EBOLA Outbreak 2014 Infection control and case management in hospitals

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EBOLA Outbreak 2014
Infection control and case
management in hospitals
Sources: WHO, CDC
Communicable Diseases Department, MOH
Atika Berry MD, MPH
October, 2014
‫)‪Memorandum 75 ( 13 August 2014‬‬
‫• ﺁﻟﻳﺔ ﻋﺯﻝ ﺍﻟﻣﺻﺎﺑﻳﻥ ﺑﺄﻣﺭﺍﺽ ﻣﻌﺩﻳﺔ ﺗﻧﺫﺭ ﺑﺎﻧﺗﺷﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﻭﺑﺋﺔ‬
‫• ﺗﻌﻳﻳﻥ ﺃﻁﺑﺎء ﻣﺭﺟﻌﻳﻳﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻣﺣﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﻣﻥ ﺃﺟﻝ ﻣﻛﺎﻓﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺳﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻻ ﺳﻳﻣﺎ ﺍﻹﻳﺑﻭﻻ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍءﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﻗﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻣﺮﺽ ﺍﻻﻳﺒﻮﻻ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﻔﻴﺎﺕ‬
(‫ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﺑﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻬﻮﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺻﻰ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻮﻗﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺣﻤﻰ ﺍﻻﻳﺒﻮﻻ ﺍﻟﻨﺰﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﻔﻴﺎﺕ‬،‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﺑﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻤﺪﺓ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺫﺍﺫ‬،‫)ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﺑﻴﺮ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﻁﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
Key Components of Standard, Contact, and Droplet Precautions Recommended
for Prevention of EHF Transmission in Hospitals (1)
Component
Recommendation
Comments
•
•
Patient
Placement
•
Single patient room (containing a
private bathroom) with the door
closed
Facilities should maintain a log of all
persons entering the patient's room
Consider
posting
personnel at the
patient’s door
to ensure
appropriate and
consistent use
of PPE by all
persons
entering the
patient room
Key Components of Standard, Contact, and Droplet Precautions Recommended for
Prevention of EHF Transmission in Hospitals (2)
Recommendation
Component
Comments
•
•
Personal
Protective
Equipment
(PPE)
•
All persons entering the patient room should
wear at least:

Gloves

Gown (fluid resistant or impermeable)

Eye protection (goggles or face shield)

Facemask
Additional PPE might be required in certain
situations (e.g., copious amounts of blood,
other body fluids, vomit, or feces present in
the environment), including but not limited to:

Double gloving

Disposable shoe covers

Leg coverings
Recommended PPE should be
worn by HCP upon entry into
patient rooms or care areas.
Upon exit from the patient
room or care area, PPE
should be carefully removed
without contaminating one’s
eyes, mucous membranes, or
clothing with potentially
infectious materials, and
either


•
Discarded, or
For re-useable PPE,
cleaned and disinfected
according to the
manufacturer's
reprocessing instructions
Hand hygiene should be
performed immediately after
removal of PPE
Key Components of Standard, Contact, and Droplet Precautions Recommended for
Prevention of EHF Transmission in Hospitals (3)
Recommendation
Component
Patient Care
Equipment
Patient Care
Considerations
•
Dedicated medical equipment (preferably disposable,
when possible) should be used for the provision of
patient care
•
All non-dedicated, non-disposable medical equipment
used for patient care should be cleaned and
disinfected according to manufacturer's instructions
and hospital policies
•
Limit the use of needles and other sharps as much as
possible
•
Phlebotomy, procedures, and laboratory testing
should be limited to the minimum necessary for
essential diagnostic evaluation and medical care
•
All needles and sharps should be handled with
extreme care and disposed in puncture-proof, sealed
containers
Comments
Key Components of Standard, Contact, and Droplet Precautions
Recommended for Prevention of EHF Transmission in Hospitals (4)
Recommendation
Component
Aerosol
Generating
Procedures
(AGPs)
•
Avoid AGPs for Ebola HF patients.
•
If performing AGPs, use a combination of
measures to reduce exposures from aerosolgenerating procedures when performed on Ebola
HF patients.
•
Visitors should not be present during aerosolgenerating procedures.
•
Limiting the number of HCP present during the
procedure to only those essential for patient-care
and support.
•
Conduct the procedures in a private room and
ideally in a negative pressure room (Airborne
Infection Isolation Room (AIIR)). Room doors
should be kept closed during the procedure except
when entering or leaving the room, and entry and
exit should be minimized during and shortly after
the procedure.
Comments
•
Procedures that are
usually included are
Bilevel Positive
Airway Pressure
(BiPAP),
bronchoscopy,
sputum induction,
intubation and
extubation, and
open suctioning of
airways.
•
Because of the
potential risk to
individuals
reprocessing
reusable
respirators,
disposable filtering
face piece
respirators are
preferred.
Key Components of Standard, Contact, and Droplet Precautions
Recommended for Prevention of EHF Transmission in Hospitals (5)
Recommendation
Component
•
Aerosol
Generating •
Procedures
(AGPs) cntd
HCP should wear gloves, a gown, disposable shoe
covers, and either a face shield that fully covers the
front and sides of the face or goggles, and
respiratory protection that is at least as protective as
a NIOSH certified fit-tested N95 filtering facepiece
respirator or higher (e.g., powered air purifying
respiratory or elastomeric respirator) during aerosol
generating procedures.
Conduct environmental surface cleaning following
procedures (see section below on environmental
infection control).
•
If re-usable equipment or PPE (e.g. Powered air
purifying respirator, elastomeric respirator, etc.) are
used, they should be cleaned and disinfected
according to manufacturer instructions
•
Collection and handling of soiled re-usable
respirators must be done by trained individuals using
PPE as described above for routine patient care
Comments
Key Components of Standard, Contact, and Droplet Precautions
Recommended for Prevention of EHF Transmission in Hospitals (6)
Recommendation
Component
Comments
•
•
Hand
Hygiene
•
HCP should perform hand hygiene
frequently, including before and after all
patient contact, contact with potentially
infectious material, and before putting on
and upon removal of PPE, including gloves.
Healthcare facilities should ensure that
supplies for performing hand hygiene are
available.
Hand hygiene in
healthcare settings
can be performed
by washing with
soap and water or
using alcoholbased hand rubs.
If hands are visibly
soiled, use soap
and water, not
alcohol-based
hand rubs.
Key Components of Standard, Contact, and Droplet Precautions
Recommended for Prevention of EHF Transmission in Hospitals (7)
Recommendation
Component
Environmen
tal Infection
Control
•
Diligent environmental cleaning and disinfection and safe
handling of potentially contaminated materials is
paramount, as blood, sweat, emesis, feces and other
body secretions represent potentially infectious materials
•
HCP performing environmental cleaning and disinfection
should wear recommended PPE (described above) and
consider use of additional barriers (shoe and leg
coverings, etc.) if needed.
•
Face protection (face shield or facemask with goggles)
should be worn when performing tasks such as liquid
waste disposal that can generate splashes.
•
Follow standard procedures, per hospital policy and
manufacturers' instructions, for cleaning and/or
disinfection of:

Environmental surfaces and equipment

Textiles and laundry

Food utensils and dishware
Comments
•
Use registered
hospital
disinfectants to
disinfect hard
non-porous
surfaces.

Follow label
instructions
for use
Key Components of Standard, Contact, and Droplet Precautions
Recommended for Prevention of EHF Transmission in Hospitals (8)
Recommendation
Component
Safe Injection
practices
Duration of
Infection
Control
Precautions
•
•
Comments
•
Any injection equipment or
parenteral medication
container that enters the
patient treatment area
should be dedicated to that
patient and disposed of at
the point of use.
•
Factors that should be
considered include, but are
not limited to: presence of
symptoms related to Ebola
HF, date symptoms resolved,
other conditions that would
require specific precautions
(e.g., tuberculosis,
Clostridium difficile) and
available laboratory
information
Facilities should follow safe injection
practices as specified under Standard
Precautions.
Duration of precautions should be
determined on a case-by-case basis, in
conjunction with local and central health
authorities (caza physicians, Mohafaza
physicians, Surveillance and response
teams at peripheral and central level).
Key Components of Standard, Contact, and Droplet Precautions
Recommended for Prevention of EHF Transmission in Hospitals (9)
Recommendation
Component
•
Monitoring
and
Management
of Potentially
Exposed
Personnel
•
Facilities should develop policies for monitoring
and management of potentially exposed HCP
Facilities should develop sick leave policies for
HCP that are non-punitive, flexible and consistent
with public health guidance

Ensure that all HCP, including staff who are
not directly employed by the healthcare
facility but provide essential daily services,
are aware of the sick leave policies.
Comments
Key Components of Standard, Contact, and Droplet Precautions
Recommended for Prevention of EHF Transmission in Hospitals (10)
Recommendation
Component
•
Monitoring
and
Management
of Potentially
Exposed
Personnel
Persons with percutaneous or mucocutaneous
exposures to blood, body fluids, secretions, or
excretions from a patient with suspected Ebola
HF should


Stop working and immediately wash the
affected skin surfaces with soap and water.
Mucous membranes (e.g., conjunctiva)
should be irrigated with copious amounts of
water or eyewash solution
Immediately contact occupational
health/supervisor for assessment and access
to post-exposure management services for all
appropriate pathogens (e.g., Human
Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis C, etc.)
Comments
Key Components of Standard, Contact, and Droplet Precautions
Recommended for Prevention of EHF Transmission in Hospitals (11)
Recommendation
Component
•
Monitoring and
Management of
Potentially
Exposed
Personnel
HCP who develop sudden onset of fever, intense
weakness or muscle pains, vomiting, diarrhea, or any
signs of hemorrhage after an unprotected exposure (i.e.
not wearing recommended PPE at the time of patient
contact or through direct contact to blood or body fluids)
to a patient with Ebola HF should

Not report to work or should immediately stop
working

Notify their supervisor

Seek prompt medical evaluation and testing

Notify local and central health departments

Comply with work exclusion until they are deemed
no longer infectious to others
Comments
Key Components of Standard, Contact, and Droplet Precautions
Recommended for Prevention of EHF Transmission in Hospitals (12)
Recommendation
Component
•
For asymptomatic HCP who had an unprotected
exposure (i.e. not wearing recommended PPE at the
time of patient contact or through direct contact to
blood or body fluids) to a patient with Ebola HF

Monitoring
and
Management
of Potentially
Exposed
Personnel

•
Should receive medical evaluation and follow-up
care including fever monitoring twice daily for 21
days after the last known exposure.
Hospitals should consider policies ensuring twice
daily contact with exposed personnel to discuss
potential symptoms and document fever checks
May continue to work while receiving twice daily fever
checks, based upon hospital policy and discussion with
local and central health authorities (caza physicians,
Mohafaza physicians, Surveillance and response teams
at peripheral and central level).
Comments
Key Components of Standard, Contact, and Droplet Precautions
Recommended for Prevention of EHF Transmission in Hospitals (13)
Recommendation
Component
Comments
•
•
Monitoring,
Management,
and Training
of Visitors
Avoid entry of visitors into the patient's room

•
Exceptions may be considered on a case by case
basis for those who are essential for the patient's
wellbeing.
Establish procedures for monitoring, managing and
training visitors.
Visitors who
have been in
contact with
the Ebola HF
patient
before and
during
hospitalizatio
n are a
possible
source of
EHF for other
patients,
visitors, and
staff.
Key Components of Standard, Contact, and Droplet Precautions
Recommended for Prevention of EHF Transmission in Hospitals (14)
Recommendation
Component
•
Comments
Visits should be scheduled and controlled to allow for:
•

Monitoring,
Management,
and Training
of Visitors



Screening for Ebola HF (e.g., fever and other
symptoms) before entering or upon arrival to the
hospital
Evaluating risk to the health of the visitor and
ability to comply with precautions
providing instruction, before entry into the patient
care area on hand hygiene, limiting surfaces
touched, and use of PPE according to the current
facility policy while in the patient's room
Visitor movement within the facility should be
restricted to the patient care area and an
immediately adjacent waiting area.
Visitors who
have been in
contact with
the Ebola HF
patient
before and
during
hospitalizatio
n are a
possible
source of
EHF for other
patients,
visitors, and
staff.
THANK YOU

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