experienced by most thermal conversion systems.
Production of a fuel gas free of tars is a pre-requisite for ammonia scrubbing and use of the fuel gas in an internal combustion engine for electric
power generation. The capture of feedstock nitrogen as ammonium sulfate
is unique, as most litter thermal conversion systems oxidize the nitrogen
with resulting NOx in the flue gas. The ammonium sulfate is a substantial
revenue source, increasing revenue by as much as 80% over energy production alone. No residual wastes are produced and the combusted gas
complies with air emission regulations. Numerous tests, including a 10day duration test, successfully demonstrated the production of a tar-free
combustible gas and other fertilizer co-products with ‘clinker-free’ operation. DenYon is designing a prototype to demonstrate on-farm operation.
Key Words: litter conversion, gasification, energy, fertilizer
T182 Methods to evaluate efficacy of In-Ovo Marek’s vaccination
Pieter Kuhne* MSD AH, in US Merck AH, Boxmeer, Netherlands
In-ovo vaccination is the delivery of vaccine(s) in: Amniotic fluid and/or
in the Embryo around the 18th day of hatch.
It is an: Accurate, Automated Mass application of vaccines, and, at the
same time an Individual vaccine delivery. The aim is a Quick*, Careful*,
and Safe* vaccine delivery of exactly one dose of vaccine to Amnion*
and/or Embryo* of each hatching egg. The result is strongly depending
on in-ovo vaccination equipment, and professional coaching of involved
hatchery employees.
The reason for studying the efficacy of in-ovo vaccination is that; Limited
knowledge is available and we would like to have more information on
vaccine take. Missed egg stays life-long unprotected (HVT recombinant
vaccines do not spread from bird to bird). Besides that it would be interesting to study differences between different equipment’s?
At present a few studies are known defining the injection location and
vaccination efficacy.
We studied:
1) Efficacy study using vaccine virus re-isolation.
900 eggs from Parent Ross 308, 42Weeks of age were injected inovo on the 18th day of hatch using Vinovo device. Vaccine used was
Nobilis HVT CA126.from separate eggs 20 birds were injected SC
at day of hatch. 60 hatched chicken from the in-ovo batch and 20 SC
vaccinated chicks were placed in Isolators. At 14/15 days of age virus
isolation from spleens of chicks was done.
2) efficacy studies method: vaccine virus DNA detection (PCR)
3 batches of eggs were vaccinated in ovo with Vinovo. First batch
(Tial1 15.00 birds) was placed in one house. The next two batches
(Trial 2 and 3, 30.000 birds) were placed in two houses A and B.
Feathers were collected from 45 broilers per house on day 21-22 of
live. Feathers were to GD Deventer (NL) and tested in their qPCR
HVT.
The results will show that, a high grade of right vaccine application and
vaccine “take” can be achieved with the Vinovo in-ovo device.
The PCR technique is less laborious and less expensive compared to the
method of Virus re-isolation.
Key Words: Marek, vaccination, In-Ovo, PCR HVT, vinovo
T183 Comparative effects of in ovo versus subcutaneous vaccination
and pre-placement holding time on post-hatch broiler performance E.
David Peebles*1, Taylor Barbosa2, Timothy Cummings2, John Dickson2,
Sharon Womack1 1Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS,
USA; 2Zoetis, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA
Effects of the in ovo or subcutaneous (sc) vaccination of HVT vaccine (trt)
and 4 and 18 h pre-placement holding times (pht) on the performance of
male broilers through 48 d of age were investigated. Aviagen 708 broiler
hatching eggs (3,900) were either in ovo-vaccinated at 18 d of incubation
or chicks from eggs that were not in ovo-injected were vaccinated sc at
hatch, and chicks from each vaccination trt group were held for 1 of the 2
pht. In ovo injections (50 µL) were delivered by a commercial multi-egg
injector and sc injections (0.2 mL) were delivered by an automatic pneumatic sc injector. Twelve birds were assigned to each of 15 replicate floor
pens belonging to each of the 4 trt and pht combination groups (blocks).
Mortality and BW gain were determined at weekly intervals, and feed
consumption and conversion were determined in the 0-14, 14-28, 28-42,
and 42-48 d age intervals. Data were subjected to 2 × 2 factorial analysis in a randomized complete block experimental design using a mixed
model with trt and pht as fixed factors and block as a random factor. No
interactive effects between trt and pht were observed for any parameter.
However, a trt main effect was observed for 14-28 d feed consumption
(P ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, pht main effects were observed for 0-14 d (P ≤
0.007) and 14-28 d (P ≤ 0.01) feed consumption, and for 0-7 d (P ≤ 0.002)
and 14-21 d (P ≤ 0.02) BW gain. The 14-28 d feed consumption of sc-vaccinated birds (113.1 ± 0.001 g) was lower than that of in ovo-vaccinated
birds (115.1 ± 0.001 g), and the increase in pht from 4 to 18 h decreased
feed consumption and BW gain in the 4 aforementioned respective time
intervals. In conclusion, although an increase in pht decreased BW gain
by reducing feed consumption through 28 d posthatch, in ovo injection
did not negatively affect broiler performance through 48 d of age, whether
or not broilers were held for 4 or 18 h prior to placement. Therefore, with
regard to broiler performance, in ovo and sc injections were equally safe
for the administration of the HVT vaccine.
Key Words: broilers, holding time, in ovo injection, subcutaneous
injection, vaccination
T184Minimizing reduction in average daily gain in broiler chicks
following the use of anticoccidial vaccines through concomitant
treatment with a lactic acid bacteria-based probiotic Matthew
Faulkner*1, Jacob Lum2, Jose Vicente2, Ross Wolfenden2 1pacificvetgroup.
com, Fayetteville, AR, USA; 2Pacific Vet Group, Fayetteville, AR, USA
Coccidiosis is a common poultry disease caused by several protozoal
pathogens belonging to the Eimeria genus. Coccidiosis detrimentally ef-
56
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
fects te worldwide poultry industry through increased mortality, reduced
feed efficiency, reduced body weight gain, and increased susceptibility to
other enteric pathogens. In an effort to reduce coccidiosis in chickens, live
coccidiosis vaccines may be used to protect against this disease. While
effective at establishing immunity against Eimeria sp., the vaccines have
been known to decrease early growth rate and leave chicks more susceptible to secondary bacterial infections within the gut. One potential
way to ameliorate these effects may be to administer probiotic bacteria
to vaccinated flocks. A hatchery applied, lactic acid bacteria-based probiotic, FloraStartC® (FSC), which was selected through an in vitro and
in vivo screening process, was used in these trials. FSC was applied to
chicks to determine the effects on body weight gain when administered
concurrently with a commercially available coccidiosis vaccine. Multiple
in vivo experiments were performed and, in each experiment, the birds
were weighed on day-of-hatch and days 7, 10, and 14 to determine weight
gain compared to non-probiotic treated chicks. In all experiments, probiotic treated groups consistently had greater weight gain than non-probiotic
treated groups at all time periods. Average weight of FSC treated groups
on day 7 was 112.05 ± 1.07 g compared to 105.6 ± 1.9 g in non-probiotic
treated controls P< 0.05. On day 14 the trend continued with an average
weight of 294.3 ±4.1g in probiotic groups compared to 277.2 ± 4.11g in
controls. These results were repeated using multiple commercially available coccidiosis vaccines. These results indicate that administration of the
probiotic FSC leads to increased body weight gain in chicks vaccinated
against coccidiosis.
Key Words: probiotic, body weight gain, coccidiosis, broiler, coccidiosis
vaccine
T185 Comparing the Bioactivity of two 25-OH-Vitamin D3 Sources
(Bio-D™ and Hy-D™) with Commercial or NRC Diet Formulations
for Early Turkey Growth Performance and Bone Mineralization R.
Michael Hulet*1, L. A. Kitto1, O. Gutierrez2, J. A. Lee3 1Pennsylvania State
University, University Park, PA, USA; 2Huvepharma, Inc., Atlanta, GA,
USA; 3Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA
Two commercial sources of 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 ( Bio-D™ and HyD™) were evaluated for their effect on turkey growth performance, serum
Calcium and 25-OH-D3, and bone mineralization. An NRC and Industry
D3 negative control diet with 65% of typical industry calcium levels and
0.12% deficient phosphorus diets (with added phytase) were supplemented with either 91.8 ppb HyD, 45.9 ppb Bio-D, or 91.8 ppb Bio-D. Seventeen hundred and twenty eight day-old turkey toms (Nicholas 500) were
randomized into 96 pens with 18 poults per pen. Blood samples (24 per
treatment) were taken at 4 and 6 weeks of age to determine serum 25-OH
D3 and Calcium (Heartland Assays, Ames IA). At the conclusion of the
study, the left tibia from 24 birds per treatment was collected at 42 days of
age. Data were analyzed as a 2 x 4 factorial for vitamin D source and dose
using the ANOVA procedure of SAS, with means separated using Tukeys
procedure (p≤0.05).
Serum 25-OH D3 at 4 and 6 weeks for Bio-D levels of 91.8 ppb was significantly greater than for 91.8 ppb HyD or 45.9 ppb Bio-D supplemented
birds. Bio-D and HyD levels of 91.8 ppb had significantly higher levels
of serum Calcium at 4 and 6 weeks of age than for the negative control
treatments. Significantly higher percent Ash was found between the NRC
and Industry dietary levels as well as Bio-D having greater percent Ash at
either 45.9 or 91.8 ppb when compared to HyD (91.8 ppb) or to the negative control. Feed conversion was significantly improved for the Industry
dietary formulation when compared with the NRC-diet supplemented turkeys. Body weight gain at 42 days was significantly greater for the birds
fed the control or HyD diet compared to the birds fed the Bio-D treatments.
Key Words: Turkey, 25-OH D3, Tibial Ash, Body Weight
T186 Application of a specifically selected probiotic at the hatchery
improves seven day weight gain as well as mortality in commercial
broiler chicks. Ross Wolfenden*, Matthew Faulkner, Anita Menconi,
James Barton, Jacob Lum, Jose Vicente Pacific Vet Group, Fayetteville,
AR, USA
Early gut development in broiler chicks is stimulated by the establishment
of healthy gut microflora. In nature, hens provide these microflora to their
chicks, however, in the commercial setting hens and progeny are separated
which prevents colonization by the normal flora. This retards intestinal
development and can leave the chicks more susceptible to pathogenic bacteria. This can in turn decrease market weight and increase mortality. The
first organisms to colonize the GI tract have a distinct advantage in becoming the primary residents. However, the most common environmental bacteria in the hatchery and farms often include species such as Pseudomonas, Salmonella and E. coli which may be pathogenic. In these studies a
novel, hatchery-applied probiotic (PRO), FloraStart®, was evaluated to determine its effect on 7 day weight gain, uniformity, and mortality in broiler
chicks. Chicks were treated with PRO, which is comprised of Lactobacillus plantarum strain TY036 and Enterococcus faecium strain MFF109,
via spray in the hatchery prior to placement in commercial broiler houses.
Treatment with PRO demonstrated a 0.47% decrease in flock mortality
from 4.97% to 4.5%. Along with decreased mortality there was also a significant increase in 7 day body weight. Average 7 day weight from the FS
groups was 147.0 ± .56g as compared to 143.49 ± .69 g the controls with
P< 0.05. Improved uniformity in these flocks was also observed. These
results also corroborate previous laboratory studies conducted with PRO
in neonates. These results indicate that treatment with PRO provides a
unique opportunity to colonize neonatal broilers with beneficial microbes
that have multiple beneficial effects including an increase in 7 day weight,
decreased mortality, improved uniformity as well as early protection from
pathogens.
Key Words: probiotic, 7 day weights, gut developmenty, broiler
performance
T187 The effect of sulfur inclusion in broiler diets on ammonia
levels in poultry litter Ken Macklin*, Joseph Hess, James Krehling, Laci
Mackay, Katrina English, Nathan Frazier Auburn University, Auburn, AL,
USA
Controlling ammonia levels in commercial poultry houses is a major challenge faced by both the grower and the integrator. To date, the most effective method for controlling ammonia is the use of acidifying litter treatments. One problem with acidifying litter treatments is that they are only
effective in controlling ammonia for the first 2 -3 weeks of the grow out.
After that time ammonia levels increase to levels that are as high or higher
then untreated litter. Previous research performed at Auburn University
had shown that when sulfur is directly fed to layers there was a reduction
in ammonia from these bird’s excreta. It was the objective of this study to
determine if a similar effect can be observed with broiler chickens. Eight
hundred straight run broiler chicks were obtained, equally divided into 32
pens (25 chicks/pen) that contained clean pine shavings. The 32 pens were
divided among four treatments so that each treatment had 8 pens. The
treatments were - CON, which had no sulfur in the feed and the litter was
not treated; S that had sulfur added to the feed at 5 pounds per ton with no
litter treatment; SSB, which contained sulfur in the feed at 5 pounds per
ton as well as sodium bisulfate being added to the litter at the rate of 50
pounds per 1000 ft2; and SB that consisted only of sodium bisulfate being
added to the litter at the rate of 50 pounds per 1000 ft2. On days 10, 23 and
37 feed and pen body weight was measured. Additionally ammonia measurements were taken on days 10, 23 and 37. At the termination of the trial
(D 37) pododermatitis lesion were scored. Data was analyzed using GLM
with P<0.05 and significant means separated using Tukey’s test.
There was no difference in ammonia levels at times 10 and 23; however a
trend was noted on day 23 that was further delineated on day 37. On day
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
37, S (11.99 ppm) had significantly lower litter ammonia levels then SB
(22.11 ppm). The other two treatments were intermediate with SSB having ammonia readings of 13.49 ppm and CON having 18.57 ppm of ammonia. There was no difference in FCR; however there was one with final
BW. Treatment SSB (2.61 kg) had significantly higher BW then treatment
SB (2.45 kg). Treatments S and CON were intermediate with BW of 2.56
kg and 2.48 kg, respectively. Incidences of pododermatitis lesions were
significantly higher in CON (11%) then in S (5%) and SB (2%). SSB (9%)
had significantly more lesions then SB. Results from this study imply that
feeding sulfur at 5 pounds per ton can control ammonia levels. However
it must be noted that this study was initiated on clean bedding and that
further research needs to be performed to determine if these results can be
maintained over multiple flocks on built up litter.
Key Words: litter, ammonia, sulfur, broiler
T189Innovative Waste Management Case Study: Converting
wastewater and organic waste into nutrient recovery, green energy
and water reuse Laetitia d’Ursel*1, Robin Parduyns2 1Waterleau, Costa
Mesa, CA, USA; 2Waterleau, Brussels, Belgium
Meat processing is energy intensive and produces large amounts of biowaste. Waterleau operates a Biowaste to Energy plant, producing 24,000
MWe/ year from a mixture of 120,000 tons of manure, chicken litter,
slaughterhouse and crops.
Slaughterhouse waste is protein rich and has a very high energy potential.
However its high fat and protein concentration can be toxic to the anaerobic bacteria in the digester. Waterleau designed a smart process solution to
decompose these types of industrial wastes. The same with manure contents which are mixed (50/50) with concentrated biowaste to achieve a
high but acceptable N-level in the anaerobic digester.
Due to its animal waste content, the process includes a hygienization
phase, before digestion (1 hour at 160°F). Two lines with a capacity of
60.000 tons per year each, include thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic
digestion, allowing operation with high levels of N. Digestion occurs in
a wet AD CSTR reactor and post-digester. The generated biogas is valorized in a cogeneration unit (producing green electricity and heat), both
are re-used on-site in the production processes. The remaining digestate
is separated into a solid and a liquid fraction. The solid fraction is dried
in a dryer producing 6.000 tons of organic fertilizer per year. The liquid
fraction of the digestate undergoes an aerobic treatment to reduce the
remaining organic pollution. After aerobic treatment, the effluent is sent
to the evaporator. The non-volatile fraction consists of a Potassium rich
fertilizer. The volatile Nitrogen rich fraction can be either turned into an
ammonia solution, or in a 20% (NH4)2SO4 fertilizer.
Key Words: Wastewater treatment, Organic Waste treatment, Biogas
generation & reuse, Nutrient recovery, Anaerobic co-digestion
T190 Enumeration of water quality indicator bacteria in broiler litter.
Craig Coufal*1, Terry Gentry1, Daren Harmel2, Emily Martin1, Sheena
Popham1, Scott Winkler1 1Texas A&M University, College Station, TX,
USA; 2USDA-ARS, Temple, TX, USA
Many water bodies in the United States exceed the maximum limits for
bacterial contamination established by regulatory agencies. In Texas, water quality standards are based on E. coli counts in water samples. Runoff from agricultural lands is often thought to be a source of bacteria to
surface water bodies. Therefore, a study was conducted to determine the
levels of E. coli, enterococci, and Clostridium perfringens in broiler litter.
Samples were collected from 12 broiler farms over a 1 year period. Farms
sampled represented multiple companies and all broiler producing regions
of Texas. Fifteen subsamples were collected in a grid pattern from 4 houses per farm and pooled in a manner to represent variation over the width
and length of the houses. After pooling and thorough mixing, six composite samples were collected to represent litter sampled from under a feed
line in the middle of the house, under a drinker line, along the north wall,
57
on the cool pad end, across the middle of the house, and at the fan end of
the house. E. coli was enumerated by EPA method 1603 and on Petrifilms
to compare methods. Litter moisture content was significantly different
within the houses (P<0.001), with the drinker line area having the highest
(41%), followed by the fan end (33%), cool pad end (30%), middle (30%),
north wall (27%), and feed line (20%) areas. Mean levels of total coliforms, E. coli (1603), E. coli (Petrifilm), C. perfringens, and enterococci
were 3.67±0.35, 3.28±0.25, 3.01±0.28, 3.95±0.21, and 6.42±0.15 log10
CFU/g dry litter, respectively. Levels of total coliforms, E. coli (1603),
E. coli (Petrifilm) and C. perfringens were positively correlated with litter moisture content (P <0.001, 0.004, 0.011, and 0.008, respectively) but
enterococci levels were not (P=0.304). However, due to high variability in
microbial counts and litter moisture at the different farms, only total coliforms (P<0.001) and E. coli (Petrifilm; P=0.047) levels were significantly
different in litter collected from each the 6 sampling areas of the houses,
with the water line, fan, and middle of the houses generally having higher
levels of these bacteria.
Key Words: broilers, bacteria, litter, E. coli, C. perfringens
T191 Trend of Various Egg Quality Traits in Commercial Layers
from Field Test Data Levent Turkmut*1, Neil P. O’Sullivan2, Jesus
Arango2, Petek Settar2 1Hy-Line International, Johnston, IA, USA; 2HyLine International, Dallas Center, IA, USA
Some egg quality trait trends were studied in Hy-line W36 and Hy-Line
Brown (HYB) hens. Egg weight (EW, g), albumen height (AH, mm) and
Haugh units (HU), shell color (CO, index value), and incidence (%) of
internal inclusions (blood (BL) and meat (MT)) were studied in both lines.
Incidence of shell speckles (SP) was an additional trait for HYB. Data of
seventeen W36 and ten generation HYB field testing units were included
in the study. Overall observation numbers were 38,739 in W36 and 18,737
in HYB. Observations included multiple locations per generation, and or
were processed by up to six different egg quality lab stations. Egg samples
were collected at four flock ages, including post molt for W36 (26, 38,
56 and 84 wk); while at three for HYB (26, 38 and 70 wk). Data were
analyzed by variety and flock’s age using a linear model that included the
effects of test (generation), location and station. An additional model used
pooled data and included the additional effect of flock age. EW trajectory
showed a slight increase in both lines. Regression coefficients (b1) for
EW were of 0.1059 in W36 and 0.0713 in HYB. AH increased in both
varieties. Regression coefficients (b1) for AH were 0.0633 in W36 and
0.0707 in HYB. BL incidence was not more than 1% in W36 and limited
as 5% in HYB. Most of the spots (68%) were evaluated as grade 1 (i.e., 1
mm or less in diameter) in W36. The majority of the BL (78%) in HYB
aggregated in grade 1. An average of 2% MT was observed in W36 and
93% of them were classified in grade 1 and 2; while, in HYB, the average
MT was 9% and 76% of them classified in grade 1. CO increased along
the test trajectory in HYB eggs. Regression coefficient (b1) for CO was
0.4346. SP incidence in HYB eggs was 0.20. The results herein demonstrate the progress that two commercial layer varieties have shown in egg
quality traits as a response from a comprehensive and long term selection
program.
Key Words: Egg quality, Egg weight, Haugh units, W-36, Hy-Line
Brown
T192 Effect of air velocity on laying hen performance and egg quality
Joseph Purswell*1, Scott Branton1, Brian Luck2, Jeremiah Davis3 1USDAARS Poultry Research Unit, Mississippi State, MS, USA; 2University of
Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA; 3Mississippi State University, Mississippi
State, MS, USA
Mitigation of heat stress is an important management concern for commercial poultry. Cooling is typically provided with evaporative cooling
of incoming air mixed with forced convection. While the improvements
in production efficiency with increased air velocity are well known for
58
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
broilers, the effects have not been defined for laying hens. The objective
of these experiments was to determine the effects of differing air velocities on laying hen performance and egg quality under simulated evaporatively cooled conditions. Two experiments were performed with commercial laying hens at two different ages. Laying hens were obtained from a
commercial farm and placed into test pens and subjected to air velocities
of 300 ft/min, 150 ft/min, or still air (< 50 ft/min) in an environmentally
controlled room at 82° F and 82% RH to mimic an evaporatively cooled
house. In Experiment 1, hens were placed in the test pens from 24 to 27
weeks of age; a total of eight replicate treatment units were used in this experiment. Egg production was measured daily and feed consumption was
assessed weekly. In Experiment 2, hens were placed in the test pens from
39 to 48 weeks of age; a total of four replicate treatment units were used in
this experiment. Egg production and feed consumption were assessed the
same as in Experiment 1 and egg quality was measured twice a week. Egg
quality measurements included egg weight, albumen height, Haugh unit,
shell breaking strength, and incidence of shell and yolk defects. Hen-day
egg production increased in both experiments with increased air velocity. Increased air velocity treatments (300 and 150 ft/min) significantly
increased hen-day egg production rate when compared to still air (p <
0.0001) in both studies with maximum increases of 4.0% and 6.7% for
Experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Feed intake was significantly depressed
for still air treatments (p<0.0001) but feed conversion was not different in
both experiments. Egg weight significantly increased in Experiment 2 (39
to 48 weeks of age) for all treatments, with maximum egg weight (59.7 g)
resulting from 300 ft/min wind speed and minimum egg weight (55.4 g)
resulting from still air. Variability in egg weight increased as air velocity
decreased, and increased air velocity treatments yielded more eggs in the
Extra Large and Jumbo size classes. Breaking strength was observed to
significantly increase at 300 and 150 ft/min when compared to the still air
treatment (p<0.0001). Haugh units decreased with increasing air speed
(p=0.0038), but remained within limits of AA quality requirments. No differences in incidence of interior defects were observed.
Key Words: ventilation, heat stress, housing design
T193Resource use by hens in enriched colony cages Richard
Blatchford*, Joy Mench University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, USA
Egg producers are increasingly adopting enriched colony systems that
contain resources including nests, perches, and a scratch area. However,
little is known about how hens utilize these resources. As part of the Co-
alition for a Sustainable Egg Supply project, we investigated how hens
(Lohmann LSL at 52 weeks) housed in 60-hen enriched colony cages on a
commercial farm used the nest boxes, perches, and scratch pads provided
in the cages, as well as feeding behavior. Focal cages (n = 27) were chosen
from the back, middle, and front of the house. Nest use was determined
by the number of eggs laid in the nest area. Behavior on the perches and
scratch pad was observed in a subsample of 12 cages using instantaneous
scan sampling at 1-min intervals for 30 min/cage in at 0800, 1230, and
1600 over two days. Feeding behavior was observed in a subsample of 18
cages using instantaneous scan samples at 10-min intervals from 0500 –
2200 h over one day. For feeding behavior analysis, cages were divided
into 3 equal sections (each providing 122 cm feeder space), corresponding
to the resources available in those sections: nest, perches, and scratch pad.
The average number of hens feeding during each hour was analyzed using
an ANOVA. Hens laid 97% of the eggs in the nest area. About 10% of
the hens used the perches throughout the day, while 6% of hens used the
scratch pad for dust-bathing and 2% of hens used the scratch pad for foraging. For feeding behavior, there was an interaction effect between time and
cage section, with the feeders in the nest section (4.9 ± 0.71 hens) used less
(P < 0.001) between 0700 and 1100 than those in the scratch pad (8.2 ±
0.25 hens) and perch (7.6 ± 0.46 hens) sections. These results indicate that
hens use all of the resources provided in enriched colony cages, though the
frequency of use varied. Understanding how hens use these resources will
help in designing the most effective resources.
Key Words: enriched colony, hens, feeding behavior, nest, scratch pad
T194National Poultry Improvement Plan Update Denise Brinson*
USDA-National Poultry Improvement Plan, Conyers, GA, USA
The National Poultry Improvement Plan (NPIP) is a voluntary disease
control program for the poultry industry in the United States. The objective of the NPIP is to provide a cooperative industry-state-federal program
through which new diagnostic technology can be effectively applied to the
improvement of poultry and poultry products throughout the country. Surveillance and testing of commercial establishments, live bird markets, and
upland game birds allows the United States to certify to our trading partners that many classes of poultry originate from flocks that are monitored
or are free of diseases such as salmonella, mycoplasma, and notifiable AI.
This update will provide the current status of the NPIP program.
Key Words: NPIP, Poultry, Regulatory, poultry improvement
Metabolism & Nutrition VII
T195 Effect of Adding Worm Casting as a Source of Humic Acids on
the Feeds of Broiler Chickens Sergio Gomez Rosales*, Maria De Lourdes
Angeles Inifap, Queretaro, Mexico
Two experiments were done to evaluate the productivity, carcass yield and
tibia ash content of broiler chikens fed diets added with worm castings
(WC) as source of humic (HA) and fulvic acids (FA). In Exp. 1, 252 broilers from 11 to 49 d of age raised in floor pens, were randomly assigned to
3 dietary treatments: Tx1 = positive control diet added with an antibiotic
growth promoter (BMD, 500 g/ton); Tx2 = diet formulated as Tx1 without
the growth promoter; and Tx3 = diet formulated as Tx1 without growth
promoter but added with 1% of WC. The WC was first dried 24 h at 55º
C and had 9.12% of HA and 2.49% of FA. There were 6 replicate pens/
Tx. At the end of the trial, 5 broilers from each pen were used for carcass
measurements and tibia ash determinations. In Exp. 2, 120 broilers from
10 to 21 d of age were allocated in crates and randomly distributed to 5
dietary treatments: Tx1: positive control diet with recommended levels of
nutrients; Tx2-Tx5 negative control diets with 0.2% lower levels of Ca
and Avail. P than Tx1 and added with 0, 1, 2 and 3% WC, respectively.
There were 12 replicate pens/Tx. At the end of the trial, all chicks were
killed to determine the ash content of the tibia. Results of both experi-
ments were subjected to ANOVA and in Exp.2, linear regression analysis
were performed. In Exp. 1, the final weight, feed intake and weight gain
tended to be lower (P < 0.01) in Tx2. The mortality was higher (P < 0.05)
in Tx2 (22.3%), intermediate in Tx3 (14.5%) and lower in Tx1 (9.1%).
In Exp. 2, the final body weight, weight gain and tibia weight and ash
content were greater in Tx1 (P < 0.01) compared to the other treatments.
There was a quadratic response (P < 0.05) in the tibia ash regarding the
increasing levels of WC, with a máximum improvement of 4% in Tx5
compared to Tx2. The results suggest that in broiler chickens from 11 to
49 d of age fed diets without an antibiotic growth promoter the addition
of WC could improve the growth performance and reduce the mortality
while in broilers from 11 to 21 d of age fed a Ca and P deficient diet, the
addition up to 3% WC did not benefit the productivity and improved the
tibia ash content by 4%.
Key Words: Broiler chickens, Worm casting, Productivity, Carcass yield,
Tibia ash
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
59
T196Effect of Adding Different Dietary Levels of Distillers Dried
Grains with Solubles (DDGS) on Productive Performance of Broiler
Chicks Sherif Hassan*, Abdulaziz Al Aqil King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa,
31982, Saudi Arabia
T198 Optimal inclusion rates of low-fat distillers dried grains with
solubles (LF-DDGS) in male broilers aged 28 to 42 d of age E.J. Kim*,
J.L. Purswell, S.L. Branton ARS-USDA Poultry Research Unit, Mississippi
State, MS, USA
Using Distiller grains with solubles (DDGS) as a feed ingredient in poultry nutrition has lately been increased. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding different dietary levels of DDGS on the productive
performance of broiler chicks from 1 to 35 d of age. Two hundred forty
one-d-old broiler chicks were randomly distributed among 3 treatment
groups with eight replicates of 10 chicks each. Chicks were fed a broiler
diet containing 0.0, 5.0, or 10.0% DDGS. Results obtained from the present study showed no significant differences in body weight, body weight
gain, feed intake, and mortality rate among dietary treatments from 1-35
d of age. Feed conversion ratio and performance index were significantly
better for chicks fed diet containing 5.0% DDGS than those fed diet containing 0.0% DDGS from 8 to 14 d of age only, but were no differences
between chicks fed 10.0% and those fed either 0.0 or 5.0% DDGS. These
results indicated that adding 5.0% DDGS into broiler diets showed a beneficial effect on feed conversion ratio with the best performance index
from 8-14 d of age. Therefore, results suggest that DDGS can be safely
added into diet as an alternative source of protein and energy from 1 to 35
d of age up to 10.0% without negative effect on productive performance
of broiler chicks.
The objectives of this study were to determine the maximum inclusion
rates of LF-DDGS in broiler diets fed from 28 to 42 d of age in the finishing phases of production and the subsequent effects on live performance
and carcass characteristics. Experimental diets were formulated to contain
0, 6, 12, 18, 24, or 30% LF-DDGS. Diets were formulated to be isocaloric and to meet or exceed minimum nutrient requirements. At day of
hatch, 396 Ross x Ross 708 male broilers were obtained from a commercial hatchery and randomly allocated into 36 mini-pens (0.1 m2/bird) in
a tunnel ventilated facility. Birds were fed common diets until d 28 and
experimental diets were fed until d 42. Upon completion of the experimental period, all birds and feed were weighed to determine body weight,
body weight gain, and feed conversion ratio. All mortality were recorded
daily and feed conversion was adjusted for mortality. On d 43, after an
overnight fast, 6 birds per pen were tagged, weighed and processed to
determine hot carcass weight and abdominal fat pad. After a period of
chilling, carcasses were deboned to determine breast and tender weights.
Treatments were designed in a randomized complete block design with
pen location in the building as the random blocking factor and all live performance and carcass data were analyzed via PROC GLIMMIX in SAS.
Final body weight at 42 d was found to be significantly increased (P≤.05)
for birds fed 18% LF-DDGS in a broiler diet when compared to birds
fed either 24 or 30% LF-DDGS. Body weight gain, feed consumption
and feed conversion were not affected but followed the same trend with
performance maximized at 18% LF-DDGS. Carcass, abdominal fat pad,
and breast debone weights were not affected but carcass yield was significantly greater (P≤0.05) at 0 and 12% LF-DDGS with a significantly lower
dressing percentage at 30% LF-DDGS added to the diet. Diets containing
up to 18% LF-DDGS can be added to broiler diets in the finisher phase
of production without any detrimental effects on growth performance and
processing yields.
Key Words: Broiler chicks, Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles,
Growth rate, Productive Performance
T197 Metabolizable energy of diets containing wheat DDGS
supplemented with four levels of xylanase when fed to laying hens I.M
Whiting*1, V.R Pirgozliev1, S.P Rose1, A.M Mackenzie1, A.M Amerah2
1
Harper Adams University, Shropshire, United Kingdom; 2Danisco Animal
Nutrition, Wiltshire, United Kingdom
There is little information available on the effects of exogenous xylanases
in diets containing wheat distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS)
when fed to laying hens. The aim of this experiment was to examine the
effect of four levels of a fungal Trichoderma reesei xylanase (Danisco
Xylanase, Danisco Animal Nutrition, Wiltshire, UK) on dietary apparent
metabolizable energy (AME) and nutrient availability when incorporated
into laying hen feeds containing wheat DDGS. A basal feed was formulated to contain 11.69MJ/kg AME and 175g/kg crude protein (CP). Eight
experimental diets were prepared by supplementing the basal feed with
either 150g/kg or 300g/kg of wheat DDGS and adding Danisco Xylanase
to both inclusion rates at 0, 1500, 2000 and 2500 xylanase units (XU/kg).
The birds received the experimental diets for eight days, from 22 weeks
of age and each diet was replicated six times in a randomised block design. During the last four days of the study the excreta were collected and
prepared for further analysis. Dietary AME increased with an increase in
xylanase dose following a linear pattern (P=0·003), as an increase of 1000
XU improved dietary AME by 0.090MJ (y=12.49 (SE 0.017) + 0.090MJ
(SE 0.0100)* 1000XU). Dietary nutrient availability and egg production
were not affected (P>0.05) by xylanase supplementation. The higher inclusion rate of DDGS was found to decrease (P<0.05) dry matter retention
but improve (P<0.001) dietary NDF digestibility. These results indicate
that feeding a high dose of xylanase improves dietary AME over an eight
day feeding period. However, information on the use of xylanase at a high
dosage in laying hen diets containing wheat DDGS for longer feeding periods would be advantageous.
Key Words: Xylanase, Wheat DDGS, AME, Layers
Key Words: Distillers dried grains with solubles, oil extracted, finisher
phase, broilers
T199Determination of AME of soybean oil industry by-products:
acidulated soapstock, glycerin, lecithin and their blend Liliane
Borsatti*, Sergio Luis Vieira, Silvana Rauber, Catarina Stefanello, Barbara
Mallmann, Cesar Pontin Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto
Alegre, Brazil
The poultry industry has a great demand for high-energy feeds and currently the availability of by-products of refined soybean oil are a great
potential energy source in poultry diets. A study was conducted to determine AME of by-products from the soybean oil industry using 390 male
broilers, 21 d of age, distributed in a completely randomized design of
4 fat sources and 3 levels of inclusion. Thirteen dietary treatments with
six replications of five birds each were used. The fat sources used were:
ASS (acidulated soybean soapstock), glycerin (GLY) and LEC (lecithin)
as well as a blend containing 85 % ASS, 10 % GLY and 5% LEC (MIX).
The proportions of fat sources in the MIX are similar to those in the crude
soybean oil. The experimental treatments consisted of the addition of each
supplemental fat source at the levels of 0% (100% of basal diet), 2% (98%
basal diet + 2% energy source), 4% (96% basal diet + 4% energy source)
or 6% (94% basal diet + 6% energy source). The total excreta collection
was used for 72h. Data generated for AME was as follow: 7,153 kcal/kg
for ASS, 3,916 kcal/kg for GLY, 7,050 kcal/kg for LEC and 8,451 kcal/
kg for the MIX. The results showing the highest AME value for the MIX
indicates that mixing ASS, GLY and LEC in proportions present in the
original crude soybean oil are indicative of a better utilization of these 3
fat sources when used together, which may be due to a re-esterification
into triglycerides.
60
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
Key Words: Metabolizable energy, Acidulated sopstock, Lecithin,
Glycerin
T200Combinations of by-products from the soybean oil industry
AME and plasma triglyceride of broilers Liliane Borsatti*1, Sergio
Vieira1, Heitor Rios1, Patricia Soster1, Pedro Ferzola1, Edgar OviedoRondón2 1Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil;
2
North Carolina States University, Raleigh, NC, USA
The use of mixtures of saturated and unsaturated fat sources in poultry
diets may exhibit synergism with higher AME values when diversified
sources of saturated and unsaturated fats are fed together. A study was
conducted to determine the AME and plasma triglycerides of mixtures of
soybean oil by-products. A total of 390 21 d old male broilers were distributed, in a completely randomized design of a 4x3 factorial having 4 lipid
sources and 3 levels of inclusion. Dietary treatments (13) with six replications of five broilers were used: Mixture 1 (MIX 1) had 85% acidulated
soybean soapstock (ASS), 10% Glycerin (GLY) and 5% Lecithin (LEC);
Mixture 2 (MIX 2) had 80% ASS, 15% GLY and 5% LEC; Mixture 3
(MIX 3) had 75% ASS, 20% GLY and 5% LEC; and Mixture 4 (MIX 4)
had 70% ASS, 25% GLY, and 5% LEC. Each lipid source had increases of
0%, 2%, 4% or 6% on a common basal feed. Total excreta collection was
done for 72h. Birds (3 per replication) were sacrificed for blood collection
and triglyceride analyses afterwards. Differences were found for AME
and plasma triglyceride (P < 0.05). The MIX 2 showed the highest AME
value (8,460 kcal/kg) when compared to MIX 1 (7,366 kcal/kg), however,
these were not different from MIX 3 (7,516 kcal/kg) or MIX 4 (7,540 kcal/
kg). Average triglyceride level of MIX 1 (78.5 mg/dL) was highest when
compared to all other treatments (MIX 2, 3 and 4 respectively provided
59.9, 65.1 and 65.4 mg/dL). It is concluded that the proportions of ASS,
GLY and LEC in the MIX 2 led to increased AME. Proportions of free
fatty acids, GLY and LEC in MIX 1, is closer to those found in crude soybean oil, which was the one that seemed to lead highest re-esterification of
ASS, GLY and LEC into triglycerides.
Key Words: Soybean fat, Triglyceride, Metabolizable energy
T201 Field observation: contamination of imported yellow corn with
raw soybeans is an additional source of trypsin inhibitors contributing
to the occurrence of outbreaks of rapid feed passage in broiler chickens.
Nelson Ruiz*1, Nelson Ruiz1, Jorge Castillo2, Jhon Fredy Suárez3, Leonardo
Naranjo3, Fabiola de Belalcázar4 1Nelson Ruiz Nutrition, LLC, Suwanee,
GA, USA; 2Jorge B Castillo Consulting Inc., Cambridge, ON, Canada;
3
Albateq S.A., Funza, Colombia; 4Nutrianálisis, Bogotá, Colombia
The objective of this presentation is to report with quantitative data the
levels of trypsin inhibitors (TI) present in imported shipments of commercial yellow corn contaminated with whole and/or fractions of raw soybeans. A total of 208 samples collected from 208 trucks containing yellow
corn from 68 shipments from Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, and the United
States between September of 2012 and September of 2014 were analyzed
for trypsin inhibitors. A 5-kg sample was collected per truck from multiple
sampling points, ground, and homogenized using a Romer Series II Mill
following a sampling protocol for analytes of uneven distribution (Whitaker et al., Sampling feeds for mycotoxin analysis in The Mycotoxin Blue
Book, ed. Duarte, Diaz, Nottingham University Press, Bath, England,
pp.1-23, 2005); a subsample of 1 gram was extracted for TI in an alkaline
medium at 4C following the ISO 14902 method. Forty-one per cent of
the samples tested below the detection limit of 0.20 mg of TI/g of corn;
20% had TI levels between 0.20 and 0.35 mg/g of corn, and 39% showed
levels higher than 0.35 mg of TI/g of corn. The difference between the
groups was subjected to analysis of variance and using Tukey-Kramer the
differences were statistically significant (P<0.001). Given the fact that TI
have been implicated as markers in rapid feed passage (“tránsito rápido”
in both Spanish and Portuguese) outbreaks in broiler flocks fed commercial corn-soy diets [Poult. Sci. (Suppl 1): 70, 2005], it is concluded that
the contamination of yellow corn shipments with whole and/or fractions
of raw soybeans is a factor to take into consideration when investigating a
rapid feed passage outbreak in the field.
Key Words: Trypsin inhibitors, Yellow corn, Raw soybeans, Rapid feed
passage, Broilers
T202Enterococcus faecium improves broiler performance when
added to the drinking water Anée Berg Kehlet*, David Harrington Chr.
Hansen A/S, Hoersholm, Denmark
It is well recognized that the gastrointestinal flora plays an important role
in the health and well-being of poultry. Numerous studies have demonstrated the positive effect of beneficial bacteria delivered to the bird either in feed or via drinking water. A study was carried out to investigate
the effect of Enterococcus faecium added to the water on zootechnical
performance and carcass quality of broiler chickens. A total of 840 birds
(Ross 308) were allocated to 2 treatments (T1: Control; T2: E. faecium
(EF)) with 7 replicates/treatment and 60 birds/replicate. All birds were fed
a standard wheat/corn/soybean meal diet. Feed and water were administered ad libitum. In T2 EF was added to the water in the following dosages; Day 1-7, 3E+11 CFU/1000 birds; Day 8-35, 1E+11 CFU/1000 birds
and Day 36-42, 4E+11 CFU/1000 birds. Body weight, body weight gain
and feed consumption were determined for each of the fattening periods
(0-7, 8-21, 22-35, 36-42; 0-42 days of age). At the end of study 7 birds/
treatment were fasted for 6 hours, slaughtered and protein content and
cooking loos determined. Data were analyzed by ANOVA. Overall mortality in T2 was significantly (P<0.05) lower than the control group (9 and
28 birds, respectively). The mortality due to enteritis was six times lower
in T2 compared to T1. The mean weights in T1 were significantly higher
(P<0.01) than T2 in all the feeding periods and at day 42 the body weights
were 12.8% (P<0.01) higher, 1766 and 1992 g for T1 and T2 respectively.
The addition of EF did not result in significant differences on feed efficiency among the treatments but a numerical improvement in all feeding
phases were observed. Administration of EF resulted in increased quality
of the broiler carcass; cooking losses were significantly lower (P<0.05)
in T1 (31.8%) compared to T2 (34.6%). Also, the protein content in the
meat was significantly higher (P<0.05) in T1 (760.9 g/kg DM) than T2
(701.6 g/kg DM). Based on the results from this study it is evident that the
administration of E. faecium via the drinking water had beneficial effects
on broiler mortality, growth performance and meat quality.
Key Words: E. faecium, Probiotic, DFM, Broilers, Meat quality
T203 Comparison of serum fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran
(FITC-d) levels in various gut inflammation models in broiler chickens
Vivek Kuttappan*1, Rosario Galarza-Seeber1, Amanda Wolfenden1, Karen
Wedekind2, Jeffery Escobar2, Eduardo Vicuña1, Juan Latorre1, Olivia
Faulkner1, Guillermo Tellez1, Billy Hargis1, Mercedes Vazquez-Anon2,
Lisa Bielke1 1University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA; 2Novus
International Inc., St. Charles, MO, USA
Gastrointestinal tract (GIT) inflammation in broilers has been induced by
various methodologies previously in our laboratory, including feed restriction, raw soybean meal diets, and dexamethasone treated feed. Various
studies with young chickens (< 2 weeks old) showed that these methods
could result in disruption of tight junctions within the GIT, leading to increased leakage of orally administered fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran
(~4kDa; FITC-d) into circulation. Thus, measurement of serum levels followed by oral gavage of FITC-d is an effective means to evaluate gut
health in broilers. The main objective of present study was to compare
the effect of various gut inflammation inducers in 3-4 weeks old broilers on FITC-d leakage. Three week old broilers were maintained on the
same developer diet from 22–25d of age. On d25, the birds were randomly assigned to different treatment groups (n=30birds/group): control,
feed restriction (FR; skip-a-day with 24h FR/day), dexamethasone (DEX;
0.29mg/kg of feed), and raw soybean (RSBM; 19.09% raw soybean meal
in diet). Broilers were raised in shaving-bedded floor pens, except an
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
additional treatment group (n=30) which was reared in wire floor pens
from d25-29. Half of the birds in each treatment group (n=15/group) were
weighed and orally gavaged with FITC-d (4.17mg/kg) ~2.5h before being euthanized on d27 or d29. Blood samples were collected from each
bird and serum was analyzed to determine FITC-d levels. Lower (P<0.05)
body weight was observed in the RSBM group on d27, and RSBM as
well as FR groups on d29. Serum FITC-d levels were higher (P<0.05) in
FR, RSBM, and DEX treatments when compared to control birds on both
sampling days. Although chicks reared on wire did not show increased
(P>0.05) gut leakage on d27, on d29 FITC-d serum levels were higher
(P<0.05) than control, and similar (P>0.05) to levels of other inflammation-induction groups in the study. These results suggest that all enteric
inflammation and gut leakage models tested can result in increased leakage of FITC-d after 4d of treatment. Furthermore, a single 24h FR leads to
increased FITC-d leakage. Based on these models, further studies will be
conducted to determine the effect of various proposed mitigation methods
to improve gut health in broilers.
Key Words: dexamethasone, feed restriction, gut health, raw soybean
meal, wire floor pens
T204Performance of broiler chickens fed Bacillus subtilis in diets
with reduced metabolizable energy Anee Berg Kehlet*1, Greg Mathis2,
David Harrington1 1Chr. Hansen A/S, Hørsholm, Denmark; 2Southern
Poultry Research, Inc., Athens, GA, USA
Feed can account for up to 70% of the cost of broiler production. The role
of any feed additive that potentially improves nutrient utilisation should
be of interest to the poultry industry. Bacillus subtilis has been shown to
improve ileal nutrient digestibility and production performance in broilers. It is hypothesized that the addition of B. subtilis to broiler diets with
reduced energy levels will help improve broiler performance. A study was
conducted to evaluate the effect of a B. subtilis based probiotic to corn soy
based broiler diets with reduced energy levels. A total of 2160 male Cobb
500 broilers were allocated to 6 treatments and reared on re-used litter
over 42 days with ad libitum feeding.
Treatment groups
Metabolizable energy (ME) level
Addition of B. subtilis1
% of
recommended ME Kcal/lb (Starter/Grower)
+
100%
1390/1412
100ME 100ME+BS
98%
1359/1381
98ME+BS
96%
1331/1353
96ME+BS
94%
1304/1326
94ME 94ME+BS
* B. subtilis 8 x 105 CFU g/feed
At day 21, 100ME and 100ME+BS had the highest weight gain (WG)
(1.58 and 1.56 lb, respectively) and lowest FCRs (1.47 and 1.44, respectively) of all treatments. By day 35, 100ME+BS had a significantly higher
WG (3.67 lb) than all other treatments except 100ME (3.63 lb) while the
FCR of both these treatments was lower than all other groups. At day 42,
WG of each pair of 94ME and 100ME groups showed that inclusion of BS
significantly increased WG and FCR (P≤0.05); WG 5.07, 4.86, 4.67 and
4.49 lb for 100ME+BS, 100ME, 94ME+BS and 94ME, respectively and
FCR 1.68, 1.73, 1.83 and 1.90 for 100ME+BS, 100ME, 94ME+BS and
94ME,respectively. At day 42 FCR in 98ME+BS was 1.76 (significantly
lower than 100ME groups) while WG was 4.93 (not significantly different from the 100ME groups). There was a $0.01 saving in cost feed/kg
live weight gain in favor of 100ME+BS compared to 100ME. When ME
was 94%, the saving using B. subtilis was $0.016 cost feed/kg live weight
gain. In conclusion, these results indicate that addition of a Bacillus-based
DFM to diets with reduced energy levels has the ability to both overcome
the performance loss associated with a lower quality diet and provide an
economic benefit.
61
Key Words: Bacillus, Energy, Probiotic, Poultry, Performance
T205Role of a candidate Bacillus subtilis direct-fed microbial on
digesta viscosity, bacterial translocation and bone mineralization
in neonatal poults fed with a rye-based diet Guillermo Tellez*1, Juan
Latorre1, Xochitl Hernandez-Velazco2, Jose Vicente3, Ross Wolfenden3,
BILLY HARGIS4 1University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA; 2UNAM,
Mexico City, Mexico; 3PVG, Fayetteville, AR, USA; 4UA, Fayetteville, AR,
USA
Rye contains high concentrations of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP),
leading to reduced digestibility. Since poultry have little or no intrinsic
enzymes capable of hydrolyzing these NSP, exogenous carbohydrases
as feed additives have been used to reduce the anti-nutritional effects
of these polysaccharides. Previously, an in vitro study conducted in our
laboratory showed that inclusion of certain Bacillus direct-fed microbial
(DFM) candidates that produce exogenous phytase, lipases, proteases, cellulases and xylanases in high NSP diets significantly reduced both digesta
viscosity and Clostridum perfringens proliferation. In the present study,
rye-based turkey starter diets with or without the candidate Bacillus-DFM
were administered ad libitum to day-of-hatch poults in two independent
experiments. In either experiments, day-of-hatch turkey poults were randomly assigned to either a control diet (CON) or a DFM (106 spores/gm)
treated diet (n = 25 birds/group). At ten days–of-age, poults (exp. 1 and 2)
were weighted and 12 poults/group were randomly selected and humanely killed. Liver samples were aseptically collected to evaluate bacterial
translocation, and intestinal digesta samples were individually collected to
evaluate viscosity, additionally both tibias were removed for assessment
of bone parameters. In both experiments, the TRT group showed a reduction in the total number of coliforms in the liver as well as a reduced intestinal viscosity when compared to the CON group (P<0.05). Poults fed the
Bacillus-DFM candidate had increased tibia diameter, breaking strength,
ash content, calcium content, and phosphorus content when compared
with CON poults. In summary, poults fed with a rye-based diet without
DFM showed an increase in bacterial translocation and digesta viscosity,
accompanied by a reduction in bone mineralization. These adverse effects
mitigated by the inclusion of selected DFM candidates in high NSP diets.
Key Words: Turkey poults, DFM, rye, bone mineralization, digesta
viscosity
T206Feeding a Buttiauxella phytase and a 3-strain Bacillus directfed microbial (DFM) combination improves broiler performance Luke
Barnard*1, Luis Romero1, Olayiwola Adeola2 1Danisco Animal Nutrition
- DuPont Industrial Biosciences, Marlborough, United Kingdom; 2Purdue
University, West Lafayette, IN, USA
A 35 d broiler experiment investigated the effects of a Buttiauxella phytase
alone and in combination with a DFM, comprised of the spores of 3 Bacillus strains, on broiler performance. Male Ross 708 broilers were fed a
common starter diet from 0 to 6 d; on d 6 birds were allocated to treatment
pens based on body weight (BW) and were fed treatment diets until d 35.
There were 9 treatments with 8 replicates, a positive control (PC), and a
4x2 factorial of the negative (NC) diet supplemented with 0, 500, 1500 or
3000 FTU/kg phytase with or without the 3-strain Bacillus DFM (150,000
cfu/g). Diets were fed in 2 phases: a 6 to 21 d grower phase (PC: Ca =
0.9% and nPP = 0.5%; NC: Ca = 0.65% and nPP = 0.23%) and a 21 to 35
d finishing phase (PC: Ca = 0.85% and nPP = 0.47%; NC: Ca = 0.65%
and nPP = 0.23%). Feed intake, BW and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were
recorded at each diet phase change and d 35. Data were analyzed by ANCOVA and significance indicated at P < 0.05.
Phytase supplementation significantly increased BW (+9-11%) and decreased FCR (-3-6%) in all diet phases. Similarly, the DFM significantly
reduced FCR in the 21 to 35 d and 7 to 35 d periods (-3%). The interaction of Phytase*DFM tended to influence FCR over the 7 to 35 d period
(P=0.076). In the absence of the DFM the response in FCR to phytase
62
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
plateaued between 500 and 1000 FTU/kg, conversely, in the presence of
the DFM FCR did not reach a plateau until more than 1500 FTU/kg was
supplemented. In all cases DFM supplemented birds had lower FCR than
birds not fed the DFM at similar phytase doses. The greatest numerical
difference between diets supplemented with and without the DFM was
at 3000 FTU/kg where the presence of the DFM resulted in an 8-point
reduction in FCR compared with the same phytase level without the DFM.
In conclusion, feeding phytase in combination with this 3 strain Bacillus
DFM improved bird performance vs. feeding phytase alone. The beneficial effect of the combination increased with phytase dose.
Key Words: Buttiauxella phytase, 3-strain Bacillus DFM, combinaiton,
broiler, performance
T207 Effects on performance of lysine levels and nucleotide
source combined with yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cell wall
supplementation in broiler diets Melina Aparecida Bonato*1, Lúcio
Francelino Araújo2, Ricardo Luís Carmo Barbalho3, Edney Pereira da
Silva4 1ICC Industrial Comércio Importação e Exportação Ltda., São
Paulo, Brazil; 2Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos
- Universidade de São Paulo, Pirassununga, Brazil; 3ICC Industrial
Comércio Exportação e Importação Ltda., São Paulo, Brazil; 4Faculdade
de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias - Universidade Estadual Paulista,
Jaboticabal, Brazil
This study evaluated the effects of nucleotide and yeast cell wall supplementation combined with two levels of lysine (in pre-starter diet) and
growth promoting agent on broiler performance. For this, 1,344 one-dayold Cobb male chicks were distributed in a completely randomized design, with 8 treatments of 7 replications, with 12 broilers in each (12 birds/
m2). The treatments were: T1- Diet with lysine 1.25% + growth promoting agent (AGP) (0.3kg/MT zinc bacitracin and 0.6kg/MT anticoccidial
agent); T2- Diet with lysine 1.36% + AGP; T3- Diet with lysine 1.25% (no
AGP); T4- Diet with lysine 1.36% (no AGP); T5- T1 + nucleotide source
(NU) (5kg/MT of yeast product [Saccharomyces cerevisiae], equivalent to
0.3kg/MT of free nucleotides, from 1-10 d) + yeast cell wall (YCW) (1kg/
MT, [Saccharomyces cerevisiae] from 11-42 d); T6- T3 + NU + YCW;
T7– T4 + NU + YCW; T8- T2 + NU + YCW. The different levels of lysine
among treatments were only in the pre-starter diets (1-10 d). Study criteria
included body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI) and feed/gain (F/G) at
10 and 42 d. The data were analyzed using the SAS F test for orthogonal
contrasts (P≤0.05). The AGP supplementation in the diet of broilers improved (P<0.05) BWG (5.0 and 1.8%) and F/G (5.3 and 2.9%) at 10 and
42 d, respectively, when compared with no AGP supplementation. The
different levels of lysine in the diets had no effect on broiler performance
(P>0.05). The NU supplementation in pre-starter diets and YCW in growing and finishing diets improved (P<0.05) BWG (8 and 4.6%) and F/G (9
and 5.5%) at 10 and 42 d, respectively, versus no supplementation. For
both ages, respectively, the diets with lysine 1.25% and 1.36% supplemented with NU, then YCW in later diets, had improved (P<0.05) BWG
(13.8 and 6.2%; 10.7 and 6.3%) and F/G (16.4 and 8.7%; 12.6 and 8.1%).
At 10 and 42 d, birds fed with diets supplemented with yeast-derived additives + AGP and lysine 1.25% or 1.36% had improved (P<0.05) BWG
(4.4 and 4.5%; 3.5 and 3.4%) and F/G (2.7 and 3.5%; 2.6 and 2.9%), respectively. In summary, this study demonstrated that addition of lysine to
pre-starter diets did not improve bird performance; however the supplementation of NU then YCW, with or without AGP, was able to improve
body weight gain and feed conversion.
Key Words: prebiotic, additives, zinc bacitracin
T208 Influence of organic trace minerals on performance, carcass
yield and excretion of broilers in summer season Douglas Faria*1,
Amanda Caniatto2, Vinicius Caetano2, Leandro Demuner2, Bruna Pacheco2
1
Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos - Universidade de Sao
Paulo (USP), Pirassununga, Brazil; 2FZEA/USP, Pirassununga, Brazil
The minerals in organic form are molecules of high bioavailability with
better utilization by birds in relation to inorganic sources. The purpose of
this study was to evaluate the use of different levels of organic minerals
copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn) in
the diet of broiler chickens on performance and carcass yield in summer
season (January to March), with environmental temperature ranged from
17 to 35C, and relative humidity of the air from 43 to 95%. 1080 Cobb500™ male chicks were used in a completely randomized design with
6 treatments and 6 replicates of 30 birds each from 1 to 42 days of age.
The treatments were: T1 - Control - Inorganic Minerals Cu, Fe, Mn, Se,
and Zn according to Rostagno et al. (2011); T2 - Organic Minerals; T3 Reduction of 1/3 from T2; T4 - Reduction of 2/3 from T2; T5 - Increase
of 1/3 from T2, and T6 - Increase of 2/3 from T2. Performance characteristics evaluated were feed intake (FI), weight gain (WG), body weight
(BW), feed conversion (FC) and productive efficiency index (PEI). At 42
days, 20% of the flock were selected for evaluation of carcass yield and
commercial cuts: wing, breast, thigh and drumstick. The excretion was
measured by total collection during the period from 33 to 36 days. Data
were analyzed by analysis of variance using PROC GLM of SAS. The
comparison among treatments was performed by regression and between
the sources of minerals (organic and inorganic) was used contrast. For
performance characteristics, only the FI showed a positive quadratic effect
(y = 249.24x2 - 543.27x + 4541.2) (P˂0.05), with lower consumption for
the treatment T2. There was no difference among diets for carcass yield
and commercial cuts. In relation to excretion, it was reduced in 19, 35 and
28% for Cu, Fe and Mn, respectively with the organic source. It was concluded that organic minerals can be used at lower levels than current recommendations for inorganic minerals without affecting the performance
and carcass yield of broiler in summer season and still reduce the pollution
potential of excreta.
Key Words: birds, feed intake, microelements, mineral availability,
nutrition
T209B. amyloliquefaciens probiotic supplementation compensates
reduction of energy and aminoacids in poultry diets Alvaro Ortiz*1,
Saksit Srinongkote2, Pilar Honrubia3, Juan José Mallo1 1NOREL S.A.,
Madrid, Spain; 2Bangkok Amimal Research Center CO., LTD., Bangkok,
Thailand; 3NOREL S.A., León, Spain
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of Ecobiol
(Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CECT 5490; 1x109 CFU/g) to compensate
the reduction of dietary energy and essential aminoacids in broilers from
0 to 35 days of age.
8 different treatments were used. The experimental design is explained in
the table. Four hundred and eighty (480) Arbor Acres Plus) male broiler
chicks were randomly allocated to the 8 treatments with 6 replications using 10 birds in a pen as an experimental unit (1 x 1m pen space). The test
period covered starter (0-18 days of age) and grower (18-35 days of age).
Feeds and water were provided ad libitum. Birds were maintained on the
lighting program, house temperature and management according to the
Arbor Acres Plus broiler management recommendation. Body weight of
birds and leftover feed of each pen were measured on day 18 and 35. Dead
and culled birds were recorded daily. At the end of each growing period,
individual body weight was measured for flock uniformity calculation.
Body weight gain, feed intake, FCR, livability, flock uniformity and carcass yield was subjected to ANOVA as a 4 x 2 factorial arranged in a
RCBD.
Key Words: Probiotic, Bacillus, Energy, Protein, Aminoacid
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
63
T210Evaluation of performance, carcass characteristics, serum
biochemistry and hematological parameters of broilers fed graded
levels of raw cocoa bean shell based diets Martha Olumide*1, Rasheed
Hamzat2, OJ Bamijoko3, Rasheed Hamzat4 1Department of Animal Science,
University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria, Ibadan, Nigeria; 2Department of
Animal Production & Health, Federal University, Dutsin-Ma, DutsinMa, Nigeria; 3Federal College of Animal Production & Health, Moor
Plantation, Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; 4Department of Life Sciences,
University College Center, South Suburban College, South Holland, USA.,
South Holland, IL, USA
22/25), as well as a significant decrease (P = 0,009) in the average cecal
Salmonella counts (8.9 x 10² vs 5.0 x 10³ cfu/g). At day 28, this effect
could not be maintained because of the extremely high (experimental) infection pressure, leading to a delayed colonization peak.
Competition exists between man and his livestock for conventional feed
ingredients like maize. This has cecessitated the research for alternative
ingredients. Large quantities of cocoa bean shell are produced and wasted
annually by farmers and associated processing industries in Nigeria. Cocoa
bean shell (CBS) is a waste from cocoa processing industries in Nigeria
and it constitutes serious disposal problem. This trial is therefore focused
on the use of graded levels of raw cocoa bean shell (RCBS) based diets on
the performance, carcass, hematology and serum biochemistry of broiler
birds. A total of one hundred and fifty day -old Anak broiler chicks were
randomly allotted to five dietary treatments with 30 birds per treatment,
replicated thrice in a completely randomized design. The treatments were:
A (0%CBS- control diet); B (5%RCBS); C(10%RCBS); D (15%RCBS);
E (20% RCBS). All the birds were fed ad-libitum throughout the experimental period of eight weeks. The feed intake and weight gain were monitored. The carcass analysis, serum and hematological parameters studied
were total protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, glucose, creatinine, red
blood cell, white blood cell, hemoglobin and packed cell volume. Significant differences were observed in the feed intake, weight gain, feed
conversion ratio and carcass parameters of birds fed graded levels of raw
cocoa bean shell-based diets while no variation exists in the hematological
values like total protein, creatinine, red blood cell, hemoglobin and packed
cell volume of the birds fed graded levels of RCBS. RCBS could effectively replace up to 10% maize in the diet of broiler without a deleterious
effect on the birds.
In conclusion, Salbiotic at 4 kg/MT clearly slowed down Salmonella Heidelberg transmission from inoculated birds to non-inoculated contact birds
after 14 days. This trial also indicates that growth can be improved by
supplementing the feed with Salbiotic.
Key Words: Competition, Graded levels, Cocoa bean shell, Carcass,
Hematology
T211 A mixture of medium chain fatty acids slows down transmission
of Salmonella between broiler chickens Manu De Laet*, David Hermans,
Rob Goedegebuure, Renato Costa Nuscience Group, Drongen, Belgium
Poultry are a considerable reservoir of Salmonella spp. and a common
source for human salmonellosis. The broiler industry suffers serious losses
through contamination of broiler meat and elimination of infected birds.
In the past, MCFA already proved their strength against Salmonella infections. Until now, the tested serotypes were Salmonella Java, Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis. With this experiment,
Nuscience wants to expand the application range.
Salmonella Heidelberg is the most often isolated Salmonella serotype in
Brazil. For that reason, an infection trial was setup with a Brazilian field
strain of Salmonella Heidelberg to assess the effectiveness of a mixture of
medium chain fatty acids (Salbiotic) at different doses to control infection
and transmission.
The experiment was carried out with 240 Cobb day-old chicks (4 pens/60
birds per pen). Birds received a mash starter, followed by a pelleted grower without antibiotics. There were 4 dietary treatments: control, 1 kg/MT
Salbiotic, 2 kg/MT Salbiotic and 4 kg/MT Salbiotic. In each group, 6 birds
were orally inoculated on day 3 with 5 x 105 cfu of the isolated Salmonella
Heidelberg field strain. At day 14 and 28, the following parameters were
recorded: S. Heidelberg counts (cfu/g) in the ceca of 25 sentinels and the
body weight of these birds.
At day 14, a decreased number of positive animals was observed in the
highest Salbiotic dosage group compared to the control group (7/25 vs
Birds from the Salbiotic groups had similar or significantly higher weights
than the control group. At day 14, the lowest dosage group had a significantly (P < 0,001) higher body weight compared to the control group
(447.3 g/bird vs 407.7 g/bird). At day 28, there was an increasing trend
(1585.1 g/bird for the highest dosage group vs 1546.9 g/bird for the control group), but no significant differences were observed.
Key Words: Salbiotic, MCFA, Salmonella Heidelberg, transmission,
improved growth
T212 Effect of feeding organic acids as antibiotic replacer to broiler
chickens challenged with salmonella Alaeldein Abudabos* King Saud
University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
The present experiment examined the influence of three commercial organic acids, as an alternative to antibiotic, neoxyval, in-feed on the performance of broilers during pre- and post-challenge with Salmonella
enterica subsp. typhimurium. Ten cages of birds received one of the following treatments: T1= positive control group, un-medicated, no bacterial challenge (+ve cont); T2=negative control, un-medicated, (-ve contrl);
T3=medicated with antibiotic (neoxyval), (NEOX); T4= supplemented
with Gallimix, (GALI); T5=supplemented with FormaXOL, (FORMA);
and T6=supplemented with Fysal, (FYS). The chicks in treatments T2 to
T6 were challenged with (3 x109cfu/ml) of Salmonella enteritidis subsp
typhimurium on day 16. Isocaloric and isonitrogenous starter (0-14 days)
and finisher (15-42 days) diets were fed to chicks as per recommended
commercial practice in Saudi Arabia. The results revealed that unchallenged birds (+ve cont) consumed more feed as compared to those of other treatments (P<0.001). Furthermore, birds which had received NEOX,
GALI, FORMA or FYS converted feed more efficiently as compared to
-ve contrl indicating that organic acids used in this trial restored the performance equally to the antibiotic (NEOX) treatment. The three organic acids
were efficacious at reducing the Salmonella in ileum however; FORMA
and FYS eliminated the Salmonella totally from the ileum. Villus height
but not the width was influenced positively by GALI and FYS (P<0.01).
In summary, the organic acids which were used in this trial reduced the
Salmonella count and improved the morphology of the ileum as a result
the cumulative FCR improved. The tested organic acids had a positive
influence on the performance of broilers and could serve as a substitute
to antibiotics.
Key Words: Broilers, Organic acids, Performance, Bacterial challenge,
Salmonella enterica.
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ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
POSTER SESSION
P213 Avian hepatitis E virus infection in a broiler-breeder flock in
Jordan Saad Gharaibeh*1, Nadim Amarin2 1Jordan University of Science
and Technology, Irbid, Jordan; 2Boehringer Ingelheim, Amman, Jordan
This study reports the first avian hepatitis E virus infection in broiler-breeders in Jordan. The infection was diagnosed based on case history, clinical
signs, gross and histologic lesions including special stains, and RT-PCR.
A 52-week old broiler-breeder flock was suffering from increased daily
mortality and failure to achieve egg-production targets was examined
south of Amman, Jordan. Dead and moribund chickens had prominently
enlarged livers and spleens. Livers were congested, friable, and occasionally mottled. Red fluid and clotted blood was frequently found in the abdominal cavity. Histologically, the liver and spleen had multifocal areas
of necrosis with accumulation of homogenous eosinophilic substance
that gave apple-green birefringence on polarized light when stained with
Congo red (amyloid). Histopathology excluded the presence of tumors
and all bacterial culture attempts were negative. Avian hepatitis E virus
was detected by PCR from fresh tissue samples by Istituto Zooprofilattico
Sperimentale delle Venezie (Legnaro, Italy) confirming the diagnosis of
big liver and spleen disease. There were no subsequent outbreaks in the
area. Avian hepatitis E virus infection was previously reported in Canada,
USA, Australia, New Zealand, United Kingdom, Italy, and Hungary. To
the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of avian hepatitis E virus
infection to be reported in the Middle East region.
Key Words: Avian hepatitis E virus, Big liver and spleen disease,
Chicken, Middle East, Jordan
P214Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis IgA antibodies
titering by ELISA test in tracheal swab and lachrymal fluid samples
Ruben Merino*1, Patrick Dominguez1, Nadia Prado1, Viviana Urdaneta2,
Iván Pineda1, Nancy López1, Teresa Olivares1 1Universidad Nacional
Autónoma de México, México, Mexico; 2Universidad Nacional de
Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia
Current immunological methods to detect and quantify mucosal antibody
immune response in chicken are scarce and need to be easily available
to generate useful and relevant data. The availability for reliable ELISA
test to measure local mucosal post-vaccination immunity against the main
respiratory viruses is still limited. In this study, a modified commercially
available ELISA test was evaluated to titer IgA antibodies in both, tracheal
swab and lachrymal fluid from broiler chickens vaccinated against Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bronchitis (IB). Ten broiler chickens
were vaccinated at 4 weeks old with a ND-IB commercial combined vaccine by both, the ocular and nasal routes, one drop each. Tracheal swab
and lachrymal fluid samples were taken from all chickens at 1 and 2 weeks
post-vaccination (wpv), blood serum was taken only 2 wpv. Lachrymal
fluid was taken by sprinkling approximately 0.003 g fine sodium chloride crystals onto one eye while keeping the eyelids held open, tears were
allowed to accumulate before being carefully collected by a pipette. All
samples were immediately placed in 1.5 ml microfuge tubes and stored
at -20°C. All samples were tested by ELISA. Serum samples were evaluated for anti ND and IB IgG antibody as described by the manufacturer
(AffiniTech LTD, Bentonville, AR 72712). Tracheal swab diluted 1:2 and
lachrymal fluid diluted 1:10 were tested with the same ELISA kit with a
modification, anti IgG conjugate was replaced and chicken IgA binding to
the coating antigen was detected with a commercial goat anti-chicken-IgA
reagent conjugated to alkaline phosphatase and supplied at an antibody
concentration of 1.0 mg/ml and diluted 1:1,000 (A30-103A, Bethyl Laboratories Inc., Montgomery, TX 77356). Antibody titer in all samples was
calculated with the UniVET® software provided by AffiniTech. Serum
antibodies for IB at 2 wpv were 822. IgA titers in swab samples were
6,303 and 8,347 at 1 and 2 wpv respectively; meanwhile they were 10,188
and 9,897 in lachryma. Circulating antibodies against ND at 2 wpv were
3,409. Swab samples results were 4,141 and 5,852 at 1 and 2 wpv; lachrymal fluid results were 6,718 and 6,302 at 1 and 2 wpv, respectively. Titers
in swab samples against both antigens increased from 1 to 2 wpv, but
remained almost the same in lachrymal fluid. Sytemic humoral immunity
at 2 wpv against ND was apparently higher than against IB, however, local immunity was higher than the systemic one. In the other hand, IgA
titers were higher in lachrymal fluid than in swab samples, despite they
were diluted 1:10. Modification of a commercially available ELISA kit
was suitable to detect and quantify IgA in tracheal swab samples and lachrymal fluid.
Key Words: Local immunity, IgA, ELISA, Newcastledisease, Infectious
bronchitis
P215Abstract: The Secure Egg Supply Plan: Business Continuity
Planning for a Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Outbreak Karen
Lopez*1, David Halvorson1, Timothy Goldsmith1, Mary Hourigan2, Carol
Cardona1 1University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine, St.
Paul, MN, USA; 2University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, USA
The Secure Egg Supply (SES) Plan was developed through a collaborative
effort between government, industry, and academic partners in order to
facilitate continued movement of uninfected egg products in the event of
a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak in the United States.
Proactive risk assessments performed by analysts at USDA, APHIS, Veterinary Services, Center for Epidemiology and Animal Health serve as the
bases for determination of permit requirements for movement of eggs and
egg industry products from infected but undetected flocks. Entry and exposure assessments were performed for the following commodities: pasteurized and non-pasteurized liquid eggs, washed and sanitized shell eggs,
nest run shell eggs, shells and inedible eggs, hatching eggs, day-old chicks
and manure. To move eggs, producers must then complete a series of steps
to be issued a permit by the Incident Commander’s designee. Producers
are encouraged fulfill preparatory steps prior to an outbreak to expedite
permit receipt when needed. First, traceability information (premises ID,
GPS coordinates, etc.) must be made available. Next flock production
parameters must be within normal limits. Product-specific biosecurity
measures must be in place for premises, people, flock, pest control, equipment and egg-handling materials, feed and water, and manure removal.
An epidemiological assessment must be found to be acceptable by the issuing official. Prior to movement and depending on product negative real
time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) may be
required on the one to two days preceding product transport. The SES Plan
is currently in the implementation stage; partners in academia, industry
and government are performing outreach activities to encourage adoption
and modification of the plan by individual states and regions to best suit
their industries’ needs.
Key Words: Secure Egg Supply (SES), HPAI
P216 Effect of diluting a commercial Newcastle disease recombinant
vaccine on the protection of broiler chickens challenged with a virulent
strain of Newcastle disease virus. Ignacio Osorio*1, Alma Delia González2,
Rodrigo Cascante2, Eduardo Lucio2, Rubén Merino1 1Universidad Nacional
Autónoma de México, México, Mexico; 2Investigación Aplicada S. A. de C.
V., Tehuacán, Mexico
Currently, the design and production of vaccines have clear objectives:
to reduce the adverse effects and enhance the immunogenicity, some recombinant vaccines of last generation have achieved these objectives. Different doses of a commercially available recombinant Newcastle disease
(ND) vaccine (Genovax® N5, Investigación Aplicada S.A., Puebla, México 75700) were evaluated, a standard live virus (LaSota strain) was used
as control. Five groups of 12 commercial broiler chickens, 21 days old,
ND-antibodies free, were immunized with either, the recombinant (strain
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
rp05) or standard vaccine, at different titres (EID50/mL): 1=10 , 2=10 ,
3=105.8, 4=104.8 and 5=103.8 ; an unvaccinated group served as positive
control for virus. All groups were challenged at 35 days of age with 107.8
EID50/0.2 ml of virulent Newcastle disease strain P05. Serum samples
were evaluated pre-challenge and at the end of the experiment by haemagglutination inhibition test, using rp05 virus as antigen. Geometric mean
HI titer at day 35 was negative in unvaccinated control group. In rp05
groups 1 to five HI titers were 80, 211, 121, 60 and 11, respectively; which
increased to 2,940, 557, 5,881, 640 and 2,560, respectively, 10 days postchallenge. In LaSota groups 1 to 5, HI titers were 160, 367, 485,320 and
21, respectively, 10 days later they were 557, 1,114, 970, 1,280 and 3,880,
respectively. Survival rate was measured at 45 days of age. All chickens
in unvaccinated control group died around 4 days after challenge, so the
virulence of the challenge ND strain was confirmed and the trial validated.
There was no mortality in either rp05 or LaSota groups 1 to 4; meanwhile
mortality was 83% in rp05 and 25% in LaSota groups 5. Both, the recombinant and the standard vaccines yield 100% protection against mortality
in broiler chickens challenged with a virulent strain of ND, even at a titer
as low as 104.8 EID50/mL. More studies, including productive parameters
and local immunity are recommended.
7.5
6.8
Key Words: Newcastle disease, recombinant vaccine, LaSota vaccine,
protection, broiler chickens
P217 The evolution of respiratory diseases in poultry farms from
Romania during 2013 - 2014 determined by ELISA and PCR assays
Leigh Nagy*1, Daniela Botus3, Jarrett Cotter1, Virgilia Popa3, Marian
Culcescu3, Eduard Caplan3, Jenica Bucur2, Gheorghe Stratulat2 1Affinitech
Ltd, Bentonville, AR, USA; 2Farmavet SA, Bucharest, Romania; 3National
Society Pasteur Institute, Bucharest, Romania
In the Department of Diagnostic, NS Pasteur Institute Bucharest, during
January 2013 - September 2014 there were carried out 1385 serological
tests by ELISA and 320 molecular tests by PCR assay for six specific
agents associated with respiratory diseases in poultry (chicken and/or turkey): IBV, ILT, AMPV, ORT, MG, MS, and in addition, APEC strains
were pathotyped by PCR assays.
Samples were from chicken industrial farms (commercial) (parents, broilers, layers) and turkey farms, from 9 counties in the central and southern
Romania. The vaccination schemes were different from farm to farm but
also depending on the age of poultry. They included in a non unitary manner vaccinations for IB prophylaxis (mostly with strains derived from CR/
FR/Qx pathotype) applied to youth and adults poultry, ILT, ART (AMPV
subtype B) and mycoplasmosis with MG and MS applied to adults.
For IBV there were recorded very high antibody titers in adult poultry,
and PCR tests revealed the circulation of strains derived from CR/FR/Qx
pathotype and the absence of Mass or It-02 strains for all chicken ages.
ILTV was present in unvaccinated layers and broilers of 42 days old.
AMPV type A was present in young turkeys of 61 days old, types A and
C were found in layers of 31-36 weeks old, and the types B and C were
concomitantly detected in broilers of 42 days old.
The ORT presence was showed both by ELISA and PCR in broilers of 42
days old, and adult hens and turkeys of all ages. MG and MS were present in farms without specific vaccination, both in chicken and turkey of
all ages, and in farms with vaccinated poultry, but reached at higher ages.
The APEC strains were present in young chicken, starting from one day
old, and also in sanitation control samples and, curiously, at a swan from
a hunting area. The ELISA kits proved to be highly reliable to control
the efficiency of vaccines, and in combination with PCR assays, to detect
respiratory infectious agents in poultry.
Key Words: poultry, respiratory disease, ELISA, PCR
65
P218 Benefits medicating in drinking water stabilized Nancy Christy*1,
Josue Sanchez2, Jorge Coss3, Gabriel Gomez4 1Boehringer Ingelheim,
Mexico, Mexico; 2Boehringer Ingelheim, Queretaro, Mexico; 3Boehringer
Ingelheim, Puebla, Mexico; 4Alcer, Mex, Mexico
Several factors can affect the results expected after application of a vaccine and / or medicament as product quality, strength, storage and application method of the products according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. In the case of vaccination and / or medication into the drinking
water, which is a commonly used practice in the poultry industry, there is
a factor of vital importance that the quality of water.
In the case of supply through underground shaft, the problem is that usually contain large amounts of dissolved mineral salts that give hardness
and altering the taste, the absorption and bioavailability of antimicrobials.
To ensure proper operation of either a vaccine or an antimicrobial, the
quality of water must comply with a pH around 7, hardness less than 300
ppm and be free of chlorine and iodine.
In a farm with 250,000 birds applied a water stabilizer, which yielded the
appropriate pH, less than 300 ppm hardness and elimination of chlorine
and iodine. The control group was previously medicated without applying
water stabilizer. Since water was obtained under optimum conditions the
medication was applied with antibiotics. We measured Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) of each group for E. coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus uberis after 10 minutes,
one hour and two hours after the medication. The results showed that by
stabilizing the water, CIM is smaller and more uniform for the group when
it stabilized the water, showing a statistically significant difference and
saving money on medication.
Key Words: drinking water stabilized, water stabilizer, water quality,
hardness
P219 Comparison of various levels of the direct fed microbial Optibac L on broiler chickens during a natural Clostridium perfringens
exposure Marie Schirmacher*UG1, Diego Paiva1, Christa Honaker1,
Alamanda Calvert1, Audrey McElroy2 1Virginia Polytechnic Institute and
State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA; 2Texas A&M University, College
Station, TX, USA
Due to consumer preference and industry regulations, alternatives to antibiotics are being evaluated for effectiveness against poultry diseases, such
as necrotic enteritis. Probiotics are among the various products available
to the commercial poultry industry for natural modulation of intestinal
integrity in challenging environments. The objective of this study was
to evaluate the effects of different dietary inclusion levels of Opti-bac L
(Huvepharma Inc., Peachtree City, GA), a probiotic that contains Bacillus
lichenformis, on broiler performance during a natural Clostridium perfringens exposure. Day-old Cobb males were randomly assigned to four treatments with 18 replications per treatment for 0-42 d. Birds were exposed
to Clostridium perfringens through litter previously used by an infected
seeder flock, and resulting necrotic enteritis was confirmed by posting of
mortality. All diets were medicated and contained 10 grams per ton of
Bacillus subtilis. Treatments were inclusions of Optibac-L at: 0.00 (diet
1), 0.25 (diet 2), 0.50 (diet 3), or 1.00 lbs per ton (diet 4). Body weights
(BW), feed intake and number of live birds per pen were recorded on days
0, 14, 35 and 42. For statistical analysis, PROC GLM procedure of SAS
was used. No significant differences were observed for mortality or feed
consumption. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) from 0 to 14 was significantly
better in diet 3 compared to diet 4 (P < 0.0281). From day 15 to 35, FCR
for diet 3 was significantly better than diets 1 and 4 but showed no significant difference from diet 2 (P < 0.0006). Cumulative FCR from day
0-42 for diet 3 was significantly better than all the other diets (P < 0.0001).
Throughout the trial, BW and overall body weight gain (BWG) were significantly (P < 0.0004) lower for diet 4 compared to all other diets. The results indicated that while undergoing a Clostridium perfringens exposure
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ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
and resulting necrotic enteritis episode, there was a benefit in growth and
FCR in broilers supplemented with B. subtilis and Optibac-L. The results
also suggested that the 1.00 lbs per ton of Optibac-L resulted in reduced
BW and BWG, while an intermediate amount (0.25 or 0.50 lbs per ton) of
the probiotic provided an improved FCR.
Key Words: Bacillus, Optibac-L, Clostridium, Calsporin, broiler
P220 Evaluating the pathogenicity of the infectious bronchitis virus
Arkansas 99 vaccine Frances Ashby*GS, Deborah Hilt, Mark Jackwood,
Brian Jordan The University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA
Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a gammacoronavirus that causes
an economically significant upper respiratory tract disease in chickens.
Because of its prevalence and infectivity, all commercial poultry are vaccinated against IBV in a serotype specific manner. Of the 5 main serotypes
used in the U.S., the Arkansas DPI (ArkDPI) serotype vaccine has been
shown to provide inadequate protection from challenge after spray application. The lack of protection can be correlated to poor infection and replication in chicks. The Arkansas 99 (Ark99) vaccine is the same serotype as
ArkDPI, but was discontinued because it was perceived to cause a severe
reaction in 1-day old chicks, which may have been due to the simultaneous use of B1 Newcastle virus (NDV) vaccine. Now, highly attenuated
NDV vaccines like C2 and Clone-30, and HVT and Poxvirus based vector
vaccines for NDV are available, potentially eliminating the previously observed severe vaccine reaction. The purpose of this trial was to determine
the pathogenicity of Ark99 in the absence of other live viral vaccines and
to measure the infection and replication rate of Ark99 compared to the current ArkDPI vaccines. To test this, a single dose (1 x 104) of Ark99 vaccine
was given to each of ten 1-day old broiler chicks via eye drop. The chicks
were swabbed in the choanal cleft at 7, 10, and 14 days of age to measure
vaccine virus replication by real time RT-PCR. At the same time points,
respiratory signs indicative of a vaccine reaction were recorded. At day
14, chicks were euthanized and necropsied and tracheas were harvested to
examine the pathogenicity of the vaccine, using the ciliostasis test. Determining the pathogenicity of the Ark99 vaccine in the absence of other live
vaccine viruses will give valuable information on the potential suitability
of this vaccine for chicks.
Key Words: Arkansas 99, IBV, Broiler, Arkansas DPI, Vaccine
P221 Identification and Analysis of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and
Mycoplasma synoviae Strains Detected in The Colombian Poultry
Between 2013 and 2014. ANDRES RODRIGUEZ-AVILA*1, JAVIER
GOMEZ2, GERARDO QUIÑONES-CHOIS1, LAILA BERNAL2
1
BioARA S.A., Guaduas, Colombia; 2Universidad de la Salle, Bogota,
Colombia
Avian mycoplasmosis is a disease of great importance in the Colombian
poultry industry because of the negative impact associated with the decrease in the production of table and fertile eggs, in addition to vertical
transmission to progeny, selection and increasing mortality of day-old
chicks and low zootechnical performance in broilers. Because of the economic losses for the poultry industry, it is necessary to study the behavior
of strains of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae present in the Colombian poultry. Given this situation, the aim of this study is
the identification and analysis of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae found in the most influential geographic areas of the Colombian poultry by means of PCR and molecular sequencing. Currently
there is information of about 500 positive samples by means of PCR of
different zones and types of production. These samples will be selected
the most representative in terms of production losses and type of reported
clinical cases, which when analyzed can become an important tool for
the systematic control of the problems associated with mycoplasmosis for
Colombian poultry producers.
Key Words: Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae, PCR,
Sequencing, Mycoplasmosis
P222In vitro cell screen assay of nickel (II) sulfate and cadmium
sulfate showed growth inhibition of Histomonas meleagridis Anna
Kenyon*GS, Miguel Barrios, Robert Beckstead The University of Georgia,
Athens, GA, USA
Histomonas meleagridis, a protozoan parasite, is the causative agent of
blackhead disease, also known as histomoniasis. Histomonas meleagridis
causes morbidity in gallinaceous birds – up to 30% mortality of broilers, and 80-100% mortality in turkeys, resulting in substantial financial
losses. Prior to their removal, blackhead outbreaks were controlled with
the arsenical-containing drugs: Roxarsone (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylarsonic acid), Carbarsone ([4-Carbamoylamino) phenyl] arsenic acid), and
arsanilic acid (4 aminophenylarsonic acid). Currently, the only available
drug is Nitarsone (4-nitrophenylarsonic acid), which is under review by
the FDA with its potential removal pending. The withdrawal of reliable
drugs has led to an increased interest in alternative treatments. ZnSO4 and
CuSO4-H2O, have shown growth inhibition of H. meleagridis and have
chemical properties similar to FeSO4, MnSO4, CdSO4-H2O, and NiSO4H2O6. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of
different concentrations of these metals on the proliferation of H. meleagridis in vitro. An anaerobic 96-well culture screen methodology was
developed. The tolerance level of turkeys determined the highest metal
concentrations studied. Concentrations were halved 5 times for a total of
6 concentrations and there were 3 replications per treatment. The growth
rate of H. meleagridis was measured by counting live protozoan cells using a Neubauer hemocytometer at 8 h intervals for 32 h. Cell counts were
collected and analyzed and it was determined that FeSO4 and MnSO4 did
not effectively inhibit H. meleagridis at any concentration. NiSO4 at 2.5,
5, 10, and 20 ppm showed an inhibition trend after 24 h, while 0.625,
1.25 ppm, and control significantly increased. CdSO4 at 5, 10, and 20 ppm
showed an inhibition trend after 24 h, while all other treatments showed
significantly increased cell counts. Therefore, these results show promise
that other trace minerals may be effective in controlling H. meleagridis
growth. Future research may be necessary to determine the effects of these
metals in vivo.
Key Words: trace mineral, blackhead disease, Histomonas meleagridis,
nitarsone, cell screen
P223Sentinel Cells and Agglomeration in Circulating Blood are
Indications of Stress Paul Cotter* Cotter Laboratory, Arlington, MA, USA
The heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L) ratio is a widely used stress measure for
poultry. High H/L’s indicate stress but this calculation often ignores total
white blood cell counts (TWBC) and atypical cells (AT). Low H/L’s have
been found in the presence of high TWBC’s and high H/L’s can occur
with a normal TWBC. By themselves, H/L’s or TWBC’s are insufficient
indicators of the “blood picture”. Moreover, many H/L and TWBC are determined with a hemacytometer, a technique insensitive to AT’s. Here the
purpose is to illustrate AT types and behavior that by themselves are automatic indications of a complex hemogram and so infer stress. Examples
of thrombocytes, erythrocytes, lymphocytes, granulocytes, and other cells
are provided. Thin films of blood, obtained from commercial hens, ducks,
and turkeys, stained with Wright’s method are the source of the data.
Emphasis is given to illustrations containing multiple AT’s in “reactive
cluster” (RC) formations. The assumption is that RC’s represent the avian
equivalents of “leukergy” a hematological phenomenon associated with
inflammation and infection characterized by agglomeration of leukocytes.
Key Words: hematology, stress, reactive cluster, leukergy, atypia
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
P224 Regulatory considerations for therapeutic interventions against
histomoniasis (Blackhead disease) in turkeys Prajwal Regmi*1, Ruby
Hsieh2, Jeffrey Gilbert1, Janis Messenheimer1 1Center for Veterinary
Medicine, Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD, USA; 2University
of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
Histomoniasis (Blackhead disease) is a serious concern for the turkey industry in the United States (US). At least 50 cases of histomoniasis were
reported each year since 2007 in the US (2013 USAHA Annual Meeting
Proceedings) and mortality in the infected turkey flock can reach 100%.
Therapeutic options for the control and prevention of the disease are limited. There is a need for research into the development of new animal
drugs and other possible interventions, including vaccines and management techniques for the control and prevention of histomoniasis in turkeys. The purpose of this presentation is to highlight FDA’s interest in
exploring with colleagues in academia, the pharmaceutical industry, the
poultry industry and others, possible therapeutic interventions against histomoniasis in turkeys, leading to an approved new animal drug to fill this
important therapeutic need.
Key Words: Blackhead disease, Histomonas meleagridis, Turkeys,
Drugs, Regulatory
P225 RESISTANCE PROFILE OF SALMONELLA TYPHI
AND SALMONELLA PARATYPHI IN RELATION TO
ANTIMICRONIAL AGENTS Vitor Franceschini*1, Gustavo Savoldi2,
Ewerton Zanellato3, Andre Grossi4, Guilherme Severo4, Erica Lucca5
1
Farmabase Saúde Animal, Campinas, SP, Brazil; 2Farmabase Saúde
Animal, Chapecó-SC, Brazil; 3Farmabase Saúde Animal, Itajai-SC, Brazil;
4
Farmabase Saúde Animal, Jaguariuna-SP, Brazil; 5Instituto Federal do
Triangulo Mineiro, Uberlandia-MG, Brazil
The objective of the study was to evaluate the susceptibility of different serotypes of Salmonella spp. in relation to the different antimicrobial
agents used in industrial poultry farming. Ten isolates underwent the antibiogram or Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test (AST), these isolates were:
Salmonella Pullorum; Salmonella Gallinarum; Salmonella Heidelberg,
Salmonella Schwarzengrund, Salmonella Mbandaka, and Salmonella
Senftenberg. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was conducted by Disk Diffusion Method using Mueller-Hinton agar and incubation at 36+/-1ºC for
18-20h. Antimicrobial agents tested were: Ciprofloxacin (5 µg), Enrofloxacin (5µg), Norfloxacin (10 µg), and Fosfomycin (30 µg) for Salmonellas
typhi, as these groups of Salmonella have a systemic action and the active
ingredients have a local and systemic action and, in addition, the Neomycin (30 IU) for Salmonellas paratyphi, which have an action limited
to the bowel. Results have showed that all isolates of S. Pullorum and
S. Gallinarum tested were susceptible to the action of ciprofloxacin. All
isolates of S. Pullorum were susceptible to norfloxacin and enrofloxacin.
Isolated of S. Gallinarum were resistant to enrofloxacin and norfloxacin.
All 40 isolates of Salmonella spp. Were susceptible to ciprofloxacin and
norfloxacin. Currently, prevalence studies point out the serotypes S. Heidelberg and S. Mbandaka with a high rate of occurrence in the industrial
poultry farming. These serotypes have showed a high susceptibility to the
action of neomycin and enrofloxacin-resistant isolates. According to the
resistance profile observed in this study, it can be concluded that ciprofloxacin was the molecule with highest susceptibility against all types of
salmonella tested. Further antibiotic tested have showed resistant isolates.
Neomycin has showed complete susceptibility regarding two serotypes
with high prevalence, which are S. Heidelberg and S. Mbandaka.
Key Words: Salmonella spp., Ciprofloxacin, antimicrobial, antibiogram,
resistance
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P226Evaluation of intestinal absorption, skin deposition and
digestibility of xanthophylls in broilers challenged with Eimeria
acervulina, E. tenella, and E. maxima Xochitl Hernandez-Velasco*1,
Nancy Frade-Negrete2, Benjamin Fuente-Martínez3, Manuel QuirozPesina4, Ernesto Avila-Gonzalez3 1Universidad Nacional Autonóma de
México (UNAM), Mexico City, Mexico; 2Departamento de Medicina y
Zootecnia de Aves, FMVZ.,UNAM, Mexico, Mexico; 3Centro de Enseñanza,
Investigación y Extensión en Producción Avícola, FMVZ-UNAM, Mexico
City, Mexico; 4Industrias VEPINSA S.A. de C.V., Mexico City, Mexico
An experiment was conducted in broiler chickens from 21 to 49 d of age to
evaluate the plasmatic level, deposition, and digestibility of xanthophylls
(XA) from marigold flower after infection with Eimeria spp. 400 broilers
were assigned to 4 treatments: 1) non-infected control; and treatments 2
to 4 were challenged with 8.32 x 104 sporulated Eimeria oocysts (SEO)/
bird. The birds were treated, and received 85, 108, 141, and 162ppm of
total dietary XA from d 35 to 49 for treatments 1 to 4, respectively. The
experiment contained 4 replications (2 replications/sex) per treatment. No
difference was detected in plasma xanthophylls (PX) or skin yellowness
(b*) at 49 d between treatments. XA digestibility decreased by 15 units
in the infected birds. Results suggest that XA digestion and absorption
are similar between males and females. However, females have a greater
ability for skin XA deposition. After a mild Eimeria spp infection, it is
possible to achieve adequate b* levels if the infected birds are treated immediately and receive at least 62 mg of dietary XA/bird for 14 d.
This work was sponsored by the Support Program for Research and Innovation Projects in Technology (PAPIIT), Project IN203910-3, UNAM.
Key Words: Eimeria, intestinal absorption, broiler chicken, skin
pigmentation, digestibiity
P228 DETERMINATION
OF
MINIMUM
INHIBITORY
CONCENTRATION (MIC) FOR HALQUINOLAND ITS ISOMERS
5,7-DICHLORO-8-HYDROXYQUINOLINE AND 5-CHLORO8-HYDROXYQUINOLINE IN RELATION TO ISOLATES FOR
ESCHECRICHIA COLI, SALMONELLA GALLINARUM AND
SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS. Alexandre Machado*1, Marcia Milare2,
Daniela Carneiro2, Sara Zoca2 1Farmabase Saúde Animal, Campinas-SP,
Brazil; 2Farmabase Saúde Animal, Jaguariuna-SP, Brazil
Halquinol is a controlled mixture of the isomers, 5,7-dichloro-8-hydroxyquinoline, 5-mono chloro-8 hydroxyquinoline and 7-chloro-8-hydroxyquinoline. As a non-antibiotic antimicrobial agent, it demonstrates a high
level of activity against an extensive range of bacteria, Gram-positive,
Gram-negative and fungi, as well against certain protozoans. British
Pharmacopoeia of 1980 indicates the active ingredient Halquinol is composed by the following relation of isomers: 57 to 74% of the isomer 5,
7-Dichloro 8-hydroxyquinoline: 23 to 40% of the isomer 5-Mono chloro
8-hydroxyquinoline and maximum 4% of the isomer 7 - Chloro 8- hydroxyquinoline. However, total sum of isomers should be between 95 and
105%. Aiming at demonstrating that the adequate composition of isomers
in the raw material directly reflects on the antimicrobial efficiency of the
formulated product, it was conducted an evaluation study of minimum
inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the active pharmaceutical ingredient
(API) Halquinol singly and of the purified isomers 5,7-Dichloro 8-hydroxyquinoline and 5-Mono chloro 8-hydroxyquinoline, which present
a biological activity. The isomer 7-chloro-8hydroxyquinoline was not
tested because it was considered an impurity in the raw material, being
limited to the maximum of 4% in total concentration. Minimum inhibitory
concentration was determined against the micro-organisms: Escherichia
coli K88, Escherichia coli K99, Salmonella Gallinarum and Salmonella
Enteritidis. The results found that active pharmaceutical substance Halquinol and purified isomer of 5,7-dichloro-8-hydroxyquinoline presented
MIC values which were very close for the majority of micro-organism
studied, reaching an interval of 2.0 to 7.1 µg/mL and 1.6 to 6.6 µg/mL,
respectively. The purified isomer of 5-chloro-8-hydroxyquinoline pre-
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ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
sented higher values of MIC, in the range of 11.21 to 22.415 µg/mL. Such
data enable the conclusion that the antimicrobial activity of the isomer
5,7dichloro-8-hydroxyquinoline is superior to those of the isomer 5-chloro-8-hydroxyquinoline and that a raw material which meets the standard
of British Pharmacopoeia of 1980, has an antimicrobial activity similar to
those of the isomer 5,7-dichloro-8-hydroxyquinoline, as this isomer is in
greater proportion in the raw material which meets the quality standards of
British Pharmacopeia , 1980. On the other hand, the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient that does not meet this pharmacopoeia standard may present a reduced antimicrobial activity, as, in general, it will have a smaller
quantity of the isomer 5,7-dichloro-8-hydroxyquinoline.
Key Words: Minimum inhibitory concentration, micro-organisms,
Halquinol, isomers, Antimicrobial
P229 Outbreak of marek’s disease virus in game fowl (fighting cocks)
and its analysis from the haematological point of view. A case report
Yasmin Martínez*GS Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México- Facultad
de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, México, Mexico
This study presents the first report of an outbreak of Marek’s disease (MD)
in fighting cocks in this production unit. The unit to which belong both
cases is close to fourteen fully-independent units engaged in the breeding
and rearing of fighting cocks, all in the southeast of Federal District. The
two cases occurred and were analyzed in late 2013 and early 2014, respectively. The presumptive clinical diagnosis was MD and it was confirmed
by histopathology. According to the pathological lesions the cases were
classified as MD in its acute presentation; both nervous, and classicalvisceral¹·²; respectively.
The Marek’s disease virus (MDV) has been extensively studied; it is associated with high mortality in acute cases, as well as with major condemnations and downgrading at the end of the production cycle in the
chronic presentation. Birds show significant immunosuppression, acquiring the risk of getting secondary diseases. Therefore is of great importance
to determine if the infection is present in unvaccinated, clinically healthy
live birds, since usually the diagnosis is performed after the presentation
of clinical signs. It was decided to use complete blood count (CBC) testing as a complementary tool in the diagnosis of the 3 suspected birds.
However, no conclusive results that indicate the presence of the infection
were obtained.
Key Words: Marek’s disease, fighting cocks, histopathology,
immunosuppression, complete blood count (CBC)
P230 Evaluation of the effectiveness of vaccination against marek’s
disease (em) determined by the presence of hvt vaccine virus through
endpoint pcr technique in game birds (Gallus gallus) Norma Patricia
Ficachi Garcia*GS, Nestor Ledesma Martinez UNAM, Mexico, Mexico
Due to the great clinical and economic importance of Marek’s Disease
(MD) in game birds, the most effective and used control method at field
level is vaccination at day-old. However, it is very important to evaluate the effectiveness of the vaccination to ensure that the bird is indeed
protected against field viruses. For this purpose, we carried out the detection of the presence of serotype 3 (HVT) vaccine virus of MD through
endpoint PCR from feather follicle in game birds. Based on the results,
were identified HVT positive birds that had been vaccinated and therefore
the effectiveness of vaccination is confirmed. Also were identified birds
that are negative for the presence of HVT and therefore are not protected
against pathogenic viruses despite being identified as vaccinated. This is
why the technique used in this study may be an alternative for the evaluation of the effectiveness of vaccination. Additionally HVT positive birds
were found and these were reported as unvaccinated so this may be an
indication of the excretion of the vaccine virus reported in the literature
since they were in contact with the vaccinated birds.
Key Words: Marek’s disease, game birds, PCR, vaccination, HVT
P231Novel statistical approaches toward Salmonella surveillance
in live and processed poultry Maurice Pitesky* University of California
Davis, Davis, CA, USA
Salmonella contamination of grow-out poultry destined for human consumption can occur from multiple sources in the broiler supply chain. Understanding specific on farm and processing risk factors that positively and
negatively affect Salmonella prevalence at the processing plant is essential
toward mitigating risk. This paper describes the construction of multiple
logistic regression models coupled with conditional decision tree analyses
tools designed to identify Salmonella risk. Initial single logistic regression
generated odds ratios showed that positive bootswabs in the grow-out facilities were 11.1x more likely to be associated with positive Salmonella
Rehang post evisceration. In addition, an optimized backwards logistic
regression model was able to predict Salmonella rehang positives 72%
of the time and Salmonella rehang negatives 90% of the time (R2 equal to
0.62). Conditional decision trees are a novel approach toward risk analysis
of multiple interventions in poultry production. Initial trees at three different processing plants showed that dipping stations had the most significant
(p<0.0001) effect on Salmonella parts prevalence. Using the above described models in parallel offers a comprehensive approach toward evaluating risk of Salmonella in live and processed chicken.
Key Words: Salmonella, food safety, conditional decision trees, logistic
regression
P232 Effect of thermal manipulation during fetal phase on adpatative
capacity of broiler chickens Viviane Souza Morita*GS, Vitor Rosa de
Almeida, Isabel Cristina Boleli São Paulo State University, UNESP,
Jaboticabal, Brazil, Jaboticabal, Brazil
Thermal manipulation during critical periods of chick embryogenesis has
been used to improve thermotolerance acquisition later in life. The aim
of this study was investigated effects of temperature manipulation during fetal phase on response to high environmental temperature of broiler
chickens. Control embryos (n=160) were incubated at 37.5°C throught incubation. Thermally manipulated embryos were incubated at 37.5°C until
embryonic day (ED) 12 and exposed to 36°C (low temperature, n=160) or
39°C (high temperature, n=160) from ED 13 onward. At d 2, 8, 15, 22 and
28 post-hatch (n=16 per treatment and per age), chickens were exposed
to high temperature (5°C above the preferred ambient temperature) for
45 min. Chickens from incubation at low and control treatment increased
the rectal temperature under heat stress from d 2 and increased the frequency of respiratory movements from d 21. However, incubation at high
temperature limited the increasing in the rectal temperature under high
temperature to grower phase (from d 22 of age) and delayed the increasing
in the frequency of respiratory movements to last analyzed week (from d
29 of age), whose values were lower than reported for broilers from incubation at low and control temperatures. The results demonstrated physiological advantage of the continuous high incubation temperature during
fetal development for broilers exposed to heat stress during the first three
weeks of age.
Key Words: thermal manipulation, broiler chicken, thermal challenge,
thermotolerance, fetal phase
P233 Nutritional Effects on Parent Stock W-36 and its Influence on
the Sex Ratio and Development of Offspring McCaide Wooten*UG,
Zachary Lowman, Christopher Ashwell North Carolina State University,
Raleigh, NC, USA
Past studies in birds have shown that there is a link between maternal
condition, or resource availability, and the resultant sex ratio of offspring
in avian species, both wild and domesticated. In the majority of cases,
mothers will preferentially bias the sex ratio of their offspring to the sex
that is most likely to survive in conditions in which nutritional resources
are scarce or of poor quality; typically, this is the sex with the lower mature
body weight, thus lower nutritional requirements, in sexually dimorphic
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
species. This study analyzed how three diets of differing caloric and protein concentrations influenced the sex ratios of a commercially utilized
avian species, the Hy-Line W-36 laying hen. As expected, development of
both parent and filial generations was significantly affected by diet or egg
composition, respectively. Sex ratio bias was significantly different only
between CL offspring compared to the control, but there was a similar
trend in the opposite direction for CH offspring. Results suggest that continual availability of either high- or low-nutrient density food resources
does not predispose hens to bias the sex ratio of their offspring; however,
a sudden change in diet, particularly to one of lower protein concentration,
may influence such a change, suggesting linkage with the production of
stress-related hormones. Further trials are needed to assess the efficacy of
diet alteration prior to reproductive maturity as a means of sex allocation
manipulation.
Key Words: Sex Ratio, W-36, Nutrition
P234 Identification of recessive mutations that cause early embryonic
deformities in the Athens Canadian Random bred line maintained
at the University of Georgia Jason Payne*GS, Clayton Wing, Robert
Beckstead The University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA
In an attempt to preserve the genetics of the 1950’s broiler chicken, the
University of Georgia has maintained an Athens Canadian Random bred
(ACRB) chicken flock since 1958. These birds are a genetic derivative of
the Ottawa Meat control strain that was the industry standard of the time.
This ACRB flock has been maintained through random breeding practices. Though randomly mating prevents directional selection, persistence
of recessive mutations can be maintained in the flock. The objective of this
study was to determine the presence of deleterious mutations within the
ACRB line that result in early embryonic abnormalities. Pedigree information allowed for the identification of 215 potential siblings. Siblings were
crossed by artificial insemination and eggs were collected, labeled, and incubated for 5 days. An average of 9 embryos per cross were removed from
the eggs and dissected away from the extra embryonic tissues, washed in
PBS, placed in 10% buffered formalin for preservation, and visualized
under a dissection microscope. Based on the phenotypic screening for
morphological deformities, 13 crosses resulted in deformities of the head/
face (1), brain (1), hind limb (1), eye (1), spine (2), dwarfing of the trunk
(3), or developmental delay (4) in Mendelian ratios. Genetic stocks, such
as the ACRB, provide a valuable resource for identifying genetic lines that
may act as a model for the study of embryonic development in the chicken
and suggests that industrial or other lines may be a fertile ground for identifying mutations that affect the development, growth and production of
chickens. Future studies are focused on the identification of other lines that
contain embryonic lethal phenotypes and the identification of the genes
associated with these phenotypes. The aim is to provide a better method to
screen for and identify individuals with deleterious mutations to improve
the health and production of chicken flocks.
Key Words: embryonic lethality, genetics, Athens Canadian Random
bred
P235Effect of In Ovo injection of vitamin D on hatchability, ash
content, mineral composition and bone strength of chicks Thays
Quadros*1, Karina Duarte1, Carla Domingues1, Rafael Marques1, Elaine
Santos1, Diana Castiblanco1, Sarah Sgavioli1, Juan Alva1, Otto Junqueira2
1
Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, Jaboticabal, Brazil;
2
Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, Jatai, Brazil
Vitamin D acts on bone metabolism since embryo development. This
study evaluated the In Ovo injection of vitamin D as cholecalciferol at the
eighth d of embryo development on ash content, bone mineral composition, and bone strength of chicks at hatching. An experiment was conducted with 600 Cobb 500 fertile eggs from 43-wk-old broiler breeders.
Eggs were distributed in a completely randomized design with five treatments: 1. control (no injected eggs); 2. Eggs injected with 100 µl of olive
69
oil only; 3. Eggs injected with 1.2µg vitamin D (48UI)/100 µl of olive oil;
4. Eggs injected with 2.4 µg vitamin D (96 IU)/100 µl of olive oil, and
5. Eggs injected with 3.6 µg vitamin D (144 IU)/100 µl olive oil. On the
eighth d of incubation they were injected with different concentrations of
vitamin D diluted in olive oil in the yolk sac and after injection the hole
was sealed with a sticker. The eggs that failed to hatch were recorded,
respectively to calculate hatchability. Tibiotarsus and femurs were subjected to analysis of calcium, phosphorus, ash and bone strength. Data
was analyzed in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments and
120 eggs per treatment. The hatchability results were not significant (P =
0.2202), the percentages found for hatching rate were 91.23, 87.18, 89.47,
86.84, 82.61% respectively for treatments 1; 2; 3; 4 and 5. No effects of
treatments (P>0.05) were observed on calcium, phosphorus and bone ash.
It was concluded that In Ovo injection of vitamin D did not affect any of
the variables evaluated.
Key Words: In ovo, cholecalciferol, bone, embryonic development,
chicks
P236 Effects of the in ovo injection of organic zinc, manganese, and
copper on the hatchability and bone parameters of broiler hatchlings
Tiago Oliveira*GS1, Elizabeth Kim2, Anna Caixeta3, E. David Peebles3
1
Universidade Federal de Lavras/ Mississippi State University, Starkville,
MS, USA; 2USDA, Starkville, MS, USA; 3Mississippi State University,
Starkville, MS, USA
Effects of the in ovo injection of commercial diluent containing supplemental microminerals (Zn, Mn, and Cu) on hatchability and hatching
chick quality variables in Ross × Ross 708 broilers were examined. On 17
d of incubation (doi) the eggs were subjected to 1 of 4 treatments (TRT)
using a commercial multi-egg injector. Treatments included non-injected
(TRT1) and diluent-injected (TRT2) control groups. Those in treatment 3
(TRT3) received diluent containing 0.181, 0.087 and 0.010 mg/ml of Zn,
Mn and Cu, respectively, and those in treatment 4 (TRT4) received diluent containing 0.544, 0.260 and 0.030 mg/ml of Zn, Mn and Cu, respectively. All injected treatments received 150 μL of diluent. A total of 1,872
eggs were distributed in 3 incubators, with 26 eggs assigned to each of 4
pre-specified treatment groups of each 6 replicate tray levels in each of 3
incubators. Hatchability of fertile eggs set (HF) was determined on 20.5
and 21.5 doi. On 21.5 doi, HF and mean hatching chick weight (MHW)
were determined. One bird from each of the respective 24 treatment replicate groups was randomly selected, and weighed. Subsequently, the selected birds were necropsied for the extraction of their livers and tibiae.
The tibiae were weighed (g), and their length and width were measured.
Fresh and dry bone weights were calculated as percentages of BW and the
dried tibias were subjected to bone breaking strength (BBS) analysis. The
broken bones and dry livers were weighed and ashed for determination of
percentage of bone ash (PBA) and liver ash. Injection TRT had no significant effect (P = 0.56) on HF at 20.5 doi. However, there was a significant
injection TRT effect (P = 0.04) on HF at 21.5 doi. The HF of eggs at 21.5
doi in TRT4 was significantly lower than that of the non-injected control
group, with TRT3 being intermediate. Furthermore, there was no significant TRT effect on MHW. There were no significant TRT effects noted for
fresh and dry tibia weights, tibia length and width, tibia length to weight
ratio, BBS, or liver ash content. However, a significant TRT effect (P =
0.004) was found for PBA. Embryos from eggs that received TRT4 had
a significantly higher level of tibia ash in comparison to all other TRT. In
conclusion, although TRT4 negatively affected HF, the injection of solution with the high micromineral concentration has the potential to improve
bone mineralization.
Key Words: enrichment, incubation, micromineral, mineralization, tibia
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ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
P237 Parental sex effect of parthenogenesis on egg weight in mated
Chinese Painted quail Courtney Wade*UG, Holly Parker, Aaron Kiess,
Chris McDaniel Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, USA
Parthenogenesis (P), embryonic development in unfertilized eggs, occurs
in poultry. In virgin quail, correlation analysis revealed that parthenogen
size increases as initial egg set weight increases. Additionally, in mated
hens, P negatively impacts hatchability. Perhaps elevated egg set weight is
a causative factor for decreased hatchability in hens exhibiting P. Egg set
weight in birds exhibiting P may influence embryonic mortality and other
hatching failures in mated hens. Also, it is unknown if P in the hen, her
mate or both impact egg set weight in mated Chinese Painted quail. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine if selection for P in the
hen, her mate or both influences egg set weight for eggs that hatch as well
as eggs that ultimately yield various hatching failures. Females and males
used in the current study consisted of 2 genetic lines of birds, one selected
for P and one not selected for P (controls, C). A 2 hen (C and P) x 2 male
(C and P) factorial arrangement of breeding pair treatments was utilized to
determine the impact of P on egg set weight for eggs that hatched as well
as those that failed to hatch. Hatching failures were classified as infertile,
P, early embryonic mortality, or late embryonic mortality. The 4 breeding
pair treatments were as follows: C hens with C males (CC), C hens with P
males (CP), P hens with C males (PC), and P hens with P males (PP). Daily, eggs were collected, labeled and weighed prior to incubation at 37.5°C
for 18 d. All eggs that didn’t hatch were broken to determine hatching
failures. Egg set weight for eggs that hatched was greater (P<.05) when
the hen or male exhibited P as compared to eggs from C birds. However
for infertile eggs, a hen by male interaction revealed that set weight was
higher in PP when compared to PC, CP and CC eggs. For eggs that yielded
early and late embryonic mortality, set weight for both hatching failures
was greater in P as compared to C hens. In conclusion, it appears that egg
set weight is heaviest when eggs are from P hens regardless of hatching
failure. More interestingly, not only P hens, but also P males appear to
influence set weight of eggs that hatch, perhaps by altering embryonic
development.
Key Words: Parthenogenesis, hatchability, egg weight, fertility,
embryonic mortality
P238 The effects of Bac-D™ when used as a water additive in broiler
chicks supplemented with probiotics Chelsea Phillips*UG, Zack Lowman,
Christopher Ashwell North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA
The primary goal of commercial poultry companies is to produce the largest birds possible with the least amount of input while also maintaining the
health and welfare of the birds. In the past antibiotics have been used to
enhance growth rates in poultry, however in light of current social beliefs
and the concern over antibiotic resistant bacteria the industry has begun to
phased out their use. Bac-D™ is a novel disinfectant consisting of components generally regarded as safe (GRAS). The primary active ingredient
in Bac-D™ is benzalkonium chloride. Bac-D™ has been shown to significantly decrease bacterial loads on the exterior of eggs, elicit changes in
the performance of chicks that hatch from these eggs, including altering
gene expression in the small intestine. For this trial a factorial design was
employed to determine the effects of Bac-D™ added to the drinking water
and probiotic supplementation of the feed. Our hypothesis was that BacD™ may be performing a similar role as probiotics in the modulation of
intestinal microbiota and ultimately bird performance. Post hatch there
was an increase in body weights at days 7 and 14 from the addition of
Bac-D™ or probiotic (PrimaLac) when compared to the controls. BacD™ with the addition of the probiotic also resulted in significant increases
in body weights at day 7 and 14, although with a larger increase than each
of the treatments alone. Further characterization of the effects of Bac-D™
will include the effect on gut maturation/morphology, gene expression,
and microbiota diversity in order to determine if its function in the bird
is similar to that of probiotics and/or prophylactic antibiotic use. If Bac-
D™ is a viable substitute for either of these current practices it will be of
significant economic importance to the poultry industry.
Key Words: Bac-D, Probiotic, Body Weight
P239Impact of oral Lactobacillus gavage on seminal and cloacal
Lactobacillus concentrations in roosters Juliana Hirai*UG, Melissa
Triplett, Christopher McDaniel, Aaron Kiess Mississippi State University,
Mississippi State, MS, USA
The use of antibiotics in poultry is being heavily scrutinized; therefore
alternatives such as probiotics are being investigated. Lactobacillus spp.
are a commonly used bacteria in formulating probiotics, and the addition of Lactobacillus to broiler diets has demonstrated increased growth
rates, stimulated immune systems, and reduced pathogen loads in the GI
tract. However, previous research has shown that when rooster semen is
directly exposed to Lactobacillus sperm quality is reduced. Therefore, the
objective of the current study was to determine if oral administration of
Lactobacillus increases the concentration of Lactobacillus in semen and
the cloaca. A total of 30 roosters were used, 15 roosters gavaged with 1X
PBS as the control and the other 15 roosters gavaged with 107 cfu/mL of
Lactobacillus acidophilus for 14 consecutive days. Semen was collected
on a 3 d interval, and cloacal swabs were collected on a 2 d interval, beginning on the first day prior to oral administration. Semen and cloacal swabs
were serial diluted, and 100 µL of each dilution was then plated on MRS
agar plates. All plates were incubated for 48 h at 37⁰C under anaerobic
conditions and counted. All Lactobacillus counts were log transformed.
Because natural levels of Lactobacillus were present prior to oral gavage,
log transformed counts prior to bacterial gavage were subtracted from
log transformed counts for each day of gavage providing the log increase
or decrease in counts due to gavage. Seminal Lactobacillus counts were
higher (P=0.036) on days 1, 9 and 15 than on day 5. The main effect of
treatment (P=0.026) for cloacal counts indicated that roosters gavaged
with Lactobacillus yielded higher counts than the controls. However,
cloaca samples also demonstrated a treatment by day interaction trend
(P=0.082), where Lactobacillus was higher in the Lactobacillus gavaged
roosters than the controls only on days 3, 5, 13, and 15. In conclusion, the
addition of Lactobacillus to the breeder male diet over extended periods
may increase concentrations of Lactobacillus in the cloaca. If Lactobacillus reaches high enough concentrations in the cloaca, then sperm quality may be impacted which could lead to poor fertility within the breeder
flock.
Key Words: Lactobacillus, Probiotics, Roosters, Fertility, Semen
P240 Antimicrobial resistance and biofilm formation in E. coli strains
isolated from poultry carcasses in retail stores in several location in
Mexico Margarita Fernanda Gómez Meza*UG, Cecilia Rosario Cortés
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, Mexico
The aim of this study was to determine whether strains of E. coli isolated
from broilers bought in supermarkets in different states of the Mexican
Republic could form biofilms and if this characteristics is related with antimicrobial resistant. Thirty-seven E.coli strains isolated from chicken carcasses purchased at supermarkets were analyzed. Antimicrobial sensitivity was evaluated through antibiogram technique using discs impregnated
with ceftriaxone, florphenicol, sulfachlorpyridazine, enrofloxacin, fosfomycin, lincomycin, sulfametazole trimethoprim, doxycycline, colistin,
oxytetracycline, gentamicin and ampicillin. The biofilms formation test
was performed in triplicate to obtain the average and standard deviation of
the three readings . An increased resistance was observed for lincomycin
and oxytetracycline, whereas gentamicin had the best results. Regarding
the resistance by State, sulfametazole trimethoprim were the less effective
compound for strains isolated from Puebla1, DF and Chiapas, whereas
lincomycin had the same behavior in Tlaxcala, Querétaro and Puebla2.
In the other hand, the states with higher overall antibiotic resistance were
Tlaxcala and Queretaro. Conversely, the most sensitive strains were those
from Chiapas and Puebla. A biofilm forming strain was considered when
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
their readings were equal or higher than positive control. Chiapas was the
State where more positive strains were found (42%positive) followed by
Puebla and Queretaro (20, 25%, respectively). Taking together these results we observed that five of the biofilms forming strains were among
most resistant strains, meanwhile, five strains with the lowest values for
the biofilm formation ranked among those with greater antibiotic sensitivity. Since the bacteria are more resistant to antibiotics and disinfectants,
its removal becomes more complex and can cause transient disease or irreversible damage to the consumers.
In Mexico, the consumption of chicken has increased in the last decade.
However, poultry carcasses can be contaminated at every stage from the
farm to the consumer’s tables. The microbiological safety of meat products is a particular problem, in fact, the World Health Organization states
that, to prevent infection, control measures must be apply at all stages
ofthe food chain, from agricultural production on the farm to processing,
manufacturing and preparation in commercial establishments and homes.
Although most of the meat productsmust be properly cooked before consumption, the presence of E. coli in meat puts consumers in a risky situation, as there may be cross-contamination with hands, utensils, surfacesto
products not receiving the proper sanitation before consumption. A major
problem in the food industry is represented by the survival of pathogens
due to an insufficient disinfection of surfaces and instruments in contact
with food; this is attributed to the presence of biofilms, The aim of this
study was to determine whether strains of E. coli isolated from broilersbought in supermarkets in different states of the Mexican Republic could
form biofilms and if this characteristics is related with antimicrobial resistant. Thirty-seven E.coli strainsisolated from chicken carcasses purchased
at supermarkets were analyzed. Antimicrobial sensitivity was evaluated
through antibiogram technique using discs impregnated with ceftriaxone,
florphenicol, sulfachlorpyridazine, enrofloxacin, fosfomycin, lincomycin, sulfametazole trimethoprim, doxycycline, colistin, oxytetracycline,
gentamicin and ampicillin. The biofilms formation test was performed in
triplicate to obtain the average and standard deviation of the three readings​​. An increased resistance was observed for lincomycin andoxytetracycline, whereas gentamicin had the best results. Regarding the resistance
by State, sulfametazole trimethoprim were the less effective compound for
strains isolated from Puebla1, DF and Chiapas, whereas lincomycin had
the same behavior in Tlaxcala, Querétaro and Puebla2. In the other hand,
the states with higher overall antibiotic resistance wereTlaxcala and Queretaro. Conversely, the most sensitive strains were those from Chiapas and
Puebla. A biofilm forming strain was considered when their readings were
equal or higher than positive control. Chiapas was the State where more
positive strains were found (42%positive) followed by Puebla and Queretaro (20, 25%, respectively). Taking together theseresults we observed
that five of the biofilms forming strains were among most resistant strains,
meanwhile, five strains with the lowest values ​​for the biofilm formation
ranked amongthose with greater antibiotic sensitivity. Since the bacteria
are more resistant to antibiotics and disinfectants, its removal becomes
more complex and can cause transient disease orirreversible damage to
the consumers.
Key Words: poultry carcasses, contamination, biofilms, Escherichia coli,
antimicrobial resistance
P241Effect of bone residue inclusion and poultry species on fat
oxidation in rendered meals for pet food Sara Cutler* Kemin Industries,
Des Moines, IA, USA
Chicken and turkey meal have become increasingly popular as some pet
food manufacturers have successfully marketed by product meals as being
a lower quality ingredient. It has been observed over the years that chicken
and turkey meal are more difficult to stabilize with antioxidant than their
corresponding by product meal.
Experiments were conducted to explore why turkey meal is difficult to stabilize. A bench rendering model was created and a series of experiments
were performed to determine the impact of bone inclusion and poultry
71
species used. Antioxidant treatments were used either prior to the cooking
process or applied afterward or both. After cooking, the resulting meal was
tested for % fat, ash and moisture and then for oxidation parameters in the
oxygen bomb and for Peroxide Values (PV). The meal was then stored at
room temperature and tested for PV during storage.
Results indicate that the amount of bone in the raw material has a direct
impact on the generation of PV’s and the addition of chelators and/or antioxidants could not overcome this addition. This observation is important
as the use of mechanically separated chicken is common and the material
contains varying amounts of bone inclusion. Turkey meal showed a more
rapid rate of oxidation than chicken meal when treated with antioxidants
the same way. Raw material treatment with antioxidant prior to rendering
in this model was essential to the meal’s preservation as the material could
not be effectively stabilized with antioxidant after cooking.
Key Words: rendering, pet food, turkey meal, chicken meal, oxidation
P242Interaction between water quality and poultry processing
efficiency Ronald Holser* Russell Research Center, Athens, GA, USA
Water quality can influence process efficiency, product quality, food
safety, environmental health, and human health. Bird washing and carcass
chilling operations are two stages of poultry processing where process
water directly contacts the fresh poultry carcass and can become contaminated. Bacteria that remain on the fresh poultry product can lead to
reduced shelf life and spoilage with risk to human health from consuming
the contaminated product. Poultry processing facilities use large volumes
of potable water in these operations that subsequently require treatment.
The role of water quality on microbial growth was investigated in this
laboratory study.
Experiments were performed with a Bioscreen system that measured
the optical density of 96 well plates inoculated with bacteria in media
containing added levels of common hard water ions, e.g., Calcium and
Magnesium. A blocked factorial experimental design was followed with
replication. Growth curves were constructed from data collected over the
duration of the experiment. Growth curves were also collected from inoculated media treated with trisodium phosphate.
Results showed that water containing 500 mg/kg hard water ions was as
effective as 5% treatment with trisodium phosphate in reducing bacterial
growth. The type of ion was not significant. In this case hard water showed
an inhibitory influence on bacterial growth. This is favorable for reducing
bacteria that are present after bird washing and chilling process operations.
It also suggests reduced contamination in process wastewater .
Key Words: contamination, water quality, water treatment
P243Evaluating the correlation between water activity and
percentage moisture in rendered protein meals Sarah Mathe*UG1,
Charles Starkey2, Cassandra Jones1 1Kansas State University, Manhattan,
KS, USA; 2American Proteins, Inc., Cumming, GA, USA
The rendering process is highly successful at microbial destruction, but
environmental conditions of the products after cooking must be carefully
controlled to prevent recontamination. Due to the expense of microbial
testing, renderers and feed ingredient manufacturers may use water activity as a possible indicator for potential microbial growth. However, percentage moisture is a variable already commonly measured in rendering
facilities, so it would be desirable to utilize it as an indirect measurement
of water activity and potential microbial growth. Therefore, the objective
of this experiment was to determine if a relationship exists between percentage moisture and water activity for rendered protein meals. As part
of a survey to address this objective, both percentage moisture and water
activity were measured from 7 different rendered proteins from 4 rendering plants in the southern United States over a 3 month period. Overall,
percentage moisture and water activity were highly associated with both
a linear (R2 = 0.83) and exponential relationship (R2 = 0.86). Within prod-
72
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
uct, percentage moisture was most predictive of water activity for chicken
meal (R2 = 0.91) and feather meal (R2 = 0.90). Poultry byproduct meal
was the least predictive overall (R2 = 0.45), with percentage moisture and
water activity being least associated in the feed grade, low ash, or regular
meals (R2 = 0.31, 0.34, 0.45, respectively). Interestingly, water activity
and percentage moisture were highly related for the high protein poultry
byproduct meal (R2 = 0.89). The relationship between percentage moisture
and water activity appears to be dependent upon product matrix, plant, and
collection location, but not time or day of collection. Therefore, percentage moisture may be good indicator of water activity during continuous
observation within a product and facility. However, additional research is
necessary to confirm the relationship between percentage moisture and
incidence of microbial activity.
Key Words: microbial, moisture, protein meal, rendering, water activity
P244Dripping test to evaluate the quality of frozen chickens’
carcasses sold in northwestern São Paulo State supermarkets, Brazil
Max José Araújo Faria Junior*, Carolina de Matos Figueiredo, Guilherme
Pedrini Bortolatto, Iderlipes Luiz Carvalho Bossolani, Marcos Franke
Pinto, Silvia Helena Venturoli Perri, Manoel Garcia Neto Faculdade de
Medicina Veterinária de Araçatuba – UNESP – Univ. Estadual Paulista,
Araçatuba, Brazil
Brazil occupies an outstanding position as a producer and exporter of
broiler chicken meat, which demonstrates the great efficiency reached by
this industry in all aspects of the productive chain. The maintenance of
this position requires a constant evolution, especially in the variables that
determine the quality. An important quality control parameter of poultry
meat is the amount of water absorbed by the carcass during processing.
In Brazil, pre-cooling of the carcasses is done by immersion in chilled
water. In this process, the carcass is re-hydrated, restoring the water lost
during transport and in initial slaughter operations. At this stage, some
care is needed to assure the amount of water absorbed to be under the
limit allowed by Brazilian law. In 2010, the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture published a methodology for the carcass water release measurement by thawing techniques. The maximum limit for the water loss by
frozen chicken carcasses, thawed under controlled conditions (dripping
test), is 6.0%. The objective of this study was to evaluate by dripping test
six different brands of whole frozen chickens’ carcasses commercialized
in supermarkets located in Araçatuba, a northwestern São Paulo State city,
comparing with broiler carcasses slaughtered at an experimental abattoir,
under ideal conditions, following all the legal exigencies (control group).
The data was collected using 28 carcasses (24 obtained from different supermarkets and 4 from the control group), consisting of 7 treatments with
4 repetitions each. The results were submitted to variance analyses (ANOVA) and means were compared by Duncan test (p < 0.005), using SAS.
In control group, the mean of water lost in thawing process was 1.73% ±
0.22%. Only one of the six chickens’ brands evaluated presented a water
released mean value statistically similar to the control group: 3.25% ±
0.12% (p > 0.05). One brand presented 7.7% ± 1.66% of water lost during the thawing process, a result superior than the value preconized by
the regulatory law. The other four brands presented means ranging from
3.90% ± 0.16% to 4.98%±1.15%, values under the legal limit, but superior
than the control group (p<0,05). In conclusion, these outcomes suggested
the need of constant official inspection to avoid the excess of water in
chickens meat and the consequent damages to the consumers.
Key Words: chicken meat, dripping test, drip loss, water absorption,
official inspection
P245 Dietary inclusion of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) rich microalgae meal on oxidative stability and water-holding capacity of broiler
thigh meat during storage Rebecca Delles*1, Tuoying Ao2, Mike Ford3,
Ryan Samuel1, Youling Xiong3, Anthony Pescatore3, Austin Cantor3, Karl
Dawson1 1Alltech, Inc., Nicholasville, KY, USA; 2Alltech, Inc., Lexington,
KY, USA; 3University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA
Alltech SP1 (CCAP 4087/2; Alltech, Inc.) is a natural and sustainable micro-algae meal that contains at least 16% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).
Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as DHA have demonstrated various health benefits in humans and enhanced PUFA content
of meat products is desirable. However, PUFA are highly susceptible to
oxidation. Previous studies have shown that fish oil supplementation increased oxidation and decreased shelf life in fresh meat. The objective
of this study was to investigate the dietary inclusion of SP1 on boneless,
skinless broiler thigh meat quality when packaged under polyvinylchloride (PVC) and during retail display at 2–4 °C, for up to 7 days. Of 920
broilers that received diets supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0% SP1
for 42 d, 48 birds (4 birds from 3 pens per treatment) were selected for
meat quality attributes. During the first 3 days of storage, broilers fed 0.5%
SP1 had the lowest (P<0.05) level of lipid oxidation, compared with all
other dietary groups. Free sulfhydryls, a measurement of protein stability, decreased in all samples throughout storage, regardless of micro-algae
meal inclusion. Samples from broilers fed diets supplemented with 2.0%
SP1 had the lowest amount of free sulfhydryls, most notable (P<0.05) by
day 6 of storage. Gel electrophoresis revealed significant, time-dependent
losses of myosin heavy chain (MHC) and concomitant formation of high
molecular weight polymers for all dietary treatments, indicative of myofibrillar deterioration and protein oxidation. Prominent losses in the MHC
occurred in samples from broilers fed either 0 or 2% SP1. Water-holding
capacity was similar across all dietary treatments. Dietary supplementation with up to 1.0% SP1 had similar quality attributes to control samples
and did not negatively influence oxidative stability of chicken thigh meat
during storage. Therefore, dietary inclusion of SP1 can provide a source
of PUFA for the enrichment of meat that does not decrease shelf life of
fresh meat products.
Key Words: Micro-algae, Oxidation, DHA
P246 Defeathering of broiler carcasses subjected to delayed scalding
1, 2, 4, and 8 hours after slaughter Caitlin Harris*UG1, Dianna Bourassa2,
Kimberly Wilson1, R. Jeff Buhr2 1The University of Georgia, Athens, GA,
USA; 2USDA-ARS Russell Research Center, Athens, GA, USA
With implementation of farm slaughter, scalding and defeathering could
be delayed for a minimum of 2 to 4 h. This research evaluated the potential for delaying scalding and defeathering up to 8 h after slaughter. Following 12 h feed withdrawal broilers were cooped and transported to the
pilot plant, batches of 10 broilers were stunned at 15 V for 10 s, and bled
for 2 min. Carcasses that were held prior to scalding were transferred to
stationary shackles and remained suspended by their feet. The 1st batch
stunned was held for 8 h, the 2nd batch for 4 h, the 3rd batch for 2 h, the
4th batch for 1 h, and the 5th batch remained on line and was scalded and
defeathered after bleeding. All batches were hard scalded at 60ºC/140ºF a
total immersion time of 90 s (30 s in each of three tanks). The picker had
been adjusted to achieve acceptable defeathering with minimal overpicking of the hips and elbows. All carcasses were defeathered for 30 s in a
single 4 bank picker. Carcasses scalded and defeathered immediately following bleeding were scored as excellent with >95% of the carcass feathers removed. Carcasses held for 1 h did not defeather well in the first pass
through the picker with more than 50% of the feathers retained and most
of the cuticle. The picker was adjusted in, narrowing the distance between
the picking disks by 2 cm which resulted in adequate defeathering with
90% of the feathers removed. Carcasses scalded and defeathered at 2 h
also had 75% of the feathers removed. Carcasses held for 4 or 8 h before
scalding and defeathering were not acceptably defeathered. Carcasses
held for 2 h or longer were rigid, in rigor, and unable to flex or turn when
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
in the picker. The pH recorded for breast muscle indicated a continued
drop from 6.37 at 0 h, to 6.22 at 1 h, 5.98 at 2 h, 5.81 at 4 h, and 5.75 at 8
h indicating that the onset of muscle rigor had occurred between 1 and 2
h (pH 6.0) and ultimate pH values of 5.4 were not attained. These experiments reveal that carcasses subjected to delayed defeathering will require
modification of present scalding and picking protocols to achieve acceptable defeathering of the less pliable in-rigor carcasses.
Key Words: delayed defeathering, broiler, scalding
P247 Reduction of Salmonella on chicken skin by the sequential
application of chemical treatments and Salmonella lytic bacteriophage
preparation Anuraj Theradiyil Sukumaran*GS, Chander Shekhar Sharma
Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, USA
The objective of this study was to examine the efficacy of sequential application of chemical antimicrobials and Salmonella lytic bacteriophage
preparation in reducing Salmonella on chicken skin. Chicken skin (5×5
cm) samples were inoculated with a cocktail of S. Typhimurium, S. Heidelberg and S. Enteritidis (ca. 3 log CFU/cm2).The treatments included
dipping the Salmonella inoculated chicken skin samples in either 30 ppm
chlorine,0.2% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC),200ppm lauric arginate
(LAE),50 and 400ppm peracetic acid(PAA) followed by a spray application with Salmonella lytic bacteriophage preparation. Each sample was
immersed in 100 ml of one of the antimicrobial solution for 20 seconds
and subsequently sprayed with 0.5ml of bacteriophage solution (109PFU/
ml).Chicken skin samples treated with sterile distilled water or receiving
no treatments were used as controls. Samples were stored at 40C for 24
h and Salmonella counts were enumerated after 2 and 24 h of storage on
XLT4 agar plates. Duplicate skin samples were used for each treatment
and each day of storage and the whole experiment was replicated three
times. Salmonella counts for the positive controls were 3.4 and 3.3 log
CFU/cm2 on day 0 and day 1, respectively. Spray application with bacteriophage alone reduced Salmonella by 0.9-1 log CFU/cm2 (P < 0.05).
Immersion treatment in 30 ppm chlorine, 0.2% CPC, 200ppm LAE, 50
and 400ppm PAA alone reduced the Salmonella populations (P<0.05) by
0.5-0.6, 0.6-0.7, 0.5-0.6, 0.4-0.6 and 1.5-1.7 log CFU/cm2, respectively.
Immersion in chemical treatments followed by phage spray revealed
greater reductions in Salmonella counts as compared to individual treatments. The reductions in Salmonella counts for 30 ppm chlorine, 0.2%
CPC, 200ppm LAE, 50 and 400ppm PAA treatments followed by phage
spray were 1.6 - 1.8, 1.2-1.3, 0.8-1, 1.7-2.2 and 2.2-2.5 log CFU/cm2, respectively. In conclusion, the sequential application of phage with commonly used antimicrobials during poultry processing shows significant
synergistic activity in reducing Salmonella on chicken skin.
Key Words: Salmonella, chicken skin, antimicrobials, bacteriophage
P248Nutritional and physical characteristics of specialty eggs
Madalena Lordelo*1, Elisabete Fernandes1, Susana Alves2, Rui Bessa2
1
Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa,
Portugal; 2Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade de Lisboa,
Lisboa, Portugal
Consumers worldwide are increasingly concerned about the quality of
commercially available chicken eggs. Often, eggs from alternative production systems are believed to have better nutritional properties. In the
current study, 144 commercially available eggs were obtained from 6 different origins: free range organic with indigenous breed, free range organic, free range, cage-free, and cage with or without omega-3 essential fatty
acids supplementation (n = 24). The chemical and physical characteristics
of the eggs and the egg components were analyzed such as egg components weight, Haugh units, yolk color, albumen protein content, and yolk
fatty acid and cholesterol content. Results indicated that the percentage
of albumen in relation to the whole egg was higher (P < 0.05) in both
free range organic origins. Yolk color was lighter also in eggs originated
from either free range organic systems but closer to orange in eggs en-
73
riched with omega-3. Eggs from caged hens had a lower (P < 0.05) Haugh
unit value in contrast with eggs from either free range organic production
systems. Caged hens produced eggs with a higher protein content while
free range organic hens produced eggs with the lowest level of protein
in the albumen (P < 0.05). Omega-3 supplemented caged hens produced
eggs with the least total saturated fatty acids (SFA) and the most omega-3
polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Eggs from caged hens that were not
supplemented with omega-3 had the most monounsaturated fatty acids
(MUFA) and the least PUFA (P < 0.05). No differences were found in
the cholesterol content of eggs from the different origins. Choosing an
egg solely on the basis of the laying hen production system may not be
enough to guarantee a product with superior quality. A number of factors
unknown to the consumer, other than the type of production system, such
as the quality of the range and layer genotype, age and diet, may also affect
egg properties.
Key Words: Specialty eggs, Production systems, Egg quality, Laying
hen, Organic eggs
P249 Raising ducks on water lines vs water troughs: Part 1, Effects
on gut ecology and water contamination. Amanda Porter*UG, Allyson
Schenk, Chelsea Campbell, Alexis Meelker, Kelly Frazier, Erin Alenciks,
Susan Fraley, Gregory S Fraley Hope College, Holland, MI, USA
Controversy has developed over recent years as to whether water nipple
line water delivery systems or water troughs are more appropriate for Pekin ducks in grow-out commercial barns. We hypothesized that duck caecal samples and water samples from barns utilizing a water trough delivery system would contain a larger diversity of bacteria, and contain more
potentially harmful bacteria. We also hypothesized that duck health, as
reflected by caecal composition, would be significantly impaired in water trough conditions compared to water lines. Ducks were divided into
4 pens per barn (n = 1000 ducks/pen), with each barn containing water
liens or water troughs. Water samples were taken every three days and
duck caecal samples were collected on days 5, 21, and 33 of the typical
grow-out time frame. We found that ducks in water line conditions did
not have significantly different caecal compositions from ducks in water
trough conditions, and water sample compositions did not significantly
affect duck caecal compositions in either treatment. Age was the primary
driving force of caecal bacterial succession. Water sample bacterial loads
from each delivery system were significantly different from one another
throughout the grow-out period. The amount of bacterial diversity in water
trough conditions was much higher than in water line conditions. Water
troughs also contained an increased number of possibly pathogenic bacteria that may be harmful to both humans and ducks, including traces of
Riemerella anatipestifer. Combined with body condition, environmental,
and production data the use of water troughs when raising meat ducks may
not be appropriate.
Key Words: gut ecology, next generation sequencing, microbiome, water
contamination
P250 Raising ducks on water lines vs water troughs: Part 2, Effects of
water source on barn environment. Gregory S Fraley*1, Allyson Schenk1,
Chelsea Campbell1, Alexis Meelker1, Erin Alenckis1, Kelly Frazier1, Susan
Fraley2 1Hope College, Holland, MI, USA; 2South Crossing Veterinary
Center, Caledonia, MI, USA
Controversy has developed over the last few years as to whether or not
water nipple lines or water troughs are more appropriate for Pekin ducks
in grow out commercial barns. We hypothesized that the water line barn
environment would have significantly better water conditions, including:
normal pH, as well as lower nitrile, ammonia, and iron levels compared to
the barns with water troughs. We also expected to see lower water usage
with the water line barn. To test these hypotheses, we housed ducks in two
barns, one with water lines and one with water troughs. Water troughs
were constructed to meet RSPCA guidelines for number and density of
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ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
ducks and with recently described verandas. Ducks were divided into 4
pens per barn (n = 1000 ducks/pen). The study was repeated to give a
final n = 8 per water source. Water samples were collected from the water
source in each pen several times on days 8, 22, and 32 beginning after
the water troughs were cleaned out each day (T = 0, 15, 30, 60 min &
2, 4 ,8 hours). For all data analyses, a p < 0.05 was considered significant. We tested the water condition and quality using a repeated measures
ANOVA for each week. Water usage was significantly higher for each
week of the experiment in the barn with water troughs compared to water
lines. Ammonia levels were also found to be significantly higher in water
troughs at age 21, 28, and 33. The levels of nitrites and iron were also
significantly higher in the water trough barn compared to water troughs.
By day 31 the pH levels in the water lines were significantly lower than
the water troughs. We conclude that the use of water troughs has negative
impacts on the barn environment that may ultimately affect duck and human health.
Key Words: ammonia, duck well being
P251 Raising ducks with water lines vs. water troughs: Part 2, Water
troughs adversely affect duck body condition and behavior. Erin
Alenciks*UG, Allyson Schenk, Chelsea Campbell, Alexis Meelker, Kelly
Frazier, Amanda Porter, Susan Fraley, Gregory S Fraley Hope College,
Holland, MI, USA
Controversy has developed over the last few years as to whether or not
water nipple lines or water troughs are more appropriate for Pekin ducks
in grow out commercial barns. We hypothesized that water troughs would
show improved duck body condition compared to water lines. To test
this hypothesis, we housed ducks in two barns, one with water lines and
one with water troughs. Water troughs were constructed to meet RSPCA
guidelines for number and density of ducks and with recently described
verandas. Ducks were divided into 4 pens per barn (n = 1000 ducks/pen).
The study was then repeated (n = 8 pens per water source). We scored the
ducks’ body condition 3 times during the study using an established scoring rubric and analyzed using SAS Proc GLM-Mix as binomial data. We
also took plasma samples from ducks housed in each barn. For all data
analyses, a p < 0.05 was considered significant. Beginning at 28 days of
age, ducks housed with water troughs showed significantly (p < 0.001)
higher (thus worse condition) scores for eyes, nostrils, feather quality and
cleanliness, and for foot pads. Furthermore, the ducks in the water trough
barns had significantly higher Angiotensin II (AGII), which suggests increased thirst. The corticosterone (cort) levels, which is an indirect measure of stress, were also higher with the ducks housed in the water trough
barns. These results show that the overall quality of the ducks’ appearance
and health was significantly better in the pens with water lines compared
to ducks raised with water troughs, furthermore we reject our hypothesis.
Key Words: Pekin Duck, Stress, Thirst
P252 Raising ducks with water lines vs. water troughs: Part 4, Water
troughs significantly increase mortality and decrease production Kelly
Frazier*UG, Amanda Porter, Allyson Schenk, Chelsea Campbell, Alexis
Meelker, Erin Alenciks, Susan Fraley, Gregory Fraley Hope College,
Holland, MI, USA
Controversy has developed over the last few years as to whether or not
water nipple lines or water troughs are more appropriate for Pekin ducks
in grow out commercial barns. We hypothesized that water troughs would
show fewer duck mortalities compared to water lines. To test this hypothesis, we housed ducks in two barns, one with water lines and one with
water troughs. Water troughs were constructed to meet RSPCA guidelines
for the number and density of ducks and with recently described verandas.
Ducks were divided into 4 pens per barn (n = 1000 ducks/pen). The study
was repeated giving a final n = 8 pens per water source. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) and feed efficiency index (FEI) were obtained from
Maple Leaf Farms, Inc. The mortality rates were recorded daily and all
ducks were necropsied by technicians employed by Maple Leaf Farms,
Inc. to determine the apparent cause of death. We also obtained carcass
condemnation numbers from the USDA inspectors who were unaware of
the treatment conditions used in this study. Data was analyzed by a Student’s T-test and a p < 0.05 was considered significant. The results demonstrated that duck total mortality was significantly higher in the barn with
water troughs compared to the water line barn. The average duck mortality
and total culled ducks were also significantly higher in the water trough
barn in weeks 3, 4, and 5. Furthermore, the total number of condemned
carcasses was significantly higher in the water trough barn compared to
the water line barn. The FCR did not significantly differ between the two
barns, however the feed efficiency index was significantly lower for ducks
raised in the water trough barn compared to the water line barn. This information should be taken into account when considering water distribution
in grow out commercial barns.
Key Words: Pekin Duck, Nipple Lines, Breast Fat
P253Relationships of eggshell, air cell, and cloacal temperatures
of embryonated broiler hatching eggs during incubation Opeyemi
Olojede*GS1, Katie Collins1, Sharon Womack1, Patrick Gerard2, David
Peebles1 1Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS, USA; 2Clemson
University, Clemson, SC, USA
The relationships of eggshell, air cell, and embryo cloacal temperatures
in Ross x Ross 708 broiler hatching eggs were determined. Twenty eggs
were weighed and set on each of 3 levels of a single incubator. The shell
temperatures of the eggs were recorded twice daily (AM & PM) between
0 and 20 d of incubation (doi) using an infrared thermometer. All eggs
were candled at 12 doi. Subsequently, eggs containing live embryos (12
per level) were implanted with a transponder in the air cell. At 19 doi, transponders were implanted in the cloaca of live embryos. Shell and air cell
temperatures were recorded twice daily (AM & PM) between 12 and 19
doi, and air cell and cloaca temperatures were recorded every 6 h between
19 and 21 doi. Transponder and infrared thermometer readings of eggshell
temperatures were previously shown not to be different. Eggshell and air
cell temperature readings between 12 and 19 doi were positively correlated (r = 0.42; P ≤ 0.0001). Furthermore, their respective mean temperatures were 38.6oC and 38.8oC respectively, which differed significantly (P
≤ 0.0001). Eggshell and air cell temperatures were not significantly influenced by tray level, doi, or time of day. In addition, there was a significant
interaction (P ≤ 0.05) between time period and transponder location (air
cell and cloaca). However, across the entire 19 to 21 doi interval, mean air
cell (38.3oC) and cloaca (38.2oC) temperatures were not significantly different (P = 0.50) and were positively correlated (r = 0.28; P ≤ 0.01). These
data suggest that air cell temperature readings are higher than those of the
eggshell during the last half of incubation, and that between 12 and 19 doi
air cell temperature can be used as an accurate measurement of broiler
embryo core body temperature.
Key Words: Broiler embryo, air cell temperature, eggshell temperature,
incubation, transponders
P254 On-farm performance and electrical savings of LED lighting.
Jonathan Moyle*1, William Brown2 1University of Maryland Extension,
Salisbury, MD, USA; 2University of Delaware Extension, Georgetown, DE,
USA
Electricity is one of the largest expenses in growing poultry. This expense
is increasing as electric companies continue to face increasing costs associated with generating electricity and delivering it to customers. On
broiler farms, lighting can represent over 30% of the total cost of electricity when using incandescent light bulbs. Newer technology such as
LED bulb/lamps are much more efficient at producing light while using a
fraction of the electricity consumed by incandescent bulbs. In order to determine the cost savings for poultry growers, an on-farm study was undertaken in Delaware. For this study, two paired houses were equipped with
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
electric meters that measured only the electricity used for interior house
lighting. One house contained 60 watt incandescent light bulbs while the
other house was equipped with 8 watt, A19 style, LED bulb/lamps. Chicks
were paired at the hatchery, to insure that parent stock was the same for
each house, prior to chick placement. The results of 5 flocks found no significant difference in bird weight, feed conversion or livability. Electrical
savings were $1,700 per house/year ($0.12/KwH). The cost of the LED
lamps used in this study were $16, resulting in an 11 month payback on
lamp cost. This study demonstrated that LED lamps can be used to lower
the electrical usage of poultry farms without affecting production.
Key Words: Poultry, LED, Lighting, Production, Electricity
P255 An on-farm assessment of Heavy Use Area Protection at
capturing nutrients. Jonathan Moyle*1, Jennifer Rhodes2 1University
of Maryland Extension, Salisbury, MD, USA; 2University of Maryland
Extension, Centreville, MD, USA
Poultry growers continue to work on improving their farm’s environmental footprint and one of the tools used is Heavy Use Area Protection (HUA). HUA is the establishment of a stable surface from suitable
materials along with any needed structures, to protect areas heavily impacted by livestock, vehicles or development. HUAs are a Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) approved practice code 561. The
purposes and benefits include: reduction in runoff of nutrients and other
pollutants that impact water quality, prevention of soil erosion by providing a stable surface for livestock and equipment, and maintenance
and/or improvement of livestock management and health. On poultry
farms, HUAs are typically concrete pads that stabilize areas that can be
disturbed by heavy equipment usage during the production and rearing
of poultry. These areas (typically, 148.6 m2) are located at the end doors
of the poultry house, which receive heavy use during load out, clean out
and placement of the birds. Additionally, areas in front of the litter storage structures and mortality composting facilities are considered HUAs.
In order to determine the quantity of nutrients from poultry litter that is
prevented from entering the local environment and water ways, all the
litter left on the HUAs after loading out the birds, and managing the litter, was collected and weighed. A total of four different farms were used
and the farms were visited multiple times during the year. An average of
0.328 kg/m2 of litter was recovered after each load out. The average nutrient content of litter sampled was: 4.02%N, 3.10%P and 3.63%K (dry
basis). Therefore, in this study HUAs prevented 0.011kg/m2 of Nitrogen
and 0.01kg/m2 of Phosphorus and 0.01kg/m2 of Potassium from entering
the environment per load-out/clean-out.
Key Words: Poultry, Nutrients, Heavy use areas, Production area
P256 Reversion of stressed and unstressed hydrogen sulfide (H2S)
producing strains of Salmonella in different media. Kellie Hogan*1,
Nicole Holcombe1, Cheryl Weller1, Alora Gumm1, Matthew Postel1, Nelson
Cox2, Doug Cosby2, John Cason2, Mark Berrang2, Kurt Richardson1,
Peter Street1 1Anitox Corporation, Lawrenceville, GA, USA; 2USDA-ARS,
Athens, GA, USA
Salmonella can be difficult to assess and isolate in poultry feed due to
uneven distribution and poor growth. Previous studies have shown that
several strains of Salmonella can be affected by changes in environment,
resulting in the growth of H2S-negative colonies. This is concerning, as
H2S production is the main way to isolate Salmonella colonies on selective media, as well as to identify the organism. The purpose of this
research was to determine if incubation in selected media could revert
H2S-negative colonies (yellow) to H2S-positive (black). Strains assessed
were S. enteritidis, S. infantis, S. montevideo, and S. schwarzengrund.
Strains were grown in non-stressed (NS) and stressed (S; dry inoculum in
meat and bone meal) environments. All were added to pH 7 citrate buffer
and incubated at 35°C overnight. Samples were plated on XLT-4 media,
grown overnight at 35°C, and then assessed for yellow colonies. Yellow
75
colonies were then grown in several media broths overnight, including
UPB, TSB, BHI, Nutrient, TT (at 35°C and 42°C) and RV. Samples were
plated on XLT-4 media and the percentages of yellow and black colonies
were recorded after 24 and 48 h incubation at 35°C. All S. enteritidis (S
and NS) and S. schwarzengrund (NS) colonies were black and showed no
H2S production loss. However, S. schwarzengrund (S) was more varied
dependent on media. S. montevideo showed the most H2S reversion, with
100% reversion in all medias for the (NS), and an average of 92% reversion for the (S) organism. S. infantis showed the least amount of reversion,
with an average of 4% reversion for (NS) and 0% reversion overall for the
(S). The results from this study suggest that while H2S production may be
a useful way to confirm Salmonella in feed, pH and a temperature stressed
environment can have an impact on the production of H2S, and thus, make
it difficult to properly isolate or biochemically confirm the identity organism. This has major implications for analytical and food production
laboratories, as it is possible that false negative results could be reported.
Key Words: Salmonella, reversion, Hydrogen sulfide, Animal feed
P257 LED use in broiler rearing has less impact in birds’ performance
than fluorescent Light Rodrigo Garcia*, Fabrício Araujo, Irenilza Naas,
Fabiana Caldara, Nilsa Lima, Roselaine Ponso, Carolina Rosa Agrarian
Sciences College, Federal University of Grande Dourados, Dourados,
Brazil
Cost reductions in electric energy consumption have impelled Brazilian
broiler meat industry to test several rearing systems and proper lighting
such as LED. However, the impact of alternative light bulb and its influence on birds’ performance still lack in current literature. The objective of
this research was to determine the impact of the use of LED light bulbs and
fluorescent light bulbs in tunnel ventilated broiler housing, in the birds’
performance. Birds’ surface temperature and performance (mean weight,
mean weight gain, and feed conversion) were recorded in 12 places inside
the housing from day 7 to 42, twice every week of grow out. The experiment was conducted in two commercial broiler farms. Data of surface
temperature of broilers were taken by marking ten points inside the birds,
and mean values were calculated. Performance data mean values were organized, and the correlation was calculated. The aviary with the LED light
bulbs presented lower correlation of birds’ surface temperature with the
mean weight, mean weight gain, and feed conversion (-0.788; -0.785; and
0.137, respectively) than the aviary with fluorescent light (-0.832; -0.832;
and 0.674). Results indicated that the LED use in broiler rearing led to less
effect in the birds’ surface temperature and performance than the use of
fluorescent light bulbs.
Key Words: Poultry, Welfare, Light Emitting Diode, Management,
Vision
P258 Methodology to Compare Radiant Heater Efficiency using
Spatial Modeling John Linhoss*GS1, Jeremiah Davis1, Joseph Purswell2
1
Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS, USA; 2USDA-ARS Poultry
Research Unit, Starkville, MS, USA
The U.S. broiler industry spends approximately 500 million dollars annually on heating fuel. As much as 55% of the total fuel used during a single
flock occurs in the first week of brooding when the highest temperatures
are maintained. Thus, a 3% increase in brooder efficiency could potentially save 8.25 million dollars in the first week of brooding alone. Radiant heaters are the preferred method of providing heat to chicks during
brooding because they are a localized heat source that provides a range
of thermal comfort options for chicks. While fuel usage during brooding constitutes one of the largest variable costs for live production, little
research has been conducted to compare the efficiency of commercially
available radiant heaters.
The purpose of this project was to quantify the total heat energy (BTU/
hr) delivered to the floor by three low-pressure 42,202 kJ (40,000 BTU)
heaters. Heat energy at the floor was measured using thin-film radiant flux
76
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
sensors. Radiant flux sensors where chosen because they provide a direct
measurement of heat energy at the sensor locations, and are unaffected by
air movement. Radiant flux for each heater was measured at heights of
1.22, 1.52, and 1.83 m above the bedding. A total of twenty sensors were
mounted on four arrays extending radially from the heater center-line. The
sensors were mounted 7.6 cm above a 5-cm thick bed of pine shavings.
Each heater was allowed to equilibrate before collecting data over a 5-min
period. The heater was then rotated 45 degrees and the process repeated
for a total of 8 sections (160 unique sampling locations, sampling density
= 2 sensors/ft2).
Ordinary kriging was used to spatially map radiant flux for each heater.
Integration was performed on the kriging data to find the total heat energy
at sensor height, which was 16,162 BTU/hr, 13,477 BTU/hr, and 14,612
BTU/hr for heaters 1, 2 and 3, respectively. An efficiency ratio was determined for each heater by dividing the total energy reaching the floor by
the total energy output. The efficiency ratios were 0.45, 0.42, and 0.42 for
heaters 1, 2, and 3, respectively. All data provided is for a heater height
of 1.52 m.
Key Words: housing, energy efficiency, radiant heating, brooding, spatial
mapping
P259 Prevalence of Vultures at Delmarva Broiler Farm Composters
Lasheda Brooks*UG1, Jon Moyle2, Bill Brown3, Brigid McCrea1 1Delaware
State University, Dover, DE, USA; 2University of Maryland, College Park,
Salisbury, MD, USA; 3University of Delaware, Georgetown, DE, USA
Vultures, and other animals, can breach compost piles and travel between
farms potentially carrying diseases with them. This behavior places biosecurity protocols and plans at risk. We hypothesized that the most prevalent
raptor seen on a composter would be a Turkey Vulture, rather than Black
Vultures, due to their olfaction capacity. In order to conduct this research,
we used four game cameras to track vulture sightings.
Based on the 133 days of data, Turkey Vultures were seen for 62% (n=86)
of the days; Black Vultures were seen on 15% (n=21) of the days; in 28%
(n=36) of the days the species of vulture could not be distinguished; and
for 21% (n= 28) of the days no vultures were present. The largest groups
of vultures were seen in the mornings between the hours of 6-9 am followed by the afternoon of 5-7 pm. The average number of Turkey Vultures
seen in both the morning and afternoon hours was four, however, the maximum number seen was 21 and 29 birds, respectively. For black vultures,
an average of two and one birds were seen in the morning and afternoon
hours, however, the maximum number seen was 21 and 28, respectively.
The maximum number of vultures seen with the game camera, regardless
of species, at a farm composter was 50. Other animals captured by the
game cameras include cats, eagles, dogs, and foxes. The trial is currently
ongoing so that seasonal influences on the farms can be assessed.
Key Words: Vulture, composter, broiler
P260Light Source Effect in Broilers’ Behavior, Gait and Surface
Temperature Irenilza de Alencar Nääs*, Raquel B. T. Rodrigues da Silva,
Rodrigo Garófallo Garcia, Fabiana Caldara Federal University of Grande
Dourados, Dourados, Brazil
The light source in the rearing ambient may affect the intensity of the
birds’ activity through the light stimuli. The other effect known is the increase in heat in the rearing ambient due to the use of incandescent light
bulb, and it may affect surface temperature of broilers and litter. This research aimed to study the effect of the light source in broiler behaviour,
gait and surface temperature. Broilers were reared in aviaries with different light sources, incandescent, fluorescent and sodium vapor (treatments
G1, G2 and G3, respectively). The aviaries were split into nine quadrants
and on these areas 15 broilers were randomly selected for recording of
studied variables. The broilers’ behaviour was observed from day 14 to
42. The gait score was done allowing the bird to walk 1m, and scores were
given 0 (birds walk normally), 1 (birds walking with some difficulty), and
2 (birds walking with great difficulty). Surface temperature of the birds
was recorded with an infrared camera at 14, 21, 35 and 42 days of age.
Litter surface temperature was also recorded during the same time. The
images were taken at 1 m distance from the target. The mean emissivity
value adopted for the broiler was 0.98 and for the litter was 0.91. Ten
points were select in the broiler image and the mean value was calculated.
The same procedure was done for the litter. The mean values of the surface temperatures from the treatments were subjected to ANOVA and the
mean values were compared using Tukey test using 95% confidence. The
Kruskal–Wallis one-way analysis of variance was applied to gait score
and behavior data using 95% of confidence. The light source did not interfere in broilers behaviour (p>0.05). Gait scores 1 and 2 were low, and
no interaction was found between light source, litter temperature and gait
scores (p>0.05). The aviary with incandescent bulbs presented highest litter temperature, except at the 35 d of grow-out; and higher temperature of
the bird, except at 42 d.
Key Words: Light bulbs, Thermal image, Poultry industry
P261 Effect of the Rearing Ventilation Systems in Broiler Feet
Lesion and Gait Score Irenilza Nääs*, Flavia Jacob, Marta Baracho State
University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil
Brazil is the world largest broiler meat export, and the Asian Market are
particularly demanding broiler feet. Footpad dermatitis (FPD) is a recognized welfare problem in broiler chickens. FPD causes significant economic problems for the poultry industry, and they are attributed to the
inadequate rearing conditions, particularly to excessive moisture in the air
and litter. The prevalence of locomotion problems in broiler chickens of
rapid growth has become a major concern in the poultry market, especially the export market, not only due to the poor performance of birds and
slaughterhouse losses, but also to the detriment of animal welfare. This
study aimed to evaluate the impact of the broiler housing rearing environmental acclimatization in the incidence of footpad dermatitis and broiler
gait issues. The study was carried out in a commercial broiler farm with
two houses one with tunnel ventilation (TV) with evaporative cooling a
negative pressure, and the other using positive axial ventilation (FV) and
two lines of low pressure fogging. The overall thermal image was recorded in both aviaries in order to compare their environmental characteristics.
The aviaries were divided into three quadrants, and the variables recorded
at the geometric center of the quadrants. The environmental variables (dry
bulb temperature, TBS; and relative humidity, RH) were recorded continuously using data loggers. The means of the variables were assessed
and compared by Tukey’s test considering 95% reliability. Birds were observed at the grow out days 22, 29 and 40. Broiler feet were examined to
determine a reliable correspondence between macroscopic features. The
gait score adopted was the scale 0 to 5, where 0 indicates that birds walk
10 steps usually; 1 indicates that birds walk 10 steps presenting some difficulties and unbalanced limbs, and 3 indicates that the bird cannot walk
or walk 4 to 5 steps and seat. The frequency of birds in each gait score was
recorded. Results indicated that FPD percentage was higher in the flocks
reared in the FV environment than those reared in TV. The use of tunnel
ventilation generally improved broilers’ rearing ambient characteristics,
and the decrease in rearing ambient temperature due to use of tunnel ventilation led to low rate of footpad dermatitis. In the present study it was
found that birds from the positive pressure house (FV) presented higher
rate of locomotor issues as they get older than those from TV. At day 40 of
grow out it was found a high incidence of gait score 2 in both ventilation
systems.
Key Words: poultry house, tunnel ventilation, axial ventilation
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
P262 Replacing conventional method of beak trimming by hot-blade
in the initial phase of laying hens Ibiara Correia de Lima Almeida Paz*1,
Javer Alves Vieira Filho1, Edivaldo Antônio Garcia2, Tiago Antônio dos
Santos1, Andréa Britto Molino1, Grace Alessandra Araujo Baldo1, Kléber
Pelícia1, Rodrigo Garófalo Garcia1 1Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio
de Mesquita Filho”, Botucatu, Brazil; 2Universidade Federal Paulista
“Júlio de Mesquita Filho”, Botucatu, Brazil
The experiment was conducted in order to compare the early development
of laying hens beak trimmed using infrared radiation or by conventional
beak trimming using hot-blade. Seventy hundred and twenty commercial chicks were used from three genetic lines (Lohmann LSL, Lohmann
Brown, Hy-line W36). The experiment was done during whole growing
period (one day up to five weeks of live) where initial weight, feed intake,
final weight, feed:gain ratio, weight uniformity, beak length, frequency of
cannibalism and viability were evaluated. Birds were distributed in a 2x3
fatorial (two methods of beak trimming x three genetic lines), totaling six
treatments and six replicates with 20 bids each one. The beak trimming using infrared radiation was done at the first day of live, in the hatchery, with
the following especifications: beak treatment two mm from the nostril, for
moderate light intensity (52 nm) and a mirror as reflector material. The
conventional beak trimming method with hot-blade the following guidelines: beak treatment four mm from nostril, to the seven days of live. Data
were submitted to analysis of variance using the statistical software SAS
9.2. There was no significant difference (P>0,05) between beak trimming
methodologies on the variables evaluated, except length of beak, which
was higher in birds that had the beak treated by infrared radiation. The results show that the alternative methodology of beak trimming using infrared radiation can be applied successfully in genetic lines tested, ensuring
similar development to the conventional methodology.
Key Words: beak treatment, feed inake, infrared radiation, poultry
P263Effect of SaniCide ™-5, 5% Aqueous Stabilized Chlorine
Dioxide pre-harvest feed & water treatment (5 ppm chlorine dioxide
addition) on broiler chicken live performance & intestinal bacteria
counts before & after the feed withdrawal period. J.L. McNaughton*1,
M. Roberts1, M. Barnas1, T. Amlaw2 1AHPharma, Inc., Salisbury, MD,
USA; 2CRITICAL SURFACE SOLUTIONS, Albany, NY & BIOECO,
Denver Co., Albany, NY, USA
SaniCide -5 (aqueous stabilized chlorine dioxide source or SCD), in two
trials, were administered via either feed 48h pre-feed withdrawal (WD) or
9h feed WD in finisher corn-soy-meat type basal diet to mixed-sex broilers at a rate of 5 ppm available chlorine & compared to a Control (feed &
water) without SCD. Supplemental Escherichia coli (EC) & Salmonella
spp. were administered to all test birds on 44d (prior to bird treatments) at
the rate of 107 cfu & 50-100 colonies per bird, respectively.
®
Each treatment was administered to Ross 708 mixed-sex broilers (n=50/
treatment), fed a finisher diet (44-46d) and reared on built-up litter. Test
period began on either Trial Day 46 (Trial #1) or Trial Day 44 (Trial #2).
Treatments included Control (no additive), SCD in a 9-hr feed WD period
& SCD in both 48-hr feed plus 9-hr WD. Live performance (48h pre-WD,
time of WD and 9h WD) and crop & small intestinal Escherichia coli
(EC) & Salmonella spp. were determined 48h pre-WD, time of WD and
9h WD.
SCD did not affect live performance (body weight & feed conversion).
Water consumption was reduced by 6% during the 44-46d feeding period
& an additional 8% during the 9-hr feed WD. Available Cl was reduced
on average 16% during a 48-hr feeding program & 11% during the 9-hr
water administration. Crop & small intestinal content EC & Salmonella
incidence (SI) levels averaged 7-log10 & 100% SI for all Controls. SCDtreated birds intestinal per mL data: 5-log10 & 30% for 48h FEED; 4-log10
& 26% for 9-hr WATER WD (P<0.05 from control); and 3-log10 & 10%
for combination of FEED & WATER administration in EC & SI (P<0.05
from control), respectively. SCD appears to significantly reduce crop and
77
intestinal Escherichia coli (EC) & Salmonella spp. in pre-harvest age
broiler chickens.
Key Words: SaniCide ™-5, Aqueous Stabilized Chlorine Dioxide,
Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., chicken
P264 Effects of light sources and intensity on growth performance
and carcass characteristics of heavy broilers at 56 days of age Hammed
Olanrewaju*, Joseph Purswell, Stephanie Collier, Scott Branton USDAARS, Starkville, MS, USA
This study investigated the effects of light sources and light intensity on
growth performance and carcass characteristics of heavy broilers (> 3 kg)
in 4 trials with 2 replication per trial. Nine hundred and sixty Ross × Ross
708 chicks were randomly distributed into 16 rooms (30 male and 30 female chicks/room) at 1 d of age. A 4 × 2 factorial treatment structure were
evaluated that consisted of 4 light sources [incandescent (ICD, standard),
compact fluorescent (CFL), light emitting diode (LED), poultry specific
filtered LED (PSF-LED)] from d 0 to d 56 and 2 levels (5 lx, 20 lx) of light
intensities from d 22 to 56 d of age at 50 % RH. Each of the 4 light source
treatments was paired with one of the two light intensity treatments so
that each room represented a particular light source :light source-intensity
level combination for a total of 16 rooms. Feed and water were provided
ad libitum. Birds were provided a four phase-feeding program (Starter:
0-14 d, Grower: 15-28 d, Finisher: 29-42 d, and Withdrawal: 44-56 d).
Birds and feed were weighed on 0, 14, 28, 42, and 56 d of age for growth
performance. All mortality were recorded daily and feed conversion was
adjusted for mortality. At 56 d of age, 20 (10 males and 10 females) birds
from each rooms were processed to determine weights and yields. The
BW, BWG, live weight and carcass weights of birds reared under PSFLED were different (P ≤ 0.05) in comparison with birds reared under ICD.
However, FI, FCR, and mortality were not affected by treatments. There
was no effect of treatments on fat, breast and tender weights and yields. In
addition, ocular development indices and plasma corticosterone concentrations were not affected by treatments. It was concluded that the 3 light
sources evaluated in this study are suitable for replacement of ICD light
source in commercial poultry facilities to reduce energy cost and optimize
production efficiency without compromising welfare of broilers grown to
heavy weights.
Key Words: light sources, light intensity, growth performance, broilers,
stress
P265 Infrared thermography of Japanese quails reared with different
energy densities in the feed Rodrigo Garcia*, Kelly Nunes, Irenilza Naas,
Cinthia Eyng, Fabiana Caldara, Mayara Santana, Luciana Foppa Agrarian
Sciences College, Federal University of Grande Dourados, Dourados,
Brazil
The research aimed to evaluate the surface temperature and feed intake
of Japanese quail fed diets having two energy levels at different environmental temperatures. 96 Japanese quail males, with 58 days of age, were
distributed in a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement
2x3, with two diets (control diet 3150 kcal/kg and high energy density
4150 kcal/kg) and three ambient temperatures (14, 27 and 35°C). It was
evaluated the feed intake at the end of the trial period and the surface
temperature of the birds, for four days, a camera using infrared thermography. To determine the consumption, experimental diets were weighed
on the first and last day in each experimental unit, and the difference was
determined by the feed intake of the study period. For the surface temperature record of the birds at 58 days old, three front thermographic images
of each experimental repetition were taken, using a camera with infrared
thermography accuracy of ± 0.1 ° C and 7.5 spectrums - 13 micrometers.
Each thermographic image was analyzed by means of a processing and
data conversion using the software, where the average surface temperature of the birds with the 30 data points chosen at random in the image
was analyzed. The results were analyzed in the statistical program Assistat
78
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
and means were compared by Tukey test (P<0.05). There was no interaction between treatments. Analyzing individually, it was found that there
was no difference in feed intake and surface temperature with different
energy densities in the feed. Japanese quail kept in average temperature
of 14°C had higher feed intake (P <0.05) than the quails reared at 27°C
and 35°C. This fact may possibly be related to the thermal homeostasis
which birds raised at lower temperatures require higher intakes of food for
greater metabolic heat production to digestion, thereby achieving homeostasis. The results of surface temperature showed that birds reared at high
temperatures (35°C) have higher surface temperatures than birds reared at
lower temperatures (14°C and 27°C).
Key Words: poultry, thermographic images, ration
P266 Quality of Japanese quail eggs (Coturnix coturnix japonica)
exposed to artificial lighting with LED different colors Rodrigo
Garcia*1, Kelly Nunes1, Irenilza Naas1, Cinthia Eyng1, Ianglio Jácome2,
Fabiana Caldara1, Bruna Barreto1 1Agrarian Sciences College, Federal
University of Grande Dourados, Dourados, Brazil; 2Agrarian Sciences
College, Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Brazil
This study aimed to evaluate the performance and egg quality of Japanese quails exposed to artificial lighting with LED of different colors. The
experiment was conducted in the poultry sector posture Faculty of Agricultural Sciences in University Federal of Grande Dourados – UFGD/
Brazil. 240 Japanese quail at 42 days old were used. Four conditions were
adopted within the experimental aviary: T1: Green LEDs lamps, T2: Red
LEDs lamps, T3: Fluorescents lamps and T4: Blue LEDs lamps distributed in a completely randomized design with six replicates of 10 birds
each, totaling 24 experimental units. The evaluations were performed at
42 days of age, where the characteristics of feed intake, egg production
and feed conversion (kg/kg and kg/dz) were determined. The period for
assessing the quality of the eggs lasted 84 days, corresponding to four
cycles of 21 days each. Quantitative analyzes were determined the average egg weight (EW), albumen height (AH), values ​​of Haugh Unit (HU),
yolk height (YH), yolk index (YI) and eggshell thickness (ET). The data
were subjected to analysis of variance and the means were compared by
Tukey test at 5%, using the Assistat 7.0 statistical program. No significant
differences (P>0.05) were found for the variables: egg production (%),
feed intake (FI), feed conversion kg/kg (CA kg/kg) and feed conversion
kg/dz (CA kg/dz). For qualitative analyzes, significant values ​​(P <0.05) for
egg weight were found. Birds exposed to lighting with fluorescent lamps
showed higher egg weight values than
​​
birds exposed to green and blue
LED. However, the data obtained with the fluorescents lamps are similar
to the results found with red LED lighting. It was concluded that fluorescent lamps and red LEDs can be used in the production of Japanese quail
to provide an increase of egg weight.
Key Words: poultry, performance, led, production, Haugh Unit
and conducted evaluations of the reproductive system: weight of ovary
and oviduct (g) were evaluated. For the determination of feed intake, the
experimental diets were weighed on the first and last day of each cycle,
and the difference was determined the feed intake of the study period, the
eggs were collected once a day, and counted daily, until the end of the
egg production cycle. For evaluations of the reproductive system, 16 birds
were caught randomly. Later, they were slaughtered and measurement of
the reproductive system: weight of ovary and oviduct weight. No significant differences (P>0.05) for feed intake (FI) and egg production (%) were
found. For evaluations of the reproductive system: weight of ovary and
oviduct (g), there was no interaction between the different LEDs colors
and the evaluation periods (P>0.05). There was no significant effect (P>
0.05) for different colors of LEDs on the relative weight of the oviduct
and ovary. However, the data showed effect (P<0.05) from different time
periods (7 and 14 days) for relative weight of the oviduct, where the seven
days the relative weight was superior to 14 days (P<0.05). This fact is
possibly related to the weight gain of the animals with advancing age.
LED lamps of different colors did not affect performance and reproductive
development of Japanese quail.
Key Words: poultry, LED, lighting, oviduct, production
P268Prevalence of internal parasites in backyard poultry in
Arkansas. Kayleigh Moyle*GS1, Dustan Clark2, Jon Moyle3 1University
of Arkansas, Elkins, AR, USA; 2University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR,
USA; 3University of Maryland, Salisbury, MD, USA
Backyard and exhibition poultry have been increasing in popularity in the
past several years and as such there has been a large rise in the number of
small flocks. Typically most backyard flocks are allowed to wander freely
for part or all of the day. As these free-range birds interact with the environment there is a heightened risk of exposure to parasitic infection due
to factors such as exposure to wild birds, contact with intermediate hosts
such as earthworms, and lack of knowledge. The purpose of this study
is to determine the prevalence of common poultry parasites in backyard
poultry.
In order to determine how many backyard flocks are infected with parasites, fresh fecal samples were individually collected from cages at two
nearby state fairs during 2013 and 2014. Samples were then transported
to the University of Arkansas Poultry Science Center of Excellence and
analyzed by performing a fecal flotation. Slides were subsequently examined under a microscope for presence or absence of coccidia oocysts and
helminth eggs. Data showed that 58% of the flocks sampled tested positive for Eimeria, 26% tested positive for Ascaridia, 24% were positive for
Capillaria, and 8% were positive for Heterakis. Almost a third of farms
showed evidence of infection by multiple species of parasites. This study
indicates that there is a high prevalence of parasite infection in backyard
flocks, especially with coccidia. Further research could expand on this
data and also look into ways to decrease parasite exposure and infection
in backyard poultry.
P267 Reproductive development of japanese quails (Coturnix
coturnix japonica) exposed to artificial lighting with LED different
colors Rodrigo Garcia*1, Kelly Nunes1, Irenilza Naas1, Cinthia Eyng1,
Ianglio Jácome2, Fabiana Caldara1, Luciana Foppa1, Bruna Barreto1
1
Agrarian Sciences College, Federal University of Grande Dourados,
Dourados, Brazil; 2Agrarian Sciences College, Federal University of
Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Brazil
P269 Nutrient analysis of Mississippi broiler litter Tom Tabler*1, Ashli
Brown1, Gale Hagood1, Morgan Farnell1, Chris McDaniel1, Jon Kilgore2
1
Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, USA; 2Mississippi
Farm Bureau Federation, Jackson, MS, USA
This research aimed to evaluate the development of the reproductive system of Japanese quail exposed to artificial lighting with LED of different colors. The experiment was conducted in the poultry department of
Faculty of Agricultural Sciences in Federal University of Grande Dourados – UFGD/Brazil. 240 Japanese quail at 42 days of age were used
in the trial. The treatments were: T1- green LEDs lamps, T2- red LEDs
lamps, T3- Fluorescents lamps and T4 - blue LEDs lamps. The animals
were distributed in a completely randomized design with six replicates of
10 birds each. The characteristics of feed intake (FI), egg production (%)
Mississippi has ~1,900 poultry farms producing 762M broilers each year.
Management of litter generated on these farms is an important environmental issue. Poultry litter, a mixture of manure, feathers and bedding
material, is a valuable source of plant nutrients. The fertilizer value makes
litter of interest to many farmers. However, land application of poultry
litter is being closely scrutinized regarding the short- and long-term environmental impacts, especially as it relates to phosphorus (P) runoff and its
potential role in accelerating eutrophication of surface waters. The objective of this study is to determine the current accurate nutrient content in
Key Words: internal parasites, backyard, poultry, helminths, coccidia
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
Mississippi broiler litter. A study by Chamblee and Todd (2002) indicated
Mississippi broiler litter was 19% moisture and contained 57 pounds of
nitrogen (N), 67 pounds of P as P205, and 59 pounds of potassium (K) as
K2O. In the current study, litter samples were collected from one house
on each of 210 broiler farms across Mississippi representing all 6 of the
state’s broiler integrators from March-September 2014. Samples were
collected across a wide range of litter ages (0 - 50 flocks of production).
Sixteen random samples were taken in a zigzag pattern throughout each
sampled broiler house, placed in a large plastic tub, and thoroughly mixed
together. After mixing, a 1-quart subsample of the litter was collected and
placed in a labeled and sealable plastic bag. Sample bags were coded so
that sample analysis could be done without revealing which grower and
which integrator had provided the sample. All litter samples were submitted to the Mississippi State Chemical Laboratory on the MSU campus for
determination of N-P-K, moisture, pH, and water extractable phosphorus
(WEP). The WEP is important because it represents a portion of the P pool
that is available to runoff. Results indicate that average fresh broiler litter
produced in Mississippi has a pH of 7.1, is 27% moisture, and contains
47 pounds of N, 61 pounds of K2O, 69 pounds of P2O5 and 9.2 pounds of
WEP per ton. However, P2O5 in the litter is less for those growers whose
integrators require a total clean out to the floor every 2 to 3 years vs. growers whose integrators do not require regular total clean outs to the floor.
Growers who do not do total clean outs remove only a portion of the litter
when it gets too deep and leave the rest in the house as bedding material
to grow additional flocks. Results also indicate that litter amendment use
decreased pH but increased lbs/ton of K2O, N, P2O5, and WEP. This information will prove valuable to governmental agencies that assist growers
and other poultry litter end users in creating nutrient management plans
and waste management guidelines.
Key Words: Broiler litter, Environment, Eutrophication, Phosphorus,
Water extractable phosphorus
P270 Effect of in ovo injection of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum
on the survivability of commercial layer embryos and chicks Katie
Collins*GS1, Scott Branton2, Jeff Evans2, Sharon Womack1, E. David
Peebles1 1Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS, USA; 2USDA,
Starkville, MS, USA
Although in ovo vaccination has proven successful for viral vaccines
in broiler chickens, the applicability of this vaccination method for administering bacterial vaccines to layer chickens has not been adequately
addressed. Therefore, a live Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) vaccine
(Poulvac Myco F) was hand-injected into Hyline W-36 layer eggs from
an MG clean breeder flock at 18 days of incubation (doi) as a 50 µL solution of one of 4 different dosages to determine embryo survivability in 2
trials (316 eggs in trial 1; 2340 eggs in trial 2). The vaccine was resuspended and diluted in Poulvac Marek’s diluent. Control embryos were
either not injected or injected with only diluent. MG-vaccinated embryos
were administered a high 1X dose from the vaccine vial, a 10-2 dilution
(medium dose), 10-4 (low dose), or a 10-6 dilution (low-low dose). The
vaccine was plated for viability and cfu/dose determination. Hatchability
(HE) was expressed as a percentage of the number of live embryonated
eggs injected at 18 doi. In trial 2, 85 chicks from each of the 6 treatments
were raised in isolation units and mortality was recorded through the first
2 wk posthatch. The plated vaccine indicated that embryos in the high
dose treatment received an average of 5.5 x 106 cfu/dose in trial 1 and
2.4 x 106 cfu/dose in trial 2. The HE in trials 1 and 2 in the non-injected
control, diluent-injected control, low-low, low, medium, and high dosage
treatments were respectively, 97.9 and 95.6%, 93.8 and 95.4%, 95.8 and
95.0%, 87.5 and 94.5%, 75.0 and 93.4%, and 60.4 and 66.5%. Although
a higher HE occurred in the medium and low doses in trial 2, by 13 d of
age posthatch, no control birds had died, and percentage mortalities in the
treatment groups were: 1.2% diluent, 3.5% low-low, 52.4% low, 72.9%
medium, and 88.2% high. Higher dosages of MG administered in ovo at
18 doi caused a dose-dependent increase in mortality in both embryos and
79
posthatch chicks. Based on these results, the low-low dose (2.4-5.5 cfu/
dose) has the highest potential for future in ovo use.
Key Words: in ovo, vaccine, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, layer, embryo
P271 Thermal stimulation during incubation and the effect on embryo
Fernanda Flores*1, Irenilza de Alencar Nääs1, Rodrigo Garofallo Garcia2,
Thomas Calil3, Lenise Souza3 1College of Agricultural Engineering University of Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brazil; 2Federal University of
Grande Dourados, Dourados, MS, Brazil; 3PasReform of the Brazil, Rio
Claro, Brazil
Due to the demands of consumer markets in recent decades the poultry
industry has adopted several advancements in productivity. The egg incubation step is the most important time as it corresponds to more than
30 % of the broiler’ life. However, during the artificial incubation there
is several factors difficulty to control. Some are poorly understood and
others are difficult to assess, such as the thermal stimulation and its consequences. For both thermal stimuli with 2.5oF (Stimulus heat) and 1.0
o
F (Stimulus for cold) above or below each programmed hatching and
applied in the final third of embryonic development (14th to 18th day ) set
point were performed in batches arrays with 33 and 61 weeks of Cobb and
Ross. The control group was a normal incubation. Tests were conducted
on a commercial hatchery, and using modulate SmartPro type -4 single
stage machines, in its full capacity. The flocks of broilers Cobb 33 wks old
presented better results for both thermal stimuli, in both variables hatching and chick quality. The cold stimulation showed no improvement in
hatching, but kept the chick quality and it did not delay its development.
Histopathological examination revealed lymphoid depletion and necrosis
(51-80 %), and greater than 81 % in the Bursa of Fabricius in stimulated
flocks. Besides interfollicular inflammatory infiltrate, edema and hyperemia were found. Thymus, heart and spleen presented mild, moderate and
severe congestion. The found lesions are indicative of immune activation
and the consequent adaptation during the rearing process
Key Words: Temperature, Hatching, Lymph depletion
P272 Incidence of lesions in broiler chickens exposed to monochromatic
light Rodrigo Garofallo Garcia*1, Mayara Rodrigues de Santana1, Irenilza
de Alencar Nääs1, Fabiana Ribeiro Caldara1, Fernanda Flores2 1Agrarian
Sciences College, Federal University of Grande Dourados, Dourados, MS,
Brazil; 2College of Agricultural Engineering - University of Campinas,
Campinas, SP, Brazil
Artificial lighting is a tool that can affect the behavior of the birds, because
the illuminance and color temperature of light sources produce behavioral
changes that may cause greater or lesser stress in birds. The research aim
was to evaluate the incidence of injuries in broiler chickens exposed to illumination with different light sources. The experiment was conducted at
the Federal University of Grande Dourados. A total of 1350 male chicks
line Cobb® were distributed in a completely randomized design with five
treatments (LED yellow, red, blue, white and fluorescent lamp) and five
replicates of 54 birds each. The birds were raised for 42 days as recommended by the lineage and at the end of the rearing period were transported to slaughter procedure. After slaughter evaluated the incidence of
lesions (scratch creation, scratch-removal, hematoma and lumbar dermatitis). Comparing the presence and absence of lesions, no significant differences were observed (p>0.05) between the different light sources. The
illumination with different LED colors had the same effect of fluorescent
lamps in the incidence of lesions in broilers. Considering that LED lighting has the efficient use of energy, it is indicated for poultry production.
Key Words: artificial lighting, poultry, wavelength, light emitting diode,
management of harvest.
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ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
P273 The effect of Brazilian propolis on serum thyroid hormones in
broilers reared under chronic heat stress Omar Amen*1, U. T. Mahmoud1,
M.A. Abdel-Rahman1, M. H.A. Darwish1, T. J. Applegate2, H. W. Cheng3
1
Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt; 2Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN,
USA; 3USDA-ARS Livestock Behavior Research Unit, West Lafayette, IN,
USA
This experiment evaluated the effect of dietary supplement with green
Brazilian propolis on serum thyroxin (T4) and tri-iodothyronine (T3)
levels in broiler chickens exposed to chronic heat stress for 4 wks (from
15 to 42 d of age). 502, 15-d-old, male broiler chickens (Ross 708) were
randomly allocated to 6 treatments (4 pens/treatment; 21 birds/pen). The
dietary treatments were basal diet (control) and 5 concentrations of propolis (100, 250, 500, 1000, and 3000 mg /kg diet, respectively). The average
temperature and relative humidity during the day time was (31.7±0.3˚C
and 56±4) while at night was (28.8±0.4˚C and 58±3) respectively. At 42
d of age, serum was collected from 12 birds in each treatment (3 birds per
pen x 4 pens per group), and the thyroid hormones levels were measured
by using T4 and T3 chicken ELISA commercial kits. The data were analyzed by means of SPSS 22.00 Software using the general linear models
(GLM) followed by simple regression model procedure. Supplementation
of broiler chickens diets with propolis did not significantly (P>0.05) affect
T4 and T3 concentrations in comparison to controls. However, there were
treatment effects on T3/T4 ratio. The hens fed with 250 mgkg-1 had the
highest T3/T4 ratio, which was significantly increased (P=0.023) in comparison to controls. In conclusion, the results of T3/T4 ratio indicated that
dietary supplement with 250 mgkg-1 green Brazilian propolis may help
broiler chickens to accommodate with the heat stress condition, so further
investigation is recommended.
Key Words: Broiler, propolis, heat stress, thyroid hormones
P274 Correlation of frozen cloacal swabs to cecal contamination
for Campylobacter and Salmonella in young broilers Beverly L.
McClendon*1, Nelson A. Cox2, Douglas E. Cosby2, Jeanna L. Wilson1
1
University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA; 2USDA, ARS, PMSPRU, Athens,
GA, USA
The industry needs a reliable method to determine presence of pathogens
in birds. To this end, we wanted to evaluate if freezing affected the reliability of cloacal swabs to detect Salmonella and Campylobacter in poultry.
Day old chicks were orally gavaged with either 103 or 101 of a marker
Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) or a marker Campylobacter coli (CC). Following inoculation, the chicks were placed into isolation units (IU). On
days 7, 10, 14 and 21 post challenge, ten (10) birds were removed and
cloacally swabbed. For ST each swab was put into 5.0 mL of Buffered
Peptone (BP); for CC each swab was put into 5.0 mL Tecra Broth (TB).
All swabs were placed into -20oC storage. After swabbing, birds were euthanized and the ceca removed aseptically. All samples were placed into
50 mL specimen containers and covered with BP before being placed
into -20oC storage. After thawing, ST swabs were streaked onto Brilliant
Green Sulfa agar w/ 200 ppm Naladixic Acid (BGS Nal) plates and for
CC, swabs were streaked onto Cefex w/ 200 ppm Gentamicin agar plates
with all plates being incubated under the standard laboratory conditions.
ST cecal samples were removed from the specimen containers, placed into
stomacher bags, diluted 1:3 with BP, stomached for 60 s and streaked for
isolation onto BGS Nal. CC cecal samples were handled the same except
diluted with TB and streaked onto Cefex w/ Gentamicin. ST was detected
on frozen swabs compared to ceca 24/40, 15/24, 5/18 and 17/20 at 7, 10,
14 and 21 days, respectively at -20oC. CC was detected on frozen swabs
compared to ceca 24/30 and 19/20 at 7 and 14 days respectively at -20oC.
For days 10 and 21, all cecal samples were negative but the marker CC
was detected three time with frozen swabs at days 10 and once at day
21. In a previous study with unfrozen swabs, ST was detected in 214/228
(94%) compared to the ceca when the level in the ceca was > 106/g and
CC was detected in 207/252 (82%) when the cecal level was >106/g. The
cloacal swab, either frozen or unfrozen, is a reliable tool to evaluate the
intestinal contamination and may be useful with valuable breeder chicks.
Key Words: Broilers, Breeders, Cloacal Swabs, Salmonella,
Campylobacter
P275 Effect of pullet limestone particle size on performance and bone
health of pullets and laying hens raised in deep litter systems Pamela
Eusebio-Balcazar*GS1, Sheila Purdum1, Kathryn Hanford1, Mary Beck2
1
University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, USA; 2Mississippi State
University, Starkville, MS, USA
As hens are more likely to suffer bone fractures in alternative housing
systems, there is a need to revise nutritional strategies to improve bone
health. The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effects of limestone
particle size (LPS) in pullet diets on production performance and bone
health in deep litter systems. For this, 9-wk old Bovan White pullets were
randomly housed in 8 floor pens (15 pullets/pen; 929 cm2/ pullet). Floor
pens provided perches, nest area, feeder tubes, and fountain drinkers. Pullets were fed a grower diet (9 - 15 wk) including either a fine (F) (0.431
mm) or a blend of fine and large particles (B) (0.878 mm) limestone (ILC
Resources, Weeping Water, NE). For the pre lay diet (16-17 wk), 75 % of
limestone was either ‘F’ or ‘B’, and 25 % of limestone was coarse (3.10
mm). Hens received the same layer diet from 19 to 24 wk. BW was recorded about every 4 wk. Feed intake was determined every 2 wk. Egg
production was recorded daily. At 13, 16 and 24 wk of age, all birds were
palpated to record keel bone condition. At 13, 17, 20 and 24 wk of age, a
sample of 5 birds per pen were scanned to determine in-vivo bone mineral
density (BMD), content and area of right tibias using dual-emission x-ray
absorptiometry. Ten eggs from each floor pen were sampled to determine
egg W, eggshell percentage (EP) and eggshell breaking strength (EBS)
weekly from 22 to 24 wk. Data was analyzed using a randomized complete block design. BW was used as a covariate for bone characteristics.
‘B’ limestone increased overall EBS compared to ‘F’ limestone (64. 39 vs.
66.73 N; P = 0.072). Also, ‘B’ pullets had greater BMD than ‘F’ pullets
at 17 wk of age (0.219 vs. 0.228; P = 0.102). There was no effect of LPS
on BW (P = 0.806), feed intake (P = 0.188), egg production (P = 0.979),
egg W (P = 0.581), EP (P = 0.564) and incidence of keel bone injuries
(P ≥ 0.154). Thus, the use of a limestone blend of fine and large particles
improved bone mineralization during the onset of egg production and eggshell quality without affecting production performance.
Key Words: limestone particle size, Bone health, Eggshell
P276 Estimation of ammonia emission in different seasons of an
aviary of negative pressure Rodrigo Garcia*, Nilsa Lima, Irenilza
Naas, Fabiana Caldara, Luciana Foppa, Vivian Castilho, Kelly Nunes,
Bruna Barreto Agrarian Sciences College, Federal University of Grande
Dourados, Dourados, Brazil
This study aimed to estimate the emission of ammonia from poultry bed
in different seasons (hot and cold) of two types of negative pressure aviaries (tunnel and dark house). For this, a software was developed from the
following equation: E = exp(-6,5023 + 0,3020dia + 0,1218tc + 0,6142ph
– 0,0043dia2), considering the different ages of the broilers (7, 21, 35 and
42 days). Data were recorded in four commercial aviaries in the city of
Itaquiraí - MS. The variables recorded to calculate the estimates of ammonia emissions were: age of the birds (days), pH and temperature of
the bed (°C). The experiment was carried out in four commercial aviaries
tunnel type and dark house. The birds were housed in mixed lots, with
an average density of 13 birds/m², in the third bed reuse. The design was
completely randomized design with a 2x2 factorial design (seasons: hot
and cold x types of aviaries: tunnel and dark house) with two replicates.
The results of this study demonstrate that when the birds were 7 days old
and 35 days old, there was no effect between factors. The estimation of
ammonia emission was higher when the birds were 42 days old, in cold
season (E = 5702.4 mg/m²/h) in relation to hot season (E = 4423.1 mg/
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
m²/h). The estimation of ammonia emission was not influenced by type
of aviaries. In cold seasons and in the last stage of creation, the emissions
were higher than in warm seasons.
Key Words: environmental impact, poultry house, negative pressure,
broiler, broiler production
P277 Welfare of laying hens in different densities of housing Rodrigo
Garcia*, Nilsa Duarte, Irenilza Naas, Vivian Castilho, Luciana Foppa,
Bruna Barreto, Fabiana Caldara, Kelly Nunes, Ibiara Paz Agrarian Sciences
College, Federal University of Grande Dourados, Dourados, Brazil
The aim of the study was to evaluate the physiological parameters of laying hens housed in different densities and periods. The birds (n=150) were
housed in conventional aviaries in metal cages with two subdivisions of
50x45x40 cm². The animals were distributed in a completely randomized
design with a 3x3 factorial arrangement (density: 8, 10 and 12 birds / cage
x period: 09: 00 am, 12: 00 am and 4 pm) with five replications. Physiological parameters (respiratory rate, cloaca temperature, surface temperature) and environmental conditions (temperature and relative humidity)
were evaluated. There was no difference in the density of housing in the
physiological parameters. Respiratory rate was higher at midday. The surface temperature and the temperature of the cloaca were higher at 4 pm.
Environmental parameters showed that the hottest times of the day (until
4 pm), independent of the density, and birds showed higher temperatures
than in the morning.
Key Words: egg production, thermal comfort, environmental conditions,
welfare, laying hens
P278 Comparison of egg qualty, oxidative stress and expression of
heat shock proteins between conventional and free-range hens Turan
Karahan*1, Kazim Sahin2, Cemal Orhan2, Mehmet Tuzcu2, Nurhan Sahin2
1
Agriculture and Rural Development Support Institution, Elazig, Turkey;
2
Firat University, Elazig, Turkey
Conventional cages are to be replaced by furnished cages or aviary systems to improve the welfare of hens in EU countries. We compared the
egg quality, oxidative stress markers [malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-isoprostane and in layer flocks in two housing systems (cages vs free range).
In total 100 eggs, 20 sera and 20 liver samples in cages and 100 eggs, 20
sera and 20 liver samples from free range layers were examined for egg
quality, oxidative stress markers and heat shock proteins (HSPs), respectively. The housing system had not a significant effect on the egg weight
and eggshell thickness levels (P > 0.05). Serum MDA and 8-isoprostane
were higher in hens raised in conventional caging system than those raised
in free-range system (P ≤ 0.005). HSP60 and HSP70 level in hens raised
in the group of free-range system was lower than the conventional group.
These results indicate that the level of oxidative stress markers and HSPs
is lower in free-range system
Key Words: Laying hen, egg qualty, oxidative stress, heat shock proteins,
free-range
P279 Thermal stimulation during incubation and the effect on embryo
Irenilza Nääs*1, Fernanda Flores1, Rodrigo Garcia2 1State University of
Campinas, Campinas, Brazil; 2Federal University of Grande Dourados,
Dourados, Brazil
Due to the demands of consumer markets in recent decades the poultry industry has adopted several advancements in productivity. The egg incubation step is the most important time as it corresponds to more than 30 % of
the broiler’ life. However, during the artificial incubation there is several
factors difficulty to control. Some are poorly understood, and others are
difficult to assess, such as the thermal stimulation. For both batches thermal stimuli was used with 2.5oF (Stimulus heat) and 1.0 oF (Stimulus for
cold), above or below each planned hatching, and applied in the final third
of embryonic development (14th to 18th day). Set point were performed in
batches arrays with 33 and 61 weeks of Cobb and Ross. The control group
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was a standard incubation. Tests were conducted on a commercial hatchery, and using modulate SmartPro type -4 single stage machines, in its
full capacity. The flocks of broilers Cobb 33 wks old shown better results
for both thermal stimuli, in both variables hatching and chick quality. The
cold stimulation showed no improvement in hatching, but kept the chick
quality, and it did not delay the embryo development. Histopathological
examination revealed lymphoid depletion and necrosis (51-80 %) and
greater than 81 % in the Bursa of Fabricius in stimulated flocks. Besides
interfollicular inflammatory infiltrate, edema and hyperemia were found.
Thymus, heart and spleen showed mild, moderate and severe congestion.
The observed lesions are indicative of immune activation and the consequent adaptation during the rearing process.
Key Words: hatching temperature, Lymph depletion, broiler
P280Evaluation of two antibody sera against Salmonella serovars
that exhibit a broad range of surface antigens via flow cytometry
Stephanie Roto*GS1, Christopher Baker1, Pravin Kaldon1, Melinda Miller2,
Steven Ricke1 1University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA; 2Vivione
Biosciences, Pine Bluff, AR, USA
Optimizing detection methods for Salmonella is an ongoing and important task for reducing the duration of sample testing, as well as limiting
foodborne illnesses. Methods that can be used to detect a wide range of
Salmonella serovars in a short amount of time, especially foodborne pathogen relevant serovars, will likely be most applicable for food and poultry
sample testing procedures. These studies were designed to analyze a broad
range of Salmonella serovars against two polyclonal antibody sera. A flow
cytometer was used to determine the percentage of target cells in sample
matrices, and a RAPID-B assay (Vivione Biosciences, Pine Bluff, AR)
was utilized for the detection of several Salmonella serovars. The antibodies used in this study target the somatic “O” surface antigen of Salmonella.
Various levels of tagging were observed, and a percentage-based tagging
system was used. Results indicated that 39 serovars were identified with
the S-1 antibody serum, and that 22 serovars were identified with the S-08
antibody serum. Our results indicate that S-1 and S-08 are optimal polyclonal antibodies to detect Salmonella serovars of O groups 1,3,19; 3,10;
4; 7; 8; 9; 9, 46; 35; 38; 42 and O groups 3, 10; 4; 7; 8; 9; 35; 38; 42,
respectively with the RAPID-B assay. Additionally, both antisera S-1 and
S-08 have the advantage of being applied simultaneously in sample matrices to properly identify a clinically relevant, as well as a broad range of
Salmonella serovars.
Key Words: flow cytometry, Salmonella, polyclonal antibodies
P281 Interrelationships of fungal and bacteria populations within the
gastrointestinal tract of Laying hens. J. Allen Byrd* USDA, ARS, Food
and Feed Safety Research Unit, College Station, TX, USA
Effective Salmonella control in Laying hens is important from the standpoint of both consumer protection and industry viability. We investigated
associations between Salmonella and Campylobacter recovery from different sample types collected from the Laying hens gastrointestinal tract.
The goal of the present study was to record changes in fungi populations recovered from Laying hens gastrointestinal tracts and relate those
changes to foodborne pathogen status. Over 120 broiler gastrointestinal
samples were isolated and further characterized using an automated repetitive sequence based PCR (rep-PCR) methodology to track fungal genera changes during production. Over 27 different fungal and yeast genera
were identified using rep-PCR including: Aspergillus spp., Verticillium
spp., and Eurotium spp. The results from the present study will provide
a normal fungi genera under commercial conditions, relate these fungi to
foodborne pathogens, and will be a stepping stone for investigating the
impact of fungi on the gastrointestinal tract and overall health of poultry.
Key Words: Laying hen, fungal, Salmonella
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ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
P282In ovo DNA vaccination with cytokine adjuvants against
Newcastle disease virus Robert Dunwoody*, Stivalis Cardenas-Garcia,
Patti MIller, Claudio Afonso Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory,
USDA-ARS, Athens, GA, USA
Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) is one of the most economically significant burdens on poultry production globally despite stringent vaccination
by most poultry producers. The current standard for NDV vaccination, the
attenuated NDV LaSota virus, is lethal to chicken embryos and negatively affected by the presence of maternal antibodies. This leaves chickens
vulnerable to infection by virulent field strains of NDV during their first
three to four weeks after hatch. DNA vaccination has been shown to induce an immune response in the presence of maternal antibodies and does
not cause disease. In ovo immunization of chickens with DNA vaccines
against NDV has the potential to protect chickens from disease shortly
after hatch. However, DNA vaccines typically do not elicit an immune
response robust enough to confer protective immunity. Genetic adjuvants,
usually a cytokine expressing plasmid, have been shown to be a simple
system for improvement of DNA vaccines. Concurrent immunization
with a DNA vaccine and cytokine expressing plasmid can modulate the
immune response to produce higher levels of immunity. In this study,
chickens were vaccinated in ovo with a DNA vaccine expressing the
Fusion protein from the virulent ZJ1 strain of NDV along with different
cytokine expressing plasmids for each treatment group to determine the
effectiveness of in ovo vaccination with cytokines against NDV. The birds
were subsequently boosted two weeks after hatch with the same treatment
administered in ovo and then challenged with a lethal dose of ZJ1 four
weeks after hatch. Survivability was found to be dependent on which cytokine was used as a vaccine adjuvant and varied from 53% protection
to a commercially acceptable 90% protection between treatment groups.
Key Words: Newcastle disease, in ovo, DNA vaccine, cytokine
P283 Behavioral observations of White Leghorn laying hens in aviary
versus cage systems. Ashley Bigge*GS, Sheila Purdum, Pamela EusebioBalcazar University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, USA
A series of observations was conducted to determine if there was a significant difference in the number of pecking and comfort behaviors among
laying hens in different housing systems. White Leghorn hens were observed in conventional cages and aviary style systems and daily egg production was recorded. The aviaries were divided into eight areas to include
floor, feeding and nest areas, and perches. Conventional cages counted as
their own areas. Observations were five minutes long for each area and
behaviors were tallied. Pecking behaviors were classified into 3 categories: contact aggression (CA), no contact aggression (NCA), and gentle
pecks (GP). CA included any behavior which resulted in physical contact
between birds, including pecking of the skin and feather pulling, NCA included behaviors such as threatening postures and pecks that did not make
physical contact, and GP was determined to be any peck that made contact, but did not cause the target of the behavior to move away or become
submissive. The data were analyzed using a two tailed distribution with
unequal sample variance. The number of pecks/minute was calculated and
an average was determined for each whole aviary unit and cage. The hens
in the cages had significantly higher percent egg production than those in
the aviaries (p=0.0087). NCA was significantly higher in the aviary compared to the cages (p=0.0331), as was CA (p=0.0069). GP was not significantly different between either of the systems (p=0.3376). The amount of
space available to the hens was also calculated. Floor space was determined in m2 while the lengths of the feeders and perches were measured
in meters. The number of pecks/minute for each specific area of space was
calculated as average pecks/minute/m2 and average pecks/minute/m. The
averages for each specific area of the aviary were compared to those of the
cages. Aviary areas were not compared to other aviary areas. NCA average
pecks/min/area in the cages were significantly greater than all aviary areas
(p<0.05), while CA and GP pecks/min/area were not significantly different (p>0.05) for all areas. Comfort behavior data was collected during the
last 2 observations and included stretching, dust bathing, preening, wing
flapping, and tail wagging. These data were calculated as average total behaviors/min/bird. Analysis showed that there is no significant difference in
comfort behaviors between the aviaries and the cages (p=0.8434). Knowing how housing can affect behavior is important for producers in order to
improve hen welfare while maintaining high production levels.
Key Words: laying hen, aviary, cage, pecking, aggressive behavior
P284 Dynamics of House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) in Newcastle
disease virus transmission within the avifaunal-poultry interface: An
epidemiological modeling approach Andrea J. Ayala*GS1, Claudio L.
Afonso2, Timothy L. Olivier2, Krishna R. Hamal2, Diego G. Diel3, Patti
J. Miller2 1University of Georgia, College of Veterinary Medicine, Athens,
GA, USA; 2USDA-ARS Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Athens,
GA, USA; 3USDA-ARS Southeast Poultry Laboratory, Athens, GA, USA
As emerging and persistent pathogens increase in prevalence, the agricultural-wildlife interface has recently been identified as a field requiring
further research. Acceleration of wildlife urbanization, exotic species introductions, and habitat encroachment are concomitantly disrupting species, spatial and temporal barriers once separating microbes from atypical
hosts. These disintegrating host-pathogen barriers afford rapidly-evolving
microbes crucial pathways to opportunistically invade and persist into
novel hosts. These “spillover events”, from which pathogens expand their
range of susceptible species, may irrupt into epidemics with regional or
population-level consequences; for example, West Nile virus in the U.S.
One pathogen exhibiting fluctuating epizootics at the agricultural-wildlife
intersection is Newcastle disease virus (NDV); an RNA virus representing at least 18 genotypes and numerous isolates of variable pathogenicity. A wide body of literature attests to a diverse host range inclusive of
free-ranging birds and poultry species, although primarily distinguished
as a poultry disease agent. Laboratory studies in conjunction with surveillance data identified hundreds of wild bird species with the potential
to seroconvert and/or shed NDV to conspecifics (same species) or even
among mixed-species flocks. Agricultural operations represent a unique
habitat for NDV and peridomestic birds, including the ubiquitous, exotic,
gregarious House Sparrow (HOSPs), which quickly adapted to anthropogenic activities providing accessible roosting and foraging sites. Serology
from poultry farms and experimental data on viral shedding determined
that HOSPs are not only susceptible to NDV, but may transmit the virus
among conspecifics, leading to conjucture that HOSPs may serve as NDV
‘reservoirs’ to poultry; albeit true wildlife reservoirs maintain/transmit
pathogens, only succumbing to disease if immuno-compromised. To address the potential bi-directionality of HOSP NDV transmittal to poultry,
we present a modified MSEIR (Passively Immune – Susceptible – Exposed – Infectious -Recovered) model incorporating behavior, environmental contamination, and waning immunity as covariates of disease risk.
Numerical parameters such as HOSP and poultry density, contact rates,
and vaccine spillover to HOSPs resulting in poultry transmission disruption will undergo simulations varying the constants for these parameters.
Ultimately, the primary objective is to assess the utility of NDV vaccination and biosecurity measures identifying optimal threshold interactions of
these interventions in the event of proximal NDV outbreaks.
Key Words: Newcastle disease virus, House Sparrows, Infectious
Disease Modelling, Poultry, Intervention
P285Gelling agent reduces chilling in commercial poultry during
spray application of biologics Jacob Lum*, Jose Luis Vicente-Salvador,
Matthew Faulkner, Ross Wolfenden Pacific Vet Group USA, Fayetteville,
AR, USA
Spray application of biologics in commercial poultry hatcheries is an efficient method of treating large numbers of commercial poultry due to its
low labor cost, uniform application, ease of monitoring, and lack of interfering environmental factors. One drawback of this method is that poultry
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
may become chilled when a relatively large volume of liquid is sprayed on
them. Even a temporary drop in body temperature can result in increased
mortality and reduced production later in a bird’s life. A gelling agent was
used in a novel probiotic designed for spraying on to commercial poultry
in the hatchery. It was seen that chicks sprayed with the liquid containing
the gelling agent were able to recover their body temperature more quickly
than chicks sprayed with either dyed water or another commonly use commercial gelling agent. After 10 min chicks sprayed with the probiotic gel
were within 1° F of their starting temperature, whereas chicks treated with
dyed water or the commercial gelling agent were 3° F and 9° cooler, respectively. The results suggest that the gelling agent used in the neonatal
probiotic can not only reduce chilling in commercial poultry during spray
application of biologics but may also aid in rapid ingestion of the probiotic, increasing its efficacy.
Key Words: spray application, gel, hatchery
P286 Can Bio-economic efficiency be affected by heat stress and early
thermal conditioning? Manoel Garcia Neto*, Mayara Maia Rodrigues,
Danilo Gualberto Sandre, Lidiane Fancelli Livero, Max José Araujo Faria
Júnior, Marcos Franke Pinto UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, FMVA,
Araçatuba, Brazil
The heat stress is a major factor limiting the production and lost profits of
broilers, especially in the finishing phase, in tropical areas. Therefore, an
experiment was conducted to evaluate, through non-linear formulation,
the possible interactions between early thermal conditioning and electrolyte balance of the diet on the performance of broiler chickens, as well as
studying the economic feasibility of measures to minimize the undesirable effects of chronic heat stress on the broiler through bio-economic energy conversion [BEC= (Total energy intake*Feed weighted cost per kg)/
(Weight gain*kg live chicken cost)]. A total of 640 male Cobb 500 chicks
were initially raised in a battery cages in a completely randomized design.
On d 8, the broilers were transferred to 32 floor pens with wood shavings
as litter while maintaining the same treatments with eight replicates each,
in a 2x2 factorial arrangement [with and without early thermal conditioning (ETC)] and diet with and without electrolyte balance (EB). The diet
with EB was calculated as mEq/kg for Na+K-Cl and the value the ratio
(K+Cl)/Na, with 300 mEq/kg and a ratio the 3:1, respectively. The birds
were fed: (1) a traditional diet (176 mEq/kg and a ratio the 3.36:1) without
ETC; (2) traditional diet with ETC; (3) diet with EB and without ETC and
(4) diet with EB and ETC. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum. Half
of birds were exposed to 36°C for 24h at the age of 5, whereas the remaining half was not exposed to thermal conditioning. At the age of 35 to 39 d,
all chicks were thermally challenged by a chronic heat stress of 32°C for
6h. Feed intake (FI) and body weight (BW) were determined at 42 d of age
and adjusted feed conversion ratio (FCR) was calculated by including BW
of mortality. No interaction effects were found for any of the parameters
evaluated. Thus, there is no synergism when applying simultaneously
ETC and diet with EB. There was expressive increase of mortality [51%
(2.44 to 3.69%) / P=0.1154] from diet without EB. However, significantly
adverse effect was observed in relation to the BEC (P=0.0006) of birds
due to an increase in the cost of the feed for the handling of sodium, chloride and potassium ions, which are also more moisture dilutes fecal material when applied EB (P=0.0134). In addition, the results also indicate that
the use of BEC was appropriate to reinforce the need for bio-economics
evaluations and not just performance of birds. Although the EB show to be
unfavorable due to increased moisture of feces and bio-economic terms, it
reduces mortality in broilers, when subjected to chronic stress.
Key Words: bio-economic energy conversion, dietary anion-cation
balance, early thermal conditioning
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P287 Comparison Study between Eubiotic and Antibiotic on Broiler
Performance under Induced Challenge Ahmed Al-Sagan*1, Alaeldein
Abudabos2 1King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Riyadh,
Saudi Arabia, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi
Arabia
The goal of this project was to test a variety of safer product which could
serve as an alternative to antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs) without
any side effects on human health.
For this purpose, a total of 240-one-day old chicks were allocated in
six experimental treatments for 42 days as follows: T1 = positive control: unmediated diet, unchallenged birds (+ve control); T2 = negative
control: unmediated diet, challenged birds (-ve control); T3 = mediated
diet with antibiotic, challenged birds (NEOX); T4 = mediated diet with
probiotic, challenged birds (GALLI); T5 = mediated diet with prebiotic,
challenged birds (TECHNO) and T6 = mediated diet with probiotic and
prebiotic (SYM). Birds in treatments 2 to 6 were challenged with oral dose
of Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens). The results for cumulative
performance (1-42 d) revealed no significant differences in feed intake
(FI) or body weight gain (BWG) as a result of treatment (P>0.05). Insignificant differences were found in feed conversion ratio (FCR) between
birds which had received NEOX (T3), GALI (T4), +ve control (T1) or
TECHNO (T5) (1.579, 1.585, 1.622 and 1.632 g: g, respectively). Conversely, birds which had received –ve control (T2) had the worst FCR as
compared to all other treatments. No differences in dressing percentage,
breast muscle, leg quarter, abdominal fat or livers were found. However,
jujenal and ileal villus height were influenced by treatment (P<0.001).
Longer jejunal villi were obtained from birds which had received SYM
(716.3 μm) as compared to all other treatments. The shortest jejunal villi
were obtained from birds which had received –ve control (514.8 μm). It
can be concluded that GALI or TECHNO can serve as an alternative to
the AGPs in poultry feed without sacrificing the performance. It’s more
effective to use these products separate and not combined.
Key Words: Antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs), Eubiotics,
Broiler’s Performance, S
​ afer alternatives., Clostridium perfringens,
P288Impact of high magnesium, calcium and sulphate content in
drinking water on laying hens performance Dushanthi Ariyamuni*GS,
Derek Anderson Department of Plant and Animal Sciences, Faculty of
Agriculture, Dalhousie University, Truro, NS, Canada
The impact of water quality on modern layer performance has not been
well studied. This study evaluated the effects of high magnesium, calcium
and sulphate content in drinking water on the laying hen production performance and egg quality, using 300 Lohmann LSL-Lite white hens fed
the same diet for 39 weeks in a completely randomized experiment. Five
water treatments including 625 ppm magnesium sulphate (MgSO4), 1250
ppm MgSO4, 625 ppm MgSO4 plus calcium sulphate (CaSO4), 1250 ppm
MgSO4 plus CaSO4 or well water (Mg-9 ppm, Ca-56 ppm and SO4-31
ppm) as the control were assigned to 33 weeks old hens and data were
collected every 28 days intervals. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of Proc mixed procedure in SAS and differences were considered significant at P≤0.05. Feed consumption (P=0.33), hen-day egg
production (P=0.12) or feed conversion ratio (P=0.08) were not affected
with high levels of minerals in water. Water consumption (WC) was significantly lower in 625 ppm, 1250 ppm MgSO4, and 625 ppm MgSO4
plus CaSO4 treatment groups (P=0.001). WC of the control birds were
186±1.65 mL/bird/day while other 3 groups consumed 178±1.67 mL. The
body weight of 1250 ppm MgSO4 treated hens were significantly lower
than the 1250 ppm MgSO4 plus CaSO4 group (1700 g vs 1793±20.49 g)
(P=0.04). Egg weight (P=0.45), specific gravity (SG) (P=0.23), shell %(
SP) (P=0.85), albumen % (AP) (P=0.47), albumen height (AH) (P=0.52),
shell thickness (ST) (P=0.71) and egg breaking strength (BS) (P=0.51)
were not affected by the water mineral content. All variables were significantly affected by the period (P=<0.0001). SG and SP declined gradually
84
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
with the age where BS and ST were declined towards the end of the trial.
Overall laying hens tolerated water magnesium, calcium and sulphate levels up to 238, 487 and 1316 ppm respectively without affecting production
performance or egg quality.
Key Words: drinking water, egg quality, laying hens, mineral,
performance
P289 EFFECTS OF PROBIOTIC ADMINISTRATION, VIA IN
OVO INOCULATION OR SPRAY PULVERIZATION, ON THE
ULTRASTRUCTURE OF CECUM OF BROILERS CHALLENGED
WITH SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS Bruna Boaro Martins*GS1,
Ariel Antônio Mendes1, Márcia Regina Fernandes Boaro Martins1, Édina
de Fátima Aguiar1, Bauer Oliveira e Alvarenga2, Ivan Lee3, Rinaldo José
Ortiz1 1São Paulo State University - UNESP, Botucatu, Brazil; 2BioCamp,
Campinas, Brazil; 3BioCamp, Botucatu, Brazil
As an alternative to traditional growth promoters, probiotics, products
based on live microorganisms or microbial products have been widely
sought in the poultry industry. The term competitive exclusion, is used to
describe the process by which beneficial bacteria exclude pathogens from
the intestine. Although probiotics composed of complex microbial communities may lack proper characterization as to genera or species, some
field studies suggest these formulations can be effective in improving
animal performance and reducing colonization with Salmonella or Campylobacter. Two experiments were conducted with the aim of evaluating
the cecum ultrastructure of broilers at 21 d-old and probiotic efficiency
against Salmonella Enteritidis. Seven-hundred-and-twenty and forty-five
1-day-old male Cobb® chicks were used for experiment I and II, respectively. Treatments were the same for both experiments. The experimental
design was a completely randomized arrangement of three treatments in
both experiments; there were 8 repetitions of 30 and 15 birds each for
the experiment I and II, respectively. The treatments were: T1 (control) –
chicks from eggs vaccinated on the 18th day of incubation against Marek
disease; T2 – chicks from eggs inoculated with probiotic on the 18th day
of incubation using Marek´s disease vaccine as diluent; T3 – chicks from
eggs vaccinated on 18th day of incubation against Marek disease and pulverized after selection via spray with probiotic solution. Birds were challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis via intraesophageal inoculation on 3rd
day of age. At 21 days old, thirty chicks were transported to the experimental slaughterhouse of FMVZ-UNESP/Botucatu after 6 hours of fasting. Chicks were individually weighted, insensibility by electronarcosis
and sacrificed by a cut in jugular vein and carotid artery. Later in each
experiment, cecal segments from 5 chicks per treatment were collected,
fixed in glutaraldehyde and processed according to the protocol of Center
of Electronic Microscopy of IBB - UNESP. Cecal samples were analyzed
through scanning electron microscopy and images were obtained. Data
were submitted to analysis of variance and means compared by Tukey
Test at 5% of significance using GLM procedure of SAS. There was no
difference on the cecal integrity of broilers challenged or non-challenged
with Salmonella Enteritidis at 21 d-old. However, the circular fold of the
crypts of the cecum mucosa were more regular for broilers receiving probiotic (T2 and T3) than broilers from control group (T1), which means
the preservation of enteric integrity. The probiotic addition in both ways
improved the cecal mucosa integrity.
Key Words: alternative additives, competitive exclusion, in ovo nutrition
P290 Performance of Commercial Broilers as Influenced by Varying
Level of Metabolizable Energy and Guar Meal Munawar Hussain*
University of Veterinary and animal Sciences Lahore, Okara, Pakistan
Experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of varying level of metabolizable energy and guar meal on performance of commercial broilers.
Seven hundred and fifty day old male broiler chicks were used in 2x3
factorial arrangement under completely randomized design. Birds were
weighed and randomly divided into six groups of five replicates (Twenty
five, birds/replicate) each. Six iso-nitrogenous broiler diets were formulated using three levels of guar meal (GM), i.e., 0, 3 and 6% (GM0,
GM3 and GM6, respectively) and two levels of metabolizable energy
i.e., 2750 and 2650 (regular and low energy, respectively). Birds were
fed experimental diets for forty two days. Energy x GM was non-significant (P>0.05) for all parameters throughout the experiment. Weight
gain by the birds during 1-21 and 1-42 day were different (P<0.05) and
showed quadratic responses towards GM level. Highest weight gain was
recorded in birds fed diets containing 3% GM which was 3 and 4% higher
than GM0 and GM6, respectively. Energy level didn’t influence weight
gain and feed intake. However, feed intake and feed conversion ratio increased linearly with increasing level of GM. While, FCR was affected
(P<0.05) by energy level during 1-21 and 1-42 days. Lower FCR was
observed in birds fed regular energy diets and higher in low energy diets.
Guar meal level affected (P<0.05) the energy and protein efficiency ratios
during all phases of experiment. They increased linearly with increasing
level of GM. Energy level did not affect (P<0.05) energy efficiency ratio
while, protein efficiency ratio was different (P<0.05) due to energy levels
during 1-21 days of age. On the basis of results, it is concluded that GM
and energy levels have no interaction and inclusion of GM at 3% of the
diet improves the weight gain while its higher levels can adversely affect
the bird performance. However, energy level can influence the nutrient
utilization efficiency only during 1-21 days of age.
Key Words: Guar Meal, Metabolizable Energy, Broiler
P291 CECAL ULTRASTRUCTURE OF BROILERS SUBMITTED
TO DIFFERENT WAYS OF PROBIOTIC APPLICATION Bruna
Boaro Martins*1, Ariel Antônio Mendes1, Márcia Regina Fernandes Boaro
Martins1, Édina de Fátima Aguiar1, Bauer Oliveira e Alvarenga2, Ivan
Lee2, Rinaldo José Ortiz1 1São Paulo State University - UNESP, Botucatu,
Brazil; 2BioCamp, Campinas, Brazil
During the evolution of modern chicken production, there have been several changes in the nutritional requirements associated with a healthy feed
product. In fact, in recent years, several food additives have been applied
as replacements for antibiotic growth promoters. The most recent of these
additives are prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics. The aims of this study
were to evaluate the enteric integrity and performance of broilers and the
probiotic efficiency at the final phase of broiler breeding. Seven-hundredand-twenty 1-day-old male Cobb® chicks were distributed in the following treatments. T1 (control) – chicks from eggs vaccinated on the 18th day
of incubation against Marek disease; T2 – chicks from eggs inoculated
with probiotic on the 18th day of incubation using Marek´s disease vaccine as diluent; T3 – chicks from eggs vaccinated on 18th day of incubation against Marek disease and pulverized after selection via spray with
probiotic solution. The experimental design was a completely randomized arrangement of three treatments; there were 8 repetitions of 30 birds
each. Performance, weight gain, feed intake, feed:gain ratio, viability and
productivity efficiency index of broilers at final phase were evaluated. At
42 days old, fifteen chicks were transported to the experimental slaughterhouse of FMVZ-UNESP/Botucatu after 6 hours of fasting. Chicks were
individually weighted, insensibility by electronarcosis and sacrificed by a
cut in jugular vein and carotid artery. Later cecal segments from 5 chicks
per treatment were collected, fixed in glutaraldehyde and processed according to the protocol of Center of Electronic Microscopy of IBB - UNESP. Cecal samples were analyzed through scanning electron microscopy
and images were obtained. Cecal mucosa integrity was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy in five birds per treatment. Data were submitted
to analysis of variance and means compared by Tukey Test at 5% of significance using GLM procedure of SAS. There was no difference among
treatments (p>0.05) for the parameters related to the broiler performance.
As regards to enteric integrity, broilers from T2 had better crypts integrity
compared to the other treatments at 42 days old; T1-broilers had crypts
with irregular borders and higher distance among them. Broilers from T3
treatment showed a fusion of the mucosal crypt limits and marked mis-
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
shapen crypts than broilers from T1. The probiotic addition in different
ways did not affect the performance parameters, but when the administration is via in ovo inoculation can improve the cecal mucosa integrity.
Key Words: alternative additives, competitive exclusion, in ovo nutrition
P292 Effect of synthetic amino acid on the ultrastructure of broilers
duodenal mucosa Márcia Regina Fernandes Boaro Martins*, Édina de
Fátima Aguiar, Ariel Antonio Mendes, Bruna Boaro Martins, Rinaldo Josè
Ortiz São Paulo State University, Botucatu, Brazil
Through its trophic action, glutamine improves the ville integrity of small
intestine by providing a substrate for the enterocytes and it is also considered a nitrogen-donor for the purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis among
others functions in the organism. Since glutamic acid is the precursor of
glutamine it is believed that this acid can have a common via in the enterocyte, besides its importance to the maintenance. With the objective
of evaluating the effect of synthetic amino acids on the measurements of
enterocyte microvilli and the integrity of the duodenal mucosa of broilers
at 7 and 42 days of age, 340 1-day-old male Cobb® chicks were housed in
the experimental shed for 42 days. The experiment followed a completely
randomized arrangement of treatments; there were 4 treatments and 5 repetitions of 17 birds each. Treatments: T1 – basal diet; T2 – basal diet with
1% of glutamine supplementation; T3 – basal diet with 1% of glutamic
acid supplementation; T4 – basal diet with 2% of glutamine and glutamic
acid supplemented in association. Duodenum segments were collected
from 8 birds per treatment and then fixed in a mixture of glutaraldehyde
and paraformaldehyde for trasmission electron microscopy evaluation.
Duodenum segments from five birds per treatment. were also fixed in glutaraldehyde for scanning electron microscopy evaluation. Samples were
processed according to the protocol of Center of Electronic Microscopy
and then, analyzed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy.
After capturing the images, the measurements of microvilli and the transversal axis between two enterocytes were obtained. Data were submitted
to analysis of variance and means compared by Tukey Test at 5% of significance. The height and width of the microvilli and the transversal axis
of the enterocytes of the duodenal mucosa were not influenced by treatments at 7 and 42 days of age. As regards to the duodenal mucosa integrity broilers receiving diets supplemented with 1% of glutamine and 2%
of glutamine and glutamic acid in association had better villus integrity
compared to broilers from the others treatment at the initial phase (7 days
old). However, birds from all treatments did not show differences in the
villus integrity after 42 days old. Synthetic amino acid supplementation to
broilers diets acts as trophic agent on the intestinal development only in
the initial phase of breeding.
Key Words: birds, enterocytes, integrity, villus
P293Commercially available mastic gum derived feed additive
effects on zone of inhibition testing and phosphorus sparing using D321 male chick performance/tibia ash Jared Chandler*UG, Aaron Kiess,
Kelley Wamsley Mississippi State University, MIssissippi State, MS, USA
The objective of this study was to determine any antimicrobial properties using zone of inhibition testing and phosphorus sparing effects of a
mastic gum derived feed additive (MGA). First, positive and negative
control (PC; NC) diets were formulated to be similar except for the available phosphorus content. These diets analyzed to contain 0.41 and 0.20%
non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) for the PC and NC, respectively. Two additional diets were created by mixing the PC and NC diets in PC:NC ratios of 75:25 and 25:75; creating a standard curve of four diets varying
in analyzed nPP: 0.41, 0.36, 0.27, and 0.20%. Four additional diets were
created by using four inclusion levels of MGA (0.04; 0.07; 0.11; 0.14%)
in the NC diet; creating a total of 8 treatments (Trt). Ross x Ross 708 male
chicks were obtained from a commercial hatchery and were reared under a
common setting from D0-3. On D3, chicks were individually weighed and
placed in one of 10 weight classes. One bird from each weight class was
then randomly assigned to raised wire cage (0.46 x 0.61m) and treatment
85
to create an experimental unit of 10 birds/cage. Ten replications of each Trt
were randomly assigned to cage and blocked by location. Feed and water
were provided via ad libitum. Variables measured included D21 BW, D321 FCR and BW gain, as well as D21 average tibia ash (percent) and zone
of inhibition. For BW and BW gain, incremental improvements were observed as nPP increased in the diet, with no benefit for MGA (P<0.0001).
However, preplanned contrasts demonstrated a significant decrease in
FCR when comparing Trt 4 (0.20% nPP, 0% MGA) vs. Trt 7 (0.20% nPP,
0.11% MGA) (P=0.028). Average tibia ash (percent) exhibited increased
ash as nPP increased in the diet (P<0.0001). Birds fed Trt 6 (0.20% nPP,
0.07% MGA) and 7 (0.20% nPP, 0.11% MGA) had similar ash to birds
fed Trt 3 (0.27% nPP, 0% MGA) (P<0.0001). Zone of inhibition results
indicated that MGA at a concentration of 0.14% did not inhibit the growth
of Salmonella, E. coli, Clostridium, or Campylobacter. These data warrant
further research determining the feeding value of MGA.
Key Words: Mastic gum, chick performance, phosphorus, tibia ash, zone
of inhibition
P294 Use of 25 -hydroxycholecalciferol (25-(OH )D3) in diets of
broilers chickens on growth performance, immunity and bone
calcification Gabriela Gómez*1, Jacqueline Vázquez Reyes1, Gabriela
Gómez Verduzco1, Carlos López Coello1, Arturo Cortés Cuevas2, Antonio
Díaz Cruz1, Ernesto Ávila González,2 1National Autonomous University
of Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico; 2National Autonomous University of
Mexico, CEIEPAv, Tláhuac, D.F. Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico
The aim of this study was to evaluate the dietary addition effects of of
vitamin D3 metabolite 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25-(OH) D3] to different doses on growth performance and immune response of broilers in
21 days old. Broilers from 1 day-old Ross were randomly assigned to 4
treatments with 6 replicates of 8 birds each. The treatments were 1) Diet
200,000 IU / Ton, vitamin D (NRC 1994). 2) Diet 200,000 IU / Ton, vitamin D (NRC 1994) + 69 mg 25-(OH) D3 / Ton. 3) Diet with 500,000 IU
/ Ton, vitamin D (Ross). 3) Diet with 500,000 IU / Ton, vitamin D (Ross).
The diets were based on sorghum + yellow corn and were administered
ad libitum. Weekly data weight, weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion
were calculated. Internal and external egg quality was evaluated during
different phases of the experiment. To verified the effect of treatments on
the humoral immune response, the birds were immunized at 10 days old
with a Newcastle disease vaccine with a simultaneous method. Samples
of blood were taken to determine antibody titers at 21 days old by hemagglutination inhibition. Also blood samples were analyzed to determine
hematologic parameters. Cellular immune response was assessed on 21
day old through flow cytometry test. Left tibias were separated, to determined the percent of ash (AOAC) and bone strength with Shell Packaging
equipment and finally serum25 (OH) D3 concentration were assessed by
radioimmunoassay (RIA) at 21 days old. The production parameters data
obtained in 21 days old were not affected by 25 times more the inclusion
of the requirement of vitamin D3 or the addition of 1,25 ( OH ) 2D3.
However, the results obtained for the immunological variables; showed (P
< 0.05) than for the variable HI positive effect was obtained by including
higher levels of vitamin D3 or 1,25 ( OH ) 2D3 . Also this supplementation increased blood lymphocyte levels significantly. For erythrocytes,
eosinophils and monocytes variables a significantly decreased in the number of these blood cells. Conversely the CD4 + lymphocytes levels were
increased by 1,25 ( OH ) 2D3 group. Otherwise CD8 + lymphocytes were
decreased . The IgA concentration increased (P < 0.05) with the addition
of vitamin D3 or 1,25 ( OH ) 2D3 in the diet. Also the tibia resistance and
the ash concentration were increased ( P < 0.05 ) as 1,25 (OH) 2D3 serum
concentration.
Conclusion: The addition of 1,25 (OH) 2D3 in broiler chicken diets can
be a useful tool to ameliorate growth performance, immunity and bone
calcification on broilers
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ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
Key Words: bone calcification, growth performance, 25
hydroxycholecalciferol, immunity, broilers,
d 7 and 21 versus published values for SBM. Also, the amino acid content
of SPC was well utilized by the young poult at d 7 and 21 d.
P295 Evaluation of nutritional traits of soy protein concentrate (SPC)
for broiler chicks Noorjan Zazai*GS, Sunday Adedokun, Todd J Applegate
Purdue university, Department of Animal Science, West Lafayette, IN, USA
Key Words: metabolizable energy, soybean meal, soybean protein
concentrate, standardized Ileal amino acid digestibility, turkey poult
The objective of this study was to determine the apparent metabolizable
energy (AME) of soy protein concentrate (SPC) and standardized ileal
amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of SPC and dehulled soybean meal
(SBM) (each ingredient was the only source of amino acid in the semipurified diets) in 7 and 21 d old broiler chicks. Two experiments (Exp 1
and 2) were conducted with 6 replicate cages of 20 (d 7) and 6 (d 21) birds/
cage. In Exp.1, experimental diets containing 0, 7, 14, and 21% of SPC replaced the energy contributing ingredients in the diet. Each diet contained
0.5% of chromic oxide as an indigestible marker. Excreta were collected
from d 5 - 7 and d 19 – 21, frozen, and dried. In Exp. 2, two semi-purified
diets were formulated to contain 20% CP. Experimental diets were fed for
5 d (d 2 - 7) and (d 16 - 21) and ileal digesta were collected on d 7 and
21. In Exp.1, increasing dietary SPC had no effect on AME or nitrogencorrected AME (AMEn) at 7 d of age. However, increasing SPC linearly
improved AME (P=0.002) and AMEn (P=0.019) at 21 d. The AME and
AMEn for SPC containing diets based on linear regression was 2,784 and
2,622 at 7 and 3,676 and 3,473 at 21 d, respectively. In Exp. 2, apparent
DM and N digestibility for SPC and SBM based diet increased (P=0.0001)
from d 7 to 21. There was a soy source by age interaction (P<0.05) for
SIAAD, where SBM digestibility increased only slightly from d 7 to 21,
while digestibility of SPC increased quite remarkably. In conclusion, SPC
had a much higher AME and AMEn than that published values for SBM,
and SBM has a slightly higher SIAAD (%of amino acid) compared to
SPC. Additionally, the efficiency of DM, N, and amino acid digestibility
was substantially less at 7 versus 21 d of age. Nevertheless, SPC has considerably higher energy and amino acid density than SBM.
Key Words: broiler chick, metabolizable energy, soybean meal, soybean
protein concentrate, standardized Ileal amino acid digestibility
P296 Evaluation of nutritional traits of soy protein concentrate (SPC)
for turkey poults Noorjan Zazai*, Sunday Adedokun, Todd J Applegate
Purdue university, Department of Animal Sciences, West Lafayette, IN,
USA
The objective of this study was to determine the apparent metabolizable
energy (AME), nitrogen corrected AME (AMEn), and standardized ileal
amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of soy protein concentrate (SPC) and
dehulled soybean meal (SBM). Soy protein concentrate and SBM was the
only source of CP in their respective semi-purified diets used for estimating SIAAD in 7 and 21 d –old turkey poults. Two experiments (Exp 1
and 2) were conducted with 6 replicates/diet of 20 and 6 birds/cage at d 7
and 21, respectively. The experimental diets for Exp.1 contained 0, 7, 14,
and 21% of SPC. The SPC replaced the energy contributing ingredients
in the diet. Each diet contained 0.5% of chromic oxide as an indigestible
marker. Excreta were collected from d 5 - 7 and 19 – 21, frozen, and dried.
For Exp. 2, two semi-purified diets were formulated to contain 20% CP
(coming from either SPC or SBM). Experimental diets were fed for 5 d (d
2 - 7 and 16 - 21) and ileal digesta were collected on d 7 and 21. In Exp.1,
increasing SPC linearly improved AME and AMEn on d 7 and 21 (P ≤
0.028). The AME and AMEn for SPC containing diets based on linear
regression was 3,385 and 3,152 at 7 and 3,666 and 3,409 on d 21, respectively. In Exp. 2, apparent DM digestibility for SPC-and SBM-based
diets were not significantly different between ages (P >0.10) and diets
(P=0.097). Apparent N digestibility was different between ages (P<0.05)
but not different between diets (P>0.10) with no age by diet interaction.
The SIAAD were not significantly different between ages and diets. Based
on these results, replacing energy contributing ingredients with graded
levels of SPC resulted in significant improvement in AME and AMEn on
P297 Dietary supplementation with complexed zinc and manganese
on breast meat quality and myopathies of broiler chickens Cristiane
Sanfelice*1, Sacit F. Bilgili2, Joseph B. Hess2, Ariel A. Mendes1 1Department
of Animal Production, São Paulo State University, Botucatu-SP, Brazil;
2
Department of Poultry Science, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, USA
Trace mineral nutrition is critical in the proper development and functionality of the muscular, vascular, as well as connective tissue. The aim of this
study was to determine if complexed Zn and Mn supplementation of diets
could impact meat quality and alleviate recently reported myopathies of
the breast muscle, such as white striping (WS), wooden breast (WB) and
necrosis (N) in broiler chickens. A total of 1,120 male Ross x Ross 708
broilers were reared to 49 d of age under four dietary treatments (14 replicates of 20 birds each): 1) Control diet (C, 80 ppm of ZnSO4 + 90 ppm of
MnSO4), 2) Complexed Zn replaced 40 ppm of Zn from ZnSO4; 3) Complexed Zn provided an additional 40 ppm of Zn in addition to the C diet,
4) 40 ppm added Zn and Mn from complexed sources replacing a portion
of their inorganic minerals in the C diet. Each treatment was provided in
a 3-stage feeding program. At 49 d of age, five birds per pen (280 total)
were processed, chilled overnight, and deboned. The right breast fillet was
visually scored for the incidence and severity of myopathies and drip loss.
The left breast fillet was used to determine cook loss. The General Linear
Model (GLM) procedures of SAS was used to analyze the data and means
were seperated by Tukeys Test when significant (P<0.05). The breast fillet
quality atributes of cook loss and color were not influenced by the dietary
treatments (P>0.05). However, drip loss (3.7%) was significantly lower in
fillets from birds fed diets supplemented with organic Zn replaced 40 ppm
of Zn from ZnSO4 as compared to the control diet (4.4%). The incidence
and severity of WS, WB, and N did not differ among the dietary treatments. The source of dietary zinc had a significant influence on drip loss,
but not on breast myopathies in this study.
Key Words: breast meat, broiler, organic mineral, myopathies
P298 Effect of feeding zinc, copper, and manganese from Mintrex®
on broiler performance, carcass traits, and skin traits Ricardo
Gonzalez-Esquerra*1, Gareth Salmond2, Christine Jansen van Rensburg3,
Raquel Araujo Bigetti1 1Novus do Brasil Com. e Imp. LTDA, São Paulo,
Brazil; 2Meadow Feeds KwaZulu-Natal, Natal, South Africa; 3Department
of Animal and Wildlife Sciences, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural
Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa
The effects of replacing industry levels of Cu, Mn and Zn from sulphates
with lower levels of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMTBA)2metal chelates of Cu, Mn and Zn (Mintrex®) was investigated. A total of
1920 Ross d-old male broilers were randomly distributed into 32 concrete
floor pens. Litter was sprayed with 6 liters of water in four consecutive
days per week (i.e. 8-11, 16-19, 24-27 and 32-35d of age) with the aim of
reproducing a commercial incidence of footpad lesions. All experimental
diets were isomethionine across the four treatments used, and comprised
diets containing:
1.Sulph 100:120:100 = ppm of Zn, Cu & Mn from Sulphates sources,
respectively
2.Sulph 32:8:32 = ppm of Zn, Cu & Mn from Sulphates sources, respectively
3.Mintrex® 32:8:32 = ppm of Zn, Cu & Mn from Mintrex® sources,
respectively
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
4.Mintrex® 32:30:32 = ppm of Zn, Cu & Mn from Mintrex® sources,
respectively.
In general, there were no differences across treatments on live performance measurements except for FCR which improved (P<0.01) when
feeding Mintrex® 32:30:32 vs. all other dietary treatments during the finisher period (28 to 35d). In general, the supplementation of (HMTBA)2metal chelates resulted in improved flock uniformity. Carcass traits were
mostly not affected by the different trace mineral treatments; whilst feeding Mintrex® 32:30:32 resulted in the greatest carcass yield (P<0.03) and
carcass weight (P<0.09). Footpad health was also evaluated and the score
system used, attributed a greater value to a more severe footpad lesion.
Birds fed Mintrex® 32:30:32 had the lowest presence of footpad lesions
at 21d of age; and the greatest percentage of feet under score 1 + 2 and
the lowest incidence of scores 3+4+5 (P<0.002) at 35d. A lower average carcass scratch length and higher ileum strength were both observed
from the supplementation of (HMTBA)2-metal chelates (P<0.05). The
skin strength measured as force at break was found to be similar between
treatments however, feeding Mintrex ® resulted in lower carcass scratch
incidence, lower incidence of breast lesions and greater jejunum strength
(P<0.05). These results suggest that (HMTBA)2-metal chelates can be fed
at lower dosages than sulphates with benefits such as optimized carcass
yield, reduced footpad lesion scores, and improved skin health and increased intestine strength and improved broiler flock uniformity. The latter
was observed when increasing Cu from Mintrex® from 8ppm to 30ppm.
Key Words: Mintrex, Copper, Broilers, Footpad, skin integrity
P299Rapid feed passage: why should we reinterpret the urease
activity range in soybean meal? Nelson Ruiz* Nelson Ruiz Nutrition,
LLC, Suwanee, GA, USA
The objective of this poster is to illustrate with data collected from the
field since 1998 that the old urease activity (UA) range of 0.05-0.20 pH
units to define the adequacy of soybean meal (SBM) processing needs to
be changed to the new range of 0.000-0.050 pH units due to the rapid feed
passage (RFP) syndrome. Rapid feed passage is defined for the purpose of
this presentation as the condition observed in commercial flocks of broiler
chickens in which droppings lose their normal shape, do not display the
characteristic uric acid cover, contain undigested feed visible to the naked
eye, have a yellowish-orange color, and frequently are watery, containing intestinal sloughing tissue. As a consequence of a rapid feed passage
outbreak the litter becomes wet and slippery. Birds lack uniformity, pigmentation is poor, and although mortality is not increased, and birds do not
look sick feed conversion ratio and body weights are considerably affected
with the subsequent economic losses. At least 6 RFP events were observed
between 1998 and 2004 in 4 different countries in South America. In all
cases SBM quality was associated with the outbreak. Testing of different
possible etiologies indicated that the trypsin inhibitors (TI) content of the
soybean meals involved were correlated with the RFP events. A detailed
account of those RFP events has been recently published (Feedstuffs,
Jan. 30, 2012 issue). The initial assessment of the correlation observed
between TI and RFP suggested that depending on the inclusion level of
SBM in the diet of broiler chickens 3.5-4.0 mg of TI per gram of SBM
were correlated with RFP [Poult. Sci. 84(Suppl 1): 70, 2005]. However,
since 2005 until today tens of RFP outbreaks have been observed in the
field involving SBM (and full-fat soybeans) and now it is known that the
optimum level of TI in SBM and full-fat soybeans is less than 2 mg/g.
The table above shows that the UA values of the different SBM lots involved in RFP outbreaks were clearly within the current UA test range of
adequacy with the exception of one of the events in Colombia whose UA
range was above 0.20 pH units (0.25-0.33). In other words, the 0.05-0.20
pH units range didn’t match the TI values for adequacy. It became evident
that the range no longer defines adequacy of SBM processing. Since the
UA test is an indirect method, the redefinition of the range has to be established measuring TI values. The proposed new range of adequacy
87
for the UA test is 0.000 to 0.050 pH units which corresponds with a
range of TI values of 1.44 to 2.33 mg/g of SBM. It is important to note
that the current UA test range is what is outdated not the UA test in itself.
Key Words: Trypsin inhibitors, Urease activity, Soybean meal quality,
Rapid feed passage, Broilers
P300 Sensorial evaluation of chicken meat fed with different inulin
concentrations María Juárez_Silva*, Rocío Salas_Montiel, Shalaiko
Carlin_Valderrabano INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE CIENCIAS MÉDICAS
Y NUTRICION SALVADOR ZUBIRAN, Mexico City, Mexico
More and better food from animal origin to human consumption is an
important issue. Leading the way in research is the development of nutritional alternatives that ensure the safety, organoleptic quality and no
decrement on poultry meat productivity. Inulin (prebiotic) inclusion on
the feed could be considered partially or totally on the necessity for antibiotic growth promoters, is a healthy option since it allows obtaining richer
chicken meat in proteins, it lowers in fat, but with a flavor and a typical color. A total of 100 (Ross) male broilers (Gallus gallus dometicus),
1 day old, were reared on floor with pine shaving bed, were randomly
grouped as the following percent inulin inclusion on the diet: T1: 0.1%,
T2: 0.2%, T3: 0.4%, T4: 0.0 %, T5: commercial diet. Groups were fed
under the same diet ingredients (corn-sorghum-soy) during 46 days and
then sacrificed. Meat samples were taken from the treatments: leg, thigh
and breast. Under the same procedure; deboned and cooked meats were
evaluated using hedonic scales: 4 score levels. To each non-trained judge a
questionnaire was given to assess the organoleptic attributes: appearance,
color, odor and taste. The data means were analysed (Kruskal-Wallis test,
P <0.05). In the appearance for breast T1 and T4 were the most accepted,
T3 and T4 were for leg. No difference for thigh. In regards to color: Breast
and leg T1 and T4 were different to T5 and T3. Smell without significance. On flavor: leg T1 and T4 had differences as well as for thigh T3 and
T4, was not significance for breast. The replacement of antibiotic growth
promoters in poultry diets by inulin inclusion is a good alternative and an
innovation on broilers, by the way, if we consider diminishing the antibiotics waste by feces or urine. Plus the beneficial effects that the inulin has
had on poultry reared in a healthy way, is added the acceptance of chicken
meat, so we can offer to the consumer healthier food, rich and nutritious.
Key Words: Broiler, prebiotic, hedonic, sensory, inulin
P301 Heart weight of broilers supplemented with vitamin D (25OHD3) Ibiara Correia de Lima Almeida Paz*1, Grace Alessandra Araujo
Baldo1, Edivaldo Antônio Garcia1, Andréa Brito Molino1, Rodrigo Garófalo
Garcia2, Javer Alves Vieira Filho1 1Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio
de Mesquita Filho”, Botucatu, Brazil; 2Universidade Federal da Grande
Dourados, Dourados, Brazil
The aim of this study was evaluated the influence of the supplemented
with vitamin D (25-OHD3) in relative heart weight of broilers. For this,
were adquired 2400 broilers sexed of two comercial lineages with one
day old, housed experimental aviary of poultry sector FMVZ/UNESP
– Botucatu, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks allocated in a factorial 2x2x2 (males and females, lineages Cobb® 500 e
Ross® 308, supplemented or not with vitamin D (25-OHD3). Diets were
formulated based on corn and soybean meal following the nutritional requirements of each phase of creation and the addition of supplemented
treatments received 69 mg/t 25-OHD3. The creation of 43, 182 birds were
taken to the abattoir and slaughtered by the same institution similar to
commercial methodology and their hearts were removed. The heart was
weighed and the ratio obtained from this organ (Heart Ration = (Organ
Weight (g) x 100) / Body Weight (g); Expressed in Percentage). There was
no effect (P>0.05) for both sexes and lineages. However, supplementation increased (P<0.05) the relative weight of the heart, indeed satisfactory
because the intense genetic improvement on the performance of broilers
caused changes in size, shape and function of the organs of birds, result-
88
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
ing in significant physiological changes and causing increased mortality
of the same. There was no interaction (P> 0.05) between the variables
evaluated. Therefore, it is concluded that supplementation with vitamin D
(25-OHD3) is feasible and very satisfactory for broilers.
Key Words: poultry, vitamin addition, organ
P302 Digestible energy and nutrient availability of diets containing
wheat distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) when fed to
laying hens I.M Whiting*1, V.R Pirgozliev1, S.P Rose1, A.M Mackenzie1,
A.M Amerah2 1Harper Adams University, Shropshire, United Kingdom;
2
Danisco Animal Nutrition, Wiltshire, United Kingdom
Wheat DDGS is the predominant by-product of the bioethanol industry
in the UK. The conversion of starch to ethanol results in the remaining
nutrients increasing by approximately threefold. As a result, DDGS is high
in important nutrients such as protein and fat, however, a primary limitation of feeding DDGS is nutrients within it can vary between production
sites. Little information is available on the variability of DDGS produced
by the same production site. Therefore, the aim of the present experiment
was to investigate the effect of four samples of wheat DDGS produced by
a single biorefinery (Ensus Ltd, UK) on dietary digestible energy (DE)
and nutrient digestibility when fed to laying hens. A total of one hundred
and forty four Hy-Line brown laying hens were randomly allocated to 48
layer cages (3 birds per cage). Eight experimental wheat-soya based diets
were formulated to contain either 15% or 30% of each DDGS sample, respectively. Titanium dioxide was used as an indigestible marker. The birds
received the experimental diets for eight days, from 22 weeks of age. Each
diet was replicated six times in a randomised block design. At the end of
the study ileal digesta were collected and pooled into one pot per cage.
Data were statistically analysed by ANOVA using a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement of treatments. The main effects were the different batches used
and the inclusion rate. Batch variability was observed for DE (P=0.010),
dry matter (P=0.025), fat (P<0.001) and nitrogen (P=0.040) digestibility.
Increasing DDGS inclusion rate from 15% to 30% improved dry matter
and fat digestibility (P<0.001) by 12 and 15%, respectively. Data from
this experiment shows batches of wheat DDGS produced by the same bioethanol plant can vary. Data also shows that DDGS inclusion rate effects
nutrient digestibility over an eight day feeding period.
Key Words: Energy, Wheat, DDGS, Layers
P303
Programmed Nutrition (PN) feeding strategy on the
performance and bone quality of brown pullets Marquisha Paul*GS,
Anthony Pescatore, Tuoying Ao, Lizza Macalintal, Austin Cantor, Mike
Ford, Karl Dawson Alltech-University of Kentucky Nutrition Research
Alliance, Lexington, KY, USA
Early life nutrition has an important role in the life-long health and performance of animals. The Programmed Nutrition (PN, Alltech, Inc.) feeding strategy is a novel, nutritional program designed to improve nutrient
absorption and metabolism through nutrient imprinting in early life and
allow for adaptation to dietary nutrient density changes in later life. The
PN strategy employs a 72 h nutrient imprinting or conditioning period
starting at 1 d of age before placement on a PN diet containing antioxidant, enzyme and organic trace mineral technologies, yet formulated to
have reduced ME and nutrient (avail. P, Ca, trace mineral, and Vitamin E)
content. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the PN
feeding strategy with and without the 72 h dietary conditioning period on
the growth performance and bone breaking strength of pullets. Utilizing
a completely randomized design, a total of 315, one-day old Hy-Line®
Brown commercial pullets were assigned to a corn-soybean meal control
diet, a PN diet without conditioning, or the PN feeding strategy (PN diet
with conditioning). Seven replicate cages (15 pullets/cage) were assigned
to each treatment. After 10 wks of treatment, pullets fed the PN diet without conditioning tended to have lower (P=0.06) BW than pullets on the
PN diet with conditioning or pullets fed the control diet. By 16 wks, BW
of chicks fed the PN diet without conditioning was significantly lower
(P=0.03) compared with the other treatment groups. There was no difference between the control diet and the PN diet with conditioning even
though there was reduced energy and nutrient content in the PN diet. No
effects of treatment on FI, Feed:Gain, or bone breaking strength were observed. Based on the results from this study, the PN feeding strategy (PN
diet with conditioning) enables brown pullets to adapt to a diet reduced in
energy and nutrients without compromising growth performance or bone
quality.
Key Words: Nutrient imprinting, Programmed Nutrition, pullet,
performance, bone quality
P304Effects of alternative feedstuffs and dietary enzyme on the
performance of alternative breeds of chickens Tatijana Fisher*GS1,
Anthony Pescatore1, Jacqueline Jacob1, Austin Cantor1, Michael Ford1,
Touying Ao2 1University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA; 2Alltech, Inc.,
Nicholasville, KY, USA
This study was conducted to evaluate the replacement of corn and soybean meal (CSM) with alternative feedstuffs and dietary enzyme on the
performance of straight-run commercial broilers (Cobb700) and two alternative breeds of chickens: males from a Black Sex-Link cross (BSL)
and straight-run Rhode Island Reds (RIR). Each breed was fed five diets
using a 3 x 5 factorial arrangement of treatments. The following isocaloric
(2000 kcal AMEn/kg) and isonitrogenous (20% CP) diets were used: 1)
CSM based diet; 2) ~30% of CSM in diet 1 replaced with field peas; 3)
Diet 2 + Allzyme SSF (Alltech Inc.); 4) ~50% of CSM in diet 1 replaced
with a mixture of field peas, buckwheat, and flax seed; 5) Diet 4 + Allzyme
SSF. For each treatment, three replicate groups of 12 chicks were housed
in floor pens at a density of 0.19 m2/bird. Diets and water were provided
on an ad libitum basis. ADG, ADFI and feed:gain ratio (F:G) were monitored from 1 d of age until processing (42 d for broilers and 96 d for BSL
and RIR). At processing, average BW was 1994 g for broilers, 1860 g
for BSL males, and 1577 g for RIR birds. Broilers had higher (P<0.01)
overall ADG (37.5 vs. 17.6 vs. 14.9 g/bird/d) and lower (P<0.01) F:G (2.3
vs. 4.2 vs. 4.4) compared with the BSL males and RIR birds respectively.
BSL males had higher (P<0.05) ADG (17.6 vs 14.9 g/bird/d) and ADFI
(75.8 vs. 65.4 g/bird/d) compared with RIR birds, while F:G was similar
for both breeds. Replacing 30% of the CSM with field peas did not alter performance of chicks. Replacing 50% of the CSM with field peas,
buckwheat and flax seed reduced (P<0.05) ADG (21.0 vs. 24.6 g/bird/d)
and increased (P<0.05) ADFI (87.1 vs. 71.6 g/bird/d) resulting in poorer
(P<0.05) F:G (4.6 vs. 3.3). These negative effects were alleviated by adding Allzyme SSF. No breed x diet interactions were observed. In summary,
broilers had better growth performance than BSL males and RIRs. For all
three breeds, field peas replaced 30% of the CSM diet without reducing
performance. However, a 50% replacement of CSM with field peas, buckwheat, and flax seed resulted in reduced performance that was mitigated
by adding Allzyme SSF.
Key Words: Broilers, Heritage breeds, Alternative feedstuffs
P305 Breast meat quality of broilers fed diets with different levels
of digestible lysine from 1 to 21 days of age Thays Quadros*1, Karina
Duarte1, Carla Domingues1, Rafael Marques1, Elaine Santos1, Sarah
Sgavioli1, Diana Castiblanco1, Juan Alva1, Henrique Nogueira1, Otto
Junqueira2 1Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, Jaboticabal,
Brazil; 2Federal University of Goias, Jatai, Brazil
It is known that genetics and nutrition leads to better breast yield and meat
quality in broilers. Meat yield can be increased by enhancing lysine and
methionine. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of digestible lysine on breast meat quality of broilers from 1
to 21 days of age. A total of 1,200 day-old male chickens (Cobb 500) were
distributed in a completely randomized design with five treatments (1.125,
1.185, 1.247, 1.309, and 1.375% digestible lysine) with eight replicates of
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
30 chickens each. For breast meat quality evaluation 120 chickens were
sacrificed by cervical dislocation at 21 d of age and evaluated for the following parameters: brightness, redness, yellowness with Minolta colorimeter, cooking loss, shear force and pH. Statistical analyzes were conducted
by using SAS and when significant effects of lysine levels were detected
regression analysis was done. There was a significant quadratic effect of
digestible lysine for decreasing the amount of color red (Y = - 90.639 +
146.25 X - 56.646 X2 , R2 = 0.83) with an estimated 1.290% as the best
digestible lysine level for this variable. The remaining variables were not
(P>0.05) affected by digestible lysine levels used. It was concluded that
lysine level influences color of breast meat, but not in other variables.
Key Words: Digestible amino acids, meat quality, broilers, lysine, breast
meat
P306 Two different oils in feeds for broiler; effects on fat digestion
sagar paudel* swine and avian research program, Nepal Agricultural
Research Council Khumaltar lalitpur Nepal., Kathmandu, Nepal
The objective of present study was to investigate the digestibility of fat in
the different segments of the small intestine in broiler chickens fed with
two different feed containing either 4% soybean oil or 2% rapeseed oil +
2% linseed oil. Titanium oxide marker was mixed at 5 gram per kg in to
both feed. T test was used for the analysis of significant of data. The feed
containing soybean oil resulted in higher fat digestibility percentage (in jejunum 38.8 vs. 36.3% and the first part of ileum 85.8 vs. 74.6%) compared
to the rapeseed plus linseed oil diet. Final body weight and liver weight
were significantly different in the diet groups (p≤0.05). Final body weight
in the soya oil group was 2137.6 gram and in the rapeseed plus linseed
oil group 2019.6 gram, and liver weight was 64 gram in the soybean oil
group and 58 gram in the rapeseed plus linseed oil group. There were
no significant differences in the gizzard weight in two diet groups. The
increased fat digestibility in jejunum and the first part of ileum might be
one factor contributing to increased final body weight. Results shows that
small modification of diet given better results
Key Words: digestibility, ileum, jejunum, fat, marker
P307 Multi-Mycotoxin Screening in Feedstuffs Verena Starkl*1, Paula
Kovalsky2, Karin Nährer1, Michael Sulyok3 1BIOMIN Holding GmbH,
Austria, Herzogenburg, Austria; 2BIOMIN Holding GmbH, Austria,
Vienna, Austria; 3University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences,
Vienna, Austria; Center for Analytical Chemistry, Department of
Agrobiotechnology (IFA-Tulln), Vienna, Austria
Mycotoxins are a worldwide concern as they affect the quality of all kinds
of commodities. As part of its mycotoxin risk management program, Biomin has been conducting a yearly Mycotoxin Survey since 2004 which
provides insight into the risks caused by the main mycotoxins found in
agricultural commodities such as corn, wheat, barley and silage, as well as
finished feed and others. The results presented include data from samples
sourced worldwide from January to September 2014.
Samples were analyzed using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS, Spectrum 380®) screening for more
than 380 mycotoxins and secondary metabolites. Limit of quantification
(LOQ) level for each mycotoxin was adopted to determine positive samples. The aim of this study was to obtain information on the occurrence
and contamination level of multiple mycotoxins in feed and feed raw materials samples from various regions. A total of 537 samples (raw materials
like corn and wheat, as well as finished feed) were collected worldwide
from the current harvest season and screened for the presence of multiple
mycotoxins and other secondary metabolites using the Spectrum 380®.
Figure 1 shows the number of samples found to be co-contaminated with
two to 24 different mycotoxins. On average, 30 different metabolites were
detected per sample. Emodin, beauvericin and enniatins were the most
common groups of mycotoxins found in over 80% of all samples. Sixty
percent of the analyzed samples tested positive for DON and 75% of sam-
89
ples for total B-trichothecenes. The masked mycotoxin DON-3-glucoside
was detected in 47% of all samples.
119 samples were also collected in South America’s main corn and soy exporting countries namely Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Chile and Bolivia.
Fumonisins are the main concern in all South American corn at average
concentrations of 2446 ppb fumonisin B1 and 994 ppb fumonisin B2. Total fumonisins were present in 72% of all corn samples at levels above 750
ppb, a concentration that poses a possible risk for poultry.
Zearalenone was detected in 57% of the corn samples at an average concentration of 200 ppb, a level that may pose a risk to breeders which are
most sensitive to the effects of this mycoestrogenic substance.
Soy samples showed lower levels of contamination compared to corn
samples. However, a total of 19 metabolites were found in more than 60%
of the soy samples. These metabolites include some emerging mycotoxins
such as beauvericin (present in all soy samples) and enniatins. Zearalenone was present in a high number of samples (79%).
These mycotoxin survey results clearly indicate that mycotoxins are a
topic of concern in animal feed.
Key Words: Mycotoxins, Corn, Soy, Latin America, Survey
P308New direct-fed microbial formulation improves broiler
performance Sally Moore*1, Jon Rubach1, Greg Mathis2, Brett Lumpkins2,
Mitchell Poss1 1Kemin Industries, Des Moines, IA, USA; 2Southern Poultry
Research, Athens, GA, USA
A 42 d pen trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of a newly developed direct-fed microbial (DFM) formulation on mortality and performance in broilers using a challenge model. Cobb 500 × 500 male broiler
chicks (2800) were assigned to 7 treatments (T1-7) with 8 replications per
treatment and 50 birds per pen. In this trial, all test birds were vaccinated
at label recommendations with COCCIVAC®-B, a live coccidiosis vaccine, prior to placement into pens on used litter. The DFM included two
organisms – Kemin Industries proprietary organism, Bacillus subtilis PB6
and Bacillus coagulans – formulated to deliver either 1.0E+05 cfu/g feed
or 1.0E+06 cfu/g feed. At d21 of the trial no differences due to treatment
were observed in either feed consumption or weight gain. T4 (E5 cfu/g
feed) with calcium carbonate, T5 (E5 cfu/g feed) with green tea extract,
and T7 (E6 cfu/g feed) with green tea extract were equal to both salinomycin (60 g/T) and BMD (50 g/T) in feed:gain (P < 0.05) and improved
over the untreated birds. In addition, T4 resulted in the lowest numerical
feed:gain of all the DFM treatments. By d42 of the trial, T4 and T5 were
equal in feed:gain to both salinomycin and BMD (P < 0.05) and different
from the untreated group. In addition, T4 was similar to both salinomycin
and BMD in weight gain. Percent mortality of T4 was the lowest of all
treatments except salinomycin (P > 0.05).
In summary, the data indicate that the combination of Bacillus subtilis PB6
and Bacillus coagulans can provide improvements in feed:gain in addition to reductions in lesion scores and mortality. In December 2013, the
FDA announced the reduction in use of certain antibiotics used in animal
agriculture in the United States for non-therapeutic purposes. Alternative
interventions, such as direct-fed microbials (DFM), must be available to
maintain both the quality and quantity of human food.
Key Words: direct-fed microbial, feed:gain, necrotic enteritis, Bacillus
subtilis PB6, Bacillus coagulans
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ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
P309Differences in gene expression of the sodium-phosphorus
co-transporter 2b in the ileum and liver of turkeys on three dietary
phosphorus regimens and the possibility of early life nutrient
conditioning Shelly Nolin*GS, Zachary Lowman, Christopher Ashwell
North Carolina State University Prestage Department of Poultry Science,
Raleigh, NC, USA
Phosphorus (P) is an important nutrient in poultry diets, but as poultry feed
is primarily composed of plants, much of the P contained in feed is in the
plant storage form phytic acid, otherwise known as phytate. In order for
phytate to be absorbed, enzymes known as phytases are required to break
it down into bioavailable P. Non-ruminants have no means of synthesizing
endogenous phytases, and as such phytates are not bio-available without
the addition of dietary phytase enzymes. To insure P requirements are met,
phytases as well as other forms of P are included in feeds. This approach,
while beneficial to the birds, result in high levels of P in poultry litter
which increases P run-off in aquatic environments, leading to levels in
the ecosystem that can be detrimental and costly to fix. Research has been
published supporting the possibility of early life dietary conditioning of
broiler chicks to better utilize and absorb P. If this conditioning could be
implemented on a production scale it would be extremely beneficial in
terms of money savings on feed additives and a reduction in environmental impact. It was the objective of this experiment to see if results similar to
those seen in chickens could be observed in turkeys. For this experiment,
a total of 384 tom poults were donated by a commercial hatchery (Butterball, Goldsboro, NC) and place into one of three dietary treatment groups
for the 42 day experiment; 42day control (CCC), 4days low-25days control-13days low (LCL), or 29 days control-13 days low (CCL). This triad
experiment allowed for the examination of the effects of low vs. control
P as well as any effects of early life conditioning when changing from a
control to low P diet at day 29. Birds were otherwise raised and cared for
identically to avoid confounding variables. To examine differences due to
diet at the transcriptional level, gene expression of the major P transporter
in the gut, the sodium phosphorus co-transporter 2b (NPT2b), was measured using real time RT PCR in both ileum and liver samples from 12
birds per treatment at days 4, 29, and 42. Gene expression values, reported
as threshold cycle (ct), were normalized to those of housekeeping gene
GAPD and subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using Statistical
Analysis System program JMP® 10 (2012; SAS, Cary, NC) at p<0.05. Significant differences in gene expression were observed between treatment
groups for both tissues at days 4 and 42, suggesting differences in P absorption, and possibly utilization. More research is needed to determine
the best nutritional conditions for optimal P utilization, but early life conditioning is one possible tool.
Key Words: Phosphorus, Gene expression, Nutritional conditioning,
Poult nutrition
P310Measurement of fecal corticosterone metabolites in broiler
reared in high stocking density and supplemented with vitamin C and
tryptophan Monica Megumi Aoyagi*1, José Roberto Sartori1, João Carlos
Pinheiro Ferreira1, Rupert Palme2, Paola Gentile Serpa1, Juliana Cristina
Ramos Rezende1, Maria Márcia Pereira Sartori1, Vitor Barbosa Fascina1,
Guilherme Aguiar Mateus Pasquali1, Eric Portilho Araujo1, Carla Martins
Queiroz1 1Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia - UNESP,
Botucatu, Brazil; 2University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Vienna,
Austria
Aim reducing costs and improving productivity per area, high stock density is commonly used in broiler chicken operations. However, high stock
density associated with high environmental temperatures lead to intense
stress and adversely affects animal welfare. Use of nutritional additives
such as vitamin C (VC) and tryptophan (Trp) as a form of reducing stress
caused by stocking density were tested in this study. A total of 2,184 oneday male Cobb-500 chickens were assigned in a completely randomized
design in a 2x5+1 factorial: (VC levels: 0 and 250mg/kg diet × Trp levels:
100, 125, 150, 175 and 200% of the nutritional requirements (Rostagno
et al., 2011) associated with high stock density, 17 birds/m2 + low density
control (LD): diet without VC+100% of Trp requirements and 12 birds/
m2) with 6 replicates. Source of vitamin C utilized was ascorbic acid conjugated with biopolymer (Biogenic). At 40 days of age, 36 fecal samples
per treatment were collected, totaling 396 samples for measurement of
fecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM) using a group-specific cortisone
enzyme immunoassay (EIA). As a result, there was no interaction between
VC and Trp levels on FCM (P>0,05). There was also no effect of VC and
Trp levels on FCM (P>0,05). The effect of stress caused by high stocking
density was detected in dosage of FCM, as observed by the difference for
FCM (P<0,05) between some treatments: 100%Trp+VC (29 ng FMC/g
of feces), 150%Trp (24 ng FMC/g of feces),175%Trp+VC (27 ng FMC/g
of feces) and 200%Trp (31 ng FMC/g of feces), in high density, in comparison with the LD (14 ng FCM/g of feces). Therefore, it was concluded
that high stocking density negatively affects broiler chickens welfare and
supplementation with VC and Trp have no effect on the stress indicator
assessed.
Acknowledgments: FAPESP (Grant 2013/07281-5 and grant 2013/045244, São Paulo Research Foundation - FAPESP) for the financial support and
Edith Klobetz Rassam for technical assistance with the EIA analysis.
Key Words: stress, ascorbic acid, amino acid, fecal sample, broiler
chickens
P311 Dietary microalgae improved bone strength of pullets Tuoying
Ao*, Lizza Macalintal, Marquisha Paul, Anthony Pescatore, Austin
Cantor, Mike Ford, Karl Dawson Alltech-University of Kentucky Nutrition
Research Alliance, Lexington, KY, USA
The incidence of leg weakness and broken bones is a serious problem in
poultry industry worldwide, causing huge economic losses each year. Lipids have been shown to play an important role in skeletal metabolism and
bone health. Recent research indicated that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids
(PUFA) inhibited bone resorption and promoted bone formation, and thus
increased marrow cellularity and bone strength. SP-1TM (Alltech, Inc.)
is derived from micro-algae and contains at least 16% of the n-3 PUFA
DHA. A trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of different levels of SP-1TM on the development and bone quality using eight replicate groups of 16 Hy-Line W-36 pullets. Dietary treatments consisted of feeding corn-soybean meal starter and grower control
diets alone or supplemented with 1.0 or 2.0% SP-1TM. Experimental diets
were fed from 1 d through 17 wk of age. Feed and water were provided
on an ad libitum basis. Bone samples were taken at 10 and 17 wk of age
for assaying bone breaking strength, bone ash and bone mineral content.
Dietary supplementation of SP-1 had no effect on BW. Feed intake of pullets fed 2% SP-1 was lower (P = 0.06) than that of those fed the control
diet. Percent bone ash and bone micromineral concentrations (Mn, Zn, Fe
& Cu) were not affected by dietary treatments. Tibia breaking strength
sampled at 10 wk was increased (P = 0.057) by dietary supplementation
of SP-1. At 17 wk, humerus breaking strength was increased by dietary
supplementation of 2% SP-1 (P = 0.078). The results from this study indicate that dietary SP-1 may improve bone strength of replacement pullets.
Key Words: Chicks, Microalgae, Bone strength, Performance
P312Exogenous xylanase improves dietary metabolisable energy
and nutrient digestibility when fed to chickens waseem Mirza*1, Vasil
PIRGOZLIEV1, PAUL ROSE1, Hadden Graham2, Mike Bedford2 1The
National Institute of Poultry Husbandry, Harper Adams University,
Shropshire, TF10 8NB, Shropshire, United Kingdom; 2AB Vista Feed
Ingredients, Woodstock Court, Blenheim Road, Marlborough Business
Park, Marlborough, Wiltshire, SN8 4AN, UK, Marlborough, United
Kingdom
The experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of a novel xylanase on growth performance, dietary N-corrected apparent metabolisable
energy (AMEn), nitrogen (NR) and dry matter (DMR) retention coeffi-
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
cients when fed to broiler chicks. Four wheat-based diets in total were
offered to male Ross 308 broiler chickens from 7 to 21 days of age. Two
well characterised wheat cultivar samples were used in diet formulations.
Two basal diets containing 65% of each wheat cultivar sample were manufactured to be nutritionally adequate for chicks at that age (13.16 MJ/kg
ME, 204 g/kg CP). The basal diets were then split on two batches and one
of them was supplemented with 16 000 BXU/kg of Trichoderma reeseiderived endo-xylanase (Econase XT 25; ABVista Feed Ingredients, Marlborough, UK). Water and feed were provided ad libitum throughout the
experiment. All diets were offered as mash. The treatments were allocated
in a randomized complete block design with each treatment having 5 replicate small floor pens with 2 birds per pen. Data was analysed by ANOVA
as a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. The main effects were the
two wheat cultivar samples and the enzyme supplementation (with and
without). In all instances, differences were reported as significant at P <
0.05. Feeding xylanase resulted in improved (P < 0.05) AMEn, DMR and
NR, compared to unsupplemented diets. Birds fed xylanase tended (P =
0.061) to consume more feed. No wheat by enzyme interactions were observed (P > 0.05). The experimental results confirm the hypothesis that
exogenous xylanase may be incorporated in wheat diets to improve their
feeding value for broilers.
Key Words: Xylanase, Broilers, ME, Nutrient Digestibility
P313 Defining the chick’s requirement for microminerals when
provided by organic forms Tuoying Ao*, Marquisha Paul, Lizza
Macalintal, Anthony Pescatore, Austin Cantor, Mike Ford, Karl Dawson
Alltech-University of Kentucky Nutrition Research Alliance, Lexington, KY,
USA
Levels of microminerals used in typical commercial diets are often in excess of the chick’s requirements. Recent research has shown that microminerals provided as organic sources are more bioavailable than their corresponding inorganic salts. An experiment was conducted to determine the
chick’s requirement for microminerals provided as proteinates (Bioplex®,
Alltech Inc.). Eight replicate cages of 16 replacement pullets (Hy-Line
W-36), 1d of age, were randomly assigned to each of four dietary treatments for 17 week. Treatments consisted of feeding corn-soybean mealbased starter and grower diets supplemented with Cu, Mn, Fe and Zn at
commercial levels (CL) in the form of inorganic salts or 20, 25 and 30% of
CL in the form of proteinates. Growth performance, bone strength, micromineral concentration in bone ash and liver were assayed. Chicks supplemented with 30% CL as proteinates had higher (P<0.01) BW at 10 wk
than those given other treatment diets. Humerus breaking strength of birds
supplemented with the CL as inorganic salts at 10 wk was higher (P≤0.05)
than that of birds fed 20 or 25% CL as proteinates. Tibia and liver Mn
concentrations were higher (P<0.01) for birds fed CL as inorganic salts,
while tibia Zn for birds fed 20% CL as proteinate was lower (P<0.01),
compared with respective values for other treatments. Liver Cu for birds
given 20% CL as proteinates was lower (P<0.01) than that for birds of all
other treatments, except for those fed 30% CL as proteinates. The results
indicate that supplementing pullets with microminerals as proteinates at
30% of the levels of inorganic salts typically found in commercial diets
can support performance and bone development.
Key Words: Chicks, Microminerals, Organic, Requirement, Proteinates
P314Corn or sorghum diets with or without supplementation
of canthaxanthin on reproductive parameters of roosters Juliana
Forgiarini*, Alexendre Rosa, Taiani Toledo, Camila Santos, Carlos Vivas,
Angélica Londero, Micheli Kuhn, Gracieli Schirmann, Vivian Lucca
Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Brazil
The experiment was carried at Poultry Laboratory of Federal University
of Santa Maria to evaluate the effects of supplementation of canthaxanthin
(CTX) on corn (CO) or sorghum (SO) diets on reproductive parameters of
roosters. 48 males Plymouth Rock White were used from 48 at 59 weeks
91
of age. The males were distributed in a 2X2 factorial design, with two
diets (CO or SO) and two levels of canthaxanthin (0 or 6 mg of CTX/kg of
diet) totalizing four treatments. It was used twelve replicates by treatment,
where each male was considered a replicate. CO or SO diets were formulated according to the nutritional requirements of males. The semen was
collected weekly by the method of abdominal massage, after were measured ejaculate volume (mL), motility (%) and sperm vigor. The sperm
vigor was rated by score from 0-5 (0 to immobility spermatic and 5 to
intense movement spermatic). Significant differences were not observed
between treatments in the studied parameters. It can be concluded that
sorghum may replace the corn without affecting seminal characteristics
of roosters. The supplementation of canthaxanthin not contributed to improvement of reproductive roosters.
Key Words: sorghum, corn, canthaxanthin, semen
P315Evaluation of Tartrate Resistant Acid Phosphatase & Bone
Alkaline Phosphatase as blood markers for breeder hen egg production
and quality Andrew Magnuson*GS, Nirun Boonsinchai, Justina Caldas,
Karen Vignale, Judy England, Craig Coon University of Arkansas,
Fayetteville, AR, USA
Broiler breeders are expected to produce a large quantity of high quality eggs can lead to metabolic problems due to the high nutrient cost of
creating them so frequently. Two enzymes involved with bone turnover,
tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and bone alkaline phosphatase
(BAP) are shown to be correlated with the activity of osteoclasts and osteoblasts respectively. A study was conducted in order to investigate the
correlation between egg shell quality, bone quality of the breeders, and the
concentration of TRAP and BAP in the blood for use as potential markers for breeder selection. Three hundred individually caged breeders were
hens fed a standard breeder diet and their eggs were collected twice a
week beginning at 30 weeks of age for four months. Eggs were measured
with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (GE ®Lunar Prodigy) to
determine the mineral concentration of the egg shells. Based upon the egg
shell mineral concentration the hens were divided into two groups: poor
egg shell quality and good egg shell quality. The hens with the best and
poorest egg shell quality were then scanned with the DXA to measure
their bone quality. Blood was collected from twenty hens with the best egg
shell quality and the poorest egg quality within thirty minutes of laying an
egg in order to minimize the effect of egg laying on TRAP and BAP concentrations. The TRAP activity was significantly lower in the hens with
good eggshell quality (1854 ±102 U) compared to poor eggshell quality
(4794±384 U) (P > 0.022) while BAP was not significantly correlated with
eggshell quality (P > 0.6934). Hens with good bone quality had significantly lower TRAP activity (1130±145 U) than poor bone hens (6320±634
U) (P > 0.013). BAP concentration was higher in good bone quality hens,
but the difference was not significant (P>0.13). These findings suggest that
birds with poor egg shell quality aren’t limited in the calcium necessary to
synthesis the egg shell due to the abundance of TRAP mobilizing minerals
from their bones, but due to being inefficient in using those minerals in the
egg shell gland. Hens which are better adapted at creating egg shell have
less of a demand to mobilize their bones and can focus on building bone
more through BAP than breaking it down with TRAP.
Key Words: Breeder, Biomarker, Tartate Resistant Acid Phosphatase,
Bone Alkaline Phosphatase
P316 Dried Chlorella vulgaris algae as a feed ingredient for broiler
chickens. Wallace Berry*1, Joseph Hess1, Robert Wallace2 1Auburn
University Department of Poultry Science, Auburn University, AL, USA;
2
Georgia Tech Research Institute, Atlanta, GA, USA
A trial was done using young broilers to test whether including dried algae
(54% protein) in the feed at modest levels can produce growth and efficiency benchmarks similar to feeds using conventional feed ingredients
only. Dried Chlorella vulgaris algae was formulated into a mash broiler
92
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
starter feed at 2.5, 5.0 and 10% of the diet and fed to broilers to determine
broiler growth and efficiency. Broilers were reared from 1-21 days of age
in Petersime batteries with eight replicates per treatment and five mixedsex broiler chicks per battery pen. Feed and water were offered ad libitum
and lighting was continuous. No significant differences were recorded for
body weight. Feed consumption was highest in the 2.5% algae group and
similar in the other three treatments (1129 gm/bird vs 1079 gm/bird). Feed
conversion efficiency was elevated in broilers fed algae, with birds fed 2.5
and 5% showing significantly higher levels (1.33 vs 1.38). Algae inclusion
significantly darkened the color of the feed, so we included a subjective
measure of broiler leg coloration at 21 days using a Hoescht Skin color
chart that measures broiler skin coloration from 1 (lightest) to 7 (darkest).
Skin color increased with increasing algae level in the diet (2.00 vs 3.50).
In conclusion, Chlorella vulgaris, used as a protein source in broiler diets,
will support normal growth, albeit with somewhat lower efficiency of feed
utilization. In addition, Chorella increased skin pigmentation above that
found in birds fed a diet without Chlorella.
Key Words: algae, Chlorella vulgaris, broiler, live performance
P317 Evaluation of the inclusion of a thermostable xylanase in broiler
corn-soy diets Kyle Brown*UG1, Jake Pieniazek1, Kyle Smith1, Rocky
Latham1, Cody Flores1, Frances Yan2, Jonny Lyon3, Jason Lee1 1Texas
A&M University, College Station, TX, USA; 2Novus International, St.
Charles, MO, USA; 3Verenium Corporation, San Diego, CA, USA
An experiment was conducted to evaluate increasing concentrations of
a thermostable xylanase (CIBENZA® XYLAVERSE®, Novus International, Inc.) on growth performance, energy digestibility, digestive organ
weights, digesta dry matter (dm), and processing parameters of male broilers fed energy reduced diets. The experimental design included six dietary
treatments: a corn-soy positive control (PC) diet, a negative control diet
(-100 kcal/kg AME reduction) (NC), and the NC diet + xylanase at multiple levels (250, 500, 1,000, and 2,000 U/kg). Each treatment included
seven replicate pens with 35 male broilers per pen. The dietary program
included a starter (d 1-18), grower (d 18-35), and finisher (d 35-42). All
diets were pelleted at 85°C. Broilers were weighed and feed consumption determined at the end of each dietary phase. On d 18, one broiler per
replicate pen was randomly selected and necropsied, with digestive organs
removed for weights and determination of digesta dm. On d 42, jejunum
and ileum contents were collected from three broilers and pooled on a pen
basis for the intestinal viscosity and ileal digestible energy (IDE) determination. Inclusion of xylanase at 2000 U/kg decreased (p<0.05) pancreas
weights as compared to the PC and NC fed broilers. The inclusion of xylanase at 1000 U/kg reduced (p<0.05) ceca dm as compared to the PC and
NC. Reduction of dietary AME increased (p<0.05) d 1-42 FCR in the NC
fed broilers as compared to the PC fed broilers. Inclusion of xylanase at
250 U/kg reduced (p<0.05) cumulative FCR from d 1-42 as compared
to the NC. A significant difference in IDE was observed between the PC
and NC fed broilers. Inclusion of xylanase at 250, 500, and 2000 U/kg
increased IDE to levels similar to the PC diet. On d 43, five birds per replicate pen were processed to determine effects of diet on processing weights
and yields. No differences were observed in processing weights between
the control diets and the inclusion of xylanase to the energy reduced diet;
however, an increase (p<0.05) in breast meat yield was observed with the
inclusion of 250 U/kg as compared to the NC diet. These data confirm the
benefits of xylanase at low inclusion levels in a corn-soy diet on broiler
performance, energy digestibility, and processing yield.
Key Words: broiler, xylanase, performance, energy digestibility,
processing
P318Effect of sodium heptanoate, protected sodium heptanoate
and protected sodium butyrate on broiler performance, intestinal
microflora and villi development Juan Jose Mallo*1, Monica Puyalto2
1
Norel S.A., Madrid, Spain; 2Norel S.A., Barcelona, Spain
A total of 160 one-day-old Cobb chicks were allocated at random to 4 experimental treatments (T1: control; T2: control + 98% sodium heptanoate
(1 kg/t (0-21 d) and 0.5 Kg/t (22-42 d)); T3: control + 65% sodium heptanoate protected with hydrogenated palm stearine (1 kg/t (0-21 d) and 0.5
Kg/t (22-42 d)); T4: control + 70% sodium butyrate protected with PFAD
sodium salt (1 kg/t (0-21 d) and 0.5 Kg/t (22-42 d))); with 4 replicates/
treatment. Mash feeds and water were offered ad libitum to the animals.
Body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake
(ADFI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were recorded for the 0-21d, 2142d and 0-42d fattening periods. At the end of each period (21 and 42
days) one chicken per replicate was euthanized and samples from the ileum and caecum were taken to analyze gut microflora by plating; besides,
samples of duodenum, jejunum and ileum epitheliums were obtained in
order to determine their development status by microscopy measurement.
Data were analysed as a completely randomised design by GLM of SAS
using average weight at day 1 as covariate. There were no statistical differences in the zootechnical parameters; however, broilers receiving T4 had
higher final body weight (FBW) than T1, T2 and T3 (2,811.9 vs 2,747.9,
2,580.3 and 2,811.9; p>0.12) and better ADG (66.0 vs 64.5, 60.4 and 63.7;
p>0.12). Also ADFI was numerically higher (117.6 vs 116.0, 111.1 and
112.1; p>0.12). Animals receiving heptanoate protected (T3) had better
numerical performance (FCR) (p>0.12) than T1, T2 and T4 (1.76 vs. 1.81,
1.84 and 1.79). The use of these treatments didn’t produce any effect on
microflora (Lactobacillus, Coliforms and E. Coli). There were differences
in the intestinal development: Butyrate protected (T4) and protected sodium heptanoate (T3) increased ratio Villus/Crypt in jejunum at 42 d vs. T1
and T2 7.11a and 5.74ab vs. 4.43b and 4.59b; p<0.05). It can be concluded
that butyrate protected with PFAD sodium salt is able to improve GIT villi
development.
Key Words: Butyrate, Heptanoate, Villi, Microorganism, Performance
P319 Tissue distribution of HSPA9/mortalin in avian species and
its regulation by gender, genotype and heat stress Phuong Nguyen*1,
Elisabeth Greene1, Geraldine Huff2, Alissa Piekarski1, Annie Donoghue2,
Nicholas Anthony1, Walter Bottje1, Sami Dridi1 1University of Arkansas,
Fayetteville, AR, USA; 2USDA, Fayetteville, AR, USA
Heat shock 70kDa protein 9 (HSPA9)/mortalin is a multipotent chaperone regulating cellular processes ranging from stress response to energy
homeostasis. HSPA9 has been extensively studied in mammals however
there is a paucity of information in avian species. The present study aimed
to characterize HSPA9 gene in chicken (Gallus gallus) and Japanese quail
(Coturnix japonica) and to determine its regulation by gender, genotype
and heat stress.
Using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), we found that HSPA9 is ubiquitously expressed in both chicken and quail. The chicken HSPA9 sequence
had 66.6, 69.7, 70, 71.6 and 78% homology with mouse, human, rat, porcine, and bovine HSPA9 sequences, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis
indicates that chicken HSPA9 is more closely related to human and rodent
orthologs. Quantitative analysis using real-time PCR showed that in female Jungle Fowl the highest amount of HSPA9 was found in the ovary
followed by the intestine, brain, heart, liver, leg muscle and gizzard. In
male, however, the expression of HSPA9 was higher in the adipose tissue,
followed by lung, kidney, intestine, heart, and leg muscle. Interestingly,
when we profile the two genders together, female chicken exhibited high
expression of HSPA9 in the brain and the ovary compared to male. However, male chickens displayed higher HSPA9 expression in the adipose
tissue, the lung and the kidney compared to female.
HSP9A expression was also determined in a quail lines divergently selected for susceptibility or resistance to restraint stress. The long term selec-
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
tion of these lines produced stress resistant quail (R) that have 66% lower
circulating corticosterone levels compared to the stress sensitive (S) quail.
The S line displayed higher HSPA9 mRNA levels in heart, gizzard and testis compared to R line. R line, however, exhibited higher HSPA9 expression in liver, lung and kidney compared to S line. Importantly, acute heat
stress differently regulates hepatic HSPA9 gene expression with down
regulation in R line and up regulation in S line.
In conclusion, this is the first report, to our knowledge, that describes the
tissue distribution and the regulation of HSPA9 in avian species. Interestingly, the HSPA9 expression seems to be line dependent in S and R quail
indicating that HSPA9 may be a key differential molecular signature in
stress response in these lines.
Key Words: chicken, gene expression, HSPA9, heat stress, quail
P320Field comparison of addition of protected sodium butyrate
or monobutyrin in broiler diets Juan Jose Mallo*1, Enrico Gentillini2,
Monica Puyalto3 1Norel S.A., Madrid, Spain; 2OrSell S.L., Modena, Italy;
3
Norel S.A., Barcelona, Spain
The benefits of the use of butyrate protected on animal health have been
described in the literature, but not all protections are equally effective.
In previous studies (Ortiz, 2013) broilers receiving sodium butyrate protected with sodium salt of PFAD (GUSTOR N’RGY) had higher body
weight than sodium butyrate coated with vegetable fat and control without
additive and the economic analysis showed an improvement in the income
over feed cost vs control (+10.3%) and sodium butyrate coated (+3.6%).
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two sources of butyric
acid (sodium butyrate protected with sodium salt of PFAD (N’RGY) and
ester of butyric acid with glycerol; monobutyrin (MB)) on the production
of broiler chickens in a field trial. The trial compared the performance of
19,603 broiler chickens (Ross 708), fed with the standard diet with 1.5 Kg
of ester of butyric acid per ton of feed and 20,000 animals with a standard
diet and 1 kg of sodium butyrate protected with PFAD per ton of feed. The
males in group with N’RGY had higher body weight (+8.8%) at 28 day
than animals with MB (1.708 Kg vs 1.570 Kg). Also, the females in group
with sodium butyrate protected with sodium salt of PFAD had higher
weight than MB group (1,355 Kg vs 1,350 Kg). The feed conversion ratio
of the MB was 60 g worst than N’RGY (1.9 vs 1.84). There were differences in mortality as well, the MB group had a mortality of 0.59% at 7 day
and 1.18 % at 14 day, and the N’RGY group had less mortality (0.54% at
7 day and 0.86% at 14 day). It is concluded that the use of sodium butyrate
protected with PFAD on broiler feeds allows higher growth, better FCR
and less mortality than the use of MB in broiler flocks.
Key Words: Butyrate, Monobutyrin, Field, Zootechnical, Mortality
P321 Neuroendocrine regulation of autophagy by leptin in chicken
Peter Ishola*GS1, Eizabeth Greene1, Walter Bottje1, Cline Mark2, Elizabeth
Gilbert2, Alissa Piekarski1 1University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA;
2
Virginia polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksbury, VA, USA
Autophagy or cellular self-digestion, a lysosomal degradation pathway
that is conserved from yeast to human, plays a key role in recycling cellular constituents, including damaged organelles. It also plays a pivotal role
in the adaptation of cells to a plethora of distinct stressors including starvation. Autophagy has been extensively studied in mammals and yeast, but
little is known in avian species. Thus, the major objective of the present
study was to determine the effects of leptin on autophagy-related genes in
chicken hypothalamus.
Leptin is an adipocytokine that is mostly produced by white adipose cells
in mammals and functions as a hormonal sensing mechanism for fat deposition and body weight homeostasis. Mammalian adipocytes produce and
secrete more leptin in the bloodstream as fat storage increases, signaling
the brain via leptin receptor-mediated signal transduction to inhibit feed
intake and increase energy expenditure.
93
In the present study, recombinant chicken leptin (625 pmol, 10 µL) diluted in artificial cerebrospinal fluid was injected intracerebroventricularly
(ICV) in one week-old Hubbard x Cobb 500 chicks (n=10) and feed intake
was recorded at 30, 60 and 180 min after injection.. At the end of the experiment, hypothalamii were collected, snap frozen in liquid nitrogen and
kept at -80°C until total RNA were extracted. Leptin significantly reduced
feed intake after 30 min compared to the control group. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that central leptin administration up-regulated
the hypothalamic leptin receptor gene expression (p<0.05) without affecting the POMC and NPY gene expression. Interestingly, central leptin
administration increased the expression of AMPKα1, the energy sensor,
indicating that leptin may alter energy status in the hypothalamus. Furthermore, leptin appeared to exert some control of autophagy in hypothalamic
tissue including upregulation of beclin 1, Atg4b, Ambra1 and UVRAC
and down-regulation of Atg3, Atg4a, Atg7, and Atg10. Our results indicate that leptin plays a key role in the central regulation of autophagy and
supports a novel link between metabolic control and autophagy that warrant further investigations.
Key Words: Leptin, autophagy, hypothalamus, gene expression, ICV
injection
P322 Effect of enzyme complex in pellet or mash feeds with different
nutritional levels on the metabolizable energy and nitrogen retention
of starter broiler chickens Bruno Carvalho*GS, Melissa Hannas, Luiz
Fernando Albino, Leandro Silva, Matheus Santana, Helvio Ferreira Júnior
Federal University of Viçosa, Viçosa, Brazil
The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of an enzyme
complex in pellet or mash feeds, with two nutritional levels, on the metabolizable energy values and nitrogen retention of broiler chickens. A total of 384 Cobb male broilers from 13 to 21 days of age were randomly
assigned in 8 treatments (factorial 2³) with 10 replicates of 6 birds each.
The treatments consisted of two diets with nutritional levels (NL) differing
in metabolizable energy, digestible amino acids and available phosphorus
(recommended for the age or reduced according to the nutritional matrix
of the enzyme complex), in two feeds form (FF), with or without the enzyme complex (EC). From 1 to 13 days, the birds received the same diet,
according to the genetic strain guidelines. On day 13, birds were weighed
and transferred to metal cages for 4 days of adaptation to the experimental
treatments. Feed intake was determined by weighing the feed before and
at the end of the experiment. Excreta were collected twice a day during the
experimental period, weighed, homogenized and sampled for determination of dry matter, energy and nitrogen. Data were subjected to ANOVA
and compared by F test (P<0,01).
As observed in table 1, pelleting increased nitrogen intake, as well as nitrogen retention and the retention coefficient thereof, without changing the
energy of the diet. Diet with reduced NL has less metabolizable energy.
The EC was effective in increasing the metabolizable energy of diets in
50 kcal/kg (1,5%), as also reduced nitrogen excretion to the environment.
Table 1: Apparent Metabolizable Energy (AMEn), Nitrogen Intake (NI),
Nitrogen Excreted (NE), Nitrogen Retention (NR) in broilers fed mash or
pelleted feeds, in two different nutrient levels with or without an enzyme
complex.
NI
NE
NR
(g/bird/
day)
(g/bird/
day)
(g/bird/
day)
3337
3347
2.02b
2.39a
0.62
0.64
1.40b
1.75a
3376a
2.23
0.62
1.60
AMEn
(kcal/kg)
Feed Form (FF)
Mashed
Pelleted
Nutritional Level (NL)
Recommended
94
Reduced
Enzyme Complex (EC)
+
FF
NL
EC
FF x NL
FF x EC
NL x EC
FF x NL x EC
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
3308b
2.17
3317b
2.21
3367a
2.20
P Value
0.458
>0.001
>0.001
0.203
0.002
0.839
0.760
0.353
0.934
0.004
0.021
0.946
0.063
0.777
0.65
1.54
0.65a
0.61b
1.56
1.59
0.173
0.117
0.030
0.023
>0.001
0.341
0.028
>0.001
0.482
0.517
0.055
0.175
0.778
0.571
a, b - Means followed by different letters in the same column are
different from each other by F test (P<0,01).
Key Words: Enzyme Complex, Feed Form, Nutritional Level,
Metabolizable Energy, Nitrogen Retention
P323Effects of commercially available Bacillus subtilis or B.
licheniformis-based probiotics used alone or in combination with
an antibiotic on 0-64 d broiler performance and processing Priscila
Zorzetto*UG1, Wei Zhai1, David Harrington2, Aaron Kiess1, Kelley Wamsley1
1
Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, USA; 2Chr. Hansen
A/S, Hoersholm, Denmark
Probiotic (PRO) incorporation into commercial poultry diets has increased; however, there is still a need to determine the appropriate application of PRO. The objective of the current study was to utilize a 2
x 4 factorial arrangement with variations in Narrow Spectrum Antibiotic
(AB) Inclusion (Yes or No) and Bacillus spp. PRO Inclusion (No PRO,
PRO1-Bacillus subtilis, PRO2-Bacillus lichenformis or PRO3-Bacillus
subtilis and B. lichenformis) and determine their effects on 0-64 d broiler
live performance as well as d 49 and 64 processing characteristics. Basal
diets were formulated to contain corn and soybean meal as well as a meat
and bone meal blend and varied only in AB and PRO inclusion. On d
of hatch, 2112 male Ross x Ross 708 chicks were obtained from a commercial hatchery and randomly assigned to 96 pens containing used litter
(22 chicks per pen, 0.91 x 1.2 m each, 12 blocks total). On d 0, 14, 28,
49, and 64, ileal and cecal contents and tissues were sampled from the
same four blocks; samples were preserved for future analysis. Live performance data demonstrated some benefit of PRO2 inclusion into diets
in terms of improved d 28 BW as compared to birds fed diets containing No PRO or PRO3 (P=0.056); however, benefit was lost at 48 and 63
d (P>0.05). Inclusion of AB decreased d 0-14 FCR by approximately 2
points (P=0.008) and tended to improve d 0-63 FCR by 4 points (P=0.06).
For d 49 processing data, benefit was established for AB for the following
yield variables (relative to d 48 BW): carcass, tender, drum, thigh, and
wing (P=0.02, 0.001, 0.003, and 0.047, respectively). In addition, birds fed
diets containing PRO3 had increased wing yield (relative to d 49 carcass
weight) but were similar to birds fed diets containing PRO1 (P=0.008).
Also, relative to d 64 carcass weight, birds fed diets containing PRO1 and
PRO3 revealed the highest tender yield (P=0.024). In conclusion, these
data demonstrated some benefit for AB and PRO; however, efficacy of
their combined use is unclear. Ileal and cecal sampling may provide an
explanation for improved early PRO2 performance and provide useful
information to industry on PRO and AB effects on pathogenic bacterial
populations at processing (49 and 64 d).
Key Words: probiotics, antibiotics, Bacillus, broiler performance,
processing
P324 Antioxidants properties of bixin added to broiler diets and the
effects on thighs meat José Roberto Sartori*1, Fabiana Golin Luiggi1,
Ricardo Fasanaro1, Marcia Maria Pereira Sartori2, Priscila Cavalca de
Araújo1, Monica Megumi Aoyagi1, Ivan Mailinch Gonçalves Pereira
de Souza1, Vanessa Cristina Pelícia1, Aline Mondini Calil Racanicci3
1
Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia - UNESP, Botucatu,
Brazil; 2Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas - UNESP, Botucatu, Brazil;
3
Universidade de Brasília - UnB, Brasília, Brazil
The bixin is a carotenoid present in annatto seeds, an effective biological suppressor of reactive molecules of singlet oxygen and an inhibitor of
lipid peroxidation. Moreover, it is known that the dose can influence the
pro-oxidant activity of carotenoids. Thus, an experiment was conducted
with 1,000 male Ross 308 broilers with one day of age. The experimental
design was completely randomized as a factorial 3 x 2 + 2 with eight treatments and five replicates (25 birds each). Treatments consisted of: T1 =
basal diet (BD) + fresh soybean oil; T2 = BD + oxidized soybean oil; T3
= BD + 0.05% of bixin and fresh soybean oil; T4 = BD + 0.05% of bixin
and oxidized soybean oil; T5 = BD + 0.10% of bixin and fresh soybean
oil; T6 = BD + 0.10% of bixin and oxidized soybean oil; T7 = BD + fresh
soybean oil + BHT (control 1) and T8 = BD + oxidized soybean oil +
BHT (control 2). Birds were slaughtered at 42 d-old. Boneless samples
of breast were collected and kept frozen at -20 °C. The compounds of
rancidity were quantified by thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (µmol
de MDA/kg of meat). Data were analyzed by ANOVA, complemented by
Tukey test (α = 5%) using Minitab 16®. To compare the means of the controls with the factorial the Dunnet test (α = 5%) was used. For the cooked
thigh meat the oxidation was controlled as the inclusion of bixin was increased (T1 = 11.05; T2 = 12.03; T3 = 10.17; T4 = 9.93; T5 = 7.33; T6 =
6.03). However, the BHT was more effective to control the oxidation (T7
= 4.41; T8 = 3.60). After 7 days of cold storage (4 °C), between the factorial means, the lowest level of oxidation was observed from T1 (59.24),
T2 (62.08) and T6 (51.84). Despite do not have statistically significant
difference when compared to T1 (59.24), T2 (62.08) and T4 (63.70), T3
(67.16) and T5 (66.82) had the highest levels of oxidation, which can be
explained by the pro-oxidant action of the carotenoid, since the use of
fresh oil was not sufficiently challenging, resulting in excessive available
bixin. After 10 days of cold storage, the T6 (101.83) showed the highest
level of oxidation, probably due to the depletion of the antioxidant capacity of bixin against the high concentration of free radicals. The best control
of oxidation after 10 days of storage was observed on T7 (81.24), that did
not differ from T4 (88.01). We can conclude that bixin can be used as an
antioxidant, but optimal levels of inclusion need to be established, so that
the carotenoid will not act as a pro-oxidant agent.
Acknowledgments: To FAPESP - São Paulo Research Foundation for the
research funding granted (Process 2012/05415-1).
Key Words: antioxidant, bixin, carotenoid, prooxidant, broiler
P325 Digestible valine for pullets W-36 from 13 to 17 weeks Fernando
Perazzo Costa*1, Cristina Lima1, Eduardo Nogueira2, Danilo Cavalcante1,
Edgar Ishikawa2, Gabriel Pessoa2, Matheus Lima3 1Federal University of
Paraiba, Areia, Brazil; 2Ajinomoto do Brasil, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Federal
University of the South of Bahia, Teixeira de Freitas, Brazil
Digestible valine is an important amino acid in egg production, especially
in best balancing of feed, which provides a better protein synthesis, which
in previous egg production stage, means a better bird formed in the tissues
and greater efficiency production of larger eggs for longer time. Although
it is known that importance, little is evaluating the recommendations in
the stages of growth of these birds. It’s aimed to evaluate the ideal requirement digestible valine (dVal) to pullets’ W-36 from 13 to 15 and from 16
to 17 weeks of age. A total of 432 birds were distributed in six treatments
with six replicates of 12 birds each. In stage 13-15 weeks, the levels of
dVal used were 0.490, 0.550, 0.610, 0.670, 0.730 and 0.790%, and in the
stage 16-17 weeks 0.540, 0.600, 0.660, 0.720, 0.780 and 0.840% of dVal.
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
Levels of 0.610 and 0.660% of dVal are recommended by the management guide of the strain. The other nutrient levels were attended in accordance with the recommendations of the Brazilian Tables for Poultry and
Swine (2011). In the phase 13-15 weeks it was found significant effect of
dVal levels on WG (P=0.002), (WG = -950.34dVal2 + 1291.7dVal – 216.9;
R2=0.87), and FCR (P=0.04), (FCR= 22.983dVal2 – 30.622dVal + 14.452;
R2=0.83), being determined optimal levels of 0.679 and 0.666% digestible valine to such variables, respectively. In the phase 16-17 weeks, there
was no significant (P>0.05) effect of dVal levels for any variables, indicating that the lower level studied here was sufficient for the nutritional
requirements of the birds in this phase,. Thus, it is recommended a diet
with 0.679% and 0.540% of digestible valine for pullets W-36 from 13 to
15 and from 16 to 17 weeks of age, respectively.
Key Words: Ideal protein, Poultry farm, Poultry replacement
P326 The use of bixin as a natural antioxidant added to broiler diets
and the effects on breast meat oxidation. Fabiana Golin Luiggi*GS1,
Ricardo Fasanaro1, Vitor Barbosa Fascina1, Marcia Maria Pereira Sartori2,
Aline Mondini Calil Racanicci3, Everton Moreno Muro1, Natani Cruz
Alexandre1, Ana Cristina Stradiotti1, José Roberto Sartori1 1Faculdade de
Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia - UNESP, Botucatu, Brazil; 2Faculdade
de Ciências Agronômicas - UNESP, Botucatu, Brazil; 3Universidade de
Brasília - UnB, Brasília, Brazil
Considering the growing need of natural alternatives that can be used as
antioxidants, studies have been done evaluating plant extracts and other
compounds. The bixin is a carotenoid presents in annatto seeds, cited as
one of the most effective biological suppressors of reactive molecules of
singlet oxygen and an effective inhibitor of lipid peroxidation. It is important to know that carotenoids can act as a pro-oxidant agent at high
concentrations. Thus, an experiment was conducted with 1,000 male
Ross 308 broilers with one day of age. The experimental design was
completely randomized as a factorial 3 x 2 + 2 with eight treatments and
five replicates (25 birds each). Treatments consisted of: T1 = basal diet
(BD) + fresh soybean oil; T2 = BD + oxidized soybean oil; T3 = BD
+ 0.05% of bixin and fresh soybean oil; T4 = BD + 0.05% of bixin and
oxidized soybean oil; T5 = BD + 0.10% of bixin and fresh soybean oil;
T6 = BD + 0.10% of bixin and oxidized soybean oil; T7 = BD + fresh
soybean oil + BHT (control 1) and T8 = BD + oxidized soybean oil +
BHT (control 2). Birds were slaughtered at 42 d-old. Boneless samples
of breast were collected and kept frozen at -20°C. The compounds of rancidity were quantified by thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (µmol
de MDA/kg of meat). Data were analyzed by ANOVA, complemented
by Tukey test (α = 5%) using Minitab 16®. To compare the means of the
controls with the factorial the Dunnet test (α = 5%) was used. For uncooked breast meat no difference was observed between T3 (0.62) and
T7 (0.57), indicating the antioxidant potential of bixin. However, when
the oil used was oxidized, bixin was not able to control with similar efficiency (T4 = 0.77; T8 = 0,61). Higher results shown by T5 (0.76) and
T6 (0.77) can be due a pro-oxidant activity caused by the excess of bixin.
After the heat treatment of meat, it has been found that to the diets with
fresh oil, T5 (2.79) had controlled the oxidation as well as T7 (2.82), again
showing that bixin can be an antioxidant, but we still have to define the
best level to be used, paying attention in the level of oxidant challenge
and in the possible action as pro-oxidant agent from the carotenoid. After
10 days of cold storage (4°C) T3 and T4 with 0.05% of bixin had shown
the best results (44.91 and 41.08, respectively), followed by T7 (50.51)
and T8 (56.22), with BHT. The results showed that the bixin can be considered an alternative to the synthetic antioxidant, but more studies may
provide better addition levels, sources and storage period are still needed.
Acnowledgments: To FAPESP - São Paulo Research Foundation for the
scholarship granted (Process 2011/23731-5).
Key Words: annatto seeds, antioxidant, breast meat, carotenoid, TBARS
95
P327 Arg:Lys ratio for pullets Hy-Line W36 from 4 to 6 weeks of age
Fernando Perazzo Costa*1, Cristina Lima1, Danilo Cavalcante1, Eduardo
Nogueira2, Edgar Ishikawa2, Gabriel Pessoa2, Matheus Lima3 1Federal
University of Paraiba, Areia, Brazil; 2Ajinomoto do Brasil, São Paulo,
Brazil; 3Federal University of the South of Baha, Teixeira de Freitas, Brazil
The arginine:lysine ratio is well known and studied, but some data need to
be evaluated. The aim was to evaluate the relationship between these two
amino acids in diets for replacement pullets from 4 to 6 weeks old. A total
of 432 Hy-Line W36 pullets light with 4 weeks of age and body weight
of 199g/bird, were used in the evaluation in a 3x2 factorial (three levels
of lysine: 1.050, 1.150 and 1.250%, and two levels of arginine: 1,120 and
1,220 %), a total of 6 treatments with 6 replicates of 12 birds each. The
birds were housed in boxes measuring 1.40 x 1.80 m, with a feeder and
drinker. The diets were formulated according to the recommendation in
the management guide of the strain except for the levels of lysine and
arginine being isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets. After analysis, there
was significant effect on final body weight and weight gain to lysine levels
(p=0.0379 and p=0.0409), arginine (p=0.0084 and p = 0.0088), and the
interaction of these two amino acids (p=0.0129 and p=0.0142). The feed
intake (p=0.0230) and feed conversion ratio (p=0.0015) were influenced
only by the levels of lysine. Considering the interactions it was found that
with the level of 1.120% of arginine, the best results were obtained with
1.250% of lysine or Arg:Lys ratio of 89%. However, the heavier and larger
weight gains than the pullets were given a diet with 1.150% and 1.220%
lysine and arginine, respectively. Thus, it was concluded that pullets HyLine light from 4 to 6 weeks of age performs better when fed with 1.150%
of lysine and 1.220% of arginine, equivalent to a ratio of 106%.
Key Words: Arginine, Lysine, Performance, Pullets
P328 Effect of diet nutrient density on the morphometric structure
of breast muscle fiber of broiler on various degrees of white striping
Liris Kindlein*UG1, Tamara Zinn Ferreira2, Renata Sesterhenn2, Sérgio L.
Vieira2, David Drienmeier2, Vladimir P. do Nascimento2, Roberto D. Sainz3
1
Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil; 2UFRGS,
Porto Alegre, Brazil; 3University of California, Davis, CA, USA
The present study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary nutrient density on the fiber density of broiler Pectoralis major muscle in 10 to
50 d–old with white striping (WS). A total of 572 1-d-old Cobb X Cobb
500 male broiler chicks were assigned to two treatments: high (HD, 3,000
to 3,300 kcal ME/kg and 24.19 to 19.56% CP) and low nutrient density
diet sequences (LD, 2,900 to 3,050 kcal ME/kg and 20.44 to 18.37% CP).
Birds (n = 572) were fed pre-starter (1 to 7 d), starter (8 to 21 d), grower
(22 to 35 d), and finisher (36 to 50 d). All husbandry and experimental procedures were approved by the Ethics Committee (protocol 21613). At 10
d intervals from 1 to 50 d, birds were weighed; six of them were randomly
selected from each pen and commercially processed. After deboning, the
left-side breast from each bird was visually scored to determine the degree
of white striping (normal= no striping (N), moderate= <1-mm-thick striations, (M) or severe= >1 (S)). Ten slides for each muscle section (three)
were histological processed. Analysis of variance was performed using the
methodology Generalized Estimating Equations considering the effects of
treatments, degree of injury and time of WS slaughter on the number of
fibers/field (nF). Body weight was placed as a covariate in the analyses
because of previous studies to demonstrate their influence on the occurrence of WS. Analyses were performed in SPSS 18.0. The diet nutrient
density influenced the nF of the N breast at 30-d, when the animals fed
LD showed lower valous (16.9±1.30 and 10.35±1.03, p<0.01). However
the M breasts in the animals fed with LD had a higher nF at 20 e 50-d-old
when compared to the HD (9.34±0.97 and 29.45±1.46; 15.76±1.03 and
7.64±1.03; p<0.001). On the other hand, at 30 and 40-d-old, was not different between treats. For S breasts, animals fed HD treat showed larger
nF then LD treat at the 20-d (12.52±1.30 and 30.33±2.91; p <0.001) and
30-d (16.38±1.07 and 20.7±2.06; p=0.07), indicating a loss of integrity of
muscle tissue in a higher degree of WS. The results showed that the breast
96
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
muscle has down to number of fibers as well as increased degree of WS.
These results showed the evaluation of changes in muscle fibers is crucial
for elucidation of the pathological basis for WS. With increasing growth
rates and the size of the muscles, the incidence of muscle disorders in
broilers has been gaining increasing importance, as is the case with white
striping myopathy is characterized by the appearance of various degrees
of whitish streaks on the surface Pectoralis major muscle of broilers which
follow the direction of the muscle fiber and increase with the age of the
animal.
Key Words: Broilers, miopathy, muscle injury, muscle fiber, poultry
P329 Use of L-Thr and L-Val in diet for male broilers Fernando
Perazzo Costa*1, Gabriel Pessoa2, Eduardo Nogueira2, Edgar Ishikawa2,
Matheus Lima3 1Federal University of Paraiba, Areia, Brazil; 2Ajinomoto
do Brasil, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Federal University of the South of Bahia,
Teixeira de Frreitas, Brazil
This study was developed to evaluate the supplementation of L-Threonine, the variation in the Thr:Lys ratio and the use of L-Valine in diets for
male broilers from 1 to 42 days old. A total of 1,200 male broilers COBB
with a day old were distributed in four treatments with 15 replicates and
20 birds per experimental unit in a completely randomized design. The
experimental diets were formulated according to the recommendations in
the Brazilian Tables for Poultry and Swine 2011, except for Thr:Lys ratio.
The diet of treatment 1 was formulated considering the recommendation
but without the use of L-Thr and Thr:Lys ratio of 60%; Treatment 2 was
formulated as treatment 1, but with L-Thr supplementation and Thr:Lys
ratio increased to 65%; the Treatment 3 was formulated such as treatment
2, but with Thr:Lys ratio increased to 70%; the treatment 4 was formulated
such as Treatment 3, but also supplementing L-Valine. Considering the
total evaluated period (1-42days) the FI, WG and FCR were influenced by
treatments. The broilers of treatment 1 (without L-Thr supplementation)
had the lowest FI (P=0.007), the lowest WG (P<0.0001) and the worse
FCR (P=0.0085) compared to the other treatments. The increase in the
Thr:Lys ratio from 65 to 70 resulted in significant improvement in FI and
numerical in WG and FCR. The use of L-Val in diets with Thr: Lys ratio
of 70 provided a significant improvement in WG (3277.39b vs 3315.43ª),
although in FCR this improvement was only numerical (1.65ab vs 1.63b)..
The inclusion of L-Thr in treatment 2 adjusted the Thr:Lys ratio to 65%
and corrected the deficiency of the treatment 1, resulting in significantly
WG improvement. Increasing the Thr:Lys ratio to 70% numerically improved the WG compared to the treatment 2. The best result was with the
use of L-Val, in treatment 4, that shows a significant higher WG compared
to other treatments. Thus, it can be concluded that current diets for broilers should not be formulated without the use of L-Thr; the Thr:Lys ratio
of 70% resulted in better performance than the ratio in 65%; andthe use
of L-Val increased the performance of broilers fed diets with L-Thr with
Thr:Lys ratio of 70%.
Key Words: Ideal protein, Poultry efficiency, Poultry farm
P330Effects of dietary addition of Actigen® on the performance
and immune cell concentration of broiler chicks challenged with
lipopolysaccharide Lizza Macalintal*1, Tuoying Ao1, Anthony Pescatore2,
Austin Cantor2, Michael Ford2, Karl Dawson1 1Alltech, Inc., Nicholasville,
KY, USA; 2University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA
Mannan-oligosaccharides derived from Saccharomyses cerevisiae cell
wall have been found to promote growth and enhance immune responses
in food animals. Actigen®, a yeast cell wall derived product, was added at
400g/T to evaluate its effect on growth performance and immune response
in broiler chicks challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Lipopolysaccharide is a component of the outer cell wall membrane of gram-negative
bacteria that has been widely used to immunologically stress chickens.
Two hundred and eighty chicks, 1 d of age, were utilized with 10 replicate cages of 7 chicks per cage. A 2x2 factorial treatment arrangement
was used with diets and LPS challenge as factors. At D7, 2 groups of
chicks fed with or without Actigen® were injected intravenously via the
jugular vein with 1 mg/ml LPS. At 1 and 14d post LPS injection, serum
samples were collected for nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of
activated B cells (NFκB) and interleukin 1β (IL1β) quantification using
ELISA. Both BW and FI were reduced (P<0.001) due to LPS challenge at
d21. At 1d post challenge, there was a significant Actigen® x LPS interaction (P<0.05) for the serum NFκB concentration. Chicks challenged with
LPS and not fed Actigen® had a significantly depressed level of serum
NFκB. The challenged chicks that were fed the diet with Actigen® did not
have this depression in serum NFκB. Actigen® fed birds had higher (P =
0.07) serum IL1β concentration than non-Actigen® fed birds. By14d post
LPS challenge, the immune cell production did not differ among treatment
groups (P>0.05). Feeding dietary Actigen® altered the pattern of immune
cell responses of broilers challenged with LPS. These results indicate that
dietary Actigen® can enhance the cell-mediated immune response by
modulating the production of inflammatory cytokines during the early
phases of inflammation.
Key Words: mannan-oligosaccharide, lipopolysaccharide, immunity,
cytokine, broiler
P331 Relationship of bone homeostasis markers and genetic line to
eggshell quality Justina Caldas*1, Phiphob Sodsee2, Karen Vignale1, Nirun
Boonsinchai1, Monticha Putsakum3, Ethan Holt1, Judith England1, Craig
Coon1 1University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA; 2C.P. Bangkok,
Bangkok, Thailand; 3School of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Nonthaburi,
AR, Thailand
Maintaining the proper balance of calcium and phosphorus in the body is
important for bone integrity, eggshell formation and eggshell quality, as
well as other metabolic processes in breeder hens. A trial was conducted
to determine physiological factors involved in producing optimum egg
shell quality in broiler breeders. 960 – 21 week old pullets from 4 pure
lines (A, B, C, and D) were housed at the U of A research farm. Light
stimulation and feeding program followed primary breeder recommendations. At 4 week intervals, all eggs laid for 3 days consecutive days
were weighed and scanned with GE® Lunar Prodigy dual energy x-ray
absorptiometry (DEXA) for shell weight and shell calcium. Specific gravity was determined by flotation in salt solutions of known specific gravity.
24 hens selected from each line were also scanned repeatedly, at 4 week
intervals, using DEXA for whole body mineral content (WBMC). At 50
weeks of age, 50 hens from each line were randomly selected and blood
samples taken for analysis of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), bone
specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP), tartrate resistant alkaline phosphatase (TRAP), plasma calcium and plasma inorganic phosphorus. Blood
samples from 14 day old progeny of these hens was also analyzed. Genetic line significantly affects all shell quality parameters: WBMC, TRAP,
plasma Ca and iP (p<.0001), but did not affect BSAP or FGF23. TRAP is
negatively correlated to shell weight and shell calcium (p<.0001), specific
gravity (p=0.0012) and WBMC (p=0.0422). BSAP is positively correlated to shell weight (p=0.0298) and shell calcium (p=0.0332). FGF23
was not correlated to eggshell quality, but was negatively correlated to
plasma iP (p<.0001). Higher plasma levels of calcium did not necessarily
translate to improved shell quality, however there was a significant negative correlation of iP with shell weight, shell calcium and egg weight. The
percent of hens laying eggs with a specific gravity of less than 1.08 was
66, 14, 5, and 50 % for lines A, B, C, and D, respectively. The distribution
of the number of hens laying eggs with good or bad shell quality differs
between lines, as does the distribution of the number of hens or 14 day old
progeny with different levels of TRAP. It may be possible to develop an
index using BSAP and TRAP values that would indicate a hens potential
to lay eggs with good shell quality. TRAP may be the best candidate for
an indicator of shell quality as there were differences in the distribution of
TRAP values between lines that correspond to differences in distribution
of shell quality
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
Key Words: EGGSHELL QUALITY, BREEDER, GENETIC LINE,
TRAP, BSAP
P332 The effect of fats containing different levels of free fatty acids on
broiler growth performance from 1 to 19 days Miguel Barrios*GS1, Anna
Kenyon1, Jason Payne1, Jonathan Morris1, Amy Batal2, Robert Beckstead1
1
The University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA; 2Huvepharma, Inc, Atlanta,
GA, USA
A complete broiler ration contains between 1 and 3% fat. Inclusion of fat
in the diet plays two major roles: increasing caloric density and improving palatability. The objective of this study was to understand the growth
performance of broilers fed diets containing fats with differing free fatty
acid (FFA) percentages. For this experiment, day old Cobb 500 by-product male chicks were placed in Custom Design batteries and raised for 4
days on a standard corn-soy diet. There were 6 chicks per pen, 10 pens
per treatment, and 6 treatments for a total of 360 chicks. Treatment diets
consisted of a: corn-soybean meal low energy starter diet (no fat; 1), 1
+ fat 1 (2.8% FFA), 1 + fat 3 (9.6% FFA), 1 + fat 6 (15% FFA), 1 +
fat 8 (32.5% FFA), and 1 + fat 9 (crude corn oil, 2.5% FFA). On day 5,
experimental diets were fed for the remainder of the experiments when
broilers were 19 days of age. Broilers and feed were weighed on days 5,
11, and 19. At the end of the trial the pectoralis major, pectoralis minor,
and fat pad were collected. A completely randomized design was used for
statistical analysis and significance was established at p<0.05. Individual
body weight gain from 5 to 19 days was the lowest in the diet without fat.
Body weights increased as the percentage of FFA increased with a drop
upon reaching 15% and 32.5% FFA. A similar pattern was found in feed
intake from 5 to 19 days. The worst feed efficiency was found in chicks
fed the diet without fat with the best in the corn oil treatment. Lastly, there
were no significant differences in the pectoralis major and minor weights.
Chicks fed the diet without fat had the lowest fat deposition while those
fed 2.8% FFA had the heaviest fat pads. Fat pad weights decreased as FFA
inclusion increased past 2.8%. These results demonstrate that 9.6% FFA is
an optimal amount of FFA in broiler diets. Higher FFA inclusion rates may
result in undesirable effects such as decreased body weight gain. Further
research will determine the effects of these treatment diets with different
exogenous enzymes on broiler growth performance.
Key Words: Free fatty acids, nutrition, broiler, growth performance, oil
P333Lysine Mediation of Neuroendocrine Food Regulation in the
Guinea Fowl Samuel Nahashon*, Ashley Payne, Michael Ivy Tennessee
State University, Nashville, TN, USA
Obesity, which is in part influenced by food intake, is increasingly becoming a nationwide health problem. Hypothalamic food intake mechanisms
are involved metabolically and neurologically via two peptide hormones
Leptin and Ghrelin, and the amino acid, Glutamate, which can result
enzymatically from lysine metabolism. Our hypothesis is lysine homeostasis mediates regulation of feed intake and performance characteristics
via the brain-liver axis through glutamate sensing. The objective was to
examine the effects of lysine homeostasis in avian food regulation and
performance characteristics through neuroendocrine signaling. One-dayold male French Guinea fowl (GF) keets (216) were weighed and randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments (0.86%, 0.92%, 1.10% control,
and 1.22% lysine) in 3 replicates. At 4 and 8 weeks of age 28 and 32 birds,
respectively were randomly selected, weighed and euthanatized. The duodenum, liver, pancreas, brain and adipose tissue were excised, snap frozen
in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80°C until use. Messenger Ribonucleic
acid (mRNA) was extracted and reverse transcribed into Complementary
Deoxyribonucleic acid (cDNA) for quantitative Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Lysine at 0.80% hindered growth, caused poor development of some digestive organs and high mortality in GF which was
associated with changes in the expression of both brain and liver glutamate and leptin receptors. The fold change for glutamate metabotropic
receptor I was significantly lower (P<0.05) in liver and higher in brain at
97
0.86 and 0.92% when compared to the control (1.10%) and 1.22% lysine.
The Glutamate ionotropic receptor displayed high expression at the highest lysine concentration. Brain ghrelin receptor expression was higher in
0.86 and 0.92% than in other treatments. Therefore, based on this study,
dietary lysine concentration may influence signaling pathways regulating
food intake in the brain-liver axis via glutamate synthesis.
Key Words: neuroendocrine hormones, guinea fowl, obesity, poultry feed
regulation, metabolism
P334 Phytoestrogenic Activities of Quercetin in Laying Hens during
the Peak Laying Period Ying You*GS, Yao Li Northeast Agricultural
University, Harbin, China
Quercetin, a typical flavonoid, has phytoestrogenic activity and produces
estrogenic effects in animals. In this study, we investigated the effect of
quercetin, as a phytoestrogen, on egg albumen and shell quality, clinical blood parameters and necropsy in genital organs in laying hens. One
hundred and eighty 28-week-old Hessian laying hens, with an average
85% of laying rate at the start, were randomly allotted to three treatments
and fed one of three different diets, (a negative control, and two levels of
quercetin, 0.2 (low), 0.6 (high) g quercetin/kg diet) for 8 weeks. Egg quality parameters were measured at the end of every week. Clinical blood
parameters and necropsy were measured at the end of the experiment. Results showed that high level quercetin increased absolute egg shell weight
with low content supplementation of quercetin than the control group.
High quercetin supplementation also improved egg albumen weight and
height significantly. Both of low and high level quercetin supplementations increased number of largest follicle in ovarian significantly. Length
of magnum was elevated in high quercetin supplement group compared to
control group (P<0.05). Length of isthmus was found to increase significantly in both of the quercetin supplement groups. Low level of quercetin
group had higher insulin concentration (P<0.05). Concentrations of IGF-1
in low and high quercetin groups were almost doubled compared to that
of control group in laying hens (P<0.05). We conclude that quercetin can
improve egg quality by influencing insulin and IGF-1 concentration in
blood, and affecting differentiation and functioning of female propagative
organs in laying hens during peak laying period. The appropriate level is
0.6 g quercetin/kg diet. This phytoestrogen activity may provide evidence
of quercetin as a functional feed additive in laying hens.
Key Words: quercetin, egg albumen quality, egg shell weight, insulin,
IGF-1
P335Evaluation of Tartrate Resistant Acid Phosphatase & Bone
Alkaline Phosphatase as blood markers for breeder hen egg production
and quality Andrew Magnuson*GS, Nirun Boonsinchai, Justina Caldas,
Karen Vignale, Judy England, Craig Coon University of Arkansas,
Fayetteville, AR, USA
Broiler breeders are expected to produce a large quantity of high quality
eggs can lead to metabolic problems due to the high nutrient cost of creating them so frequently. Two enzymes involved with bone turnover, tartrate
resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP)
are shown to be correlated with the activity of osteoclasts and osteoblasts
respectively. A study was conducted in order to investigate the correlation
between egg shell quality, bone quality of the breeders, and the concentration of TRAP and BAP in the blood for use as potential markers for breeder selection. Three hundred individually caged breeders were hens fed a
standard breeder diet and their eggs were collected twice a week beginning at 30 weeks of age for four months. Eggs were measured with dual
energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (GE ®Lunar Prodigy) to determine
the mineral concentration of the egg shells. Based upon the egg shell mineral concentration the hens were divided into two groups: poor egg shell
quality and good egg shell quality. The hens with the best and poorest egg
shell quality were then scanned with the DXA to measure their bone quality. Blood was collected from twenty hens with the best egg shell quality
and the poorest egg quality within thirty minutes of laying an egg in order
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ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
to minimize the effect of egg laying on TRAP and BAP concentrations.
The TRAP activity was significantly lower in the hens with good eggshell quality (1854 ±102 U) compared to poor eggshell quality (4794±384
U) (P > 0.022) while BAP was not significantly correlated with eggshell
quality (P > 0.6934). Hens with good bone quality had significantly lower
TRAP activity (1130±145 U) than poor bone hens (6320±634 U) (P >
0.013). BAP concentration was higher in good bone quality hens, but
the difference was not significant (P>0.13). These findings suggest that
birds with poor egg shell quality aren’t limited in the calcium necessary to
synthesis the egg shell due to the abundance of TRAP mobilizing minerals
from their bones, but due to being inefficient in using those minerals in the
egg shell gland. Hens which are better adapted at creating egg shell have
less of a demand to mobilize their bones and can focus on building bone
more through BAP than breaking it down with TRAP.
Key Words: Breeder, Biomarker, Tartate Resistant Acid Phosphatase,
Bone Alkaline Phosphatase
P336The Study of Star Anise, Ginger and Salvia Miltiorrhiza on
Antioxidant Status and Vitamin Stability Chongwu Yang*1, Zaibin
Yang2, Shuzhen Jiang2 1College of Life science, Shandong Agricultural
University, Tai-an, China; 2College of Animal science, Shandong
Agricultural University, Taian, China
The trial was conducted to investigate the effect of star anise, ginger powder and salvia miltiorrhiza on stability of fat and vitamin. (Method) The
vitamin A (4500 IU/kg), vitamin D3 (1250 IU/kg), vitamin E (12.5 IU/kg),
vitamin B1 (0.90 mg/kg), vitamin B2 (3.0 mg/kg) were added to two carrier corn meal and soybean meal, respectively. Five treatments per carrier
were: control diet without antioxidant and 4 test diets that were supplemented with star anise (10 g/kg), ginger powder (15 g/kg), salvia miltiorrhiza (15 g/kg) and BHT (150 mg/kg), respectively. The peroxide vale
(PV), acid value (AV), total fungal counts, moisture and vitamin content
of diets were determined at day 0 and day 60 by sealed storage at 40°C.
(Results) The results proved that all treatments had similar PV and AV at
day 60 by sealed storage at 40°C. Supplementation of star anise, ginger
powder, salvia miltiorrhiza and BHT improved the content and retention
rate of vitamin A, D3, E and B1 as compared with control (P < 0.01).
Supplementation of ginger powder and salvia miltiorrhiza (15 g/kg) improved the measurements and retentionrate of VB2 of two carriers (P <
0.01). However, the content and retention rate of VB2 with supplementation of star anise and BHT were similar. The effect of protective vitamin
in the order was star anise and salvia miltiorrhiza > BHT > ginger powder
> control (P < 0.01). Supplementation of star anise, ginger powder and
salvia miltiorrhiza reduced (P < 0.05) total count of mould in two carriers,
and supplementation of star anise were the best (P < 0.05). Supplementation of BHT reduced (P < 0.05) total count of mould in soybean meal.
(Conclusion) Star anise, salvia miltiorrhiza and ginger powder can be used
as antioxidant protection additives of vitamin A, D, E, B1 and B2 and
mould inhibitor.
Key Words: star anise, ginger powde, salvia miltiorrhiza, fat oxidation,
vitamin stability
AUTHOR INDEX
99
AUTHOR INDEX
Abstract numbers with M or T are oral presentations. Abstract numbers with P are posters.
A
Abdel-Rahman, M.A., P273
Abdel-Rahman, Mootaz, M51,
M115
Abou-Saad, Shaymaa, M17
Abudabos, Alaeldein, P287, T212
Adedokun, Sunday, P295, P296
Adeola, Olayiwola, T206
Afonso, Claudio L., P284
Afonso, Claudio, M13, P282
Aguilar, Zoraida, M101
Al-Hallaq, Entisar, T162
Al-Rubaye, A., M98
Al-Sagan, Ahmed, P287
Al-Yousef, Yousef, M1
Alaamri, Olfat, M101
Alali, Walid, M60
Alali, Walid Q, M38
Al Aqil, Abdulaziz, T196
Albino, Luiz Fernando, M81, P322
Albino, Luiz Fernando Teixeira,
T171
Alemi, Fatemeh, T178
Alenciks, Erin, M15, P249, P251,
P252
Alenckis, Erin, P250
Alexandre, Natani Cruz, P326
Alhotan, Rashed, M108
Ali, Rizwana, M86
Allcorn, Tucker, M126
Alonso, Alejandro Diaz, T144
Alva, Juan, P235, P305
Alvarado, Christine Z., M36
Alvarado, Ivan, T153
Alves, Susana, P248
Amarin, Nadim, P213
Amen, Omar, P273
Amerah, A.M, P302, T197
Amlaw, T., P263
Anderson, Derek, M70, P288
Anderson, Erin, T154
Anderson, Ken, T133
Anthony, Nicholas, M35, M61,
P319
Ao, Touying, P304
Ao, Tuoying, P245, P303, P311,
P313, P330
Aoyagi, Monica Megui, T142
Aoyagi, Monica Megumi, P310,
P324
Applegate, T. J., P273
Applegate, Todd J, P295, P296
Applegate, Todd, M51, M103,
M115,
Arango, Jesus, T191
Araujo, Eric Portilho, P310
Araujo, Fabrício, P257
Araujo, Raquel, T146, T147, T148,
T149
Araújo, Cristiane, T150
Araújo, Lúcio Francelino, T207
Araújo, Lúcio, T150
Ariyamuni, Dushanthi, P288
Ashby, Frances, P220
Ashwell, Christopher, P233, P238,
P309
Augspurger, Nathan, M88
Auttawong, S., M3
Avakian, A., T156
Avila-Gonzalez, Ernesto, P226
Ayala, Andrea J., P284
Azevedo, Sebastiana C. C., T166
Berghman, Luc, T159
Bernal, Laila, P221
Berrang, Mark, M45, M46, P256
Berry, Wallace, P316
Bertran, Kateri, T158
Bessa, Rui, P248
Bickford, Arthur, M9
Bielke, Johel, M64, M99
Bielke, Lisa, M16, M55, M64,
M65, M99, T159, T203
Bielke, Lisa R., M17
Bigetti, Raquel Araujo, P298
Bigge, Ashley, P283
Biggs, Patrick, M123, M130
Bilgili, Sacit F., P297
Bilgili, Sacit, M91
Binder, Michael, M118, M119
Bland, Mark, M9
Blatchford, Richard, T193
Bodin, J.C., T173
Boleli, Isabel Cristina, P232
Bonato, Melina Aparecida, T207
Boney, John, M80
Boonsinchai, Nirun, M75, M90,
M127, P315, P331, P335, T139,
T175
Borsatti, Liliane, T164, T199,
T200
Bortolatto, Guilherme Pedrini,
P244
Bossolani, Iderlipes Luiz Carvalho,
P244
Bottje, Walter, M17, M71, P319,
P321
Botus, Daniela, P217
Bourassa, Dianna, M40, M44,
M48, P246
Bradley, Danny, M110, M111,
M112
Brake, J., M128
Brake, John, M3, M76, M78,
M129
Bramwell, R. K., M63
Branton, S.L., T198
Branton, Scott, P264, P270, T192
Bravo, Paulo, T140
Breedlove, Cassandra, M7, M12
Brinson, Denise, T194
Brister, Roy, M124
Britten, Doug, M31
Brooks, Lasheda, P259
Broom, Leon, T150
Broomhead, Jonathan, M26
Brown, Ashli, P269
Brown, Bill, P259
Brown, Blyn, M124
B
Bafundo, K. W., M84, M85
Baker, Christopher, P280
Bakri, Husam, T162
Bakst, Murray, M20
Baldo, Grace Alessandra Araujo,
P262, P301
Ballou, Anne, M86
Bamijoko, OJ, T210
Banda, Alejandro, M23, T153
Baracho, Marta, P261
Barasch, I.B., T168
Barasch, Ilana, M130
Barbalho, Ricardo Luís Carmo,
T207
Barbosa, T., T156
Barbosa, Taylor, M14, T160, T161,
T183
Barnard, Luke, T145, T206
Barnas, M., M50, P263
Barreto, Bruna, P266, P267, P276,
P277
Barrios, Miguel, M11, P222, P332
Barros, Victor, M81
Barton, James, T186
Bassi, Nadia, T143
Batal, Amy, P332
Bauermeister, Laura, M34
Beck, M.M., M116
Beck, Mary, P275
Beckford, R., M72
Beckstead, Robert, M11, M21,
M97, P222, P234, P332
Bedford, Mike, M132, P312, T174
Beltran, Gabriela, M96
Berghaus, R. D., M41
Berghaus, Roy, M27
Berghman, L. R., M28, M29
99
Brown, Cody, M62
Brown, Kyle, P317
Brown, William, P254
Bucur, Jenica, P217
Buhr, R. Jeff, M40, M44, M48,
P246
Burley, Heather, M105
Butler, L., M63
Byrd, J. Allen, P281
Byrne, Kristen, M101
C
Cabriales-Jimenez, Jesus, M2
Caetano, Vinicius, T208
Caixeta, Anna, P236
Caldara, Fabiana, P257, P260,
P265, P266, P267, P276, P277
Caldara, Fabiana Ribeiro, P272
Caldas, Justina, M75, M127, P315,
P331, P335, T175
Caldas, Justina V., M90, T139
Calil, Thomas, M52, P271
Calvert, Alamanda, M92, P219
Campbell, Chelsea, P249, P250,
P251, P252
Caniatto, Amanda, T208
Cantor, Austin, P245, P303, P304,
P311, P313, P330
Caplan, Eduard, P217
Caraway, Coltin, M76
Cardenas, Cameron, M82
Cardenas-Garcia, Stivalis, P282
Cardona, Carol, P215
Carey, J. B., M28, M29
Carlin_Valderrabano, Shalaiko,
P300
Carnaccini, Silvia, M9, M97
Carneiro, Daniela, P228
Carter, Brandon, M68
Carvalho, Bruno, M81, P322
Cascante, Rodrigo, P216
Cason, John, P256
Castiblanco, Diana, P235, P305
Castilho, Vivian, P276, P277
Castillo, Jorge, T201
Cavalcante, Danilo, P325, P327
Cecchinato, Mattia, M4
Cervantes, H. M., M84, M85
Chandler, Jared, P293
Charlton, Bruce, M9
Chary, Parag, M17
Cheng, H. W., P273
Cheng, Heng-Wei, M51, M115
Chin, Richard, M9
Chou, W. K., M28
Chou, W.K., M29
Christensen, Karen, T180
Christy, Nancy, P218
Chukwulobe, Obiageli, T153
Cisneros, Fernando, T134
Clark, Dustan, P268
Clark, Steven, M11, M30
Clark, Tyler, M113
Clarke, Lorelei, M97
Cockshott, Ian, T150
Coello, Carlos López, P294
Collier, Stephanie, P264
Collins, Katie, P253, P270
Cookson, Kalen, T156
Coon, Craig N., M90, T139
Coon, Craig, M36, M75, M127,
P315, P331, P335, T175
Cortes, Aneg Lucia, T160, T161
Cortés, Cecilia Rosario, P240
Cosby, Douglas E., P274
Cosby, Doug, P256
Coss, Jorge, P218
Costa, Fernando Perazzo, P325,
P327, P329
Costa, Manuel, M11
Costa, Renato, T211
Costa-Hurtado, Mar, M6
Cotter, Jarrett, P217
Cotter, Paul, M103, M117, P223
Coufal, Craig, T190
Cox, Nelson A., P274
Cox, Nelson, P256
Cox, Samantha, M113
Cristina Pelícia, Vanessa, P324
Croom, Jim, M86
Cruz, Antonio Díaz, P294
Cuevas, Arturo Cortés, P294
Culcescu, Marian, P217
Cummings, Timothy, M14, T183
Curtis, Pat, M47
Cutler, Sara, P241
Czarick, Michael, M62
D
Da Costa, M. J., M84, M85
Daković, Aleksandra, M104
Daley, Wayne, M21
Darwish, M. H.A., P273
Darwish, Madeha, M51, M115
da Silva, Edney Pereira, T207
da Silva, Raquel B. T. Rodrigues,
P260
Davis, Adam, M40
Davis, Jeremiah, P258, T192
Davis, Steve, M26
Dawson, Karl, P245, P303, P311,
P313, P330
de Alencar Nääs, Irenilza, M52,
P260, P271, P272
de Almeida, Vitor Rosa, P232
de Araújo, Priscila Cavalca, P324
de Belalcázar, Fabiola, T201
de Faria, Douglas Emygdio, T176
de Fátima Aguiar, Édina, P289,
P291, P292
De Laet, Manu, T211
de Lima Almeida Paz, Ibiara
Correia, P262, P301
Delles, Rebecca, P245
De Lourdes Angeles, Maria, T144,
T195
de Matos Figueiredo, Carolina,
P244
de Moraes, Mariana Lemos, M74
Demuner, Leandro Félix, T176
Demuner, Leandro, T208
Deng, Xiangyu, M38
de Oliveira Santiago, Gabriela,
T170
de Santana, Mayara Rodrigues,
P272
de Souza, Ivan Mailinch
Gonçalves Pereira, P324
Dhakal, Janak, M39
Dibner, Julia, M111
Dickson, J., T156
Dickson, John, M14, T160, T161,
T183
Diel, Diego G., P284
Dienglewicz, Robert, M101
Dilger, Ryan, M106, T172
Domingues, Carla, P235, P305
Dominguez, Patrick, P214
do Nascimento, Vladimir P., P328
Dondur, Vera, M104
Donoghue, Annie, M69, P319
dos Santos, Tiago Antônio, P262
Dozier, William, M67, M91,
M131, M132
Dozier III, William, M57, M131,
M132
Dridi, Sami, M17, M69, M71,
M90, P319, T139
Drienmeier, David, P328
Duarte, Karina, P235, P305
Duarte, Nilsa, P277
Dunwoody, Robert, P282
Durairaj, Vijay, M102
d’Ursel, Laetitia, T189
E
El-Gendy, Essam A., M49
El-Hadi, Ahmed Abd, T179
Elmor, Derek, M84
Engelke, Greg, T137
England, Judith, M61, M75, M90
M127, P331, T139, T175
England, Judy, P315, P335
English, Katrina, M53, T187
Erf, Gisela, M101
Escobar, Jeffery, T203
Essick, S.B., T168
Eusebio-Balcazar, Pamela, P275,
P283
Evans, C. E., M107, T168
Evans, Jeff, P270
Eyng, Cinthia, P265, P266, P267
F
Fahrenholz, A. C., M107, M128,
T168
Fahrenholz, Adam, M129
Fairchild, Brian, M62
Faiz, Nik, T160, T161
Falcon, Daniel, M101
Faria, Douglas, T140, T208
Farnell, Morgan, P269
Farnell, Yuhua, M83
Faruk, Murtala Umar, T134
Fasanaro, Ricardo, P324, P326
Fascina, Vitor B., T166
Fascina, Vitor Barbosa, P310,
P326, T142, T176
Faulkner, Matthew, M42, P285,
T184, T186
Faulkner, Olivia, M16, M55, M99,
T159, T203
Ferguson-Noel, Naola, M9
Fernandes, Elisabete, P248
Ferreira, João Carlos Pinheiro,
P310
Ferreira, Tamara Zinn, P328
Ferzola, Pedro, T200
Filho, Daniel Faria, T140, T176
Filho, Javer Alves Vieira, P262,
P301
Fisher, Tatijana, P304
Flores, Cody, M79, M87, M123,
P317
Flores, Fernanda, M52, P271,
P272, P279
Foppa, Luciana, P265, P267, P276,
P277
Ford, Michael, P304, P330
Ford, Mike, P245, P303, P311,
P313
Forgiarini, Juliana, P314
Frade-Negrete, Nancy, P226
Fraley, Gregory, P252
Fraley, Gregory S, M15, P249,
P250, P251
Fraley, Susan, P249, P250, P251,
P252
Franceschini, Vitor, P225
Frank, Joseph, M60
Frankenbach, Stephanie, M25
Frazier, Kelly, M15, P249, P250,
P251, P252
Frazier, Nathan, T187
Freeman, Elizabeth, M40
Fuente-Martínez, Benjamin, P226
Fuller, Lorraine, M11, M30
Furmanek, Danuta, T152
G
Gadde, Deepthi, M109
Galarza-Seeber, Rosario, M54,
T203
Gamble, Gary, M43
Garcia, Edivaldo Antônio, P262,
P301
Garcia, Maricarmen, M95, M96
Garcia, Norma Patricia Ficachi,
P230
Garcia, Rodrigo Garofallo, M52,
P271, P272
Garcia, Rodrigo Garófallo, P260
Garcia, Rodrigo Garófalo, P262,
P301
Garcia, Rodrigo, P257, P265,
P266, P267, P276, P277, P279
García-Cantú, Alejandro, M2
Garlich, J. D., M107
Garlich, Jim, M130
Gately, S., T168
Gauthiersloan, Vanessa, M102
Geniec, Nannette Olmeda, T178
Gentillini, Enrico, P320
Gentry, Terry, T190
Gerard, Patrick, P253
Gharaibeh, Saad, P213
Ghetas, Aly, M7, M12
Giambrone, J., T156
Giampietro, Aline, M37
Gilbert, Elizabeth, P321
Gilbert, Jeffrey, P224
Gilley, Alex, M35, M61
Gimeno, Isabel, T160, T161
Giorges, Aklilu G, M31
Goedegebuure, Rob, T211
Goldsmith, Timothy, P215
Gomez, Gabriel, P218
Gomez, Javier, P221
Gonzalez-Esquerra, Ricardo, P298,
T146, T147, T148, T149
González,, Ernesto Ávila, P294
González, Alma Delia, P216
Goodgame, Sarah, M110, M111,
M112
Gradl, Janet, M47
Graham, Hadden, P312
Graham, Lucas, M64, M65
Graystone, Emma, T150
Greene, Eizabeth, P321
Greene, Elisabeth, M69, P319
Greene, Elizabeth, M17, M71
Grimes, J. L., M107, T168
Grimes, Jesse, M130
Grossi, Andre, P225
Guard, Jean, M23
Guler, Osman, T136
Gulley, Stephen, M7
Gumm, Alora, P256
Gutierrez, O., T185
Gómez, Gabriela, P294
H
Haese, Douglas, T166
Hagood, Gale, P269
Halvorson, David, P215
Hamal, Krishna R., P284
Hamoud, Mohamed Mamdouh,
T179
Hamzat, Rasheed, T210, T210
Hanford, Kathryn, P275
Hannas, Melissa, M81, P322
Hargis, Billy M., M17
Hargis, Billy, M16, M54, M55,
M64, M65, M89, M99, T159,
T203, T205
Harmel, Daren, T190
Harrington, David, M121, P323,
T202, T204
Harris, C.E., M48
Harris, Caitlin, P246
Harrison, Mark A., M38
Harrison, Mark, M46
Hassan, Sherif, M1, T196
Helmbrecht, Ariane, T172
Hendrix, Sam, M26
Hermans, David, T211
Hermes, Rafael Gustavo, T142,
T164, T170
Hermes, Rafael, T166, T171, T176
Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl, P226
Hernandez-Velazco, Xochitl, M89,
T205
Hess, Joseph B., P297
Hess, Joseph, P316, T187
Hilt, Debbie, T154
Hilt, Deborah, M93, M94, P220
Hinton, Jr, Arthur, M43
Hirai, Juliana, P239
Hofacre, C. L., M41
Hofacre, Charles, M27, M60
Hogan, Kellie, P256
Holcombe, Nicole, P256
Holland, S., M50
Holser, Ronald, M43, M108, P242
Holt, Ethan, M75, M127, P331
Homen, Stacey, M76
Honaker, Christa, M92, P219
Honrubia, Pilar, T209
Horst, Geoff, T180
Hourigan, Mary, P215
Howard, Amanda, M44
Hruby, Milan, M126
Hsieh, Ruby, P224
Hsiu-Chuan, Sonia Tsai, M69
Huff, Geraldine, M69, P319
Hulet, R. Michael, M105, T185
Hunger, Christine, T177
Hussain, Munawar, M77, P290
I
Icard, Alan, M102
Inglis, Tom, T155
Ingram, Kimberly, M43
Ishikawa, Edgar, P325, P327, P329
Ishola, Peter, M69, P321
Ivy, Michael, P333
J
Jackson, Mark, T133
Jackwood, Mark, M93, M94,
P220, T154
Jackwood, Mark W., M6
Jacob, Flavia, P261
Jacob, Jacqueline, P304
Jalukar, S., M3
Jang, Hyeonmin, M101
Jasek, Austin, M125
Jiang, Shuzhen, P336
Joiner, Kellye, M7
Jones, Cassandra, P243
Jordan, Brian, M93, M94, P220,
T154
Jungbauer, Leopold, T167
Junior, Max José Araújo Faria,
P244
Junqueira, Otto, P235, P305
Juárez_Silva, María, P300
Jácome, Ianglio, P266, P267
Júnior, Helvio Ferreira, P322
Júnior, Max José Araujo Faria,
P286
K
Kaldon, Pravin, P280
Kapczynski, Darrell, T159
Karahan, Turan, P278
Karcher, Darrin, T138
Kaufmann, Thomas, M118, M119
Keener, Kevin, M47
Kehlet, Anee Berg, M121, M122,
T204
Kehlet, Anée Berg, T202
Kenyon, Anna, P222, P332
Kerr, Brian, M67
Khaldi, Stephanie, M71
Kiarie, Elijah, T169
Kiess, Aaron, M18, M19, M83,
P237, P239, P293, P323
Kilgore, Jon, P269
Kill, Joao Luiz, T166
Kim, E.J., T198
Kim, Elizabeth, P236
Kimminau, Emily, M11, M30
Kindlein, Liris, P328
King, Michael, M88
Kitto, L. A., T185
Klasing, Kirk Charles, M74
Klasing, Kirk, T178
Koci, Matthew, M86
Kost, Marissa, M128
Kovalsky, Paula, P307
Kozlowski, Krzysztof, M122
Kpodo, Kouassi, M72
Krehling, James, M53, M57, T187
Kreuz, Bruna, M81
Kucuk, Omer, T135, T136
Kuhn, Micheli, P314
Kuhne, Pieter, T182
Kuttappan, Vivek, M55, M99,
T159, T203
Kuttappan, Viviek, M16
Kwon, Y.M., M98
L
Lahaye, Ludovic, T173
Lapp, Christian, M94
Lassiter, Kentu, M17
Latham, Rocky, M68, M79, M123,
M125, M126, P317
Latorre, Juan-David, M16, M55,
M99
Latorre, Juan, M54, M89, T203,
T205
Lawrence, Amanda, M14
Ledoux, David, M104
Lee, Ivan, P289, P291
Lee, J. A., T185
Lee, Jason, M87, M88, M123,
M124, M125, M126, P317
Lee, Jason T., M68, M79
Lee, Sang In, M59
Levine, Robert, M5, M82, T180
Leyson, Christina, M93
Lhamon, Emily, M63
Li, Shurong, M105
Li, Yao, P334
Lichtenstein, Drew, T165
Lilburn, Michael, T138
Lima, Cristina, P325, P327
Lima, Matheus, P325, P327, P329
Lima, Nilsa, P257, P276
Lin, Yun Mei, M78
Linhoss, John, P258
Linnemann, Erich, M102
Litjens, Wilbert, M76
Liu, A.F., M116
Livero, Lidiane Fancelli, P286
Lohrmann, T., M98
Londero, Angélica, P314
Longoni, Corrado, M4
Lopez, Karen, P215
Lordelo, Madalena, P248
Lowman, Zachary, P233, P309
Lowman, Zack, P238
Lu, Changji, M110, M111, M112
Lucca, Erica, P225
Lucca, Vivian, P314
Lucio, Eduardo, P216
Luck, Brian, T192
Luiggi, Fabiana Golin, P324, P326
Luiggi, Fabiana, T143
Lum, Jacob, M42, P285, T184,
T186
Lumpkins, B., M5
Lumpkins, Brett, M24, P308, T173
Lyon, Jonny, P317, T165
López, Nancy, P214
M
Macalintal, Lizza, P303, P311,
P313, P330
Machado, Alexandre, P228
Machander, Vlastislav, M122
MacKay, Laci, M57
Mackay, Laci, T187
Mackenzie, A.M, P302, T197
Macklin, Kenneth, M53, M57,
M131
Macklin, Ken, T187
Magnuson, Andrew, M75, M90,
M127, P315, P335, T175
Maharjan, Pramir, M113
Mahmoud, U. T., P273
Mahmoud, Usama, M51, M115
Mallmann, Barbara, T164, T199
Mallo, Juan Jose, P318, P320
Mallo, Juan José, T209
Manner, Klaus, T177
Marcano, Valerie, M13
Mark, Cline, P321
Marouf, Saghai, M129
Marques, Rafael, P235, P305
Martin, Emily, T190
Martinez, Nestor Ledesma, P230
Martins, Bruna Boaro, P289, P291,
P292
Martins, Márcia Regina Fernandes
Boaro, P289, P291, P292
Martínez, Yasmin, P229
Masching, Sabine, T163
Mathe, Sarah, P243
Mathis, G. F., M41
Mathis, Greg, M5, M24, M30,
P308, T173, T204
McCafferty, Klint, M131
McClendon, Beverly L., P274
McCrea, Brigid, P259
McDaniel, Chris, M18, M80,
P237, P269
McDaniel, Christopher, M19, P239
McElroy, Audrey, M92, P219
McIntyre, D. R., M28
McIntyre, D.R., M29
McIntyre, D. R., M41
McIntyre, Don, M25, M26, M27
McNaughton, J.L., M50, P263
Meelker, Alexis, P249, P250,
P251, P252
Meinersmann, Richard, M45
Meloche, Kathryn, M91
Mench, Joy, T193
Menconi, Anita, T186
Mendes, Ariel A., P297
Mendes, Ariel Antonio, P292
102
Mendes, Ariel Antônio, P289,
P291
Menkveld, Wilbert, M32, M33
Merino, Ruben, P214
Merino, Rubén, P216
Messenheimer, Janis, P224
Messias, Rodrigo Knop Guazzi,
T171
Meza, Margarita Fernanda Gómez,
P240
Milare, Marcia, P228
Miller, Melinda, P280
Miller, Patti J., P284
MIller, Patti, P282
Mirza, Waseem, P312, T174
Mitevski, Darko, T155
Mizrak, Cengizhan, T135
Molino, Andréa Brito, P301
Molino, Andréa Britto, P262
Moore, Dan, M26
Moore, Randle, M99
Moore, Sally, P308
Moran, Ed, M34
Moresco, Kira, T158
Morita, Viviane Souza, P232
Moritz, Joseph S., M80, T141
Morris, Antrison, M73
Morris, Jonathan, M21, P332
Moyle, Jonathan, P254, P255
Moyle, Jon, P259, P268
Moyle, Kayleigh, P268
Mozisek, Blayne, M100
Muro, Everton Moreno, P326,
T142
Murugesan, Ganapathi Raj, T177
Mussini, Franco, M110, M111,
M112, M118, M119
Muñoz, Julian Andres, T176
Myers, Elise, T155
N
Naas, Irenilza, P257, P265, P266,
P267, P276, P277
Nachtrieb, Neva, T137
Nagy, Leigh, P217
Nahashon, Samuel, P333
Nakagi, Vanessa, T140
Naranjo, Leonardo, T201
Nason, Dan, T138
Neto, Manoel Garcia, P244, P286
Newman, Linnea, M120
Nguyen, Phuong, M69, P319
Nogueira, Eduardo, P325, P327,
P329
Nogueira, Henrique, P305
Nolin, Shelly, M8, P309
Nunes, Kelly, P265, P266, P267,
P276, P277
Nusairat, Basheer, M129
Nährer, Karin, P307
Nääs, Irenilza, P261, P279
AUTHOR INDEX
O
Oakley, Brian, M45
Obasoyo, Dick, M66
Olanrewaju, Hammed, P264
Olivares, Teresa, P214
Oliveira, Tiago, P236
Oliveira e Alvarenga, Bauer, P289,
P291
Olivia, Laci, M53
Olivier, Tim, M13
Olivier, Timothy L., P284
Olojede, Opeyemi, P253
Olumide, Martha, T210
Omoikjoje, Stanley, M66
Oppy, J., M3
Orhan, Cemal, P278, T135, T136
Orlowski, Sara, M35, M61
Ortiz, Alvaro, T209
Ortiz, Rinaldo Josè, P292
Ortiz, Rinaldo José, P289, P291
Osorio, Ignacio, P216
Ott, Chris, M92
Oufkir, Abdoullah, M8
Oviedo-Rondón, Edgar, M8,
M114, T143, T200
Owens, Casey M., M36, M37,
M90
Ozercan, Ibrahim Hanifi, T135
Ozercan, Ibrahim H, T136
O’Neill, Helen Masey, M132
O’Neill, Helen V. Masey, M79
O’Sullivan, Neil P., T191
P
Pacheco, Bruna, T208
Page, Greg, M76
Page, Kolton, M87, M125
Paiva, Diego, M92, P219
Palme, Rupert, P310
Pantin-Jackwood, Mary, M6
Parduyns, Robin, T189
Park, J. W., M28
Park, Jung-Woo, M29
Park, Si Hong, M59
Parker, Holly, M18, P237
Parr, Terri, M106, T172
Parsons, Carl, M106, T172
Pasquali, Guilherme Aguiar
Mateus, P310, T142
Patterson, Paul, M105
Paudel, Sagar, P306
Paul, Marquisha, P303, P311,
P313
Payne, Ashley, P333
Payne, Jason, P234, P332
Paz, Ibiara, P277
Peebles, David, M14, P253
Peebles, E. David, M10, P236,
P270, T183
Pelícia, Kléber, P262
Peng, Ye, M38
Perri, Silvia Helena Venturoli,
P244
Perryman, Kurt, M67, M132
Persia, Michael E., T137
Pescatore, Anthony, P245, P303,
P304, P311, P313, P330
Pessoa, Gabriel, P325, P327, P329
Pesti, G. M., M84, M85
Pesti, Gene, M11, M108
Phillips, Chelsea, P238
Piekarski, Alissa, M17, P319, P321
Pieniazek, Jake, M68, P317
Pienziazek, Jake, M124
Pierson, E. Ernest M., T138
Pierson, John, M31
Pineda, Iván, P214
Pinto, Marcos Franke, P244, P286
Pirgozliev, V.R, P302, T197
Pirgozliev, Vasil, P312
Pirgozliev, Vasil, T174
Pitesky, Maurice, P231
Plumstead, Peter, M78
Pohlman, Fred, M35
Pollock, Erik D., M90
Pollock, Erik D, T139
Ponso, Roselaine, P257
Pontin, Cesar, T146, T147, T148,
T149, T199
Popa, Virgilia, P217
Popham, Sheena, T190
Porter, Amanda, M15, P249, P251,
P252
Poss, Mitchell, P308
Postel, Matthew, P256
Poureslami, Ray, M87
Prado, Nadia, P214
Price, Jacob, M88
Pulido-Landinez, Martha, M23
Purdum, Sheila, P275, P283
Purswell, J.L., T198
Purswell, Joseph, P258, P264,
T192
Putsakum, Monticha, M75, P331,
T175
Puyalto, Monica, P318, P320
Q
Quadros, Thays, P235, P305, T143
Queiroz, Carla Martins, P310
Quinteiro-Filho, Wanderley
Moreno , M52
Quiroz-Pesina, Manuel, P226
Quiñones-Chois, Gerardo, P221
R
Racanicci, Aline Mondini Calil,
P324, P326
Rajapakse, Banuka, M70
Rananavare, Pratap, T151
Rao, Shivaram, M124
Rauber, Silvana, T199
Ravindran, Ravi, T169
Ravindran, Velmurugu, T145
Ray, R., M72
Read, Andrew, B-313
Regmi, Bibek, M58
Regmi, Prajwal, P224
Reyes, Jacqueline Vázquez, P294
Rezende, Juliana Cristina Ramos,
P310
Rhodes, Jennifer, P255
Ribeiro, Andréa Machado Leal,
M74
Riblet, Sylva M., M95
Richardson, Kurt, P256
Ricke, Steven, M59, P280
Rios, Heitor, T164, T200
Rios-Cambre, Francisco, M2
Rissi, Daniel, M97
Roberts, M., M50, P263
Rochell, Samuel, M106, T172
Rodrigues, Mayara Maia, P286
Rodriguez-Avila, Andres, P221
Rogers, Adrianna, M61
Rogers, Audrianna, M35
Romero, Luis, T145, T169, T206
Roos, Franz, T134
Rosa, Alexendre, P314
Rosa, Carolina, P257
Rosales, Sergio Gomez, T144,
T195
Rose, Paul, P312
Rose, Paul, T174
Rose, S.P, P302, T197
Rosin, Dailton P., T166
Rossa, Giselle, T154
Rostagno, Horácio Santiago, T171
Roto, Stephanie, M59, P280
Rottinghaus, George, M104
Roux, Melanie, T137
Rubach, Jon, P308
Rubinelli, Peter, M59
Ruiz, Nelson, P299, T201, T201
Russo, Elisa, M4
S
Sahin, Kazim, P278, T135, T136
Sahin, Nurhan, P278, T135, T136
Sainz, Roberto D., P328
Salas_Montiel, Rocío, P300
Salguero, Sandra Carolina, T171
Salmond, Gareth, P298
Samuel, Ryan, P245
Sanchez, Josue, P218
Sandre, Danilo Gualberto, P286
Sanfelice, Cristiane, P297
Santana, Matheus, P322
Santana, Mayara, P265
Santin, Elizabeth, M74
Santos, Camila, P314
Santos, Elaine, P235, P305
Sarsour, Albaraa, M8, M114, T143
Sartori, José Roberto, P310, P324,
P326, T142
Sartori, Marcia Maria Pereira,
P324, P326
Sartori, Maria Márcia Pereira,
P310
Savoldi, Gustavo, P225
Schaumberger, Simone, T163
Schenk, Allyson, P249, P250,
P251, P252
Schieder, Carina, T177
Schirmacher, Marie, M92, P219
Schirmann, Gracieli, P314
Schleifer, John, M98
Schneiders, Gustavo Henrique,
M95
Scott, Jenna, M114, M8
Seeber-Galarza, Rosario, M16,
M55, M99
Sefton, Ted, M24
Segrest, Amnuay, M53
Sellers, B., M116
Sellers, Holly S., M102
Sellers, Robert B., T141
Sellers, Robert B, M80
Selvaraj, Ramesh, M73
Sentíes-Cué, Gabriel, M9
Serafini, Natália Chaves, T170
Serpa, Paola Gentile, P310
Sesterhenn, Renata, P328
Settar, Petek, T191
Severo, Guilherme, P225
Sgavioli, Sarah, P235, P305
Shannon, Tiffany, M104
Sharma, Ajay, M21
Sharma, Chander, M39
Sharma, Chander Shekhar, P247
Shaw, Daniel, M104
Shelton, Samantha, M109
Shepherd, Eric, M6, M94, T154
Shirley, R.B., T168
Shivaprasad, H.L., M97
Silva, Amanda Lapa, T142
Silva, Leandro, P322
Sims, Michael, M121
Singh, Manpreet, M53
Smeek, Jerod, T181
Smith, D. P., M41
Smith, Diane, M6
Smith, Doug, M27
Smith, Kyle, M88, P317
Sodsee, Phiphob, M75, P331,
T139
Sokale, Adebayo, M10
Son, Sona, M88
Song, Sangyoon, M60
Sorbara, Jose Otavio B., T166
Sorbara, José Otávio Berti, T164,
T170
Sorbara, José Otávio, T171, T176
Soster, Patricia, T200
Souza, Lenise, M52, P271
Spackman, Erica, M6, T157
Srinongkote, Saksit, T209
Sriperm, N., T168
Stark, C. R., M107
Starkey, Charles, P243
Starkl, Verena, P307, T163
Stefanello, Catarina, T164, T170,
T199
Steininger, Charlotte, M46
Stojanović, Mirjana, M104
Stradiotti, Ana Cristina, P326
Stratulat, Gheorghe, P217
Street, Peter, P256
Stringfellow, Kendre, M92
Suckeveris, Diana, T176
Sukumaran, Anuraj Theradiyil,
P247
Sulyok, Michael, P307
Summers, J., M72
Suárez, Jhon Fredy, T201
Swayne, David E, T158
Sá, Luciano, T150
T
Tabler, Tom, P269
Taha, Ensaf, M43
Tasoniero, Giulia, M4
Tastan, Hakki, T136
Teague, Kyle, M64, M65
Tellez, Guillermo, M16, M54,
M55, M64, M65, M89, M99,
T203, T205
Thaxton, Grace, M12
Thompson, Joel, M109
Thomson, John, M118, M119,
T172
Tijare, Vishwesh V., M36, M37
Tillman, Paul B., T141
Toledo, Taiani, P314
Tony, Mohamed Ahmed, T179
Toro, Haroldo, M7, M12
Trevisan, Renata, T140
Triplett, Melissa, M19, P239
Turkmut, Levent, T191
Tuzcu, Mehmet, P278, T135, T136
U
Urdaneta, Viviana, P214
Usry, James, M106, T172
V
van der Klis, Jan Dirk, T167
van Ginkel, Frederick, M7
van Rensburg, Christine Jansen,
P298
van Santen, Vicky, M7, M12
Vazquez-Anon, Mercedes, T165,
T203
Verbeek, Sipke, M32
Verduzco, Gabriela Gómez, P294
Vicente, Jose Luis, M42
Vicente, Jose, M89, T184, T186,
T205
Vicente-Salvador, Jose Luis, P285
Vicuna, Eduardo, M16
Vicuña, Eduardo, M55, M99, T203
Vieira, Sergio Luis, T199
Vieira, Sergio Luiz, T146, T147,
T148, T149, T164, T170
Vieira, Sergio, T200
Vieira, Sérgio L., P328
Vignale, Karen, M75, M90, P315,
P331, P335, T139, T175
Villalobos, T., T156
Villalobos, Tarsicio, T160, T161
Vivas, Carlos, P314
W
Wade, Courtney, P237
Waldroup, Park, M109, M110,
M111, M112
Wallace, Robert, P316
Walters, Hunter, M88, M124
Wamsley, K.G.S., M116
Wamsley, Kelley G. S., M80, T141
Wamsley, Kelley, M82, M83,
P293, P323
Wang, Jinrong, M75, M127, T175
Wang, X., M116
Wang, Xi, M83
Wang, Yue, T157
Ward, Nelson, M125
Watkins, Susan, M109, M113
Wedekind, Karen, T203
Weller, Cheryl, P256
Wen, Xianjiang, M116
Whiting, I.M, P302, T197
Wideman, R. F., M98
Williams, Chris, M14
Williams, Christopher, M10
Williams, Mallori, M126
Wilson, Floyd, M14, T153
Wilson, Jeanna L., P274
Wilson, Kimberly, M40, M44,
M48, P246
Wilson, Mikaila, M101
Wing, Clayton, P234
Winkler, Scott, T190
Wolfenden, Amanda, M99, T159,
T203
Wolfenden, Ross, M42, M64,
M65, M89, P285, T184, T186,
T205
Womack, Sharon, P253, P270,
T183
Wooten, McCaide, P233
Wyatt, Craig, M131
X
Xiong, Youling, P245
Y
Yan, Fenglan, T165
Yan, Frances, P317
Yan, Lifang, T153
Yang, Chongwu, P336
Yang, Famous L., M37
Yang, Famous, M36
Yang, Fengchun, M105
Yang, Zaibin, P336
Yenice, Engin, T135
Yilmaz, Bahaddin, T135
Yoho, D. E., M63
York, Tara, M79
You, Ying, P334
Z
Zanellato, Ewerton, P225
Zavala, Guillermo, M96
Zazai, Noorjan, P295, P296
Zeng, Qiufeng, M103
Zentek, Jurgen, T177
Zhai, W., M116
Zhai, Wei, M82, M83, P323
Zhang, Qian, M103
Zoca, Sara, P228
Zorrilla-Fierro, Francisco, M2
Zorzetto, Priscila, P323
Zotte, Antonella Dalle, M4
Sponsored by
Southern Poultry Science Society
SOUTHERN C ON FER ENCE ON AV I A N DI SE A SE S

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