peewee Documentation Release 2.3.3 charles leifer October 14, 2014

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peewee Documentation
Release 2.3.3
charles leifer
October 14, 2014
Contents
1
Contents:
1.1 Installing and Testing . . . . . .
1.2 Quickstart . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3 Example app . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4 Additional Resources . . . . . . .
1.5 Managing your Database . . . . .
1.6 Models and Fields . . . . . . . .
1.7 Querying . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.8 Query operators . . . . . . . . .
1.9 Foreign Keys . . . . . . . . . . .
1.10 Performance Techniques . . . . .
1.11 Transactions . . . . . . . . . . .
1.12 API Reference . . . . . . . . . .
1.13 Playhouse, a collection of addons
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Note
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Indices and tables
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i
ii
peewee Documentation, Release 2.3.3
Peewee is a simple and small ORM. It has few (but expressive) concepts, making it easy to learn and intuitive to use.
• A small, expressive ORM
• Written in python with support for versions 2.6+ and 3.2+.
• built-in support for sqlite, mysql and postgresql
• tons of extensions available in the Playhouse, a collection of addons (postgres hstore/json/arrays, sqlite fulltext-search, schema migrations, and much more).
Peewee’s source code hosted on GitHub.
New to peewee? Here is a list of documents you might find most helpful when getting started:
• Quickstart guide – this guide covers all the bare essentials. It will take you between 5 and 10 minutes to go
through it.
• Guide to the various query operators describes how to construct queries and combine expressions.
• Field types table lists the various field types peewee supports and the parameters they accept.
Contents
1
peewee Documentation, Release 2.3.3
2
Contents
CHAPTER 1
Contents:
1.1 Installing and Testing
Most users will want to simply install the latest version, hosted on PyPI:
pip install peewee
1.1.1 Installing with git
The project is hosted at https://github.com/coleifer/peewee and can be installed using git:
git clone https://github.com/coleifer/peewee.git
cd peewee
python setup.py install
Note: On some systems you may need to use sudo python setup.py install to install peewee systemwide.
1.1.2 Running tests
You can test your installation by running the test suite.
python setup.py test
# Or use the test runner:
python runtests.py
You can test specific features or specific database drivers using the runtests.py script. By default the test suite is
run using SQLite and the playhouse extension tests are not run. To view the available test runner options, use:
python runtests.py --help
1.2 Quickstart
This document presents a brief, high-level overview of Peewee’s primary features. This guide will cover:
• Model Definition
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peewee Documentation, Release 2.3.3
• Storing data
• Retrieving Data
Note: If you’d like something a bit more meaty, there is a thorough tutorial on creating a “twitter”-style web app
using peewee and the Flask framework.
I strongly recommend opening an interactive shell session and running the code. That way you can get a feel for
typing in queries.
1.2.1 Model Definition
Each Model class maps directly to a database table, and each field maps to a column on that table. Each model instance
corresponds to a row in the table.
from peewee import *
db = SqliteDatabase(’people.db’)
class Person(Model):
name = CharField()
birthday = DateField()
is_relative = BooleanField()
class Meta:
database = db # This model uses the "people.db" database.
There are lots of field types suitable for storing various types of data. Peewee handles converting between pythonic
values those used by the database, so you can use Python types in your code without having to worry.
Things get interesting when we set up relationships between models using foreign keys. This is easy to do with
peewee:
class Pet(Model):
owner = ForeignKeyField(Person, related_name=’pets’)
name = CharField()
animal_type = CharField()
class Meta:
database = db # this model uses the people database
Now that we have our models, let’s create the tables in the database that will store our data. This will create the tables
with the appropriate columns, indexes, sequences, and foreign key constraints:
>>> db.create_tables([Person, Pet])
1.2.2 Storing data
Let’s begin by populating the database with some people. We will use the save() and create() methods to add
and update people’s records.
>>> from datetime import date
>>> uncle_bob = Person(name=’Bob’, birthday=date(1960, 1, 15), is_relative=True)
>>> uncle_bob.save() # bob is now stored in the database
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peewee Documentation, Release 2.3.3
Note: When you call save(), the number of rows modified is returned.
You can also add a person by calling the create() method, which returns a model instance:
>>> grandma = Person.create(name=’Grandma’, birthday=date(1935, 3, 1), is_relative=True)
>>> herb = Person.create(name=’Herb’, birthday=date(1950, 5, 5), is_relative=False)
To update a row, modify the model instance and call save() to persist the changes. Here we will change Grandma’s
name and then save the changes in the database:
>>> grandma.name = ’Grandma L.’
>>> grandma.save() # Update grandma’s name in the database.
1
Now we have stored 3 people in the database. Let’s give them some pets. Grandma doesn’t like animals in the house,
so she won’t have any, but Herb is an animal lover:
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>>
bob_kitty = Pet.create(owner=uncle_bob, name=’Kitty’, animal_type=’cat’)
herb_fido = Pet.create(owner=herb, name=’Fido’, animal_type=’dog’)
herb_mittens = Pet.create(owner=herb, name=’Mittens’, animal_type=’cat’)
herb_mittens_jr = Pet.create(owner=herb, name=’Mittens Jr’, animal_type=’cat’)
After a long full life, Mittens sickens and dies. We need to remove him from the database:
>>> herb_mittens.delete_instance() # he had a great life
1
Note: The return value of delete_instance() is the number of rows removed from the database.
Uncle Bob decides that too many animals have been dying at Herb’s house, so he adopts Fido:
>>> herb_fido.owner = uncle_bob
>>> herb_fido.save()
>>> bob_fido = herb_fido # rename our variable for clarity
1.2.3 Retrieving Data
The real strength of our database is in how it allows us to retrieve data through queries. Relational databases are
excellent for making ad-hoc queries.
Getting single records
Let’s retrieve Grandma’s record from the database.
SelectQuery.get():
To get a single record from the database, use
>>> grandma = Person.select().where(Person.name == ’Grandma L.’).get()
We can also use the equivalent shorthand Model.get():
>>> grandma = Person.get(Person.name == ’Grandma L.’)
1.2. Quickstart
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peewee Documentation, Release 2.3.3
Lists of records
Let’s list all the people in the database:
>>> for person in Person.select():
...
print person.name, person.is_relative
...
Bob True
Grandma L. True
Herb False
Let’s list all the cats and their owner’s name:
>>> query = Pet.select().where(Pet.animal_type == ’cat’)
>>> for pet in query:
...
print pet.name, pet.owner.name
...
Kitty Bob
Mittens Jr Herb
There is a big problem with the previous query: because we are accessing pet.owner.name and we did not select
this value in our original query, peewee will have to perform an additional query to retrieve the pet’s owner. This
behavior is referred to as N+1 and it should generally be avoided.
We can avoid the extra queries by selecting both Pet and Person, and adding a join.
>>> query = (Pet
...
.select(Pet, Person)
...
.join(Person)
...
.where(Pet.animal_type == ’cat’))
>>> for pet in query:
...
print pet.name, pet.owner.name
...
Kitty Bob
Mittens Jr Herb
Let’s get all the pets owned by Bob:
>>> for pet in Pet.select().join(Person).where(Person.name == ’Bob’):
...
print pet.name
...
Kitty
Fido
We can do another cool thing here to get bob’s pets. Since we already have an object to represent Bob, we can do this
instead:
>>> for pet in Pet.select().where(Pet.owner == uncle_bob):
...
print pet.name
Let’s make sure these are sorted alphabetically by adding an order_by() clause:
>>> for pet in Pet.select().where(Pet.owner == uncle_bob).order_by(Pet.name):
...
print pet.name
...
Fido
Kitty
Let’s list all the people now, youngest to oldest:
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peewee Documentation, Release 2.3.3
>>> for person in Person.select().order_by(Person.birthday.desc()):
...
print person.name
...
Bob
Herb
Grandma L.
Now let’s list all the people and some info about their pets:
>>> for person in Person.select():
...
print person.name, person.pets.count(), ’pets’
...
for pet in person.pets:
...
print ’
’, pet.name, pet.animal_type
...
Bob 2 pets
Kitty cat
Fido dog
Grandma L. 0 pets
Herb 1 pets
Mittens Jr cat
Once again we’ve run into a classic example of N+1 query behavior. We can avoid this by performing a JOIN and
aggregating the records:
>>> subquery = Pet.select(fn.COUNT(Pet.id)).where(Pet.owner == Person.id).
>>> query = (Person
...
.select(Person, Pet, subquery.alias(’pet_count’))
...
.join(Pet, JOIN_LEFT_OUTER)
...
.order_by(Person.name))
>>> for person in query.aggregate_rows(): # Note the ‘aggregate_rows()‘ call.
...
print person.name, person.pet_count, ’pets’
...
for pet in person.pets:
...
print ’
’, pet.name, pet.animal_type
...
Bob 2 pets
Kitty cat
Fido dog
Grandma L. 0 pets
Herb 1 pets
Mittens Jr cat
Even thought we created the subquery separately, only one query is actually executed.
Finally, let’s do a complicated one. Let’s get all the people whose birthday was either:
• before 1940 (grandma)
• after 1959 (bob)
>>> d1940 = date(1940, 1, 1)
>>> d1960 = date(1960, 1, 1)
>>> query = (Person
...
.select()
...
.where((Person.birthday < d1940) | (Person.birthday > d1960)))
...
>>> for person in query:
...
print person.name
...
Bob
Grandma L.
1.2. Quickstart
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peewee Documentation, Release 2.3.3
Now let’s do the opposite. People whose birthday is between 1940 and 1960:
>>> query = (Person
...
.select()
...
.where((Person.birthday > d1940) & (Person.birthday < d1960)))
...
>>> for person in query:
...
print person.name
...
Herb
One last query. This will use a SQL function to find all people whose names start with either an upper or lower-case
G:
>>> expression = (fn.Lower(fn.Substr(Person.name, 1, 1)) == ’g’)
>>> for person in Person.select().where(expression):
...
print person.name
...
Grandma L.
This is just the basics! You can make your queries as complex as you like.
All the other SQL clauses are available as well, such as:
• group_by()
• having()
• limit() and offset()
Check the documentation on Querying for more info.
1.2.4 Working with existing databases
If you already have a database, you can autogenerate peewee models using pwiz, a model generator. For instance, if I
have a postgresql database named charles_blog, I might run:
pwiz.py -e postgresql charles_blog > blog_models.py
1.2.5 What next?
That’s it for the quickstart. If you want to look at a full web-app, check out the Example app.
1.3 Example app
We’ll be building a simple twitter-like site.
The source code for the example can be found in the
examples/twitter directory. You can also browse the source-code on github.
The example app uses the flask web framework which is very easy to get started with. If you don’t have flask already,
you will need to install it to run the example:
pip install flask
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peewee Documentation, Release 2.3.3
1.3.1 Running the example
After ensuring that flask is installed, cd into the twitter example directory and execute the run_example.py script:
python run_example.py
The example app will be accessible at http://localhost:5000/
1.3.2 Diving into the code
For simplicity all example code is contained within a single module, examples/twitter/app.py. For a guide
on structuring larger Flask apps with peewee, check out Structuring Flask Apps.
Models
In the spirit of the popular web framework Django, peewee uses declarative model definitions. If you’re not familiar
with Django, the idea is that you declare a model class for each table. The model class then defines one or more field
attributes which correspond to the table’s columns. For the twitter clone, there are just three models:
User: Represents a user account and stores the username and password, an email address for generating avatars using
gravatar, and a datetime field indicating when that account was created.
Relationship: This is a utility model that contains two foreign-keys to the User model and stores which users follow
one another.
Message: Analagous to a tweet. The Message model stores the text content of the tweet, when it was created, and
who posted it (foreign key to User).
If you like UML, these are the tables and relationships:
1.3. Example app
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peewee Documentation, Release 2.3.3
In order to create these models we need to instantiate a SqliteDatabase object. Then we define our model classes,
specifying the columns as Field instances on the class.
# create a peewee database instance -- our models will use this database to
# persist information
database = SqliteDatabase(DATABASE)
# model definitions -- the standard "pattern" is to define a base model class
# that specifies which database to use. then, any subclasses will automatically
# use the correct storage.
class BaseModel(Model):
class Meta:
database = database
# the user model specifies its fields (or columns) declaratively, like django
class User(BaseModel):
username = CharField(unique=True)
password = CharField()
email = CharField()
join_date = DateTimeField()
class Meta:
order_by = (’username’,)
# this model contains two foreign keys to user -- it essentially allows us to
# model a "many-to-many" relationship between users. by querying and joining
# on different columns we can expose who a user is "related to" and who is
# "related to" a given user
class Relationship(BaseModel):
from_user = ForeignKeyField(User, related_name=’relationships’)
to_user = ForeignKeyField(User, related_name=’related_to’)
class Meta:
indexes = (
# Specify a unique multi-column index on from/to-user.
((’from_user’, ’to_user’), True),
)
# a dead simple one-to-many relationship: one user has 0..n messages, exposed by
# the foreign key. because we didn’t specify, a users messages will be accessible
# as a special attribute, User.message_set
class Message(BaseModel):
user = ForeignKeyField(User)
content = TextField()
pub_date = DateTimeField()
class Meta:
order_by = (’-pub_date’,)
Note: Note that we create a BaseModel class that simply defines what database we would like to use. All other
models then extend this class and will also use the correct database connection.
Peewee supports many different field types which map to different column types commonly supported by database
engines. Conversion between python types and those used in the database is handled transparently, allowing you to
use the following in your application:
• Strings (unicode or otherwise)
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• Integers, floats, and Decimal numbers.
• Boolean values
• Dates, times and datetimes
• None (NULL)
• Binary data
Creating tables
In order to start using the models, its necessary to create the tables. This is a one-time operation and can be done
quickly using the interactive interpreter. We can create a small helper function to accomplish this:
def create_tables():
database.connect()
database.create_tables([User, Relationship, Message])
Open a python shell in the directory alongside the example app and execute the following:
>>> from app import *
>>> create_tables()
Note: If you encounter an ImportError it means that either flask or peewee was not found and may not be installed
correctly. Check the Installing and Testing document for instructions on installing peewee.
Every model has a create_table() classmethod which runs a SQL CREATE TABLE statement in the database.
This method will create the table, including all columns, foreign-key constaints, indexes, and sequences. Usually this
is something you’ll only do once, whenever a new model is added.
Peewee provides a helper method Database.create_tables() which will resolve inter-model dependencies
and call create_table() on each model.
Note: Adding fields after the table has been created will required you to either drop the table and re-create it or
manually add the columns using an ALTER TABLE query.
Alternatively, you can use the schema migrations extension to alter your database schema using Python.
Note: You can also write database.create_tables([User, ...], True) and peewee will first check
to see if the table exists before creating it.
Establishing a database connection
You may have noticed in the above model code that there is a class defined on the base model named Meta that sets
the database attribute. Peewee allows every model to specify which database it uses. There are many Meta options
you can specify which control the behavior of your model.
This is a peewee idiom:
DATABASE = ’tweepee.db’
# Create a database instance that will manage the connection and
# execute queries
database = SqliteDatabase(DATABASE, threadlocals=True)
1.3. Example app
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peewee Documentation, Release 2.3.3
Because SQLite likes to have a separate connection per-thread, we will tell flask that during the request/response cycle
we need to create a connection to the database. Flask provides some handy decorators to make this a snap:
@app.before_request
def before_request():
g.db = database
g.db.connect()
@app.after_request
def after_request(response):
g.db.close()
return response
Note: We’re storing the db on the magical variable g - that’s a flask-ism and can be ignored as an implementation
detail. The important takeaway is that we connect to our db every request and close that connection when we return a
response.
Making queries
In the User model there are a few instance methods that encapsulate some user-specific functionality:
• following(): who is this user following?
• followers(): who is following this user?
These methods are similar in their implementation but with an important difference in the SQL JOIN and WHERE
clauses:
def following(self):
# query other users through the "relationship" table
return (User
.select()
.join(Relationship, on=Relationship.to_user)
.where(Relationship.from_user == self))
def followers(self):
return (User
.select()
.join(Relationship, on=Relationship.from_user)
.where(Relationship.to_user == self))
Creating new objects
When a new user wants to join the site we need to make sure the username is available, and if so, create a new User
record. Looking at the join() view, we can that our application attempts to create the User using Model.create().
We defined the User.username field with a unique constraint, so if the username is taken the database will raise an
IntegrityError.
try:
with database.transaction():
# Attempt to create the user. If the username is taken, due to the
# unique constraint, the database will raise an IntegrityError.
user = User.create(
username=request.form[’username’],
password=md5(request.form[’password’]).hexdigest(),
email=request.form[’email’],
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join_date=datetime.datetime.now()
)
# mark the user as being ’authenticated’ by setting the session vars
auth_user(user)
return redirect(url_for(’homepage’))
except IntegrityError:
flash(’That username is already taken’)
We will use a similar approach when a user wishes to follow someone. To indicate a following relationship, we create
a row in the Relationship table pointing from one user to another. Due to the unique index on from_user and
to_user, we will be sure not to end up with duplicate rows:
user = get_object_or_404(User, username=username)
try:
with database.transaction():
Relationship.create(
from_user=get_current_user(),
to_user=user)
except IntegrityError:
pass
Performing subqueries
If you are logged-in and visit the twitter homepage, you will see tweets from the users that you follow. In order to
implement this cleanly, we can use a subquery:
# python code
messages = Message.select().where(Message.user << user.following())
This code corresponds to the following SQL query:
SELECT t1."id", t1."user_id", t1."content", t1."pub_date"
FROM "message" AS t1
WHERE t1."user_id" IN (
SELECT t2."id"
FROM "user" AS t2
INNER JOIN "relationship" AS t3
ON t2."id" = t3."to_user_id"
WHERE t3."from_user_id" = ?
)
Other topics of interest
There are a couple other neat things going on in the example app that are worth mentioning briefly.
• Support for paginating lists of results is implemented in a simple function called object_list (after it’s
corollary in Django). This function is used by all the views that return lists of objects.
def object_list(template_name, qr, var_name=’object_list’, **kwargs):
kwargs.update(
page=int(request.args.get(’page’, 1)),
pages=qr.count() / 20 + 1
)
1.3. Example app
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kwargs[var_name] = qr.paginate(kwargs[’page’])
return render_template(template_name, **kwargs)
• Simple authentication system with a login_required decorator. The first function simply adds user data
into the current session when a user successfully logs in. The decorator login_required can be used to
wrap view functions, checking for whether the session is authenticated and if not redirecting to the login page.
def auth_user(user):
session[’logged_in’] = True
session[’user’] = user
session[’username’] = user.username
flash(’You are logged in as %s’ % (user.username))
def login_required(f):
@wraps(f)
def inner(*args, **kwargs):
if not session.get(’logged_in’):
return redirect(url_for(’login’))
return f(*args, **kwargs)
return inner
• Return a 404 response instead of throwing exceptions when an object is not found in the database.
def get_object_or_404(model, *expressions):
try:
return model.get(*expressions)
except model.DoesNotExist:
abort(404)
Note: Like these snippets and interested in more? Check out flask-peewee - a flask plugin that provides a django-like
Admin interface, RESTful API, Authentication and more for your peewee models.
1.4 Additional Resources
I’ve written a number of blog posts about building applications and web-services with peewee (and usually Flask). If
you’d like to see some real-life applications that use peewee, the following resources may be useful:
• Building a note-taking app with Flask and Peewee as well as Part 2 and Part 3.
• Analytics web service built with Flask and Peewee.
• Personalized news digest (with a boolean query parser!).
• Using peewee to explore CSV files.
• Structuring Flask apps with Peewee.
• Creating a lastpass clone with Flask and Peewee.
• Building a web-based encrypted file manager with Flask, peewee and S3.
• Creating a bookmarking web-service that takes screenshots of your bookmarks.
• Building a pastebin, wiki and a bookmarking service using Flask and Peewee.
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1.5 Managing your Database
This document describes how to perform typical database-related tasks with peewee. Throughout this document we
will use the following example models:
from peewee import *
class User(Model):
username = CharField(unique=True)
class Tweet(Model):
user = ForeignKeyField(User, related_name=’tweets’)
message = TextField()
created_date = DateTimeField(default=datetime.datetime.now)
is_published = BooleanField(default=True)
1.5.1 Creating a database connection and tables
While it is not necessary to explicitly connect to the database before using it, managing connections explicitly is a
good practice. This way if the connection fails, the exception can be caught during the connect step, rather than some
arbitrary time later when a query is executed.
>>> database = SqliteDatabase(’my_app.db’)
>>> database.connect()
To use this database with your models, set the database attribute on an inner Meta class:
class MyModel(Model):
some_field = CharField()
class Meta:
database = database
Best practice: define a base model class that points at the database object you wish to use, and then all your models
will extend it:
database = SqliteDatabase(’my_app.db’)
class BaseModel(Model):
class Meta:
database = database
class User(BaseModel):
username = CharField()
class Tweet(BaseModel):
user = ForeignKeyField(User, related_name=’tweets’)
message = TextField()
# etc, etc
Note: Remember to specify a database on your model classes, otherwise peewee will fall back to a default sqlite
database named “peewee.db”.
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1.5.2 Using Postgresql
To connect to a Postgresql database, we will use PostgresqlDatabase. The first parameter is always the name
of the database, and after that you can specify arbitrary psycopg2 parameters.
psql_db = PostgresqlDatabase(’my_database’, user=’postgres’)
class BaseModel(Model):
"""A base model that will use our Postgresql database"""
class Meta:
database = psql_db
class User(BaseModel):
username = CharField()
The Playhouse, a collection of addons contains a Postgresql extension module which provides many postgres-specific
features such as:
• Arrays
• HStore
• JSON
• Server-side cursors
• And more!
If you would like to use these awesome features,
playhouse.postgres_ext module:
use the PostgresqlExtDatabase from the
from playhouse.postgres_ext import PostgresqlExtDatabase
psql_db = PostgresqlExtDatabase(’my_database’, user=’postgres’)
1.5.3 Using SQLite
To connect to a SQLite database, we will use SqliteDatabase. The first parameter is the filename containing
the database, or the string :memory: to create an in-memory database. After the database filename, you can specify
arbitrary sqlite3 parameters.
sqlite_db = SqliteDatabase(’my_app.db’)
class BaseModel(Model):
"""A base model that will use our Sqlite database."""
class Meta:
database = sqlite_db
class User(BaseModel):
username = CharField()
# etc, etc
The Playhouse, a collection of addons contains a SQLite extension module which provides many SQLite-specific
features such as:
• Full-text search
• Support for custom functions, aggregates and collations
• Advanced transaction support
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• And more!
If you would like to use these
playhouse.sqlite_ext module:
awesome
features,
use
the
SqliteExtDatabase
from
the
from playhouse.sqlite_ext import SqliteExtDatabase
sqlite_db = SqliteExtDatabase(’my_app.db’, journal_mode=’WAL’)
Common Pitfalls with SQLite
Use care when committing transactions while iterating over a cursor with SQLite. Depending on your installed version
of pysqlite (or sqlite3), when a transaction is committed it might reset all statements *and cursors* open on that
connection. Consider the following code:
for user in User.select():
Tweet.create(user=user, message=’hello!’)
Because the outer select query is lazily evaluated, the cursor is held open for the duration of the loop. If the database
is in autocommit mode (default behavior), the call to Tweet.create will call commit() on the underlying connection,
resetting the outer-loop’s cursor. As a result, it may happen that the first two users actually receive duplicate tweets.
Here are some ways to work around the issue:
# By running in a transaction, the new tweets will not be committed
# immediately, and the outer SELECT will not be reset.
with database.transaction():
for user in User.select():
Tweet.create(user=user, message=’hello!’)
# By consuming the cursor immediately (by coercing to a list), the
# inner COMMITs will not affect the iteration.
for user in list(User.select()):
Tweet.create(user=user, message=’hello!’)
Many, many thanks to @tmoertel for his excellent comment explaining this behavior.
APSW, an Advanced SQLite Driver
Peewee also comes with an alternate SQLite database that uses apsw, an advanced sqlite driver, an advanced Python
SQLite driver. More information on APSW can be obtained on the APSW project website. APSW provides special
features like:
• Virtual tables, virtual file-systems, Blob I/O, backups and file control.
• Connections can be shared across threads without any additional locking.
• Transactions are managed explicitly by your code.
• Transactions can be nested.
• Unicode is handled correctly.
• APSW is faster that the standard library sqlite3 module.
If you would like to use APSW, use the APSWDatabase from the apsw_ext module:
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from playhouse.apsw_ext import APSWDatabase
apsw_db = APSWDatabase(’my_app.db’)
1.5.4 Using BerkeleyDB
The playhouse contains a special extension module for using a BerkeleyDB database. BerkeleyDB can be compiled
with a SQLite-compatible API, then the python SQLite driver can be compiled to use the Berkeley version of SQLite.
To simplify this process, you can use the berkeley_build.sh script found in the playhouse directory or find
instructions in this blog post.
To connect to a BerkeleyDB database, we will use BerkeleyDatabase. Like SqliteDatabase, the first parameter is the filename containing the database or the string :memory: to create an in-memory database.
from playhouse.berkeleydb import BerkeleyDatabase
berkeley_db = BerkeleyDatabase(’my_app.db’)
class BaseModel(Model):
"""A base model that will use our BDB database."""
class Meta:
database = berkeley_db
class User(BaseModel):
username = CharField()
# etc, etc
1.5.5 Using MySQL
To connect to a MySQL database, we will use MySQLDatabase. After the database name, you can specify arbitrary
connection parameters that will be passed back to the driver (either MySQLdb or pymysql).
mysql_db = MySQLDatabase(’my_database’)
class BaseModel(Model):
"""A base model that will use our MySQL database"""
class Meta:
database = mysql_db
class User(BaseModel):
username = CharField()
# etc, etc
1.5.6 Connecting using a Database URL
The playhouse module Database URL provides a helper connect() function that accepts a database URL and
returns a Database instance.
Examples:
• sqlite:///my_database.db will create a SqliteDatabase instance for the file my_database.db in the current directory.
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• postgresql://postgres:[email protected]:5432/my_database will create a PostgresqlDatabase instance. A username and password are provided, as well as the host and port to connect to.
• mysql:///my_db will create a MySQLDatabase instance for the local MySQL database my_db.
1.5.7 Multi-threaded applications
Some database engines may not allow a connection to be shared across threads, notably SQLite. As of version 2.3.3,
peewee’s default behavior is to maintain a connection-per-thread. For earlier versions, instantiate your database with
threadlocals=True:
database = SqliteDatabase(’my_app.db’, threadlocals=True)
The above code will cause peewee to store the connection state in a thread local; each thread gets its own separate
connection.
Alternatively, Python sqlite3 module can share a connection across different threads, but you have to disable runtime
checks to reuse the single connection. This behavior can lead to subtle bugs regarding nested transactions when not
used with care, so typically I do not recommend using this option.
database = SqliteDatabase(’stats.db’, check_same_thread=False)
Note:
For web applications or any multi-threaded (including green threads!)
threadlocals=True when instantiating your database.
app, it is best to set
As of version 2.3.3, this is the default behavior when instantiating your database, but for earlier versions you will need
to specify this manually.
1.5.8 Deferring initialization
Sometimes the database connection settings are not known until run-time, when these values may be loaded from a
configuration file or the environment. In these cases, you can defer the initialization of the database by specifying
None as the database_name.
database = SqliteDatabase(None)
# Un-initialized database.
class SomeModel(Model):
class Meta:
database = database
If you try to connect or issue any queries while your database is uninitialized you will get an exception:
>>> database.connect()
Exception: Error, database not properly initialized before opening connection
To initialize your database, call the init() method with the database name and any additional keyword arguments:
database_name = raw_input(’What is the name of the db? ’)
database.init(database_name, host=’localhost’, user=’postgres’)
1.5.9 Dynamically defining a database
For even more control over how your database is defined/initialized, you can use the Proxy helper. Proxy objects
act as a placeholder, and then at run-time you can swap it out for a different object. In the example below, we will
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swap out the database depending on how the app is configured:
database_proxy = Proxy()
# Create a proxy for our db.
class BaseModel(Model):
class Meta:
database = database_proxy
# Use proxy for our DB.
class User(BaseModel):
username = CharField()
# Based on configuration, use a different database.
if app.config[’DEBUG’]:
database = SqliteDatabase(’local.db’)
elif app.config[’TESTING’]:
database = SqliteDatabase(’:memory:’)
else:
database = PostgresqlDatabase(’mega_production_db’)
# Configure our proxy to use the db we specified in config.
database_proxy.initialize(database)
1.5.10 Connection Pooling
Connection pooling is provided by the pool module, included in the Playhouse, a collection of addons extensions
library. The pool supports:
• Timeout after which connections will be recycled.
• Upper bound on the number of open connections.
The connection pool module comes with support for Postgres and MySQL (though adding support for other databases
is trivial).
from playhouse.pool import PooledPostgresqlDatabase
db = PooledPostgresqlDatabase(
’my_database’,
max_connections=8,
stale_timeout=300,
threadlocals=True,
user=’postgres’)
class BaseModel(Model):
class Meta:
database = db
The following pooled database classes are available:
• PooledPostgresqlDatabase
• PooledPostgresqlExtDatabase
• PooledMySQLDatabase
Note: If you have a multi-threaded application (including green threads), be sure to specify threadlocals=True
when instantiating your pooled database. As of versoin 2.3.3, this is the default behavior.
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1.5.11 Read Slaves
Peewee can automatically run SELECT queries against one or more read replicas. The read_slave module, included
in the Playhouse, a collection of addons extensions library, contains a Model subclass which provides this behavior.
Here is how you might use the ReadSlaveModel:
from peewee import *
from playhouse.read_slave import ReadSlaveModel
# Declare a master and two read-replicas.
master = PostgresqlDatabase(’master’)
replica_1 = PostgresqlDatabase(’replica’, host=’192.168.1.2’)
replica_2 = PostgresqlDatabase(’replica’, host=’192.168.1.3’)
class BaseModel(ReadSlaveModel):
class Meta:
database = master
read_slaves = (replica_1, replica_2)
class User(BaseModel):
username = CharField()
Now when you execute writes (or deletes), they will be run on the master, while all read-only queries will be executed
against one of the replicas. Queries are dispatched among the read slaves in round-robin fashion.
1.5.12 Generating Models from Existing Databases
If you’d like to generate peewee model definitions for an existing database, you can try out the database introspection
tool pwiz, a model generator that comes with peewee. pwiz is capable of introspecting Postgresql, MySQL and SQLite
databases.
Introspecting a Postgresql database:
pwiz.py --engine=postgresql my_postgresql_database
Introspecting a SQLite database:
pwiz.py --engine=sqlite test.db
pwiz will generate:
• Database connection object
• A BaseModel class to use with the database
• Model classes for each table in the database.
The generated code is written to stdout, and can easily be redirected to a file:
pwiz.py -e postgresql my_postgresql_db > models.py
Note: pwiz generally works quite well with even large and complex database schemas, but in some cases it will not be
able to introspect a column. You may need to go through the generated code to add indexes, fix unrecognized column
types, and resolve any circular references that were found.
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1.5.13 Logging queries
All queries are logged to the peewee namespace using the standard library logging module. Queries are logged
using the DEBUG level. If you’re interested in doing something with the queries, you can simply register a handler.
# Print all queries to stderr.
import logging
logger = logging.getLogger(’peewee’)
logger.setLevel(logging.DEBUG)
logger.addHandler(logging.StreamHandler())
1.5.14 Generating skeleton code
For writing quick scripts, peewee comes with a helper script pskel which generates database connection and model
boilerplate code. If you find yourself frequently writing small programs, pskel can really save you time.
To generate a script, you can simply run:
pskel User Tweet SomeModel AnotherModel > my_script.py
pskel will generate code to connect to an in-memory SQLite database, as well as blank model definitions for the
model names specified on the command line.
Here is a more complete example, which will use the PostgresqlExtDatabase with query logging enabled:
pskel -l -e postgres_ext -d my_database User Tweet > my_script.py
You can now fill in the model definitions and get to hacking!
1.5.15 Adding a new Database Driver
Peewee comes with built-in support for Postgres, MySQL and SQLite. These databases are very popular and run
the gamut from fast, embeddable databases to heavyweight servers suitable for large-scale deployments. That being
said, there are a ton of cool databases out there and adding support for your database-of-choice should be really easy,
provided the driver supports the DB-API 2.0 spec.
The db-api 2.0 spec should be familiar to you if you’ve used the standard library sqlite3 driver, psycopg2 or the like.
Peewee currently relies on a handful of parts:
• Connection.commit
• Connection.execute
• Connection.rollback
• Cursor.description
• Cursor.fetchone
These methods are generally wrapped up in higher-level abstractions and exposed by the Database, so even if your
driver doesn’t do these exactly you can still get a lot of mileage out of peewee. An example is the apsw sqlite driver in
the “playhouse” module.
The first thing is to provide a subclass of Database that will open a connection.
from peewee import Database
import foodb # Our fictional DB-API 2.0 driver.
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class FooDatabase(Database):
def _connect(self, database, **kwargs):
return foodb.connect(database, **kwargs)
The Database provides a higher-level API and is responsible for executing queries, creating tables and indexes, and
introspecting the database to get lists of tables. The above implementation is the absolute minimum needed, though
some features will not work – for best results you will want to additionally add a method for extracting a list of tables
and indexes for a table from the database. We’ll pretend that FooDB is a lot like MySQL and has special “SHOW”
statements:
class FooDatabase(Database):
def _connect(self, database, **kwargs):
return foodb.connect(database, **kwargs)
def get_tables(self):
res = self.execute(’SHOW TABLES;’)
return [r[0] for r in res.fetchall()]
def get_indexes_for_table(self, table):
res = self.execute(’SHOW INDEXES IN %s;’ % self.quote_name(table))
rows = sorted([(r[2], r[1] == 0) for r in res.fetchall()])
return rows
Other things the database handles that are not covered here include:
• last_insert_id() and rows_affected()
• interpolation and quote_char
• op_overrides for mapping operations such as “LIKE/ILIKE” to their database equivalent
Refer to the Database API reference or the source code. for details.
Note: If your driver conforms to the DB-API 2.0 spec, there shouldn’t be much work needed to get up and running.
Our new database can be used just like any of the other database subclasses:
from peewee import *
from foodb_ext import FooDatabase
db = FooDatabase(’my_database’, user=’foo’, password=’secret’)
class BaseModel(Model):
class Meta:
database = db
class Blog(BaseModel):
title = CharField()
contents = TextField()
pub_date = DateTimeField()
1.5.16 Schema migrations
Currently peewee does not have support for automatic schema migrations, but you can use the Schema Migrations
module to create simple migration scripts. The schema migrations module works with SQLite, MySQL and Postgres,
and will even allow you to do things like drop or rename columns in SQLite!
Here is an example of how you might write a migration script:
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from playhouse.migrate import *
my_db = SqliteDatabase(’my_database.db’)
migrator = SqliteMigrator(my_db)
title_field = CharField(default=’’)
status_field = IntegerField(null=True)
with my_db.transaction():
migrate(
migrator.add_column(’some_table’, ’title’, title_field),
migrator.add_column(’some_table’, ’status’, status_field),
migrator.drop_column(’some_table’, ’old_column’),
)
Check the Schema Migrations documentation for more details.
1.6 Models and Fields
Model classes and their associated Field instances provide a direct mapping to database tables and columns. Model
instances correspond to rows in the database table, and their attributes are the column values for the given row.
The following code shows the typical way you will define your database connection and model classes.
from peewee import *
db = SqliteDatabase(’my_app.db’)
class BaseModel(Model):
class Meta:
database = db
class User(BaseModel):
username = CharField(unique=True)
class Tweet(BaseModel):
user = ForeignKeyField(User, related_name=’tweets’)
message = TextField()
created_date = DateTimeField(default=datetime.datetime.now)
is_published = BooleanField(default=True)
1. Create an instance of a Database.
db = SqliteDatabase(’my_app.db’)
The db object will be used to manage the connections to the Sqlite database. In this example we’re
using SqliteDatabase, but you could also use one of the other database engines.
2. Create a base model class which specifies our database.
class BaseModel(Model):
class Meta:
database = db
It is good practice to define a base model class which establishes the database connection. This makes
your code DRY as you will not have to specify the database for subsequent models.
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Model configuration is kept namespaced in a special class called Meta. This convention is borrowed
from Django. Meta configuration is passed on to subclasses, so our project’s models will all subclass
BaseModel. There are many different attributes you can configure using Model.Meta.
3. Define a model class.
class User(BaseModel):
username = CharField(unique=True)
Model definition uses the declarative style seen in other popular ORMs like SQLAlchemy or Django.
Note that we are extending the BaseModel class so the User model will inherit the database connection.
We have explicitly defined a single username column with a unique constraint. Because we have
not specified a primary key, peewee will automatically add an auto-incrementing integer primary key
field named id.
Note: If you would like to start using peewee with an existing database, you can use pwiz, a model generator to
automatically generate model definitions.
1.6.1 Fields
The Field class is used to describe the mapping of Model attributes to database columns. Each field type has a
corresponding SQL storage class (i.e. varchar, int), and conversion between python data types and underlying storage
is handled transparently.
When creating a Model class, fields are defined as class attributes. This should look familiar to users of the django
framework. Here’s an example:
class User(Model):
username = CharField()
join_date = DateTimeField()
about_me = TextField()
There is one special type of field, ForeignKeyField, which allows you to represent foreign-key relationships
between models in an intuitive way:
class Message(Model):
user = ForeignKeyField(User, related_name=’messages’)
body = TextField()
send_date = DateTimeField()
This allows you to write code like the following:
>>> print some_message.user.username
Some User
>>> for message in some_user.messages:
...
print message.body
some message
another message
yet another message
For full documentation on fields, see the Fields API notes
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Field types table
Field Type
CharField
TextField
DateTimeField
IntegerField
BooleanField
FloatField
DoubleField
BigIntegerField
DecimalField
PrimaryKeyField
ForeignKeyField
DateField
TimeField
BlobField
UUIDField
Sqlite
varchar
text
datetime
integer
smallint
real
real
integer
decimal
integer
integer
date
time
blob
not supported
Postgresql
varchar
text
timestamp
integer
boolean
real
double precision
bigint
numeric
serial
integer
date
time
bytea
uuid
MySQL
varchar
longtext
datetime
integer
bool
real
double precision
bigint
numeric
integer
integer
date
time
blob
not supported
Field initialization arguments
Parameters accepted by all field types and their default values:
• null = False – boolean indicating whether null values are allowed to be stored
• index = False – boolean indicating whether to create an index on this column
• unique = False – boolean indicating whether to create a unique index on this column. See also adding
composite indexes.
• verbose_name = None – string representing the “user-friendly” name of this field
• help_text = None – string representing any helpful text for this field
• db_column = None – string representing the underlying column to use if different, useful for legacy
databases
• default = None – any value to use as a default for uninitialized models
• choices = None – an optional iterable containing 2-tuples of value, display
• primary_key = False – whether this field is the primary key for the table
• sequence = None – sequence to populate field (if backend supports it)
• constraints = None - a list of one or more constraints, e.g. [Check(’price > 0’)]
• schema = None – optional name of the schema to use, if your db supports this.
Some fields take special parameters...
Field type
CharField
DateTimeField
DateField
TimeField
DecimalField
ForeignKeyField
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Special Parameters
max_length
formats
formats
formats
max_digits, decimal_places, auto_round, rounding
rel_model, related_name, to_field, on_delete, on_update, extra
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Note: Both default and choices could be implemented at the database level as DEFAULT and CHECK CONSTRAINT respectively, but any application change would require a schema change. Because of this, default is
implemented purely in python and choices are not validated but exist for metadata purposes only.
To add database (server-side) constraints, use the constraints parameter.
DateTimeField, DateField and TimeField
The three fields devoted to working with dates and times have special properties which allow access to things like the
year, month, hour, etc.
DateField has properties for:
• year
• month
• day
TimeField has properties for:
• hour
• minute
• second
DateTimeField has all of the above.
These properties can be used just like any other expression. Let’s say we have an events calendar and want to highlight
all the days in the current month that have an event attached:
# Get the current time.
now = datetime.datetime.now()
# Get days that have events for the current month.
Event.select(Event.event_date.day.alias(’day’)).where(
(Event.event_date.year == now.year) &
(Event.event_date.month == now.month))
Creating a custom field
It isn’t too difficult to add support for custom field types in peewee. In this example we will create a UUID field for
postgresql (which has a native UUID column type).
To add a custom field type you need to first identify what type of column the field data will be stored in. If you just
want to add python behavior atop, say, a decimal field (for instance to make a currency field) you would just subclass
DecimalField. On the other hand, if the database offers a custom column type you will need to let peewee know.
This is controlled by the Field.db_field attribute.
Let’s start by defining our UUID field:
class UUIDField(Field):
db_field = ’uuid’
We will store the UUIDs in a native UUID column. Since psycopg2 treats the data as a string by default, we will add
two methods to the field to handle:
• The data coming out of the database to be used in our application
• The data from our python app going into the database
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import uuid
class UUIDField(Field):
db_field = ’uuid’
def db_value(self, value):
return str(value) # convert UUID to str
def python_value(self, value):
return uuid.UUID(value) # convert str to UUID
Now, we need to let the database know how to map this uuid label to an actual uuid column type in the database. There
are 2 ways of doing this:
1. Specify the overrides in the Database constructor:
db = PostgresqlDatabase(’my_db’, fields={’uuid’: ’uuid’})
2. Register them class-wide using Database.register_fields():
# Will affect all instances of PostgresqlDatabase
PostgresqlDatabase.register_fields({’uuid’: ’uuid’})
That is it! Some fields may support exotic operations, like the postgresql HStore field acts like a key/value store and
has custom operators for things like contains and update. You can specify custom operations as well. For example
code, check out the source code for the HStoreField, in playhouse.postgres_ext.
1.6.2 Creating model tables
In order to start using our models, its necessary to open a connection to the database and create the tables first. Peewee
will run the necessary CREATE TABLE queries, additionally creating any constraints and indexes.
# Connect to our database.
db.connect()
# Create the tables.
db.create_tables([User, Tweet])
Note: Strictly speaking, it is not necessary to call connect() but it is good practice to be explicit. That way if
something goes wrong, the error occurs at the connect step, rather than some arbitrary time later.
Note: Peewee can determine if your tables already exist, and conditionally create them:
# Only create the tables if they do not exist.
db.create_tables([User, Tweet], safe=True)
After you have created your tables, if you choose to modify your database schema (by adding, removing or otherwise
changing the columns) you will need to either:
• Drop the table and re-create it.
• Run one or more ALTER TABLE queries. Peewee comes with a schema migration tool which can greatly
simplify this. Check the schema migrations docs for details.
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1.6.3 Model options and table metadata
In order not to pollute the model namespace, model-specific configuration is placed in a special class called Meta (a
convention borrowed from the django framework):
from peewee import *
contacts_db = SqliteDatabase(’contacts.db’)
class Person(Model):
name = CharField()
class Meta:
database = contacts_db
This instructs peewee that whenever a query is executed on Person to use the contacts database.
Note: Take a look at the sample models - you will notice that we created a BaseModel that defined the database,
and then extended. This is the preferred way to define a database and create models.
Once the class is defined, you should not access ModelClass.Meta, but instead use ModelClass._meta:
>>> Person.Meta
Traceback (most recent call last):
File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
AttributeError: type object ’Preson’ has no attribute ’Meta’
>>> Person._meta
<peewee.ModelOptions object at 0x7f51a2f03790>
The ModelOptions class implements several methods which may be of use for retrieving model metadata (such as
lists of fields, foreign key relationships, and more).
>>> Person._meta.fields
{’id’: <peewee.PrimaryKeyField object at 0x7f51a2e92750>, ’name’: <peewee.CharField object at 0x7f51a
>>> Person._meta.primary_key
<peewee.PrimaryKeyField object at 0x7f51a2e92750>
>>> Person._meta.database
<peewee.SqliteDatabase object at 0x7f519bff6dd0>
There are several options you can specify as Meta attributes. While most options are inheritable, some are tablespecific and will not be inherited by subclasses.
Option
database
db_table
indexes
order_by
primary_key
table_alias
Meaning
database for model
name of the table to store data
a list of fields to index
a list of fields to use for default ordering
a CompositeKey instance
an alias to use for the table in queries
Inheritable?
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
no
Here is an example showing inheritable versus non-inheritable attributes:
>>> db = SqliteDatabase(’:memory:’)
>>> class ModelOne(Model):
...
class Meta:
...
database = db
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...
db_table = ’model_one_tbl’
...
>>> class ModelTwo(ModelOne):
...
pass
...
>>> ModelOne._meta.database is ModelTwo._meta.database
True
>>> ModelOne._meta.db_table == ModelTwo._meta.db_table
False
1.6.4 Indexes and Unique Constraints
Peewee can create indexes on single or multiple columns, optionally including a UNIQUE constraint.
Single column indexes are defined using field initialization parameters. The following example adds a unique index
on the username field, and a normal index on the email field:
class User(Model):
username = CharField(unique=True)
email = CharField(index=True)
Multi-column indexes are defined as Meta attributes using a nested tuple. Each database index is a 2-tuple, the first
part of which is a tuple of the names of the fields, the second part a boolean indicating whether the index should be
unique.
class Transaction(Model):
from_acct = CharField()
to_acct = CharField()
amount = DecimalField()
date = DateTimeField()
class Meta:
indexes = (
# create a unique on from/to/date
((’from_acct’, ’to_acct’, ’date’), True),
# create a non-unique on from/to
((’from_acct’, ’to_acct’), False),
)
1.6.5 Non-integer Primary Keys, Composite Keys and other Tricks
Non-integer primary keys
If you would like use a non-integer primary key (which I generally don’t recommend), you can specify
primary_key=True when creating a field. When you wish to create a new instance for a model using a nonautoincrementing primary key, you need to be sure you save() specifying force_insert=True.
from peewee import *
class UUIDModel(Model):
id = UUIDField(primary_key=True)
Auto-incrementing IDs are, as their name says, automatically generated for you when you insert a new row into the
database. When you call save(), peewee determines whether to do an INSERT versus an UPDATE based on the
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presence of a primary key value. Since, with our uuid example, the database driver won’t generate a new ID, we need
to specify it manually. When we call save() for the first time, pass in force_insert = True:
# This works because .create() will specify ‘force_insert=True‘.
obj1 = UUIDModel.create(id=uuid.uuid4())
# This will not work, however. Peewee will attempt to do an update:
obj2 = UUIDModel(id=uuid.uuid4())
obj2.save() # WRONG
obj2.save(force_insert=True) # CORRECT
# Once the object has been created, you can call save() normally.
obj2.save()
Note: Any foreign keys to a model with a non-integer primary key will have a ForeignKeyField use the same
underlying storage type as the primary key they are related to.
Composite primary keys
Peewee has very basic support for composite keys. In order to use a composite key, you must set the primary_key
attribute of the model options to a CompositeKey instance:
class BlogToTag(Model):
"""A simple "through" table for many-to-many relationship."""
blog = ForeignKeyField(Blog)
tag = ForeignKeyField(Tag)
class Meta:
primary_key = CompositeKey(’blog’, ’tag’)
Manually specifying primary keys
Sometimes you do not want the database to automatically generate a value for the primary key, for instance when bulk
loading relational data. To handle this on a one-off basis, you can simply tell peewee to turn off auto_increment
during the import:
data = load_user_csv() # load up a bunch of data
User._meta.auto_increment = False # turn off auto incrementing IDs
with db.transaction():
for row in data:
u = User(id=row[0], username=row[1])
u.save(force_insert=True) # <-- force peewee to insert row
User._meta.auto_increment = True
If you always want to have control over the primary key, simply do not use the PrimaryKeyField field type, but
use a normal IntegerField (or other column type):
class User(BaseModel):
id = IntegerField(primary_key=True)
username = CharField()
>>> u = User.create(id=999, username=’somebody’)
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>>> u.id
999
>>> User.get(User.username == ’somebody’).id
999
1.6.6 Self-referential foreign keys
When creating a heirarchical structure it is necessary to create a self-referential foreign key which links a child object
to its parent. Because the model class is not defined at the time you instantiate the self-referential foreign key, use the
special string ’self’ to indicate a self-referential foreign key:
class Category(Model):
name = CharField()
parent = ForeignKeyField(’self’, null=True, related_name=’children’)
As you can see, the foreign key points upward to the parent object and the back-reference is named children.
Attention: Self-referential foreign-keys should always be null=True.
When querying against a model that contains a self-referential foreign key you may sometimes need to perform a
self-join. In those cases you can use Model.alias() to create a table reference. Here is how you might query the
category and parent model using a self-join:
Parent = Category.alias()
GrandParent = Category.alias()
query = (Category
.select(Category, Parent)
.join(Parent, on=(Category.parent == Parent.id))
.join(GrandParent, on=(Parent.parent == GrandParent.id))
.where(GrandParent.name == ’some category’)
.order_by(Category.name))
1.6.7 Circular foreign key dependencies
Sometimes it happens that you will create a circular dependency between two tables.
Note: My personal opinion is that circular foreign keys are a code smell and should be refactored (by adding an
intermediary table, for instance).
Adding circular foreign keys with peewee is a bit tricky because at the time you are defining either foreign key, the
model it points to will not have been defined yet, causing a NameError.
class User(Model):
username = CharField()
favorite_tweet = ForeignKeyField(Tweet, null=True)
# NameError!!
class Tweet(Model):
message = TextField()
user = ForeignKeyField(User, related_name=’tweets’)
One option is to simply use an IntegerField to store the raw ID:
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class User(Model):
username = CharField()
favorite_tweet_id = IntegerField(null=True)
By using Proxy we can get around the problem and still use a foreign key field:
# Create a proxy object to stand in for our as-yet-undefined Tweet model.
TweetProxy = Proxy()
class User(Model):
username = CharField()
# Tweet has not been defined yet so use the proxy.
favorite_tweet = ForeignKeyField(TweetProxy, null=True)
class Tweet(Model):
message = TextField()
user = ForeignKeyField(User, related_name=’tweets’)
# Now that Tweet is defined, we can initialize the proxy object.
TweetProxy.initialize(Tweet)
After initializing the proxy the foreign key fields are now correctly set up. There is one more quirk to watch out for,
though. When you call create_table we will again encounter the same issue. For this reason peewee will not
automatically create a foreign key constraint for any deferred foreign keys.
Here is how to create the tables:
# Foreign key constraint from User -> Tweet will NOT be created because the
# Tweet table does not exist yet. ‘favorite_tweet‘ will just be a regular
# integer field:
User.create_table()
# Foreign key constraint from Tweet -> User will be created normally.
Tweet.create_table()
# Now that both tables exist, we can create the foreign key from User -> Tweet:
db.create_foreign_key(User, User.favorite_tweet)
1.7 Querying
This section will cover the basic CRUD operations commonly performed on a relational database:
• Model.create(), for executing INSERT queries.
• Model.save() and Model.update(), for executing UPDATE queries.
• Model.delete_instance() and Model.delete(), for executing DELETE queries.
• Model.select(), for executing SELECT queries.
1.7.1 Creating a new record
You can use Model.create() to create a new model instance. This method accepts keyword arguments, where the
keys correspond to the names of the model’s fields. A new instance is returned and a row is added to the table.
>>> User.create(username=’Charlie’)
<__main__.User object at 0x2529350>
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This will INSERT a new row into the database. The primary key will automatically be retrieved and stored on the
model instance.
Alternatively, you can build up a model instance programmatically and then call save():
>>>
>>>
1
>>>
1
>>>
>>>
>>>
1
>>>
2
user = User(username=’Charlie’)
user.save() # save() returns the number of rows modified.
user.id
huey = User()
huey.username = ’Huey’
huey.save()
huey.id
When a model has a foreign key, you can directly assign a model instance to the foreign key field when creating a new
record.
>>> tweet = Tweet.create(user=huey, message=’Hello!’)
You can also use the value of the related object’s primary key:
>>> tweet = Tweet.create(user=2, message=’Hello again!’)
If you simply wish to insert data and do not need to create a model instance, you can use Model.insert():
>>> User.insert(username=’Mickey’).execute()
3
After executing the insert query, the primary key of the new row is returned.
Note: There are several ways you can speed up bulk insert operations. Check out the Bulk inserts recipe section for
more information.
1.7.2 Bulk inserts
There are a couple of ways you can load lots of data quickly. The naive approach is to simply call Model.create()
in a loop:
data_source = [
{’field1’: ’val1-1’, ’field2’: ’val1-2’},
{’field1’: ’val2-1’, ’field2’: ’val2-2’},
# ...
]
for data_dict in data_source:
Model.create(**data_dict)
The above approach is slow for a couple of reasons:
1. If you are using autocommit (the default), then each call to create() happens in its own transaction. That is
going to be really slow!
2. There is a decent amount of Python logic getting in your way, and each InsertQuery must be generated and
parsed into SQL.
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3. That’s a lot of data (in terms of raw bytes of SQL) you are sending to your database to parse.
4. We are retrieving the last insert id, which causes an additional query to be executed in some cases.
You can get a very significant speedup by simply wrapping this in a transaction().
# This is much faster.
with db.transaction():
for data_dict in data_source:
Model.create(**data_dict)
The above code still suffers from points 2, 3 and 4. We can get another big boost by calling insert_many(). This
method accepts a list of dictionaries to insert.
# Fastest.
with db.transaction():
Model.insert_many(data_source).execute()
Depending on the number of rows in your data source, you may need to break it up into chunks:
# Insert rows 1000 at a time.
with db.transaction():
for idx in range(0, len(data_source), 1000):
Model.insert_many(data_source[idx:idx+1000]).execute()
If the data you would like to bulk load is stored in another table, you can also create INSERT queries whose source is
a SELECT query. Use the Model.insert_from() method:
query = (TweetArchive
.insert_from(
fields=[Tweet.user, Tweet.message],
query=Tweet.select(Tweet.user, Tweet.message))
.execute())
1.7.3 Updating existing records
Once a model instance has a primary key, any subsequent call to save() will result in an UPDATE rather than another
INSERT. The model’s primary key will not change:
>>>
1
>>>
1
>>>
>>>
1
>>>
1
>>>
2
user.save()
# save() returns the number of rows modified.
user.id
user.save()
user.id
huey.save()
huey.id
If you want to update multiple records, issue an UPDATE query. The following example will update all Tweet objects,
marking them as published, if they were created before today. Model.update() accepts keyword arguments where
the keys correspond to the model’s field names:
>>> today = datetime.today()
>>> query = Tweet.update(is_published=True).where(Tweet.creation_date < today)
>>> query.execute() # Returns the number of rows that were updated.
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For more information, see the documentation on Model.update() and UpdateQuery.
Note: If you would like more information on performing atomic updates (such as incrementing the value of a column),
check out the atomic update recipes.
1.7.4 Atomic updates
Peewee allows you to perform atomic updates. Let’s suppose we need to update some counters. The naive approach
would be to write something like this:
>>> for stat in Stat.select().where(Stat.url == request.url):
...
stat.counter += 1
...
stat.save()
Do not do this! Not only is this slow, but it is also vulnerable to race conditions if multiple processes are updating the
counter at the same time.
Instead, you can update the counters atomically using update():
>>> query = Stat.update(counter=Stat.counter + 1).where(Stat.url == request.url)
>>> query.update()
You can make these update statements as complex as you like. Let’s give all our employees a bonus equal to their
previous bonus plus 10% of their salary:
>>> query = Employee.update(bonus=(Employee.bonus + (Employee.salary * .1)))
>>> query.execute() # Give everyone a bonus!
We can even use a subquery to update the value of a column. Suppose we had a denormalized column on the User
model that stored the number of tweets a user had made, and we updated this value periodically. Here is how you
might write such a query:
>>> subquery = Tweet.select(fn.COUNT(Tweet.id)).where(Tweet.user == User.id)
>>> update = User.update(num_tweets=subquery)
>>> update.execute()
1.7.5 Deleting records
To delete a single model instance, you can use the Model.delete_instance() shortcut.
delete_instance() will delete the given model instance and can optionally delete any dependent objects
recursively (by specifying recursive=True).
>>> user = User.get(User.id == 1)
>>> user.delete_instance() # Returns the number of rows deleted.
1
>>> User.get(User.id == 1)
UserDoesNotExist: instance matching query does not exist:
SQL: SELECT t1."id", t1."username" FROM "user" AS t1 WHERE t1."id" = ?
PARAMS: [1]
To delete an arbitrary set of rows, you can issue a DELETE query. The following will delete all Tweet objects that
are over one year old:
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>>> query = Tweet.delete().where(Tweet.creation_date < one_year_ago)
>>> query.execute() # Returns the number of rows deleted.
7
For more information, see the documentation on:
• Model.delete_instance()
• Model.delete()
• DeleteQuery
1.7.6 Selecting a single record
You can use the Model.get() method to retrieve a single instance matching the given query.
This method is a shortcut that calls Model.select() with the given query, but limits the result set to a single row.
Additionally, if no model matches the given query, a DoesNotExist exception will be raised.
>>> User.get(User.id == 1)
<__main__.User object at 0x25294d0>
>>> User.get(User.id == 1).username
u’Charlie’
>>> User.get(User.username == ’Charlie’)
<__main__.User object at 0x2529410>
>>> User.get(User.username == ’nobody’)
UserDoesNotExist: instance matching query does not exist:
SQL: SELECT t1."id", t1."username" FROM "user" AS t1 WHERE t1."username" = ?
PARAMS: [’nobody’]
For more advanced operations, you can use SelectQuery.get(). The following query retrieves the latest tweet
from the user named charlie:
>>> (Tweet
... .select()
... .join(User)
... .where(User.username == ’charlie’)
... .order_by(Tweet.created_date.desc())
... .get())
<__main__.Tweet object at 0x2623410>
For more information, see the documentation on:
• Model.get()
• Model.select()
• SelectQuery.get()
1.7.7 Get or create
While peewee has a get_or_create() method, this should really not be used outside of tests as it is vulnerable
to a race condition. The proper way to perform a get or create with peewee is to rely on the database to enforce a
constraint.
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Let’s say we wish to implement registering a new user account using the example User model. The User model has a
unique constraint on the username field, so we will rely on the database’s integrity guarantees to ensure we don’t end
up with duplicate usernames:
try:
with db.transaction():
user = User.create(username=username)
return ’Success’
except peewee.IntegrityError:
return ’Failure: %s is already in use’ % username
1.7.8 Selecting multiple records
We can use Model.select() to retrieve rows from the table. When you construct a SELECT query, the database
will return any rows that correspond to your query. Peewee allows you to iterate over these rows, as well as use
indexing and slicing operations.
In the following example, we will simply call select() and iterate over the return value, which is an instance of
SelectQuery. This will return all the rows in the User table:
>>> for user in User.select():
...
print user.username
...
Charlie
Huey
Peewee
Note: Subsequent iterations of the same query will not hit the database as the results are cached. To disable this
behavior (to reduce memory usage), call SelectQuery.iterator() when iterating.
When iterating over a model that contains a foreign key, be careful with the way you access values on related models.
Accidentally resolving a foreign key or iterating over a back-reference can cause N+1 query behavior.
When you create a foreign key, such as Tweet.user, you can use the related_name to create a back-reference
(User.tweets). Back-references are exposed as SelectQuery instances:
>>> tweet = Tweet.get()
>>> tweet.user # Accessing a foreign key returns the related model.
<tw.User at 0x7f3ceb017f50>
>>> user = User.get()
>>> user.tweets # Accessing a back-reference returns a query.
<SelectQuery> SELECT t1."id", t1."user_id", t1."message", t1."created_date", t1."is_published" FROM "
You can iterate over the user.tweets back-reference just like any other SelectQuery:
>>> for tweet in user.tweets:
...
print tweet.message
...
hello world
this is fun
look at this picture of my food
1.7.9 Filtering records
You can filter for particular records using normal python operators. Peewee supports a wide variety of query operators.
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>>> user = User.get(User.username == ’Charlie’)
>>> for tweet in Tweet.select().where(Tweet.user == user, Tweet.is_published == True):
...
print ’%s: %s (%s)’ % (tweet.user.username, tweet.message)
...
Charlie: hello world
Charlie: this is fun
>>> for tweet in Tweet.select().where(Tweet.created_date < datetime.datetime(2011, 1, 1)):
...
print tweet.message, tweet.created_date
...
Really old tweet 2010-01-01 00:00:00
You can also filter across joins:
>>> for tweet in Tweet.select().join(User).where(User.username == ’Charlie’):
...
print tweet.message
hello world
this is fun
look at this picture of my food
If you want to express a complex query, use parentheses and python’s bitwise or and and operators:
>>> Tweet.select().join(User).where(
...
(User.username == ’Charlie’) |
...
(User.username == ’Peewee Herman’)
... )
Check out the table of query operations to see what types of queries are possible.
Note: A lot of fun things can go in the where clause of a query, such as:
• A field expression, e.g. User.username == ’Charlie’
• A function expression, e.g. fn.Lower(fn.Substr(User.username, 1, 1)) == ’a’
• A comparison of one column to another, e.g. Employee.salary < (Employee.tenure * 1000) +
40000
You can also nest queries, for example tweets by users whose username starts with “a”:
# get users whose username starts with "a"
a_users = User.select().where(fn.Lower(fn.Substr(User.username, 1, 1)) == ’a’)
# the "<<" operator signifies an "IN" query
a_user_tweets = Tweet.select().where(Tweet.user << a_users)
More query examples
Get active users:
User.select().where(User.active == True)
Get users who are either staff or superusers:
User.select().where(
(User.is_staff == True) | (User.is_superuser == True))
Get tweets by user named “charlie”:
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Tweet.select().join(User).where(User.username == ’charlie’)
Get tweets by staff or superusers (assumes FK relationship):
Tweet.select().join(User).where(
(User.is_staff == True) | (User.is_superuser == True))
Get tweets by staff or superusers using a subquery:
staff_super = User.select(User.id).where(
(User.is_staff == True) | (User.is_superuser == True))
Tweet.select().where(Tweet.user << staff_super)
1.7.10 Sorting records
To return rows in order, use the order_by() method:
>>> for t in Tweet.select().order_by(Tweet.created_date):
...
print t.pub_date
...
2010-01-01 00:00:00
2011-06-07 14:08:48
2011-06-07 14:12:57
>>> for t in Tweet.select().order_by(Tweet.created_date.desc()):
...
print t.pub_date
...
2011-06-07 14:12:57
2011-06-07 14:08:48
2010-01-01 00:00:00
You can also order across joins. Assuming you want to order tweets by the username of the author, then by created_date:
>>> qry = Tweet.select().join(User).order_by(User.username, Tweet.created_date.desc())
SELECT t1."id", t1."user_id", t1."message", t1."is_published", t1."created_date"
FROM "tweet" AS t1
INNER JOIN "user" AS t2
ON t1."user_id" = t2."id"
ORDER BY t2."username", t1."created_date" DESC
1.7.11 Getting random records
Occasionally you may want to pull a random record from the database. You can accomplish this by ordering by the
random or rand function (depending on your database):
Postgresql and Sqlite use the Random function:
# Pick 5 lucky winners:
LotteryNumber.select().order_by(fn.Random()).limit(5)
MySQL uses Rand:
# Pick 5 lucky winners:
LotterNumber.select().order_by(fn.Rand()).limit(5)
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1.7.12 Paginating records
The paginate() method makes it easy to grab a page or records.
page_number, and items_per_page.
paginate() takes two parameters,
Attention: Page numbers are 1-based, so the first page of results will be page 1.
>>> for tweet in Tweet.select().order_by(Tweet.id).paginate(2, 10):
...
print tweet.message
...
tweet 10
tweet 11
tweet 12
tweet 13
tweet 14
tweet 15
tweet 16
tweet 17
tweet 18
tweet 19
If you would like more granular control, you can always use limit() and offset().
1.7.13 Counting records
You can count the number of rows in any select query:
>>> Tweet.select().count()
100
>>> Tweet.select().where(Tweet.id > 50).count()
50
In some cases it may be necessary to wrap your query and apply a count to the rows of the inner query (such as
when using DISTINCT or GROUP BY). Peewee will usually do this automatically, but in some cases you may need to
manually call wrapped_count() instead.
1.7.14 Aggregating records
Suppose you have some users and want to get a list of them along with the count of tweets in each. The annotate()
method provides a short-hand for creating these types of queries:
query = User.select().annotate(Tweet)
The above query is equivalent to:
query = (User
.select(User, fn.Count(Tweet.id).alias(’count’))
.join(Tweet)
.group_by(User))
The resulting query will return User objects with all their normal attributes plus an additional attribute count which
will contain the count of tweets for each user. By default it uses an inner join if the foreign key is not nullable, which
means users without tweets won’t appear in the list. To remedy this, manually specify the type of join to include users
with 0 tweets:
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query = (User
.select()
.join(Tweet, JOIN_LEFT_OUTER)
.annotate(Tweet))
You can also specify a custom aggregator, such as MIN or MAX:
query = (User
.select()
.annotate(
Tweet,
fn.Max(Tweet.created_date).alias(’latest_tweet_date’)))
Let’s assume you have a tagging application and want to find tags that have a certain number of related objects. For
this example we’ll use some different models in a many-to-many configuration:
class Photo(Model):
image = CharField()
class Tag(Model):
name = CharField()
class PhotoTag(Model):
photo = ForeignKeyField(Photo)
tag = ForeignKeyField(Tag)
Now say we want to find tags that have at least 5 photos associated with them:
query = (Tag
.select()
.join(PhotoTag)
.join(Photo)
.group_by(Tag)
.having(fn.Count(Photo.id) > 5))
This query is equivalent to the following SQL:
SELECT t1."id", t1."name"
FROM "tag" AS t1
INNER JOIN "phototag" AS t2 ON t1."id" = t2."tag_id"
INNER JOIN "photo" AS t3 ON t2."photo_id" = t3."id"
GROUP BY t1."id", t1."name"
HAVING Count(t3."id") > 5
Suppose we want to grab the associated count and store it on the tag:
query = (Tag
.select(Tag, fn.Count(Photo.id).alias(’count’))
.join(PhotoTag)
.join(Photo)
.group_by(Tag)
.having(fn.Count(Photo.id) > 5))
1.7.15 Retrieving Scalar Values
You can retrieve scalar values by calling Query.scalar(). For instance:
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>>> PageView.select(fn.Count(fn.Distinct(PageView.url))).scalar()
100
You can retrieve multiple scalar values by passing as_tuple=True:
>>> Employee.select(
...
fn.Min(Employee.salary), fn.Max(Employee.salary)
... ).scalar(as_tuple=True)
(30000, 50000)
1.7.16 SQL Functions, Subqueries and “Raw expressions”
Suppose you need to want to get a list of all users whose username begins with a. There are a couple ways to do this,
but one method might be to use some SQL functions like LOWER and SUBSTR. To use arbitrary SQL functions, use
the special fn() object to construct queries:
# Select the user’s id, username and the first letter of their username, lower-cased
query = User.select(User, fn.Lower(fn.Substr(User.username, 1, 1)).alias(’first_letter’))
# Alternatively we could select only users whose username begins with ’a’
a_users = User.select().where(fn.Lower(fn.Substr(User.username, 1, 1)) == ’a’)
>>> for user in a_users:
...
print user.username
There are times when you may want to simply pass in some arbitrary sql. You can do this using the special SQL class.
One use-case is when referencing an alias:
# We’ll query the user table and annotate it with a count of tweets for
# the given user
query = User.select(User, fn.Count(Tweet.id).alias(’ct’)).join(Tweet).group_by(User)
# Now we will order by the count, which was aliased to "ct"
query = query.order_by(SQL(’ct’))
There are two ways to execute hand-crafted SQL statements with peewee:
1. Database.execute_sql() for executing any type of query
2. RawQuery for executing SELECT queries and returning model instances.
Example:
db = SqliteDatabase(’:memory:’)
class Person(Model):
name = CharField()
class Meta:
database = db
# let’s pretend we want to do an "upsert", something that SQLite can
# do, but peewee cannot.
for name in (’charlie’, ’mickey’, ’huey’):
db.execute_sql(’REPLACE INTO person (name) VALUES (?)’, (name,))
# now let’s iterate over the people using our own query.
for person in Person.raw(’select * from person’):
print person.name # .raw() will return model instances.
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1.7.17 Window functions
peewee comes with basic support for SQL window functions, which can be created by calling fn.over() and
passing in your partitioning or ordering parameters.
# Get the list of employees and the average salary for their dept.
query = (Employee
.select(
Employee.name,
Employee.department,
Employee.salary,
fn.Avg(Employee.salary).over(
partition_by=[Employee.department]))
.order_by(Employee.name))
# Rank employees by salary.
query = (Employee
.select(
Employee.name,
Employee.salary,
fn.rank().over(
order_by=[Employee.salary])))
For general information on window functions, check out the postgresql docs.
1.7.18 Retrieving raw tuples / dictionaries
Sometimes you do not need the overhead of creating model instances and simply want to iterate over the row tuples.
To do this, call SelectQuery.tuples() or RawQuery.tuples():
stats = Stat.select(Stat.url, fn.Count(Stat.url)).group_by(Stat.url).tuples()
# iterate over a list of 2-tuples containing the url and count
for stat_url, stat_count in stats:
print stat_url, stat_count
Similarly, you can return the rows from the cursor as dictionaries using SelectQuery.dicts() or
RawQuery.dicts():
stats = Stat.select(Stat.url, fn.Count(Stat.url).alias(’ct’)).group_by(Stat.url).dicts()
# iterate over a list of 2-tuples containing the url and count
for stat in stats:
print stat[’url’], stat[’ct’]
1.8 Query operators
The following types of comparisons are supported by peewee:
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Comparison
==
<
<=
>
>=
!=
<<
>>
%
**
~
Meaning
x equals y
x is less than y
x is less than or equal to y
x is greater than y
x is greater than or equal to y
x is not equal to y
x IN y, where y is a list or query
x IS y, where y is None/NULL
x LIKE y where y may contain wildcards
x ILIKE y where y may contain wildcards
Negation
Because I ran out of operators to override, there are some additional query operations available as methods:
Method
.contains(substr)
.startswith(prefix)
.endswith(suffix)
.between(low, high)
.regexp(exp)
.bin_and(value)
.bin_or(value)
.in_(value)
Meaning
Wild-card search for substring.
Search for values beginning with prefix.
Search for values ending with suffix.
Search for values between low and high.
Regular expression match.
Binary AND.
Binary OR.
IN lookup (identical to <<).
To combine clauses using logical operators, use:
Operator
&
| (pipe)
~
Meaning
AND
OR
NOT (unary negation)
Example
(User.is_active == True) & (User.is_admin == True)
(User.is_admin) | (User.is_superuser)
~(User.username << [’foo’, ’bar’, ’baz’])
Here is how you might use some of these query operators:
# Find the user whose username is "charlie".
User.select().where(User.username == ’charlie’)
# Find the users whose username is in [charlie, huey, mickey]
User.select().where(User.username << [’charlie’, ’huey’, ’mickey’])
Employee.select().where(Employee.salary.between(50000, 60000))
Employee.select().where(Employee.name.startswith(’C’))
Blog.select().where(Blog.title.contains(search_string))
Here is how you might combine expressions. Comparisons can be arbitrarily complex.
Note: Note that the actual comparisons are wrapped in parentheses. Python’s operator precedence necessitates that
comparisons be wrapped in parentheses.
# Find any users who are active administrations.
User.select().where(
(User.is_admin == True) &
(User.is_active == True))
# Find any users who are either administrators or super-users.
User.select().where(
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(User.is_admin == True) |
(User.is_superuser == True))
# Find any Tweets by users who are not admins (NOT IN).
admins = User.select().where(User.is_admin == True)
non_admin_tweets = Tweet.select().where(
~(Tweet.user << admins))
# Find any users who are not my friends (strangers).
friends = User.select().where(
User.username << [’charlie’, ’huey’, ’mickey’])
strangers = User.select().where(~(User.id << friends))
Warning: Although you may be tempted to use python’s in, and, or and not operators in your query expressions, these will not work. The return value of an in expression is always coerced to a boolean value. Similarly,
and, or and not all treat their arguments as boolean values and cannot be overloaded.
So just remember:
• Use << instead of in
• Use & instead of and
• Use | instead of or
• Use ~ instead of not
• Don’t forget to wrap your comparisons in parentheses when using logical operators.
For more examples, see the Expressions section.
Note: LIKE and ILIKE with SQLite
Because SQLite’s LIKE operation is case-insensitive by default, peewee will use the SQLite GLOB operation for casesensitive searches. The glob operation uses asterisks for wildcards as opposed to the usual percent-sign. If you are
using SQLite and want case-sensitive partial string matching, remember to use asterisks for the wildcard.
1.8.1 Adding user-defined operators
Because I ran out of python operators to overload, there are some missing operators in peewee, for instance modulo.
If you find that you need to support an operator that is not in the table above, it is very easy to add your own.
Here is how you might add support for modulo in SQLite:
from peewee import *
from peewee import Expression # the building block for expressions
OP_MOD = ’mod’
def mod(lhs, rhs):
return Expression(lhs, OP_MOD, rhs)
SqliteDatabase.register_ops({OP_MOD: ’%’})
Now you can use these custom operators to build richer queries:
# Users with even ids.
User.select().where(mod(User.id, 2) == 0)
For more examples check out the source to the playhouse.postgresql_ext module, as it contains numerous
operators specific to postgresql’s hstore.
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1.8.2 Expressions
Peewee is designed to provide a simple, expressive, and pythonic way of constructing SQL queries. This section will
provide a quick overview of some common types of expressions.
There are two primary types of objects that can be composed to create expressions:
• Field instances
• SQL aggregations and functions using fn
We will assume a simple “User” model with fields for username and other things. It looks like this:
class User(Model):
username = CharField()
is_admin = BooleanField()
is_active = BooleanField()
last_login = DateTimeField()
login_count = IntegerField()
failed_logins = IntegerField()
Comparisons use the Query operators:
# username is equal to ’charlie’
User.username == ’charlie’
# user has logged in less than 5 times
User.login_count < 5
Comparisons can be combined using bitwise and and or. Operator precedence is controlled by python and comparisons
can be nested to an arbitrary depth:
# User is both and admin and has logged in today
(User.is_admin == True) & (User.last_login >= today)
# User’s username is either charlie or charles
(User.username == ’charlie’) | (User.username == ’charles’)
Comparisons can be used with functions as well:
# user’s username starts with a ’g’ or a ’G’:
fn.Lower(fn.Substr(User.username, 1, 1)) == ’g’
We can do some fairly interesting things, as expressions can be compared against other expressions. Expressions also
support arithmetic operations:
# users who entered the incorrect more than half the time and have logged
# in at least 10 times
(User.failed_logins > (User.login_count * .5)) & (User.login_count > 10)
Expressions allow us to do atomic updates:
# when a user logs in we want to increment their login count:
User.update(login_count=User.login_count + 1).where(User.id == user_id)
Expressions can be used in all parts of a query, so experiment!
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1.9 Foreign Keys
Foreign keys are created using a special field class ForeignKeyField. Each foreign key also creates a backreference on the related model using the specified related_name.
1.9.1 Traversing foriegn keys
Referring back to the User and Tweet models, note that there is a ForeignKeyField from Tweet to User. The
foreign key can be traversed, allowing you access to the associated user instance:
>>> tweet.user.username
’charlie’
Note: Unless the User model was explicitly selected when retrieving the Tweet, an additional query will be required
to load the User data. To learn how to avoid the extra query, see the N+1 query documentation.
The reverse is also true, and we can iterate over the tweets associated with a given User instance:
>>> for tweet in user.tweets:
...
print tweet.message
...
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xdhLQCYQ-nQ
Under the hood, the tweets attribute is just a SelectQuery with the WHERE clause pre-populated to point to the
given User instance:
>>> user.tweets
<class ’twx.Tweet’> SELECT t1."id", t1."user_id", t1."message", ...
1.9.2 Joining tables
Use the join() method to JOIN additional tables. When a foreign key exists between the source model and the join
model, you do not need to specify any additional parameters:
>>> my_tweets = Tweet.select().join(User).where(User.username == ’charlie’)
By default peewee will use an INNER join, but you can use LEFT OUTER or FULL joins as well:
users = (User
.select(User, fn.Count(Tweet.id).alias(’num_tweets’))
.join(Tweet, JOIN_LEFT_OUTER)
.group_by(User)
.order_by(fn.Count(Tweet.id).desc()))
for user in users:
print user.username, ’has created’, user.num_tweets, ’tweet(s).’
Multiple Foreign Keys to the Same Model
When there are multiple foreign keys to the same model, it is good practice to explicitly specify which field you are
joining on.
Referring back to the example app’s models, consider the Relationship model, which is used to denote when one user
follows another. Here is the model definition:
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class Relationship(BaseModel):
from_user = ForeignKeyField(User, related_name=’relationships’)
to_user = ForeignKeyField(User, related_name=’related_to’)
class Meta:
indexes = (
# Specify a unique multi-column index on from/to-user.
((’from_user’, ’to_user’), True),
)
Since there are two foreign keys to User, we should always specify which field we are using in a join.
For example, to determine which users I am following, I would write:
(User
.select()
.join(Relationship, on=Relationship.to_user)
.where(Relationship.from_user == charlie))
On the other hand, if I wanted to determine which users are following me, I would instead join on the from_user
column and filter on the relationship’s to_user:
(User
.select()
.join(Relationship, on=Relationship.from_user)
.where(Relationship.to_user == charlie))
Joining on arbitrary fields
If a foreign key does not exist between two tables you can still perform a join, but you must manually specify the join
predicate.
In the following example, there is no explicit foreign-key between User and ActivityLog, but there is an implied
relationship between the ActivityLog.object_id field and User.id. Rather than joining on a specific Field, we will
join using an Expression.
user_log = (User
.select(User, ActivityLog)
.join(
ActivityLog,
on=(User.id == ActivityLog.object_id).alias(’log’))
.where(
(ActivityLog.activity_type == ’user_activity’) &
(User.username == ’charlie’)))
for user in user_log:
print user.username, user.log.description
#### Print something like ####
charlie logged in
charlie posted a tweet
charlie retweeted
charlie posted a tweet
charlie logged out
Note: By specifying an alias on the join condition, you can control the attribute peewee will assign the joined instance
to. In the previous example, we used the following join:
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(User.id == ActivityLog.object_id).alias(’log’)
Then when iterating over the query, we were able to directly access the joined ActivityLog without incurring an
additional query:
for user in user_log:
print user.username, user.log.description
Joining on Multiple Tables
When calling join(), peewee will use the last joined table as the source table. For example:
User.join(Tweet).join(Comment)
This query will result in a join from User to Tweet, and another join from Tweet to Comment.
If you would like to join the same table twice, use the switch() method:
# Join the Artist table on both ‘Ablum‘ and ‘Genre‘.
Artist.join(Album).switch(Artist).join(Genre)
1.9.3 Implementing Many to Many
Peewee does not provide a field for many to many relationships the way that django does – this is because the field
really is hiding an intermediary table. To implement many-to-many with peewee, you will therefore create the intermediary table yourself and query through it:
class Student(Model):
name = CharField()
class Course(Model):
name = CharField()
class StudentCourse(Model):
student = ForeignKeyField(Student)
course = ForeignKeyField(Course)
To query, let’s say we want to find students who are enrolled in math class:
query = (Student
.select()
.join(StudentCourse)
.join(Course)
.where(Course.name == ’math’))
for student in query:
print student.name
To query what classes a given student is enrolled in:
courses = (Course
.select()
.join(StudentCourse)
.join(Student)
.where(Student.name == ’da vinci’))
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for course in courses:
print course.name
To efficiently iterate over a many-to-many relation, i.e., list all students and their respective courses, we will query the
through model StudentCourse and precompute the Student and Course:
query = (StudentCourse
.select(StudentCourse, Student, Course)
.join(Course)
.switch(StudentCourse)
.join(Student)
.order_by(Student.name))
To print a list of students and their courses you might do the following:
last = None
for student_course in query:
student = student_course.student
if student != last:
last = student
print ’Student: %s’ % student.name
- %s’ % student_course.course.name
print ’
Since we selected all fields from Student and Course in the select clause of the query, these foreign key traversals
are “free” and we’ve done the whole iteration with just 1 query.
1.9.4 Self-joins
Peewee supports several methods for constructing queries containing a self-join.
Using model aliases
To join on the same model (table) twice, it is necessary to create a model alias to represent the second instance of the
table in a query. Consider the following model:
class Category(Model):
name = CharField()
parent = ForeignKeyField(’self’, related_name=’children’)
What if we wanted to query all categories whose parent category is Electronics. One way would be to perform a
self-join:
Parent = Category.alias()
query = (Category
.select()
.join(Parent, on=(Category.parent == Parent.id))
.where(Parent.name == ’Electronics’))
When performing a join that uses a ModelAlias, it is necessary to specify the join condition using the on keyword
argument. In this case we are joining the category with its parent category.
Using subqueries
Another less common approach involves the use of subqueries. Here is another way we might construct a query to get
all the categories whose parent category is Electronics using a subquery:
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join_query = Category.select().where(Category.name == ’Electronics’)
# Subqueries used as JOINs need to have an alias.
join_query = join_query.alias(’jq’)
query = (Category
.select()
.join(join_query, on=(Category.parent == join_query.c.id)))
This will generate the following SQL query:
SELECT t1."id", t1."name", t1."parent_id"
FROM "category" AS t1
INNER JOIN (
SELECT t3."id"
FROM "category" AS t3
WHERE (t3."name" = ?)
) AS jq ON (t1."parent_id" = "jq"."id"
To access the id value from the subquery, we use the .c magic lookup which will generate the appropriate SQL
expression:
Category.parent == join_query.c.id
# Becomes: (t1."parent_id" = "jq"."id")
1.10 Performance Techniques
This section outlines some techniques for improving performance when using peewee.
1.10.1 Avoiding N+1 queries
The term N+1 queries refers to a situation where an application performs a query, then for each row of the result set,
the application performs at least one other query (another way to conceptualize this is as a nested loop). In many
cases, these n queries can be avoided through the use of a SQL join or subquery. The database itself may do a nested
loop, but it will usually be more performant than doing n queries in your application code, which involves latency
communicating with the database and may not take advantage of indices or other optimizations employed by the
database when joining or executing a subquery.
Peewee provides several APIs for mitigating N+1 query behavior. Recollecting the models used throughout this
document, User and Tweet, this section will try to outline some common N+1 scenarios, and how peewee can help
you avoid them.
List recent tweets
The twitter timeline displays a list of tweets from multiple users. In addition to the tweet’s content, the username of
the tweet’s author is also displayed. The N+1 scenario here would be:
1. Fetch the 10 most recent tweets.
2. For each tweet, select the author (10 queries).
By selecting both tables and using a join, peewee makes it possible to accomplish this in a single query:
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query = (Tweet
.select(Tweet, User) # Note that we are selecting both models.
.join(User) # Use an INNER join because every tweet has an author.
.order_by(Tweet.id.desc()) # Get the most recent tweets.
.limit(10))
for tweet in query:
print tweet.user.username, ’-’, tweet.message
Without the join, accessing tweet.user.username would trigger a query to resolve the foreign key
tweet.user and retrieve the associated user. But since we have selected and joined on User, peewee will automatically resolve the foreign-key for us.
List users and all their tweets
Let’s say you want to build a page that shows several users and all of their tweets. The N+1 scenario would be:
1. Fetch some users.
2. For each user, fetch their tweets.
This situation is similar to the previous example, but there is one important difference: when we selected tweets, they
only have a single associated user, so we could directly assign the foreign key. The reverse is not true, however, as one
user may have any number of tweets (or none at all).
Peewee provides two approaches to avoiding O(n) queries in this situation. We can either:
• Fetch both users and tweets in a single query. User data will be duplicated, so peewee will de-dupe it and
aggregate the tweets as it iterates through the result set.
• Fetch users first, then fetch all the tweets associated with those users. Once peewee has the big list of tweets, it
will assign them out, matching them with the appropriate user.
Each solution has its place and, depending on the size and shape of the data you are querying, one may be more
performant than the other.
Let’s look at the first approach, since it is more general and can work with arbitrarily complex queries. We will use
a special flag, aggregate_rows(), when creating our query. This method tells peewee to de-duplicate any rows
that, due to the structure of the JOINs, may be duplicated.
query = (User
.select(User, Tweet) # As in the previous example, we select both tables.
.join(Tweet, JOIN_LEFT_OUTER)
.order_by(User.username) # We need to specify an ordering here.
.aggregate_rows()) # Tell peewee to de-dupe and aggregate results.
for user in query:
print user.username
for tweet in user.tweets:
print ’ ’, tweet.message
Ordinarily, user.tweets would be a SelectQuery and iterating over it would trigger an additional query. By
using aggregate_rows(), though, user.tweets is a Python list and no additional query occurs.
Note: We used a LEFT OUTER join to ensure that users with zero tweets would also be included in the result set.
Below is an example of how we might fetch several users and any tweets they created within the past week. Because
we are filtering the tweets and the user may not have any tweets, we need our WHERE clause to allow NULL tweet
IDs.
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week_ago = datetime.date.today() - datetime.timedelta(days=7)
query = (User
.select(User, Tweet)
.join(Tweet, JOIN_LEFT_OUTER)
.where(
(Tweet.id >> None) | (
(Tweet.is_published == True) &
(Tweet.created_date >= week_ago)))
.order_by(User.username, Tweet.created_date.desc())
.aggregate_rows())
for user in query:
print user.username
for tweet in user.tweets:
print ’ ’, tweet.message
Using prefetch
Besides aggregate_rows(), peewee supports a second approach using sub-queries. This method requires the use
of a special API, prefetch(). Pre-fetch, as its name indicates, will eagerly load the appropriate tweets for the given
users using subqueries. This means instead of O(n) queries for n rows, we will do O(k) queries for k tables.
Here is an example of how we might fetch several users and any tweets they created within the past week.
week_ago = datetime.date.today() - datetime.timedelta(days=7)
users = User.select()
tweets = (Tweet
.select()
.where(
(Tweet.is_published == True) &
(Tweet.created_date >= week_ago)))
# This will perform two queries.
users_with_tweets = prefetch(users, tweets)
for user in users_with_tweets:
print user.username
for tweet in user.tweets_prefetch:
print ’ ’, tweet.message
Note: Note that neither the User query, nor the Tweet query contained a JOIN clause. When using prefetch()
you do not need to specify the join.
As with aggregate_rows(), you can use prefetch() to query an arbitrary number of tables. Check the API
documentation for more examples.
1.10.2 Iterating over lots of rows
By default peewee will cache the rows returned when iterating of a SelectQuery. This is an optimization to allow
multiple iterations as well as indexing and slicing without causing additional queries. This caching can be problematic,
however, when you plan to iterate over a large number of rows.
To reduce the amount of memory used by peewee when iterating over a query, use the iterator() method. This
method allows you to iterate without caching each model returned, using much less memory when iterating over large
result sets.
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# Let’s assume we’ve got 10 million stat objects to dump to a csv file.
stats = Stat.select()
# Our imaginary serializer class
serializer = CSVSerializer()
# Loop over all the stats and serialize.
for stat in stats.iterator():
serializer.serialize_object(stat)
For simple queries you can see further speed improvements by using the naive() method. This method speeds up
the construction of peewee model instances from raw cursor data. See the naive() documentation for more details
on this optimization.
for stat in stats.naive().iterator():
serializer.serialize_object(stat)
You can also see performance improvements by using the dicts() and tuples() methods.
When iterating over a large number of rows that contain columns from multiple tables, peewee will reconstruct the
model graph for each row returned. This operation can be slow for complex graphs. To speed up model creation, you
can:
• Call naive(), which will not construct a graph and simply patch all attributes from the row directly onto a
model instance.
• Use dicts() or tuples().
1.10.3 Speeding up Bulk Inserts
See the Bulk inserts section for details on speeding up bulk insert operations.
1.11 Transactions
Peewee provides several interfaces for working with transactions.
1.11.1 Context manager
You can execute queries within a transaction using the Database.transaction() context manager, which will
issue a commit if all goes well, or a rollback if an exception is raised:
db = SqliteDatabase(’:memory:’)
with db.transaction():
# Delete the user and their associated tweets.
user.delete_instance(recursive=True)
You can use the transaction to perform get or create operations as well:
try:
with db.transaction():
user = User.create(username=username)
return ’Success’
except peewee.IntegrityError:
return ’Failure: %s is already in use’ % username
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1.11.2 Decorator
Similar to the context manager, you can decorate functions with the commit_on_success() decorator. This
decorator will commit if the function returns normally, otherwise the transaction will be rolled back and the exception
re-raised.
db = SqliteDatabase(’:memory:’)
@db.commit_on_success
def delete_user(user):
user.delete_instance(recursive=True)
1.11.3 Autocommit Mode
By default, databases are initialized with autocommit=True, you can turn this on and off at runtime if you like.
The behavior below is roughly the same as the context manager and decorator:
db.set_autocommit(False)
try:
user.delete_instance(recursive=True)
except:
db.rollback()
raise
else:
try:
db.commit()
except:
db.rollback()
raise
finally:
db.set_autocommit(True)
If you would like to manually control every transaction, simply turn autocommit off when instantiating your database:
db = SqliteDatabase(’:memory:’, autocommit=False)
User.create(username=’somebody’)
db.commit()
1.11.4 Nesting Transactions
If you attempt to nest transactions with peewee, only the outer-most transaction will be used:
with db.transaction() as txn:
User.create(username=’charlie’)
with db.transaction() as txn2:
User.create(username=’peewee’)
# Even though the inner transaction appears to have been committed,
# in reality only the outer transaction exists. Thus, the rollback will
# affect both rows.
txn.rollback()
assert User.select().count() == 0
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Peewee supports nested transactions through the use of savepoint(). See the API documentation for details on
using savepoints.
1.12 API Reference
1.12.1 Models
class Model(**kwargs)
Models provide a 1-to-1 mapping to database tables. Subclasses of Model declare any number of Field
instances as class attributes. These fields correspond to columns on the table.
Table-level operations, such as select(), update(), insert(), and delete(), are implemented as
classmethods. Row-level operations such as save() and delete_instance() are implemented as instancemethods.
Parameters kwargs – Initialize the model, assigning the given key/values to the appropriate fields.
Example:
class User(Model):
username = CharField()
join_date = DateTimeField(default=datetime.datetime.now)
is_admin = BooleanField()
u = User(username=’charlie’, is_admin=True)
classmethod select(*selection)
Parameters selection – A list of model classes, field instances, functions or expressions. If no
argument is provided, all columns for the given model will be selected.
Return type a SelectQuery for the given Model.
Examples of selecting all columns (default):
User.select().where(User.active == True).order_by(User.username)
Example of selecting all columns on Tweet and the parent model, User. When the user foreign key is
accessed on a Tweet instance no additional query will be needed (see N+1 for more details):
(Tweet
.select(Tweet, User)
.join(User)
.order_by(Tweet.created_date.desc()))
classmethod update(**update)
Parameters update – mapping of field-name to expression
Return type an UpdateQuery for the given Model
Example showing users being marked inactive if their registration expired:
q = User.update(active=False).where(User.registration_expired == True)
q.execute() # Execute the query, updating the database.
Example showing an atomic update:
q = PageView.update(count=PageView.count + 1).where(PageView.url == url)
q.execute() # execute the query, updating the database.
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Note: When an update query is executed, the number of rows modified will be returned.
classmethod insert(**insert)
Insert a new row into the database. If any fields on the model have default values, these values will be used
if the fields are not explicitly set in the insert dictionary.
Parameters insert – mapping of field or field-name to expression.
Return type an InsertQuery for the given Model.
Example showing creation of a new user:
q = User.insert(username=’admin’, active=True, registration_expired=False)
q.execute() # perform the insert.
You can also use Field objects as the keys:
User.insert(**{User.username: ’admin’}).execute()
If you have a model with a default value on one of the fields, and that field is not specified in the insert
parameter, the default will be used:
class User(Model):
username = CharField()
active = BooleanField(default=True)
# This INSERT query will automatically specify ‘active=True‘:
User.insert(username=’charlie’)
Note: When an insert query is executed on a table with an auto-incrementing primary key, the primary
key of the new row will be returned.
insert_many(rows)
Insert multiple rows at once. The rows parameter must be an iterable that yields dictionaries. As with
insert(), fields that are not specified in the dictionary will use their default value, if one exists.
Note: Due to the nature of bulk inserts, each row must contain the same fields. The following will not
work:
Person.insert_many([
{’first_name’: ’Peewee’, ’last_name’: ’Herman’},
{’first_name’: ’Huey’}, # Missing "last_name"!
])
Parameters rows – An iterable containing dictionaries of field-name-to-value.
Return type an InsertQuery for the given Model.
Example of inserting multiple Users:
usernames = [’charlie’, ’huey’, ’peewee’, ’mickey’]
row_dicts = ({’username’: username} for username in usernames)
# Insert 4 new rows.
User.insert_many(row_dicts).execute()
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Because the rows parameter can be an arbitrary iterable, you can also use a generator:
def get_usernames():
for username in [’charlie’, ’huey’, ’peewee’]:
yield {’username’: username}
User.insert_many(get_usernames()).execute()
classmethod insert_from(fields, query)
Insert rows into the table using a query as the data source. This API should be used for INSERT
INTO...SELECT FROM queries.
Parameters
• fields – The field objects to map the selected data into.
• query – The source of the new rows.
Return type an InsertQuery for the given Model.
Example of inserting data across tables for denormalization purposes:
source = (User
.select(User.username, fn.COUNT(Tweet.id))
.join(Tweet, JOIN_LEFT_OUTER)
.group_by(User.username))
UserTweetDenorm.insert_from(
[UserTweetDenorm.username, UserTweetDenorm.num_tweets],
source).execute()
classmethod delete()
Return type a DeleteQuery for the given Model.
Example showing the deletion of all inactive users:
q = User.delete().where(User.active == False)
q.execute() # remove the rows
Warning: This method performs a delete on the entire table. To delete a single instance, see
Model.delete_instance().
classmethod raw(sql, *params)
Parameters
• sql – a string SQL expression
• params – any number of parameters to interpolate
Return type a RawQuery for the given Model
Example selecting rows from the User table:
q = User.raw(’select id, username from users’)
for user in q:
print user.id, user.username
Note: Generally the use of raw is reserved for those cases where you can significantly optimize a select
query. It is useful for select queries since it will return instances of the model.
classmethod create(**attributes)
Parameters attributes – key/value pairs of model attributes
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Return type a model instance with the provided attributes
Example showing the creation of a user (a row will be added to the database):
user = User.create(username=’admin’, password=’test’)
Note: The create() method is a shorthand for instantiate-then-save.
classmethod get(*args)
Parameters args – a list of query expressions, e.g. User.username == ’foo’
Return type Model instance or raises DoesNotExist exception
Get a single row from the database that matches
<model-class>.DoesNotExist if no rows are returned:
the
given
query.
Raises
a
user = User.get(User.username == username, User.password == password)
This method is also exposed via the SelectQuery, though it takes no parameters:
active = User.select().where(User.active == True)
try:
user = active.where(
(User.username == username) &
(User.password == password)
).get()
except User.DoesNotExist:
user = None
Note: The get() method is shorthand for selecting with a limit of 1. It has the added behavior of raising
an exception when no matching row is found. If more than one row is found, the first row returned by the
database cursor will be used.
classmethod alias()
Return type ModelAlias instance
The alias() method is used to create self-joins.
Example:
Parent = Category.alias()
sq = (Category
.select(Category, Parent)
.join(Parent, on=(Category.parent == Parent.id))
.where(Parent.name == ’parent category’))
Note: When using a ModelAlias in a join, you must explicitly specify the join condition.
classmethod create_table([fail_silently=False ])
Parameters fail_silently (bool) – If set to True, the method will check for the existence of the
table before attempting to create.
Create the table for the given model.
Example:
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database.connect()
SomeModel.create_table()
# Execute the create table query.
classmethod drop_table([fail_silently=False[, cascade=False ]])
Parameters
• fail_silently (bool) – If set to True, the query will check for the existence of the table
before attempting to remove.
• cascade (bool) – Drop table with CASCADE option.
Drop the table for the given model.
classmethod table_exists()
Return type Boolean whether the table for this model exists in the database
classmethod sqlall()
Returns A list of queries required to create the table and indexes.
save([force_insert=False[, only=None ]])
Parameters
• force_insert (bool) – Whether to force execution of an insert
• only (list) – A list of fields to persist – when supplied, only the given fields will be persisted.
Save the given instance, creating or updating depending on whether it has a primary key. If
force_insert=True an INSERT will be issued regardless of whether or not the primary key exists.
Example showing saving a model instance:
user = User()
user.username = ’some-user’ # does not touch the database
user.save() # change is persisted to the db
delete_instance([recursive=False[, delete_nullable=False ]])
Parameters
• recursive – Delete this instance and anything that depends on it, optionally updating those
that have nullable dependencies
• delete_nullable – If doing a recursive delete, delete all dependent objects regardless of
whether it could be updated to NULL
Delete the given instance. Any foreign keys set to cascade on delete will be deleted automatically. For
more programmatic control, you can call with recursive=True, which will delete any non-nullable related
models (those that are nullable will be set to NULL). If you wish to delete all dependencies regardless of
whether they are nullable, set delete_nullable=True.
example:
some_obj.delete_instance()
# it is gone forever
dependencies([search_nullable=False ])
Parameters search_nullable (bool) – Search models related via a nullable foreign key
Return type Generator expression yielding queries and foreign key fields
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Generate a list of queries of dependent models. Yields a 2-tuple containing the query and corresponding
foreign key field. Useful for searching dependencies of a model, i.e. things that would be orphaned in the
event of a delete.
dirty_fields
Return a list of fields that were manually set.
Return type list
Note:
If you just want to persist
model.save(only=model.dirty_fields).
modified
fields,
you
can
call
is_dirty()
Return whether any fields were manually set.
Return type bool
prepared()
This method provides a hook for performing model initialization after the row data has been populated.
1.12.2 Fields
Field(null=False, index=False, unique=False, verbose_name=None, help_text=None, db_column=N
The base class from which all other field types extend.
Parameters
• null (bool) – whether this column can accept None or NULL values
• index (bool) – whether to create an index for this column when creating the table
• unique (bool) – whether to create a unique index for this column when creating the table
• verbose_name (string) – specify a “verbose name” for this field, useful for metadata purposes
• help_text (string) – specify some instruction text for the usage/meaning of this field
• db_column (string) – column name to use for underlying storage, useful for compatibility
with legacy databases
• default – a value to use as an uninitialized default
• choices – an iterable of 2-tuples mapping value to display
• primary_key (bool) – whether to use this as the primary key for the table
• sequence (string) – name of sequence (if backend supports it)
• constraints (list) – a list of constraints, e.g. [Check(’price > 0’)].
• schema (string) – name of schema (if backend supports it)
• kwargs – named attributes containing values that may pertain to specific field subclasses,
such as “max_length” or “decimal_places”
db_field = ’<some field type>’
Attribute used to map this field to a column type, e.g. “string” or “datetime”
_is_bound
Boolean flag indicating if the field is attached to a model class.
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model_class
The model the field belongs to. Only applies to bound fields.
name
The name of the field. Only applies to bound fields.
db_value(value)
Parameters value – python data type to prep for storage in the database
Return type converted python datatype
python_value(value)
Parameters value – data coming from the backend storage
Return type python data type
coerce(value)
This method is a shorthand that is used, by default, by both db_value and python_value. You can
usually get away with just implementing this.
Parameters value – arbitrary data from app or backend
Return type python data type
class IntegerField
Stores: integers
db_field = ’int’
class BigIntegerField
Stores: big integers
db_field = ’bigint’
class PrimaryKeyField
Stores: auto-incrementing integer fields suitable for use as primary key.
db_field = ’primary_key’
class FloatField
Stores: floating-point numbers
db_field = ’float’
class DoubleField
Stores: double-precision floating-point numbers
db_field = ’double’
class DecimalField
Stores: decimal numbers, using python standard library Decimal objects
Additional attributes and values:
max_digits
decimal_places
auto_round
rounding
10
5
False
decimal.DefaultContext.rounding
db_field = ’decimal’
class CharField
Stores: small strings (0-255 bytes)
Additional attributes and values:
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max_length
255
db_field = ’string’
class TextField
Stores: arbitrarily large strings
db_field = ’text’
class DateTimeField
Stores: python datetime.datetime instances
Accepts a special parameter formats, which contains a list of formats the datetime can be encoded with. The
default behavior is:
’%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S.%f’ # year-month-day hour-minute-second.microsecond
’%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S’ # year-month-day hour-minute-second
’%Y-%m-%d’ # year-month-day
Note: If the incoming value does not match a format, it will be returned as-is
db_field = ’datetime’
year
An expression suitable for extracting the year, for example to retrieve all blog posts from 2013:
Blog.select().where(Blog.pub_date.year == 2013)
month
An expression suitable for extracting the month from a stored date.
day
An expression suitable for extracting the day from a stored date.
hour
An expression suitable for extracting the hour from a stored time.
minute
An expression suitable for extracting the minute from a stored time.
second
An expression suitable for extracting the second from a stored time.
class DateField
Stores: python datetime.date instances
Accepts a special parameter formats, which contains a list of formats the date can be encoded with. The
default behavior is:
’%Y-%m-%d’ # year-month-day
’%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S’ # year-month-day hour-minute-second
’%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S.%f’ # year-month-day hour-minute-second.microsecond
Note: If the incoming value does not match a format, it will be returned as-is
db_field = ’date’
year
An expression suitable for extracting the year, for example to retrieve all people born in 1980:
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Person.select().where(Person.dob.year == 1983)
month
Same as year, except extract month.
day
Same as year, except extract day.
class TimeField
Stores: python datetime.time instances
Accepts a special parameter formats, which contains a list of formats the time can be encoded with. The
default behavior is:
’%H:%M:%S.%f’ # hour:minute:second.microsecond
’%H:%M:%S’ # hour:minute:second
’%H:%M’ # hour:minute
’%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S.%f’ # year-month-day hour-minute-second.microsecond
’%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S’ # year-month-day hour-minute-second
Note: If the incoming value does not match a format, it will be returned as-is
db_field = ’time’
hour
Extract the hour from a time, for example to retreive all events occurring in the evening:
Event.select().where(Event.time.hour > 17)
minute
Same as hour, except extract minute.
second
Same as hour, except extract second..
class BooleanField
Stores: True / False
db_field = ’bool’
class BlobField
Store arbitrary binary data.
class UUIDField
Store UUID values. Currently only supported by PostgresqlDatabase.
class ForeignKeyField(rel_model[, related_name=None[,
to_field=None[, ... ]]]]])
Stores: relationship to another model
on_delete=None[,
on_update=None[,
Parameters
• rel_model – related Model class or the string ‘self’ if declaring a self-referential foreign
key
• related_name (string) – attribute to expose on related model
• on_delete (string) – on delete behavior, e.g. on_delete=’CASCADE’.
• on_update (string) – on update behavior.
• to_field – the field (or field name) on rel_model the foreign key references. Defaults to
the primary key field for rel_model.
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class User(Model):
name = CharField()
class Tweet(Model):
user = ForeignKeyField(User, related_name=’tweets’)
content = TextField()
# "user" attribute
>>> some_tweet.user
<User: charlie>
# "tweets" related name attribute
>>> for tweet in charlie.tweets:
...
print tweet.content
Some tweet
Another tweet
Yet another tweet
Note: Foreign keys do not have a particular db_field as they will take their field type depending on the type
of primary key on the model they are related to.
Note: If you manually specify a to_field, that field must be either a primary key or have a unique constraint.
class CompositeKey(*fields)
Specify a composite primary key for a model. Unlike the other fields, a composite key is defined in the model’s
Meta class after the fields have been defined. It takes as parameters the string names of the fields to use as the
primary key:
class BlogTagThrough(Model):
blog = ForeignKeyField(Blog, related_name=’tags’)
tag = ForeignKeyField(Tag, related_name=’blogs’)
class Meta:
primary_key = CompositeKey(’blog’, ’tag’)
1.12.3 Query Types
class Query
The parent class from which all other query classes are drived. While you will not deal with Query directly in
your code, it implements some methods that are common across all query types.
where(*expressions)
Parameters expressions – a list of one or more expressions
Return type a Query instance
Example selection users where the username is equal to ‘somebody’:
sq = SelectQuery(User).where(User.username == ’somebody’)
Example selecting tweets made by users who are either editors or administrators:
sq = SelectQuery(Tweet).join(User).where(
(User.is_editor == True) |
(User.is_admin == True))
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Example of deleting tweets by users who are no longer active:
dq = DeleteQuery(Tweet).where(
Tweet.user << User.select().where(User.active == False))
dq.execute() # perform the delete query
Note: where() calls are chainable. Multiple calls will be “AND”-ed together.
join(model, join_type=None, on=None)
Parameters
• model – the model to join on. there must be a ForeignKeyField between the current
query context and the model passed in.
• join_type – allows the type of JOIN used to be specified explicitly, one of JOIN_INNER,
JOIN_LEFT_OUTER, JOIN_FULL
• on – if multiple foreign keys exist between two models, this parameter is the ForeignKeyField to join on.
Return type a Query instance
Generate a JOIN clause from the current query context to the model passed in, and establishes
model as the new query context.
Example selecting tweets and joining on user in order to restrict to only those tweets made by “admin”
users:
sq = SelectQuery(Tweet).join(User).where(User.is_admin == True)
Example selecting users and joining on a particular foreign key field. See the example app for a real-life
usage:
sq = SelectQuery(User).join(Relationship, on=Relationship.to_user)
switch(model)
Parameters model – model to switch the query context to.
Return type a clone of the query with a new query context
Switches the query context to the given model. Raises an exception if the model has not been selected
or joined on previously. Useful for performing multiple joins from a single table.
The following example selects from blog and joins on both entry and user:
sq = SelectQuery(Blog).join(Entry).switch(Blog).join(User)
alias(alias=None)
Parameters alias (str) – A string to alias the result of this query
Return type a Query instance
Assign an alias to given query, which can be used as part of a subquery.
sql()
Return type a 2-tuple containing the appropriate SQL query and a tuple of parameters
execute()
Execute the given query
scalar([as_tuple=False ])
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Parameters as_tuple (bool) – return the row as a tuple or a single value
Return type the resulting row, either as a single value or tuple
Provide a way to retrieve single values from select queries, for instance when performing an aggregation.
>>> PageView.select(fn.Count(fn.Distinct(PageView.url))).scalar()
100 # <-- there are 100 distinct URLs in the pageview table
class SelectQuery(model_class, *selection)
By far the most complex of the query classes available in peewee. It supports all clauses commonly associated
with select queries.
Methods on the select query can be chained together.
SelectQuery implements an __iter__() method, allowing it to be iterated to return model instances.
Parameters
• model – a Model class to perform query on
• selection – a list of models, fields, functions or expressions
If no selection is provided, it will default to all the fields of the given model.
Example selecting some user instances from the database. Only the id and username columns are selected.
When iterated, will return instances of the User model:
sq = SelectQuery(User, User.id, User.username)
for user in sq:
print user.username
Example selecting users and additionally the number of tweets made by the user. The User instances returned
will have an additional attribute, ‘count’, that corresponds to the number of tweets made:
sq = (SelectQuery(
User, User, fn.Count(Tweet.id).alias(’count’))
.join(Tweet)
.group_by(User))
select(*selection)
Parameters selection – a list of expressions, which can be model classes or fields. if left blank,
will default to all the fields of the given model.
Return type SelectQuery
Note: Usually the selection will be specified when the instance is created. This method simply exists for
the case when you want to modify the SELECT clause independent of instantiating a query.
query = User.select()
query = query.select(User.username)
from_(*args)
Parameters args – one or more expressions, for example Model or SelectQuery instance(s). if left blank, will default to the table of the given model.
Return type SelectQuery
# rather than a join, select from both tables and join with where.
query = User.select().from_(User, Blog).where(Blog.user == User.id)
group_by(*clauses)
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Parameters clauses – a list of expressions, which can be model classes or individual field instances
Return type SelectQuery
Group by one or more columns. If a model class is provided, all the fields on that model class will be used.
Example selecting users, joining on tweets, and grouping by the user so a count of tweets can be calculated
for each user:
sq = (User
.select(User, fn.Count(Tweet.id).alias(’count’))
.join(Tweet)
.group_by(User))
having(*expressions)
Parameters expressions – a list of one or more expressions
Return type SelectQuery
Here is the above example selecting users and tweet counts, but restricting the results to those users who
have created 100 or more tweets:
sq = (User
.select(User, fn.Count(Tweet.id).alias(’count’))
.join(Tweet)
.group_by(User)
.having(fn.Count(Tweet.id) > 100))
order_by(*clauses)
Parameters clauses – a list of fields, calls to field.[asc|desc]() or one or more expressions
Return type SelectQuery
Example of ordering users by username:
User.select().order_by(User.username)
Example of selecting tweets and ordering them first by user, then newest first:
Tweet.select().join(User).order_by(
User.username, Tweet.created_date.desc())
A more complex example ordering users by the number of tweets made (greatest to least), then ordered by
username in the event of a tie:
tweet_ct = fn.Count(Tweet.id)
sq = (User
.select(User, tweet_ct.alias(’count’))
.join(Tweet)
.group_by(User)
.order_by(tweet_ct.desc(), User.username))
window(*windows)
Parameters windows (Window) – One or more Window instances.
Add one or more window definitions to this query.
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window = Window(partition_by=[fn.date_trunc(’day’, PageView.timestamp)])
query = (PageView
.select(
PageView.url,
PageView.timestamp,
fn.Count(PageView.id).over(window=window))
.window(window)
.order_by(PageView.timestamp))
limit(num)
Parameters num (int) – limit results to num rows
offset(num)
Parameters num (int) – offset results by num rows
paginate(page_num, paginate_by=20)
Parameters
• page_num – a 1-based page number to use for paginating results
• paginate_by – number of results to return per-page
Return type SelectQuery
Shorthand for applying a LIMIT and OFFSET to the query.
Page indices are 1-based, so page 1 is the first page.
User.select().order_by(User.username).paginate(3, 20)
# get users 41-60
distinct([is_distinct=True ])
Parameters is_distinct – See notes.
Return type SelectQuery
Indicates that this query should only return distinct rows. Results in a SELECT DISTINCT query.
Note: The value for is_distinct should either be a boolean, in which case the query will (or won’t)
be DISTINCT.
You can specify a list of one or more expressions to generate a DISTINCT ON query, e.g.
.distinct([Model.col1, Model.col2]).
for_update([for_update=True[, nowait=False ]])
Return type SelectQuery
Indicate that this query should lock rows for update. If nowait is True then the database will raise an
OperationalError if it cannot obtain the lock.
naive()
Return type SelectQuery
Flag this query indicating it should only attempt to reconstruct a single model instance for every row
returned by the cursor. If multiple tables were queried, the columns returned are patched directly onto the
single model instance.
Generally this method is useful for speeding up the time needed to construct model instances given a
database cursor.
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Note: this can provide a significant speed improvement when doing simple iteration over a large result
set.
iterator()
Return type iterable
By default peewee will cache rows returned by the cursor. This is to prevent things like multiple iterations,
slicing and indexing from triggering extra queries. When you are iterating over a large number of rows,
however, this cache can take up a lot of memory. Using iterator() will save memory by not storing
all the returned model instances.
# iterate over large number of rows.
for obj in Stats.select().iterator():
# do something.
pass
tuples()
Return type SelectQuery
Flag this query indicating it should simply return raw tuples from the cursor. This method is useful when
you either do not want or do not need full model instances.
dicts()
Return type SelectQuery
Flag this query indicating it should simply return dictionaries from the cursor. This method is useful when
you either do not want or do not need full model instances.
aggregate_rows()
Return type SelectQuery
This method provides one way to avoid the N+1 query problem.
Consider a webpage where you wish to display a list of users and all of their associated tweets. You could
approach this problem by listing the users, then for each user executing a separate query to retrieve their
tweets. This is the N+1 behavior, because the number of queries varies depending on the number of users.
Conventional wisdom is that it is preferable to execute fewer queries. Peewee provides several ways to
avoid this problem.
You can use the prefetch() helper, which uses IN clauses to retrieve the tweets for the listed users.
Another method is to select both the user and the tweet data in a single query, then de-dupe the users,
aggregating the tweets in the process.
The raw column data might appear like this:
# user.id,
[1,
[1,
[2,
[3,
[3,
[3,
user.username,
’charlie’,
’charlie’,
’no-tweets’,
’huey’,
’huey’,
’huey’,
tweet.id,
1,
2,
NULL,
3,
4,
5,
tweet.user_id,
1,
1,
NULL,
3,
3,
3,
tweet.message
’hello’],
’goodbye’],
NULL],
’meow’],
’purr’],
’hiss’],
We can infer from the JOIN clause that the user data will be duplicated, and therefore by de-duping the
users, we can collect their tweets in one go and iterate over the users and tweets transparently.
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query = (User
.select(User, Tweet)
.join(Tweet, JOIN_LEFT_OUTER)
.order_by(User.username, Tweet.id)
.aggregate_rows()) # .aggregate_rows() tells peewee to de-dupe the rows.
for user in query:
print user.username
for tweet in user.tweets:
print ’ ’, tweet.message
# Producing the following output:
charlie
hello
goodbye
huey
meow
purr
hiss
no-tweets
Warning: Be sure that you specify an ORDER BY clause that ensures duplicated data will appear in
consecutive rows.
Note: You can specify arbitrarily complex joins, though for more complex queries it may be more efficient
to use prefetch(). In short, try both and see what works best for your data-set.
Note: For more information, see the Avoiding N+1 queries document.
annotate(related_model, aggregation=None)
Parameters
• related_model – related Model on which to perform aggregation, must be linked by
ForeignKeyField.
• aggregation
–
the
type
of
aggregation
fn.Count(Tweet.id).alias(’count’)
to
use,
e.g.
Return type SelectQuery
Annotate a query with an aggregation performed on a related model, for example, “get a list of users with
the number of tweets for each”:
>>> User.select().annotate(Tweet)
If aggregation is None, it will default to fn.Count(related_model.id).alias(’count’)
but can be anything:
>>> user_latest = User.select().annotate(Tweet, fn.Max(Tweet.created_date).alias(’latest’))
Note: If the ForeignKeyField is nullable, then a LEFT OUTER join may need to be used:
User.select().join(Tweet, JOIN_LEFT_OUTER).annotate(Tweet)
aggregate(aggregation)
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Parameters aggregation – a function specifying what aggregation to perform, for example
fn.Max(Tweet.created_date).
Method to look at an aggregate of rows using a given function and return a scalar value, such as the count
of all rows or the average value of a particular column.
count([clear_limit=False ])
Parameters clear_limit (bool) – Remove any limit or offset clauses from the query before
counting.
Return type an integer representing the number of rows in the current query
Note:
If the query has a GROUP BY, DISTINCT, LIMIT, or OFFSET clause, then the
wrapped_count() method will be used instead.
>>> sq = SelectQuery(Tweet)
>>> sq.count()
45 # number of tweets
>>> deleted_tweets = sq.where(Tweet.status == DELETED)
>>> deleted_tweets.count()
3 # number of tweets that are marked as deleted
wrapped_count([clear_limit=True ])
Parameters clear_limit (bool) – Remove any limit or offset clauses from the query before
counting.
Return type an integer representing the number of rows in the current query
Wrap the count query in a subquery. Additional overhead but will give correct counts when performing
DISTINCT queries or those with GROUP BY clauses.
Note: count() will automatically default to wrapped_count() in the event the query is distinct or
has a grouping.
exists()
Return type boolean whether the current query will return any rows. uses an optimized lookup,
so use this rather than get().
sq = User.select().where(User.active == True)
if sq.where(User.username == username, User.password == password).exists():
authenticated = True
get()
Return type Model instance or raises DoesNotExist exception
Get a single row from the database that matches
<model-class>.DoesNotExist if no rows are returned:
the
given
query.
Raises
a
active = User.select().where(User.active == True)
try:
user = active.where(User.username == username).get()
except User.DoesNotExist:
user = None
This method is also exposed via the Model api, in which case it accepts arguments that are translated to
the where clause:
user = User.get(User.active == True, User.username == username)
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first()
Return type Model instance or None if no results
Fetch the first row from a query. The result will be cached in case the entire query result-set should be
iterated later.
execute()
Return type QueryResultWrapper
Executes the query and returns a QueryResultWrapper for iterating over the result set. The results
are managed internally by the query and whenever a clause is added that would possibly alter the result
set, the query is marked for re-execution.
__iter__()
Executes the query and returns populated model instances:
for user in User.select().where(User.active == True):
print user.username
__getitem__(value)
Parameters value – Either an index or a slice object.
Return the model instance(s) at the requested indices. To get the first model, for instance:
query = User.select().order_by(User.username)
first_user = query[0]
first_five = query[:5]
__or__(rhs)
Parameters rhs – Either a SelectQuery or a CompoundSelect
Return type CompoundSelect
Create a UNION query with the right-hand object. The result will contain all values from both the left and
right queries.
customers = Customer.select(Customer.city).where(Customer.state == ’KS’)
stores = Store.select(Store.city).where(Store.state == ’KS’)
# Get all cities in kansas where we have either a customer or a store.
all_cities = (customers | stores).order_by(SQL(’city’))
__and__(rhs)
Parameters rhs – Either a SelectQuery or a CompoundSelect
Return type CompoundSelect
Create an INTERSECT query. The result will contain values that are in both the left and right queries.
customers = Customer.select(Customer.city).where(Customer.state == ’KS’)
stores = Store.select(Store.city).where(Store.state == ’KS’)
# Get all cities in kanasas where we have both customers and stores.
cities = (customers & stores).order_by(SQL(’city’))
__sub__(rhs)
Parameters rhs – Either a SelectQuery or a CompoundSelect
Return type CompoundSelect
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Create an EXCEPT query. The result will contain values that are in the left-hand query but not in the
right-hand query.
customers = Customer.select(Customer.city).where(Customer.state == ’KS’)
stores = Store.select(Store.city).where(Store.state == ’KS’)
# Get all cities in kanasas where we have customers but no stores.
cities = (customers - stores).order_by(SQL(’city’))
__xor__(rhs)
Parameters rhs – Either a SelectQuery or a CompoundSelect
Return type CompoundSelect
Create an symmetric difference query. The result will contain values that are in either the left-hand query
or the right-hand query, but not both.
customers = Customer.select(Customer.city).where(Customer.state == ’KS’)
stores = Store.select(Store.city).where(Store.state == ’KS’)
# Get all cities in kanasas where we have either customers with no
# store, or a store with no customers.
cities = (customers ^ stores).order_by(SQL(’city’))
class UpdateQuery(model_class, **kwargs)
Parameters
• model – Model class on which to perform update
• kwargs – mapping of field/value pairs containing columns and values to update
Example in which users are marked inactive if their registration expired:
uq = UpdateQuery(User, active=False).where(User.registration_expired == True)
uq.execute() # Perform the actual update
Example of an atomic update:
atomic_update = UpdateQuery(PageCount, count = PageCount.count + 1).where(
PageCount.url == url)
atomic_update.execute() # will perform the actual update
execute()
Return type Number of rows updated
Performs the query
class InsertQuery(model_class[, field_dict=None[, rows=None[, fields=None[, query=None ]]]])
Creates an InsertQuery instance for the given model.
Parameters
• field_dict (dict) – A mapping of either field or field-name to value.
• rows (iterable) – An iterable of dictionaries containing a mapping of field or field-name to
value.
• fields (list) – A list of field objects to insert data into (only used in combination with the
query parameter).
• query – A SelectQuery to use as the source of data.
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Basic example:
>>> fields = {’username’: ’admin’, ’password’: ’test’, ’active’: True}
>>> iq = InsertQuery(User, fields)
>>> iq.execute() # insert new row and return primary key
2L
Example inserting multiple rows:
users = [
{’username’: ’charlie’, ’active’: True},
{’username’: ’peewee’, ’active’: False},
{’username’: ’huey’, ’active’: True}]
iq = InsertQuery(User, rows=users)
iq.execute()
Example inserting using a query as the data source:
query = (User
.select(User.username, fn.COUNT(Tweet.id))
.join(Tweet, JOIN_LEFT_OUTER)
.group_by(User.username))
iq = InsertQuery(
UserTweetDenorm,
fields=[UserTweetDenorm.username, UserTweetDenorm.num_tweets],
query=query)
iq.execute()
execute()
Return type primary key of the new row
Performs the query
upsert([upsert=True ])
Perform an INSERT OR REPLACE query. Currently only Sqlite supports this method.
class DeleteQuery(model_class)
Creates a DELETE query for the given model.
Note: DeleteQuery will not traverse foreign keys or ensure that constraints are obeyed, so use it with care.
Example deleting users whose account is inactive:
dq = DeleteQuery(User).where(User.active == False)
execute()
Return type Number of rows deleted
Performs the query
class RawQuery(model_class, sql, *params)
Allows execution of an arbitrary query and returns instances of the model via a QueryResultsWrapper.
Note: Generally you will only need this for executing highly optimized SELECT queries.
Warning: If you are executing a parameterized query, you must use the correct interpolation string for your
database. SQLite uses ’?’ and most others use ’%s’.
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Example selecting users with a given username:
>>> rq = RawQuery(User, ’SELECT * FROM users WHERE username = ?’, ’admin’)
>>> for obj in rq.execute():
...
print obj
<User: admin>
tuples()
Return type RawQuery
Flag this query indicating it should simply return raw tuples from the cursor. This method is useful when
you either do not want or do not need full model instances.
dicts()
Return type RawQuery
Flag this query indicating it should simply return raw dicts from the cursor. This method is useful when
you either do not want or do not need full model instances.
execute()
Return type a QueryResultWrapper for iterating over the result set. The results are instances of the given model.
Performs the query
class CompoundSelect(model_class, lhs, operator, rhs)
Compound select query.
Parameters
• model_class – The type of model to return, by default the model class of the lhs query.
• lhs – Left-hand query, either a SelectQuery or a CompoundQuery.
• operator – A Node instance used to join the two queries, for example SQL(’UNION’).
• rhs – Right query, either a SelectQuery or a CompoundQuery.
prefetch(sq, *subqueries)
Parameters
• sq – SelectQuery instance
• subqueries – one or more SelectQuery instances to prefetch for sq. You can also pass
models, but they will be converted into SelectQueries.
Return type SelectQuery with related instances pre-populated
Pre-fetch the appropriate instances from the subqueries and apply them to their corresponding parent row in the
outer query. This function will eagerly load the related instances specified in the subqueries. This is a technique
used to save doing O(n) queries for n rows, and rather is O(k) queries for k subqueries.
For example, consider you have a list of users and want to display all their tweets:
# let’s impost some small restrictions on our queries
users = User.select().where(User.active == True)
tweets = Tweet.select().where(Tweet.published == True)
# this will perform 2 queries
users_pf = prefetch(users, tweets)
# now we can:
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for user in users_pf:
print user.username
for tweet in user.tweets_prefetch:
print ’- ’, tweet.content
You can prefetch an arbitrary number of items. For instance, suppose we have a photo site, User -> Photo ->
(Comments, Tags). That is, users can post photos, and these photos can have tags and comments on them. If we
wanted to fetch a list of users, all their photos, and all the comments and tags on the photos:
users = User.select()
published_photos = Photo.select().where(Photo.published == True)
published_comments = Comment.select().where(
(Comment.is_spam == False) &
(Comment.num_flags < 3))
# note that we are just passing the Tag model -- it will be converted
# to a query automatically
users_pf = prefetch(users, published_photos, published_comments, Tag)
# now we can iterate users, photos, and comments/tags
for user in users_pf:
for photo in user.photo_set_prefetch:
for comment in photo.comment_set_prefetch:
# ...
for tag in photo.tag_set_prefetch:
# ...
Note: Subqueries must be related by foreign key and can be arbitrarily deep
Note: For more information, see the Avoiding N+1 queries document.
Warning: prefetch() can use up lots of RAM when the result set is large, and will not warn you if
you are doing something dangerous, so it is up to you to know when to use it. Additionally, because of the
semantics of subquerying, there may be some cases when prefetch does not act as you expect (for instnace,
when applying a LIMIT to subqueries, but there may be others) – please report anything you think is a bug
to github.
1.12.4 Database and its subclasses
class Database(database[, threadlocals=True[, autocommit=True[, fields=None[, ops=None[, autorollback=False[, **connect_kwargs ]]]]]])
Parameters
• database – the name of the database (or filename if using sqlite)
• threadlocals (bool) – whether to store connections in a threadlocal
• autocommit (bool) – automatically commit every query executed by calling execute()
• fields (dict) – a mapping of db_field to database column type, e.g. ‘string’ => ‘varchar’
• ops (dict) – a mapping of operations understood by the querycompiler to expressions
• autorollback (bool) – automatically rollback when an exception occurs while executing a
query.
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• connect_kwargs – any arbitrary parameters to pass to the database driver when connecting
Note: if your database name is not known when the class is declared, you can pass None in as the database
name which will mark the database as “deferred” and any attempt to connect while in this state will raise an
exception. To initialize your database, call the Database.init() method with the database name
A high-level api for working with the supported database engines. Database provides a wrapper around some
of the functions performed by the Adapter, in addition providing support for:
•execution of SQL queries
•creating and dropping tables and indexes
commit_select = False
Whether to issue a commit after executing a select query. With some engines can prevent implicit transactions from piling up.
compiler_class = QueryCompiler
A class suitable for compiling queries
field_overrides = {}
A mapping of field types to database column types, e.g. {’primary_key’:
’SERIAL’}
foreign_keys = True
Whether the given backend enforces foreign key constraints.
for_update = False
Whether the given backend supports selecting rows for update
interpolation = ’?’
The string used by the driver to interpolate query parameters
op_overrides = {}
A mapping of operation codes to string operations, e.g. {OP_LIKE: ’LIKE BINARY’}
quote_char = ’"’
The string used by the driver to quote names
reserved_tables = []
Table names that are reserved by the backend – if encountered in the application a warning will be issued.
sequences = False
Whether the given backend supports sequences
subquery_delete_same_table = True
Whether the given backend supports deleting rows using a subquery that selects from the same table
init(database[, **connect_kwargs ])
If the database was instantiated with database=None, the database is said to be in a ‘deferred’ state
(see notes) – if this is the case, you can initialize it at any time by calling the init method.
Parameters
• database – the name of the database (or filename if using sqlite)
• connect_kwargs – any arbitrary parameters to pass to the database driver when connecting
connect()
Establishes a connection to the database
Note: If you initialized with threadlocals=True, then this will store the connection inside a threadlocal, ensuring that connections are not shared across threads.
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close()
Closes the connection to the database (if one is open)
Note: If you initialized with threadlocals=True, only a connection local to the calling thread will
be closed.
get_conn()
Return type a connection to the database, creates one if does not exist
get_cursor()
Return type a cursor for executing queries
last_insert_id(cursor, model)
Parameters
• cursor – the database cursor used to perform the insert query
• model – the model class that was just created
Return type the primary key of the most recently inserted instance
rows_affected(cursor)
Return type number of rows affected by the last query
compiler()
Return type an instance of QueryCompiler using the field and op overrides specified.
execute_sql(sql[, params=None[, require_commit=True ]])
Parameters
• sql – a string sql query
• params – a list or tuple of parameters to interpolate
Note: You can configure whether queries will automatically commit by using the set_autocommit()
and Database.get_autocommit() methods.
begin()
Initiate a new transaction. By default not implemented as this is not part of the DB-API 2.0, but provided
for API compatibility.
commit()
Call commit() on the active connection, committing the current transaction
rollback()
Call rollback() on the active connection, rolling back the current transaction
set_autocommit(autocommit)
Parameters autocommit – a boolean value indicating whether to turn on/off autocommit for
the current connection
get_autocommit()
Return type a boolean value indicating whether autocommit is on for the current connection
get_tables()
Return type a list of table names in the database
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Warning: Not implemented – implementations exist in subclasses
get_indexes_for_table(table)
Parameters table – the name of table to introspect
Return type a list of (index_name, is_unique) tuples
Warning: Not implemented – implementations exist in subclasses
sequence_exists(sequence_name)
Rtype boolean
Warning: Not implemented – implementations exist in subclasses
create_table(model_class)
Parameters model_class – Model class to create table for
create_index(model_class, fields[, unique=False ])
Parameters
• model_class – Model table on which to create index
• fields – field(s) to create index on (either field instances or field names)
• unique – whether the index should enforce uniqueness
create_foreign_key(model_class, field[, constraint=None ])
Parameters
• model_class – Model table on which to create foreign key constraint
• field – Field object
• constraint (str) – Name to give foreign key constraint.
Manually create a foreign key constraint using an ALTER TABLE query. This is primarily used when
creating a circular foreign key dependency, for example:
PostProxy = Proxy()
class User(Model):
username = CharField()
favorite_post = ForeignKeyField(PostProxy, null=True)
class Post(Model):
title = CharField()
author = ForeignKeyField(User, related_name=’posts’)
PostProxy.initialize(Post)
# Create tables. The foreign key from Post -> User will be created
# automatically, but the foreign key from User -> Post must be added
# manually.
User.create_table()
Post.create_table()
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# Manually add the foreign key constraint on ‘User‘, since we could
# not add it until we had created the ‘Post‘ table.
db.create_foreign_key(User, User.favorite_post)
create_sequence(sequence_name)
Parameters sequence_name – name of sequence to create
Note: only works with database engines that support sequences
drop_table(model_class[, fail_silently=False[, cascade=False ]])
Parameters
• model_class – Model table to drop
• fail_silently (bool) – if True, query will add a IF EXISTS clause
• cascade (bool) – drop table with CASCADE option.
drop_sequence(sequence_name)
Parameters sequence_name – name of sequence to drop
Note: only works with database engines that support sequences
create_tables(models[, safe=False ])
Parameters
• models (list) – A list of models.
• safe (bool) – Check first whether the table exists before attempting to create it.
This method should be used for creating tables as it will resolve the model dependency graph and ensure
the tables are created in the correct order.
Usage:
db.create_tables([User, Tweet, Something], safe=True)
drop_tables(models[, safe=False[, cascade=False ]])
Parameters
• models (list) – A list of models.
• safe (bool) – Check the table exists before attempting to drop it.
• cascade (bool) – drop table with CASCADE option.
This method should be used for dropping tables, as it will resolve the model dependency graph and ensure
the tables are dropped in the correct order.
Usage:
db.drop_tables([User, Tweet, Something], safe=True)
transaction()
Return a context manager that executes statements in a transaction. If an error is raised inside the context
manager, the transaction will be rolled back, otherwise statements are committed when exiting.
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# delete a blog instance and all its associated entries, but
# do so within a transaction
with database.transaction():
blog.delete_instance(recursive=True)
commit_on_success(func)
Decorator that wraps the given function in a single transaction, which, upon success will be committed. If
an error is raised inside the function, the transaction will be rolled back and the error will be re-raised.
Nested functions can be wrapped with commit_on_success - the database will keep a stack and only
commit when it reaches the end of the outermost function.
Parameters func – function to decorate
@database.commit_on_success
def transfer_money(from_acct, to_acct, amt):
from_acct.charge(amt)
to_acct.pay(amt)
return amt
savepoint([sid=None ])
Return a context manager that executes statements in a savepoint. If an error is raised inside the context
manager, the savepoint will be rolled back, otherwise statements are committed when exiting.
Savepoints can be thought of as nested transactions.
Parameters sid (str) – A string identifier for the savepoint.
classmethod register_fields(fields)
Register a mapping of field overrides for the database class. Used to register custom fields or override the
defaults.
Parameters fields (dict) – A mapping of db_field to column type
classmethod register_ops(ops)
Register a mapping of operations understood by the QueryCompiler to their SQL equivalent, e.g.
{OP_EQ: ’=’}. Used to extend the types of field comparisons.
Parameters fields (dict) – A mapping of db_field to column type
extract_date(date_part, date_field)
Return an expression suitable for extracting a date part from a date field. For instance, extract the year
from a DateTimeField.
Parameters
• date_part (str) – The date part attribute to retrieve. Valid options are: “year”, “month”,
“day”, “hour”, “minute” and “second”.
• date_field (Field) – field instance storing a datetime, date or time.
Return type an expression object.
sql_error_handler(exception, sql, params, require_commit)
This hook is called when an error is raised executing a query, allowing your application to inject custom
error handling behavior. The default implementation simply reraises the exception.
class SqliteDatabaseCustom(SqliteDatabase):
def sql_error_handler(self, exception, sql, params, require_commit):
# Perform some custom behavior, for example close the
# connection to the database.
self.close()
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# Re-raise the exception.
raise exception
class SqliteDatabase(Database)
Database subclass that works with the “sqlite3” driver. In addition to the default database parameters,
SqliteDatabase also accepts a journal_mode parameter which will configure the journaling mode.
To use write-ahead log and connection-per-thread:
db = SqliteDatabase(’my_app.db’, threadlocals=True, journal_mode=’WAL’)
class MySQLDatabase(Database)
Database subclass that works with either “MySQLdb” or “pymysql”.
class PostgresqlDatabase(Database)
Database subclass that works with the “psycopg2” driver
1.12.5 Misc
class fn
A helper class that will convert arbitrary function calls to SQL function calls.
To express functions in peewee, use the fn object. The way it works is anything to the right of the “dot”
operator will be treated as a function. You can pass that function arbitrary parameters which can be other valid
expressions.
For example:
Peewee expression
fn.Count(Tweet.id).alias(’count’)
fn.Lower(fn.Substr(User.username, 1,
1))
fn.Rand().alias(’random’)
fn.Stddev(Employee.salary).alias(’sdv’)
Equivalent SQL
Count(t1."id") AS count
Lower(Substr(t1."username", 1,
1))
Rand() AS random
Stddev(t1."salary") AS sdv
over([partition_by=None[, order_by=None[, window=None ]]])
Basic support for SQL window functions.
Parameters
• partition_by (list) – List of Node instances to partition by.
• order_by (list) – List of Node instances to use for ordering.
• window (Window) – A Window instance to use for this aggregate.
Examples:
# Get the list of employees and the average salary for their dept.
query = (Employee
.select(
Employee.name,
Employee.department,
Employee.salary,
fn.Avg(Employee.salary).over(
partition_by=[Employee.department]))
.order_by(Employee.name))
# Rank employees by salary.
query = (Employee
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.select(
Employee.name,
Employee.salary,
fn.rank().over(
order_by=[Employee.salary])))
# Get a list of page-views, along with avg pageviews for that day.
query = (PageView
.select(
PageView.url,
PageView.timestamp,
fn.Count(PageView.id).over(
partition_by=[fn.date_trunc(
’day’, PageView.timestamp)]))
.order_by(PageView.timestamp))
# Same as above but using a window class.
window = Window(partition_by=[fn.date_trunc(’day’, PageView.timestamp)])
query = (PageView
.select(
PageView.url,
PageView.timestamp,
fn.Count(PageView.id).over(window=window))
.window(window) # Need to include our Window here.
.order_by(PageView.timestamp))
class SQL(sql, *params)
Add fragments of SQL to a peewee query. For example you might want to reference an aliased name.
Parameters
• sql (str) – Arbitrary SQL string.
• params – Arbitrary query parameters.
# Retrieve user table and "annotate" it with a count of tweets for each
# user.
query = (User
.select(User, fn.Count(Tweet.id).alias(’ct’))
.join(Tweet, JOIN_LEFT_OUTER)
.group_by(User))
# Sort the users by number of tweets.
query = query.order_by(SQL(’ct DESC’))
class Window([partition_by=None[, order_by=None ]])
Create a WINDOW definition.
Parameters
• partition_by (list) – List of Node instances to partition by.
• order_by (list) – List of Node instances to use for ordering.
Examples:
# Get the list of employees and the average salary for their dept.
window = Window(partition_by=[Employee.department]).alias(’dept_w’)
query = (Employee
.select(
Employee.name,
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Employee.department,
Employee.salary,
fn.Avg(Employee.salary).over(window))
.window(window)
.order_by(Employee.name))
class Proxy
Proxy class useful for situations when you wish to defer the initialization of an object. For instance, you want
to define your models but you do not know what database engine you will be using until runtime.
Example:
database_proxy = Proxy()
# Create a proxy for our db.
class BaseModel(Model):
class Meta:
database = database_proxy
# Use proxy for our DB.
class User(BaseModel):
username = CharField()
# Based on configuration, use a different database.
if app.config[’DEBUG’]:
database = SqliteDatabase(’local.db’)
elif app.config[’TESTING’]:
database = SqliteDatabase(’:memory:’)
else:
database = PostgresqlDatabase(’mega_production_db’)
# Configure our proxy to use the db we specified in config.
database_proxy.initialize(database)
initialize(obj)
Parameters obj – The object to proxy to.
Once initialized, the attributes and methods on obj can be accessed directly via the Proxy instance.
class Node
The Node class is the parent class for all composable parts of a query, and forms the basis of peewee’s expression
API. The following classes extend Node:
•SelectQuery, UpdateQuery, InsertQuery, DeleteQuery, and RawQuery.
•Field
•Func (and fn())
•SQL
•Expression
•Param
•Window
•Clause
•Entity
•Check
Overridden operators:
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•Bitwise and- and or- (& and |): combine multiple nodes using the given conjunction.
•+, -, *, / and ^ (add, subtract, multiply, divide and exclusive-or).
•==, !=, <, <=, >, >=: create a binary expression using the given comparator.
•<<: create an IN expression.
•>>: create an IS expression.
•% and **: LIKE and ILIKE.
contains(rhs)
Create a binary expression using case-insensitive string search.
startswith(rhs)
Create a binary expression using case-insensitive prefix search.
endswith(rhs)
Create a binary expression using case-insensitive suffix search.
between(low, high)
Create an expression that will match values between low and high.
regexp(expression)
Match based on regular expression.
concat(rhs)
Concatenate the current node with the provided rhs.
__invert__()
Negate the node. This translates roughly into NOT (<node>).
alias([name=None ])
Apply an alias to the given node. This translates into <node> AS <name>.
asc()
Apply ascending ordering to the given node. This translates into <node> ASC.
desc()
Apply descending ordering to the given node. This translates into <node> DESC.
1.13 Playhouse, a collection of addons
Peewee comes with numerous extras which I didn’t really feel like including in the main source module, but which
might be interesting to implementers or fun to mess around with.
The playhouse includes modules for different database drivers or database specific functionality:
• apsw, an advanced sqlite driver
• Postgresql Extensions
• Sqlite Extensions
• BerkeleyDB backend
• Sqlcipher backend
Modules which expose higher-level python constructs:
• Django Integration
• Generic foreign keys
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• Key/Value Store
• Shortcuts
• Signal support
As well as tools for working with databases:
• pwiz, a model generator
• Schema Migrations
• Database URL
• CSV Utils
• Read Slaves
• Connection pool
• Test Utils
• pskel
1.13.1 apsw, an advanced sqlite driver
The apsw_ext module contains a database class suitable for use with the apsw sqlite driver.
APSW Project page: https://code.google.com/p/apsw/
APSW is a really neat library that provides a thin wrapper on top of SQLite’s C interface, making it possible to use all
of SQLite’s advanced features.
Here are just a few reasons to use APSW, taken from the documentation:
• APSW gives all functionality of SQLite, including virtual tables, virtual file system, blob i/o, backups and file
control.
• Connections can be shared across threads without any additional locking.
• Transactions are managed explicitly by your code.
• APSW can handle nested transactions.
• Unicode is handled correctly.
• APSW is faster.
For more information on the differences between apsw and pysqlite, check the apsw docs.
How to use the APSWDatabase
from apsw_ext import *
db = APSWDatabase(’:memory:’)
class BaseModel(Model):
class Meta:
database = db
class SomeModel(BaseModel):
col1 = CharField()
col2 = DateTimeField()
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apsw_ext API notes
class APSWDatabase(database, **connect_kwargs)
Parameters
• database (string) – filename of sqlite database
• connect_kwargs – keyword arguments passed to apsw when opening a connection
transaction([lock_type=’deferred’ ])
Functions just like the Database.transaction() context manager, but accepts an additional parameter specifying the type of lock to use.
Parameters lock_type (string) – type of lock to use when opening a new transaction
register_module(mod_name, mod_inst)
Provides a way of globally registering a module. For more information, see the documentation on virtual
tables.
Parameters
• mod_name (string) – name to use for module
• mod_inst (object) – an object implementing the Virtual Table interface
unregister_module(mod_name)
Unregister a module.
Parameters mod_name (string) – name to use for module
Note: Be sure to use the Field subclasses defined in the apsw_ext module, as they will properly handle adapting
the data types for storage.
1.13.2 Postgresql Extensions
The postgresql extensions module provides a number of “postgres-only” functions, currently:
• hstore support
• json support
• server-side cursors
• full-text search
• ArrayField field type, for storing arrays.
• HStoreField field type, for storing key/value pairs.
• JSONField field type, for storing JSON data.
• TSVectorField field type, for storing full-text search data.
• DateTimeTZ field type, a timezone-aware datetime field.
In the future I would like to add support for more of postgresql’s features. If there is a particular feature you would
like to see added, please open a Github issue.
Warning:
In order to start using the features described below, you will need to use the extension
PostgresqlExtDatabase class instead of PostgresqlDatabase.
The code below will assume you are using the following database and base model:
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from playhouse.postgres_ext import *
ext_db = PostgresqlExtDatabase(’peewee_test’, user=’postgres’)
class BaseExtModel(Model):
class Meta:
database = ext_db
hstore support
Postgresql hstore is an embedded key/value store. With hstore, you can store arbitrary key/value pairs in your database
alongside structured relational data.
Currently the postgres_ext module supports the following operations:
• Store and retrieve arbitrary dictionaries
• Filter by key(s) or partial dictionary
• Update/add one or more keys to an existing dictionary
• Delete one or more keys from an existing dictionary
• Select keys, values, or zip keys and values
• Retrieve a slice of keys/values
• Test for the existence of a key
• Test that a key has a non-NULL value
Using hstore
To start with, you will need to import the custom database class and the hstore functions from
playhouse.postgres_ext (see above code snippet). Then, it is as simple as adding a HStoreField to your
model:
class House(BaseExtModel):
address = CharField()
features = HStoreField()
You can now store arbitrary key/value pairs on House instances:
>>> h = House.create(address=’123 Main St’, features={’garage’: ’2 cars’, ’bath’: ’2 bath’})
>>> h_from_db = House.get(House.id == h.id)
>>> h_from_db.features
{’bath’: ’2 bath’, ’garage’: ’2 cars’}
You can filter by keys or partial dictionary:
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>>
f = House.features
House.select().where(f.contains(’garage’)) # <-- all houses w/garage key
House.select().where(f.contains([’garage’, ’bath’])) # <-- all houses w/garage & bath
House.select().where(f.contains({’garage’: ’2 cars’})) # <-- houses w/2-car garage
Suppose you want to do an atomic update to the house:
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>>> f = House.features
>>> new_features = House.features.update({’bath’: ’2.5 bath’, ’sqft’: ’1100’})
>>> query = House.update(features=new_features)
>>> query.where(House.id == h.id).execute()
1
>>> h = House.get(House.id == h.id)
>>> h.features
{’bath’: ’2.5 bath’, ’garage’: ’2 cars’, ’sqft’: ’1100’}
Or, alternatively an atomic delete:
>>> query = House.update(features=f.delete(’bath’))
>>> query.where(House.id == h.id).execute()
1
>>> h = House.get(House.id == h.id)
>>> h.features
{’garage’: ’2 cars’, ’sqft’: ’1100’}
Multiple keys can be deleted at the same time:
>>> query = House.update(features=f.delete(’garage’, ’sqft’))
You can select just keys, just values, or zip the two:
>>> f = House.features
>>> for h in House.select(House.address, f.keys().alias(’keys’)):
...
print h.address, h.keys
123 Main St [u’bath’, u’garage’]
>>> for h in House.select(House.address, f.values().alias(’vals’)):
...
print h.address, h.vals
123 Main St [u’2 bath’, u’2 cars’]
>>> for h in House.select(House.address, f.items().alias(’mtx’)):
...
print h.address, h.mtx
123 Main St [[u’bath’, u’2 bath’], [u’garage’, u’2 cars’]]
You can retrieve a slice of data, for example, all the garage data:
>>> f = House.features
>>> for h in House.select(House.address, f.slice(’garage’).alias(’garage_data’)):
...
print h.address, h.garage_data
123 Main St {’garage’: ’2 cars’}
You can check for the existence of a key and filter rows accordingly:
>>> for h in House.select(House.address, f.exists(’garage’).alias(’has_garage’)):
...
print h.address, h.has_garage
123 Main St True
>>> for h in House.select().where(f.exists(’garage’)):
...
print h.address, h.features[’garage’] # <-- just houses w/garage data
123 Main St 2 cars
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JSON Support
peewee has basic support for Postgres’ native JSON data type, in the form of JSONField.
Warning: Postgres supports a JSON data type natively as of 9.2 (full support in 9.3). In order to use this
functionality you must be using the correct version of Postgres with psycopg2 version 2.5 or greater.
Note: You must be sure your database is an instance of PostgresqlExtDatabase in order to use the JSONField.
Here is an example of how you might declare a model with a JSON field:
import json
import urllib2
from playhouse.postgres_ext import *
db = PostgresqlExtDatabase(’my_database’)
# note
class APIResponse(Model):
url = CharField()
response = JSONField()
class Meta:
database = db
@classmethod
def request(cls, url):
fh = urllib2.urlopen(url)
return cls.create(url=url, response=json.loads(fh.read()))
APIResponse.create_table()
# Store a JSON response.
offense = APIResponse.request(’http://wtf.charlesleifer.com/api/offense/’)
booking = APIResponse.request(’http://wtf.charlesleifer.com/api/booking/’)
# Query a JSON data structure using a nested key lookup:
offense_responses = APIResponse.select().where(
APIResponse.response[’meta’][’model’] == ’offense’)
#
#
#
q
Retrieve a sub-key for each APIResponse. By calling .as_json(), the
data at the sub-key will be returned as Python objects (dicts, lists,
etc) instead of serialized JSON.
= (APIResponse
.select(
APIResponse.data[’booking’][’person’].as_json().alias(’person’))
.where(
APIResponse.data[’meta’][’model’] == ’booking’))
for result in q:
print result.person[’name’], result.person[’dob’]
For more examples, see the JSONField API documentation below.
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Server-side cursors
When psycopg2 executes a query, normally all results are fetched and returned to the client by the backend. This can
cause your application to use a lot of memory when making large queries. Using server-side cursors, results are returned a little at a time (by default 2000 records). For the definitive reference, please see the psycopg2 documentation.
Note: To use server-side (or named) cursors, you must be using PostgresqlExtDatabase.
To execute a query using a server-side cursor, simply wrap your select query using the ServerSide() helper:
large_query = PageView.select()
# Build query normally.
# Iterate over large query inside a transaction.
for page_view in ServerSide(large_query):
# do some interesting analysis here.
pass
# Server-side resources are released.
If you would like all SELECT queries to automatically use a server-side cursor, you can specify this when creating
your PostgresqlExtDatabase:
from postgres_ext import PostgresqlExtDatabase
ss_db = PostgresqlExtDatabase(’my_db’, server_side_cursors=True)
Note: Server-side cursors live only as long as the transaction, so for this reason peewee will not automatically call
commit() after executing a SELECT query. If you do not commit after you are done iterating, you will not release
the server-side resources until the connection is closed (or the transaction is committed later). Furthermore, since
peewee will by default cache rows returned by the cursor, you should always call .iterator() when iterating over
a large query.
If you are using the ServerSide() helper, the transaction and call to iterator() will be handled transparently.
Full-text search
Postgresql provides sophisticated full-text search using special data-types (tsvector and tsquery). Documents
should be stored or converted to the tsvector type, and search queries should be converted to tsquery.
For simple cases, you can simply use the Match() function, which will automatically perform the appropriate conversions, and requires no schema changes:
def blog_search(query):
return Blog.select().where(
(Blog.status == Blog.STATUS_PUBLISHED) &
Match(Blog.content, query))
The Match() function will automatically convert the left-hand operand to a tsvector, and the right-hand operand
to a tsquery. For better performance, it is recommended you create a GIN index on the column you plan to search:
CREATE INDEX blog_full_text_search ON blog USING gin(to_tsvector(content));
Alternatively, you can use the TSVectorField to maintain a dedicated column for storing tsvector data:
class Blog(Model):
content = TextField()
search_content = TSVectorField()
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You will need to explicitly convert the incoming text data to tsvector when inserting or updating the
search_content field:
content = ’Excellent blog post about peewee ORM.’
blog_entry = Blog.create(
content=content,
search_content=fn.to_tsvector(content))
Note: If you are using the TSVectorField, it will automatically be created with a GIN index.
postgres_ext API notes
class PostgresqlExtDatabase(database[, server_side_cursors=False[, register_hstore=True[, ... ]]
])
Identical to PostgresqlDatabase but required in order to support:
•Server-side cursors
•ArrayField
•DateTimeTZField
•JSONField
•HStoreField
•TSVectorField
Parameters
• database (str) – Name of database to connect to.
• server_side_cursors (bool) – Whether SELECT queries should utilize server-side cursors.
• register_hstore (bool) – Register the HStore extension with the connection.
If using server_side_cursors, also be sure to wrap your queries with ServerSide().
If you do not wish to use the HStore extension, you can specify register_hstore=False.
ServerSide(select_query)
Wrap the given select query in a transaction, and call it’s iterator() method to avoid caching row instances.
In order for the server-side resources to be released, be sure to exhaust the generator (iterate over all the rows).
Parameters select_query – a SelectQuery instance.
Return type generator
Usage:
large_query = PageView.select()
for page_view in ServerSide(large_query):
# Do something interesting.
pass
# At this point server side resources are released.
class ArrayField([field_class=IntegerField[, dimensions=1 ]])
Field capable of storing arrays of the provided field_class.
Parameters
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• field_class – a subclass of Field, e.g. IntegerField.
• dimensions (int) – dimensions of array.
You can store and retrieve lists (or lists-of-lists):
class BlogPost(BaseModel):
content = TextField()
tags = ArrayField(CharField)
post = BlogPost(content=’awesome’, tags=[’foo’, ’bar’, ’baz’])
Additionally, you can use the __getitem__ API to query values or slices in the database:
# Get the first tag on a given blog post.
first_tag = (BlogPost
.select(BlogPost.tags[0].alias(’first_tag’))
.where(BlogPost.id == 1)
.dicts()
.get())
# first_tag = {’first_tag’: ’foo’}
Get a slice of values:
# Get the first two tags.
two_tags = (BlogPost
.select(BlogPost.tags[:2].alias(’two’))
.dicts()
.get())
# two_tags = {’two’: [’foo’, ’bar’]}
contains(*items)
Parameters items – One or more items that must be in the given array field.
# Get all blog posts that are tagged with both "python" and "django".
Blog.select().where(Blog.tags.contains(’python’, ’django’))
contains_any(*items)
Parameters items – One or more items to search for in the given array field.
Like contains(), except will match rows where the array contains any of the given items.
# Get all blog posts that are tagged with "flask" and/or "django".
Blog.select().where(Blog.tags.contains_any(’flask’, ’django’))
class DateTimeTZField(*args, **kwargs)
A timezone-aware subclass of DateTimeField.
class HStoreField(*args, **kwargs)
A field for storing and retrieving arbitrary key/value pairs. For details on usage, see hstore support.
keys()
Returns the keys for a given row.
>>> f = House.features
>>> for h in House.select(House.address, f.keys().alias(’keys’)):
...
print h.address, h.keys
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123 Main St [u’bath’, u’garage’]
values()
Return the values for a given row.
>>> for h in House.select(House.address, f.values().alias(’vals’)):
...
print h.address, h.vals
123 Main St [u’2 bath’, u’2 cars’]
items()
Like python’s dict, return the keys and values in a list-of-lists:
>>> for h in House.select(House.address, f.items().alias(’mtx’)):
...
print h.address, h.mtx
123 Main St [[u’bath’, u’2 bath’], [u’garage’, u’2 cars’]]
slice(*args)
Return a slice of data given a list of keys.
>>> f = House.features
>>> for h in House.select(House.address, f.slice(’garage’).alias(’garage_data’)):
...
print h.address, h.garage_data
123 Main St {’garage’: ’2 cars’}
exists(key)
Query for whether the given key exists.
>>> for h in House.select(House.address, f.exists(’garage’).alias(’has_garage’)):
...
print h.address, h.has_garage
123 Main St True
>>> for h in House.select().where(f.exists(’garage’)):
...
print h.address, h.features[’garage’] # <-- just houses w/garage data
123 Main St 2 cars
defined(key)
Query for whether the given key has a value associated with it.
update(**data)
Perform an atomic update to the keys/values for a given row or rows.
>>> query = House.update(features=House.features.update(
...
sqft=2000,
...
year_built=2012))
>>> query.where(House.id == 1).execute()
delete(*keys)
Delete the provided keys for a given row or rows.
Note: We will use an UPDATE query.
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>>> query = House.update(features=House.features.delete(
...
’sqft’, ’year_built’))
>>> query.where(House.id == 1).execute()
contains(value)
Parameters value – Either a dict, a list of keys, or a single key.
Query rows for the existence of either:
•a partial dictionary.
•a list of keys.
•a single key.
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>>
f = House.features
House.select().where(f.contains(’garage’)) # <-- all houses w/garage key
House.select().where(f.contains([’garage’, ’bath’])) # <-- all houses w/garage & bath
House.select().where(f.contains({’garage’: ’2 cars’})) # <-- houses w/2-car garage
contains_any(*keys)
Parameters keys – One or more keys to search for.
Query rows for the existince of any key.
class JSONField(dumps=None, *args, **kwargs)
Field class suitable for storing and querying arbitrary JSON. When using this on a model, set the field’s value to
a Python object (either a dict or a list). When you retrieve your value from the database it will be returned as a
Python data structure.
Parameters dumps – The default is to call json.dumps() or the dumps function. You can override
this method to create a customized JSON wrapper.
Note: You must be using Postgres 9.2 / psycopg2 2.5 or greater.
Example model declaration:
db = PostgresqlExtDatabase(’my_db’)
class APIResponse(Model):
url = CharField()
response = JSONField()
class Meta:
database = db
Example of storing JSON data:
url = ’http://foo.com/api/resource/’
resp = json.loads(urllib2.urlopen(url).read())
APIResponse.create(url=url, response=resp)
APIResponse.create(url=’http://foo.com/baz/’, response={’key’: ’value’})
To query, use Python’s [] operators to specify nested key or array lookups:
APIResponse.select().where(
APIResponse.response[’key1’][’nested-key’] == ’some-value’)
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To illustrate the use of the [] operators, imagine we have the following data stored in an APIResponse:
{
"foo": {
"bar": ["i1", "i2", "i3"],
"baz": {
"huey": "mickey",
"peewee": "nugget"
}
}
}
Here are the results of a few queries:
def get_data(expression):
# Helper function to just retrieve the results of a
# particular expression.
query = (APIResponse
.select(expression.alias(’my_data’))
.dicts()
.get())
return query[’my_data’]
# Accessing the foo -> bar subkey will return a JSON
# representation of the list.
get_data(APIResponse.data[’foo’][’bar’])
# ’["i1", "i2", "i3"]’
# In order to retrieve this list as a Python list,
# we will call .as_json() on the expression.
get_data(APIResponse.data[’foo’][’bar’].as_json())
# [’i1’, ’i2’, ’i3’]
# Similarly, accessing the foo -> baz subkey will
# return a JSON representation of the dictionary.
get_data(APIResponse.data[’foo’][’baz’])
# ’{"huey": "mickey", "peewee": "nugget"}’
# Again, calling .as_json() will return an actual
# python dictionary.
get_data(APIResponse.data[’foo’][’baz’].as_json())
# {’huey’: ’mickey’, ’peewee’: ’nugget’}
# When dealing with simple values, either way works as
# you expect.
get_data(APIResponse.data[’foo’][’bar’][0])
# ’i1’
# Calling .as_json() when the result is a simple value
# will return the same thing as the previous example.
get_data(APIResponse.data[’foo’][’bar’][0].as_json())
# ’i1’
Match(field, query)
Generate a full-text search expression, automatically converting the left-hand operand to a tsvector, and the
right-hand operand to a tsquery.
Example:
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def blog_search(query):
return Blog.select().where(
(Blog.status == Blog.STATUS_PUBLISHED) &
Match(Blog.content, query))
class TSVectorField
Field type suitable for storing tsvector data. This field will automatically be created with a GIN index for
improved search performance.
Note:
Data stored in this field will still need to be manually converted to the tsvector type.
Example usage:
class Blog(Model):
content = TextField()
search_content = TSVectorField()
content = ’this is a sample blog entry.’
blog_entry = Blog.create(
content=content,
search_content=fn.to_tsvector(content))
# Note ‘to_tsvector()‘.
1.13.3 Sqlite Extensions
The SQLite extensions module provides support for some interesting sqlite-only features:
• Define custom aggregates, collations and functions.
• Support for FTS3/4 (sqlite full-text search).
• Specify isolation level in transactions.
• Basic support for virtual tables.
sqlite_ext API notes
class SqliteExtDatabase(database, **kwargs)
Subclass of the SqliteDatabase that provides some advanced features only offered by Sqlite.
•Register custom aggregates, collations and functions
•Specify a row factory
•Advanced transactions (specify isolation level)
aggregate(num_params[, name ])
Class-decorator for registering custom aggregation functions.
Parameters
• num_params – integer representing number of parameters the aggregate function accepts.
• name – string name for the aggregate, defaults to the name of the class.
@db.aggregate(1, ’product’)
class Product(object):
"""Like sum, except calculate the product of a series of numbers."""
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def __init__(self):
self.product = 1
def step(self, value):
self.product *= value
def finalize(self):
return self.product
# To use this aggregate:
product = (Score
.select(fn.product(Score.value))
.scalar())
collation([name ])
Function decorator for registering a custom collation.
Parameters name – string name to use for this collation.
@db.collation()
def collate_reverse(s1, s2):
return -cmp(s1, s2)
# To use this collation:
Book.select().order_by(collate_reverse.collation(Book.title))
As you might have noticed, the original collate_reverse function has a special attribute called
collation attached to it. This extra attribute provides a shorthand way to generate the SQL necessary to use our custom collation.
func([name[, num_params ]])
Function decorator for registering user-defined functions.
Parameters
• name – name to use for this function.
• num_params – number of parameters this function accepts. If not provided, peewee will
introspect the function for you.
@db.func()
def title_case(s):
return s.title()
# Use in the select clause...
titled_books = Book.select(fn.title_case(Book.title))
@db.func()
def sha1(s):
return hashlib.sha1(s).hexdigest()
# Use in the where clause...
user = User.select().where(
(User.username == username) &
(fn.sha1(User.password) == password_hash)).get()
granular_transaction([lock_type=’deferred’ ])
With the granular_transaction helper, you can specify the isolation level for an individual transaction. The valid options are:
•exclusive
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•immediate
•deferred
Example usage:
with db.granular_transaction(’exclusive’):
# no other readers or writers!
(Account
.update(Account.balance=Account.balance - 100)
.where(Account.id == from_acct)
.execute())
(Account
.update(Account.balance=Account.balance + 100)
.where(Account.id == to_acct)
.execute())
class VirtualModel
Subclass of Model that signifies the model operates using a virtual table provided by a sqlite extension.
_extension = ’name of sqlite extension’
class FTSModel
Model class that provides support for Sqlite’s full-text search extension. Models should be defined normally,
however there are a couple caveats:
•Indexes are ignored completely
•Sqlite will treat all column types as TextField (although you can store other data types, Sqlite will treat
them as text).
Therefore it usually makes sense to index the content you intend to search and a single link back to the original
document, since all SQL queries except full-text searches and rowid lookups will be slow.
Example:
class Document(FTSModel):
title = TextField() # type affinities are ignored by FTS, so use TextField
content = TextField()
Document.create_table(tokenize=’porter’)
# use the porter stemmer.
# populate documents using normal operations.
for doc in list_of_docs_to_index:
Document.create(title=doc[’title’], content=doc[’content’])
# use the "match" operation for FTS queries.
matching_docs = (Document
.select()
.where(Document.match(’some query’)))
# to sort by best match, use the custom "rank" function.
best = (Document
.select(Document, Rank(Document).alias(’score’))
.where(Document.match(’some query’))
.order_by(SQL(’score’).desc()))
# or use the shortcut method:
best = Document.search(’some phrase’)
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# you can also use the BM25 algorithm to rank documents:
best = (Document
.select(
Document,
Document.bm25(Document.content).alias(’score’))
.where(Document.match(’some query’))
.order_by(SQL(’score’).desc()))
# There is a shortcut method for bm25 as well:
best_bm25 = Document.search_bm25(’some phrase’)
# BM25 allows you to specify a column if your FTS model contains
# multiple fields.
best_bm25 = Document.search_bm25(’some phrase’, Document.content)
If you have an existing table and would like to add search for a column on that table, you can specify it using
the content option:
class Blog(Model):
title = CharField()
pub_date = DateTimeField()
content = TextField() # we want to search this.
class FTSBlog(FTSModel):
content = TextField()
Blog.create_table()
FTSBlog.create_table(content=Blog.content)
# Now, we can manage content in the FTSBlog.
# content:
FTSBlog.rebuild()
To populate it with
# Optimize the index.
FTSBlog.optimize()
The content option accepts either a single Field or a Model and can reduce the amount of storage used.
However, content will need to be manually moved to/from the associated FTSModel.
classmethod create_table([fail_silently=False[, **options ]])
Parameters
• fail_silently (boolean) – do not re-create if table already exists.
• options – options passed along when creating the table, e.g. content.
classmethod rebuild()
Rebuild the search index – this only works when the content option was specified during table creation.
classmethod optimize()
Optimize the search index.
classmethod match(term)
Shorthand for generating a MATCH expression for the given term.
query = Document.select().where(Document.match(’search phrase’))
for doc in query:
print ’match: ’, doc.title
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classmethod rank()
Calculate the rank based on the quality of the match.
query = (Document
.select(Document, Document.rank().alias(’score’))
.where(Document.match(’search phrase’))
.order_by(SQL(’score’).desc()))
for search_result in query:
print search_result.title, search_result.score
classmethod bm25([field=None[, k=1.2[, b=0.75 ]]])
Calculate the rank based on the quality of the match using the BM25 algorithm.
Note: If no field is specified, then the first TextField on the model will be used. If no TextField is present,
the first CharField will be used. Failing either of those conditions, the last overall field on the model will
be used.
query = (Document
.select(
Document,
Document.bm25(Document.content).alias(’score’))
.where(Document.match(’search phrase’))
.order_by(SQL(’score’).desc()))
for search_result in query:
print search_result.title, search_result.score
classmethod search(term[, alias=’score’ ])
Shorthand way of searching for a term and sorting results by the quality of the match. This is equivalent
to the rank() example code presented above.
Parameters
• term (str) – Search term to use.
• alias (str) – Alias to use for the calculated rank score.
docs = Document.search(’search term’)
for result in docs:
print result.title, result.score
classmethod search_bm25(term[, field=None[, k=1.2[, b=0.75[, alias=’score’ ]]]])
Shorthand way of searching for a term and sorting results by the quality of the match, as determined by
the BM25 algorithm. This is equivalent to the bm25() example code presented above.
Parameters
• term (str) – Search term to use.
• field (Field) – A field on the model.
• k (float) – Parameter for BM25
• b (float) – Parameter for BM25
• alias (str) – Alias to use for the calculated rank score.
Note: If no field is specified, then the first TextField on the model will be used. If no TextField is present,
the first CharField will be used. Failing either of those conditions, the last overall field on the model will
be used.
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Note: BM25 only works with FTS4 tables.
docs = Document.search_bm25(’search term’)
for result in docs:
print result.title, result.score
match(lhs, rhs)
Generate a SQLite MATCH expression for use in full-text searches.
Document.select().where(match(Document.content, ’search term’))
Rank(model_class)
Calculate the rank of the search results, for use with FTSModel queries using the MATCH operator.
# Search for documents and return results ordered by quality
# of match.
docs = (Document
.select(Document, Rank(Document).alias(’score’))
.where(Document.match(’some search term’))
.order_by(SQL(’score’).desc()))
BM25(model_class, field_index)
Calculate the rank of the search results, for use with FTSModel queries using the MATCH operator.
Parameters
• model_class (Model) – The FTSModel on which the query is being performed.
• field_index (int) – The 0-based index of the field being queried.
# Assuming the ‘content‘ field has index=2 (0=pk, 1=title, 2=content),
# calculate the BM25 score for each result.
docs = (Document
.select(Document, BM25(Document, 2).alias(’score’))
.where(Document.match(’search term’))
.order_by(SQL(’score’).desc()))
Note: BM25 only works with FTS4 tables.
1.13.4 BerkeleyDB backend
BerkeleyDB provides a SQLite-compatible API. BerkeleyDB’s SQL API has many advantages over SQLite:
• Higher transactions-per-second in multi-threaded environments.
• Built-in replication and hot backup.
• Fewer system calls, less resource utilization.
• Multi-version concurrency control.
For more details, Oracle has published a short technical overview.
In order to use peewee with BerkeleyDB, you need to compile BerkeleyDB with the SQL API enabled. Then compile
the Python SQLite driver against BerkeleyDB’s sqlite replacement.
Begin by downloading and compiling BerkeleyDB:
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wget http://download.oracle.com/berkeley-db/db-6.0.30.tar.gz
tar xzf db-6.0.30.tar.gz
cd db-6.0.30/build_unix
export CFLAGS=’-DSQLITE_ENABLE_FTS3=1 -DSQLITE_ENABLE_RTREE=1 -fPIC’
../dist/configure --enable-static --disable-shared --enable-sql --enable-sql-compat
make
sudo make prefix=/usr/local/ install
Then get a copy of the standard library SQLite driver and build it against BerkeleyDB:
git clone https://github.com/ghaering/pysqlite
cd pysqlite
sed -i "s|#||g" setup.cfg
python setup.py build
sudo python setup.py install
To simplify this process, peewee comes with a script that will automatically build the appropriate libraries for you.
The berkeley_build.sh script can be found in the playhouse directory (or you can view the source online).
You can also find step by step instructions on my blog.
class BerkeleyDatabase(database, **kwargs)
Subclass of the SqliteExtDatabase that supports connecting to BerkeleyDB-backed version of SQLite.
1.13.5 Sqlcipher backend
Warning: This module is experimental.
• Although this extention’s code is short, it has not been propery peer-reviewed yet and may have introduced
vulnerabilities.
• The code contains minimum values for passphrase length and kdf_iter, as well as a default value for the later. Do
not regard these numbers as advice. Consult the docs at http://sqlcipher.net/sqlcipher-api/ and security experts.
Also note that this code relies on pysqlcipher and sqlcipher, and the code there might have vulnerabilities as well, but
since these are widely used crypto modules, we can expect “short zero days” there.
sqlcipher_ext API notes
class SqlCipherDatabase(database, passphrase, kdf_iter=64000, **kwargs)
Subclass of SqliteDatabase that stores the database encrypted. Instead of the standard sqlite3 backend,
it uses pysqlcipher: a python wrapper for sqlcipher, which – in turn – is an encrypted wrapper around sqlite3,
so the API is identical to SqliteDatabase‘s, except for object construction parameters:
Parameters
• database – Path to encrypted database filename to open [or create].
• passphrase – Database encryption passphrase: should be at least 8 character long (or an
error is raised), but it is strongly advised to enforce better passphrase strength criteria in
your implementation.
• kdf_iter – [Optional] number of PBKDF2 iterations.
•If the database file doesn’t exist, it will be created with encryption by a key derived from passhprase
with kdf_iter PBKDF2 iterations.
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•When trying to open an existing database, passhprase and kdf_iter should be identical to the ones
used when it was created.
Notes:
• [Hopefully] there’s no way to tell whether the passphrase is wrong or the file is corrupt. In both cases – the first
time we try to acces the database – a DatabaseError error is raised, with the exact message: "file is
encrypted or is not a database".
As mentioned above, this only happens when you access the databse, so if you need to know right away whether
the passphrase was correct, you can trigger this check by calling [e.g.] get_tables() (see example below).
• Most applications can expect failed attempts to open the database (common case: prompting the user for
passphrase), so the database can’t be hardwired into the Meta of model classes, and a Proxy should
be used instead.
Example:
db_proxy = peewee.Proxy()
class BaseModel(Model):
"""Parent for all app’s models"""
class Meta:
# We won’t have a valid db until user enters passhrase,
# so we use a Proxy() instead.
database = db_proxy
# Derive our model subclasses
class Person(BaseModel):
name = CharField(primary_key=True)
right_passphrase = False
while not right_passphrase:
passphrase = None
db = SqlCipherDatabase(’testsqlcipher.db’,
get_passphrase_from_user())
try: # Error only gets triggered when we access the db
db.get_tables()
right_passphrase = True
except DatabaseError as exc:
# We only allow a specific [somewhat cryptic] error message.
if exc.message != ’file is encrypted or is not a database’:
raise exc
tell_user_the_passphrase_was_wrong()
# If we’re here, db is ok, we can connect it to Model subclasses
db_proxy.initialize(db)
See also: a slightly more elaborate example.
1.13.6 Django Integration
The Django ORM provides a very high-level abstraction over SQL and as a consequence is in some ways limited in
terms of flexibility or expressiveness. I wrote a blog post describing my search for a “missing link” between Django’s
ORM and the SQL it generates, concluding that no such layer exists. The djpeewee module attempts to provide an
easy-to-use, structured layer for generating SQL queries for use with Django’s ORM.
A couple use-cases might be:
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• Joining on fields that are not related by foreign key (for example UUID fields).
• Performing aggregate queries on calculated values.
• Features that Django does not support such as CASE statements.
• Utilizing SQL functions that Django does not support, such as SUBSTR.
• Replacing nearly-identical SQL queries with reusable, composable data-structures.
Below is an example of how you might use this:
# Django model.
class Event(models.Model):
start_time = models.DateTimeField()
end_time = models.DateTimeField()
title = models.CharField(max_length=255)
# Suppose we want to find all events that are longer than an hour. Django
# does not support this, but we can use peewee.
from playhouse.djpeewee import translate
P = translate(Event)
query = (P.Event
.select()
.where(
(P.Event.end_time - P.Event.start_time) > timedelta(hours=1)))
# Now feed our peewee query into Django’s ‘raw()‘ method:
sql, params = query.sql()
Event.objects.raw(sql, params)
Foreign keys and Many-to-many relationships
The translate() function will recursively traverse the graph of models and return a dictionary populated with
everything it finds. Back-references are not searched by default, but can be included by specifying backrefs=True.
Example:
>>> from django.contrib.auth.models import User, Group
>>> from playhouse.djpeewee import translate
>>> translate(User, Group)
{’ContentType’: peewee.ContentType,
’Group’: peewee.Group,
’Group_permissions’: peewee.Group_permissions,
’Permission’: peewee.Permission,
’User’: peewee.User,
’User_groups’: peewee.User_groups,
’User_user_permissions’: peewee.User_user_permissions}
As you can see in the example above, although only User and Group were passed in to translate(), several other
models which are related by foreign key were also created. Additionally, the many-to-many “through” tables were
created as separate models since peewee does not abstract away these types of relationships.
Using the above models it is possible to construct joins. The following example will get all users who belong to a
group that starts with the letter “A”:
>>> P = translate(User, Group)
>>> query = P.User.select().join(P.User_groups).join(P.Group).where(
...
fn.Lower(fn.Substr(P.Group.name, 1, 1)) == ’a’)
>>> sql, params = query.sql()
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>>> print sql # formatted for legibility
SELECT t1."id", t1."password", ...
FROM "auth_user" AS t1
INNER JOIN "auth_user_groups" AS t2 ON (t1."id" = t2."user_id")
INNER JOIN "auth_group" AS t3 ON (t2."group_id" = t3."id")
WHERE (Lower(Substr(t3."name", %s, %s)) = %s)
djpeewee API
translate(*models, **options)
Translate the given Django models into roughly equivalent peewee models suitable for use constructing queries.
Foreign keys and many-to-many relationships will be followed and models generated, although back references
are not traversed.
Parameters
• models – One or more Django model classes.
• options – A dictionary of options, see note below.
Returns A dict-like object containing the generated models, but which supports dotted-name style
lookups.
The following are valid options:
•recurse: Follow foreign keys and many to many (default: True).
•max_depth: Maximum depth to recurse (default: None, unlimited).
•backrefs: Follow backrefs (default: False).
•exclude: A list of models to exclude.
1.13.7 Generic foreign keys
The gfk module provides a Generic ForeignKey (GFK), similar to Django. A GFK is composed of two columns: an
object ID and an object type identifier. The object types are collected in a global registry (all_models).
How a GFKField is resolved:
1. Look up the object type in the global registry (returns a model class)
2. Look up the model instance by object ID
Note: In order to use Generic ForeignKeys, your application’s models must subclass playhouse.gfk.Model.
This ensures that the model class will be added to the global registry.
Note: GFKs themselves are not actually a field and will not add a column to your table.
Like regular ForeignKeys, GFKs support a “back-reference” via the ReverseGFK descriptor.
How to use GFKs
1. Be sure your model subclasses playhouse.gfk.Model
2. Add a CharField to store the object_type
3. Add a field to store the object_id (usually a IntegerField)
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4. Add a GFKField and instantiate it with the names of the object_type and object_id fields.
5. (optional) On any other models, add a ReverseGFK descriptor
Example:
from playhouse.gfk import *
class Tag(Model):
tag = CharField()
object_type = CharField(null=True)
object_id = IntegerField(null=True)
object = GFKField(’object_type’, ’object_id’)
class Blog(Model):
tags = ReverseGFK(Tag, ’object_type’, ’object_id’)
class Photo(Model):
tags = ReverseGFK(Tag, ’object_type’, ’object_id’)
How you use these is pretty straightforward hopefully:
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>>
b = Blog.create(name=’awesome post’)
Tag.create(tag=’awesome’, object=b)
b2 = Blog.create(name=’whiny post’)
Tag.create(tag=’whiny’, object=b2)
>>> b.tags # <-- a select query
<class ’__main__.Tag’> SELECT t1."id", t1."tag", t1."object_type", t1."object_id" FROM "tag" AS t1 WH
>>> [x.tag for x in b.tags]
[u’awesome’]
>>> [x.tag for x in b2.tags]
[u’whiny’]
>>> p = Photo.create(name=’picture of cat’)
>>> Tag.create(object=p, tag=’kitties’)
>>> Tag.create(object=p, tag=’cats’)
>>> [x.tag for x in p.tags]
[u’kitties’, u’cats’]
>>> [x.tag for x in Blog.tags]
[u’awesome’, u’whiny’]
>>> t = Tag.get(Tag.tag == ’awesome’)
>>> t.object
<__main__.Blog at 0x268f450>
>>> t.object.name
u’awesome post’
GFK API
class GFKField([model_type_field=’object_type’[, model_id_field=’object_id’ ]])
Provide a clean API for storing “generic” foreign keys. Generic foreign keys are comprised of an object type,
which maps to a model class, and an object id, which maps to the primary key of the related model class.
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Setting the GFKField on a model will automatically populate the model_type_field and
model_id_field. Similarly, getting the GFKField on a model instance will “resolve” the two fields, first
looking up the model class, then looking up the instance by ID.
class ReverseGFK(model[, model_type_field=’object_type’[, model_id_field=’object_id’ ]])
Back-reference support for GFKField.
1.13.8 Key/Value Store
Provides a simple key/value store, using a dictionary API. By default the the KeyStore will use an in-memory sqlite
database, but any database will work.
To start using the key-store, create an instance and pass it a field to use for the values.
>>> kv = KeyStore(TextField())
>>> kv[’a’] = ’A’
>>> kv[’a’]
’A’
Note: To store arbitrary python objects, use the PickledKeyStore, which stores values in a pickled BlobField.
Using the KeyStore it is possible to use “expressions” to retrieve values from the dictionary. For instance, imagine
you want to get all keys which contain a certain substring:
>>> keys_matching_substr = kv[kv.key % ’%substr%’]
>>> keys_start_with_a = kv[fn.Lower(fn.Substr(kv.key, 1, 1)) == ’a’]
KeyStore API
class KeyStore(value_field[, ordered=False[, database=None ]])
Lightweight dictionary interface to a model containing a key and value. Implements common dictionary methods, such as __getitem__, __setitem__, get, pop, items, keys, and values.
Parameters
• value_field (Field) – Field instance to use as value field, e.g. an instance of TextField.
• ordered (boolean) – Whether the keys should be returned in sorted order
• database (Database) – Database class to use for the storage backend. If none is supplied,
an in-memory Sqlite DB will be used.
Example:
>>> from playhouse.kv import KeyStore
>>> kv = KeyStore(TextField())
>>> kv[’a’] = ’foo’
>>> for k, v in kv:
...
print k, v
a foo
>>> ’a’ in kv
True
>>> ’b’ in kv
False
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class PickledKeyStore([ordered=False[, database=None ]])
Identical to the KeyStore except anything can be stored as a value in the dictionary. The storage for the value
will be a pickled BlobField.
Example:
>>> from playhouse.kv import PickledKeyStore
>>> pkv = PickledKeyStore()
>>> pkv[’a’] = ’A’
>>> pkv[’b’] = 1.0
>>> list(pkv.items())
[(u’a’, ’A’), (u’b’, 1.0)]
1.13.9 Shortcuts
This module contains helper functions for expressing things that would otherwise be somewhat verbose or cumbersome
using peewee’s APIs.
case(predicate, expression_tuples, default=None)
Parameters
• predicate – A SQL expression or can be None.
• expression_tuples – An iterable containing one or more 2-tuples comprised of an expression and return value.
• default – default if none of the cases match.
Example SQL case statements:
-- case with predicate -SELECT "username",
CASE "user_id"
WHEN 1 THEN "one"
WHEN 2 THEN "two"
ELSE "?"
END
FROM "users";
-- case with no predicate (inline expressions) -SELECT "username",
CASE
WHEN "user_id" = 1 THEN "one"
WHEN "user_id" = 2 THEN "two"
ELSE "?"
END
FROM "users";
Equivalent function invocations:
User.select(User.username, case(User.user_id, (
(1, "one"),
(2, "two")), "?"))
User.select(User.username, case(None, (
(User.user_id == 1, "one"), # note the double equals
(User.user_id == 2, "two")), "?"))
You can specify a value for the CASE expression using the alias() method:
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User.select(User.username, case(User.user_id, (
(1, "one"),
(2, "two")), "?").alias("id_string"))
model_to_dict(model[, recurse=True[, backrefs=False[, only=None[, exclude=None ]]]])
Convert a model instance (and optionally any related instances) to a dictionary.
Parameters
• recurse (bool) – Whether foreign-keys should be recursed.
• backrefs (bool) – Whether lists of related objects should be recursed.
• only – A list (or set) of field instances which should be included in the result dictionary.
• exclude – A list (or set) of field instances which should be excluded from the result dictionary.
Examples:
>>> user = User.create(username=’charlie’)
>>> model_to_dict(user)
{’id’: 1, ’username’: ’charlie’}
>>> model_to_dict(user, backrefs=True)
{’id’: 1, ’tweets’: [], ’username’: ’charlie’}
>>> t1 = Tweet.create(user=user, message=’tweet-1’)
>>> t2 = Tweet.create(user=user, message=’tweet-2’)
>>> model_to_dict(user, backrefs=True)
{
’id’: 1,
’tweets’: [
{’id’: 1, ’message’: ’tweet-1’},
{’id’: 2, ’message’: ’tweet-2’},
],
’username’: ’charlie’
}
>>> model_to_dict(t1)
{
’id’: 1,
’message’: ’tweet-1’,
’user’: {
’id’: 1,
’username’: ’charlie’
}
}
>>> model_to_dict(t2, recurse=False)
{’id’: 1, ’message’: ’tweet-2’, ’user’: 1}
dict_to_model(model_class, data[, ignore_unknown=False ])
Convert a dictionary of data to a model instance, creating related instances where appropriate.
Parameters
• model_class (Model) – The model class to construct.
• data (dict) – A dictionary of data. Foreign keys can be included as nested dictionaries, and
back-references as lists of dictionaries.
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• ignore_unknown (bool) – Whether to allow unrecognized (non-field) attributes.
Examples:
>>> user_data = {’id’: 1, ’username’: ’charlie’}
>>> user = dict_to_model(User, user_data)
>>> user
<__main__.User at 0x7fea8fa4d490>
>>> user.username
’charlie’
>>> note_data = {’id’: 2, ’text’: ’note text’, ’user’: user_data}
>>> note = dict_to_model(Note, note_data)
>>> note.text
’note text’
>>> note.user.username
’charlie’
>>> user_with_notes = {
...
’id’: 1,
...
’username’: ’charlie’,
’notes’: [{’id’: 1, ’text’: ’note-1’}, {’id’: 2, ’text’: ’note-2’}]}
...
>>> user = dict_to_model(User, user_with_notes)
>>> user.notes[0].text
’note-1’
>>> user.notes[0].user.username
’charlie’
1.13.10 Signal support
Models with hooks for signals (a-la django) are provided in playhouse.signals. To use the signals, you will
need all of your project’s models to be a subclass of playhouse.signals.Model, which overrides the necessary
methods to provide support for the various signals.
from playhouse.signals import Model, post_save
class MyModel(Model):
data = IntegerField()
@post_save(sender=MyModel)
def on_save_handler(model_class, instance, created):
put_data_in_cache(instance.data)
The following signals are provided:
pre_save Called immediately before an object is saved to the database. Provides an additional keyword argument
created, indicating whether the model is being saved for the first time or updated.
post_save Called immediately after an object is saved to the database. Provides an additional keyword argument
created, indicating whether the model is being saved for the first time or updated.
pre_delete Called immediately before
Model.delete_instance() is used.
an
object
is
deleted
from
the
database
when
post_delete Called immediately after
Model.delete_instance() is used.
an
object
is
deleted
from
the
database
when
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pre_init Called when a model class is first instantiated
post_init Called after a model class has been instantiated and the fields have been populated, for example when
being selected as part of a database query.
Connecting handlers
Whenever a signal is dispatched, it will call any handlers that have been registered. This allows totally separate code
to respond to events like model save and delete.
The Signal class provides a connect() method, which takes a callback function and two optional parameters for
“sender” and “name”. If specified, the “sender” parameter should be a single model class and allows your callback to
only receive signals from that one model class. The “name” parameter is used as a convenient alias in the event you
wish to unregister your signal handler.
Example usage:
from playhouse.signals import *
def post_save_handler(sender, instance, created):
print ’%s was just saved’ % instance
# our handler will only be called when we save instances of SomeModel
post_save.connect(post_save_handler, sender=SomeModel)
All signal handlers accept as their first two arguments sender and instance, where sender is the model class
and instance is the actual model being acted upon.
If you’d like, you can also use a decorator to connect signal handlers. This is functionally equivalent to the above
example:
@post_save(sender=SomeModel)
def post_save_handler(sender, instance, created):
print ’%s was just saved’ % instance
Signal API
class Signal
Stores a list of receivers (callbacks) and calls them when the “send” method is invoked.
connect(receiver[, sender=None[, name=None ]])
Add the receiver to the internal list of receivers, which will be called whenever the signal is sent.
Parameters
• receiver (callable) – a callable that takes at least two parameters, a “sender”, which is
the Model subclass that triggered the signal, and an “instance”, which is the actual model
instance.
• sender (Model) – if specified, only instances of this model class will trigger the receiver
callback.
• name (string) – a short alias
from playhouse.signals import post_save
from project.handlers import cache_buster
post_save.connect(cache_buster, name=’project.cache_buster’)
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disconnect([receiver=None[, name=None ]])
Disconnect the given receiver (or the receiver with the given name alias) so that it no longer is called.
Either the receiver or the name must be provided.
Parameters
• receiver (callable) – the callback to disconnect
• name (string) – a short alias
post_save.disconnect(name=’project.cache_buster’)
send(instance, *args, **kwargs)
Iterates over the receivers and will call them in the order in which they were connected. If the receiver
specified a sender, it will only be called if the instance is an instance of the sender.
Parameters instance – a model instance
1.13.11 pwiz, a model generator
pwiz is a little script that ships with peewee and is capable of introspecting an existing database and generating model
code suitable for interacting with the underlying data. If you have a database already, pwiz can give you a nice boost
by generating skeleton code with correct column affinities and foreign keys.
If you install peewee using setup.py install, pwiz will be installed as a “script” and you can just run:
pwiz.py -e postgresql -u postgres my_postgres_db
This will print a bunch of models to standard output. So you can do this:
pwiz.py -e postgresql my_postgres_db > mymodels.py
python # <-- fire up an interactive shell
>>> from mymodels import Blog, Entry, Tag, Whatever
>>> print [blog.name for blog in Blog.select()]
Option
-h
-e
-H
-p
-u
-P
-s
Meaning
show help
database backend
host to connect to
port to connect on
database user
database password
postgres schema
Example
-e mysql
-H remote.db.server
-p 9001
-u postgres
-P secret
-s public
The following are valid parameters for the engine:
• sqlite
• mysql
• postgresql
1.13.12 Schema Migrations
Peewee now supports schema migrations, with well-tested support for Postgresql, SQLite and MySQL. Unlike other
schema migration tools, peewee’s migrations do not handle introspection and database “versioning”. Rather, peewee
provides a number of helper functions for generating and running schema-altering statements. This engine provides
the basis on which a more sophisticated tool could some day be built.
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Migrations can be written as simple python scripts and executed from the command-line. Since the migrations only
depend on your applications Database object, it should be easy to manage changing your model definitions and
maintaining a set of migration scripts without introducing dependencies.
Example usage
Begin by importing the helpers from the migrate module:
from playhouse.migrate import *
Instantiate a migrator. The SchemaMigrator class is responsible for generating schema altering operations,
which can then be run sequentially by the migrate() helper.
# Postgres example:
my_db = PostgresqlDatabase(...)
migrator = PostgresqlMigrator(my_db)
# SQLite example:
my_db = SqliteDatabase(’my_database.db’)
migrator = SqliteMigrator(my_db)
Use migrate() to execute one or more operations:
title_field = CharField(default=’’)
status_field = IntegerField(null=True)
migrate(
migrator.add_column(’some_table’, ’title’, title_field),
migrator.add_column(’some_table’, ’status’, status_field),
migrator.drop_column(’some_table’, ’old_column’),
)
Warning: Migrations are not run inside a transaction. If you wish the migration to run in a transaction you will
need to wrap the call to migrate in a transaction block, e.g.
with my_db.transaction():
migrate(...)
Supported Operations
Add new field(s) to an existing model:
# Create your field instances. For non-null fields you must specify a
# default value.
pubdate_field = DateTimeField(null=True)
comment_field = TextField(default=’’)
# Run the migration, specifying the database table, field name and field.
migrate(
migrator.add_column(’comment_tbl’, ’pub_date’, pubdate_field),
migrator.add_column(’comment_tbl’, ’comment’, comment_field),
)
Renaming a field:
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# Specify the table, original name of the column, and its new name.
migrate(
migrator.rename_column(’story’, ’pub_date’, ’publish_date’),
migrator.rename_column(’story’, ’mod_date’, ’modified_date’),
)
Dropping a field:
migrate(
migrator.drop_column(’story’, ’some_old_field’),
)
Making a field nullable or not nullable:
# Note that when making a field not null that field must not have any
# NULL values present.
migrate(
# Make ‘pub_date‘ allow NULL values.
migrator.drop_not_null(’story’, ’pub_date’),
# Prevent ‘modified_date‘ from containing NULL values.
migrator.add_not_null(’story’, ’modified_date’),
)
Renaming a table:
migrate(
migrator.rename_table(’story’, ’stories_tbl’),
)
Adding an index:
# Specify the table, column names, and whether the index should be
# UNIQUE or not.
migrate(
# Create an index on the ‘pub_date‘ column.
migrator.add_index(’story’, (’pub_date’,), False),
# Create a multi-column index on the ‘pub_date‘ and ‘status‘ fields.
migrator.add_index(’story’, (’pub_date’, ’status’), False),
# Create a unique index on the category and title fields.
migrator.add_index(’story’, (’category_id’, ’title’), True),
)
Dropping an index:
# Specify the index name.
migrate(migrator.drop_index(’story’, ’story_pub_date_status’))
Migrations API
migrate(*operations)
Execute one or more schema altering operations.
Usage:
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migrate(
migrator.add_column(’some_table’, ’new_column’, CharField(default=’’)),
migrator.create_index(’some_table’, (’new_column’,)),
)
class SchemaMigrator(database)
Parameters database – a Database instance.
The SchemaMigrator is responsible for generating schema-altering statements.
add_column(table, column_name, field)
Parameters
• table (str) – Name of the table to add column to.
• column_name (str) – Name of the new column.
• field (Field) – A Field instance.
Add a new column to the provided table. The field provided will be used to generate the appropriate
column definition.
Note: If the field is not nullable it must specify a default value.
Note: For non-null fields, the field will initially be added as a null field, then an UPDATE statement will
be executed to populate the column with the default value. Finally, the column will be marked as not null.
drop_column(table, column_name[, cascade=True ])
Parameters
• table (str) – Name of the table to drop column from.
• column_name (str) – Name of the column to drop.
• cascade (bool) – Whether the column should be dropped with CASCADE.
rename_column(table, old_name, new_name)
Parameters
• table (str) – Name of the table containing column to rename.
• old_name (str) – Current name of the column.
• new_name (str) – New name for the column.
add_not_null(table, column)
Parameters
• table (str) – Name of table containing column.
• column (str) – Name of the column to make not nullable.
drop_not_null(table, column)
Parameters
• table (str) – Name of table containing column.
• column (str) – Name of the column to make nullable.
rename_table(old_name, new_name)
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Parameters
• old_name (str) – Current name of the table.
• new_name (str) – New name for the table.
add_index(table, columns[, unique=False ])
Parameters
• table (str) – Name of table on which to create the index.
• columns (list) – List of columns which should be indexed.
• unique (bool) – Whether the new index should specify a unique constraint.
drop_index(table, index_name)
:param str table Name of the table containing the index to be dropped. :param str index_name: Name of
the index to be dropped.
class PostgresqlMigrator(database)
Generate migrations for Postgresql databases.
class SqliteMigrator(database)
Generate migrations for SQLite databases.
class MySQLMigrator(database)
Generate migrations for MySQL databases.
Warning: The MySQL migrations are not well tested.
1.13.13 Database URL
This module contains a helper function to generate a database connection from a URL connection string.
connect(url)
Create a Database instance from the given connection URL.
Examples:
•sqlite:///my_database.db will create a SqliteDatabase instance for the file my_database.db in the
current directory.
•postgresql://postgres:[email protected]:5432/my_database
will
create
a
PostgresqlDatabase instance. A username and password are provided, as well as the host
and port to connect to.
•mysql:///my_db will create a MySQLDatabase instance for the local MySQL database my_db.
Usage:
import os
from playhouse.db_url import connect
# Connect to the database URL defined in the environment, falling
# back to a local Sqlite database if no database URL is specified.
db = connect(os.environ.get(’DATABASE’) or ’sqlite:///default.db’)
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1.13.14 CSV Utils
This module contains helpers for dumping queries into CSV, and for loading CSV data into a database. CSV files can
be introspected to generate an appropriate model class for working with the data. This makes it really easy to explore
the data in a CSV file using Peewee and SQL.
Here is how you would load a CSV file into an in-memory SQLite database. The call to load_csv() returns a
Model instance suitable for working with the CSV data:
from peewee import *
from playhouse.csv_loader import load_csv
db = SqliteDatabase(’:memory:’)
ZipToTZ = load_csv(db, ’zip_to_tz.csv’)
Now we can run queries using the new model.
# Get the timezone for a zipcode.
>>> ZipToTZ.get(ZipToTZ.zip == 66047).timezone
’US/Central’
# Get all the zipcodes for my town.
>>> [row.zip for row in ZipToTZ.select().where(
...
(ZipToTZ.city == ’Lawrence’) && (ZipToTZ.state == ’KS’))]
[66044, 66045, 66046, 66047, 66049]
For more information and examples check out this blog post.
CSV Loader API
load_csv(db_or_model, filename[, fields=None[, field_names=None[, has_header=True[, sample_size=10[, converter=None[, db_table=None[, **reader_kwargs ]]]]]]])
Load a CSV file into the provided database or model class, returning a Model suitable for working with the
CSV data.
Parameters
• db_or_model – Either a Database instance or a Model class. If a model is not provided,
one will be automatically generated for you.
• filename (str) – Path of CSV file to load.
• fields (list) – A list of Field instances mapping to each column in the CSV. This allows
you to manually specify the column types. If not provided, and a model is not provided, the
field types will be determined automatically.
• field_names (list) – A list of strings to use as field names for each column in the CSV. If not
provided, and a model is not provided, the field names will be determined by looking at the
header row of the file. If no header exists, then the fields will be given generic names.
• has_header (bool) – Whether the first row is a header.
• sample_size (int) – Number of rows to look at when introspecting data types. If set to 0,
then a generic field type will be used for all fields.
• converter (RowConverter) – a RowConverter instance to use for introspecting the CSV.
If not provided, one will be created.
• db_table (str) – The name of the database table to load data into. If this value is not provided, it will be determined using the filename of the CSV file. If a model is provided, this
value is ignored.
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• reader_kwargs – Arbitrary keyword arguments to pass to the csv.reader object, such
as the dialect, separator, etc.
Return type A Model suitable for querying the CSV data.
Basic example – field names and types will be introspected:
from
from
db =
User
peewee import *
playhouse.csv_loader import *
SqliteDatabase(’:memory:’)
= load_csv(db, ’users.csv’)
Using a pre-defined model:
class ZipToTZ(Model):
zip = IntegerField()
timezone = CharField()
load_csv(ZipToTZ, ’zip_to_tz.csv’)
Specifying fields:
fields = [DecimalField(), IntegerField(), IntegerField(), DateField()]
field_names = [’amount’, ’from_acct’, ’to_acct’, ’timestamp’]
Payments = load_csv(db, ’payments.csv’, fields=fields, field_names=field_names, has_header=False
Dumping CSV
dump_csv(query,
file_or_name[,
csv_writer=None ]]]])
include_header=True[,
close_file=True[,
append=True[,
Parameters
• query – A peewee SelectQuery to dump as CSV.
• file_or_name – Either a filename or a file-like object.
• include_header – Whether to generate a CSV header row consisting of the names of the
selected columns.
• close_file – Whether the file should be closed after writing the query data.
• append – Whether new data should be appended to the end of the file.
• csv_writer – A python csv.writer instance to use.
Example usage:
with open(’account-export.csv’, ’w’) as fh:
query = Account.select().order_by(Account.id)
dump_csv(query, fh)
1.13.15 Connection pool
Warning: This module should be considered experimental.
The pool module contains a helper class to pool database connections, as well as implementations for PostgreSQL
and MySQL. The pool works by overriding the methods on the Database class that open and close connections to
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the backend. The pool can specify a timeout after which connections are recycled, as well as an upper bound on the
number of open connections.
If your application is single-threaded, only one connection will be opened.
If your application is multi-threaded (this includes green threads) and you specify threadlocals=True when instantiating your database, then up to max_connections will be opened. As of version 2.3.3, this is the default behavior.
class PooledDatabase(database[, max_connections=20[, stale_timeout=None[, **kwargs ]]])
Mixin class intended to be used with a subclass of Database.
Parameters
• database (str) – The name of the database or database file.
• max_connections (int) – Maximum number of connections. Provide None for unlimited.
• stale_timeout (int) – Number of seconds to allow connections to be used.
• kwargs – Arbitrary keyword arguments passed to database class.
Note: Connections will not be closed exactly when they exceed their stale_timeout. Instead, stale connections
are only closed when a new connection is requested.
Note: If the number of open connections exceeds max_connections, a ValueError will be raised.
manual_close()
Close the currently-open connection without returning it to the pool.
_connect(*args, **kwargs)
Request a connection from the pool. If there are no available connections a new one will be opened.
_close(conn[, close_conn=False ])
By default conn will not be closed and instead will be returned to the pool of available connections. If
close_conn=True, then conn will be closed and not be returned to the pool.
class PooledPostgresqlDatabase
Subclass of PostgresqlDatabase that mixes in the PooledDatabase helper.
class PooledPostgresqlExtDatabase
Subclass of PostgresqlExtDatabase that mixes in the PooledDatabase helper.
The
PostgresqlExtDatabase is a part of the Postgresql Extensions module and provides support for many
Postgres-specific features.
class PooledMySQLDatabase
Subclass of MySQLDatabase that mixes in the PooledDatabase helper.
1.13.16 Read Slaves
The read_slave module contains a Model subclass that can be used to automatically execute SELECT queries
against different database(s). This might be useful if you have your databases in a master / slave configuration.
class ReadSlaveModel
Model subclass that will route SELECT queries to a different database.
Master and read-slaves are specified using Model.Meta:
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# Declare a master and two read-replicas.
master = PostgresqlDatabase(’master’)
replica_1 = PostgresqlDatabase(’replica_1’)
replica_2 = PostgresqlDatabase(’replica_2’)
# Declare a BaseModel, the normal best-practice.
class BaseModel(ReadSlaveModel):
class Meta:
database = master
read_slaves = (replica_1, replica_2)
# Declare your models.
class User(BaseModel):
username = CharField()
When you execute writes (or deletes), they will be executed against the master database:
User.create(username=’Peewee’)
# Executed against master.
When you execute a read query, it will run against one of the replicas:
users = User.select().where(User.username == ’Peewee’)
Note: To force a SELECT query against the master database, manually create the SelectQuery.
SelectQuery(User)
# master database.
Note: Queries will be dispatched among the read_slaves in round-robin fashion.
1.13.17 Test Utils
Contains utilities helpful when testing peewee projects.
class test_database(db, models[, create_tables=True[, fail_silently=False ]])
Context manager that lets you use a different database with a set of models. Models can also be automatically
created and dropped.
This context manager helps make it possible to test your peewee models using a “test-only” database.
Parameters
• db (Database) – Database to use with the given models
• models – a list of Model classes to use with the db
• create_tables (boolean) – Whether tables should be automatically created and dropped.
• fail_silently (boolean) – Whether the table create / drop should fail silently.
Example:
from unittest import TestCase
from playhouse.test_utils import test_database
from peewee import *
from my_app.models import User, Tweet
test_db = SqliteDatabase(’:memory:’)
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class TestUsersTweets(TestCase):
def create_test_data(self):
# ... create a bunch of users and tweets
for i in range(10):
User.create(username=’user-%d’ % i)
def test_timeline(self):
with test_database(test_db, (User, Tweet)):
# This data will be created in ‘test_db‘
self.create_test_data()
# Perform assertions on test data inside ctx manager.
self.assertEqual(Tweet.timeline(’user-0’) [...])
# once we exit the context manager, we’re back to using the normal database
class count_queries([only_select=False ])
Context manager that will count the number of queries executed within the context.
Parameters only_select (bool) – Only count SELECT queries.
with count_queries() as counter:
huey = User.get(User.username == ’huey’)
huey_tweets = [tweet.message for tweet in huey.tweets]
assert counter.count == 2
count
The number of queries executed.
get_queries()
Return a list of 2-tuples consisting of the SQL query and a list of parameters.
assert_query_count(expected[, only_select=False ])
Function or method decorator that will raise an AssertionError if the number of queries executed in the
decorated function does not equal the expected number.
class TestMyApp(unittest.TestCase):
@assert_query_count(1)
def test_get_popular_blogs(self):
popular_blogs = Blog.get_popular()
self.assertEqual(
[blog.title for blog in popular_blogs],
["Peewee’s Playhouse!", "All About Huey", "Mickey’s Adventures"])
This function can also be used as a context manager:
class TestMyApp(unittest.TestCase):
def test_expensive_operation(self):
with assert_query_count(1):
perform_expensive_operation()
1.13.18 pskel
I often find myself writing very small scripts with peewee. pskel will generate the boilerplate code for a basic peewee
script.
Usage:
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pskel [options] model1 model2 ...
pskel accepts the following options:
Option
-l,--logging
-e,--engine
-d,--database
Default
False
sqlite
:memory:
Description
Log all queries to stdout.
Database driver to use.
Database to connect to.
Example:
$ pskel -e postgres -d my_database User Tweet
This will print the following code to stdout (which you can redirect into a file using >):
#!/usr/bin/env python
import logging
from peewee import *
from peewee import create_model_tables
db = PostgresqlDatabase(’my_database’)
class BaseModel(Model):
class Meta:
database = db
class User(BaseModel):
pass
class Tweet(BaseModel):
pass
def main():
create_model_tables([User, Tweet], fail_silently=True)
if __name__ == ’__main__’:
main()
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Note
If you find any bugs, odd behavior, or have an idea for a new feature please don’t hesitate to open an issue on GitHub
or contact me.
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Chapter 2. Note
CHAPTER 3
Indices and tables
• genindex
• modindex
• search
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Chapter 3. Indices and tables
Index
Symbols
__and__() (SelectQuery method), 74
__getitem__() (SelectQuery method), 74
__invert__() (Node method), 87
__iter__() (SelectQuery method), 74
__or__() (SelectQuery method), 74
__sub__() (SelectQuery method), 74
__xor__() (SelectQuery method), 75
_close() (PooledDatabase method), 122
_connect() (PooledDatabase method), 122
_is_bound, 62
A
add_column() (SchemaMigrator method), 118
add_index() (SchemaMigrator method), 119
add_not_null() (SchemaMigrator method), 118
aggregate() (SelectQuery method), 72
aggregate() (SqliteExtDatabase method), 99
aggregate_rows() (SelectQuery method), 71
alias() (Model class method), 60
alias() (Node method), 87
alias() (Query method), 67
annotate() (SelectQuery method), 72
APSWDatabase (built-in class), 89
ArrayField (built-in class), 94
asc() (Node method), 87
assert_query_count() (built-in function), 124
B
begin() (Database method), 80
BerkeleyDatabase (built-in class), 105
between() (Node method), 87
BigIntegerField (built-in class), 63
BlobField (built-in class), 65
BM25() (built-in function), 104
bm25() (FTSModel class method), 103
BooleanField (built-in class), 65
C
case() (built-in function), 111
CharField (built-in class), 63
close() (Database method), 79
coerce(), 63
collation() (SqliteExtDatabase method), 100
commit() (Database method), 80
commit_on_success() (Database method), 83
compiler() (Database method), 80
CompositeKey (built-in class), 66
CompoundSelect (built-in class), 77
concat() (Node method), 87
connect() (built-in function), 119
connect() (Database method), 79
connect() (Signal method), 114
contains() (ArrayField method), 95
contains() (HStoreField method), 97
contains() (Node method), 87
contains_any() (ArrayField method), 95
contains_any() (HStoreField method), 97
count (count_queries attribute), 124
count() (SelectQuery method), 73
count_queries (built-in class), 124
create() (Model class method), 59
create_foreign_key() (Database method), 81
create_index() (Database method), 81
create_sequence() (Database method), 82
create_table() (Database method), 81
create_table() (FTSModel class method), 102
create_table() (Model class method), 60
create_tables() (Database method), 82
D
Database (built-in class), 78
DateField (built-in class), 64
DateTimeField (built-in class), 64
DateTimeTZField (built-in class), 95
day (DateField attribute), 65
day (DateTimeField attribute), 64
db_value(), 63
DecimalField (built-in class), 63
defined() (HStoreField method), 96
delete() (HStoreField method), 96
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delete() (Model class method), 59
delete_instance() (Model method), 61
DeleteQuery (built-in class), 76
dependencies() (Model method), 61
desc() (Node method), 87
dict_to_model() (built-in function), 112
dicts() (RawQuery method), 77
dicts() (SelectQuery method), 71
dirty_fields (Model attribute), 62
disconnect() (Signal method), 114
distinct() (SelectQuery method), 70
DoubleField (built-in class), 63
drop_column() (SchemaMigrator method), 118
drop_index() (SchemaMigrator method), 119
drop_not_null() (SchemaMigrator method), 118
drop_sequence() (Database method), 82
drop_table() (Database method), 82
drop_table() (Model class method), 61
drop_tables() (Database method), 82
dump_csv() (built-in function), 121
granular_transaction() (SqliteExtDatabase method), 100
group_by() (SelectQuery method), 68
E
J
endswith() (Node method), 87
execute() (DeleteQuery method), 76
execute() (InsertQuery method), 76
execute() (Query method), 67
execute() (RawQuery method), 77
execute() (SelectQuery method), 74
execute() (UpdateQuery method), 75
execute_sql() (Database method), 80
exists() (HStoreField method), 96
exists() (SelectQuery method), 73
extract_date() (Database method), 83
join() (Query method), 67
JSONField (built-in class), 97
F
first() (SelectQuery method), 74
FloatField (built-in class), 63
fn (built-in class), 84
for_update() (SelectQuery method), 70
ForeignKeyField (built-in class), 65
from_() (SelectQuery method), 68
FTSModel (built-in class), 101
func() (SqliteExtDatabase method), 100
G
get() (Model class method), 60
get() (SelectQuery method), 73
get_autocommit() (Database method), 80
get_conn() (Database method), 80
get_cursor() (Database method), 80
get_indexes_for_table() (Database method), 81
get_queries() (count_queries method), 124
get_tables() (Database method), 80
GFKField (built-in class), 109
132
H
having() (SelectQuery method), 69
hour (DateTimeField attribute), 64
hour (TimeField attribute), 65
HStoreField (built-in class), 95
I
init() (Database method), 79
initialize() (Proxy method), 86
insert() (Model class method), 58
insert_from() (Model class method), 59
insert_many() (Model method), 58
InsertQuery (built-in class), 75
IntegerField (built-in class), 63
is_dirty() (Model method), 62
items() (HStoreField method), 96
iterator() (SelectQuery method), 71
K
keys() (HStoreField method), 95
KeyStore (built-in class), 110
L
last_insert_id() (Database method), 80
limit() (SelectQuery method), 70
load_csv() (built-in function), 120
M
manual_close() (PooledDatabase method), 122
Match() (built-in function), 98
match() (built-in function), 104
match() (FTSModel class method), 102
migrate() (built-in function), 117
minute (DateTimeField attribute), 64
minute (TimeField attribute), 65
Model (built-in class), 57
model_class, 62
model_to_dict() (built-in function), 112
month (DateField attribute), 65
month (DateTimeField attribute), 64
MySQLDatabase (built-in class), 84
MySQLMigrator (built-in class), 119
N
naive() (SelectQuery method), 70
name, 63
Index
peewee Documentation, Release 2.3.3
Node (built-in class), 86
O
offset() (SelectQuery method), 70
optimize() (FTSModel class method), 102
order_by() (SelectQuery method), 69
over() (fn method), 84
P
paginate() (SelectQuery method), 70
PickledKeyStore (built-in class), 110
PooledDatabase (built-in class), 122
PooledMySQLDatabase (built-in class), 122
PooledPostgresqlDatabase (built-in class), 122
PooledPostgresqlExtDatabase (built-in class), 122
PostgresqlDatabase (built-in class), 84
PostgresqlExtDatabase (built-in class), 94
PostgresqlMigrator (built-in class), 119
prefetch() (built-in function), 77
prepared() (Model method), 62
PrimaryKeyField (built-in class), 63
Proxy (built-in class), 86
python_value(), 63
Q
Query (built-in class), 66
R
Rank() (built-in function), 104
rank() (FTSModel class method), 102
raw() (Model class method), 59
RawQuery (built-in class), 76
ReadSlaveModel (built-in class), 122
rebuild() (FTSModel class method), 102
regexp() (Node method), 87
register_fields() (Database class method), 83
register_module() (APSWDatabase method), 89
register_ops() (Database class method), 83
rename_column() (SchemaMigrator method), 118
rename_table() (SchemaMigrator method), 118
ReverseGFK (built-in class), 110
rollback() (Database method), 80
rows_affected() (Database method), 80
select() (Model class method), 57
select() (SelectQuery method), 68
SelectQuery (built-in class), 68
send() (Signal method), 115
sequence_exists() (Database method), 81
ServerSide() (built-in function), 94
set_autocommit() (Database method), 80
Signal (built-in class), 114
slice() (HStoreField method), 96
SQL (built-in class), 85
sql() (Query method), 67
sql_error_handler() (Database method), 83
sqlall() (Model class method), 61
SqlCipherDatabase (built-in class), 105
SqliteDatabase (built-in class), 84
SqliteExtDatabase (built-in class), 99
SqliteMigrator (built-in class), 119
startswith() (Node method), 87
switch() (Query method), 67
T
table_exists() (Model class method), 61
test_database (built-in class), 123
TextField (built-in class), 64
TimeField (built-in class), 65
transaction() (APSWDatabase method), 89
transaction() (Database method), 82
translate() (built-in function), 108
TSVectorField (built-in class), 99
tuples() (RawQuery method), 77
tuples() (SelectQuery method), 71
U
unregister_module() (APSWDatabase method), 89
update() (HStoreField method), 96
update() (Model class method), 57
UpdateQuery (built-in class), 75
upsert() (InsertQuery method), 76
UUIDField (built-in class), 65
V
values() (HStoreField method), 96
VirtualModel (built-in class), 101
S
W
save() (Model method), 61
savepoint() (Database method), 83
scalar() (Query method), 67
SchemaMigrator (built-in class), 118
search() (FTSModel class method), 103
search_bm25() (FTSModel class method), 103
second (DateTimeField attribute), 64
second (TimeField attribute), 65
where() (Query method), 66
Window (built-in class), 85
window() (SelectQuery method), 69
wrapped_count() (SelectQuery method), 73
Index
Y
year (DateField attribute), 64
year (DateTimeField attribute), 64
133

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