PureBasic Reference Manual 5.30 (Windows) July 23, 2014

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PureBasic Reference Manual
5.30 (Windows)
http://www.purebasic.com/
July 23, 2014
Contents
I
General
5
1
Introduction
6
2
Terms And Conditions
7
3
System requirements
8
4
Installation
9
5
Order
10
6
Contact
12
7
Acknowledgements
13
II
The PureBasic Editor
15
8
Getting Started
16
9
Working with source files
17
10
Editing features
20
11
Managing projects
26
12
Compiling your programs
31
13
Using the debugger
40
14
Included debugging tools
48
15
Using the built-in Tools
56
16
Using external tools
63
17
Getting Help
68
18
Customizing the IDE
70
19
Command-line options for the IDE
87
III
Language Reference
89
20
Working with different number bases
90
21
Break : Continue
94
22
Using the command line compiler
96
23
Compiler Directives
99
1
24
Compiler Functions
103
25
Data
109
26
Debugger keywords in PureBasic
112
27
Define
114
28
Dim
116
29
Building a DLL
118
30
Enumerations
120
31
For : Next
122
32
ForEach : Next
124
33
General Rules
126
34
Global
129
35
Gosub : Return
131
36
Handles and Numbers
133
37
If : Else : EndIf
135
38
Import : EndImport
136
39
Includes Functions
138
40
Inline x86 ASM
140
41
Interfaces
142
42
Licenses for the PureBasic applications (without using 3D engine)
144
43
Licenses for the 3D engine integrated with PureBasic
156
44
Macros
183
45
Pointers and memory access
186
46
Module
190
47
NewList
193
48
NewMap
195
49
Others Commands
197
50
Procedures
199
51
Protected
202
52
Prototypes
204
53
Pseudotypes
206
54
PureBasic objects
208
55
Repeat : Until
211
2
56
Residents
212
57
Runtime
213
58
Select : EndSelect
215
59
Using several PureBasic versions on Windows
217
60
Shared
218
61
Static
219
62
Structures
221
63
Subsystems
226
64
Threaded
228
65
UserGuide - Advanced functions
229
66
UserGuide - Constants
230
67
UserGuide - Storing data in memory
231
68
UserGuide - Decisions & Conditions
233
69
UserGuide - Compiler directives (for different behavior on different OS)
235
70
UserGuide - Reading and writing files
239
71
UserGuide - First steps with the Debug output (variables & operators)
242
72
UserGuide - Displaying graphics output & simple drawing
244
73
UserGuide - Building a graphical user interface (GUI)
249
74
UserGuide - Input & Output
253
75
UserGuide - Other Compiler keywords
254
76
UserGuide - Other Library functions
255
77
UserGuide - Loops
256
78
UserGuide - Memory access
258
79
UserGuide - Overview
264
80
UserGuide - Dynamic numbering of windows and gadgets using #PB_Any
265
81
UserGuide - Managing multiple windows with different content
271
82
UserGuide - Structuring code in Procedures
286
83
UserGuide - String Manipulation
291
84
UserGuide - Displaying text output (Console)
294
85
UserGuide - Some Tips & Tricks
297
86
UserGuide - Variables and Processing of variables
300
87
Unicode
303
3
88
Variables and Types
305
89
While : Wend
315
90
Windows Message Handling
316
91
With : EndWith
318
4
Part I
General
5
Chapter 1
Introduction
PureBasic is an ”high-level” programming language based on established ”BASIC” rules. It is mostly
compatible with any other ”BASIC” compiler, whether it’s for the Amiga or PC format. Learning
PureBasic is very easy! PureBasic has been created for beginners and experts alike. Compilation time is
extremely fast. This software has been developed for the Windows operating system. We have put a lot
of effort into its realization to produce a fast, reliable and system-friendly language.
The syntax is easy and the possibilities are huge with the ”advanced” functions that have been added to
this language like pointers, structures, procedures, dynamic lists and much more. For the experienced
coder, there are no problems gaining access to any of the legal OS structures or Windows API objects.
PureBasic is a portable programming language which currently works on AmigaOS, Linux, MacOS X
and Windows computer systems. This means that the same code can be compiled natively for the OS
and use the full power of each. There are no bottlenecks like a virtual machine or a code translator, the
generated code produces an optimized executable.
The main features of PureBasic
- x86, x64, 680x0 and PowerPC support
- Built-in arrays, dynamic lists, complex structures, pointers and variable definitions
- Supported types: Byte (8-bit), Word (16-bit), Long (32-bit), Quad (64-bit), Float (32-bit), Double
(64-bit) and Characters
- User defined types (structures)
- Built-in string types (characters), including ascii and unicode
- Powerful macro support
- Constants, binary and hexadecimal numbers supported
- Expression reducer by grouping constants and numeric numbers together
- Standard arithmetic support in respect of sign priority and parenthesis: +, -, /, *, and, or, «, »
- Extremely fast compilation
- Procedure support for structured programming with local and global variables
- All Standard BASIC keywords: If-Else-EndIf, Repeat-Until, etc
- Specialized libraries to manipulate BMP pictures, windows, gadgets, DirectX, etc
- Specialized libraries are very optimized for maximum speed and compactness
- The Win32 API is fully supported as if they were BASIC keywords
- Inline Assembler
- Precompiled structures with constants files for extra-fast compilation
- Configurable CLI compiler
- Very high productivity, comprehensive keywords, online help
- System friendly, easy to install and easy to use
6
Chapter 2
Terms And Conditions
This program is provided ”AS IS”. Fantaisie Software are NOT responsible for any damage (or
damages) attributed to PureBasic. You are warned that you use PureBasic at your own risk. No
warranties are implied or given by Fantaisie Software or any representative.
The demo version of this program may be freely distributed provided all contents, of the original archive,
remain intact. You may not modify, or change, the contents of the original archive without express
written consent from Fantaisie Software.
PureBasic has an user-based license. This means you can install it on every computer you need but you
can’t share it between two or more people.
All components, libraries, and binaries are copyrighted by Fantaisie Software. The PureBasic license
explicitly forbids the creation of DLLs whose primary function is to serve as a ’wrapper’ for PureBasic
functions.
Fantaisie Software reserves all rights to this program and all original archives and contents.
PureBasic uses the OGRE OpenSource 3D-Engine and its licence can be consulted here .
The full sources of the PureBasic-customized OGRE engine can be downloaded at
http://www.purebasic.com/OgreSources.zip.
PureBasic uses the OnError library, written and (c) 2003 by Siegfried Rings and Sebastian Lackner.
PureBasic uses the Scintilla editing component and its related license can be consulted here .
The PureBasic XML library uses the expat XML parser. Its license can be viewed here .
The PureBasic RegularExpression library uses the PCRE library. Its license can be viewed here .
7
Chapter 3
System requirements
PureBasic will run on Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7 and Windows 8 (in both 32-bit and
64-bit edition), Linux (kernel 2.2 or above) and MacOS X (10.5 or above).
If there are any problems, please contact us.
Windows
For many graphic functions like 3D or Sprites there is needed the DirectX9.0c version. Windows Vista
and later don’t have installed this from start, so it need to be installed manually.
You can download and install it via the ”DirectX End-User Runtime Web Installer” here:
http://www.microsoft.com/en-us/download/details.aspx?displaylang=en&id=35.
Linux
Required packages to use PureBasic:
-
sdl 1.2 devel (For games)
gtk 2+ (For GUI programs)
libstdc++ devel
gcc correctly installed
- iodbc and iodbc-devel to be able to use the Database commands (see www.iodbc.org)
- libwebkit should be installed to have the WebGadget() working.
- xine and xine-devel for the Movie commands Check the INSTALL and README file for
more information.
MacOS X
You need to install the Apple developer tools to be able to use PureBasic. The tools can be found either
on one of the install CDs or on the Apple web site: http://developer.apple.com/
Be aware to use the latest version of the tools (e.g. XCode), which is needed for your OS version! The
commandline tools needs to be installed from XCode once installed.
8
Chapter 4
Installation
To install PureBasic, just click on the install wizard, follow the steps, and then click on the PureBasic
icon (found on the desktop or in the start-menu) to launch PureBasic.
To use the command line compiler, open a standard command line window (CMD) and look in the
”Compilers\” subdirectory for PBCompiler.exe. It’s a good idea to consider adding the
”PureBasic\Compilers\” directory to the PATH environment variable to make the compiler accessible
from any directory.
Important note: to avoid conflicts with existing PureBasic installations (maybe even with user-libraries),
please install a new PureBasic version always in its own new folder. See also the chapter Using several
PureBasic versions .
9
Chapter 5
Order
PureBasic is a low-cost programming language. In buying PureBasic you will ensure that development
will go further and faster. For personal use (i.e.: not used by a commercial organization) the updates are
unlimited, unlike most other software out there. This means when you buy PureBasic you will get all
future updates for free, on the web site. Better still, you get the three versions of PureBasic (MacOSX,
Linux and Windows) for the same price! For ease of ordering, you can safely use our secure online
method. Thanks a lot for your support!
The demo-version of PureBasic is limited as shown below:
-
No DLL can be created
you can’t use the whole external Win32 API support
no development kit for external libraries
maximum number of source lines: 800
Full version of PureBasic:
Price for full version: 79 Euros
There are special prices for company licences (499 Euros) and educational licenes (199 Euros for a school
class).
Online Ordering
Payment online (www.purebasic.com) is available and very secure. (Note: Such orders are handled
directly by Fred.)
If you live in Germany or Europe and prefer paying to bank account you can
also send your registration to the German team member. In this case please
send your order to following address:
André Beer
Siedlung 6
09548 Deutschneudorf
Germany
e - mail : [email protected] . com
10
Bank Account :
Deutsche Kreditbank AG
Account 15920010 - Bank code 12030000
( For transactions from EU countries : IBAN : D E 0 3 1 2 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 5 9 2 0 0 1 0 BIC / Swift - Code : BYLADEM1001 )
Paypal :
[email protected] . de
( This address can be used for Paypal transaction , if you want
personal contact to or an invoice from André .)
Delivering of the full version
The full version will be provided via your personal download account, which you will get on
www.purebasic.com after successful registration. If you order from André, just write an e-mail with your
full address or use this registration form and print it or send it via e-mail.
11
Chapter 6
Contact
Please send bug reports, suggestions, improvements, examples of source coding, or if you just want to
talk to us, to any of the following addresses:
Frédéric ’AlphaSND’ Laboureur
Fred ’AlphaSND’ is the founder of Fantaisie Software and the main coder for PureBasic. All suggestions,
bug reports, etc. should be sent to him at either address shown below:
s-mail :
Frédéric Laboureur
10, rue de Lausanne
67640 Fegersheim
France
e-mail : [email protected]
André Beer
André is responsible for the complete German translation of the PureBasic manual and website.
PureBasic can be ordered in Germany also directly at him.
Just write an email with your full address (for the registration) to him. If needed you can also get an
invoice from him. For more details just take a look here.
e-mail : [email protected]
12
Chapter 7
Acknowledgements
We would like to thank the many people who have helped in this ambitious project. It would not have
been possible without them !
- All the registered users: To support this software... Many Thanks !
Coders
- Timo ’Fr34k’ Harter: For the IDE, Debugger, many commands and the great ideas. PureBasic
wouldn’t be the same without him !
- Benny ’Berikco’ Sels: To provide an amazing first class Visual Designer for PureBasic. That’s great
to have such kind of help !
- Danilo Krahn: To have done an huge work on the editor and on the core command set, without
forget the tons of nice suggestions about code optimization and size reduction... Thanks a lot.
- Sebastion ’PureFan’ Lackner: For the very nice OnError library, which adds professional error
handling for final executables and several other commands !
- Siegfried Rings: Also for the very nice OnError library, as its a two men work :)
- Marc Vitry: To have kindly shared its SerialPort library sources which helped a lot for the native
PureBasic library.
- Stefan Moebius: To have sent its DX9 subsystem sources, which have been the basis of the current
DX9 subsystem for PureBasic.
- Comtois, ”G-Rom” and ”T-Myke”: for the big help improving the 3D side of PureBasic ! That matters
!
- Gaetan Dupont-Panon: For the wonderful new visual designer, which really rocks on Windows,
Linux and OS X !
Miscellaneous
- Roger Beausoleil: The first to believe in this project, and his invaluable help with the main design
and layout of PureBasic.
13
- Andre Beer: To spend time for improving the guides (including beginners guide) and do the complete
translation into German. Big thanks!
- Francis G. Loch: To have corrected all the mistakes in the English guides ! Thanks again.
- Steffen Haeuser: For giving his valuable time, and assistance. For his invaluable explanations
regarding aspects of PPC coding, and his very useful tips.
- Martin Konrad: A fantastic bug reporter for the Amiga version. To have done the forthcoming
Visual Environment for PureBasic and some nice games.
- James L. Boyd: To have found tons of bugs in the x86 version and gave us tons of work :). Keep up
the bug hunt !
- Les: For editing the English Fantaisie Software Web site & and this guide. This looks much better!
- NAsm team: To have done an incredible x86 assembler used to develop the PureBasic libraries
- Tomasz Grysztar: For FAsm, an excellent optimized x86 assembler currently used by PureBasic.
http://flatassembler.net/
- Pelle Orinius: For the very good linker and resource compiler (from PellesC) currently used by
PureBasic, and the invaluable and instant help when integrating the new linker in the PureBasic
package. Thank you !
- Jacob Navia: For the linker (from the Lcc32 package) which was used in previous PureBasic versions
- Thomas Richter: For creating ”PoolMem.” A patch that decreases the compilation time by a factor
of 2-3! Many thanks for allowing it to be added to the main archive.
- Frank Wille: For allowing the use of your excellent assemblers: ”pasm,” and ”PhxAss”. For all your
tips, and invaluable assistance, in their usage. To help us a lot about debugging PowerPC executables.
- Rings, Paul, Franco and MrVain/Secretly: For extensive bug reports and help us to have a
compiler as reliable and bug free as possible.
- David ’Tinman’ McMinn: To enhance greatly the help and give the opportunity to the world to
really discover PureBasic !
- David ’spikey’ Roberts: To help creating the PureBasic beginners guide. Thanks a lot!
- Leigh: To have created and hosted the first PureBasic forums during 2 years. It has been a great
amount of work, especially when the community started to grow. Thanks again !
- Jean R. VIALE: To have greately improved the french documentation, and still doing it !
14
Part II
The PureBasic Editor
15
Chapter 8
Getting Started
The PureBasic IDE allows you to create and edit your PureBasic source codes, as well as run them,
debug them and create the final executable. It has both an interface to the PureBasic Compiler , as well
to the PureBasic Debugger .
The IDE main window contains of 3 major parts:
The code editing area (below the toolbar)
Here all the source codes are displayed. You can switch between them with the tabs located
right above it.
The tools panel (on the right side by default)
Here you have several tools to make coding easier and increase productivity. The tools
displayed here can be configured, and it can even be completely removed. See Customizing
the IDE for more information.
The error log (located below the editing area)
In this area, the compiler errors and debugger messages are logged. It can be hidden/shown
for each source code separately.
Other then that, there is the main menu and the toolbar. The toolbar simply provides shortcuts to
menu features. It can be fully customized. To find out what each button does, move your mouse over it
and wait until a small tool-tip appears. It shows the corresponding menu command. The menu
commands are explained in the other sections.
16
Chapter 9
Working with source files
The file menu allows you to do basic file operations like opening and saving source codes.
You can edit multiple source code files at the same time. You can switch between them using the panel
located under the Toolbar. Also the shortcut keys Ctrl+Tab and Ctrl+Shift+Tab can be used to jump
to the next or previous open source file, respectively.
The IDE allows the editing of non-sourcecode text files. In this ”plain text” mode, code-related features
such as coloring, case correction, auto complete are disabled. When saving plain text files, the IDE will
not append its settings to the end of the file, even if this is configured for code files in the Preferences .
Whether or not a file is considered a code-file or not depends on the file extension. The standard
PureBasic file extensions (pb, pbi and pbf) are recognized as code files. More file extensions can be
recognized as code files by configuring their extension in the ”Editor” section of the Preferences .
Contents of the ”File” menu:
New
Create a new empty source code file.
Open
Open an existing source code file for editing.
17
Any text file will be loaded into the source-editing field. You can also load binary files with the Open
menu. These will be displayed in the internal File Viewer .
Save
Saves the currently active source to disk. If the file isn’t saved yet, you will be prompted for a filename.
Otherwise the code will be saved in the file it was saved in before.
Save As...
Save the currently active source to a different location than it was saved before. This prompts you for a
new filename and leaves the old file (if any) untouched.
Save All
Saves all currently opened sources.
Reload
Reloads the currently active source code from disk. This discards any changes not yet saved.
Close
Closes the currently active source code. If it was the only open code, the IDE will display a new empty
file.
Close All
Closes all currently opened sources.
View changes
Shows the changes made to the current source code compared to its version that exists on the hard drive.
File format
In this submenu you can select the text encoding as well as the newline format which should be used
when the currently active source code is saved to disk. The IDE can handle files in Ascii or UTF-8. The
newline formats it can handle are Windows (CRLF), Linux/Unix (LF) and MacOSX (CR). The defaults
for newly created source codes can be set in the preferences .
Preferences
Here you can change all the settings that control the look & behavior of the IDE. For a detailed
description of that see Customizing the IDE .
Session history
Session history is a powerful tool which regularly records changes made to any files in a database. A
session is created when the IDE launch, and is closed when the IDE quits. This is useful to rollback to a
previous version of a file, or to find back a deleted or corrupted file. It’s like source backup tool, limited
in time (by default one month of recording). It’s not aimed to replace a real source code version control
system like SVN or GIT. It’s complementary to have finer change trace. The source code will be stored
without encryption, so if you are working on sensitive source code, be sure to have this database file in a
secure location, or disable this feature. To configure the session history tool, see preferences .
18
Recent Files
Here you can see a list of the last accessed files. Selecting a file in this submenu will open it again.
Quit
This of course closes the IDE. You will be asked to save any non-saved source codes.
19
Chapter 10
Editing features
The PureBasic IDE acts like any other Text Editor when it comes to the basic editing features. The
cursor keys as well as Page Up/Page Down, Home and End keys can be used to navigate through the
code. Ctrl+Home navigates to the beginning of the file and Ctrl+End to the End.
The default shortcuts Ctrl+C (copy), Ctrl+X (cut) and Ctrl+V (paste) can be used for editing. The
”Insert” key controls whether text is inserted or overwritten. The Delete key does a forward delete.
Holding down the Shift key and using the arrow keys selects text.
Furthermore, the IDE has many extra editing features specific to programming or PureBasic.
Indentation:
When you press enter, the indentation (number of space/tab at the beginning of the line) of the current
and next line will be automatically corrected depending on the keywords that exist on these lines. A
”block mode” is also available where the new line simply gets the same indentation as the previous one.
The details of this feature can be customized in the preferences .
Tab characters:
By default, the IDE does not insert a real tab when pressing the Tab key, as many programmers see it as
a bad thing to use real tabs in source code.
It instead inserts two spaces. This behavior can be changed in the Preferences. See Customizing the IDE
for more information.
Special Tab behavior:
When the Tab key is pressed while nothing or only a few characters are selected, the Tab key acts as
mentioned above (inserting a number of spaces, or a real tab if configured that way).
However when one or more full lines are selected, the reaction is different. In that case at the beginning
of each selected line, it will insert spaces or a tab (depending on the configuration). This increases the
indentation of the whole selected block.
Marking several lines of text and pressing Shift+Tab reverses this behavior. It removes spaces/tabs at
the start of each line in order to reduce the indentation of the whole block.
20
Indentation/Alignment of comments:
Similar to the special tab behavior above, the keyboard shortcuts Ctrl+E and Ctrl+Shift+E (CMD+E
and CMD+Shift+E on OSX) can be used to change the indentation of only the comments in a selected
block of code. This helps in aligning comments at the end of code lines to make the code more readable.
The used shortcut can be configured in the preferences .
Selecting blocks of code:
The shortcut Ctrl+M (CMD+M on OSX) can be used to select the block of code that contains caret
position (i.e. the surrounding If block, loop or procedure). Repeated usage of the shortcut selects further
surrounding code blocks.
The shortcut Ctrl+Shift+M (CMD+Shift+M on OSX) reverses the behavior and reverts the selection to
the block that was selected before the last usage of the Ctrl+M shortcut.
The used shortcuts can be configured in the preferences .
Double-clicking on source text:
Double-clicking on a word selects the whole word as usual. However in some cases, double-clicking has a
special meaning:
When double-clicking on the name of a procedure that is defined in the current source while holding
down the Ctrl Key, the cursor automatically jumps to the declaration of this procedure.
When double-clicking on an IncludeFile or XincludeFile statement, the IDE will try to open that file.
(This is only possible if the included file is written as a literal string, and not through for example a
constant.)
In the same way, if you double-click on an IncludeBinary statement, the IDE will try to display that file
in the internal file viewer .
Marking of matching Braces and Keywords:
When the cursor is on an opening or closing brace the IDE will highlight the other brace that matches
it. If a matching brace could not be found (which is a syntax error in PureBasic) the IDE will highlight
the current brace in red. This same concept is applied to keywords. If the cursor is on a Keyword such
as ”If”, the IDE will underline this keyword and all keywords that belong to it such as ”Else” or ”EndIf”.
If there is a mismatch in the keywords it will be underlined in red. The ”Goto matching Keyword” menu
entry described below can be used to quickly move between the matching keywords.
The brace and keyword matching can be configured in the Preferences .
21
Command help in the status bar:
While typing, the IDE will show the needed parameters for any PureBasic function whose parameters
you are currently typing. This makes it easy to see any more parameters you still have to add to this
function. This also works for procedures , prototypes , interfaces or imported functions in your code as
long as they are declared in the same source code or project .
Folding options:
When special folding keywords are encountered (Procedure / EndProcedure by default. More can be
added), the IDE marks the region between these keywords on the left side next to the line numbers with
a [-] at the starting point, followed by a vertical line to the end point.
By clicking on the [-], you can hide (”fold”) that section of source code to keep a better overview of larger
source files. The [-] will turn into a [+]. By clicking again, the code will again be shown (”unfolded”)
again.
Note: Even though the state of these folded code lines is remembered when you save/reopen the file, the
actual created code file always contains all lines. This only affects the display of the code in the IDE, not
the code itself.
Another default fold keyword is ”;{” and ”;}”. Since ”;” marks a comment in PB, these will be totally
ignored by the compiler. However, they provide the possibility to place custom fold points that do not
correspond to a specific PB keyword.
Auto complete:
So that you do not have to remember the exact name of every command, there is the Auto complete
feature to make things easier.
After you have typed the beginning of a command, a list of possible matches to the word start you have
just typed will be displayed. A list of options is also displayed when you typed a structured variable or
interface followed by a ”\”.
You can then select one of these words with the up/down keys and insert it at the point you are by
pressing the Tab key. You can also continue typing while the list is open. It will select the first match
that is still possible after what you typed, and close automatically when either you have just typed an
exact match or if there are no more possible matches in the list.
Escape closes the auto complete list at any time. It also closes if you click with the mouse anywhere
within the IDE.
Note: You can configure what is displayed in the Auto complete list, as well as turning off the automatic
popup (requiring a keyboard shortcut such as Ctrl+Space to open list) in the Preferences. See the Auto
complete section of Customizing the IDE for more information.
22
Tools Panel on the side:
Many tools to make navigating/editing the source code easier can be added to the Tools Panel on the
side of the editor window. For an overview of them and how to configure them, see Built-in Tools .
The Edit Menu:
Following is an explanation of the Items in the Edit menu. Note that many of the Edit menu items are
also accessible by right clicking on the source code, which opens a popup menu.
Undo
Undoes the last done action in the code editing area. There is an undo buffer, so several actions can be
undone.
Redo
Redo the last action undone by the undo function.
Cut
Copy the selected part of the source code to the clipboard and remove it from the code.
23
Copy
Copy the selected text to the Clipboard without deleting it from the code.
Paste
Insert the content of the Clipboard at the current position in the code. If any text is selected before this,
it will be removed and replaced with the content of the Clipboard.
Insert comments
Inserts a comment (”;”) before every line of the selected code block. This makes commenting large blocks
of code easier than putting the ; before each line manually.
Remove comments
Removes the comment characters at the beginning of each selected line. This reverts the ”Insert
comments” command, but also works on comments manually set.
Format indentation
Reformats the indentation of the selected lines to align with the code above them and to reflect the
keywords that they contain. The rules for the indentation can be specified in the preferences .
Select all Selects the whole source code.
Goto
This lets you jump to a specific line in your source code.
Goto matching Keyword
If the cursor is currently on a keyword such as ”If” this menu option jumps directly to the keyword that
matches it (in this case ”EndIf”).
Goto recent line
The IDE keeps track of the lines you view. For example if you switch to a different line with the above
Goto function, or with the Procedure Browser tool. With this menu option you can jump back to the
previous position. 20 such past cursor positions are remembered.
Note that this only records greater jumps in the code. Not if you just move up/down a few lines with
the cursor keys.
Toggle current fold
This opens/closes the fold point in which the cursor is currently located.
Toggle all Folds
This opens/closes all fold points in the current source. Very useful to for example hide all procedures in
the code. Or to quickly see the whole code again when some of the code is folded.
Add/Remove Marker
Markers act like Bookmarks in the source code. There presence is indicated by a little arrow next to the
line numbers. You can later jump to these markers with the ”Jump to marker” command.
The ”Add/Remove Marker” sets or removes a marker from the current line you are editing.
Note: You can also set/remove markers by holding down the Ctrl Key and clicking on the border that
holds the markers (not the Line-number part of it).
Jump to Marker
This makes the cursor jump to the next marker position further down the code from the current cursor
position. If there is no marker after the cursor position, it jumps to the first on in the source code. So by
pressing the ”Jump to Marker” shortcut (F2 by default) several times, you can jump to all the markers
in the code.
Clear Markers This removes all markers from the current source code.
Find/Replace
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The find/replace dialog enables you to search for specific words in your code, and also to replace them
with something else.
The ”Find Next” button starts the search. The search can be continued after a match is found with the
Find Next menu command (F3 by default).
You can make the search more specific by enabling one of the checkboxes:
Case Sensitive : Only text that matches the exact case of the search word will be found.
Whole Words only : Search for the given word as a whole word. Do not display results where the search
word is part of another word.
Don’t search in Comments : Any match that is found inside a comment is ignored.
Don’t search in Strings : Any match that is found inside a literal string (in ” ”) is ignored.
Search inside Selection only : Searches only the selected region of code. This is really useful only
together with the ”Replace All” button, in which case it will replace any found match, but only inside
the selected region.
By enabling the ”Replace with” checkbox, you go into replace mode. ”Find Next” will still only search,
but with each click on the ”Replace” button, the next match of the search word will be replaced by
whatever is inside the ”Replace with” box.
By clicking on ”Replace All”, all matches from the current position downwards will be replaced (unless
”Search inside Selection only” is set).
Find Next
This continues the search for the next match of the last search started by the Find/Replace dialog.
Find in Files
The Find in Files Dialog lets you carry out a search inside many files in a specific directory.
You have to specify a search keyword, as well as a base directory (”root directory”) in which to search.
You can customize the searched files by specifying extension filters. Any number of filters can be given
separated by ”,”. (*.* or an empty extension field searches all files). As with ”Find/Replace”, there are
checkboxes to make the search more specific.
The ”Include sub-directories” checkbox makes it search (recursively) inside any subdirectory of the given
root directory too.
When starting the search, a separate window will be opened displaying the search results, giving the file,
line number as well as the matched line of each result.
Double-clicking on an entry in the result window opens that file in the IDE and jumps to the selected
result line.
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Chapter 11
Managing projects
The IDE comes with features to easily handle larger projects. These features are completely optional.
Programs can be created and compiled without making use of the project management. However, once a
program consists of a number of source code and maybe other related files, it can be simpler to handle
them all in one project.
Project management overview
A project allows the management of multiple source codes and other related files in one place with quick
access to the files through the project tool . Source files included in a project can be scanned for
AutoComplete even if they are not currently open in the IDE. This way functions, constants, variables
etc. from the entire project can be used with AutoComplete. The project can also remember the source
files that are open when the project is closed and reopen them the next time to continue working exactly
where you left off.
Furthermore, a project keeps all the compiler settings in one place (the project file) and even allows to
manage multiple ”compile targets” per project. A compile target is just a set of compiler options. This
way multiple versions of the same program, or multiple smaller programs in one project can be easily
compiled at once.
To compile a project from a script or makefile, the IDE provides command-line options to compile a
project without opening a user interface. See the section on command-line options for more details.
All filenames and paths in a project are stored relative to the project file which allows a project to be
easily moved to another location as long as the relative directory structure remains intact.
The Project menu
New Project
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Creates a new project. If there is a project open at the time it will be closed. The project options
window will be opened where the project filename has to be specified and the project can be configured.
Open Project
Opens an existing project. If there is a project open at the time it will be closed. Previously open source
codes of the project will be opened as well, depending on the project configuration.
Recent Projects
This submenu shows a list of recently opened project files. Selecting one of the entries opens this project.
Close Project
Closes the currently open project. The settings will be saved and the currently open source files of the
project will be closed, depending on the project configuration.
Project Options
Opens the project options window. See below for more information.
Add File to Project
Adds the currently active source code to the current project. Files belonging to the project are marked
with a ”>” in the file panel.
Remove File from Project
Removes the currently active source from the current project.
Open Project folder
Opens the folder that contains the project file in whatever file manager is available on the system.
The project options window
The project options window is the central configuration for the project. The general project settings as
well as the settings for the individual files in the project can me made here.
The following settings can be made on the ”Project Options” tab:
Project File
Shows the filename of the project file. This can only be changed during project creation.
Project Name
The name of the project. This name is displayed in the IDE title bar and in the ”Recent Projects” menu.
Comments
This field allows to add some comments to the project. They will be displayed in the project info tab.
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Set as default project
The default project will be loaded on every start of the IDE. Only one project can be the default project
at a time. If there is no default project, the IDE will load the project that was open when the IDE was
closed last time if there was one.
Close all sources when closing the project
If enabled, all sources that belong to the project will be closed automatically when the project is closed.
When opening the project...
load all sources that where open last time
When the project is opened, all the sources that were open when the project was closed will
be opened again.
load all sources of the project
When the project is opened, all (source-)files of the project will be opened.
load only sources marked in ’Project Files’
When the project is opened, only the files that are marked in the ’Project Files’ tab will be
opened. This way you can start a session always with this set of files open.
load only the main file of the default target
When the project is opened, the main file of the default target will be opened too.
load no files
No source files are opened when the project is opened.
The ”Project Files” tabs shows the list of files in the project on the right and allows changing their
settings. The explorer on the left is for the selection of new files to be added.
The buttons on the top have the following function:
Add
Add the selected file(s) in the explorer to the project.
Remove
Remove the selected files in the file list from the project.
New
Shows a file requester to select a filename for a new source file to create. The new file will be
created, opened in the IDE and also added to the project.
Open
Shows a file requester to select an existing file to open. The file will be opened in the IDE
and added to the project.
View
Opens the selected file(s) in the file list in the IDE or if they are binary files in the FileViewer.
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The checkboxes on the bottom specify the options for the files in the project. They can be applied to a
single file or to multiple files at once by selecting the files and changing the state of the checkboxes. The
settings have the following meaning:
Load file when opening the project
Files with this option will be loaded when the project is open and the ”load only sources
marked in ’Project Files” ’ option is specified on the ”Project Options” tab.
Display a warning if file changed
When the project is closed, the IDE will calculate a checksum of all files that have this
option set and display a warning if the file has been modified when the project is opened the
next time. This allows to be notified when a file that is shared between multiple projects has
been edited while working on another project. This option should be disabled for large data
files to speed up project loading and saving, or for files which are changed frequently to avoid
getting a warning every time the project is opened.
Scan file for AutoComplete
Files with this option will be scanned for AutoComplete data even when they are not
currently loaded in the IDE. This option is on by default for all non-binary files. It should be
turned off for all files that do not contain source code as well as for any files where you do
not want the items to turn up in the AutoComplete list.
Show file in Project panel
Files with this option will be displayed in the project side-panel. If the project has many files
it may make sense to hide some of them from the panel to have a better overview and faster
access to the important files in the project.
The project overview
When a project is open, the first tab of the file panel shows an overview of the project and its files.
Project Info
This section shows some general info about the project, such as the project filename, its comments or
when and where the project was last opened.
Project Files
This section shows all files in the project and their settings from the Project Options window.
Double-clicking on one of the files opens the file in the IDE. Right-clicking displays a context menu with
further options:
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Open - Open the file in the IDE.
Open in FileViewer - Open the file in the FileViewer of the IDE.
Open in Explorer - Open the file in the operating systems file manager.
Add File to Project - Add a new file to the project.
Remove File from Project - Remove the selected file(s) from the project.
Refresh AutoComplete data - Rescan the file for AutoComplete items.
Project Targets
This section shows all compile targets in the project and some of their settings. Double-clicking on one
of the targets opens this target in the compiler options . Right-clicking on one of the targets displays a
context menu with further options:
Edit target - Open the target in the compiler options.
Set as default target - Set this target as the default target.
Enable in ’Build all Targets’ - Include this target in the ’Build all Targets’ compiler menu
option.
The project panel
There is a sidepanel tool which allows quick access to the files belonging to the project. For more
information see the built-in tools section.
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Chapter 12
Compiling your programs
Compiling is simple. Just select ”Compile/Run” (F5 by default) and your program will be compiled and
executed for a testing run.
To customize the compiling process, you can open the ”Compiler options” dialog. The settings made
there are associated with the current source file or the current project, and also remembered when they
are closed. The place where this information is saved can be configured. By default, it is saved at the
end of the source code as a comment (invisible in the IDE).
In case of an error that prevents the compiler from completing the compilation, it aborts and displays an
error-message. This message is also logged in the error log, and the line that caused the error is marked.
A number of functions from older versions of PureBasic that have been removed from the package still
exist for a while as a compatibility wrapper to allow older codes to be tested/ported more easily. If such
a function is used in the code, the compiler will issue a warning. A window will be opened displaying all
warnings issued during compilation. Double-clicking on a warning will display the file/line that caused
the warning. Note that such compatibility wrappers will not remain indefinitely but will be removed in a
future update, so it is recommended to fix issues that cause a compiler warning instead of relying on
such deprecated functions.
The compiler menu
Compile/Run
This compiles the current source code with the compiler options set for it and executes it. The
executable file is stored in a temporary location, but it will be executed with the current path set to the
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directory of the source code; so loading a file from the same directory as the source code will work.
The source code need not be saved for this (but any included files must be saved).
The ”Compile/Run” option respects the debugger setting (on or off) from the compiler options or
debugger menu (they are the same).
Run
This executes the last compiled source code once again. Whether or not the debugger is enabled depends
on the setting of the last compilation.
Compile with Debugger
This is the same as ”Compile/Run” except that it ignores the debugger setting and enabled the debugger
for this compilation. This is useful when you usually have the debugger off, but want to have it on for
just this one compilation.
Compile without Debugger
Same as ”Compile with Debugger” except that it forces the debugger to be off for this compilation.
Restart Compiler (not present on all OS)
This causes the compiler to restart. It also causes the compiler to reload all the libraries and resident
files, and with that, the list of known PureBasic functions, Structures, Interfaces and Constants is
updated too. This function is useful when you have added a new User Library to the PB directory, but
do not want to restart the whole IDE. It is especially useful for library developers to test their library.
Compiler Options
This opens the compiler options dialog, that lets you set the options for the compilation of this source
file.
Create executable
This opens a save dialog, asking for the executable name to create. If the executable format is set to
DLL, it will create a DLL on Windows, shared object on Linux and dylib on OS X. When creating an
executable on OS X, appending ’.app’ at the executable name will create a bundled executable with the
necessary directory structure, including the icon. If no ’.app’ is set, then it will create a regular
console-like executable.
Set default Target
When a project is open, this submenu shows all compile targets and allows to quickly switch the current
default target. The default target is the one which is compiled/executed with the ”Compile/Run” menu
entry.
Build Target
When a project is open, this submenu shows all compile targets and allows to directly compile one of
them.
Build all Targets
When a project is open, this menu entry compiles all targets that have this option enabled in the
compiler options. A window is opened to show the build progress.
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Compiler options for non-project files
Main source file
By enabling this option, you can define another file that will be the one sent to the compiler instead of
this one. The use of this is that when you are editing a file that does not run by itself, but is included
into another file, you can tell the compiler to use that other file to start the compilation.
Note: When using this option, you MUST save your source before compiling, as only files that are
written to disk will be used in this case. Most of the compiler settings will be taken from the main
source file, so when setting this, they are disabled. Only some settings like the debugger setting will be
used from the current source.
Use Compiler
This option allows the selection of a different compiler to use instead of the compiler of the current
PureBasic version. This makes it easy to compile different versions of the same program (x86 and x64 or
PowerPC) without having to start up the IDE for the other compiler just for the compilation.
Additional compilers for this option have to be configured in the preferences .
If the compiler version matches that of the default compiler but the target processor is different then the
built-in debugger of the IDE can still be used to debug the compiled executable. This means that an
executable compiled with the x86 compiler can be debugged using the x64 IDE and vice versa on
Windows and Linux. The same applies to the x86 and PowerPC compilers for Mac OSX. This is
especially useful as this way the fast x86 IDE and debugger can be used on a Mac with an Intel
processor while still compiling programs for the PowerPC processor through the slower emulation. If the
version does not match then the standalone debugger that comes with the selected compiler will be used
for debugging to avoid version conflicts.
Use Icon (Windows and MacOS X only)
Here you can set an icon that will be displayed when viewing the created executable in the explorer. It is
also displayed in the title bar of your programs windows and the Taskbar.
Windows: The icon must be in ICO format (Windows Icon).
MacOS X: The icon must be in ICNS format (Macintosh Icon). To create such an icon, you should
create PNG files in the dimensions 128x128, 48x48, 32x32 and 16x16 of your image and then use the tool
”Icon Composer” that comes with the OSX developer tools to create the ICNS file. It should be located
in /Developer/Applications/Utilities/. To be displayed once the application has just been created, the
Finder may need to be restarted.
Enable inline ASM support
This enables the inline ASM parser. See the Inline x86 ASM section of the help-file for more information
on this option.
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Create unicode executable
This tells the compiler to create a unicode executable. The string management, as well as all PB
functions will work with unicode strings . To write unicode text in the sourcefiles, it is recommended to
set the text encoding of the sourcefile to UTF8 (see below), as then unicode text can be directly entered
in the IDE without problem.
To debug unicode programs, it is best to select the Standalone Debugger from the Preferences , as the
debugger that is integrated into the IDE can currently not display unicode strings (it converts them to
ascii before displaying them). The standalone Debugger however can handle this.
Create thread-safe executable
This tells the compiler to use a special version of certain commands to make them safe to be used in
threads. See the Thread library for more information.
This also enables the Debugger to display correct information if threads are used. Without this option,
the debugger might output wrong line numbers when threads are involved for example.
Enable modern theme support (Windows only)
Adds support for skinned windows on Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7 or Windows 8.
Request Administrator mode for Windows Vista and above (Windows only)
The created executable will always be started with administrator rights on Windows Vista and above (it
will not launch if the administrator password is not entered). This option should be set for programs
that need to access restricted folders or restricted areas of the registry to get full access.
If this option is turned on, the standalone debugger will automatically selected when debugging, so the
program can be tested in administrator mode.
Note: This option has no effect when the program is run on other versions of Windows.
Request User mode for Windows Vista and above (Windows only)
This option disables the ”Virtualization” feature for this executable on Windows Vista and above.
Virtualization caused file and registry access to be redirected to a special user folder if the user does not
have the needed rights to do the operation (this is done for compatibility with older programs).
Note that this redirection is done without notifying the user; this can lead to some confusion if he tries
to find saved files on the file-system. Because of this, it is recommended to disable this feature if the
program complies with the Windows Vista file/registry access rules.
Note: This option has no effect when the program is run on other versions of Windows. It cannot be
combined with the ”Administrator mode” option above.
Enable OnError lines support (Windows only)
Includes line numbers information with the executable for the OnError-Library .
Library Subsystem
Here you can select different subsystems for compilation. More than one subsystem can be specified,
separated with space character. For more information, see subsystems .
Executable format
This allows you to specify the created executable format:
Windows : a normal windows executable.
Console : an executable with a default console. This one still can create windows and such, but it always
has a console open. When executed from a command prompt, this executable type uses the command
terminal as its console and writes there, whereas the ”Windows” executable would create a separate
Console window when using OpenConsole() . This setting must be used to create a Console application
that can have its input/output redirected with pipes.
Shared DLL : create a windows DLL. See Building a DLL for more info.
Note: When you do ”Compile/Run” with a DLL source code, it is executed as a normal executable. A
dll is only created when you use ”create executable”.
Cpu Optimisation (next to Executable format)
This setting allows to include Cpu optimised PB functions in your executable:
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All CPU : The generic functions are included that run on all CPUs.
Dynamic CPU : The generic functions as well as any available CPU specific function are included. The
function to execute is decided at runtime. This creates a bigger executable, but it will run as fast as
possible on all CPUs.
All other options : Include only the functions for a specific CPU. The executable will not run on any
Cpu that does not support this feature.
Note: No PB functions actually support this feature for now (it is ignored for them). However, some
User Libraries include such optimisations.
Linker options file
A textfile can be specified here with further command-line options that should be passed to the linker
when creating the executable. The file should contain one option per line.
Compile/Run
This section contains options that affect how the executable is run from the IDE for testing. Except for
the tools option, they have no effect when the ”Create executable” menu is used.
Enable Debugger
This sets the debugger state (on/off) for this source code, or if the main file option is used, for that file
too. This can also be set from the debugger menu.
Enable Purifier
This enables purifier support for the debugger. The purifier can detect a certain type of programming
errors such as writing past the end of an allocated memory buffer. See Included debugging tools for
more details.
Use selected Debugger
This allows to choose a different debugger type for this file only. If this option is disabled, the default
debugger is used; this can be specified in the preferences .
Use Warning mode
This allows to choose a different warning mode for this file only. If this option is disabled, the default
setting is used which can be specified in the preferences . The available options are:
Ignore Warnings: Warnings will be ignored without displaying anything.
Display Warnings: Warnings will be displayed in the error log and the source code line will be marked,
but the program continues to run.
Treat Warnings as Errors: A warning will be treated like an error.
Executable command-line
The string given here will be passed as the command-line to the program when running it from the IDE.
Current directory
The directory specified here will be set as the current directory for the program when running it from
35
the IDE.
Create temporary executable in the source directory
With this option turned on, the temporary executable file for running the program from the IDE will be
placed inside the source directory. This can be useful if the program depends on files inside the source
directory for testing. With this option turned off, the executable is created in the systems temporary
directory.
Execute tools
Here external tools can be enabled on a per-source basis. The ”Global settings” column shows if the tool
is enabled or disabled in the tools configuration . A tool will only be executed for the source if it is both
enabled globally and for this source.
Note: For a tool to be listed here, it must have the ”Enable Tool on a per-source basis” option checked in
the tools configuration and be executed by a trigger that is associated with a source file (i.e. not
executed by menu or by editor startup for example).
Constants
In this section, a set of special editor constants as well as custom constants can be defined which will be
predefined when compiling this source.
#PB_Editor_CompileCount
If enabled, this constant holds the number of times that the code was compiled (both with
”Compile/Run” and ”Create Executable”) from the IDE. The counter can be manually edited in the
input field.
#PB_Editor_BuildCount
If enabled, this constant holds the number of times that the code was compiled with ”Create Executable”
only. The counter can be manually edited in the input field.
#PB_Editor_CreateExecutable
If enabled, this constants holds a value of 1 if the code is compiled with the ”Create Executable” menu or
0 if ”Compile/Run” was used.
Custom constants
Here, custom constants can be defined and then easily switched on/off through checkboxes. Constant
definitions should be added as they would be written within the source code. This provides a way to
enable/disable certain features in a program by defining a constant here and then checking in the source
for it to enable/disable the features with CompilerIf/CompilerEndIf .
Inside the definition of these constants, environment variables can be used by specifying them in a
”bash” like style with a ”$” in front. The environment variable will be replaced in the constant definition
before compiling the source. This allows to pass certain options of the system that the code is compiled
on to the program in the form of constants.
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Example: #Creator=”$USERNAME”
Here, the $USERNAME will be replaced by the username of the logged in user on Windows systems. If
an environment variable does not exist, it will be replaced by an empty string.
Note: To test within the source code if a constant is defined or not, the Defined() compiler function can
be used.
Version Information
By enabling this, a resource is included in the executable with information about your program. It can
be viewed by right-clicking on the executable in the windows explorer and selecting ”Properties”. Also it
can be read by other programs such as setup tools.
Fields marked with a * are required if you want to include the version info (if not all required fields are
set, the information may not display correctly on some versions of Windows).
The first two fields MUST be composed of 4 numbers separated by commas. All other fields may be any
string. In the 3 empty boxes, you can define your own fields to include in the Version info block.
In all the string fields, you may include special tokens that are replaced when compiling:
%OS : replaced with the version of Windows used to compile the program
%SOURCE : replaced with the filename (no path) of the source file.
%EXECUTABLE : replaced with the name of the created executable (this only works when ”create
executable” is used, not with ”Compile/Run”.
%COMPILECOUNT : replaced with the value for the #PB_Editor_CompileCount constant.
%BUILDCOUNT : replaced with the value for the #PB_Editor_BuildCount constant.
Furthermore, you can use any token listed with the FormatDate() command. These tokens will be
replaced with their respective meaning in FormatDate() used with the date of the compilation (i.e. %yy
gives the year of the compilation)
Meaning of the lower 3 fields:
File OS
Specifies the OS that this Program is compiled for (Using VOS_DOS or VOS_WINDOWS16 makes
little sense. They are only included for the sake of completeness).
File Type
Type of the executable (Here VFT_UNKNOWN, VFT_APP or VFT_DLL are the only ones that
really make sense for PureBasic programs).
Language
Specifies the language in which this version info is written.
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Resources
Here you can include as many Resource scripts (*.rc files) as you want. They will be compiled and
included with the executable. You can use any resource editor (for example the PellesC IDE) to create
such scripts.
Note: Since Resources are a specific to the Windows platform only, PB does not include a Library to
manage them and they are not further documented here. See documentation on the Windows API and
resources for more information.
Compiler options for projects
The compiler options for projects allow the definition of multiple compile targets. Each target is
basically a set of compiler options with a designated source file and output executable. The left side of
the compiler options window is extended with the list of the defined compile targets. The toolbar on top
of it allows to create, delete, copy, edit or move targets in the list.
The default target is the one which will be compiled when the ”Compile/Run” menu entry is selected. It
can be quickly switched with the ”Set as default target” checkbox or from the compiler menu. The
”Enable in ’Build all Targets” ’ option specifies whether or not the selected target will be built when the
’Build all Targets’ menu entry is used.
The right side of the compiler options is almost the same as in the non-project mode and reflects the
settings for the compile target that is currently selected on the left. The only difference are the ”Input
source file” and ”Output executable” fields on the first tab. These fields have to be specified for all
compile targets. Other than that, the compiler options are identical to the options described above.
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In project mode, the information about the compile target is stored in the project file and not in the
individual source files. Information that belongs to the file (such as the folding state) are still saved for
the individual source files in the location specified by the Preferences .
The Build progress window
When the ’Build all Targets’ menu entry is selected on an open project, all targets that have the
corresponding option set in the compiler options will be compiled in the order they are defined in the
compiler options. The progress window shows the current compile progress as well as the status of each
target. When the process is finished, the build log can be copied to the clipboard or saved to disk.
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Chapter 13
Using the debugger
PureBasic provides a powerful debugger that helps you find mistakes and bugs in your source code. It
lets you control the program execution, watch your variables , arrays or lists or display debug output of
your programs. It also provides advanced features for assembly programmer to examine and modify the
CPU registers or view the program stack, or the Memory of your program. It also provides the
possibility to debug a program remotely over the network.
To enable the debugger for your program, you can select ”Use Debugger” from the debugger menu, or set
it in your programs Compiler options. By using the ”Compile with Debugger” command from the
Compiler menu, you can enable the debugger for just one compilation.
You can directly use debugger commands in your source, such as CallDebugger, Debug, DebugLevel,
DisableDebugger and EnableDebugger.
The PureBasic debugger comes in 3 forms:
A Debugger integrated directly with the IDE, for an easy to use, quick way to debug your programs
directly from the programming environment. This debugger also provides the most features.
A separate, standalone debugger, that is useful for some special purposes (for example, when the same
program must be executed and debugged several times at once) or to be used with third party code
Editors. It provides most of the features of the integrated IDE debugger, but because it is separate from
the IDE, some of the efficiency of the direct access from the IDE is lost. The standalone debugger can be
used to debug programs remotely through a network connection.
A console only debugger. This debuggers primary use is for testing non-graphical environment like on
Linux systems without an X server, or to remotely develop through ssh.
The type of debugger that is used can be selected in the preferences .
All this debugging functionality however comes at a price. Running a program in debug mode is
significantly slower in its execution that running it without the debugger. This should be no problem
however, since this is for testing only anyway.
If you need to use the debugger, but have some parts in you program that require the full execution
speed, you can disable the debugger in just that section with the DisableDebugger / EnableDebugger
keywords.
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The Debugger integrated into the IDE
You can access all the debugger features while the program is running from the debugger menu, or the
corresponding toolbar buttons or shortcuts.
While you are debugging your program, all the source files that belong to that program (also included
files) will be locked to read-only until the program has finished. This helps to ensure that the code that is
marked as the currently executed one is has not actually been modified already without a recompilation.
Note that a program can be run only one time at once in IDE debugger mode. If you try to executed it
again, you are given the option to execute it with the standalone Debugger.
Tip:
The debugger menu is also added to the system-menu of the Main IDE window (the menu you get when
clicking the PB icon in the left/top of the window). This allows you to access the debugger menu also
from the Taskbar, by right-clicking on the Taskbar-Icon of the IDE.
Program Control
There are functions for basic control of the running program. You can halt the execution to examine
variables and the code position or let the code execute line by line to follow the program flow. While the
program is halted, the line that is currently being executed is marked in your source code (with very
light-blue background color in the default colors).
The state of the program can be viewed in the IDE status bar, and in the Error log area.
Menu commands for program control:
Stop
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Halts the Program and displays the current line.
Continue
Continues the program execution until another stop condition is met.
Kill Program
This forces the program to end, and closes all associated debugger windows.
Step
This executes one line of source code and then stops the execution again.
Step <n>
This will execute a number of steps that you can specify and then stop the execution again.
Step Over
This will execute the current line in the source and then stop again, just like the normal ’Step’. The
difference is that if the current line contains calls to procedures , the execution will not stop inside these
procedures like it does with the normal ’Step’, but it will execute the whole procedure and stop after it
returned. This allows to quickly skip procedures in step mode.
Step Out
This will execute the remaining code inside the current procedure and stop again after the procedure has
returned. If the current line is not in any procedure, a normal ’Step’ will be done.
Line Breakpoints
Breakpoints are another way to control the execution of your program. With the Breakpoint menu
command, you mark the currently selected line as a breakpoint (or remove any breakpoint that exists in
that line).
When the execution of the code reaches that line, it will stop at this point. Note that if you select a
non-executable line (such as an empty line or a Structure definition), it will halt the execution on the
next executable line after that.
After the execution of your program has stopped at a breakpoint, you can use any of the Program
control commands to continue/end the execution.
Breakpoints can be set and removed dynamically, while your program is running, or while you are editing
your source code. With the ”Clear Breakpoints” command, you can clear all breakpoints in a source file.
Note: You can also set/remove Breakpoints by holding down the Alt Key and clicking on the border
that contains the Breakpoint marks.
Data Breakpoints
In addition to the line specific breakpoints, the debugger also provides data breakpoints. Data
breakpoints halt the program if a given condition is met. This way it is easy to find out when a variable
or other value in the program changes and halt the program if that happens. The condition can be any
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PureBasic expression that can be evaluated to true or false. This can be anything that could be put
after an If keyword, including logical operators such as And, Or or Not. Most functions of the Math ,
Memory and String libraries as well as all object validation functions in the form IsXXX() and the
XxxID functions for getting the OS identifiers for an object are also available.
Example conditions:
1
2
MyVariable$ <> " Hello " Or Counter < 0 ; halt if MyVariable$ changes
from " Hello " or if the Counter falls below zero
PeekL (* SomeAddress +500) <> 0
; halt if the long value at
the given memory location is not equal to zero
Data breakpoints can be added using the Data Breakpoint option from the Debugger menu. They can
be limited to a specific procedure or they can be added for all code. The special ”Main” entry of the
procedure selection specifies that the data breakpoint should only be checked when the execution is not
in any procedure.
The status column shows the status of all breakpoint conditions on their last evaluation. This can be
true, false or an error if the condition is not a valid expression. Once a condition is evaluated to true, the
program execution will be halted. This condition is automatically removed from the list as soon as the
program continues, so that it does not halt the program again immediately.
Note: Checking for data breakpoints slows down the program execution because the breakpoint
conditions have to be re-evaluated for every executed line of code to check if the condition is met. So
data breakpoints should only be added when needed to keep the program execution fast otherwise.
Limiting a data breakpoint to a certain procedure also increases the speed because the check then only
affects the given procedure and not the entire program.
Examining variables during runtime
The value of a variable can be very quickly viewed while the program is running by placing the mouse
cursor over a variable in the source code and waiting for a brief moment. If the variable is currently in
scope and can be displayed, its value will be shown as a tool-tip on the mouse location.
More complex expressions (for example array fields) can be viewed by selecting them with the mouse
and placing the mouse cursor over the selection.
The debugger tools also offer a number of ways to examine the content of variables , arrays or lists .
Errors in the Program
If the debugger encounters an error in your program, it will halt the execution, mark the line that
contains the error (red background in the default colors) and display the error-message in the error log
and the status bar.
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At this point, you can still examine the variables of your program, the callstack or the memory, however
other features like the Register display or stack trace are not available after an error.
If the error is determined to be fatal (like an invalid memory access, or division by 0), you are not
allowed to continue the execution from this point. If the error was reported by a PureBasic library, you
are allowed to try to continue, but in many cases, this may lead to further errors, as simply continuing
just ignores the displayed error.
After an error (even fatal ones), you have to use the ”Kill Program” command to end the program and
continue editing the source code. The reason why the program is not automatically ended is that this
would not allow to use the other debugger features (like variable display) to find the cause of the error.
Note: you can configure the debugger to automatically kill the program on any error. See Customizing
the IDE for that.
Debugger warnings
In some cases the debugger cannot be sure whether a given parameter is actually an error in the
program or was specified like that on purpose. In such a case, the debugger issues a warning. By default,
a warning will be displayed with file and line number in the error log and the line will be marked (orange
in the default colors). This way the warnings do not go unnoticed, but they do not interrupt the
program flow. There is also the option of either ignoring all warnings or treating all warnings like errors
(stopping the program). The handling of debugger warnings can be customized globally in the
Preferences or for the current compiled program in the Compiler options .
The Error log
The error log is used to keep track of the compiler errors, as well as the messages from the debugging.
Messages are always logged for the file they concern, so when an error happens in an included file , this
file will be displayed, and a message logged for it.
The ”Error log” submenu of the Debugger menu provides functions for that:
Show error log
Shows / hides the log for the current source.
Clear log
Clears the log for this file.
Copy log
Copies the contents of the error log to the clipboard.
Clear Error marks
After you have killed the program, any error mark in the source file will remain. This is to help you
identify the line that caused the problem and solve it. The ”Clear error Marks” command can be used to
remove these marks.
You can also configure the IDE to automatically clean the error marks when the program ends. See
Configuring the IDE for that.
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The Standalone Debugger
The standalone debugger is very similar to the one in the IDE, and will be explained here only briefly:
On the Debugger window, you have control buttons to carry out the basic program control, as described
above. The ”Step” button carries out as many steps as are set in the edit field next to it. Closing the
Debugger with ”Quit” or the close button will also kill the debugged program.
The Error log area can be hidden by the up arrow button on the right side in order to make the
debugger window smaller.
The code view is used to display the currently executed code line as well as any errors or breakpoints.
Use the combo box above it to select the included file to view. The ”Set Breakpoint”, ”Remove
Breakpoint” and ”Clear Breakpoints” can be used to manage breakpoints in the currently displayed
source file. The code view also provides the mouse-over feature from the integrated debugger to quickly
view the content of a variable.
The debugger tools can be accessed from the buttons below the code area. Their usage is the same as
with the integrated IDE debugger.
Note: The Standalone Debugger has no configuration of its own. It will use the debugger settings and
coloring options from the IDE. So if you use a third-party Editor and the standalone debugger, you
should run the IDE at least once to customize the Debugger settings.
Executing the standalone debugger from the command-line:
To execute a program compiled on the command-line with enabled debugger (-d or /DEBUGGER
switch), call the debugger like this:
pbdebugger <executable file> <executable command-line>
If you execute a debugger-enabled executable from the command-line directly, it will only use the
command-line debugger.
Remote debugging with the standalone debugger:
The network debugging feature allows the easy debugging of programs on remote servers or inside of
virtual machines while still using a comfortable graphical interface instead of the command-line
debugger. The compilation of the program has to be handled separately either on the remote machine or
on the local machine before transferring the file to the target machine.
The debuggers between all operating systems and processor types supported by PureBasic are
compatible as long as the PureBasic version between the debugger and the compiler that compiled the
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program matches. This means that a program running on Linux x64 can be debugged using an x86
Windows machine without problems for example. The debugger and the compiled executable can both
act as either the client or the server for the network connection depending on the command-line
parameters. One instance of the debugger can be used to debug one program only. Multiple connections
are not possible.
Running the debugger in network mode:
The following command-line parameters control the network capabilities of the standalone debugger.
pbdebugger . exe / CONNECT = host [: port ] [/ PASSWORD = password ]
pbdebugger . exe / LISTEN [= interface ][: port ] [/ PASSWORD = password ]
The ”connect” mode connects the debugger as a client to an executable which must have been started as
a server before. The ”listen” mode creates a server and waits for an incoming connection from an
executable. If an the IP address of a local network interface is specified, the server will only listen on
that specific interface. Otherwise it will listen on all network interfaces for connections on the specified
port. If no port is specified, the default port (port 10101) is used.
The password option enables encryption on the debugger data stream using AES. If the client is started
without the password option but the server requires a password then you will be prompted to enter the
password to establish a connection.
Running the executable in network mode:
The executable has to be compiled in debugger mode as usual (using the /DEBUGGER or –debugger
compiler switch). It can then be started from the command-line with the following parameters to enable
network mode. The rules for client and server mode are the same as above.
yourprogram . exe / DEBUGCONNECT = host [: port ] [/ PASSWORD = password ]
yourprogram . exe / DEBUGLISTEN [= interface ][: port ] [/ PASSWORD = password ]
If command-line parameters cannot be used to start the program in network mode (for example because
the program also reads its command-line parameters and would be confused by the debugger related
options) there is an alternative way by setting the following environment variable before executing the
program (case sensitive):
P B _ D E B U G G E R _ C o m m u n i c a t i o n = NetworkClient ; host [: port ][; password ]
P B _ D E B U G G E R _ C o m m u n i c a t i o n = NetworkServer [ ; interface ][: port ][; password ]
Once the network connection is established between debugger and executable, the debugging session
works in the same way as local debugging. If the debugger is closed, the debugged executable is
terminated as well. It is not possible to disconnect or reconnect the debugger after the connection was
established.
The command-line debugger:
The command-line debugger is not a part of the IDE and therefore not explained in detail here.
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While the program is running, hit Ctrl+C in the console to open a debugger console prompt. In this
prompt type ”help” to get an overview of all available commands. Type ”help <commandname>” for a
more detailed description of the command.
Debugging threaded programs:
To use the debugger with a program that creates threads , the ’Create thread-safe executable’ Option
must be set in the Compiler options , as otherwise the information displayed by the debugger concerning
line numbers, errors, local variables and such could be wrong due to the multiple threads.
The following features and limitations should be considered when debugging a threaded program:
While the program is running, the variable viewer, callstack display or assembly debugger will display
information on the main thread only. When the program is stopped, they display information on the
thread they were stopped in. So to examine local variables or the callstack of a thread, the execution
must be halted within that thread (by putting a breakpoint or a CallDebugger statement there). The
various ’Step’ options always apply to the thread where the execution was last stopped in.
If an error occurs, the execution is halted within that thread, so any information displayed by the
variable viewer or callstack display is of the thread that caused the error.
The watchlist only watches local variables of the main thread, not those of any additional running
threads.
While the execution is stopped within one thread, the execution of all other threads is suspended as well.
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Chapter 14
Included debugging tools
These tools provide many features to inspect your program while it is running. They can not be used
while you are editing the source code. These tools are available in both the integrated Debugger and the
standalone debugger. The console debugger provides many of these features too, but through a debugger
console.
Some of the tools include the viewing of variables. Here is an explanation of the common fields of all
these variable displays:
Scope
The scope of a variable is the area in which it is valid. It can be global , local , shared , static or
threaded , depending on how it is used in your source code. ’byref’ (”by reference”, i.e. using the
address) is used to indicate an Array or List that was passed as parameter to a procedure.
Variable type
The variable type is indicated through a colored icon:
B : Byte
A : Ascii
C : Character
W : Word
U : Unicode
L : Long
I : Integer
Q : Quad
F : Float
D : Double
S : String
Sn : Fixed length string
A Structure is either marked as a dot, or with an arrow. If marked with an arrow, it can be expanded by
double-clicking on it to view the members of this structure. A down arrow marks an expanded structure.
A Structure marked with a dot cannot be expanded (usually because it is just a structure pointer).
Dynamic arrays inside structures are shown with the dimensions they are currently allocated with. Lists
and maps inside structures are shown with their size and their current element (if any).
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The Debug output window
In this window, the output of the Debug statement will be displayed. The Debug statement is a quick
and simply way to print messages for debugging purposes.
The debug window will automatically open at the first output is produced by your program. If you then
close it, it will not automatically open on subsequent messages, however they will still be logged. You
can copy this output to the clipboard or save it to a file. There is also a button to clear the messages
from the window.
The entry field at the bottom of the window allows an expression to be entered, which will be evaluated
and the result printed in the output box. This allows to quickly check the state of variables or array
fields without the need to look them up in one of the debugger tools. The evaluation is started by
pressing Enter or clicking on the ”Display” button. If the expression cannot be evaluated for some
reason, an error-message is displayed in the statusbar.
The expression can be any valid PB expression (not including logical ones or containing PB keywords ).
It can contain variables , arrays , lists , constants and also some commands from the Math , Memory
and String libraries.
The Watchlist
The watchlist can be used to track changes in variables of your program in real time, while the program
is running. It can only display single variables (no full structures ), however, these variables can be a
part of structures. Elements of dynamic array, list or map inside structures can not be displayed in the
watchlist.
To add a variable, select its procedure (if it is a local variable) or select ”— Main —” if it is a global
variable or part of an array or list . Then type the variable name, as you would access it in your source
code into the Variable field and press Add.
Examples :
MyVariable$
- add a normal string variable
Array (1 , 5)
- add an array field
Structure \ subfield [5]\ value
add a variable inside a structure
MyList () \ structu resubfie ld
add a variable inside a structured list
You can also add new watched variables from the VariableViewer, by right-clicking on them and
selecting ”add to watchlist”
In the list you will see the values of the watched variables. If the value is displayed as ”—”, it means that
49
this variable is not valid at the current point in the source code; for example, this will occur if you watch
a local variable, or a list element and the list has no current element.
The watched variables are remembered between the debugging sessions, and even saved with the
compiler options, so you do not need to repopulate this list all the time.
The Variable Viewer
The Variable viewer allows to examine the program’s variables, arrays , lists and maps . The individual
tabs show global and threaded items in the top part and local , shared and static items in the bottom
part.
The ”Update” Button can be used to get the most recent data from the program. If the program is halted
or in step mode, the content is updated on each step automatically. By right-clicking on any variable or
Array/List field, you can copy that variable, or add it to the watchlist for real-time tracking of its value.
On Windows, the content of the Variable viewer can be sorted by name, scope or variable value by
clicking on the header of the appropriate column.
The ’Variables’ tab
This tab, shows the variables of the program. By right-clicking on a variable, it is possible to add it to
the watchlist.
The ’Arrays’ tab
This tab shows a list of all arrays in the program and the dimensions in which they are currently defined
(-1 means that Dim was not called yet). By right-clicking on an array, the content of the array can be
viewed in the ”View Array/List/Map” tab.
The ’Lists’ tab
This tab shows a list of all Lists, the number of elements they currently hold ( ”-” indicates that NewList
was not called yet), as well as the index of the current element of the list ( ”-” indicates that there is no
current element). By right-clicking on a list, the content of the list can be viewed in the ”View
Array/List/Map” tab.
The ’Maps’ tab
This tab shows a list of all maps, the number of elements they currently hold ( ”-” indicates that
NewMap was not called yet), as well as the key of the current element of the map ( ”-” indicates that
there is no current element). By right-clicking on a map, the content of the map can be viewed in the
”View Array/List/Map” tab.
The ’View Array/List/Map’ tab
This tab can be used to view individual entries of an array, a list or a map. This includes arrays, lists or
maps inside structures as well. To do so enter the name of the array, map or list including a ”()” at the
end, select what kind of items to display and press ”Display”. Note that the content of the display is not
automatically updated when the program is in step mode.
50
”Display all items” simply displays everything. ”Display Non-zero items only” will only display those
items that do not hold the value 0 or an empty string. This makes viewing large arrays/lists with only
few valid items in them simpler. A structure is considered ”zero” if all of its items either hold the value 0
or an empty string.
”Display Range” allows displaying only a specific range of an array, a list or a map. The range can be
given for each Array dimension individually, separated by commas. If one dimension is not specified at
all, all of its items will be displayed. Here are a few examples for valid range input:
" 1 -2 , 2 -5 , 2 " : first index
and 5 and a third index of
" 1 , 2 -5 "
: first index
"1, , 5"
: first index
of 5.
between 1 and 2 , a second index between 2
2.
of 1 and a second index between 2 and 5.
of 1 , any second index and a third index
For list display, the ”Display Range” option can be used to display a range of list elements by their index
(zero based).
"0"
" 1 -3 "
: first element
: second to the fourth element
For map display, the ”Display Range” option can be used to filter the keys to be displayed. It has to
contain a mask for the key string of the map elements (no quotation marks). A ”?” matches one
character, a ”*” matches any number of characters. Here are a few examples for valid mask input:
" hat " : matches only the item with " hat " as key .
" ? at " : matches items with " hat " , " bat " etc as key .
" h * t " : matches items with keys that start with " h " and end with " t "
and anything in between .
The Profiler
The profiler tool can count how often each line in the source code is executed. This collected data can be
used to identify which portions of the code are used most often and where improvements make most
sense. It also helps to identify problems where a piece of the code is executed too often as a result of an
error.
Recording the data
The recording of the data can be controlled by the Start, Stop and Reset (to set all counts to 0) buttons
in the profiler window. The Update button can be used to update the graph while the program is
running. Each time the program is halted or in step mode, the data is updated automatically. By
default, the profiler is recording data from the start of the program. This can be changed in the
Preferences .
Examining the data
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The recorded data is displayed as a graph, with the vertical axis showing the source line number and the
horizontal axis showing how often the lines were executed. If the running program consists of more than
one source file, a list of source files is presented below the graph. To display the graph for a file either
select it, or check its checkbox. Multiple files can be shown in the graph at once to better compare them.
Right-clicking on one of the filenames allows changing the color used to display that file in the graph.
Mouse modes in the graph
Right-clicking inside the graph brings up a popupmenu which allows zooming in or out or to show the
source line that was clicked on in the IDE or code display of the debugger. The action taken by a
left-click can be controlled by the buttons on the left side:
- Arrow button: Left-clicking and dragging allows to scroll the graph display.
- Box button: Left-clicking and dragging allows to select an area which will be zoomed in.
- Cross button: While this button is activated, moving the mouse on the graph displays a crosshair to
better identify the line and call count under the mouse.
- Zoom buttons: These buttons allow to zoom in/out and zoom out so all lines can be viewed.
The Callstack viewer
The callstack viewer shows which nested procedure calls led to the current position in the code. Each
entry in the list means one procedure that is currently open. It shows the line and file from which it was
called, and the arguments used to call the procedure. By clicking on the Variables button for each
procedure, you can look at the variables of that instance of the procedure.
This allows to easily trace, from which part of the code, a procedure was called. The callstack view does
only automatically update when you stop the program, or use Step to execute single lines. While the
program is running, you have to use the Update button to update the view for the current code position.
The ”Statistics” tab shows the number of times each procedure in the code was called. You can reset the
count for all procedures with ”Reset all”, or for the currently marked entry with the ”Reset” button. Like
with the callstack, the updates are not automatic while the program is not stopped. Use the Update
button for that.
The Memory Viewer
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The memory viewer lets you view a memory area in your program. The range to view can be entered
into the range fields as any valid PureBasic expression; this can be a normal decimal value, a hex
number preceded by the $ character or any other valid expression, including variables or pointers from
the code. If the content of the second range field starts with a ”+” sign, the content is interpreted as
relative to the first field.
Example: ”*Buffer + 10” to ”+30” will display the 30 bytes of memory starting at the location 10 bytes
after what *Buffer points to.
If the memory area is valid for viewing, it will be displayed in the area below. If parts of the area are not
valid for reading, you will get an error-message. The type of display can be changed with the combo box
in the lower left corner. The following view modes are available:
Hex View
The memory will be displayed like in any hex viewer, giving the memory location in hex display on the
left, followed by the hexadecimal byte values, and then the string representation in the right column.
Byte/Character/Word/Long/Quad/Float/Double table
The memory area will be shown as a table of the specified variable type. Whether or not this table is
single-column or multi-column can be set in the Preferences (see Configuring the IDE ).
String view
This displays the memory area as a string, with any non-string characters displayed in [] (for example
”[NULL]” for the 0 byte.) A linebreak is added after newline characters and [NULL] to improve the
readability of the output. The memory area can be interpreted as an Ascii, Unicode or Utf8 string.
You can also export the viewed memory area from the memory viewer:
Copy (Text): Copies the displayed area as text to the clipboard.
Save (Text): Saves the displayed area as text to a file.
Save (Raw): Saves the memory area as raw binary to a file.
The Library Viewer
The Library Viewer provides information about the objects created by some libraries. For example, it
allows to quickly check which images are currently loaded in the program, or which gadgets are created.
Once the program is started, the combobox on top of the window can be used to select the library to
view. The list below will then show all objects of the library that currently exist in the executable along
with some additional information on each object. The ”Update” button will update this list of objects.
Selecting an object in the list will display more detailed information about it in the text area on the left,
and if supported by the library also a visual display of the object on the right (for Images, Sprites, and
so on).
If the combobox displays ”No Information”, this means that your executable has used no library that
53
supports this feature.
Currently, the Library Viewer is supported by the following libraries:
Thread
Gadget
Window
File
Image
Sprite
XML
The Assembly Debugger
The ASM debugger is provided for advanced programmers to examine and change the CPU register
content and to examine the programs stack for debugging of inline ASM code.
The Processor Register view is only available while the program execution is halted. By changing any of
the register values and clicking ”Set”, you can modify the value in that register.
The Stack trace shows the content of the programs stack given in relation to the ESP register. If the
current stack position is not aligned at a 4 byte boundary, there can be no information given about the
content of the stack. In this case the stack is shown as a hex display.
If the stack pointer is properly aligned, the stack contents are displayed with comments about the
meaning of the contained values (detailing the pushed registers and other values on a PureBasic
procedure call).
The stack trace is updated automatically when you stop the execution or step though the program,
unless you specify otherwise in the Preferences . If you disable the automatic update, there will be an
”Update” button displayed to do so manually.
Note: The Assembly debugger is currently not available on MacOS X.
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The Purifier
The purifier can detect memory errors such as writing past the end of an allocated memory buffer or
string. Without the purifier some of these mistakes would lead to crashes and others would go unnoticed
because the write operation overwrites some other valid memory.
The purifier requires special output from the compiler to work, which is why it is only available if the
”Enable Purifier” option is set in the compiler options when the program is compiled.
The purifier detects these errors by placing a special ’salt’-value around global and local variables,
strings and allocated memory buffers. These salt values are then checked at regular intervals and an
error is displayed if they were changed. These checks slow down the program execution considerably
especially for large programs, which is why the rate at which the checks are performed can be specified
in the purifier window:
Global variable space
Defines the interval in source lines after which the global variables are checked.
Local variable space
Defines the interval in source lines after which the local variables are checked.
String variables
Defines the interval in source lines after which the memory used by string variables is checked.
Allocated memory
Defines the interval in source lines after which the memory allocated by AllocateMemory() is checked.
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Chapter 15
Using the built-in Tools
The PureBasic IDE comes with many building tools, to make programming tasks easier and increase
your productivity. Many of them can be configured to be either accessible from the Menu as separate
windows, or to be permanently displayed in the Panel on the side of the editing area.
For information on how to configure these tools and where they are displayed, see Configuring the IDE .
Tools for the Side Panel Area
Procedure Browser
This tool displays a list of all procedures and macros declared in the current source code. By
double-clicking on an entry in that list, the cursor automatically jumps to that procedure.
Macros will be marked in the list by a ”+” sign before the name.
You can also place special comment marks in your code, that will be displayed in the list too. They look
like this: ”;- <description>”. The ; starts a comment, the - that follows it immediately defines such a
mark.
The description will be shown in the Procedure list, and clicking on it will jump to the line of this mark.
Such a comment mark can be distinguished from a Procedure by the ”> ” that is displayed before it in
the procedure list.
The list of procedures can be sorted, and it can display the procedure/macro arguments in the list. For
these options, see Configuring the IDE .
Project Panel
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This tool displays a tree of all files in the current project . A double-click on a file opens it in the IDE.
This allows fast access to all files in the project. A right-click on a file opens a context menu which
provides more options:
Open - Open the file in the IDE.
Open in FileViewer - Open the file in the FileViewer of the IDE.
Open in Explorer - Open the file in the operating systems file manager.
Add File to Project - Add a new file to the project.
Remove File from Project - Remove the selected file(s) from the project.
Refresh AutoComplete data - Rescan the file for AutoComplete items.
Explorer
The Explorer tool displays an explorer, from which you can select files and open them quickly with a
double-click. PureBasic files (*.pb, *.pbi, *.pbp, *.pbf) will be loaded into the edit area and all other
recognized files (text & binary) files will be displayed into the internal File Viewer.
Variable Viewer
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The variable viewer can display variables , Arrays , lists , Constants , Structures and Interfaces defined
in your source code, or any currently opened file. You can configure what exactly it should display in the
preferences .
Note: The displaying of variables is somewhat limited for now. It can only detect variables explicitly
declared with Define , Global , Shared , Protected or Static .
Code Templates
The templates tool allows you to manage a list of small code parts, that you can quickly insert into your
source code with a double-click. It allows you to manage the codes in different directories, and put a
comment to each code. This tool is perfect to manage small, often used code parts.
Issue Browser
The issue browser tool collects comments in the source code that fit a defined format and lists them
ordered by priority. It can be used to track which areas of the source code still need to be worked on.
Each displayed issue corresponds to one comment in the code. A double-click on the issue shows that
code line. Issues can be displayed for the current file, or for multiple files (all open files, or all files that
belong to the current project ). The issue list can also be exported in CSV format.
To configure the collected issues, see the ”Issues” section in the Preferences .
Color Picker
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The color picker helps you to find the perfect color value for whatever task you need. The following
methods of picking a color are available:
RGB: Select a color by choosing red, green and blue intensities.
HSV: Select a color by choosing hue, saturation and value.
HSL: Select a color by choosing hue, saturation and lightness.
Wheel: Select a color using the HSV model in a color wheel.
Palette: Select a color from a predefined palette.
Name: Select a color from a palette by name.
The color selection includes an alpha component, if the ”Include alpha channel” checkbox is activated.
The individual components (red/green/blue intensities or hue/saturation/lightness) as well as the
hexadecimal representation of the current color can be seen and modified in the text fields.
The ”Insert Color” button inserts the hexadecimal value of the current color in the source code. The
”Insert RGB” button inserts the color as a call to the RGB() or RGBA() function into the code. The
”Save Color” button saves the current color to the history area at the bottom. Clicking on a color in the
history makes it the current color again.
Ascii Table
The Ascii table tool displays a table showing all the Ascii characters, together with their index in
decimal and hex, as well as the corresponding html notation. By double-clicking on any line, this
character will be inserted into the source code. With the buttons on the bottom, you can select which
column of the table to insert on a double-click.
Help Tool
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The Help Tool is an alternative viewer for the reference guide . It can be used to view the PureBasic
manual side by side with the code. Whether or not the F1 shortcut opens the manual in the tool or as a
separate window can be specified in the preferences .
Other built-in tools
Structure Viewer
The structure viewer allows you to view all the Structures, Interfaces and Constants predefined in
PureBasic. Double-clicking on a Structure or Interface shows the declaration. On top of the list you can
select a filter to display only entries that start with a given character.
The ”Back” button navigates back through the viewed entries.
”Insert name” inserts just the name of the selected entry.
”Insert copy” inserts a copy of the declaration of that entry.
”Insert” lets you enter a variable name and then inserts a definition of that variable and the selected
entry and all elements of it.
File Viewer
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The internal file viewer allows you do display certain types of files. Text files, images and web pages
(windows only). Any unknown file type will be displayed in a hex-viewer. The ”Open” button opens a
new file, the ”X button” closes it and the arrows can be used to navigate through the open files.
Also any binary file that you attempt to open from the Explorer tool, or by double-clicking on an
IncludeBinary keyword will be displayed in this file viewer.
Compare Files/Folders
This tool can compare two (text-) files or two directories and highlight their differences. The ”Options”
tab can be used to ignore some differences such as spaces or upper/lowercase changes.
The files are shown side by side with the differences marked in the following way: Lines shown in red
were removed in the file on the right, lines shown in green were added in the file on the right and lines
shown in yellow were changed between the two files.
When comparing directories, the content of both directories is examined (with the option to filter the
search by file extension and include subdirectories) and the files are marked in a similar way: Files in red
do not exist in the second directory, files in green are new in the second directory and files in yellow were
modified. A double-click on a modified file shows the modifications made to that file.
Other entries in the Tools menu
Form Designer
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The Form Designer can be used to design the user interface for you application. For more information,
see the form designer chapter.
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Chapter 16
Using external tools
The PureBasic IDE allows you to configure external programs to be called directly from the IDE,
through the Menu, Shortcuts, the Toolbar, or on special ”triggers”. The use of this is to make any other
program you use while programming easily accessible.
You can also write your own little tools in PureBasic that will perform special actions on the source code
you are currently viewing to automate common tasks. Furthermore, you can configure external file
viewers to replace the internal File Viewer of the IDE for either specific file types or all files.
With the ”Config tools” command in the Tools menu, you can configure such external tools. The list you
will see displays all the configured tools in the order they appear in the Tools menu (if not hidden). You
can add and remove tools here, or change the order by clicking ”Move Up”/”Move Down ” after selecting
an item.
Any tool can be quickly enabled or disabled from the ”Config tools” window with the checkbox before
each tool entry. A checked checkbox means the tool is enabled, an unchecked one means it is currently
disabled.
Configuring a tool
The basic things you need to set is the command-line of the program to run, and a name for it in the
Tools list/Menu. Everything else is optional.
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Command-line
Select the program name to execute here.
Arguments
Place command-line arguments that will be passed to the program here. You can place fixed options, as
well as special tokens that will be replaced when running the program:
%PATH : will be replaced with the path of the current source code. Remains empty if the source was
not saved.
%FILE : filename of the current source code. Remains empty if it has not yet been saved. If you
configure the tool to replace the file viewer, this token represents the file that is to be opened.
%TEMPFILE : When this option is given, the current source code is saved in a temporary file, and the
filename is inserted here. You may modify or delete the file at will.
%COMPILEFILE : This token is only valid for the compilation triggers (see below). This is replaced
with the temporary file that is sent to the compiler for compilation. By modifying this file, you can
actually change what will be compiled.
%EXECUTABLE : This will be replaced by the name of the executable that was created in with the last
”Create Executable”. For the ”After Compile/Run” trigger, this will be replaces with the name of the
temporary executable file created by the compiler.
%CURSOR : this will be replaced by the current cursor position in the form of LINExCOLUMN.
%SELECTION : this will be replaced by the current selection in the form of
LINESTARTxCOLUMNSTARTxLINEENDxCOLUMNEND. This can be used together with
%TEMPFILE, if you want your tool to do some action based on the selected area of text.
%WORD : contains the word currently under the cursor.
%PROJECT : the full path to the directory containing the project file if a project is open.
%HOME : the full path to the purebasic directory
Note: for any filename or path tokens, it is generally a good idea to place them in ” ” (i.e.
”%TEMPFILE”) to ensure also paths with spaces in them are passed correctly to the tool. These tokens
and a description can also be viewed by clicking the ”Info” button next to the Arguments field.
Working Directory
Select a directory in which to execute this tool. By specifying no directory here, the tool will be
executed in the directory of the currently open source code.
Name
Select a name for the tool. This name will be displayed in the tools list, and if the tool is not hidden
from the menu, also in the Tools menu.
Event to trigger the tool
Here you can select when the tool should be executed. Any number of tools can have the same trigger,
they will all be executed when the trigger event happens. The order of their execution depends on the
order they appear in the tools list.
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Menu Or Shortcut
The tool will not be executed automatically. It will be run by a shortcut or from the Menu. Note: to
execute a tool from the Toolbar, you have to add a button for it in the Toolbar configuration in the
Preferences (see Configuring the IDE for more).
With this trigger set, the ”Shortcut” option below becomes valid and lets you specify a shortcut that will
execute this tool.
Editor Startup
The tool will be executed right after the IDE has been fully started.
Editor End
The tool will be executed right before the IDE ends. Note that all open sources have already been closed
at this time.
Before Compile/Run
The tool will be executed right before the compiler is called to compile a source code. Using the
%COMPILEFILE token, you can get the code to be compiled and modify it. This makes it possible to
write a small pre-processor for the source code. Note that you should enable the ”Wait until tool quits”
option if you want your modifications to be given to the compiler.
After Compile/Run
The tool will be executed right after the compilation is finished, but before the executable is executed for
testing. Using the %EXECUTABLE token, you can get access to the file that has just been created.
Note that you can modify the file, but not delete it, as that results in an error-message when the IDE
tries to execute the file.
Run compiled Program
The tool will be executed when the user selects the ”Run” command from the compiler menu. The tool
is executed before the executable is started. The %EXECUTABLE token is valid here too.
Before create Executable
The same as for the ”Before Compile/Run” trigger applies here too, only that the triggering event is
when the user creates the final executable.
After create Executable
The tool is executed after the compilation to create the final executable is complete. You can use the
%EXECUTABLE token to get the name of the created file and perform any further action on it.
Source code loaded
The tool is executed after a source code has been loaded into the IDE. The %FILE and %PATH tokens
are always valid here, as the file was just loaded from the disk.
Source code saved
The tool will be executed after a source code in the IDE has been saved successfully. The %FILE and
%PATH tokens are always valid here, as the file has just been saved to disk.
Source code closed
The tool will be executed whenever a source file is about to be closed. At this point the file is still there,
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so you can still get its content with the %TEMPFILE token. %FILE will be empty if the file was never
saved.
File Viewer All Files
The tool will completely replace the internal file viewer. If an attempt is made in the IDE to open a file
that cannot be loaded into the edit area, the IDE will first try the tools that have a trigger set for the
specific file type, and if none is found, the file will be directed to this tool. Use the %FILE token to get
the filename of the file to be opened.
Note: Only one tool can have this trigger. Any other tools with this trigger will be ignored.
File Viewer Unknown file
This tool basically replaces the hex viewer, which is usually used to display unknown file types. It will be
executed, when the file extension is unknown to the IDE, and if no other external tool is configured to
handle the file (if a tool is set with the ”File Viewer All Files” trigger, then this tool will never be called).
Note: Only one tool can have this trigger set.
File Viewer Special file
This configures the tool to handle specific file extensions. It has a higher priority than the ”File Viewer
All files” or ”File Viewer Unknown file” triggers and also higher than the internal file viewer itself.
Specify the extensions that the tool should handle in the edit box on the right. Multiple extensions can
be given.
A common use for this trigger is for example to configure a program like Acrobat Reader to handle the
”pdf” extension, which enables you to easily open pdf files from the Explorer, the File Viewer, or by
double-clicking on an Includebinary statement in the source.
Other options on the right side
Wait until tool quits
The IDE will be locked for no input and cease all its actions until you tool has finished running. This
option is required if you want to modify a source code and reload it afterwards, or have it passed on to
the compiler for the compilation triggers.
Run hidden
Runs the program in invisible mode. Do not use this option for any program that might expect user
input, as there will be no way to close it in that case.
Hide editor
This is only possible with the ”wait until tool quits” option set. Hides the editor while the tool is running.
Reload Source after the tool has quit
This is only possible with the ”wait until tool quits” option set, and when either the %FILE or
%TEMPFILE tokens are used in the Arguments list.
After your program has quit, the IDE will reload the source code back into the editor. You can select
whether it should replace the old code or be opened in a new code view.
Hide Tool from the Main menu
Hides the tool from the Tools menu. This is useful for tools that should only be executed by a special
trigger, but not from the menu.
Enable Tool on a per-source basis
Tools with this option set will be listed in the ”Execute tools” list in the compiler options , and only
executed for sources where it is enabled there. Note that when disabling the tool with the checkbox here
in the ”Config tools” window, it will be globally disabled and not run for any source code, even if enabled
there.
This option is only available for the following triggers:
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-
Before Compile/Run
After Compile/Run
Run compiled Program
Before create Executable
After create Executable
Source code loaded
Source code saved
Source code closed
Supported File extensions
Only for the ”File Viewer Special file” trigger. Enter the list of handled extensions here.
Tips for writing your own code processing tools
The IDE provides additional information for the tools in the form of environment variables. They can be
easily read inside the tool with the commands of the Process library .
This is a list of provided variables. Note that those that provide information about the active source are
not present for tools executed on IDE startup or end.
PB_TOOL_IDE
PB_TOOL_Compiler
P B_ T OO L _ Pr e fe r e nc e s
file
PB_TOOL_Project
project ( if any )
PB_TOOL_Language
PB_TOOL_FileList
by Chr (10)
- Full path and filename of the IDE
- Full path and filename of the Compiler
- Full path and filename of the IDE ’s Preference
PB_TOOL_Debugger
Compiler Options
- These variables provide the settings from the
PB_TO OL_Inlin eASM
"1" if the option
PB_TOOL_Unicode
PB_TOOL_Thread
PB_TOOL_XPSkin
PB_TOOL_OnError
PB_TO OL_SubSy stem
compiler options
PB _T OO L_E xe cu tab le
command - line
PB_TOOL_Cursor
PB_TO OL_Selec tion
command - line
PB_TOOL_Word
- Full path and filename of the currently open
- Language currently used in the IDE
- A list of all open files in the IDE , separated
window for the current source . They are set to
is enabled , and "0" if not .
- content of the " Subsystem " field in the
- same as the % COMPILEFILE token for the
- same as the % CURSOR token for the command - line
- same as the % SELECTION token for the
- same as the % WORD token for the command - line
PB _T OO L_M ai nW ind ow - OS handle to the main IDE window
PB_TO OL_Scint illa
- OS handle to the Scintilla editing component of
the current source
When the %TEMPFILE or %COMPILEFILE tokens are used, the IDE appends the compiler options as
a comment to the end of the created temporary file, even if the user did choose to not save the options
there when saving a source code.
This enables your tool to read the compiler settings for this file, and take them into account for the
actions your carries out.
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Chapter 17
Getting Help
The PureBasic IDE provides ways to access the PureBasic help-file, as well as other files and
documentation you want to view while programming.
Quick access to the reference guide
By pressing the help shortcut (F1 by default) or selecting the ”Help...” command from the Help menu
while the mouse cursor is over a PureBasic keyword or function, the help will be opened directly at the
description of that keyword or function.
If the word at the cursor position has no help entry, the main reference page will be displayed.
The reference manual can also be viewed side by side with the source code using the Help Tool .
Quick access to Windows API help
There are two ways to get the same quick access as for the PureBasic functions (by pressing F1 with the
cursor on the function) also for functions of the Windows API. To enable this feature you have to
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download additional help files for these functions:
Microsoft Platform SDK The Microsoft Platform SDK provides the most complete and up to date
programming reference available for the windows platform. It provides information on all API functions,
as well as overviews and introductions to the different technologies used when programming for the
windows platform. It is however quite big (up to 400MB depending on the selected components).
For the IDE help, you can either install the ”February 2003” or the ”Windows Server 2003 SP1” edition
of the SDK.
It can be downloaded from here:
http://www.microsoft.com/msdownload/platformsdk/sdkupdate/
Note that the SDK can also be ordered on CD from this page. Also if you are the owner of any
development products from Microsoft (such as Visual Studio), there might be a copy of the SDK
included on one of the CDs that came with it.
The win32.hlp help-file There is a much smaller alternative to the complete SDK by Microsoft (7.5
MB download). This help is quite old (written for Windows95 in fact), so it does not provide any
information on new APIs and technologies introduced since then.
However, it provides good information about commonly used API that is still valid today, as these
mostly did not change. This download is recommended if you only need occasional help for API
functions, but do not want to download the full SDK.
It can be downloaded from here:
http://www.purebasic.com/download/WindowsHelp.zip
To use it from the PureBasic IDE, just create a ”Help” subdirectory in your PureBasic folder and copy
the ”win32.hlp” file into it.
Accessing external helpfiles from the IDE
If you have other helpfiles you wish to be able to access from the IDE, then create a ”Help” subdirectory
in your PureBasic folder and copy them to it. These files will appear in the ”External Help” submenu of
the Help menu, and in the popupmenu you get when right-clicking in the editing area. Chm and Hlp
files will be displayed in the MS help viewer. The IDE will open the helpfiles in the internal fileviewer.
So files like text files can be viewed directly like this. For other types, you can use the Config Tools
menu to configure an external tool to handle the type of help-file you use. The help will then be
displayed in that tool.
For example, if you have pdf helpfiles, configure an external tool to handle pdf files and put the files in
the Help subdirectory of PureBasic. Now if you click the file in the ”external help” menu, it will be
opened in that external tool.
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Chapter 18
Customizing the IDE
The PureBasic IDE provides many options to customize or disable some of its features in order to
become the perfect tool for you.
These options are accessible from the Preferences command in the File menu, and the meaning of each
setting is described here.
Any changes made will only take effect once you click the ”OK” button or ”Apply”.
General
Options that affect the general behavior of the IDE.
Run only one Instance
If set, prevents the IDE from being opened more than once. Clicking on a PB file in the explorer will
open it in the already existing IDE instance instead of opening a new one.
Disable Splash screen
Disables the splash screen that is displayed on start-up.
Memorize Window positions
Remembers the position of all IDE windows when you close them. If you prefer to have all windows
open at a specific location and size, enable this option, move all windows to the perfect position, then
restart the IDE (to save all options) and then disable this option to always open all windows in the last
saved position.
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Show window contents while moving the Splitter
Enable this only if you have a fast computer. Otherwise moving the Splitter bar to the Error Log or
Tools Panel may flicker a lot.
Auto-Reload last open sources
On IDE start-up, opens all the sources that were open when the IDE was closed the last time.
Display full Source Path in Title bar
If set, the IDE title bar will show the full path to the currently edited file. If not, only the filename is
shown.
Recent Files list
This setting specifies how many entries are shown in the ”Recent Files” submenu of the File menu.
Search History size
This setting specifies how many recent search words are remembered for ”Find/Replace” and ”Find in
Files”
Check for updates
Specifies how often the IDE should check on the purebasic.com server for the availability of new updates.
An update check can also be performed manually at any time from the ”Help” menu.
Check for releases
Specifies which kind of releases should cause a notification if they are available.
General - Language
This allows you to change the language of the IDE. The combo box shows the available languages, and
you can view some information about the language file (for example who translated it and when it was
last updated).
General - Shortcuts
Here you can fully customize all the shortcut commands of the IDE. Select an entry from the list, select
the shortcut field, enter the new key combination and click ”Set” to change the entry.
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Note that Tab & Shift+Tab are reserved for block-indentation and un-indentation and cannot be
changed. Furthermore some key combination might have a special meaning for the OS and should
therefore not be used.
General - Themes
This section shows the available icon themes for the IDE and allows to select the theme to use. The IDE
comes with two themes by default.
More themes can be easily added by creating a zip-file containing the images (in png format) and a
”Theme.prefs” file to describe the theme. The zip-file has to be copied to the ”Themes” folder in the
PureBasic installation directory to be recognized by the IDE. The ”SilkTheme.zip” file can be used as an
example to create a new theme.
Display Icons in the Menu
Allows to hide/show the images in the IDE menus.
Show main Toolbar
Allows to hide/show the main toolbar in order to gain space for the editing area.
General - Toolbar
This allows to fully customize the main Toolbar. By selecting an entry and using the Buttons in the
”Position” section, you can change the order. The ”Item Settings” section can be used to modify the
entry or add a new one. New ones are always added at the end of the list.
Types of items:
Separator : a vertical separator line.
Space : an empty space, the size of one toolbar icon.
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Standard Icon : allows you to select a OS standard icon from the combo box on the right.
IDE Icon : allows you to select one of the IDE’s own icons in the combo box on the right.
Icon File : allows you to specify your own icon file to use in the edit box on the right (PNG files are
supported on all platforms, Windows additionally supports icon files).
If you do not select a separator or space, you can specify an action to carry out when the button is
pressed:
Menu Item : carries out the menu command specified in the combo box on the right.
Run tool : executes the external tool specified in the combo box on the right.
The ”Default Sets” section contains two standard toolbar sets which you can select, and later modify.
Editor
Settings that affect the management of the source codes.
Monitor open files for changes on disk
Monitors all open files for changes that are made to the files on disk while they are edited in the IDE. If
modifications are made by other programs, a warning is displayed with the choice to reload the file from
disk.
Auto-save before compiling
Saves the current source code before each compile/run or executable creation. Note that any open
include files are not automatically saved.
Save all sources with Auto-save
Saves all sources instead of just the current one with one of the Auto-save options.
Memorize cursor position
Saves the current cursor position, as well as the state of all folding marks with the compiler options for
the source file.
Memorize Marker positions
Saves all the Markers with the options for the source file.
Always hide the error log
The error log can be shown/hidden on a per-source basis. This option provides a global setting to ignore
the per-source setting and never display the error log. It also removes the corresponding menu entries
from the IDE menu.
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Save settings to
This option allows to specify where the compiler options of a source file are saved:
The end of the Source file
Saves the settings as a special comment block at the end of each source file.
The file <filename>.pb.cfg
Creates a .pb.cfg file for each saved source code that contains this information.
A common file project.cfg for every directory
Creates a file called project.cfg in each directory where PB files are saved. This one file will
contain the options for all files in that directory.
Don’t save anything
No options are saved. When reopening a source file, the defaults will always be used.
Tab Length
Allows to specify how many spaces are inserted each time you press the Tab key.
Use real Tab (Ascii 9)
If set, the tab key inserts a real tab character instead of spaces. If not set, there are spaces inserted
when Tab is pressed.
Note that if real tab is used, the ”Tab Length” option specifies the size of one displayed tab character.
Source Directory
Specifies the default directory used in the Open and Save dialogs if no other files are currently open (if
another file is open, its path will be used as default).
Set this to the path were you usually save the source codes.
Code file extensions
The IDE detects code files by their extension (pb, pbi or pbf by default). Non-code files are edited in a
”plain text” mode in which code-related features are disabled. This setting causes the IDE to recognize
further file extensions as code files. The field can contain a comma-separated list (i.e. ”pbx, xyz”) of
extensions to recognize.
Editor - Editing
Use ”Select Font” to change the font used to display the source code. To ensure a good view of the
source code, it should be a fixed-size font, and possibly even one where bold characters have the same
size as non-bold ones.
Enable bolding of keywords
If your font does not display bold characters in the same size as non-bold ones, you should disable this
option. If disabled, the keywords will not be shown as bold.
Enable case correction
If enabled, the case of PureBasic keywords, PureBasic Functions as well as predefined constants will
automatically be corrected while you type.
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Enable marking of matching Braces
If enabled, the brace matching the one under the cursor will be highlighted.
Enable marking of matching Keywords
If enabled, the keyword(s) matching the one under the cursor will be underlined.
Display line numbers
Shows or hides the line number column on the left.
Editor - Coloring
Here you can change the color settings for the syntax coloring, as well as the debugger marks. Default
color schemes can be selected from the box on the bottom, and also modified after they have been set.
Individual color settings can be disabled by use of the checkboxes.
Note: The ’Accessibility’ color scheme has (apart from high-contrast colors) a special setting to always
use the system color for the selection in the code editor. This helps screen-reader applications to better
detect the selected text.
Editor - Coloring - Custom Keywords
In this section, a list of custom keywords can be defined. These keywords can have a special color
assigned to them in the coloring options and the IDE will apply case-correction to them if this feature is
enabled. This allows for applying a special color to special keywords by preprocessor tools or macro sets,
or to simply have some PB keywords colored differently.
Note that these keywords take precedence above all other coloring in the IDE, so this allows to change
the color or case correction even for PureBasic keywords.
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The keywords can be either entered directly in the preferences or specified in a text file with one
keyword per line (or both).
Editor - Folding
Here you can set the keywords in the source code that start/end a foldable section of code. You can add
any number of words that will mark such a sections. You can also choose to completely disable the
folding feature.
Words that are found inside comments are ignored, unless the defined keyword includes the comment
symbol at the start (like the default ”;{” keyword).
A keyword may not include spaces.
Editor - Indentation
Here you can specify how the editor handles code indentation when the return key is pressed.
No indentation
Pressing return always places the cursor at the beginning of the next line.
Block mode
The newly created line gets the same indentation as the one before it.
Keyword sensitive
Pressing the return key corrects the indentation of both the old line and the new line depending on the
keywords on these lines. The rules for this are specified in the keyword list below. These rules also apply
when the ”Reformat indentation” item in the edit menu is used.
Show indentation guides
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Causes vertical lines to be shown to visualize the indentation on each line. This makes it easier to see
which source lines are on the same level of indentation.
Show whitespace characters
Causes whitespace characters to be visible as little dots (spaces) or arrows (tab characters).
The keyword list contains the keywords that have an effect on the indentation. The ”Before” setting
specifies the change in indentation on the line that contains the keyword itself while the ”After” setting
specifies the change that applies to the line after it.
Editor - Auto complete
Display the full Auto complete list
Always displays all keywords in the list, but selects the closest match.
Display all words that start with the first character
Displays only those words that start with the same character as you typed. The closest mach is selected.
Display only words that start with the typed word
Does not display any words that do not start with what you typed. If no words match, the list is not
displayed at all.
Box width / Box height
Here you can define the size of the auto complete list (in pixel). Note that these are maximum values.
The displayed box may become smaller if there are only a few items to display.
Add opening Brackets to Functions/Arrays/Lists
Will automatically add a ”(” after any function/Array/List inserted by auto complete. Functions with no
parameters or lists get a ”()” added.
Add a Space after PB Keywords followed by an expression
When inserting PB keywords that cannot appear alone, a space is automatically added after them.
Add matching End’ keyword if Tab/Enter is pressed twice
If you press Tab or Enter twice, it will insert the corresponding end keyword (for example ”EndSelect” to
”Select” or ”EndIf ” to ”If”) to the keyword you have just inserted. The end keyword will be inserted
after the cursor, so you can continue typing after the first keyword that was inserted.
Automatically popup AutoComplete for Structure items
Displays the list automatically whenever a structured variable or interface is entered and the ”\”
character is typed after it to show the list of possible structure fields. If disabled, the list can still be
displayed by pressing the keyboard shortcut to open the AutoComplete window (usually Ctrl+Space,
this can be modified in the Shortcuts section of the Preferences).
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Automatically popup AutoComplete outside of Structures
Displays the list automatically when the current word is not a structure after a certain amount of
characters has been typed, and a possible match in the list is found. If disabled, the list can still be
displayed by pressing the assigned keyboard shortcut.
Characters needed before opening the list
Here you can specify how many characters the word must have minimum before the list is automatically
displayed.
Editor - Auto complete - Displayed items
This shows a list of possible items that can be included with the possible matches in the AutoComplete
list.
Source code Items
Items defined in the active source code, or other open sources (see below).
Predefined Items
Items that are predefined by PureBasic, such as the PureBasic keywords, functions or predefined
constants.
Add Items from: the current source only
Source code items are only added from the active source code.
Add Items from: the current project (if any)
Source code items are added from the current project if there is one. The other source codes in the
project do not have to be currently open in the IDE for this.
Add Items from: the current project or all files (if none)
Source code items are added from the current project. If the current source code does not belong to the
open project then the items from all open source codes will be added.
Add Items from: all open files
Source code items are added from all currently open source codes.
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Editor - Issues
Allows to configure the collection of ’issue’ markers from comments in the source code. Issue markers
can be displayed in the Issues or ProcedureBrowser tool, and they can be marked within the source code
with a separate background color.
A definition for an issue consists of the following:
Issue name
A name for the type of issue.
Regular expression
A regular expression defining the pattern for the issue. This regular expression is applied to
all comments in the source code. Each match of the expression is considered to match the
issue type.
Priority
Each issue type is assigned a priority. The priority can be used to order and filter the
displayed issues in the issue tool.
Color
The color used to mark the issue in the source code (if enabled). The color will be used to
mark the background of either only the issue text itself, or the entire code line depending on
the coloring option.
Show in issue tool
If enabled, any found issues of this type are listed in the issues tool. This option can be
disabled to cause an issue to only be marked in the source code with a special background
color if desired.
Show in procedure browser
If enabled, any found issues are shown as an entry in the procedure browser tool.
Editor - Session history
79
Allows to configure how the session history is recording changes.
Enable recording of history
Enable or disable the history session recording. When enabled, all the changes made to a file will be
recorded in the background in a database. A session is created when the IDE launch, and is closed when
the IDE quits. This is useful to rollback to a previous version of a file, or to find back a deleted or
corrupted file. It’s like a very powerful source backup tool, limited in time (by default one month of
recording). It’s not aimed to replace a real source versioning system like SVN or GIT. It’s
complementary to have finer change trace. The source code will be stored without encryption, so if you
are working on sensitive source code, be sure to have this database file in a secure location, or disable this
feature. It’s possible to define the session history database location using an IDE command-line switch.
Record change every X minutes
Change the interval between each silent recording (when editing). A file will be automatically recorded
when saving or closing it.
Record only changes to files smaller than X kilobytes
Change the maximum size (in kilobytes) of the files being recorded. This allow to exclude very big files
which could make the database grow a lot.
Keep all history
Keep all the history, the database is never purged. It will always grows, so it should be watched.
Keep maximum X sessions
After reaching the maximum number of sessions, the oldest session will be removed from the database.
Keep sessions for X days
After reaching the maximum number of days, the session will be removed from the database.
Compiler
This page allows to select additional compilers which should be available for compilation in the Compiler
Options . This allows switching between different compilers of the same version (like the x86 and x64
compilers) or even switching between different versions easily.
Any PureBasic compiler starting from Version 4.10 can be added here. The target processor of the
selected compilers does not have to match that of the default compiler, as long as the target operating
system is the same. The list displays the compiler version and path of the selected compilers.
The information used by the IDE (for code highlighting, auto complete, structure viewer) always comes
from the default compiler. The additional compilers are only used for compilation.
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Compiler - Defaults
This page allows setting the default compiler options that will be used when you create a new source
code with the IDE.
For an explanation of the meaning of each field, see the Compiler Options .
Debugger
Settings for the internal Debugger, or the Standalone Debugger. The command-line debugger is
configured from the command-line only.
Debugger Type
Select the type of debugger you want to use when compiling from the IDE here.
Choose Warning level
Select the action that should be taken if the debugger issues a warning. The available options are:
Ignore Warnings: Warnings will be ignored without displaying anything.
Display Warnings: Warnings will be displayed in the error log and the source code line will be marked,
but the program continues to run.
Treat Warnings as Errors: A warning will be treated like an error.
See Using the debugger for more information on debugger warnings and errors.
Memorize debugger window positions
81
The same as the ”Memorize Window positions” for in the General section, but for all Debugger windows.
Keep all debugger windows on top
All debugger windows will be kept on top of all other windows, even from other applications.
Bring Debugger windows to front when one is focused
With this option set, focusing one window that belongs to the debugger of a file, all windows that belong
to the same debugging session will be brought to the top.
Display Timestamp in error log
Includes the time of the event in the error log.
Stop execution at program start
Each program will be started in an already halted mode, giving you the opportunity to start moving
step-by-step, right from the start of the program.
Stop execution before program end
Stops the program execution right before the executable would unload. This gives you a last chance to
use the debugging tools to examine Variables or Memory before the program ends.
Kill Program after an Error
If a program encounters an error, it will be directly ended and all debugger windows closed. This gives
the opportunity to directly modify the code again without an explicit ”Kill Program”, but there is no
chance to examine the program after an error.
Keep Error marks after program end
Does not remove the lines marked with errors when the program ends. This gives the opportunity to still
see where an error occurred while editing the code again.
The marks can be manually removed with the ”Clear error marks” command in the ”Error log” submenu
of the debugger menu.
Clear error log on each run
Clears the log window when you execute a program. This ensures that the log does not grow too big
(this option is also available with the command-line debugger selected).
Timeout for Debugger startup
Specifies the time in milliseconds how long the debugger will wait for a program to start up before giving
up. This timeout prevents the debugger from locking up indefinitely if the executable cannot start for
some reason.
Debugger - Individual Settings
This allows setting options for the individual debugger tools. The ”Display Hex values” options switch
between displaying Byte, Long and Word as decimal or hexadecimal values.
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Debug Output Add Timestamp
Adds a timestamp to the output displayed from the Debug command.
Debug Output - Display debug output in the error log
With this option enabled, a Debug command in the code will not open the Debug Output window , but
instead show the output in the error log .
Debug Output Use custom font
A custom font can be selected here for the debug output window . This allows to specify a smaller font
for much output or a proportional one if this is desired.
Profiler - Start Profiler on program startup
Determines whether the profiler tool should start recording data when the program starts.
ASM Debugger Update Stack trace automatically
Updates the stack trace automatically on each step/stop you do. If disabled, a manual update button
will be displayed in the ASM window.
Memory Viewer Array view in one column only
If the memory area is displayed in array view, this option selects whether it should be multi-column
(with 16 bytes displayed in each column) or with only one column.
Debugger - Default Windows
The debugger tools you select on this page will automatically be opened each time you run a program
83
with enabled debugger.
Form
Allows to customize the integrated form designer behavior.
New gadgets use #PB_Any by default
If enabled, new gadget creation will use #PB_Any instead of static enumeration numbering.
New gadgets use a variable as caption
If enabled, new gadget will use a variable instead of static text as caption. It can be useful to easily
localize the form.
Grid visible
If enabled, the grid will be visible on the form designer, to ease gadget alignment.
Generate event procedure
If enabled, an event procedure will be automatically generated (and updated).
Generate event loop
If enabled, a basic event loop will be generated for the form.
Grid size
Space between two grid points, in pixels.
OS skin
Skin to use for the form designer.
Tools Panel
This allows configuring the internal tools that can be displayed in the side panel. Each tool that is in the
”Displayed Tools” list is displayed in the Panel on the side of the edit area. Each tool that is not listed
84
there is accessible from the Tools menu as a separate window.
Put only those tools in the side panel that you use very frequently, and put the most frequently used
first, as it will be the active one once you open the IDE.
By selecting a tool in either of the lists, you get more configuration options for that tool (if there are
any) in the ”Configuration” section below.
Here is an explanation of those tools that have special options:
Explorer
You can select between a Tree or List display of the file-system. You can also set whether the last
displayed directory should be remembered, or if the Source Path should be the default directory when
the IDE is started.
Procedure Browser
”Sort Procedures by Name” : sorts the list alphabetically (by default they are listed as they appear in
the code).
”Group Markers” : groups the ”;-” markers together.
”Display Procedure Arguments” : Displays the full declaration of each procedure in the list.
Variable Viewer
The ”Display Elements from all open sources” option determines whether the list should only include
items from this code, or from all open codes.
Furthermore you can select the type of items displayed in the Variable viewer.
Help Tool
”Open sidebar help on F1”: specifies whether to open the help tool instead of the separate help viewer
when F1 is pressed.
Tools panel - Options
Here you can customize the appearance of the Tools Panel a bit more. You can select the side on which
it will be displayed, a Font for its text, as well as a foreground and background color for the displayed
tools. The font and color options can be disabled to use the OS defaults instead.
Do not use colors/fonts for tools in external windows
If set, the color/font options only apply to the Tools displayed in the Panel, those that you open from
the Tools menu will have the default colors.
Automatically hide the Panel
To save space, the Panel will be hidden if the mouse is not over it. Moving the mouse to the side of the
IDE will show it again.
Milliseconds delay before hiding the Panel
Sets a timeout in ms, after which the Panel is hidden if you leave it with the mouse.
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Import/Export
This section allows you to export the layout settings of the IDE in a platform independent format, which
allows you to import them again into the PureBasic IDE on another Operating System, or to share your
options with other PB users.
To export your settings, select what types of settings you want to include, select a filename and press the
”Save” button.
To import settings, select the filename and press ”Open”. You will then see the options that are included
in this file as enabled checkboxes. After selecting what you want to import, click the ”Import Settings”
button.
For the new settings to take effect, you have to first click the apply button.
Note: You can import the style files from the jaPBe Editor, but only the color settings will be imported.
86
Chapter 19
Command-line options for the IDE
The PureBasic IDE allows you to modify the paths and files being used from the command-line. This
allows you to create several shortcuts that start the IDE with different configurations for different users,
or for different projects.
There are also options for compiling PureBasic projects directly from the command-line. Building a
project from the command-line involves the same actions like at choosing the ’Build Target’ or ’Build all
Targets’ from the compiler menu .
General options:
/ VERSION
/ HELP or /?
arguments
displays the IDE version and exits
displays a description of the command - line
Options for launching the IDE:
/ P < Preferences file >
loads / saves all the configuration to / from
the given file
/ T < Templates file >
loads / saves the code templates from / to the
given file
/ A < tools file >
loads / saves the configuration of the
external tool from / to this file
/ S < Source path >
overwrites the " Source path " setting from
the preferences
/ E < Explorer path >
starts the Explorer tool with the given path
/ L < Line number >
moves the cursor to the given line number in
the last opened file
/ H < HistoryDatabase >
specify the file to use for the session
history database
/ NOEXT
disables the registering of the . pb
extension in the registry
/ LOCAL
puts all preferences in the PureBasic
directory instead of the user profile location
/ PORTABLE
the same as / LOCAL and / NOEXT combined
Options for building projects:
/ BUILD < file >
specifies the project file to build
/ TARGET < target >
specifies the target to build ( the default
is to build all targets )
/ QUIET
hides all build messages except errors
/ READONLY
does not update the project file after
compiling ( with new access time and build counters )
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The default files for /P /T and /A are saved in the %APPDATA%\PureBasic\ directory on the system.
The /NOEXT command is useful when you have several different PB versions at once (for testing of
beta versions for example), but want the .pb extension to be associated with only one of them. The
/PORTABLE command can be used to keep all configuration inside the local directory to easily copy
PureBasic to different computers (or run it from USB sticks for example).
Example:
1
PureBasic . exe Example . pb / PORTABLE
You can also put the filenames of source files to load on the command-line. You can even specify
wildcards for them (so with ”*.pb” you can load a whole directory).
88
Part III
Language Reference
89
Chapter 20
Working with different number bases
(Note: These examples use the ^ symbol to mean ’raised to the power of’ - this is only for convenience in
this document, PureBasic does not currently have a power-of operator! Use the PureBasic command
Pow() from the ”Math” Library instead.)
Introduction
A number base is a way of representing numbers, using a certain amount of possible symbols per digit.
The most common you will know is base 10 (a.k.a. decimal), because there are 10 digits used (0 to 9),
and is the one most humans can deal with most easily.
The purpose of this page is to explain different number bases and how you can work with them. The
reason for this is that computers work in binary (base 2) and there are some cases where it is
advantageous to understand this (for example, when using logical operators, bit masks, etc).
Overview of number bases
Decimal System
Think of a decimal number, and then think of it split into columns. We’ll take the example number
1234. Splitting this into columns gives us:
1
2
3
4
Now think of what the headings for each column are. We know they are units, tens, hundreds and
thousands, laid out like this:
1000
1
100
2
10
3
1
4
We can see that the number 1234 is made up out of
1*1000=1000
+ 2* 100= 200
+ 3* 10= 30
+ 4*
1=
4
Total
=1234
If we also look at the column headings, you’ll see that each time you move one column to the left we
multiply by 10, which just so happens to be the number base. Each time you move one column to the
90
right, you divide by 10. The headings of the columns can be called the weights, since to get the total
number we need to multiply the digits in each column by the weight. We can express the weights using
indices. For example 10 ^2 means ’10 raised to the power of two’ or 1*10*10 (=100). Similarly, 10 ^4
means 1*10*10*10*10 (=10000). Notice the pattern that whatever the index value is, is how many times
we multiply the number being raised. 10 ^0 means 1 (since we multiply by 10 no times). Using negative
numbers shows that we need to divide, so for example 10 ^-2 means 1/10/10 (=0.01). The index values
make more sense when we give each column a number - you’ll often see things like ’bit 0’ which really
means ’binary digit in column 0’.
In this example , ^ means raised to the power of , so 10^2 means 10
raised to the power of 2.
Column number
3
2
1
0
Weight ( index type )
10^3 10^2 10^1 10^0
Weight ( actual value )
1000
100
10
1
Example number (1234)
1
2
3
4
A few sections ago we showed how to convert the number 1234 into its decimal equivalent. A bit
pointless, since it was already in decimal but the general method can be shown from it - so this is how to
convert from any number to its decimal value:
B = Value of number base
1) Separate the number in whatever base you have into it ’s columns .
For
example , if we had the value ’ abcde ’ in our fictional number base
’B ’ ,
the columns would be :
a
b
c
d
e
2) Multiply each
being
calculated by
a * B ^4 = a
b * B ^3 = b
c * B ^2 = c
d * B ^1 = d
e * B ^0 = e
symbol by the weight for that column ( the weight
’B ’
* B
* B
* B
* B
raised to the power of the column number ) :
* B * B * B
* B * B
* B
3) Calculate the total of all those values . By writing all those
values in their
decimal equivalent during the calculations , it becomes far easier
to see the
result and do the calculation ( if we are converting into decimal ) .
Converting in the opposite direction (from decimal to the number base ’B’) is done using division
instead of multiplication:
1) Start with the decimal number you want to convert ( e . g . 1234) .
2) Divide by the target number base ( ’B ’) and keep note of the result
and the
remainder .
3) Divide the result of (2) by the target number base ( ’B ’) and keep
note of
the result and the remainder .
4) Keep dividing like this until you end up with a result of 0.
5) Your number in the target number base is the remainders written in
the order
91
most recently calculated to least recent . For example , your number
would be
the remainders of the steps in this order 432.
More specific examples will be given in the sections about the specific number bases.
Binary System
Everything in a computer is stored in binary (base 2, so giving symbols of ’0’ or ’1’) but working with
binary numbers follows the same rules as decimal. Each symbol in a binary number is called a bit, short
for binary digit. Generally, you will be working with bytes (8-bit), words (16-bit) or longwords (32-bit)
as these are the default sizes of PureBasic’s built in types. The weights for a byte are shown:
(^ means ’ raised to the power of ’ , number base is 2 for binary )
Bit / column number
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Weight ( index )
2^7
2^6
2^5
2^4
2^3
2^2
2^1
Weight ( actual value )
128
64
32
16
8
4
2
0
2^0
1
So, for example, if we had the number 00110011 (Base 2), we could work out the value of it like this:
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
=
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
* 128
* 64
* 32
* 16
*
8
*
4
*
2
*
1
51
An example of converting back would be if we wanted to write the value 69 in binary. We would do it
like this:
69 / 2 = 34 r 1
^
34 / 2 = 17 r 0
/|\
17 / 2 = 8 r 1
|
8 / 2 = 4 r 0
|
Read remainders in this direction
4 / 2 = 2 r 0
|
2 / 2 = 1 r 0
|
1 / 2 = 0 r 1
|
( Stop here since the result of the last divide was 0)
Read the remainders backwards to get the value in binary = 1000101
Another thing to consider when working with binary numbers is the representation of negative numbers.
In everyday use, we would simply put a negative symbol in front of the decimal number. We cannot do
this in binary, but there is a way (after all, PureBasic works mainly with signed numbers, and so must
be able to handle negative numbers). This method is called ’twos complement’ and apart from all the
good features this method has (and won’t be explained here, to save some confusion) the simplest way to
think of it is the weight of the most significant bit (the MSb is the bit number with the highest weight,
in the case of a byte, it would be bit 7) is actually a negative value. So for a two’s complement system,
the bit weights are changed to:
(^ means ’ raised to the power of ’ , number base is 2 for binary )
Bit / column number
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Weight ( index )
-2^7
2^6
2^5
2^4
2^3
2^2
2^1
Weight ( actual value ) -128
64
32
16
8
4
2
92
0
2^0
1
and you would do the conversion from binary to decimal in exactly the same way as above, but using the
new set of weights. So, for example, the number 10000000 (Base 2) is -128, and 10101010 (Base 2) is -86.
To convert from a positive binary number to a negative binary number and vice versa, you invert all the
bits and then add 1. For example, 00100010 would be made negative by inverting -> 11011101 and
adding 1 -> 11011110.
This makes converting from decimal to binary easier, as you can convert negative decimal numbers as
their positive equivalents (using the method shown above) and then make the binary number negative at
the end.
Binary numbers are written in PureBasic with a percent symbol in front of them, and obviously all the
bits in the number must be a ’0’ or a ’1’. For example, you could use the value %110011 in PureBasic to
mean 51. Note that you do not need to put in the leading ’0’s (that number would really be %00110011)
but it might help the readability of your source if you put in the full amount of bits.
Hexadecimal System
Hexadecimal (for base 16, symbols ’0’-’9’ then ’A’-’F’) is a number base which is most commonly used
when dealing with computers, as it is probably the easiest of the non-base 10 number bases for humans
to understand, and you do not end up with long strings of symbols for your numbers (as you get when
working in binary).
Hexadecimal mathematics follows the same rules as with decimal, although you now have 16 symbols per
column until you require a carry/borrow. Conversion between hexadecimal and decimal follows the same
patterns as between binary and decimal, except the weights are in multiples of 16 and divides are done
by 16 instead of 2:
Column number
Weight ( index )
Weight ( actual value )
3
16^3
4096
2
16^2
256
1
16^1
16
0
16^0
1
Converting the hexadecimal value BEEF (Base 16) to decimal would be done like this:
B * 4096 = 11 * 4096
+ E * 256 = 14 * 256
+ E *
16 = 14 *
16
+ F *
1 = 15 *
1
=
48879
And converting the value 666 to hexadecimal would be done like this:
666 / 16 = 41 r 10
^
41 / 16 = 2 r 9
/|\
Read digits in this direction ,
remembering to convert
2 / 16 = 0 r 2
|
to hex digits where required
( Stop here , as result is 0)
Hexadecimal value of 666 is 29 A
The really good thing about hexadecimal is that it also allows you to convert to binary very easily. Each
hexadecimal digit represents 4 bits, so to convert between hexadecimal and binary, you just need to
convert each hex digit to 4 bits or every 4 bits to one hex digit (and remembering that 4 is an equal
divisor of all the common lengths of binary numbers in a CPU). For example:
Hex number
Binary value
5
0101
9
1001
D
1101
F
1111
4E
01001110
When using hexadecimal values in PureBasic, you put a dollar sign in front of the number, for example
$BEEF.
93
Chapter 21
Break : Continue
Syntax
Break [ Level ]
Description
Break provides the ability to exit during any iteration, for the following loops: Repeat , For , ForEach
and While . The optional ’level’ parameter specifies the number of loops to exit from, given several
nested loops. If no parameter is given, Break exits from the current loop.
Example: Simple loop
1
2
3
4
5
6
For k =0 To 10
If k =5
Break ; Will exit directly from the For / Next loop
EndIf
Debug k
Next
Example: Nested loops
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
For k =0 To 10
Counter = 0
Repeat
If k =5
Break 2 ; Will exit directly from the Repeat / Until and For / Next
loops
EndIf
Counter +1
Until Counter > 1
Debug k
Next
Syntax
Continue
94
Description
Continue provides the ability to skip straight to the end of the current iteration (bypassing any code in
between) in the following loops: Repeat , For , ForEach , and While .
Example
1
2
3
4
5
6
For k =0 To 10
If k =5
Continue ; Will skip the ’ Debug 5 ’ and go directly to the next
iteration
EndIf
Debug k
Next
95
Chapter 22
Using the command line compiler
Introduction
The command line compiler is located in the subdirectory ’Compilers\’ from the PureBasic folder. The
easier way to access this is to add this directory in the windows PATH variable, which will give access to
all the commands of this directory at all times.
Command switches
/? : display a quick help about the compiler.
/COMMENTED : create a commented ’.asm’ output file when creating an executable. This file can be
re-assembled later when the needed modifications have been made. This option is for advanced
programmers only.
/DEBUGGER : enable the debugger support.
/EXE ”Filename” : create a standalone Executable or DLL specified by the filename at the desired path
location.
/ICON ”IconName.ico” : add the specified icon to the executable.
/RESIDENT ”Filename” : create a resident file specified by the filename.
/CONSOLE: output file in Console format. Default format is Win32.
/DLL: output file is a DLL .
/XP: Add the Windows XP theme support to the executable.
/REASM: Reassemble the PureBasic.asm file into an executable. This allow to use the /COMMENTED
function, modify the ASM output and creates the executable again.
/LINENUMBERING: Add lines and files information to the executable, which can slow it considerably.
This allows the OnError library to report the file and line-number of an error.
/QUIET: Disable all unnecessary text output, very useful when using another editor.
/STANDBY: Loads the compiler in memory and wait for external commands (editor, scripts...). More
information about using this flag is available in the file ’CompilerInterface.txt’ from the PureBasic ’SDK’
directory.
/MMX, /3DNOW, /SSE or /SSE2: Creates a processor specific executable. This means if a processor
96
specific routine is available it will be used for this executable. Therefore, the executable will run
correctly only on computer with this kind of CPU.
/DYNAMICCPU: Creates a executable containing all the available processor specific routines. When the
program is started, it looks for the processor type and then select the more appropriates routines to use.
This makes a bigger executable, but result in the fastest possible program.
/RESOURCE ”Filename”: Add a Windows resource file (.rc) to the created executable or DLL. This
should be not a compiled resource file, but an ascii file with the directives in it. It’s possible to specify
only one resource, but this file can include other resource script if needed.
/LINKER ”ResponseFile”: Specify a file which contains commands to be passed directly to the linker.
On Windows, PureBasic use the PellesC linker (polink), more information about the possible options
can be found in the related documentation.
/IGNORERESIDENT ”Filename”: Doesn’t load the specified resident file when the compiler starts. It’s
mostly useful when updating a resident which already exists, so it won’t load it.
/CONSTANT Name=Value: Creates the specified constant with the given expression. Example:
’pbcompiler test.pb /CONSTANT MyConstant=10’. The constant #MyConstant will be created on the
fly with a value of 10 before the program gets compiled.
/UNICODE: Use unicode instead ascii for strings management.
/THREAD: Use thread safe runtime for strings and general routines.
/SUBSYSTEM ”Name”: Uses the specific subsystem to replace a set of internal functions. For more
information, see subsystems .
The following two compiler options are needed for creating programs running on Microsoft Vista OS.
They are both options for the included manifest, so they are ignored on older windows versions. With
none of these switches, the exe will run as a normal user as well, but with virtualization turned on (i.e.
registry and file redirection). It is recommended to use the /USER switch to turn of virtualization for all
programs that comply to the standard user privileges, as it is only intended for compatibility for older
programs. These options are also available in the IDE compiler options .
/ADMINISTRATOR: Will cause the program to request admin privileges at start. The program will not
run without it. This option is needed. Note: You can also debug programs with this flag, but only with
the standalone gui debugger (as it must run in elevated mode as well).
/USER: The program will run as the user who started it. Virtualization for the exe is turned off.
/CHECK: Check the syntax only, doesn’t create or launch the executable.
/PREPROCESS ”Filename”: Preprocess the source code and write the output in the specified
”Filename”. The processed file is a single file with all macro expanded, compiler directive handled and
multiline resolved. This allows an easier parsing of a PureBasic source file, as all is expanded and is
available in a flat file format. No comments are included by default, but the flag /COMMENTED can be
used to have all untouched original source as comments and allow comments processing. The
preprocessed file can be recompiled as any other PureBasic source file to create the final executable.
/VERSION: Displays the compiler version.
Example
CLI > pbcompiler sourcecode . pb
The compiler will compile the source code and execute it.
CLI > pbcompiler sourcecode . pb / DEBUGGER
The compiler will compile the source code and execute it with debugger.
CLI > pbcompiler " C :\ Project \ Source \ DLLSource . pb " / EXE
" C :\ Project \ project . dll " / DLL
97
The compiler will compile the source code (here with full path) and create the DLL ”project.dll” in the
given directory.
98
Chapter 23
Compiler Directives
Syntax
CompilerIf < constant expression >
...
[ CompilerElseIf ]
...
[ CompilerElse ]
...
CompilerEndIf
Description
If the <constant expression> result is true, the code inside the CompilerIf will be compiled, else it will
be totally ignored. It’s useful when building multi-OSes programs to customize some programs part by
using OS specific functions. The And and Or Keywords can be used in <constant expression> to
combine multiple conditions.
Example
1
2
3
CompilerIf #PB_Compiler_OS = #PB_OS_Linux And # P B _ C o m p i l e r _ P r o c e s s o r
= # PB_Proce ssor_x86
; some Linux and x86 specific code .
CompilerEndIf
Syntax
CompilerSelect < numeric constant >
CompilerCase < numeric constant >
...
[ CompilerDefault ]
...
Compi lerEndSe lect
Description
Works like a regular Select : EndSelect except that only one numeric value is allowed per case. It will
tell the compiler which code should be compiled. It’s useful when building multi-OSes programs to
customize some programs part by using OS specific functions.
99
Example
1
2
3
4
5
6
CompilerSelect #PB_Compiler_OS
CompilerCase #PB_OS_AmigaOS
; some Amiga specific code
CompilerCase #PB_OS_Linux
; some Linux specific code
Compi lerEndSe lect
Syntax
CompilerError < string constant >
Description
Generates an error, as if it was a syntax error and display the associated message. It can be useful when
doing specialized routines, or to inform a source code is not available on an particular OS.
Example
1
2
3
4
5
CompilerIf #PB_Compiler_OS = #PB_OS_AmigaOS
CompilerError " AmigaOS isn ’ t supported , sorry . "
CompilerElse
CompilerError " OS supported , you can now comment me . "
CompilerEndIf
Syntax
EnableExplicit
DisableExplicit
Description
Enables or disables the explicit mode. When enabled, all the variables which are not explicitly declared
with Define , Global , Protected or Static are not accepted and the compiler will raise an error. It can
help to catch typo bugs.
Example
1
2
3
4
5
6
EnableExplicit
Define a
a = 20 ; Ok , as declared with ’ Define ’
b = 10 ; Will raise an error here
Syntax
100
EnableASM
DisableASM
Description
Enables or disables the inline assembler. When enabled, all the assembler keywords are available directly
in the source code, see the inline assembler section for more information.
Example
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
; x86 assembly example
;
Test = 10
EnableASM
MOV dword [ v_Test ] ,20
DisableASM
Debug Test ; Will be 20
Reserved Constants
The PureBasic compiler has several reserved constants which can be useful to the programmer:
#PB_Compiler_OS : Determines on which OS the compiler is currently
running . It can be one of the following values :
#PB_OS_Windows : The compiler is running on Windows
#PB_OS_Linux
: The compiler is running on Linux
#PB_OS_AmigaOS : The compiler is running on AmigaOS
#PB_OS_MacOS
: The compiler is running on Mac OS X
# P B _ C o m p i l e r _ P r o c e s s o r : Determines the processor type for which the
program is created . It can be one of the following :
#PB_P rocessor _x86
: x86 processor architecture ( also called
IA -32 or x86 -32)
#PB_P rocessor _x64
: x86 -64 processor architecture ( also called
x64 , AMD64 or Intel64 )
# P B _ P r o c e s s o r _ P o w e r P C : PowerPC processor architecture
# P B _ P r o c e s s o r _ m c 6 8 0 0 0 : Motorola 68000 processor architecture
# P B _ C o m p i l e r _ E x e c u t a b l e F o r m a t : Determines executable format . It can
be one of the following :
# P B _ C o m p i l e r _ E x e c u t a b l e : Regular executable
# P B _ C o m p i l e r_ C o n s o l e
: Console executable ( have an effect only
on Windows , other act like a regular executable )
#PB_Compiler_DLL
: Shared DLL ( dynlib on MacOS X and shared
object on Linux )
#PB_C ompiler_ Date
PureBasic date
format .
#PB_C ompiler_ File
compiled , useful for
purpose .
#PB_Compiler_FilePath
for debug
: Current date , at the compile time , in the
: Full path and name of the file being
debug
: Full path of the file being compiled , useful
101
purpose .
# P B _ C o m p i l e r _ F i l e n a m e : Filename ( without path ) of the file being
compiled , useful for debug
purpose .
#PB_C ompiler_ Line
: Line number of the file being compiled ,
useful for debug
purpose .
# P B _ C o m p i l e r _ P r o c e d u r e : Current procedure name , if the line is inside
a procedure
.
# PB _ Co m p il e r_ M o du l e
module
: Current module name , if the line is inside a
.
# P B _ C o m p i l e r_ V e r s i o n : Compiler version , in integer format in the
form ’ 420 ’ for 4.20.
#PB_C ompiler_ Home
: Full path of the PureBasic directory , can be
useful to locate include files
# P B _ C o m p i l e r _ D e b u g g e r : Set to 1 if the runtime debugger
is enabled , set to 0 else . When an executable
is created , the debugger is always disabled
( this constant will be 0) .
# PB _ Co m p il e r_ T h re a d
: Set to 1 if the executable is compiled in
thread safe mode , set to 0 else .
# P B _ C o m p i l e r_ U n i c o d e : Set to 1 if the executable is compiled in
unicode
mode , set to 0 else .
# P B _ C o m p i l e r _ L i n e N u m b e r i n g : Set to 1 if the executable is compiled
with OnError line numbering
support , set to 0 else .
# P B _ C o m p i l e r _ I n l i n e A s s e m b l y : Set to 1 if the executable is compiled
with inline assembly
support , set to 0 else .
# P B _ C o m p i l e r _ E n a b l e E x p l i c i t : Set to 1 if the executable is compiled
with enable explicit support , set to 0 else .
#PB_Compiler_IsMainFile
: Set to 1 if the file being compiled is
the main file , set to 0 else .
# P B _ C o m p i l e r _ I s I n c l u d e F i l e : Set to 1 if the file being compiled has
been included by another file , set to 0 else .
102
Chapter 24
Compiler Functions
Syntax
Size = SizeOf ( Type )
Description
SizeOf can be used to find out the size of any complex Structure (it does not work on the simple built-in
types such as word and float), Interface or even variables . This can be useful in many areas such as
calculating memory requirements for operations, using API commands, etc.
Note: In unicode mode one character uses 2 bytes. In Ascii mode one character uses 1 byte.
Sizeof(Character) allows to return the size (in bytes), which is taken by one character according to the
active mode.
Example
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Structure Person
Name . s
ForName . s
Age . w
EndStructure
Debug " The size of my friend is " + Str ( Sizeof ( Person ) ) + " bytes " ; will
be 10 (4+4+2)
John . Person \ Name = " John "
Debug SizeOf ( John ) ; will be also 10
Note: if a variable and a structure have the same name, the structure will have the priority over the
variable.
Syntax
Index = OffsetOf ( Structure \ Field )
Index = OffsetOf ( Interface \ Function () )
103
Description
OffsetOf can be used to find out the index of a Structure field or the index of an Interface function.
When used with an Interface , the function index is the memory offset, so it will be
IndexOfTheFunction*SizeOf(Integer).
Example
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
Structure Person
Name . s
ForName . s
Age . w
EndStructure
Debug OffsetOf ( Person \ Age ) ; will be 8 as a string is 4 byte in memory
; (16 with the 64 - bit compiler , as a
string is 8 bytes there )
Interface ITest
Create ()
Destroy ( Flags )
EndInterface
Debug OffsetOf ( ITest \ Destroy () ) ; will be 4
Syntax
Type = TypeOf ( Object )
Description
TypeOf can be used to find out the type of a variable , or a structure field . The type can be one of the
following values:
#PB_Byte
#PB_Word
#PB_Long
#PB_String
#PB_Structure
#PB_Float
#PB_Character
#PB_Double
#PB_Quad
#PB_List
#PB_Array
#PB_Integer
#PB_Map
#PB_Ascii
#PB_Unicode
Example
104
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
Structure Person
Name . s
ForName . s
Age . w
EndStructure
If TypeOf ( Person \ Age ) = #PB_Word
Debug " Age is a ’ Word ’ "
EndIf
Surface . f
If TypeOf ( Surface ) = #PB_Float
Debug " Surface is a ’ Float ’ "
EndIf
Syntax
Result = Subsystem ( < constant string expression >)
Description
Subsystem can be used to find out if a subsystem is in use for the program being compiled. The name of
the subsystem is case sensitive.
Example
1
2
3
CompilerIf Subsystem ( " OpenGL " )
Debug " Compiling with the OpenGL subsystem "
CompilerEndIf
Syntax
Result = Defined ( Name , Type )
Description
Defined checks if a particular object of a code source like structure , interface , variables etc. is already
defined or not. The ’Name’ parameter has to be specified without any extra decoration (ie: without the
’#’ for a constant , without ’()’ for an array , a list or a map ).
The ’Type’ parameter can be one of the following values:
#PB_Constant
#PB_Variable
#PB_Array
#PB_List
#PB_Map
#PB_Structure
#PB_Interface
#PB_Procedure
#PB_Function
#PB_OSFunction
105
#PB_Label
#PB_Prototype
#PB_Module
#PB_Enumeration
Example
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
#PureConstant = 10
CompilerIf Defined ( PureConstant , #PB_Constant )
Debug " Constant ’ PureConstant ’ is declared "
CompilerEndIf
Test = 25
CompilerIf Defined ( Test , #PB_Variable )
Debug " Variable ’ Test ’ is declared "
CompilerEndIf
Syntax
I ni t ia l i ze S tr u c tu r e (* Pointer , Structure )
Description
InitializeStructure initialize the specified structured memory area. It initializes structure members of
type Array, List and Map, other members are not affected (.s, .l, .i etc). ’Structure’ is the name of the
structure which should be used to perform the initialization. There is no internal check to ensures the
structure match the memory area. Warning: multiple calls to InitializeStructure create a memory leak
because the old members are not freed (ClearStructure has to be called before calling InitializeStructure
once more). This function is for advanced users only and should be used with care. To allocate dynamic
structure, use AllocateStructure() ().
Example
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
Structure People
Name$
Age . l
List Friends . s ()
EndStructure
* Student . People = AllocateMemory ( SizeOf ( People ) )
I ni t ia l i ze S tr u c tu r e (* Student , People )
; Now the list is ready to use
;
AddElement (* Student \ Friends () )
* Student \ Friends () = " John "
AddElement (* Student \ Friends () )
* Student \ Friends () = " Yann "
; Print out the list content
106
19
20
21
22
;
ForEach * Student \ Friends ()
Debug * Student \ Friends ()
Next
Syntax
CopyStructure (* Source , * Destination , Structure )
Description
CopyStructure copy the memory of a structured memory area to another. This is useful when dealing
with dynamic allocations, trough pointers . Every fields will be duplicated, even array , list , and map .
The destination structure will be automatically cleared before doing the copy, it’s not needed to call
ClearStructure before CopyStructure. Warning: the destination should be a valid structure memory
area, or a cleared memory area. If the memory area is not cleared, it could crash, as random values will
be used by the clear routine. There is no internal check to ensures that the structure match the two
memory area. This function is for advanced users only and should be used with care.
Example
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
Structure People
Name$
LastName$
Map Friends$ ()
Age . l
EndStructure
Student . People \ Name$ = " Paul "
Student \ LastName$ = " Morito "
Student \ Friends$ ( " Tom " ) = " Jones "
Student \ Friends$ ( " Jim " ) = " Doe "
CopyStructure ( @Student , @StudentCopy . People , People )
Debug
Debug
Debug
Debug
StudentCopy \ Name$
StudentCopy \ LastName$
StudentCopy \ Friends$ ( " Tom " )
StudentCopy \ Friends$ ( " Jim " )
Syntax
ClearStructure (* Pointer , Structure )
Description
ClearStructure free the memory of a structured memory area. This is useful when the structure contains
strings, array, list or map which have been allocated internally by PureBasic. ’Structure’ is the name of
the structure which should be used to perform the clearing. All the fields will be set to zero, even native
type like long, integer etc. There is no internal check to ensures the structure match the memory area.
This function is for advanced users only and should be used with care.
107
Example
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
Structure People
Name$
LastName$
Age . l
EndStructure
Student . People \ Name$ = " Paul "
Student \ LastName$ = " Morito "
Student \ Age = 10
ClearStructure ( @Student , People )
; Will print empty strings as the whole structure has been cleared .
All other fields have been reset to zero .
;
Debug Student \ Name$
Debug Student \ LastName$
Debug Student \ Age
Syntax
Bool ( < boolean expression >)
Description
Bool can be used to evaluate a boolean expression outside of regular conditional operator like If, While,
Until etc. If the boolean expression is true, it will return #True, otherwise it will return #False.
Example
1
2
3
4
5
Hello$ = " Hello "
World$ = " World "
Debug Bool ( Hello$ = " Hello " ) ; will print 1
Debug Bool ( Hello$ <> " Hello " Or World$ = " World " ) ; will print 1
108
Chapter 25
Data
Introduction
PureBasic allows the use of Data, to store predefined blocks of information inside of your program. This
is very useful for default values of a program (language string for example) or, in a game, to define the
sprite way to follow (precalculated).
DataSection must be called first to indicate a data section follow. This means all labels and data
component will be stored in the data section of the program, which has a much faster access than the
code section. Data will be used to enter the data. EndDataSection must be specified if some code follows
the data declaration. One of good stuff is you can define different Data sections in the code without any
problem. Restore and Read command will be used to retrieve the data.
Commands
Syntax
DataSection
Description
Start a data section.
Syntax
EndDataSection
Description
End a data section.
Syntax
Data . TypeName
109
Description
Defines data. The type can only be a native basic type (integer, long, word, byte, ascii, unicode, float,
double, quad, character, string). Any number of data can be put on the same line, each one delimited
with a comma ’,’.
Example
1
2
Data . l 100 , 200 , -250 , -452 , 145
Data . s " Hello " , " This " , " is " , " What ? "
For advanced programmers: it’s also possible to put a procedure address or a label address inside Data
when its type is set to integer (.i). (Using the ’integer’ type will store the (different) addresses accurate
on both 32-bit and 64-bit environments.) This can be used to build easy virtual function tables for
example.
Example
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Procedure Max ( Number , Number2 )
EndProcedure
Label :
DataSection
Data . i ? Label , @Max ()
EndDataSection
Example
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
Interface MyObject
DoThis ()
DoThat ()
EndInterface
Procedure This (* Self )
MessageRequester ( " MyObject " , " This " )
EndProcedure
Procedure That (* Self )
MessageRequester ( " MyObject " , " That " )
EndProcedure
m . MyObject = ? VTable
m \ DoThis ()
m \ DoThat ()
DataSection
VTable :
Data . i ? Procedures
Procedures :
Data . i @This () , @That ()
EndDataSection
110
Syntax
Restore label
Description
This keyword is useful to set the start indicator for the Read to a specified label. All labels used for this
purpose should be placed within the DataSection because the data is treated as a separate block from
the program code when it is compiled and may become disassociated from a label if the label were
placed outside of the DataSection.
Example
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Restore StringData
Read . s MyFirstData$
Read . s MySecondData$
Restore NumericalData
Read . l a
Read . l b
Debug MyFirstData$
Debug a
End
DataSection
NumericalData :
Data . l 100 , 200 , -250 , -452 , 145
StringData :
Data . s " Hello " , " This " , " is " , " What ? "
EndDataSection
Syntax
Read [. < type >] < variable >
Description
Read the next available data. The next available data can be changed by using the Restore command.
By default, the next available data is the first data declared. The type of data to read is determined by
the type suffix. The default type will be used if it is not specified.
111
Chapter 26
Debugger keywords in PureBasic
Overview
A complete description of all functions of the powerful debugger you will find in the extra chapters Using
the debugger or Using the debugging Tools .
Following is a list of special keywords to control the debugger from your source code. There is also a
Debugger library which provides further functions to modify the behavior of the debugger should it be
present.
Syntax
CallDebugger
Description
This invokes the ”debugger” and freezes the program immediately.
Syntax
Debug < expression > [ , DebugLevel ]
Description
Display the DebugOutput window and the result inside it. The expression can be any valid PureBasic
expression, from numeric to string. An important point is the Debug command and its associated
expression is totally ignored (not compiled) when the debugger is deactivated.
Note: This is also true, if you’re using complete command lines after Debug (e.g. Debug
LoadImage(1,”test.bmp”)). They will not be compiled with disabled debugger!
This means this command can be used to trace easily in the program without having to comment all the
debug commands when creating the final executable.
The ’DebugLevel’ is the level of priority of the debug message. All normal debug message (without
specifying a debug level) are automatically displayed. When a level is specified then the message will be
only displayed if the current DebugLevel (set with the following DebugLevel command) is equals or
above this number. This allows hierarchical debug mode, by displaying more and more precise
information in function of the used DebugLevel.
112
Syntax
DebugLevel < constant expression >
Description
Set the current debug level for the ’Debug’ message.
Note: The debug level is set at compile time, which means you have to put the DebugLevel command
before any other Debug commands to be sure it affects them all.
Syntax
DisableDebugger
Description
This will disable the debugger checks on the source code which follow this command.
Syntax
EnableDebugger
Description
This will enable the debugger checks on the source code which follow this command (if the debugger was
previously disabled with DisableDebugger).
Note: EnableDebugger doesn’t have an effect, if the debugger is completely disabled in the IDE (look at
Compiler settings ).
113
Chapter 27
Define
Syntax
Define . < type > [ < variable > [= < expression >] , < variable > [=
< expression >] , ...]
Description
If no <variables> are specified, Define is used to change the default type for future untyped variables
(including procedure parameters, interface method parameters and data to read with the Read keyword).
The initial default type is integer (.i). Each variable can have a default value directly assigned to it.
Define may also be used with arrays , lists and maps .
Example
1
2
3
d = e + f
Define . w
a = b + c
d, e and f will be created as integer type variables, since there was no type specified. a, b and c will be
signed word typed (.w) as no type is specified and the default type had been changed to the word type.
If variables are specified, Define only declares these variables as ”defined type” and will not change the
default type. If you don’t assign a value to the variables at this time, the value will be 0.
Example
1
Define . b a , b = 10 , c = b *2 , d ; these 4 variables will be byte typed
(. b )
Syntax
Define < variable >. < type > [= < expression >] [ , < variable >. < type > [=
< expression >] , ...]
114
Description
Alternative possibility for the variable declaration using Define.
Example
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Define MyChar . c
Define MyLong . l
Define MyWord . w
Debug SizeOf ( MyChar )
mode
Debug SizeOf ( MyLong )
Debug SizeOf ( MyWord )
; will print 1 in ASCII mode , and 2 in unicode
; will print 4
; will print 2
115
Chapter 28
Dim
Syntax
Dim name . < type >( < expression > , [ < expression >] , ...)
Description
Dim is used to create new arrays (the initial value of each element will be zero). An array in PureBasic
can be of any types, including structured , and user defined types. Once an array is defined it can be
resized with ReDim. Arrays are dynamically allocated which means a variable or an expression can be
used to size them. To view all commands used to manage arrays, see the Array library.
When you define a new array, please note that it will have one more element than you used as
parameter, because the numbering of the elements in PureBasic (like in other BASIC’s) starts at
element 0. For example when you define Dim(10) the array will have 11 elements, elements 0 to 10. This
behavior is different for static arrays in structures .
The new arrays are always locals, which means Global or Shared commands have to be used if an array
declared in the main source need to be used in procedures. It is also possible to pass an array as
parameter to a procedure - by using the keyword Array. It will be passed ”by reference” (which means,
that the array will not be copied, instead the functions in the procedure will manipulate the original
array).
To delete the content of an array and release its used memory during program flow, call FreeArray() .
If Dim is used on an existing array, it will reset its contents to zero.
For fast swapping of array contents the Swap keyword is available.
Note: Array bound checking is only done when the runtime Debugger is enabled.
Example
1
2
3
Dim MyArray (41)
MyArray (0) = 1
MyArray (1) = 2
Example: Multidimensional array
116
1
2
3
Dim MultiArray . b ( NbColumns , NbLines )
MultiArray (10 , 20) = 10
MultiArray (20 , 30) = 20
Example: Array as procedure parameter
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Procedure fill ( Array Numbers (1) , Length )
number of dimensions in the array
For i = 0 To Length
Numbers ( i ) = i
Next
EndProcedure
Dim Numbers (10)
fill ( Numbers () , 10)
; the 1 stays for the
; the array A () will be passed as parameter here
Debug Numbers (5)
Debug Numbers (10)
Syntax
ReDim name . < type >( < expression > , [ < expression >] , ...)
Description
ReDim is used to ’resize’ an already declared array while preserving its content. The new size can be
larger or smaller, but the number of dimension of the array can not be changed.
If ReDim is used with a multi-dimension array, only its last dimension can be changed.
Example
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Dim MyArray . l (1) ; We have 2 elements
MyArray (0) = 1
MyArray (1) = 2
ReDim MyArray (4) ; Now we want 5 elements
MyArray (2) = 3
For k = 0 To 2
Debug MyArray ( k )
Next
117
Chapter 29
Building a DLL
PureBasic allows to create standard Microsoft Windows DLL (Dynamic Linked Library), shared objects
(.so) on Linux, and dynamic libraries (.dylib) on MacOS X. The DLL code is like a PureBasic code
excepts than no real code should be written outside of procedure.
When writing a DLL, all the code is done inside procedures. When a procedure should be public (ie:
accessible by third programs which will use the DLL), the keyword ProcedureDLL (or ProcedureCDLL
if the procedure needs to be in ’CDecl’ format, which is not the case of regular Windows DLL) is used
instead of Procedure (and DeclareDLL or DeclareCDLL if are used instead of Declare). This is the only
change to do to a program.
When this is done, select ’Shared DLL’ as output format (’Compiler Option’ window in the PureBasic
editor or /DLL switch in command line) and a DLL with the name you set (in the save-requester when
using the IDE) will be created in the selected directory.
Example
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
ProcedureDLL MyFunction ()
MessageRequester ( " Hello " , " This is a PureBasic DLL ! " , 0)
EndProcedure
; Now the client program , which use the DLL
;
If OpenLibrary (0 , " PureBasic . dll " )
CallFunction (0 , " MyFunction " )
CloseLibrary (0)
EndIf
For advanced programmers: there is 4 special procedures which are called automatically by
Windows when one of the following events happen:
-
DLL
DLL
DLL
DLL
is
is
is
is
attached to a new process
detached from a process
attached to a new thread
detached from a thread
To handle that, it’s possible to declare 4 special procedures called: AttachProcess(Instance),
DetachProcess(Instance), AttachThread(Instance) and DetachThread(Instance). This means these 4
procedures names are reserved and can’t be used by the programmer for other purposes.
Notes about creating DLL’s:
118
- The declaration of arrays, lists or map with Dim , NewList or NewMap must always be done inside the
procedure AttachProcess.
- Don’t write program code outside procedures. The only exception is the declaration of variables or
structures.
- DirectX initialization routines must not be written in the AttachProcess procedure.
Note about returning strings from DLL’s:
If you want to return a string out of a DLL, the string has to be declared as Global before using it.
Example
1
2
3
4
5
6
Global ReturnString$
ProcedureDLL . s MyFunction ( var . s )
ReturnString$ = var + " test "
ProcedureReturn ReturnString$
EndProcedure
Without declaring it as Global first, the string is local to the ProcedureDLL and can’t be accessed from
outside.
When using CallFunction() (or one of its similar CallXXX functions) on a DLL function you will get a
pointer on the return string, which you could read with PeekS() .
Example
1
String . s = PeekS ( CallFunction (0 , " FunctionName " , Parameter1 ,
Parameter2 ) )
Here a complete code example:
119
Chapter 30
Enumerations
Syntax
Enumeration [ name ] [ < constant > [ Step < constant >]]
#Constant1
#Constant2 [= < constant >]
#Constant3
...
EndEnumeration
Description
Enumerations are very handy to declare a sequence of constants quickly without using fixed numbers.
The first constant found in the enumeration will get the number 0 and the next one will be 1 etc. It’s
possible to change the first constant number and adjust the step for each new constant found in the
enumeration. If needed, the current constant number can be altered by affecting with ’=’ the new
number to the specified constant. As Enumerations only accept integer numbers, floats will be rounded
to the nearest integer.
A name can be set to identify an enumeration and allow to continue it later. It is useful to group objects
altogether while declaring them in different code place.
For advanced user only: the reserved constant #PB_Compiler_EnumerationValue store the next value
which will be used in the enumeration. It can be useful to get the last enumeration value or to chain two
enumerations.
Example: Simple enumeration
1
2
3
4
5
Enumeration
#GadgetInfo ; Will be 0
#GadgetText ; Will be 1
#GadgetOK
; Will be 2
EndEnumeration
Example: Enumeration with step
1
2
3
Enumeration 20 Step 3
#GadgetInfo ; Will be 20
#GadgetText ; Will be 23
120
4
5
#GadgetOK
; Will be 26
EndEnumeration
Example: Enumeration with dynamic change
1
2
3
4
5
Enumeration
#GadgetInfo
; Will be 0
#GadgetText = 15 ; Will be 15
#GadgetOK
; Will be 16
EndEnumeration
Example: Named enumeration
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
Enumeration Gadget
#GadgetInfo ; Will be 0
#GadgetText ; Will be 1
#GadgetOK
; Will be 2
EndEnumeration
Enumeration Window
#FirstWindow ; Will be 0
#SecondWindow ; Will be 1
EndEnumeration
Enumeration Gadget
#GadgetCancel ; Will be 3
#GadgetImage ; Will be 4
#GadgetSound ; Will be 5
EndEnumeration
Example: Getting next enumeration value
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Enumeration
#GadgetInfo ; Will be 0
#GadgetText ; Will be 1
#GadgetOK
; Will be 2
EndEnumeration
Debug " Next enumeration value : " + # P B _ C o m p i l e r _ E n u m e r a t i o n V a l u e ;
will print 3
121
Chapter 31
For : Next
Syntax
For < variable > = < expression1 > To < expression2 > [ Step < constant >]
...
Next [ < variable >]
Description
For : Next is used to create a loop within a program with the given parameters. At each loop the
<variable> value is increased by a 1, (or of the ”Step value” if a Step value is specified) and when the
<variable> value is above the <expression2> value, the loop stop.
With the Break command its possible to exit the For : Next loop at any moment, with the Continue
command the end of the current iteration can be skipped.
The For : Next loop works only with integer values, at the expressions as well at the Step constant. The
Step constant can also be negative.
Example
1
2
3
For k = 0 To 10
...
Next
In this example, the program will loop 11, time (0 to 10), then quit.
Example
1
2
3
For k = 10 To 1 Step -1
Debug k
Next
In this example, the program will loop 10 times (10 to 1 backwards), then quit.
Example
122
1
2
3
4
5
a = 2
b = 3
For k = a +2 To b +7 Step 2
...
Next k
Here, the program will loop 4 times before quitting, (k is increased by a value of 2 at each loop, so the k
value is: 4-6-8-10). The ”k” after the ”Next” indicates that ”Next” is ending the ”For k” loop. If another
variable, is used the compiler will generate an error. It can be useful to nest several ”For/Next” loops.
Example
1
2
3
4
5
For x =0 To 320
For y =0 To 200
Plot (x , y )
Next y
Next x
Note: Be aware, that in PureBasic the value of <expression2> (’To’ value) can also be changed inside
the For : Next loop. This can lead to endless loops when wrongly used.
123
Chapter 32
ForEach : Next
Syntax
ForEach List () Or Map ()
...
Next [ List () Or Map () ]
Description
ForEach loops through all elements in the specified list or map starting from the first element up to the
last. If the list or the map is empty, ForEach : Next exits immediately. To view all commands used to
manage lists, please click here . To view all commands used to manage maps, please click here .
When used with list, it’s possible to delete or add elements during the loop. As well it’s allowed to
change the current element with ChangeCurrentElement() . After one of the mentioned changes the next
loop continues with the element following the current element.
With the Break command its possible to exit the ForEach : Next loop at any moment, with the
Continue command the end of the current iteration can be skipped.
Example: list
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
NewList Number ()
AddElement ( Number () )
Number () = 10
AddElement ( Number () )
Number () = 20
AddElement ( Number () )
Number () = 30
ForEach Number ()
Debug Number () ; Will output 10 , 20 and 30
Next
Example: Map
124
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
NewMap Country . s ()
Country ( " US " ) = " United States "
Country ( " FR " ) = " France "
Country ( " GE " ) = " Germany "
ForEach Country ()
Debug Country ()
Next
125
Chapter 33
General Rules
PureBasic has established rules which never change. These are:
Comments
Comments are marked by ;. All text entered after ; is ignored by the compiler.
Example
1
If a = 10 ; This is a comment to indicate something .
Keywords
All keywords are used for general things inside PureBasic, like creating arrays (Dim) or lists (NewList),
or controlling the program flow (If : Else : EndIf). They are not followed by the brackets ’()’, which are
typically for PureBasic functions.
Example
1
2
3
4
5
If a = 1
...
Else
...
EndIf
; If , Else and EndIf are keywords ; while ’a = 1 ’
; is a variable used inside an expression .
Keywords are regularly described in the chapters on the left side of the index page in the reference
manual.
Functions
All functions must be followed by a ( or else it will not be considered as a function, (even for null
parameter functions).
126
Example
1
2
EventWindow () ; it is a function .
EventWindow
; it is a variable .
Functions are regularly included in the PureBasic ”Command libraries”, described on the right side of
the index page in the reference manual.
Constants
All constants are preceded by #. They can only be declared once in the source and always keep their
predefined values. (The compiler replaces all constant names with their corresponding values when
compiling the executable.)
Example
1
2
#Hello = 10 ; it is a constant .
Hello = 10 ; it is a variable .
Labels
All labels must be followed by a : (colon). Label names may not contain any operators (+,-,...) as well
special characters (ß,ä,ö,ü,...). When defined in a procedure , the label will be only available in this
procedure.
Example
1
I_am_a_label :
Expressions
An expression is something which can be evaluated. An expression can mix any variables, constants, or
functions, of the same type. When you use numbers in an expression, you can add the Keyword $ sign in
front of it to mean a hexadecimal number, or a Keyword % sign to mean a binary number. Without
either of those, the number will be treated as decimal. Strings must be enclosed by inverted commas.
Example
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
a = a + 1 + (12 * 3)
a = a + WindowHeight ( #Window ) + b /2 + #MyConstant
If a <> 12 + 2
b + 2 >= c + 3
EndIf
a$ = b$ + " this is a string value " + c$
Foo = Foo + $69 / %1001
; Hexadecimal and binary number usage
127
Concatenation of commands
Any number of commands can be added to the same line by using the : option.
Example
1
If IsCrazy = 0 : MessageRequester ( " Info " , " Not Crazy " ) : Else :
MessageRequester ( " Info " , " Crazy " ) : EndIf
Line continuation
If the line contains a big expression, it can be split on several lines. A split line has to end with one of
the following operator: plus (+), comma (,), or (k), And, Or, Xor.
Example
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Text$ = " Very very very very long text " + #LF$ +
" another long text " + #LF$ +
" and the end of the long text "
MessageRequester ( " Hello this is a very long title " ,
" And a very long message , so we can use the
multiline " + #LF$ + Text$ ,
#PB_MessageRequester_Ok )
Typical words in this manual
Words used in this manual:
<variable> : a basic variable.
<expression> : an expression as explained above.
<constant> : a numeric constant.
<label> : a program label.
<type> : any type, (standard or structured).
Others
- In this guide, all topics are listed in alphabetical order to decrease any search time.
- Return values of commands are always Integer if no other type is specified in the Syntax line of the
command description.
- In the PureBasic documentation are used the terms ”commands” and ”functions” as well - this is one
and the same, independently of a return-value. If a value is returned by the command or function, you
can read in the related command description.
128
Chapter 34
Global
Syntax
Global [. < type >] < variable [. < type >] > [= < expression >] [ , ...]
Description
Global provides the ability for variables to be defined as global, i.e., variables defined as such may then
be accessed within a Procedure . In this case the command Global must be called for the according
variables, before the declaration of the procedure. Each variable may have a default value directly
assigned to it. If a type is specified for a variable after Global, the default type is changed through the
use of this declaration. Global may also be used with arrays , lists and maps .
In order to use local variables within a procedure, which have the same name as global variables, take a
look at the Protected and Static keywords.
Example: With variables
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Global a .l , b .b , c , d = 20
Procedure Change ()
Debug a ; Will be 10 as the variable is global
EndProcedure
a = 10
Change ()
Example: With array
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Global Dim Array (2)
Procedure Change ()
Debug Array (0) ; Will be 10 as the array is global
EndProcedure
Array (0) = 10
Change ()
129
Example: With default type
1
2
3
; ’ Angle ’ and ’ Position ’ will be a float , as they didn ’ t have a
specified type
;
Global . f Angle , Length .b , Position
130
Chapter 35
Gosub : Return
Syntax
Gosub MyLabel
MyLabel :
...
Return
Description
Gosub stands for ’Go to sub routine’. A label must be specified after Gosub, at that point the program
execution continues immediately after the position defined by that label, and will do so until
encountering a Return. When a return is reached, the program execution is then transferred
immediately below the Gosub.
Gosub is useful when building fast structured code.
Another technique which may be used in order to insert a sub routine into a standalone program
component is to use procedures . Gosub may only be used within the main body of the source code, and
may not be used within procedures .
Example
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
a = 1
b = 2
Gosub ComplexOperation
Debug a
End
ComplexOperation :
a = b *2+ a *3+( a + b )
a = a+a*a
Return
Syntax
FakeReturn
131
Description
If the command Goto is used within the body of a sub routine, FakeReturn must be used. FakeReturn
simulates a return without actually executing a return, and if it is not used, the program will crash.
Note: To exit a loop safely, Break should be used instead of Goto.
Example
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Gosub SubRoutine1
SubRoutine1 :
...
If a = 10
FakeReturn
Goto Main_Loop
EndIf
Return
132
Chapter 36
Handles and Numbers
Numbers
All created objects are identified by an arbitrary number (which is not the object’s handle, as seen
below). In this manual, these numbers are marked as #Number (for example, each gadget created have
a #Gadget number).
The numbers you assign to them do not need to be constants, but they need to be unique for each object
in your program (an image can get the same number as a gadget, because these are different types of
objects). These numbers are used to later access these objects in your program.
For example, the event handling functions return these numbers:
1
2
3
EventGadget ()
EventMenu ()
EventWindow ()
Handles
All objects also get a unique number assigned to them by the system. These identifiers are called
handles. Sometimes, a PureBasic function doesn’t need the number as argument, but the handle. In this
manual, such things are mentioned, as an ID.
Example
1
2
3
ImageGadget ( #Gadget , x , y , Width , Height , ImageID [ , Flags ])
; #Gadget needs to be the number you want to assign to the Gadget
; ImageID needs to a handle to the image .
To get the handle to an object, there are special functions like:
1
2
3
4
5
FontID ()
GadgetID ()
ImageID ()
ThreadID ()
WindowID ()
Also, most of the functions that create these objects also return this handle as a result, if they were
successful. This is only the case if #PB_Any was not used to create the object. If #PB_Any is used,
these commands return the object number that was assigned by PB for them, not the handle.
133
Example
1
GadgetHandle = ImageGadget (...)
134
Chapter 37
If : Else : EndIf
Syntax
If < expression >
...
[ ElseIf < expression >]
...
[ Else ]
...
EndIf
Description
The If structure is used to achieve tests, and/or change the programmes direction, depending on whether
the test is true or false. ElseIf optional command is used for any number of additional tests if the
previous test was not true. The Else optional command is used to execute a part of code, if all previous
tests were false. Any number of If structures may be nested together.
Example
1
2
3
4
5
If a =10
Debug " a =10 "
Else
Debug "a < >10 "
EndIf
Example
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
If a =10 And b >=10 Or c =20
If b =15
Debug " b =15 "
Else
Debug " Other possibility "
EndIf
Else
Debug " Test failure "
EndIf
135
Chapter 38
Import : EndImport
Syntax
Import " Filename "
FunctionName . < type >( < parameter > , [ , < parameter > [= DefaultValue ]...])
[ As " SymbolName " ]
...
VariableName . < type > [ As " SymbolName " ]
EndImport
Description
For advanced programmers. Import : EndImport allows to easy declare external functions and variables
from a library (.lib) or an object (.obj) file.
Once declared, the imported functions are directly available for use in the program, like any other
commands. The compiler doesn’t check if the functions really exists in the imported file, so if an error
occurs, it will be reported by the linker.
This feature can replace the OpenLibrary() /CallFunction() sequence as it has some advantages: type
checking is done, number of parameters is validated. Unlike CallFunction(), it can deal with double,
float and quad without any problem.
The last parameters can have a default value (need to be a constant expression), so if these parameters
are omitted when the function is called, the default value will be used.
By default the imported function symbol is ’decorated’ in the following way: [email protected]
That should work for most of the functions which use the standard call convention (stdcall). If the
library is a C one, and the function are not stdcall, the ImportC variant should be used instead. In this
case, the default function symbol is decorated like: _FunctionName.
The pseudotypes can be used for the parameters, but not for the returned value. @remaksOn x64, there
is only one calling convention, so ImportC will be behave the sames as Import.
Example
1
2
3
4
5
Import " User32 . lib "
; No need to use ’As ’ as PureBasic decorates the function correctly
; We also define the ’ Flags ’ as optional , with a default value of 0
( when omitted )
;
136
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
MessageBoxA ( Window .i , Body$ , Title$ , Flags . i = 0)
; This time PureBasic can ’ t find it alone as the function
; name isn ’ t the same than the one used by the symbol
;
MsgBox ( Window .i , Body$ , Title$ , Flags . i ) As " [email protected] "
EndImport
MessageBoxA (0 , " Hello " , " World " ) ; We don ’ t specify the flags
MsgBox (0 , " Hello " , " World 2 " , 0)
Example: With pseudotypes
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
Import " User32 . lib "
; We use the ’p - unicode ’ pseudotype for the string parameters , as
; MessageBoxW () is an unicode only function . The compiler will
; automatically converts the strings to unicode when needed .
;
MessageBoxW ( Window .l , Body .p - unicode , Title .p - unicode , Flags . l = 0)
EndImport
; It will work correctly in ascii and in unicode mode , even if the
API is unicode
; only as the compiler will take care of the conversion itself .
;
MessageBoxW (0 , " Hello " , " World " )
137
Chapter 39
Includes Functions
Syntax
IncludeFile
" Filename "
Description
IncludeFile will always include the specified source file, at the current place in the code (even if
XIncludeFile has been called for this file before).
Example
1
IncludeFile " Sources \ myfile . pb " ; This file will be inserted in the
current code .
This command is useful, if you want to split your source code into several files, to be able to reuse parts
e.g. in different projects.
Syntax
XIncludeFile " Filename "
Description
XIncludeFile is similar to IncludeFile excepts it avoids to include the same file twice.
Example
1
2
XIncludeFile " Sources \ myfile . pb " ; This file will be inserted .
XIncludeFile " Sources \ myfile . pb " ; This file will be ignored along
with all subsequent calls .
This command is useful, if you want to split your source code into several files, to be able to reuse parts
e.g. in different projects.
138
Syntax
IncludeBinary " filename "
Description
IncludeBinary will include the named file at the current place in the code. Including should be done
inside a Data block.
Example
1
2
3
4
DataSection
MapLabel :
IncludeBinary " Data \ map . data "
EndDataSection
This command is especially useful in combination with the Catch-commands (currently there are
/CatchImage(), /CatchSound(), /CatchSprite()) to include images, sounds, sprites etc. into the
executable.
Syntax
IncludePath " path "
Description
IncludePath will specify a default path for all files included after the call of this command. This can be
very handy when you include many files which are in the same directory.
Example
1
2
3
IncludePath " Sources \ Data "
IncludeFile " Sprite . pb "
XIncludeFile " Music . pb "
139
Chapter 40
Inline x86 ASM
Introduction
PureBasic allows you to include any x86 assembler commands (including MMX and FPU one) directly
in the source code, as if it was a real assembler. And it gives you even more: you can use directly any
variables or pointers in the assembler keywords, you can put any ASM commands on the same line, ...
On Windows and Linux, PureBasic uses fasm (http://flatassembler.net), so if you want more
information about the syntax, just read the fasm guide.
On OS X, PureBasic uses yasm (http://yasm.tortall.net/), so if you want more information about the
syntax, just read the yasm guide.
To activate the inline assembler use the compiler directives EnableASM and DisableASM .
It’s possible to enable the ASM syntax coloring in the IDE with the ”enable inline ASM syntax coloring”
compiler option .
Rules
You have several rules to closely follow if you want to include ASM in a BASIC code :
- The used variables or pointers must be declared before to use them in an assembler keyword
- When you reference a label , you must put the prefix ’l_’ before the name. This is because PureBasic
add a ’l_’ before a BASIC label to avoid conflict with internal labels. The label need to be referenced in
lowercase when using the in-line ASM. If the label is defined in a procedure , then its prefix is
’ll_procedurename_’, in lowercase.
- When you reference a module item, you must put the prefix ’module_name.’ all in lowercase before
the item.
Example
1
2
3
MOV ebx , l_mylabel
...
MyLabel :
- The errors in an ASM part are not reported by PureBasic but by FASM. Just check your code if a such
error happen.
- With enabled InlineASM you can’t use ASM keywords as label names in your source.
- On x86 processors, the available volatile registers are: eax, ecx and edx. All others must be always
preserved.
- On x64 processors, the available volatile registers are: rax, rcx, rdx, r8, r9, xmm0, xmm1, xmm2 and
xmm3. All others must be always preserved.
140
- Windows only: an ASM help-file could be downloaded here. If you place the ’ASM.HLP’ in the ’Help/’
folder of PureBasic, you can also get help on ASM keywords with F1. (Note: this feature is only
enabled, when InlineASM is enabled).
When using assembler in a procedure , you have to be aware of several important things:
- To return directly the ’eax’ (or ’rax’ on x64) register content, just use ProcedureReturn, without any
expression. It will let the ’eax’ (or ’rax’ on x64) register content untouched and use it as return-value.
Example
1
2
3
4
Procedure . l MyTest ()
MOV eax , 45
ProcedureReturn ; The returned value will be 45
EndProcedure
- Local variables in PureBasic are directly indexed by the stack pointer, which means if the stack pointer
change via an ASM instruction (like PUSH, POP etc..) the variable index will be wrong and direct
variable reference won’t work anymore.
- It’s possible to pass directly an assembly line to the assembler without being processed by the compiler
by using the ’ !’ character at the line start. This allow to have a full access to the assembler directives.
When using this, it’s possible to reference the local variables using the notation ’p.v_variablename’ for a
regular variable or ’p.p_variablename’ for a pointer
Example
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Procedure Test (* Pointer , Variable )
! MOV dword [ p . p_Pointer ] , 20
! MOV dword [ p . v_Variable ] , 30
Debug * Pointer
Debug Variable
EndProcedure
Test (0 , 0)
141
Chapter 41
Interfaces
Syntax
Interface < name > [ Extends < name >]
< Method [. < type >]() >
...
EndInterface
Description
Interfaces are used to access Object Oriented modules, such as COM (Component Object Model) or
DirectX dynamic libraries (DLL). These types of libraries are becoming more and more common in
Windows, and through the use of interfaces, the ability to access these modules easily (and without any
performance hit) is realized. It also introduces the necessary basis for Object Oriented programming
within PureBasic, but the use of interfaces requires some advanced knowledge. Most of the standard
Windows interfaces have already been implemented within a resident file and this allows direct use of
these objects.
The optional Extends parameter may be used to extend another interface with new functions (Theses
functions are commonly called ’methods’ in Object Oriented (OO) languages such as C++ or Java). All
functions contained within the extended interface are then made available within the new interface and
will be placed before the new functions. This is useful in order to do basic inheritance of objects.
Arrays can be passed as parameters using the Array keyword, lists using the List keyword and maps
using the Map keyword.
A return type may be defined in the interface declaration by adding the type after the method.
SizeOf may be used with Interfaces in order to get the size of the interface and OffsetOf may be used to
retrieve the index of the specified function.
The pseudotypes may be used for the parameters of the functions, but not for the return value.
Note: The concept of objects, and the capability provided within PureBasic for their use, has been
developed for, and mainly targeted towards, experienced programmers. However, an understanding of
these concepts and capabilities are in no way a prerequisite for creating professional software or games.
Example: Basic example of object call
1
2
3
; In order to access an external object ( within a DLL for example ) ,
; the objects ’ interface must first be declared :
142
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
Interface MyObject
Move (x , y )
MoveF ( x .f , y . f )
Destroy ()
EndInterface
; CreateObject is the function which creates the object , from the DLL ,
; whose interface has just been defined .
; Create the first object ...
;
Object1 . MyObject = MyCreateObject ()
; And the second one .
;
Object2 . MyObject = MyCreateObject ()
; Then the functions which have just been defined , may
; be used , in order to act upon the desired object .
;
Object1 \ Move (10 , 20)
Object1 \ Destroy ()
Object2 \ MoveF (10.5 , 20.1)
Object2 \ Destroy ()
Example: Example with ’Extends’
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
; Define a basic Cube interface object .
;
Interface Cube
GetPosition ()
SetPosition ( x )
GetWidth ()
SetWidth ( Width )
EndInterface
Interface ColoredCube Extends Cube
GetColor ()
SetColor ( Color )
EndInterface
Interface TexturedCube Extends Cube
GetTexture ()
SetTexture ( TextureID )
EndInterface
; The interfaces for 3 different objects have now been defined , these
objects include :
;
; - ’ Cube ’ which has the : Get / SetPosition () and Get / SetWidth ()
functions .
; - ’ ColoredCube ’ which has the : Get / SetPosition () , Get / SetWidth ()
and Get / SetColor () functions .
; - ’ TexturedCube ’ which has the : Get / SetPosition () , Get / SetWidth ()
and Get / SetTexture () functions .
;
143
Chapter 42
Licenses for the PureBasic applications
(without using 3D engine)
This program makes use of the following components :
-------------------------------------------------------------------Component : MD5
-------------------------------------------------------------------Copyright ( C ) 1991 -2 , RSA Data Security , Inc . Created 1991. All
rights reserved .
License to copy and use this software is granted provided that it
is identified as the " RSA Data Security , Inc . MD5 Message - Digest
Algorithm " in all material mentioning or referencing this software
or this function .
License is also granted to make and use derivative works provided
that such works are identified as " derived from the RSA Data
Security , Inc . MD5 Message - Digest Algorithm " in all material
mentioning or referencing the derived work .
RSA Data Security , Inc . makes no representations concerning either
the merchantability of this software or the suitability of this
software for any particular purpose . It is provided " as is "
without express or implied warranty of any kind .
These notices must be retained in any copies of any part of this
documentation and / or software .
-------------------------------------------------------------------Component : AES
-------------------------------------------------------------------Optimized ANSI C code for the Rijndael cipher ( now AES )
@authorVincent Rijmen < vincent . [email protected] . kuleuven . ac . be >
@authorAntoon Bosselaers < antoon . [email protected] . kuleuven . ac . be >
@authorPaulo Barreto < paulo . [email protected] . com . br >
This code is hereby placed in the public domain .
144
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHORS ’ ’ AS IS ’ ’ AND ANY EXPRESS
OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES , INCLUDING , BUT NOT LIMITED TO , THE IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
ARE DISCLAIMED . IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE
LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT , INDIRECT , INCIDENTAL , SPECIAL , EXEMPLARY , OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ( INCLUDING , BUT NOT LIMITED TO , PROCUREMENT OF
SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES ; LOSS OF USE , DATA , OR PROFITS ; OR
BUSINESS INTERRUPTION ) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY ,
WHETHER IN CONTRACT , STRICT LIABILITY , OR TORT ( INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE
OR OTHERWISE ) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE ,
EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE .
-------------------------------------------------------------------Component : SHA1
-------------------------------------------------------------------SHA -1 in C
By Steve Reid < [email protected] . com >
100% Public Domain
-------------------------------------------------------------------Component : zlib
-------------------------------------------------------------------Copyright ( C ) 1995 -2012 Jean - loup Gailly and Mark Adler
This software is provided ’as - is ’ , without any express or implied
warranty . In no event will the authors be held liable for any damages
arising from the use of this software .
Permission is granted to anyone to use this software for any purpose ,
including commercial applications , and to alter it and redistribute it
freely , subject to the following restrictions :
1. The origin of this software must not be misrepresented ; you must not
claim that you wrote the original software . If you use this software
in a product , an acknowledgment in the product documentation would be
appreciated but is not required .
2. Altered source versions must be plainly marked as such , and must not
be
misrepresented as being the original software .
3. This notice may not be removed or altered from any source
distribution .
Jean - loup Gailly
[email protected] . org
Mark Adler
[email protected] . caltech . edu
-------------------------------------------------------------------Component : libpq
-------------------------------------------------------------------Portions Copyright ( c ) 1996 -2011 , PostgreSQL Global Development Group
Portions Copyright ( c ) 1994 , The Regents of the University of California
Permission to use , copy , modify , and distribute this software and its
documentation for any purpose , without fee , and without a written
agreement
is hereby granted , provided that the above copyright notice and this
paragraph and the following two paragraphs appear in all copies .
145
IN NO EVENT SHALL THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA BE LIABLE TO ANY PARTY
FOR
DIRECT , INDIRECT , SPECIAL , INCIDENTAL , OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ,
INCLUDING
LOST PROFITS , ARISING OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE AND ITS
DOCUMENTATION , EVEN IF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA HAS BEEN ADVISED OF
THE
POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE .
THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMS ANY WARRANTIES ,
INCLUDING , BUT NOT LIMITED TO , THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY
AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE . THE SOFTWARE PROVIDED HEREUNDER
IS
ON AN " AS IS " BASIS , AND THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA HAS NO
OBLIGATIONS TO
PROVIDE MAINTENANCE , SUPPORT , UPDATES , ENHANCEMENTS , OR MODIFICATIONS .
-------------------------------------------------------------------Component : sqlite3
-------------------------------------------------------------------The author disclaims copyright to this source code .
a legal notice , here is a blessing :
In place of
May you do good and not evil .
May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others .
May you share freely , never taking more than you give .
-------------------------------------------------------------------Component : libjpeg
-------------------------------------------------------------------The authors make NO WARRANTY or representation , either express or
implied ,
with respect to this software , its quality , accuracy , merchantability ,
or
fitness for a particular purpose . This software is provided " AS IS " ,
and you ,
its user , assume the entire risk as to its quality and accuracy .
This software is copyright ( C ) 1991 -2012 , Thomas G . Lane , Guido
Vollbeding .
All Rights Reserved except as specified below .
Permission is hereby granted to use , copy , modify , and distribute this
software ( or portions thereof ) for any purpose , without fee , subject to
these
conditions :
(1) If any part of the source code for this software is distributed ,
then this
README file must be included , with this copyright and no - warranty notice
unaltered ; and any additions , deletions , or changes to the original
files
must be clearly indicated in accompanying documentation .
(2) If only executable code is distributed , then the accompanying
documentation must state that " this software is based in part on the
work of
the Independent JPEG Group " .
146
(3) Permission for use of this software is granted only if the user
accepts
full responsibility for any undesirable consequences ; the authors accept
NO LIABILITY for damages of any kind .
These conditions apply to any software derived from or based on the IJG
code ,
not just to the unmodified library . If you use our work , you ought to
acknowledge us .
Permission is NOT granted for the use of any IJG author ’s name or
company name
in advertising or publicity relating to this software or products
derived from
it . This software may be referred to only as " the Independent JPEG
Group ’s
software " .
We specifically permit and encourage the use of this software as the
basis of
commercial products , provided that all warranty or liability claims are
assumed by the product vendor .
-------------------------------------------------------------------Component : libpng
-------------------------------------------------------------------libpng versions 1.2.6 , August 15 , 2004 , through 1.5.12 , July 11 , 2012 ,
are
Copyright ( c ) 2004 , 2006 -2012 Glenn Randers - Pehrson , and are
distributed according to the same disclaimer and license as libpng -1.2.5
with the following individual added to the list of Contributing Authors :
Cosmin Truta
libpng versions 1.0.7 , July 1 , 2000 , through 1.2.5 , October 3 , 2002 , are
Copyright ( c ) 2000 -2002 Glenn Randers - Pehrson , and are
distributed according to the same disclaimer and license as libpng -1.0.6
with the following individuals added to the list of Contributing
Authors :
Simon - Pierre Cadieux
Eric S . Raymond
Gilles Vollant
and with the following additions to the disclaimer :
There is no warranty against interference with your enjoyment of the
library or against infringement . There is no warranty that our
efforts or the library will fulfill any of your particular purposes
or needs . This library is provided with all faults , and the entire
risk of satisfactory quality , performance , accuracy , and effort is
with
the user .
libpng versions 0.97 , January 1998 , through 1.0.6 , March 20 , 2000 , are
Copyright ( c ) 1998 , 1999 , 2000 Glenn Randers - Pehrson , and are
distributed according to the same disclaimer and license as libpng -0.96 ,
with the following individuals added to the list of Contributing
147
Authors :
Tom Lane
Glenn Randers - Pehrson
Willem van Schaik
libpng versions 0.89 , June 1996 , through 0.96 , May 1997 , are
Copyright ( c ) 1996 , 1997 Andreas Dilger
Distributed according to the same disclaimer and license as libpng -0.88 ,
with the following individuals added to the list of Contributing
Authors :
John Bowler
Kevin Bracey
Sam Bushell
Magnus Holmgren
Greg Roelofs
Tom Tanner
libpng versions 0.5 , May 1995 , through 0.88 , January 1996 , are
Copyright ( c ) 1995 , 1996 Guy Eric Schalnat , Group 42 , Inc .
For the purposes of this copyright and license , " Contributing Authors "
is defined as the following set of individuals :
Andreas Dilger
Dave Martindale
Guy Eric Schalnat
Paul Schmidt
Tim Wegner
The PNG Reference Library is supplied " AS IS " . The Contributing Authors
and Group 42 , Inc . disclaim all warranties , expressed or implied ,
including , without limitation , the warranties of merchantability and of
fitness for any purpose . The Contributing Authors and Group 42 , Inc .
assume no liability for direct , indirect , incidental , special ,
exemplary ,
or consequential damages , which may result from the use of the PNG
Reference Library , even if advised of the possibility of such damage .
Permission is hereby granted to use , copy , modify , and distribute this
source code , or portions hereof , for any purpose , without fee , subject
to the following restrictions :
1. The origin of this source code must not be misrepresented .
2. Altered versions must be plainly marked as such and must not
be misrepresented as being the original source .
3. This Copyright notice may not be removed or altered from
any source or altered source distribution .
The Contributing Authors and Group 42 , Inc . specifically permit , without
fee , and encourage the use of this source code as a component to
supporting the PNG file format in commercial products . If you use this
source code in a product , acknowledgment is not required but would be
appreciated .
--------------------------------------------------------------------
148
Component : OpenJPEG
-------------------------------------------------------------------Copyright ( c ) 2002 -2007 , Communications and Remote Sensing Laboratory ,
Universite catholique de Louvain ( UCL ) , Belgium
Copyright ( c ) 2002 -2007 , Professor Benoit Macq
Copyright ( c ) 2001 -2003 , David Janssens
Copyright ( c ) 2002 -2003 , Yannick Verschueren
Copyright ( c ) 2003 -2007 , Francois - Olivier Devaux and Antonin Descampe
Copyright ( c ) 2005 , Herve Drolon , FreeImage Team
Copyright ( c ) 2006 -2007 , Parvatha Elangovan
All rights reserved .
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms , with or without
modification , are permitted provided that the following conditions
are met :
1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
notice , this list of conditions and the following disclaimer .
2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
notice , this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
documentation and / or other materials provided with the distribution .
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS ‘ AS
IS ’
AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES , INCLUDING , BUT NOT LIMITED TO ,
THE
IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
PURPOSE
ARE DISCLAIMED . IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS
BE
LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT , INDIRECT , INCIDENTAL , SPECIAL , EXEMPLARY , OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ( INCLUDING , BUT NOT LIMITED TO , PROCUREMENT OF
SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES ; LOSS OF USE , DATA , OR PROFITS ; OR BUSINESS
INTERRUPTION ) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY , WHETHER IN
CONTRACT , STRICT LIABILITY , OR TORT ( INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE )
ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE , EVEN IF ADVISED OF
THE
POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE .
-------------------------------------------------------------------Component : libtiff
-------------------------------------------------------------------Copyright ( c ) 1988 -1997 Sam Leffler
Copyright ( c ) 1991 -1997 Silicon Graphics , Inc .
Permission to use , copy , modify , distribute , and sell this software and
its documentation for any purpose is hereby granted without fee ,
provided
that ( i ) the above copyright notices and this permission notice appear
in
all copies of the software and related documentation , and ( ii ) the
names of
Sam Leffler and Silicon Graphics may not be used in any advertising or
publicity relating to the software without the specific , prior written
permission of Sam Leffler and Silicon Graphics .
THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED " AS - IS " AND WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND ,
EXPRESS , IMPLIED OR OTHERWISE , INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION , ANY
149
WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE .
IN NO EVENT SHALL SAM LEFFLER OR SILICON GRAPHICS BE LIABLE FOR
ANY SPECIAL , INCIDENTAL , INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OF ANY KIND ,
OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE , DATA OR PROFITS ,
WHETHER OR NOT ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF DAMAGE , AND ON ANY THEORY
OF
LIABILITY , ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE
OF THIS SOFTWARE .
-------------------------------------------------------------------Component : libmodplug ( Module )
-------------------------------------------------------------------This source code is public domain .
-------------------------------------------------------------------Component : udis86 ( OnError )
-------------------------------------------------------------------Copyright ( c ) 2002 -2009 Vivek Thampi
All rights reserved .
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms , with or without
modification ,
are permitted provided that the following conditions are met :
* Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
notice ,
this list of conditions and the following disclaimer .
* Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
notice ,
this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
documentation
and / or other materials provided with the distribution .
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS " AS
IS " AND
ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES , INCLUDING , BUT NOT LIMITED TO , THE
IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
DISCLAIMED . IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE
LIABLE FOR
ANY DIRECT , INDIRECT , INCIDENTAL , SPECIAL , EXEMPLARY , OR CONSEQUENTIAL
DAMAGES
( INCLUDING , BUT NOT LIMITED TO , PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR
SERVICES ;
LOSS OF USE , DATA , OR PROFITS ; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION ) HOWEVER CAUSED
AND ON
ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY , WHETHER IN CONTRACT , STRICT LIABILITY , OR TORT
( INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE ) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE
OF THIS
SOFTWARE , EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE .
-------------------------------------------------------------------Component : brieflz
-------------------------------------------------------------------Copyright ( c ) 2002 -2004 by Joergen Ibsen / Jibz
150
All Rights Reserved
http :// www . ibsensoftware . com /
This software is provided ’as - is ’ , without any express or implied
warranty . In no event will the authors be held liable for any damages
arising from the use of this software .
Permission is granted to anyone to use this software for any purpose ,
including commercial applications , and to alter it and redistribute it
freely , subject to the following restrictions :
1. The origin of this software must not be misrepresented ; you must
not claim that you wrote the original software . If you use this
software in a product , an acknowledgment in the product
documentation would be appreciated but is not required .
2. Altered source versions must be plainly marked as such , and must
not be misrepresented as being the original software .
3. This notice may not be removed or altered from any source
distribution .
-------------------------------------------------------------------Component : jcalg1
-------------------------------------------------------------------This software is provided as - is , without warranty of ANY KIND , either
expressed
or implied , including but not limited to the implied warranties of
merchantability
and / or fitness for a particular purpose . The author shall NOT be held
liable for
ANY damage to you , your computer , or to anyone or anything else , that
may result
from its use , or misuse . Basically , you use it at YOUR OWN RISK .
-------------------------------------------------------------------Component : lzma
-------------------------------------------------------------------LZMA SDK is written and placed in the public domain by Igor Pavlov .
Some code in LZMA SDK is based on public domain code from another
developers :
1) PPMd var . H (2001) : Dmitry Shkarin
2) SHA -256: Wei Dai ( Crypto ++ library )
-------------------------------------------------------------------Component : libzip
-------------------------------------------------------------------Copyright ( C ) 1999 -2008 Dieter Baron and Thomas Klausner
The authors can be contacted at < [email protected] . at >
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms , with or without
modification , are permitted provided that the following conditions
are met :
1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
151
notice , this list of conditions and the following disclaimer .
2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
notice , this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in
the documentation and / or other materials provided with the
distribution .
3. The names of the authors may not be used to endorse or promote
products derived from this software without specific prior
written permission .
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHORS ‘‘ AS IS ’ ’ AND ANY EXPRESS
OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES , INCLUDING , BUT NOT LIMITED TO , THE IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
ARE DISCLAIMED . IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY
DIRECT , INDIRECT , INCIDENTAL , SPECIAL , EXEMPLARY , OR CONSEQUENTIAL
DAMAGES ( INCLUDING , BUT NOT LIMITED TO , PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE
GOODS OR SERVICES ; LOSS OF USE , DATA , OR PROFITS ; OR BUSINESS
INTERRUPTION ) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY , WHETHER
IN CONTRACT , STRICT LIABILITY , OR TORT ( INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR
OTHERWISE ) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE , EVEN
IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE .
-------------------------------------------------------------------Component : pcre
-------------------------------------------------------------------Redistribution and use in source and binary forms , with or without
modification , are permitted provided that the following conditions are
met :
* Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
notice ,
this list of conditions and the following disclaimer .
* Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
notice , this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in
the
documentation and / or other materials provided with the
distribution .
* Neither the name of the University of Cambridge nor the name of
Google
Inc . nor the names of their contributors may be used to endorse or
promote products derived from this software without specific prior
written permission .
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS " AS
IS "
AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES , INCLUDING , BUT NOT LIMITED TO ,
THE
IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
PURPOSE
ARE DISCLAIMED . IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE
LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT , INDIRECT , INCIDENTAL , SPECIAL , EXEMPLARY , OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ( INCLUDING , BUT NOT LIMITED TO , PROCUREMENT OF
SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES ; LOSS OF USE , DATA , OR PROFITS ; OR BUSINESS
INTERRUPTION ) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY , WHETHER IN
CONTRACT , STRICT LIABILITY , OR TORT ( INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE )
ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE , EVEN IF ADVISED OF
THE
152
POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE .
-------------------------------------------------------------------Component : scintilla
-------------------------------------------------------------------License for Scintilla and SciTE
Copyright 1998 -2003 by Neil Hodgson < [email protected] . org >
All Rights Reserved
Permission to use , copy , modify , and distribute this software and its
documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby granted ,
provided that the above copyright notice appear in all copies and that
both that copyright notice and this permission notice appear in
supporting documentation .
NEIL HODGSON DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS
SOFTWARE , INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY
AND FITNESS , IN NO EVENT SHALL NEIL HODGSON BE LIABLE FOR ANY
SPECIAL , INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES
WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE , DATA OR PROFITS ,
WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT , NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER
TORTIOUS ACTION , ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE
OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE .
-------------------------------------------------------------------Component : expat
-------------------------------------------------------------------Copyright ( c ) 1998 , 1999 , 2000 Thai Open Source Software Center Ltd
and Clark Cooper
Copyright ( c ) 2001 , 2002 , 2003 , 2004 , 2005 , 2006 Expat maintainers .
Permission is hereby granted , free of charge , to any person obtaining
a copy of this software and associated documentation files ( the
" Software " ) , to deal in the Software without restriction , including
without limitation the rights to use , copy , modify , merge , publish ,
distribute , sublicense , and / or sell copies of the Software , and to
permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so , subject to
the following conditions :
The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included
in all copies or substantial portions of the Software .
THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED " AS IS " , WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND ,
EXPRESS OR IMPLIED , INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY , FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT .
IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY
CLAIM , DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY , WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT ,
TORT OR OTHERWISE , ARISING FROM , OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE
SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE .
-------------------------------------------------------------------Component : libogg
-------------------------------------------------------------------Copyright ( c ) 2002 , Xiph . org Foundation
153
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms , with or without
modification , are permitted provided that the following conditions
are met :
- Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
notice , this list of conditions and the following disclaimer .
- Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
notice , this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
documentation and / or other materials provided with the distribution .
- Neither the name of the Xiph . org Foundation nor the names of its
contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from
this software without specific prior written permission .
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS
‘‘ AS IS ’ ’ AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES , INCLUDING , BUT NOT
LIMITED TO , THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR
A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED . IN NO EVENT SHALL THE FOUNDATION
OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT , INDIRECT , INCIDENTAL ,
SPECIAL , EXEMPLARY , OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ( INCLUDING , BUT NOT
LIMITED TO , PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES ; LOSS OF USE ,
DATA , OR PROFITS ; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION ) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY
THEORY OF LIABILITY , WHETHER IN CONTRACT , STRICT LIABILITY , OR TORT
( INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE ) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE
OF THIS SOFTWARE , EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE .
-------------------------------------------------------------------Component : libvorbis
-------------------------------------------------------------------Copyright ( c ) 2002 -2004 Xiph . org Foundation
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms , with or without
modification , are permitted provided that the following conditions
are met :
- Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
notice , this list of conditions and the following disclaimer .
- Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
notice , this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
documentation and / or other materials provided with the distribution .
- Neither the name of the Xiph . org Foundation nor the names of its
contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from
this software without specific prior written permission .
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS
‘‘ AS IS ’ ’ AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES , INCLUDING , BUT NOT
LIMITED TO , THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR
A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED . IN NO EVENT SHALL THE FOUNDATION
OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT , INDIRECT , INCIDENTAL ,
SPECIAL , EXEMPLARY , OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ( INCLUDING , BUT NOT
LIMITED TO , PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES ; LOSS OF USE ,
DATA , OR PROFITS ; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION ) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY
THEORY OF LIABILITY , WHETHER IN CONTRACT , STRICT LIABILITY , OR TORT
( INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE ) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE
154
OF THIS SOFTWARE , EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE .
-------------------------------------------------------------------Component : neuquant
-------------------------------------------------------------------NeuQuant Neural - Net Quantization Algorithm Interface
---------------------------------------------------Copyright ( c ) 1994 Anthony Dekker
NEUQUANT Neural - Net quantization algorithm by Anthony Dekker , 1994.
See " Kohonen neural networks for optimal colour quantization "
in " Network : Computation in Neural Systems " Vol . 5 (1994) pp 351 -367.
for a discussion of the algorithm .
See also http :// members . ozemail . com . au /~ dekker / NEUQUANT . HTML
Any party obtaining a copy of these files from the author , directly or
indirectly , is granted , free of charge , a full and unrestricted
irrevocable ,
world - wide , paid up , royalty - free , nonexclusive right and license to
deal
in this software and documentation files ( the " Software " ) , including
without
limitation the rights to use , copy , modify , merge , publish , distribute ,
sublicense ,
and / or sell copies of the Software , and to permit persons who receive
copies from any such party to do so , with the only requirement being
that this copyright notice remain intact .
Modified to quantize 32 bit RGBA images for the pngnq program .
Also modified to accept a numebr of colors arguement .
Copyright ( c ) Stuart Coyle 2004 -2006
Rewritten by Kornel L e s i Å s k i (2009)
Euclidean distance , color matching dependent on alpha channel
and with gamma correction . code refreshed for modern
compilers / architectures :
ANSI C , floats , removed pointer tricks and used arrays and structs .
155
Chapter 43
Licenses for the 3D engine integrated
with PureBasic
This program makes use of the following components :
-------------------------------------------------------------------Component : OGRE
-------------------------------------------------------------------OGRE ( www . ogre3d . org ) is made available under the MIT License .
Copyright ( c ) 2000 -2012 Torus Knot Software Ltd
Permission is hereby granted , free of charge , to any person obtaining a
copy
of this software and associated documentation files ( the " Software " ) ,
to deal
in the Software without restriction , including without limitation the
rights
to use , copy , modify , merge , publish , distribute , sublicense , and / or
sell
copies of the Software , and to permit persons to whom the Software is
furnished to do so , subject to the following conditions :
The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included
in
all copies or substantial portions of the Software .
THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED " AS IS " , WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND , EXPRESS
OR
IMPLIED , INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY ,
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT . IN NO EVENT SHALL
THE
AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM , DAMAGES OR OTHER
LIABILITY , WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT , TORT OR OTHERWISE , ARISING
FROM ,
OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS
IN
THE SOFTWARE .
-------------------------------------------------------------------Component : CEGUI
156
-------------------------------------------------------------------Copyright ( C ) 2004 - 2006 Paul D Turner & The CEGUI Development Team
Permission is hereby granted , free of charge , to any person obtaining
a copy of this software and associated documentation files ( the
" Software " ) , to deal in the Software without restriction , including
without limitation the rights to use , copy , modify , merge , publish ,
distribute , sublicense , and / or sell copies of the Software , and to
permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so , subject to
the following conditions :
The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be
included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software .
THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED " AS IS " , WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND ,
EXPRESS OR IMPLIED , INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY , FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT .
IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM , DAMAGES OR
OTHER LIABILITY , WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT , TORT OR OTHERWISE ,
ARISING FROM , OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR
OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE .
-------------------------------------------------------------------Component : bullet
-------------------------------------------------------------------Copyright ( c ) 2003 -2010 Erwin Coumans
http :// contin uousphys ics . com / Bullet /
This software is provided ’as - is ’ , without any express or implied
warranty .
In no event will the authors be held liable for any damages arising
from the use of this software .
Permission is granted to anyone to use this software for any purpose ,
including commercial applications , and to alter it and redistribute it
freely ,
subject to the following restrictions :
1. The origin of this software must not be misrepresented ; you must
not claim
that you wrote the original software . If you use this software in a
product , an
acknowledgment in the product documentation would be appreciated
but is not
required .
2. Altered source versions must be plainly marked as such , and
not be misrepresented as being the original software .
must
3. This notice may not be removed or altered from any source
distribution .
-------------------------------------------------------------------Component : FreeImage
-------------------------------------------------------------------FreeImage Public License - Version 1.0
157
1. Definitions .
1.1. " Contributor " means each entity that creates or contributes to the
creation
of Modifications .
1.2. " Contributor Version " means the combination
Code , prior
Modifications used by a Contributor , and the
by that
particular Contributor .
of the
Original
Modifications
made
1.3. " Covered Code " means the Original Code or Modifications or the
combination
of the Original Code and Modifications , in each case including portions
thereof .
1.4. " Electronic Distribution Mechanism " means a mechanism generally
accepted in
the software development community for the electronic transfer of data .
1.5. " Executable " means Covered Code in any form other than Source Code .
1.6. " Initial Developer " means the individual or entity
identified as the
Initial Developer in the Source Code notice required by Exhibit A .
1.7. " Larger Work " means a work which combines Covered Code or portions
thereof
with code not governed by the terms of this License .
1.8. " License " means this document .
1.9. " Modifications " means any addition to or deletion from the
substance or
structure of either the Original Code or any previous
Modifications . When
Covered Code is released as a series of files , a Modification is :
A . Any addition to or deletion from the contents of a file
Original
Code or previous Modifications .
B.
Any new file
previous
Modifications .
that
contains any
part
of the
Original
containing
Code or
1.10. " Original Code " means Source Code of computer software code
which is
described in the Source Code notice required by Exhibit A as Original
Code , and
which , at the time of its release under this License is not already
Covered Code
governed by this License .
1.11. " Source Code " means the preferred form of the Covered Code
for making
modifications to it , including all modules it contains , plus any
associated
158
interface definition files , scripts used to control compilation and
installation
of an Executable , or a list of source code differential
comparisons against
either the Original Code or another well known , available Covered
Code of the
Contributor ’s choice . The Source Code can be in a compressed or
archival form ,
provided the appropriate decompression or de - archiving software
is widely
available for no charge .
1.12. " You " means an individual or a legal entity exercising rights
under , and
complying with all of the terms of , this License or a future
version of this
License issued under Section 6.1. For legal entities , " You " includes
any entity
which controls , is controlled by , or is under common control with
You . For
purposes of this definition , " control " means ( a ) the power , direct or
indirect ,
to cause the direction or management of such entity , whether by
contract or
otherwise , or ( b ) ownership of fifty percent (50%) or more of the
outstanding
shares or beneficial ownership of such entity .
2. Source Code License .
2.1. The Initial Developer Grant . The Initial Developer hereby
grants You a
world - wide , royalty - free , non - exclusive
license , subject to
third party
intellectual property claims :
( a ) to use , reproduce , modify , display , perform , sublicense and
distribute the
Original Code ( or portions thereof ) with or without Modifications , or
as part of
a Larger Work ; and
( b ) under patents now or hereafter owned or controlled by Initial
Developer , to
make , have made , use and sell (" Utilize ") the Original Code ( or
portions
thereof ) , but solely to the extent that any such patent is reasonably
necessary
to enable You to Utilize the Original Code ( or portions thereof ) and
not to any
greater extent that may be necessary to Utilize further
Modifications or
combinations .
2.2. Contributor Grant . Each Contributor hereby grants You
world - wide ,
royalty - free , non - exclusive license , subject to third party
intellectual
property claims :
159
a
( a ) to use , reproduce , modify , display , perform , sublicense and
distribute the
Modifications created by such Contributor ( or portions thereof )
either on an
unmodified basis , with other Modifications , as Covered Code or as
part of a
Larger Work ; and
(b)
under patents now or hereafter owned or controlled by
Contributor , to
Utilize the Contributor Version ( or portions thereof ) , but solely to
the extent
that any such patent is reasonably necessary to enable You to
Utilize the
Contributor Version ( or portions thereof ) , and not to any greater
extent that
may be necessary to Utilize further Modifications or combinations .
3. Distribution Obligations .
3.1. Application of License . The Modifications which You create or to
which You
contribute are governed by the terms of this License ,
including without
limitation Section 2.2. The Source Code version of Covered
Code may be
distributed only under the terms of this License or a future version
of this
License released under Section 6.1 , and You must include a copy of this
License
with every copy of the Source Code You distribute . You may not offer
or impose
any terms on any Source Code version that alters or restricts the
applicable
version of this License or the recipients ’ rights hereunder .
However , You may
include an additional document offering the additional rights
described in
Section 3.5.
3.2. Availability of Source Code . Any Modification which You create or
to which
You contribute must be made available in Source Code form under the
terms of
this License either on the same media as an Executable version or
via an
accepted Electronic Distribution Mechanism to anyone to whom you
made an
Executable version available ; and if made available via Electronic
Distribution
Mechanism , must remain available for at least twelve (12) months after
the date
it initially became available , or at least six (6) months after a
subsequent
version of that particular Modification has been made available
to such
recipients . You are responsible for ensuring that the Source Code
version
160
remains available even if the Electronic Distribution Mechanism is
maintained by
a third party .
3.3. Description of Modifications . You must cause all Covered Code to
which you
contribute to contain a file documenting the changes You made to
create that
Covered Code and the date of any change . You must include a prominent
statement
that the Modification is derived , directly or indirectly , from
Original Code
provided by the Initial Developer and including the name of the
Initial
Developer in ( a ) the Source Code , and ( b ) in any notice in an
Executable version
or related documentation in which You describe the origin or
ownership of the
Covered Code .
3.4. Intellectual Property Matters
(a)
Third Party Claims . If You have knowledge that a party
claims an
intellectual property right in particular functionality or code
( or its
utilization under this License ) , you must include a text file with
the source
code distribution titled " LEGAL " which describes the claim and the
party making
the claim in sufficient detail that a recipient will know whom to
contact . If
you obtain such knowledge after You make Your Modification
available as
described in Section 3.2 , You shall promptly modify the LEGAL file in
all copies
You make available thereafter and shall take other steps ( such as
notifying
appropriate mailing lists or newsgroups ) reasonably calculated to
inform those
who received the Covered Code that new knowledge has been obtained .
(b)
Contributor APIs . If Your Modification is an application
programming
interface and You own or control patents which are reasonably
necessary to
implement that API , you must also include this information in the LEGAL
file .
3.5. Required Notices . You must duplicate the notice in Exhibit A in
each file
of the Source Code , and this License in any documentation for the
Source Code ,
where You describe recipients ’ rights relating to Covered Code . If
You created
one or more Modification ( s ) , You may add your name as a
Contributor to the
notice described in Exhibit A . If it is not possible to put such
notice in a
161
particular Source Code file due to its structure , then you must
include such
notice in a location ( such as a relevant directory file ) where a user
would be
likely to look for such a notice . You may choose to offer , and to
charge a fee
for , warranty , support , indemnity or liability obligations to one
or more
recipients of Covered Code . However , You may do so only on Your own
behalf , and
not on behalf of the Initial Developer or any Contributor . You
must make it
absolutely clear than any such warranty , support , indemnity or
liability
obligation is offered by You alone , and You hereby agree to
indemnify the
Initial Developer and every Contributor for any liability
incurred by the
Initial Developer or such Contributor as a result of warranty ,
support ,
indemnity or liability terms You offer .
3.6. Distribution of Executable Versions . You may distribute
Covered Code in
Executable form only if the requirements of Section 3.1 -3.5 have been
met for
that Covered Code , and if You include a notice stating that the
Source Code
version of the Covered Code is available under the terms of this
License ,
including a description of how and where You have fulfilled the
obligations of
Section 3.2. The notice must be conspicuously included in any
notice in an
Executable version , related documentation or collateral in which You
describe
recipients ’ rights relating to the Covered Code . You may
distribute the
Executable version of Covered Code under a license of Your choice ,
which may
contain terms different from this License , provided that You are in
compliance
with the terms of this License and that the license for the
Executable version
does not attempt to limit or alter the recipient ’s rights in the
Source Code
version from the rights set forth in this License . If You
distribute the
Executable version under a different license You must make it
absolutely clear
that any terms which differ from this License are offered by You
alone , not by
the Initial Developer or any Contributor . You hereby agree to
indemnify the
Initial Developer and every Contributor for any liability
incurred by the
Initial Developer or such Contributor as a result of any such terms You
offer .
162
3.7. Larger Works . You may create a Larger Work by combining Covered
Code with
other code not governed by the terms of this License and distribute
the Larger
Work as a single product . In such a case , You must make sure the
requirements of
this License are fulfilled for the Covered Code .
4. Inability to Comply Due to Statute or Regulation .
If it is impossible for You to comply with any of the terms of this
License with
respect to some or all of the Covered Code due to statute or regulation
then You
must : ( a ) comply with the terms of this License to the maximum extent
possible ;
and ( b ) describe the limitations and the code they affect . Such
description must
be included in the LEGAL file described in Section 3.4 and must be
included with
all distributions of the Source Code . Except to the extent prohibited
by statute
or regulation , such description must be sufficiently detailed for a
recipient of
ordinary skill to be able to understand it .
5. Application of this License .
This License applies to code to which the Initial
attached the
notice in Exhibit A , and to related Covered Code .
Developer has
6. Versions of the License .
6.1. New Versions . Floris van den Berg may publish revised and / or new
versions
of the License from time to time . Each version will be given a
distinguishing
version number .
6.2. Effect of New Versions . Once Covered Code has been published
under a
particular version of the License , You may always continue to use it
under the
terms of that version . You may also choose to use such Covered Code
under the
terms of any subsequent version of the License published by Floris van
den Berg
No one other than Floris van den Berg has the right to modify
the terms
applicable to Covered Code created under this License .
6.3. Derivative Works . If you create or use a modified version of
this License
( which you may only do in order to apply it to code which is not
already Covered
Code governed by this License ) , you must ( a ) rename Your license so
that the
phrases " FreeImage " , ‘ FreeImage Public License " , " FIPL " , or any
163
confusingly
similar phrase do not appear anywhere in your license and ( b ) otherwise
make it
clear that your version of the license contains terms which differ
from the
FreeImage Public License . ( Filling in the name of the Initial
Developer ,
Original Code or Contributor in the notice described in Exhibit A
shall not of
themselves be deemed to be modifications of this License .)
7. DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY .
COVERED CODE IS PROVIDED UNDER THIS LICENSE ON AN " AS IS "
BASIS , WITHOUT
WARRANTY OF ANY KIND ,
EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED ,
INCLUDING ,
WITHOUT
LIMITATION , WARRANTIES THAT THE COVERED CODE IS FREE OF DEFECTS ,
MERCHANTABLE ,
FIT FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR NON - INFRINGING . THE ENTIRE RISK AS
TO THE
QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE COVERED CODE IS WITH YOU . SHOULD ANY
COVERED CODE
PROVE DEFECTIVE IN ANY RESPECT , YOU ( NOT THE INITIAL DEVELOPER OR
ANY OTHER
CONTRIBUTOR ) ASSUME THE COST OF ANY NECESSARY SERVICING , REPAIR OR
CORRECTION .
THIS DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY CONSTITUTES AN ESSENTIAL PART OF THIS
LICENSE . NO
USE OF ANY COVERED CODE IS AUTHORIZED HEREUNDER EXCEPT UNDER THIS
DISCLAIMER .
8. TERMINATION .
This License and the rights granted hereunder will terminate
automatically if
You fail to comply with terms herein and fail to cure such breach
within 30 days
of becoming aware of the breach . All sublicenses to the Covered Code
which are
properly granted shall survive any termination of this License .
Provisions
which , by their nature , must remain in effect beyond the termination
of this
License shall survive .
9. LIMITATION OF LIABILITY .
UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES AND UNDER NO LEGAL THEORY , WHETHER TORT
( INCLUDING
NEGLIGENCE ) , CONTRACT , OR OTHERWISE , SHALL THE INITIAL DEVELOPER ,
ANY OTHER
CONTRIBUTOR , OR ANY DISTRIBUTOR OF COVERED CODE , OR ANY SUPPLIER OF ANY
OF SUCH
PARTIES , BE LIABLE TO YOU OR ANY OTHER PERSON FOR ANY INDIRECT ,
SPECIAL ,
INCIDENTAL , OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OF ANY CHARACTER INCLUDING ,
WITHOUT
LIMITATION , DAMAGES FOR LOSS OF GOODWILL , WORK STOPPAGE , COMPUTER
164
FAILURE OR
MALFUNCTION , OR ANY AND ALL OTHER COMMERCIAL DAMAGES OR LOSSES , EVEN
IF SUCH
PARTY SHALL HAVE BEEN INFORMED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH
DAMAGES . THIS
LIMITATION OF LIABILITY SHALL NOT APPLY TO LIABILITY FOR DEATH OR
PERSONAL
INJURY RESULTING FROM SUCH PARTY ’S NEGLIGENCE TO THE EXTENT
APPLICABLE LAW
PROHIBITS SUCH LIMITATION . SOME JURISDICTIONS DO NOT ALLOW THE
EXCLUSION OR
LIMITATION OF INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES , SO THAT
EXCLUSION AND
LIMITATION MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU .
10. U . S . GOVERNMENT END USERS .
The Covered Code is a " commercial item , " as that term is defined in
48 C . F . R .
2.101 ( Oct . 1995) , consisting of " commercial computer software " and
" commercial
computer software documentation , " as such terms are used in 48
C . F . R . 12.212
( Sept . 1995) . Consistent with 48 C . F . R . 12.212 and 48 C . F . R . 227.7202 -1
through
227.7202 -4 ( June 1995) , all U . S . Government End Users acquire Covered
Code with
only those rights set forth herein .
11. MISCELLANEOUS .
This License represents the complete agreement concerning subject
matter hereof .
If any provision of this License is held to be unenforceable , such
provision
shall be reformed only to the extent necessary to make it
enforceable . This
License shall be governed by Dutch law provisions ( except to
the extent
applicable law , if any , provides otherwise ) , excluding its
conflict - of - law
provisions . With respect to disputes in which at least one party is
a citizen
of , or an entity chartered or registered to do business in , the The
Netherlands :
( a ) unless otherwise agreed in writing , all disputes relating to
this License
( excepting any dispute relating to intellectual property rights )
shall be
subject to final and binding arbitration , with the losing party paying
all costs
of arbitration ; ( b ) any arbitration relating to this Agreement shall be
held in
Almelo , The Netherlands ; and ( c ) any litigation relating to this
Agreement shall
be subject to the jurisdiction of the court of Almelo , The Netherlands
with the
losing party responsible for costs , including without limitation ,
court costs
165
and reasonable attorneys fees and expenses . Any law or regulation which
provides
that the language of a contract shall be construed against the drafter
shall not
apply to this License .
12. RESPONSIBILITY FOR CLAIMS .
Except in cases where another Contributor has failed to comply with
Section 3.4 ,
You are responsible for damages arising , directly or indirectly ,
out of Your
utilization of rights under this License , based on the number of
copies of
Covered Code you made available , the revenues you received from
utilizing such
rights , and other relevant factors . You agree to work with affected
parties to
distribute responsibility on an equitable basis .
EXHIBIT A .
" The contents of this file are subject to the FreeImage Public License
Version
1.0 ( the " License " ) ; you may not use this file except in compliance
with the
License .
You
may
obtain
a
copy
of
the
License
at
http :// home . wxs . nl /~ flvdberg / freeimage - license . txt
Software distributed under the License is distributed on an " AS
IS " basis ,
WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND , either express or implied . See the
License for the
specific language governing rights and limitations under the License .
-------------------------------------------------------------------Component : FreeType
-------------------------------------------------------------------The FreeType Project LICENSE
---------------------------2006 - Jan -27
Copyright 1996 -2002 , 2006 by
David Turner , Robert Wilhelm , and Werner Lemberg
Introduction
============
The FreeType Project is distributed in several archive packages ;
some of them may contain , in addition to the FreeType font engine ,
various tools and contributions which rely on , or relate to , the
FreeType Project .
This
license applies
to all
files found
166
in such
packages , and
which do not fall under their own explicit license . The license
affects thus the FreeType
font engine , the test programs ,
documentation and makefiles , at the very least .
This license
was inspired by the BSD ,
Artistic , and IJG
( Independent JPEG Group ) licenses , which all encourage inclusion
and use of free software in commercial and freeware products
alike . As a consequence , its main points are that :
o We don ’ t promise that this software works . However , we will be
interested in any kind of bug reports . ( ‘ as is ’ distribution )
o You can use this software for whatever you want , in parts or
full form , without having to pay us . ( ‘ royalty - free ’ usage )
o You may not pretend that you wrote this software . If you use
it , or only parts of it , in a program , you must acknowledge
somewhere in your documentation that you have used the
FreeType code . ( ‘ credits ’)
We specifically permit and encourage the inclusion of this
software , with or without modifications , in commercial products .
We disclaim all warranties covering The FreeType Project and
assume no liability related to The FreeType Project .
Finally , many people asked us for a preferred form for a
credit / disclaimer to use in compliance with this license . We thus
encourage you to use the following text :
"""
c < year > The FreeType
Portions of this software are copyright Project ( www . freetype . org ) . All rights reserved .
"""
Please replace < year > with the value from the FreeType version you
actually use .
Legal Terms
===========
0. Definitions
-------------Throughout this license , the terms ‘ package ’ , ‘ FreeType Project ’ ,
and ‘ FreeType archive ’ refer to the set of files originally
distributed by the authors ( David Turner , Robert Wilhelm , and
Werner Lemberg ) as the ‘ FreeType Project ’ , be they named as alpha ,
beta or final release .
‘You ’ refers to the licensee , or person using the project , where
‘ using ’ is a generic term including compiling the project ’ s source
code as well as linking it to form a ‘ program ’ or ‘ executable ’.
This program is referred to as ‘a program using the FreeType
engine ’.
This license applies to all files distributed in the original
FreeType Project ,
including all source
code , binaries and
167
documentation , unless otherwise stated
in the file in its
original , unmodified form as distributed in the original archive .
If you are unsure whether or not a particular file is covered by
this license , you must contact us to verify this .
The FreeType Project is copyright ( C ) 1996 -2000 by David Turner ,
Robert Wilhelm , and Werner Lemberg . All rights reserved except as
specified below .
1. No Warranty
-------------THE FREETYPE PROJECT IS PROVIDED ‘ AS IS ’ WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY
KIND , EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED , INCLUDING , BUT NOT LIMITED TO ,
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY
AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
PURPOSE . IN NO EVENT WILL ANY OF THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS
BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES CAUSED BY THE USE OR THE INABILITY TO
USE , OF THE FREETYPE PROJECT .
2. Redistribution
----------------This license grants a worldwide , royalty - free , perpetual and
irrevocable right and license to use , execute , perform , compile ,
display , copy ,
create derivative works
of , distribute and
sublicense the FreeType Project ( in both source and object code
forms ) and derivative works thereof for any purpose ; and to
authorize others to exercise some or all of the rights granted
herein , subject to the following conditions :
o Redistribution of source code must retain this license file
( ‘ FTL . TXT ’) unaltered ; any additions , deletions or changes to
the original files must be clearly indicated in accompanying
documentation .
The copyright
notices of the unaltered ,
original files must be preserved in all copies of source
files .
o Redistribution in binary form must provide a disclaimer that
states that the software is based in part of the work of the
FreeType Team , in the distribution documentation . We also
encourage you to put an URL to the FreeType web page in your
documentation , though this isn ’ t mandatory .
These conditions apply to any software derived from or based on
the FreeType Project , not just the unmodified files .
If you use
our work , you must acknowledge us . However , no fee need be paid
to us .
3. Advertising
-------------Neither the FreeType authors and contributors nor you shall use
the name of the other for commercial , advertising , or promotional
purposes without specific prior written permission .
We suggest , but do not require , that you use one or more of the
following phrases to refer to this software in your documentation
or advertising materials : ‘ FreeType Project ’ , ‘ FreeType Engine ’ ,
‘ FreeType library ’ , or ‘ FreeType Distribution ’.
168
As you have not signed this license , you are not required to
accept it .
However , as the FreeType Project is copyrighted
material , only this license , or another one contracted with the
authors , grants you the right to use , distribute , and modify it .
Therefore , by using , distributing , or modifying the FreeType
Project , you indicate that you understand and accept all the terms
of this license .
4. Contacts
----------There are two mailing lists related to FreeType :
o [email protected] . org
Discusses general use and applications of FreeType , as well as
future and wanted additions to the library and distribution .
If you are looking for support , start in this list if you
haven ’ t found anything to help you in the documentation .
o freetype - [email protected] . org
Discusses bugs , as well as engine internals ,
specific licenses , porting , etc .
design issues ,
Our home page can be found at
http :// www . freetype . org
-------------------------------------------------------------------Component : libogg
-------------------------------------------------------------------Copyright ( c ) 2002 , Xiph . org Foundation
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms , with or without
modification , are permitted provided that the following conditions
are met :
- Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
notice , this list of conditions and the following disclaimer .
- Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
notice , this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
documentation and / or other materials provided with the distribution .
- Neither the name of the Xiph . org Foundation nor the names of its
contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from
this software without specific prior written permission .
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS
‘‘ AS IS ’ ’ AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES , INCLUDING , BUT NOT
LIMITED TO , THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR
A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED . IN NO EVENT SHALL THE FOUNDATION
OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT , INDIRECT , INCIDENTAL ,
SPECIAL , EXEMPLARY , OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ( INCLUDING , BUT NOT
LIMITED TO , PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES ; LOSS OF USE ,
DATA , OR PROFITS ; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION ) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY
169
THEORY OF LIABILITY , WHETHER IN CONTRACT , STRICT LIABILITY , OR TORT
( INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE ) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE
OF THIS SOFTWARE , EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE .
-------------------------------------------------------------------Component : libvorbis
-------------------------------------------------------------------Copyright ( c ) 2002 -2004 Xiph . org Foundation
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms , with or without
modification , are permitted provided that the following conditions
are met :
- Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
notice , this list of conditions and the following disclaimer .
- Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
notice , this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
documentation and / or other materials provided with the distribution .
- Neither the name of the Xiph . org Foundation nor the names of its
contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from
this software without specific prior written permission .
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS
‘‘ AS IS ’ ’ AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES , INCLUDING , BUT NOT
LIMITED TO , THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR
A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED . IN NO EVENT SHALL THE FOUNDATION
OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT , INDIRECT , INCIDENTAL ,
SPECIAL , EXEMPLARY , OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ( INCLUDING , BUT NOT
LIMITED TO , PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES ; LOSS OF USE ,
DATA , OR PROFITS ; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION ) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY
THEORY OF LIABILITY , WHETHER IN CONTRACT , STRICT LIABILITY , OR TORT
( INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE ) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE
OF THIS SOFTWARE , EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE .
-------------------------------------------------------------------Component : zlib
-------------------------------------------------------------------Copyright ( C ) 1995 -2012 Jean - loup Gailly and Mark Adler
This software is provided ’as - is ’ , without any express or implied
warranty . In no event will the authors be held liable for any damages
arising from the use of this software .
Permission is granted to anyone to use this software for any purpose ,
including commercial applications , and to alter it and redistribute it
freely , subject to the following restrictions :
1. The origin of this software must not be misrepresented ; you must not
claim that you wrote the original software . If you use this software
in a product , an acknowledgment in the product documentation would be
appreciated but is not required .
2. Altered source versions must be plainly marked as such , and must not
be
misrepresented as being the original software .
3. This notice may not be removed or altered from any source
170
distribution .
Jean - loup Gailly
[email protected] . org
Mark Adler
[email protected] . caltech . edu
-------------------------------------------------------------------Component : pcre
-------------------------------------------------------------------Redistribution and use in source and binary forms , with or without
modification , are permitted provided that the following conditions are
met :
* Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
notice ,
this list of conditions and the following disclaimer .
* Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
notice , this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in
the
documentation and / or other materials provided with the
distribution .
* Neither the name of the University of Cambridge nor the name of
Google
Inc . nor the names of their contributors may be used to endorse or
promote products derived from this software without specific prior
written permission .
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS " AS
IS "
AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES , INCLUDING , BUT NOT LIMITED TO ,
THE
IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
PURPOSE
ARE DISCLAIMED . IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE
LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT , INDIRECT , INCIDENTAL , SPECIAL , EXEMPLARY , OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ( INCLUDING , BUT NOT LIMITED TO , PROCUREMENT OF
SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES ; LOSS OF USE , DATA , OR PROFITS ; OR BUSINESS
INTERRUPTION ) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY , WHETHER IN
CONTRACT , STRICT LIABILITY , OR TORT ( INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE )
ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE , EVEN IF ADVISED OF
THE
POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE .
-------------------------------------------------------------------Component : MeshMagick
-------------------------------------------------------------------Copyright ( c ) 2010 Daniel Wickert , Henrik Hinrichs , Sascha Kolewa ,
Steve Streeting
Permission is hereby granted , free of charge , to any person obtaining a
copy
of this software and associated documentation files ( the " Software " ) ,
to deal
in the Software without restriction , including without limitation the
rights
to use , copy , modify , merge , publish , distribute , sublicense , and / or
171
sell
copies of the Software , and to permit persons to whom the Software is
furnished to do so , subject to the following conditions :
The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included
in
all copies or substantial portions of the Software .
THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED " AS IS " , WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND , EXPRESS
OR
IMPLIED , INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY ,
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT . IN NO EVENT SHALL
THE
AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM , DAMAGES OR OTHER
LIABILITY , WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT , TORT OR OTHERWISE , ARISING
FROM ,
OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS
IN
THE SOFTWARE .
-------------------------------------------------------------------Component : OgreBullet
-------------------------------------------------------------------Copyright 2007 Paul " Tuan Kuranes " Cheyrou - Lagrèze .
This file is part of OgreBullet an integration layer between the OGRE 3 D
graphics engine and the Bullet physic library .
Permission is hereby granted , free of charge , to any person obtaining a
copy
of this software and associated documentation files ( the " Software " ) ,
to deal
in the Software without restriction , including without limitation the
rights
to use , copy , modify , merge , publish , distribute , sublicense , and / or
sell
copies of the Software , and to permit persons to whom the Software is
furnished to do so , subject to the following conditions :
The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included
in
all copies or substantial portions of the Software .
THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED " AS IS " , WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND , EXPRESS
OR
IMPLIED , INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY ,
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT . IN NO EVENT SHALL
THE
AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM , DAMAGES OR OTHER
LIABILITY , WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT , TORT OR OTHERWISE , ARISING
FROM ,
OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS
IN
THE SOFTWARE .
-------------------------------------------------------------------Component : OgreProcedural
--------------------------------------------------------------------
172
This source file is part of ogre - procedural
For the latest info , see http :// code . google . com / p / ogre - procedural /
Copyright ( c ) 2010 Michael Broutin
Permission is hereby granted , free of charge , to any person obtaining a
copy
of this software and associated documentation files ( the " Software " ) ,
to deal
in the Software without restriction , including without limitation the
rights
to use , copy , modify , merge , publish , distribute , sublicense , and / or
sell
copies of the Software , and to permit persons to whom the Software is
furnished to do so , subject to the following conditions :
The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included
in
all copies or substantial portions of the Software .
THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED " AS IS " , WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND , EXPRESS
OR
IMPLIED , INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY ,
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT . IN NO EVENT SHALL
THE
AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM , DAMAGES OR OTHER
LIABILITY , WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT , TORT OR OTHERWISE , ARISING
FROM ,
OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS
IN
THE SOFTWARE .
-------------------------------------------------------------------Components :
- OpenAL
- OgreAL
- zziplib
- Hydrax
-------------------------------------------------------------------GNU LIBRARY GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
Version 2 , June 1991
Copyright ( C ) 1991 Free Software Foundation , Inc .
675 Mass Ave , Cambridge , MA 02139 , USA
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
of this license document , but changing it is not allowed .
[ This is the first released version of the library GPL . It is
numbered 2 because it goes with version 2 of the ordinary GPL .]
Preamble
The licenses for most software are designed to take away your
freedom to share and change it . By contrast , the GNU General Public
Licenses are intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change
free software - - to make sure the software is free for all its users .
173
This license , the Library General Public License , applies to some
specially designated Free Software Foundation software , and to any
other libraries whose authors decide to use it . You can use it for
your libraries , too .
When we speak of free software , we are referring to freedom , not
price . Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you
have the freedom to distribute copies of free software ( and charge for
this service if you wish ) , that you receive source code or can get it
if you want it , that you can change the software or use pieces of it
in new free programs ; and that you know you can do these things .
To protect your rights , we need to make restrictions that forbid
anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights .
These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if
you distribute copies of the library , or if you modify it .
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175
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END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
Appendix : How to Apply These Terms to Your New Libraries
If you develop a new library , and you want it to be of the greatest
possible use to the public , we recommend making it free software that
everyone can redistribute and change . You can do so by permitting
redistribution under these terms ( or , alternatively , under the terms of
the
ordinary General Public License ) .
To apply these terms , attach the following notices to the library .
It is
safest to attach them to the start of each source file to most
effectively
convey the exclusion of warranty ; and each file should have at least the
" copyright " line and a pointer to where the full notice is found .
< one line to give the library ’ s name and a brief idea of what it
does . >
Copyright ( C ) < year > < name of author >
This library is free software ; you can redistribute it and / or
modify it under the terms of the GNU Library General Public
License as published by the Free Software Foundation ; either
version 2 of the License , or ( at your option ) any later version .
This library is
but WITHOUT ANY
MERCHANTABILITY
Library General
distributed in the hope that it will be useful ,
WARRANTY ; without even the implied warranty of
or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE . See the GNU
Public License for more details .
You should have received a copy of the GNU Library General Public
License along with this library ; if not , write to the Free
Software Foundation , Inc . , 675 Mass Ave , Cambridge , MA 02139 , USA .
Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail .
You should also get your employer ( if you work as a programmer ) or your
school , if any , to sign a " copyright disclaimer " for the library , if
181
necessary .
Here is a sample ; alter the names :
Yoyodyne , Inc . , hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the
library ‘ Frob ’ ( a library for tweaking knobs ) written by James Random
Hacker .
< signature of Ty Coon > , 1 April 1990
Ty Coon , President of Vice
That ’ s all there is to it !
182
Chapter 44
Macros
Syntax
Macro < name > [( Parameter [ , ...]) ]
...
EndMacro
Description
Macros are a very powerful feature, mainly useful for advanced programmers. A macro is a placeholder
for some code (one keyword, one line or even many lines), which will be directly inserted in the source
code at the place where a macro is used. In this, it differs from procedures , as the procedures doesn’t
duplicate the code when they are called.
The Macro : EndMacro declaration must be done before the macro will be called for the first time.
Because macros will be completely replaced by their related code at compile time, they are not local to a
procedure.
A macro can not have a return type nor typed parameters. When a macro has some parameters, they
are replaced in the macro code by the literal expression which is passed to the called macro. No
evaluation is done as this stage, which is very important to understand: the evaluation of a line is
started once all the macros found on this line are expanded.
The macros are divided into two categories: simple (without parameters) and complex (with parameters,
needs the parentheses when calling it). When using no parameters, it’s possible to replace any word with
another word (or any expression). The macros can be used recursively, but if the parameter passed
contain the concatenation character ’#’, it won’t be expanded.
Example: Simple macro
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Macro MyNot
Not
EndMacro
a = 0
If MyNot a
; Here the line will be expanded to : ’ If Not a ’
Debug " Ok "
EndIf
When using parameters, it’s possible to do very flexible macros. The special concatenation character ’#’
can be used to create new labels or keyword by mixing the macro code and the parameter expression
183
(spaces are not accepted between each words by the concatenation character). It’s also possible to define
default values for parameters, so they can be omitted when calling the macro.
Example: Macro with parameter
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Macro UMsgBox ( Title , Body )
MessageRequester ( Title , UCase ( Body ) , 0)
EndMacro
Text$ = " World "
UMsgBox ( " Hello " , " -" + Text$ + " -" ) ; Here the line will be expanded like
that :
; ’ MessageRequester (" Hello " ,
UCase (" -"+ Text$ +" -") , 0) ’
Example: Macro with default parameter
1
2
3
4
5
6
Macro UMsgBox ( Title , Body = " Ha , no body specified " )
MessageRequester ( Title , UCase ( Body ) , 0)
EndMacro
UMsgBox ( " Hello " ) ; Here the line will be expanded like that :
; ’ MessageRequester (" Hello " , UCase (" Ha , no body
specified ") , 0) ’
Example: Macro parameter concatenation
1
2
3
4
5
6
Macro XCase ( Type , Text )
Type#Case ( Text )
EndMacro
Debug XCase (U , " Hello " )
Debug XCase (L , " Hello " )
Example: Advanced multi-line macro
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
Macro DoubleQuote
"
EndMacro
Macro Assert ( Expression )
CompilerIf # P B _ C o m p i l e r _ D eb u g g e r ; Only enable assert in debug mode
If Expression
Debug " Assert ( Line " + #PB_ Compiler _Line + " ) : " +
DoubleQuote#Expression#DoubleQuote
EndIf
CompilerEndIf
EndMacro
Assert (10 <> 10) ; Will display nothing
Assert (10 <> 15) ; Should display the assert
184
Syntax
UndefineMacro < name >
Description
UndefineMacro allows to undefine a previously defined macro, and redefine it in a different manner.
Once the macro has been undefined, it is no more available for use.
Example: Undefine macro
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
Macro Test
Debug " 1 "
EndMacro
Test ; Call the macro
UndefineMacro Test ; Undefine the macro , it no more exists
Macro Test ; Now we can redefine the macro
Debug " 2 "
EndMacro
Test ; Call the macro
Syntax
Ma cr oE xpa nd ed Cou nt
Description
MacroExpandedCount allows to get the expanded count (number of time the macro has been
expanded/called). It can be useful to generate unique identifiers in the same macro for every expansion
(like label, procedure name etc.).
Example: Expanded count
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Macro Test
Debug Mac ro Ex pan de dC oun t
EndMacro
Test ; Call the macro
Test ; Call the macro
Test ; Call the macro
185
Chapter 45
Pointers and memory access
Pointers
Using pointers is possible by placing one ’*’ (asterix) in front of the name of a variable , array , list or
map . A pointer is a placeholder for a memory address which is usually associated to a structure .
Example
1
2
* MyScreen . Screen = OpenScreen (0 , 320 , 200 , 8 , 0)
mouseX = * MyScreen \ MouseX ; Assuming the Screen structure contains a
MouseX field
There are only three valid methods to set the value of a pointer:
- Get the result from a function (as shown in the above example)
- Copy the value from another pointer
- Find the address of a variable, procedure or label (as shown below)
Note: unlike C/C++, in PureBasic the ’*’ is always part of the item name. Therefore ’*ptr’ and ’ptr’
are two different variables. ’ptr’ is a variable (regular one) storing a value, ’*ptr’ is another variable of
pointer type storing an address.
Pointers and memory size
Because pointers receive only addresses as values, the memory size of a pointer is the space allowing to
store an absolute address of the processor:
- On 32-bit processors the address space is limited to 32-bit, so a pointer takes 32-bit (4 bytes, like a
’long’) in memory
- On 64-bit processors it takes 64-bit (8 bytes, like a ’quad’) in memory, because the absolute address is
on a 64-bit range.
As a consequence the type of a pointer depends of the CPU address mode, (long’ on 32-bit CPU and
quad’ on 64-bit one for example), so a pointer is a variable of type pointer.
It results from this that assigning a native type to a pointer (*Pointer.l, *Pointer.b ...) makes no sense.
Note:
- Every time a memory address needs to be stored in a variable, it should be done through a pointer.
This guaranteed address integrity at the compilation time whatever the CPU address mode is.
- PureBasic x86 does not generate 64-bit executables. For PureBasic programs compiled with this, the
system grants them only an addressing with 32-bit pointers.
Pointers and structures
186
By assigning a structure to a pointer (for example *MyPointer.Point) it allows to access any memory
address in a structured way (with the operator \’).
Example: Pointers and variables
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Define Point1 . Point , Point2 . Point
* CurrentPoint . Point = @Point1 ; Pointer declaration , associated to a
structure and initialized with Point1 ’ s address
* CurrentPoint \ x = 10
; Assign value 10 to Point1 \ x
* CurrentPoint . Point = @Point2 ; move to Point2 ’ s address
* CurrentPoint \ x = 20
; Assign value 20 to Point2 \ x
Debug Point1 \ x
Debug Point2 \ x
Example: Pointers and array
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Define Point1 . Point ,
Dim * Points . Point (1)
* Points (0) = @Point1
array slot
* Points (1) = @Point2
Point2 . Point
; 2 slots array
; Assign the first point variable to the first
; Same for second
* Points (0) \ x = 10 ; Modify the variables trough the pointers
* Points (1) \ x = 20 ;
Debug Point1 \ x
Debug Point2 \ x
Pointers allow to move, to read and to write easily in memory. Furthermore they allow programmers to
reach big quantities of data without supplementary cost further to data duplication. Copying a pointer
is much faster.
Pointers are also available in structures, for more information see the structures chapter .
Pointers and character strings
All variables have a permanent size in memory (2 bytes for Word, 4 bytes for a Long, etc.) except for
strings variables with lengths that can change. So string variables are managed by a different way of
other variables.
Thus a structure field, that makes reference to a string, store only the memory address of the string
instead of the string itself: a such structure field is a pointer towards a string.
Example
1
2
3
4
Text$ = " Hello "
* Text = @Text$
memory
* Pointer . String = @ * Text
Debug * Pointer \ s
stored in * Pointer ( i . e .
; * Text store the address of the string in
; * Pointer points on * Text
; Display the string living at the address
@Text$ )
Pointers Arithmetic
Arithmetic operations on the pointers are possible and practical by using SizeOf() .
187
Example
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
Dim Array . Point (1)
; Array of points
* Pointer . Point = @Array ()
* Pointer \ x = 10
* Pointer \ y = 15
; Store the array address
; Change the first array element values
* Pointer + SizeOf ( Point )
; Move to the next array element
* Pointer \ x = 7
* Pointer \ y = 9
; Change the second array element values
; Display results
For i = 0 To 1
Debug Array ( i ) \ x
Debug Array ( i ) \ y
Next i
Addresses of variables
To find the address of a variable in your code, you use the at symbol (@). A common reason for using
this is when you want to pass a structured type variable to a procedure . You must pass a pointer to this
variable as you cannot pass structured variables directly.
Example
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7
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Structure astruct
a.w
b.l
c.w
EndStructure
Procedure SetB (* myptr . astruct )
* myptr \ b = 69
EndProcedure
Define . astruct myvar
SetB ( @myvar )
Debug myvar \ b
Addresses of procedures
For advanced programmers. The most common reason to get the address of a procedure is when dealing
with the OS at a low-level. Some OSes allow you to specify callback or hook functions (for some
operations) which get called by the OS and allows the programmer to extend the ability of the OS
routine. The address of a procedure is found in a similar way to variables .
Example
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4
5
6
Procedure WindowCB ( WindowID .i , Message .l , wParam .l , lParam . l )
; This is where the processing of your callback procedure would be
performed
EndProcedure
; A special callback for the Windows OS allowing you to process
window events
SetWi ndowCall back ( @WindowCB () )
Addresses of labels
It can also be useful to find the address of labels in your code. This can be because you want to access
the code or data stored at that label, or any other good reason you can think of. To find the address of a
label, you put a question mark (?) in front of the label name.
Example
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Debug " Size of data file = " + Str (? endofmydata - ? mydata )
DataSection
mydata :
IncludeBinary " somefile . bin "
endofmydata :
EndDataSection
189
Chapter 46
Module
Syntax
DeclareModule < name >
...
EndDeclareModule
Module < name >
...
EndModule
UseModule < name >
UnuseModule < name >
Description
Modules are an easy way to isolate code part from the main code, allowing code reuse and sharing
without risk of name conflict. In some other programming languages, modules are known as
’namespaces’. A module must have a DeclareModule section (which is the public interface) and an
associated Module section (which is the implementation). Only items declared in the DeclareModule
section will be accessible from outside the module. All the code put in the Module section will be kept
private to this module. Items from main code like procedures, variables etc. won’t be accessible inside
the module, even if they are global . A module can be seen as a blackbox, an empty code sheet where
item names can not conflict with the main code. It makes it easier to write specific code, as simple
names can be reused within each module without risk of conflict.
Items allowed in the DeclareModule section can be the following: procedure (only procedure declaration
allowed), structure, macro, variable, constant, enumeration, array, list, map and label.
To access a module item from outside the module, the module name has to be specified followed by the
’::’ separator. When explicitly specifying the module name, the module item is available everywhere in
the code source, even in another module. All items in the DeclareModule section can be automatically
imported into another module or in the main code using UseModule. In this case, if a module name
conflict, the module items won’t be imported and a compiler error will be raised. UnuseModule remove
the module items. UseModule is not mandatory to access a module item, but the module name needs to
be specified.
To share information between modules, a common module can be created and then used in every
modules which needs it. It’s the common way have global data available for all modules.
Default items available in modules are all PureBasic commands, structure and constants. Therefore
module items can not be named like internal PureBasic commands, structure or constants.
190
All code put inside DeclareModule and Module sections is executed like any other code when the
program flow reaches the module.
When the statements Define, EnableExplicit, EnableASM are used inside a module, they have no effect
outside the respective module, and vice versa.
Note: modules are not mandatory in PureBasic but are recommended when building big projects. They
help to build more maintainable code, even if it is slightly more verbose than module-free code. Having a
DeclareModule section make the module pretty much self-documented for use when reusing and sharing
it.
Example
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9
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35
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40
41
42
; Every items in this sections will be available from outside
;
DeclareModule Ferrari
#FerrariName$ = " 458 Italia "
Declare CreateFerrari ()
EndDeclareModule
; Every items in this sections will be private . Every names can be
used without conflict
;
Module Ferrari
Global Initialized = #False
Procedure Init () ; Private init procedure
If Initialized = #False
Initialized = #True
Debug " InitFerrari () "
EndIf
EndProcedure
Procedure CreateFerrari ()
Init ()
Debug " CreateFerrari () "
EndProcedure
EndModule
Procedure Init () ; Main init procedure , doesn ’ t conflict with the
Ferrari Init () procedure
Debug " Main init () "
EndProcedure
Init ()
Ferrari :: CreateFerrari ()
Debug Ferrari :: #FerrariName$
Debug " - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - "
UseModule Ferrari ; Now import all public item directly in the main
program scope
191
43
44
45
CreateFerrari ()
Debug #FerrariName$
Example: With a common module
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33
; The common module , which will be used by others to share data
;
DeclareModule Cars
Global NbCars = 0
EndDeclareModule
Module Cars
EndModule
; First car module
;
DeclareModule Ferrari
EndDeclareModule
Module Ferrari
UseModule Cars
NbCars +1
EndModule
; Second car module
;
DeclareModule Porche
EndDeclareModule
Module Porche
UseModule Cars
NbCars +1
EndModule
Debug Cars :: NbCars
192
Chapter 47
NewList
Syntax
NewList name . < type >()
Description
NewList allows to declare a new dynamic list. Each element of the list is allocated dynamically. There
are no element limits, so there can be as many as needed. A list can have any Variables standard or
structured type. To view all commands used to manage lists, see the List library.
The new list are always locals, which means Global or Shared commands have to be used if a list
declared in the main source need to be used in procedures. It is also possible to pass a list as parameter
to a procedure by using the keyword List.
For fast swapping of list contents the Swap keyword is available.
Example: Simple list
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
NewList MyList ()
AddElement ( MyList () )
MyList () = 10
AddElement ( MyList () )
MyList () = 20
AddElement ( MyList () )
MyList () = 30
ForEach MyList ()
Debug MyList ()
Next
Example: List as procedure parameter
1
2
3
NewList Test ()
AddElement ( Test () )
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7
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9
10
11
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14
15
16
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18
19
Test () = 1
AddElement ( Test () )
Test () = 2
Procedure DebugList (c , List ParameterList () )
AddElement ( ParameterList () )
ParameterList () = 3
ForEach ParameterList ()
MessageRequester ( " List " , Str ( ParameterList () ) )
Next
EndProcedure
DebugList (10 , Test () )
194
Chapter 48
NewMap
Syntax
NewMap name . < type >([ Slots ])
Description
NewMap allows to declare a new map, also known as hashtable or dictionary. It allows to quickly
reference an element based on a key. Each key in the map are unique, which means it can’t have two
distinct elements with the same key. There are no element limits, so there can be as many as needed. A
map can have any standard or structured type. To view all commands used to manage maps, see the
Map library.
When using a new key for an assignment, a new element is automatically added to the map. If another
element with the same key is already in the map, it will be replaced by the new one. Once an element as
been accessed or created, it becomes the current element of the map, and further access to this element
can be done without specify the key. This is useful when using structured map, as no more element
lookup is needed to access different structure field.
New maps are always locals by default, so Global or Shared commands have to be used if a map declared
in the main source need to be used in procedures. It is also possible to pass a map as parameter to a
procedure by using the keyword Map.
For fast swapping of map elements the Swap keyword is available.
The optional ’Slots’ parameter defines how much slots the map will have have to store its elements. The
more slots is has, the faster it will be to access an element, but the more memory it will use. It’s a
tradeoff depending of how many elements the map will ultimately contains and how fast the random
access should be. The default value is 512. This parameter has no impact about the number of elements
a map can contain.
Example: Simple map
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
NewMap Country . s ()
Country ( " GE " ) = " Germany "
Country ( " FR " ) = " France "
Country ( " UK " ) = " United Kingdom "
Debug Country ( " FR " )
195
9
10
11
ForEach Country ()
Debug Country ()
Next
Example: Map as procedure parameter
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3
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12
13
14
15
16
17
NewMap Country . s ()
Country ( " GE " ) = " Germany "
Country ( " FR " ) = " France "
Country ( " UK " ) = " United Kingdom "
Procedure DebugMap ( Map ParameterMap . s () )
ParameterMap ( " US " ) = " United States "
ForEach ParameterMap ()
Debug ParameterMap ()
Next
EndProcedure
DebugMap ( Country () )
Example: Structured map
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3
4
5
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7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
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20
21
22
Structure Car
Weight . l
Speed . l
Price . l
EndStructure
NewMap Cars . Car ()
; Here we use the current element after the new insertion
;
Cars ( " Ferrari F40 " ) \ Weight = 1000
Cars () \ Speed = 320
Cars () \ Price = 500000
Cars ( " Lamborghini Gallardo " ) \ Weight = 1200
Cars () \ Speed = 340
Cars () \ Price = 700000
ForEach Cars ()
Debug " Car name : " + MapKey ( Cars () )
Debug " Weight : " + Str ( Cars () \ Weight )
Next
196
Chapter 49
Others Commands
Syntax
Goto < label >
Description
This command is used to transfer the program directly to the labels position. Be cautious when using
this function, as incorrect use could cause a program to crash...
Note: To exit a loop safely, you always should use Break instead of Goto.
Syntax
End [ ExitCode ]
Description
Ends the program execution correctly. The ’ExitCode’ optional parameter can be specified if the
program need to returns an error code (widely used in console programs).
The ’ExitCode’ can be further used e.g. with the ProgramExitCode() command.
Syntax
Swap < expression > , < expression >
Description
Swaps the value of the both expression, in an optimized way. The both <expression> have to be a
variable , array , list or a map element (structured or not) and have to be one of the PureBasic native
type like long (.l), quad (.q), string etc.
Example: Swapping of strings
197
1
2
3
4
5
6
Hello$ = " Hello "
World$ = " World "
Swap Hello$ , World$
Debug Hello$ + " " + World$
Example: Swapping of multi-dimensional arrays elements
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
Dim Array1 (5 ,5)
Dim Array2 (5 ,5)
Array1 (2 ,2) = 10
Array2 (3 ,3) = 20
; set initial contents
Debug Array1 (2 ,2) ; will print 10
Debug Array2 (3 ,3) ; will print 20
Swap Array1 (2 ,2) , Array2 (3 ,3)
; swap 2 arrays elements
Debug " Array contents after swapping : "
Debug Array1 (2 ,2)
; will print 20
Debug Array2 (3 ,3)
; will print 10
198
Chapter 50
Procedures
Syntax
Procedure [. < type >] name ( < parameter1 [. < type >] > [ , < parameter2 [. < type >]
[= DefaultValue ] > , ...])
...
[ ProcedureReturn value ]
EndProcedure
Description
A Procedure is a part of code independent from the main code which can have any parameters and it’s
own variables . In PureBasic, a recurrence is fully supported for the procedures and any procedure can
call it itself. At each call of the procedure the variables inside will start with a value of 0 (null). To
access main code variables, they have to be shared them by using Shared or Global keywords (see also
the Protected and Static keywords).
The last parameters can have a default value (need to be a constant expression), so if these parameters
are omitted when the procedure is called, the default value will be used.
Arrays can be passed as parameters using the Array keyword, lists using the List keyword and maps
using the Map keyword.
A procedure can return a value or a string if necessary. You have to set the type after Procedure and use
the ProcedureReturn keyword at any moment inside the procedure. A call of ProcedureReturn exits
immediately the procedure, even when its called inside a loop.
ProcedureReturn can’t be used to return an array , list or a map . For this purpose pass the array, the
list or the map as parameter to the procedure.
If no value is specified for ProcedureReturn, the returned value will be undefined (see inline assembly for
more information).
Note: To return strings from DLLs, see DLLs . For advanced programmers ProcedureC is available and
will declare the procedure using ’CDecl’ instead of ’StandardCall’ calling convention.
Selected procedures can be executed asynchronously to the main program by using of threads .
Example: Procedure with a numeric variable as return-value
1
2
3
Procedure Maximum ( nb1 , nb2 )
If nb1 > nb2
Result = nb1
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4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Else
Result = nb2
EndIf
ProcedureReturn Result
EndProcedure
Result = Maximum (15 , 30)
Debug Result
Example: Procedure with a string as return-value
1
2
3
4
5
6
Procedure . s Attach ( String1$ , String2$ )
ProcedureReturn String1$ + " " + String2$
EndProcedure
Result$ = Attach ( " PureBasic " , " Coder " )
Debug Result$
Example: Parameter with default value
1
2
3
4
5
6
Procedure a (a , b , c =2)
Debug c
EndProcedure
a (10 , 12)
a (10 , 12 , 15)
; 2 will be used as default value for 3 rd parameter
Example: List as parameter
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NewList Test . Point ()
AddElement ( Test () )
Test () \ x = 1
AddElement ( Test () )
Test () \ x = 2
Procedure DebugList ( c .l , List ParameterList . Point () )
AddElement ( ParameterList () )
ParameterList () \ x = 3
ForEach ParameterList ()
MessageRequester ( " List " , Str ( ParameterList () \ x ) )
Next
EndProcedure
DebugList (10 , Test () )
200
Example: Array as parameter
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10
11
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15
Dim Table . Point (10 , 15)
Table (0 ,0) \ x = 1
Table (1 ,0) \ x = 2
Procedure TestIt ( c .l , Array ParameterTable . Point (2) )
support 2 dimensions
; The table
ParameterTable (1 , 2) \ x = 3
ParameterTable (2 , 2) \ x = 4
EndProcedure
TestIt (10 , Table () )
MessageRequester ( " Table " , Str ( Table (1 , 2) \ x ) )
Syntax
Declare [. < type >] name ( < parameter1 [. < type >] > [ , < parameter2 [. < type >] [=
DefaultValue ] > , ...])
Description
Sometimes a procedure need to call another procedure which isn’t declared before its definition. This is
annoying because the compiler will complain ’Procedure <name> not found’. Declare can help in this
particular case by declaring only the header of the procedure. Nevertheless, the Declare and real
Procedure declaration must be identical (including the correct type and optional parameters, if any).
For advanced programmers DeclareC is available and will declare the procedure using ’CDecl’ instead of
’StandardCall’ calling convention.
Example
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Declare Maximum ( Value1 , Value2 )
Procedure Operate ( Value )
Maximum (10 , 2)
; At this time , Maximum () is unknown .
EndProcedure
Procedure Maximum ( Value1 , Value2 )
ProcedureReturn 0
EndProcedure
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Chapter 51
Protected
Syntax
Protected [. < type >] < variable [. < type >] > [= < expression >] [ , ...]
Description
Protected allows a variable to be accessed only in a Procedure even if the same variable has been
declared as Global in the main program. Protected in its function is often known as ’Local’ from other
BASIC dialects. Each variable can have a default value directly assigned to it. If a type is specified after
Protected, the default type is changed for this declaration. Protected can also be used with arrays , lists
and maps .
The value of the local variable will be reinitialized at each procedure call. To avoid this, you can use the
keyword Static , to separate global from local variables while keeping their values.
Example: With variable
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Global a
a = 10
Procedure Change ()
Protected a
a = 20
EndProcedure
Change ()
Debug a ; Will print 10 , as the variable has been protected .
Example: With array
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Global Dim Array (2)
Array (0) = 10
Procedure Change ()
Protected Dim Array (2) ; This array is protected , it will be local .
Array (0) = 20
EndProcedure
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9
10
Change ()
Debug Array (0) ; Will print 10 , as the array has been protected .
203
Chapter 52
Prototypes
Syntax
Prototype . < type > name ( < parameter > , [ , < parameter > [= DefaultValue ]...])
Description
For advanced programmers. Prototype allows to declare a type which will map a function. It’s useful
when used with a variable, to do a function pointer (the variable value will be the address the function
to call, and can be changed at will).
This feature can replace the OpenLibrary() and CallFunction() sequence as it has some advantages: type
checking is done, number of of parameters is validated.
Unlike CallFunction(), it can deal with double, float and quad variables without any problem. To get
easily the pointer of a library function, use GetFunction() .
The last parameters can have a default value (need to be a constant expression), so if these parameters
are omitted when the function is called, the default value will be used.
By default the function will use the standard call convention (stdcall on x86, or fastcall on x64). If the
function pointer will be a C one, the PrototypeC variant should be used instead.
The pseudotypes can be used for the parameters, but not for the returned value.
Example
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Prototype . i ProtoMessageBox ( Window .i , Body$ , Title$ , Flags . i = 0)
If OpenLibrary (0 , " User32 . dll " )
; ’ MsgBox ’ is a variable with a ’ ProtoMessageBox ’ type
;
MsgBox . ProtoMessageBox = GetFunction (0 , " MessageBoxA " )
MsgBox (0 , " Hello " , " World " ) ; We don ’ t specify the flags
EndIf
204
Example: With pseudotypes
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
; We use the ’p - unicode ’ pseudotype for the string parameters , as
; MessageBoxW () is an unicode only function . The compiler will
; automatically converts the strings to unicode when needed .
;
Prototype . i ProtoMessageBoxW ( Window .i , Body .p - unicode ,
Title .p - unicode , Flags . i = 0)
If OpenLibrary (0 , " User32 . dll " )
; ’ MsgBox ’ is a variable with a ’ ProtoMessageBoxW ’ type
;
MsgBox . ProtoMessageBoxW = GetFunction (0 , " MessageBoxW " )
MsgBox (0 , " Hello " , " World " ) ; We don ’ t specify the flags
EndIf
205
Chapter 53
Pseudotypes
Description
For advanced programmers. The pseudotypes are a way to ease the programming when dealing with
external libraries which need datatypes that are not internally supported by PureBasic. In this case, it is
possible to use the predefined pseudotype which will do the appropriate conversion on the fly, without
extra work. As they are not ’real’ types, the chosen naming scheme is explicitly different: a ’p-’ prefix
(for ’pseudo’) is part of the type name. The available pseudotypes are:
p - ascii : acts as a string type , but will always convert the string to
ascii before
calling the function , even when the program is compiled in
unicode
mode .
It is very useful when accessing a shared library which
doesn ’t have unicode
support in an unicode program for example .
p - utf8 : acts as a string type , but will always convert the string to
utf8 before calling the
function . It is very useful when accessing a shared library
which needs its unicode
string be passed as UTF8 instead of ascii or unicode strings .
p - bstr : acts as a string type , but will always convert the string to
bstr before calling the
function . It is very useful when accessing a shared library
which needs bstr parameters ,
like COM components .
p - unicode : acts as a string type , but will always convert the string
to unicode
before
calling the function , even when the program is compiled in
ascii mode .
It is very useful when accessing a shared library which
only supports unicode
in an ascii program for example .
p - variant : acts as a numeric type , will adjust the function call to
use the variant parameter
206
correctly . It is very useful when accessing a shared
library which needs ’ variant ’ parameters ,
like COM components .
The pseudotypes can only be used with prototypes , interfaces and imported functions. The pseudotypes
does the appropriate conversion only if it is necessary: for example using a ’p-ascii’ pseudotype in an
ascii compiled program makes no difference with regular string type.
Example
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3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
Import " User32 . lib "
; We use the ’p - unicode ’ pseudotype for the string parameters , as
; MessageBoxW () is an unicode only function . The compiler will
; automatically converts the strings to unicode when needed .
;
MessageBoxW ( Window .i , Body .p - unicode , Title .p - unicode , Flags . i = 0)
EndImport
; It will work correctly in ascii and in unicode mode , even if the
API is unicode
; only as the compiler will take care of the conversion itself .
;
MessageBoxW (0 , " Hello " , " World " )
207
Chapter 54
PureBasic objects
Introduction
The purpose of this section is to describe the behavior, creation, and handling of objects in PureBasic.
For the demonstration, we will use the Image object, but the same logic applies to all other PureBasic
objects. When creating an Image object, we can do it in two ways: indexed and dynamic.
I. Indexed numbering
The static, indexed way, allows you to reference an object by a predefined numeric value. The first
available index number is 0 and subsequent indexes are allocated sequentially. This means that if you use
the number 0 and then the number 1000, 1001 indexes will be allocated and 999 (from 1 to 999) will be
unused, which is not an efficient way to use indexed objects. If you need a more flexible method, use the
dynamic way of allocating objects, as described in section II. The indexed way offers several advantages:
- Easier handling, since no variables or arrays are required.
- ’Group’ processing, without the need to use an intermediate array.
- Use the object in procedures without declaring anything in global (if using a constant or a
number).
- An object that is associated with an index is automatically freed when reusing that index.
The maximum index number is limited to an upper bound, depending of the object type (usually from
5000 to 60000). Enumerations are strongly recommended if you plan to use sequential constants to
identify your objects (which is also recommended).
Example
1
2
CreateImage (0 , 640 , 480) ; Create an image , the n ◦ 0
ResizeImage (0 , 320 , 240) ; Resize the n ◦ 0 image
Example
1
2
CreateImage (2 , 640 , 480) ; Create an image , the n ◦ 2
ResizeImage (2 , 320 , 240) ; Resize the n ◦ 2 image
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3
CreateImage (2 , 800 , 800) ; Create a new image in the n ◦ 2 index , the
old one is automatically free ’ ed
Example
1
2
3
4
For k = 0 To 9
CreateImage (k , 640 , 480) ; Create 10 different images , numbered
from 0 to 9
ResizeImage (k , 320 , 240) ; Create a new image in the n ◦ 2 index , the
old one is automatically free ’ ed
Next
Example
1
2
3
4
5
6
#ImageBackground = 0
#ImageButton
= 1
CreateImage ( #ImageBackground , 640 , 480) ; Create an image ( n ◦ 0 )
ResizeImage ( #ImageBackground , 320 , 240) ; Resize the background image
CreateImage ( #ImageButton
, 800 , 800) ; Create an image ( n ◦ 1 )
II. Dynamic numbering
Sometimes, indexed numbering isn’t very handy to handle dynamic situations where we need to deal
with an unknown number of objects. PureBasic provides an easy and complementary way to create
objects in a dynamic manner. Both methods (indexed and dynamic) can be used together at the same
time without any conflict. To create a dynamic object, you just have to specify the #PB_Any constant
instead of the indexed number, and the dynamic number will be returned as result of the function. Then
just use this number with the other object functions in the place where you would use an indexed
number (except to create a new object). This way of object handling can be very useful when used in
combination with a list , which is also a dynamic way of storage.
Example
1
2
DynamicImage1 = CreateImage ( #PB_Any , 640 , 480) ; Create a
dynamic image
ResizeImage ( DynamicImage1 , 320 , 240) ; Resize the
DynamicImage1
A complete example of dynamic objects and lists can be found here:
Further description and an example of dynamic numbering multiple windows and gadgets
can be found in the related ’Beginners chapter’ .
Overview of the different PureBasic objects
Different PureBasic objects (windows, gadgets, sprites, etc.) can use the same range of object numbers
again. So the following objects can be enumerated each one starting at 0 (or other value) and PureBasic
differs them by their type:
209
-
Database
Dialog
Entity
File
FTP
Gadget (including the ScintillaGadget() )
Gadget3D
Image
Library
Light
Mail
Material
Menu (not MenuItem() , as this is no object)
Mesh
Movie
Music
Network
Node
Particle
RegularExpression
SerialPort
Sound
Sound3D
Sprite
StatusBar
Texture
ToolBar
Window
Window3D
XML
210
Chapter 55
Repeat : Until
Syntax
Repeat
...
Until < expression > [ or Forever ]
Description
This function will loop until the <expression> becomes true. The number of loops is unlimited. If an
endless loop is needed then use the Forever keyword instead of Until. With the Break command, it is
possible to exit the Repeat : Until loop during any iteration. With Continue command, the end of the
current iteration may be skipped.
Example
1
2
3
4
a =0
Repeat
a = a +1
Until a >100
This will loop until ”a” takes a value > to 100, (it will loop 101 times).
211
Chapter 56
Residents
Description
Residents are precompiled files which are loaded when the compiler starts. They can be found in the
’residents’ folder of the PureBasic installation path. A resident file must have the extension ’.res’ and
can contain the following items: structures , interfaces , macros and constants . It can not contain
dynamic code or procedures .
When a resident is loaded, all its content is available for the program being compiled. That’s why all
built-in constants like #PB_Event_CloseWindow are available, they are in the ’PureBasic.res’ file. All
the API structures and constants are also in a resident file. Using residents is a good way to store the
common macros, structure and constants so they will be available for every programs. When
distributing an user library, it’s also a nice solution to provide the needed constants and structures, as
PureBasic does.
To create a new resident, the command-line compiler needs to be used, as there is no option to do it from
the IDE. It is often needed to use /IGNORERESIDENT and /CREATERESIDENT at the same time to
avoid duplicate errors, as the previous version of the resident is loaded before creating the new one.
Residents greatly help to have a faster compilation and compiler start, as all the information is stored in
binary format. It is much faster to load than parsing an include file at every compilation.
212
Chapter 57
Runtime
Syntax
Runtime
Runtime
Runtime
Runtime
Variable
#Constant
Procedure () declaration
Enumeration declaration
Description
For advanced programmers. Runtime is used to create runtime accessible list of programming objects
like variables, constants and procedures. Once compiled a program doesn’t have variable, constant or
procedure label anymore as everything is converted into binary code. Runtime enforces the compiler to
add an extra reference for a specific object to have it available trough the Runtime library. The objects
can be manipulated using their string reference, even when the program is compiled.
To illustrate the use of Runtime: the Dialog library use it to access the event procedure associated to a
gadget . The name of the procedure to use for the event handler is specified in the XML file (which is
text format), and then the dialog library use GetRuntimeInteger() to resolve the procedure address at
runtime. It’s not needed to recompile the program to change it.
Another use would be adding a small realtime scripting language to the program, allowing easy
modification of exposed variables, using runtime constants values. While it could be done manually by
building a map of objects, the Runtime keyword allows to do it in a standard and unified way.
Example: Procedure
1
2
3
4
5
Runtime Procedure OnEvent ()
Debug " OnEvent "
EndProcedure
Debug Get RuntimeI nteger ( " OnEvent () " ) ; Will display the procedure
address
Example: Enumeration
1
2
3
Runtime Enumeration
#Constant1 = 10
#Constant2
213
4
5
6
7
8
9
#Constant3
EndEnumeration
Debug Get RuntimeI nteger ( " #Constant1 " )
Debug Get RuntimeI nteger ( " #Constant2 " )
Debug Get RuntimeI nteger ( " #Constant3 " )
Example: Variable
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Define a = 20
Runtime a
Debug Get RuntimeI nteger ( " a " )
SetRu ntimeInt eger ( " a " , 30)
Debug a ; the variable has been modified
214
Chapter 58
Select : EndSelect
Syntax
Select < expression1 >
Case < expression > [ , < expression > [ < numeric expression > To < numeric
expression >]]
...
[ Case < expression >]
...
[ Default ]
...
EndSelect
Description
Select provides the ability to determine a quick choice. The program will execute the <expression1> and
retain its’ value in memory. It will then compare this value to all of the Case <expression> values and if
a given Case <expression> value is true, it will then execute the corresponding code and quit the Select
structure. Case supports multi-values and value ranges through the use of the optional To keyword
(numeric values only). If none of the Case values are true, then the Default code will be executed (if
specified).
Note: Select will accept floats as <expression1> but will round them down to the nearest integer
(comparisons will be done only with integer values).
Example: Simple example
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
Value = 2
Select Value
Case 1
Debug " Value = 1 "
Case 2
Debug " Value = 2 "
Case 20
Debug " Value = 20 "
Default
Debug " I don ’ t know "
215
15
EndSelect
Example: Multicase and range example
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
Value = 2
Select Value
Case 1 , 2 , 3
Debug " Value is 1 , 2 or 3 "
Case 10 To 20 , 30 , 40 To 50
Debug " Value is between 10 and 20 , equal to 30 or between 40 and
50 "
Default
Debug " I don ’ t know "
EndSelect
216
Chapter 59
Using several PureBasic versions on
Windows
Overview
It is possible to install several PureBasic versions on your hard disk at the same time. This is useful to
finish one project with an older PureBasic version, and start developing a new project with a new
PureBasic version.
How to do it
Create different folders like ”PureBasic_v3.94” and ”PureBasic_v4” and install the related PureBasic
version in each folders.
When one ”PureBasic.exe” is started, it will assign all ”.pb” files with this version of PureBasic. So when
a source code is loaded by double-clicking on the related file, the currently assigned PureBasic version
will be started. Beside PureBasic will change nothing, which can affect other PureBasic versions in
different folders.
To avoid the automatic assignment of ”.pb” files when starting the IDE, a shortcut can be created from
PureBasic.exe with ”/NOEXT” as parameter. The command line options for the IDE are described here .
Note: Since PureBasic 4.10, the settings for the IDE are no longer saved in the PureBasic directory but
rather in the %APPDATA%\PureBasic directory. To keep the multiple versions from using the same
configuration files, the /P /T and /A switches can be used. Furthermore there is the /PORTABLE
switch which puts all files back into the PureBasic directory and disabled the creation of the .pb
extension.
217
Chapter 60
Shared
Syntax
Shared < variable > [ , ...]
Description
Shared allows a variable , an array , a list or a map to be accessed within a procedure . When Shared is
used with an array, a list or a map, only the name followed by ’()’ must be specified.
Example: With variable
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
a = 10
Procedure Change ()
Shared a
a = 20
EndProcedure
Change ()
Debug a
; Will print 20 , as the variable has been shared .
Example: With array and list
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
Dim Array (2)
NewList List ()
AddElement ( List () )
Procedure Change ()
Shared Array () , List ()
Array (0) = 1
List () = 2
EndProcedure
Change ()
Debug Array (0)
Debug List ()
; Will print 1 , as the array has been shared .
; Will print 2 , as the list has been shared .
218
Chapter 61
Static
Syntax
Static [. < type >] < variable [. < type >] > [= < constant expression >] [ , ...]
Description
Static allows to create a local persistent variable in a Procedure even if the same variable has been
declared as Global in the main program. If a type is specified after Static, the default type is changed for
this declaration. Static can also be used with arrays , lists and maps . When declaring a static array, the
dimension parameter has to be a constant value.
The value of the variable isn’t reinitialized at each procedure call, means you can use local variables
parallel to global variables (with the same name), and both will keep their values. Each variable can
have a default value directly assigned to it, but it has to be a constant value.
Beside Static you can use the keyword Protected , to separate global from local variables, but with
Protected the local variables will not keep their values.
Example: With variable
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
Global a
a = 10
Procedure Change ()
Static a
a +1
Debug " In Procedure : " + Str ( a ) ; Will print 1 , 2 , 3 as the variable
increments at each procedure call .
EndProcedure
Change ()
Change ()
Change ()
Debug a ; Will print 10 , as the static variable doesn ’ t affect global
one .
Example: With array
219
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
Global Dim Array (2)
Array (0) = 10
Procedure Change ()
Static Dim Array (2)
Array (0) +1
Debug " In Procedure : " + Str ( Array (0) ) ; Will print 1 , 2 , 3 as the
value of the array field increments at each procedure call .
EndProcedure
Change ()
Change ()
Change ()
Debug Array (0) ; Will print 10 , as the static array doesn ’ t affect
global one .
220
Chapter 62
Structures
Syntax
Structure < name > [ Extends < name >] [ Align < numeric constant expression >]
...
EndStructure
Description
Structure is useful to define user type, and access some OS memory areas. Structures can be used to
enable faster and easier handling of data files. It is very useful as you can group into the same object the
information which are common. Structures fields are accessed with the \ option. Structures can be
nested. Statics arrays are supported inside structures.
Dynamic objects like arrays, lists and maps are supported inside structure and are automatically
initialized when the object using the structure is created. To declare such field, use the following
keywords: Array, List and Map.
The optional Extends parameter allows to extends another structure with new fields. All fields found in
the extended structure will be available in the new structure and will be placed before the new fields.
This is useful to do basic inheritance of structures.
For advanced users only. The optional Align parameter allows to adjust alignment between every
structure field. The default alignment is 1, meaning no alignment. For example, if the alignment is set to
4, every field offset will be on a 4 byte boundary. It can help to get more performance while accessing
structure fields, but it can use more memory, as some space between each fields will be wasted. The
special value #PB_Structure_AlignC can be used to align the structure as it would be done in
language C, useful when importing C structures to use with API functions.
SizeOf can be used with structures to get the size of the structure and OffsetOf can be used to retrieve
the index of the specified field.
Please note, that in structures a static array[] doesn’t behave like the normal BASIC array (defined
using Dim ) to be conform to the C/C++ structure format (to allow direct API structure porting). This
means that a[2] will allocate an array from 0 to 1 where Dim a(2) will allocate an array from 0 to 2.
When using pointers in structures, the ’*’ has to be omitted when using the field, once more to ease API
code porting. It can be seen as an oddity (and to be honest, it is) but it’s like that since the very start of
PureBasic and many, many sources rely on that so it won’t be changed.
When using a lot of structure fields you can use the With : EndWith keywords to reduce the amount of
code to type and ease its readability.
221
It’s possible to perform a full structure copy by using the equal affectation between two structure
element of the same type.
ClearStructure can be used to clear a structured memory area. It’s for advanced use only, when pointers
are involved.
Example
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
Structure Person
Name . s
ForName . s
Age . w
EndStructure
Dim MyFriends . Person (100)
; Here the position ’0 ’ of the array MyFriend ()
; will contain one person and it ’ s own information
MyFriends (0) \ Name = " Andersson "
MyFriends (0) \ Forname = " Richard "
MyFriends (0) \ Age = 32
Example: A more complex structure (Nested and static array)
1
2
3
4
5
6
Structure Window
* NextWindow . Window ; Points to another window object
x.w
y.w
Name . s [10] ; 10 Names available ( from 0 to 9)
EndStructure
Example: Extended structure
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Structure MyPoint
x.l
y.l
EndStructure
Structure MyColoredPoint Extends MyPoint
color . l
EndStructure
ColoredPoint . MyColoredPoint \ x = 10
ColoredPoint . MyColoredPoint \ y = 20
ColoredPoint . MyColoredPoint \ color = RGB (255 , 0 , 0)
Example: Structure copy
1
2
3
Structure MyPoint
x.l
y.l
222
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
EndStructure
LeftPoint . MyPoint \ x = 10
LeftPoint \ y = 20
RightPoint . MyPoint = LeftPoint
Debug RightPoint \ x
Debug RightPoint \ y
Example: Dynamic object
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
Structure Person
Name$
Age . l
List Friends$ ()
EndStructure
John . Person
John \ Name$ = " John "
John \ Age
= 23
; Now , add some friends to John
;
AddElement ( John \ Friends$ () )
John \ Friends$ () = " Jim "
AddElement ( John \ Friends$ () )
John \ Friends$ () = " Monica "
ForEach John \ Friends$ ()
Debug John \ Friends$ ()
Next
Syntax
StructureUnion
Field1 . Type
Field2 . Type
...
EndSt ructureU nion
Description
Structure union are only useful for advanced programmers who want to save some memory by sharing
some fields inside the same structure. It’s like the ’union’ keyword in C/C++.
Note: Each field in the StructureUnion declaration can be of a different type .
Example
1
2
Structure Type
Name$
223
3
4
5
6
7
8
StructureUnion
Long . l
; Each field ( Long , Float and Byte ) resides at the
Float . f
; same address in memory .
Byte . b
;
EndSt ructureU nion
EndStructure
Example: Extended example (date handling)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
Structure date
day . s {2}
pk1 . s {1}
month . s {2}
pk2 . s {1}
year . s {4}
EndStructure
Structure date2
StructureUnion
s . s {10}
d . date
EndSt ructureU nion
EndStructure
Dim d1 . date2 (5)
d1 (0) \ s = " 05.04.2008 "
d1 (1) \ s = " 07.05.2009 "
Debug d1 (0) \ d \ day
Debug d1 (0) \ d \ month
Debug d1 (0) \ d \ year
Debug d1 (1) \ d \ day
Debug d1 (1) \ d \ month
Debug d1 (1) \ d \ year
d2 . date2 \ s = " 15.11.2010 "
Debug d2 \ d \ day
Debug d2 \ d \ month
Debug d2 \ d \ year
Example: Alignment
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Structure Type Align 4
Byte . b
Word . w
Long . l
Float . f
EndStructure
Debug OffsetOf ( Type \ Byte )
Debug OffsetOf ( Type \ Word )
Debug OffsetOf ( Type \ Long )
; will print 0
; will print 4
; will print 8
224
11
Debug OffsetOf ( Type \ Float )
; will print 12
Example: Pointers
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Structure Person
* Next . Person ; Here the ’* ’ is mandatory to declare a pointer
Name$
Age . b
EndStructure
Timo . Person \ Name$ = " Timo "
Timo \ Age = 25
Fred . Person \ Name$ = " Fred "
Fred \ Age = 25
Timo \ Next = @Fred ; When using the pointer , the ’* ’ is omitted
Debug Timo \ Next \ Name$ ; Will print ’ Fred ’
225
Chapter 63
Subsystems
Introduction
PureBasic integrated commandset relies on available OS libraries. Sometimes, there is different way to
achieve the same goal and when it makes sense, PureBasic offers the possibility to change the used
underlying libraries for specific commands, without changing one line of source code. For example, on
Windows there is the ’OpenGL’ subsystem available, which will use OpenGL functions to render sprites,
instead of DirectX (which is the default subsystem). It can be useful to use OpenGL instead of DirectX
when writing a crossplatform game, as OS X and Linux use OpenGL as default. It also allows to use raw
OpenGL commands directly on screen.
To enable a subsystem, its name has to be set in the IDE compiler options , or through the
/SUBSYSTEM command-line switch. This is a compile time option, which means an executable can not
embed more than one subsystem at once. If multiple support is needed (for example shipping an
OpenGL and DirectX version of a game), two executables needs to be created.
The available subsystems are located in the PureBasic ’subsystems’ folder. Any residents or libraries
found in this drawer will have precedency over the default libraries and residents, when a subsystem is
specified. Any number of different subsystems can be specified (as long it doesn’t affect the same
libraries).
The Subsystem compiler function can be used to detect if a specific subsystem is used for the
compilation.
Available subsystems
Here is a list of available subsystems, and the affected libraries:
Windows
OpenGL : use OpenGL instead of DirectX . Affected libraries :
- Sprite
- Sprite3D
- Screen
- All 3 D engine related libraries
Linux
None
MacOS X
Carbon : warning , this subsystem is deprecated and no more maintained .
226
Use the Carbon API instead of Cocoa . Affected libraries :
- 2 D Drawing
- AudioCD
- Clipboard
- Desktop
- Drag & Drop
- Font
- Gadget
- Image
- Menu
- Movie
- Printer
- Requester
- Scintilla
- StatusBar
- SysTray
- Toolbar
- Window
227
Chapter 64
Threaded
Syntax
Threaded [. < type >] < variable [. < type >] > [= < constant expression >] [ , ...]
Description
Threaded allows to create a thread based persistent variable , arrays , lists or maps . This means every
thread will have its own version of the object. This is only useful when writing multithreaded programs.
If a type is specified after Threaded, the default type is changed for this declaration.
Each variable can have a default value directly assigned to it, but it has to be a constant value. When
declaring a threaded array, the dimension parameter has to be a constant value.
A Threaded object can’t be declared in a procedure, its scope is always global.
Example: With variables
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
Threaded Counter
Counter = 128
Procedure Thread ( Parameter )
Debug Counter ; Will display zero as this thread doesn ’ t have used
this variable for now
Counter = 256
Debug Counter ; Will display 256
EndProcedure
Thread = CreateThread ( @Thread () , 0)
WaitThread ( Thread ) ; Wait for thread ending
Debug Counter ; Will display 128 , even if Counter has been changed in
the thread
228
Chapter 65
UserGuide - Advanced functions
<empty for now>
UserGuide Navigation
< Previous: Other Library functions k Overview k Next: Some Tips & Tricks >
229
Chapter 66
UserGuide - Constants
In addition to variables PureBasic provides a method to define constants too. In fact it provides several.
Well have a quick look at them now. Predefined constants - provided either by PureBasic itself, these all
begin #PB_, or from the API for the operating system. The IDEs Structure Viewer tool has a panel
which shows all the predefined constants. User defined constants - by defining a constant name with the
prefix # you can provide your own constants to make code more readable.
1
2
#MyConstant1 = 10
#MyConstant2 = " Hello , World ! "
Enumerations PureBasic will automatically number a series of constants sequentially in an
Enumeration, by default enumerations will begin from zero but this can be altered, if desired.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Enumeration
#MyConstantA
#MyConstantB
#MyConstantC
EndEnumeration
Enumeration 10
#MyConstantD
#MyConstantE
#MyConstantF
EndEnumeration
Step 5
; will be 10
; will be 15
; will be 20
UserGuide Navigation
< Previous: Variables k Overview k Next: Decisions & Conditions >
230
Chapter 67
UserGuide - Storing data in memory
This example gathers information about the files in the logged on user’s home directory into a structured
list . For now the output isn’t very exciting but we will come back to this example later on and make it
a bit more friendly in several different ways.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
; This section describes the fields of a structure or record , mostly
integers in this case ,
; but notice the string for the file name and the quad for the file
size .
Structure FILEITEM
Name . s
Attributes . i
Size . q
DateCreated . i
DateAccessed . i
DateModified . i
EndStructure
; Now we define a new list of files using the structure previously
specified
; and some other working variables we ’ ll use later on .
NewList Files . FILEITEM ()
Define . s Folder
Define . l Result
; This function gets the home directory for the logged on user .
Folder = GetHomeDirectory ()
; Open the directory to enumerate all its contents .
Result = ExamineDirectory (0 , Folder , " *.* " )
; If this is ok , begin enumeration of entries .
If Result
; Loop through until Nex tD ir ect or yE ntr y (0) becomes zero indicating that there are no more entries .
While Nex tD ir ect or yE ntr y (0)
; If the directory entry is a file , not a folder .
If D ir ect or yE ntr yT yp e (0) = # P B _ D i r e c t o r y E n t r y _ F i l e
; Add a new element to the list .
AddElement ( Files () )
; And populate it with the properties of the file .
Files () \ Name = Di re ct ory En tr yNa me (0)
Files () \ Size = Di re ct ory En tr ySi ze (0)
231
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
Files () \ Attributes = D i r e c t o r y E n t r y A t t r i b u t e s (0)
Files () \ DateCreated = Di rec to ry Ent ry Da te (0 , #PB_Date_Created )
Files () \ DateAccessed = Di rec to ry Ent ry Da te (0 , #P B_Date_A ccessed )
Files () \ DateModified = Di rec to ry Ent ry Da te (0 , #P B_Date_M odified )
EndIf
Wend
; Close the directory .
FinishDirectory (0)
EndIf
; Shows the results in the debug window ( if there is no entry ,
nothing will be displayed )
ForEach Files ()
Debug " Filename = " + Files () \ Name
Debug " Size = " + Str ( Files () \ Size )
Debug " Attributes = " + StrU ( Files () \ Attributes )
Debug " Created = " + StrU ( Files () \ DateCreated )
Debug " Accessed = " + StrU ( Files () \ DateAccessed )
Debug " Modified = " + StrU ( Files () \ DateModified )
Next Files ()
Ok, firstly, the dates in the output are just numbers - this isn’t very helpful, so let’s make them look a
bit more familiar. Replace the last three Debug statements with these:
1
2
3
4
...
Debug " Created = " + FormatDate ( " % dd /% mm /% yyyy " ,
Files () \ DateCreated )
Debug " Accessed = " + FormatDate ( " % dd /% mm /% yyyy " ,
Files () \ DateAccessed )
Debug " Modified = " + FormatDate ( " % dd /% mm /% yyyy " ,
Files () \ DateModified )
The FormatDate() function takes a date in PureBasic’s own numeric date format and displays it in a
format that we can specify. So now things should begin to look a bit more sensible.
Finally, for now, the list isn’t in any particular order, so let’s sort the list before we display it. Add this
line before the comment about showing the list and the ForEach loop.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
...
; Sort the list into ascending alphabetical order of file name .
So rt St ruc tu re dLi st ( Files () , #PB_Sort_Ascending ,
OffsetOf ( FILEITEM \ Name ) , #PB_String )
; If there are some entries in the list , show the results in the
debug window .
...
This command takes the structured list , and resorts it into ascending order (#PB_Sort_Ascending), of
the Name field of the structure (OffsetOf(FILEITEM\Name)), which is a string value (#PB_String).
UserGuide Navigation
< Previous: String Manipulation k Overview k Next: Input & Output >
232
Chapter 68
UserGuide - Decisions & Conditions
There are different ways of processing data obtained from user input or other way (loading from a file,
...). The common arithmetic functions (+, -, *, /, ...) can be combined with conditions. You can use the
If : Else/ElseIf : EndIf set of keywords or the Select : Case/Default : EndSelect keywords, just use what
is the best for your situation!
This example shows the use of If : ElseIf : Else : EndIf for creating a message, possibly for showing in
the status bar of a form (GUI ) or something similar, based upon the number of items and filtered items
in an, imaginary, list. Note that unlike some other BASIC languages, PureBasic doesn’t use the ”Then”
keyword and that there is no space in the ElseIf and EndIf keywords.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
Define . l Items = 10 , Filter = 6
Define . s Message
If Items = 0
Message = " List is empty . "
ElseIf Items = 1 And Filter = 0
Message = " One item . Not shown by filter . "
ElseIf Items > 1 And Filter = 0
Message = StrU ( Items ) + " items . All filtered . "
ElseIf Items > 1 And Filter = 1
Message = StrU ( Items ) + " items . One shown by filter . "
ElseIf Items = Filter
Message = StrU ( Items ) + " items . None filtered . "
Else
; None of the other conditions were met .
Message = StrU ( Items ) + " items . " + StrU ( Filter ) + " shown by
filter . "
EndIf
Debug Message
This example shows the use of Select : Case : Default : EndSelect to categorize the first 127 ASCII
characters into groups. The ”For : Next” loop counts to 130 to demonstrate the Default keyword.
1
2
3
Define . c Char
Define . s Message
233
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
For Char = 0 To 130
Select Char
Case 0 To 8 , 10 To 31 , 127
Message = StrU ( Char ) + " is a non - printing control code . "
Case 9
Message = StrU ( Char ) + " is a tab . "
Case 32
Message = StrU ( Char ) + " is a space . "
Case 36 , 128
Message = StrU ( Char ) + " is a currency symbol . ( " + Chr ( Char ) +
")"
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
Case 33 To 35 , 37 To 47 , 58 To 64 , 91 To 96
Message = StrU ( Char ) + " is a punctuation mark or math symbol .
( " + Chr ( Char ) + " ) "
Case 48 To 57
Message = StrU ( Char ) + " is a numeral . ( " + Chr ( Char ) + " ) "
Case 65 To 90
Message = StrU ( Char ) + " is an upper case letter . ( " +
Chr ( Char ) + " ) "
Case 97 To 122
Message = StrU ( Char ) + " is a lower case letter . ( " + Chr ( Char )
+ ")"
Default
; If none of the preceding Case conditions are met .
Message = " Sorry , I don ’ t know what " + StrU ( Char ) + " is ! "
EndSelect
Debug Message
Next Char
UserGuide Navigation
< Previous: Constants k Overview k Next: Loops >
234
Chapter 69
UserGuide - Compiler directives (for
different behavior on different OS)
This will be our last visit to the File Properties program. There is one limitation discussed previously to
overcome and we’ve left it until now because it is a special case.
So far the Attributes column on the display has simply been an integer . This is because the return
values of the GetFileAttributes() and DirectoryEntryAttributes() instructions have a different meaning
on Windows systems compared with Mac and Linux systems.
We can’t allow for this difference at run-time, however we can use Compiler Directives to have the
program behave differently on the three different operating systems.
Add this new procedure declaration to that section.
1
Declare . s AttributeString ( Attributes . l )
Add this new procedure to the implementation section.
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Procedure . s AttributeString ( Attributes . l )
; Converts an integer attributes value into a string description .
; Supports Linux , Mac and Windows system ’ s attributes .
Protected . s Result
Result = " "
CompilerIf #PB_Compiler_OS = #PB_OS_Windows
; These are the attributes for Windows systems .
; A logical - and of the attribute with each constant filters
out that bit and can then be used for comparison .
If Attributes & # P B _ F i l e S y s t e m _ A r c h i v e
Result + " A "
Else
Result + " "
EndIf
If Attributes & # P B _ F i l e S y s t e m _ C o m p r e s s e d
Result + " C "
Else
Result + " "
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EndIf
If Attributes & # P B _ F i l e S y s t e m _ H i d d e n
Result + " H "
Else
Result + " "
EndIf
If Attributes & # P B _ F i l e S y s t e m _ R e a d O n l y
Result + " R "
Else
Result + " "
EndIf
If Attributes & # P B _ F i l e S y s t e m _ S y s t e m
Result + " S "
Else
Result + " "
EndIf
CompilerElse
; These are the attributes for Mac and Linux systems .
If Attributes & #P B _ Fi l eS y s te m _L i nk
Result + " L "
Else
Result + " "
EndIf
; User attributes .
If Attributes & # P B _ F i l e S y s t e m _ R e a d U s e r
Result + " R "
Else
Result + " "
EndIf
If Attributes & # P B _ F i l e S y s t e m _ W r i t e U s e r
Result + " W "
Else
Result + " "
EndIf
If Attributes & # P B _ F i l e S y s t e m _ E x e c U s e r
Result + " X "
Else
Result + " "
EndIf
; Group attributes .
If Attributes & # P B _ F i l e S y s t e m _ R e a d G r o u p
Result + " R "
Else
Result + " "
EndIf
If Attributes & # P B _ F i l e S y s t e m _ W r i t e G r o u p
Result + " W "
Else
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Result + " "
EndIf
If Attributes & # P B _ F i l e S y s t e m _ E x e c G r o u p
Result + " X "
Else
Result + " "
EndIf
; All attributes .
If Attributes & # P B _ F i l e S y s t e m _ R e a d A l l
Result + " R "
Else
Result + " "
EndIf
If Attributes & # P B _ F i l e S y s t e m _ W r i t e A l l
Result + " W "
Else
Result + " "
EndIf
If Attributes & # P B _ F i l e S y s t e m _ E x e c A l l
Result + " X "
Else
Result + " "
EndIf
CompilerEndIf
; Return the result .
ProcedureReturn Result
EndProcedure
Finally, replace these two lines in the ListLoad procedure
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; Convert the attributes to a string , for now .
Attrib = StrU ( Files () \ Attributes )
with these,
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; Call AttributeString to convert the attributes to a string
representation .
Attrib = AttributeString ( Files () \ Attributes )
Now when the program is executed a string display will be shown instead of the integer values. On a
Windows system it would look something like this (assuming all attributes are set):
1
ACHRS
and on the other two systems:
1
L RWX RWX RWX
The CompilerIf instruction works much like an If instruction - however it is the compiler that makes the
decision at compile-time, rather than the executable at run-time. This means that we can include
different code to handle the file attributes on the different operating systems.
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The lines between:
1
CompilerIf #PB_Compiler_OS = #PB_OS_Windows
and
1
CompilerElse
will be compiled on Windows systems. The constant #PB_Compiler_OS is automatically defined by
PureBasic to allow this kind of program logic.
The other section will be used on Mac and Linux systems - which work the same way, conveniently. If
these operating systems had different attribute values too, then we could use CompilerSelect and
CompilerCase to make a three-way determination.
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CompilerSelect #PB_Compiler_OS
CompilerCase #PB_OS_Linux
; Code for Linux systems .
CompilerCase #PB_OS_MacOS
; Code for Mac systems .
CompilerCase #PB_OS_Windows
; Code for Windows systems .
Compi lerEndSe lect
The last compiler directive that we’re going to discuss here is: EnableExplicit .
There is a good reason for using this directive. It requires that all variables must be defined explicitly
before usage, in some way, (using Define , Dim , Global , Protected , Static etc.) Doing so eliminates the
possibility of logic errors due to mistyped variable names being defined ”on-the-fly”. This type of subtle
error will not affect a program’s compilation but could well present as an inconvenient bug at run-time.
Using this directive eliminates this kind of problem as a compiler error would occur.
For example:
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EnableExplicit
Define . l Field , FieldMax
; ...
If Field < FieldMax
; If EnableExplicit is omitted this section of code may not execute
when intended because FieldMax will be zero .
EndIf
UserGuide Navigation
< Previous: Structuring code in Procedures k Overview k Next: Reading and writing files >
238
Chapter 70
UserGuide - Reading and writing files
This example will write 100 random records each containing a byte , a floating-point number , a long
integer and a string . It then reads all the records back and displays them in the debug window .
It demonstrates the GetTemporaryDirectory() , CreateFile() , OpenFile() , Eof() and a number of Read
and Write data instructions too.
It works fine as far as it goes, but has a drawback. As the string value has a variable length - you can’t
randomly access the records because you can’t predict where each new record will start in the file. They
must be all be read back in the same sequence as they were written. This isn’t a problem with the small
number of records created here but this could be an inconvenience with a larger file. PureBasic offers a
way to handle this situation too - but an example would be too complex for this topic. See the Database
sections of the help-file or reference manual to see how it could be done.
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EnableExplicit
; Define the constants :
#MAXBYTE = 255
#MAXLONG = 2147483647
; Define
Define . f
Define . l
Define . s
some variables .
Float
Count , File
Folder , FileName , String
; Create a temporary file name .
Folder = G e t T e m p o r a r y D i r e c t or y ()
FileName = Folder + " test . data "
; Create the temporary file .
; If #PB_Any is used , CreateFile returns the file ’ s number .
; Useful if you may have more than one file open simultaneously .
File = CreateFile ( #PB_Any , FileName )
If File
; If this was successful - write 100 random records .
For Count = 1 To 100
; Write a random byte (0 - 255) .
WriteByte ( File , Random ( #MAXBYTE ) )
; Create and write a random float .
; This calculation is there to make the number have a
floating - point component ( probably ) .
Float = Random ( #MAXLONG ) / (( Random (7) + 2) * 5000)
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WriteFloat ( File , Float )
; Write a random long .
WriteLong ( File , Random ( #MAXLONG ) )
; Create and write a random string in Unicode format .
; Note the use of WriteStringN to delimit the string with an end
of line marker .
String = " String " + StrU ( Random ( #MAXLONG ) )
WriteStringN ( File , String , #PB_Unicode )
Next Count
; Close the file .
CloseFile ( File )
Else
; If this was unsuccessful .
Debug " Could not create the file : " + FileName
EndIf
; Open the file for reading this time .
File = ReadFile ( #PB_Any , FileName )
If File
; If this was successful - read and display records from the file .
; Reset the counter .
Count = 1
; Loop until the ’ end of file ’ is reached .
; This will read all of the records regardless of how many there
are .
While Eof ( File ) = 0
; Print a header line .
Debug
" -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Debug " [ " + StrU ( Count ) + " ] "
Count + 1
; Read a byte value and print it .
Debug StrU ( ReadByte ( File ) , #PB_Byte )
; Read a float value .
Debug StrF ( ReadFloat ( File ) )
; Read a long value .
Debug StrU ( ReadLong ( File ) , #PB_Long )
; Read a string value .
Debug ReadString ( File , #PB_Unicode )
Wend
; Print the trailing line .
Debug
" --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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; Close the file .
CloseFile ( File )
; Tidy up .
DeleteFile ( FileName )
Else
; If this was unsuccessful .
Debug " Could not open the file : " + FileName
EndIf
UserGuide Navigation
< Previous: Compiler directives k Overview k Next: Memory access >
241
Chapter 71
UserGuide - First steps with the Debug
output (variables & operators)
Normally we would present here the typical ”Hello World”. You want to see it? Ok here we go with two
examples:
Debug output
”Hello World” in the Debug output window:
1
Debug " Hello World ! "
MessageRequester
”Hello World” in a MessageRequester() :
1
MessageRequester ( " " , " Hello World ! " )
Advanced Debug example
We now continue with a short example using the available variable types, arithmetic operators and
displaying the result:
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a = 5
b = 7
c = 3
d = a + b ; we use the values stored in variables ’a ’ and ’b ’ and
save the sum of them in ’d ’
d / c
; we directly use the value of ’d ’ (= 12) divided by the
value of ’c ’ (= 3) and save the result in ’d ’
Debug d
; will output 4
This way you have used variables ”on the fly”. To force the compiler always declaring variables before
their first use, just use the keyword EnableExplicit .
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UserGuide Navigation
Overview k Next: Variables >
243
Chapter 72
UserGuide - Displaying graphics output
& simple drawing
This example show how to create a simple drawing. It uses the 2D drawing commands to draw two sine
waves at different frequencies and shows the harmonic produced by combining the two waves. It uses
procedures , which we will discuss in more detail later on, to break the drawing tasks into three
self-contained tasks:
Drawing the axes - demonstrates the Line() command.
Drawing the legend - demonstrates the Box() and DrawText() commands.
Drawing the wave forms - demonstrates the LineXY() command and shows how to use color.
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; Window
Enumeration
#WinHarmonic
EndEnumeration
; Gadgets
Enumeration
#txtPlot1
#cboPlot1
#txtPlot2
#cboPlot2
#imgPlot
EndEnumeration
; Image
Enumeration
#drgPlot
EndEnumeration
; Image dimensions are used in several places so define constants .
#imgPlotX = 8
#imgPlotY = 40
#imgPlotW = 745
#imgPlotH = 645
; Event variables
Define . l Event , EventWindow , EventGadget , EventType , EventMenu
; Implementation
Procedure CreateWindow ()
; Creates the window and gadgets .
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If OpenWindow ( #WinHarmonic , 30 , 30 , #imgPlotW + 20 , #imgPlotH + 55 ,
" Harmonics " , # P B _ W i n d o w _ S y s t e m M e n u | # P B _ W i n d o w _ M i n i m i z e G a d g e t |
# PB _ W in d ow _ Ti t l eB a r )
; This is a non - visual gadget used to draw the image , later its
contents will be displayed in #imgPlot .
CreateImage ( #drgPlot , #imgPlotW - 5 , #imgPlotH - 5 , 24)
; Label for the Plot 1 combo .
TextGadget ( #txtPlot1 , 2 , 5 , 50 , 25 , " Plot 1: " )
; The Plot 1 combo .
ComboBoxGadget ( #cboPlot1 , 55 , 5 , 150 , 25)
AddGadgetItem ( #cboPlot1 , 0 , " Sin ( X ) " )
AddGadgetItem ( #cboPlot1 , 1 , " Sin ( X * 2) " )
AddGadgetItem ( #cboPlot1 , 2 , " Sin ( X * 3) " )
AddGadgetItem ( #cboPlot1 , 3 , " Sin ( X * 4) " )
AddGadgetItem ( #cboPlot1 , 4 , " Sin ( X * 5) " )
AddGadgetItem ( #cboPlot1 , 5 , " Sin ( X * 6) " )
; Select Sin ( X )
SetGadgetState ( #cboPlot1 , 0)
; Label for the Plot 2 combo .
TextGadget ( #txtPlot2 , 230 , 5 , 50 , 25 , " Plot 2: " )
; The Plot 2 combo .
ComboBoxGadget ( #cboPlot2 , 280 , 5 , 150 , 25)
AddGadgetItem ( #cboPlot2 , 0 , " Sin ( X ) " )
AddGadgetItem ( #cboPlot2 , 1 , " Sin ( X * 2) " )
AddGadgetItem ( #cboPlot2 , 2 , " Sin ( X * 3) " )
AddGadgetItem ( #cboPlot2 , 3 , " Sin ( X * 4) " )
AddGadgetItem ( #cboPlot2 , 4 , " Sin ( X * 5) " )
AddGadgetItem ( #cboPlot2 , 5 , " Sin ( X * 6) " )
; Select Sin ( X * 2) , otherwise the initial display is a bit
uninteresting .
SetGadgetState ( #cboPlot2 , 1)
; The visual image gadget on the window .
ImageGadget ( #imgPlot , #imgPlotX , #imgPlotY , #imgPlotW , #imgPlotH ,
0 , #PB_Image_Border )
EndIf
EndProcedure
Procedure PlotAxes ()
; Draws the axes on the image #drgPlot .
; Send drawing commands to #drgPlot .
StartDrawing ( ImageOutput ( #drgPlot ) )
; Draw a white background .
Box (0 , 0 , ImageWidth ( #drgPlot ) , ImageHeight ( #drgPlot ) , RGB (255 ,
255 , 255) )
; Draw the axes in black .
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Line (1 , 1 , 1 , ImageHeight ( #drgPlot ) - 2 , RGB (0 , 0 , 0) )
Line (1 , ( ImageHeight ( #drgPlot ) - 2) /2 , ImageWidth ( #drgPlot ) -2 ,
1 , RGB (0 , 0 , 0) )
; Finished drawing .
StopDrawing ()
EndProcedure
Procedure PlotLegend ( alngPlot1 , alngPlot2 )
; Draws the legend on the image #drgPlot .
Protected . s strFunc1 , strFunc2 , strLabel1 , strLabel2 , strLabel3
; Set label text 1.
If alngPlot1 = 0
strFunc1 = " Sin ( X ) "
Else
strFunc1 = " Sin ( X * " + StrU ( alngPlot1 + 1) + " ) "
EndIf
; Set label text 2.
If alngPlot2 = 0
strFunc2 = " Sin ( X ) "
Else
strFunc2 = " Sin ( X * " + StrU ( alngPlot2 + 1) + " ) "
EndIf
; Set label
strLabel1 =
strLabel2 =
strLabel3 =
text .
" Y = " + strFunc1
" Y = " + strFunc2
" Y = " + strFunc1 + " + " + strFunc2
; Draw legend .
StartDrawing ( ImageOutput ( #drgPlot ) )
; Box .
DrawingMode ( # P B _ 2 D D r a w i ng _ O u t l i n e d )
Box (20 , 10 , TextWidth ( strLabel3 ) + 85 , 80 , RGB (0 , 0 , 0) )
; Label 1.
Line (30 , 30 , 50 , 1 , RGB (0 , 0 , 255) )
DrawText (95 , 22 , strLabel1 , RGB (0 , 0 , 0) , RGB (255 , 255 , 255) )
; Label 2.
Line (30 , 50 , 50 , 1 , RGB (0 , 255 , 200) )
DrawText (95 , 42 , strLabel2 , RGB (0 , 0 , 0) , RGB (255 , 255 , 255) )
; Label 3.
Line (30 , 70 , 50 , 1 , RGB (255 , 0 , 0) )
DrawText (95 , 62 , strLabel3 , RGB (0 , 0 , 0) , RGB (255 , 255 , 255) )
StopDrawing ()
EndProcedure
Procedure PlotFunction ( alngPlot1 , alngPlot2 )
; Draws the waveforms on the image #drgPlot .
Protected . l lngSX , lngEX
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Protected . f fltRad1 , fltRad2 , fltSY1 , fltEY1 , fltSY2 , fltEY2 ,
fltSY3 , fltEY3
StartDrawing ( ImageOutput ( #drgPlot ) )
; Set initial start points for each wave .
lngSX = 1
fltSY1 = ImageHeight ( #drgPlot ) / 2
fltSY2 = fltSY1
fltSY3 = fltSY1
; Plot wave forms .
For lngEX = 1 To 720
; Sine function works in radians , so convert from degrees and
calculate sine .
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; Function 1
If alngPlot1 = 0
fltRad1 = Sin ( Radian ( lngEX ) )
Else
; If the function should have a multiplier , account for this .
fltRad1 = Sin ( Radian ( lngEX ) * ( alngPlot1 + 1) )
EndIf
; Function 2
If alngPlot2 = 0
fltRad2 = Sin ( Radian ( lngEX ) )
Else
fltRad2 = Sin ( Radian ( lngEX ) * ( alngPlot2 + 1) )
EndIf
; Plot function 1 in blue .
; Calculate end Y point .
fltEY1 = ( ImageHeight ( #drgPlot ) / 2) + ( fltRad1 * 100)
; Draw a line from the start point to the end point .
LineXY ( lngSX , fltSY1 , lngEX , fltEY1 , RGB (0 , 0 , 255) )
; Update the next start Y point to be the current end Y point .
fltSY1 = fltEY1
; Plot function 2 in green .
fltEY2 = ( ImageHeight ( #drgPlot ) / 2) + ( fltRad2 * 100)
LineXY ( lngSX , fltSY2 , lngEX , fltEY2 , RGB (0 , 255 , 200) )
fltSY2 = fltEY2
; Plot harmonic in red .
fltEY3 = ( ImageHeight ( #drgPlot ) / 2) + (( fltRad1 + fltRad2 ) *
100)
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LineXY ( lngSX , fltSY3 , lngEX , fltEY3 , RGB (255 , 0 , 0) )
fltSY3 = fltEY3
; Update the start X point to be the current end X point .
lngSX = lngEX
Next lngEX
StopDrawing ()
EndProcedure
; - Main
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CreateWindow ()
PlotAxes ()
PlotLegend ( GetGadgetState ( #cboPlot1 ) , GetGadgetState ( #cboPlot2 ) )
PlotFunction ( GetGadgetState ( #cboPlot1 ) , GetGadgetState ( #cboPlot2 ) )
; Reload the image gadget now drawing is complete .
ImageGadget ( #imgPlot , #imgPlotX , #imgPlotY , #imgPlotW , #imgPlotH ,
ImageID ( #drgPlot ) , #PB_Image_Border )
; - Event loop
Repeat
Event = WaitWindowEvent ()
EventWindow = EventWindow ()
EventGadget = EventGadget ()
EventType = EventType ()
Select Event
Case #PB_Event_Gadget
If EventGadget = #txtPlot1 Or EventGadget = #txtPlot2
; Do nothing .
ElseIf EventGadget = #imgPlot
; Do nothing .
ElseIf EventGadget = #cboPlot1 Or EventGadget = #cboPlot2
; If one of the combo boxes changed , redraw the image .
PlotAxes ()
PlotLegend ( GetGadgetState ( #cboPlot1 ) ,
GetGadgetState ( #cboPlot2 ) )
PlotFunction ( GetGadgetState ( #cboPlot1 ) ,
GetGadgetState ( #cboPlot2 ) )
ImageGadget ( #imgPlot , #imgPlotX , #imgPlotY , #imgPlotW ,
#imgPlotH , ImageID ( #drgPlot ) , #PB_Image_Border )
EndIf
Case # P B _ E v e n t _ C l o s e W i n d o w
If EventWindow = #WinHarmonic
CloseWindow ( #WinHarmonic )
Break
EndIf
EndSelect
ForEver
UserGuide Navigation
< Previous: Building a graphical user interface (GUI) k Overview k Next: Structuring code in
Procedures >
248
Chapter 73
UserGuide - Building a graphical user
interface (GUI)
In addition to the console window , PureBasic supports the creation of graphical user interfaces (GUI)
too. So let’s revisit the file properties example from previous items again and turn it into a GUI
application.
Note that PureBasic provides a far easier way of getting this particular job done already - the
ExplorerListGadget() ; but, as the example is intended to introduce managing GUI elements, using that
gadget would defeat this object a bit.
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; The structure for file information as before .
Structure FILEITEM
Name . s
Attributes . i
Size . q
DateCreated . i
DateAccessed . i
DateModified . i
EndStructure
; This is a constant to identify the window .
Enumeration
#WindowFiles
EndEnumeration
; This is an enumeration to identify controls which will appear on
the window .
Enumeration
#Folder
#Files
EndEnumeration
; Now we define a list of files using the structure previously
specified .
NewList Files . FILEITEM ()
; And some working variables to make things happen .
Define . s Access , Attrib , Create , Folder , Modify , Msg , Num , Size
Define . l Result , Flags
; These variables will receive details of GUI events as they occur in
the program .
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Define . l Event , EventWindow , EventGadget , EventType , EventMenu
; This function gets the home directory for the logged on user .
Folder = GetHomeDirectory ()
; Open the directory to enumerate its contents .
Result = ExamineDirectory (0 , Folder , " *.* " )
; If this is ok , begin enumeration of entries .
If Result
; Loop through until Nex tD ir ect or yE ntr y (0) becomes zero indicating that there are no more entries .
While Nex tD ir ect or yE ntr y (0)
; If the directory entry is a file , not a folder .
If D ir ect or yE ntr yT yp e (0) = # P B _ D i r e c t o r y E n t r y _ F i l e
; Add a new element to the list .
AddElement ( Files () )
; And populate it with the properties of the file .
Files () \ Name = Di re ct ory En tr yNa me (0)
Files () \ Size = Di re ct ory En tr ySi ze (0)
Files () \ Attributes = D i r e c t o r y E n t r y A t t r i b u t e s (0)
Files () \ DateCreated = Di rec to ry Ent ry Da te (0 , #PB_Date_Created )
Files () \ DateAccessed = Di rec to ry Ent ry Da te (0 , #P B_Date_A ccessed )
Files () \ DateModified = Di rec to ry Ent ry Da te (0 , #P B_Date_M odified )
EndIf
Wend
; Close the directory .
FinishDirectory (0)
EndIf
; Sort the list into ascending alphabetical order of file name .
So rt St ruc tu re dLi st ( Files () , #PB_Sort_Ascending ,
OffsetOf ( FILEITEM \ Name ) , #PB_String )
; The interesting stuff starts to happen here ...
; This line defines a flag for the window attributes by OR - ing
together the desired attribute constants .
Flags = # P B _ W i n d o w _ S y s t e m M e nu | # P B _ W i n d o w _ S i z e G a d g e t |
#PB_Window_MinimizeGadget | #PB_Window_MaximizeGadget |
# PB _ W in d ow _ Ti t l eB a r
; Open a GUI window .
OpenWindow ( #WindowFiles , 50 , 50 , 450 , 400 , " File Properties " , Flags )
; A text gadget to show the name of the folder .
TextGadget ( #Folder , 5 , 40 , 440 , 25 , Folder )
; A list icon gadget to hold the file list and properties .
ListIconGadget ( #Files , 5 , 70 , 440 , 326 , " # " , 35)
; Add columns to the ListIconGadget to hold each property .
AddGadgetColumn ( #Files , 1 , " Name " , 200)
AddGadgetColumn ( #Files , 2 , " Created " , 100)
AddGadgetColumn ( #Files , 3 , " Accessed " , 100)
AddGadgetColumn ( #Files , 4 , " Modified " , 100)
AddGadgetColumn ( #Files , 5 , " Attributes " , 150)
AddGadgetColumn ( #Files , 6 , " Size " , 100)
; Load the files into the list view .
ForEach Files ()
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; Display the item number and file name .
Num = StrU ( ListIndex ( Files () ) + 1)
; These lines convert the three date
familiar .
Create = FormatDate ( " % dd /% mm /% yyyy " ,
Access = FormatDate ( " % dd /% mm /% yyyy " ,
Modify = FormatDate ( " % dd /% mm /% yyyy " ,
values to something more
Files () \ DateCreated )
Files () \ DateAccessed )
Files () \ DateModified )
; Convert the file size to a padded string the same as with the
index value above ,
; but allow space for the maximum size of a quad .
Size = StrU ( Files () \ Size )
; Convert the attributes to a string , for now .
Attrib = StrU ( Files () \ Attributes )
; Build a row string .
; The Line Feed character ’ Chr (10) ’ tells the gadget to move to the
next column .
Msg = Num + Chr (10) + Files () \ Name + Chr (10) + Create + Chr (10) +
Access + Chr (10) + Modify + Chr (10) + Attrib + Chr (10) + Size
; Add the row to the list view gadget .
AddGadgetItem ( #Files , -1 , Msg )
Next Files ()
; This is the event loop for the window .
; It will deal with all the user interaction events that we wish to
use .
Repeat
; Wait until a new window or gadget event occurs .
Event = WaitWindowEvent ()
; In programs with more than one form , which window did the event
occur on .
EventWindow = EventWindow ()
; Which gadget did the event occur on .
EventGadget = EventGadget ()
; What sort of event occurred .
EventType = EventType ()
; Take some action .
Select Event
Case #PB_Event_Gadget
; A gadget event occurred .
If EventGadget = #Folder
ElseIf EventGadget = #Files
EndIf
Case # P B _ E v e n t _ C l o s e W i n d o w
; The window was closed .
If EventWindow = #WindowFiles
CloseWindow ( #WindowFiles )
Break
EndIf
EndSelect
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; Go round and do it again .
; In practice the loop isn ’ t infinite because it can be stopped by
clicking the window ’ s Close button .
ForEver
At this point the application already has some useful features. However, it has some problems too:
1) You can’t choose a folder to show.
2) You can’t update the list contents without closing and restarting the program.
3) If you resize the window, the gadgets don’t resize with it.
4) The attributes column is still not very useful.
We will revisit this program again later on to fix all these issues.
UserGuide Navigation
< Previous: Displaying text output (Console) k Overview k Next: Displaying graphics output & simple
drawing >
252
Chapter 74
UserGuide - Input & Output
Every PureBasic application can communicate and interact with the user on different ways.
Thereby we distinguish between
a) the pure output of information
b) the interaction of the PureBasic application with the user, when user-input will be taken and the
results will be outputted again.
It’s not possible anymore, to use a simple ”PRINT” command to output some things on the screen, like
it was possible on DOS operating systems (OS) without a graphical user interface (GUI) years ago.
Today such a GUI is always present, when you use an actual OS like Windows, Mac OSX or Linux.
For the output of information we have different possibilities:
- Debug window (only possible during programming with PureBasic)
- MessageRequester() (output of shorter text messages in a requester window)
- Files (for saving the results in a text-file, etc.)
- Console (for simple and almost non-graphic text output, most similar to earlier DOS times)
- Windows and gadgets (standard windows with GUI elements on the desktop of the OS, e.g. for
applications)
- Screen (Output of text and graphics directly on the screen, e.g. for games)
To be able to record and process input by the user of the PureBasic application, the three
last-mentioned output options have also the possibility to get user-input:
- in the console using Input()
- in the window using WaitWindowEvent() / WindowEvent() , which can get the events occurred in the
window , like clicking on a button or the entered text in a StringGadget()
- in the graphics screen using the keyboard
- there is as well the possibility to get user-input using the InputRequester()
UserGuide Navigation
< Previous: Storing data in memory k Overview k Next: Displaying text output (Console) >
253
Chapter 75
UserGuide - Other Compiler keywords
<empty for now>
UserGuide Navigation
< Previous: Managing multiple windows k Overview k Next: Other Library functions >
254
Chapter 76
UserGuide - Other Library functions
<empty for now>
UserGuide Navigation
< Previous: Other Compiler keywords k Overview k Next: Advanced functions >
255
Chapter 77
UserGuide - Loops
Data, Events or many other things can also be processed using loops, which are always checked for a
specific condition. Loops can be: Repeat : Until , Repeat : Forever , While : Wend , For : Next ,
ForEach : Next .
In this loop the counter A is increased by two each time, this loop will always perform the same number
of iterations.
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Define . i A
For A = 0 To 10 Step 2
Debug A
Next A
This loop will increment the variable B by a random amount between 0 and 20 each time, until B
exceeds 100. The number of iterations actually performed in the loop will vary depending on the random
numbers. The check is performed at the start of the loop - so if the condition is already true, zero
iterations may be performed. Take the ; away from the second line to see this happen.
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Define . i B
; B = 100
While B < 100
B + Random (20)
Debug B
Wend
This loop is very similar to the last except that the check is performed at the end of the loop. So one
iteration, at least, will be performed. Again remove the ; from the second line to demonstrate.
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Define . i C
; C = 100
Repeat
C + Random (20)
Debug C
Until C > 99
This loop is infinite. It won’t stop until you stop it (use the red X button on the IDE toolbar).
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Define . i D
Repeat
Debug D
ForEver
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There is a special loop for working with lists and maps , it will iterate every member of the list (or map)
in turn.
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NewList Fruit . s ()
AddElement ( Fruit () )
Fruit () = " Banana "
AddElement ( Fruit () )
Fruit () = " Apple "
AddElement ( Fruit () )
Fruit () = " Pear "
AddElement ( Fruit () )
Fruit () = " Orange "
ForEach Fruit ()
Debug Fruit ()
Next Fruit ()
UserGuide Navigation
< Previous: Decisions & Conditions k Overview k Next: String Manipulation >
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Chapter 78
UserGuide - Memory access
Some PureBasic instructions, for example those from the Cipher library and many operating system API
calls, require a pointer to a memory buffer as an argument rather than the data directly itself.
PureBasic provides a number of instructions to manipulate memory buffers to facilitate this.
This example uses a buffer to read a file from disk into memory. It then converts the buffer content into
a hexadecimal and text display in a ListIconGadget() as a simple hex viewer application.
An ExplorerListGadget() is used to display the contents of the user’s home directory, initially, and to
allow selection of a file. Two buttons are provided, one to display a file and another to clear the display.
The ListIcon Gadget is divided into nine columns , the first shows the base offset of each line in the list,
the next show eight byte values offset from the base value and the ninth shows the string equivalent of
these eight values.
Two pointers are used - the first (*Buffer) contains the memory address of the complete file. The second
(*Byte), in the procedure ”FileDisplay”, demonstrates the use of pointer arithmetic and the Peek
instruction to obtain individual values from within the buffer.
Finally, the ”FileClose” procedure demonstrates the use of the FillMemory() instruction to overwrite the
buffer’s contents and FreeMemory() to de-allocate the memory buffer.
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; - Compiler Directives
EnableExplicit
; - Constants
; Window
Enumeration
#WindowHex
EndEnumeration
; Gadgets
Enumeration
#GadgetFiles
#GadgetOpen
#GadgetClose
#GadgetHex
EndEnumeration
; - Variables
Define . l Event , EventWindow , EventGadget , EventType , EventMenu
Define . l Length
Define . s File
Define * Buffer
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; - Declarations
Declare WindowCreate ()
Declare WindowResize ()
Declare FileClose ()
Declare FileDisplay ()
Declare FileRead ()
; - Implementation
Procedure WindowCreate ()
; Create the window .
Protected . l Col
Protected . s Label
If OpenWindow ( #WindowHex , 50 , 50 , 500 , 400 , " Hex View " ,
#PB_Window_SystemMenu | #PB_Window_SizeGadget |
# P B _ W i n d o w _ M i n i m i z e G a d g e t | # P B_ W i nd o w_ T it l e Ba r )
; Set minimum window size .
WindowBounds ( #WindowHex , 175 , 175 , #PB_Ignore , #PB_Ignore )
; Create Explorer List and set to user ’ s home directory .
Ex pl or erL is tG adg et ( #GadgetFiles , 5 , 5 , 430 , 175 ,
GetHomeDirectory () )
; Buttons .
ButtonGadget ( #GadgetOpen , 5 , 185 , 80 , 25 , " Open " )
ButtonGadget ( #GadgetClose , 100 , 185 , 80 , 25 , " Close " )
; List Icon Gadget .
ListIconGadget ( #GadgetHex , 5 , 215 , 490 , 180 , " Offset " , 80 ,
#PB_ListIcon_AlwaysShowSelection | #PB_ListIcon_GridLines |
#PB_ListIcon_FullRowSelect )
; Column Headings .
For Col = 0 To 7
Label = RSet ( Hex ( Col , #PB_Byte ) , 2 , " 0 " )
AddGadgetColumn ( #GadgetHex , Col + 1 , Label , 38)
Next Col
AddGadgetColumn ( #GadgetHex , 9 , " Text " , 80)
EndIf
EndProcedure
Procedure WindowResize ()
; Resize gadgets to new window size .
Protected . l X , Y , W , H
; Explorer List
W = WindowWidth ( #WindowHex ) - 10
H = ( WindowHeight ( #WindowHex ) - 35) / 2
ResizeGadget ( #GadgetFiles , #PB_Ignore , #PB_Ignore , W , H )
; Buttons
Y = GadgetHeight ( #GadgetFiles ) + 10
ResizeGadget ( #GadgetOpen , #PB_Ignore , Y , #PB_Ignore , #PB_Ignore )
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ResizeGadget ( #GadgetClose , #PB_Ignore , Y , #PB_Ignore , #PB_Ignore )
; List Icon View
Y = ( WindowHeight ( #WindowHex ) / 2) + 23
W = WindowWidth ( #WindowHex ) - 10
H = WindowHeight ( #WindowHex ) - ( Y + 5)
ResizeGadget ( #GadgetHex , #PB_Ignore , Y , W , H )
EndProcedure
Procedure FileClose ()
; Clear the list view and release the memory buffer .
Shared Length , * Buffer
ClearGadgetItems ( #GadgetHex )
FillMemory (* Buffer , Length )
FreeMemory (* Buffer )
EndProcedure
Procedure FileDisplay ()
; Display the file buffer in the list view .
Shared Length , * Buffer
Protected * Byte
Protected Peek
Protected . l Rows , Cols , Offset
Protected . s OffsetString , Row , String
; Clear current contents .
ClearGadgetItems ( #GadgetHex )
; Loop through rows .
For Rows = 0 To Length - 1 Step 8
; Clear the text value for each row .
String = " "
; Convert the offset value to a fixed length string .
Row = RSet ( Hex ( Rows , #PB_Long ) , 6 , " 0 " ) + Chr (10)
; Loop through columns .
For Cols = 0 To 7
; Calculate the offset for the current column .
Offset = Rows + Cols
; Compare the offset with the file length .
If Offset < Length
; The offset is less than the length of the file .
; Obtain the byte from the buffer .
* Byte = * Buffer + Offset
Peek = PeekB (* Byte )
; Convert the byte to text .
Row + RSet ( Hex ( Peek , #PB_Byte ) , 2 , " 0 " ) + Chr (10)
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; Add the character to the text version .
Select Peek
Case 0 To 31 , 127
; Unprintable characters .
String + Chr (129)
Default
; Printable characters .
String + Chr ( Peek )
EndSelect
Else
; The offset is greater than the length of the file .
; Add an empty column .
Row + Chr (10)
EndIf
Next Cols
; Add the text version at the end of the hex columns .
Row + String
; Add the completed row to the list view .
AddGadgetItem ( #GadgetHex , -1 , Row )
Next Rows
EndProcedure
Procedure FileRead ()
; Read the file into the memory buffer .
Shared Length , File , * Buffer
Protected . b ReadByte
Protected . l FileNumber , ReadLong , Size
; Stop if file is empty .
If File = " "
ProcedureReturn
EndIf
; Stop if file size is invalid .
Size = FileSize ( File )
If Size < 1
ProcedureReturn
EndIf
; Open the file .
FileNumber = OpenFile ( #PB_Any , File )
Length = Lof ( FileNumber )
If File And Length
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; Allocate a memory buffer to hold the file .
* Buffer = AllocateMemory ( Length )
; Read the file into the buffer .
Length = ReadData ( FileNumber , * Buffer , Length )
EndIf
; Close the file .
CloseFile ( FileNumber )
EndProcedure
; - Main
WindowCreate ()
; - Event Loop
Repeat
; Obtain event parameters .
Event = WaitWindowEvent ()
EventGadget = EventGadget ()
EventType = EventType ()
EventWindow = EventWindow ()
; Handle events .
Select Event
Case #PB_Event_Gadget
If EventGadget = #GadgetFiles
; Do nothing .
ElseIf EventGadget = #GadgetOpen
File = GetGadgetText ( #GadgetFiles ) +
GetG adgetItem Text ( #GadgetFiles , GetGadgetState ( #GadgetFiles ) )
If FileSize ( File ) > 0
FileRead ()
FileDisplay ()
EndIf
ElseIf EventGadget = #GadgetClose
FileClose ()
ElseIf EventGadget = #GadgetHex
; Do nothing .
EndIf
Case # P B _ E v e n t _ C l o s e W i n d o w
If EventWindow = #WindowHex
CloseWindow ( #WindowHex )
Break
EndIf
Case # P B _E v e n t _ S i z e W i n d o w
WindowResize ()
EndSelect
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ForEver
UserGuide Navigation
< Previous: Reading and writing files k Overview k Next: Dynamic numbering using #PB_Any >
263
Chapter 79
UserGuide - Overview
We start programming... this part of the PureBasic manual should guide you through some basic stuff,
which you should learn while starting to program with PureBasic.
The following topics in this chapter should give you some ideas, where to start with PureBasic. It
shouldn’t replace any larger tutorial or the massive information, which can be found on the popular
PureBasic forums . So the following information texts are short, but they include some ”keywords” and
links to further information, which are included in this reference manual. This chapter covers only a
small part of the 1500+ commands available in PureBasic!
Topics in this chapter:
-
First steps
Variables and Processing of variables
Constants
Decisions & Conditions
Loops
String Manipulation
Storing data in memory
Input & Output
Displaying text output (Console)
Building a graphical user interface (GUI)
Displaying graphics output & simple drawing
Structuring code in Procedures
Compiler directives (for different behavior on different OS)
Reading and writing files
Memory access
Dynamic numbering using #PB_Any
Managing multiple windows with different content
Other Compiler keywords
Other Library functions
Advanced functions
Some Tips & Tricks
UserGuide Navigation
Reference manual k Next: First steps >
264
Chapter 80
UserGuide - Dynamic numbering of
windows and gadgets using #PB_Any
If youve looked at the help articles for the OpenWindow command or for any of the gadget creation
commands (for example ButtonGadget() ) or if you have experimented with the Form Designer tool, you
may have noticed references to a special constant called #PB_Any . In this article were going to look
into this a little further to find out why its so important.
So far all of our examples have used a group of constants, an enumeration , to identify a single window
and each gadget on that window. This is fine in the simple programs weve demonstrated so far but
presents a problem in more complex programs only one of each of these windows can exist at the same
time.
So what happens if a program needs to provide more than one copy of a window? Maybe to have several
files open at once or possibly to provide several different views of the same file.
This is where the special #PB_Any constant comes in. When this constant is used as the argument to
the functions that support it, a unique reference number is automatically generated and returned as a
result of the function.
Providing we keep track of all these references we can use this to our advantage. Organising this is a
little more complex than the examples weve seen so far but the increased flexibility that it can provide
makes this well worth the effort.
This example program provides a window upon which a regular polygon is drawn in blue on a
circumscribing grey circle. A combo box is provided to allow a selection of polygons to be drawn. A
menu is provided to allow the creation of new windows or the closing of the current window.
There are several things to notice about this program:
In the Enumerations section, note that there are only enumerations for the menu items .
These will be shared on all the windows although each window will have its own menu bar.
In the Structures section, note that the POLYGONWINDOW structure contains four integer
values and so provides a place to store references for a menu bar, a label, a combo box and
an image plot.
In the Variables section note that in addition to the usual variables to receive event details, a
map called ActiveWindows is created using the POLYGONWINDOW structure previously
defined.
Look at the CreatePolygonWindow procedure .
When we create the window we capture the result of the OpenWindow() function in a
variable called ThisWindow. We then convert this to a string value and use this as the key
for a new map entry.
265
When we then create the menu , label , combo and image gadgets on the new window the
references returned by these functions are stored in the map too.
Look at the ResizePolygonWindow procedure.
Notice how the value of EventWindow is passed in from the event loop into this procedure.
This value is then used to retrieve child control references from the map and these references
are then used to resize the gadgets.
Look at the DestroyPolygonWindow procedure.
Here the child control references are removed from the map when a window is closed. If the
map size reaches zero there are no more open windows and DestroyPolygonWindow sets an
event flag to tell the program to end.
Start the program up.
- Use the New Window menu item to open up two or three new polygon windows.
- Use the combo box in each one to select a different shape notice that each window works
independently of all the others.
- Resize some of the windows notice that they can all be resized independently of each other
and that the polygon resizes with the window too.
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Finally, note that a map isnt the only way to achieve this effect, a List or an Array could be used to do
the job too, if you prefer, although the code to implement these alternatives would need to be slightly
different to that presented here because of the differences in the way those collections work.
; Compiler Directives
EnableExplicit
; Constants
CompilerIf Defined ( Blue , #PB_Constant ) = #False
#Blue = 16711680
#Gray = 8421504
#White = 16777215
CompilerEndIf
; - Enumerations
; The menu commands will be the same on all the windows .
Enumeration
#MenuNew
#MenuClose
EndEnumeration
; - Structures
; This structure will hold references to the unique elements of a
window .
Structure POLYGONWINDOW
Menu . i
LabelSides . i
ComboSides . i
ImagePlot . i
EndStructure
; - Variables
; This map uses the previously defined structure to hold references
for all the open windows .
NewMap ActiveWindows . POLYGONWINDOW ()
; Event variables .
Define . i Event , EventWindow , EventGadget , EventType , EventMenu ,
EventQuit
Define . s EventWindowKey
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; Implementation .
Procedure . i Cr e at e P ol y go n W ind ow ()
; Creates a new window and gadgets , adding it and its child gadgets
to the tracking map .
Shared ActiveWindows ()
Protected . i ThisWindow
Protected . s ThisKey
ThisWindow = OpenWindow ( #PB_Any , 50 , 50 , 300 , 300 , " Polygon " ,
#PB_Window_SystemMenu | #PB_Window_SizeGadget |
# P B _ W i n d o w _ M i n i m i z e G a d g e t | # P B_ W i nd o w_ T it l e Ba r )
WindowBounds ( ThisWindow , 250 , 250 , #PB_Ignore , #PB_Ignore )
If ThisWindow
; Maps take a string value as key so convert the integer
ThisWindow to a string .
ThisKey = StrU ( ThisWindow )
; Add a map element to hold the new gadget references .
AddMapElement ( ActiveWindows () , ThisKey )
; Create the menu bar .
ActiveWindows ( ThisKey ) \ Menu = CreateMenu ( #PB_Any ,
WindowID ( ThisWindow ) )
MenuTitle ( " Window " )
MenuItem ( #MenuNew , " New Window " )
MenuItem ( #MenuClose , " Close Window " )
; Create the child gadgets and store their references in the map .
With ActiveWindows ()
; A label for the combo .
\ LabelSides = TextGadget ( #PB_Any , 5 , 5 , 150 , 20 , " Number of
Sides : " )
; The Sides combo .
\ ComboSides = ComboBoxGadget ( #PB_Any , 160 , 5 , 100 , 25)
AddGadgetItem (\ ComboSides , 0 , " Triangle " )
AddGadgetItem (\ ComboSides , 1 , " Diamond " )
AddGadgetItem (\ ComboSides , 2 , " Pentagon " )
AddGadgetItem (\ ComboSides , 3 , " Hexagon " )
AddGadgetItem (\ ComboSides , 4 , " Heptagon " )
AddGadgetItem (\ ComboSides , 5 , " Octagon " )
AddGadgetItem (\ ComboSides , 6 , " Nonagon " )
AddGadgetItem (\ ComboSides , 7 , " Decagon " )
; Select Triangle .
SetGadgetState (\ ComboSides , 0)
; The visual image gadget on the window .
\ ImagePlot = ImageGadget ( #PB_Any , 5 , 35 , 290 , 240 , 0 ,
#PB_Image_Border )
EndWith
EndIf
; Return the reference to the new window .
ProcedureReturn ThisWindow
EndProcedure
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Procedure D e s t r o y P o l y go n W i n do w ( Window . i )
; Remove Window from the ActiveWindows map , close the window and
set the quit flag , if appropriate .
Shared EventQuit , ActiveWindows ()
Protected . s ThisKey
; Convert the integer Window to a string .
ThisKey = StrU ( Window )
; Delete the map entry .
DeleteMapElement ( ActiveWindows () , ThisKey )
; Close the window .
CloseWindow ( Window )
; Check if there are still open windows .
If MapSize ( ActiveWindows () ) = 0
EventQuit = #True
EndIf
EndProcedure
Procedure . i Re s iz e P ol y go n W ind ow ( Window . i )
; Resize the child gadgets on Window .
; In practice only the ImageGadget needs to be resized in this
example .
Shared ActiveWindows ()
Protected . i ThisImage
Protected . i X , Y , W , H
Protected . s ThisKey
; Obtain references to the affected gadgets from the map .
ThisKey = StrU ( Window )
ThisImage = ActiveWindows ( ThisKey ) \ ImagePlot
; Resize gadgets .
W = WindowWidth ( Window ) - 15
H = WindowHeight ( Window ) - 70
ResizeGadget ( ThisImage , #PB_Ignore , #PB_Ignore , W , H )
EndProcedure
Procedure PlotPolygon ( Window . i )
; Draw the polygon image and transfer it to the image gadget .
Shared ActiveWindows ()
Protected . f Radius , OriginX , OriginY , StartX , StartY , EndX , EndY
Protected . i Sides , Vertex , Width , Height , ThisCombo , ThisImage ,
ThisPlot
Protected . s ThisKey
; Obtain references to the affected gadgets from the map .
ThisKey = StrU ( Window )
ThisCombo = ActiveWindows ( ThisKey ) \ ComboSides
ThisImage = ActiveWindows ( ThisKey ) \ ImagePlot
; Calculate dimensions and origin .
Sides = GetGadgetState ( ThisCombo ) + 3
Width = GadgetWidth ( ThisImage ) - 4
Height = GadgetHeight ( ThisImage ) - 4
OriginX = Width /2
OriginY = Height /2
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If Width < Height
Radius = OriginX - 50
Else
Radius = OriginY - 50
EndIf
; Create a new image .
ThisPlot = CreateImage ( #PB_Any , Width , Height )
StartDrawing ( ImageOutput ( ThisPlot ) )
; Draw a white background .
Box (0 , 0 , Width , Height , #White )
; Draw a gray circumscribing circle .
Circle ( OriginX , OriginY , Radius , #Gray )
; Draw the polygon .
For Vertex = 0 To Sides
; Calculate side start point .
StartX = OriginX + ( Radius * Cos (2 * #PI * Vertex / Sides ) )
StartY = OriginY + ( Radius * Sin (2 * #PI * Vertex / Sides ) )
; and end point .
EndX = OriginX + ( Radius * Cos (2 * #PI * ( Vertex + 1) / Sides ) )
EndY = OriginY + ( Radius * Sin (2 * #PI * ( Vertex + 1) / Sides ) )
; Draw the side in blue .
LineXY ( StartX , StartY , EndX , EndY , #Blue )
Next Vertex
; Fill the polygon in blue
FillArea ( OriginX , OriginY , #Blue , #Blue )
StopDrawing ()
; Transfer the image contents to the visible gadget .
SetGadgetState ( ThisImage , ImageID ( ThisPlot ) )
; Destroy the temporary image .
FreeImage ( ThisPlot )
EndProcedure
; - Main
; Create the first window .
EventWindow = Cr e at e P ol y go n Win d ow ()
R es i ze P o ly g on W i nd o w ( EventWindow )
PlotPolygon ( EventWindow )
; - Event loop
Repeat
Event = WaitWindowEvent ()
EventWindow = EventWindow ()
EventWindowKey = StrU ( EventWindow )
EventGadget = EventGadget ()
EventType = EventType ()
EventMenu = EventMenu ()
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Select Event
Case #PB_Event_Gadget
; A gadget event has occurred .
If EventGadget = ActiveWindows ( EventWindowKey ) \ LabelSides
; Do nothing .
ElseIf EventGadget = ActiveWindows ( EventWindowKey ) \ ComboSides
; If the combo box changes , redraw the image .
PlotPolygon ( EventWindow )
; Update the windows title to reflect the new shape .
SetWindowTitle ( EventWindow ,
GetGadgetText ( ActiveWindows ( EventWindowKey ) \ ComboSides ) )
ElseIf EventGadget = ActiveWindows ( EventWindowKey ) \ ImagePlot
; Do nothing .
EndIf
Case #PB_Event_Menu
; A menu event has occurred .
If EventMenu = #MenuNew
EventWindow = Cr e at e P ol y go n W in d ow ()
R es i ze P o ly g on W i nd o w ( EventWindow )
PlotPolygon ( EventWindow )
ElseIf EventMenu = #MenuClose
D e s t r o y P o l y go n W i n d o w ( EventWindow )
EndIf
Case #PB_Ev ent_Repa int
; A window ’ s content has been invalidated .
PlotPolygon ( EventWindow )
Case # P B _E v e n t _ S i z e W i n d o w
; A window has been resized .
R es i ze P o ly g on W i nd o w ( EventWindow )
PlotPolygon ( EventWindow )
Case # P B _ E v e n t _ C l o s e W i n d o w
; A window has been closed .
D e s t r o y P o l y go n W i n d o w ( EventWindow )
EndSelect
Until EventQuit = #True
UserGuide Navigation
< Previous: Memory access k Overview k Next: Managing multiple windows >
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Chapter 81
UserGuide - Managing multiple
windows with different content
In the previous article we examined one way in which a program can support multiple instances of a
single type of window . In this one we are going to extend this concept further developing a program
that can support multiple instances of several different types of window, in this case three:
- The Button window contains a list view and two buttons labelled ’Add’ and ’Remove’.
When the ’Add’ button is clicked a random integer is added to the list view, when the
’Remove’ button is clicked the currently highlighted entry in the list view is removed.
- The Date window contains a list view and two buttons in the same way as the Button
window but also contains a calendar gadget too, the window layout is altered to
accommodate this additional control. When the ’Add’ button is clicked, it is the currently
selected date that is added to the list view. - The Track window contains two track bars ,
with a value between 0 and 100, and a string gadget . When the track bars are moved the
string gadget is updated with the value of the second track bar subtracted from the first.
Each window contains a menu bar with items to create a new instance of any of the three supported
window types or to close the current window.
Things to notice about this program are:
In the Structures section 4 structures are defined. The first, BASEWINDOW, defines a WindowClass
value and a Menu value these values are common to each window type.
The remaining structures extend the BASEWINDOW structure with values for each of the unique
controls that they require and which are not provided for by the BASEWINDOW structure.
In the Variables section note that again a map called ActiveWindows is created, however this time it is
of integer type, it doesnt use any of the defined structures. There is a good reason for this, we need to
store three different structure types to make this program work and we cant do this in a single map.
Also notice that *EventGadgets is defined using the BASEWINDOW structure.
Now look at the CreateButtonWindow procedure . As before we use #PB_Any to create the window
and all the gadgets .
However this time the results are not stored directly in the ActiveWindows map. Instead we use the
AllocateMemory function to allocate memory for a BUTTONWINDOW structure, we then store a
pointer to this memory allocation in the ActiveWindows map. This is how we get around the problem of
not being able to store all three of the different structures in the same map.
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We also set the WindowClass value in the structure to #WindowClassButton to indicate which type of
window, and therefore which type of structure, has been created we will need to know this later on.
There are two more CreateWindow procedures this time one for each class of the other window types.
They work in a similar way to that described, differing only where the windows gadgets are different and
setting a different value in WindowClass.
Similarly we provide DestroyWindow and ResizeWindow procedures to take care of these functions.
We also provide a new procedure EventsButtonWindow. This procedure knows what to do when any of
the gadgets on the window are activated by the user. Similar procedures are provided for the other
window types too.
In all these procedures we use the ActiveWindows map to retrieve the pointer to the memory allocation.
We can then use this pointer to retrieve the references to the actual controls that we need to work with
in each of these procedures:
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* ThisData = ActiveWindows ( ThisKey )
* ThisData \ ListView ...
Each procedure only knows how to handle one type of window so before we start work we check the
WindowClass value to make sure that a window of the correct type has been supplied as the argument
something like this:
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If * ThisData \ WindowClass <> #W in do wCl as sB utt on
The event loop is a bit different too. For each event type there is a determination like this:
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; Use * EventGadgets \ WindowClass to call the correct resize window
procedure .
Select * EventGadgets \ WindowClass ...
Although the memory allocations actually made by the CreateWindow procedures will be of the
BUTTONWINDOW, DATEWINDOW or TRACKWINDOW type we can use *EventGadgets this way
because it is defined as the BASEWINDOW type and BASEWINDOW is the ancestor structure to the
other structures.
Providing we dont attempt to change any of the stored values using *EventGadgets and weve no reason
to do so all should be well.
Finally, we despatch the recorded event values in EventWindow, EventGadget, EventType straight
through to the event procedures and let them worry about getting the jobs done.
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; - Constants
#DateFormat = " % dd /% mm /% yyyy "
; - Enumerations
Enumeration
#W in do wCl as sB utt on = 1
#WindowClassDate
#Wind owClassT rack
EndEnumeration
; The menu commands will be the same on all the windows .
Enumeration
#MenuNewButton
#MenuNewDate
#MenuNewTrack
#MenuClose
EndEnumeration
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; - Structures
Structure BASEWINDOW
WindowClass . i
Menu . i
EndStructure
Structure BUTTONWINDOW Extends BASEWINDOW
ListView . i
AddButton . i
RemoveButton . i
EndStructure
Structure DATEWINDOW Extends BASEWINDOW
Calendar . i
AddButton . i
RemoveButton . i
ListView . i
EndStructure
Structure TRACKWINDOW Extends BASEWINDOW
TrackBar1 . i
TrackBar2 . i
Label . i
Difference . i
EndStructure
; - Variables
; This map will track all the active windows as before , however as
the structure for each window class
; differs we will be storing pointers to structures in the map not
the gadget references directly .
NewMap ActiveWindows . i ()
; These values will be used to give new windows a unique label .
Define . i Buttons , Dates , Tracks
; Event variables .
; Notice the type of * EventGadgets .
Define . i Event , EventWindow , EventGadget , EventType , EventMenu ,
EventQuit
Define . s EventWindowKey
Define * EventGadgets . BASEWINDOW
; - Button Window
Procedure . i C re at eBu tt on Win do w ()
; Creates a new Button window and adds it to the tracking map ,
; allocates memory for gadget references , creates the gadgets
; and stores these references in the memory structure .
Shared Buttons , ActiveWindows ()
Protected * ThisData . BUTTONWINDOW
Protected . i ThisWindow
Protected . s ThisKey , ThisTitle
; Set the window caption .
Buttons + 1
ThisTitle = " Button Window " + StrU ( Buttons )
; Open the window .
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ThisWindow = OpenWindow ( #PB_Any , 30 , 30 , 225 , 300 , ThisTitle ,
#PB_Window_SystemMenu | #PB_Window_SizeGadget |
# P B _ W i n d o w _ M i n i m i z e G a d g e t | # P B_ W i nd o w_ T it l e Ba r )
; Check that the OpenWindow command worked .
If ThisWindow
; Set minimum window dimensions .
WindowBounds ( ThisWindow , 220 , 100 , #PB_Ignore , #PB_Ignore )
; Convert the window reference to a string to use as the map key
value .
ThisKey = StrU ( ThisWindow )
; Allocate memory to store the gadget references in .
* ThisData = AllocateMemory ( SizeOf ( BUTTONWINDOW ) )
EndIf
; Check that the memory allocation worked .
If * ThisData
; Store the window reference and memory pointer values in the map .
ActiveWindows ( ThisKey ) = * ThisData
; Set the window class .
* ThisData \ WindowClass = #W ind ow Cl ass Bu tt on
; Create the menu bar .
* ThisData \ Menu = CreateMenu ( #PB_Any , WindowID ( ThisWindow ) )
; If the menu creation worked , create the menu items .
If * ThisData \ Menu
MenuTitle ( " Window " )
MenuItem ( #MenuNewButton , " New Button Window " )
MenuItem ( #MenuNewDate , " New Date Window " )
MenuItem ( #MenuNewTrack , " New Track Window " )
MenuItem ( #MenuClose , " Close Window " )
EndIf
; Create the window gadgets .
* ThisData \ ListView = ListViewGadget ( #PB_Any , 10 , 10 , 200 , 225)
* ThisData \ AddButton = ButtonGadget ( #PB_Any , 15 , 245 , 90 , 30 ,
" Add " )
* ThisData \ RemoveButton = ButtonGadget ( #PB_Any , 115 , 245 , 90 , 30 ,
" Remove " )
Else
; Memory allocation failed .
CloseWindow ( ThisWindow )
EndIf
; Set the return value .
If ThisWindow > 0 And * ThisData > 0
; Return the reference to the new window .
ProcedureReturn ThisWindow
Else
; Return 0
ProcedureReturn 0
EndIf
EndProcedure
Procedure . i De s tr o y Bu t to n W ind ow ( Window . i )
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; Remove Window from the ActiveWindows map , release the allocated
memory ,
; close the window and set the quit flag , if appropriate .
Shared EventQuit , ActiveWindows ()
Protected * ThisData . BUTTONWINDOW
Protected . s ThisKey
; Convert the integer Window to a string .
ThisKey = StrU ( Window )
; Obtain the reference structure pointer .
* ThisData = ActiveWindows ( ThisKey )
; Check that a valid pointer was obtained , if not stop .
If * ThisData = 0
ProcedureReturn #False
EndIf
; Check that it is the correct window type , if not stop .
If * ThisData \ WindowClass <> #W in do wCl as sB utt on
ProcedureReturn #False
EndIf
; Release the memory allocation .
FreeMemory (* ThisData )
; Delete the map entry .
DeleteMapElement ( ActiveWindows () , ThisKey )
; Close the window .
CloseWindow ( Window )
; Check if there are still open windows .
If MapSize ( ActiveWindows () ) = 0
EventQuit = #True
EndIf
; Set the successful return value .
ProcedureReturn #True
EndProcedure
Procedure . i R es iz eBu tt on Win do w ( Window . i )
; Resize the child gadgets on Window .
Shared ActiveWindows ()
Protected * ThisData . BUTTONWINDOW
Protected . i X , Y , W , H
Protected . s ThisKey
; Obtain the reference structure pointer .
ThisKey = StrU ( Window )
* ThisData = ActiveWindows ( ThisKey )
; Check that a valid pointer was obtained , if not stop .
If * ThisData = 0
ProcedureReturn #False
EndIf
; Check that it is the correct window type , if not stop .
If * ThisData \ WindowClass <> #W in do wCl as sB utt on
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ProcedureReturn #False
EndIf
; Resize list view .
W = WindowWidth ( Window ) - 25
H = WindowHeight ( Window ) - 85
ResizeGadget (* ThisData \ ListView , #PB_Ignore , #PB_Ignore , W , H )
; Recenter buttons .
X = WindowWidth ( Window ) /2 - 95
Y = WindowHeight ( Window ) - 65
ResizeGadget (* ThisData \ AddButton , X , Y , #PB_Ignore , #PB_Ignore )
X = WindowWidth ( Window ) /2 + 5
ResizeGadget (* ThisData \ RemoveButton , X , Y , #PB_Ignore , #PB_Ignore )
ProcedureReturn #True
EndProcedure
Procedure . i E ve nt sBu tt on Win do w ( Window , Gadget , Type )
; Handle events for a button window .
Shared Buttons , ActiveWindows ()
Protected * ThisData . BUTTONWINDOW
Protected . i NewValue , Index
Protected . s ThisKey
; Convert the integer Window to a string .
ThisKey = StrU ( Window )
; Obtain the reference structure pointer .
* ThisData = ActiveWindows ( ThisKey )
; Check that a valid pointer was obtained , if not stop .
If * ThisData = 0
ProcedureReturn #False
EndIf
; Check that it is the correct window type , if not stop .
If * ThisData \ WindowClass <> #W in do wCl as sB utt on
ProcedureReturn #False
EndIf
Select Gadget
Case * ThisData \ AddButton
NewValue = Random (2147483647)
AddGadgetItem (* ThisData \ ListView , -1 , StrU ( NewValue ) )
Case * ThisData \ RemoveButton
Index = GetGadgetState (* ThisData \ ListView )
If Index >= 0 And Index <= CountGadgetItems (* ThisData \ ListView )
RemoveGadgetItem (* ThisData \ ListView , Index )
EndIf
Case * ThisData \ ListView
; Do nothing .
EndSelect
EndProcedure
; - Date Window
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Procedure . i CreateDateWindow ()
; Creates a new Date window and adds it to the tracking map ,
; allocates memory for gadget references , creates the gadgets
; and stores these references in the memory Structure .
Shared Dates , ActiveWindows ()
Protected * ThisData . DATEWINDOW
Protected . i ThisWindow
Protected . s ThisKey , ThisTitle
Dates + 1
ThisTitle = " Date Window " + StrU ( Dates )
ThisWindow = OpenWindow ( #PB_Any , 30 , 30 , 310 , 420 , ThisTitle ,
#PB_Window_SystemMenu | #PB_Window_SizeGadget |
# P B _ W i n d o w _ M i n i m i z e G a d g e t | # P B_ W i nd o w_ T it l e Ba r )
; Check that the OpenWindow command worked .
If ThisWindow
; Set minimum window dimensions .
WindowBounds ( ThisWindow , 310 , 245 , #PB_Ignore , #PB_Ignore )
; Convert the window reference to a string to use as the map key
value .
ThisKey = StrU ( ThisWindow )
; Allocate memory to store the gadget references in .
* ThisData = AllocateMemory ( SizeOf ( DATEWINDOW ) )
EndIf
; Check that the memory allocation worked .
If * ThisData
; Store the window reference and memory pointer values in the map .
ActiveWindows ( ThisKey ) = * ThisData
; Set the window class .
* ThisData \ WindowClass = #WindowClassDate
; Create the menu bar .
* ThisData \ Menu = CreateMenu ( #PB_Any , WindowID ( ThisWindow ) )
; If the menu creation worked , create the menu items .
If * ThisData \ Menu
MenuTitle ( " Window " )
MenuItem ( #MenuNewButton , " New Button Window " )
MenuItem ( #MenuNewDate , " New Date Window " )
MenuItem ( #MenuNewTrack , " New Track Window " )
MenuItem ( #MenuClose , " Close Window " )
EndIf
; Create the window gadgets .
* ThisData \ Calendar = CalendarGadget ( #PB_Any , 10 , 10 , 182 , 162)
* ThisData \ AddButton = ButtonGadget ( #PB_Any , 210 , 10 , 90 , 30 ,
" Add " )
* ThisData \ RemoveButton = ButtonGadget ( #PB_Any , 210 , 45 , 90 , 30 ,
" Remove " )
* ThisData \ ListView = ListViewGadget ( #PB_Any , 10 , 187 , 290 , 200)
Else
; Memory allocation failed .
CloseWindow ( ThisWindow )
EndIf
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; Set the return value .
If ThisWindow > 0 And * ThisData > 0
; Return the reference to the new window .
ProcedureReturn ThisWindow
Else
; Return 0
ProcedureReturn 0
EndIf
EndProcedure
Procedure . i Dest royDateW indow ( Window . i )
; Remove Window from the ActiveWindows map , release the allocated
memory ,
; close the window and set the quit flag , if appropriate .
Shared EventQuit , ActiveWindows ()
Protected * ThisData . DATEWINDOW
Protected . s ThisKey
; Convert the integer Window to a string .
ThisKey = StrU ( Window )
; Obtain the reference structure pointer .
* ThisData = ActiveWindows ( ThisKey )
; Check that a valid pointer was obtained .
If * ThisData = 0
ProcedureReturn #False
EndIf
; Check that it is the correct window type , if not stop as this
procedure can ’ t destroy this window .
If * ThisData \ WindowClass <> #WindowClassDate
ProcedureReturn #False
EndIf
; Release the memory allocation .
FreeMemory (* ThisData )
; Delete the map entry .
DeleteMapElement ( ActiveWindows () , ThisKey )
; Close the window .
CloseWindow ( Window )
; Check if there are still open windows .
If MapSize ( ActiveWindows () ) = 0
EventQuit = #True
EndIf
; Set the successful return value .
ProcedureReturn #True
EndProcedure
Procedure . i ResizeDateWindow ( Window . i )
; Resize the child gadgets on Window .
Shared ActiveWindows ()
Protected * ThisData . DATEWINDOW
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Protected . i X , Y , W , H
Protected . s ThisKey
; Obtain the reference structure pointer .
ThisKey = StrU ( Window )
* ThisData = ActiveWindows ( ThisKey )
; Check that a valid pointer was obtained , if not stop .
If * ThisData = 0
ProcedureReturn #False
EndIf
; Check that it is the correct window type , if not stop .
If * ThisData \ WindowClass <> #WindowClassDate
ProcedureReturn #False
EndIf
; Resize list view .
W = WindowWidth ( Window ) - 20
H = WindowHeight ( Window ) - 220
ResizeGadget (* ThisData \ ListView , #PB_Ignore , #PB_Ignore , W , H )
ProcedureReturn #True
EndProcedure
Procedure . i EventsDateWindow ( Window , Gadget , Type )
; Handle events for a Date window .
Shared Buttons , ActiveWindows ()
Protected * ThisData . DATEWINDOW
Protected . i NewValue , Index
Protected . s ThisKey
; Convert the integer Window to a string .
ThisKey = StrU ( Window )
; Obtain the reference structure pointer .
* ThisData = ActiveWindows ( ThisKey )
; Check that a valid pointer was obtained , if not stop .
If * ThisData = 0
ProcedureReturn #False
EndIf
; Check that it is the correct window type , if not stop .
If * ThisData \ WindowClass <> #WindowClassDate
ProcedureReturn #False
EndIf
Select Gadget
Case * ThisData \ AddButton
NewValue = GetGadgetState (* ThisData \ Calendar )
AddGadgetItem (* ThisData \ ListView , -1 , FormatDate ( #DateFormat ,
NewValue ) )
Case * ThisData \ RemoveButton
Index = GetGadgetState (* ThisData \ ListView )
If Index >= 0 And Index <= CountGadgetItems (* ThisData \ ListView )
RemoveGadgetItem (* ThisData \ ListView , Index )
EndIf
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Case * ThisData \ Calendar , * ThisData \ ListView
; Do nothing .
EndSelect
EndProcedure
; - Track Window
Procedure . i Crea teTrackW indow ()
; Creates a new Track window and adds it to the tracking map ,
; allocates memory for gadget references , creates the gadgets
; and stores these references in the memory Structure .
Shared Tracks , ActiveWindows ()
Protected * ThisData . TRACKWINDOW
Protected . i ThisWindow , ThisSum
Protected . s ThisKey , ThisTitle
Tracks + 1
ThisTitle = " Track Bar Window " + StrU ( Tracks )
ThisWindow = OpenWindow ( #PB_Any , 30 , 30 , 398 , 130 , ThisTitle ,
#PB_Window_SystemMenu | #PB_Window_SizeGadget |
# P B _ W i n d o w _ M i n i m i z e G a d g e t | # P B_ W i nd o w_ T it l e Ba r )
; Check that the OpenWindow command worked .
If ThisWindow
; Set minimum window dimensions .
WindowBounds ( ThisWindow , 135 , 130 , #PB_Ignore , 130)
; Convert the window reference to a string to use as the map key
value .
ThisKey = StrU ( ThisWindow )
; Allocate memory to store the gadget references in .
* ThisData = AllocateMemory ( SizeOf ( TRACKWINDOW ) )
EndIf
; Check that the memory allocation worked .
If * ThisData
; Store the window reference and memory pointer values in the map .
ActiveWindows ( ThisKey ) = * ThisData
; Set the window class .
* ThisData \ WindowClass = #W indowCla ssTrack
; Create the menu bar .
* ThisData \ Menu = CreateMenu ( #PB_Any , WindowID ( ThisWindow ) )
; If the menu creation worked , create the menu items .
If * ThisData \ Menu
MenuTitle ( " Window " )
MenuItem ( #MenuNewButton , " New Button Window " )
MenuItem ( #MenuNewDate , " New Date Window " )
MenuItem ( #MenuNewTrack , " New Track Window " )
MenuItem ( #MenuClose , " Close Window " )
EndIf
; Create the window gadgets .
* ThisData \ TrackBar1 = TrackBarGadget ( #PB_Any , 10 , 10 , 375 , 25 , 0 ,
100 , # PB_ Tr ac kBa r_ Ti cks )
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* ThisData \ TrackBar2 = TrackBarGadget ( #PB_Any , 10 , 40 , 375 , 25 , 0 ,
100 , # PB_ Tr ac kBa r_ Ti cks )
* ThisData \ Label = TextGadget ( #PB_Any , 10 , 75 , 80 , 25 ,
" Difference : " )
* ThisData \ Difference = StringGadget ( #PB_Any , 90 , 75 , 290 , 25 ,
" 0 " , # PB _ St r i ng _ Re a d On l y )
Else
; Memory allocation failed .
CloseWindow ( ThisWindow )
EndIf
; Set the return value .
If ThisWindow > 0 And * ThisData > 0
; Return the reference to the new window .
ProcedureReturn ThisWindow
Else
; Return 0
ProcedureReturn 0
EndIf
EndProcedure
Procedure . i D es tr oyT ra ck Win do w ( Window . i )
; Remove Window from the ActiveWindows map , release the allocated
memory ,
; close the window and set the quit flag , if appropriate .
Shared EventQuit , ActiveWindows ()
Protected * ThisData . DATEWINDOW
Protected . s ThisKey
; Convert the integer Window to a string .
ThisKey = StrU ( Window )
; Obtain the reference structure pointer .
* ThisData = ActiveWindows ( ThisKey )
; Check that a valid pointer was obtained .
If * ThisData = 0
ProcedureReturn #False
EndIf
; Check that it is the correct window type , if not stop as this
procedure can ’ t destroy this window .
If * ThisData \ WindowClass <> #WindowC lassTrac k
ProcedureReturn #False
EndIf
; Release the memory allocation .
FreeMemory (* ThisData )
; Delete the map entry .
DeleteMapElement ( ActiveWindows () , ThisKey )
; Close the window .
CloseWindow ( Window )
; Check if there are still open windows .
If MapSize ( ActiveWindows () ) = 0
EventQuit = #True
EndIf
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; Set the successful return value .
ProcedureReturn #True
EndProcedure
Procedure . i Resi zeTrackW indow ( Window . i )
; Resize the child gadgets on Window .
Shared ActiveWindows ()
Protected * ThisData . TRACKWINDOW
Protected . i X , Y , W , H
Protected . s ThisKey
; Obtain the reference structure pointer .
ThisKey = StrU ( Window )
* ThisData = ActiveWindows ( ThisKey )
; Check that a valid pointer was obtained , if not stop .
If * ThisData = 0
ProcedureReturn #False
EndIf
; Check that it is the correct window type , if not stop .
If * ThisData \ WindowClass <> #WindowC lassTrac k
ProcedureReturn #False
EndIf
; Resize track bars .
W = WindowWidth ( Window ) - 20
ResizeGadget (* ThisData \ TrackBar1 , #PB_Ignore , #PB_Ignore , W ,
#PB_Ignore )
ResizeGadget (* ThisData \ TrackBar2 , #PB_Ignore , #PB_Ignore , W ,
#PB_Ignore )
; Resize string .
W = WindowWidth ( Window ) - 110
ResizeGadget (* ThisData \ Difference , #PB_Ignore , #PB_Ignore , W ,
#PB_Ignore )
ProcedureReturn #True
EndProcedure
Procedure . i Even tsTrackW indow ( Window , Gadget , Type )
; Handle events for a Track window .
Shared Buttons , ActiveWindows ()
Protected * ThisData . TRACKWINDOW
Protected . i NewValue
Protected . s ThisKey
; Convert the integer Window to a string .
ThisKey = StrU ( Window )
; Obtain the reference structure pointer .
* ThisData = ActiveWindows ( ThisKey )
; Check that a valid pointer was obtained , if not stop .
If * ThisData = 0
ProcedureReturn #False
EndIf
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; Check that it is the correct window type , if not stop .
If * ThisData \ WindowClass <> #WindowC lassTrac k
ProcedureReturn #False
EndIf
Select Gadget
Case * ThisData \ TrackBar1 , * ThisData \ TrackBar2
NewValue = GetGadgetState (* ThisData \ TrackBar1 ) GetGadgetState (* ThisData \ TrackBar2 )
SetGadgetText (* ThisData \ Difference , Str ( NewValue ) )
Case * ThisData \ Label , * ThisData \ Difference
; Do nothing .
EndSelect
EndProcedure
; - Main
; Create the first window .
EventWindow = C re at eBu tt on Win do w ()
Re si ze But to nW ind ow ( EventWindow )
; - Event loop
Repeat
Event = WaitWindowEvent ()
EventWindow = EventWindow ()
EventWindowKey = StrU ( EventWindow )
EventGadget = EventGadget ()
EventType = EventType ()
EventMenu = EventMenu ()
* EventGadgets = ActiveWindows ( EventWindowKey )
Select Event
Case #PB_Event_Gadget
; Check that a valid pointer was obtained .
If * EventGadgets > 0
; Use * EventGadgets \ WindowClass to despatch events to the
correct event procedure .
Select * EventGadgets \ WindowClass
Case # Win do wC las sB ut ton
Ev en ts But to nW indow ( EventWindow , EventGadget , EventType )
Case #WindowClassDate
EventsDateWindow ( EventWindow , EventGadget , EventType )
Case #Windo wClassTr ack
Event sTrackWi ndow ( EventWindow , EventGadget , EventType )
Default
; Do nothing
EndSelect
EndIf
Case #PB_Event_Menu
Select EventMenu
Case #MenuNewButton
EventWindow = C re at eBu tt on Win do w ()
If EventWindow > 0
Re si ze But to nW indow ( EventWindow )
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EndIf
Case #MenuNewDate
EventWindow = CreateDateWindow ()
If EventWindow > 0
ResizeDateWindow ( EventWindow )
EndIf
Case #MenuNewTrack
EventWindow = Crea teTrackW indow ()
If EventWindow > 0
Resiz eTrackWi ndow ( EventWindow )
EndIf
Case #MenuClose
; Check that a valid pointer was obtained .
If * EventGadgets > 0
; Use * EventGadgets \ WindowClass to call the correct
destroy window procedure .
Select * EventGadgets \ WindowClass
Case # Win do wC las sB ut ton
D es t ro y B ut t on W i nd o w ( EventWindow )
Case #WindowClassDate
Destr oyDateWi ndow ( EventWindow )
Case #Windo wClassTr ack
De st ro yTr ac kW ind ow ( EventWindow )
Default
; Do nothing
EndSelect
EndIf
EndSelect
Case # P B _ E v e n t _ C l o s e W i n d o w
; Check that a valid pointer was obtained .
If * EventGadgets > 0
; Use * EventGadgets \ WindowClass to call the correct destroy
window procedure .
Select * EventGadgets \ WindowClass
Case # Win do wC las sB ut ton
D es t ro y B ut t on W i nd o w ( EventWindow )
Case #WindowClassDate
Destr oyDateWi ndow ( EventWindow )
Case #Windo wClassTr ack
De st ro yTr ac kW indow ( EventWindow )
Default
; Do nothing
EndSelect
EndIf
Case # P B _E v e n t _ S i z e W i n d o w
If * EventGadgets > 0
; Use * EventGadgets \ WindowClass to call the correct resize
window procedure .
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Select * EventGadgets \ WindowClass
Case # Win do wC las sB ut ton
Re si ze But to nW indow ( EventWindow )
Case #WindowClassDate
ResizeDateWindow ( EventWindow )
Case #Windo wClassTr ack
Resiz eTrackWi ndow ( EventWindow )
Default
; Do nothing
EndSelect
EndIf
EndSelect
Until EventQuit = #True
UserGuide Navigation
< Previous: Dynamic numbering of windows and gadgets k Overview k Next: Other Compiler keywords
>
285
Chapter 82
UserGuide - Structuring code in
Procedures
We’re going to revisit the file properties example again. This time to introduce procedures and to
address some of the limitations identified in the program in previous items.
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; The structure for file information as before .
Structure FILEITEM
Name . s
Attributes . i
Size . q
DateCreated . i
DateAccessed . i
DateModified . i
EndStructure
; This is a constant to identify the window .
Enumeration
#WindowFiles
EndEnumeration
; This is an enumeration to identify controls that will appear on the
window .
Enumeration
#FolderButton
#UpdateButton
#FolderText
#FilesList
EndEnumeration
Procedure FilesExamine ( Folder .s , List Files . FILEITEM () )
; Obtains file properties from Folder into Files .
Protected . l Result
; Clear current contents .
ClearList ( Files () )
; Open the directory to enumerate its contents .
Result = ExamineDirectory (0 , Folder , " *.* " )
; If this is ok , begin enumeration of entries .
If Result
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; Loop through until Nex tD ir ect or yE ntr y (0) becomes zero indicating that there are no more entries .
While Nex tD ir ect or yE ntr y (0)
; If the directory entry is a file , not a folder .
If D ir ect or yE ntr yT yp e (0) = # P B _ D i r e c t o r y E n t r y _ F i l e
; Add a new element to the list .
AddElement ( Files () )
; And populate it with the properties of the file .
Files () \ Name = Di re ct ory En tr yNa me (0)
Files () \ Size = Di re ct ory En tr ySi ze (0)
Files () \ Attributes = D i r e c t o r y E n t r y A t t r i b u t e s (0)
Files () \ DateCreated = Di rec to ry Ent ry Da te (0 , #PB_Date_Created )
Files () \ DateAccessed = Di rec to ry Ent ry Da te (0 ,
#PB_ Date_Acce ssed )
Files () \ DateModified = Di rec to ry Ent ry Da te (0 ,
#PB_ Date_Modi fied )
EndIf
Wend
; Close the directory .
FinishDirectory (0)
EndIf
; Sort the list into ascending alphabetical order of file name .
So rt St ruc tu re dLi st ( Files () , #PB_Sort_Ascending ,
OffsetOf ( FILEITEM \ Name ) , #PB_String )
EndProcedure
Procedure . s FolderSelect ( Folder . s )
; Displays a path requester and returns the new path , or the old
one if the requester is cancelled .
Protected . s SelectedPath
SelectedPath = PathRequester ( " Choose a folder . " , Folder )
If SelectedPath = " "
SelectedPath = Folder
EndIf
ProcedureReturn SelectedPath
EndProcedure
Procedure LabelUpdate ( Folder . s )
; Updates the folder label .
SetGadgetText ( #FolderText , Folder )
EndProcedure
Procedure ListLoad ( ListView .l , List Files . FILEITEM () )
; Load the files properties from list Files () into the list view
#FilesList .
Protected . s Access , Attrib , Create , Folder , Modify , Msg , Num , Size
; Remove previous contents .
ClearGadgetItems ( ListView )
ForEach Files ()
; Display the item number and file name .
Num = StrU ( ListIndex ( Files () ) + 1)
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; These lines convert the three date
familiar .
Create = FormatDate ( " % dd /% mm /% yyyy " ,
Access = FormatDate ( " % dd /% mm /% yyyy " ,
Modify = FormatDate ( " % dd /% mm /% yyyy " ,
values to something more
Files () \ DateCreated )
Files () \ DateAccessed )
Files () \ DateModified )
; Convert the file size to a padded string the same as with the
index value above ,
; but allow space for the maximum size of a quad .
Size = StrU ( Files () \ Size )
; Convert the attributes to a string , for now .
Attrib = StrU ( Files () \ Attributes )
; Build a row string .
; The Line Feed character ’ Chr (10) ’ tells the gadget to move to
the next column .
Msg = Num + Chr (10) + Files () \ Name + Chr (10) + Create + Chr (10) +
Access + Chr (10) + Modify + Chr (10) + Attrib + Chr (10) + Size
; Add the row to the list view gadget .
AddGadgetItem ( #FilesList , -1 , Msg )
Next Files ()
EndProcedure
Procedure WindowCreate ()
; Creates the wdwFiles window .
Protected Flags
; This line defines a flag for the window attributes by OR - ing
together the desired attribute constants .
Flags = # P B _ W i n d o w _ S y s t e m Me n u | # P B _ W i n d o w _ S i z e G a d g e t |
#PB_Window_MinimizeGadget | #PB_Window_MaximizeGadget |
# PB _ W in d ow _ Ti t l eB a r
; Open a window .
OpenWindow ( #WindowFiles , 50 , 50 , 450 , 400 , " File Properties " , Flags )
; A button to choose a folder .
ButtonGadget ( #FolderButton , 5 , 5 , 100 , 30 , " Select Folder " )
; A button to update the list .
ButtonGadget ( #UpdateButton , 112 , 5 , 100 , 30 , " Update List " )
; A text gadget to show the name of the folder .
TextGadget ( #FolderText , 5 , 40 , 400 , 25 , " " )
; A list icon gadget to hold the file list and properties .
ListIconGadget ( #FilesList , 5 , 70 , 400 , 326 , " # " , 35)
; Add columns to the ListIconGadget to hold each property .
AddGadgetColumn ( #FilesList , 1 , " Name " , 200)
AddGadgetColumn ( #FilesList , 2 , " Created " , 100)
AddGadgetColumn ( #FilesList , 3 , " Accessed " , 100)
AddGadgetColumn ( #FilesList , 4 , " Modified " , 100)
AddGadgetColumn ( #FilesList , 5 , " Attributes " , 150)
AddGadgetColumn ( #FilesList , 6 , " Size " , 100)
EndProcedure
Procedure WindowDestroy ()
; Closes the window .
; If necessary , you could do other tidying up jobs here too .
CloseWindow ( #WindowFiles )
EndProcedure
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Procedure WindowResize ()
; Resizes window gadgets to match the window size .
ResizeGadget ( #FolderText , #PB_Ignore , #PB_Ignore ,
WindowWidth ( #WindowFiles ) - 10 , #PB_Ignore )
ResizeGadget ( #FilesList , #PB_Ignore , #PB_Ignore ,
WindowWidth ( #WindowFiles ) - 10 , WindowHeight ( #WindowFiles ) - 74)
EndProcedure
; - Main
; Now we define a list of files using the structure previously
specified .
NewList Files . FILEITEM ()
; And some working variables to make things happen .
Define . s Folder
Define . l Event , EventWindow , EventGadget , EventType , EventMenu
; This function gets the home directory for the logged on user .
Folder = GetHomeDirectory ()
; Create the window and set the initial contents .
WindowCreate ()
WindowResize ()
LabelUpdate ( Folder )
FilesExamine ( Folder , Files () )
ListLoad ( #FilesList , Files () )
; - Event Loop
Repeat
; Wait until a new window or gadget event occurs .
Event = WaitWindowEvent ()
EventWindow = EventWindow ()
EventGadget = EventGadget ()
EventType = EventType ()
; Take some action .
Select Event
Case #PB_Event_Gadget
; A gadget event occurred .
If EventGadget = #FolderButton
; The folder button was clicked .
Folder = FolderSelect ( Folder )
LabelUpdate ( Folder )
FilesExamine ( Folder , Files () )
ListLoad ( #FilesList , Files () )
ElseIf EventGadget = #UpdateButton
; The update button was clicked .
FilesExamine ( Folder , Files () )
ListLoad ( #FilesList , Files () )
ElseIf EventGadget = #FolderText
; Do nothing here .
ElseIf EventGadget = #FilesList
; Do nothing here .
EndIf
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Case # P B _E v e n t _ S i z e W i n d o w
; The window was moved or resized .
If EventWindow = #WindowFiles
WindowResize ()
EndIf
Case # P B _ E v e n t _ C l o s e W i n d o w
; The window was closed .
If EventWindow = #WindowFiles
WindowDestroy ()
Break
EndIf
EndSelect
ForEver
Previously, we mentioned four limitations to this program. This new version uses procedures to address
three of them.
1) You couldn’t choose a folder to show.
The ”FolderSelect” procedure shows a path requester to allow the user to select a folder. The variable
”Folder” is updated with the result of this procedure. The button also calls ”LabelUpdate”,
”FilesExamine” and ”ListLoad” to display the contents of the new folder in the window .
2) You can’t update the list contents without closing and restarting the program.
Now, when the ”Update List” button is clicked, ”FilesExamine” and ”ListLoad” are called again to
update the display.
3) If you resize the window, the gadgets don’t resize with it.
The ”WindowResize” procedure is called in the event loop to resize the gadgets when the form is resized.
Also, although this program didn’t really need to, this procedure is called after calling ”WindowCreate”
to make sure the gadgets are the right size initially.
Notice how several of the procedures are called more than once to perform similar but not identical
functions. This improves the efficiency of the program.
We have one final limitation to overcome in a later item.
UserGuide Navigation
< Previous: Displaying graphics output & simple drawing k Overview k Next: Compiler directives >
290
Chapter 83
UserGuide - String Manipulation
The following example shows step by step the different commands of the string library - their purpose
and their correct use.
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Define . s String1 , String2 , String3
String1 = " The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog . "
; Left returns a number of characters from the left hand end of a
string .
; Mid returns a number of characters from the given start location in
the middle of a string .
; Right returns a number of characters from the right hand end of a
string .
; Space returns the specified number of space characters as a string .
; Shows " The brown dog ."
Debug " * Left , Mid and Right "
String2 = Left ( String1 , 3) + Space (1) + Mid ( String1 , 11 , 5) +
Space (1) + Right ( String1 , 4)
Debug String2
; CountString returns the number of instances of the second string in
the first string , it is case sensitive .
; Shows 1.
Debug " * CountString "
Debug CountString ( String1 , " the " )
; However the LCase ( and UCase ) functions can be used to switch a
string to all lower ( or upper ) case
; Shows 2
Debug " * CountString and LCase "
String2 = LCase ( String1 )
Debug CountString ( String2 , " the " )
; FindString can be used to find the location of one string within
another .
; Shows 17.
Debug " * FindString "
Debug FindString ( String1 , " fox " )
; RemoveString can be used to remove one string from within another .
; Shows The quick fox jumps over the lazy dog .
Debug " * RemoveString "
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String2 = RemoveString ( String1 , " brown " )
Debug String2
; ReplaceString can be used to change the occurrence of a substring
within another string .
; Shows The quick brown fox jumps over the sleeping dog .
Debug " * ReplaceString "
String2 = ReplaceString ( String1 , " lazy " , " sleeping " )
Debug String2
; StringByteLength returns the length of a string in bytes in the
specified format , or the current default
; if one is not specified ( excluding the terminating null ) .
Debug " * StringByteLength "
; Shows 44.
Debug StringByteLength ( String1 , #PB_Ascii )
; Shows 88.
Debug StringByteLength ( String1 , #PB_Unicode )
; StringField can be used to obtain an indexed substring from a
target string .
; Useful for converting strings to lists for example .
; StringField will work with space as a delimiter too
; but hopefully this example makes the functions behaviour more
apparent .
; Shows jumps .
Debug " * StringField "
String2 = ReplaceString ( String1 , " " , " \ " )
Debug String2
String3 = StringField ( String2 , 5 , " \ " )
Debug String3
; Trim removes white space characters from the start and end of a
given string .
; Similarly , LTrim acts on the left hand end ( start ) of a string and
RTrim the right hand end .
Debug " * Trim , LTrim and RTrim "
String2 = Space (10) + String1 + Space (8)
Debug #DQUOTE$ + String2 + #DQUOTE$
String3 = Trim ( String2 )
Debug #DQUOTE$ + String3 + #DQUOTE$
String3 = LTrim ( String2 )
Debug #DQUOTE$ + String3 + #DQUOTE$
String3 = RTrim ( String2 )
Debug #DQUOTE$ + String3 + #DQUOTE$
; LSet sets a string to be a specific length from the left hand end ,
padding with spaces ,
; or other specified character , as necessary .
; If the string is already longer than the specified length it will
be truncated .
Debug " * LSet "
Debug LSet ( " Abc " , 10 , " * " )
Debug LSet ( " Abcd " , 10 , " * " )
Debug LSet ( " Abcde " , 10 , " * " )
; Similarly RSet pads a string from its right hand end .
Debug " * RSet "
Debug RSet ( " 1.23 " , 10 , " 0 " )
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Debug RSet ( " 10.23 " , 10 , " 0 " )
Debug RSet ( " 100.23 " , 10 , " 0 " )
; Str converts a signed quad value to a string , similarly StrF
converts floats ,
; StrD converts doubles and StrU converts unsigned values , these two
function have an optional
; parameter to specify the number of decimal places to show .
Debug " * Str , StrF and StrD "
Debug Str (100)
Debug StrF (1.234 , 3)
Debug StrD (123456.789 , 3)
; Val will convert a string value into its numeric ( quad ) equivalent .
; ValD and ValF perform the same function for floats and doubles .
Debug " * Val "
Debug Val ( " 123 " )
; Bin
; Hex
Debug
Debug
Debug
will convert a numeric value into its binary equivalent .
will convert one into its hexadecimal equivalent .
" * Bin and Hex "
Bin (19)
Hex (19)
UserGuide Navigation
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293
Chapter 84
UserGuide - Displaying text output
(Console)
In the previous topic Input & Output you already saw an overview about the different possibilities to
output text to the user, and in the topic Storing Data in Memory , we started to build a small
application to display the properties of files in a particular folder to the debug window .
Now we’re going to revisit this example to improve the data output section to resolve some issues with
using the debug window. Firstly, this window is only available in the PureBasic IDE which means its
only useful to programmers, secondly it doesn’t really give us much control over how our output looks.
PureBasic provides a text mode window, or console window , which can be used in compiled programs.
So let’s update our example to use it instead.
First, we will need some extra working variables to make this work properly. Amend the variable
definitions like this:
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...
; Now we define a new list of files using the structure previously
specified
NewList Files . FILEITEM ()
Define . s Access , Attrib , Create , Folder , Modify , Msg , Num , Size
Define . l Result
...
Next, remove the output section of code completely, from the comment line:
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2
; If there are some entries in the list , show the results in the
debug window .
...
Now replace this with:
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; Open a text mode screen to show the results .
OpenConsole ()
; Display a title .
; PrintN displays the string given in the console window and moves
the print position to the start of the next line afterwards .
; Space ( n ) returns n spaces in a string .
PrintN ( " File list of " + Folder + " . " )
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PrintN ( " - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Msg = " Num Name "
PrintN ( Msg )
Msg = Space (4) + " Create " + Space (5) + " Access " + Space (5) + " Modify "
+ Space (5) + " Attrib Size "
PrintN ( Msg )
; Loop through the list to display the results .
ForEach Files ()
; Tabulate the number of the list index .
; ListIndex () returns the current position in the list , counting
from zero .
; StrU converts an unsigned number into a string .
; RSet pads a string to a set length with the necessary number of a
specified character at the front .
; Here we use it to make sure all the index numbers are padded to 3
characters in length .
Num = RSet ( StrU ( ListIndex ( Files () ) + 1) , 3 , " " )
; Display the item number and file name .
Msg = Num + " " + Files () \ Name
PrintN ( Msg )
; These lines convert the three date
familiar .
Create = FormatDate ( " % dd /% mm /% yyyy " ,
Access = FormatDate ( " % dd /% mm /% yyyy " ,
Modify = FormatDate ( " % dd /% mm /% yyyy " ,
values to something more
Files () \ DateCreated )
Files () \ DateAccessed )
Files () \ DateModified )
; Convert the file size to a padded string the same as with the
index value above ,
; but allow space for the maximum size of a quad .
Size = RSet ( StrU ( Files () \ Size ) , 19)
; Convert the attributes to a string , for now .
Attrib = RSet ( StrU ( Files () \ Attributes ) , 6 , " " )
; Display the file ’ s properties .
Msg = Space (4) + Create + " " + Access + " " + Modify + " " +
Attrib + " " + Size
PrintN ( Msg )
; Display a blank line .
PrintN ( " " )
Next Files ()
; Wait for the return key to be displayed , so the results can be
viewed before the screen closes .
PrintN ( " " )
PrintN ( " Press return to exit " )
Input ()
All being well the output should appear in a console window looking something like this:
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2
3
File List of C :\ Documents And Settings \ user \.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------Num Name
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Create
Access
Modify
Attrib Size
1 NTUSER . DAT
03/07/2008 04/04/2011 02/04/2011
34
18874368
2 kunzip . dll
14/07/2008 04/04/2011 14/07/2008
32
18432
3 ntuser . dat . LOG
03/07/2008 04/04/2011 04/04/2011
34
1024
4 ntuser . ini
03/07/2008 02/04/2011 02/04/2011
6
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Press Return To exit
This output is from a Windows XP system, later versions of Windows and Linux or Mac OSX will show
different files of course.
Note for Linux/MacOS: Please note, to select ”Console” as executable format in the compiler options
.
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296
Chapter 85
UserGuide - Some Tips & Tricks
”Using a map to index a list”
lists provide a powerful way to build a structured storage system - however they have a disadvantage. If
you aren’t sure exactly where in the list a particular item is, you must examine each entry in the list to
find the right one.
Maps also provide a similar function but are indexed by a key value instead - however they too have a
disadvantage, they don’t maintain the order elements are inserted into the list.
However by using a combination of the two, you can neatly avoid both of these issues...
This example loads a structured list of book data and builds an index of ISBN numbers using a map . It
then demonstrates how to access the list using the index in the map.
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EnableExplicit
; A book catalog structure .
Structure BOOK
Title . s
Author . s
ISBN13 . s
Price . d
EndStructure
; Create a list to hold the catalog entries .
NewList Catalog . BOOK ()
; Create a map to hold the ISBN index .
NewMap ISBN13 . l ()
; Working variables .
Define . l Count , Index
Define . s ISBN
; Add an empty element at the top of the list .
; The first element in a list is numbered zero , however the map will
return zero if a requested entry isn ’ t present .
; This empty element avoids a potential problem with an incorrect
reference to the first catalog item being returned .
AddElement ( Catalog () )
For Count = 1 To 5
; Read the data from the table into the list .
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AddElement ( Catalog () )
Read . s Catalog () \ Title
Read . s Catalog () \ Author
Read . s Catalog () \ ISBN13
Read . d Catalog () \ Price
; Index the ISBN to the map .
ISBN13 ( Catalog () \ ISBN13 ) = ListIndex ( Catalog () )
Next Count
; Find an entry .
ISBN = " 978 -0340896983 "
Index = ISBN13 ( ISBN )
If Index > 0
Debug " Book with ISBN13 " + ISBN + " is at list index " +
StrU ( Index ) + " . "
Debug " "
; We can now directly select the right list element without having
to perform a search .
SelectElement ( Catalog () , Index )
Debug " ’" + Catalog () \ Title + " ’ by " + Catalog () \ Author
Debug " ISBN : " + Catalog () \ ISBN13
Debug " Price : " + StrD ( Catalog () \ Price , 2)
Else
Debug " No book with that ISBN in the catalog . "
EndIf
End
; Some test data .
DataSection
BookData :
Data . s " Carte Blanche " , " Jeffery Deaver " , " 978 -1444716474 "
Data . d 19.99
Data . s " One Day " , " David Nicholls " , " 978 -0340896983 "
Data . d 7.99
Data . s " Madeleine " , " Kate McCann " , " 978 -0593067918 "
Data . d 20.00
Data . s " The Dukan Diet " , " Dr Pierre Dukan " , " 978 -1444710335 "
Data . d 8.99
Data . s " A Game of Thrones " , " George R . R . Martin " , " 978 -0006479888 "
Data . d 9.99
Data . s " The Help " , " Kathryn Stockett " , " 978 -0141039282 "
Data . d 8.99
EndDataSection
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UserGuide Navigation
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299
Chapter 86
UserGuide - Variables and Processing
of variables
A is an integer - but note that you can’t declare variables this way if you use the EnableExplicit
directive. Outside of a procedure A will exist at Main scope, within a procedure it will become local.
1
A = 0
B is a long integer, C is a floating-point number, they will be initialized to zero.
1
Define B .l , C . f
D and E are long integers too. However, they will be initialized to the stated constants. Notice too the
alternative syntax of Define used.
1
Define . l D = 10 , E = 20
F is a string.
1
Define . s F
So is G$, however, if you declare strings this way, you must always use the $ notation.
1
G$ = " Hello , "
This won’t work. (G becomes a new integer variable and a compiler error occurs).
1
G = " Goodbye , World ! "
H is an array of 20 strings, array indexing begins at zero.
1
Dim H . s (19)
Now H is an array of 25 strings. If the array is resized larger, its original contents will be preserved.
1
ReDim H . s (24)
J will appear at Global , rather than Main, scope. It will appear in all procedures, but maybe a better
way would be to use the Shared keyword inside a procedure on a main scope variable, so that the
chances of accidental changes are minimized.
1
Global . i J
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K will be a new, empty, list of strings at main scope.
1
NewList K . s ()
M will be a new, empty, map of strings at main scope.
1
NewMap M . s ()
Note that you can’t use the alternative syntax of the Define keyword with NewList or NewMap though.
A compiler error will result.
Within a procedure:
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Procedure TestVariables ()
; N and P will be local .
Define . l N
Protected . l P
; Q will be a static local .
Static . l Q
; The main scope variable F and the string list K will be available
within this procedure .
Shared F , K ()
; The global scope variable J will be available here implicitly .
EndProcedure
Using operators on variables:
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; Add two to A .
A + 2
; Bitwise Or with 21 ( A will become 23)
A | 21
; Bitwise And with 1 ( A will become 1)
A & 1
; Arithmetic shift left ( A will become 2 , that is 10 in binary ) .
A << 1
String concatenation:
1
G$ + " World ! "
Add an element to the K list:
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2
AddElement ( K () )
K () = " List element one "
Add an element to the M map:
1
M ( " one " ) = " Map element one "
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UserGuide Navigation
< Previous: First steps k Overview k Next: Constants >
302
Chapter 87
Unicode
Introduction
Unicode is the term used for extended character sets which allows displaying text in many languages
(including those with a lot of different characters like Japanese, Korean etc.). It solves the ASCII
problem of having a lot of table dedicated for each language by having a unified table where each
character has its own place. If an application needs to be used by such countries, it’s highly
recommended to use the unicode mode when starting the development, as it will reduce the number of
bugs due to the conversion from ascii to unicode.
To simplify, unicode can be seen as a big ascii table, which doesn’t have 256 characters but up to 65536.
Thus, each character in unicode will need 2 bytes in memory (this is important when dealing with
pointers for example). The special ’character’ (.c) PureBasic type automatically switches from 1 byte to
2 bytes when unicode is enabled.
Here are some links to have a better understanding about unicode (must have reading):
General unicode information
Unicode and BOM
To check if the program is compiled in ”Unicode mode”, you can use the compiler directives with
#PB_Compiler_Unicode constant. To compile a program in ”Unicode mode” the related option can be
set in the Compiler options .
Unicode and Windows
On Windows, PureBasic internally uses the UCS2 encoding which is the format used by the Windows
unicode API, so no conversions are needed at runtime when calling an OS function. When dealing with
an API function, PureBasic will automatically use the unicode one if available (for example
MessageBox_() will map to MessageBoxW() in unicode mode and MessageBoxA() in Ascii mode). All
the API structures and constants supported by PureBasic will also automatically switch to their unicode
version. That means same API code can be compiled either in unicode or ascii without any change.
Unicode is only natively supported on Windows NT and later (Windows 2000/XP/Vista): a unicode
program won’t work on Windows 95/98/Me. There is solution by using the ’unicows’ wrapper DLL but
it is not yet supported by PureBasic. If the Windows 9x support is needed, the best is to provide two
version of the executable: one compiled in ascii, and another in unicode. As it’s only a switch to specify,
it should be quite fast.
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UTF-8
UTF-8 is another unicode encoding, which is byte based. Unlike UCS2 which always takes 2 bytes per
characters, UTF-8 uses a variable length encoding for each character (up to 4 bytes can represent one
character). The biggest advantage of UTF-8 is the fact it doesn’t includes null characters in its coding,
so it can be edited like a regular text file. Also the ASCII characters from 1 to 127 are always preserved,
so the text is kind of readable as only special characters will be encoded. One drawback is its variable
length, so it all string operations will be slower due to needed pre-processing to locate a character is in
the text.
PureBasic uses UTF-8 by default when writing string to files in unicode mode (File and Preference
libraries), so all texts are fully cross-platform.
The PureBasic compiler also handles both Ascii and UTF-8 files (the UTF-8 files need to have the correct
BOM header to be handled correctly). Both can be mixed in a single program without problem: an ascii
file can include an UTF-8 file and vice-versa. When developing a unicode program, it’s recommended to
set the IDE in UTF-8 mode, so all the source files will be unicode ready. As the UTF-8 format doesn’t
hurt as well when developing ascii only programs, it is not needed to change this setting back.
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Chapter 88
Variables and Types
Variables declaration
To declare a variable in PureBasic, simply type its name. You can also specify the type you want this
variable to be. Variables do not need to be explicitly declared, as they can be used as ”variables
on-the-fly”. The Define keyword can be used to declare multiple variables in one statement. If you don’t
assign an initial value to the variable, their value will be 0.
Example
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a.b
; Declare a variable called ’a ’ from byte (. b ) type .
c . l = a * d . w ; ’d ’ is declared here within the expression !
Notes:
Variable names must not start with a number (0,1,...), contain operators (+,-,...) or special
characters (ß,ä,ö,ü,...).
The variables in PureBasic are not case sensitive, so ”pure” and ”PURE” are the same
variable.
If you don’t need to change the content of a variable during the program flow (e.g. you’re
using fixed values for ID’s etc.), you can also take a look at constants as an alternative.
To avoid typing errors etc. it’s possible to force the PureBasic compiler to always want a
declaration of variables, before they are first used. Just use EnableExplicit keyword in your
source code to enable this feature.
Basic types
PureBasic allows many type variables which can be standard integers, float, double, quad and char
numbers or even string characters. Here is the list of the native supported types and a brief description :
Name
| Extension | Memory consumption
| Range
- - - - - - - - - - - - -+ - - - - - - - - - - - -+ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -+ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Byte
|
.b
| 1 byte
| -128 to
+127
Ascii
|
.a
| 1 byte
| 0 to
+255
Character
|
.c
| 1 byte ( in ascii mode )
| 0 to
+255
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Character
|
.c
| 2 bytes ( in unicode mode )
+65535
Word
|
.w
| 2 bytes
to +32767
Unicode
|
.u
| 2 bytes
+65535
Long
|
.l
| 4 bytes
-2147483648 to +2147483647
Integer
|
.i
| 4 bytes ( using 32 - bit compiler )
-2147483648 to +2147483647
Integer
|
.i
| 8 bytes ( using 64 - bit compiler )
-9223372036854775808 to + 9 2 2 3 3 7 20 3 6 8 5 4 7 7 5 8 0 7
Float
|
.f
| 4 bytes
unlimited ( see below )
Quad
|
.q
| 8 bytes
-9223372036854775808 to + 9 2 2 3 3 7 20 3 6 8 5 4 7 7 5 8 0 7
Double
|
.d
| 8 bytes
unlimited ( see below )
String
|
.s
| string length + 1
unlimited
Fixed String | . s { Length } | string length
unlimited
| 0 to
| -32768
| 0 to
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
Unsigned variables: Purebasic offers native support for unsigned variables with byte and word types
via the ascii (.a) and unicode (.u) types. The character (.c) type is an unsigned byte in ascii and
unsigned word in unicode that may be used as an unsigned type.
Notation of string variables: it is possible to use the ’$’ as last char of a variable name to mark it as
string. This way you can use ’a$’ and ’a.s’ as different string variables. Please note, that the ’$’ belongs
to the variable name and must be always attached, unlike the ’.s’ which is only needed when the string
variable is declared the first time.
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a . s = " One string "
a$ = " Another string "
Debug a
; will give " One string "
Debug a$ ; will give " Another string "
Note: The floating numbers (floats + doubles) can also be written like this: 123.5e-20
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value . d = 123.5 e -20
Debug value
; will give 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 5
Operators
Operators are the functions you can use in expressions to combine the variables, constants, and whatever
else. The table below shows the operators you can use in PureBasic, in no particular order (LHS = Left
Hand Side, RHS = Right Hand Side).
Operator = (Equals)
This can be used in two ways. The first is to assign the value of the expression on the RHS to the
variable on the LHS. The second way is when the result of the operator is used in an expression and is to
test whether the values of the expressions on the LHS and RHS are the same (if they are the same this
operator will return a true result, otherwise it will be false).
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Example
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2
a = b+c
; Assign the value of the expression " b + c " to the
variable " a "
If abc = def ; Test if the values of abc and def are the same , and
use this result in the If command
Operator + (Plus)
Gives a result of the value of the expression on the RHS added to the value of the expression on the
LHS. If the result of this operator is not used and there is a variable on the LHS, then the value of the
expression on the RHS will be added directly to the variable on the LHS.
Example
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2
number = something +2 ; Adds the value 2 to " something " and uses the
result with the equals operator
variable + expression ; The value of " expression " will be added
directly to the variable " variable "
Operator - (Minus)
Subtracts the value of the expression on the RHS from the value of the expression on the LHS. When
there is no expression on the LHS this operator gives the negative value of the value of the expression on
the RHS. If the result of this operator is not used and there is a variable on the LHS, then the value of
the expression on the RHS will be subtracted directly from the variable on the LHS. This operator
cannot be used with string type variables.
Example
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2
3
var = #MyConstant - foo ; Subtracts the value of " foo " from " #MyConstant "
and uses the result with the equals operator
another = another + - var ; Calculates the negative value of " var " and
uses the result in the plus operator
variable - expression ; The value of " expression " will be subtracted
directly from the variable " variable "
Operator * (Multiplication)
Multiplies the value of the expression on the LHS by the value of the expression on the RHS. If the
result of this operator is not used and there is a variable on the LHS, then the value of the variable is
directly multiplied by the value of the expression on the RHS. This operator cannot be used with string
type variables.
Example
1
total = price * count ; Multiplies the value of " price " by the value of
" count " and uses the result with the equals operator
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2
variable * expression ; " variable " will be multiplied directly by the
value of " expression "
Operator / (Division)
Divides the value of the expression on the LHS by the value of the expression on the RHS. If the result
of this operator is not used and there is a variable on the LHS, then the value of the variable is directly
divided by the value of the expression on the RHS. This operator cannot be used with string type
variables.
Example
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2
count = total / price ; Divides the value of " total " by the value of
" price " and uses the result with the equals operator
variable / expression ; " variable " will be divided directly by the
value of " expression "
Operator & (Bitwise AND)
You should be familiar with binary numbers when using this operator. The result of this operator will
be the value of the expression on the LHS anded with the value of the expression on the RHS, bit for bit.
The value of each bit is set according to the table below. Additionally, if the result of the operator is not
used and there is a variable on the LHS, then the result will be stored directly in that variable. This
operator cannot be used with strings.
LHS | RHS | Result
-----------------0 | 0 |
0
0 | 1 |
0
1 | 0 |
0
1 | 1 |
1
Example
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2
3
4
5
; Shown using binary numbers as it will be easier to see the result
a . w = %1000 & %0101 ; Result will be 0
b . w = %1100 & %1010 ; Result will be %1000
bits = a & b ; AND each bit of a and b and use result in equals
operator
a & b ; AND each bit of a and b and store result directly in variable
"a"
Operator k (Bitwise OR)
You should be familiar with binary numbers when using this operator. The result of this operator will
be the value of the expression on the LHS or’ed with the value of the expression on the RHS, bit for bit.
The value of each bit is set according to the table below. Additionally, if the result of the operator is not
used and there is a variable on the LHS, then the result will be stored directly in that variable. This
operator cannot be used with strings.
308
LHS | RHS | Result
-----------------0 | 0 |
0
0 | 1 |
1
1 | 0 |
1
1 | 1 |
1
Example
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2
3
4
5
; Shown using binary numbers as it will be easier to see the result
a . w = %1000 | %0101 ; Result will be %1101
b . w = %1100 | %1010 ; Result will be %1110
bits = a | b ; OR each bit of a and b and use result in equals
operator
a | b ; OR each bit of a and b and store result directly in variable
"a"
Operator ! (Bitwise XOR)
You should be familiar with binary numbers when using this operator. The result of this operator will
be the value of the expression on the LHS xor’ed with the value of the expression on the RHS, bit for
bit. The value of each bit is set according to the table below. Additionally, if the result of the operator is
not used and there is a variable on the LHS, then the result will be stored directly in that variable. This
operator cannot be used with strings.
LHS | RHS | Result
-----------------0 | 0 |
0
0 | 1 |
1
1 | 0 |
1
1 | 1 |
0
Example
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3
4
5
; Shown using binary numbers as it will be easier to see the result
a . w = %1000 ! %0101 ; Result will be %1101
b . w = %1100 ! %1010 ; Result will be %0110
bits = a ! b ; XOR each bit of a and b and use result in equals
operator
a ! b ; XOR each bit of a and b and store result directly in variable
"a"
Operator * * (Bitwise NOT)
You should be familiar with binary numbers when using this operator. The result of this operator will
be the not’ed value of the expression on the RHS, bit for bit. The value of each bit is set according to
the table below. This operator cannot be used with strings.
RHS | Result
---------0 |
1
1 |
0
309
Example
1
2
3
; Shown using binary numbers as it will be easier to see the result
a . w = ~%1000 ; Result will be %0111
b . w = ~%1010 ; Result will be %0101
Operator () (Brackets)
You can use sets of brackets to force part of an expression to be evaluated first, or in a certain order.
Example
1
2
a = (5 + 6) * 3 ; Result will be 33 since the 5+6 is evaluated first
b = 4 * (2 - (3 - 4) ) ; Result will be 12 since the 3 -4 is evaluated
first , then the 2 - result , then the multiplication
Operator < (Less than)
This is used to compare the values of the expressions on the LHS and RHS. If the value of the expression
on the LHS is less than the value of the expression on the RHS this operator will give a result of true,
otherwise the result is false.
Operator > (More than)
This is used to compare the values of the expressions on the LHS and RHS. If the value of the expression
on the LHS is more than the value of the expression on the RHS this operator will give a result of true,
otherwise the result is false.
Operator <= (Less than or equal to)
This is used to compare the values of the expressions on the LHS and RHS. If the value of the expression
on the LHS is less than or equal to the value of the expression on the RHS this operator will give a
result of true, otherwise the result is false.
Operator >= (More than or equal to)
This is used to compare the values of the expressions on the LHS and RHS. If the value of the expression
on the LHS is more than or equal to the value of the expression on the RHS this operator will give a
result of true, otherwise the result is false.
Operator <> (Not equal to)
This is used to compare the values of the expressions on the LHS and RHS. If the value of the expression
on the LHS is equal to the value of the expression on the RHS this operator will give a result of false,
otherwise the result is true.
310
Operator And (Logical AND)
Can be used to combine the logical true and false results of the comparison operators to give a result
shown in the following table.
LHS | RHS | Result
----------------------false | false | false
false | true | false
true | false | false
true | true | true
Operator Or (Logical OR)
Can be used to combine the logical true and false results of the comparison operators to give a result
shown in the following table.
LHS | RHS | Result
----------------------false | false | false
false | true | true
true | false | true
true | true | true
Operator XOr (Logical XOR)
Can be used to combine the logical true and false results of the comparison operators to give a result
shown in the following table. This operator cannot be used with strings.
LHS | RHS | Result
----------------------false | false | false
false | true | true
true | false | true
true | true | false
Operator Not (Logical NOT)
The result of this operator will be the not’ed value of the logical on the RHS. The value is set according
to the table below. This operator cannot be used with strings.
RHS | Result
--------------false | true
true | false
Operator « (Arithmetic shift left)
Shifts each bit in the value of the expression on the LHS left by the number of places given by the value
of the expression on the RHS. Additionally, when the result of this operator is not used and the LHS
contains a variable, that variable will have its value shifted. It probably helps if you understand binary
numbers when you use this operator, although you can use it as if each position you shift by is
multiplying by an extra factor of 2.
311
Example
1
2
3
a =%1011 << 1 ; The value of a will be %10110. %1011=11 , %10110=22
b =%111 << 4 ; The value of b will be %1110000. %111=7 , %1110000=112
c . l = $8000000 << 1 ; The value of c will be 0. Bits that are shifted
off the left edge of the result are lost .
Operator » (Arithmetic shift right)
Shifts each bit in the value of the expression on the LHS right by the number of places given by the
value of the expression on the RHS. Additionally, when the result of this operator is not used and the
LHS contains a variable, that variable will have its value shifted. It probably helps if you understand
binary numbers when you use this operator, although you can use it as if each position you shift by is
dividing by an extra factor of 2.
Example
1
2
3
d =16 >> 1 ; The value of d will be 8. 16=%10000 , 8=%1000
e . w =%10101010 >> 4 ; The value of e will be %1010. %10101010=170 ,
%1010=10. Bits shifted out of the right edge of the result are lost
( which is why you do not see an equal division by 16)
f . b = -128 >> 1 ; The value of f will be -64. -128=%10000000 ,
-64=%11000000. When shifting to the right , the most significant bit
is kept as it is .
Operator % (Modulo)
Returns the remainder of the RHS by LHS integer division.
Example
1
2
a =16 % 2 ; The value of a will be 0 as 16/2 = 8 ( no remainder )
b =17 % 2 ; The value of a will be 1 as 17/2 = 8*2+1 (1 is remaining )
Operators shorthands
Every math operators can be used in a shorthand form.
Example
1
2
3
Value + 1 ; The same as : Value = Value + 1
Value * 2 ; The same as : Value = Value * 2
Value << 1 ; The same as : Value = Value << 1
Note: this can lead to ’unexpected’ results is some rare cases, if the assignment is modified before the
affection.
312
Example
1
2
Dim MyArray (10)
MyArray ( Random (10) ) + 1 ; The same as : MyArray ( Random (10) ) =
MyArray ( Random (10) ) + 1 , but here Random () won ’ t return the same
value for each call .
Operators priorities
Priority Level |
Operators
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -+ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 8 ( high ) |
~, 7
|
<<, >>, % , !
6
|
|, &
5
|
*, /
4
|
+, 3
| >, >= , <, <= , = , <>
2
|
Not
1 ( low )
| And , Or , XOr
Structured types
Build structured types, via the Structure keyword. More information can be found in the structures
chapter .
Pointer types
Pointers are declared with a ’*’ in front of the variable name. More information can be found in the
pointers chapter .
Special information about Floats and Doubles
A floating-point number is stored in a way that makes the binary point ”float” around the number, so
that it is possible to store very large numbers or very small numbers. However, you cannot store very
large numbers with very high accuracy (big and small numbers at the same time, so to speak).
Another limitation of floating-point numbers is that they still work in binary, so they can only store
numbers exactly which can be made up of multiples and divisions of 2. This is especially important to
realize when you try to print a floating-point number in a human readable form (or when performing
operations on that float) - storing numbers like 0.5 or 0.125 is easy because they are divisions of 2.
Storing numbers such as 0.11 are more difficult and may be stored as a number such as 0.10999999. You
can try to display to only a limited range of digits, but do not be surprised if the number displays
different from what you would expect!
This applies to floating-point numbers in general, not just those in PureBasic.
Like the name says the doubles have double-precision (64-bit) compared to the single-precision of the
floats (32-bit). So if you need more accurate results with floating-point numbers use doubles instead of
floats.
The exact range of values, which can be used with floats and doubles to get correct results from
arithmetic operations, looks as follows:
Float: +- 1.175494e-38 till +- 3.402823e+38
313
Double: +- 2.2250738585072013e-308 till +- 1.7976931348623157e+308
More information about the ’IEEE 754’ standard you can get on Wikipedia.
314
Chapter 89
While : Wend
Syntax
While < expression >
...
Wend
Description
Wend will loop until the <expression> becomes false. A good point to keep in mind with a While test is
that if the first test is false, then the program will never enter the loop and will skip this part. A Repeat
loop is executed at least once, (as the test is performed after each loop).
With the Break command it is possible to exit the While : Wend loop during any iteration, with the
Continue command the end of the current iteration may be skipped.
Example
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
b = 0
a = 10
While a = 10
b = b +1
If b =10
a =11
EndIf
Wend
This program loops until the ’a’ value is <> 10. The value of ’a’ becomes 11 when b=10, the program
will loop 10 times.
315
Chapter 90
Windows Message Handling
Introduction
The messages for your program will be sent by Windows into a queue, which is worked off only if you
want this. Windows sends thousand messages to your program without noticing this directly.
For example if you change the status of a gadget (identical whether you add a new entry or change the
image of an ImageGadget), a message is sent to the queue of your program.
There are two possibilities to receive and to process the Windows messages in PureBasic:
WaitWindowEvent() and WindowEvent() . The difference is, that WaitWindowEvent() waits till a
message arrives and WindowEvent() continues to work also so. The messages in the queue will be
processed however only, after you have called WindowEvent() or WaitWindowEvent().
Specials of WindowEvent()
The command WindowEvent() don’t wait, until a message arrives, but checks only whether one is in the
queue. If yes, the message is processed and WindowEvent() gives back the number of the message. If no
message lines up, then zero (0) is given back.
Example
1
While WindowEvent () : Wend
cause, that WindowEvent() becomes called as long till it gives back 0, i.e. until all messages of the queue
are processed.
It doesn’t reach, if you insert a simple ’WindowEvent()’ after a SetGadgetState() to process this 1
message. Firstly there still can be other messages in the queue, which have arrived before, and secondly
Windows also sends quite a number of other messages, we don’t have to take care of... which
nevertheless are in the queue.
A simple call of
1
WindowEvent ()
doesn’t reach, the code then runs correct under circumstances on one Windows version, but on another
version not. The different Windows versions are internally very different, so that one version only sends
1 message but another Windows version sends 5 messages for the same circumstance.
316
Because of this one always uses for updating:
1
While WindowEvent () : Wend
Of course there is also the alternative
1
Repeat : Until WindowEvent () = 0
possible, what isn’t rather usual however.
The described method While : WindowEvent() : Wend is frequently useful in connection with the
command Delay() , where the loop is inserted BEFORE the Delay(), e.g. to firstly wait for the update of
an ImageGadget after changing an image with SetGadgetState().
317
Chapter 91
With : EndWith
Syntax
With < expression >
...
EndWith
Description
With : EndWith blocks may be used with structure fields in order to reduce the quantity of code and to
improve its’ readability. This is a compiler directive, and works similarly to a macro , i.e., the specified
expression is automatically inserted before any anti-slash ’\’ character which does not have a space or an
operator preceding it. The code behaves identically to its’ expanded version. With : EndWith blocks
may not be nested, as this could introduce bugs which are difficult to track under conditions where
several statements have been replaced implicitly.
Example
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Structure Person
Name$
Age . l
Size . l
EndStructure
Friend . Person
With Friend
\ Name$ = " Yann "
\ Age
= 30
\ Size = 196
Debug \ Size +\ Size
EndWith
Example: Complex example
1
2
3
Structure Body
Weight . l
Color . l
318
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
Texture . l
EndStructure
Structure Person
Name$
Age . l
Body . Body [10]
EndStructure
Friend . Person
For k = 0 To 9
With Friend \ Body [ k ]
\ Weight = 50
\ Color = 30
\ Texture = \ Color * k
Debug \ Texture
EndWith
Next
319

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