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leri kenWoSvili
xatweris safuZvlebi
Tbilisi
mTavarangelozi mixeili. es xati Sesrulebulia XIV saukunis konstantinopolis bizantiuri
prototipis mixedviT (daaxloebiT 1350-1380). 45,75x36,8 sm. originali 110x81 sm, inaxeba aTenis bizantiis muzeumSi. sferoze gamosaxuli sami berZnuli aso A, X da K ikiTxeba, rogorc
“qriste samarTliani msajuli”.
sarCevi
winaTqma
Sesavali
xatweris ganviTarebis mokle eqskursi
bizantiis xelovnebisa da kerZod xatweris ganviTarebis periodebi
xatmebrZolobis periodi bizantiis imperiaSi
bizantiuri xatweris udidesi aRmavlobis xana
xatweris safuZvlebi
xatweris kanonebis Camoyalibeba
teqnika
xatwerisaTvis saWiro masalebi da mosamzadebeli samuSaoebi
saxate dafisaTvis merqanis SerCeva
saxate xis dafis damzadeba
sogmani
xis dafis gawebva
dafaze qsovilis dawebeba
gruntis damzadeba da saxate dafis dagruntva
dafaze naxatis gadatana da naxatis mooqroveba
Sesrulebis teqnika
mineraluri feradi pigmentebi
kvercxis gulis temperis saRebaviT xatis dafervis stadiebi
ferTa wre da masze varjiSi
rogor iwereba RvTismSoblis xati
qriste pantokratoris xatis Sesruleba
xatis sifrifana oqros furclebiT movarayeba
xatis moxarSuli selis an kanafis zeTiT dafarva
xatze gamosaxuli figurebis weris teqnikuri mxareebi
perspeqtiva xatweraSi - landSafti, Senobebi da aveji
sxvadasxva tipis perspeqtivis gamoyeneba
Senobebi da aqsesuarebi
Tavis gamosaxulebis perspeqtiva
landSafti, mTebi da mcenareuloba
sakraluri geometria, proporciebi da kompozicia
winaTqma
es wigni gankuTvnilia maTTvis, visac xatweris Seswavla surs. evropaSi,
1980-90-ian wlebSi xatweris Seswavlis namdvili bumi iyo. germaniaSi,
safrangeTSi, inglisSi da sxva qveynebSi gaxsnili iyo xatweris mravali
skola da saxelosno, romelTa nawili axlac moqmedebs. me xatweris zogad
Teoriul safuZvlebs TbilisSi gavecani, xolo praqtikulad germaniaSi
daveufle. jer vasrulebdi tradiciuli bizantiuri xatebis aslebs,
xolo Semdeg macxovris, RvTismSoblisa, wminda ninos, wminda giorgisa
da sxva originaluri xatebic Sevasrule. zogierTi maTgani aq, germaniis
marTlmadideblur eklesiaSi asvenia, zogi saqarTveloSi gavamgzavre,
zogic CemTanaa.
am wignis werisas vsargeblobdi germaniaSi, qalaq kaselSi, Cemi
berZeni megobris, medicinis doqtoris – elias limberopolusis metad
mdidari biblioTekiT marTlmadidebluri xatebis Sesaxeb, risTvisac
mas did madlobas vuxdi. maT Soris gansakuTrebuli aRniSvnis Rirsia
inglisuridan Targmnili da germanul enaze gamocemuli Guillem RamosPoqui-is xatweris saxelmZRvanelo ”Wie male ich Ikonen richtig”, romelic am
wignSi aRwerili xatweris teqnikisa da meTodikis ZiriTadi wyaro gaxda.
xatweris Sesaxeb bevri ram rusul gamocemebSic movipove.
dimitri kenWoSvili, germania, 2004 weli.
RvTismSobeli (Passions). es xati Sesrulebulia romis redemptoris monastris kretuli
xatis mixedviT, 55x40,6 sm.
Sesavali
xatweram, misma tragizmiT savse istoriam, daniSnulebam da mizanma, ocsaukunovan istoriul procesebTan mimarTebaSi, dRes sakraluri xelovnebis
mniSvneloba SeiZina. xatis istoria da misi ganviTarebis gzebi am wignis
sagani araa, Tumca mokled am sakiTxsac SevexebiT, vinaidan am istoriam
garkveuli gavlena iqonia TviT xatweris kanonebis Camoyalibebaze.
qristianuli religiisa formireba romis imperiaSi mimdinareobda
Cveni welTaRricxvis pirvel saukueebSi da vidre saxelmwifo religiad
gamocxaddeboda, sastik devnas ganicdida. romSi dResac SeiZleba im
katakombebis naxva, sadac qristes moZRvrebis mimdevrebi iZulebuli
iyvnen, am sityvis pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT, malulad SeesrulebinaT
RvTismsaxureba.
xatis winamorbedi pirobiTi simboluri gamosaxulebani, romlebic saidumlod sruldeboda, am katakombebSi warmoiSva. ramdenadac qristianuli
moZRvrebis ama Tu im movlenis sxvadasxva mxatvruli xerxiT gamosaxva
sastikad ikrZaleboda da isjeboda. amitom morwmuneni cdilobdnen saRebavebis saSualebiT pirobiTi niSnebiT SeeniRbaT da simboloebiT
warmoeCinaT qristianuli saxeebi. aseTi simboluri gamosaxulebani keTdeboda, rogorc romis katakombebSi, aseve aleqsandriisa da efesos
akaldamebSi, an tioqiis gamoqvabulebSi, WurWelze, sanaTurebze, beWdebze,
samajurebze da a.S. keTili mwyemsis saxiT macxovaris erTerTi pirveli
gamosaxuleba swored romis katakombebSia napovni. morwmune qristianebi,
aqve, am katakombebsa da gamoqvabulebSi emalebodnen ra saxelmwifo
moxeleebs, loculobdnen da asrulebdnen RvTismsaxurebas. erTerT
sasufevelSi, ermiis miwisqveSa sasaflaoze, napovnia naxati suraTebis
kompleqti, romelic, rogorc Cans, marTlmadidebluri qristianuli xatebis winamorbedi unda iyos. maT Sorisaa ,,qadagad davardnili morCilis
mkurnali keTili mwyemsi’‘, ,,veSapis mier ionas gamoriyva zRvis napiras
‘‘ da sx. marcelinisa da petras katakombebSi gamosaxulia ,,mogvTa mier
Cvili macxovriT xelSi RvTismSoblis Tayvaniscema’‘. katakombebSi qristes gamosaxulebac da saxelic gonebamaxvilurad iyo gadmocemuli
Tevzis pirobiTi niSniT, rameTu berZnul enaze ,,ieso qriste Ze RvTisa
macxovari’‘-is anagramaa ,,Tevzi’‘. sagulisxmoa, rom Tevzis gamosaxulebiT
simbolizirebuli iyo wyalSi naTlisRebisa da ziarebis saidumloebac.
aseTi gamosaxulebaa romSi lucinis miwisqveSa sasufevelSi, romelic I-II
saukuneebSia Sesrulebuli. am farul qristianul samlocveloebSi xSiria
agreTve macxovris Zveli aRTqmiseuli gamosaxuleba kravis saxiT.
xatwera im saxiT romelsac dRes vicnobT, romis imperiaSi warmoiSva.
Semdgom mis aRmosavleT nawilSi, bizantiaSi ganviTarda da vidre msoflio
marTlmadidebluri eklesiis erTerT mTavar ritualur atributad iqceoda, rTuli da tragizmiT savse gza gaiara.
6
xatweris ganviTarebis mokle eqskursi
xatwera da misi ganviTareba mWidrodaa dakavSirebuli bizantiis imperiisa da misi gavlenis sferoSi moqceuli qveynebis (saqarTvelo, egvipte,
eTiopia, mTeli balkaneTi, rumineTi, bulgareTi, ruseTi) istoriasTan.
am istoriuli procesebis ganuyofeli nawilia xatweris warmoSobisa da
Tayvaniscemis adreuli xana, xatweris sastiki davnis anu xatmebrZolobis
tragedia, ioane damaskeli da bizantiuri xatweris kanonis Camoyalibeba
da sx.
313 wels romis imperatorma konstantine pirvelma qristianoba saxelmwifo religiad gamoacxada.
330 wels konstantinem romis imperiis dedaqalaqi patara berZnul qalaq
bizantionSi gadaitana, romelsac konstantinepoli daarqva. am periodisaTvis ukve arsebobda msoflios didi qristianuli centrebi romSi,
aleqsandriaSi (egvipte) an tioqiasa da efesoSi.
bizantielebi Tavis Tavs romaelebs uwodebdnen, TavianT qveyanas romis
saxelmwifos, xolo dedaqalaqs, konstantinepols ki ,,axal romad’‘ moixseniebdnen.
dRidan daarsebisa XII saukunis meore naxevramde bizantia evropis
uZlieresi, umdidresi da yvelaze kulturuli saxelmwifo iyo. bizantiis
imperatorebi TavianT Tavs maSindeli qristianuli samyaros umaRles
suzerenebad Tvlidnen. nacionaluri Semadgenloba Wreli da mravalricxovani iyo, Tumca VII saukunidan qveynis umravlesobas berZnebi
Seadgendnen. IX, X saukunidan bizantiis SemadgenlobaSi aRmoCndnen serbeTi, xorvatia da misi gavlena gaZlierda saqarTveloze da mogvianebiT
- ruseTze.
bizantiis saxelmwifoSi saero xelisufleba yovelTvis saeklesio xelisuflebaze Zlieri iyo da imperias eklesiisgan yovelTvis ganasxvavebda
misi myari saxelmwifoebrivi da mkacri centralizebuli mmarTveloba,
rasac, Tavis mxriv, moklebuli iyo eklesia.
395 wels romis imperia aRmosavleT da dasavleT imperiebad gaiyo.
476 wels barbarosTa umZafresi Semosevebis Sedegad romis dasavleTis
imperia daeca da gauqmda. aRmosavleT romis imperiam, anu bizantiam kidev
TiTqmis aTasi weli, 1453 wlamde, iarseba da waruSleli kvali datova
msoflio kulturis da kerZod xatweris istoriaSi.
IV saukunidan kavkasia, mogvianebiT ki bulgareTi, serbeTis udidesi
nawili, kievis ruseTi, mere didi da mcire ruseTi bizantiis garSemo
gavrcelebul qristianul - marTlmadidebluri religiis saerTo sferoSi
moqca. aq, am sferoSi aRmocenda, ganviTarda da mTeli marTlmadidebluri
saqristianos mSveneba gaxda xatweris xelovneba, romelic Semdeg mTeli
kacobriobis kulturuli memkvidreobis siamayed iqca.
daarsebidan TiTqmis XIII saukunemde bizantia, romelic sam kontinentze,
evropaSi, aziaSi da afrikaSi iyo gaSlili, msoflios uZlieresi saxelm-
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wifos rolSi gamodioda, brwyinavda Tavisi simdidriT da msoflio kulturis erTerT TvalsaCino qveyanas warmoadgenda. bizantiis saxelmwifo
ena berZnuli iyo da imperatori ,,basilevsad’‘ moixsenieboda.
bizantiis samflobelo moicavda balkaneTs, mcire azias, sirias, palestinas, egviptes, aRmosavleT xmelTaSua zRvis kunZulebs, mesopotamiisa,
somxeTisa da yirimis nawilebs. bizantieli vaWrebi dakavSirebuli
iyvnen maSindeli msoflios gavlenian qveynebTan: indoeTTan, CineTTan,
ceilonTan, eTiopiasTan, britaneTTan, xolo bizantiurma oqros solidma
msoflio valutis mniSvneloba miiRo. bizantiis imperatorTa kari
brwyinavda simdidresa da fufunebaSi. bizantiis TiTqmis mTeli 35 milioniani mosaxleoba wera-kiTxvis mcodne iyo da am xalxis umetes nawils
berZnebi warmoadgendnen.
VII-VIII saukuneebSi arabebma da langobardebma daiwyes bizantiis imperiis Seviwroeba, Tumca IX-X saukuneebidan bizantiiis farglebSi mainc
moeqca bulgareTi, xorvatia, serbeTi, xolo saqarTvelo, bulgareTi da
kievis ruseTi bizantiis imperiis gavlenis sferoSi moxvda. VII saukunemde
bizantiis oficialuri ena laTinuri iyo, Semdeg igi berZnulma Secvala,
Tumca mTel imperiaSi Tavidan mainc berZnuli ena dominirebda saero
xelisufleba da saxelmwifo mmarTveloba mdgradi simtkiciT gamoirCeoda.
imperiaSi arcerTi religia, maT Soris arc iudaizmi da arc islami ar
idevneboda. miuxedavad imisa, rom uzarmazar imperiaSi imperatori, xelisuflebas erTpirovnulad ganagebda marTlmsajulebas, armias, Sina da
sagareo politikas, misi Zalaufleba RvTis mier boZebulad iTvleboda
da bizantiuri qristianuli samyaros faqtiuri mmarTveli imperatori
iyo. ucnauri paradoqsia, rom mas ar gaaCnda xelisuflebis memkvidreobiT
gadacemis iuridiuli ufleba. amitomac bizantiis karze gamefebuli
iyo gamudmebuli SfoTi, amboxi, mzakvroba da sisastike. bizantiis
imperiis istoria savsea magaliTebiT, roca taxtze asula erTi SexedviT
ubralo jariskaci, glexi, ucxoeli da a.S. yvelaferi mxolod imaze iyo
damokidebuli, Tu vin ufro metad iyo moqnili da moxerxebuli. erT-erTi
aseTi imperatori iyo leon III isavrieli, romelic jer mxedarTmTavari
gaxda, xolo Semdeg bizantiis imperatori.
leon III-is dros daiwyo wminda xatebis devna, anu xatmebrZoloba. es
procesi as weliwedze met xans gagrZelda.
8
bizantiis xelovnebisa da kerZod
xatweris ganviTarebis periodebi
xelovnebis ganviTareba bizantiaSi araerTgvarovnad mimdinareobda da
hqonda, rogorc aRmavlobis, aseve dacemis periodebic. xan progresuli
ideebi zeimobda, xan reaqcia mZvinvarebda. bizantiis xelovnebis istoriaSi
SeiZleba ramodenime monakveTis gamoyofa:
IV da V saukuneebi bizantiis xelovnebis ,,oqros xanaa’‘, romelic
gansakuTrebiT gamoixata imperator iustinianes dros konstantinepolSi
Seqmnil arqiteqturul SedevrSi ,,aia sofiaSi’‘ Tavisi didebuli mozaikebiT (532-537 w.w.). am taZars jvris forma aqvs, romlis centrSi gumbaTi oTx
Zlier burjs eyrdnoba. misi arqiteqtura da gamosaxulebaTa ganlageba
dedamiwaze uflis ganmgeblobis kosmologiur arss ganasaxierebs.
iustiniane I-is (527-565) drois bizantiis ,,oqros xanas’‘, e.w. ,,bizantiuri
renesansi’‘ moyva (IX saukunidan XII saukunemde). am periodSi Seiqmna markozis taZris cnobili mozaikebi veneciaSi da didebuli mozaika siciliaSi. am
periodSi Sesrulebuli uSesaniSnavesi xatebi dRemdea Semonaxuli aTonis
mTasa (saberZneTSi) da ekaterines monasterSi sinas naxevarkunZulze.
konstantinepolma gansakuTrebulad gaiTqva saxeli msoflioSi saRvTo
werilis Temebze ubadlo ostatobiT Sesrulebuli mozaikebiTa da
qristianuli xelovnebis sxva araerTi brwyinvale nimuSiT. Tumca unda
iTqvas isic, rom am periodis mozaikebs Soris mainc saukeTeso ravenaSia,
romelic jer yofili dasavleT romis imperiis dedaqalaqi iyo, xolo
Semdeg bizantiis imperatoris nacvalis rezidencia gaxda. imperator
iustinianes karze mozaikis xelovneba, upirveles saqmianobad iTvleboda
da mas saxeli swored san-vitales brwyinvale mozaikebma gauTqves.
meeqvse saukunemde, religiur Temaze Sesrulebuli mozaika bevrad
ufro dafasebuli iyo, vidre xis dafebze Sesrulebuli xatwera. amitomac
Cvenamde moaRweuli meeqvse saukuniT daTariRebuli xatebi umeteswilad
xis dafebze, cxel, gamdnar sanTelSi gaxsnili saRebavebiT, anu enkaustikis teqnikiTaa Sesrulebuli. meeqvse saukunis konstantinepoli Suasaukuneebis msoflio xelovnebis ganTqmul centrad iqca da mas baZavdnen
yvelgan: romSi, ravenaSi, nikeasa da TesaloniaSi.
es iyo didi sulieri energiis amofrqvevis periodi, romelic iRvreboda
mravalricxovan taZrebSi. gansakuTrebulad imZlavra RvTismSoblis
kultma, romelic VII saukuneSi konstantinepolis mfarveli da saerTod
xatweris erTerTi mTavari saxe gaxda. RvTismSoblis gamosaxulebis winaSe
xSirad mteric ki ukan ixevda. magaliTad, cnobilia, rom bizantiaze Tavdasxmisas, avarebma, ixiles ra maT win aRmarTuli RvTismSoblis xati, ukan
dai-xies da Tavdasxmaze xeli aiRes. magram xatweras da mis ganviTarebas
win, xatmebrZolobis mravali tragikuli dReebi eloda (726-843).
makedonelTa dinastiis dros, IX saukunis meore naxevridan X saukunis
bolomde bizantiis xelovnebaSi mimdinare aRmavlobiTi procesebi, isto-
9
riaSi, e.w. ,,makedonuri renesansis’‘ saxeliT Sevida. axali ayvavebis xana
bizantiis xelovnebaSi XI saukunis meore naxevarSi daiwyo, XII saukunis
damlevamde grZeldeboda da cnobilia e.w. ,,komninosebis renesansis’‘
saxeliT.
XIII aukunis 60-iani wlebidan, roca kostantinepolis marTva jvarosnebis
xelSi gadavida, bizantiis xelovnebaSi daiwyo da bizantiis dacemamde
grZeldeboda, e.w. ,,paleologiuri renesansis’‘ saxeliT cnobili periodi.
am gvianbizantiuri xatweris aRmavlobis dros Seqmnili xatebi, SeiZleba
iTqvas, Sereuli stiliT xasiaTdeba. am dros xatweris dasavluri
da aRmosavluri manera Taviseburad Seerwya erTmaneTs da rogorc
saberZneTSi, aseve mis farglebs gareTac garkveuli gavlena iqonia xatweris Semdgom ganviTarebaze.
xatmebrZolobis periodi bizantiis imperiaSi
istoria aRsavsea dramatiuli periodebiT, roca ama Tu im qveynaSi mimdinare politikuri, sulieri, Tu socialuri procesebi xelovnebis calkeuli Janris akrZalvis mizezi xdeboda. mravladaa imis magaliTebic, Tu
sxvadasxva epoqaSi rogor devnidnen, fizikurad an moralurad rogor
devnidnen mxatvrebsa da maT Tayvanismcemlebs ama Tu im qveyanaSi. am mxriv
gamonaklisi arc bizantia iyo. amis naTeli magaliTia bizantiis imperiaSi
erT saukuneze meti xanis ganmavlobaSi xatebisa da maT TayvanismcemelTa
devna.
rogorc aRvniSneT, bizantiis imperiis mTeli istoriis manZilze,
marTlma-dideblur eklesias faqtiurad imperatorebi marTavdnen.
eklesia Zlie-rebis istrumenti da saero xelisuflebis danamati
iyo. religiuri insti-tutebis mimarT saero Zalauflebis diqtati
gansakuTrebiT gaZlierda e.w. xatmebrZolobis periodSi, anu 726-dan 823
wlamde. am dros samRvdeloeba mTlianad imperatorTa daqvemdebarebaSi
aRmoCnda. eklesias saxelmwifos sasargeblod qonebis udidesi nawili
CamoerTva, xolo samRvdeloebas araerTi privelegia gauuqmda.
716 wels bizantiis taxtze avida leon III isavrieli (675-741). igi
guladi mxedarTmTavari iyo da arabuli eqspansiis pirobebSic ki SesZlo
bizantiis gaZliereba.
leon isavrielma gansakuTrebuli yuradReba qveynis Sinagan reformebsa
da maT Soris eklesiaze gaamaxvila. mas miaCnda, rom qristianul wminda
relikviaTa da xatebis Tayvaniscema crumorwmuneobas daemsgavsa da
qristianuli xelovnebis WeSmarit arss warmarTuli kerpTTayvanismcemloba Caenacvla. amitom gadawyvita xatebis Tayvaniscemis akrZalva.
marTlac, am dros qristianul relikviaTa Tayvaniscemam (magaliTad, wmindanTa nawilebis, nivTebis, xatebis da sx.) saRvTo sjulisa realuri arsi
gadafara. saeklesio ritualisa da sagnebisadmi qristiani morwmuneTagan
aseTi damokidebuleba iudevelTa da musulmanTa dacinvis saganic xdebod,
10
romlebic, Tavis mxriv, mkacri monoTeistebi iyvnen. leon III-em aucileblad
CaTvala imis imis demonstrireba, rom qristian morwmuneTa RvTismsaxureba arafriT ar gavda kerpTTayvanismcemlobas. nu dagvaviwydeba, rom
bizantiis imperatorebi saeklesio saqmeebsac ganagebdnen.
726 wels imperatorma bibliis sakmaod popularuli citata gamoiyena:
,,ara hqmne Tavisa Senisa kerpni, arca yovladve msgavsni, raoden ars caTa
Sina ze, da raodeni ars queyanasa zeda que, da raoden ars wyalTa Sina queSe queyanisa: ara Tayvani sce maT, arca msaxurobde maT’‘ (gamosvla 20:5).
xatmebrZolobas leon III-is mxridan sxva motivebic hqonda. sam kontinentze
gadaWimuli imperiis sxvadasxva rwmenisa da erovnebis mqone mosaxleobaSi
mimdinare mRelvare procesebis dasaSoSmineblad, iudevelTa da muslimanTa qristianul rwmenisadmi loialurad gansawyobad, leon mesa-mem
gamosca brZaneba, romelic, qristian mrevls, miwaze damxobil mdgomareobaSi xatebis kocnasa da Tayvaniscemas ukrZalavda. im dros, romlis
Sesaxebac aris saubari, xatebi kedelis gaswvriv, dabla, iatakze, specialur Ria yuTebze -–kiotebSi iyo ganlagebuli an ubralod kedelTan
iyo dasvenebuli. am brZanebis Tanaxmad daiwyes xatebis maRla, eklesiis
kedlebze Camokideba, raTa mlocvelT ar honodaT maTi kocnis saSualeba.
Cans aman xatebis Tayvaniscemisa morwmuneTa survili ver daaoka. amitom
leon isavrielma xuTi wlis Semdeg kvlav gamosca axali brZaneba, romelis
Tanaxmadac saerTod ikrZaleboda xalxis TavSeyris adgilebSi xatebis
gamofena. Tumca verc am ukiduresma RonisZiebam verafriT ver daaaxlova
iudevelni da muhamedis mimdevarni qristianebTan.
religiur Temaze nebismieri naxatis Sesruleba ikrZaleboda da maTi
umravlesoba an nadgurdeboda an iRebeboda. aseTma mkacrma zomeba mTeli
aRmosavleTis qristianuli samyaro SeZra. es procesi garkveul wilad
erTi mxriv semitur da islamur, xolo meores mxriv berZnuli xelovnebis
tradiciebs Soris arsebul winaaRmdegobasac asaxavda, ramdenadac iudaizmic da islamic adamianTa gamosaxvas raime saSualebiT krZalavda (magaliad qandakebis saxiTac).
imperatori Rrmad morwmune qristiani iyo da swamda, rom am qveynad
WeSmaritebisa da qristianuli moralisa dasanergad dadebiTi wvlili
Sehhqonda. saeklesio istorikosebs miaCniaT, rom leon isavrielis mier
xatebis Tayvaniscemis akrZalva da xatweris winaaRmdeg brZola misi
politikis Semadgeneli nawili iyo, romelic miznad isaxavda mTeli
bizantiis saxelmwifo - saeklesio sistemis reorganizacias. mas surda
saxelmwifos maRal eSelonebSi mokalaTebuli samRvdeloebis fufunebisaken ltolva aelagma.
leon III-is Svili kostantine kopronime (741-755) da SvilisSvili leon
xazareli (775-780) kidev ufro meti mondomebiT ganagrZnobdnen xatmebrZolobas, riTac ara Tu moabrunes iudevelni an islamis mimdevarni
qristianobisaken, aramed qristiani mosaxleobis umravlesoba aimxedres
11
da mtrad gadaikides. imperiis mosaxleoba orad gaiyo: xatebis Tayvanismcmcemlebad da mowinaaRmdegebad. es dapirispireba imdenad daiZaba, rom
xatewera saerTod aikrZala da sazogadoebaSi, isavrielis sikvdilamde
da kostantine kopronimes drosac, namdvili religiuri omi mZvinvarebda.
xatweris winaaRmdeg brZolam iseTi maxinji formebi miiRo, rom lamis,
mxolod gvirgvinosanTa portretebis xatva ar idevneboda. xatwera
mxolod Soreuli provinciebis patara monastrebSi SemorCa. samwuxarod,
ar mogvepoveba cnobebi Tu ra mdgomareoba iyo am mxriv saqarTveloSi.
korneli kekeliZe Tvlis, rom VII saukunemde qarTuli eklesia monofizituri
iyo da mxolod VII saukunidan miiRo qalkedonuri marTlmadidebluri
orientacia. es imas niSnavs rom VII saukunemde saqarTvelos taZrebSi
raime liturgiul gamosaxulebaTa arseboba gamoricxuli unda yofiliyo. VII saukunidan saqarTveloSi marTlmadidebluri bizantiuri
koncefcia damkvidrda. aman ganapiroba saqarTvelos saxviT xelovnebaSi
axali esTeTikuri msoflmxedvelobis Camoyalibeba. am droidan farTo
ganviTareba hpova qarTuli freskis xelovnebam (daviT-gareja, aTeni,
nekresi da sxv.) da unda vifiqroT, rom xatwerasac farTo asparezi hqonda.
vinaidan VIII saukunidan bizantiaSi xatwera TiTqmis asi wlis manZilze
(726 - 843 w.w.) idevneboda, xolo saqarTvelo swored am dros bizantiis
kulturuli gavlenis sferoSi iyo moqceuli, unda vivaraudoT, rom
xatmebrZoloba qarTul eklesiasac Seexo.
amave dros, miuxedavad imisa, rom aleqsandriis antioqiisa da ierusalimis
sapatriarqoebi arabuli okupaciis pirobebSi moRvaweobdnen, konstantinepolis eklesiis ierarqiul mmarTvelobas aRar cnobdnen, radgan xatis
Tayvaniscemasa da xatebTan locvas aravin ukrZalavda. cnobilia, rom
arabi xalifebi dapyrobili qveynebis religiur saqmianobaSi ar ereodnen
da es garemoeba maTi okupaciuri politikis Semadgeneli nawili iyo.
qristiani moazrovneni mixvdnen, rom xatebis devna did saSiSroebas
uqadda qristianul religias. naTlad Canda, rom saqme xatebSi rodi iyo:
xatebTan brZoliT, faqtiurad materialuri arsis sulierebis sferoSi
ganfenis SesaZleblobis uaryofa xdeboda. es ki qristianuli moZRvrebis
safuZvlebis sawinaaRmdego moqmedeba iyo. udidesma saeklesio moRvaweebma
daiwyes gamosvlebi xatmebrZolobis winaaRmdeg. miuxedavad imisa, rom
romis papebi bizantiis imperatoris qveSevrdomebad iTvlebodnen,
grigol meorem da Semdgom grigol mesamemac, brZaneba gasces aRar SeegrovebinaT bizantiis xazinaSi Sesatani Tanxa da bizantiis imperatoris
qveSevrdomebad aRar Tvlidnen Tavs. grigol mesamis am mowodebas mTelma
italiam dauWira mxari.
am dapirispirebas, gansakuTrebiT xatmebrZolobas, sapirispiro
efeqtic mohyva da bolosdabolos mTeli sasuliero xelovnebis, kerZod ki
xat-weris wesebis saboloo kanonizacia gamiiwvia. swored xatmebrZolobis
periodSi gansakuTrebiT popularuli gaxda am brZolis mowinaaRmdege,
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saxelganTqmuli Teologi, didi poeti da araCveulebrivi saeklesio
simRerebis avtori ioane damaskeli (675-749 w.w.). Tavis moZRvrebaSi
igi xatebis sakralur ilustrirebul enas, saxarebis TxrobiT funqcias
miawerda.
xatebis damcvelTa mTavar argumentad is garemoeba iqca, rom qristes
gamosaxulebis, anu misi xatis pirvelsaxed ara adamianis mier xelqmnili
nimuSi, aramed qristes xelTuqmneli gamosaxuleba iTvleboda. legendarul
tilos saburvelze macxovaris aRbeWdili saxe yvela im xatis prototipi
gaxda, romlebzec Semdgom gamoisaxeboda, rogorc ,,macxovari arqetipis
mixedviT’‘, anu adamianis xelTuqmneli suraTis Sesabamisad. ,,...me davangrev
am xeliTqmnil taZars da sam dReSi avaSeneb sxvas, xelTuqmnels...” (markozi
14:58). isavrielTa dinastiis imperatorTa mier xatTayvanismcemlobis
samocwliani akrZalvis Semdeg imperatorma konstantine VI da dedamisisma
irine dedoflma, 786 wels, konstantinepolSi moiwvies msoflios VII
saeklesio kreba, romelmac xatebis Tayvaniscema aRadgina, xolo xatweris
udidesma Teoritikosma ioane damaskelma, xatebis Sesrulebisa da Tayvaniscemis Teoriuli safuZvlebi Camoayaliba, ramac dasabami misca xatweris
kanonizaciis process.
ioane damaskelis mier SemuSavebuli wminda gamosaxulebis Teoriis
principebis Tanaxmad:
• xatze wmindanebi SesaZloa gamoisaxos alegoriuli da simboliuri
formiT.
• mxolod is movlenebi unda iqnas asaxuli, romlebic WeSmaritad moxda,
anu unda aisaxos wminda weriliT aRweril wmida mamaTa cxovreba.
• ieso qristes gamosaxuleba unda asaxavdes mxolod im periods, roca is
dedamiwaze moRvaweobda. ar SeiZleba mama-RmerTis gamosaxva.
• aucilebelia wmindanTa gamosaxva, radgan isini amSveneben taZars,
ucodinarT wignis magivrobas uweven da mogvagoneben maT mowamebriv Tavganwirvasa da Tavdadebas rwmenisaTvis.
ramdenadac xati ara suraTi, aramed wminda gamosaxulebaa, roca Tayvans
vcemT xats, Sesabamisad veTayvanebiT mas, rac xatzea gamoxatuli da ara
mxatvris ostatobas. aqedan: xati anonimuri unda iyos.
• xati saswaulmoqmedia, radgan Tan atarebs im piris RvTaebrivi Zalis
nawils, vinc xatzea gamosaxuli. amis dasturad ioane mogviTxrobs SemTxvevas:
roca xalifa eWvma Seipyro, rom ioane damaskeli bizantiis sasargeblod
jaSuSobda, ioanes marjvena xelis mtevani mokveTes. ioanem mokveTili
mtevani Tavisive adgilze daimagra da mTeli Rame locvaSi gaatara lukas
mier dawerili RvTismSoblis xatis winaSe. diliT mtevani Sexorcebuli
iyo majasTan.
am saswaulis aRsaniSnavad ioane damaskelma vercxlis xelis mtevani
Camoasxmevina da saswaulmoqmed xatze daamagra. am saswaulmoqmedma xatma
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dRemde moaRwia da igi saberZneTSi aTonis mTaze holadoris (hilardaris)
monasterSi asvenia.
ase Seiqmna qristianuli eklesiis erTerTi kanonikuri gamosaxuleba –
,,samxeliani RvTismSobeli’‘.
802 wels dedofali irina taxtidan Camoagdes da dagadaasaxles. xatebis
Tayvaniscemis aRdgenidan 25 wlis Semdeg ki, 812 wels bizantiis imperatorma
leon mexuTem xatmebrZoloba aRadgina da xatTayvanismcemelobas sastikad dauwyo devna, rac leonis memkvidreebmac gaagrZeles. ixureboda da
uqmdeboda eklesia-monastrebi, xdeboda maTi kuTvnili miwebis CamoerTmeva, xolo samRvdeloeba an sikvdiliT isjeboda an gadasaxlebaSi
igzavneboda.
842 wlis 19 Tebervals bizantiis dedofalma Teodoram xatTTayvaniscema
kvlav aRadgina. am movlenis aRsanisnavad, rogorc ,,marTmadideblobis
sazeimo kvireuls’‘, 843 wlis 11 martidan, yoveli wlis didmarxvis Semdgom
pirvel kviras mTeli saqristiano dResaswaulobs.
843 wels marTlmadidebluri samyaro zeimobda, magram es zeimi ufro
mwuxrs waagavda, vidre dResaswauls. xatmebrZolobisa da samRvdeloebis
devnis TiTqmis aswlovan perocess ukvalod ar Cauvlia: bevrma WeSmaritma
qristianma moRvawem bizantia miatova da emigraciaSi wavida. bevrma
maTganma beroba airCia, udabnos miaSura da moRvaweoba miuval cixesimagreebSi daiwyo. amis naTeli magaliTia wm. ekaterines monasteri udabnoSi, sinas naxevarkunZulze, sadac dRemde moaRwia xatweris araerTma Sedevrma, romlebic xatmebrZolobas gadaurCnen.
am dRidan, 843 wlis 11 martidan, mTeli msoflios, dasavleTisa da aRmosavleTis saqristiano saTanado pativs miagebs xatebs.
1054 wlidan dasavleTis eklesia struqturulad da ideologiuradac
aRmosaavleTis bizantiis imperias gamoeyo da romis kaTolikur eklesiad
Camoyalibda.
amgvarad, X saukunidan, bizantiis saxviT xelovnebaSi, kerZod ki
xatweraSi, sabolood damkvidrda xatweris dogmati - wmindanTa da
religiuri scenebis gamosaxvis mkacri wesebi da adamianis sulieri arsis
xatweris saSualebiT asaxvis mdgradi kanoni. ganzogadoebuli, sazeimo
simSvidisa da aramqveyniuri weswyobilebis esTeTikam mdgradi da ucvleli
xatweris Seqmna gamoiwvia. amitomac xatweraSi aswleulobiT miRebuli
tipi da siuJeti TiTqmis aRar Seicvala. bizantiuri aristokratiis Rrma
spiritualizmis winaaRmdegobam xelovneba ver gaiyolia gaSiSvlebuli
abstraqciis sferoSi. musulmanuri samyarosagan gansxvavebiT, sadac sulierebis sawyisis primatma materialurze saxviTi xelovneba geometrizmisa
da ornamentebis formebis dominirebamde miiyvana, adamianis gamosaxuleba
gandevna, xolo bizantiis, anu marTlmadidebluri samyaros xelovnebaSi
adamiani mainc mxatvruli Semoqmedebis centrSi darCa. xatebTan brZolis
Semdeg bizantiaSi kvlav antropomorfizmis ideebi damkvidrda.
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X saukunidan bizantiis xelovnebaSi, kerZod, ki xatweraSi, Tu SeiZleba
aseTi Sedareba antikuri impresionizmis nazi tonebis ufaqizesi niuansebis
nacvlad, dekoratiul sibrtyeebad dalagebuli mkvrivi lokaluri ferebia
gamefebuli, sadac moWarbebulia oqrosferi, mewamuli, lilisferi,
zeTisxilisferi mwvane da TeTri. amieridan feri mxolod mkvrivi saxiT
ganixileba da mxatvris movaleoba gaxda ara amqveyniuri realuri ferebis
asaxva, aramed simboliurad ganyenebuli kolorituli gammis Seqmna.
adamianis gamosaxuleba TiTqos sabolood mediduri ugrZnoblobiT (vnebaTuqonlobaSi) gairinda, romelmac dinamizmi dakarga da amieridan mxolod gansaWvret mdgomareobas ganasaxierebs.
msoflio xelovnebis saganZurSi, rogorc RvTiT naboZebi saswauli da
adamianis geniis kidev erTi gamovlineba, xatweris araerTi Sedevri amobrwyinda.
bizantiuri xatweris udidesi aRmavlobis xana
XI saukunis meore naxevari da mTeli XII saukune bixantiis xelovnebis
udidesi ayvavebis klasikuri xanaa. uneburad gvebadeba survili paraleli
gavavloT zustad am periodSi qarTuli xelovnebis yvela dargis arnaxul
aRorZinebasa da bizantiaSi mimdinare procesebs Soris. amaSi gasakviri
araferi araa, radgan qristianuli saqarTvelos xelovneba yovelTvis
mWidrod iyo dakavSirebuli mis mezoblad mdebare bizantiaSi mimdinare
cxovrebasTan. magaliTisaTvis: didi qarTveli mecnieris Salva nucubiZis
debulebis Tanaxmad XI saukuneSi ,,varlamisa da ioasafis cxovreba’‘, bizantiasa da Semdeg eropis sxva qveynebSi qarTveli beris, eqvTimes mier
Sesrulebuli berZnuli Targmanidan gavrcelda (bizantiis oficialuri
ena berZnuli iyo).
XI-XII saukuneebis bizantiis xatweraSi mZlavri aRmavlobaa, rac
gansakuTrebiT dedaqalaqis, konstantinepolis xatweris stils daetyo.
swored am periods ganekuTvneba bizantiuri xatweris Sedevri - e.w. ,,vladimeris RvTismSobeli’‘ (axla moskovSia) da grigol saswaulmoqmedis
xati, romelic amJamad peterburgSia. aq SeuZlebelia CamovTvaloT am
epoqis bizantiis yvela xati. aRvniSnavT mxolod, rom komnenosebis dros,
rodesac mudmivi omebi mimdinareobda da samxedro fena gaZlierda, mkveTrad gaizarda samxedro wodebis mfarvel wmindanTa popularoba.
mozaikebze, freskebze, xatebsa (gansakuTrebiT, mcire zomis samgza-vro
xatebze) da minanqarze ufro xSirad gvxvdeba wminda demetres (,,solunelis’‘), wminda Tevdores (,,stratilatis’‘), wminda Tevdore tironisa (e.w.
,,wvevamdelis’‘) da gansakuTrebiT wminda giorgis, e.i. meomari wmindanebis
gamosaxulebani. aqve gavixsenoT am periodis saxelganTqmuli qarTuli
minanqrebi wminda giorgisa da RvTismSoblis saxeebiT. sainteresoa, rom
Tu X-XI saukuneebamde Sesrulebul xatebze wminda giorgi gamosaxulia
xolme, rogorc qveiTi meomari, SubiT xelSi, XII saukuniis xatebze igi ukve
15
cxenzea amxedrebuli (ix. qarTuli minanqrebi wm. giorgis gamosaxulebiT).
am periodSi Taviseburad ganaxlda bizantiisa da mis arealSi mdebare
qveynebis monumenturi xelovneba da arqiteqtura, xeze, qvaze da spilos
Zvalze Wra da wignis miniatura, romlis gamomsaxvelobiTi roli xelovnebis erTerT umniSvnelovanes nawilad iqca.
bizantiuri xatwera, erTniSnad, mTeli msoflios marTlmadidebluri
eklesiis - saqarTvelos, saberZneTis, eTiopiis, serbeTis, bulgareTisa da
ruseTisa xatweris etaloni gaxda. sxvadasxva istoriul epoqaSi, rogorc
laTinuri dasavleTi, aseve musulmanuri aRmosavleTic, Zalian xSirad,
bizantiuri xelovnebis wyaroebs mimarTavda. bizantiuri xelovnebis
gavlena igrZnoba italiaSi, siciliaSi, kavkasiasa da balkaneTis naxevarkunZulze.
1204 wels kaTolike qristianTa jvarosnulma laSqarma kostantinepoli
daangria, xolo misi materialuri kulturis Zeglebi gaanadgura da gaZarcva. mxolod 1261 wels, mixeil merves dros, aRdga kostantinepoli, magram
droebiT.
uSualod bizantiis sazRvrebTan gaZlierebuli osmanTa imperiis uricxvi armiis orTviani alyis Semdeg kostantinepoli daeca. misi ukanaskneli
imperatori, konstantine XI paleologi, xmliT xelSi, konstantinepolis
galavanTan, brZolaSi daiRupa. bizantiis imperiam daamTavra Tavis
arseboba.
es moxda 1453 wlis aprilSi.
kostantinepols ki stamboli daerqva.
Tumca bizantia aqamdec ukve sulTmobrZavi iyo. mas Sinagan winaaRmdegobani, imperatoris karze da periferiebze gavrcelebuli politikuri
intrigebi RrRnida. bizantiam droTa ganmavlobaSi dakarga sakuTari
funqciis Sinagani mizezi – qristianulobis arsi. materialuri keTildReobisa da moraluri xrwnis winaaRmdeg brZolis nacvlad saukuneze
meti did energia sulieri simdidrisa da xatebTan winaaRmdeg brZolas
moandoma. osmanTa imperia ki Tavisufali iyo Sinagani daZabulobisagan.
bizantiis imperatorTagan gansxvavebiT, mis mier okupirebuli qristianuli
qveynebis eklesiis sasuliero cxovrebaSi uSualod ar ereoda. drodadro
bizantiuri mmarTvelobisgan gansxvavebiT ,,saeWvo dogmatebsa da borot
eresebs ar Txzavda. rac mTavaria arasodes ar ucdia marTlmadidebloba
sajaro garozgvisa da miTumetes eretikosta cecxlze dawvis saSualebiT
daecva’‘ (v. solovievi).
es politikuri xerxi bizantiis imperiis yofil uzarmazar teritoriaze,
qristianul mosaxleobaSi, islamis sazeimo da totaluri gavrcelebis
erTerTi mizezi iyo.
miuxedavad imisa, rom bizantiis saxelmwifo aRar arsebobda, bizantiurma kulturam udidesi gavlena iqonia momdevno saukuneebis xatweris
ganviTarebaze.
16
1551 wels rusulma orTodoqsalurma eklesiam daadgina, rom wlidan,
mTeli ruseTis saeklesio xatwera bizantiur maneraSi unda ganviTarebuliyo. eklesia xatmwerT avaldebulebda feofan grekisa da andrei rubliovis bizantiuri stilisaTvis miebaZaT.
XVI saukunis dasawyisSi kretas kunZulze berZnuli xatweris centri
warmoiSva. bizantiuri sakraluri xelovnebis gavlena evropaSic didi iyo
da amis naTeli magaliTebia Cimabuesa da duCios namuSevrebi, romlebic,
Tavis mxriv, florenciasa da sienaSi adreul italiur ferweras daedo
safuZvlad.
osmanTa mier bizantiis damxoba, saqarTvelos uSualod ar Sexebia.
Cans, saqarTveloSi gansakuTrebulad iyo ganviTarebuli TviTmyobadi
xatwera da xatebis Tayvaniscemis religiuri kulti. amaze metyveleben
is mravalricxovani freskebisa da ufro Zunwad SemorCenili xatweris
nimuSebi, romlebSic mkacradaa daculi xatweris uryevi kanonebi. saqarTveloSi gansakuTrebuli ganviTareba hqonda Wedur xatebs, razedac
xazgasmiT da sxvadasxva gamocemebSi miuTiTeben ikonigrafiis istoriis
Tanamedrove ucxoeli mkvlevarebi. saqarTvelos aRmavlobis Semdgom
saukuneebSi istoriuli movlenebi ise tragikulad ganviTarda, rom im
xatebidan TiTo-orolas garda aRaraferi SemogvrCa. qarTuli xatweris
Sedevrebia ,,ormoci wamebulis’‘ (XI s. mestia) xati, mTavarangelozi
gabrieli (XII s. mestia) da ubisis karedi (XIV s. Tbilisi).
aq unda aRiniSnos isic, rom gansakuTrebuli ziani qarTuli freskebisa
da xatweris xelovnebis uamrav nimuSs ara mxolod sxva religiis matarebeli
(islami da sx.) qveynebis Tavdasxmebma an Semosevebma miayena, ramdenadac
qristianuli, marTlmadidebluri, rwmenis ruseTis mizandasaxulma
politikam. es gansakuTrebiT XIX saukuneSi ruseTis mier saqarTveloSi
gatarebulma Sovinisturma, qarTuli eklesiis rusifikaciis politikam
da mzakvrulma mizanswrafvam ganapiroba.
dRidan aRmocenebisa, gansakuTrebiT ki mas Semdeg, rac bizantiaSi xatweris devna Sewyda, xatweram ara mxolod saxviTi xelovnebis saxe miiRo,
aramed xatis funqciam vizualuri Teologiis mniSvnelobac SeiZina da
saerTo qristianul liturgiis organuli nawili gaxda.
17
macxivari xelTuqmneli
tilos saburvelze macxovris aRbewdili saxe yvela im xatis prototipi gaxda, romlebzec
Semdgom gamoisaxeboda macxovari. “...me davangrev am xeliTqmnil taZars da sam dReSi avaSeneb sxvas, xelTuqmnels” (markozi 14:58). gadmocemis Tanaxmad, am xatze gamosaxuli macxovris
saxe misi miwieri cxovrebis drosaa Seqmnili im tilos saburvelis mixedviT, romelic ieso
qristem saxeze miifara. es konturuli naxati 944 wels konstantinepolSi Sesrulebuli
xatisa (daculia sinas naxevarkunZulze ekaterines monasterSi) da XII saukunis kviprosis
freskis mixedviTaa Seqmnili.
18
luka maxarebeli xatavs RvTismSoblis xats. es konturuli naxati Sesrulebulia XVI saukunis bizantuiri xatis mixedviT. luka maxarebeli iTvleba pirvel xatmwerad.
19
xatweris safuZvlebi
xatis vizualur Sinaarss, mis raobas, mniSvnelobas da arss yvelaze zustad qarTuli da berZnuli sityvebi gamoxatanen. qarTuli sityva ,,xati’‘
da berZnuli ,,eikon’’ aRniSnaven ,,naxats’‘, ,,suraTs’‘. slavuri ,,ikona’‘ berZnulis kalkaa da slavurSi bizantiuris gavleniT damkvidrda, sadac
saxelmwifo ena berZnuli iyo, droTa ganmavlobaSi sityvam ,,xati’‘ (eikon)
dRevandeli mniSvneloba SeiZina da mxolod xis dafaze marTlmadidebluri
eklesiis kanonebis mixedviT daxatul suraTs aRniSnavs, romelic RvTismsaxurebisaTvisaa gankuTvnili.
msoflio marTlmadidebluri eklesiis wiaRSi, saukuneTa ganmavlobaSi,
bizantiuri xatweris invariantis ama Tu im regionisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli
sxvadasxva stiluri nairsaxeoba Camoyalibda: qarTuli, rusuli da a.S.
calkeuli regionaluri saeklesio xatweris stili droTa ganmavlobaSi
icvleboda da xatwera sxvadasxva samxatvro skolis periodebiT gamoirCeva
(ase, magaliTad, rusul xatweraSi rubliovis skola, dionises skola,
uSakovis skola da sx.). xatweris SedarebiT bevri nimuSia gadarCenili
berZnuli (berZnul-bizantiuri) xatebis saxiT aTenis bizantiis muzeumi,
kviprosze, aTonis mTaze, sinas naxevarkunZulze da sx.).
xatis kulti meore saukuneSi Caisaxa da swrafi ganviTareba daiwyo IV
saukunidan. dRemde SemorCenili uZvelesi sakulto xatebis umetesoba VI
da Semdgom saukuneebs gnekuTvnebian.
xati SeiZleba ganxilul iyos ara rogorc RvTaebis gamosaxulebis
tolfasi suraTi, aramed ,,originalTan’‘, arqetipTan sulieri mimarTebis
simbolo anu materialuri samyaros nivTobriobidan, zebunebrivi sulieri
samyaros wvdoma.
Tavdapirvelad xatebi enkaustikis (gamdnari Taflis sanTelisa da
feradi mineraluri pigmentebis nazavi) teqnikiT sruldeboda. Semdeg
gansakuTrebiT XVII saukunidan, xatweraSi zeTis saRebavsac iyenebdnen.
xatweram gansakuTrebul ganviTarebas bizantiis garda bizantiasTan
daaxlovebul marTlmadideblur qveynebSi – saberZneTSi, saqarTveloSi,
egviptis kopteTsa da eTiopiaSi, xolo mogvianebiT (XII saukunis Semdeg)
ruseTSi miaRwia.
xati gruntisagan, saRebaviani da damcavi fenebisagan Sedgeba. xats
xSirad garSemo Semovlebuli hqonda liTonis an sxva masalisagan damzadebuli arSia.
pirveli fena, fuZe, esaa ficari, romelzedac gadakrulia qsovili. iyo
SemTxvevebi, roca xatis ficars ar akravdnen qsovils.
xatis meore fenaa grunti. ufro gviandel epoqaSi, roca temperis
garda sxva saRebavebic ixmareboda (mag. zeTis saRebavi), imis gamo, rom
gruntis dasamzadeblad ferad pigmentebs iyenebdnen, grunti feradic iyo
da mas asec uwodeben – ,,grunti’‘. magram roca kvercxis temperas vxmarobT,
romliTac iwereba ZiriTadad xatebi, grunti yovelTvis TeTria, radgan
20
igi TabaSiris an carcisagan mzaddeba. aq unda aRvniSnoT, rom tradiciul
xatweraSi mxolod kvercxis gulis wyalxsnaris emulsiaze damzadebuli
tempera ixmareba. arsebobs temperis iseTi saRebavebic, romlebic kazeinis
an sxva bunebrivi warmoSobis webozea damzadebuli, magram maTi gamoyeneba
marTlmadideblur xatweraSi dauSvebelia (xatwerisaTvis temperis saRebavebis damzadebis teqnikas qvemoT ufro dawvrilebiT SevexebiT).
xatis mesame fena saRebaviani fenaa, romelis Sesrulebisas dafis
zedapirze datanil konturul xazovan naxats TanmimdevrobiT efineba
Sesabamisi feri. es fena, xatze, gamosaxulebas qmnis.
meoTxe fena xatis damcavi fenaa. es fena olifa an sxva gamWvirvale laqia, romliTac ifareba xati. iSviaTad damcavi fenisaTvis kvercxis cilac
ixmareboda (gansakuTrebiT belorusul da ukrainul xatebze).
xatis garSemo xatisgan damoukideblad Txeli liTonis Weduri arSia
mzaddeboda da igi xatis irgvliv lursmnebiT magrdeboda. xSirad arSia
ara mTel xats, aramed mxolod mis nawils ukeTdeboda, magaliTad, Saravandeds. zogierT SemTxvevebSi ki mTeli xati, garda saxisa, xelis mtevnebis da
fexis terfebisa Zvirfasi liTonis WedurobiT ifareboda da mas Zvirfasi
qvebiT amkobdnen.
italiurad sityva ,,temperare’‘ saRebavebis Sezavebas niSnavs. temperis
saRebavSi feradi pigmentis Semkvreli emulsia aris wylisa da kvercxis
gulis an cxoveluri Tu mcenareuli warmoSobis webos wyalxsnaris nazavi
da zogierTi maTganis Semadgenlobas zeTsac umateben xolme. amdenad,
miuxedavad imisa, rom temperis saRebavis damzadebis mravalnairi recepti
arsebobs, marTlmadideblur xatweraSi ZiriTadad feradi pigmentebis
Semkvrelad mxolod kvercxis gulis wyalxsnaris emulsia ixmareba da
saRebavis Semzadeba uSualod xatvis procesSi xdeba. sxva receptiT damzadebuli temperis gamoyeneba tradiciuli xatwerisaTvis miuRebelia. temperis teqnikaSi Sesrulebuli naxatis ferebi mdgradia, ufro didxans
inarCuneben ferTa sixalases, vidre zeTis saRebavebi da atmosferuli
temperaturis cvalebadobasac ukeT uZleben.
xatis zoma damokidebulia mis sakulto daniSnulebaze. ojaxisaTvis
gankuTvnili xatebi ufro mcire zomisaa, vidre saeklesio ritualisaTvis
– kankelisa da kiotebisaTvis (kiotebi specialuri yuTismagvari CarCoebia,
romlebSiac xatebs aTavseben) gankuTvnili xatebi.
kankeli. kankelSi, samidan eqvs rigamde mravali xatis ganTavseba, wminda rusuli movlenaa da bizantiis, aseve saqarTvelos taZrebSi, rogorc
wesi, ar gvxvdeba (v.n. lazarevi, rusuli xatwera dasabamidan XVI saukunis
dasawyisamde, moskovi, 1983, gv. 32, rusul enaze).
tradiciulad, bizantiisa da saqarTvelos taZrebSi, sakurTxevlis
sivrceSi, dabal parapetze aRmarTul svetebs Soris, xatebs saukuneTa ganmavlobaSi ar dgamdnen. maT taZris kedlis gaswvriv ganalagebdnen. xatebs
amagrebdnen aseve gumbaTis aRmosavleTis sayrden svetebze an dgamdnen
21
RvTismSobeli. Sesrulebulia XVI saukunis kretuli xatis mixedviT,
31,75x23,8 sm. Saravandedis da xatis garSemo inkrustacia gakeTebulia mogvianebiT. originalis zomebia 32,4x26,6 sm
22
xatebis dasadgmelad gankuTvnil specialur yuTebSi - kiotebSi, romlebic
daniSnulebis mixedviT ormxrivic iyo. xSirad xatebs kankelis arqitravze
amagrebdnen, magram maTi ganTavseba ramodenime rigSi ise, rogorc dRes
rusul eklesiebSia miRebuli, ar xdeboda.
bizantiur da qarTul taZrebSi sakurTxevlis win, anu taZris sivrcis
mxares ukeTdeboda parapetis tipis dabali qvis kedeli (daaxloebiT 1,2m.
simaRlis), romelsac datovebuli hqonda sakurTxevelSi Sesasvleli. am
dabal kedelze idga mcire svetebi da am svetebze xis arqitravi, anu Zeli
iyo gadebuli. am Zelze idgmeboda qristes xati, misgan marcxena mxares
qristesadmi mimarTul mlocveli RvTismSobelis, marjvena mxares ki
wminda ioanes xats dgamdnen. xSirad es samive gamosaxuleba erT xis dafaze
sruldeboda, xan ki qristes xatis orsave mxares RvTismSobelisa da ioanes
xatebis nacvlad angelosebis gamosaxulebebs aTavsebdnen. amdenad taZris
Siga sivrce ar irRveva, radgan kankelis sivrce vizualurad gamWoli
rCeba.
rusuli kankeli (ikinostas) sakmaod maRali, xatebiT Sevsebuli Txeli
tixaria, romelic sakurTxevelis nawils taZris danarCeni sivrcisagan
gamoyofs da imis gamo, rom am tixaris simaRle mxolod sakurTxevlis
daaxloebiT naxevaria, amsaTavsoSi mimdinare mRvdelTmsaxurebis xma
mTel taZarSi aRwevs. amdenad, rusuli kankeli sakmaod maRali sibrtyea,
romelzedac xatebi saeklesio kanonis mkacri dacviT, ufro xSirad, eqvs
rigadaa ganlagebuli. bizantiuri anu klasikuri da qarTuli kankeli,
bizantiuri tradiciis Tanaxmad, ufro dabalia da meti sisadaviT gamoirCevian.
xatweris kanonebis Camoyalibeba
temperiT xatvis teqnika palestinaSi, egvipteSi da siriaSi Camoyalibda.
aq qristianuli xatebis Seqmnamde didi xaniT adre carciani gruntiT
dafarul xis zedapirze, romelzec winaswar gawebili qsovili iyo gadakruli, kvercxis gulisa da mineraluri pigmentebis wyalxsnariT gamzadebul e.w. ,,temperis’‘ saRebaviT sxvadasxva daniSnulebis ritualur scenebsa da portretebs xatavdnen.
qristes dabadebamde 3000 wliT adre, jer kidev egvipteSi, ieroglifebi,
sayofacxovrebo scenebi da portretebic xis sarkofagebze dakrul gawebil
da dagruntul qsovilze kvercxis temperiT sruldeboda. gruntisa da
temperis saRebavis recepti, romelsac sarkofagebis dasaferad iyenebdnen
da Semdeg xatweraSi ixmareboda, 5000 wlis ganmavlobaSi dRemde TiTqmis
ar Secvlila.
qristianobis gavrcelebisa da, Sesabamisad, xatweris ganviTarebis pirvel wlebSi es sarkofagebi da masze Sesrulebuli naxatebi ukve uZveles nimuSebad iTvleboda, romlebmac SesaniSnavad gauZles saukuneebs da dRes
xatweris teqnikisaTvis saukeTeso da saimedo magaliTs warmoadgendnen.
23
Tamamad SeiZleba iTqvas, rom xatebis winamorbedi nimuSebi egviptur xis
sarkofagebze Sesrulebuli naxatebia.
kvercxis temperis teqnikis xatweram dRemde moaRwia, Tumca zeTis
saRebavebis gamogonebam droTa ganmavlobaSi ferweridan temperis
gandevna gamoiwvia. Tavdepirvelad Seicvala gruntis Semadgenloba, romelSic daiwyes moxarSuli seli zeTis (olifa) damateba. XVIII, metadre
XIX saukunidan, gansakuTrebiT rusul eklesiebSi ukve tiloze zeTis
saRebavebiT dawerili xatebis gamoyenebsc daiwyes. aman mTlianad daukarga
xatebs maTi xasiaTi da is Tvisobrioba, romelic mxolod xatweris kuTvnileba iyo.
Tanamedrove xatebis Sesrulebisas avtori maqsimalurad unda cdilobdes marTlmadidebluri qristianuli eklesiisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli
tradiciuli teqnikis SenarCunebas da Tavs ufleba ar unda misces saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi
marTlmadideblur samyaroSi Camoyalibebul
ZiriTad kanonebs gadauxvios. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi ama Tu im avtoris
mier Sesrulebuli namuSevari iqneba ara ,,xati’‘, am terminis sruli
mniSvnelobiT, aramed – ,,suraTi’‘, romelsac SesaZloa didi mxatvruli
Rirebulebac hqondes, Tumca, vimeorebT, aseTi ,,suraTi’‘ veraviTar
SemTxvevaSi ver iqneba ,,xati’‘. aseTi ,,xatebi’‘ portretebi da syofacxovrebo
scenebi ufroa, vidre locavis ritualisaTvis gankuTvnili wminda sagnebi.
aseT ,,xatebs’‘ mlocveli ara saRvTo, aramed sxva, sulieri Secnobisagan
gansxvavebul materialuri grZnobierebis samyaroSi gadayavs.
samwuxaroa, rom XIX da ufro XX saukuneSi, jer ruseTSi da amis Sedegad
saqarTveloSic saeklesio cxovrebaSi fexi moikida e.w. realistur maneraSi
Sesrulebulma suraTebma – fsevdoxatebma, romlebsac araferi aqvT saerTo
marTlmadideblur qristianul xelovnebasTan. es sul ar niSnavs imas, rom
realisturi ferwera cudia da erTi meores ,,jobia’‘. aq saubaria imaze,
Tu ra aris da ra ar aris qritianuli, marTlmadidebluri xatwera. es
xSirad gaunaTleblobis Sedegi iyo da asea dResac. am SemTxvevaSi irRveva
saeklesio kanonebi da es xdeba mdare saeklesio, Tu saero ganaTlebis
gamo. saqarTveloSi am mxriv Zalian cudi roli iTamaSa rusulima samRvdeloebam, romlemac, gansakuTrebiT XIX saukunis meore naxevridan da
XX saukuneSi, mis iurisdiqciaSi Semavali rusuli eklesiebi dasavlur
kaTolikuri xelovnebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli (romelic, TavisTavad
evropuli xelovnebis udidesi monapovaria) an rusul realistur maneraSi Sesrulebuli suraTebiT gaavso. igive daemarTa qarTul eklesiasac, gansakuTrebiT mas Semdeg, rodesac ruseTma saqarTveloSi 1500
wlovani marTlmadidebluri eklesiis avtokefalia gaauqma da qarTuli
samRvdeloebis marTva ruseTis sinods dauqvemdebara. vfiqrobT garkveuli doziT es mankieri procesi dResac mimdinareobs qarTuli eklesiis kedlebSi da ufalma momitevos, amis mizezi, garkveul wilad, am
saki-Txisadmi zogierTi samRvdelo piris pasiuri damokidebulebac aris.
24
udidesi saeklesio moRvawis – ioane damaskelis mier xatweris qristianuli marTlmadideblobisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli kanonebis safuZvlebis
dacvis gareSe xati im saxiT ar iarsebebda, ra saxiTc Cvens epoqamde
moitana marTlmadideblurma eklesiam. am kanonebis gareSe, rac und mRalmxatvruli Rirebulebis mqone iyos religiur Temaze Sesrulebuli esa Tu
is suraTi, maT Soris – Tundac qristes an RvTismSoblis portreti, isini
marTlmadideblur eklesiaSi saTayvanebel xatad ar gamodgeba.
xatwera da misi RvTaebrivi produqti - xati, kacobriobis es genialuri monapovari, romelSic araCveulebrivi mxatvruli xerxebiTa da
simboloebiTaa asaxuli sulieri samyaros zebunebrivi Zala, gancalkevebuli movlenaa msoflio xelovnebis istoriaSi
V saukunidan bizantiis esTetikaSi uaRresad didi mniSvneloba miiRo
,,simbolosa’‘da ,,gamosaxulebis’‘ mxatvrulma kategoriebma.
didi kapadokielebi – filoni, klimenti da origeni bibliuri teqstebis
alegoriuli aRqmis tradiciebs agrZeleben. fsevdodionise areopageli
biblias simboliur ikonografias uwodebda. marTalia, bizantiis axa-li
sulieri kultura aRiarebda sityvis, logosis did Zalas, magram amasTanave grZnobda mis SezRudulobas, romlis dasaZlevad SesaniSnavad
gamoiyena sagnebisa da movlenebis gamomsaxvelobiTi Tvisebebic. amitom
uwodeben xatis gamosaxulebas teqstis ferwerul interpretacias.
bizantiel xatmweri uzenaes WeSmaritebas, ,,uflis winaswarmetyvelebas’‘ naTelyofda.
liturgiuli simbolo (gamosaxuleba) bizantiuri esTetikis mniSvnelovani kategoriaa, romelSic xatis kultis winapiroba iyo Cadebuli.
momdevno saukuneebSi, kerZod, xatmebrZolobis periodSi, bizantiel
moazrovneTa Soris gamosaxulebis areopagiulma koncefciam gansakuTrebuli mxardaWera pova. ioane damaskeli, romelmac gamosaxulebis Sesaxeb
areopagelis koncefciaze dayrdnobiT xatweris kanonebi Camoayaliba,
aRniSnavda, rom xati (eikona) uxilavis xiluli arsia, romelsac ara aqvs
moculoba (figura, garegnuli garsi), magram adamianis cnobierebis SezRudulobisa Tu arasrulyofilebis gamo, mainc sagnobrivad gamoisaxeba.
,,gamosaxulebis’‘ idea fsevdodionise areopagelis Teoriul safuZvelze VII-IX saukuneebSi Camoyalibda. am koncefciis Tanaxmad, xatis gamomsaxvelobiTi struqtura realurad momxdari istoriuli faqtis
TvalsaCino ilustraciaa. xatis aseTi interpretaciisa da sazogadoebrivi da Teologiuri aspeqtebis gamo VII-IX saukuneebSi bizantiaSi mwvave
kamaTi gaCaRda.
simbolosa da gamosaxulebis areopageliseuli Teoriis gnoseologiuri
safuZveli is Tvalsazrisia, rom dafaruli, ucnauri da uTqmeli RvTaebrivi sazrisi Tu sulieri ‘‘informacia’‘ zecisa da dedamiwis mijnaze
saxes icvlis da materialur gamoxatulebas poulobs.
fsevdodionise ambobda, rom materialuri da sulieri arsis mTeli
25
samyaro simboloTa da gamosaxulebaTa sistemaa, saidanac RvTaeba gamosWviviso.
xatweris kanonma cxadad gamoavlina gamosaxulebis siuJetur-kompoziciuri aspeqti, ramac mxatvris SemoqmedebiTi SesaZleblobani sulier amocanebiT SemozRuda. ase gaCnda xatweris mdgradi ena. amieridan mxatvarma da
Semsrulebelma mTeli yuradReba ara mTel gamosaxulebaze, aramed mis ama
Tu im formis niuansebze gaamaxvila. amitomaa, rom xatweris ena arsebiTad
ucvleli darCa da cvlileba xatis prototipis gamosaxulebidan odnav
SesamCnev gadaxrebSi iCens Tavs.
amgvarad, erTi da igive ikonografiuli sqemis bazaze mravali sxvadasxva esTetikuri informaciis matarebeli nawarmoebi warmoiSva.
bizantiuri, anu marTlmadidebluri RvTismsaxurebisaTvis gamiznuli
xatweris (ikonografiis) kanonebi, romlebic Tavis mxriv dionise areopagelis mkacri filosofiuri postulatebiTaa reglamentirebuli (533w.),
naTladaa gansazRvruli:
– xatwerisaTvis gamiznuli wminda werilis siuJeti.
– ama Tu im figuris kompozicia da proporciebi.
– wmindanebis saerTo tipaJi da gamometyveleba.
– wmindanebis garegnuli saxe da poza.
– ferTa gama da palitra.
– ferweruli teqnika.
yvela am kanonikuri wesebis Sesruleba aucileblad iwvevda da iwvevs
SuqCrdilisa da perspeqtivis geometriis ignorirebas. bizantiaSi
xatmebrZolobis periodis damTavrebisa da ioane damaskelis mier xatweris kanonizaciis Semdeg gansakuTrebiT mZafrad dadga ,,siwmindis’‘,
,,RvTaebriobis’‘, ,,sulierebis’‘ gamosaxvis saSualebebis Camoyalibebis
problema. swored ioane damaskelis Semdeg naTeli gaxda, ufro swored
dakanonda, Tu risi daxatva SeiZleboda da risi ara. gadasawyveti darCa,
Tu rogor unda gamosaxuliyo es yvelaferi.
teqnika
monumentalur xelovnebaSi gansakuTrebuli roli eniWeboda jer mozaikas (saqarTveloSi wromi, albaT – samSvildec, gelaTi da sx.), Semdeg freskas. dazguri ferweris teqnika iTvaliswinebda xis dafaze (bizantiaSi kiparisi, saqarTveloSi balamwara, cacxvi. ruseTSi naZvi, cacxvi) xatweras.
xSirad dafaze dawebebul Txel qsovilze keTdeboda TabaSiris an carcis
grunti, XIII-XIV saukuneebSi qsovilis nacvlad dafas faravdnen oqros
sifrifana furclebiT. am zedapirze naxati winaswar datanili konturis
mixedviT, adreul periodebSi gamdnar sanTelSi gaxsnili feradi saRebaviT (enkaustika), mogvianebiT ki temperiT, sruldeboda. rogorc adrec
aRvniSneT naxati sabolood ifareboda moxarSuli selis an kanafis zeTiT
26
an sxva gamWvirvale laqiT, xolo xats irgvliv ukeTdeboda xis, oqros an
vercxlis arSia, romelsac xSirad Zvirfasi qvebiTac amkobdnen.
xatweris teqnikis kanonikuri etapebi
xatweris teqnika sakmaod rTulia da miuxedavad misi TiTqmis oriaTaswlovani istoriisa praqtikulad mniSvnelovani cvlileba ar ganucdia. es
garemoeba mravlismetyvelia da imaze miuTiTebs, rom Tanamedrove xatmwerTa mier saukunebSi Camoyalibebuli xatis gamosaxulebis Seqmnis wesebis Tanmimdevroba ar unda Seicvalos.
cxadia xatweris teqnikam aseuli wlebis ganmavlobaSi nawilobriv saxecvlilebac ganicada, magram igi xatweris ZiriTad principebs ar Sexebia
da umeteswilad xatweraSi gamoyenebul masalebsa, maTi Semzadebis wesebs da xatweris mcireoden niuansebs Seexo. ase magaliTad ,,cvlileba
ganicada xatis dafis formam da zomebma, ixmareboda sul axali da axali
feradi pigmentebi, gaCnda freska (gamosaxuleba ixateboda kedelze kiriT
damzadebuli gruntis zedapirze), zogierTi xatebi TiTberis filebze
sruldeboda, xatis calkeuli Semsrulebeli cdilobda Taviseburad gadmoeca xatis calkeul formaTa niuansebi da a.S.
amgvarad, droTa ganmavlobaSi, mravalricxovan xatmwerTa Sromis
Sedegad Camoyalibda xatweris kanoni, romelic TavisTavad samuSaos
Sesrulebis ZiriTadi etapebis moTxovnilebaTa Senajers warmoadgens (dafis damzadeba, saRebavis, xatweris teqnikisa da teqnologiis gamoyeneba).
ganisazRvra, aseve, moTxovnilebani, romlebsac ama Tu im Temaze Sesrulebuli calkeuli xati unda eqvemdebarebodes.
yoveli tradiciuli xati, specialurad damuSavebul da dagruntul xis
dafaze, mkacrad daculi kanonebis Tanaxmad iwereba. damTavrebis Semdeg
ki igi moxarSuli selis, kanafis zeTiT an gamWvirvale laqiT ifareba. xati
etapobrivad iqmneba da yoveli etapi xatis momdevno elementis an fenis
Sesrulebas iTvaliswinebs.
xatis Seqmnis ZiriTadi etapebia:
1. safuZveli: xatis safuZvels warmoadgens erTi an ramodenime Sewebebuli ficari, romelic damuSavebuli da momzadebulia dasafaravad.
ramodenime ficrisagan damzadebuli xatis xis dafa sogmanebis saSualebiTaa Sekruli, romelic mas temperaturisa da haeris tenianobis
cvalebadobisagan icavs. dafa mzaddeba gobiseburad, romelsac Tavis
gverdiTa velebi da gobis Ziri aqvs. saxate dafis zedapiris gobiseburad
damzadeba niSnavs, rom dafis Suagulis 5-10 mm. siRrmeze amoTla xdeba,
irgvliv ki saSualod 5-dan 15 santimetramde velebi rCeba (nax). am velebis
sigane xatis zomebsa da mis daniSnulebazea damokidebuli. xSirad saxate
dafis qveda (Ziris) veli ufro ganieri keTdeba da masze xatis Sesabamis
teqsts aweren. 27
2. webos fena: gamzadebuli dafa cxeli, Txieri sadurglo weboTi an
Jelatinis xsnariT ifareba.
3. qsovilis fena: webos gaSrobis Semdgom dafas Txeli qsovili ewebeba, romelic Tavis mxriv isev cxeli weboTi unda iyos gaJRenTili. am
mxriv, dafaze dasawebeblad, yvelaze ufro misaRebia dolbandi.
4. grunti: saxate grunti (am grunts levkassac uwodeben) carcisa da
sadurglo webos nazavia.
5. mooqroveba, movarayeba: Tu xatis Sesruleba, konkretul siuJetTan erTad, movarayebul fons an sxva mooqrovebul detalsac iTvaliswinebs, vidre saRebaviT xatis Sesabamisi adgilebi daifarebodes, jer
mTlianad unda moTavdes am xatisaTvis gaTvaliswinebuli mooqrovebis
etapi, anu foni da Saravandedi, Semdeg ki dafaze mooqrovebis gareSe, anu
xatis siuJetiT gaTvaliswinebuli adgilebi ferebiT unda daifaros. umetes SemTxvevaSi mooqrovebuli zedapiris laqiT dafarva ar xdeba.
6. daferva anu ferweruli fena: xatwerisas tradiciulad kvercxis tempera gamoiyeneba. temperis saRebavi bunebrivi feradi pigmentebisa
da kvercxis wyalxsnaris emulsiis nazavia. 7. damcavi fena: mas Semdeg, roca xati mzadaa, igi gamWvirvale laqis
an olifas (moxarSuli selis an kanafis zeTi) feniT an sxva gamWvirvale
laqiT (mag. SelaqiT) ifareba.
28
figurebis proporciebi
xatSi ignorirebulia antikuri xelovnebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli proporciebi. mkvidrdeba maRali, mxrebSi viwro figurebi grZeli xelis mtevnebiTa da TiTebiT, romlebic cisken miiltvian. saxis, xelis mtevnebisa da
fexis terfebis garda, mTeli sxeuli qsoviliT, tansacmliT ifareba.
wmida simoni (Teodohosi) Cvili macxovriT xelSi. Sesrulebulia kretas
wmida maTiasis eklesiis xatis mixedviT, iraklioni, kreta.
42,5x16,5 sm. originali 99x32 sm.
RvTismSobeli da ioane maxarebeli. Sesrulebulia salonikeli ostatis xatis
mixedviT daaxloebiT 1371 wels. bulgareTi,
sofiis nacionaluri galerea.
39x20 sm. originali 89x60 sm.
29
saxis tipi da gamometyveleba
saxis ovali wagrZelebulia, Subli maRali, cxviri Txeli da tuCebi patara, Tvalebi nuSiseburi. gamoxedva mkacri da gankerZoebulia, wmindanTa
mzera gamWolia da mayureblisken an mis miRmaa mimarTuli. TvalebSi ar
Sei-mCneva raime anarekli. macxovaris, RvTismSobelisa da calkeuli
wminda-nebis xatebze Tmebidan moCans mxolod yuris bibiloebi da ara
mTliani yuri.
ioane naTlismcemeli. konstantinepolis
bizantiuri
xatis mixedviT.
inglisi, londoni, britaneTis muzeumi.
21,5x15,5 sm.
originali 25,1x20,2 sm.
garegnoba da poza
wmindanTa garegnoba, maTi tansacmeli, mdgomareoba (poza), romelic
unda gamoisaxos xatze, winaswaraa zustad gansazRvruli konkretuli xatis prototipiT.
30
gabriel mTavarangelozi. kviprosis wminda neofitos monastris kankelis XIV saukunis xatis mixedviT.
42,5x31 sm. originali 83x69,5 sm.
mxazvelobiTi perspeqtivis ignorireba, sibrtyis
xatva da moculobis aberacia, SemWidroveba
xatze moculobis gamosaxva mizanSeuwonelia, miuRebelia. winaaRmdeg
SemTxvevaSi yuradReba gamaxvilebuli iqneba ama Tu im wmindanis materialur, gansxeulebul arszeze misi sulieri arsis sazianod. amdenad figurebi organzomilebiania. amas xeli Seuwyo xatweraSi enkaustikis teqnikis
temperis saRebavebiT Secvlam, ramdenadac gamdnar sanTelSi gazavebuli
saRebavebiT (enkaustika) xatvis teqnika ferTa Soris TandaTanobiT, nazi
gadasvlis saSualebas iZleoda. amasTanave erTad, moculobis gadmosacemad (antikuri, jotosa da leonardo da vinCis ,,pirdapiri’‘, xazovani
perspeqtiva sapirispirod) ukuperspeqtiva ixmareboda. perspeqtivis
xazebi mayureblis Tvalidan suraTis siRrmeSi ki ar unda gadaikveTos,
aramed ukuperspeqtivis xazebis TavSeyris wertilima (zogjer ramodenime
wertili), suraTidan mayureblisken, mayurebelTan an mayureblis ukan
31
unda moiyaros Tavi. amdenad xatmweri xatavs da qmnis ara raime sagans,
nivTs, aramed am sagnis ideas (amis magaliTebs qvemoT ufro detalurad
SevexebiT). ara aqvs mniSvneloba, magaliTad,, magidis oTxive fexi unda
moCandes Tu ara naxatze perspeqtivis klasikuri an tikuri kanonebis
Tanaxmad. am kategorias araviTari azri ara aqvs xatweraSi, radgan
sagani unda daixatos ise, rogorc es mxolod RvTaebrivi mzerisaTvisaa
misawvdomi. anu mayurebeli mxolod sagnis ideas Wvrets. vfiqrobT, TandaTan gasagebi xdeba rubliovis ,,samebis’‘ ganumeorebeli, RvTaebrivi zemoqmedebis mizezic.
gabriel mTavarangelozi. aTonis mTis Cilindaris monastris
berZnuli xatis mixedviT, daaxloebiT 13360 weli.
23,5x16,5 sm.
originali 100x64 sm.
palitra, koloriti da SuqCrdilis ignorireba
fsevdo dionise areopagelis traqtatSi ,,zeciuri ierarqiis Sesaxeb’‘, romelic qristianuli Teologiis safuZvels warmoadgens, Camoyalibebulia postulatebi, romlebic xatweris zogad kanonebsac daedo
32
safuZvlad. xatis foni (rac xSirad sifrifana oqros furclebiT sruldeba), anu e.w. ,,Suqi’‘, RvTaebriv arsis simboloa. oqrosferi, RvTaebrivi
naTelia, TeTri feri macxovaris siwmindeze, mis RvTaebriv sidiadeze
miuTiTebs, mwvane – siWabukesa da sifxizleze, mewamuli – gvirgvinosanTa
Zlevamosilebis, xolo wiTeli – qristesa da wamebulTa sisxls aRniSnavs.
bizantiuri tradiciebiT Sesrulebuli xatebis oqros furclebiT
movareyebul fonze palitra garveuli wesebiT miRebuli koloritiT elvarebs, sadac yovel fers Tavisi adgili da daniSnuleba aqvs. bizantieli
Teologebi fers iseTive seriozul rols aniWebdnen, rogorc sityvas,
logoss. orives gadamwyveti mniSvneloba eZleoda adamianis sulieri gancdis gadmosacemad. ferTa simbolika xatweris filosofiis safuZvelia.
oqrosferi im RvTaebivi da zeciuri samefos naTeli sidiadis SegrZnebis saSualebas iZleva, sadac arasodes ar Ramdeba. oqrosferi TviT
RmerTs aRniSnavs.
mewamuli (muqi, odnav Svindisfernarevi wiTeli,) zecaSi RvTisa,
xolo dedamiwaze samefo feria. mxolod imperatorebs hqondaT ufleba
am feris melniT moeweraT xeli brZanebaze da mewamuli feris tansacmeli
da fexsacmeli etarebinaT. qristianuli taZaris ritualuri saxareba
mewamuli feris qsoviliT unda iyos gawyobili. zogjer igi zeciuri dedoflis, RvTismSoblis tansacmlis fericaa.
wiTeli xatebis palitraze yvelaze ufro SesamCnevi feria. igi siyvarulze, saTnoebasa da sicocxleze, aRdgomaze, anu sikvdilze sicocxlis
triumfze, gamarjvebaze miuTiTebs. amave dro xSirad es feri qristes
mowamebriobis fericaa. amitomac martvili wmindanebi xatebze umeteswilad wiTeli feris TansacmelSi arian gamoisaxuli.
TeTri RvTaebrivi naTlis feria. igi siwmindisa da sisufTavis mimaniSnebelia.
cisferi da lurji samyaros usasrulobasa da maradiuliulobas
ganasaxiereben. es feri, romelic zeciurisa da miwiers akavSirebs, RvTismSoblis ferad iTvleba.
mwvane bunebis, sicocxlis, imedis, maradiuli ganaxlebisa da siyrmis
aRmniSvnelia. amitom xSirad igi im xatebis koloritis Semadgeneli nawilia, sadac dabadebis scenebia asaxuli.
yavisferi miwis, gvamisa da droebiTi substanciis simboluri gansaxierebaa. RvTismSoblis tansacmelis mewamul ferTan erTad yavisferic
gamoiyeneboda, rac adamianis mokvdavobaze miuTiTebda.
Savi borotebisa da sikvdilis feria. xatweraSi mRvimeebs, rac samares,
jojoxeTsa da qvesknels aRniSnavda, Savad feravdnen. magaliTad, berebis
Savi tansacmeli gandegilobis, sicocxleSive sikvdilis mimaniSnebelia.
zog xatSi Savi feri saidumlosac gamoxatavs.
33
rux fers xatweraSi ar iyeneben, radgan igi gaurkvevlobasa (SavTeTris
narevi) da sicarieleze miuTiTebs. aseTi ferisaTvis xatis gasxivosnebul
samyaroSi adgili ar gamoinaxa.
RvTismSoblis mosasxami – (anafora) xSirad alublisferia, zogjer
– lurji an lilisferi.
qristes mosasxami lurjia, kvarTi (qitoni) – alublisferi.
minimaluri moculobis misaRwevad gamosaxulebis yvelaze maRali adgilebis gamoTeTrebas mimarTaven. magaliTad, am xerxiT (gamoTeTrebiT,
gamonaTebiT) miiRweva saxeze cxviris, yvrimalebis, warbzeda rkalebisa da
sxva saWiro detalebis Ria ferebiT amoweva da gamokveTa.
Camoyalibda wminda werilis siuJetebisa da kompoziciebis xatweraSi
dasaSvebi garkveuli wre. amdenad bizantiuri xatweris universaluri ena
warmoiSva, romelic kargad esmoda yvela qristians. Cans xatmebrZolobis
periods uqmad ar Cauvlia da Sedegad xelovnebis axali saxe warmoiqmna.
uZveles xatebs pirvelwyaroebad, anu ,,pirvelgamocxadebul’‘ xatebad
miiCnevdnen. isini religiuri xedvis, STagonebisa da ganwyobis Sedegad
iqmneboda. es pirvelgamocxadebuli xatebi Sua saukuneebis WeSmaritad
geniosi ucnob xatmwerTa qmnilebebia, romlebic Semdgom mravalgzisi mibaZvisa da kanonizaciis obieqtebi gaxdnen.
ra Tqma unda, saukuneTa ganmavlobaSi nebismier Temaze Seqmnili xatis
ikonografia garkveul cvlilebebs ganicdida, vinaidan TviTeuli xati iyo
ara ,,pirvelgamocxadebuli’‘ nimuSis absoluturad zusti asli, aramed
masze ama Tu im xatmweris sulieri samyaroc (talanti) irekleboda. magram
es variaciebi Tu gadaxrebi xatweris zogadi kanonebis, saerTo invariantis
farglebs ar scildeboda. erTi mxriv, gansakuTrebuli niWi Tu talanti,
rogorc wesi, erTeulebis Tvisebaa, xolo, meore mxriv, xatebze (miTumetes
karg xatebze) yovelTvis didi moTxovnilebaa, amitom advili araaa xatebis
wera da maTi aslebis Sesruleba pirvelgamocxadebuli xatis arsisa da
mxatvruli Rirebulebis gaufasurebis gareSe. aman ki imTaviTve biZgi
misca xatweris kanonebis Camoyalibebas. dResac saWiroa maTi zedmiwevniT
zustad aTviseba da Seswavla.
Tu vinmes es kanonebi xelisSemSlel dogmebad moeCveneba, misTvis Zneli iqneba am RvTaebriv WidilSi xatis damatyvevebeli arsis SegrZneba da
SesaZloa xatweris tragizmiT savse istoriis manZilze Seqmnili es kanonebi borkilebaTac ki moeCvenos. WeSmariti ostatisaTvis ki isini imave
daniSnulebas asruleben, rasac raindisaTvis abjarasxmuloba asrulebda.
cxadia xatweris teqnikuri wesebis Seswavla SeiZleba, magram xatis
sulieri da RvTaebrivi samyaros siRrmeSi wvdoma erTeulTa xvedria.
amdenad man, vinc xatweris Seswavlas gadawyvets, upirvelesad unda
gaacnobieros, rom RvTis mier mironcxebul idumalebiT savse samyeroSi
Sedis, sxvagvar ganzomilebaTa sferoSi gadadis da misi funjis yovel
moZraobas Tan uflis mzera miyveba. xatmwers unda esmodes, rom xatwera
34
RvTaebrivi saqmea da misi zereled keTeba RvTis risxvas gamoiwvevs. amdenad, xatmweri, vidre xatweras mokidebdes xels, eklesiaSi unda ekurTxos.
xatwerisaTvis saWiro masalebi
da mosamzadebeli samuSaoebi
1. xis dafaze uSualod xatis Sesrulebis win zedapiri saWiroebs Sesabamis damuSavebas. dafa upirvelesad gacxelebuli da Txeli xis weboTi
unda daifaros. xis webos nacvlad dasaSvebia Jelatinis xsnaris gamoyeneba.
2. amis Semdeg dafaze Txeli qsovili, dolbadi, narma an sxva msgavsi
qsovili unda daewebos. Semdgom gamSrali zedapiri webosa da carcis
narevi gruntiT unda daifaros. evropis savaWro qselSi am miznisaTvis
SesaniSnavi xarisxis gamzadebuli grunti iyideba. am grunts levkasic
ewodeba.
3. gruntis saTanadod damuSavebis Semdeg, roca zerapiri sarkisebr
sipriales miiRebs, am zedapirze naxatis gadatana xdeba.
4. Semdgomi procesa zedapiris Sesabamisi adgilebis, oqros sifrifana
furclebiT movarayebis win am mizniT damzadebuli, specialuri saRebavis
feniT bolusiT dafarva da Semdeg mooqroveba. bolusi mosaoqrovebeli
zedapirisaTvis damzadebuli saRebavis xsnaria, romelic Sezavebulia JelatiniT, grafitiTa da sxva minarevebiT. bolusis damzadebis wess qvemoT
ufro dawvrilebiT SevexebiT. SeiZleba saxate dafis mTeli zedapiris
oqros furclebiT dafarvac da masze saRebavebiT xatis Sesabamisi siuJetis Sesruleba, magram am meTods iSviaTad iyeneben da oqros furclebiT
mxolod xatis foniT mxolod Saravandedsa da sxva mosaoqroveblad gamiznuli adgilebs faraven.
5. mxolod amis Semdeg iwyeba uSualod feradi naxatis wera temperis
saRebavebiT anu bunebrivi feradi pigmentebisa da kvercxis gulis wyalTan
narevi emulsiiT. kvercxis emulsiis Sesabamis ferad pigmentebTan gazaveba
Sualod xatvis procesSi xdeba.
6. temperas ferebiT Sesrulebuli xati, rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, sabolood specialurad damzadebuli olifis, zeTovani an sxva gamWvirvale
laqis uTxelesi damcveli feniT ifareba.
7. ferSi daweril xats garSemo rCeba gobiseburi sibrtyis gverdebi,
anu velebi, romelsac 5-10 milimetris damreci ferdebi aqvs. gobis siRrme
(gobis CaRrmaveba) 2 - 4 mm-ia (naxazi 1).
naxazi 1. gobiseburi dafis ganivkveTi
35
saxate dafisTvis merqanis SerCeva
xati mxolod da mxolod xis dafaze iwereba. amitom upirvelesad xis
dafaa gasakeTebeeli, risTvisac am miznisaTvis gamosadegi merqani – xis
jiSi unda iqnas SerCeuli. Sua saukuneebSi Camoyalibebuli socialuri
tradiciebis Tanaxbad, saxate dafebs am saqmis ostatebi amzadebdnen. dRes
yvelaferi xatmweris survilze, SesaZleblobasa da sadurglo saqmeSi
daxelovnebazea damokidebuli. rogorc Cans, mxedvelobaSi iyo miRebuli
isic, rom xe bibliur sicocxlis xeze mianiSnebda. xatisaTvis gankuTvnili
dafa gansakuTrebuli wesiT mzaddeboda. misi damzadebis wesebi saukuneebs
iTvlis, Tumca TiTqmis yovel cnobil xatmwers dafis damzadebis wesebSi
Tavisi niuansebi Sehqonda, Tan ama Tu im mxariisaTvis damaxasiaTebel masalas iyenebdnen. magaliTad, berZnul, ufro swored xmelTaSua zRvis
regionebSi gavrcelebuli iyo xatwera kiparisis xis dafaze, ruseTSi –
Telasa da soWze, saqarTveloSi ki – cacxvis, ulpobelis (svaneTi) da balamwaras xis dafebze.
dRes dasavleT evropaSi specialer maRaziaSi iyideba sxvadasxva daniSnulebisaTvis gamiznuli cacxvis, Telis, soWisa da sxva jiSis xis dafebi,
romlebic savsebiT esadageba xatweris miznebs. es dafebi damzadebulia
specialur danadgarebze, gamomSralia xatisaTvis savsebiT misaReb donemde (8-10%; Zvelad mxolod bunebrivi gamoSrobis procesi erTi weli
grZeldeboda), ficarnagebi zedmiwevniT zustadaa Sewebebuli. maRaziaSi
nayidi dafa mainc saWiroebs Semdgom damuSavebas: saWiroa sogmanebisaTvis
budeebis amoWra, damWeri tarebis gakeTeba da a.S. saerTod saxate dafis
ficris Tvisebebi damokidebulia imaze, Tu xis romeli nawilidanaa amoxerxili am miznisTvis gankuTvnili ficari. es Sreebi naCvenebia naxazze.
nax. 2 naxazidan Cans, rom ficrebis gamoSrobisas maTi dabrecva damokidebulia imaze, Tu moris romeli Sridanaa esa Tu is ficari amoxerxili
xis umetesi jiSebs Soris ganapira Sreebi ufro teniania, vidre misi
centraluri nawili da xelosani dafis gamzadebisas am Tvisebas iTvaliswinebs. dRes es maRali teqnologiebis saSualebiT keTdeba, Sua saukuneebSi ki saxate dafis damzadeba xis jiSebisa da maTi Tvisebebis did
codnas saWiroebda. unda iTqvas, rom Zveli ostatebi SesaniSnavad arTmevdnen Tavs am sakiTxs.
moridan saxate ficris amoRebisas gasaTvaliswinebelia merqanSi Sreebis
ganlageba. naxazidan Cans, rom Srobisas ficrebi ibriceba kanonzomierad
da es damokidebulia imaze, Tu moris romeli Sridanaa esa Tu is ficari.
saxate ficris SerCevisas es garemoebac gasaTvaliswinebelia.
36
ufro gvian xanebSi xatebs ukana mxridan zeTis saRebaviT faravdnen,
rac metnaklebad maT merqanWamia mwerebisa da garkveuli xarisxiT dafis
tenianobis an SeSrobis cvalebadobisganac icavda. magram es meTodi, sabolood sasurvel Sedegs mainc ar iZleoda.
ramdenadac saxate dafisaTvis saukeTeso kviparosis merqani Znelad xelmisawvdomia, xolo cacxvi Zalian Zvirad fasobs, damwyebi xatmwerebisaTvis upriani iqneba qvemoTCamoTvlili ufro xelmisawvdomi
jiSebis Tvisebebis codna.
merqanis jiSebi
im xis jiSebs Soris, romlebic zomieri klimatis pirobebSi xaroben,
xatebis dafisaTvis upirvelesad aRsaniSnavia cacxvi. cacxvis ficrebi
msubuqia, naklebad aqvs rokebi da es mas gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas
aniWebs saxate dafis damzadebisas. cacxvis merqanis uaryofiTi mxarea
isaa, rom mas merqanWamia mwerebi etanebian. XVII saukuneSi mwerebis
sawinaaRmdegod specialur xsnarebs iyenebdnen, romlis Semadgeneli
nawili nivris wveni iyo. mecnierebi fiqroben, rom zogi Zveli xati,
romlebic dRes ukana mxridan Zlier TiTqmis gaSavebulia, imaze miuTiTebs, rom isini nivris xsnariT iyo damuSavebili.
kiparisi dResac xSirad gamoiyeneba xatebis dafebisaTvis. am mxriv
gamoirCeva Cveulebrivi, Waobis da levzonis jiSis kiparisi. kiparisis
ficrebi naklebad ibriceba, atmosferuli cvalebadobis mimarT mdgradia, gamoyofs boWkoebis Semadgenel aromatuli zeTebis surnelebas,
rac gansakuTrebuli Tvisebas aniWebs mas, radgan merqanis moyvarul
mwerebi aRar etanebian. amitomac kiparisis dafaze Sesrulebuli xati
dauzianeblad saukuneebs uZlebs da bevrma maTganma dRemde moaRwia.
kiparisis merqans bevri rokebi aqvs da es misi uaryofiTi Tvisebaa,
Tumca kiparisis xis dafebis damzadebisas, Tanamedrove teqnologiebis
gamoyenebis Semdeg kiparisis merqans konkurenti ar gaaCnia (rokebs amoburRaven da maT adgilas xis naWrebi Cawebeba xdeba).
alva: TeTri feris gulguliani merqani da birTvis Suaguli Riayavisferi aqvs; yvela WrilSi Cans wliuri rgolebi, xasiaTdeba rbili da
msubuqi merqaniT; Srobisas uCndeba mcire bzarebi. TvisebebiT alvis merqani cacxvs hgavs, Tumca Zalian rbilia da amdenad naklebad gamZlea dartymebis mimarT, ris gamoc advilad emCneva aseTi adgilebi. Tu gamovricxavT
mis am Tvisebas _ sirbiles, saxate dafis ficris dasamzadeblad cacxvis
saukeTeso Semcvlelia.
nekerCxali: aqvs TeTri, erTgvarovani merqani da abreSumisebri bzinviT gamoirCeva.
muxa: Zalian bevri kargi Tviseba aqvs. arsebobs azri, rom xatwerisaTvis
uvargisia, vinaidan gruntTan uSualo kavSiris gamo mikronaskdomebi uCn-
37
debao, rac iwvevs gruntis dazianebas. magram Semonaxulia muxis dafebzea
Sesrulebuli uZvelesi xatebi, romlebic dResac mdgomareobaSia. vfiqrob isini, vinc gruntis dazianebas muxas abraleben, uxarisxo grunts
xmarobdnen. aseve Zalian kargi xarisxisaa da gamosadegia saxate dafisaTvis
muxisgan damzadebuli sxvadasxva detelebi.
verxvi: rbili da erTgvarovani struqturis jiSia da mas merqanWamia
mwerebi ar etanebian. Tu merqanis janmrTel nawilebs saTanadod SevarCevT
(moris SuagulSi bevria fuye adgilebi), saxate dafisaTvis savsebiT
gamosadegia.
soWi: wiwvovan jiSebs Soris yvelaze msubuqi da rbilia, fisovani
Rarebi ar aqvs, rac saxate dafisaTvis metad saWiro Tvisebaa.
lariqsi: mkveTrad gamoxatuli didi muqi Suaguli aqvs, ulpobelia da
gansakuTrebiT yinvagamZlea. mravali rusuli xati lariqsis xis dafazea
dawerili.
naZvi da fiWvi: garegnulad erTmaneTisagan Znelad gasarCevia.
naZvs ar aqvs gamoxatuli Suaguli, mcire zomis fisovani Rarebi. msubuqia da rbili, SesaZloa maTi xatwerisaTvis gamoyeneba. fiWvs bevri fisovani Rarebi aqvs. naqurTeni Ria moyviTalo ferisaa. fiWvs, naZvsa da
lariqss yvelaze xSirad iyeneben saxate ficrebis dasamzadeblad, Tumca
gasaTvaliswinebeli, rom gamonayofma fisma SeiZleba Zlier daazianos
xati; aseTi defeqtis Sesworeba TiTqmis SeuZlebeli xdeba.
saxate xis dafis damzadeba
nax. 3 gamzadebuli gobiseburi saxate xis dafa xelis dasayrdnobi xidiT
mcire zomis xatebs Zvelad mTliani xis ficris naWrisgan amzadebdnen.
maTgan uZveles xatis ficrebs ki ar xerxavdnen, aramed moridan xis nawilis
axleCvis Sedegad amzadebdnen. amis Semdeg axleCil ficars Tlidnen da
Semdeg Suaguls amoWridnen. ufro xSirad dasaxatad dasamzadebeli ficris garSemo daaxloebiT 1-2 sm. simaRlis gverdebs tovebdnen da amitom
38
xatis ficari praqtikulad ar skdeboda. maRali gverdi ormag funqcias
asrulebda: xis dafas Tan deformaciisagan icavda da amave dros xatis
dasrulebis Semdeg xatze gamosaxuli RvTaebrivi arsis sazRvardebas,
miwieri samyarosgan gamijvnas mianiSnebda. xatmwers unda axsovdes, rom
xati yovelTvis samyaros zeciurobaze kosmologiur RvTaebriobaze miuTiTebs da rogorc kosmiuri misteriis amsaxveli sagani mudam RvTaebriv
taZarSi – eklesiaSi isvenebs.
mas Semdeg, rac bizantiis imperiaSi xerxis gamoiyeneba daiwyes, SesaZlebeli gaxda iseTi didi zomis xatebis damzadebac, romelTa simaRle
2 metrsac aWarbebs. ficrebs morisagan solebiT axleCvis meTodiT aRar
amzadebdnen, vinaidan SesaZlebeli gaxda morebis ficrebad daxerxva.
ase rom saxate dafas ukve Sewebebuli ficrebisgan akeTebdnen. rogorc
wesi, erTmaneTs Seawebebdnen araerTgvarovani struqturis ficrebs,
radgan winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi Sewebebis Semdeg ficrebi ufro metad
ganicdian deformacias. amas dRsac iTvaliswineben specialistebi xis
dafis damzadebisas. Tu adre dafis gverdebs Suagulis amoTlis Sedegad tovebdnen, dRevandeli teqnikuri SesaZleblobebis pirobebSi
xatwerisaTvis gamiznul ficris dafas gverdebze ufro maRali (1-3 sm)
CarCosebri Robura ukeTdeba, romelic deformaciasac akavebs da Tavis
kanonikur movaleobasac asrulebs.
nax. a
nax. b
nax. g
nax. v
nax. d
nax. e
nax. z
naxazze (nax. a, b, e) Cans Tu ra mimarTulebiT xdeba xis paketis deformireba, roca Sewebeba arasworwdaa Sesrulebuli. es rom ar moxdes, erTmaneTis gverdigverd Sesawebebeli ficrebi ise unda dalagdes, rom calkeuli ficris deformacis mimarTuleba urTierTsawinaaRmdego iyos (nax.
g). Zalian karg efeqts iZleva, roca paketis SuagulSi ganlagebulia ara
sworkuTxovani, aramed kvadratuli kveTis Zelakebi (nax. d). es meTo-di
am bolo dros iqna SemoRebuli da am wesiT damzadebuli dafebi praqtikulad ar ibriceba. dafis paketis calkeuli ficrebi, Sewebebis garda,
SeerTebulia sogmanebiTac, rac ukeTes Sedegs iZleva (nax. v, z). ficrebis
urTierT Soris amgvari dakavSireba rogorc Zvel, aseve axal xatebze
iSviaTia da ficrebs Soris sxva tipis sogmanis Camagrebas amjobineben.
39
ficrebis Sesawebeblad sadurglo webo an penqlorvinilacetatis
emulsia ixmareba. dauSvebelia epoqsiduri webos gamoyeneba, radgan igi
grunts Slis. Sewebebuli dafa specialuri mosaWeri WaxrakebiT magrdeba
da Semdeg Sreba Zvelad SeSrobis procesSi maTi TandaTan Sewnexva specialuri solebiT xdeboda.
xis dafis damzadebis mTeli procesis dros gansakuTrebuli yuradreba
eqceva rokebis mocilebasa da carieli adgilebis amovsebas. rogorc wesi,
rokiani adgilebi unda amoiburRos, xolo maT adgilas xis naWrebi unda
Cawebdes an naxerxisa da webos nareviT amoivsos. rokis datoveba saxate
xis dafaze yovlad dauSvebelia, radgan droTa ganmavlobaSi ficrisa da
rokis SeSroba araTanabrad xdeba (praqtikulad roki ar Sreba). amis gamo
roki misi konusisebri budidan gamoidevneba da amis Sedegad SeiZleba
xati ise daziandes, rom misi SekeTeba naxatis dauzianeblad SeuZlebeli
gaxdes. gasaTvaliswinebelia isic, rom ficris SeSroba rokis mimarT xatis
Sesrulebis Semdegac grZeldeba da xSirad es procesi xats imdenad azianebs, rom misi SekeTeba yovelgvar azrs kargavs.
amgvarad, xis dafis ficrebis Sewebebis Semdgom dafa saWiro zomaze
unda SemoiWras da mxolod amis Semdeg xdeba dafis gobiseburad 3 - 5 - 8 sm
siRrmiT amoTla (rac ufro didi zomisaa xati, miT ufro Rrmaa amoTlili
zedapiri). aseTi gobiseburad amoTlili xis dafebi iyideba rogorc dasavleTSi, aseve ruseTSi. maTi SeZena internetiTac SeiZleba.
sogmani
saxate dafis forma da zomebi damokidebulia imaze, Tu risTvisaa gamiznuli xati. magaliTad, kankelisaTvis didi zomis xatebi mzaddeba, xolo
piradi sargeblobisa da sxva saeklesio moxmarebisaTvis umeteswilad
mcire zomis xatebi ixmareba. cnobilia, rom droTa ganmavlobaSi sxvadasxva daniSnulebis xatebis forma da zomebi icvleboda. , rac dRes,
sxva monacemebTan erTad xatis Sesrulebis TariRis dadgenis erT-erTi
saSualeba.
mcire zomis xatebi erT mTlian ficris naWerzec sruldeba, Tumca ufro
xSirad saxate dafebi mcire da viwro ficrebis SewebebiT mzaddeboda.
yvela saxate xis dafas ukana mxridan sogmanebi ukeTdeba, romlebic, rogorc wesi, magari jiSis merqanisgan (muxa, wabli, wifela) mzaddeba. XVII
saukunidan moyolebuli sogmanebis Camagreba saxate ficris wiboebSi
xdeboda, XII-XIII saukuneebSi ki maT saxate ficris ukana mxares, maTTvis
gankuTvnil Sesabamis budeebSi aTavsebdnen, lursmniT amagrebdnen da Caawebebdnen. amgvari samagrebi, merqanis SeSrobisas gardigardmo deformaciis SemTxvevaSi, sogmanebs Tavis budeSi cocvis saSualebas aZlevs (nax. b).
CaWril sogmanebs
sxvadasva forma aqvs: ,,gamWoli” (nax. d) da
,,Semxvedri”. Semxvedri sogmanebis bude-Rarebi, gamWoli Rarebis msgavsad,
dafis bolomde iWreba. Rars ,,Semxvedri’‘ imitom hqvia, rom Cveulebriv
40
saxate dafas 2 sogmani aqvs, xolo Semxvedri sogmanebis bude-Rarebi
erTmaneTis pirispiraa CaWrili (nax. g). Cveulebriv Semxvedri sogmanebi
konusiseburia, romlis viwro mxare bude-Raris yru mxaresaa mimarTuli.
,,reliefuri’‘ sogmani zemoT aRwerili orisagan imiT gansxvavdeba, rom
dafis zedapiridan amoweulia (nax. a).
,,reliefuri’‘ sogmanebi xati uSualod kedels, cxadia, ver miedgmeba.
es ki xels uwyobs xatis irgvliv haeris Tanabrad mimoqcevas da kedlis
specifiuri nestisgan dacvas. ixmareba agreTve saxate dafis wiboSi
CaWrili sogmani, romelsac ,,wibos sogmani’‘ qvia (nax. e). aseTi sogmani
wiboze lursmniT an xis wkiriT magrdeba, romelic erT wertilSi ewebeba.
ixmareba dafis dabrecvis sawinaaRmdego sxva saxis sogmanebic, Tumca isini
umeteswilad XVII-XVIII saukunis Semdeg iSviaTia. dafis fiqsirebisaTvis
gamoiyeneboda agreTve dafis ficrebis SemakavSirebeli sxva formis sogmanebic, magaliTad, ,,mercxliskuda’‘ (nax. z, T). saxate xis did dafebs orori cali aseTi sogmani gverdiTa ficridan odnav moSorebiT ukeTdeboda;
patara dafebsaTvis TiTo calic kmaroda. erTi sogmani aucileblad dafis
SuawelSi ukeTdeboda, radgan winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi dafa ufro metad
daibriceboda. Zalian did saxate dafebs dabrecvis Tavidan asacileblad
sxvadasxvagvar sogmanebsac ukeTebdnen, magaliTad, or reliefurs da
orsac wiboebze.
nax.
a
nax.
b
nax.
v
nax.
nax.
z
g
nax.
nax.
d
nax.
e
T
saxate xais dafis damzadebis bolo etapia dafis zedapirze gobiseburi
Rrmulis amoTla, romlis siRrme 3-5 santimetria. praqtikulad yvela
Zvel xats gobiseburi zedapiri aqvs.
xatis sxva TvisebebTan erTad gobiseburad CaRrmavebuli nawilis formis, siRrmisa da gverdebis daxris mixedviT xatis daTariRebaas axdenen.
gobis zeda gverdiT nawilebs xatis veli hqvia, xolo CaRrmavebul damrec
41
gverdebs – ferdebi. maTi sigane sxvadasxva xatebze 3-dan 10 santimetramde
meryeobs. xSirad am gverdiT velebs, ferdebs, CaRrmavebul damrec gverdebTan erTad, sxva feriT gamoyofdnen. bevria iseTi Zveli xatebi, romlebsac qveda veli ganieri aqvT. am velze warwera keTdeboda. warweras
xSirad xatis wibozec akeTebdnen, xolo naxati (mag. angelozTa frTebis
nawili, Saravandedi da a.S.) velze gadmodioda.
rac ufro Zveli periodiT TariRdeba gobiseburi xatis dafa, miT ufro
ganieri aqvs gverdis velebi. gobiseburi formis saxate dafebTan erTad
mogvianebiT brtyeli xatebis keTebac daiwyes. aseT xatebs ukana mxridan
Zlier sogmanebs ukeTebdnen, xolo zedapirze wiTeli saRebavis ormagi
xaziT cru-velebs axatevdnen an mooqrovil liTonis qargas Semoavlebdnen. XVIII saukuneSi ruseTSi xatebma es cruvelebic dakarges, radgan
xatebs gverdebze rokokos an barokos stilis CarCosmagvar arSias
ukeTebdnen. rusuli gavleniT aseTi xatebiT saqarTvelos eklesiebic gaivso, rac TavisTavad araorganulia ruseTisa Tu saqarTvelos da saerTod
marTlmadidebluri taZrisaTvisac. am bolo dros, RvTis wyalobiT xdeba
xatweris WeSmaritad marTlmadidebluri tradiciebisa da kanonebis aRorZineba da maTsave bunebriv samyaroSi dabruneba.
xis dafis gawebva
Sesabamisi sogmanebiT gobiseburad damzadebuli saxate dafa xatwerisaTvis rom gamodges, saWiroa misi gawebva, Semdeg gawebili qsoviliT dafarva da dagruntva. dagruntvamde da qsovilis gadakvramde saxate dafis
gawebva aucilebelia, raTa carciT an TabaSiriT damzadebuli grunti xis
dafas mkvrivad SeeWidos da misi ganuyofeli nawili gaxdes. am procesis
dros weboTi iJRinTeba merqanis boWkoebi da, ramdenadac igive webo
gruntis Semadgeneli komponenticaa, dafis zedapiris gawebvis, Sesabamisi
qsoviliT dafarvisa da dagruntvis Semdeg mTeli zedapiri dafis struqturis Semadgeneli nawili xdeba. am mizniT, gawebvis win umjobesia dafis
zedapiri ar iyos priala da uxeSi zumfariT damuSavdes, ris Semdegac webo ukeT eWideba xis zedapirs. es qarxnuli wesiT damzadebul xis dafebs
ufro exeba, radgan maTi zedapiri prialaa da gawebvis win gansakuTrebiT
uxeSi zumfariT damuSavebas saWiroebs. amis Semdeg ukve SeiZleba dafis
gawebva. dafaze wasasmeli webos sxvadasxva fena sxvadasxva koncentraciis
unda iyos.
xis webo tradiciuli meTodiT mzaddeba: WurWels winaswar dambali weboTi wylian qvabSi vaduRebT. gruntTan webos fenis ukeT SekavSirebisaTvis umjobesia webos dasalbobi wyali gamoxdili iyos.
savaWro qselSi nayidi, ukve wasasmelad gamzadebuli xis Txevadi webo
uxarisxoa da saxate dafebze wasasmelad ar gamodgeba. webos damzadebisas
unda gaviTvaliswinoT, rom haeris tenianoba aris 12-18%. amdenad Tu
webos saSualo tenianobaa 15 %, webos koncentracia mSral weboSi 85%
42
iqneba. gamzadebuli webos minarevebisgan gasawmendad, umjobesia cxeli
webo ormag dolbandSi gaifiltros. es aucilebeli pirobaa saxate xis
dafebis gawebvisas. gafiltruli webo unda gacivdes, or santimetrian
mcire nawilebad daiWras da gasaxmobad dalagdes. gafiltruli da patara
naWrebad Semzadebuli webo idealuria saxate gawebvisa da gruntis
dasamzadeblad. Cveulebriv 15%-iani koncentraciis webos dasamzadeblad
1 naw. xmel webos 6 naw. wyalSi alboben, xolo 10 %-ianisaTvis 1 nawil
webos 5 nawil wyalSi ureven. webos dasalbobad 5-dan 14 saaTamdea saWiro. mxolod amis Semdeg ukve dambali weboiani WurWeli ara umetes 70
gradusamde gacxelebul wyalSi idgmeba da manamde cxeldeba, vidre webo
erTgvarovani siTxis saxes ar miiRebs. gasaTvaliswinebelia: sakmarisia
xis webo 70 gradusze meti temperaturis wylis WurwelSi Caidos, rom igi
uvargisi gaxdeba.
mizanSewonilia webos xsnari damzadebisTanave wavusvaT dafas. amisaTvis saWiroa 3,5 % webos xsnari. wasmis dros webo cxeli unda iyos da
wasmis procesi swrafad unda Catardes. cxeli weboTi dafa ufro kargad
iJRinTeba da saerTod jobia, rom webos wasmis win xis dafa gaTbes.
webo dafas ganieri funjiT esmeba. es procesic garkveul daostatebas
moiTxovs. webo dafis wiboebsac unda waesvas da gauwebavi adgilebi ar
unda gamogvrCes.
dafaze qsovilis dawebeba
dafis SewebvisTanave masze Txeli tilos, dolbandis, narmis an sxva wminda bambis qsovilis dawebeba xdeba. amisaTvis dafaze dasawebebeli qsovilis naWeri webos 15 %-ian xsnarSi unda Caidos. naWris zomaSi mis wiboze
gadasawebebeli qsovilis zomac unda iyos gaTvaliswinebuli. qsovili Tbil
weboSi 2 saaTis ganmavlobaSi unda iyos Cadebuli da dawebebis win odnav
unda gaiwuros. qsovilis dawebebamde dafis winaswar gawebil da gamSral
zedapirs gamTbari webos Txeli fena unda waesvas. amis Semdeg mas weboTi
gaJRenTili qsovili unda gadaekras da misi zedapiri maqsimalurad unda
gadaiWimos (gadaswordes) xelis guliT. Tu xis dafis gverdebSi sogmani
araa Cadgmuli, qsovili dafis gverdebzec (wiboebze) unda gadaikras.
qsovilis gadakvrisas, Tudafis kuTxeebSi moWuWknuli adgilebi gaCnda,
isini SeiZleba mWreli danis saSualebiT amoiWras. dafaze qsovilis
erTze meti fenis dawebeba dauSvebelia. qsovilis dawebebis Semdeg aucilebelia misi dafarva 10-15 %-iani webos xsnariT. didi zomis saxate
dafaze qssovilis dawebebisaTvis, Tu saWiroa, iSvelieben cilindruli
formis Reros, romelzedac webogaJRenTili qsovilia daxveuli da romelsac dafaze nelnela atrialeben. qsovils gverdebzec (wiboebze)
awebeben. am SemTxvevaSic zedapiri farTo funjis meSveobiT 10-15 %-iani
webos xsnariT ifareba. maSasadame, mTeli es procesi Tbili Txevadi webos
TanxlebiT sruldeba.
43
qsovilis dafaze dawebebis Semdeg igi saTanadod unda gaSres da mxolod amis Semdeg SeiZleba misi dagruntva. dagruntvamde xis dafaze qsovilis dawbeba aucilebelia, radgan droTa ganmavlobaSi Tu xes mikro
naskdomebis gauCnda, imis gamo, rom qsovili gruntTan erTad garkveul
welvadobis unars iZens, es naskdomebi xis zedapirs aRar acildeba da
naxatic aRar daziandeba. aRwerilia SemTxvevebi, roca xis dafis Zlieri
deformaciis Sebdeg mTeli naxati dagruntul da gawebil qsovilianad
dafis zedapiridan amZvrala, magram xatwera ar dazianebula. zogjer
dafis deformaciis Sedegad xatis nawilebi gruntianad amocviva, magram
qsovilis damcveli moqmedebis gamo naxatis zedapiri dauzianebeli rCeba.
dafaze gadasakravi qsovilis SerCevisas mTavaria qsovilis calkeul
Zafebs Soris manZili mWidro ar iyos, anu ara nakleb 0,5 milimetri unda
iyos. am mxriv kargia dolbandis an selis Txeli naWeri, Tumca xatmwerebi
sxva qsovilsac xmarobdnen.
gruntis damzadeba da saxate dafis dagruntva
grunti umeteswilad Tevzis xis webos 6-12 % koncentraciis xsnarze
mzaddeba. gruntis erTerTi mTavari komponentia carci an carcisa da
TabaSiris narevi. dafa gruntis ramodenime feniT ifareba da rogorc
wesi, yoveli Semdgomi fena naklebi koncentraciisaa, e.i. ufro Txelia,
vidre wina. zog specialists miaCnia, rom mxolod carcze damzadebuli
gruntia saukeTeso. garkveul pirobebSi (sineste, zedmeti sicxe da sx) TabaSirnarevi grunti ifSvneba, Tanac aseTi grunti gaprialebis Semdgom
arc ise TeTria, rogorc carcisa. amasTanave carcis gruntze sarkisebri
gaprialebuli zedapiri miiReba, xolo TabaSirnarevi gruntis zedapiri
ki mqrqalia. zogi ostati dafaze jer TabaSirnarev grunts usvams, xolo
Semdeg carcis gruntiT faravs. amgvarad gruntis Semdgomi fenebisaTvis
ufro myari safuZveli iqmneba da aseT grunts xatweraSi xSirad iyeneben.
grunti webosa da gamasqelebelis (TabaSiri, carci) narevia. narevi
araJaniviT Txeli unda iyos. gruntis raodenoba daaxloebiT 100 sm2-ze
35 ml-ia. iyideba sxvadasxva tipisa da daniSnulebis SesaniSnavad gamzadebuli gruntis xsnarebi, romlebic kargad prialebs da qaRaldis
siTeTre aqvs. gruntis wasasmelad farTo saglesi an uxeSi funji gamoiyeneba. cxadia, rom grunti saxate dafis kargad gamSral zedapirs unda
waesvas, romelzedac ukve gadakrulia saTanado qsovili. gamocdili
xatmweri saWiro raodenobis grunts pirdapir dafis zedapirze asxams
da amis Semdeg zedapirze TandaTan asworebs. gruntis pirveli fena gansakuTrebiT Txeli unda iyos. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba grunti
Srobisas daskdes. gruntis normaluri fena daaxloebiT 1 mm-s ar aRemateba. gruntis gansakuTrebiT pirveli fenis wasmis Semdeg saWiroa
wasmul zedapirs xelis guli gadavusvaT. es saukeTeso meTodia wasmul
gruntSi darCenili haeris gamosavlenad. gruntis yoveli Semdgomi fena
44
umjobesia wina fenis odnav SeSrobis Semdgom wavusvaT, radgan gruntis
qveda gamSrali fena intensiurad iwyebs axali fenis nestis Sesrutvas,
es ki cudad moqmedebs axladwasmul fenaze. gaSrobis Semdeg aseTi fena
ifSvneba. amitom umjobesia yoveli Semdegi fena winas odnav SeSrobis Semdeg wavusvaT. imisda mixedviT, Tu ramdenad Txelia yoveli Semdgomi fena,
gruntis 6-8 fenas usvamen. amasTanave yoveli Semdgomi fenis wasmis win
gruntis xsnars cotaodeni wyali unda daematos. gruntis pirveli fenis
Semdgom wasmuli fenebi, Tu sakmaod Txevadia, wasmis Semdeg gruntis es
fena TavisTavad swordeba. saerTod grunti wasmis Semdeg male Sreba da
erT wuTSi sqeldeba. amitom mis wasmas garkveuli varjiSi da gamocdileba
sWirdeba. dafaze gruntis wasmamde jobia iaffasian xis patara dafaze
ivarjiSoT da mxolod amis Semdeg SeudgeT dafis dagruntvas. yvela damwyebi xatmweri tipiur Secdomas uSvebs da gruntis sqel fenas akeTebs.
droTa ganmavlobaSi amis gamo grunti araTanabrad Sreba da bolos –
skdeba.
aucilebeli xelsawyoebi
gruntis wasasmelad saWiroa liTonis an plastmasis saglesi. dafaze
saglesiT wasmuli gruntis momdevno fenebi SeiZleba farTo uxeSi funjiT
daifaros. am process garkveuli daostateba Wirdeba, raTa dagruntul
zedapirze haeris umciresi buStebic ki ar darCes. saWiroa agreTve zedmiwevniT galesili dana dagruntul zedapirze uswormasworo adgilebis
gasasworeblad. gruntis wasmis Semdeg saWiroa uswormasworo adgilebis
gasworeba pemzis an uxeSi zumfaras meSveobiT. pemza umjobesia wyalSi
dasveldes da ise waesvas ukve odnav SemSral gruntis fenas. pemza wasmul
gruntze brunviTi moZraobiT unda vusvaT, rac karg efeqts iZleva da
idealurad asworebs dagruntul zedapirs. amave mizniT ixmareba agreTve
sxvadasxva tipis zumfara. kerZod, zumfaras dasvelebul furcels xis
mcire oTxkuTxa naWers Semoakraven da dagruntul zedapirs wriuli
moZraobiT asworeben. drogamoSvebiT saWiro xdeba carciani pemzis an
zumfaris amorecxva wyliT. yoveli fenis gaxexvidan 10-15 wuTis Semdeg
ukve SeiZleba gruntis momdevno fenis iseve wasma da gaxexva imdagvaradve,
rogorc amas wina fenebis gaxexvisas vakeTebdiT. amgvarad wasmuli gruntis
fenaTa saerTo sisqe sabolood 3-4 mm aRwevs. dagruntuli zedapiris
pemziT an uxeSi zumfariT gasworebis dros zedapiri ki swordeba, magram
mas aSkarad emCneva pemzis an zumfaris kvali. amitom saboloo fenis wasmisa
da gaxexvis Semdeg xdeba dagruntuli zeda fenis saSualo, mcire zomis da
bolos – nulovani zumfariT gaxexva da gaprialeba. yvela es procesi wylis
meSveobiT sruldeba. Tu es procedura gulmodgined Sesrulda, saxate
dafas sabolood axali roialis TeTri klaviSebis an umaRlesi xarisxis
priala qaRaldis msgavsi sarkisebri zedapiri eqneba. dagruntuli da
ase gaprialebuli saxate dafis zedapiri sufTa Salis CvriT unda gaiw-
45
mindos. umjobesia merinosis cxvris bewviani tyavis naWeri. saxate dafis
dagruntvis procesze aq detalurad imitom SevCerdiT, rom kargad
dagruntul da gaprialebul zedapirze xatis Sesruleba ufro advili da
sasiamovnoa.
dafaze naxatis gadatana da naxatis mooqroveba
yvela zemoTaRwerili procesis Catarebis Semdeg Cvens win iSleba
qaTqaTa, TeTri da sarkesaviT priala zedapiri, romelzec saRebavebis
saSualebiT SeiZleba avsaxoT Cveni sulieri damokidebuleba RvTaebrivi
samyarosadmi. ara mxolod xatebTan urTierTobisas, aramed xatwerisaTvis
saukuneTa ganmavlobaSi Camoyalibebuli wesebis Seswavlis meSveobiT saSualeba gveZleva am RvTaebrivi samyaros Semadgenel nawilad vigrZnoT
Tavi. amitomac vcdilobT xatweris Seswavlas da misi zebunebrivi arsis
wvdomas.
xatwera Zlier gansxvavdeba dazguri, gansakuTrebiT Tanamedrove, ferwerisagan. iyo dro, roca dasavleTis (Semdgom kaTolikur) eklesiaSi
xatwera ferwerasTan iyo gaigivebuli da gansakuTrebiT maSin, roca
ferweraSi jer kidev mxolod kvercxis emulsiaze damzadebuli temperis
saRebavebi ixmareboda.
xatis ferebSi Sesrulebas win uZRvis gaprialebuli gruntis zedapirze
naxatis konturebis moxazva. amisaTvis gamosaxuleba originaluri xatis
reproduqciidan an raime sxva wyarodan jer kalkaze unda gadavitanoT.
20
am wigns Tan erTvis saukuneTa ganmavlobaSi marTlmadideblur saqristianoSi Camoyalibebuli uZvelesi kanonikuri xatebis konturuli naxatebi, romelTa jer kalkaze, xolo Semdgom xatisaTvis gankuTvnil dagruntul zedapirze gadatana umartivesi saqmea. am procesis Sesruleba
xatvis anabanaa da mas aq ar SevexebiT.
xatweris istoriis adreul etapzeve Seiqmna kanonikuri xatebis konturuli naxatebi, anu pirvelwyarodan specialuri teqnikuri xerxebiT gadaRebuli aslebi, romlebic saeklesio sacavebSi dRemde inaxeba. ruseTSi
cnobilia bolSakovis, stroganovis, gurianovskis, bizantiuri, kievpeCoris da sxva konturuli naxatebis koleqciebi. kanonikuri naxatebis
mcireodeni koleqcia saqarTvelos eparqiaSic arsebobs. uZvelesi bizantiuri koleqcia jer kidev 980 wels Seiqmna. am koleqciebsac unda vumadlodeT, rom xatis saxe, Sinaarsi da stili saukunidan saukuneebamde ar
icvleboda, maTi kompoziciebi mkacrad kanonikuri iyo da yoveli xatmweri Tavs valdebulad Tvlida daecva wesi da rigi. cxadia, yvela xazovani
naxatis kompozicia araa da verc iqneboda erTnairi xarisxis. bevri maTgani
gansxvavdeba kidec originalebisagan.
dRes araviTar sirTules ar warmoadgens ama Tu im xatis dedaniseuli
konturuli naxatis Sovna. arsebob saTanado gamocemebic da garda amisa
xatweris sxvadasxva saxelmZRvaneloebs Tan axlavT sxvadasxva uZvelesi
46
amaRleba. konturuli naxati
47
amaRleba. XIV saukunis bizantiuri xati (savaraudod konstantinepolidan). stilisturad
emTxveva makedoniis galereis “amaRlebis” xats. inaxeba hiustonis menilis muzeumSi
48
xatis zusti konturuli naxatebi. aseTi konturuli naxatebi internetis
saSualebiTacaa xelmisawvdomi.
dagruntul dafaze originaluri xatis zusti SavTeTri aslis gadasatanad ise, rom milimetris meaTedebSic ki dacul iqnas dednis TviTeuli
~wvrilmani~, garkveuli teqnikuri procesi unda Catardes:
amisaTvis unda gamoiwuros Zveli niori da wveni boTlSi SevinaxoT.
umjobesia, Tu nivris wvens dolbandSi gavfiltravT da ise SevinaxavT.
Semdgom nivris es wveni kidev dagvWirdeba xatis mooqrovili detalebis
SesrulebisTvisac.
garda amisa unda damzaddes ludis koncentrati. amisaTvis 0,5 boTli
unda CavdoT wylian qvabSi, romelic unda vaduRoT nel cecxlze manam,
vidre ar miviRebT ludis sqel, Taflisebur masas, romelic amave dros
unda iwelebodes. am process 4-6 saaTi dasWirdeba. es masa inaxeba boTlSi,
romelic, nivris wvenis boTlisagan gansxvavebiT. maincdamainc germetiul
daxurvas aRar saWiroebs. SeiZleba zedmetad gasqelebuli nivris wvenis
da naduRi ludis nazavis wyliT odnav gaTxiereba.
xatis aslis gadasaRebad saWiroa agreTve kvercxis emulsiac. amisaTvis
kvercxis guli cilianad unda aiTqvifos, ise rom qafi ar moiyenos. amis
Semdgom saWiro raodenobis Savi mineraluri pigmenti (mWvartli an damwvari Zvali) Sesabamisi saglesiT unda gaixsnas (priala marmarilos
an minis naWerze) TaflTan, nivris wvenTan da ludis koncentrirebuli
naduRTan erTad.
am mza Savi saRebaviT unda daifaros rogorc xatis ama Tu im detalis
konturebi, aseve Sesabamisi sibrtyeebic. manamde ki, vidre xatis gamosaxulebamis sibrtyeebsa da konturebs winaswar gamzadebuli Savi saRebaviT davfaravdeT, gadasaxati xatis zedapiri kvercxis emulsiiT unda
daifaros. rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, kvercxis emulsiis dasamzadeblad
kvercxis guli cilianad unda aiTqvifos ise, rom am emulsiam rac SeiZleba
naklebi qafi moiyenos. kvercxis emulsia gaSreba Tu ara xatze, Taflis,
nivris wvenisa da ludis naduRiT gamzadebuli Savi saRebaviT pirdapir
am mSral emulsiaze xatis zedmiwevniT zusti naxati-asli, anu konturebi
unda gakeTdes. konturis Sesrulebisas gansakuTrebuli yuradReba eqceva
imas, rom maqsimalurad zustad iqnas daculi dednis yoveli detalis, maT
Soris – konturis xazebis sxvadasxva sisqis zomebi.
winaswar unda movimzadoT xatis zomaze gamoWrili TeTri qaRaldis
furceli. amis Semdeg xatis zedapirze wasmuli kvercxis cilis emulsia
piris orTqliT unda SevaTboT, ise rom xatze winaswar ukve Sesrulebuli
naxati-aslis konturebi SesamCnevad webovani gaxdes. gamoWrili qaRaldi Zalian swrafad unda davafinoT xats da qaRaldi xelis guliT maqsimalurad unda gadavasworoT naxat-aslze. amis Semdeg xatidan aseve
frTxilad unda movxsniT qaRaldi, romelzec gadatanili aRmoCndeba Savi
konturebi. am procesis Semdeg aucilebelia, rom dedani xatidan sveli da
Tbili nazi qsoviliT kvercxis emulsia gadairecxos.
49
qaRaldze miRebuli naxati mxolod originalis negativia. amitom am
qaRaldidan naxati imave Savi saRebaviT kalkaze unda gadavitanoT. Semdeg es kalka piris orTqliT Tavis naxatianad odnav unda gavaTboT da
dafis dagruntul zedapirs davafinoT. saxate gruntian dafaze kalka
Tbili xelis guliT zedmiwevniT unda gadaswordes. kalkis moxsnis Semdeg dagruntul zedapirze rCeba sasurveli naxati, romelsac kvlav unda
SemovavloT igive Savi saRebavi. amis Semdgom xati mzadaa ferebSi dasawerad.
arsebobda naxatis gruntian dafaze gadatanis sxva meTodic: xatidan
moxsnili, qaRaldze gadmosul negativis tipis naxatis konturebs nemsiT
Cxvletdnen. Semdeg daCxvletil qaRalds dagruntul zedapirze debdnen
da daCxvletil adgilebzee mcire zomis Txeli qsovilis naxSiris fxvnilian
topraks gadaatarebdnen. am procesis Sedegad naxSiris uwvrilesi nawilakebi daCxvletil qaRaldSi gadis da dagruntul zedapirze sakmaod karg
kvals tovebs.
amJamad, roca ase ganviTarebulia foto da eleqtrokopirebis teqnika,
zemoaRweril meTodebs aRaravin iyenebs, Tu ar CavTvliT calkeul
xatmwerebs. dRes dafaze ama Tu im xatis asli iseve keTdeba, rogorc es
Cveulebriv profesiul mxatvrobaSia miRebuli. xatis konturis gadatanisas gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWeba imasac, rom zustad iqnas
SenarCunebuli dednis ZiriTadi damaxasiaTebeli niSnebi da yuradReba
umcires detalebzec gamaxvildes.
xatis aslis xis dagruntul dafaze
gadatana da zedapiris mooqroveba
Sesruleba: Tu axali xatis Sesaqmnelad kargi xarisxis reproduqcias
viyenebT, romlis zomebi gadidebis gareSec akmayofilebs xatisaTvis winaswar gamiznul zomebs, xis dagruntul dafaze am reproduqciis qveS unda
davafinoT aslis gadasaRebi gauqonavi qaRaldi saferavi piriT qvemoT.
saasle qaRaldis nacvlad reproduqciis ukana mxare SeiZleba mTlianad
davfaroT pastelis mowiTalo saRebaviT an zemoxsenebuli wiTeli pigmentis fxvniliT. Tu xatis siuJetis (an gamosaxulebis) gadasaRebad wina
TavSi aRwerili meTodiT damzadebul naxat-asls viyenebT, igi frTxilad
unda davafinoT ukve momzadebul gauqonav saasle qaRaldze da orive erTad gulmodgined unda miewebos dasaxatad gamzadebul dafas. amis Semdeg
SeiZleba naxats burTulakalmiT konturebi SemovavloT da vidre saasle
qaRaldsa da gadasatan naxat-asls movxnideT, unda davrwmundeT, rom saWiro naxati dafaze kargad moCans.
mas Semdeg, roca dagruntul dafas saasle qaRalds movxsniT, masze aRbeWdili naxatis konturebi mTlianad unda amoikawros gruntze. konturebis
amosakawrad ar ivargebs arc sakeravi da arc saxazavi fargalis nemsi.
amisaTvis umjobesia vixmaroT sadgisi an raime misi Semcvleli liTonis
50
wvetiani Rero. amokawvris procesi did moTminebasa da gulmodginebas
moiTxovs, rom nakawri erTgvarovani gamovides. nakawris siRrme ar unda
aRematebodes milimetris mesameds, sigane ki milimetris meoTxedi unda
iyos. es nakawrebi xatweris mTeli Semdgomi procesis safuZvelia da maTzea
damokidebuli, Tu ramdenad zustad daifareba amis Semdgom xatis ferebis
pirveli Sreebi.
fonis mooqroveba
xatebis foni, anu is nawili, romelic naxatiT araa dakavebuli, umeteswilad oqros sifrifana furclebiT ifareba. foni xSirad vercxlisferi,
wiTeli, ruxi-moTeTro da sxva feric keTdeba. aseve xdeba wmindanTa
Saravandis mooqrovebac. xatweris safuZvlebis dauflebisas, rodesac
vvarjiSiSobT, oqros sifrifana furclebis nacvlad, SeiZleba oqrosferi saRebavis xmarebac, romelis oqrosferi zedapiri sakmaod srulyofilia, Tumca ara priala, aramed mqrqali faqtura aqvs. am mizniT umjobesia specialuri qoniT gapoxili mooqrovili liTonis furclebi vixmaroT,
romlebic ufro iaficaa da teqnikuradac ufro advili Sesasrulebelia.
varjiSisas, fonis dasafarad, kvercxis temperis gamoyenebac SeiZleba.
am mizniT ama Tu im proporciiT TeTr saRebavTan Sezavebuli yviTeli kadmiumi, oqrosebri oqra an naturaluri siena ixmareba. ase Sezavebuli
saRebaviT, fonis oqros imitirebisaTvis dafis Sesabamisi adgili sakmarisia erTjer an orjeer daifaros.
gaqonili furclebiT mooqroveba
erTxel kidev aRvniSnav, rom xatis fonis movarayeba (mooqroveba) orgvarad xdeba: oqros sifrifana furclebiT, anu bolus mooqroveba da
gaqonili mooqrovili furclebiT movarayeba. oqros varayiT (oqros sifrifana furclebiT) mooqroveba Zalian efeqturia da xats ganumeorebel
Tbil elvarebas aZlevs. am furclebiT xatis saTanado adgilebis dafarvis
Semdeg oqros furclebs sarkisebur elvarebamde aprialeben. cxadia, es
ZviradRirebuli procesia da did moTminebas, saTanado ostatobas, specialur xelsawyoebs da saWiro moqnilobasac moiTxovs. mooqrovebis am meTods qvemoT ufro dawvrilebiT SevexebiT.
qoniT gapoxili mooqrovili furclebiT xatis fonis dafarva teqnikurad ufro advilia, iafia da specialur instrumentebs ar saWiroebs.
ramdenadac aseTi furclebi ar elvarebs, maTi gaprialeba ar xdeba.
specialur samxatvro maRaziebSi iyideba (an SeiZleba SekveTa) oqros
gaqonili furclebis patara dastebi. am dastebSi oqros sifrifana furclebi (varayi) Cakrulia abreSumis qaRaldebs Soris, xolo oqros gaqonili
furclebi Cawyobilia odnav gaqonil qaRaldebs Soris (germaniis maRaziebSi rogorc transfergeld, aseve Sturmgeld furclebi iyideba). igi,
visac seriozulad surs xatweris Seswavla, jer am teqnikas, e.i. iaffasiani
mooqrovili da gaqonili furclebiT saxate dafis dagruntuli zedapiris
51
maTe maxarebeli. Sesrulebulia XIV saukunis berZnuli
xatis mixedviT aTonis mTis
Cilindaras monastridan.
36,5x27,7 sm.
originali 100x69 sm.
dafarvas unda daeuflos da Semdeg unda mokidos xeli movarayebas, anu
oqros sifrifana furclebiT mooqrovebas. am TavSi Cven jer mxolod oqros
gaqonili furclebiT xatis Sesabamisi zedapiris dafarvas SevexebiT.
masala:
2 cali brtyeli sinTeturi funji (funjis sigane 1, 1,5 sm).
1 cali mrgvali sinTeturi funji 3 nomeri.
TeTri finjani akrilis laqisaTvis.
Txeli da wvrilmarcvlovani wyalSi danamuli zumfara.
ufero (gamWvirvale) laqi.
saxazavi kalkis qaRaldi mosavarayebeli fonis SablonisaTvis.
erTi Sekvra gaqonili oqros furclebi (23, 25 karati).
mWreli makrateli da burTulkalami.
gauqonavi aslebis gadasaRebi qaRaldebi.
iaponuri savaraye webo.
52
savarjiSod, oqros gaqonili furclebis nacvlad SeiZleba gamoviyenoT
iaffasiani liTonis sifrifana furclebi an oqros Semcvleli saRebavi
(aseTi iaffasiani furclebic iyideba specialur samxatvro maRaziebSi).
Sesrulebis teqnika
xatisaTvis gamzadebul dagruntul zedapirze amkawruli foni da Saravandedi orjer an samjer Txieri terakotas (gamomwvari Tixis feri) TeTri
titaniT gazavebuli akrilis saRebaviT unda daifaros (SesaZloa mkiTxvels xatweraSi akrilis saRebavis xmareba examuSos, magram aRsaniSnavia
isic, rom oqros gaqonili furclebis gamoyenebac axali teqnologiaa
da adre xatweraSi ar gamoiyeneboda). terakota SeiZleba Seicvalos bunebrivi sienas akrilis saRebaviTac. SedarebiT didi farTobis dasafarad
gamoiyeneba sinTeTikuri brtyeli funji, xolo detalebis Sesavsebad
– mrgvali funjebi. am procesis, gansakuTrebiT konturebis Sesrulebis
dros, didi gulmodginebaa saWiro, raTa saRebavi konturTan zustad iqnas
miyvanili. SeRebil zedapirs ar unda emCneodes arc funjis nakvalevi da
arc konturisaTvis gamiznuli nakawrebi. Tu aseTi ram mainc SesamCnevia,
isini zumfaras saSualebiT gulmodgined unda gadaswordes, radgan, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, aseTi adgilebi mooqrovebul zedapirze Semdeg mainc
gamoCndeba.
aRniSnuli proceduris Sesruleba aucilebelia, raTa mosavarayebeli
zedapiri ise daifaros, rom aRar Seiwovos wyali. garda imisa rom mosavarayebel zedapirs amagrebs, feradi qvedafena oqros furclebs damatebiT
elvarabasa da siTbosac aniWebs. amis Semdgom akrilis saRebaviani funjebi
sapniT unda gairecxos Tbil wyalSi.
mas Semdeg, roca gruntze wasmuli saRebavi gaSreba, es gamSrali zedapiri akrilis gruntiT da gamWvirvale laqiT unda daifaros.
aRwerili procedurebis Catarebis Semdeg ukve SeiZleba am SeRebili
zedapiris oqros gaqonili furclebiT movarayeba. amisaTvis xatis gamosaxulebis qaRaldis Sabloni unda gakeTdes. igi SesaZloa gadmoviRoT
xatis fotoaslidan an amoikalkos (anu gadmoRebul iqnas asli specialur
gamWvirvale qaRaldze – kalkaze) im dednidan, romlis gadmoxatvasac vapirebT.
oqros gaqonili furclebiT maketirebis dros Sabloni unda gadmovabrunoT. oqros gaqonili furclebis wignakidan oqros furcliebi abreSumis qaRaldianad unda moixsanas da erTi meores miyolebiT ToToTiTod zamoTaRniSnul Sablonis ukuRma gverdze ise unda davalagoT, rom
oqros furclebiT Sabloni mTlianad daifaros. gasaTvaliswinebelia,
rom oqros calkeulma furclebma gverdigverd dalagebisas odnav unda
gadafaron erTmaneTi. ase gamzadebuli Sabloni erTi zomis oTxkuTxa
naWrebad unda daiWras. es naWrebi Zalian patara ar unda iyos da isini
mozaikiseburad unda ganlagdes im fonze, romelisTvisac damzadebuli
iyo Sabloni. es procesic did dros, moTminebas da gulmodginebas mo-
53
iTxovs. amisaTvis mosavarayebeli zedapiri, erTxel an saWiroebisamer
orjer, iaponuri webos Txeli, erTgvarovani feniT unda daifaros. oTxkuTxedebad daWrili Sablonidan calkeul oqros varayis oTxkuTxa naWrebs
saTiTaod viRebT da xatis fonis Sesabamis adgilas vawebebT. rodesac miwebebul adgils TiTs gadavusvamT, oTkuTxa oqros furcels abreSumis
gaqonili qaRaldi mocildeba, xolo oqros furceli miwebebuli darCeba
Tavis adgilas. mooqrovebis Semde Tqvens winaSe xatis brwyinvale foni
aelvardeba.
iaponuri oqros varayis webos nacvlad ukidures SemTxvevaSi SegviZlia
nivris wvenic vixmaroT. im adgilas, sadac oqros furclebia misawebebeli,
ramdenjerme nivris TavwaWrili kbili unda wavusvaT, vidre TiTis SexebiT ar davrwmundebiT, rom zedapiri sakmaod webovani gaxda. iyideba
movarayebisaTvis saWiro specialuri webo, romelsac aqvs aRniSvnebi:
,,1saaTi”, ,,2 saaTi” da ,,8 saaTi”, rac imaze mianiSnebs, Tu ramden xans ar
Sreba webo wasmis Semdeg, vidre masze oqros furclebi miewebebodes. im
webos, romelsac Srobis ufro maRali maCvenebeli aweria, ufro maRali
xarisxisaao, magram es ubralo sareklamo oini unda iyos. rogorc zemoTac
iTqva, varjiSisas oqros varayis nacvlad Semcvleli liTonis iaffasiani
furclebi gamoiyeneba. imisda mixedviT, Tu dasaxatad gamiznuli xats
ra daniSnuleba da mxatvrul Rirebuleba aqvs, gamoiyeneba an gaqonili
mqrqali oqros furclebi an oqros varayi (oqros sifrifana furclebi,
romlis movarayebis teqnikas qvemoT SevexebiT). SeiZleba fonis dafarva
oqros iaponuri weboTic, romelzec, vidre es ukanaskneli SeSrebodes,
specialuri oqrosferi carcis Zlier wminda fxvnili unda movafrqvioT.
SeSrobis Semdeg ase mofrqveuli zedapiri gamWvirvale laqiT ifareba, ris
Sedegadac foni sasiamovno sielvaresac iZens, Tumca oqros tradiciuli
varayis brwyinvalebas veraferi Secvlis.
kvercxiani temperas saRebaviT xatvis teqnika
tradiciuli xatebi mxolod kvercxis gulis emulsiaze damzadebuli
temperis saRebaviT ixateba. kvercxis tempera kvercxis gulisa da
mineraluri pigmentebis wyalxsnaria. absoluturad brtyeli, gaprialebuli, TeTri dagruntuli xis zedapiri gamzadebuli temperis saRebaviT
ifareba. zedapiri saRebavs intensiurad iwovs; saRebavebi gansakuTrebul
silamazesa da elvarebas iZenen, rasac kidev ufro aZlierebs oqroTi
movarayebuli foni. gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom temperas saRebaviT gansakuTrebiT mkafiod wvrili da zusti xazebi sruldeba.
bizantielma mxatvrebma temperis saRebavis fena-fenad dafervis meTodi SeimuSaves, rac imaSi gamoixateba, rom xatweris proocesSi civ da
muq an saSualo tonebs TandaTan ufro Tbili da Ria tonebi enacvleba.
es uaRresad mimzidveli meTodi muqi ferebis Ria ferebSi TandaTan gadasvlis saSualebiT miiReba. xatweris teqnika imiT gansxvavdeba freskis
54
ferwerisagan, rom xis dafaze Sesrulebuli xatisgan gansxvavebiT, freska
fene-fena ifereba Ria tinebidan muqisqken, ise rogorc es xdeba aqvareliT
qaRaldze muSaobisas, ris gamoc gamosaxuleba mudam gamWvirvale rCeba.
temperas saRebavebiT ferwera kacobriobis kulturis uZvelesi monapovaria, iseve rogorc Taflis sanTelisa (enkaustika) da freska. marTalia, temperas ferweraSi ukve Zveli berZnebi iyenebdnen, magram dagruntul zedapirze misi gamoyeneba intensiurad bizantiaSi adreul SuasaukuneebSi daiwyes da XV saukunemde, anu bizantiis dacemamde xmarobdnen.
XIV saukunidan evropis samxatvro akademiebsa da saswavleblebSi
sxva teqnikis aTvisebac daiwyes. dagruntul tiloze muSaoba bevrad
ioli gaxda, vidre xis dafaze da ufro elastiur grunts moiTxovda
vidre dagruntuli xis dafa, Tumca ferweraSi temperis saRebavebidan
zeTis saRebavebze gadasvlis mizezi marto es ar gamxdara. feradi pigmentebis Semkvrelad, kvercxis gulis nacvlad, sxvadasxva zeTebisa
da fisebis gamoyenebac daiwyes. carcian grunts zeTsac umatebdnen. ,
raTa xatvis procesSi, grunts, naklebi saRebavi Seewova da, am mxriv,
ferweris teqnikuri procesi gaeiolebina. am eqsperimentebis dros
mxatvrebi, xazovan detalebs, metnaklebad, gaurbodnen. amitom ferwerul
namuSevrebs, TavisTavad, erTgvari impresionistuli ieri eZleoda. ase
gadavidnen evropeli mxatvrebi TandaTan temperas saRebavis gamoyenebidan
zeTis saRebavze da ferweridan kvercxiani tempera TiTqmis mTlianad
ganidevna. amanve garkveulad ganapiroba isic, rom warmoiSva italiuri
maRali renesansis epoqis dros Seqmnili mxatvruli produqciis axali
esTetika, romelmac mTeli evropuli kulturis Semdgomi ganviTareba
ganapiroba. Tumca dRemde msoflios sxvadasxva qveynis mravali mxatvari
da xelovnebis moyvaruli Zveli bizantiuri, kvercxiani temperiT xatvis
teqnikasacmisdevs da eufleba.
evropaSi zeTis saRebavebiT Seqmnili namuSevrebisgan gansxvavebiT,
romelTa ferebi droTa ganmavlobaSi muqdeba, kvercxiani temperiT xuTasi
da meti wlis win Seqmnili bizantiuri, qarTuli, rusuli, kopturi da sxva
Sedevrebis ferebi da mravali toni ise gamoiyureba, TiTqos axlaxan iyos
Sesrulebuli. aseTi efeqti gapirobebulia rogorc temperas saRebavebis
mineraluri komponentebis Tvisebebis stabilurobiT, aseve imiTac, rom
temperas saRebavis qvemodan yovelTvis gruntis siTeTrec gamosWvivis.
temperis saRebavis am Tvisebam ganapiroba isic, rom kvercxiani temperis
saRebavebis msgavsad, aqvarelis saRebavebisaTvis, dResac igive mineralebi
da kvercxis gulic gamoiyeneba.
mas, visac, temperis saRebavebiT xatvis teqnikis daufleba surs, vurCevdi kargad Seeswavla adreuli goTikis xanis italieli ostatebis
– joto di bondones, duCCo di buninseniasa da fra-anJelikos temperas
saRebavebiT Sesrulebuli namuSevrebi. am mxriv sainteresoa aseve adreuli
flamandrieli mxatvrebi. aseve urigo ar iqneboda kvercxis temperis
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ferweris Tanamedrove ostatebis namuSevrebis gacnobac (mag. amerikeli
endriu vieta da sxv.).
tradiciuli temperis saRebavis Semkvreli (Semavsebeli) nivTiereba
kvercxis gulia. magram imisaTvis, rom xis dagruntul dafaze kvercxis gulSi gaxsnili feradi pigmenti gaSrobis Semdeg ar daskdes, aucilebelia
pigmentis, kvercxis gulis wyalxsnarisa da sxva Semadgeneli komponentebis
dozireba imisda mixedviT, Tu xatis romeli nawili an fena ifareba
temperiT. saRebavis SeSrobis Semdgom bzarebis Tavidan acileba da am
mizniT temperis saRebavSi kvercxisa da sxva minarevebis dozireba uaRresad faqizi procesia da am mxriv sxvadasxva qveyanaSi sxvadasxva dros
erTmaneTisagan gansxvavebul meTods iyenebdnen. italieli ostatebi
kvercxis gulSi leRvis gaglesil norC ylortebs urevdnen da am xsnars
wylian Rvinos umatebdnen, xolo Semdeg ki am xsnarSi proporciiT 1:1 ferad pigments urevdnen. rusi ostatebi kvercxis guls amave raodenobis
amJavebul buraxs urevdnen, xolo germanelebi – luds. dResac kvercxis
gulisa da pigmentis damatebiT komponentebad ixmareba Zmari, rZe da mcenareuli webos xsnari.
temperas saRebavis gamoyeneba xatweraSi
ramdenadac kvercxis temperas emulsiis Semzadeba xatvis procesSi
xdeba, xolo samuSao sivrce xatvis procesSi garkveulad SezRudulia,
aucilebelia magidaze muSa masalebi racionalurad ganlagdes, raTa advili iyos maTi gamoyeneba. samuSaod saWiroa viqonioT 20-40 cali mcire
zomos SuSis an plastmasis, umjobesia gamWvirvale Wiqebi. ukeTesia Tu am
WurWlebs saxuravic eqnebaT. TviToeul maTganSi Cais kovziT an samxatvro
mastexiniT unda CavyaroT feradi pigmentebi da yovel maTgans Sesabamisi
warwera unda gaukeTdes. es patara Wiqebi unda ganlagdes magidis SuaSi
mxatvris mopirdapire ukidures mxares.
aseve aucilebelia viqonio funjebis mTeli wyeba, kvercxis gulis
wyalxsnari, macivaris yinulis mcire natexebis dasamzadebeli WurWeli,
sacdeli-savarjiSo dafa, wyali or an sam WurWelSi, TeTri plastmasiT
dafaruli Txeli xis dafa an didi friala TeTri TefSi ferebis Sesazaveblad da mcire zomis xaverdis an sxva qsovilis naWeri muSaobisas xelis dasayrdnobad. yvela aq CamoTvlil masalaze qvemoT ufro dawvrilebiT visaubrebT.
mineraluri feradi pigmentebi
ramdenadac qarTuli warwerebiT samxatvro maRaziebSi saRebavebs ver
SexvdebiT, qvemoT momyavs maTi germanuli an evropis saerTo bazarze miRebuli dasaxelebebi, Tumca SeZlebisdagvarad Sevecade, maTi qarTuli
Sesatyvisic momenaxa.
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samoSao magidaze mxatvarTan yvelaze xelmisawvdom adgilas unda ganlagdes Semdegi pigmentebi: lamfis mWvartli (Lampenschwartc) da Savi
feris sxva bunebrivi pigmentebi, ultramarini (Ultramarinblau), lurji
kobalti (Kobaltblau), namdvili anu naturaluri umbra (Umbra natur),
mwvane smaragdi (Smaragdgrün), sepia (Grüne Erde), wiTeli oqra (Rotocker),
wiTeli karmini (Karmin), wiTeli kadmiumi (Kadmiumrot), narinjisferi kadmiumi (Kadmiumorange), naturaluri siena (Siera natur), yviTeli kadmiumi
(Kadmiumgelb), TeTri titani (Titanweiss).
meore rigSi ganlagebulia: Savi - spilos gamomwvari Zvali (Elfenbainschwarz), indigo (Indigo), lurji manganumi (Manganblau), mwvane qromi anu
qromis Jangi (Chromgrün), muqi wiTeli kraplaki (Krapprotdunkel), iisferi
(Caputmortum Violett), gamomwvari umbra (Umbra gebrannt), gamomwvari siena
(Siena gebrannt), Ria oqra (Lichter Ocker), mwvane kadmiumi (Kadmiumgelb),
TeTri TuTia (Zinkweiss).
saRebavebisa da pigmentebis ganlageba xatweris procesSi
funjebi
yvela mcire zomis funji, romlebic gamiznulia xatis umciresi detalebis Sesasruleblad, aucileblad siasamuris bewvis unda iyos. ufro didi
zomis funjebi SesaZloa ciyvis an ponis bewvis iyos.
siasamuris mowiTalo feris bewvis funji ,,eqstra’‘ klass ganekuTvneba,
aqvs mrgvali forma da katis kuds waagavs, amitom igi asec iwodeba: ,,katiskuda’‘.
eqstra klasis funjebi saWiroa: 0, 1 da 2 or-ori cali, 3, 4 da 5 sam-sami
cali, ,,katiskuda’‘ samxatvro funjebi: 8, 12 da 15 or-ori cali. TiTo cali
brtyeli funji: 0,5, 1,0 da 2,5 sm siganis.
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kvercxis gulis temperis
saRebaviT xatis dafervis stadiebi
rogorc aRvniSneT, temperas saRebavis Semkvreli nivTiereba kvercxis
gulis wyalxsnaria. xatis ferwera oTxi stadiisagan Sedgeba da imis mixedviT ama Tu im fers romel satadiaze vxmarobT, icvleba saRebavSi Semaval
komponentTa proporciuli Semcveloba. 6 nawil wyalSi gaxsnili erTi
nawili kvercxis guli xatis yvela stadiaze muSaobisas savsebiT misaRebia.
pirveli stadia: xatweris pirveli fena, anu rogorc mas specialistebi
uwodeben “Le petit lac” odnav mqrali unda iyos. amitom am stadiaze wylisa
da kvercxis gulis Sefardeba Sesabamisad mzaddeba 9:1 (e.i. cxra nawili
wyali da erTi nawili kvercxis guli). magram zogierTi pigmentisaTvis
aseTi Sefardeba Zalian didia, radgan gaSrobis Semdeg saRebavi SesaZloia
zedapirs acvivdes. zogi pigmenti ki piriqiT – nakleb kvercxis guls
moiTxovs. im SemTxvevaSi ki, roca wyalxsnarSi kvercxis guli ufro metia,
vidre pigmentia saWiroa, daferili zedapiri SeSrobis Semdeg zedmetad
brwyinavs. amitomaa saWiro savarjiSo dafa, romelzedac esa Tu is pigmenti
sxvadasxva koncentraciis kvercxis wyalxsnariT unda gasinjoT.
meore stadia: meore stadiaze temperis saRebaviT xatis dafervisas kvercxis gulisa da wylis Sefardeba Sesabamisad 6:1 unda iyos.
Sualeduri, mesame stadia: am stadiaze aucilebelia kvercxisa wyalxsnaris gamWvirvale fenis wasma wina stadiebze wasmul saRebavze. amitom
kvercxis gulis wyalxsnaris emulsia gamWvirvalebisaTvis pigmentis gareSe Sesabamisad 1:12 proporciiT unda Semzaddes.
meoTxe stadia: am stadiaze saRebavi ufro gajerebulad – kvercxis
gulisa da wylis 1:3 Sesabamisi proporciiT mzaddeba. ase Sezavebuli kvercxis emulsia saSualebas iZleva, rom wina stadiebis wynar da abreSumisebr
fonze am meoTxe stadieze dafenili ferebi mkveTrad gamoikveTos. rac
Seexeba wmindanebis Saravandedebs, warwerebsa da xatis sxva Ria adgilebs,
isini kvercxisa da wylis 1:1 Sezavebuli emulsiiT unda Sesruldes. es am
SemTxvevaSi idealuri Sefardebaa.
kvercxis emulsiis momzadeba: kvercxis guls movaciloT rbili kani
da gamoxdil wyalSi im proporciiT gavxsnaT, Tu romeli stadiisaTvis
vamzadebT kvercxis emulsias. kvercxisa da wylis nawilebis darwyva umjobesia Cais kovzi vixmaroT. am emulsiisaTvis umjobesia soflis qaTmis
axali kvercxebi gamoviyenoT. kvercxis gulisa da cilis gancalkevebis
Semdgom sufTa qaRaldze jer kidev kanmoucleli kvercxis guli unda
daidos, raTa am ukanasknelma kvercxis gulze SerCenili cilis narCenebi
sabolood Seiwovos. amis Semdeg kvercxis guli xelis gulze unda gadavitanoT. kvercxis guls kanze naCxvleti unda gavukeToT da Semdeg ori
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TiTiT kani movaciloT. kani advilad gaZvreba. kvercxis guli, romelic
xelis gulze raime WurWlze gviWiravs, am WurWelSi mTlianad Caiwriteba.
xelis gulis nacvlad, kvercxis gulisagan kanis mosaclelad SeiZleba saceris gamoyenebac. ase WurWelSi gadawretili kvercxis guli daxuful
mdgomareobaSi SeiZleba 5 dRis ganmavlobaSi iqnas Senaxul. Senaxvis dro
SeiZleba gaxangrZlivdes, Tu kvercxis guls WurWelSi ramodenime wveT
Zmars davumatebT.
kvercxis gulis, wylisa da feradi pigmentis nazavi: vidre xatis weras
pirvelad movkidebdeT xels, aucilebelia saRebavebis Sezaveba sacdel
dafaze. vivarjiSoT cotaodeni kvercxis gulis wyalxsnari macivaris
yinulis kubebis gasayin specialur WurWelis TviTeul ganyofilebaSi
movaTavsoT. wyalSi dasvelebuli funji pigmentis fxvnilSi amovavloT.
funji Tan amoitans garkveuli raodenobis pigments, romelic unda gaixsnas
yinulis kubebis WurWlSi moTavsebil kvercxis gulis wyalxsnarSi. aseve
unda Sezavdes am WurWlis sxva ujredebSi fxvieri feradi pigmentebic.
amgvarad, imdennair saRebavs miviRebT, ramdeni ganyofilebac (aseTi
WurWlebi umeteswilad 10 ganyofilebiania) aqvs yinulis kubebis WurWels.
pigmentis nazavi kvercxis gulis wyalxsnarTan kargad unda airios, raTa
saRebavi erTgvarovani gamovides. ramdenadac feradi pigmenti gazavebul
saRebavSi male ileqeba, feradi pigmentisa da kvercxis gulis wyalxsnari
yoveli gamoyenebis win funjiT unda gavajeroT. aseve, yoveli gamoyenebis
Semdeg, funji kargad unda gairecxos, umjobesia minaze, xolo samuSaos
damTavrebis Semdeg sapniTac.
feradi saRebavebis ganfena naxatze: meoTxe stadiaze naxatze aRwerili
Sezavebuli saRebavis gamoyenebisas sxvadasxva meTodi gamoiyeneba.
meTodi “Le petit lac” (,,patara tba, gubura’‘): am meTods SeiZleba morecxvis
meTodic vuwodoT. es meTodi gamoiyeneba pirveli da ZiriTadi fenebis
,,katiskuda’‘ 8-15 nomeri funjebiT dafarvis dros. dagruntuli dafis
saRebaviT dafarva msubuqad, Zaldatanebis gareSe xdeba. Zlier Txieri
saRebavi advilad da Tanabrad efineba dafas. sqeli funji ufro didi
farTobis dasafaravadaa saWiro, xolo wvrili funjebi – mcire detalebisa
da xazebisaTvis. wyliani saRebaviT farTo funjis xmarebis dros dafarul
zedapirze mravali mcire tbori Cndeba, romlebic TandaTan erTdebian
da erT did tbors warmoSoben. Tu saRebaviT dasafari zedapiri jer
kidev svelia, misi saRebaviT dafarva ar SeiZleba. saRebaviani funji uwyvetad unda vataroT ‘‘tboridan’‘ dasafari zedapiris erTi napiridan
meore napiramde da ise, rom funjis nakvalevi arsad ar darCes. cxadia,
esec garkveul daxelovnebas moiTxovs. unda gvaxsovdes, rom yinulis
mosamzadebel WurWelSi saRebavis sakmao maragi unda iyos da xmarebis
win yovelTvis unda avurioT funjiT. dagruntuli dafis saRebaviT dafarvidan 10 wuTis Semdeg grunti mTliana iwovs saRebavs. saRebavis fena
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Zalian sqeli ar unda iyos da am mizniT, saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi, SeiZleba
kvercxis gulis wyalxsnari daematos. gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba aqvs
imas, rom saRebavis yoveli fena erTgvarovani iyos. Tu fena Zlier gamWvirvale gamovida, SeiZleba pigmenti davumatoT. Ria da muq tonebs Soris
gadasvlis teqnikis asaTviseblad bevri varjiSi da gulmodginebaa saWiro.
am meTodis nacvlad, SeiZleba xatis dafis zedapiri erTxel an orjer
wylis naklebad Semcveli saRebaviT SevReboT da Tanac ise, rom zedapirs
funjis nakvalevi ar aCndes, rac Tavis mxriv varjiSsa da daostatebas moiTxovs. es meTodi ufro xSirad gamoiyeneba rogorc fonis dasafarad, aseve
arqiteqturuli detalebisa da wmindanTa gamosaxulebisaTvis.
e.w. laJvardis (lazuris) meTodi: ukve SeRebil zedapirze brtyeli farTo funjiT Zlier Txeli gamWvirvale an naxevradgamWvirvale saRebavis
fena unda gadaesvas. es saSualebas iZleva ukve Sesrulebuli romelime feris intensioba, tonaloba da niuansebi Seicvalos. maSasadame, temperis
saRebavebiT xatvisas laJvardis fena gamoiyeneba, romelic kvrcxis gulis
emulsiisa (1:6) da ama Tu im pigmentis Zlier gamWirvale xsnaria.
Strixebis Sesruleba: aq im Strixebze, anu SedarebiT wvril xazebzea saubari, romelTa saSualebiTac xatze Ria anu yvelaze metad ganaTebuli adgilebi ixateba. rogorc wesi, ganaTebul adgilebze Strixebis
Sesruleba aucileblad mxolod siasamuris wiTeli bewvis funjebiT
xatweris bolo stadiaze xdeba. Strixebis Sesrulebisas funji saRebaviT
Zlier datvirTuli ar aunda iyos. Tu masze saRebavi zedmetia, sakmarisia
funjs TiTebi gadavusvaT da zedmeti siTxe odnav gamovwuroT. es
imisaTvis keTdeba, raTa Strixebis Sesrulebis dros yoveli xazis
(Strixis) boloSi wylis mciredi wveTis gaCenac ki gamoiricxos. aseve
viqceviT, rodesac brtyeli funjiT xatis ama Tu im adgils gamWvirvale
da naxevradgamWvirvale feniT, kvercxis gulis wyalxsnarSi Zlier gazavebuli saRebaviT vfaravT. es meTodi, rogorc aRvniSneT, xatis ama Tu im
detals tons da simkveTres ucvlis.
konturebis Sesruleba: konturebi imave meTodiT sruldeba, rogorc
Strixebi. gansxvaveba isaa, rom Tu Strixebi xatze gamosaxuli sxeulis,
saxis an sxva detalis calkeuli ganaTebuli adgilebisaTvis amosawevad
gamoiyeneba. es umeteswilad Ria ferebiT sruldeba. konturebi SeiZleba
nebismieri ferisa da tonalobisa iyos. xazebi siasamuris funjiT unda
gakeTdes. maT sisqe damokidebulia gruntis zedapirze winaswar Sesrulebuli asli-naxatis mixedviT gakeTebul nakawrze.
gvaxsovdes, xati ki ar ixateba, aramed iwereba!
albaT dameTanxmebiT, rom sityva ,,xatva” Tavdapirvelad swored ,,xatis
weras”, ,,xatweras” niSnavda da ara nebismieri raimes xatvas im gagebiT,
ra mniSvnelobasac dRes vaniWebT am sityvas. Zvelma ostatebma temperis
saRebavis Sesamzadeblad kvercxis guli imisTvis airCies, rom igi wyalTan
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erTad araCveulebriv emulsias iZleva, saukeTeso webvisunarianoba aqvs
da advilad Sreba. xatweris dros sxvadasxva saWiroebisaTvis kvercxis
cilis webovnebis Tvisebasac iyeneben. emulsiis Sesamzadeblad aucilebelia sruliad axali kvercxi, radgan droTa ganmavlobaSi naWuWidan kvercxis gulSi haeri advilad aRwevs da mimdinare qimiuri procesi mas webvisunarianobas ukargavs.
grunti saRebavs myisve isrutavs. amitom dagruntul dafaze dafenili
saRebavis koreqtireba, anu misi sxva feriT an toniT Secvla Zalian Znelia.
amitom dafaze saRebavis dafenamde, feri umjobesia savarjiSo dafaze
moisinjos. daxatuli arasasurveli adgilebis mocileba nawilobriv SesaZloa, Tu fers imTaviTve sveli CvriT an TiTiT movacilebT. magram am
dros didi sifrTxilea saWiro, raTa grunti ar daziandes an gawmendil
adgilas CaRrmaveba ar gaCndes. Tu saRebavi ukve gaSra da misi mocileba
gvsurs, umjobesia igi samarTebliT an skalpeliT frTxilad amoifxikos.
SeRebili adgilebis mocileba SesaZloa eTilis an samedicino spirtiTac.
ukidures SemTxvevaSi, roca sxva gza aRraa, ukve daferili adgili unda
gadaiweros. amisaTvis umjobesia gadasaRebi adgili winaswar TeTri
saRebaviT daifaros.
pigmentebi: Zvirfasiani pigmentebia kinovari, muqi wiTeli kadmiumi, namdvili Sabiabanis laJvardi, muqi iisferi kobalti, namdvili neapoluri
yviTeli. iafi pigmentebia: maRali (gnebavT Zlieri) wiTeli, Camqrali iisferi, TeTri TuTia, Rvinisferi Savi, prusiuli lurji, Ria laJvardi,
wiTeli TuTia, yavisferebi da sxva wiaRiseuli pigmentebi.
ferTa gama: Zveli bizantieli da sxva xatmwerni wiaRiseul pigmentebis
garda cxovelisa da mcenareebisagan miRebul pigmentebsac iyenebdnen.
aseTebia:
a) miwis mineraluri pigmentebi: Ria oqra da lapisi (lazuli).
b) cxoveluri warmoSobis pigmentebi: karmini da Zlieri wiTeli.
g) mcenareuli warmoSobis: Zlier muqi vardisferi kraplaki, romelic
mcenaris fesvisagan miiReba.
Zalze maRali Rirebulebis gamo zogierTi maTgans ukve aRar awarmoeben. dRes didi raodenobiT amzadeben iseTi mravalferovani niuansebis
mqone sinTetur pigmentebs, rogoricaa kadmiumisa da kobaltis pigmentebi, qromis Jangis mwvane pigmenti (qromoqsidi), titanisa da TuTiis
TeTri pigmentebi da sxv. arsebobs sinTeturi warmoebis kidev mravali
axva pigmenti, magram maT aq ar vaxsenebT, vinaidan umetesi maTgani imdenad kaSkaSaa, rom ar egueba bunebrivi pigmentebis tonalobis naz harmonias. ‘‘myvirala’‘“ ferebi xatis bunebisaTvis imdenad ucxoa, rom maTi
xatwerisaTvis gamoyeneba araa mizanSewonili.
dRevandel pirobebSi internetis saSualebiT advilia ama Tu im
saRebavis Semadgenlobis, gamWvirvalobisa da gamZleobis dadgena.
zogierTi saRebavi pigmentis did raodenobas Seicavs da SesaReb zedapirs
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ufro intensiurad faravs, zogi saRebavi dafis grunts Znelad efineba,
zogierTi ki – gamWvirvalea. magaliTad, TeTri titanis Rebvisunarianoba
Zlieria, magram sxva saRebavTan Serevisas feri usicocxlod gamoiyureba.
TeTri TuTia ki – piriqiTaa, ufro gamWvirvalea da amitomac masTan gazavebuli saRebavis manaTobel intensiobas ar vnebs. TeTr tyvias ki am or
TeTr saRebavs Soris Sualeduri pozicia ukavia, igi naxevrad gamWvirvalea. amitomac TeTri tyvia TeTri pigmentebis standartad iTvleba. ar
unda dagvaviwydes, rom TeTri tyvia Zlier gamZle, magram toqsikuri pigmentia.
gamZleobis mixedviT pigmentebi sam kategoriad iyofa: gamZle, naxevradgamZle da aqrolad pigmentebad. aqroladi pigmentebi xatwerisaTvis gamousadegaria da amitomac ar ganvixileT.
zogi mwarmoebeli dekoratiuli miznebisaTvis iaf pigmentebs gvTavazobs. aseTi pigmentebi araa sufTa da maT samxatvro saRebavebis elvareba
ar gaaCniaT. maT gamoyenebs xatweraSi unda veridoT.
pigmentebis nawili wyalSi kargad ixsneba, zogi – ufro Znelad da
wyalSi gaxsnisa manamde saWiroebs morevas, vidre pigmenti bolomde ar gajerdeba wyalSi.
im xatweris saxelosnoebSi, sadac SekveTebs mudmivad iReben, pigmentebs
damatebiT fqvaven an brtyel da gaprialebul marmarilos filaze SuSis
saglesiT gamoxdil wylTan erTad lesaven. pigmentis dafquli masa
haergaumtar, hermetul SuSis gamWvirvale WurWelSi inaxeba da maTi
gamoyeneba uSualod xatweris procesSi xde-ba, anu roca funjiT unda airios kvercxis emulsiasTan. es procesi detaluradaa aRwerili
qvemoT. pigmentis areva emulsiaSi samxatvro mastexinis saSualebiT aseve
SuSis naWerzec SeiZleba. vidre Sezavebul saRebavs gamoviyenebdeT,
mizanSewonilia davrwmundeT, rom Sezavebuli saRebavi pigmentis umcires
namcesebsac ki aRar Seicavs.
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RvTismSobeli moalerse (eleousa).
ruseTis iaroslavis macxovaris eklesiidan, xati daculia moskovis tretiakovis galereaSi
zomebi 51x38 sm.
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ferTa wre da masze varjiSi
ferweris praqtikaSi miRebulia e.w. ferTa wre, romelic cisartyelas
(anu sinaTlis speqtris) yvela fers Seicavs Tavisi naxevartonebiT, niuansebiTa da gradaciebiT. roca bevri feri gvesaWiroeba, gasaTvaliswinebelia is garemoeba, rom bunebaSi mxolod sami ZiriTadi feri arsebobs:
wiTeli, lurji da yviTeli. yvela sxva feri am samis urTierTTan SereviT
iqmneba. ferebi Tbil da civ ferebad iyofa da es dayofa wiTelsa da lurjs
Sorisaa ganTavsebuli.
Tbili wiTeli ferebia: kinovari (wiTeli), wiTeli kadmiumi, namdvili
wiTeli kraplaki.
Sualeduri ferebia (Cveni, am naxatze mocemuli SemTxvevisaTvis): TeTri
TuTiiT gajerebuli yviTeli kadmiumi da narinjisferi kadmiumi.
civi ferebia: TeTri TuTiiT gajerebuli ultramarini, lurji kobalti da prusiuli lurji.
ferebze varjiSisaTvis unda Semoixazos wre, rogorc es zemoT naxazzea
naCvenebi da masze ferTa sami gradacia (Tbili, saSualo da civi), anu
Sesabamisad wiTeli, yviTeli da lurji unda davdoT. im ferebs, romlebic
am sam ZiriTad ferebs Soris arian ganlagebuli, meoradi ferebi ewodeba.
isini maT gverdiT mdebare ferebis SereviT warmoiqmnebian. esenia: narinjisferi (wiTelisa da yviTelis nazavi), muqi lurji da mwvane (yviTelisa
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RvTismSobeli gzis maCvenebeli (odigitria) detali.
xatis reproduqcia ixileT Semdeg gverdze
65
da lurjis nazavi). Tu meorad
ferebs ZiriTad ferebTan avurevT, ferTa mesame rigi miiReba:
narinjisferi, karmini, iisferi,
Ria mwvane, ultramarini da smaragdis mwvane.
wreSi urTierT mopirdapire
ferebis erTmaneTTan SereviT
warmoiSveba damatebiTi ferebi.
isini qmnian erTmaneTTan maqsimalurad
Sexamebul
kontrastul ferebs. amgvarad maTi
erTmaneTTan
SereviT
metad
saintereso miwisferi rbili
(pastelis)
tonebi
miiReba:
Ria oqra, naturaluri siena,
gamomwvari siena, gamomwvari
umbra, miwisferi mwvane, zeTisxilisferi Ria mwvane da sxv.
aq mocemuli ferTa wris yvela
feris erTmaneTTan saTanado
Sejerebis Sedegad SesaniSnavi
Savi feris miReba SeiZleba.
RvTismSobeli gzis maCvenebeli (odigitria),
damwyebma xatmwerma, vidre xatis
Weduri detalebiT. XIII saukune, bizantia. makeweras Seudgebodes, bevri unda
doniis oxridis klemensis monastridan. amJamad
ivarjiSos ferTa wreze, raTa
iqvea xatebis galereaSi. zoma 94,5x80,3 sm.
mravali tonalobis Sualeduri
ferebis miRebas mieCvios. axalbeda xatmwerisaTvis yvelaze saukeTeso da
optimaluri variantia, rom TvalsaCinoebisaTvis ZiriTadi da meoradi
ferebis saSualebiT ferTa gamis dafa Seqmnas (furceli an muyaos naWeri).
xatweris dawyebamde mxatvarma erTmaneTTan saTanadod Sezavebuli ferebiT sibrtyis dafarvaSi sacdel dafaze unda ivarjiSos rogorc
,,petit lak”-is, anu morecxvis meTodiT (am meTodis Sesaxeb zemoT ukve
dawvrilebiT visaubreT), aseve vertikalurad, gardigardmo Rebvis da
lesirebis meTodiTac.
xatze ferebs simboluri mniSvnelobac aqvT da isini, rogorc xatis
atributebi, gamosaxulebis sulieri Sinaarsis gamovlenas emsaxurebian.
RvTaebisa da wmindanTa xatvisas xatmwers sulieri harmoniis grZnoba
uviTardeba, amaSi ki mas uZvelesi xatebis dakvirvebiT daTvaliereba,
Seswavla da maTi detaluri analizi daexmareba.
66
rogor iwereba RvTismSoblis xati
Tu ar CavTvliT macxovaris gamosaxulebis xatebs, marTlmadideblur
qristianul samyaroSi aravin da araferi imdenjer araa asaxuli xatweraSi, rogorc yovladwminda RvTismSobeli. yvela epoqaSi xatmwerni
zedmiwevniT cdilobdnen gadmoecaT misi RvTaebrivi Tvisebebi: saTnoeba
da sikeTe.
am xatebze RvTismSobeli yovelTvis naRvliania, radgan dedis gumaniT
grZnobs misi pirmSos mowamebriv gzas, Tumca es naRveli misi sulis sinaTliT, sibrZniTa da siZlieriTaa aRsavse. RvTismSobeli qveyanas Cvil macxovars xan sazeimod warudgens, xan nazad ixutebs da loyiT asalbuneba,
magram igi mudam savsea mowiwebiT, mokrZalebulia Tavisi RvTaebrivi
pirmSos winaSe da Seguebuli msxverplis garduvalobas. liriuloba, ganmartoeba da amasTanave erTad gasxivosneba, RvTismSoblis xatebis damaxasiaTebeli Tvisebebia.
rogorc yovladwminda RvTismSobeli, aseve Zveli da axali welTaRricxvebis mijnaze wminda miwaze mcxovrebi yvela qali xatebze damaxasiaTebeli TavsaburaviTaa asaxuli. Tavsaburavi umeteswilad wiTeli feriT
(wuxilisa da samefo warmomavlobis xsovna) iwereba, xolo Tavsaburavis
qveda safeni – cisferiT, rac zeciuri siwmindis niSania. yvela xatze Tavsaburavs saxesTan orsave mxares RvTismSoblis xatweraSi dakanonebuli
sam-sami nakeci aqvs, reac samebaze miuTiTebs.
RvTismSobelis Tavsaburavs Sublsa da mxrebis orsave mxares, Sesabamisad, gamosaxuli aqvs sami gasxivosnebuli varskvlavi, romlebic
RvTismSoblis xatweraSi dakanonebuli atributebia. isini RvTismSoblis
maradis qalwulobasa da samebaze mianiSneben.
bizantiur xatweraSi RvTismSoblis gamosaxvis xuTi ZiriTadi saxeoba
Tu motivi iyo kanonizirebuli, romelTagan ufro gavrcelebulia pirveli
sami: RvTismSobeli mlocveli (oranta), gzis maCvenebeli (odigitria),
mowyale (eleousa), yovladmowyale (panaqranta) mfarveli (agiosortissa).
garda amisa, gavrcelebuli iyo saswaulmoqmedi da mgznebare (rusulad
,,strastnaia’‘) RvTismSoblis xatebi.
xazgasmiT aRvniSnavT: rodesac ieso qristes, RvTismSoblis an romelime
wmindanis aq CamoTvlil xatebis uZveles nimuSebze vsaubrobT, igulisxmeba,
rom isini gavrcelebuli iyo mTel marTlmadideblur samyaroSi da ara
romelime erTi regionis sazRvrebSi.
mlocveli (oranta). RvTismSobelis am gamosaxulebas ukve pirvel
qristianebTan romisa da ravennis katakombebSi vxvdebiT. xatweris mravalsaukunovan saganZurSi, RvTismSoblis mravali xatia Semonaxuli
Cvili macxovriT, romelTagan uZveles gamosaxulebas uZvelesi romis
katakombebis IV saukunis ferwerul namuSevarTa Sorisa vxvdebiT. Cvens
mier ilustrirebuli konturuli, anu xazovani naxati XIV saukunis kos-
67
nstantinepolis qoras eklesiis mozaikis mixedviTaa Sesrulebuli.
RvTismSobeli mlocveli (oranta). xelebiT zecisken miuTiTebs. am xatebze
RvTismSobeli welamdea gamosaxuli fasSi, odnav moxrili da gawvdili
xelebi Tavamde aqvs aweuli. RvTismSoblis mkerdTan sferos fonze yrma
macxovari, anu emanuilia gamosaxuli.
gzis maCvenebeli RvTismSobeli (,,odigitria”) Zalian gavrcelebuli xatia da RvTismSoblis erTerT uZveles gamosaxulebad iTvleba. qristianul eklesias Tanaxmad, es xati Tavdapirvelad mociqul
lukas mier aris Sesrulebuli. droze bizantiaSi dawerili RvTismSoblis
am tipis xatebidan ruseTSi inaxeba e.w. ,,smolenskis’‘, ,,tixvinisa’‘ da ,,ive-
RvTismSobeli oranta (mlocveli). konturuli naxati Sesrulebulia
konstantinepolis XIV saukunis freskis da qoras eklesiis mozaikis mixedviT.
68
riis’‘ xatebi. xatze RvTismSobels marcxena xelSi Cvili uWiravs, romelic
marjvena loyiT dedas exuteba. xati siTboTi da sinaziTaa savse. amasTanave
RvTismSoblis am gamosaxulebaSi sevdac igrZnoba Tavisi pirmSos gardauvali mowamebrivi gzis gamo.
mesame tipis xatebidan gansakuTrebiT gamoirCeva ,,vladimiris RvTismSobeli”, ,,moalerse”, anu ,,eleousa”. es xati, romelic XI saukuneSi
konstantinepolSi Seiqmna, erTerTi yvelaze ufro gavrcelebulia
mTel marTlmadideblur samyaroSi. am xatze gamosaxul RvTismSobels
,,eleousas” uwodeben. rogorc Cans, es xati bizantiidan kievSi moxvda,
xolo sabolood ruseTSi, vladimirSi aRmoCnda da amJamad moskovSi, ,,vladimiris RvTismSobelis” saxeliT tretiakovis galereaSia daculi. am
xatze ararealisturi xelovnebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli xerxebiT saocari
ostatobiTaa gadmocemuli dedis sevdiT savse Tvalebi, romlebSiac TiTqos igrZnoba, Tu ra mowamebrivi gza aqvs gasavleli mis Zes. amasTanave
dedisa da pirmSos gamosaxulebebi udidesi sinaziTaa savse. am xatis
uamravi variantebia cnobili: magaliTad, ,,mgznebare RvTismSobeli”, anu
,,passions”, romelic kretaze Semonaxuli xatis mixedviT aris dawerili da
dRes romis erTerT taZars hfens madls.
yovladmowyale, anu ,,panaqranta” SedarebiT naklebad gavrcelebuli xatia. am tipis xatebs is aerTianebs, rom maTze RvTismSobeli taxtzea
gamosaxuli da kalTaSi Cvili macxovari uzis.
mosarCle RvTismSoblis, anu ,,agiosortissa” tipis xatebi sxva
xatebisgan imiT gamoirCevian, rom RvTismSobeli, Cvilis gareSea gamosaxuli da odnav marjvnivaa Sebrunebuli. am seriis zogierT xatze mas xelT
gragnili upyria. es gamosaxuleba marTlmadideblur taZarSi kankelis
TvlasaCino adgilas aris ganTavsebuli (,,yovlisSemZle macxovris’‘
marcxena mxares).
RvTismSoblis bizantiuri xatis mesame gamosaxuleba, anu ,,wminda gzis
manaTobeli RvTismSobeli”, rogorc Teotokosi, marjvena xeliT, marcxena
xelze dasmul Cvil macxovarze miuTiTebs. am xatis pirvelwyaroebi V
saukunes ganekuTvnebian, xolo TviT es xati ki, gabrwyinvebuli da ganumeorebeli zeimiT bizantiis xatweras IX saukuneSi moevlina. (.29, XIII s.
versia. XIV s. versia 36 da 73).
Cven xatis Sesasruleblad virCevT XIV saukunis berZeni
xatmweris namu-Sevars ,,gzis mCvenebeli RvTismSobeli”, romelic
amJamad belgradSis muzeumSia daculi. es xati sakmaod popularuli xatia
da misi mravali aslebia gavrcelebuli sxvadasxva marTlmadideblur
eklesiebSi. xatze RvTismSobeli berZnul tansacmelSi Cacmul Cvil
macxovars adamianebs warudgens. bavSvs marcxena xelSi gragnili uWiravs,
xolo marjvenaTi ku-rTxevas iZleva.
69
70
xatis Sesrulebis oTxi satadia:
xatis zogierTi adgili Tavis droze dazianebuli iyo, magram mogvianebiT restavracia gaukeTda sxva, am prototipisgan gadawerili da ukeTesad
Semonaxuli xatis mixedviT.
axla SevecadoT, gadmovweroT am xatis asli.
rogorc aRvniSneT, bizantiuri anu marTlmadidebluri xatweris ferweris meTodika iTvaliswinebs saRebavTa gruntian dafaze fenebis ganTavsebas civi da muqi (an Sualeduri) tonebidan ufro Tbili da Ria tonebisaken.
dagruntul dafaze gadatanili gvaqvs gamosaxulebis (am SemTxvevaSi
RvTismSobli CviliT xelSi) asli. jer fonis oqros sifrifana furclebiT
dafarvas, anu movarayebas unda SevudgeT (am procesis aRweras dawvrilebiT
ufro qvemoT SevexebiT). xatis ferebiT dafarvis mTeli procesi ki 4 stadiisagan Sedgeba da ase mimdinareobs:
1. xatis pirveli, qveda fenis daferva.
2. xatis yvela im nawilis daferva, romlebic winaswaraa amokawruli.
3. pirveli Ria saRebaviT Sesabamisi adgilebis daferva.
4. warwerebis, wminda naTelisa da oqros wvrili xazebis Sesruleba,
ukanaskneli Ria tonebis datana da muqi zonebis da Crdilebis daxvewa; konturebis gaZliereba da ganaTebis saboloo Strixebi.
RvTismSoblis xatebze RvTismSoblis Saravandedis marcxena da marjvena
mxares berZnul enaze, MP da OY or-ori asoiani ligaturebi iwereba, romelic, Sesabamisad, niSnavs ,,odigitria” (gzis maCvenebeli).
miuxedavad imisa, rom calkeul ferebi xatze advili gasarCevia, isini
sakuTari Sexedulebisamebr unda Semzaddes. saRebavebis erTmaneTSi Sezavebas zogi mxatvari Tavis Sexedulebisamebr axdens.
pirveli stadia:
daalageT magidaze masalebi ise, rogorc es zemoTaa aRwerili da
suraTzea naCvenebi. xis dafa horizontalur mdgomareobaSia. am stadiaze ixmareba kvercxis gulis 1:9 wyalxsnari. macivris yinulis kubebis
WurWelSi moimzadeT sakmao raodenobis saRebavebi (raodenoba damokidebulia imaze, Tu ramdenjer da ra sididis farTobia dasafari am saRebavebiT). jer SeazaveT yvela saRebavi. savarjiSo dafaze gasinjeT maTi
harmoniuloba, anu urTierTSexameba, kargad SeiswavleT yoveli saRebavis
Tviseba da gaukeTeT yovel maTgans Sesabamisi koreqcia. dafervisas saRebavi guldasmiT miiyvaneT amokawrul napirebTan da vidre meore fenas
daferavdeT, darwmunriT, rom dasaferi zedapiri kargad gaSra. araviTar
SemTxvevaSi ar dagrCeT saRebavis gareSe odnav Seuvsebeli adgilebic
ki, gansakuTrebiT daferil adgilebs Soris, anu maT mijnaze. yoveli saRebavi saTanado konsistenciis unda Semzaddes. rac mTavaria, ar unda
brwyinavdes da SeSrobis Semdeg mqrqali (abreSumis qsovilis faqturis)
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pirveli stadia
zedapiri unda hqondes. am efeqts iZleva zedapiris daferva “Petit lac”-is
,,patara tboris’‘ anu Txieri saRebaviT, anu ,,morecxvis’‘ meTodiT. Tu es
gagiZneldaT, SeecadeT zedapiri ubralod saTanado feriT or-samrjer
SeReboT ise, rom funjis nakvalevi arsad ar darCes.
tanisa da tansacmeliT daufaravi adgilebisaTvis Semdegi pigmentebi
gamoiyeneba: Ria oqra, naturaluri siena, TeTri TiTberi, mwvane miwa, Savi:
gamomwvari spilos Zvali da cotaodeni umbra. yvela es pigmenti bunebrivi
warmoSobisaa.
RvTismSiblis tansacmelisaTvis Semdegi pigmentebi gamoiyeneba:
iisferi, cotaodeni ultramarini da sepia.
72
meore stadia
Cvilis Ria tansacmelis, RvTismSoblis Tmis, saxeloebisa da mosasxamisaTvis: lurji kobalti, laJvardi, ultramarini, Savi da sepia.
Cvilis Tmebi: igive ferebi, romlebic sxeulis Ria adgilebisaTvis ixmareba, aseve ufro meti umbra da Savi gamomwvari spilos Zvali.
gragnili Cvilis xelSi: narinjovani kadmiumi, bunebrivi siena, TeTri
saRebavi da wiTeli kadmiumi.
muSaobisas SesaZloa darCes saRebaviT daufaravi TeTri gruntis
umciresi adgilebi, romlebic siasamuris uwvrilesi funjiT unda Seswordes. Tumca amis gakeTeba Semdgom stadiazec SeiZleba.
73
meore stadia:
pirveli stadiis damTavrebis Semdeg SesaZloa ZiriTadi naxatis
zogi adgili aRar Candes an Znelad gasarCevi iyos. amitom am stadiaze
aucilebelia siasamuris 0, 1 an 2 nomeri funjiT erTxel kidev gavamkveTroT
(SemovavloT konturebi) naxati. saRebavisaTvis kvercxis gulisa da wylis
Sefardeba unda iyos Sesabamisad 1:6. am konturebisaTvis saRebavis feri
naxatis qveda tons unda Seesabamebodes, Tumca TvalsaCinoebisaTvis SesaZloa vixmaroT laJvardovani saRebavi, umbra, Savi an lurji indigo. magaliTad, xazis calkeuli detalebis gamosakveTad ixmareba gamomwvari umbra
da sepia naturalur umbrasTan erTad. RvTismSoblis saxis Crdilovani
muqi nawilebis dasamuSaveblad laJvardovani, umbra da sepia gamoiyeneba.
darCenili saRebavebi, Tu yovel maTganSi 2-3 wveT Zmars davumatebT
da movxufavT, samuSaos damTavrebis Semdeg SeiZleba ramodenime dRe SevinaxoT.
mesame stadia:
muSaobisas aCqareba yovlad dauSvebelia. vmuSaobT dinjad da mSvidad.
am stadias muqi tonebiT viwyebT da TandaTan Ria tonebze gadavdivarT.
amdenad qveda ufro muqi da civi toni pirveli Ria feriT unda davfaroT.
igulisxmeba, rom formis gamosaxvisas da tonalobis SerCevisas maqsimalurad vuaxlovebT dedans. saRebavebs TeTr TefSze vurevT da vidre
xatze gadavitandeT, savarjiSo dafaze winaswar momzadebul muq tonebze
unda gavsinjoT. vxmarobT kvercxis gulis 1:6 wyalxsnaris emulsias. samuSao
ufro Sedegiani iqneba, Tu saxes, xelebs, Tmebsa da tansacmels saRebavis
feniT orjer da zogjer samjerac davferavT. am SemTxvevaSi meore feniT
dafervisas gansakuTrebuli yuradReba xatis mkafio konturebsa da Ria
adgilebs eqceva. unda vecadoT, maqsimalurad gavimeoroT dedani Tu misi
reproduqcia. Tu naxati gansakuTrebiT mkveTri gadasvlebs moiTxovs,
muqisa da Ria tonebis sazRvari SeiZleba Zlier wvrili StrixebiT Serbildes, rac TiTqmis mSrali funjiT unda gakeTdes.
gamoiyeneba Semdegi saRebavebi:
sxeulis kanis gamosaxatad: pirveli feniT dafervisas – Ria oqra, odnav
siena da TeTri TiTberi. meore fenaze – TeTri titani, Ria oqra, wiTeli
oqra da wiTeli kadmiumi.
vardisferi Rawvebi unda Sesruldes Zlier wvrili urTierTgadamkveTi
StrixebiT.
Cvilis Tmebi: sruldeba igive saRebaviT, rogorc adreul stadiaze,
magram ufro Ria tonalobiT.
Cvilis tunikasaTvis ixmareba: laJvardovani an lurji kobaltis pigmentebi, TeTri titani sepiiT.
74
mesame stadia
RvTismSoblis tansacmelisaTvis: wiTeli oqra wiTel kadmiumTan erTad
ixmareba.
ganaTebuli adgilebi Zlier wagrZelebuli Ria tonalobis geometriuli
figurebis saSualebiT gamoisaxeba, romlebic tansacmelis winaswar momzadebul xazebs Soris ganlagdeba. amis Semdeg saRebavis Sualeduri fena
keTdeba. am stadiaze yvela daferili adgili (oqros furclebiT movarayebulis adgilis garda) kvercxis gulis 1:12 gamWvirvale wyalxsnariT
unda gadaiRebos. xatweraSi am fenas ,,gamWvirvale laJvardi’‘ ewodeba.
zedapiris saRebaviT dafarva maqsimalurad Tanabrad, mrgvali da didi
zomis funjiT keTdeba. es fena, Tu igi sworad Sesrulda, naxatma aT wuTSi
unda Seiwovos da male unda gaSres.
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meoTxe anu daskvniTi stadia
daskvniT stadiaze sruldeba: 1. Saravandedi, warwerebi, oqros xazebis elvareba, tasacmelis gamonaTebuli, anu gabrwyinebuli adgilebi da
ifereba xis dafis wiboebi. 2. sruldeba sxeulis kanis, Tmisa da tansacmelis ganaTebisaTvis saRebavis daskvniTi feniT daferva. 3. xdeba
konturebis gaZliereba, detalebis naTlad gamokveTa da Crdilebis msubuqad CaRrmaveba. 4. sruldeba Saravandedmosili gvirgvini, rasac qvemoT
SevexebiT.
wmindanTa Saravandedisa da asoebis Sesasruleblad Semdegi pigmentebi
ixmareba: wiTeli kadmiumi, wiTeli oqra da sepia. es pigmentebi kvercxis
gulisa da wylis 1:1 nazavis emulsiaSi unda gazavdes. warwera jer fanqriT keTdeba kalkaze (specialur, gamWvirvale qaRaldze), Semdeg ki
xatis Sesabamis adgilas kalka unda davafinoT da asoebis konturebi
wvrili burTulakalmiT, oqros furclebiT movarayebul dafaze unda
gadavitanoT. amis Sedegad mooqrovebul zedapirze asoebis cxadad gamosaxuli nakvalevi darCeba. imisaTvis, raTa oqroTi movarayebulma
zedapirma temperis saRebavi (romelic wyliania) advilad miiRos,
dasaferi adgilebi gulmodgined unda davfaroT nivris wveniT. igi
funjiT im adgilas unda wavusvaT, sadac Semdeg saRebavi unda vixmaroT.
SeiZleba agreTve im adgilebs, sadac warwerebi unda gakeTdes, SeRebvamde
wverwaWrili nivris kbili wavusvaT. amis Semdeg warweras Sesabamisi
feriT davfaravT da gaSrobis Semdeg SeiZleba davrwmundeT, rom mooqrovili zedapiridan warwera aRar acvivdeba.
rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, kanonikur xatebze RvTismSoblis gamosaxuxelebaze aucileblad sami kaSkaSa varskvlavia gamosaxuli, erTi
– Sublze, xolo ori – mxrebze, romlebic RvTismSoblis maradiuliul
qalwulobaze miuTiTeben. oqros saRebaviT ifereba Tavsaburis areSi moqceuli sami kaSkaSa varskvlavi, sam-sami nakeci – saxesTan Tavsaburis orsave
mxares, kabis samajurebi, Cvilis tansacmelis gabrwyinebuli adgilebi
da samxre qsovili. aseTi saRebavis yidva SeiZleba, Tumca SesaZloa misi
momzadebac: erTmaneTSi unda avurioT narinjovani kadmiumi, yviTeli
kadmiumi, Ria oqra, bunebrivi siena da TeTri titani. oqros saRebavis
dasafiqsireblad ki kvlav nivris wvaniT an nivris kbiliT SegviZlia
visargebloT. dasaSvebia, xatis CamoTvlili komponentebi sadafiani
oqros saRebaviTac SevasruloT.
swori xazebi xatis dafis irgvliv SelaqiT (igi meTilis spirtSi gaxsnili cxoveluri warmoSobis Selaqis fisia) an CarCoebis SesaRebi specialuri gamWvirvale laqiT unda daifaros.
ganaTebuli adgilebis saboloo damuSaveba: ramdenadac xatze gamosaxuli macxovris, RvRiSoblisa da wmindanis saxeze misi sulieri
mdgomareoba unda aRibeWdos, gansakuTrebiT gulmodgined saxis kani da
xelebi unda daiferos. Tu xatis zedapiri ramodenime dRe ar muSavde-
76
boda da igi kvlav dafervas moiTxovs, xatis im nawilebs, romlebic dafervas saWiroeben, kvercxis gulis wyalxsnaris Zlier Txeli fena unda
gadavusavaT. gasanaTebeli adgilebi Zlier wvrili StrixebiT unda
daiferos da yoveli Semdgomi fenis Strixi ufro wvrili unda iyos, vidre wina fenis. am procesisaTvis gamoiyeneba kvercxis gulis 1:3 wyalxsnari
Semdeg pigmentebTan erTad: sxeulis kanisaTvis mWvartli, TeTri oqra,
TeTri titani, wiTeli kadmiumi, narinjovani kadmiumi, kraplaqi.
umciresi detalebis damuSaveba: tansacmalis naoWebi (romelic pirvel
stadiazea gakeTebuli) zogierT adgilebSi Sesabamisi saRebavebis Txeli
laJvardiT TeTr ferTan arevis gareSe ifereba. ase magaliTad, saxis
kanisaTvis naturaluri umbra da sepia ixmareba, romlebic xels uwyoben
saxis gamometyvelebas warmoCenas. sabolood naTeli detalebi kvercxis
gulisa da wylis 1:1 emulsiaSi gaxsnili TeTri titaniT unda daiferos.
Tvalze ar keTdeba sinaTlis araviTari anarekli, radgan marTlmadideblur xatweraSi miRebulia, rom xatis gamosaxuleba zedroulia da
Tvalis gugaSi raime garkveuli dro ar airekleba.
xatis gamWvirvale laqiT an moxarSuli selis an kanafis zeTiT dafarva
SeiZleba misi Sesrulebidan 5-6 Tvis gasvlis Semdeg, vinaidan gruntSi
Sesrutuli temperis saRebavis sabolood gaSrobas didi dro sWirdeba.
qriste pantokratoris xatis Sesruleba
am TavSi aRwerilia Tu rogor unda SevasruloT ,,qriste pantokratoris’‘ xati, magram vidre Sesrulebis detalebbze visaubrebdeT, mizanSewonilia vicodeT, Tu rogor Camoyalibda qristes xatis kanonikuri
saxeebi.
ieso qristes pirveli gamosaxulebani, romlebic romis katakombebSia
napovni, mesame saukunes ganekuTvnebian. am dros qristes keTili mwyemsis
da agreTve simbolurad – kravisa da Tevzis saxiT gamosaxavdnen.
ravenis mexuTe saukunisa mozaikaze qriste uwverulvaSod aris
gamosaxuli da yrma apolons mogvagonebs. meoTxe saukunis damlevis
santa pudencianasa da san orasedes mozaikebze igi ukve wverulvaSiTaa
gadmocemuli. mexuTe saukunidan moyolebuli qristes gamosaxuleba
principulad mxolod wverulvaSiani, wminda, didebuli da brwyinale
pantokratoris saxiT sruldeba. igi berZnul samoss atarebs, marcxena
xeliT mkerdTan Zvirfasi qvebiT Semkuli wigni aqvs midebuli, romelic
zogierT xatze gadaSlilia, zogze ki – daxuruli. marjvena xeliT ki
qriste mayurebels akurTxebs.
qriste pantokratoris uZvelesi xati sinas maTaze wminda ekaterines
monasterSi meeqvse saukunes ganekuTvneba.
adreul SuasaukuneebSi xatebi ZiriTadad enkaustikis wesiT sruldeboda. mecamete, meToTxmete saukunemdea kvercxis gulis temperiT
dawerili xatebi Zalian cotaa Semonaxuli.
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macxovaris gamosaxulebas rogorc marTlmadideblur taZarSi, aseve
morwmunes sulSic mTavari adgili uWiravs. xatweraSi RmerTkacis ieso
qristes damkvidrebuli gamosaxuleba IX saukuneSi iqna dakanonebuli.
marTlmadideblur eklesiaSi macxovaris ori saxis kanonikuri gamosaxulebaa miRebuli: erTi, rogorc yovlismpyrobeli (pantokratori) mosamarTle da meore – iseTi, rigoric igi adamianTa Soris moRvaweobisas
iyo. Sesabamisad, ieso qristes gamosaxuleba mravalnairia, magram ieso
qriste pantokratoris amocnoba advilia, radgan nebismier xatze jvriani
Saravandedi mxolod mas amSvenebs.
Saravandeds, jvris boloebTan, sami berZnuli aso aweria: O, W (omega),
da N, romlebic RmerTs aRniSnaven. Saravandedis orsave mxares, berZnuli
or-or asoiani ligaturebi iwereba IC da XC, rac Sesabamisad ieso qristes
niSnavs.
Zalian xSirad macxovari gamosaxulia wigniT xelSi (romelic an gadaSlilia an daxuruli), rac imaze miuTiTebs, rom igi am qveynad Tavisi
RvTaebrivi moZRvrebiT movida.
macxovaris zemoTaRniSnuli ori saxis gamosaxuleba xatweris eqvs ZiriTad saxeobad aris Camoyalibebuli:
1. macxovari xelTuqmneli
2. macxovari yovlismpyrobeli, anu pantokratori
3. macxovari taxtze
4. macxovari uZleveli
5. macxovari emanuili (yrma)
6. mwyemsi keTili
pirveli xati macxovris miwieri cxovrebis drosaa Seqmnili. tiloze
(e.w. veronikas saburveli), romelic ieso qristem saxeze miifara, misi saxe
gamoixata. cnobilia am saburvelis mixedviT Sesrulebuli ramdenime xati,
romelzec qristes gamosaxulia saburvelis fonze (nax.). amaTgan yvelaze
cnobili xati Sesrulebulia daaxloebiT 944 wels konstantinepolSi
da amJamad igi qalkedonis naxevarkunZulze aTonis mTaze asvenia. meore
uZvelesi gamosaxuleba XII saukunis kviprosis freskidanaa.
sxva gadmocemis Tanaxmad, macxovaris xati xelTuqmneli edesis mefem –
avgarisma Seqmna qristes mrwamsis miRebasTan dakavSirebiT. magram male
qristes sjuli edeselebma daiviwyes da es xati qalaqis kedelSi CaaSenes.
oTxi saukunis Semdeg, 545 wels, sparselebis mier edesis garemocvis dros
edesis episkoposma ipova es xati, romelic SesaniSnavad iyo Senaxuli. metic, xatis asli aRbeWdili aRmoCnda im Tixis filaze, romelic kedelSi
CaSenebul macxovaris xelTuqmnel gamosaxulebas icavda.
yovlismpyrobeli macxovris, anu pantokratoris xati yvela marTlmadideblur taZarSi asvenia. Cveulebriv pantokratoris freska an mozaika
gumbaTzea gamosaxuli, magram xatebze igi mosasxamiT da kvarTiT (qitonSi) gvevlineba. misi gamosaxuleba im periodze miuTiTebs, roca igi
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qriste pantokratoris konturuli naxati. prototipi
bizantiis X saukunis konstantinopolis spilos Zvlis
triptixis mixedviT.
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adamianTa Soris cxovrobda da qadagebda. Tmebi, kululebis gareSe,
mxrebze aqvs daSvebuli da xelT wigni upyria. qriste pantokratoris
konstantinepolis prototipebis variantebSi Tma xan marjvnidan, xan ki
marcxnidan ecema mxrebze. xelis marjvena mtevani sxvadasxvanairadaa gamosaxuli. Cvens winaSe warmodgenil variantSi xelis mtevani energiulad
miuTiTebs zecisken, xelisguli sxeuliskenaa Sebrunebuli, TiTqos wminda
werils an mayurebels akurTxebs. am xatis prototipi, romelic axla Cveni
yuradRebis sagania, aTonis mTis erTerT monasterSi asvenia. am xatze
qristes makurTxebeli xelis TiTebi ise uWiravs, TiTqos mis anagramaze
miuTiTebdes.
feriscvaleba. kretas skolis (daaxloebiT 1535) xatis
mixedviT. xati Sesrulebulia beris - Teofane boTosis
mier. amJamad dasvenebulia aTonis mTis lavraSi.
zoma 49x36 sm., originalis zoma 64x46 sm
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qriste pantokratoris konturuli naxati
xats ,,macxovri taxtze” bevri ram aqvs saerTo pantokratoris gamosaxulebasTan (wigni, makurTxebeli xelis mtevani da sxv.), magram am xatze
igi taxtze zis da mTeli sxeuliTaa gamosaxuli, sadac taxti samyaros simboloa da macxovaris yovlismpyrobel sidiades aRniSnavs.
marTlmadideblur taZarSi uZleveli macxovari kankelis centraluri
gamosaxulebaa. am xats bevri ram aqvs saerTo pantokratorTan da taxtze
mjdomare macxovarTan, magram igi ufro mdidaria rTuli simbolikiT.
qriste kuTxeebgawelili wiTeli kvadratis fonzea gamosaxuli, wigniT xelSi taxtze zis, romlis oTxive kuTxesTan angelozi, lomi, xbo da arwivi
Canan. isini simboliurad mociqulebs – Sesabamisad, maTes, markozs, lukasa
da ioanes gulisxmoben da imaze miuTiTeben, rom es mociqulni qristes moZRvrebas qveynis oTxiv mxares avrceleben. kvadratis Tavze gamosaxuli
lurji ovali sulierebis simboloa, xolo wiTeli rombi ovalis Tavze,
uxilavi samyaroa. macxovris es xati RvTismetyvelebis vizualuri gamoxatulebaa. misi simbolika ZiriTadad ioane RvTismetyvelis winaswarmetyvelebazea agebuli.
macxovari emanuilis xati 12 wlis asakSi ymawvili qristes gamosaxulebaa: ,,ufali TviTon mogcemT niSans: qalwuli daorsuldeba da Sobs
Zes da uwodebs mas saxelad emanuels (CvenTanaa RmerTi)! esaia 7:14. ,,aha,
muclad-iRebs qalwuli, Sobs Zes da uwodeben saxelad emanuels”, rac
TargmaniT niSnavs ,,CvenTan ars RmerTi” (maTe, 1:23). sayuradReboa, rom es
xati eklesiebSi iSviaTad gvxvdeba.
macxovari ,,keTili” kidev ufro iSviaTi xatia, vidre ,,emanuili”. Tuki ,,emanuilis” gamosaxuleba ieso qristes ymawvilobisas gviCvenebs,
,,yovlisSemZle macxovari” TvalsaCinos xdis, Tu rogori iqneba igi meored mosvlis Semdeg. maSasadame, ,,macxovari - keTili” ieso qristes
ymawvilkacobis xanas gamoxatavs, anu im periods, rodesac adamianebma mis
RvTaebriv misiaze araferi icodnen. esaa macxovaris erTaderTi gamosaxuleba, rodesac Saravandedis nacvlad Tavze mas rvaqimiani varskvlavi
adgas. es varskvlavi ori kvadratisagan Sedgeba: erTi magani macxovaris
RvTaebrivobis simboloa, xolo meore – RvTaebis miuwvdomlobas aRniSnavs.
yovlismpyrobeli macxovris, anu pantokratoris im xatis Sesrulebisas,
romlis reproduqciac am wignSioa mocemuli, xatweris igive oTxi meTodi
unda gamoviyenoT, romelic RvTismSoblis SesrulebisaTvis aRvwereT.
pirveli stadia saRebavis pirveli feniT dafarviTa da ,,petit lak’‘is meTodiT sruldeba. saxis dasawerad gamoiyeneba Ria oqra, bunebrivi
siena, sepia, damwvari spilos Zvali, bunebrivi umbra da TeTri TuTia.
TmebisaTvis amave saRebavebisagan Semzadebuli e.w. laJvardi (am saRebavs
pirobiTad uwodeben laJvards; sinamdvileSi igi aris nebismieri feradi
pigmentis, Zlier gamWvirvale kvercxis emulsiisa da wylis nazavi,
romelsac araferi aqvs saerTo namdvil laJvardisfer saRebavTan) da
damatebiT – gamomwvari umbra. macxovaris lurji kvarTisaTvis – lajvardi
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(specialuri laJvardisferi pigmentiT Semzadebuli saRebavi), mwvane miwa,
zurmuxtisferi, ultramarini, cotaodeni wiTeli oqra da indigo. wiTeli
mosasxamisaTvis – wiTeli alizarini, mwvane miwa, Ria ultramarini, iisferi
da damwvari siena. wignisa da misi atributikisaTvis – wiTeli kadmiumi da
yviTeli kadmiumi. mosasxamis oqrosferi bafTisaTvis – Ria oqra, TeTri
TuTia, bunebrivi siena, odnav narinjovani kadmiumi, bunebrivi umbra da
gamomwvari siena.
meore stadiaze xdeba pirvelTan SedarebiT odnav ufro muqi feris konturebisa da saxis nakvTebis daferva. TmebisaTvis gamoiyeneba:
gamomwvari umbra da sepia; naxevartonebisaTvis – gamomwvari umbra, xolo
Camuqebuli (Cabnelebuli) adgilebisaTvis – Savi saRebavi. mosasxamisaTvis
– gamomwvari spilos Zvali da qromis mJava. mosasxamisaTvis – muqi
alizarini Ria ultramariniT da gamomwvari siena.
mesame stadiaze ganaTebuli adgilebis pirveli fena ifereba or
etapad: saxisa da xelebis kanisaTvis pirvel etapze gamoiyeneba Ria oqra,
bunebrivi siena, TeTri TuTia da cotaodeni gamomwvari umbra. meore
etapze – bunebrivi siena, TeTri titani, wiTeli oqra da gamomwvari siena.
tunikisaTvis muqi alizarini, sepia, TeTri TuTia, odnav ultramarini da
gamomwvar siena.
mosasaxamisaTvis – qromis mwvane Jangi cotaodeni TeTri TuTiiTa da
TeTri titaniT, sepia, bunebrivi umbra da lurji kobalti. TmebisaTvis –
igive saRebavebi, romlebic wina stadiaze iyo aRwerili.
meoTxe stadia daskvniTia da am stadiaze warwerebi, wignis yda da
tunikis bafTa keTdeba. wignis Zvirfasi qvebisaTvis alezarini gamoiyeneba.
wignis furclebisaTvis igive saRebavebi, rogorc pirvel etapze TeTri
titani. mosasxamis ganaTebuli adgilebisaTvis mwvane qromis mJava, gamomwvari umbra da laJvardi unda vixmaroT. tunikisaTvis kraplaki da TeTri TuTia. tuCebs Soris xazisaTvis alizarini da gamomwvari sienaa gamosadegi. cxadia, im RvTaebrivi gamometyvelebis gadmocema, romelis am
xatis prototipzea amosaxuli advili araa, magram aman damwyeb xatmwers
guli ar unda gautexos.
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pirveli stadia
85
meore stadia
86
mesame stadia
87
xatis sifrifana oqros furclebiT movarayeba
xatis oqros (an vercxlis) furclebiT movarayeba (fonis ferad bolusze),
ferTa TamaSis TvalsazrisiT, ukana planis metad saintereso dekoratiul
Sexamebas iZleva. zogierTi xati swored imiT gamoirCeva, rom mxolod misi
ukana plani da wminda naTelia movarayebuli. zemoT xatis oqros gaqonili
furclebiT dafarvis meTodebis aRwerisas aRvniSneT, rom gaqonili furclebiT mooqroveba ufro iafi da naklebad efeqturi meTodia, vidre
oqros sifrifana furclebiT ferad fonze movarayeba. es meTodi ufro
did dros, xarjebs da specialur mowyobilobas moiTxovs. samagierod,
furclebis gamoyeneba saukeTeso efeqts iZleva, radgan SeiZleba maTi sarkesaviT gaprialeba. am meTodiT xatis calkeuli nawilebis movarayeba
sakmaod did mosamzadebel drosTan, moTminebasa da daostatebasTan
erTad, garkveul moqnilobasac moiTxovs. Tumca, yvelafris amis miRweva
SesaZlebelia da Sedegi did sulier da esTetiur zegavlenas axdens.
varayiT dasafari adgilebis e.w. bolusiT momzadeba am Zlier gadasworebuli, gluvi adgilebis TeTri an feradi saRebaviT dafervas niSnavs.
sxvadasxva feris ,,bolusi’‘, rogorc fafiseburi, aseve mSrali saxiTac
iyideba samxatvro maRaziebSi. igi mxolod oqros varayis qveda fenad, anu
qvesagebad ixmareba da xels uwyobs oqros varayis Semdgom gaprialebas.
imis mixedviT, Tu ra ferisaa varayis qveda fena, anu bolusi, gaprialebis
Semdeg movarayebuli zedapiri sxvadasxva tonSi elavs. bolusi SesaZloa
iyos yviTeli (Ria oqra), terakota, mowiTalo yavisferi, Savi, lurji,
ruxi da TeTri. bolusis tons SeiZleba daematos cotaodeni samxatvro oqrosferiT Sezavebuli carcis fxvnili, grafiti an wiTeli kadmiumi.
saWiro masalebi: yviTel bolusSi (Ria oqra) odnav oqrosferi carcis fxvnili, grafiti da wiTeli kadmiumis pigmenti unda gazavdes da es
narevi Jelatinis 1 : 23 wyalxsnarSi unda gaixsnas. dagvWirdeba agreTve
sufris TeTri TefSi da kovzi, sxvadasxva saxis brtyeli da mrgvali maRali xarisxis funjebi, Roris jagris uxeSi funjebi da zumfara, anu
saxexi qaRaldebi 400, 600, 800 da 1200 nomrebi, Salisa da xaverdis rbili
naWrebi, gamoxdili wyali da cotaodeni meTilis spirti.
bolusis momzadeba, am bolusiT dafis
zedapiris dafarva da misi damuSaveba:
Rrma TefSze unda gavamzadoT Jelatinis wyalxsnari Sesabamisad 1:23
proporciiT. Jelatinis am Txier masaSi unda gaixsnas bolusis zemoTaRwerili narevi. amisaTvis Rrma TeTr TefSze mSrali bolusis natexebi Jelatinis wyalxsnarSi TandaTan unda gavxsnaT. areva SeiZleba funjiT,
kovziT an Tundac TiTiT. Sedegad fafiseburi narevi miiReba. Jelatinis
wyalxsnars SeiZleba specializirebul maRaziaSi nayidi gamzadebuli fafiseburi bolusic avurioT (mag. Ria oqra).
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mosavarayebeli zedapiri focxismagvari rbili funjiT (siasamuris an
sinTeturi) bolusis xsnaris metad
Txeli da erTgvarovani feniT unda daifaros. bolusiT dafervisas funji
mxolod cal mxares unda vataroT.
im adgilebisaTvis, sadac nakawri konturebia, vargisia mxolod mcire zomis rbili da wvrili funjebi. pirveli fena Zalian gamWvirvale gamova.
gaSrobis Semdeg es fena unda daifaros meore feniT da amjerad funji
unda waesvas pirveli fenis sawinaaRmdego mimarTulebiT. amgvarad mosaoqrovebeli adgilebi unda daifaros bolusis 5 da meti feniTac. am
fenebis mTlianad gaSrobis Semdeg
RvTismSobelis (eleousa) xatis movarayebisaTvis bolusiT dafaruli foni,
gamSral fenas ramdenjerme energiu(e.w. poliment mooqroveba).
lad unda gadaesvas Roris jagris
funji da wvrili mavTulis nulovani zomis sawmendis saxexiT an amave
zomis danamuli zumfariT unda gaixexos. ase damuSavebuli bolusiani
oqros furclebiT dasafari zedapiri sabo-lood xaverdis naWriTac unda gaprialdes. bolusian zedapirs ar unda aCndes raime xazebi, odnavi
nakawrebic ki da zedapiri imdenad sufTad unda iyos damuSavebuli,
rom movarayebis Semreg am defeqtebma oqros elvare zedapirze Tavi ar
iCinos. imis Sesamowmeblad, Tu ramdenad krialaa bolusiani zedapiri,
mas unda gadaesvas gamoxdil wyalSi an spirtSi odnav dasvelebuli
bambis qsovili an bunebrivi Rrubeli da am mdgomareobaSi gulmodgined
unda davaTvalieroT. Tu mainc gamoCnda defeqtebi, zedapirs bolusis
xsnari erTxel kidev unda gadaesvas da gaprialebamde masze Tavidan unda
Catardes yvela is procesi, romelic zemoT iyo aRwerili. amis Semdgom
dafa mzadaa oqros furclebiT mosavarayeblad.
baliSi oqros furclebisaTvis:
mosaoqrovebeli baliSis gasakeTeblad zamSis naWeri unda gadaekras
24x15 sm xis naWers, romelic orive mxridan bambis ormagi feniT unda
gaitenos. baliSi sakmaod elastiuri unda iyos. erTi viwro mxare pergamentis an sxva myife qaReldis fardiT unda daifaros, raTa baliSze
dalagebuli sifrifana oqros furclebi haeris odnavi moZraobisganac
iqnas daculi. qveda mxares SeiZleba ori maryuJi gaukeTdes, raTa muSaobis
dros SesaZlebeli gaxdes baliSis marcxena xelis or TiTze damagreba.
SeiZleba baliSis samuSao magidaze dadebac. zamSis zedapiri idealurad
sufTa unda iyos da droTa ganmavlobaSi zedmiwevniT unda gaiwmindos.
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oqros varayi (oqros sifrifana furclebi):
oqros varays, anu oqros sifrifana furclebs Semdegnairad amzadeben:
zamSis naWrebs Soris (romlebsac ara unda hqondeT nakerebi an nawiburebi)
namdvili oqros furceli Tavsdeba da manam iWedeba CaquCiT, vidre
oqros furceli sifrifana gaxdeba. Zvelad oqros Senadnobs spilenZs an
vercxlsac umatebdnen da am gziT oqros furclebs sxvadasxvanair bzinvarebas aZlevdnen. xatwreaSi ZiriTadad 22-25 karatiani oqros furclebis
wignakis msgavsi paketi gamoiyeneba. oqros sifrifana furclebi
saboloo feradovnebas, bzinvasa da elvarebas ukve xatis zedapirze misi
gaprialebis Semdeg iReben. oqros tonalobis miRebis procesisaTvis bolusis foni (xatis gruntis im adgilze wasasameli saRebavi, romelic oqros furclebiT unda daifaros) did rols asrulebs. maRaziebSi iyideba
oqros varayis 25 furcliani 8x8 sm zomis dastebi.
oqros furclebis daWris procesi:
oqros furclebis dasaWrelad yvelaze xelsayrelia 15 sm. sigrZis
uJangavi foladis zedmiwevniT galesili dana da unda gvaxsovdes, rom
danis pirze odnavi uswormasworobac ki oqros sifrifana furcels ki ar
gaWris, aramed gaxevs. amasTanave danis zedapirs cximis natamalic ki ar
unda hqondes, zedmiweniT unda giwmindos, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi danis
piri oqros sifrifana furcels aitacebs da miikravs. periodulad danis
piri kargad unda gailesos. gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom gamoyenebis win danis ara mWreli piri damiwebul liTons unda Seexos, raTa statikuri eleqtroba mocildes.
oqros furclebis misaerTebeli
zamSis baliSze dalagebuli winaswar zomaze daWrili oqros naWrebis
aReba misaerTebeli funjiT xdeba, romlis brtyeli wina piri ciyvis
bewvisganaa damzadebuli da patara niCbis forma aqvs. esaa farTo da
Zalian brtyeli funji. am danafunjebs sxvadasxva sigrZis bewvebi aqvT
imis da mixedviT, Tu baliSidan aRebuli ra zomis oqros furcelia misaerTebeli erTmaneTis gverdigverd xatis Sesabamis adgilebze. mokle
bewviani misaerTebeli dana - funji oqros viwro furclebis asaRebad
gamoiyeneba, xolo saSualo da grZelbewviani – ufro didi, anu meoTxedi
zomis furclebisaTvis. mTliani oqros furclis asaRebad da dafaze
misaerTeblad meti ostatoba da gamocdilebaa saWiro. rogorc wesi,
mTliani furclebi mxolod didi zomis xatebze ixmareba.
imisaTvis, raTa muSaobisas advili iyos misaerTebeli funjis gamoyeneba,
igi unda iyos odnav cximiani da statikuri eleqtrobiT datvirTuli. am
mizniT sakmarisia xelis gulze davawveToT erTi wveTi eTeris zeTi da
misaerTebeli funjis bewvebi ramodenimejer gavateroT masze. Tu mxatvars sakmaod cximiani Tmebi aqvs, misaerTebeli funjis bewvebis Tavze gada-
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smac sakmarisia. Tanac funjis bewvebi Tmidan statikuri eleqtrobiTac
itvirTeba. samuSaos damTavrebis Semdeg misaerTebeli funji sapniT unda
gairecxos.
liTonis TiTebi oqros furclebis gasaprialeblad
oqros furclebiT movarayebuli xatis zedapiris gasaprialeblad gamoiyeneba gasaprialebeli instrumentebi (nax), romlebic specialur samxatvro maRaziebSi iyideba. aseT
xelsawyoebs CarCoebis damamzadebel saamqroebSic xmaroben. xatebisaTvis sakmarisia
ori an sami cali patara, saSualo da odnav didi
zomis liTonis ,,TiTebi’‘. maTi Senaxva saWiroa
didi sifaqiziT, raTa maTze raime nakawri ar
gaCndes, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi gaprialebisas
mooqrovebul zedapirs daazianeben.
rogor davafinoT oqros furclebi xatis zedapirs
upirvelesad samuSao magidaze mooqrovebisaTvis saWiro yvela zemoTCamoTvlili xelsawyo unda ganlagdes: zamSis baliSi masze ukve dalagebuli oqros furclebiT, dana, samive zomis oqros furclebis misaerTebeli
farTo funjebi mokle, saSualo da grZeli bewvebiT. saWiroa agreTve eTeris zeTi, bamba da didi zomis samxatvro funji.
wyali, meTilis spirti da Jelatini ixmareba mooqrovebis dawyebamde.
ramdenime wveTi meTilis spirti unda daematos Jelatinis 1 : 23 gamoxdil,
odnav gamTbar wyalxsnars da kargad airios. Semdgom xatis zedapiris im
adgils, romelic ukve bolusiTaa dafaruli, es xsnari didi samxatvro
funjiT unda gadaesvas, ise rom daumuSavebeli ar darCes mcireodeni
adgilebic ki. rogorc zemoTac aRvniSneT, kargad unda davaTvalieroT
boluswasmuli zedapiri: unda davrwmundeT, rom masze mcireodeni uswormasworoba an nakawri araa.
oqros furclebiT dafarvis procesi
1. dafa, romelic am xsnariT ifareba, odnav daxrili unda iyos.
2. unda gavxsnaT oqros sifrifana furclebiani wignaki (pirvel
gverdze da davdoT zamSis baliSis gverdiT rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT
aseTi 25-karatiani wignakebi specialur samxatvro maRaziebSi iyideba.
maTi SekveTa interneTis saSualebiTac sesaZlebelia).. Semdeg wignaki
zamSis baliSze swrafad unda gadmovabrunoT ise, rom wignakis furclebi
baliSze darCes. am dros saWiroa didi sifrTxile, rom furclebi
haeris qrolvamac ar aafrialos. am procesis dros mkveTr moZraobas da
furclebTan axlos sunTqvas unda veridoT.
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3. upirvelesad vecadoT odnav ganze gavwioT baliSze dadebuli
oqro, raTa vicodeT, Tu rigiT romeli furcelia asaRebi baliSidan. am
dros SeiZleba oqros furceli gadmovabrunoT an calke gadmovitanoT
amave baliSze. Tu am dros furceli iRuneba an iWmuWneba, sakmarisia cali
mxridan danis wveriT wamovwioT da sulis odnav SeberviT gavasworoT.
unda gvaxsovdes, rom oqros furclebTan muSaobisas maT arasodes ar unda
SevexoT TiTebiT. amasTanave unda vicodeT, rom Zlier daWmuWnuli oqros
furcelic ki gamisadegia mosavarayeblad da muSaobis procesSi SeiZleba
misi gasworebac da gaprialebac. umjobesia daWmuWnuli furclebi calke
konvertSi SevinaxoT da Semdgom SevecadoT maT gasworebas.
4. vidre oqros furclebis daWras daviwyebdeT, danis piri ramdenjerme unda gadavusvaT zamSes. oqros furclis daWrisas dana oqros
furcelze sworad unda gveWiros gverdze gadaxris gareSe da furceli
xelis msubuqi moZraobiT unda daiWras. Tu xatis farTi didia, mis dasafaravad gamiznuli yoveli oqros furceli oTx nawilad iWreba. xatis
gverdebisaTvis furclebi sam an oTx nawilad iyofa. furclebis dafena
xatis zemo nawilidan iwyeba da TandaTan ifareba qvemoTken.
5. Tu dasafari zedapiri SeSra, bolusiT dafaruli nawili, Jelatinis
wyalxsnariT isev davasveloT.
6. oqros grZelbewviani misaerTebeli Tmebze an xelis gulze
gadavisvaT. xelis gulze an Tmaze winaswar odnav eTeris zeTi gvaqvs
wasmuli. misaerTebeli funji maqsimalurad paralelurad unda mivuaxlovoT daWril oqros furcels ise, rom maT Soris manZili samidan
xuT milimetramde iyos. misaerTebeli funjis bewvebi oqros furcelze
frTxilad da Tanabrad davuSvaT ise, rom oqrows furcels ar Seexos.
funji furcels TviTon miikravs da ukve SeiZleba igi baliSidan aviRoT.
furcliani misaerTebeli funji aseve frTxiladve unda mivitanoT im
adgilas, sadac oqros furclis dafenas vapirebT. dafas ar unda SevexoT da igi dafis paralelurad
unda gveWiros. mas Semdeg, rac oqros forclian misaerTebels maqsimalurad
mivuaxlovebT
dafas,
oqros forceli funjs TavisTavad
mocildeba da dasvelebul zedapirs
miekvreba. Tavdapirvelad SeiZleba
mogeCvenoT, rom es Zneli saqmea,
magram male darwmundebiT, rom
yvelaferi xdeba martivad. oqros
furclebiT xatis movarayeba ase
unda gaagrZeloT da unda ecadoT,
samuSao magidaze zamSis baliSis da sxva
saWiro instrumentebis ganlageba oqros
rom yovelma Semdgomma dasafenma
furclebiT xatis dafarvis procesSi.
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furcelma ori-sami milimetriT mainc gadafaros wina furceli. furclebis
daWra da mosavarayebeli mTeli zedapiris bolomde dafarva TandaTan unda gagrZeldes. SesaZloa oqros furclebiT zedapiris dafarvis Semdeg
aRmoCndes, rom zogierTi adgili zedapirze saTanadod araa miwebebuli.
amisaTvis Jelatinis wyalxsnarSi dasvelebuli funji am miuwebebeli adgilebis napiras ise unda gadaesvas, rom am dauwebebelma adgilebma xsnari
Seiwovos. garda amisa, ukeT Sewebebis mizniT im adgilebs odnav bambiTac
unda davawveT, romlis qvemoTac xsnari Sevida.
7. unda gvaxsovdes, rom movarayeba yovelTvis mxolod svel zedapirze
xdeba. im adgilebze, sadac furclebi ori sami milimetriT gadadioda
erTmaneTze, am oqros furclebis dauwebebeli wvrili wiboebi darCeba.
maTi moSoreba advilia SeSrobis Semdeg bambis tamponis meSveobiT. araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar unda vcadoT maTi mocileba daniT. Tu samuSaos
damTavrebamde mcireodeni adgili oqros gareSe darCa, aRwerili teqnikuri meTodiT maTi Sevseba advilia.
oqros varayis gaprialeba
xatis zedapiris oqros furclebiT dafarvidan sami saaTis Semdeg ukve
SeiZleba maTi gaprialeba. mizanSewonilia gaSrobidan gaprialebamde am
miTiTebul dros ar gadavaWarboT, radgan winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi bolusi
Zlier xmeba da Sedegic sasurveli ar iqneba. gaprialeba liTonis patara
TiTiT unda daviwyoT da oqroTi dafaruli zedapirze TandaTan erTi adgilidan meoreze unda vataroT. imis mixedviT, Tu ra mimarTulebiT xdeba
gaprialeba, damokidebulia zedapiris elvarebis xasiaTic. gaprialebis
daswyisSi zedapirze naklebi zewolaa saWiro da igi TandaTan unda gaZlierdes. yuradReba imasac unda mvaqcioT, rom gasaprialebel zedapirs
liTonis TiTis dawolis kvali ar emCneodes. gaprialebis procesSi sxvadasxva adgilze gadaxtoma ar SeiZleba da gaprialeba erTi adgilidan
meoreze TandaTan gadasvliT unda mimdinareobdes. gaprialeba SedarebiT
patara liTonis TiTiT unda daviwyoT da ufro didi gasaprialebeli TiTiT davamTavroT.
gaprialeba ar unda Sewydes da igi SeiZleba naxevaridan erT saaTamde
grZeldebodes. Tu oqros furclebiT xatis dafarva da gaprialebis
procesi normalurad Catarda, xats furclebs mierTebis adgilebi ar
unda etyobodes. Tu samuSao xarvezebiT Catarda da calkeul adgilebSi
mooqrovil zedapirze bolusis mcireodeni daufaravi adgilebi gamosWvivis, SeiZleba am adgilebis gaprialebis Semdegac SekeTeba. amisaTvis
misaerTebeli funji marcxena xelSi unda daviWiroT; xarveziani adgili
danis wveriT an sulis SeberviT odnav unda avwioT; am adgilas oqros
webo unda wavusvaT da misaerTebeli funjis daxmarebiT Sesabamisi oqros
furclis naWriT unda davfaroT. 5-10 wuTis Semdeg ukve SeiZleba am
adgolis gaprialebac. mikroskopiulad mcire adgilebi SeiZleba oqros
specialuri saRebaviTac SevakeToT. samuSaos damTavrebis Semdeg Tu
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aRmoCnda, rom oqroTi movarayebuli zedapiri metismetad elavs da xatis
saerTo xasiaTidan amovardnilia, SeiZleba misi dafarva erTi an ori fena Jelatinis an specialuri e.w. kurdRlis webos 1:18 wyalxsnariT. am SemTxvevaSi oqros zedapiri ukve abreSumis qsovilis faqturas miiRebs.
zogierTi mxatvari oqros elvarebis odnav Casaqrobad mas Selaqis Ria,
gamWvirvale xsnariT amuSavebs. am meTods zogjer Saravandedis mooqrovebisTvisac iyeneben.
ramdenadac oqros furclebiT erTi feniT mopirkeTebisa da gaprialebis Semdeg mainc bevri defeqti rCeba, zogierTi xatmweri am zedapirs oqros varayis meore feniTac apirkeTebs da aprialebs. amisaTvis pirvel fenas
zemoTaRwerili Jelatinis wyalxsnariT asveleben, oqros furclebiT faraven da Semdeg zemoTaRwerili meTodiT aprialeben.
warwerebi da sxva mcire detalebi
roca xati mzadaa, gaprialebul oqros fonze warwerebi keTdeba.
Saravandedze da sxva Sesabamis adgilebze zogjer aucilebelia inkrustaciis Sesrulebac. amisaTvis saTanado adgilas kalkis saSualebiT inkrustaciis sasurveli konturi unda gakeTdes (ixileT samagaliTo xati 45
gverdze) da oqros zedapirze zedmiwevniT frTxilad, unda Sesruldes
inkrustacia specialuri mcire zomis am procesisaTvis gamiznuli instrumentebiT, magram ise, rom oqros zedapiri ar gaixes. am samuSaos Sesasruleblad ixmareba graviuris instrumentebi, romlebic specialur
maRaziebSi iyideba. is iaraRebi, romlebsac tyavis amosatvifrad iyeneben,
ar gamodgeba.
wvrili xazebi da Strixebis gasakeTeblad Zlier wvrili joxis wkirs
iyeneben (magaliTad, wawvetebul funjis tars). am wkiris wvetiani boloTi
oqroze daferili saRebavi unda amoifxikos. an xazebi da Strixebi unda
daixatos oqros specialuri saRebaviT, romelSiac sadafia areuli. am
mizniT SeiZleba iaponuri oqros webos gamoyenebac, romelzedac Semdeg
oqros Sesabamisi furclebi lagdeba imave wesiT, rogorc am TavSia aRwerili.
xatis moxarSuli selis an kanafis zeTiT
dafarva da misi damcavi zedapiris Sesruleba
rodesac xatis wera damTavrdeba, ar SeiZleba maSinve misi raime damcavi
laqiT dafarva, radgan axlad damzadebul xats 4-5 Tve mainc Wirdeba SeSrobisaTvis. gasaTvaliswinebelia isic, rom xatis zedapirze kvercxis
temperas erTi-ori wlis Semdeg ise magrdeba, rom ukve misi sarkesaviT gaprialebac kia SesaZlebeli.
xatvis damTavrebidan ramodenime kviris Semdeg ukve aucilebelia xatis
saRebaviT dafaruli zedapiris dacva-gamagreba, anu pirveladi damcavi
feniT dafarva. amisaTvis gamoiyeneba e.w. laJvardi, anu damcavi xsnari,
95
romelic mzaddeba an kvercxis cilisa da wylis 1:1 nazaviT an nayidi e.w.
kurdRlis webos wyalTan 1: 5 nazaviT. kvercxis cilis laJvardis damzadeba
saxelosnoSi Semdegnairad xdeba: kvercxis cila unda aiTqvifos da vidre gamoviyenebdeT, daaxloebiT 8 - 10 saaTi unda gavaCeroT WurWelSi
aTqvefil mdgomareobaSi. amis Semdeg aTqvefil cilas aucileblad unda
movaciloT gamSrali zedapiri, xolo darCenili cila amave raodenobis
wyalSi unda gaixsnas. am xsnariT xatis weris damTavrebidan 2-3 kviris
gavlis Semdeg ukve SeiZleba axlad Sesrulebuli xatis dafarva pirveladi
damcavi feniT.
aRniSnuli proceduris Catarebidan ramodenime Tve rom gaivlis,
SeiZleba xatis galaqvac. amisaTvis farTo funjiT mTeli xati selis an
kanafis sufTa, moxarSuli zeTis (olifis) Txeli feniT orjer unda daifaros. umjobesia, Tu xatis damcavi zedapirisaTvis maRaziaSi nayid, minarevebisagan kargad gafiltrul gamWvirvale olifas gamoviyenebT, romliTac erTi saaTis intervaliT xatis dawerili adgilebi orjer unda
daifaros. tradiciuli teqnologiiT damzadebuli moxarSuli selis an
kanafis zeTi anu olifa droTa ganmavlobaSi ise muqdeba, rom 80 wlis
Semdeg TiTqmis sul Savdeba da SeuZlebeli xdeba xatze Tavdapirveli
naxatis garCeva. Zveli mxatvrebi iZulebuli iyvnen aseTi xati Tavidan gadaeweraT. isini an masze sruliad axal gamosaxulebas xatavdnen. zogjer
Zveli ostatebi olifis nacvlad Selaqis gamWvirvale feniT faravdnen
xatebs, rac gamZleobis TvalsazrisiT ukeTes Sedegs iZleoda. bizantiuri
xatebis bevri ostati axerxebda selisa da kanafis moxarSuli zeTis gawmendas im minarevebisagan, romlebsic droTa ganmavlobaSi am zeTis
gamuqebas iwvevda. amdenad bevrma bizantiurma xatma ise moaRwia Cvenamde,
rom ferTa Tavdapirveli sixalise ar daukargavT. amJamad samxatvro maRaziebSi SesaniSnavi xarisxis olifa iyideba, romelic vargisia xatis
sabolood dasafaravad.
xatis zedapiris dasacavad karg efeqts iZleva agreTve e.w. saretuSo
temperis olifac, (romelic agreTve iyideba specialur samxatvro maRaziebSi). igi spirtSi gaxsnili specialuri fisisagan mzaddeba da ar
muqdeba. xatis saRebaviT dawerili adgilebi saretuSo olifiT 7,5 sm
siganis brtyeli funjiT, orjer unda daifaros.
saretuSo olifa kargad uZlebs JamTa svlas da ar muqdeba. am olifiT
mTeli xatis dafarva SeiZleba da Tu gvinda, rom zedapiri mqrqali
iyos, maRaziaSi nayid saretuSo spirtian olifas Taflis sanTeli unda
davumatoT (Taflis sanTeli kargad ixsneba spirtSi). xatze aseTi dasacavi
zedapiris gakeTebisas, mizanSewonilia xatis zedapiri Zlieri lamfiT an
raime gasaTbobi mowyobilobiT Tbebodes. miuxedavad amisa, mainc saWiroa
aseTi damcavi siTxe xatis zedapirs farTo funjiT jvaredinad ise swrafad waesvas, rom sanTlis SeSrobis Sedagad funjis nakvalevi ar darCes.
xatis zedapiri ramdenime dRis Semdeg am siTxeSi odnav dasvelebuli
96
zamSis naWriT unda gadaprialdes. amasTanave yuradReba unda mieqces
imasac, rom wasmis procesSi naWeri SeRebil zedapirs Zlier ar daeWiros.
amis Semdeg xatis zedapiri abreSimis sufTa naWriT unda gaprialdes da
yvela CamoTvlili procesis damTavrebisTanave funjebi gulmodgined unda gaiwmindos.
SesaZloa (albaT umjobesic) spirtiani olifis saxelosnoSi damzadebac.
amisaTvis cvilis (ketonis) kristalebi dolbandSi an qalis windis naWerSi
unda Caiyaros da erTi RamiT Rvinis spirtian daxuful WurWelSi unda
vamyofoT. Tu mqrali olifis damzadeba gvinda, cvilis nacvlad gamdnari
Taflis sanTeli unda vixmaroT. orive SemTxvevaSi cvili an Taflis sanTeli iseTi koncentraciiT unda gavajeroT, rom xsnari Zalian Txeli da
gamWvirvale iyos.
rogorc aRvniSneT, xatis zedapiris dacva e.w. SelaqiTac (rusi xis
ostatebi mas ,,polituras’‘ uwodeben) SeiZleba. amisaTvis bunebrivi
Serlaqis xmeli naWrebi meTilis spirtSi, meTanolSi an Rvinis spirtSi
unda gaixsnas. amasTanave unda gvaxsovdes, rom Tu ki xatis sxva saxis dasafiqsirebeli olifis morecxva wasmis Semdegac SeiZleba, Serlaqis
mocileba SeuZlebelia. SelaqiT xatis Zlier siprialemde miyvanac SeiZleba
da mqrali zedapiris miRebac. am ukanasknelisaTvis Selaqis xsnarSi mcireodeni gamdnari Taflis sanTeli unda avurioT. sabolood xsnari
sakmaod Txeli da gamWvirvale unda gamovides. am xsnariT aucileblad
xatis wiboebic unda daifaros.
Tanamedrove sinTeturi laqebi praqtikulad ar muqdeba da sruliad
gamWvirvale garss qmnian. aseTi laqebi aerozolis saxiTac iwarmoeba. miuxedavad amisa, marTlmadidebluri tradiciuli xatwerisaTvis sinTeturi
laqebis gamoyeneba miuRebelia. gasaTvaliswinebelia isic, rom sinTeturi
laqis mocileba, zemoTaRwerili tradiciuli olifisagan gansxvavebiT,
SeuZlebelia. miuxedavad amisa zogierTi xatmweri ugulvelyofs tradiciul xatweraSi miRebul wesebs da kvercxis temperis saRebavebiT dawerili xatis damcavi zedapiris dasafaravad sinTetur laqebs iyenebs,
rac Cveni azriT xatweris kanonebis darRvevaa.
xatis ukana mxare: Tu xatis dafis ukana mxare dagruntulia, igi kvercxis
temperas muqi saRebaviT iRebeba. masze wiTeli an TeTri saRebaviT keTdeba
warwera. es warwera unda Seicavdes xatis (an misi prototipis) dasaxelebas.
SeiZleba mivuTiToT xatis Sesrulebis stili, dro da adgili, aseve im saeklesio dResaswauli, romlisadmi pativis misagebladac Sesrulda xati.
zeda Sua adgilas jvari ixateba. Tu xatis ukana mxare dagruntuli araa,
warwerebi uSualod xis zedapirze keTdeba, romelic Semdeg imave damcavi
xsnariT an SelaqiT ifareba, romliTac wina mxare daifara.
xati suraTi araa da misi Casma raime ,,Sesamkobel’‘ CarCoSi ar SeiZleba.
xati SeiZleba dasvenebul iqnas xaverdiT dafarul xis dafaze. xaverdi
mwvane an miwisferi unda iyos.
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xatze gamosaxuli wmindanTa figurebi
da maTi weris teqnikuri mxareebi
rodesac mravalfiguriani an erTfiguriani xati iwereba, romlis
kompoziciurad landSaftsa da nagebobebs Seicavs, jer wmindnTa gamosaxulebani sruldeba (qriste, RvTismSobeli, angelosni da wmindanebi).
rogorc zemoT iyo aRwerili, dafaze gamosaxulebaTa konturebi SegviZlia
kalkis saSualebiTac gadavitanoT. Tu aslis gareSe gvinda gadaxatva kalka
dedans an reproduqcias unda davadoT da masze centraluri vertikaluri
xazi unda gavavloT, romelic naxats Suaze gayofs. amis Semdgom kidev
3 an 4 erTmaneTs Tanabrad mocilebuli horizontaluri xazebic unda
gavavloT. es imisaTvis keTdeba, rom xatze gamosaxuli wmindanis sxeulis
proporciebSi advilad gaverkveT. unda gaizomos, Tu ramdenjer Tavsdeba
Tavis sidolbande sxeulis sigrZeSi. es Sefardeba droTa ganmavlobaSi
da xatweris sxvadasxva skolebSi icvleboda. qristes figurisaTvis igi
meryeobda 1:7,5-dan 1:8,0-mde, xolo RvTismSoblisa 1:8,25 da 1:8,5-mde. ufro gviandeli, gansakuTrebiT rusuli xatwerisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia
wagrZelebuli figurebi, Tavis sxeulTan Sefardeba Sesabamisad 1:9dan 1:10-mde. amiT wmindanTa gamosaxulebis aramaterialuri arsisa da
meti sulierebisa efeqturoba miiRweoda. am SemTxvevaSic naxati dafaze
iseve sruldeba, rogorc es RvTismSoblis xatis Sesrulebis aRwerisas
miviTiTeT.
bizantiis imperiis dacemis Semdeg marTlmadidebluri samyaroSi, kerZod saberZneTis, saqaeTvelos, kviprosis, eTiopiis xatweraSi Tavisa da
sxeulis urTierT Sefardeba, SesaZloa, zemoTmoyvanili proporciebisagan
gansxvavebuli iyos, magram Cven bizantiuri, anu klasikuri xatweris
meTodebs vixilavT.
aq kvlav unda gavixsenoT, rom klasikuri xatis samSoblo bizantiaa,
rom man dRis sinaTle, am sityvis sruli mniSvnelobiT bizantiaSi ixila
da udidesi aRmavloba xatweram IX–XIV saukuneebSi bizantiaSi ganicada.
xatis ferebSi Sesrulebisas igive ,,petit lac’‘-is (mcire tboris)
meTodi gamoiyeneba. tansacmelic pirveladi daferviT sruldeba. amis
Semdeg tansacmlis nakecebis muqi tonebi e.w. laJvardiT Zlierdeba da
nakecebis ganaTeba geometriuli formebisa da maTi Ria tonebiT dafervis
meSveobiT TandaTan ixveweba. gaTvaliswinebul unda iqnas, rom samosi ki
ar unda ekidos sxeulze, rogorc usicocxlo da mouwesrigebeli farda,
aramed xatze gamosaxuli macxovris, RvTiSoblis an wmondanis sulier
arss unda gadmoscemdes. xatwerisas gamudmebiT eqceva yuradReba, rom
prototipis arc ideas da formebs ar gadavuxvioT.
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perspeqtiva xatweraSi –
landSafti, Senobebi da aveji
xatis perspeqtiva renesansis dros leonardo da vinCis mier Camoyalibebuli perspeqtivis kanonebisagan Zireulad gansxvavebulia. mTeli
dasavluri xelovneba leonardos xazovan perspeqtivazea agebuli. perspeqtivis Sesaxeb mecnierul Teorias XIII saukuneSi Caeyara safuZveli
da man mniSvnelovanad gansazRvra evropuli kulturis bedi. pirveli
mxatvari, romlis SemoqmedebaSic praqtikulad aisaxa perspeqtivis kanonebi da romelmac sibrtyeze samganzomilebiani sivrcis iluzia Seqmna
iyo joto di bondone (1267-1332). am genialurma Semoqmedma sivrcis manamde idumal xedvas farda axada, adamianebs am sivrcis martivi buneba
daanaxa da amiT gza gauxsna sivrcis maTematikurad Seswavlas. rom ara
jotos Semoqmedebis genialuri aRmoCena, rene dekartis (1596-1650) mier
analitikuri geometriis safuZvlebis Seqmnas bevrad daagviandeboda.
aq unda aRiniSnos, rom evropul ferweraSi pirvelad jotom gamoiyena
xazovani perspeqtiva samganzomilebiani sivrcis sibrtyeze gadmosacemad,
xolo leonardom am perspeqtivis kanonebi Camoayaliba.
amgvarad, qristes sjulis sxvadasxva epizodebis gadmocema ,,cxovrebiseuli’‘, realisturi saxeebiT da xazovani perspeqtivis meTodebis
saSualebiT sibrtyeze samganzomilebiani sivrcis gamosaxvis xerxis
aRmoCena evropul xelovnebaSi axali eris – realizmis dabadebiT aRiniSna.
bizantiuri xelovnebis mesveurTa, xatweris ostatebis damokidebuleba
sivrcisadmi sruliad gansxvavavebuli – ,,aramqveyniuri’‘. sivrces isini
oqros mTliani foniT gadmoscemdnen, xolo am fonze ganTavsebul sagnebs ukuperspeqtivSi gamoxatavdnen. ukuperspeqtiva xazovan perspeqtivaze bevrad ufro adre iqna aRmoCenili. ,,Camoyalibda axali stili:
gaZlierebuli sibrtyiToba, moculobiTi formis ugulebelyofa, bunebriv proporciaTa darRveva, ukuperspeqtivis gamoyeneba’‘ (qarTuli
enciklopedia – ,,xatmebrZoloba’‘).
marTlmadidebluri xatweris ostatebma icodnen, rom adamianis mxedveloba arasrulyofilia, saganTa realur arss amaxinjebs da rom ama Tu
im sivrcisa Tu sagnis aRqma zedmetadaa subieqtur SegrZnebazea damokidebuli. amitom imis dadgena, Tu rogoria saganTa WeSmariti samyaro,
mxolod Semecnebis saSualebiTaa SesaZlebeli da amis misaRwevad ara Tu
ar kmara yoveldRiuri, xorcieli cxovreba, aramed saWiroa qristianuli
dogmatis rwmenac. ucnauri da uTqmeli sivrcis Tvisebebi gansxvavdeba
miwieri sivrcisagan da misi axsna adamianuri logikiT SeuZlebelia.
xatweris ukuperspeqtivam saukuneebs gauZlo da xatis sulieri ganzomileba xorciel cdunebaTa winaaRmdeg zeSTagonebuli protestis gamovlinebad rCeba. meoce saukuneSi xazovani perspeqtivis srulfasovnebaSi
eWvi kubistebmac Seitanes: erT sibrtyeze ukuperspeqtivis ramodenime
centrs qmnidnen da am gziT axal vizualur efeqtebs miaRwies.
99
xareba. konturuli naxati.naxazze kargad Cans, Tu rogoraa gamoyenebuli ukuperspeqtivi
100
xatebis mravalricxovanma avtorebma xatweraSi ukuperspeqtivis xerxebis gamoyenebis saSualebiT gamosaxul sakralur ideas suli Caudges. perspeqtivis ramodenime centris meSveobiT xatis kompozicia mTeli misi
dedaarsiT miwier kanonebs moZvelebulad acxadebs. ase rom xatweris
mravalsaukunovanma samyarom mxatvruli perspeqtiva antikurisagan gansxvavebul sruliad axlebur principebze daamyara, vidre mesame ganzomilebis ideaa. imis mixedviT, Tu kompoziciurad ra siuJetia xatebze gadmocemuli, ama Tu im detalis asaxvisaTvis xSirad perspeqtivis ramodenime
centria winaswar SerCeuli. amdenad, aseTi xatebis SinaarsSi amqveyniuri
kanonebi aRar moqmedeben da saqme gvaqvs WeSmaritad RvTaebrivi suliT
aRsavse bunebasTan. am xatebis sami ganzomileba sul sxva savrceSia gadasuli,
aRar moqmedebs mizidulobis Zala, dro mTlianad ganzogadoebulia
da sivrce fardobiTia. xatze gamosaxuli esa Tu is garemo sulieri samyaros sivrceSi metafizikur velebadaa danawevrebuli da am sakralur
ganzomilebas adamianii zedroul RvTaebriv samyaroSi gadayavs.
xatebi movlenaTa kosmiuri versiis samudamo sazRvrebze migviTiTeben
da amitomac maTSi asaxuli ideebi JamTasvlis warmaval xasiaTs ar eqvemdebarebian.
sxvadasxva tipis perspeqtivis gamoyeneba
xatis kompoziciis sxvadasva datali – nagebobebis, avejis, landSaftis
Semadgeneli nawilebi SeiZleba sxvadasxva saxis perspeqtivis meTodiT
iyos gamosaxuli. am mxriv Semdegi principebi gamoiyeneba:
1. wrfivi perspeqtiva, romelsac ramodenime gadakveTis wertili aqvs.
2. aqsonometriul proeqcia, roca xazebi horizontisaken paralelurad miemarTebian, arsad ar ikveTebian da saganTa zomebi, ragind Sors iyos
ganTavsebuli kompoziciaSi, ar mcirdebian.
3. perspeqtivis centri mayureblisakenaa mimarTuli. xatweraSi, es meTodi, yvelaze metadaa gavrcelebuli.
4. mrude xazebis meTodi ZiriTadad horizontis gamosaxatad gamoiyeneba.
horizonti xatze ise Cans, rogorc Caburcul sarkeSi. xatweris ostatebs
swamdaT, rom xatis sulieri sawyisi sagans, axal Tvisebasa da zomas
aniWebs; sjerodaT, rom xatweris dros es Tviseba macxovris, RvTiSoblis
an wmindanis gamosaxulebas iRebda. es ukve kosmiur xedvas Seesabameboda,
sadac samyaro usasrulo sferoa, romlis RvTaebrivi centri ieso qristea.
5. zedxedis meTodi, roca RmerTi dedamiwas zemodan dahyurebs da xedi
qvemodan, roca mayurebeli qvemodan umzeris samyaros., TiTqos igi wmindanis ferxTiTaa salocavada dacemuli.
Senobebi da aqsesuarebi
zemoTaRniSnulidan gamomdinare, gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom xatze gamosaxul Senobebis perspeqtivis xazebi xatis sibrtyis sxvadasxva adgilas
101
iyris Tavs. magaliTad, RvTismSoblis taxtis Ziri SeiZleba mayureblis
Tvalis dones Seefardebodes, maSin roca sazurgisa da sxva detalebis
persspeqtivis xazi SeiZleba sul sxva doneze iyos gamosaxuli. naxatze
kargad Cans, Tu rogor uxvadaa gamoyenebuli am kompoziciaSi perspeqtivis
sxvadasxva wertilebi.
bizantiur tradiciaze Seqmnil xatebze Senobebi gviandeli antikuri
ornamentikiT berZnuli arqiteqturis Tavisufali interpretaciaa. xatebze es Senobebi warmodgenilia rogorc ZiriTadi kompoziciis foni
da am kompoziciaSi nageboba mTavar obieqtadac rom iyos ganTavsebuli,
wmindanis gamosaxuleba mainc Senobis win Cans. imisaTvis, raTa daxuruli
sivrcis STabeWdileba Seiqmnas, RvTismSoblis taxtis Tavze wiTeli
qsovilia gadafarebuli (nax. xareba).
Senobebi ,,patara tboris” (,,petit lak”-is) meTodiT ki ar iwereba,
aramed brtyeli funjiT ixateba. yuradsaRebia, rom vertikaluri xazebi
araa zustad vertikaluri, SuqCrdili moklebulia realizms da ufro
,,SeRebilia’‘, vidre daferili.
Tavis gamosaxulebis perspeqtiva
zogierTi xatebze gamosaxulebaTa idumali da Tan SemkrTali gamometyveleba gvafiqrebinebs, rom saxis dasawerad ostati perspeqtivis
ramodenime meTods iyenebda. magaliTad, saxe Tu 3/4 Cans, cxviri profilSia
gamosaxuli, xolo yuris bibiloebi pirdapir moCans. Tvalebi mayurebels
ucqeris, maSin rodesac Tvalis gugis qveda TeTri xazebi miuTiTeben,
rom gamosaxuleba zemoTac iyureba. piri frontaluradaa dawerili,
gamosaxulebas ki aSkarad mouCans nikapis qveda sivrce. saxis gamosaxatad
gamoyenebuli xerxebi da saxis nakvTebis perspeqtivis msubuqi aberacia
sxeulis agebis drosac meordeba. saxis gamometyveleba sxeulTan mTlian
harmoniaSia, amitom Tavi izolirebulad ki ar ikiTxeba, aramed misi
ganaTeba sxeulis siRrmidan cialebs. yovelive amis Sedegad mayurebeli
aRiqvams ara ferad naxats, aramed xedavs adamianis sulier harmonias
RvTaebriv samyarosTan. yovelive amis gamo xatis vizualuri iersaxis
wvdomisas cxadi xdeba, rom sicocxlis gansxeulebisa da misi sulieri
samyaros gadmosacemad am xerxebis gamoyeneba, realistur ferweraSi,
warmoudgenelia.
landSafti, mTebi da mcenareuloba
xatebze gamosaxuli landSafti, mTebi da mcenareuloba, ise rogorc
arqiteqtura xatis fonisa da kosmiuri planis elementebia. adamianis gza
sikeTisaken svlisas metafizikuri kompoziciis safexurTan warmoCindeba,
rac ase SeiZleba warmovidginoT: sibnele, miwieri safexuri adamianTan
erTad da sinaTle, wminda safexuri, romelzedac simboliurad warmoCindeba ufali wris an qristes saxiT. Zalian gavrcelebulia xatweraSi
gamoqvabulis, rogorc bneli kosmosis simbolo. aseTebia qristeSobis
102
Temaze dawerili xatebi, lazares
aRdgineba, wminda giorgis mier gveleSapis moSToba da golgoTa, sadac
advili gasarCevia adamis Tavisqala
jvaris ZirTan. xSirad gamoqvabuli
dawerilia, rogorc Savi sarkmeli an
SenobaSi Sesasvleli. mTebi, aucileblad ama Tu im wmindanisakenaa gadaxrili. xeebi da mcenareuloba grZnoben RmerTis siaxloves da Tavs ixrian
mis winaSe.
xatweris xelovnebaSi yvelaferi
erT ideas, anu marTlmadidebluri
kanonebiT winaswar gansazRvrul sulier harmoniulobas emsaxureba da
araferi aRar rCeba damokidebuli xelovanis, xatis Semqmnelis, misi avtoris ganwyobaze.
xatebis mravalricxovanma avtorebma xatweraSi ukuperspeqtivis
xerxebis gamoyenebis saSualebiT gamosaxul sakralur ideas suli Caujvarcma. XIV saukunis bizantiuri karedis
dges. perspeqtivis ramodenime cenxatis mixedviT. aTenis bizantiis muzeumi. 103x84 sm. meore mxares gamosaxulia tris meSveobiT xatis kompozicia
RvTismSobeli gzis maCvenebeli.
mTeli misi dedaarsiT miwier kanonebs moZvelebulad acxadebs. ase rom
xatweris mravalsaukunovanma samyarom mxatvruli perspeqtiva antikurisagan gansxvavebul sruliad axlebur principebze daamyara, vidre
mesame ganzomilebis ideaa. imis mixedviT, Tu kompoziciurad ra siuJetia
xatebze gadmocemuli, ama Tu im detalis asaxvisaTvis xSirad perspeqtivis ramodenime centria winaswar SerCeuli. amdenad, aseTi xatebis
SinaarsSi amqveyniuri kanonebi aRar moqmedeben da saqme gvaqvs WeSmaritad RvTaebrivi suliT aRsavse bunebasTan. am xatebis sami ganzomileba sul
sxva savrceSia gadasuli, aRar moqmedebs mizidulobis Zala, dro mTlianad ganzogadoebulia da sivrce fardobiTia. xatze gamosaxuli esa Tu is
garemo sulieri samyaros sivrceSi metafizikur velebadaa danawevrebuli
da am sakralur ganzomilebas adamianii zedroul RvTaebriv samyaroSi
gadayavs.
103
naTlisReba. berZeni ostatis xati. daaxloebiT 1300 weli. peribletosis RvTismSoblis monastridan. xati asvenia makedoniis klemencis monastris xatebis galereaSi, 103x84 sm.
104
samebis xatis kompoziciaSi Cawerilia geometriuli figurebi: wreebi, kvadratebi, marTkuTxa samkuTxedebi da eqvskuTxedi
sakraluri geometria,
proporciebi da kompozicia
marTlmadidebluri mravalfiguriani xatis kompozicia samkuTxedebis,
kvadratebisa da wreebisagan Sedgeba. geometriuli formebisa da ricxvebis
elinisturi (platoni, piTagora) gagebisagan gansxvavebiT, xatweraSi
moxda maTi axleburi interpretacia qristianuli tradiciebis mixedviT,
sadac formebma da ricxvebma simboluri mniSvneloba miiRes.
ase magaliTad, kvadrati oTxi saxarebis qvakuTxedia, samkuTxedi trinitarul ideas ganasaxierebs, xolo wre wminda Tanxmobas aRniSnavs. xa-tis
xis dafis proporciebi ufro xSirad 4:3 uaxlovdeba, romlis dia-gonali
5-s iZleva. uZveles xatmwerTa Soris am martivma Sefardebam, rogorc
harmoniam, ,,oqros kveTis’‘ simboluri mniSvneloba miiRo. qristianuli
xelovnebis moRvaweebi ,,oqros kveTis’‘ harmoniaSi RmerTis misteriasTan
105
qristesa da RvTismSoblis xatebis geometria
kavSirs xedavdnen. amitomaa, rom am Sefardebas ,,RvTaebriv Sefardebasac”
uwodeben.
im geometriuli figurebis Sesaswavlad, romlebic ama Tu im xatis
kompoziciis safuZvels warmoadgens, xatis originals (reproduqcias an
asls) kalka uda davafinoT da masze centri, vertikaluri da horizontaluri RerZebi unda aRvniSnoT. amis Semdeg kompoziciis mTel siganeze
SeiZleba naxatis sworkuTxedis aRniSvna, ori diagonalis gatareba da
centrTan mimarTebaSi kvadratis gamoxazva. kvadratis Sig unda Caiweros
wre; Semdeg unda CavxazoT wreebis vertikaluri rigi, tolferda samkuTxedebi, xolo ZiriTadi kompoziciis did kvadratSi – eqvskuTxedi, raTa
davadginoT, Tu ra TanafardobaSia erTmaneTis mimarT xatis esa Tu is nawilebi. aseTi geometriuli xerxebi mTel kompozicias sam an oTx sivrced
yofs an ,,oqros kveTSi” anawilebs.
aq moyvanil naxatebze datanilia geometriuli figurebis Tanawyoba
da calkeuli xazebis gadakveTis wertilebi, napovnia centris wertili,
horizontaluri da vertikaluri RerZebi. aseve naxatis sworkuTxedis
diagonalebia gavlebuli. xatweriT dainteresebuli mxatvari aucileblad unda gaecnos mas da am naxazidan gamomdinare kargad Seiswavlos
qristianuli xatis sakraluri geometriis zogadi wesebi. adreuli qristiani mxatvrebi am geometriasTan intuitiurad midiodnen da mxolod
amis Semdeg ayalibebdnen kompoziciis agebis kanonebs.
106
aqve mogvyavs qristianul sakralur geometriaSi gamoyenebuli figurebis: kvadratis, oqros kveTis, xuTkuTxedis, spiralis , ovalisa da sxva
figurebis agebis wesebi, romlebsac farTo d xmarobdnen xatweris praqtikaSi. Cveni mizania ,,sakralur geometriis” saSualebiT CavwvdeT, Tu
rogor imorCilebdnen xatweris didostatebi ama Tu im geometriuli
formebs xatis sulieri mniSvnelobis gadmosacemad.
xatis samSoblo bizantiaa.
xatwera pirvel da meore saukuneebSi, romis katakombebSi, aleqsandriis,
efesosa da antioqiis akldamebsa da gamoqvabulebSi Caisaxa, xolo dRis
sinaTle, am sityvis sruli mniSvnelobiT, mxolod mas Semdeg ixila, roca
313 wels, bizantiaSi qristianoba saxelmwifo religiad gamocxadda.
uZvelesi bizantiuri xatebi IV-VI saukuneebiT TariRdeba. Tu ar CavTvliT am periodSi enkaustikis teqnikaSi Sesrulebul xatebs, xatwerisaTvis ZiriTadad kvercxis gulis, wylisa da Rvinis (an Zmris) xsnarze
damzadebul mineralur saRebavebs xmarobdnen.
xatweris preistoria elinisturi da romauli xanis portretebia. ,,adreul qristianul xanaSi, xatweraSi an tikuri xanis realisturi xelovnebisaTvis damaxasiaTebel xerxebs iyenebdnen. magram am etapzec mkafiod
gamoikveTa is sruliad urTierTsawinaaRmdego mxatvruli amocanebi, romlebsac axali religia uyenebda xelovnebas: aramaterialuri, sulieri
samyaros gamosaxva, yovelive miwieris da grZnobadis ukugdeba” (qarTuli
enciklopedia, xatwera).
VIII-IX saukuneebamde xatebis Tema TiTqmis mxolod qristes, RvTiSoblisa
da wmindanebis gamisaxulebebi iyo da siuJeturi xatebi ZiriTadad xatmebrZolobis Semdeg gaCnda.
xatwera kacobriobas bizantiam dautova. sxvadasxva qveyanaSi xatweris
gansxvavebuli teqnologiuri Taviseburebani muSavdeboda, magram meTodika ZiriTadad igive – bizantiuri rCeboda.
xatweris wesebi da kanonebi IX saukuneSi, bizantiaSi Camoyalibda da male maT mTeli marTlmadidebluri samyaro eziara.
am wignis mizania, raTa nebismierma dainteresebulma pirma, maT Soris
Segirdmac, SesZlos xatweriT wesebisa da kanonebis Seswavla da daufleba. madlobas miavgebT ufals, rameTu gvwams, rom RvTaebrivi mzera ara
marto xatwerisas ayolebda Tvals Cems funjs, aramed am wignis Seqmnisas
Cems kalamsac warmarTavda.
107
xareba. xati daculia makedoniis oxridis xatebis galereaSi, 72,5x54 sm, Sesrulebulia XIV
saukunis bizantiuri xatis mixedviT. originalis zoma: 94,6x80,3 sm.
108
sameba. Zveli aRTqmiseuli “abraamisa da saras stumarTmoyvareoba”. XIV saukunis aTonis mTis
xatis mixedviT. ukana mxare vercxlis fisfitebiTaa mopirkeTebuli. originali 117x92 sm.
lazares aRdgineba. XV saukunis xatis mixedviT

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