The Savannah Goat in North America History and Future Perspectives

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The Savannah Goat in
North America
History and Future Perspectives
Brian Payne, Executive Director
North American Savannah Association
Quentin’s Quest and
Lubbe’s Legacy:
The Savannah Goat
in
North America
Goats have universal
appeal
Let’s Start at the Beginning
The Goat Man
Revealed
1995, 2003
2014 and still
givin'er
sharing
friends and
information
building a
development team
for the meat goat
industry
K
R
I
5
1
6
Elgin Pape, A true pioneer
Nasa Was created in Response to this:
white goats of dubious origin were
being registered as authentic savannahs
Authentic Savannah goats come
from South Africa
Nasa is committed to preserving
this Heritage
Savannah Characteristics
(Q. Campbell)
The “ultimate easy care
goats”
•Year Round Breeding
•low nutritional
requirements
•excellent mothering
ability with high milk
yields
The Problem:
nasa was created years after
the original schulz (CODI-PCI)
foundation imports had been
multiplied and transferred.
schulz imports - 1994
• schulz kifaru dispersal sale 1998
•
NASA established - 2003
The problem
Compounded:
• 2000 - Keri-Rose (Brian and Katie Payne) imports South
African embryo progeny into the U.S..
•2002 - Dennise Peterson imports implanted DNAfrica
embryos into the U.S..
•New genetics with verifiable documentation are competing
in the market with ”white goats” with poor documentation.
•Diverse interests could not agree on a common registry.
•NASA was created to ‘develop and promote the Savannah
goat…by establishing a Breed Registry and by
encouraging seed stock performance recording.’
!
Diverse Interests:
Pedigree
International
•Economics - $25.00 Plus
DNA
•compromised by
illegitimate “white
goats”
•Control of database
Diverse Interests:
WWSGA
•no democratic forum to discuss
breed standard or rules of
registration
•proposed standard had no
relationship to south african-too
much emphasis on phenotype
rather than performance
•a breeder as the registrar rather
than an objective third party
NASA Founding Directors
Brian Payne, frank pinkerton, elgin pape
NASA’s First Priority:
A new herd book monitored by
an independent, professional
registry service.
“the integrity, and therefore
legitimacy, of a breed is dependent
upon properly conducted breed
registry procedures…genetic stability
of any breed is evidenced by the proven
relationship (unbroken chain) of all
animals to a common foundation
population with common origin and
history.”(Canadian National Livestock
Records Corporation)
NASA’S second
priority:
Provide the registrar with
a clear definition of full
blood foundation stock
and specify the necessary
documentation for
acceptance into the NASA
full blood herd book.
Original NASA Full
Blood Definition:
1. Jurgen Schulz 1995 live imports
must be accompanied by kifaru
sales documentation and
verification of subsequent sales
or transfers.
2. Keri-Rose or DNAfrica embryo
progeny must be accompanied by
government importation
documents and veterinary
certificates of ET.
Embryo Transplant
documents authenticity
of South African origin
Why is this significant?
Importer
bucks
does
total
Schulz
12
20
32
Keri-Rose
17
12
29
DNAfrica 1 donor
Mincey
4
2 donors ? live kids
17
21
small numbers of
authentic south
african savannahs:
• magnifies their market value
• substantially increases the
likelihood of fraudulent
applications
• underscores the importance of a
credible registry
• increases the need for breeder
education and cooperation
only the jurgen schulz live
importations, dispersed at the
kifaru sale in 1998, do not have
government or veterinarian
supervised documentation to
authenticate their south african
origins. NASA is the only
registry that has demanded
such documentation, or proof
of an “unbroken chain” of sales
and transfers from Kifaru.
the moral of the
story?
if you want to know the
breed, you have to know
the breeders. you can’t
“know the breed” without
knowing it’s history.
In order to maintain the breed development and
expansion process NASA accepts registration
paperwork from other registries and offers a
breeding up program.
Parentage Verification via
DNA will be required on all
future NASA applications
for registration of all
american bucks and does
(full blood and purebred).
Canadian bred savannah
bucks will also require dna.
sadly we recognize that
integrity cannot be
legislated.
breeding up to purebred status
NASA
NASA
NASA
NASA
NASA
FB Buck FB Buck FB Buck FB Buck FB Buck
Commercial
Doe
1/2
3/4
⅞
15/16
31/32
Percentage
50%
75%
87.5%
93.75%
96.875%
Purebred
Status Doe
Purebred
Status Buck
American
Purebred
American
Purebred
Why Breed Up?
•enables a commercial producer to
establish a purebred herd at a lower
initial cost
•added advantage of hybrid vigour
•infusion into the savannah gene pool
of selected traits from other breeds
•boers and myotonics can add muscling
•kikos and spanish can add hardiness,
maternal characteristics and parasite
resistance
•greater breed numbers registered with
ghip means faster genetic progress
Pinkerton Perfection:
Boer /spanish/Myotonic
a larger savannah gene pool reduces
the risk of inbreeding depression:
always a risk with a rare breed
Trait
Inbreeding Depression
Milk
5%
Growth
3%
Offspring Born
4%
Offspring Weaned
10%
J.Semler, Breeding Better Sheep and Goats, UMD webinar
inbreeding depression:
how would you ever know
without accurate pedigrees and
performance recording?
Type of Mating
Inbreeding %*
full brother and sister
25%
25%
12.5%
12.5%
6.25%
father and daughter
half brother and sister
Grandmother and Grandson
Common Grandparents
*assumes the parents are not already inbred - (Semler)
Accurate Pedigrees allows the
tracking of “flock” savannahs
• If you are concerned about the diversity and scale of the
Savannah gene pool, can’t afford the expense of Australian
imports and forbidden to import new Savannah genetics
from South Africa; you adopt the “flock” designation to
allow the registration of red headed females.
• At the same time, you do not allow the registration of red
headed males in order to reduce the gene frequency of this
red headed trait in the national population.
• If performance is your motivation, the red head
becomes a minor, non-economic trait that you
ignore while breeding towards “the phenotypic
ideal” of a totally white goat.
why performance test?
“you can’t manage what
you don’t measure”
“thirty years ago, most of the gains
achieved in production were due to
improved management; whereas more
recently, genetics is responsible for
80% of the increased productivity”
!
(Holstein Canada, Canadian holstein
breed strategy)
You can’t see transmitting
ability. It must be measured
Keri-Rose Y8
Mincey 139
You also can’t “see”
•Parasite Resistance
•Out of Season Breeding Ability
•Maternal Efficiency (Total Weight Weaned/Doe
Weight/Year)
“Any breeder who
wants to
implement
performance
testing should
keep proper ewe
records…he
should use these
parameters for
selection
purposes…select
for productivity
and not fancy
points”
!
(Quentin Campbell)
Reproduction is the
trait of greatest
economic importance
Keri-Rose Y8
How Valuable is Muscularity?
“indexes thwart
the human
tendency to
maximize and
thereby to lose
biological
balance. growth
rate is important
but not at the
cost of losing
mothering
ability or other
aspects of
biological
fitness.”
R.Gilbert, Sheep
Canada, 2009
In 1995, SA Boer goat
“gurus” were elevated to rock
star status. NZ performance
focus was forgotten. The
show ring dominated
development.
In 2003, NASA was
created to
emphasize the greater
relative importance of
‘function over form’.
Visit
www.savannahassociation.com
Dr. Quentin Campbell’s
video interview on adaptability
The Savannah White Goats of
Olierivier
Selection was aimed at
breeding a white heat and
parasite resistant functionally
efficient meat producing goat.
original breed standards were
developed by assessing the phenotype
of the survivors on the veld
“The rump must show a reasonable slope just like that of
the Gemsbok (oryx gazella)”. African wildlife exemplified
the environmental adaptability Dr. Campbell sought.
Modern American
Show doe, 2014
Tubular Profile
Will she be able to walk,
eat roughage, carry kids?
Nico Botha, SA
Champion Show doe,
1996
Functional Wedge
Shape
Select replacement females under
the conditions which they will be
expected to reproduce
Successful Beef producers do not
select their replacement heifers
at the feedlot (Machen)
NASA’s vision for building
“the performance breed”
• Performance Test
• Maintain a balance between reproductive
ability, growth and “ideal phenotype”
• Maximize the use of pasture forages and
browse in your operations
• Let the “form” of your animals be shaped
by their production environment

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