Study Guide and Intervention Workbook To the Student

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To the Student
This Study Guide and Intervention Workbook gives you additional examples and problems for the
concept exercises in each lesson. The exercises are designed to aid your study of mathematics by
reinforcing important mathematical skills needed to succeed in the everyday world. The materials are
organized by chapter and lesson, with one Study Guide and Intervention worksheet for every lesson in
IMPACT Mathematics, Course 3.
Always keep your workbook handy. Along with your textbook, daily homework, and class notes, the
completed Study Guide and Intervention Workbook can help you in reviewing for quizzes and tests.
To the Teacher
These worksheets are the same ones found in the Chapter Resource Masters for IMPACT Mathematics,
Course 3. The answers to these worksheets are available at the end of each Chapter Resource Masters
Booklet.
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act, no part of this
publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or
stored in a database or retrieval system, without prior written permission of the
publisher.
Send all inquiries to:
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill
8787 Orion Place
Columbus, OH 43240
ISBN: 978-0-07-891165-1
MHID: 0-07-891165-6
Study Guide and Intervention Workbook, IMPACT Mathematics, Course 3
Printed in the United States of America.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 009 14 13 12 11 10 09 08
Table of Contents
Lesson/Title
Page
1-1
Direct Variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1-2
Slope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1-3
Write Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2-1
Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2-2 Angle Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2-3
Constructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3-1 Understand Percents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
3-2 Work with Percents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4-1
Exponents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4-2
Exponential Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4-3
Radicals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
5-1
Rearrange Algebraic Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
5-2 Monomials, Binomials,
and Trinomials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5-3
Special Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
6-1
Symmetry and Reflection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
6-2
Rotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
6-3 Translations, Dilations, and
Combined Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
7-1 Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
7-2 Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
7-3
Solve Systems of Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
8-1
Use Graphs and Tables to
Solve Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
8-2
Quadratic Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
8-3
Families of Quadratrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
8-4
Inverse Variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
8-5
Conjectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
9-1
Backtracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
9-2
Factoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
9-3
Completing the Square . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
9-4
The Quadratic Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
10-1 Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Graphs of Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
11-1
Counting Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
11-2
Modeling with Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
12-1
Work with Algebraic Fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
12-2 Add and Subtract Algebraic
Fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
iv
Chapter 2
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
10-2
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Date
Lesson 1.1 Study Guide and Intervention
Direct Variation
Relationships that have straight-line graphs are called linear relationships.
In a linear relationship, the change in y and the change in x form a ratio that is
constant. A special type of linear equation is called a direct variation. The graph
of a direct variation always passes through the origin and can be expressed
as y = kx. The k is called the constant of variation. When x doubles in value,
y doubles in value, too.
Example 1
A photo printer prints a 3-inch-by-5-inch picture in 3 minutes.
a. Complete the table to show the number of
minutes required to print p photos.
Two photos take 6 minutes, and 3 photos
take 9 minutes.
No. of
Minutes
p
m
0
0
1
3
2
?
3
?
c. Write an equation that shows the number of minutes
m required to print p photos.
The linear relationship between minutes and number of photos
is proportional, so we can use the direct variation equation
y = kx, or m = kp. The constant of variation is the number of minutes
to make 1 photo. So k = 3, and the equation is m = 3p.
Exercises
For Exercises 1–2, refer to the graph at the right.
1. Determine whether a proportional linear
relationship exists between the two quantities.
2. Write an equation that relates the number of shares
and the total cost.
Cost of Shares
120
Total Cost ($)
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
b. As the number of photos printed increases
by 1, does the total number of minutes always
increase by a constant number? Explain.
Yes, each photo adds 3 more minutes.
No. of
Photos
100
80
60
40
20
0
1 2 3 4 5 6
Number of Shares
IMPACT Mathematics, Course 3 1
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Lesson 1.2 Study Guide and Intervention
Slope
The slope of a line is the ratio of the rise, or vertical change, to the run, or
horizontal change.
Find the slope of the line in the graph.
Example 1
Choose two points on the line. The vertical change from
pointA to point B is 4 units while the horizontal change
is 2 units.
rise
slope = _
run Definition of slope
=_
The rise is 4, and the run is 2.
=2
The slope of the line is 2.
4
2
run: 2
y
7
6
B
5
4 4
rise:
3
2
A
1
O
1 2 3 4 5 6 7x
The points in the table lie on a line. Find the slope of the line.
Example 2
+3
+3
+3
x
-2
1
4
7
y
5
1
-3
-7
-4
_4
_4
slope = _
run = - or rise
3
3
-4
4
The slope of the line is -_.
3
Find the slope of each line.
Exercises
1.
2.
y
x
O
3.
y
y
x
O
x
O
The points given in each table lie on a line. Find the slope of the line.
4.
2
x
3
5
7
9
y
-1
2
5
8
Chapter 1
5.
x
-5
0
5
10
y
4
3
2
1
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
-4
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Lesson 1.3 Study Guide and Intervention
Write Equations
Linear equations are often written in the form y = mx + b. This is called the
slope-intercept form. When an equation is written in this form, m is the slope
and b is the y-intercept.
Example 1
State the slope and y-intercept of the graph of y = x - 3.
y=x-3
Write the original equation.
y = 1x + (-3) Write the equation in the form y = mx + b.
↑
↑
y = mx + b
m = 1, b = -3
The slope of the graph is 1, and the y-intercept is -3.
You can use the slope-intercept form of an equation to graph
the equation.
Example 2
Graph y = 2x + 1 using the slope and y-intercept.
Step 1
Find the slope, 2, and y-intercept, 1.
Graph the y-intercept at (0, 1).
2
Write the slope 2 as _
. Use it to
1
locate a second point on the line.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Step 2
Step 3
2
m=_
1
Step 4
y
4
3
2
up 2 1
-4 -3 -2
← change in y: up 2 units
← change in x: right 1 unit
right 1
y = 2x = 1
1 2 3 4x
O
-2
-3
-4
Draw a line through the two points.
Exercises
State the slope and y-intercept of the graph of each equation.
1. y = x + 1
3. y = _
x-1
2
1
2. y = 2x - 4
Graph each equation using the slope and y-intercept.
4. y = 2x + 2
1
y
y
y
O
6. y = _
x+2
2
5. y = x - 1
x
O
x
O
x
IMPACT Mathematics, Course 3 3
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Lesson 2.1 Study Guide and Intervention
Lines
As you learned in the last chapter, linear equations are often written in the
form y = mx + b. This is called the slope-intercept form. When an
equation is written in this form, m is the slope and b is the y-intercept.
Example 1
State the slope and y-intercept of the graph of y = 2x - 5.
y = 2x - 5
Write the original equation.
y = 2x + (-5)
Write the equation in the form y = mx + b.
↑
↑
y = mx + b
m = 2, b = -5
The slope of the graph is 2, and the y-intercept is -5.
You can use the slope-intercept form of an equation to graph the equation.
Example 2
a.
State whether the equation is linear. If it is linear, identify the
values of m and b. If an equation is nonlinear, explain how you know.
3x + y = 6
Step 1
b.
y = x(x + 3) - 7
Step 1
y = x2 + 3x - 7
Step 2
The equation is not linear because x is squared.
Exercises
State the slope and y-intercept of the graph of each equation.
1. y = 3x - 2
2. y = x + 4
3. y = _
x-1
3
1
State whether the equation is linear. If it is linear, identify the
values of m and b. If an equation is not linear, explain how you know.
4. 2y = _ - 1
x
3
4
Chapter 2
5. y = 6x + 4(x - 5)
6. x(x + 1) = y - 2(x + 6)
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Step 2
Put in slope-intercept form.
-3x + 3x + y = -3x + 6
y = -3x + 6
The equation is linear.
m= -3, b = 6
Name
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Lesson 2.2 Study Guide and Intervention
Angle Relationships
The relationship between pairs of angles can be used to find missing measures.
Example 1
Find the value of x in the figure at the right.
The two angles are supplementary, so their sum is 180°.
x + 35 = 180
Write an equation.
x - 35 + 35 = 180 - 35
Subtract 35 from each side.
x = 145
Simplify.
Examples
x˚
35˚
Use the figure at the right.
2. Find m∠3 if m∠7 = 70°.
∠3 and ∠7 are corresponding angles. Since corresponding
angles are congruent, their measures are the same.
m∠3 = m∠7, so m∠3 = 70°.
5
6
8
3
1
3. Find m∠4 if m∠5 = 120°.
4
2
∠4 and ∠5 are alternate interior angles. Since alternate
interior angles are congruent, their measures are the same.
m∠4 = m∠5, so m∠4 = 120°.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
7
Exercises
Find the value of x in each figure.
1.
2.
x˚
58˚
3.
56˚
67˚
x˚
x˚
For Exercises 4 –8, use the figure at the right.
4. Find m∠5 if m∠3 = 110°.
5. Find m∠2 if m∠6 = 75°.
6. Find m∠1 if m∠7 = 94°.
7. Find m∠8 if m∠4 = 68°.
4
8
5
7
1
3
2
6
8. Find m∠5 if m∠6 = 71°.
IMPACT Mathematics, Course 3 5
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Lesson 2.3 Study Guide and Intervention
Constructions
Example 1
Construct the perpendicular
bisector of the line segment AB.
"
#
Step 1: Draw a circle, or an arc of a circle, about point A with radius more than half
the distance between A and B.
Step 2: Draw a congruent circle, or arc, about B.
"
#
"
#
Step 3: Draw a line through the two points of
intersection of the circles. This is the
perpendicular bisector of segment AB.
Example 2
Bisect angle A.
"
Step 1: Draw an arc through the angle with the compass point on A.
where the first arc intersects the sides
of the angle. The two new arcs must
have the same radius.
#
"
$
Step 3: Draw a line from A through the point
where the last two arcs intersect.
This is the bisector of angle A.
#
"
$
Exercises
1. Construct the perpendicular
bisector of segment XY.
2. Construct the bisector of angle W.
:
8
9
6
Chapter 2
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Step 2: Draw arcs from points B and C,
Name
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Lesson 3.1 Study Guide and Intervention
Understand Percents
You can use the percent proportion to find the percent.
part
percent
a
n
_
=_
or _ = _
100
100
b
base
You can also use the percent proportion to find a missing part or base.
Example 1
12 is what percent of 60?
n
12
n
_a = _
_=_
100
b
60
Replace a with 12 and b with 60.
100
12 · 100 = 60 · n
Find the cross products.
1,200 = 60n
Multiply.
1,200
60n
_
=_
60
60
Divide each side by 60.
20 = n
Example 2
12 is 20% of 60.
What number is 40% of 55?
n
a
40
_a = _
_=_
b
100
55
100
a · 100 = 55 · 40
a = 22
Replace n with 40 and b with 55.
Find the cross products.
Use similar steps to solve for a.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
So, 22 is 40% of 55.
Exercises
Write a percent proportion to solve each problem. Then solve.
Round to the nearest tenth if necessary.
1. 3 is what percent of 10?
2. What number is 15% of 40?
3. 24 is 75% of what number?
4. 86 is what percent of 200?
5. What number is 65% of 120?
6. 52 is 13% of what number?
7. 35 is what percent of 56?
8. What number is 12.5% of 88?
9. 161 is 92% of what number?
11. What number is 31.5% of 200?
10. 45 is what percent of 66?
12. 81 is 54% of what number?
IMPACT Mathematics, Course 3 7
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Lesson 3.2 Study Guide and Intervention
Work with Percents
To find the percent of increase or decrease, first find the amount of the
increase or decrease. Then find the ratio of that amount to the original
amount, and express it as a percent.
Two months ago, the bicycle shop sold 50 bicycles. Last
month, 55 bicycles were sold. Find the percent of change.
State whether the percent of change is an increase or
a decrease.
Example
Example
Step 1 Subtract to find the amount of change.
55 - 50 = 5
Step 2 Write a ratio that compares the amount of change to the original
number of bicycles.
Express the ratio as a percent.
amount of change
original amount
5
=_
50
percent of change = __
The amount of change is 5.
The original amount is 50.
Divide. Write as a percent.
The percent of change is 10%. Since the new amount is greater than the
original, it is a percent of increase.
Exercises
Find each percent of change. Round to the nearest tenth of a percent if
necessary. State whether the percent of change is an increase or a decrease.
8
1. Original: 4
New: 5
2. Original: 10
New: 13
3. Original: 15
New: 12
4. Original: 30
New: 18
5. Original: 60
New: 63
6. Original: 160
New: 136
7. Original: 77
New: 105
8. Original: 96
New: 59
Chapter 3
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
= 0.1 or 10%
Definition of percent of change
Name
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Lesson 4.1 Study Guide and Intervention
Exponents
Expressions containing repeated factors can be written using exponents.
Example 1
Write p . p . p . q . q using exponents.
Since p is used as a factor 3 times and q is used as a factor
2 times, p · p · p · q · q = p3 · q2.
Any nonzero number to the zero power is 1. Any nonzero number to the
negative n power is 1 divided by the number to the nth power.
Example 2
Evaluate 62.
62 = 6 · 6
Definition of negative
exponents
1
=_
125
Simplify.
Simplify.
Simplify 22 . 23.
22 · 23 = 2 · 2 · 2 · 2 · 2
= 25 = 32
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Evaluate 5–3.
1
5-3 = _3
5
Definition of
exponents
= 36
Example 4
Example 3
Definition of exponents
Simplify.
Exercises
Write each expression using exponents.
1. 8 · 8 · 8 · 8 · 8
2. 4 · 4 · 4 · 4
Evaluate each expression.
3. 53
4. 23 · 32
5. 25 · 23
6. 3-4
Write each expression using a positive exponent.
7. 6–4
8. (–7)–8
9. b–6
10. n–1
Simplify.
11. a2 · a4
12. b–7 · b9
13. (2a)(3a3)
14. (–5x2)(4x3)
IMPACT Mathematics, Course 3 9
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Lesson 4.2 Study Guide and Intervention
Exponential Relationships
Quantities that are repeatedly multiplied by a number greater than 1 are said to
grow exponentially, or to show exponential increase, or exponential growth.
Fish Marcus has three fish in an aquarium. Each week the
number of fish in the aquarium doubles. The chart shows
the number of fish Marcus has after each week.
Example 1
Number of weeks
0
1
2
3
4
Number of fish
3
6
12
24
48
By what number do you multiply to get from one number of
fish to the next?
3 · 2 = 6; 6 · 2 = 12; 12 · 2 = 24; 24 · 2 = 48
You multiply by 2 each time.
Quantities that are repeatedly multiplied by a positive number less than 1 are
said to decrease exponentially, or to show exponential decrease, or
exponential decay.
The equation y = 5x represents exponential growth.
The growth factor is 5.
Example 2
Exercises
1. For a science experiment, Tanya put one amoeba in a dish. Each day she
counted and recorded in a table the number of amoebas in the dish.
Day
0
1
2
3
Bacteria
1
6
36
216
a. How does the number of amoebas change each day?
b. Which expression describes the number of amoebas, 6x, 6x, or x6?
c. How many amoebas will be in the dish on Day 6?
2. Suppose you have 100 milligrams of medicine in your blood stream.
1
Every hour, _ of the medicine is eliminated.
4
a. How many milligrams of medicine remain after 1 hour? After n hours?
Explain your reasoning.
b. Is this an exponential growth or exponential decay situation?
10
Chapter 4
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The equation y = 10 · 0.5x represents exponential decay.
The decay factor is 0.5.
Name
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Lesson 4.3 Study Guide and Intervention
Radicals
The Square root of ...
Examples
Find each square root.
1. √
1
Since 1 · 1 = 1, √
1 = 1.
2. - √
16
Since 4 · 4 = 16, - √
16 = -4.
3. √
0.25
Since 0.5 · 0.5 = 0.25, √
0.25 = 0.5.
4.
25
5 5 25 5
25
Since _ · _ = _, _ = _.
6 6 36 36
6
36
√_
Example 5
√
Simplify √
180 .
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
180 = √
2·2·3·3·5
√
Simplify √
196 .
Example 6
Prime factorization
√
196 = √
2·2·7·7
2 · √3
2 · √
= √2
5
of 180
Product Property
of Square Roots
= √
22 · √
72
= 2 · 3 · √
5
Simplify.
= 14.
= 6 √
5
Simplify.
Example 7
=2·7
6
Find √
64 .
Example 8
3
Find √
27 .
Since 2 · 2 · 2 · 2 · 2 · 2
6
= 64, √
64
= 2.
3
Since 3 · 3 · 3 = 27, √
27 = 3.
Exercises
1. √
4
2. √
9
3. - √
49
0.01
5. √
6. - √
0.64
7.
9
_
16
√
4. - √
25
8. -
1
√_
25
Simplify.
(28)
9. √
10.
(12)
√
11. √
(18)
12. – √
(50)
(9x4)
13. √
14.
(100x3y)
√
4 2
15. √(24a
b)
16.
(18m3)
√
IMPACT Mathematics, Course 3 11
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Lesson 5.1 Study Guide and Intervention
Rearrange Algebraic Expressions
Terms that contain the same variables raised to the same powers are called like
terms.
Example 1
Simplify 6x - 5 - 2x + 7.
6x - 5 - 2x + 7 = 6x + (-5) + (-2x) + 7 Definition of subtraction
= 6x + (-2x) + (-5) + 7 Commutative Property
= [6 + (-2)]x + (-5) + 7 Distributive
Property
= 4x + 2
Example 2
Simplify
Simplify 4(x + 1) - 5(2x - 3).
4(x + 1) - 5(2x - 3) = 4x + 4 - 10x + 15 Distributive
= 4x - 10x + 4 + 15
Property
Commutative
Property
Distributive
Property
= -6x + 19
Simplify
Exercises
Simplify each expression.
1. 9m + 3m
2. 5x - x
3. 8y + 2y + 3y
4. 2 + 6a + 4a
5. m + 4m + 2m + 5
6. 3c + 4d - c + 2
7. 5h - 3g + 2g - h
8. 3w + 4u - 6
9. 4r - 5s + 5s - 2r
10. 4 + m - 3m
11. 13a + 7a + 2a
12. 3y + 1 + 5 + 4y
13. 8d - 4 - d + 5
14. 10 - 4s + 2s - 3
15. 2y + 7 - (3y - 5) + y
12
Chapter 5
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
= (4 - 10)x + 4 + 15
Name
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Lesson 5.2 Study Guide and Intervention
Monomials, Binomials, and Trinomials
Multiply 3x(2x + 6).
Example 1
3x(2x + 6) = 3x(2x) + 3x(6)
= 6x2 + 18x
Distributive property
Add exponents when base is the same.
To multiply two binomials, apply the Distributive Property twice. A useful way to
keep track of terms in the product is to use the FOIL method, as illustrated in
Example 3.
Find (x + 3)(x -4)
using the horizontal
Example 2
Example 3
method.
Find (x - 2)(x + 5) using
the FOIL method.
(x - 2)(x + 5)
(x + 3)(x - 4)
First
= x(x - 4) + 3(x - 4)
Inner
Last
= (x)(x) + (x)(5) + (-2)(x) + (-2)(5)
= x2 + 5x + (-2x) - 10
= x2 - 4x + 3x - 12
= x2 - x - 12
= x2 + 3x - 10
Divide _
.
2
2x + 6
Example 4
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Outer
2(x + 3)
2x + 6
_
=_
2
2
=x+3
Distributive property
Simplify
Exercises
Multiply or divide.
1. 2a5 · 6a
2. -3t3 · 2t8
3. 4x2(-5x6)
4. (2w)(3w)
5. a(2a + 3)
6. 5x(4x – 5)
8x + 4
7. _
4
4x2 - 10x
8. _
2x
10x + 25x2
9. _
5x
10. (x + 3)(x + 4)
11. (x – 5)(x + 2)
12. (x – 6)(x – 4)
IMPACT Mathematics, Course 3
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Lesson 5.3 Study Guide and Intervention
Special Products
Perfect Square Trinomials Some pairs of binomials have products that
follow specific patterns. One such pattern is called the square of a sum.
Another is called the square of a difference.
(a + b)2 = (a + b)(a + b) =
a2 + 2ab + b2
(a - b)2 = (a - b)(a - b) = a2 - 2ab + b2
Square of a sum
Square of a difference
Example 1
Find (3x + 4)(3x + 4).
Example 2
Find (2z - 9)(2z - 9).
Use the square-of-a-sum
pattern with a = 3x and b = 4.
Use the square-of-a-difference
pattern with a = 2z and b = 9.
(3x + 4)(3x + 4)
(2z - 9)(2z - 9)
= (3x)2 + 2(3x)(4) + (4)2
= (2z)2 - 2(2z)(9) + (9)2
= 9x2 + 24x + 16
= 4z2 - 36z + 81
The product is 9x2 + 24x + 16.
The product is 4z2 - 36z + 81.
There is also a pattern for the product of the sum and the difference of the same
two terms. The product is called the difference of squares.
Example 3
+ b)(a - b) = a2 - b2
Find (5x + 3y)(5x - 3y).
(a + b)(a - b) = a2 - b2
Product of a sum and a difference
(5x + 3y)(5x - 3y) = (5x)2 - (3y)2
= 25x2 - 9y2
a
= 5x and b = 3y
Simplify.
The product is 25x2 - 9y2.
Exercises
Find each product.
1. (x - 6)2
2. (3p + 4)2
3. (4x - 5)2
4. (2x - 1)2
5. (2h + 3)2
6. (m + 5)2
7. (x - 4)(x + 4)
8. (p + 2)( p - 2)
9. (4x - 5)(4x + 5)
14
Chapter 5
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
(a
Difference of squares
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Lesson 6.1 Study Guide and Intervention
Symmetry and Reflection
A figure has line symmetry if it can be folded over a line so that one half
of the figure matches the other half. This fold line is called the line of
symmetry. Some figures have more than one line of symmetry.
Example 1
Determine whether the figure has
line symmetry. If it does, trace the
figure and draw all lines of symmetry.
If not, write none.
This figure has three lines of symmetry.
Example 2
Draw the image of quadrilateral ABCD
after a reflection over the given line.
Step 1 Count the number of units between
A
each vertex and the line of reflection.
B
1C
D 1
Step 2 To find the corresponding point for
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
3 3
A
vertex A, move along the line through
A perpendicular to the line of reflection
until you are 3 units from the line on the
opposite side. Draw a point and label it A´.
Repeat for each vertex.
B
D
1
1
3
A
Step 3 Connect the new vertices to form quadrilateral
A´B´C´D´.
C
3
B
D
C
D'
C'
A'
B'
Exercises
For Exercise 1, draw all lines of symmetry or write none.
For Exercises 2–3, draw the image after a reflection over the given line.
1.
2.
3.
#
$
(
"
'
*
)
%
IMPACT Mathematics, Course 3 15
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Lesson 6.2 Study Guide and Intervention
Rotation
A figure has rotational symmetry if it can be rotated or turned less than
360° about its center so that the figure looks exactly as it does in its
original position. The degree measure of the angle through which the
figure is rotated is called the angle of rotation.
Example
Determine whether the figure has
rotational symmetry. Write yes or no.
If yes, name its angles of rotation.
Yes, this figure has rotational symmetry. It
matches itself after being rotated 180°.
Exercises
For Exercises 1–9, determine whether the figure has rotational symmetry.
Write yes or no. If yes, name its angles of rotation.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
16
Chapter 6
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
1.
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Lesson 6.3 Study Guide and Intervention
Translations, Dilations, and Combined Transformations
When a figure is translated, every point is moved the same distance in the
same direction. The translated figure is congruent to the original figure
and has the same orientation.
Example 1
Translate the figure using the given vector.
Step 1 Move each vertex the length
and direction of the vector.
Step 2 Connect the new vertices to
form the translated figure.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
A dilation creates a figure that is similar but not necessarily congruent to the
original figure. The corresponding sides are proportional. This ratio is called
the scale factor.
Example 2
Dilate the smaller figure by a scale factor of 2.
y
Step 1 Multiply the coordinates of the
vertices by 2: (6, 0), (2, 8), (8, 6),
and (12, 10).
Step 2 Graph and connect the new points.
0
x
Exercises
1. Translate the figure using the given vector.
IMPACT Mathematics, Course 3 17
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Lesson 7.1 Study Guide and Intervention
Equations
Work Backward Working backward is one of many problem-solving
strategies that you can use to solve problems. To work backward, start
with the result given at the end of a problem and undo each step to
arrive at the beginning number.
(
)
4x
Solve 3 _
+ 1 = 15 by backtracking.
3
Example 1
Think of x as the input and 15 as the output. Make a flowchart to show the
operations needed to get from the input to the output.
X
·4
÷3
+1
·3
Input
15
Output
To backtrack, start from the output and work backwards, undoing each
operation, until you find the input. The solution is 3.
3
·4
12
4
+1
·3
·3
5
-1
15
÷3
Solve the equation 12x - 3 = 4x + 13 by doing the same
thing to both sides.
Example 2
12x - 3 = 4x + 13
Write the equation.
12x - 4x - 3 = 4x - 4x + 13
8x - 3 = 13
8x - 3 + 3 = 13 + 3
8x = 16
x=2
Exercises
Subtract 4x from each side.
Simplify.
Add 3 to each side.
Simplify.
Mentally divide each side by 8.
Solve each equation by backtracking.
1. 8(g – 3) = 24
2. 5(x + 3) = 25
( 2c
)
3. 7 _
-5 =7
3
Solve each equation by doing the same thing to both sides.
4. 2x + 1 = x + 11
18
Chapter 7
5. a + 2 = 5 + 4a
6. 7y + 25 = 2y
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
÷4
÷3
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Lesson 7.2 Study Guide and Intervention
Inequalities
An inequality is a mathematical sentence that contains one of the
symbols <, >, ≤, or ≥.
Words
Symbols
m is greater than 7.
m>7
r is less than -4.
t is greater than or equal to 6.
y is less than or equal to 1.
Example 1
v+3< 5
- 3 = -3
v
< 2
t≥6
y≤1
Solve v + 3 < 5. Then graph the solution.
Write the inequality.
Subtract 3 from each side.
Simplify.
The solution is all numbers less than 2.
Example 2
r < -4
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
Graph y ≤ -3x - 2
y
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Graph the equation y = -3x - 2.
Since y ≤ -3x - 2 is the same as “y < -3x - 2 and
y = -3x - 2,” the boundary is included in the solution
set and the graph should be drawn as a solid line.
O
x
Select a point in each half-plane and test it. Choose (0, 0) and (-2, -2).
y ≤ -3x - 2
y ≤ -3x - 2
0 ≤ -3(0) - 2
-2 ≤ -3(-2) - 2
0 ≤ -2 is false.
-2 ≤ 4 is true.
The half-plane that contains (-2, -2) contains the solution. Shade that
half-plane.
Exercises
Graph each inequality on the number line or grid.
1. c < 5
1
3. y < - _
x-3
2
y
-2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
2. x ≥ 10
O
x
7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
IMPACT Mathematics, Course 3 19
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Lesson 7.3 Study Guide and Intervention
Solve Systems of Equations
A set of two or more equations is called a system of equations. Solving a
system of equations means finding an ordered pair that is a solution of all
the equations. You can solve a system of equations by graphing. If you
graph the equations on the same coordinate plane, the point where the
graphs intersect is the solution of the system of equations.
Example 1
Solve the system y = x - 1 and y = -2x + 5 by graphing.
Both equations are in slope-intercept form. Use the
slope and y-intercept of each equation to graph the two
equations. The graphs appear to intersect at (2, 1). Check
this by substituting the coordinates into each equation.
The solution of the system of equations is (2, 1).
y
y = -2x + 5
(2, 1)
y=x-1
0
x
Another way of solving a system of equations is by
substitution. And a third way of solving a system of
equations is elimination.
Example 2
Use substitution to
solve the system of equations.
y = 2x
4x - y = -4
Use elimination to
solve the system of equations.
x - 3y = 7
3x + 3y = 9
4x - y = -4
4x - 2x = -4
2x = -4
x = -2
y = 2x
y = 2(-2)
y = -4
x - 3y = 7
(+) 3x + 3y = 9
Add to eliminate y.
4x = 16
Divide by 4.
x=4
Solve for x.
x - 3y = 7
First equation.
4 - 3y = 7
Substitute 4 for x.
y = -1
Solve for y.
The solution is (4, -1).
The solution is (-2, -4).
Use elimination to solve each system of equations.
1. x + y = -4
x-y=2
2. 2x + 2y = -2
3x - 2y = 12
Use substitution to solve each system of equations.
3. y = 4x
3x - y = 1
20
Chapter 7
4. x = 2y -1
x -3y = -4
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Second equation
Substitute 2x for y.
Combine like terms.
Divide by 2 and simplify.
First equation
Substitute -2 for x.
Simplify.
Example 3
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Lesson 8.1 Study Guide and Intervention
Use Graphs and Tables to Solve Equations
If an object is tossed or projected upward, the formula h = vt - 16t2
approximates the object’s height in feet h above its starting point after
t seconds when projected at an initial velocity v in feet per second.
Example
Suppose a tennis ball bounces upward at an initial velocity of
32 feet per second from the ground. The height of the ball is
given by the equation h = 32t – 16t2.
a. How high is the ball after one second?
h = 32(1) - 16(1)2
Substitute 1 for t.
h = 32 - 16 = 16 feet
Simplify.
b. What is the maximum height the tennis ball reaches?
After how much time does it reach this height?
Graph y = 32x - 16x2 on your calculator.
Height (ft)
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Step 1:
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
y
x
1
2
Time (s)
Step 2:
Find the coordinates of the highest point on the graph.
The highest point is (1, 16).
The maximum height is 16 feet. This occurs after 1 second.
Exercises
Use the example for Exercises 1–4.
1. How high is the tennis ball after 0.5 seconds?
2. How long does it take the ball to hit the ground?
3. Estimate the time it takes for the ball to first reach a height of 8 feet.
4. How could you use the graph to estimate the solution of 32t - 16t2 = 4?
IMPACT Mathematics, Course 3 21
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Lesson 8.2 Study Guide and Intervention
Quadratic Relationships
A simple quadratic equation is of the form y = ax2. The graph is a symmetric
U-shaped curve called a parabola.
Example 1
Example 2
The equation y = 2x2 is a quadratic equation. The graph is a
parabola. The line of symmetry is the vertical axis. To draw the
graph, complete the table and then plot the points.
x
y
-2
8
-1
2
10
8
6
4
2
0
0
-3 -2-1 0
1
2
2
8
-4
-6
y
1 2 3 4 5x
The table gives the area A of an n × n array of squares with one
additional square.
n
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
A
2
5
10
17
26
37
50
Exercises
In Exercises 1–4, tell whether each equation is a quadratic equation.
1. y = 3x2
2. y = 2x + 1
3. y = 2x3
4. y = 0.5x2
Use the following patterns in Exercises 5–6.
Stage 1
Stage 2
5. Write a formula for the area in square units A given n.
6. What is the area in square units when n = 4?
22
Chapter 8
Stage 3
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
A formula for the area in square units of any figure following this
pattern is A = n2 + 1.
Name
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Lesson 8.3 Study Guide and Intervention
Families of Quadratics
Quadratic
Relationship
A relationship described by an equation of the
form y = ax2 + bx + c, where a ≠ 0
Example:
y = 2x2 + 3x + 8
The parent graph of the family of quadratic fuctions is y = x2. Graphs of quadratic
relationships have a general shape called a parabola. A parabola opens upward and
has a minimum point when the value of a positive. A parabola opens downward
and has a maximum point when the value of a is negative.
Example 1
Example 2
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Use a table of values to graph
y = x2 - 4x + 1.
Use a table of values to graph
y = -x2 - 6x - 7.
y
x
y
-1
6
-6 -7
0
1
1
-2
-5 -2
-4 1
2
-3
3
-2
4
1
O
x
-3
-2
y
y
x
O
x
2
1
-1 -2
0
Graph the ordered pairs in the table
and connect them with a smooth curve.
-7
Graph the ordered pairs in the table
and connect them with a smooth curve.
Exercises
Use a table of values to graph each equation.
1. y = x2 + 2
2. y = -x2 - 4
y
y
y
O
O
3. y = x2 - 3x + 2
x
x
O
x
IMPACT Mathematics, Course 3 23
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Lesson 8.4 Study Guide and Intervention
Inverse Variation
When two variables have a constant nonzero product, they are said to be
inversely proportional. A relationship in which two variables are inversely
proportional is called an inverse variation.
Example
Suppose you drive 200 miles without stopping. The time it takes
to travel a distance varies inversely as the rate at which you
travel. Let x = speed in miles per hour and y = time in hours.
Graph the variation.
The equation xy = 200 can be used to represent the situation. Use various
speeds to make a table.
y
x
y
10
20
20
10
20
30 6.7
10
40
5
50
4
30
O
20
40
60
x
60 3.3
1. Complete the table for xy = 12.
x
-12
-6
-4
-3
-2
-1
1
2
3
4
6
y
2. Graph xy = 12.
10
8
6
4
2
3. Louisa wants to fence in a rectangular pen for her
pigs. If the area A of the pen is to be 400 square
feet, complete the table to show the possible
lengths ℓ and widths w of the pen.
Width (ft)
5
10
20
Length (ft)
4. Write an equation for the relationship in Exercise 3.
24
Chapter 8
-6 -4-2 0
y
2 4 6 8 10x
-4
-6
40
50
12
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Exercises
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Lesson 8.5 Study Guide and Intervention
Conjectures
A conjecture is an educated guess or generalization that has not
yet been proven correct.
Example
Find the differences of the y values and the differences of the
differences in this table for y = x2 + x + 1. Is the relationship
linear, quadratic, or neither?
x
1
2
3
4
5
6
y
3
7
13
21
31
43
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Differences of y - values:
4
Differences of differences:
6
2
8
2
10
2
12
2
The second differences are constant.
In a linear relationship, the first differences are constant.
In a quadratic relationship, the second differences are constant.
Exercises
Use the method of constant differences to make a conjecture about
whether the relationship between x and y is linear, quadratic, or
neither. Explain how you decide.
1.
3.
x
1
2
y
4
10 18 28 40 54
x
1
2
3
4
y
4
2
-2
-8
3
4
5
2.
6
5
6
-16 -26
4.
x
1
2
3
4
5
6
y
-1
2
5
8
11
14
x
1
2
3
5
6
y
2
9
28 65 126 217
4
IMPACT Mathematics, Course 3 25
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Lesson 9.1 Study Guide and Intervention
Backtracking
Example 1
Use backtracking to solve the equation √
5x + 6 = 4.
This is the flowchart.
+6
·5
x
4
Use backtracking as shown.
·5
2
10
+6
16
4
square
-6
÷5
The solution is x = 2.
Example 2
Solve (a + 3)2 = 36 by backtracking.
This is the flowchart.
+3
a
square
36
+3
-9 or 3
-6 or 6
square
36
-3
The solutions are a = 3 and a = –9.
Exercises
Solve each equation by backtracking.
5
1. _
x = 2.5
(4 + a)
2. _ = 5
3
3. √2x
+ 10 = 4
6–x
4. _ = 2
4
5. (c – 7)2 = 16
6. 2(y + 3)2 = 128
26
Chapter 9
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Use backtracking as shown.
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Lesson 9.2 Study Guide and Intervention
Factoring
To factor a trinomial of the form x2 + bx + c, find two integers,
m and n, whose sum is equal to b and whose product is equal to c.
x2 + bx + c = (x + m)(x + n), where m + n = b and mn = c.
Example 1
Factor each trinomial.
a. x 2 + 7x + 10
In this trinomial, b = 7 and c = 10.
Factors of 10
Sum of Factors
1, 10
11
2, 5
7
b. x2 - 8x + 7
In this trinomial, b = -8 and c = 7.
Notice that m + n is negative and
mn is positive, so m and n are both
negative. Since -7 + (-1) = -8
and (-7)(-1) = 7, m = -7 and
n = -1.
x2 - 8x + 7 = (x - 7)(x - 1)
Since 2 + 5 = 7 and 2 · 5 = 10,
let m = 2 and n = 5.
x2 + 7x + 10 = (x + 2)(x + 5)
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
To solve an equation by factoring , make one side zero. Use the property that
if ab = 0, then a = 0 or b = 0.
Example 2
Solve x2 + 6x = 7.
x2 + 6x = 7
x2 + 6x - 7 = 0
(x - 1) (x + 7) = 0
x -1 = 0 or x + 7 = 0
x=1
x=-7
Exercises
Original equation
Rewrite equation so that one side equals 0.
Factor.
Zero Product Property
Solve the equation.
Factor each trinomial.
1. x2 + 4x + 3
2. m2 + 12m + 32
3. r2 - 3r + 2
4. x2 - x - 6
5. x2 - 4x - 21
6. x2 - 22x + 121
Solve each equation by factoring.
7. y2 - 5y + 4 = 0
9. x2 = x + 2
11. p2 = 9p - 14
8. m2 + 10m + 9 = 0
10. x2 - 12x + 36 = 0
12. a2 = 11a - 18
IMPACT Mathematics, Course 3 27
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Lesson 9.3 Study Guide and Intervention
Completing the Square
Since few quadratic expressions are factorable, the method of completing
the square is better for solving some quadratic equations. Use the following
steps to solve an equation by completing the square.
Write the equation in the form x2 + bx + c = 0.
2
( )
b
Add and subtract ( _ ) , the same number, on the left side of the equation.
2
b
Find the square root of x + bx + ( _ ) , and then solve for x.
2
b
b
Find _ and then _ .
2
2
2
2
2
Example
Solve x2 + 6x – 7 = 0 by completing the square.
x2 + 6x – 7 = 0
x2 + 6x + 9 – 16 = 0
(x + 3)2 – 16 = 0
(x + 3)2 = 16
x + 3 = ±4
x = –7, 1
Solve each equation by completing the square.
1. t2 – 4t + 3 = 0
2. y2 + 10y + 9 = 0
3. y2 – 8y – 9 = 0
4. x2 – 6x – 16 = 0
5. p2 – 4p – 5 = 0
6. x2 + 4x – 12 = 0
7. c2 + 8c – 20 = 0
8. p2 – 3p – 4 = 0
9. x2 + 20x + 19 = 0
10. x2 – 5x – 14 = 0
11. a2 = 22a + 23
12. m2 – 8m = –7
13. x2 + 10x = 24
14. a2 – 18a = 19
15. b2 + 6b = 16
16. 4x2 = 24 + 4x
17. m2 + 2m + 1 = 4
18. 4k2 = 40k + 44
28
Chapter 9
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Exercises
Original equation
Add and subtract 3 2 on the left side.
Factor x2 + 6x + 9.
Add 16 to both sides.
Take the square root of each side.
Simplify.
Name
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Lesson 9.4 Study Guide and Intervention
The Quadratic Formula
To solve the standard form of the quadratic equation, ax2 + bx + c = 0, use
the Quadratic Formula.
-b ± √
b2 - 4ac
The formula x = __
gives the solutions of ax2 + bx + c = 0, where a ≠ 0.
2a
Example 1
Solve x2 + 2x = 3 by using
the Quadratic Formula.
Rewrite the equation in standard form,
subtract 3 from each side, and simplify.
x2 + 2x = 3
x2 + 2x - 3 = 3 - 3
x2 + 2x - 3 = 0
Now let a = 1, b = 2, and c = -3 in the
Quadratic Formula.
Example 2
Solve x2 - 6x - 2 = 0
by using the Quadratic Formula.
For this equation a = 1, b = -6,
and c = -2.
-b ± √
b2 - 4ac
x = __
2a
6
± √
(-6)2 - 4(1)(-2)
__
=
2(1)
-b ± √
b2 - 4ac
x = __
2a
6 ± √
44
=_
2
2
-2 ± √(2)
- 4(1) (-3)
2(1)
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
= __
= 3 + √
11 or 3 - √
11
-2 ± √
16
=_
2
-2 + 4
x=_
2
=1
or
≈ 6.3 or -0.3
x=_
2
-2 - 4
The solution set is {6.3, -0.3}.
= -3
The solution set is {-3, 1}.
Solve each equation by using the Quadratic Formula, Round
to the nearest tenth if necessary.
Exercises
1. x2 - 3x + 2 = 0
2. m2 - 8m = -16
3. 16r2 - 8r = -1
4. x2 + 5x = 6
5. 3x2 + 2x = 8
6. 8x2 - 8x - 5 = 0
7. -4c2 + 19c = 21
8. 2p2 + 6p = 5
9. 48x2 + 22x - 15 = 0
10. 8x2 - 4x = 24
11. 2p2 + 5p = 8
12. 8y2 + 9y - 4 = 0
13. 2x2 + 9x + 4 = 0
14. 8y2 + 17y + 2 = 0
15. 3z2 + 5z - 2 = 0
IMPACT Mathematics, Course 3 29
Name
Date
Lesson 10.1 Study Guide and Intervention
Functions
A function is a relationship between an input variable and an output variable in which
there is only one output for each input. The set of allowable inputs to the function is called
the domain of the function.
Example 1
Determine whether
the relation {(6, −3), (4, 1), (7, −2),
( −3, 1)} is a function. Explain.
Example 2
Use the function machine.
If the input is 5, find the output.
Since each element of the domain is
paired with exactly one output element,
this relation is a function.
+3
×2
First 5 is multiplied by 2, giving 10. Then
3 is added. Since 10 + 3 = 13, 13 is
the output.
In the function rule f(x) = 2x – 1, the variable x represents the input, f is the
name of the function, and f(x) represents the output. The symbol f(x) is
read “f of x.”
Example 3
If f(x) = 3x - 4, find each value.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
a. f(3)
b. f(-2)
f (3) = 3(3) - 4
=9-4
=5
x=3
Multiply.
Simplify.
f (-2) = 3(-2) - 4
= -6 - 4
= -10
x = -2
Multiply.
Simplify.
Exercises
Determine whether each relationship is a function.
1. {(4, 2), (2, 3), (6, 1)}
2. {(–3, –3), (–3, 4), (–2, 4)}
Determine the output from each function machine.
3. The input is 2.
+4
4. The input is 3.
×2
-7
+3
If f(x) = 2x - 4 and g(x) = x2 - 4x, find each value.
5. f(4)
6. g(2)
7. f(-5)
IMPACT Mathematics, Course 3
30
Name
Date
Lesson 10.2 Study Guide and Intervention
Graphs of Functions
Example
The graph of a quadratic equation in the form
f(x) = (x – b)2 + c is a translation of the graph of f(x) = x2.
The translation is located b units to the right and c units up.
y
Start with a graph of f(x) = x2.
8
Slide this graph to the right 4 units:
f(x) = (x – 4)2
6
4
Then slide it up 3 units:
f(x) = (x – 4)2 + 3
2
-4
-2
O
2
4
6
8x
-2
All the possible output values of a function f are called the range of the
function. For the function graphed above in Example 1, the range is f(x) ≥ 3.
No matter what you substitute for x, the value of f(x) will be greater than or
equal to 3.
The turning point, or vertex, is the point on the graph in Example 1 where
x = 4. f(x) = (4 – 4)2 + 3 = 0 + 3 = 3, so the vertex has coordinates (4, 3).
Graph each equation
1. f(x) = x2 + 1
2. f(x) = (x – 1)2
y
10
6
O
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
6
2
-2
y
8
4
-4
3. f(x) = (x + 1)2 + 3
4
2
4x
2
-2
-4
-2
O
2
4x
-2
-4-3 -2
0
y
1 2 3 4x
-2
4. Find the range of each function in Exercises 1–3.
5. Find the coordinates of the vertex of each function in Exercises 1–3.
31
Chapter 10
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Exercises
Name
Date
Lesson 11.1 Study Guide and Intervention
Counting Strategies
A probability is a number between 0 and 1 that indicates how likely
something is to happen. Often, to find the probability that something will
occur, you need to find all the possible outcomes.
Example 1
A certain type of watch comes in brown or black and in a small
or large size. Find the number of color-size combinations that are
possible. Make an organized list.
brown/small
brown/large
black/small
black/large
In 2 of the 4 outcomes, the watch is brown. The probability that the watch is
2
1
brown is _
, or _
.
4
2
Suppose you can set up a stereo system with a choice of
video, DVD, or laser disk players, a choice of cassette or graphic
equalizer audio components, and a choice of single or dual
speakers. Draw a tree diagram to show the sample space.
Example 2
Player
Audio
cassette
vidoe
graphic
equalizer
graphic
equalizer
cassette
laser disk
graphic
equalizer
Outcome
VCS
VCU
VGS
VGU
DCS
DCU
DGS
DGU
LCS
LCU
LGS
LGU
The tree diagram shows that there are
12 ways to set up the stereo system.
If chosen at random, the probability
that the stereo system has a cassette
3
1
and dual speakers is _
, or _
.
4
12
Exercises
In Exercises 1-3, a pizza can be ordered with a choice of sausage,
pepperoni, or mushrooms for toppings, a choice of thin or pan for the
crust, and a choice of medium or large for the size.
1. Draw a tree diagram to show the sample space.
2. How many different kinds of pizza are possible?
3. What is the probability that the pizza has mushrooms on it?
4. In how many ways can you arrange 4 boxes of cereal on a shelf?
32
Chapter 11
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
cassette
DVD
Speaker
single
dual
single
dual
single
dual
single
dual
single
dual
single
dual
Name
Date
Lesson 11.2 Study Guide and Intervention
Modeling with Data
Example 1
Judy was comparing prices of admission at several movie
theaters. She found these data. Find the mean price at
each theater. Which theater gives the best mean price?
Theater Colonial Discount Magic Colonial Discount Magic Colonial Discount Magic
Time
noon
noon
noon
4 P.M.
4 P.M.
4 P.M.
7 P.M.
7 P.M.
7 P.M.
Price
$4.00
$3.50
$5.00
$6.00
$5.75
$6.00
$8.00
$7.00
$9.00
(4 + 6 + 8)
The mean price at the Colonial is _
= $6.00. The mean price
3
(3.5 + 5.75 + 7)
at the Discount is __
= $5.42. The mean price at the
3
(5 + 6 + 9)
Magic is _
= $6.67. The Discount Theater offers the best mean price.
3
A box-and-plot divides a set of data into four parts using the median and
quartiles. Each of these parts contains 25% of the data.
first quartile
median
third quartile
upper extreme,
or greatest value
Example 2
Make a box-and-whisker plot of the data below.
12, 23, 6, 17, 9, 19, 7, 11, 15, 12
Step 1 Order the data from least to greatest.
Step 2 Find the median and the quartiles.
Step 3 Draw a number line, graph the
median, the quartiles, and the
extremes as points above the line.
6, 7, 9, 11, 12, 12, 15, 17, 19, 23
{
{
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
lower extreme,
or least value
Step 4 Draw the box and whiskers.
median: 12
first quartile:
third quartile:
median of lower half = 9
median of upper half = 17
Exercises
5
10
15
20
25
Draw a box-and-whisker plot for each set of data.
1. {17, 5, 28, 33, 25, 5, 12, 3, 16, 11, 22, 31, 9, 11}
2. {$21, $50, $78, $13, $45, $5, $12, $37, $61, $11, $77, $31, $19, $11, $29, $16}
IMPACT Mathematics, Course 3 33
Name
Date
Lesson 12.1 Study Guide and Intervention
Work with Algebraic Fractions
An algebraic fraction involves division. The denominator cannot equal
zero. The expression is undefined for any values of the variable that make the
denominator zero. To simplify an algebraic fraction, factor the numerator and
denominator. Then divide each by the greatest common factor.
(4m – 8)
Example 1
For what value of m is the expression _ undefined?
(m + 2)
m+2=0
The expression is undefined when the
denominator equals zero.
m+2–2=0–2
Subtract 2 from each side.
m = –2
Simplify.
Therefore, m cannot equal –2.
54x3
Simplify _.
24xy
Example 2
2
(6x)(9x )
54x3
_
=_
24xy
(6x)(4y)
(6x)(9x2)
=_
(6x)(4y)
2
9x
=_
4y
Divide the numerator and denominator
by 6x.
Simplify.
Example 3
3
=_
2
Factor denominator.
Divide the numerator and
denominator by 5n.
Simplify.
Exercises
Find the values of the variable that make the expression undefined.
x2 - 2
2b
12 - a
1. _
2. _
3. _
32 + a
x+4
b-8
Simplify each expression.
7n3
12ab
_
5.
4. _
a2b2
21n8
x+2
6. _
x2 - 4
Find each product or quotient.
mn2 4
n
n
8. _ ÷_
7. _ · _
m
mn
3
4
x+2 x-4
9. _ · _
x-4 x-1
34
Chapter 12
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
3n
5 _
Multiply _
n · 10
5 _
5 _
3n _
3n
_
n · 10 = n · 5 · 2
5 _
3n
=_
n · 5·2
The GCF of the numerator and
denominator is 6x.
Name
Date
Lesson 12.2 Study Guide and Intervention
Add and Subtract Algebraic Fractions
To add algebraic fractions with like
denominators, add the numerators and
then write the sum over the common
denominator. Then, if possible, simplify
the result.
5n 7n
Example 1
Find _ + _.
15
15
5n + 7n
7n _
5n _
_
Add the
+
=
15 15
15
numerators.
12n
=_
15
4n
=_
5
To add algebraic fractions with unlike
denominators, factor each denominator
to find the LCD.
Example 2
n+3 _
8n - 4
Find _
n + 4n .
n = n,
4n = 4 · n,
LCD = 4n
n+3
_
Only n needs to be renamed.
4(n + 3) _
n+3 _
8n - 4 _
_
+ 8n - 4
n + 4n =
4n
4n
Combine like
terms.
4n + 12 8n - 4
=_+ _
4n
4n
Simplify.
12n + 8
=_
4n
3n + 2
=_
n
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Exercises
Find the sum.
4
3 _
1. _
a+a
x2 x
2. _ + _
8
8
2x
3x
3. _ + _
x+5 x+5
Find the difference.
5
3 _
4. _
a-a
5x x
5. _ - _
8
8
8t
3t
6. _ - _
w+6 w+6
Find a common denominator. Then find the sum.
7
3
1
1 _
7. _
8. _+ _
a + 3a
6x 8
2
3
9. _ + _
3c 4c
Find a common denominator. Then find the difference.
9
3
3
1
1
1 _
10. _
11. _ - _
12. _
-_
m
a - 4a
9x 8
4
Solve each equation using any method you like. Make sure your answer
does not cause any denominator to be zero.
(s + 2)
x-2
3
m
13. _ + m = 14
14. _ = x - 4
15. _ = _
3
6
(s - 1) 2
IMPACT Mathematics, Course 3 35

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