Manual for the Formatting of Graduate Dissertations and Theses University of Toledo

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Manual for the Formatting of
Graduate Dissertations and Theses∗
Authorized by the
University of Toledo
Graduate Council
November 22, 2011
Administrative Issues Addressed by
Dr. Patricia R. Komuniecki
Vice Provost for Graduate Affairs and
Dean of the College of Graduate Studies
The University of Toledo
Toledo, Ohio 43606
Main Campus: 3240 University Hall
(419.530.4723)
Health Science Campus:
117 Mulford Library
(419.383.4112)
[email protected]
FAX: 419.530.4724
∗
The U
T Graduate Faculty appreciate the countless hours staff members of the College of Graduate Studies routinely
devote towards helping our students succeed in their graduate studies. Their knowledge, experience, and efforts have
made this Manual possible.
Table of Contents
1 Introduction
1.1 Contact Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 This Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3 The Graduate Student Handbook (i.e., the companion to this Manual) . . . . . . . .
1
1
1
1
2 General Formatting Issues
2.1 Text Color, Size and Font . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 Spacing and Margins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3 Page Numbering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4 General Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5 No College-Specific Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6 Formatting Tables, Figures, Charts, Graphs, Photographs,
2.7 LATEX Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8 Exceptions to Formatting Regulations . . . . . . . . . . .
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3 Organization of Document
3.1 Prescribed Sections . . . .
3.2 Title Page . . . . . . . . .
3.3 Copyright/Blank Page . .
3.4 Abstract Page . . . . . . .
3.5 Dedication Page . . . . .
3.6 Acknowledgments . . . . .
3.7 Table of Contents . . . . .
3.8 List of Tables . . . . . . .
3.9 List of Figures . . . . . .
3.10 List of Abbreviations . . .
3.11 List of Symbols . . . . . .
3.12 Preface . . . . . . . . . .
3.13 Chapters 1, 2, 3, etc. . . .
3.14 References . . . . . . . . .
3.15 Appendices . . . . . . . .
3.16 Index . . . . . . . . . . .
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Maps,
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etc.
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10
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4 Title Page Signatures
4.1 Electronic v. Written Signatures . . . . . . . .
4.2 Required, Optional, and Prohibited Signatures
4.3 Signature Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4 Consistent Presentation of Signatures . . . . .
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21
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5 Issues to Consider When Finalizing Your Document
5.1 Be Aware of all Processing and Submission Deadlines
5.2 Proofread Your Document Before You Submit It . . .
5.3 Submitting Your Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4 Hard (Paper) Copies of Your Dissertation/Thesis . . .
5.5 Dissertation Publishing Requirement . . . . . . . . . .
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6 Amending this Manual
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24
ii
Appendices
25
A Sample Pages
A.1 Sample Title Page . . . . . . . . .
A.2 Sample Copyright Page . . . . . .
A.3 Sample Abstract Page . . . . . . .
A.4 Sample Dedication Page . . . . . .
A.5 Sample Acknowledgments Page . .
A.6 Sample Table of Contents . . . . .
A.7 Sample List of Tables . . . . . . .
A.8 Sample List of Figures . . . . . . .
A.9 Sample List of Abbreviations . . .
A.10 Sample List of Symbols . . . . . .
A.11 Sample Preface (first page) . . . .
A.12 Sample Chapter (first page) . . . .
A.13 Sample Figure (full page) . . . . .
A.14 Sample Table (embedded in text) .
A.15 Sample References . . . . . . . . .
A.16 Sample Appendix (first page) . . .
A.17 Sample Figure (embedded in text)
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25
26
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39
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41
42
Index
A through C .
D through Gr
Gr through N
O through Ph
Pr through Si
Si through Te
Te through W
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43
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iii
1
1.1
Introduction
Contact Information
If you have questions about the information on the Graduate College’s website or the requirements in this manual, please contact the College of Graduate Studies offices. Their offices are located in room 3240 University Hall on the Main Campus (419.530.4723, [email protected])
and on the first floor of the Mulford Library Building, Room 117 on the Health Science Campus
(419.383.4112).
1.2
This Manual
Standards: Your dissertation/thesis represents an important addition to the intellectual legacy
of this university and a significant contribution to the knowledge of your particular discipline.
Accordingly, it is important to ensure that its presentation of material meets certain standards
so that your dissertation/thesis enjoys the widest possible dissemination and readership. Those
standards are established in this manual. The presentation of material is very important because,
after all, you are writing a dissertation/thesis not just to satisfy your own intellectual curiosity,
you are also writing it for the individuals who read it 1, 10 . . . n years from now. It was for this
reason — the “readability” of graduate documents — that the U
T Graduate Faculty established the
standards described in this manual for the formatting/presentation of material in dissertations
and theses.
This manual includes a wide range of formatting regulations: from specifying text font to the
presentation of tables and figures; from specifying margins to the exact spacing of section headings;
from rules on page numbers to prescribing the set of pages/sections that must be included in
every dissertation/thesis. All regulations specified in this manual must be satisfied in order for a
dissertation or thesis to be accepted by the U
T Graduate Faculty.
Other general information: This manual is interactive in the sense that this PDF file acts
like a webpage — with active links to external websites and to other sections in this manual. For
example, if you click on the link “section 2.1” your PDF reader will automatically take you to
section 2.1 (p. 2) of this manual. There are two other internal cross-reference features to note.
First, all entries in the Table of Contents are active links to the sections they enumerate. Second,
the Index section includes approximately 650 active links to almost every issue discussed in this
manual.
Throughout this handbook are references to the Graduate Council and the College of Graduate
Studies. The Graduate Council is a faculty governance body that determines graduate academic
policies — including those specified in this manual. The College of Graduate Studies administers
and enforces those academic policies. The College of Graduate Studies also establishes and enforces
all administrative regulations, such as those described in the graduate student handbook (see
section 1.3 for details).
1.3
The Graduate Student Handbook (i.e., the companion to this Manual)
As stated in section 1.2, this manual establishes the formatting regulations for every U
T dissertation/thesis. It does not address administrative rules, regulations, deadlines, etc. for graduate
students. Information on such items is provided in the Graduate College’s graduate student
handbook and the Graduate College’s website.
In other words, while this manual focuses on the formatting of dissertations/thesis only, the
graduate student handbook addresses a much broader set of issues. It contains a wide range of
information that is relevant to all students — from the time they first register as graduate students
1
Manual for the Formatting of Graduate Dissertations and Theses
to the time they apply for graduation. This includes a description of the various forms students
must submit to the Graduate College at various stages of their graduate studies and the deadlines
for all such forms. The graduate student handbook also includes relevant information on
registration and graduate credit, transfer of credit, academic regulations, academic standards, student health insurance, ethics and student code of conduct, and information on graduation (dates,
ceremony, etc.). For Graduate Assistants the graduate student handbook specifies the application process, benefits, job descriptions, etc. For dissertations/theses, it describes the rules
regarding the composition of your dissertation/thesis committee, the role of the committee chair,
copyright issues, compliance issues, department/college procedures and deadlines, and the defense
of your document. Because the above is only a short list of the issues addressed in the graduate student handbook, all students should familiarize themselves with the material in that
handbook and the information posted on the Graduate College’s webpages.
2
General Formatting Issues
An acceptable thesis or dissertation must be legible, formatted according to the specifications
in this manual, and written in good quality English grammar.1 If the document is printed,
it must be in suitable condition for binding and printed on one side only (i.e., no double-sided
printing).2 See section 5.4 (p. 24) for additional information pertaining to hard (paper) copies of
your dissertation/thesis.
Students may choose to have their document’s textual material formatted “ragged-right” or
“flush” with the right margin. This choice should be made by considering the typesetting capabilities of the software used to prepare your dissertation/thesis. For example, students using Microsoft’s
Word should consider the “ragged-right” option. In contrast, students using LATEX should use the
“flush-right” option (which is the default setting in LATEX).
Hyphenations are permitted, except when the hyphenated word is split over two pages. If your
word processing software has a “widow/orphan protection feature,” it is recommended that you
use this feature to avoid the first line of a paragraph being at the end of a page or the last line of a
paragraph beginning a new page. It is acceptable to have a page end shorter to prevent paragraphs
starting or ending in this manner.
The Graduate Council and the College of Graduate Studies reserves the right to require an
author to make appropriate style and formatting changes to their document and to refuse any
document that is not suitable for binding.
2.1
Text Color, Size and Font
The following requirements regarding text color, size, and font have been established for ease in
reading your dissertation/thesis.
Text Color: Dissertations/theses are required to use black text color for all textual material in
the document. To be clear: this includes all textual material in the preliminary pages, body, references, and appendices. This also includes text within section headings, page numbers, footnotes,
mathematical expressions, tables, and labels and captions to tables, figures and other illustrative
material.
1
An exception to the rule that a document must be written in English exists for students in the Department of
Foreign Languages, who may be required to write all or part of their thesis in a foreign language.
2
The issue of printing the document pertains to when the final version of the document is printed for the committee
chair, other committee members, department, academic college, or for other personal copies.
Go to:
Table of Contents §1 §2 §3 §4 §5
Index
Page 2
Manual for the Formatting of Graduate Dissertations and Theses
Text Size: All dissertations/theses are required to use a 12-point text size throughout the textual
material of the document’s preliminary pages, body, references, and appendices. This requirement
does not apply to text within tables, figures, footnotes, or mathematical expressions. However, the
labels and captions to tables, figures and other illustrative material are required to use a 12-point
text size.
Text Font: Students are not permitted to use script-style fonts or san serif fonts in their dissertations/theses (examples of san serif fonts are Arial and Helvetica). All dissertations/theses are
required to choose a single serif font as the text font that is used throughout the textual material
of the document. Acceptable serif fonts are limited to:
• Book Antiqua
• Century Schoolbook
• Garamond
• Times Roman (a.k.a., “Roman” or “Times New Roman”).
Note: the Times Roman text font is recommended for all dissertations and theses.
2.2
Spacing and Margins
General Spacing: All textual materials must be double-spaced. The following exceptions to this
rule may be single-spaced:
• long quotations (approximately forty words or more)
• the content of tables and text within figures
• captions to figures and tables
• footnotes
The discussion in section 3.14 (p. 19) describes the formatting of your reference section. It states
that when reporting works cited in a dissertation/thesis, students must chose one of the following
spacing options for their reference section:
1) Use single-spacing within an individual reference but use double-spacing between references.
This option is illustrated by the first group of references in the Sample Reference Page (appendix A.15, p. 40).
2) Use double-spacing within each reference and between references. This option is illustrated by
the second group of references in the appendix’s Sample Reference Page (p. 40).
Margins: No material may appear in the margins, except a page number (see section 2.3). Every
page of the document must have the following margins:
Bottom margin:
Right margin:
Left margin:
one inch (1 )
one inch (1 )
one and a half inch (1 12 )
Note that the left margin (1 12 ) allows space for binding and trimming of printed copies for
personal use or paper copies that may be required by your committee chair/committee members,
your department, or your college (for additional details see section 5.4, p. 24).
The value of the top margin depends on whether the page is the first page of a “major division.”
A “major division” includes the acknowledgements page, table of contents, list of tables, list of
figures, list of abbreviations, list of symbols, preface, chapters, references, appendices, and index.
If the page is the first page of a major section or division, the top margin is 2 inches (2 ). This
is the distance from the top edge of the page to the bottom edge of the section heading. Examples
of this margin requirement are provided in the appendix: see the Sample Preface Page (p. 36) and
the Sample Chapter First Page (p. 37).
The top margin of every other page is one inch (1 ) from the top edge of the page. An example
of this margin requirement is provided by the Sample Table Page (p. 39).
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2.3
Page Numbering
Page Number Location: All pages must be present and numbered in the proper sequence. Do
not use periods, brackets, hyphens, etc. before or after page numbers. The page number of every
page is to be located 34 from the bottom edge of the page and centered between the 1.5 left margin
and the 1 right margin. Page numbers are to be printed in 12-point font size and black text color
(the same font size and color required of all textual material).
Preliminary Page Numbers: Page numbers that are printed on “preliminary pages” are in
lower-case Roman numerals (i.e., i, ii, iii, iv, . . . ). Detailed formatting issues for these preliminary
pages are provided in section 3. Appendix pages 26 through 36 provide examples of each preliminary
page. Table 2.1 provides a summary of the pagination requirements for preliminary pages. The two
far-right columns of Table 2.1 indicate the manual section which provides additional formatting
information for each preliminary page and the corresponding sample page in the appendix.
Table 2.1: A summary of some formatting issues for preliminary pages. This includes
whether a page/section is required, pagination issues, inclusion in the table
of contents, and the location of the corresponding sample page.
Required Included
Page Listed in
or
in
Number Table of
Page
Optional Pagination Printed Contents
Title
required
yes
no
no
Blank/Copyright
required
yes
no
no
Abstract
required
yes
yes
yes
Dedication
optional
yes
optional
no
Acknowledgments
optional
yes
yes
yes
Table of Contents
required
yes
yes
yes
List of Tables
conditional
yes
yes
yes
List of Figures
conditional
yes
yes
yes
List of Abbreviations optional
yes
yes
yes
List of Symbols
optional
yes
yes
yes
Preface
optional
yes
yes
yes
Described
here in
Section
3.2 (p. 10)
3.3 (p. 12)
3.4 (p. 13)
3.5 (p. 14)
3.6 (p. 14)
3.7 (p. 14)
3.8 (p. 15)
3.9 (p. 16)
3.10 (p. 16)
3.11 (p. 17)
3.12 (p. 18)
Sample
Page
Location
p. 26
p. 27
p. 28
p. 29
p. 30
p. 31
p. 32
p. 33
p. 34
p. 35
p. 36
Chapter, References, Appendix, & Index Page Numbers: All pages within these divisions
receive a page number and the page number is printed on the page using Arabic numerals (i.e.,
1, 2, 3, . . . ). The first page of the first chapter must be numbered “1” with subsequent pages
numbered 2, 3, 4, etc. The page number of the first page of a subsequent chapter is to follow
consecutively from the last page number in the previous chapter (i.e., the page number of the first
page of a subsequent chapter does not reset to “1”). The same principle is to be applied to the page
number of the first page of subsequent major divisions (i.e., References, Appendices, and Index).
To summarize, the first page of the first chapter is numbered “1” with subsequent pages numbered 2, 3, 4, etc., and this pagination continues unbroken to the last page of the document (i.e.,
page numbers are never again “reset” to 1).
A page number must be printed in an Arabic numeral on every page starting with the first
page of the first chapter. This includes pages that contain a table, figure, blueprint, photograph,
etc. The only exception to this requirement are whole-page photographs: such pages need not
show a page number, though a page number must be reserved in the sequence. In other words, a
whole-page photograph page must be counted in the pagination, though a page number does not
have to be printed on that particular page.
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2.4
General Rules
Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Symbols: these must be defined in the text the first time they
are used in the text. Depending on the context, this definition must appear immediately before or after the abbreviation/acronym/symbol; thereafter the abbreviation/acronym/symbol
must be consistently substituted for its definition within the document’s text. The following
is an example of the abbreviation/acronym “EST” appearing after its definition:
“The eclipse will occur at 9:15, Eastern Standard Time (EST).”
In contrast the following is an example of a symbol proceeding its definition:
“These results depend on the value of Tobin’s Q ; where Q represents the ratio of the
market value of installed capital to the replacement cost of capital.”
See section 3.10 and section 3.11 for formatting information on optional preliminary pages,
including List of Abbreviations and List of Symbols.
Beginning a Sentence: No sentence, except in a footnote, should begin with a numeral, symbol
or abbreviation (except titles such as Dr., Mrs., Mr.).
Capitalization in a Title of Heading: A good general rule is that nouns, verbs, and any word
of four or more letters are capitalized in a title or heading.
Colon: When a colon is used to introduce a list, it should be preceded by an independent clause
(e.g., “Our study included five elements: (1) ...”; “The ingredients were as follows: ...”, not
“The ingredients were: ...”).
Dates: Typing style for dates that appear in the text must take the following form: Month day,
and year. For example: July 10, 1994 — not “10 July 1994”.
Ellipses: Within a sentence, omissions are indicated by three spaced periods. Between and at the
end of sentences where omissions have been made, the final period precedes the three ellipsis
points. When typed correctly, it will look like this. . . . In most cases, do not use ellipses at
the beginning or end of a quote.
Footnotes: Footnotes to textual material must be numbered consecutively using Arabic numerals
(i.e., 1, 2, 3, . . . ). Footnote numbers are not reset to “1” for new chapters, sections, appendices, etc. Throughout the text, footnotes must appear at the bottom of the page and not in
a separate section (section 2.8.1 provides an exception to this rule when an alternative style
guide is adopted).
Footnotes to a table (or figure) must be typed directly beneath the table (or figure) and
numbered consecutively. They are not to be numbered in sequence with footnotes throughout
the text. Instead, footnotes to a table (or figure) are to be enumerated using the “alph” style
(i.e., a, b, c, . . . ). The first footnote of each table (or figure) is to be reset to “a”, with
subsequent footnotes to that table (or figure) being “b,” “c,” . . . .
Numbers: Numbers should always be written out when they stand as the first word in the sentence. The numbers one (1) through nine (9) are to be written out in the text when not
used with abbreviations. All higher numbers will be presented in Arabic figures. Numbers
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indicating time, weight, and measurement are to be expressed in Arabic figures when followed
by an abbreviation (e.g., 1 mm; 1 sec; 3 gm; 10 mm3 ).
2.5
No College-Specific Pages
Graduate degrees are awarded by the College of Graduate Studies, and not by a student’s academic
college. Therefore, no “college signature pages” or other college-specific page(s) shall be permitted
in any document submitted to the College of Graduate Studies, OhioLINK, Proquest/UMI Dissertation Publishing or any other organization publishing the document. Further, individual colleges
are prohibited from asking their students to include “college-specific page(s)” in internal copies
of dissertations/theses kept only by the academic college. This means that all internal copies of
dissertations/theses kept by a college must be a verbatim copy of those documents submitted to
the College of Graduate Studies.
2.6
Formatting Tables, Figures, Charts, Graphs, Photographs, Maps, etc.
“Illustrative material” includes tables, figures, charts, graphs, photographs, maps, etc. Please note
the following requirements for using illustrative material in your dissertation/thesis:
• Illustrative material must be concise, accurate, and of professional-quality.
→ Distinguishing characteristics within such illustrative material (e.g., lines on a graph or portions of a figure) should be be identified by labels or symbols, with colors used only when the
use of such labels or symbols is not possible or practical.
→ Shaded areas (e.g., countries on a map) will have better contrast if cross-hatching is used
instead of color.
• Formatting and labeling of charts, graphs, photographs, maps and other illustrative material
(excluding tables) are to follow the rules for figures established throughout this manual. If
necessary, a List of Charts, or a List of Graphs, etc., would be included in the preliminary pages.
If such lists are necessary, they would follow the List of Figures but would appear prior to the
List of Abbreviations.
• Each illustrative material must be labeled.
→ See section 3.8 and section 3.9 (pp. 15 – 16) for a description of how the chapter/appendix
number is incorporated into table and figure labels. For example, the fifth table in chapter 2
would have the label “Table 2.5” and the label for fourth figure of the second appendix would
be “Figure B-4.”
→ Each illustrative material is to be labeled according to its classification. This simply means
that tables in chapter 5 would be labeled “Table 5.1,” “Table 5.2,” “Table 5.3,” — figures in
chapter 5 would be labeled “Figure 5-1,” “Figure 5-2,” “Figure 5-3,” — charts in chapter 5
would be labeled “Chart 5-1,” “Chart 5-2,” “Chart 5-3,” — and so on for other illustrative
material;
→ As stated in section 2.1 (p. 2) the label’s font size must be the same as the text size (i.e.,
12-point text size).
• Each illustrative material must have a concise descriptive caption accompanying its enumeration. Examples of such captions are provided in the appendix’s Sample Figure Page (p. 38) and
Sample Table Page (p. 39). Note:
→ captions may be single-spaced;
→ a caption to a table appears above the table;
→ a caption to a figure appears below the figure; the same is true for other illustrative material
(excluding tables);
→ as stated in section 2.1 (p. 2), a caption’s font size must be the same as the text size (i.e.,
12-point text size).
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• When possible, illustrative material is to be placed within the text rather than on a separate
page. An example of this is provided in the Sample Table Page (appendix A.14, p. 39).
→ When placed within the text, the illustrative material is to occur on the page it is first cited
or at the top of the subsequent page.
→ If the illustrative material is too large to fit between text, it is to appear centered (vertically
and horizontally) on the page subsequent to its first citation.
• Photographs must be professional-quality.
• Appropriate permission letters must be included for any copyrighted materials in the document
that exceed “fair use.” See the graduate student handbook for information on using copyrighted material in your dissertation/thesis.
• Illustrative material that is larger than the standard 8 12 × 11 page size may be used in your
document. These items must be gathered and placed in an appendix (or appendices). An
appendix containing extra-large illustrative material must be located after all other appendices.
2.7
LATEX Users
Note: Information in this section is not relevant for students using Microsoft Word to prepare
their dissertation or thesis.
Students using the LATEX document preparation system are strongly encouraged to use the
LATEX document class file (U
Thesis) that has been created to facilitate uniform dissertations, theses,
and projects at the University of Toledo.3 U
Thesis transforms a draft LATEX document into one that
satisfies all style and formatting requirements established in this manual (i.e., much less work for
you). Proper use of U
Thesis will therefore guarantee the College of Graduate Studies’ acceptance of
the style and formatting of your document.
Students enter (or ‘copy and paste’) information into a template file — for example, the document title, degree, student’s name, advisor’s name, text to the abstract, etc. With this information
U
Thesis automatically generates the title page, copyright notification page, abstract page, dedication
page, acknowledgements page, table of contents, preface, and the lists of tables, figures, abbreviations, and symbols — all formatted to the specifications established in this manual. U
Thesis also
controls for all other requirements in this manual— from obvious issues as text size, margins, page
numbers, table/figure captions, etc. to less obvious issues as automatically adjusting the vertical
spacing on the title page to account for varying number of signature lines that may appear on that
page. To be brief, student’s provide the information and U
Thesis formats the document.
The U
Thesis package includes the template file, tutorials, and other documents to assist students
in the preparation of their document. Those files can be obtained at the following Department of
Economics webpage:
www.utoledo.edu/llss/econ/UThesis Documents.html.
If you have any questions about the U
Thesis package please contact the Department of Economics
(419.530.2572; [email protected]) or the College of Graduate Studies (419.530.4723; [email protected]).
2.8
2.8.1
Exceptions to Formatting Regulations
Exceptions for Established Discipline-Specific Style Guides
Requirements stated in this manual constitute the default style guide for formatting U
T dissertations and theses. However, exceptions to some manual requirements are permitted when a
committee chair directs his/her student to “adopt” an alternative style guide. For an alternative
3
A
Dr. Michael Dowd’s “U
Thesis– A L TEX Document Class for Dissertations and Theses at The University of Toledo.”
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style guide to be acceptable it must be (a) a well-established general style guide (e.g., The Chicago
Manual of Style) or (b) endorsed by a professional organization — such as the style guides from
American Psychological Association (APA), the Modern Language Association (MLA).
It is important to note that if a particular formatting issue is not addressed in this manual but is
addressed by the alternative style guide, then the student is to follow the formatting requirements
for that issue specified in the alternative style guide. For example, section 3.14 (p. 19) of this
manual does not specify how the works cited in your dissertation/thesis are to be reported in
your Reference section. In this case students would format individual references according to
requirements specified in their alternative style guide.
It is equally important to note that if a particular formatting issue addressed in this manual
conflicts with that in an alternative style guide, then the following five prescribed set of formatting
issues are the only set of manual requirements that may be displaced through the adoption of an
alternative style guide:
1. Page headings of preliminary pages, chapters, references, and appendices. The alternative
style guide may influence the following formatting issues for page headings:
• vertical position (e.g., the distance from the top margin to the page heading);
• horizontal position (e.g., centered or presented flush with the left margin);
• font and font size (used consistently for all page headings.)
2. Section headings (i.e., headings to sections, subsections, subsubsections, etc.) The alternative style guide may influence the following formatting issues for section headings:
• enumeration (i.e., whether section headings are enumerated within chapters and appendices);
• vertical position (e.g., additional vertical space above or below the section heading);
• horizontal position (e.g., its position depending on the section level);
• font and font size (e.g., font and font size depending on the section level).
3. Labels of illustrative materials (i.e., tables, figures, etc. — see section 2.6, section 3.8,
and section 3.9 — pp. 6, 15, and 16). The alternative style guide may influence the following
formatting issues for such labels:
• enumeration (i.e., whether such labels must include a chapter/appendix designation);
• vertical position (e.g., whether label is one line above or adjacent to caption);
• font (but not font size — all labels must be in 12-point font size).
4. Captions to illustrative materials (see #3 above). The alternative style guide may influence the following formatting issues for captions:
• vertical position (e.g., whether caption is one line below or adjacent to label);
• horizontal position (e.g., caption text formatted with left and right margins or with a
“hanging indentation”, as illustrated in the appendix’s Figure 1–1 on p. 38);
• font (but not font size — all captions must be in 12-point font size).
5. Location of footnotes: In contrast to that specified in section 2.4 (p. 5), text footnotes
may appear in a separate section if required by the alternative style guide. This does not
apply to footnotes in tables or figures.
2.8.2
Exceptions for Published or Submitted Manuscripts
General Information: When applicable, some programs may permit students to include manuscripts as chapters. This is acceptable under the following conditions. First, such manuscripts are
self-contained modular units, each written as a single paper. Second, by the student’s graduation
date, such manuscript chapters must be either published by or under review at a refereed scientific
journal. (A student interested in an exception to this second condition must follow the appeal
process described in section 2.8.3.)
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If, in addition to such manuscript chapters, a dissertation or thesis has chapters that are neither
published nor under review at a journal, then the material in those chapters must be formatted
according to this manual’s requirements.
If a manuscript has been accepted for publication or has been published, the title page of the
corresponding manuscript chapter (not the title page of the dissertation/thesis), must specify the
name of the publishing journal and include either the notation “in press” or the complete citation
if already published.
Applicable Journal Formatting Requirements: Each manuscript chapter (presumptive journal article) must be prepared exactly in the style required for the journal it has been submitted
to, including formats for illustrations (charts, graphs, tables, etc.) and the mode of citation of the
references. If a dissertation or thesis contains multiple manuscript chapters then each chapter’s
material is to be formatted according to the style of the respective journal — even if this results in
different formatting styles across chapters.
Manual Formatting Requirements: Each manuscript chapter must adhere to this manual’s
requirements regarding text color, text size, text font, margins, pagination and placement of page
numbers.
Other Formatting Requirements: As with all dissertations/theses, those with manuscript
chapters may not have college-specific pages (section 2.5, p. 6) and must adhere to the prescribed
document sections described in this manual (see section 3.1, p. 10). Dissertations/theses including
manuscript chapters are required to include both a “Discussion” (or “Summary”) chapter and
a complete References section. The Discussion/Summary chapter is to describe the thread of
continuity across all parts of the document and to state clearly the new addition to knowledge. As
described in section 3.14 (p. 19), the References section must provide a complete list of references to
all works cited in the dissertation/thesis. This Reference section must be included in the document
regardless of whether manuscript chapters list the works cited in those particular chapters.
Responsibilities:
1. It is the responsibility of the student’s committee members to determine the number of chapters and authorship, as well as the quality and probability that these chapters will be published
(if they have not already been published).
2. It is the joint responsibility of the student and the student’s committee chair to ensure that no
conflicts, legal or otherwise, exist between the journal publication of the manuscript chapter(s)
and the publication of the dissertation/thesis by OhioLink, ProQuest, or any other such
organization.
2.8.3
Appealing a Formatting Regulation
A student interested in deviating from an instruction, regulation, or policy in this manual must
submit a written appeal not less than 35 business days prior to the last day of classes for the term the
degree will be awarded. Appeals are to be delivered to the Dean of the College of Graduate Studies,
who will forward them to the Graduate Council Executive Committee (GCEC) for consideration. In
turn, within 10 business days of the GCEC receiving the appeal, the GCEC will notify the student
and the Graduate Dean of its decision on that appeal. This provides ample time for students to
satisfy submission deadlines and requirements established by the College of Graduate Studies. No
such deviations will be permitted without the GCEC ’s written authorization.
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3
Organization of Document
3.1
Prescribed Sections
The list below provides the exact sequence preliminary pages and major sections must appear in a
dissertation or thesis. Further, these are the only preliminary pages and major sections that may
be included in a dissertation or thesis. There are no exceptions to these rules: any dissertation or
thesis that deviates from the sequence listed below will be rejected by the Graduate College.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Title page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Copyright/Blank Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Abstract Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dedication Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table of Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
List of Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
List of Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other Lists from section 2.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
List of Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
List of Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapters 1, 2, 3, etc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
required
required
required
optional
optional
required
conditional
conditional
conditional
optional
optional
optional
required
required
if necessary
optional
Specific Directions: The material in section 3.2 through section 3.16 (pp. 10–20) describe specific style and formatting requirements for each of the preliminary pages and major sections listed
above.
Some preliminary page numbers are not printed on the page: Every preliminary page is
counted in the pagination. When page numbers are printed on a preliminary page they are printed
in lower-case Roman numerals (i.e., i, ii, iii, . . . ). However, the page number of some preliminary
pages is not printed on the page (see the table in section 2.3, p. 4). For example, the title page is
counted in the pagination as page “i” but that page number is not printed on the title page.
3.2
Title Page
The title page is counted in the pagination as page one. However, the page number is not printed
on that page. The title page is not listed in the table of contents. The title page text is to be
double-spaced (though items #2 and #4 below allow for possible exceptions to this rule).
Figure 3–1 (p. 11) illustrates the information that must appear on the title page, and the order
that information must appear on the page. That figure also demonstrates the general formatting of
information and the principle of equal spacing between each major section of the page. A detailed
description of each informational component in Figure 3–1 (p. 11) is enumerated below that figure.
Please note three additional issues. First, no other information may be included on the title
page (e.g., there shall be no reference to individual colleges or their administrators). Second, the
formatting of the information on the title page is to follow that illustrated in the Sample Title Page
(appendix A.1, p. 26). Third, signatures appearing on the title page must follow the specifications
of section 4 (p. 21).
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A <document>
entitled
<title>
by
<your name>
Submitted to the Graduate Faculty as partial fulfillment of
the requirements for the <degree> Degree in <discipline>
<Name>, Committee Chair
<Name>, Committee Member
<Name>, Dean
College of Graduate Studies
The University of Toledo
<month> <year>
Figure 3–1: General formatting of a title page (obviously not drawn to scale). See
the information below this figure and the appendix’s Sample Title Page
(p. 26) for specific details on how to format each component on this page.
The following list provides formatting information for each component in Figure 3–1 above.
1. <document>: This document is either a “Dissertation,” or a “Thesis”. The “A <document>
entitled” statement must be double-spaced and centered at the top of the page (i.e., located 1
below the top edge of the page).
2. <title>: The title is to be centered and double-spaced. However, single-spacing the title is
permitted if space is needed to accommodate additional signature lines (see #5 below). The
Sample Title Page (appendix A.1, p. 26) provides an example of how to format the document
title.
As mentioned in section 2.4 (p. 5), a good general rule is that nouns, verbs, and any word of four
or more letters are capitalized in a title. Note that you should not use all capital letters in your
title. However, in some cases, it is appropriate to use all capital letters for some acronyms, proper
nouns and other terms. Whenever possible, use full proper names. Avoid abbreviations for
specialized vocabulary, and use word substitutes for formulas, symbols, superscripts, subscripts,
Greek characters, etc. You must include all appropriate accents and diacritical marks.
3. <your name>: This, of course, is where you state your name. Consider carefully the style
of reporting your name. Examples are a) “Elmer Fudd,” b) “Elmer J. Fudd,” or c) “Elmer
Jehosephat Fudd.” The “by <your name>” statement must be centered and double-spaced.
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4. (a) <degree>: This is the exact description of you degree (e.g., Doctor of Philosophy, Master
of Arts, Master of Science, etc.).
(b) <discipline>: This is the discipline awarding the degree (e.g., Economics, Education,
Engineering, etc.). In many cases <discipline> is just the name of your department, though
it’s not so obvious in other cases. For example, a student receiving a masters degree in Civil
Engineering would have the statement “Master of Science Degree in Civil Engineering”;
however, a student whose Ph.D. work was in Civil Engineering would have “Doctor of
Philosophy Degree in Engineering” (i.e., not “Civil Engineering”). Consult your committee
chair and/or the College of Graduate Studies if you have questions on this issue.
The statement beginning with “Submitted to the Graduate Faculty . . . ” and ending with
“. . . <discipline>” is centered and double-spaced. However, single-spacing this statement is
permitted if space is needed to accommodate additional signature lines (see #5 below).
5. Signatures: Title page signatures must follow the specifications in section 4 (p. 21). This includes discussion of electronic v. written signatures (section 4.1), required, optional, and prohibited title page signatures (section 4.2), formatting of signature lines (section 4.3), and consistent
presentation of signatures (section 4.4).
Signature lines are to be double-spaced and presented flush with the right margin. See the
Sample Title Page (appendix A.1, p. 26) for an example of how to format signature lines.
6. <month> <year>: The conferral information consists of the statement “The University of
Toledo” followed by the month and year your degree will be conferred. This information must
be double-spaced and centered at the bottom of the page.
Do not use commas, brackets, etc. before or after the conferral date (i.e., the month and year).
Do not confuse the conferral date with the date the document was defended, approved, or
when committee members signed the title page. The month of the conferral date is either May,
August, or December and year is, of course, the year the university confers your degree. Consult
the Graduate College for the specific month and year your degree will be conferred. See the
Sample Title Page for an example of how to format this conferral information.
3.3
Copyright/Blank Page
The second page of every dissertation/thesis must be either a copyright notification page or a
blank page. A copyright notification page may not appear elsewhere in the dissertation/thesis. If a
student chooses to not include a copyright page, then the second page of their document must be a
blank page. Regardless of whether the second page is a copyright notification page or a blank page,
this page is counted in the pagination but the page number is not printed on the page. Further,
this page is not listed in the table of contents.
If a student chooses to include a copyright notification page as the second page of their document,
then the content of that page shall be limited to the following text:
Copyright <year>, <full legal name>
This document is copyrighted material. Under copyright law, no parts of this
document may be reproduced without the expressed permission of the author.
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The student must replace “<year>” in the above example with the appropriate year of copyright and replace “<full legal name>” with their full legal name. The above material is to be
printed single-spaced at the center of the page just above the bottom margin — with one blank
line separating the “Copyright <year>, <full legal name>” line from the subsequent text. From
section 2.1 (p. 2), this material must be printed in the same font as is used for all other textual
material (i.e., no other font is permitted for this page). The location of this material is illustrated
in Sample Copyright Page (appendix A.2, p. 27). Note that all copies of a copyrighted document
must include this copyright notification page. The graduate student handbook provides additional information on the process of copyrighting your document (including a discussion of legal
protection for you).
Please see the graduate student handbook for issues involving the copyrighting of your
document and the registration of your copyright. That handbook also provides a discussion of the
“fair use” policy involving the use of copyrighted material in your dissertation/thesis.
3.4
Abstract Page
General Information: Every dissertation and thesis is required to provide an abstract of the
scholarly work contained in the document. The Abstract page must be the third page of the
document (following the Title page and the Copyright/Blank page). This page is counted in the
pagination and its page number is printed on the page (in lower case Roman numerals). Because
the title page and the copyright/blank pages are counted in the pagination, the page number for
the Abstract page must be “iii”. The heading “Abstract” appears in the table of contents — as
illustrated in the Sample Table of Contents (appendix A.6, p. 31).
The information contained in the Abstract page is comprised of two parts, described below. No
other information may be included on the Abstract page. Students are encouraged to compare the
information below with that in the Sample Abstract Page (appendix A.3, p. 28).
Part One: This information is illustrated in Figure 3–2 (below). It is single-spaced and centered
at the top of the Abstract page — with equal spacing between each component (i.e., one blank
line). Note that this information (i.e., document title, your name, degree, discipline, and conferral
date) must correspond exactly to the information provided on the title page.
Further, from section 2.1 (p. 2), Abstract page material must be printed in the same font as
is used for all other textual material (i.e., bold, italics, underline, etc., fonts are not permitted for
this page).
An Abstract of
<document title>
by
<your name>
As partial fulfillment of the requirements for the
<degree> Degree in <discipline>
The University of Toledo
<month> <year>
Figure 3–2: This is the information included in “Part One” of your Abstract page
(see the discussion above). Following directly after that material is a
description of “Part Two” of your Abstract page.
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Part Two: This material follows the “Part One” material described in Figure 3–2 (p. 13). It
contains the abstract text, which must be double-spaced. (The appendix’s Sample Abstract Page
on page 28 illustrates how Part One of the Abstract page is single–spaced and how Part Two of
the Abstract page is double–spaced.) The abstract text must contain a concise statement of the
problem, procedure or methods utilized, results obtained and a brief conclusion. There is no word
limit on the text of your abstract, however, as ProQuest/UMI will continue to publish print indices
and these require word limits of 350 words for dissertations (see the definition of “a word” below).
Hence, a dissertation’s abstract will be truncated by ProQuest/UMI if it exceeds this word limit.
Please see the additional guidelines for preparing your abstract available in the Proquest/UMI
“Publishing Your Dissertation” booklet available on the College of Graduate Studies website.
A word is defined as any characters that has a space before and after, i.e., the words “a,”
“of,” etc., count as one word each. Hyphenated words such as “post-translational” or “1,1-bis(pchlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane” count as one word each.
3.5
Dedication Page
General Information: This is an optional page. If you choose to include a Dedication page, note
that its length shall not exceed one page. This page is not listed in the table of contents. For example, note that the Dedication Page is not included in the Sample Table of Contents (appendix A.6,
p. 31).
The Dedication page is counted in the pagination. Traditionally, a page number is not printed
on this page (e.g., because it is a “personal” page and not a “professional” page). However, it is left
to the student’s discretion as to whether a page number is printed on the Dedication Page (though,
regardless of that decision, it must be counted in the pagination).
Format: There is no page heading and the start of the dedication is located 3 inches from the
top-edge of the page — as illustrated by the Sample Dedication Page (appendix A.4, p. 29).
3.6
Acknowledgments
General Information: This is an optional page. If this page is included in the document then
this page shall include the heading “Acknowledgments”. An Acknowledgments page shall not exceed
one page in length. This page is counted in the pagination and its page number is printed on the
page (in lower case Roman numerals). As shown in the Sample Table of Contents (appendix A.6,
p. 31), the heading for this page is listed in the table of contents.
Format: The page heading (“Acknowledgments”) is located 2 inches from the top edge of the
page and flush with the left margin. The text of the acknowledgments shall begin 1 inch below
that heading — as illustrated in the Sample Acknowledgments Page (appendix A.5, p. 30).
3.7
Table of Contents
General Information: All dissertations/theses are required to include a detailed table of contents (i.e., parts, chapters, sections, subsections, references, appendices, etc.). The first page of the
table of contents shall include either the heading “Contents” or “Table of Contents.” The table
of contents pages are counted in the pagination and their page numbers are printed on the page
(in lower case Roman numerals). As illustrated in the Sample Table of Contents (appendix A.6,
p. 31), the heading for this page is listed in the Table of Contents.
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Format: The heading for this page (i.e., “Contents” or “Table of Contents”) is located 2 inches
from the top edge of the page and flush with the left margin. Following 1 inch below that heading
and flush with the left margin will begin the list of entries to the table of contents. If the Table of
Contents extends beyond a single page, the top-margin of subsequent pages is 1 inch from the top
edge of the page.
3.8
List of Tables
General Information: The first page of this section must include the heading “List of Tables”
— as illustrated in the Sample List of Tables (appendix A.7, p. 32). The list of tables pages
are counted in the pagination and their page numbers are printed on the page (in lower case
Roman numerals). The heading for this section is included in the table of contents (e.g., see the
Sample Table of Contents on p. 31).
Note: A List of Tables section is a required “preliminary page” if three or more tables are present
in the document. If the document contains only one or two tables then the inclusion of this
section is left to the discretion of the student.
Format: The Sample List of Tables shows that the heading of the first page of this section (i.e.,
“List of Tables”) is located 2 inches from the top edge of the page and flush with the left margin.
Following 1 inch below that heading and flush with the left margin begins the enumerated list of
entries to the List of Tables. If this list extends beyond a single page, the top-margin of subsequent
pages is 1 inch from the top edge of the page.
Table Caption Location: Sample Table 1.1 (appendix A.14, p. 39) and Sample Table A.1 (appendix A.16, p. 41) illustrate the requirement that captions to tables must be located above the
tables (in contrast to the placement of figure captions).
Caption Text v. Text in a List of Tables Entry: Although a caption must fully describe the
content of the table, an entry in the List of Tables must only provide sufficient information to direct
readers to the appropriate page where they can examine the table and review its full caption. This
means that a List of Tables entry does not have to be a verbatim copy of the caption text to that
table — that entry may present the caption information in a much more concise form. For example,
examine the text entry for Sample Table 1.1 in the Sample List of Tables (appendix A.7, p. 32) to
see how that text entry differs from the caption text of Sample Table 1.1 (appendix A.14, p. 39).
Students must consult their committee chair to determine whether discipline standards insist that
List of Tables entries are to be verbatim copies of caption text or whether a more concise description
is acceptable in the List of Tables.
Table Labels (numbers): Tables are to be numbered sequentially in the order they appear in
a chapter or appendix — and table numeration is reset to “1” for each new chapter/appendix. As
examples, the labels of the first three tables appearing within chapter 1 would be “1.1”, “1.2”, and
“1.3” — and those appearing in chapter 2 would be “2.1”, “2.2”, and “2.3”. Similarly, the labels of
the first three tables appearing within the first appendix would be “A.1”, “A.2”, and “A.3” — and
those appearing in the second appendix would be “B.1”, “B.2”, and “B.3”.
The above examples show that a table’s label consists of the chapter/appendix number, followed
by a period, followed by the table number. Note that this differs from a figure label, which uses a
hyphen to separate such numbers (see section 3.9 below). The Sample List of Tables (appendix A.7,
p. 32), Sample Table 1.1 (appendix A.14, p. 39), and Sample Table A.1 (appendix A.16, p. 41)
illustrate the application of the above requirements.
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3.9
List of Figures
General Information: The first page of this section must include the heading “List of Figures.”
This heading is illustrated in the Sample List of Figures (appendix A.8, p. 33). List of figures
pages are counted in the pagination and their page numbers are printed on the page (in lower case
Roman numerals). The heading for this section is included in the table of contents — as shown in
the Sample Table of Contents (p. 31).
Note: A List of Figures section is a required “preliminary page” if three or more figures are present
in the document. If the document contains only one or two figures then the inclusion of this
section is left to the discretion of the student.
Format: The Sample List of Figures illustrates that the heading of the first page of this section
(i.e., “List of Figures”) is located 2 inches from the top edge of the page and flush with the left
margin. Following 1 inch below that heading and flush with the left margin begins the enumerated
list of entries to the List of Figures. If this list extends beyond a single page, the top-margin of
subsequent pages is 1 inch from the top edge of the page.
Figure Caption Location: Sample Figure 1–1 (appendix A.13, p. 38) and Sample Figure A–1
(appendix A.17, p. 42) illustrate the requirement that captions to figures must be located below
the figures (in contrast to the placement of table captions).
Caption Text v. Text in a List of Figures Entry: Although a caption must fully describe
the content of the figure, an entry in the List of Figures must only provide sufficient information to
direct readers to the appropriate page where they can examine the figure and review its full caption.
This means that a List of Figures entry does not have to be a verbatim copy of the caption text to
that figure — that entry may present the caption information in a much more concise form. For
example, examine the text entry for Figure 1–1 in the Sample List of Figures (appendix A.8, p. 33)
to see how that text entry differs from the caption text of Sample Figure 1–1 (appendix A.13,
p. 38). Students must consult their committee chair to determine whether discipline standards
insist that List of Figures entries are to be verbatim copies of caption text or whether a more
concise description is acceptable in the List of Figures.
Figure Labels (numbers): Figures are to be numbered sequentially in the order they appear
in a chapter or appendix — and figure numeration is reset to “1” for each new chapter/appendix.
As examples, the labels of the first three figures appearing within chapter 1 would be “1-1”, “1-2”,
and “1-3” — and those appearing in chapter 2 would be “2-1”, “2-2”, and “2-3”. Similarly, the
labels of the first three figures appearing within the first appendix would be “A-1”, “A-2”, and
“A-3” — and those appearing in the second appendix would be “B-1”, “B-2”, and “B-3”.
The above examples show that a figure’s label consists of the chapter/appendix number, followed
by a hyphen, followed by the figure number. Note that this differs from a table label, which uses a
period to separate such numbers (see section 3.8 above). The Sample List of Figures (appendix A.8,
p. 33), Sample Figure 1–1 (appendix A.13, p. 38), and Sample Figure A–1 (appendix A.17, p. 42)
illustrate the application of the above requirements.
3.10
List of Abbreviations
General Information: This is an optional section. Not every dissertation or thesis needs a List
of Abbreviations. However, such a list can be a very helpful resource to readers if a significant
number of abbreviations are used throughout the document. Students are encouraged to consult
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with their committee chair to determine whether a List of Abbreviations should be included in the
preliminary pages.
Completeness: If this list is included in the preliminary pages then, for completeness, every
abbreviation appearing in the document must be included in this list. (Further, this list may not
contain abbreviations that do not appear elsewhere in the document.) Regardless of whether a
List of Abbreviations is included in the preliminary pages, a definition of each abbreviation must
appear in the document’s text directly before or after the first use of the abbreviation.
Format: The Sample List of Abbreviations (appendix A.9, p. 34) illustrates how this section is
to be formatted. The heading for this section is “List of Abbreviations,” which is included in
the table of contents (see the Sample Table of Contents, p. 31). This heading is located on the
first page of this section, 2 inches from the top edge of the page and flush with the left margin.
Following 1 inch below that heading and flush with the left margin begins the single-spaced list
of abbreviations. Pages in this section are counted in the pagination and their page numbers are
printed on the page (in lower case Roman numerals). If this list extends beyond a single page, the
top-margin of list entries on subsequent pages is located 1 inch from the top edge of the page.
The Sample List of Abbreviations (p. 34) shows that this list shall not be enumerated and it
must be presented in alphabetic order of abbreviations (not their definition). Each list entry has
two components, presented in a two-column format. For example,
AER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . American Economic Review; the journal of the American Economic
Association
BB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B.B. King
HHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Department of Health and Human Services
The list entry’s left column is the abbreviation, presented flush with the left margin. Its right
column is the definition of that abbreviation. If a definition extends beyond one line, the definition
is to wrap the line with succeeding words left-aligned with the start of the definition (such as that
for the definition of “AER” in the above example).
3.11
List of Symbols
General Information: This is an optional section. Not every dissertation or thesis needs a List
of Symbols. However, as with the list of abbreviations, a List of Symbols can be a very helpful
resource to readers if a significant number of symbols are used throughout the document. Students
are encouraged to consult with their committee chair to determine whether such a list should be
included in the preliminary pages.
Completeness: If this list is included in the preliminary pages then, for completeness, every
symbol appearing in the document must be included in this list. (Further, this list may not contain
symbols that do not appear elsewhere in the document.) Regardless of whether this list is included
in the preliminary pages, a definition of each symbol must appear in the document’s text directly
before or after the first use of the symbol.
Format: The Sample List of Symbols (appendix A.10, p. 35) shows how this section is to be
formatted. The heading for this section is “List of Symbols,” which is included in the table of
contents (see the Sample Table of Contents, p. 31). This heading is located on the first page of this
section, 2 inches from the top edge of the page and flush with the left margin. Following 1 inch
below that heading and flush with the left margin begins the single-spaced list of symbols. Pages
in this section are counted in the pagination and their page numbers are printed on the page (in
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lower case Roman numerals). If this list extends beyond a single page, the top-margin of list entries
on subsequent pages is located 1 inch from the top edge of the page.
As is illustrated in the Sample List of Symbols (p. 35), this list shall not be enumerated. Each
list entry has two components, presented in a two-column format. For example,
† . . . . . . . . . . . . magnetic field gradient pulse separation
‡ . . . . . . . . . . . . the ratio of the M2 money supply to the Monetary Base
α . . . . . . . . . . . . angle of rotation around internal rotation axis
β . . . . . . . . . . . . correlation coefficient
Q . . . . . . . . . . . . Tobin’s q; the ratio of the market value of installed capital to the replacement cost
of capital
Y . . . . . . . . . . . . Gross Domestic Product (adjusted for inflation)
The list entry’s left column is the symbol, presented flush with the left margin. Its right column
is the definition of that symbol. If a definition extends beyond one line, the definition is to wrap
the line with succeeding words left-aligned with the start of the definition (such as that for the
definition of “Q” in the above example).
The entries to the List of Symbols environment are to be arranged in subgroups of symbols
according to discipline conventions (e.g., non-associated symbols first, Greek characters second,
English alphabet characters third, etc.). Note: a single blank line must separate each such subgroup
of symbols (as in the example above). When possible the list within each subgroup must be in
alphabetic order of symbols (not their descriptions). For the Greek alphabetic, this would be: A,
α, B, β, Γ, γ, . . . Ω, ω. In the English alphabet language we’d have: A, a, B, b, C, c, . . . Z, z.
3.12
Preface
General Information: This is an optional section. If a student chooses to include a Preface,
then the first page of this section must include the heading “Preface.” This is illustrated in the
Sample Preface Section (appendix A.11, p. 36). Preface pages are counted in the pagination and
their page numbers are printed on the page (lower case Roman numerals). The heading for this
page is listed in the table of contents (see the Sample Table of Contents, appendix A.6, p. 31).
Format: The heading on the first page of this section (i.e., “Preface”) is located 2 inches from
the top edge of the page and flush with the left margin. Following 1 inch below that heading and
flush with the left margin will begin the text of the preface. An example of this is provided in the
appendix’s Sample Preface Section (appendix A.11, p. 36). If the Preface extends beyond a single
page, the top-margin of subsequent pages is to be 1 inch from the top edge of the page.
3.13
Chapters 1, 2, 3, etc.
Divisions of Text: The first page of the first chapter begins the document’s text. Any page
preceding that page is a preliminary page and must be formatted accordingly (see section 2.3 and
section 3.2 through section 3.12). The document’s text is to be divided into explicitly defined divisions (as needed), with the main divisions being designated as chapters (not as ‘parts,’ ‘books,’
etc.). As needed, a chapter may have explicitly defined subdivisions, designated as sections, subsections, subsubsections, etc. Headings for chapters, sections, subsections, etc. must be included in
the table of contents.
Your document shall not have a “free-standing” main division or component that does not
have an explicit chapter number designation. For example, you shall not have a free-standing
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“Introduction” section. Instead, you must decide whether that material is best included in a
Preface section or as the contents of Chapter 1.
Chapter Page Format: Every chapter title must be numbered using Arabic numerals (i.e.,
“Chapter 1,” Chapter 2,” “Chapter 3,” etc). Chapter titles must be located 2 inches from the top
edge of the page and flush with the left margin. The chapter heading is located 1 inch below that
title and flush with the left margin. Following 1 inch below the chapter heading and flush with
the left margin is the start of the chapter text. An example of this formatting is provided by the
Sample Chapter First Page (appendix A.12, p. 37). The top-margin of subsequent chapter pages
is 1 inch from the top edge of the page. An example of this formatting of a subsequent chapter
page is illustrated by the Sample Table Page (appendix A.14, p. 39).
Section Number and Heading: When establishing a section, a section’s number is followed
directly by its heading (i.e., both appear on the same line – and in that order). This information
is presented flush with the left margin. No words or symbols may appear prior to a section’s
number when establishing a section. The same formatting applies to subsections, subsubsections,
etc. Examples of such formatting is provided in the Sample Chapter First Page (appendix *A.12,
p. 37).
Sections of chapter 1 are numbered 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, . . . while those of subsequent chapters are to
be numbered “2.1”, “2.2”, . . . “3.1”, “3.2”, . . . That is, section enumeration resets to “1” for each
new chapter. Similarly, subsection numbers are reset to “1” for each new section. For example,
the subsections of the fourth section of chapter 5 are to be numbered 5.4.1, 5.4.2, 5.4.3 . . . For the
same reason, subsubsection numbers are reset to “1” for each new subsection.
3.14
References
General Information: List in this section complete references to all works cited in your dissertation/thesis. There is only one acceptable heading for the section that lists works cited in your
dissertation/thesis: “References” (e.g., “Bibliography” is not acceptable). The Sample References
(appendix A.15, p. 40) illustrates that this heading is not enumerated (unlike chapters, appendices,
etc.). Further, this section is included in the table of contents but it is not enumerated in the
table of contents (see the Sample Table of Contents, appendix A.6, p. 31). Reference pages are
counted in the pagination. Pages within the Reference section have their page numbers printed on
the page in Arabic numerals. The page number of the first page of the Reference section follows
consecutively from that of last page of the previous chapter (i.e., its page number is not reset to
“1”).
Presentation of References: The presentation of references in the Sample References (appendix A.15, p. 40) is for illustrative purposes only. How information is presented in your references and the order such information is presented is to be dictated by the convention used in your
discipline. Consult your committee chair on the proper method of reporting works cited in your
dissertation/thesis.
Spacing Options:
tation/thesis:
Students have two spacing options for reporting works cited in their disser-
1. Use single-spacing within an individual reference but use double-spacing between references.
This option is illustrated by the first group of references in the appendix’s Sample References
(appendix A.15, p. 40).
2. Use double-spacing within each reference and between references. This option is illustrated by
the second group of references in the appendix’s Sample References (appendix A.15, p. 40).
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Format: As mentioned above, the first page of this section must include the heading “References”.
This heading is located 2 inches from the top edge of the page and flush with the left margin.
Following 1 inch below that heading and flush with the left margin is the start of your list of
references. If the reference list extends beyond a single page, the top-margin of subsequent pages
is 1 inch from the top edge of the page.
3.15
Appendices
General Information: This is an optional section. If appendices are necessary, then each appendix label must be enumerated by the Alph numbering style (i.e., A, B, C, . . . ) instead of the
Arabic style used for chapters (i.e., 1, 2, 3, . . . ). The first page of each appendix must include the
title “Appendix X ” (where X = A, B, C, . . . ) followed by its heading. This is illustrated in the
Sample Appendix First Page (appendix A.16, p. 41). The enumerated heading to each appendix
is listed in the table of contents (as shown in the Sample Table of Contents, appendix A.6, p. 31).
Every appendix page has its page number printed on the page in an Arabic numeral. The page
number of the first page of the first appendix will follow consecutively from that of last page of
the Reference section (i.e., the page number of the first page of that appendix is not reset to “1”).
The page number of the first page of a subsequent appendix follows consecutively from that of last
page of the previous appendix.
Format: The appendix title “Appendix X ” (where X = A, B, C, . . . ) is to be located 2 inches
from the top edge of the page and flush with the left margin. The appendix heading is located
1 inch below that title and flush with the left margin. Following 1 inch below the appendix heading
and flush with the left margin is the start of the appendix text. The Sample Appendix First Page
(appendix A.16, p. 41) illustrates this formatting. If the length of an appendix extends beyond
a single page, the top-margin of subsequent pages is 1 inch from the top edge of the page. The
format of a subsequent appendix page is the same as that for page 2, 3, . . . of a chapter (e.g., see
the appendix’s Sample Table Page, appendix A.14, p. 39).
3.16
Index
General Information: This is an optional section. Most dissertations and theses do not include an Index, and some committee chairs actively discourage its inclusion in the document due
to the work involved in generating a comprehensive index. Students are strongly encouraged to
consult with their committee chair to determine whether an index should be included in their
dissertation/thesis.
Format: The first page of this section must include the heading “Index” — located 2 inches
from the top edge of the page and flush with the left margin. Following 1 inch below that heading
and flush with the left margin begins the index. If the index extends beyond a single page, the
top-margin of entries on subsequent pages is located 1 inch from the top edge of the page.
Pages in this section are counted in the pagination and their page numbers are printed on the
page in Arabic numerals. The page number of the first page of the index will follow consecutively
from that of last page of the previous section (i.e., the page number of the first page of the index
is not reset to “1”). The heading for this section is listed in the table of contents (e.g., see the
Sample Table of Contents, appendix A.6, p. 31).
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4
Title Page Signatures
4.1
Electronic v. Written Signatures
The student’s name appears on the title page as the document’s author. Other typed names
appearing on the title page serve as electronic signatures when the dissertation/thesis is uploaded
to the College of Graduate Studies and OhioLink. Hence, written signatures are not to appear
on the title page of those uploaded documents (i.e., your electronic document must not include
scanned images of written signatures). The material in section 4.2 provides additional information
about which signatures may or may not appear on a title page.
Although dissertations and theses are submitted electronically to the College of Graduate Studies, many committee chairs, departments, and academic colleges require students to provide them
with a bound paper copy of the dissertation/thesis (see section 5.4, p. 24). Such paper copies typically require written signatures above the names printed on the title page. In addition, students
often want personal paper copies of their dissertation/thesis with written signatures on the title
page. For these reasons, section 4.3 describes the “signature line” that must accompany each typed
name appearing on the title page. Such signature lines must be present on the title page of the
final document uploaded to the College of Graduate Studies and OhioLink.
Electronic and written signatures may appear only on the title page of a dissertation/thesis.
4.2
Required, Optional, and Prohibited Signatures
Required Signatures: The Graduate Council requires the following signatures to appear on the
title page of every dissertation and thesis:
1. the student’s committee chair, and
2. Dean of the College of Graduate Studies.
The signature of the student’s committee chair certifies the intellectual advancement achieved by
the student’s dissertation or thesis. The signature of the Dean of the College of Graduate Studies
certifies final approval of the dissertation/thesis with respect to other standards and requirements
established by the Graduate Faculty. The Sample Title Page (appendix A.1, p. 26) illustrates the
signature lines for your committee chair and Graduate Dean.
Other Permitted Signatures: As an option, students may include for signature the names
of other committee members serving on the dissertation/thesis committee (i.e., those other than
the committee chair). Such signatures serve to confirm the committee chair’s certification of the
intellectual advancement achieved by the student’s dissertation or thesis. If the signature of at least
one other committee member appears on the title page, then a signature from every committee
member must also appear on the title page in order for the dissertation/thesis to be accepted by
the Graduate College.
No Administrative Signatures: While the signature of the Dean of the College of Graduate
Studies must appear on the title page of every dissertation and thesis, in no case shall the name or
title of any other administrator appear for signature on any dissertation or thesis submitted to the
Graduate College, or any publishing organization, unless that administrator served as the student’s
committee chair or as a committee member. In such a case, only the administrator’s academic
degree (i.e., Ph.D. or M.D.) or academic title (i.e., “Dr.”) may be printed on the title page. In no
case shall a administrative title be included as part of that signature line.
Go to:
Table of Contents §1 §2 §3 §4 §5
Index
Page 21
Manual for the Formatting of Graduate Dissertations and Theses
4.3
Signature Lines
Every thesis and dissertation must provide a signature line for each signature that appears on the
title page. The name of the committee chair must be printed below her/his signature line. As
described above, if the student includes for signature the name of at least one committee member
other than the chair, the student must include for signature the names of all committee members.
In this case,
• the name of each committee member must be printed below their respective signature line;
and
• the names printed must be accompanied by a clear differentiation between the student’s
committee chair and other committee members — in a manner consistent with that illustrated
in the Sample Title Page (appendix A.1, p. 26).
Following the signature line(s) for the committee chair and, optionally, for all other committee
members, a signature line must be provided for the Dean of the College of Graduate Studies. The
following information must be printed below that signature line, centered across the signature line,
and presented in a manner consistent with that illustrated in the Sample Title Page (appendix A.1,
p. 26):
<academic title and name of Graduate College Dean>, <administrative title>
College of Graduate Studies
The dean’s administrative title may be “Dean,” “Interim Dean,” or “Acting Dean.” Consult the
College of Graduate Studies for the exact name and administrative title of the current dean. For
example,
Dr. Patricia R. Komuniecki, Dean
College of Graduate Studies
4.4
Consistent Presentation of Signatures
For names printed below a signature line, there are two options for reporting the title/degree of
those that sign the title page. Option A is to have every named signature line report their respective
title prior to their name (e.g., “Dr. Roy Hinkley”). Option B is to have every named signature
line report their degree after their name (e.g., “Roy Hinkley, Ph.D.” or “Roy Hinkley, M.D.”). To
maintain uniformity, students may choose either Option A or B for every signature line but they
may not use Option A for some signature lines and Option B for others. Consult your committee
chair to determine whether Option A or B follows the convention used in your discipline.
5
Issues to Consider When Finalizing Your Document
5.1
Be Aware of all Processing and Submission Deadlines
Department/College Requirements and Deadlines: Departments and academic colleges
have instituted various procedures, deadlines, reviews, etc., that students must follow and satisfy
in order for their dissertation/thesis to advance to its final stage. These may include particular
forms the student must submit and particular actions the student must take prior to scheduling
the defense of the dissertation/thesis, conducting a successful defense, and any necessary revisions
or actions the student must take after the defense. Only after such department/academic college
review is successful can a student consider submitting their document to the Graduate College for
its review and, eventually, submitting the document to OhioLINK.
Go to:
Table of Contents §1 §2 §3 §4 §5
Index
Page 22
Manual for the Formatting of Graduate Dissertations and Theses
Responsibility for Satisfying All Deadlines: The student and her/his advisor are responsible for verifying with their department and academic college as to whether those offices
have submission deadlines for processing the dissertation/thesis.
Because the department/college-level review must take place prior to uploading the student’s
document to the Graduate College, the student and her/his advisor are responsible for providing their department/academic college with sufficient time to review, evaluate, and process
the document so that the Graduate College deadline discussed below can be satisfied.
Graduate College Deadlines: After a student’s document has satisfied all department/academic
college requirements, the student may take the final step towards completing their dissertation/thesis
— submitting their document in electronic format to OhioLINK. The deadline for uploading such
documents to OhioLINK will be specified on the Graduate College’s Thesis/Dissertation webpage.
That webpage will list the specific date of that deadline for the current and subsequent semesters.
No exceptions, waivers, or extensions to submission deadlines will be granted by the Graduate
College. Therefore, students must plan ahead: they need to satisfy department/college deadlines
with sufficient time remaining so that they can also satisfy the Graduate College deadline. Consult
the graduate student handbook for more information on such deadlines and for information on
the forms that must be submitted to the College of Graduate Studies when completing a dissertation
or thesis.
5.2
Proofread Your Document Before You Submit It
The student is responsible for submitting a dissertation/thesis that is free of spelling and other
errors. The student is also responsible for making certain that their document satisfies all style and
formatting regulations specified in this formatting manual. Know this: The College of Graduate
Studies will not proofread the student’s document for grammar or spelling mistakes. However,
the Graduate College will review each document to determine whether it satisfies all style and
formatting regulations established in this manual. The College of Graduate Studies will then
inform the student as to whether their document is “acceptable” or “unacceptable.” Consult the
graduate student handbook for additional information on this issue.
5.3
Submitting Your Document
Students must consult the graduate student handbook and the Graduate College’s webpages
for the most up-to-date instructions on submitting their dissertation/thesis. The information below
focuses on final formatting/presentation issues students should consider before submitting their
dissertation or thesis.
When a student “submits” their disseration/thesis they will upload an electronic version of their
document to OhioLink. However, students cannot simply upload the “word-processor” version
of their document. Instead, each student must first convert the word-processor version of their
document into a “PDF” version of that document.
Font Embedded PDF Files: When a student converts their word-processor document to a
PDF file, they must make certain that “all fonts are embedded” in the conversion process. (This
is an option for most PDF generators.) If all fonts are not embedded, then the individual reading
the document will use fonts located on her/his local computer. If those are not the exact fonts used
to generate the PDF version of the student’s dissertation/thesis, the reader might see gibberish
when attempting to read or print the student’s PDF file. However, if the student “embeds all
fonts,” the readers will see exactly what the student wrote when they generated the PDF file of
their dissertation/thesis. If a student needs help converting their word-processor document to a
Go to:
Table of Contents §1 §2 §3 §4 §5
Index
Page 23
Manual for the Formatting of Graduate Dissertations and Theses
“font embedded” PDF document, the student should first consult the following Graduate College’s
document:
PDF Conversion Guidelines — Embedding Fonts
If further assistance is needed, please contact Professor Wade Lee in the library at 419.530.4490.
No Scanned Signatures: When a student uploads the final version of their dissertation/thesis
to OhioLink, the student must not include a scanned image of the title page containing actual
signatures in that PDF file. Instead, the title page of that PDF file must be “blank” with respect
to actual signatures.
Repository Copy: In addition to submitting the document to OhioLink, Proquest/UMI, etc.,
the U
T Graduate Council requires every electronic thesis and dissertation (ETD) to be submitted
to a repository at the University of Toledo. Storing ETDs locally provides a fail-safe backup of the
student’s dissertation/thesis. Students need to consult the graduate student handbook for
information on how they may submit their document to this repository.
5.4
Hard (Paper) Copies of Your Dissertation/Thesis
Arrangements for bound, paper copies of a student’s dissertation or thesis can be made with Rocket
Copy located on the second floor of the Student Union (419.530.4606). Copies of dissertations can
also be ordered through Proquest/UMI. If a student makes such arrangements for a paper copy of
their document, they are strongly encouraged to use white, at least twenty-four (24) pound, acid
free, 8 12 × 11 paper. Students wishing to retain extra paper copies of their dissertation/thesis
should retain these copies and submit only the additional title pages [with original signature(s)] to
the College of Graduate Studies for signature by its Dean. A maximum of five title pages will be
signed by the Graduate College Dean.
5.5
Dissertation Publishing Requirement
The University of Toledo Graduate Council, as part of its obligation to disseminate research results,
requires all Ph.D. dissertations be published. Consult the graduate student handbook for
information on the options available when publishing a dissertation through Proquest/UMI.
6
Amending this Manual
On April 21, 2009, the U
T Graduate Council approved the rules and regulations pertaining to the
formatting of graduate dissertations and theses specified in the document titled the “Handbook for
the Preparation of Graduate Dissertations and Theses.” On November 22, 2011, the U
T Graduate
Council’s Executive Committee changed the title of that document to the “Manual for the Formatting of Graduate Dissertations and Theses” (i.e., this “manual”). Any proposed change that
would significantly alter formatting regulations existing in this manual must be submitted to the
U
T Graduate Council for approval. The U
T Graduate Council authorized its Executive Committee to approve minor editorial changes to this manual.4 Below are Graduate Council Executive
Committee meeting dates when minor revisions to this manual were approved.
1. September 1, 2009
2. October 13, 2009
3. February 2, 2010
4. March 16, 2010
5. June 23, 2010
6. August 12, 2010
7. January 18, 2011
8. November 22, 2011
4
Under no circumstance may College of Graduate Studies personnel alter the content of this manual without
prior approval of either the Graduate Council or the Graduate Council Executive Committee.
Go to:
Table of Contents §1 §2 §3 §4 §5
Index
Page 24
Manual for the Formatting of Graduate Dissertations and Theses
Appendix
A
Sample Pages
This appendix provides sample pages that illustrate the formatting of all major pages included in
a dissertation/thesis (as well as those including figures and tables). The table below provides the
page number for each sample page.
Page
Sample Page
Number
Title Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Copyright Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Abstract Page . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dedication Page . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Acknowledgments Page . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table of Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
List of Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
List of Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
List of Abbreviations . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
List of Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preface (first page) . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter (first page) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure (full page) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table (embedded in text) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix (first page) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure (embedded in text) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
To help students using APA formatting, a corresponding series of sample pages for that alternative style guide is provided on the College of Graduate Studies’ website:
Addendum — Sample Pages for Students Following the APA Style Guide
Students following an alternative style guide such as APA or MLA should consult section 2.8 (p. 7)
for a discussion of the five (5) acceptable deviations from formatting requirements established in
this manual.
Go to:
Table of Contents §1 §2 §3 §4 §5
Index
Page 25
1
(A.1 Sample Title Page)
?
A Dissertation
entitled
A Game-Theoretic Approach to a General Equilibrium Model
1.5
with Asymmetric Price Information and No Goods
-
by
Elmer J. Fudd
Submitted to the Graduate Faculty as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the
Doctor of Philosophy Degree in Economics
Dr. <insert name>, Committee Chair
Dr. <insert name>, Committee Member
Dr. <inserting a really, really long name>, Committee Member
Dr. <insert another long name>, Committee Member
Dr. <insert name>, Committee Member
Dr. Patricia R. Komuniecki, Dean
College of Graduate Studies
The University of Toledo
May 2014
6
1
(Formatting Manual — Page 26)
1
(A.2 Sample Copyright Page)
1.5
Copyright 2014, Elmer J. Fudd
-
This document is copyrighted material. Under copyright law, no parts of this
document may be reproduced without the expressed permission of the author.
6
1
(Formatting Manual — Page 27)
1
(A.3 Sample Abstract Page)
1
?
An Abstract of
A Game-Theoretic Approach to a General Equilibrium Model
with Asymmetric Price Information and No Goods
by
1.5
Elmer J. Fudd
-
Submitted to the Graduate Faculty as partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the Doctor of Philosophy Degree in Economics
The University of Toledo
May 2014
Out-of-sample forecasting experiments are used as an alternative to looking at Fstatistics when examining whether money, interest rates or the commercial paper/Tbill spread provide information content for subsequent movements in output, real and
nominal personal income, the Consumer Price Index (CPI) and the Producer Price
Index (PPI). Here a variable provides information if it improves the forecast of the
explained variable. Employing this procedure I find that the paper-bill spread but
not monetary aggregates provide information content for industrial production or real
personal income when using data over the 1980-97 period. In contrast, I find that
monetary aggregates provide information content for the CPI and nominal personal
income but not the PPI.
3 4
6
iii
(Formatting Manual — Page 28)
1
(A.4 Sample Dedication Page)
3
?
1.5
For Margaret, Jack, and Joseph. I used to wonder what I might accomplish — but
since you entered my life, I want only to be the best Papa I can be.
-
(Formatting Manual — Page 29)
1
(A.5 Sample Acknowledgments Page)
2
Acknowledgments
?
1
?
1.5
This dissertation would not have been possible without the love, support, and
encouragement I received from my parents, brothers and sisters. Only now am I
-
beginning to realize how much my parents sacrificed so that I could attend college. I
do not have words to adequately describe my deep gratitude for all they have provided
me, though I hope to show them my appreciation in the years to come.
I could not have completed this work without the mentoring of my dissertation
advisor. I studied Economics because of what I saw in him — a tremendous desire
to learn and understand, and a wonderful fascination with macroeconomics. I am
truly indebted to him for fostering the same pursuit and fascination in me and, of
course, for his guidance and advice during my years as his student. I will always be
his student.
6
1
3 4
6
v
(Formatting Manual — Page 30)
1
(A.6 Sample Table of Contents)
2
?
Contents
?
Abstract
1
1.5
iii
-Acknowledgments
v
Contents
vi
List of Tables
vii
List of Figures
viii
List of Abbreviations
ix
List of Symbols
x
Preface
xi
1 The Heading to Chapter 1
1.1
1
A Section Heading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
1.1.1
A Subsection Heading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
1.1.1.1
1
A Subsubsection Heading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
References
4
A The Heading to this Appendix
5
6
1
vi
3 4
6
(Formatting Manual — Page 31)
1
(A.7 Sample List of Tables)
2
?
List of Tables
?
1.1 Mean Absolute Percentage Errors from six alternative models forecasting
1
1.5
Industrial Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3
-
A.1 A silly glossary for research reports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
1
vii
3 4
6
(Formatting Manual — Page 32)
5
1
(A.8 Sample List of Figures)
2
?
List of Figures
?
1-1 Rudimentary economic analysis of the impact from a change in taxes. . .
1
1.5
- A-1
A person enjoying a cigar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
1
viii
3 4
6
(Formatting Manual — Page 33)
2
6
1
(A.9 Sample List of Abbreviations)
2
?
List of Abbreviations
1
?
1.5
ABBREV . . . . . . . . . . . . . This is where you provide a brief definition of the abbreviation “ABBREV”
AAGG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . American Association of Solving the World’s Problems by
way of Government Grants
ADD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Administration on Developmental Disabilities
AFDC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aid to Families with Dependent Children
ARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Agricultural Research Service
ATF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms
BB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BEA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BLM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B.B. King
Bureau of Economic Analysis
Bureau of Land Management
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (Mad Cow Disease)
CB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L.D. Caskey and J.D. Beazley, Attic Vase Paintings in the
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (Oxford 1931–1963)
CBO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Congressional Budget Office
CEA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Council of Economic Advisers
CFA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Commission of Fine Arts
CIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Central Intelligence Agency
CNO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chief of Naval Operations
GLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gauss’ law for electricity: ∇ · E =
ρ
= 4πkρ
ε0
HHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Department of Health and Human Services
IAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I am root
6
1
ix
3 4
6
(Formatting Manual — Page 34)
1
(A.10 Sample List of Symbols)
2
?
List of Symbols
1
† . . . . . . . . magnetic field gradient pulse separation
‡ . . . . . . . . the ratio of the M2 monetary aggregate to the Monetary Base
?
1.5
-
α ........
β ........
δ ........
Θi . . . . . . .
λ ........
ρ ........
Angle of rotation around internal rotation axis.
correlation coefficient
Magnetic field gradient pulse separation
the ith degree to which the flayrod has gone out of skew on tredel
the shadow price of income
Internal rotation interaction constant ρ = [Σx (λx Iα /Ix )2 ]1/2
AC . . . . . .
Ba . . . . . .
Ca . . . . . .
EG . . . . . .
F ........
Ii . . . . . . . .
J ........
crystal surface area
Barium
Calcium
activation energy
Internal rotation dynamical constant (GHz) F = h/8π 2 rIα
Angular momentum quantum number of nuclear spin for the ith nucleus
Resultant total angular momentum quantum number, excluding nuclear
spins
Boltzmann’s constant
Magnesium
Rotational angular momentum quantum number, excluding electron and
nuclear spins, in the case where electron spin is present
Tobin’s q; the ratio of the market value of installed capital to the replacement cost of capital
Radium
area of an active site
Strontium
Gross Domestic Product (adjusted for inflation)
Potential Gross Domestic Product
k ........
Mg . . . . . .
N ........
Q .......
Ra . . . . . .
Sa . . . . . . .
Sr . . . . . . .
Y .......
YP . . . . . .
6
1
x
3 4
6
(Formatting Manual — Page 35)
1
(A.11 Sample Preface Page)
2
?
Preface
1
?
1.5
Macroeconomics analyzes the economy as a whole; where output, prices, interest rates, exchange rates, and unemployment are the key variables macroeconomists
-
want to explain. In contrast, microeconomics analyzes the behavior of individuals
and firms; where prices for particular products are determined by demand and supply. As it is all but impossible to summarize all of the differences between macroand microeconomic models, I focus only on three theoretic models that have had a
substantial impact on economic modeling over the last 60 years. The three classes of
models I examine are the IS-LM, overlapping generations, and growth models. The
IS-LM is the traditional (static) aggregative macro model which excels in short-run
stabilization issues. The overlapping generations model with production is a general
equilibrium, intertemporal micro-based macro model. It incorporates both utility and
profit maximization. Growth models examine the importance of technology and human capital, convergence to equilibria, and its long-run focus sharply contrasts that
of the IS-LM model.
The IS-LM model is a description of the economy’s demand side and whose focus
is on short-run analysis of monetary and fiscal policy variables. In varying form, this
model has been widely used since its introduction by Sir John Hicks in 1937. An
IS-LM model is comprised of a number of postulated relationships between variables,
including those describing consumption demand, investment demand, and money
demand. Chapter 1 provides a paradigmatic IS-LM model which demonstrates these
characteristics. Chapter 2 provides an alternative model specification that illustrates
6
1
xi
3 4
6
(Formatting Manual — Page 36)
1
(A.12 Sample Chapter First Page)
2
?
Chapter 1
?
The Heading to Chapter 1
1
1
?
Please note the information below. While the info below is important, here I’m
just filling space with a sample sentence. This is another sample sentence.
1.1
1.5
-
A Section Heading
Figure 1-1 on p. 2 illustrates what to do if the vertical size a table or figure
consumes more than half of the page size: put that table or figure on its own page
without text above it or below it.
1.1.1
A Subsection Heading
Table 1.1 on p. 3 illustrates what to do if the vertical size a table or figure consumes
less than half of the page size. That table or figure may appear at the top or bottom
of the page — or it may appear between paragraphs (such as Table 1.1 on p. 3).
1.1.1.1
A Subsubsection Heading
Appendix A (p. 5) describes the placement of table v. figure captions, the difference
between table labels and figure labels, and the difference between the information in a
table/figure caption and the corresponding entry in the List of Table/List of Figures.
6
1
3 4
6
1
(Formatting Manual — Page 37)
1
1
(A.13 Sample Figure 1-1 Page)
?
....
......
.
.....
.
......
.. ..
0
e
R
...
0
0
...
...
...
1
e
R
S
.
0
0
1 ......
1
1
0
0
0
...
...
...
...
...
S
1 1
...
...
... .. ... ..
... ..
...
0
..... .....
.....
0
0
0.....
...
. .
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Figure 1-1: Rudimentary economic analysis of the impact from a change in
taxes when the Federal Reserve is following a Money Stock Instrument. This analysis assumes the goods market is more sensitive to a change in taxes than is the money market.
6
1
3 4
6
2
(Formatting Manual — Page 38)
1
1
(A.14 Sample Table 1.1 Page)
?
This is just a sample sentence and a sample paragraph — to provide text around
Table 1.1. This is another sample sentence, again filling space. This is third sample
sentence. This is another sample sentence. This is another sample sentence. This is
another sample sentence. This is another sample sentence. This is another sample
sentence. This is another sample sentence. This is another sample sentence. This is
another sample sentence. This is another sample sentence. This is another sample
sentence. This is another sample sentence. This is another sample sentence. This is
another sample sentence. This is another sample sentence. This is another sample
sentence. Whew! Glad that’s over.
1.5
-
Table 1.1: Errors when forecasting Industrial Production. Below are the
Mean Absolute Percentage Errors from 1 to 6 months-ahead Forecasts of Industrial Production from six alternative model specifications.
Month
Forecast
1
2
3
4
5
6
I
0.502
1.030
1.578
2.146
2.728
3.240
Errors from Six Alternative Forecasting Models
II
III
IV
V
0.716
0.680
0.581
0.584
1.343
1.271
1.171
1.186
1.757
1.679
1.631
1.661
2.070
1.944
2.109
2.103
2.279
2.107
2.563
2.530
2.293
2.157
2.857
2.819
VI
0.581
1.219
1.759
2.418
3.055
3.664
This is another sample paragraph — to provide text around Table 1.1. This is
another sample sentence, again filling space. This is third sample sentence. This is
another sample sentence. This is another sample sentence. This is another sample
sentence. This is another sample sentence. This is another sample sentence. This is
another sample sentence. This is another sample sentence. This is another sample
sentence. This is another sample sentence. This is another sample sentence. This is
another sample sentence. Wow! It’s really over. I’m free! I’m free!
6
1
3 4
6
3
(Formatting Manual — Page 39)
1
(A.15 Sample References)
2
References
?
1
?
1.5
Friedman, Milton, “The Role of Monetary Policy,” American Economic Review,
March 1968, 58(1), 1–17.
-
Keynes, John Maynard, The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money,
New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovic, 1936.
Smith, Adam, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations,
Edwin Cannan, ed., London: Methuen & Co., Ltd. 1904.
Tobin, James, “A Dynamic Aggregative Model,” Journal of Political Economy,
April 1955, 63(2), 103–115.
• The group above illustrates your first option: single-spacing within
a reference but double-spacing between references.
• The group below illustrates your other option: double-spacing
within a reference and double-spacing between references.
Friedman, Milton, “The Role of Monetary Policy,” American Economic Review,
March 1968, 58(1), 1–17.
Keynes, John Maynard, The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money,
New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovic, 1936.
Smith, Adam, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations,
Edwin Cannan, ed., London: Methuen & Co., Ltd. 1904.
Tobin, James, “A Dynamic Aggregative Model,” Journal of Political Economy,
April 1955, 63(2), 103–115.
6
1
3 4
6
4
(Formatting Manual — Page 40)
1
(A.16 Sample Appendix First Page)
2
?
Appendix A
?
The Heading to this Appendix
1
1
?
This appendix provides relevant information for formatting tables and figures.
The first issue is rather obvious: the caption to a table appears above the table while
the caption to a figure appears below the figure. Examples of this rule are provided
in Tables 1.1 and A.1 (pp. 3 and 5) and Figures 1-1 and A-1 (pp. 2 and 6).
1.5
-
Table A.1: A silly glossary for research reports. If your committee chair sees
this, remind her/him that I’m only joking.
When Professors write...
they REALLY mean ...
Typical results are shown . . .
The best results are shown . . .
It is generally believed that . . .
A couple of other guys think so too
Thanks to Al K. Seltzer for assistance
and to I.P. Daly for valuable discussions.
Seltzer did the work and Daly explained what it meant.
The second issue is the difference between a table label and a figure label. Bear
with me here — this point is so simple that students and faculty often do not notice
the difference. The labels to Tables 1.1 and A.1 were, of course, “1.1” and “A.1” —
and those for Figures 1-1 and A-1 were “1-1” and “A-1.” Both types of labels have
the chapter number (i.e., “1” or “A”) followed by the table/figure number (i.e., “1”).
The difference is that the chapter and table/figure numbers are separated by a period
in the table label and by a hyphen in the figure label.
6
1
3 4
6
5
(Formatting Manual — Page 41)
1
1
(A.17 Sample Figure A-1 Page)
?
Last, many students and faculty presume that a caption’s text must be used as
the text in the corresponding entry in the List of Tables or List of Figures. This is
not true. A caption must fully describe the content of a table/figure, so its length
should not be dictated by space considerations. In contrast, a List of Tables/Figures
entry should be as concise as possible, and its text does not have to include all the
information that is included in the caption. Its only purpose is to direct readers to
the table/figure page where they can review the full caption. Compare the captions of
Tables 1.1 and A.1 and Figures 1-1 and A-1 to their respective List of Tables/Figures
entries on pp. vii – viii of these sample pages. In some cases the caption text matches
the List entry in other cases the List entry is a concise summary of the caption text.
Try to limit the length of such List entries to one or two lines (I recognize that this
1.5
is not always possible — for example, see the entry for Figure 1-1 on p. viii of these
-
sample pages). If you have any questions on what to include (or not include) in a
List of Tables/Figures entry, simply ask your committee chair.
.. .. ..
.. .. ..
...............
P
.. .. ..
H
H
HH ........................
H
J H ........... .
J
J
J.......
..
.
.
...
..
...
B
B
B
B
Figure A-1: A person enjoying a cigar.
6
1
6
3 4
6
(Formatting Manual — Page 42)
1
Index
chapter
as a main division, 18
chapter material v. preliminary page
material, 10, 18
headings, 19
page format, 19
page numbers, 4, 10
charts
format and label according to rules
established for figures, 6
Chicago Manual of Style
style guide, 7
college (student’s academic college)
college signature pages are prohibited, 6
college-specific pages are prohibited, 6
do not reference on title page, 10
submission deadline, 22, 23
colon (proper use), 5
color
illustrative material
labels or symbols instead of colors, 6
shading provides better contrast, 6
textual material required color, 2
conditional/optional pages or sections
acknowledgments page, 14
Appendices, 20
dedication page, 14
Index, 20
List of Abbreviations, 16
List of Figures, 16
List of Symbols, 17
List of Tables, 15
Preface, 18
conferral date of document, 12, 13
copyright, copyrighted material
copyright v. blank page, 12
fair use, 7
notification page, 12
formatting, 13
must appear as the second page, 12
permission letters, 7
responsibility to ensure that no conflicts,
legal or otherwise, exist, 9
A
abbreviations
avoid abbreviations in document title, 11
general rules, 5
List of Abbreviations, 16
Abstract
3rd page of the document, 13
definition of “a word” in an Abstract, 14
part 1 of Abstract is single-spaced, 13
part 2 of Abstract is double-spaced, 14
word limit for your Abstract, 14
acronyms
avoid acronyms in document title, 11
general rules, 5
alternative style guides, 7, 25
amending this formatting manual, 24
American Psychological Association (APA)
sample pages, 25
style guide, 7, 25
appealing a formatting requirement, 9
Arial text font (not permitted), 3
B
beginning a sentence (general rules), 5
binding your printed document, 24
Book Antiqua text font, 3
bottom margin, 3
C
capitalization
general rules, 5
in a title or heading, 5
no “all caps” in document title, 11
captions
caption font size same as text size, 6
caption text
differing from entry in List of Figures, 16
differing from entry in List of Tables, 15
may be single-spaced, 3, 6
must appear above table, 6, 15
must appear below figure, 6, 16
must be concise, 6
Century Schoolbook text font, 3
43
Index
Note: each page number is an active link
D
dates
conferral of degree date, 12, 13
deadlines
academic college, 22, 23
department, 22, 23
Graduate College, 23
how to report dates in your document, 5
July 10, 1994 — not “10 July 1994”, 5
prior to submitting your document, 22, 23
deadlines
academic college, 22, 23
department, 22, 23
Graduate College, 23
responsibility for satisfying deadlines, 22
department (student’s department)
submission deadline, 22, 23
dissertation publishing requirement, 24
E
electronic documents
do not scan written signatures, 21, 24
electronic submissions, 23
embedding fonts
help, 23
in PDF file, 23, 24
file conversion (PDF), 23, 24
signatures
do not scan written signatures, 21, 24
electronic signatures, 21
ellipses (proper use), 5
embedding fonts in PDF file, 23, 24
F
fair use (of copyrighted material), 7
figure
caption
caption text differing from List of
Figures entry, 16
font size equals text font size, 3
may be single-spaced, 3, 6
must appear below figure, 6, 16
must be concise, 6
footnotes within a figure, 5
illustrative requirements, 6
labels
chapter or appendix number
incorporated into figure label, 6, 15, 16
font size equals text font size, 6
(“figure” is continued on next column)
Go to:
Table of Contents §1 §2 §3 §4 §5
figure (continued from previous column)
larger than 8 12 × 11 paper size, 7
List of Figures, 16
located within the text (preferred), 7
numbering figure, 16
different from tables numbers, 16
numbering figures, 6
numbering footnotes within a figure, 5
file conversion (PDF), 23, 24
flush-right text formatting, 2
flush-right v. ragged-right text formatting, 2
font (see text font), 3
font color
color required for all textual material, 2
footnotes
must appear at bottom of page, 5
numbered consecutively in text, 5
single-spaced, 3
to a table or figure, 5
formatting
appealing formatting requirements, 9
chapter page format, 19
exceptions to this Manual
discipline-specific style guides, 7
only 5 exceptions are permitted, 7
flush-right text v. ragged-right text, 2
font
chosen for ease in reading, 2
color (required for textual material), 2
only serif fonts are permitted, 3
recommended font: Times Roman, 3
san serif fonts not permitted, 3
script-style fonts not permitted, 3
text size, 3
ragged-right text v. flush-right text, 2
text color
required color for all textual material, 2
text size, 3
U
Thesis) satisfies all
T LATEX style file (U
requirements established in this
manual, 7
G
Garamond text font, 3
Graduate College
contact information, 1
enforces all U
T Formatting Manual
regulations, 1
(“Graduate College” is continued on next page)
Page 44
Index
Note: each page number is an active link
Graduate College (continued from previous page)
Graduate Student Handbook
companion to U
T Formatting Manual, 1
general description, 1
office locations, 1
phone numbers, 1
requiring formatting changes, 2, 10, 23
reviewing submitted document, 10, 23
right to mandate formatting changes, 2, 10
U
Thesis), 7
T LATEX style file (U
web resources, 1
webpage address, 1
Graduate Council, 1, 2, 9, 21, 24
Graduate Student Handbook
companion to U
T Formatting Manual, 1
general description, 1
graphs
format and label according to rules
established for figures, 6
H
Helvetica text font (not permitted), 3
hyphenated words, 2
I
illustrations too large for page size, 7
illustrative material
all illustrative material must be labeled, 6
copyright issues, 7
illustrations too large for page size, 7
labels
chapter or appendix number
incorporated into table/figure label, 6,
15, 16
font size equals text font size, 6
labeled according to classification, 6
requirements, 6
material too large for page size, 7
photographs
must be professional-quality, 7
placed within the text (preferred), 7
requirements, 6
tables, figures, charts, graphs,
photographs, and maps, 6
L
labels (also see numbering)
chapter or appendix number incorporated
into table/figure label, 6, 15, 16
labels (continued from previous column)
charts, 6
figure, 6, 16
figure label v. table label, 16
graphs, 6
illustrative material must be labeled, 6
maps, 6
photographs, 6
table, 6, 15
table label v. figure label, 15
A
L TEX, 2, 7
left margin, 3
M
major sections
defined, 3
order of major sections, 10
top margin, 3
maps
format and label according to rules
established for figures, 6
margins, 3, 23
Microsoft Word, 2, 7
Modern Language Association (MLA)
style guide, 7
N
numbering (also see labels)
appendices, 20
chapters, 19
charts, 6
figure, 6, 16
figure number v. table number, 16
graphs, 6
illustrative material must be labeled, 6
maps, 6
photographs, 6
reference section not numbered, 19
section, 19
subsection, 19
table, 6, 15
table number v. figure number, 15
numbers
how to report numbers in the document, 5
(“labels” is continued on next column)
Go to:
Table of Contents §1 §2 §3 §4 §5
Page 45
Index
Note: each page number is an active link
O
OhioLINK
before uploading your document, 22
college signature pages are prohibited, 6
college-specific pages are prohibited, 6
no administrative signatures, 21
responsibility to ensure that no conflicts,
legal or otherwise, exist, 9
optional/conditional pages or sections
acknowledgments page, 14
Appendices, 20
dedication page, 14
Index, 20
List of Abbreviations, 16
List of Figures, 16
List of Symbols, 17
List of Tables, 15
Preface, 18
P
page number
abstract page, 13
acknowledgments page, 14
appendix, 4, 20
Arabic v. Roman numerals, 4, 10, 19
chapter page numbers v. preliminary page
numbers, 4, 10
chapter pages, 4, 10, 18
color, 4
copyright page, 12
dedication page, 14
do not use periods, brackets, hyphens,
etc. before or after page numbers, 4
first page of a major section, 4, 14–20
font, 4
font color, 4
font size, 4
formatting, 4
index, 4, 20
List of Abbreviations, 17
List of Figures, 16
List of Symbols, 17
(“page number” is continued on next column)
Go to:
Table of Contents §1 §2 §3 §4 §5
page number (continued from previous column)
List of Tables, 15
location, 4
Preface, 18
preliminary pages
list of preliminary pages, 4
lower-case roman numerals, 4
preliminary page numbers v. chapter
page numbers, 4, 10
some page numbers not printed on page,
10, 12, 14
switch from preliminary page numbers
to chapter page numbers, 4
which preliminary pages receive a page
number, 4
references, 4, 19
switch from preliminary page numbers to
chapter page numbers, 4
table of contents, 14
title page, 10
pagination (see page number), 4
paper
additional signed copies of title page, 24
binding your document
margins necessary for binding, 3
Rocket Copy binding your document, 24
illustrations too large for page size, 7
paper copies of your document, 24
paper specifications, 24
printing
printed on one side only, 2
suitable condition for binding, 2
signatures
additional signed copies of title page, 24
required for paper/bound copies, 21
written signatures, 21
PDF files
font embedded PDF files (required), 23, 24
help, 23
photographs
formatting issues, 6
label according to rules established for
figures, 6
must be professional-quality, 7
page number, 4
too large for page size, 7
Page 46
Index
Note: each page number is an active link
preliminary pages
list of preliminary pages, 4
optional/conditional pages or sections
acknowledgments page, 14
Appendices, 20
dedication page, 14
List of Abbreviations, 16
List of Figures, 16
List of Symbols, 17
List of Tables, 15
Preface, 18
page number
formatting issues, 4
lower-case roman numerals, 4
number not printed on page, 10, 12, 14
preliminary pages v. document text, 4, 18
required sequence of preliminary pages, 10
required v. optional pages, 10, 15–18
which preliminary pages receive a page
number, 4
printing
additional signed copies of title page, 24
binding your document
margins necessary for binding, 3
Rocket Copy binding your document, 24
illustrations too large for page size, 7
paper copies of your document, 24
paper specifications, 24
printed on one side only, 2
signatures
additional signed copies of title page, 24
required for paper/bound copies, 21
written signatures, 21
suitable condition for binding, 2
ProQuest/UMI
college signature pages are prohibited, 6
college-specific pages are prohibited, 6
no administrative signatures, 21
ordering printed copies of document, 24
responsibility to ensure that no conflicts,
legal or otherwise, exist, 9
word limit for your Abstract, 14
publishing
college signature pages are prohibited, 6
college-specific pages are prohibited, 6
dissertation publishing requirement, 24
Go to:
Table of Contents §1 §2 §3 §4 §5
Q
quotations
long quotations may be single-spaced, 3
use of ellipses in quotations, 5
R
ragged-right text formatting, 2
ragged-right v. flush-right text formatting, 2
references
presentation by discipline conventions, 19
section heading
not enumerated, 19
the only acceptable heading, 19
spacing options, 3, 19
works cited in your dissertation/thesis, 19
reporting dates in your document, 5
reporting numbers in your document, 5
repository
every dissertation and thesis must be
submitted to the U
T repository, 24
right margin, 3
Roman text font
recommended for all documents, 3
S
san serif fonts not permitted, 3
script-style fonts not permitted, 3
section
headings, 19
no symbols in section heading, 19
numbers, 19
signatures & signature lines
academic title v. degree, 21, 22
administrative titles not permitted, 10, 21
appearing only on title page, 21, 24
certifying the document, 21
college signature pages are prohibited, 6
college-specific pages are prohibited, 6
committee chair, 21, 22
committee members, 22
all or no committee member names, 22
name below signature line, 22
consistent presentation, 12, 21, 22
do not scan written signatures, 21, 24
electronic signatures, 21
Graduate College Dean, 21, 22
Graduate Council requirements, 21
purpose (certifying the document), 21
(“signatures” is continued on next page)
Page 47
Index
Note: each page number is an active link
signatures & signature lines (continued from
previous page)
referencing a student’s academic college or
its administrators is prohibited, 10
required for paper/bound copies, 21, 24
required v. optional signatures, 12, 21, 22,
24
signature lines, 12
written signatures
do not scan written signatures, 21, 24
single-spaced material
abstract page (“part 1 but not part 2”), 13
captions to figures and tables, 3
content of tables and text within figures, 3
copyright notification page, 13
footnotes, 3
List of Abbreviations, 17
List of Symbols, 17
quotations (long quotations), 3
references (option), 19
references (spacing options), 3
title page special situation, 11, 12
style guides
alternative style guides, 7
American Psychological Association
(APA), 7
Chicago Manual of Style, 7
exceptions to regulations in U
T manual, 7
Modern Language Association (MLA), 7
submission issues
deadlines
academic college submission, 22, 23
department submission, 22, 23
Graduate College submission, 23
electronic submissions, 23
embedding fonts
help, 24
in PDF file, 23, 24
every dissertation and thesis must be
submitted to the U
T repository, 24
file conversion (PDF), 23, 24
Graduate College review, 23
prior to submitting your document, 22, 23
required submission to U
T repository, 24
title page
additional signed & unsigned copies, 24
signatures, 23
Go to:
Table of Contents §1 §2 §3 §4 §5
symbols
avoid symbols in document title, 11
general rules, 5
List of Symbols, 17
no symbols in section heading, 19
on charts, figures, etc., 6
T
table
caption
caption text differing from List of Tables
entry, 15
font size equals text font size, 3
may be single-spaced, 3, 6
must appear above table, 6, 15
must be concise, 6
footnotes within a table, 5
illustrative requirements, 6
labels
chapter or appendix number
incorporated into table label, 6, 15, 16
font size equals text font size, 6
larger than 8 12 × 11 paper size, 7
List of Tables, 15
located within the text (preferred), 7
numbering footnotes within a table, 5
numbering tables, 6, 15
different from figure numbers, 15
text
caption text
differing from List of Figures entry, 16
differing from List of Tables entry, 15
color
required color for all textual material, 2
dates reported in your document, 5
divisions of textual material, 18
font
acceptable fonts (Book Antiqua,
Century Schoolbook, Garamond, &
Times Roman), 3
chosen for ease in reading, 3
copyright notification page, 13
embedding fonts — help, 23
embedding fonts — in PDF file, 23, 24
must choose a single font, 3
(“text [font]” is continued on next page)
Page 48
Index
Note: each page number is an active link
text (continued from previous page)
font (continued from previous page)
only serif fonts are permitted, 3
recommended font: Times Roman, 3
san serif fonts not permitted, 3
script-style fonts not permitted, 3
Times Roman font is recommended for
all dissertations and theses, 3
formatting text
flush-right, 2
ragged-right, 2
numbers reported in your document, 5
text size for all textual material, 3
text color
required color for all textual material, 2
text formatting
flush-right text, 2
ragged-right text, 2
Times Roman text font
recommended for all dissertations and
theses, 3
recommended for all documents, 3
title page
additional signed & unsigned copies, 24
conferral date, 12
no “all caps” in document title, 11
page number is not printed on page, 10
referencing a student’s academic college or
its administrators is prohibited, 10
signatures & signature lines
academic title v. degree, 21, 22
administrative titles not permitted, 21
all or no committee member names, 22
appearing only on title page, 21, 24
certifying the document, 21
committee chair, 21, 22
committee members, 22
consistent presentation, 12, 21, 22
do not scan written signatures, 21, 24
electronic signatures, 21
Graduate College Dean, 21, 22
Graduate Council requirements, 21
name below signature line, 22
purpose (certifying the document), 21
required v. optional signatures, 12, 21,
22, 24
top margin
first page of a major section, 3, 4, 14–20
other pages, 3
Go to:
Table of Contents §1 §2 §3 §4 §5
U
U
T LATEX style file (U
Thesis), 7
U
T repository of dissertations and theses
every dissertation and thesis must be
submitted to the U
T repository, 24
U
T’s publishing requirement
college signature pages are prohibited, 6
college-specific pages are prohibited, 6
W
word
abbreviations, 5, 11
acronyms, 5, 11
capitalization in a title or heading, 5, 11
definition of “a word” in an Abstract, 14
hyphenated words, 2
Microsoft Word, 2, 7
word limit for your Abstract, 14
Page 49

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