Lab Manual for Organic Chemistry 7A and 7B V....

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Lab Manual for Organic Chemistry 7A and 7B V. 4.1
Keck clamp
Thermometer adaptor
Vacuum adaptor
Separatory Funnel
Distillation Head
Stir Bar
Pasteur Pipet with Bulbs
Büchner Funnel
Heating mantle
Variable Autotransformer
(Fiberglass type)
Distillation or Reflux Condenser
Round Bottomed Flask
By
Prof. S. Joiner, Ph.D.
Prof. R. Keil, Ph.D
Safety Goggles
Latex Gloves
For Chem 7A and 7B courses in Spring 2014-Present
Safety__________________________________________________________________________________ 3
Lab Notebooks __________________________________________________________________________ 7
Exp #1 – Physical Properties of Compounds: Melting Points ______________________________________ 8
Exp #2 – Boiling Points and Density Measurements ____________________________________________ 12
Exp #3 – Recrystallization of Benzoic Acid ___________________________________________________ 15
Exp #4 – Stereochemistry Model-Building Lab ________________________________________________ 22
Exp #5 – Gas Chromatography _____________________________________________________________ 26
Exp #6 – Synthesis of 2-Ethoxynaphthalene: An SN2 Reaction ____________________________________ 35
Exp #7 – Simple and Fractional Distillation ___________________________________________________ 39
Exp #8 – Steam Distillation of Cloves: Isolation of Eugenol ______________________________________ 49
Exp #9 – Acid-Base Extraction of Benzophenone and Benzoic Acid ________________________________ 52
Exp #10 – A Grignard-like Organic Reaction in Water __________________________________________ 57
Exp #11 – Infrared Spectroscopy ___________________________________________________________ 59
Exp #12 – The Blue Bottle Reaction Mechanism _______________________________________________ 66
Exp #13 – Oxidation of Aromatic Aldehydes Using Oxone _______________________________________ 69
Exp #14 – Preparation of 2-(2,4-dintitrobenzyl)pyridine: A Photochromic Compound __________________ 73
Exp #15 – Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) - A Bare Bones Guide _____________________________ 75
Exp #16 – 1H NMR Spectra _______________________________________________________________ 79
Exp #17 – Where Does the Bromine Go? Puzzles in Aromatic Electrophilic Substitution _______________ 82
Exp #18 – Reductive Amination: Three Easy Pieces ____________________________________________ 85
Exp #19 – Synthesis of Anthranilic Acid from Phthalimide via a Hoffmann Rearrangement _____________ 88
Exp #20 – Acetylation of Anthranilic Acid: Triboluminescent Crystals from the Microwave Oven ________ 90
Exp #21 – Thin layer chromatography (TLC) _________________________________________________ 95
Exp #22 – Synthesis of the sweetener Dulcin from the analgesic Acetaminophen ______________________100
Exp #23 – Synthesis of Benzoin from Benzaldehyde ____________________________________________105
Exp #24 – Synthesis of Benzil from Benzoin __________________________________________________107
Exp #25 – Tetraphenylcyclopentadiene From Benzil and 1,3-Diphenylacetone ________________________108
Exp #26 – Preparation of Hexaphenylbenzene via a Diels-Alder Reaction ___________________________111
Exp #27 – Aldol Condensations ____________________________________________________________112
Exp #28 – The Synthesis of NMP, a Fluoxetine (Prozac®) Precursor _______________________________114
2
Safety
Working in an organic chemistry lab requires you to pay attention to what you are doing and to what
your neighbors are doing. I take safety very seriously and you should be aware that I will remove you from lab
if I feel you cannot conduct yourself in a safe manner. I’ve included a list of “common sense” warnings that
you should be aware of.
1) General
a)
You will wear safety goggles whenever anyone in the lab is working. Once the lab starts, wear
goggles. If you want to work on your notebook, go outside and take them off. You get three
warnings. The first warning has no penalty. The second warning results in a zero for that lab.
The third warning will result in expulsion from the course!
NO GOGGLES! = NO LAB! = NO POINTS!
We also require lab coats to be worn in lab. We have a few loaner pairs, but youmust purchase
your own!
b) Don’t wear sandals in lab. There is often broken glass flying around! In addition, wear long
pants if possible and tie back long hair.
c)
Don’t leave your backpacks and texts on the lab bench. They get in the way and will be
damaged by chemicals.
d) Don’t eat, drink or smoke in lab. Material on your hands will get transferred into your mouth. It
is good practice to wash your hands often during the lab to keep them clean.
e)
Don’t do any unauthorized procedures. Do only the assigned experiment.
f)
Wear latex gloves while handling chemicals whenever possible. Remember to remove the
gloves when you are done handling the chemical, otherwise, you will spread that chemical from
the glove to yourself. If you have a latex allergy, try nitrile gloves. Good gloves can be
purchased at grocery/hardware stores. They’re more comfortable than the ones the stockroom
doles out.
3
2) Handling chemicals
a)
Don’t look directly down into a container. The contents could suddenly “bump” or boil over and
splash you.
b) Don’t smell a container directly. Always “waft” the vapors with your hand to see if it has a
strong smell. Some chemicals (e.g. ammonia) cause great pain if you smell them deeply.
c)
When you use a bottle, either close it immediately after you use it or hand it to someone who is
using it. Don’t leave bottle open or sitting with spatulas in them.
d) Only take what you need from a bottle. Don’t take a beaker, fill it, take it back to your bench,
use a bit and throw the rest away.
e)
Most of the chemicals used in this lab are not very harmful, if you avoid ingesting them. By
washing you hands and wearing gloves, you can minimize (but never eliminate) exposure to
these chemicals. I have tried to use chemicals that occur in foods or in the house. If you have
questions about chemical toxicity, please see me and I can tell you where to find more about any
particular chemical.
3) Handling Apparatus
a)
Always clamp the reaction flask securely by the neck. If you suddenly have to remove the heat
or take the reaction to the hood, you will have a handle to grab it by.
b) Never heat any apparatus that does not have an outlet for gas (i.e. a closed system). The
resulting pressure build-up can blow up in your face!
c)
When handling separatory funnel or test tubes, point the openings away from your neighbors!
Don’t spray them and they won’t spray you!
d) Don’t use Bunsen burners without checking with your neighbors first. They may have
flammable materials around. You probably will not need to use flames at all in this course.
e)
Always secure glassware and your apparatus so that it cannot be knocked over by someone
brushing against it or by a careless movement.
f)
Never heat any piece of glass that does not have PyrexTM or KimaxTM on it. These types of glass
can be heated and cooled without cracking. Never use a piece of glassware that is cracked
without checking with the instructor.
4
Safety Quiz
(adapted from CU Boulder)
1) If you spill an acid or a base on yourself, you should:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
rinse with acetone or another suitable solvent or neutralizing solution
ask your TA what to do
immediately wash with soap and cool water and tell your TA
go immediately to the health center
do nothing unless you feel a burn or irritation
2) You may remove your goggles while in the lab room:
a)
b)
c)
d)
never
if no one is doing an experiment or washing glassware
if no one is doing an experiment
anytime
3) You can safely wear contact lenses while doing an organic chemistry lab:
a) if you are wearing goggles
b) if they are soft lenses
c) never
4) Broken glassware left around the lab is a hazard because:
a) if on the floor, might step on it and cut their foot
b) if on the lab bench, someone might lean on the bench and cut their arm
c) if in the sink, someone might try to pick it up to throw it away properly and cut themselves.
d) all of the above
5) You have looked up the hazards of the chemicals you will be using in a particular lab, and found out that
they are mild health hazards, requiring you to avoid skin contact and vapor inhalation. Therefore, when in lab
you should:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
wear short shorts and sandals
wear long pants and closed toed shoes, and even a lab coat if possible
keep the chemicals in your safety hood as much as possible
wear gloves
b, c, and d
a, b, and c
6) Volatile solvents can cause irritation of the respiratory tract, intoxication, central nervous system
depression, drowsiness, or nausea. How can you prevent accidental vapor inhalation?
a) work with volatile solvent in your student hood
b) cover containers of them if you have to carry them through the lab
c) a and b
5
7) If something on your lab benches catches fire, what is the best choice below?
a) always run for the fire extinguisher if you see a flame
b) if and only if it is possible to do so safely, cover the flames with a beaker or watchglass, remove solvents from the
area, then get the fire extinguisher; if it is not possible to do this, leave the room and pull the fire alarm, and call 911
from a safe phone
c) get the safety wash and aim the water at the flames
d) the moment you see a hint of the flame, immediately leave the room and pull the fire alarm
8) If the fire alarm sounds, you should:
a)
b)
c)
d)
do nothing - it is probably a false alarm
shut down your experiment, get your stuff, then leave the building
leave the building immediately
grab a fire extinguisher and/or safety wash
9) Which of the following is the eye/face wash?
a.
b.
c.
d.
10) You get a chemical in your eye. What should you do?
a) nothing
b) rinse with water for a few minutes and tell your TA or the lab coordinator
c) immediately flush with water, continue washing for 15 minutes, tell your TA, then go to the health center if so
advised
d) go to the restroom and rinse with water because the water is better there
6
Lab Notebooks
You may be keeping a laboratory notebook (check with your instructor) that records the results of the labs you
will be performing. There are a few rules of lab notebooks.

Please buy a simple English composition book. DO NOT use spiral bound notebooks (It’s very
inconvenient to stack those notebooks)

Leave a blank page or two at the front for a table of contents.

Please do not use pencil. Only pen! (and no red pens!)

If you make a mistake or change something, just put a single line through your mistake. No white-out or
liquid paper!

Please use one side of the page only, as this makes grading easier. Also, leave at least a 3/4” margin on
all sides.

Record what you actually did, and don’t just repeat the procedure. I’ve included a sample of a notebook
to give you an idea of what to do.
The basic format to follow is
Title
Purpose
Reagent Chart
Procedure
Data
Conclusion
7
Experiment #1
Exp #1 – Physical Properties of Compounds: Melting Points
With some exceptions (e.g. carbon dioxide), most pure solids will melt in a well-defined, reproducible
temperature range. Whenever a chemist creates or isolates a new compound, a melting point is recorded so that others
may compare their compound to this reference value. Also, the range of temperatures in which a compound melts is quite
dependent upon the purity of the compound. The melting point serves as a convenient benchmark of purity for solids.
Although you may be used to seeing melting points recorded as exact temperatures, melting points should be
recorded as a range from when the compound begins to melt, to the point at which it is completely liquefied. When a
compound is very pure, the melting point range will be less than 0.5 oC. For a typical compound, the range can be from 1
to 3 oC. Compounds with more impurities will have broader ranges. In addition, when a compound has impurities in it,
the overall melting point is lower than for the pure compound. This phenomenon is the same as when salt lowers the
melting point of ice.
The reason why impurities both lower the melting point and broaden the melting point range can be explained in a
qualitative sense. It is very important to note that only soluble impurities can affect melting points. For example, sand
(insoluble in water) mixed with ice will melt at the same temperature as plain ice, because the sand doesn’t affect the
hydrogen bonds of the water molecules. Salt (soluble in water) mixed with ice disturbs the symmetric crystal structure of
the ice, which lowers the amount of heat needed to break apart that structure.
Although a sharp melting point is generally an indication of purity, there are the rare situations in a mixture of two
different compounds give a sharp melting point. This is called a eutectic point and may (or may not) occur for any two
compounds. Imagine that you have compound A, which melts at 150-150.5 oC when pure. You then add a few percent of
compound B, which also melts at 150-150.5 oC . The melting point of A is lowered (even though A and B have the same
melting point! Strange, isn’t it?). As you mix in more and more B, the melting point of the mix goes down and the range
gets larger, as discussed above. However, at the eutectic point, the melting point becomes sharp, although the melting
point of the mix is lower than for the pure compound. As the proportion of B increases, the melting point returns toward
the values for pure B. (Figure 1)
Fig. 1 - Melting point of a mixture of A and B. Note Eutectic point and broadened range.
8
Experiment #1
Not every pair of compounds forms a eutectic point, and the eutectic ratio is not always 1:1. Whenever you
record a sharp melting point, you should always consider the possibility that you have two compounds that happen to be at
the right ratio for a eutectic point and is not a pure, single compound.
The melting point can tell you about a compound’s purity but it can also be used to deduce a compounds identity.
To do this, you compare the measured melting point to the value given in the chemical literature. If they are different,
then the compounds cannot be the same. If they are the same, you may have the same compound. There are millions of
solids in the world, and because most of them melt within a few hundred degrees of another, there is a good chance that
you may be looking at the wrong molecule. How do you tell if you’ve got the right compound? The mixed melting
point technique is used to verify the unknown’s identity. The unknown compound is mixed (usually in a 1:1 ratio) with
the compound you believe is the same and the melting point of the mixture is taken. If the melting point remains the
same, then the unknown and the compound must be the same. If the melting point is lowered or the range increases, then
the two compounds must be different. Very cautious workers will make two or three mixtures in varying proportions to
check for eutectic points; however, a single mixed melting point is usually sufficient.
Melting Point Techniques
Measuring melting points is a simple procedure that requires patience to get good results. The sample is placed in a
thin glass tube with a sealed end (this will be demonstrated in lab), the tube is placed in the Mel-Temp apparatus (with the
closed end down!), and heat is gradually applied. The dial on the Mel-Temp controls the rate of heating of the block,
however, it is not a linear control. Thus, a setting of “5” may heat the block quickly at lower temperatures, but very
slowly at higher temps.
\
Heat the solid slowly: about 2-3 oC per minute. Heating faster than that will result in a low reading, as the heating
will be uneven and the thermometer will read a different value than the actual temperature in the tube.
If you do not know the approximate range of your unknown, a useful technique is to prepare two or three sample
tubes. Heat the first one quickly and record the point at which it melted. Let the Mel-Temp cool well below that value,
then redo the measurement more slowly. Do not speed the cooling of the Mel-Temp with a wet rag, you will merely
cause the block to have an uneven temperature gradient which will give you inaccurate reading.
Mel-Temps have channels for three tubes, so run more than one sample at a time.
Always record the melting point as a range, from the initial temperature when the crystals start or glistening to the
final temperature when the solid turns completely liquid.
Today’s Experiment (first part)
Practice measuring a melting point with one of the standards. Try and get a feeling for how fast to increase the heat
source. Do not worry if your melting point is exact, this is a practice run. This also gives you a chance to calibrate your
thermometer. If the melting point that you get for the practice run is ~ 5 °C high, then you know to lower all of your
melting points by 5 °C.
After you feel confident with a standard, take a melting point of unknown #1 (green label). You may want to do
several runs to get an accurate value. You’ll earn points for how accurate your measurement is.
Unknown #2 (blue label) is either urea, trans-cinnamic acid or acetylsalicylic acid, all of which melt at about 135 oC.
Using the mixed melting point technique, decide which compound your unknown you have. You will need to mix a
few small batches of your compound plus one of the standards.
9
Experiment #1
Safety:
Mel-Temps are quite safe. Be careful when preparing the sample tubes, as they are made of glass and break
easily. Also, the Mel-Temps get very hot (that’s what they are designed to do!) and will burn you if you touch them.
I have read the paragraph above and understand it
________________________________ .
I have read the paragraph above and have some questions. ________________________________ .
Pre-Lab:
1) You've isolated a chemical from a plant. You test its melting point and find that it ranges from 185oC to
186oC. What does this tell you about the chemical?
2) You look up the melting point in a reference text, and find that éclairine has the same melting point. Do you
believe that your compound is eclarine?
10
Experiment #1
Exp #1 - Melting point Lab Write-Up
Name ___________________________
Identity of standard measured: ___________________
Melting point range of standard: __________________
Suggested Adjustment to make to other melting points:
Green Unknown Number: _______________
Measured Melting point range of (Green) Unknown ______________
Adjusted Melting point range of (Green) Unknown ______________
Blue Unknown Number: _______________
Measured melting point range of unknown mixed with acetylsalicylic acid ____________
Identity of second (Blue) unknown
Mixed with urea
____________
Mixed with cinnamic acid
____________
__________________________
11
Experiment #2
Exp #2 – Boiling Points and Density Measurements
Most liquids exhibit fairly sharply defined boiling points. By carefully identifying the boiling point of a
liquid, you can determine whether a liquid is fairly pure, and whether it matches the literature value for that
compound. In addition, the specific gravity of a liquid can be determined by using a container of fixed size and
a balance.
The difficulty is measuring boiling points is mostly rooted in the scale of the experiment. Boiling large
amounts of solvent can make the lab smell bad, give you a headache, and is a potential fire hazard. A
microscale technique makes alleviates most of these problems.
Boiling Point Technique:
The first step that needs to be done is to construct a microscale boiling point apparatus. You will need
to make a small closed tube, by first cutting and then closing a Pasteur pipette. The proper technique will be
demonstrated in class. You will assemble an apparatus that will look like the figure below. Immerse the tubes
in a oil bath that you will slowly heat.
small test tube
unknown liquid
digital thermometer
small capilary tube;
open on bottom,
sealed on top
Fig 1. Boiling Point Apparatus
As the temperature increases, you will see bubbles coming out of the inner test tube. This is the result of
the increasing vapor pressure of the liquid pushing out the trapped air. As the temperature rises, the bubbles
will come out at first slowly and then very quickly and the inner tube will appear to be empty (but is actually
filled with the solvent vapor, not air!). This is not the boiling point! At this point, turn off the temperature and
let the system cool. As the solvent cools to the boiling point, the vapor bubbles will slow down and then briefly
stop, and then start flowing back into the bell tube. When they stop, record that temperature as the boiling
point. At this temperature, the vapor pressure of the solvent is just equals the air pressure.
12
Experiment #2
Boiling Point Lab Version 1 Write-Up:
Name_____________________
Procedure:
Obtain an unknown and determine its boiling point. Then determine its density.
Unknown number
_______
Boiling point measured
________
Measured density of water
________
Measured density of unknown
________
Calculated density of unknown
________
13
Experiment #2
Boiling Point Lab Version 2 Write-Up:
Name_____________________
Procedure:
Obtain three unknowns and determine their boiling points and densities. In lab, you will be given a list of the
possible unknowns. Using your understanding of intermolecular forces and your measured boiling points,
match each unknown to the corresponding structure.
Unknown A
Measured boiling point: ___________________________
Measured density: _______________________________
Identity of unknown: _____________________________
Unknown B
Measured boiling point: ___________________________
Measured density: _______________________________
Identity of unknown: _____________________________
Unknown C
Measured boiling point: ___________________________
Measured density: _______________________________
Identity of unknown: _____________________________
On the back of this page, respond to the following questions:
1) Describe the procedure that you used to measure the density of each unknown liquid. How did you
minimize evaporation of the unknown during your measurement?
2) How did you use your understanding of chemical structure and intermolecular forces to identify each of the
three unknown substances? Be specific and detailed.
14
Experiment #3
Exp #3 – Recrystallization of Benzoic Acid
Recrystallization is one of the most important and oldest forms of lab procedures, having its origins with the
alchemists. Even today, it is still the cheapest and fastest way of purifying large amounts of solids, and is used to prepare
samples ranging from hundreds of grams of a reagent to milligrams of complex proteins for x-ray analysis. Many people
have conducted recrystallizations at home, making rock candy from sugar or crystallized ginger, almost certainly without
thinking about the chemistry involved!
Recrystallization depends on one simple physical property: most compounds are more soluble in a hot solvent
than in a cool solvent. Thus, if you swirl a compound in just enough hot solvent to get it to dissolve and then slowly cool
the solution, you will saturate the solution. Soon, crystals of the solid will form as the temperature drops. In the case of
rock candy, the sugar that you start with is quite pure. Therefore, the main reason for that recrystallization is to grow
larger, more regular crystals.
In order to characterize a compound with x-ray crystallography, recrystallization is used to prepare large enough
crystals to shine radiation through. This is of critical importance when trying to determine the structure of proteins, such
as enzymes, that occur in nature. Every time you see a picture of a biological macromolecule, it was prepared through
painstaking crystallization and X-ray analysis.
Solubility data and removal of impurities – a theoretical example:
When there is an impurity that is soluble in the recrystallization solvent, recrystallization can be an effective way
to remove that impurity, although there is always a loss of the desired material associated with doing so. The basic idea is
simple. Imagine you have 10 g of compound A mixed with 0.5 g of compound X and you want pure A. You find
(perhaps from the Merck Index) that A and X have the following solubilities:
Solubility in
water @ 100 oC
Solubility in
water @ 25 oC
A
10g / 100mL
1.0g / 100mL
X
10g / 100mL
1.0g / 100mL
So if you take 100 mL of boiling water and swirl it with your mixture, you should be able to dissolve both
A and X. (Note how the amount of X in the water doesn’t affect the amount of A the water can dissolve, this may seem
counter-intuitive, but it’s true!) As you let the solution cool to room temperature, the solution will only dissolve 1.0 g of
A and 1.0 g of X, which means that 9 g of A (i.e. 10 g – 1 g = 9 g) will precipitate out of the solution, while no X will
become a solid. When you filter out the solid, you will have 9 g of pure A, with 1.5 g of A and X still dissolved in the
solution. In exchange for higher purity, you lost 10% of your original material, which is not an unreasonable tradeoff.
15
Experiment #3
1 g A(aq) + 0.5 g X(aq) Liquid phase
10 g A(s) + 0.5 g X(s)
Before dissolving
10 g A(aq) + 0.5 g X(aq)
The hot solution
9 g A(aq) + 0.0 g X(aq) Solid phase
After cooling
Fig. 1 - A simple recrystallization
In practice, you rarely know what the solubility of the compound, let alone the impurity, really is. You usually
add just enough of a hot solvent for the compound to dissolve and hope for the best when it cools. How do you what
solvent to try? Trial & error and patience are the watchwords for any chemist!
Techniques - General
As you might imagine, there are many fine points to recrystallization technique. It is often said that
recrystallization is one part art and one part science. It is a skill that improves with practice, but the most important point
is to remember to be patient.
When you start to dissolve your mixture, it is best to add the solvent a little at a time. You can always add more,
but it’s difficult to remove solvent once it’s added. Also, it’s best to heat your solution before you add more solvent.
Otherwise, you will cool your solution every time you add fresh solvent.
When the solvent you are using is something like water or ethanol, the procedure is very forgiving. If you try
recrystallizing from a very volatile solvent like ether or dichloromethane, you find that the warm solvent evaporates
nearly as fast as you add it. Also, it cools very quickly. With experience, these solvents become easier to manage.
The solution that the solids precipitate out of is called the mother liquor. Often the mother liquor is saved in
hopes of getting a second batch of crystals (often called a “crop”) even though the purity is lower.
A common method of recrystallization involves the use of two solvents. The first is used to get the compound to
dissolve. The second, usually less polar, solvent is added very slowly until the solution shows signs of turbidity
(cloudiness) occur. The solution is left alone until crystals appear. This technique is very commonly used. Of course, it
involves trying to figure out what the second solvent should be (and with the corresponding increase in effort!)
The exact physics and mechanics of crystal formation is very complicated and still poorly understood. However,
it is known that most crystals seem to form around tiny impurities such as dust specks or scratches on the glass. Also,
crystals grow at a certain rate. If the solution is cooled too quickly, the crystals won’t be able to keep up with the
molecules precipitating out of solution, and so new sites of crystallization (called “nucleation”) will occur. Therefore, if
you cool quickly, you will get smaller, more numerous crystals that contain more impurities within them. If cooling is
very rapid, the compound will “oil out” and refuse to form any crystals at all. When this occurs, you will see oil at the
bottom of your flask; a sad sight indeed. Try redissolving the compound and cooling slowly.
16
Experiment #3
Techniques - Dealing With Insoluble Stuff
Often, when you try to dissolve the initial mixture, there is some material that will sit in the bottom of your flask
no matter what you do. This stuff may be sand, hair or some insoluble tar. Whatever it is, you don’t want it. So before
you let your solution cool, you need to get rid of this junk. This is done with hot filtration. The best method is to use a
warm filter funnel and a very porous filter paper. However, keeping the filter funnel hot can be quite and setting up the
apparatus can be quite a chore, so often the hot solution is simply poured though a short-stemmed filter funnel lined with
filter paper. Why a short-stemmed funnel? Sometimes, the solution will cool as it goes down the outlet and crystals will
form and clog up the drain part of the funnel. This may sound unlikely, but it can happen!
Sometimes, the solution will have a dark color, even to the point of being blackish. One way of dealing with this
is to add charcoal to the cool solution. Students often blanch at the idea of adding a black powder to add already dark
mixture, but the charcoal often will adsorb colored impurities. That is, the polymers and “goo” stick to the charcoal.
When you hot filter the solution, the charcoal and most of the “goo” stay in the filter. Remember to add the charcoal
when the solution is cool. If you add a finely divided powder to a hot liquid, it may suddenly boil over.
Techniques - Getting Crystals
Now that you have a clear, hot solution, you wait. And wait. Often, you’ll have the urge to plunge the flask in an
ice bath before the solution is even at room temperature. Resist that urge! Let the flask cool at its own pace, preferably
while its set upon an upside down beaker or piece of Styrofoam, which slows the loss of heat from the flask.
If no crystals form, immerse the flask in a ice-water bath and scratch the sides of the flask with a glass rod.
Scratching the glass may seem like “hocus-pocus”, but it seems to cause sites of nucleation to occur and give the crystals
a place to start growing. Be careful not to push too hard, the glass rods and/or the flask can break!
If you are still bereft of crystals, you can try adding a seed crystal. Take a very small amount from of the desired
compound and drop it in the flask. Do not swirl the solution to dissolve it! Often, more crystals will grow around this
one. Of course, this only works if you have a sample of the pure compound to work with!
If none of the above tricks work, it’s probably because you’ve added too much solvent at the initial step. The best
bet is to boil off the excess solvent (i.e. reduce its volume) and let it recool. Repeat this until you get crystals.
Once you get crystals, you need to collect them. Set up a Buchner funnel, a vacuum flask and a piece of filter
paper (remember to clamp the flask!). Before you filter the crystals, break them up with a spatula and give the solution a
swirl. Turn the vacuum on, make sure the filter paper is covering the holes, and pre-moisten the paper. Now swirl the
solution and pour it onto the Buchner flask quickly. Don’t let the crystals settle to the bottom of the flask, you’ll just have
to rinse them out later. Once you have gotten the crystals on the paper, wash them with some cold solvent. Always use
the same solvent you did the recrystallization from. If it looks like the solid is dissolving when you wash it, stop washing
it! If you see crystals forming in your vacuum flask, you may want to refilter this solution to increase your recovery.
Depending on the solvent used, it can take a few days before the crystals dry enough to allow you to take a
melting point.
17
Experiment #3
Calculations
Whenever you report a recrystallization, you should report the percent recovery. This is a simple calculation, it is
merely the amount (in grams) that you isolated, divided by the amount you started with (times 100%). Since there are no
chemical changes going on, there is no need to convert reagents to moles. Because you don’t know how much of you
starting material consisted of impurities, the perfect percent recovery will be less than 100%. Please note the difference
between the percent recovery and the percent yield.
% recovery = weight of material recovered / original weight of impure sample
Thus, even though you recovered all the possible A, you have no way of knowing how much of the original
mixture was really A and how much was X. Also, percent recoveries will always be less than 100% for dried products.
Procedure
You will be given a jar of benzoic acid that is contaminated with some insoluble material (dirt) and some salicylic
acid (<5%). Your task is to get a pure, dried sample of benzoic acid.
O
O
OH
OH
OH
Benzoic Acid
Salicylic Acid
Part One







Dissolve 1.0g of the sample in the minimum amount of hot water (which is the recrystallization solvent). Some of
sample will not dissolve! In the past, around 40mL worked well.
While the solution is hot, filter it through a short-stemmed funnel and a piece of fluted filter paper to remove any
insoluble material present.
Allow the solution to cool undisturbed, for at least 20 minutes, and crystals to form.
Then, cool in ice for 15 minutes.
Collect the crystals with vacuum filtration.
Oven dry the crystals on a watch glass for 20 min. at 90oC.
Record a melting point. (A pure sample should melt around 122oC)
Part Two: Perform the experiment again, but include one of the following variations. We’ll use the whole classes’
results to determine which variation is best.
Group a) Same as above. You’re the control group!
Group b) Dissolve 1.0g of sample in 100mL of water.
Group c) Use only 25mL of water to dissolve the compound initially
Group d) Immediately after you gravity filter the solution, place it in the ice bath for 20min.
ENTER YOUR DATA ONLINE!
18
Experiment #3



Safety:
Wear your goggles! No flames!
Boiling water will burn you!
Benzoic acid and Salicylic acid are not very toxic, but the dust is very irritating.
I have read and understood the above safety statement and have no questions. _____________________
I have read and understood the above safety statement and do have some questions. _________________
Pre-Lab
1) I did a recrystallization of an impure substance and found that my percent recovery was 100%. What does that
mean?
2) I did a recrystallization of an impure substance and found that my percent recovery was 110%. What happened?
19
Experiment #3
Benzoic Acid Recystallization Write-Up:
Name _________________
Part One:
Starting Mass
Mass of Purified product
MP range of Purified Product
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
Describe the purified product (using one or more complete sentences!)
What was the percent recovery of benzoic acid (show calculation)?
Part Two:
Which group were you in? ________
What did you do differently on the second run?
Starting Mass
Mass of Purified product
MP range of Purified Product
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
Describe the solid product (using one or more complete sentences!)
What was the percent recovery of solid product (show calculation)?
20
Experiment #3
Write-up page 2
Calculate the average yields and melting ranges for each method from previous year’s data:
Group A
Group B
Group C
Group D
Average Yield:
Avg Melting Range:
Based on these umbers, which method gives the maximum yield?
Based on these umbers, which method gives the most pure product?
How did your second run compare (in yield and purity) to your first run? Did you do better or worse?
How did your modification compare to the average of Group A (the “standard” method) from previous years?
Is your modification a good one? [skip this if you did the A method twice]
21
Experiment #4
Exp #4 – Stereochemistry Model-Building Lab
This lab will help you discover and learn about stereochemistry and the various terms associated with it.
You will be provided with a model kit. Bring your textbook to help you with some of these concepts. As you
go along, answer the questions on separate sheets of paper.
Stereocenters
Construct a model (called Structure A) in which a carbon atom (represented by a black ball) has four
different colored balls attached to it – yellow, green, orange, and purple – representing four different
substituents attached to the central carbon. The yellow ball represents hydrogen, the green ball represents
chlorine, the orange ball represents bromine, and the purple ball represents iodine.
Q-1) Using wedges and dashes, draw this molecule on a separate sheet of paper in at least four different
orientations. In each orientation that you draw, the same two atoms should NOT both be on wedges and
dashes. Practice rotating the molecule in your hands and on paper, until you are comfortable with viewing
molecules in three dimensions.
Q-2) Does this molecule have a plane of symmetry? The carbon of structure A is called a stereocenter.
Replace the orange ball with a green one.
Q-3) Does the model have a plane of symmetry now? Find an orientation in which it is easy to draw this plane
of symmetry, then draw the molecule using wedges and dashes. Also, draw a dotted line representing the plane
of symmetry.
Chirality
A stereocenter is a center of chirality or of “handedness” in a molecule.
Reconstruct Structure A. Put the model on a flat surface so that the yellow ball points up. Now,
construct a model (Structure B) which is a mirror image of Structure A. Place Structure B on a flat surface
adjacent to Structure A with the yellow ball of both pointing at the ceiling.
Q-4) Try superposing (aligning) all five atoms at the same time. Can you superpose Structure B and
Structure A? How many atoms can you superpose at one time? Try to improve on this number until you think
that you cannot get any more atoms to superpose at any one time.
Q-5) Are Structure A and Structure B identical?
Q-6) How do the structures differ?
22
Experiment #4
Enantiomers
The two structures A and B are chiral molecules. A chiral molecule does not have a plane of symmetry
and has a non-superposable mirror image. The pair of structures that are non-superposable mirror images are
called enantiomers. These two compounds differ only in the way they rotate plane-polarized light. Each
enantiomer is said to be optically active.
On both structures A and B replace the orange ball with a green one and call the new structures C and D.
Q-7) Are structures C and D still mirror images of each other?
Q-8) Do C and D have internal planes of symmetry?
Q-9) Can you superpose structures C and D? Are these molecules identical or different?
Structures C and D represent achiral molecules. Achiral molecules have a superposable mirror image, a
plane of symmetry, and do not rotate plane-polarized light. Achiral molecules are optically inactive.
(Remember: the prefix a- means the same as non-)
The R/S Convention
The R/S convention is used to designate the configurations at stereocenters. The attached atoms to the
stereocenter are arranged in order of increasing atomic number. Thus, higher atomic number means higher
priority. If two atoms have the same priority, you move to the next atom out and compare those atoms.
Continue this until you break the tie. Look at the molecule from the side opposite the group with the lowest
priority. If you count the highest to lowest priority and you go in a clockwise direction, you have the R
configuration. If you move counterclockwise, the stereocenter is S.
Rebuild structures A and B. Place both structures on flat surface with the yellow ball of both pointing at
the ceiling.
Q-10) Look straight down at the models, starting with the green ball and proceeding clockwise, record the
order of the balls for both Structure A and B.
In our model kits, the black balls represent carbon atoms, the yellow balls represent hydrogen atoms, the green
balls represent chlorine atoms, the orange balls represent bromine atoms, and the purple balls represent iodine
atoms.
Q-11) Using wedges and dashes, draw molecules A and B. Give each molecule a proper IUPAC name,
including the (R) and (S) designations. (Note: the halogen "groups" are named chloro, bromo, and iodo.)
Working with structure A, interchange any two balls attached to the stereocenter. Call this molecule E.
Q-12) What happened to the configuration at the stereocenter? How does molecule E compare to molecule B?
In your molecule E, interchange two different balls (not the same ones as you did in the previous step).
Call this molecule F.
Q-13) How does molecule F compare to molecule B? How does it compare to your original molecule A (refer
to your question 4 answer as needed)?
Q-14) Repeat this process by swapping two groups at a time several more times. How many different
stereoisomers do you find through this process?
23
Experiment #4
Converting Between Flat and 3-Dimensional Molecules
Build a model of (R)-2-chlorobutane and a model of (S)-2-chlorobutane
Q-15) Using your models, determine which of the structures, below, have the R configuration, and which of the
structures have the S configuration. To verify your answer, rotate each model to align it with the structure that
is drawn, below. Copy each structural drawing onto your paper and label the stereocenter as R or S.
Diastereomers and Meso Forms
Two compounds with the same molecular formula but a different arrangement in space are called
stereoisomers. A stereoisomer that has a non-superposable mirror image is called an enantiomer. A
stereoisomer with a non-superposable non-mirror image is called a diastereomer. Diastereomers usually have
two or more stereocenters.
Working with a partner, build the following four molecules (you should each build two of the four):
(2R, 3R)-2,3-dichlorobutane = Molecule G
(2R, 3S)-2,3-dichlorobutane = Molecule H
(2S, 3R)-2,3-dichlorobutane = Molecule I
(2S, 3S)-2,3-dichlorobutane = Molecule J
Label each model with a piece of tape that has the molecule’s letter (G, H, I, or J).
24
Experiment #4
Q-16) Work with two molecules at a time and determine their relationship (for example: “Molecule X and
Molecule Y are diastereomers”). Repeat this process until you have examined each pair of molecules. You will
make six total comparisons: G&H, G&I, G&J, H&I, H&J, I&J.
A meso compound is an achiral compound that contains a stereocenter.
compound is a stereoisomer that is superposable with its own mirror image.
In otherwords, a meso
Q-17) Which of the 2,3-dichlorobutane isomers is (are) meso?
Q-18) Does each meso compound have an internal plane of symmetry? Rotate around bonds until you find the
plane of symmetry, then sketch the molecule, using dashes and wedges, on your report sheet. Identify the plane
of symmetry with a dotted line.
Q-19) Does each chiral compound have an internal plane of symmetry? If so, sketch them in your lab
notebook.
Q-20) Removing any duplicate 2,3-dichlorobutane molecules, how many total isomers are there of 2,3dichlorobutane? Sketch all of these in your lab notebook and label each with a proper full name. Under the
full name, indicate whether the molecule would be optically active or optically inactive.
Model kits are useful in determining stereochemistry – you are allowed to use a model kit on all exams
in this class, provided that you have one! You may not, however, use any instruction booklet that comes with
your model kit. A cheap model kit can be made from gum drops and toothpicks (although this kit can become
VERY expensive if you have a sweet tooth).
Q-21) Practice assigning stereocenters by building models of these. Copy each molecule onto your paper and
assign all stereocenters in the molecules as (R) or (S).
Please put your model kit away exactly the way that you found it. There is a sample model kit at the
front of the room if you’ve forgotten where everything goes.
25
Experiment #5
Exp #5 – Gas Chromatography
Chromatography (from Greek χρώμα:chroma, colour and γραφειν:"grafein" to write) is the collective term for a
family of techniques to separate mixtures. It involves passing a mixture dissolved in a “mobile phase” through a stationary
phase, separating the analyte from other molecules in the mixture.
Chromatography may be preparative or analytical. Preparative chromatography seeks to separate the components
of a mixture for further use, while analytical chromatography operates with smaller amounts of material and measures the
relative proportions of analytes in a mixture. The two are not mutually exclusive.
Suppose a mixture of bees and wasps passing over a flower bed. The bees would be more attracted to the flowers
than the wasps, and would become separated from them. If one were to observe at a point past the flower bed, the wasps
would pass first, followed by the bees. In this analogy, the bees and wasps represent the analytes to be separated, the
flowers represent the stationary phase, and the mobile phase is the air. The key to the separation is the differing affinities
of the analyte to the stationary and mobile phase. The observer represents the detector.
Gas chromatography (GC), sometimes called gas-liquid chromatography is a type of chromatography in which the
mobile phase is a carrier gas, usually an inert gas such as helium or nitrogen, and the stationary phase is a microscopic
layer of liquid or polymer on an inert solid support, inside glass or metal tubing, called a column.
Fig. 1- Schematic diagram of a Gas Chromatograph
A typical GC (Figure 1) is operated by injecting a liquid sample into a gas stream, which then runs through a
column with a high surface area-volume ratio. The column can be made by either filling a tube with a solid support (such
as small glass beads), or by using a very narrow tube (a capillary). The temperature of the column is controlled by placing
the column in an oven. As the injected liquid alternately evaporates and condenses through the column, it is drawn
toward a detector at a speed that is related to its boiling point and to the temperature of the oven. Eventually, the
compound escapes through a detector which examines the quantity of material present in the gas stream (usually by
burning the material that escapes). The oven typically is programmed to slowly increase in temperature as the sample
travels through to allow for good separation of both low- and high-boiling substances.
26
Experiment #5
Why Does the Sample Separate?
Through the long column, compounds with a lower boiling point will be in the gas phase longer than compounds with a
higher boiling point. This causes them to pass through the column faster than the higher boiling compounds.
Why is the Oven Temperature Increased?
If the oven starts off at a high temperature, then compounds whose boiling points are well below the temperature of the
oven will all pass through the column at the same rate as the helium gas. Starting the oven at a low temperature allows
these low-boiling compounds to separate. The temperature is then slowly increased so that compounds with higher
boiling points will be able to evaporate (and therefore travel through the column to the detector).
How is the sample detected?
Typically, the compounds exit the column and land on hot wire. The wire is momentarily cooled, the resistance is
changed and the current flow across the wire is measured.
What about My Sample?
Only a very, very small quantity of sample is used in the GC, but the sample is burned and therefore lost.
One
interesting technique, often used in forensic analysis, uses a mass spectrometer as a detectorgiving a characteristic
“fingerprint” for each type of molecule. In this way, the combination gas chromatograph – mass spectrometer (GC-MS)
not only identifies the quantities of material present in a sample, it also can identify which compound is represented by
each peak. GC-MS could be used, for example, to analyze samples from a crime scene to identify which brand of cleaner
was used to clean up after a crime, since each brand of cleaner will have different ingredients and different concentrations
of each of these ingredients.
Today’s Experiment
Part One: (Demonstration) A rudimentary GC can be constructed by filling a glass tube with laundry detergent. One end
of this tube is connected to the gas line in the lab, and the other end is connected to a Bunsen burner fitted with a piece of
copper wire. The laundry detergent acts as the stationary phase, while the methane gas acts as the mobile phase. A
syringe is used to inject a small quantity of various chlorine-containing liquids into one end of the tube. The Bunsen
burner acts as a detector – the chlorine containing liquid is burned as it exits the tube, and reacts with the copper wire in
the flame. This causes the flame to change to a green color.
For this part of the experiment, you will record the time that it takes for dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) and for chloroform
(CHCl3) to travel through the gas chromatograph (this is called the retention time). Then, a sample containing both
liquids will be injected into the GC.
On separate sheet(s) of paper, answer the following questions using complete sentence(s):
1) Which compound had a longer retention time?
2) Why did this compound have a longer retention time? (Explain your answer, considering the STRUCTURES of the
two compounds!!!)
3) How well did the mixture separate? Could you tell the difference between the two compounds? Were they
COMPLETELY separated, or did the second one start coming out of the column while the first one was still
finishing? If so, suggest ways to improve the separation.
27
Experiment #5
Part Two:
The Vernier Mini GC uses a metal column with the inside of the column coated with the stationary phase. A sample,
consisting of one or more compounds, is injected into the column and is pushed through by air, which acts as the mobile
phase. Organic compounds flowing out of the chromatography column are seen as a peak on a chromatograph, as seen in
Figure 1. The amount of time it takes for a compound to exit the column after it is injected is called the retention time.
With a GC, a compound can be identified from a mixture of chemicals by its retention time.
Figure 1: Sample gas chromatogram
Several factors can affect the interaction of a compound with the GC. More volatile compounds (i.e., compounds with a
lower boiling point) tend to move through the column faster because they are flowing in the mobile phase and interacting
very little with the stationary phase. The functional groups present on the compound are also a factor. For example,
alcohols may interact with a polar stationary phase more than esters because alcohols can form strong hydrogen bonds.
The molecular weight of a compound can also play a role, although it is not a simple matter of saying that the heavier the
molecule the slower it will travel through a GC column.
In this experiment, you will gain experience with the Vernier Mini GC by running a known sample through the unit. The
sample contains nine compounds that will separate under the proper conditions. You will test this one mixture of
compounds repeatedly and vary the profile of the Mini GC operation to obtain the best possible separation of this mixture.
OBJECTIVES
In this experiment, you will
 Measure and analyze the chromatogram of a mixture of nine compounds as they pass through a Vernier Mini GC.
 Vary the temperature-pressure profile of the Mini GC and observe how the chromatogram is affected by changes in
the profile.
 Determine the best temperature-pressure profile to obtain the best possible chromatographic separation of the
mixture.
PRE-LAB EXERCISE
Complete the table below.
28
Experiment #5
Compound
Boiling point
(C)
Molecular
weight
Functional
group
methanol
acetone
methyl ethyl ketone
ethyl acetate
2-hexanone
propyl acetate
butyl acetate
2-pentanone
4-methyl-2pentanone
PROCEDURE
1. Obtain and wear goggles.
2. Obtain a glass syringe, a vial of acetone, and a vial containing the mixture to be tested. The acetone will be used to
clean the syringe.
Important: The glass syringe is fragile and can be easily damaged. Be careful not to bend the needle or bend the plunger.
If the plunger is accidentally pulled out of the glass barrel, reinserting it is extremely difficult, sometimes impossible.
3. Prepare the Vernier Mini GC for data collection.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Turn on the Mini GC.
Connect the USB cable of the Mini GC to the USB port on your computer or LabQuest.
Start the data-collection program, and then choose New from the File menu.
Click Collect in Logger Pro, or tap ► in LabQuest, to bring up the Temperature-Pressure profile.
Set the Temperature-Pressure values according to the settings listed for Run 1:
29
Experiment #5
f.
Run 1
Run 2
Run 3
Run 4
Run 5
Run 6
Start temperature
85C
85C
65C
35C
35C
35C
Hold time
10 min
10 min
10 min
3 min
3 min
3 min
Ramp rate
0C/min
0C/min
0C/min
10C/min
10C/min
10C/min
Final temperature
85C
85C
65C
65C
65C
65C
Hold time
0 min
0 min
0 min
7 min
1 min
4 min
Total length
10.0
min
10.0
min
10.0
min
10.0 min
10.0 min
10.0 min
Pressure
9.0 kPa
7.0 kPa
7.0 kPa
7.0 kPa
4.0 kPa
7.0 kPa
g. Select Done to initiate the Mini GC warm up. Note: A new message will appear, “Do not inject until GC is ready”,
and the LED on the Mini GC is red. The Mini GC will take a few minutes to warm up and stabilize. When the
Mini GC is ready for injection in Step 7, the message will read, “Inject and select Collect simultaneously”, and the
LED will turn to green. Continue with Step 4 during warm up.
4. Follow the steps below to clean and flush the syringe with acetone. Important: The glass syringe is fragile. Be
careful not to bend the needle or bend the plunger. Never pull the plunger back more than 50% of its total volume. Be
careful not to bend the plunger as you press it down.
a. Depress the plunger fully.
b. Submerge the tip of the syringe needle into the vial of acetone.
c. Pull back the plunger to fill the barrel about 1/3 full of acetone. Examine the barrel of the syringe and estimate the
amount of acetone in the barrel.
d. Expel the liquid onto a Kimwipe or a paper towel.
e. Repeat Steps a–d at least two times, until you are comfortable pulling up a liquid into the syringe and measuring
the volume in the syringe barrel. Use a Kimwipe or a paper towel to carefully pat around the tip of the syringe
needle.
5. Follow the process in Step 4 to clean and flush the syringe with the mixture.
6. Collect a volume of the mixture for injection.
a. Submerge the needle into the vial of mixture one last
time.
b. Draw up approximately 0.2 L of liquid. It is not
critical that the volume be exactly 0.2 L; a tiny bit
more or less volume is all right.
c. After collecting your sample, gently wipe the needle
from barrel to tip, with a Kimwipe.
Figure 2
30
Experiment #5
7. Prepare for injection and the start of data collection. It is important for you and your lab partner to divide the tasks in
this step. One person will operate the syringe and the other person will operate the computer controls.
a. When the Mini GC has reached the correct start temperature and
pressure, the message reads, “Inject and select Collect simultaneously”,
and the LED on the Mini GC is green.
b. To insert the needle of the syringe into the injection port of the Mini
GC, hold the syringe with one hand and steady the needle with your
other hand. Insert the needle into the injection port until the needle stop
is fully seated, as shown in Figure 3. If the needle sticks, rotate it
slightly while inserting. Do not move the plunger yet.
c. Simultaneously, depress the syringe plunger and select Collect to begin
data collection. Pull the needle out of the injection port immediately.
8. While the data collection proceeds, repeat Step 4 to thoroughly clean the
syringe and needle. It may take more than three flushes to feel the syringe
plunger move smoothly again, which is your indicator that the syringe and
needle are both suitably clean.
Figure 3
9. Data collection will end after 10 minutes.
10. Analyze your chromatogram and write your comments in your data table. Consider these points when you make your
comments.
 How long does it take for all of the peaks to appear?
 How well are the peaks separated from each other?
 How sharp are the peaks?
11. To store the data, choose Store Latest Run from the Experiment menu in Logger Pro or tap the File Cabinet icon in
LabQuest.
12. Change the temperature/pressure profile for the next run.
a. Click Collect in Logger Pro, or tap ► in LabQuest, to bring up the Temperature-Pressure profile. Change the
parameters to match the information for Run 2, given in Step 3. Click OK to initiate the Mini GC profile.
b. While the Mini GC adjusts to its new Temperature-Pressure profile, repeat Steps 5 and 6.
c. After the Mini GC is ready, repeat Steps 7–11 using your sample.
13. Repeat Step 12 until you have completed Run 6.
14. Devise your own operating conditions to optimize the performance of the Mini GC with your mixture. Write these
new settings in your data table and get your instructor’s OK before conducting your test. The chart below shows the
available range for each setting.
Parameter
Temperature
Ramp rate
Pressure
Range
30–120C
0–10C
1–20 kPa
31
Experiment #5
DATA TABLE
Run
Observations of the chromatogram
1
2
3
4
5
6
DATA ANALYSIS
1. In Run 3, what did you notice about the shape of the peaks?
2. Of the six runs, which two showed the most significant differences? Explain.
3. What conditions of temperature and pressure worked best for the first three peaks, and for the last three peaks?
4. What parameter had the greatest effect on peak shape?
32
Experiment #5
Part Three: For the third part of this experiment, we will use paper chromatography to examine the principles
of chromatography. In paper chromatography, a sheet of paper is used as the stationary phase, and a liquid is
used as the mobile phase. The sample is “spotted” onto the paper, and then the edge of the paper is placed into
a container of liquid. As the liquid rises up the paper, the solubility of each compound in the liquid determines
how quickly it rises up the paper. We report the “retention factor” (Rf) for each compound, which is defined as
follows:
For example, in the figure, above, the Rf values for the two substances are as follows:
Rf (substance 1) = 3.1 cm / 11.2 cm = 0.28
Rf (substance 2) = 8.5 cm / 11.2 cm = 0.76
By comparing Rf values, you can try to identify the individual components present in a mixture, just as you did
by comparing retention times with the GC. For this part of the experiment, we will examine the colored inks
found in five different pens.
Obtain a rectangular filter paper and place it on a very clean surface, then use a ruler to draw lines and Xs,
(lightly in pencil) and number the lanes 1 through 5 as shown below:
On the center of the X in lane 1, quickly and lightly put a “dot” from a felt-tip pen. On lane 2, using your ruler,
draw a horizontal line that is 1 cm in length directly on top of the line that you drew in pencil, centered on the
X, in black ink, using a four-color Bic Pen. Repeat this process for lanes 3–5 using blue ink in lane 3, green ink
in lane 4, and red ink in lane 5. Staple your filter paper so that it forms a “tube” as shown on the next page.
33
Experiment #5
Obtain a 600 mL beaker and add 10 mL of ethanol and 10 mL of deionized water, then swirl to mix. Place the
beaker on your bench and allow the liquid to stop moving before continuing on to the next step. When the
liquid is motionless, insert your paper tube into the beaker, as shown above. The ink should be near the bottom
of the beaker, but should not be covered by the solvent level. Without moving the beaker or disturbing the
liquid, cover the beaker with aluminum foil and leave undisturbed until it is time to remove the filter paper.
The solvent will begin to “climb” up the paper tube. Leave the paper tube in the beaker until the liquid level is
between 0.5 and 1 cm from the top. This will take between 15 minutes and 1 hour. Monitor the paper carefully.
If the solvent gets to the top of the paper, you will have to start again! When the solvent is at the right height,
remove the paper tube from the solvent and immediately mark the position of the solvent using a pencil, then
let the paper tube dry, standing on its edge in the fume hood. When it is dry, you can remove the staples.
On separate sheet(s) of paper, answer the following questions using complete sentence(s):
11) Tape your paper chromatogram onto a sheet of paper that you will turn in with your report. By clearly
circling them in pencil on your chromatogram, identify as many different colors of inks as you can.
12) Which inks contained more than one colored compound?
compound? How can you tell?
Which inks contained only one colored
13) Calculate the Rf values for each ink color on your chromatogram. Write each Rf value in pencil directly on
your chromatogram in the center of each circle that you drew for question 11. Show your calculations
separately on the paper that you turn in for your report.
14) For lane #4, which color ink has a stronger attraction for the paper than for the solvent – blue or yellow?
How can you tell?
15) Does it appear that any of the inks contain some of the same chemical compounds? Which ones? How can
you tell?
34
Experiment #6
Exp #6 – Synthesis of 2-Ethoxynaphthalene: An SN2 Reaction
-Ethyl naphtholate is used as an ingredient in perfumes. It is prepared by a simple one-pot reaction,
and serves as a good example of an SN2 reaction. In the first step, potassium hydroxide is added which removes
the acidic proton from the naphthol. The potassium naphtholate acts as a nucleophile towards the ethyl iodide.
When the reaction is cooled and diluted with water, the product precipitates out and the salts remain soluble.
+
OH
K
O
KOH
CH3CH2I
O
CH3
Fig. 1 - A two-step reaction done in one flask.
Techniques
In today’s lab, you will reflux the solution. It’s a simple idea, really. Because reactions occur more
quickly at higher temperatures, chemists often heat up flasks filled with solvents. However, organic solvents
will quickly boil away and the vapors from the flask can be a fire hazard. To solve this problem, you attach a
reflux condenser to the pot. This cools the hot vapors and allows the condensed liquid to return to the pot.
H2O out
H2O in
connect these two!
Fig 2 - The reflux apparatus
35
Experiment #6
The Reaction
 Clamp a 100 mL round bottomed flask and equip it with a stir bar and a magnetic stirrer.
 To this flask, add 2.0 g of potassium hydroxide, 25 mL of anhydrous methanol and 2.5 g of 2-naphthol (or naphthol). Stir the solution until all the solids dissolve. Caution: Potassium hydroxide is a caustic agent used to
clean drains! If you get any on yourself, or you skin feels “soapy”, immediately wash the affected area with
large amounts of water.
 To the solution, add 1.7 mL of iodoethane (or ethyl iodide) via a syringe. Take your flask to the hood to perform this
operation. Avoid breathing the ethyl iodide fumes.
 Attach a reflux condenser and a heating unit. Warm the mixture to reflux, making sure all the water lines are
connected properly and water is slowly flowing through the condenser.
 Reflux for 0.5 h. Time from when boiling starts!
Work-up
 Quickly, remove the condenser and pour the contents of the reaction flask into a 250 mL beaker with 40 mL of ice
already in it. Stir the mixture and let the product precipitate. Don’t use too much ice!
 Let the ice melt and collect the crystals in your Büchner funnel using vacuum filtration. Wash the crude crystals with
150 mL of ice cold water.
 In the fume hood! Dissolve the crude crystals in the smallest amount of hot 95 % ethanol that they will dissolve in.
Let the solution slowly cool until crystals reappear. Collect these crystals again using vacuum filtration.
 Let the crystals air-dry in your drawer until the next lab period.
 Weigh the dried product and take its melting point.
Synthesis of 2-Ethoxynaphthalene write-up
Writing a good lab notebook is a valuable skill for a scientist.
The general format for a organic chemists lab notebook is:
1) Title (short and descriptive)
2) Purpose (one complete sentence - no more, no less)
3) Reagent chart (visual summary of the reaction, both qualitatively and quantitatively)
4) Procedure (detailed)
5) Data (copies of any data collected - from melting points to computer print-outs)
6) Conclusion (very short - the only section of your lab notebook with your "opinion")
A few stylistic rules for a good organic notebook:
1) Write only in blue or black ink. Never write in pencil (or red ink for this class). If you discover something amazing,
your lab notebook is a legal record of your work and can be used to defend patent lawsuits, etc. If you make a mistake,
simply cross out what you wrote with a single line making sure that your mistake is still legible. "White Out" or
"Liquid Paper" should never be used.
2) Write on only one side of the page and leave 3/4 inch margins on all sides of the page. This way, if you realize that
you left something out, you have plenty of space to go back and put it in! (In class, this space is also used for comments
during grading).
3) A "real" lab notebook is always bound and begins with an up-to-date table of contents. We will be keeping "real" lab
notebooks in Chem 7B. For now, you may simply staple together and turn in loose sheets of paper for your "notebook".
36
Experiment #6
At the start of your experiment, you should include a title and a one sentence purpose. This is so that the reader can
quickly take note of what it was that you were trying to do on a given page of your notebook.
After the purpose, you should always create a reagent chart. This chart allows the reader to quickly scan a notebook and
identify which reaction was attempted and how much of the product was obtained. Only include reagents that appear in
the product or are otherwise consumed. Don’t include solvents! The reaction product(s) that you isolate should always
appear as the last column(s). Include as much quantitative information as you know about the reaction. At the minimum,
each column must include:
1) amount of reactant or product, given in the units you measured
2) the number of moles of reactant or product that you started with or finished with
3) all constants that you used to convert from the units that you measured to "moles"
grams
mL
density
M.W.
moles
The procedure section should be a record of what you actually did, not what the recipe called for. If the recipe
says "add between 1.5 and 2 g of salt", you would write "1.789 g of salt was added to the reaction" in your notebook.
Small details can be important! Try to imagine that a future Chem 7A student will need to repeat your work based only
on your notebook; could they do it? Remember: use pen and simply cross-out any mistakes. A lab notebook is a
document that should be written as you perform the reaction, not after the fact. It is not a "formal composition," so there
is no need to go back and re-write anything to make it more "tidy."
After the procedure, create a section for the data obtained during your experiment, such as the melting point (and
how it compares to the known value) and the weight and percent yield of the product. The data section of your notebook
should not contain any commentary. If you believe that the product was impure based on the melting point data, give that
information in the conclusion. By separating the facts from your opinions, a separate scientist who reviewed your results
would not be pre-disposed to adopt the same conclusions that you did.
The conclusion should just be a few sentences long: a summary of whether the reaction worked, what the percent
yield was, and whether the product was pure. If any of your data needs interpretation, this is the place to do it. (Example:
Due to the very broad melting range and the fact that it was 32° lower than the literature melting point, the product is
probably not very pure.) If the yield was very poor, suggestions for improvement should be given.
37
Experiment #6
Safety:
Define lachrymator:
Which chemical used today is a lachrymator:
Which chemical is caustic?
38
Experiment #7
Exp #7 – Simple and Fractional Distillation
At first glance, there seem to be little difference between the two techniques used in today’s experiment.
However, the extra column used in today’s experiment greatly contributes to the efficiency of the separation of the
volatile liquids. Simple distillation involves an apparatus that heats a liquid and turns it into a vapor. The vapors travel a
short distance and are re-cooled and condensed into a liquid, which is collected. In a simple distillation, there is little
separation of liquids unless the boiling points are quite different (i.e. greater than 50 oC). Thus, simple distillations are
useful for removing impurities with high boiling points, polymers, or salts.
thermometer goes here
rubber adaptor
water out
water in
Fig. 1 - Simple Distillation Set-up
A fractional distillation is essentially the same as a simple distillation but here, the vapors of the hot mixture are
forced to travel a longer distance. As the vapors go through the fractionation column, the compound cools, condenses,
and drips back into the boiling liquid. The liquid and vapors have more time to equilibrate and come out of the
fractionation column at different rates depending on their boiling points. Fractional distillation is used when the liquids
have a boiling point difference of 10-30 oC
You can calculate the composition of the distillate if you know the vapor pressures.
Dalton’s Law of partial pressures:
Vapor pressure of a liquid:
PT = PA + P B
PA = XA PAo
Example: Consider a 50:50 solution of two liquids, A and B. A has a vapor pressure of 75 mmHg at 30oC, while B has
one of 25 mmHg. If you were to condense the vapor above the solution, what would be the mole fraction of A and B in
the vapor phase?
?
A:B
50:50
A:B
For a very efficient distillation, the temperature vs. volume distillate graph might look like the one shown below.
39
Experiment #7
Fig 2 Temperature vs. volume distillate graph
At any given temperature for a distillation the lower boiling component of a mixture makes a larger contribution to the
vapor composition than the higher boiling component. In the example below, A has a lower boiling point. The vapor is
richer in A than the liquid from which it escaped. The two points (“y” and “x”) give the two concentrations which are in
equilibrium.
Fig 3 Boiling point diagram for a mixture of two liquids
40
Experiment #7
When you’re thinking about the temperature
in a distillation, it’s important to make a distinction between the
pot temperature and the head temperature. The pot temperature is the temperature of the liquid in the flask with the stirbar
(called the “pot”). The head temperature is the temperature of the vapor as it reaches the top of the column and
condenses. If you are distilling at a steady rate (generally 1 drop/2-3 sec) the head temperature is identical to the boiling
point of the liquid being distilled.
thermometer not shown!
water out
water in
not cooled!
Fig. 2 - Fractional Distillation Set-up
How can you tell how pure your liquid is?
You will analyze the distillate using either a Gas Chromatograph or an Abbe refractomoter, which measures the
refractive index of your mixture. Since the refractive index of any liquid is in direct proportion to the index of its
components, you can determine a liquid’s composition quantitatively.
Example: If your mixture is 50 % of a compound with a refractive index of 1.4216 and 50% of a compound with a
refractive index of 1.3216, then the refractive index of the mixture would be:
0.50(1.4216) + 0.50(1.3216) = 1.3716
In today’s lab, you will try one of four variants of the procedure in an attempt to see what effect each of these has
on the separation.
Check-list for setting up distillation apparatus:
Do you have the pot tightly clamped securely by the neck?
Do you have the water in the bottom and out the top?
Have you used clamps to secure the condenser and adapters (slightly less tightly than the pot)?
Is the thermometer placed at the right height (just below the “hump” of the head)?
Do you have a stir bar/boiling chips?
Are all your joints secure?
Does your water flow into the sink?
Have you used Keck clamps/rubber bands to secure the adapters/condensers?
Don’t turn the Variac to 100% power! It will burn out the heater and you will have to pay for it!
41
Experiment #7
Procedure:

Obtain 25 mL of one of three mixtures (whichever mixture you are assigned). Place it in a 50mL r.b. flask with a
stir bar.

Setup either a fractional or simple distillation apparatus (whichever apparatus you are assigned) and distill it.

Collect 3 mL portions of the distillate in test tubes, record the boiling range of each sample. You should get six or
seven tubes. Don’t try to distill the very last bit of liquid.

When you are finished, measure the refractive index of each sample

When you are done, pour all liquids into the waste container.
Procedure for GC analysis:
1. Obtain a glass syringe and three vials containing: ethyl acetate, butyl acetate, and a mixture of ethyl acetate and butyl
acetate. CAUTION: Ethyl acetate and butyl acetate are both hazardous in case of ingestion or inhalation.
Important: The glass syringe is fragile and can be easily damaged. Be careful not to bend the needle or bend the plunger.
If the plunger is accidentally pulled out of the glass barrel, reinserting it is extremely difficult, sometimes impossible.
2. Prepare the Vernier Mini GC for data collection.
a. Turn on the Mini GC.
b Connect the USB cable of the Mini GC to the USB port on your computer or LabQuest.
c Start the data-collection program, and then choose New from the File menu.
d Click Collect in Logger Pro, or tap ► in LabQuest, to bring up the Temperature-Pressure profile.
e Set the Temperature-Pressure values to:
Start temperature
35C
Hold time
1 min
Ramp rate
10C/min
Final temperature
65C
Hold time
2 min
Total length
6.0 min
Pressure
7.0 kPa
Select Done to initiate the Mini GC warm up. Note: A new message will appear, “Do not inject until GC is ready”,
and the LED on the Mini GC is red. The Mini GC will take a few minutes to warm up and stabilize. When the Mini
GC is ready for injection in Step 13, the message will read, “Inject and select Collect simultaneously” and the LED
will turn to green. Continue with Step 10 during warm up.
3 .Follow the steps below to clean and flush the syringe with acetone. Important: The glass syringe is fragile. Be careful
not to bend the needle or bend the plunger. Never pull the plunger back more than 50% of its total volume. Be careful
not to bend the plunger as you press it down.
f. Depress the plunger fully.
42
Experiment #7
g. Submerge the tip of the syringe needle into the vial of acetone.
h. Pull back the plunger to fill the barrel about 1/3 full of acetone. Examine the barrel of the syringe and estimate the
amount of acetone in the barrel.
i. Expel the liquid onto a Kimwipe or a paper towel.
j. Repeat Steps a–d at least two times, until you are comfortable pulling up a liquid into the syringe and measuring
the volume in the syringe barrel. Use a Kimwipe or a paper towel to carefully pat around the tip of the syringe
needle.
4. Follow the process in Step 4 to clean and flush the syringe with ethyl acetate, the first sample to be injected into the
Mini GC.
5. Collect a volume of ethyl acetate for injection.
d. Submerge the needle into the vial of ethyl acetate one
last time.
e. Draw up approximately 0.2 L of liquid. It is not
critical that the volume be exactly 0.2 L; a tiny bit
more or less volume is all right.
f. After collecting your sample, gently wipe the needle
from barrel to tip, with a Kimwipe.
Figure 4
6. Prepare for injection and the start of data collection. It is important for you and your lab partner to divide the tasks in
this step. One person will operate the syringe and the other person
will operate the computer controls.
d. When the Mini GC has reached the correct start temperature and
pressure, the message reads, “Ready to Inject,” and the LED on
the Mini GC is green.
e. To insert the needle of the syringe into the injection port of the
Mini GC, hold the syringe with one hand and steady the needle
with your other hand. Insert the needle into the injection port
until the needle stop is fully seated, as shown in Figure 5. If the
needle sticks, rotate it slightly while inserting. Do not move the
plunger yet.
f. Simultaneously, depress the syringe plunger and select Collect to
begin data collection. Pull the needle out of the injection port
immediately.
Figure 5
7. While the data collection proceeds, repeat Step 10 to thoroughly clean the syringe and needle. It may take more than
three flushes to feel the syringe plunger move smoothly again, which is your indicator that the syringe and needle are
both suitably clean.
8. Data collection will end after 6 minutes. Observe the graphed data that characterize an ethyl acetate chromatogram.
43
Analyze your chromatogram.
Experiment #7
a. Choose Peak Integration from the Analyze menu.
b. Select and integrate the left-most peak. To do this, drag from a little before the peak to a point far enough to the
right that includes all of the peak. Then choose Add.
c. Record the retention time and the peak area in your data table.
d. Enter the name of the compound, if known.
9. Complete one or both of the following as directed by your instructor.
a. Print your chromatogram.
b. You can choose to save this chromatogram and peak analysis for later use, with a unique file name, by choosing
Save from the File menu.
10. Prepare the butyl acetate sample.
d. Click Collect in Logger Pro, or tap ► in LabQuest, to bring up the Temperature-Pressure profile. This profile will
be the same as for your previous run. If you are satisfied with these values, click OK to initiate the Mini GC
profile.
e. While the Mini GC adjusts to its Temperature-Pressure profile, repeat Steps 11 and 12 with the 1-butanol sample.
f. After the Mini GC is ready, repeat Steps 13–18.
11. Repeat Step 18 for the ethyl acetate/ butyl acetate mixture and the three fractions you collected from the fractional
distillation in Part I. Note: Make sure to record the % ethyl acetate and % butyl acetate for the mixture and the three
fractions you collected from the distillation.
12.
When you have completed your final data-collection run, turn off the Mini GC.
44
Exp #7 - Simple and fractional distillation writeup
For GC analysis
Name ____________________
Experiment #7
Results
Compound
Retention time
(min)
Peak area
ethyl acetate
(EtOAc)
butyl acetate
(BuOAc)
EtOAc/BuOAc
Mixture
Fraction
Temperature range
Volume collected
1
2
3
Analysis of the Chromatograms
Peak area
EtOAc
%EtOAc
Peak area
BuOAc
%BuOAc
EtOAc/BuOAc
mixture
1st fraction
2nd fraction
3rd fraction
45
Experiment #7
1. Based on the distillation and GC data, what percent of each substance was in your mixture? Explain.
2.
How well did your column separate the chemicals? What could you change to achieve better separation?
3.
Why does a rapid distillation that floods the column lead to poor separation of components?
4.
What would happen to the separation of chemicals in the GC if the temperature was started out at 90oC?
5.
What is the mole fraction for each ester in your known mixture? The mixture was prepared using equal volumes
of ethyl acetate and butyl acetate. The density of ethyl acetate is
0.879 g/mL and the density of butyl acetate is 0.800 g/mL.
46
Experiment #7
Exp #7 - Simple and fractional distillation writeup
Name ____________________
For Refractive Index Analysis
What were the refractive indices of your samples, and what was the mole fraction of methyl acetate in each
sample?
tube
nd
Xm.a.
Boil Range
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Show a sample calculation for determining Xm.a.:
Using a spreadsheet (like Microsoft Excel) and the previous class data, plot the average Xm.a. vs test tube
number for the simple distillation of the solvent mixture that you distilled.
On the same graph, make a plot of the average Xm.a. vs test tube number for the fractional distillation of the
solvent mixture that you distilled.
Based on these graphs, which method gave a better separation for your solvent?
Would it be worth doing the fractional distillation considering that it takes longer to perform?
Using a spreadsheet and the data sheet, plot Xm.a. vs test tube number for your distillation.
For your distillation, if you collected the first four samples (assuming they are 3 mLs each) and combined them,
how pure would your methyl acetate be?
Measured
1.3600
Lit
1.361
ND of pure Ethyl Acetate
1.3706
1.372
ND of pure Propyl Acetate
1.3824
1.384
ND of pure Butyl Acetate
1.3925
1.394
ND of pure Methyl Acetate
47
Experiment #7
Mole Fraction of Methyl Acetate in
Mixture type
fraction number
methyl acetate /
1
2
ethyl acetate
simple
0.736 0.636
0.818 0.764
0.773 0.727
0.750 0.680
0.772 0.723
fractional
methyl acetate /
propyl acetate
simple
fractional
methyl acetate /
butyl acetate
simple
fractional
each fraction
3
4
5
6
7
0.636
0.655
0.682
0.680
0.681
0.636
0.627
0.636
0.640
0.654
0.636
0.545
0.573
0.540
0.581
0.473
0.363
0.500
0.480
0.472
0.491
0.182
0.355
0.380
0.393
0.909
0.763
0.820
0.860
0.764
0.680
0.820
0.760
0.727
0.720
0.750
0.710
0.682
0.670
0.730
0.640
0.636
0.590
0.640
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.410
0.336
0.350
0.300
0.220
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
0.833
0.857
0.857
0.048
0.929
0.781
0.757
0.810
0.119
0.857
0.714
0.733
0.729
0.152
0.728
0.595
0.648
0.671
0.214
0.523
0.433
0.505
0.505
0.738
0.109
0.333
0.167
0.281
1.000
-0.023
0.024
0.005
0.038
-0.240
-0.023
0.952
0.976
0.905
1.000
0.929
0.876
0.952
0.957
0.952
0.914
0.857
0.952
0.905
0.876
0.852
0.910
0.810
0.881
0.867
0.691
0.871
0.833
0.714
0.852
0.281
0.857
0.690
0.914
0.762
0.805
0.952
0.548
0.019
0.019
0.333
0.410
0.533
0.171
0.000
0.710
0.019
0.000
-0.014
0.024
0.014
0.048
0.000
0.240
na
na
-0.029
0.033
na
0.048
0.000
0.240
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
0.982
0.970
0.982
0.939
0.969
0.969
0.967
0.936
0.969
0.891
0.939
0.921
0.924
0.906
0.969
0.861
0.909
0.921
0.667
0.833
0.524
0.797
0.833
0.879
0.303
0.470
0.045
0.470
0.406
0.367
0.042
0.045
0.045
0.061
0.064
0.054
0.042
0.039
0.045
0.033
0.030
0.036
1.000
1.000
0.955
0.955
0.109
0.045
0.030
48
Experiment #8
Exp #8 – Steam Distillation of Cloves: Isolation of Eugenol
Along with recrystallization, distillation is a technique that would be familiar to an alchemist of the middle ages.
Distillation is used to separate liquids of different boiling points. There are several types of distillation: simple, fractional
and steam.
thermometer goes here
rubber adaptor
water out
water in
Fig. 1 - Simple Distillation Set-up
Steam distillation is an ancient method used to manufacture perfumes and food flavorings from plant products.
This technique consists of placing the substance to be distilled in water, and then boiling the water. The steam generated
carries the compound over to the receiving flask where it ends up as a two phase mix of water and the compound. This
technique does not involve using steam to heat the main flask, which is a common misconception.
One early use of steam distillation was in the isolation of formic acid from ants. A large flask filled with ants and
water was distilled. The solution that came over was named formic acid, from the Latin formis (ant). It should be noted
that this technique is not strictly steam distillation by today’s definition. In today’s lab, we will be distilling a more
pleasant compound: eugenol.
CH2
O
CH3
OH
Eugenol
C
Eugenol comes from clove oil and is a topical analgesic that has been used as a remedy for tooth pain.
49
Experiment #8
Steam distillation works best with compounds that have a fairly low vapor pressure and are insoluble in water.
How does this process work? Because the compound is insoluble in the water, the composition of the vapor is
proportional to the sum of the vapor pressures of both components. Therefore, even though the insoluble component has a
low vapor pressure, the vapor coming over at the boiling point will consist of a small portion of the desired compound and
mostly water.
Check-list for setting up distillation apparatus:
Do you have the pot tightly clamped securely by the neck?
Do you have the water in the bottom and out the top?
Have you used clamps to secure the condenser and adapters (slightly less tightly than the pot)?
Is the thermometer placed at the right height (just below the “hump” of the head)?
Do you have a stir bar/boiling chips?
Are all your joints secure?
Does your water flow into the sink?
Have you used Keck clamps/rubber bands to secure the adapters/condensers?
Procedure





Grind 10 g of cloves into a coarse powder and place it in a 500mL (or the largest one in your kit) round bottomed
flask.
Equip the flask with a magnetic stir bar and clamp it by the neck. Fill the flask about half-way with water. Set-up a
heating mantle, a stir plate, and a simple distillation apparatus.
Make sure all connections are secure and that water is slowly flowing through the condenser. Heat the flask at a
temperature sufficient to allow the water to distill continuously.
During the distillation, you may start to run out of water. If this happens, use the squirt bottle to carefully add more
water by removing the thermometer adapter and squirting it through the hole.
Collect about 75mL total water, or stop when the distillate is clear and not cloudy.
Work-up





Cool the distillate until it is ice-cold using an ice bath. You may see two layers at this point. Add about 15 mL
diethyl ether, transfer the entire contents to a separatory funnel, swirl the funnel, and allow the layers to separate.
(NOTES: If you extract when the water is warm, the heat will boil the ether, causing a mess! Do not vigorously shake
the seperatory funnel – this will cause an emulsion to form, which means that your layers will not separate) Remove
the ether layer. Add another portion of 15mL ether to the separatory funnel, swirl, let settle, then remove the ether
and combine with the previous ether extract. Repeat one last time with 15mL ether and combine the ether layers into
one flask.
Dry the ether with anhydrous magnesium sulfate for 5 to 10 minutes. Then, gravity filter the solution through a piece
of fluted filter paper into a pre-weighed 100-mL round bottomed flask.
Distill off the ether using a simple distillation apparatus setup. Heat at no more than 30% power until the ether begins
to distill.
Collect the ether until the solution in round bottomed flask stops boiling. Recycle the ether in the “recycled ether”
bottle provided
Take an infrared spectrum of your product
SAFETY:



You’ll be using a flammable solvent. No Flames!
Cool your distillate before extracting wth ether
Ether vapors can make you dizzy!
50
Experiment #8
Exp #8 - Steam distillation writeup
Name ____________________
Calculate a percent recovery for your compound. Base this on the weight of the plant material you started with.
(This yield will be low!)
Compare the IR of your compound to that of pure Eugenol (below)
Based on your comparison, did you isolate eugenol and was it pure? If not, list the likely impurity(ies):
Attach your spectrum to this page and on the back of your spectrum, give a full analysis of the spectrum. Does
it match with the structure of eugenol?
51
Experiment #9
Exp #9 – Acid-Base Extraction of Benzophenone and Benzoic Acid
An extraction is a commonly used technique that separates components of a mixture based on their solubility. All
extractions are based on the simple idea that “like dissolves like”. That is, salts dissolve in water and most organic
compounds prefer to stay in organic solvents. An extraction is performed after a reaction is completed in order to separate
products from reactants, from leftover reagents, or from side-products with different solubilities.
Most extractions are performed with an aqueous phase and an organic phase in a separatory funnel, a device that
allows you to remove the top or bottom phase. In the simplest case of extraction, you would have a compound that was
soluble in an organic phase and one soluble in water. When you dissolve them in a mixture of organic solvent and water,
the compounds would migrate to the layer they were most soluble in, and the extraction would be complete.
O
O
OH
KOH
insoluble in water
O
K
Na
soluble in water
Fig. 1 - Reaction of acid and base affects solubility.
Often, you have two compounds that are both soluble in an organic solvent, but one of them can be converted into
a water-soluble salt by treatment with an acid or base. For example, benzoic acid and benzophenone are both soluble in
diethyl ether. However, when you treat benzoic acid with a base (say, sodium hydroxide), you obtain sodium benzoate,
which is soluble in water and insoluble in ether.
O
No Reaction
NaOH
HCl
No Reaction
Fig. 2 - Hydrocarbons are generally unaffected by aqueous acid and bases
Therefore, in order to separate benzophenone and benzoic acid, you dissolve both in ether. You would then add
aqueous sodium carbonate, resulting in a two phase system with benzophenone in the ether layer and sodium benzoate in
the aqueous layer. The two phases are separated with the separatory funnel. The ether layer is then treated with a drying
agent (typically sodium sulfate) which acts like a sponge and absorbs any water in the ether layer. The ether is
evaporated, leaving behind benzophenone.
The sodium benzoate layer is a bit more complicated. You must convert the salt back into benzoic acid. This is
accomplished by adding an acid (e.g. HCl) to the aqueous layer. The benzoic acid formed finds itself in a solvent that it is
insoluble in, thus it precipitates out of the water. The solid benzoic acid is collected via vacuum filtration.
52
Experiment #9
Some people like to visualize the procedure using a flow chart to keep track of all the various reagents and
solvents added. You should learn how to make flowcharts for the various work-ups in this course; they are very useful!
KOH
O
O
OH
O
Na
O
O
Na
Fig. 3 - Sample flow chart for separation of benzoic acid and naphthalene
(not today's experiment)
Techniques
There are many small details involved in extractions that it are important to remember. With practice, they
become “second-nature” and you rarely think about them. Be organized and think about what you are doing!
When handling the separatory funnel, never point the nozzle at your neighbor or yourself. Often the gas evolved
from an acid-base reaction, or the increased vapor pressure of a warmed solvent can cause the cap to pop off the top,
spraying everyone around you! Also, keep the open end pointed up. Sometimes the stopper will not fit tight and the
assembly will leak all over you!
Before you pour something into the funnel, check that the stopcock is closed! At one time or another, everyone
has been intently staring at the open end while pouring, as the solution runs onto the bench top through the open nozzle!
Whenever you add an acid or base, add it slowly (especially a carbonate or bicarbonate, which release gases!),
Sometimes, it’ll be more exothermic or fizzy than you expected!
Before you start, collect and clean all your glassware that you’ll need. Then, label beakers with what they are
going to contain. Being organized will prevent you from suddenly looking around and realizing that you have no idea
what’s in the flask in front of you!
It is always more efficient to perform several extractions with smaller amounts of solvent rather than one big
single extraction. An analogy is when you wash soap out of a glass: Three small rinses remove more soap than one large
rinse. Unfortunately, it’s more work!
As mentioned above, drying agents are used to remove the last traces of moisture from organic layers. Ether can
absorb about 5% of its weight in water without any visible sign that it’s there. If you attempt to evaporate an organic
layer that is wet, you will end up with a product that has little drops of water in it, taking days and days to evaporate, and
often not crystallizing properly. To prevent this, inorganic sulfates are added to the organic layer, which react with the
excess water. The composition of the sulfate usually changes from a free-flowing powder to a chunky one as they absorb
water. Keep adding the drying agent until it remains free-flowing! Remember, you’ll be filtering it away anyway, so it’s
better to add too much than too little.
53
Experiment #9
There are two ways to filter. Vacuum filtration is used to collect a solid that you want to save. Simple gravity
filtration is used when you want to strain out a solid, usually a drying agent. If you try and vacuum filter an organic
solution, it will often boil at the reduced pressure and cause a mess. If you gravity filter a product, it will often clog the
pores of the paper and take a very long time.
“Washing” and “Extracting” a Layer
Two terms are used constantly in organic chemistry procedures: “washing a layer” and “extracting a layer”. For
example, a procedure will say “wash the ether layer with saturated sodium chloride”. What this means is that you take
your ether layer and you add some “wash” layer, in this case salt water. You swirl the mixed layers around, then let them
settle. You remove and discard the salt water layer, while keeping the ether layer. What you have done is to extract any
inorganic compounds that you don’t want. Washing is an extraction where you throw away one layer. Remember that
often a wash will be carried out two or three times just to be thorough.
If the procedure says “extract the ether layer with 10% aqueous sodium hydroxide”, it means you take the ether
layer and add some aqueous base to it. You swirl the layers around, let them settle, and separate them. You now keep the
aqueous base layer and discard the ether layer. (you have gotten all of the compound out of the ether, so why keep it
around?) Remember, an extraction is usually carried out three times or so to ensure complete removal of the compound.
When the procedure calls for multiple extractions, you take each layer that comes out of the separatory funnel and
combine them into one big layer.
Just to be on the safe side, never discard layers until the end of the experiment! You never know when you will
grab the wrong beaker by mistake. Nothing is more disheartening than realizing that you’ve just washed your product
into a red, several gallon jug of organic waste!
Today’s Most Commonly Asked Question
Sooner or later, you will be confronted with a separatory funnel that has two clear, immiscible liquids and you’ll
ask “Which layer is the organic layer?” People are surprised to find that water and organic solvents look pretty similar. If
the solvent has a lower density that water (e.g. diethyl ether or hexane) then they will be on top. Some solvents, like
chloroform, are heavier than water and are found on the bottom. To confuse the picture further, water saturated with salts
is more dense than some chlorinated solvents! The solution to this mess is quite simple. When you have two layers in a
separatory funnel and you know one of them is water, add a little bit of water with a squirt bottle. Watch where the drops
go and watch to see which layer increases in size. The layer that gets bigger is the water layer.
54
Experiment #9
Procedure  In a 150mL beaker, dissolve about 2.0 g (record the exact mass on your report sheet) of a 1:1 mixture of benzophenone:benzoic acid in 30mL of 1:1 hexane:ethyl acetate solvent mixture.  Pour the solution into a 125mL separatory funnel and extract it with 20mL of 10% sodium hydroxide.  Drain the aqueous layer in a beaker. Label it.  Pour the remaining organic solvent layer into another beaker. Label this.  Extract the aqueous layer with 10 mL of the 1:1 hexane:ethyl acetate mix. Drain away the aqueous layer and save it in the aqueous layer beaker. Pour the organic layer into the beaker containing the other organic layer. (i.e. combine the organic layers) Isolating Benzoic Acid From the Aqueous Layer:  Cool the aqueous layer in an ice bath (to about 15 oC), then slowly add cold 10% aqueous hydrochloric acid until the pH is about 1. (NEVER put pH paper into your reaction. Transfer a drop from your aqueous layer using a glass stirring rod.) A precipitate should form. It might take quite a bit of acid to do the job. An excess of acid is not harmful.  Collect the precipitate with vacuum filtration. Wash sparingly with cold water.  Oven dry the crystals on a watch glass for 20 min. at 90 °C  Take the mass and melting point of the Benzoic Acid that you recovered Isolating Benzophenone From the Organic Layer:  Briefly rinse out your separatory funnel with water. Pour the organic solution into the funnel and wash it with 20mL of water. Remove and discard the aqueous layer.  Pour the organic layer into a 100mL Erlenmeyer flask, then add enough anhydrous sodium sulfate to cover the bottom of the flask. Let the solution stand for about 10 minutes.  Gravity filter the solution into a 100mL beaker using a short stemmed funnel and piece of filter paper.  Place a boiling stone in the flask and gently boil off the organic solvent (in the fume hood!) to reveal the benzophenone.  Take the mass and melting point of the benzophenone that you recovered.
55
Experiment #9
Exp #9 - Acid Base Extraction
Name: _____________________________
Initial mass of mixture:
Percent recovery of benzoic acid (show calculations and assume the original sample contained a 1:1 mixture)
Melting range of recovered benzoic acid:
Comment on the purity and yield of your benzoic acid. Be sure to compare the melting range to the literature
value. Write no more than three complete sentences:
Percent recovery of benzophenone (show calculations and assume the original sample contained a 1:1 mixture)
Melting range of recovered benzophenone:
Comment on the purity and yield of your benzophenone. Be sure to compare the melting range to the literature
value. Write no more than three complete sentences:
On the back of this page, draw a flowchart for today’s extraction procedure (similar to figure 3). Draw the
structure of each compound at each step of the procedure and include the name of each solvent along the way.
Your flowchart should only show the extraction portion of the procedure. Start your flowchart with your
dissolved 1:1 mixture and end your flowchart with both of the original substances in separate solvents in
separate containers.
56
Experiment #10
Exp #10 – A Grignard-like Organic Reaction in Water
The Grignard reaction is a useful reaction commonly employed in a wide variety of reactions. However,
one difficulty that occurs with this reaction is that the Grignard reagent vigorously reacts with water. This
becomes especially difficult when the reaction is performed on a small (less than 1 gram) scale, as just a little
water can ruin the reaction.
Mg
R
X
R
MgX
Fig. 1 - Grignard reagents convert a halide into a nucleophile
Other metals have been used to create Grignard-like reagents. For example, there are organolithiums,
organocopper, and organozinc compounds. In the last two decades, these “unconventional” organometallic
reagents have been found to have useful and unusual properties. For example, organozinc reagents will react
with aldehydes faster than they will react with water! This enables a nucleophilic reaction to occur in water,
rather than in the more commonly used ethyl ether.
The reactivity of an organo-metal compound can be judged by using the activity series (a.k.a.
electromotive chart). Sodium and lithium, at the top of the list, produce very reactive organo-metals. They can
react with air or many solvents. Copper and zinc produce moderately reactive compounds. Lead and mercury
produce very stable compounds. For example, tetraethyl lead, used as a gasoline additive for many years, is
quite stable to air and moisture (although it is poisonous)
O
C
Br
H
Zn
Fig. 2 - The pieces of today’s reactions. Can you identify the product?
57
Experiment #10
Procedure
Prepare a mixture of 320 mg of powdered Zinc and 4 mL of saturated aqueous ammonium chloride in a 25-mL
round bottomed flask.
To this mixture, add a stir bar and a solution of 0.20 mL (2.00 mmol) of benzaldehyde in 2.0 mL of THF
(prepare this solution first in a separate container in the fume hood).
Add a condenser and connect it to your flask with a Keck clamp. In the fume hood, remove the condenser for
just long enough to add 0.40 mL (4.60 mmol) of allyl bromide. You should see evidence of a reaction. Let the
mixture stir for another 0.5 h.
Add 2 or 3 mL of ether, and filter the resulting mixture through a plug of glass wool into a 50 mL Erlenmeyer
flask. Wash the precipitate with another mL or two of ether.
Using a Pasteur pipette, separate the two phases and dry the combined organic layers with Na2SO4. Filter the
organic layer through a small plug of glass wool in a Pasteur pipette into a 10 mL beaker, and gently boil off the
organic layer (in the hood) to leave an oil behind
Take an IR of the product.
If your instructor asks you to submit a GCMS sample, wait until after you have taken your IR, then add 3 mL of
acetone to the remaining oil in the 10 mL beaker. Stir this mixture with the tip of a Pasteur pipette. Using the
pipette, fill a GCMS vial until it is half-full with this solution, then cap the vial. Submit the vial to your
instructor and record the sample identification number that you are assigned in your mock lab notebook for
future reference.
Write Up
You will report the results of this experiment as a "mock lab notebook" on separate sheets of paper that you
have stapled together. Be sure to include a title, purpose, reagent table, procedure, data section, and your
conclusions.
Your reagent table should include the structure of the product formed in the reaction.
In the procedure section, be sure to describe the procedure using language that a future Chem 7A student could
understand.
In your data section, include your IR spectrum and give a full analysis of your IR spectrum. Be sure to mention
which functional groups are present and absent.
If you obtained a GCMS, discuss how the GC trace allows you to determine product purity and how the mass
spectrum allows you identify your product (and impurities in it).
For your conclusion, calculate your percent yield and comment on the purity of your product as determined by
the IR and GCMS. Address the following questions as a part of your conclusion: Based on the IR, is there any
benzaldehyde in the product that didn’t react? How would you be able to tell? Based on the GCMS, is your
product pure? How can you tell? If it is not pure, what impurities did you detect?
58
Experiment #11
Exp #11 – Infrared Spectroscopy
“Infrared Light” (IR) is the wavelength of electromagnetic radiation that resonate with molecular vibrations, also
known as heat.
Consider a guitar. When you pluck the string, the string vibrates at a certain frequency which produces a musical
note of a specific pitch. If you hold a second guitar next to the vibrating guitar, the same string on the second guitar will
vibrate as it absorbs the sound energy from the first. This is because both strings have the same “resonant frequency”.
That means that they produce waves that resonate (vibrate) at the same frequency and the same wavelength.
We can use this analogy for molecules. All molecules are vibrating at a frequency related to temperature. Each
molecule is vibrating at a frequency that is in the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. That means that every
molecule is releasing infrared light, and the more heat that the molecule is releasing, the more light can be seen. Night
vision goggles work by measuring the amount of infrared light emitted by the surrounding area,
Many fast food restaurants store food underneath infrared-emitting light bulbs known as “heat lamps”. These heat
lamps work by bombarding food molecules (containing mostly water) with infrared light that has the same resonant
frequency as water molecules. The water molecules in the food absorb this energy and this causes the food to heat up.
Infrared Energy Absorbed by a Bond Depends On…
...The Dipole Moment of the Bond. The larger the dipole moment between two atoms, the more infrared energy can be
absorbed by the bond. Therefore, a bond between two atoms with a large difference in electronegativity will absorb a
large amount of energy, while a bond with no difference in electronegativity in a highly symmetric molecule will absorb
little or no energy. (Example: The C=O bond easily absorbs a large amount of infrared energy, while the Cl–Cl bond in
Cl2 absorbs no infrared energy. The C–C bond in H3C–CH3 absorbs a very small amount of infrared energy because the
molecule is very symmetric, but at a given instant, each C–H bond might be a slightly different length, so the C–C bond is
not always perfectly symmetric.)
…Hooke’s Law. Assume that you have two masses connected by a spring, as shown below:
Hooke’s law states that the resonant frequency for the vibration of this spring is given by the following equation:
Where k = spring constant (stiffness of spring). For a bond between two atoms, this is related to the strength of the bond.
For example: C–C is less stiff than C=C which is less stiff than CC. Therefore, the stretching frequency of C–C will be
less than C=C which will be less than CC.
Also, this is related to the hybridization of the atoms, so the stretching frequency of
is greater than Csp3–H.
Csp–H is greater than Csp2–H which
59
Experiment #11
This is obviously related to the atomic mass of each atom in the bond. Notice that as the mass of an atom increases, the
numerator gets larger faster than the denominator. Therefore, as the mass of the atoms in the bond increases, the
stretching frequency decreases.
How Does an IR Spectrometer Work?
Step One: Determine how much IR light is absorbed by a detector at each frequency in IR spectrum. Frequency is
measured in cm–1 and is called the “wavenumber”:
Step Two: Insert sample and determine how much of original light is absorbed by sample and how much is still
transmitted:
What do these “Peaks” tell us?
Recall: Absorption frequency depends on masses of atoms and strength of bond between them. Absorption strength
depends on dipole moment of atoms and dipole moment of molecule as a whole.
The best way to analyze the spectrum is to think about bonds according to functional groups and determine where each
functional group tends to show up.
60
Experiment #11
Analyzing an IR Spectrum
We can break the IR Spectrum down into six regions of interest as shown below:
By analyzing a spectrum according to these regions of interest, we can determine which functional groups are present in a
compound and which ones are absent. Each region contains specific peaks of interest.
Region 1 (3700 – 3200 cm–1)
Type of Bond
Frequency Range
Alcohol O–H
3650–3200 cm-1
Alkyne C–H
3340–3250 cm-1
Amine or Amide N–H
3500–3300 cm-1
Region 2 (3200 – 2700 cm-1)
Type of Bond
Frequency Range
3100–3000 cm-1
Aryl* or Vinyl** C–H
Alkyl sp3 C–H
2960–2850 cm-1
Aldehyde C–H ~2900; ~2700 cm-1
Carboxylic Acid O–H
3000–2500 cm-1
*
Shape / Intensity
Usually Broad / Strong
Sharp / Strong
Usually Broad / Medium Intensity
Shape / Intensity
Varies
Varies
Two Peaks / Medium Intensity
Very Broad / Usually Strong
Attached to Benzene Ring
**
Attached to Alkene
Region 3 (2300 – 2000 cm–1)
Type of Bond
Frequency Range
Alkyne CC
2260–2000 cm-1
Nitrile CN
2260–2220 cm-1
Shape / Intensity
Sharp / Intensity Varies
Sharp / Intensity Varies
Region 4 (1750 – 1650 cm–1)
Type of Bond
Frequency Range
1750–1650 cm–1
Carbonyl C=O***
Shape / Intensity
Sharp / Strong
***
The exact frequency can help to identify which carbonyl functional group. The more resonance, the lower the
frequency! Some values are included on your IR table.
Region 5 (1680 – 1450 cm–1)
Type of Bond
Frequency Range
Alkene C=C
1680–1620 cm–1
Benzene C=C
1600, 1500 – 1450 cm–1
Shape / Intensity
Varies
Often 2 peaks (1 at 1600) / Varies
61
Experiment #11
Finger Print Region (1450 –400 cm–1)
Many functional group absorptions occur here!!! They include C–C bonds, C–O bonds, C–H bonds, the NO2 group, and
carbon–halogen bonds. This region is often cluttered and accurate functional group identification is very difficult.
However, if you have a spectrum of a molecule from another source, this region can be used like a fingerprint to see if
your sample is the same or different from a previously produced sample.
What Do I Have To Memorize?
You need to memorize the methodology behind determining whether a functional group is present or absent, and it may
be helpful to memorize the “regions” that groups commonly occur in. However, you do not need to memorize specific
frequency ranges – an IR table (see later in this handout) will be given to you on the exam.
Some Sample Spectra with Key Peaks Identified For You
62
Experiment #11
63
Experiment #11
64
Experiment #11
Procedure
You will work in groups of three, learning to use the IR spectrometer. Each group of three will be
trained about the parts of the spectrometer, how to load a sample, and how to acquire a spectrum. You should
plan to take notes during this time because you will need to be able to acquire spectra during labs throughout the
rest of the course (and also in Chem 7B!!!).
After being trained on the use of the spectrometer, each member of the group will acquire an IR
spectrum of a different substance.
Write-Up
Directly on the spectrum that you acquired, complete the following:
1) Write your name on the top right corner of your spectrum.
2) Across the top of the spectrum, write down the name of the substance that you took an IR spectrum of.
3) In the center of the spectrum (find an “empty space”), draw the skeletal structure of the substance that you
took at IR spectrum of.
4) ON the spectrum, identify at least two peaks that are characteristic of your molecule. Label each of these
peaks with the name of the characteristic bond stretch (example: “alkyne CC”)
5) On the back of the spectrum, give a full analysis of your IR spectrum. Be sure to identify all groups that
you can determine are present AND absent based on your spectrum.
6) Compare the spectrum that you acquired to a copy of the spectrum found in the literature. On the back of
the spectrum that you acquired, note any similarities and differences between these spectra.
7) Based on your comparison of the two spectra (in question 6), do you believe that these are the same
substances? Give your answer to this question as a complete sentence on the front of the spectrum that you
acquired.
Turn in your annotated spectrum for credit at the end of the lab period.
On the next pages is a workshop on IR spectroscopy that can be completed while you wait for your group’s turn
on the instrument.
65
Experiment #12
Exp #12 – The Blue Bottle Reaction Mechanism
The rate at which a homogeneous reaction takes place depends upon the following factors: inherent
properties of the reacting materials, the temperature, the concentration of the reactants and catalysts. The order
of reaction and mechanism can only be determined experimentally.
For example, an SN2 reaction is second order, but an SN1 reaction is first order. This knowledge has
allowed us to deduce that the SN1 mechanism involves a highly unstable carbocation because the nucleophile is
not involved in the slow step.
The “Blue Bottle” reaction is a fairly common demonstration in general chemistry courses. In this lab,
you will attempt to deduce the reaction mechanism based on simple qualitative experiments and tests. The key
to this lab is to try to make accurate observations without trying to get the “right” answer. Your initial
hypotheses will likely be proven wrong along the way!
Equipment: A stoppered flask containing the unknown solution, a clock, and some tubing connected to a onehole stopper, to be used as a simple manometer in Step 8.
Procedure
You will be working in groups of 2 – 4 for this experiment. Be sure to discuss your hypotheses and
results as you go along. You will be submitting one report for your entire group.
Answer the following numbered questions on separate sheets of paper. You do not need to copy the question.
Simply give a complete, thorough answer. Use as many sheets of paper as necessary. Be sure that all group
members names are on the report at the time that you submit it.
1. Shake the flask vigorously. What is observed?
2. After the flask has stood for a while what is observed?
3. Shake the flask again. What is observed now?
4. Does the coloration come from the rubber stopper? How did you show this?
5. What other possible sources of the coloration can you suggest? (Come up with at least two. There are at
least three good answers to this question.) Suggest methods for verifying or disproving these possibilities:
INSTRUCTOR CHECK POINT
Defend your answer for question 5 before you move on. The instructor will ask you to rule out some of your
hypotheses at this stage. You MUST get the instructor’s initials on your paper before you can continue on to
step 6.
66
Experiment #12
6. Replace the air in the flask with natural gas and quickly stopper the flask again. Now shake the flask as was
done previously. What is observed?
7. Replace the natural gas in the flask with air, stopper and shake as before. What is observed now?
8. Replace the rubber stopper with a simple manometer. Put water into the U-tube until it is about half full.
(This may be a bit tricky. Ask the instructor or members of another group that have already completed this
step to show you how to set up the manometer.) Use the manometer to observe any changes in pressure
inside the flask during several coloration-decoloration cycles. What is observed?
9. What conclusions can be drawn from your observations in 6, 7, and 8?
INSTRUCTOR CHECK POINT
Defend your answer for question 9 before you move on. Be sure to explain how the experiments you performed
in steps 6 – 8 helped you to reach your conclusions. If the instructor is not satisfied with your conclusions, you
may be asked to repeat one or more of these steps in his or her presence. You MUST get the instructor’s initials
on your paper before you can continue on to step 10.
10. How does the rate of the coloration step compare with the rate of the decoloration step?
11. Is the initial reaction reversed when going from blue to colorless again? What led you to this conclusion?
12. Write a tentative reaction mechanism for the reaction taking place based on what has been observed thus far.
(Use letters for the reactants and products since the experimenter does not know what substances are present
in the reaction mixture.) Which step in your tentative reaction mechanism is the slow step?
INSTRUCTOR CHECK POINT
Defend your answer to question 12 before you move on. If the instructor is not satisfied with your mechanism
in question 12, you may be asked to come up with alternatives. You MUST get the instructor’s initials on your
paper before you can continue on to step 13.
67
Experiment #12
13. Does the length of time the flask remains blue depend on how long one shakes the flask? Does the intensity
of the blue color depend on how long one shakes the flask?
Complete the following experiments to assist in answering these questions.
Number of Shakes
Duration of Blue Color (sec)
Intensity Observation
2
4
6
8
Draw simple graphs of 1) the duration of the blue color vs. the number of shakes and 2) the intensity of the
blue color vs. time for two different numbers of shakes.
14. How can these observations be explained? In this explanation, consider how they relate to the mechanism
proposed in 12, and determine what modifications are necessary in this mechanism.
INSTRUCTOR CHECK POINT
Defend your answer to question 14 before you move on. If the instructor is not satisfied with your explanation,
you may be asked to come up with alternatives. You MUST get the instructor’s initials on your paper before
you can continue on to step 15.
15. Write a final mechanism for the reaction which is consistent with all observations. Indicate which step is
the slow step and identify any catalyst that may be present.
Write the net reaction.
16. Write the rate law for the reaction. It may be necessary to include in the rate law an intermediate instead of
only reactants and products.
What is the order of the reaction?
INSTRUCTOR CHECK POINT
Defend your answers to questions 15 and 16 before you turn in your paper.. If the instructor is not satisfied
with your mechanism and rate law, you may be asked to come up with alternatives. You MUST get the
instructor’s final approval before you can turn in your report and leave the lab.
68
Experiment #13
Exp #13 – Oxidation of Aromatic Aldehydes Using Oxone
Eliminating or reducing hazardous wastes safeguards our environment and health. Green chemistry is a
new sub-discipline of chemistry that is aimed at designing chemical products and processes that reduce or
eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. Using environmentally benign solvents such as water
and environmentally friendly reagents is one of the principle objectives of green chemistry.
In this experiment you will oxidize benzaldehyde to benzoic acid in water using Oxone® as the oxidizing
agent. Oxone® is the trade name for a potassium triple salt containing potassium peroxymonosulfate (KHSO5),
potassium hydrogensulfate (KHSO4), and potassium sulfate (K2SO4) in a 2:1:1 molar ratio. The formula weight
of Oxone® is 614.8 g. Potassium peroxymonosulfate present in Oxone® is a powerful oxidant capable of
effecting numerous transformations including oxidation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids. The use of Oxone®
as a green oxidant is due in part to its non-toxic nature and nonpolluting byproducts.
R CHO + KHSO5
R CO2H + KHSO4
CHO
CO2H
Oxone
Water
mp =121-122 0C
Procedure
In a 50 mL round bottom flask, place 1.0 mL of benzaldehyde, 7.25 g of Oxone® and 25 mL of water.
Add a stir bar and connect the flask to a reflux condenser using a Keck clip. Carefully lower the flask into a
water bath (a beaker containing water) making sure that the neck of the flask is clamped to your ring stand and
that the flask is not completely immersed in the water-bath. Heat the mixture at 60-70 °C (monitor the
temperature of the water bath using a thermometer) for 75 min and subsequently cool the flask in an ice-bath for
15-20 min. Care should be taken to make sure that the reaction flask does not tip over and the contents flow into
the ice bath. Collect the acid product by vacuum filtration using a Büchner funnel and remove the boiling stone
with forceps. Transfer the acid product completely from the flask by rinsing with minimum amounts of ice cold
water and finally wash the solid with 10 mL of ice cold water.
Recrystallize the crude product from hot water and collect the crystallized product by vacuum filtration
in a Büchner funnel using a pre-weighed piece of filter paper. Transfer the filter paper to a watch glass and put
into a ~90 °C oven for 20 minutes to dry. Determine the mass and the melting point of your product. Confirm
the identity of your product by taking a mixed melting point with pure benzoic acid (provided).
Take an IR of your product and fully analyze the spectrum.
69
Experiment #13
Moorpark College Chemistry Department Laboratory Report Rubric – Graded out of 24 Points
CATEGORY
Abstract
Introduction
For this lab, write
about “Green
Chemistry”
Hint: Think about
Chromium
reactions
Methods/
Materials
See sample
methods / materials
section at the end
of this rubric.
Results/
Calculations
0–
Substandard
4 – Accomplished
3 – Good
2 - Developing
1 - Beginning
Clear, concise (~½ page), and
thorough summary of results
with appropriate literature
references.
Refers to most of the
major results; some
minor details are
missing or not clearly
stated.
Introduction is nearly
complete but does not
provide context for
minor points. Contains
relevant information
but fails to provide
background for one
aspect of the
experiment, or certain
information is not
cohesive.
Narrative includes
most important
experimental details.
Missing one or more
relevant pieces of
safety information or
experimental
procedure.
Misses one or more
major aspects of the
results.
Missing several major
aspects of the results and
merely repeats
information from the
introduction.
Very little background
information is provided,
and information is
incorrect. No references
are provided.
None, unrelated,
or plagiarized.
Narrative is missing
several experimental
details and safety
information or
includes
insignificant
procedural details.
Several important
experimental details and
safety information are
missing. Procedural
steps are incorrect,
illogical, or occasionally
copied directly from the
laboratory manual.
None, unrelated,
or plagiarized
(including
completely
copied from the
laboratory
manual).
All figures, graphs, and
tables are correctly
drawn, but some have
minor problems or
could still be
improved. All data and
sample calculations are
mentioned in the text.
Most figures, graphs,
and tables are
included, but some
important or required
features are missing.
Certain data and
sample calculations
are not explained in
the text and/or solved
incorrectly.
Figures, graphs, and
tables are poorly
constructed, have
missing titles, captions
or numbers. Certain data
and sample calculations
are not referenced in the
text and solved
incorrectly.
None, unrelated,
or plagiarized.
A cohesive, well-written
summary (including relevant
reaction chemistry) of the
background material pertinent
to the experiment with
appropriate literature
references (at least one
scientific reference is required
by your instructor) and a
statement of purpose.
Contains a complete listing of
safety information, a narrative
of experimental procedures
followed, and materials used.
Omits information that can be
assumed by peers. Includes
observations when appropriate
and only important
experimental details.
All figures, graphs, and tables
are numbered with appropriate
titles and captions. Sample
calculations are shown and
correctly solved. All data is
explicitly mentioned in the
text. % Yield is calculated
and full analysis of IR
spectrum is included.
Certain major
introductory points
are missing (e.g.,
background, theory,
reaction chemistry),
or explanations are
unclear and
confusing.
References are not
scholarly.
Score
_____
None,
unrelated, or
plagiarized.
_____
_____X ½
_____
70
Experiment #13
CATEGORY
Discussion/
Conclusion
References**
(see sample on
next page)
Miscellaneous
Mechanics,
grammar, and appearance
Appendix: Mock
Lab Notebook
0–
Substandard
4 - Accomplished
3 – Good
2 - Developing
1 - Beginning
Demonstrates a logical,
coherent working
knowledge and
understanding of important
experimental concepts,
forms appropriate
conclusions based on
interpretations of results
and/or spectrum (spectra)
analysis, includes
applications of and
improvements in the
experiment, refers to the
literature when
appropriate, and
demonstrates
accountability by
providing justification for
any errors.
All sources (information
and graphics) are
accurately documented in
ACS format. At least one
reference is taken from
scientific literature
relevant to the report.
Demonstrates an
understanding of the
majority of important
experimental concepts,
forms conclusions based
on results and/or
spectrum (spectra)
analysis but either lacks
proper interpretation,
does not answer post-lab
questions in paragraph
format, suggests
inappropriate
improvements in the
experiment, refers to the
literature insufficiently,
or lacks overall
justification of error.
While some of the
results have been
correctly interpreted
and discussed,
partial but
incomplete
understanding of
results is still
evident. Student
fails to make one or
two connections to
underlying theory.
Does not demonstrate an
understanding of the
important experimental
concepts, forms inaccurate
conclusions, does not
answer post-lab questions
in paragraph format,
suggests inappropriate
improvements in the
experiment, refers to the
literature insufficiently,
and lacks overall
justification of error.
None, unrelated,
insignificant
error analysis
and incorrect
explanation, or
plagiarized.
All sources are
accurately documented,
but a few are not in ACS
format. Some sources
are not accurately
documented.
All sources are accurately
documented but not
directly cited in the text.
Sources are not
documented nor
directly cited in
the text.
Grammar and spelling are
correct. All required
components are included,
complete, and/or
illustrated correctly. Paper
is not written in first
person. Mock Lab
Notebook (completed
during the lab period) is
stapled to the back of the
report.
Less than three
grammatical and
spelling errors are
present or mock lab
notebook contains one
or two minor errors.
All sources are
accurately
documented, but
many are not in
ACS format. Most
sources are not
directly cited in the
text.
More than three
grammatical and
spelling errors are
present or paper is
written in first
person. Features
multiple errors with
mock lab notebook.
Frequent grammatical and
spelling errors, and writing
style lacks cohesion and
fluidity. Paper is written
in first person. Mock lab
notebook is not attached to
report.
None, unrelated,
or plagiarized.
Score
_____
_____X
½
_____
71
Experiment #13
Sample Materials / Methods Section
Below is a sample materials / methods section. Many students assume that this section needs to be lengthy
since this summarizes several hours of lab work, but this is not the case. It simply needs to be descriptive. This
sample section describes the synthesis of 2-ethoxynaphthalene (an experiment that you completed earlier this
semester):
2-Ethoxynaphthalene – Potassium hydroxide (2.065 g, 0.0368 mol) and 2-naphthol (2.539 g, 0.0176 mol) were
added to 25 mL methanol in a 100 mL round bottom flask. The solution was stirred with a magnetic stirrer until
all solids were dissolved (~ 3 minutes). To this solution, iodoethane (1.7 mL, 0.029 mol) was added via a
syringe in the fume hood. The solution was heated under reflux for 30 minutes, and then was dumped into a
250 mL beaker containing 40 mL of ice, forming a white precipitate. The solid was collected in a Buchner
funnel using vacuum filtration and was washed with 150 mL of ice cold water. The resulting solid was
recrystallized from 95 % ethanol (~ 10 mL) to yield 0.408 g (0.00237 mol, 13.5 %) of the desired product as a
white solid.
SAFETY NOTES: Potassium hydroxide is a strong base, so care should be used to avoid exposure to skin or
eyes. Iodoethane is a volatile narcotic and a possible teratogen, so it should only be used in the fume hood and
contact with the substance should be avoided.
**Journal citations must include author or editor, title (in italics) followed by a period, year (boldface), volume
(in italics), and page numbers. For example: Schrauzer, G.N.; Windgassen, R.J. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1966, 99,
3738-3743. For additional examples, see the ACS Style Guide (summary can be found online).
72
Experiment #14
Exp #14 – Preparation of 2-(2,4-dintitrobenzyl)pyridine: A Photochromic Compound
A photochromic compound is one that changes it’s color when exposed to light. Today’s product is
interesting in that the change in conformation is reversible, that is, the compound changes from one form to
another and then back again. The transformation from the brown form to blue is very fast, while the conversion
back takes almost a day at room temperature. The conversion appears to be reversible any number of times. In
addition, it is possible to create single crystals as large as 800mg in this experiment*; certainly an experimental
challenge!
H
H
H
N
O
N
light
+
H
N
O
N
O
-
+
O
dark
-
NO 2
NO 2
brown-sugar brown
blue-jeans blue
Fig. 1 - Light induced tautomerization of 2-(2,4-dintitrobenzyl)pyridine
2-(Benzyl)pyridine is nitrated smoothly by a mixture of sulfuric acid and concentrated nitric acid,
without the use of fuming nitric acid. The nitration almost certainly proceeds by electrophilic aromatic
substitution, which explains why the incoming nitro group ends up in the ortho position and para position. The
refluxing nitric acid is strong enough to nitrate the activated benzene ring twice.
N
HNO3
N
O
+
N
O
H2SO4
-
+
O
-
N
O
Fig. 2 - Today’s nitration reaction.
73
Experiment #14
Procedure
Caution: Concentrated sulfuric and nitric acids are very corrosive! Wash any spills with large
amounts of water and neutralize with baking soda (or sodium carbonate). Wear goggles and gloves at all
times!!

Place 12 mL of concentrated sulfuric acid (0.22 mole) in a 100-mL round bottomed flask. Cool the flask to
5oC or below with an ice bath, and place a stir bar in it.

To the flask, slowly add 2.5mL of 2-(benzyl)pyridine (2.60g, 0.016 mole) with good mixing. To this well
stirred mixture, add drop by drop through the condenser over a period of about 3 minutes, 2.25mL
concentrated nitric acid. (0.036 mole; density 1.42 g/mL) The first few drops will cause the solution to
become brown, but it should gradually lighten up as the acid is added. After the acid has been added, heat
to 100oC for 20 min. Use a hot water bath and an air-cooled condenser.

After heating, pour the mixture onto about 200g of ice in a 1-L Erlenmeyer flask. Basify the solution to
about pH 11 using a solution of 20 grams sodium hydroxide in 250 mL water**. Toward the end of the
addition, the product should separate to give a milky, yellow solution. Caution: Concentrated sodium
hydroxide is very corrosive! Wash any spills with large amounts of water immediately! Wear goggles
and gloves at all times!

Add about 200mL of ether and stir for about 10-15 min to extract the product into the organic layer. Cover
the flask and make sure your hot plate is cool to the touch before you use it as a stir plate!

Separate the ether layer using a large separatory funnel, dry the ether over magnesium sulfate, then transfer
the ether to a simple distillation apparatus. Distill to reduce the volume until it is about 25mL. Do not
allow the reaction to evaporate to dryness!!! Please save the distilled ether in a container provided! Don’t
turn the power on the transformer past 40%. The ether is very flammable and volatile!

Crystallize the product by cooling in an ice bath. Collect the sandy crystals with suction filtration, and wash
then with 95% cold ethanol. The product can be recrystallized from 95% ethanol with about 90% recovery
using 10mL ethanol per gram of product.
Write-up
Calculate the percent yield of the reaction and comment on the purity of the product obtained.
Pre-Lab
Include the standard reagent chart.
* - Ault, A. J. Chem. Ed. Vol. 77, No. 11 p. 1386
**- to make this solution, add 26 mL of “50% NaOH” to 230 mL water.
74
Experiment #15
Exp #15 – Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) - A Bare Bones Guide
NMR is an extremely powerful technique that allows the chemist to determine a compound’s molecular
structure. There are two main types of NMR that are used routinely in labs. The oldest and most common is 1H
NMR, or proton NMR. This technique allows you to look at the compound’s protons. The second most
common NMR spectra is the 13C NMR.
Because 13C is a bit more time-consuming to run, and was developed after 1H. It is therefore often
covered after 1H NMR in most texts. However, 13C is actually easier to interpret than 1H, so we will start with
it.
We’ll start with determining what spectra a compound should have based on its structure. After we do
that, you will try to find a compound’s structure based on it’s spectra, a more useful and challenging task.
The Basics: NMR spectra can tell you four things about a molecule.
1)
2)
3)
4)
How many types of that nuclei (1H or 13C) you have.
What kind of environment each type of nuclei are in.
How many nuclei are in each type. (1H only)
How many neighboring nuclei are next to that group. (1H only)
You should always keep this list in mind. Whenever you look at a peak, ask yourself “what kind of nuclei is
this”, “how many nuclei made this peak”, and “how many neighbors does this peak have”.
We’ll start with 13C because you only have to ask/answer the first two questions. This makes it much
simpler!
Equivalency: The first question, “how many types of nuclei you have”, depends on the number on
equivalent nuclei. That means the nuclei are all the “same”. What does being the “same” mean? The easiest
definition is that two nuclei are the same if replacing them with some group Z would give you identical
compounds, then those nuclei are the same.
.
replace any of these H's,
rotate and manipulate single bonds,
and you get only one compound.
These Hydrogens are "magnetically equivalent"
H
H
H
C
H
Z
C
H
H
H
Ex. replace any H in methane will give you the same compound. Thus, all the H’s in CH4 are identical.
The easiest way to spot equivalent C’s (or H’s) is to look for planes of symmetry. If you can bisect a
molecule with a plane of symmetry, then the nuclei that lie on opposite sides of that plane are identical.
Practice! Decide how many types of carbons there are in each structure.
75
Experiment #15
CH4
CH3CH3
O
Br
total C's =
number of
"types" of C's =
In a 13C NMR spectra, the number of peaks that you see will be the same as the number of different
types of carbons. However, sometimes the peaks will be so close together that they look like one peak (this is
especially a problem with 1H NMR, less so with 13C NMR) In the 1H NMR spectra, a peak will usually not be a
single peak, but rather a more complicated pattern. Look at some spectra to get an idea.
Chemical Shifts: In any spectra, the peaks will be spread out along the page. The positions will be
given by a number called the chemical shift (). For 13C NMR, this number goes from -10 to +200 ppm (parts
per million). As might be expected, the chemical shift varies depending on what type of magnetic environment
the nuclei is in.
How can you tell what kind of environment it is in? First off, the more negative charge the nuclei has,
the further to the right it will be (i.e. lower value). This nuclei is said to be shielded. The peak at  0 ppm
is from (CH3)4Si (tetramethylsilane - TMS). Here, the C and H nuclei are more electronegative than the SI, so
they have a slight negative charge. Therefore, they are shielded and occur to the right of most compounds.
TMS is defined to be 0 ppm.
Over time, many spectra have been recorded and charts have been made of the chemical shift of every
functional group you can think of. In theory, you should be able to look up any shift you want. In practice, it is
not so simple. Since the charts are generally short, they can’t include exactly what you want. You often have to
guess which value to use…
76
Experiment #15
There are several regions that certain groups always appear in. The order is pretty much the same as with 1H
NMR, so you only have to learn this once.
General regions of 13C NMR shifts - memorize these!
upfield
downfield
C X
O
alkanes
C
X
C C
 200
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
Remember, the more positive the carbon, the more to the left (i.e. the more deshielded) it is. Me3C+ has
a shift of  328 ppm! Carbons with a negative charge (like Me-Li+, come in a round -10 ppm) These are
shielded (or electron rich) carbons…
What about the other questions? For simple carbon NMR, that is all the information you need (or
get!) The height of each peak doesn’t result entirely from the number of nuclei present, but also from the
relaxation times of the different carbons. So don’t try and interpret the peak heights of a 13C spectra!
Coupled spectra: Recently, coupled spectra have become easy to obtain. With these types of NMR,
you can tell how many H’s are attached to each Carbon. This is a very powerful technique, and it is fairly easy
to interpret. Above each peak in a 13C, you will often see a letter. These letters, s, d, t or q stand for singlet,
doublet, triplet or quartet. This letter indicates how many hydrogens are attached to the carbon that is causing
that peak. In other words, a s indicates a methyl group, a d indicates two attached hydrogens (a methylene
group), a t is a methine group, and a q results from a quaternary carbon (with no attached hydrogens). The
computer power needed to do run these experiments only became affordable sometime in the mid-to late 1980’s
so many older spectra do not have this information.
Solving problems: Going from structure to spectra is fairly simple. There are a wide variety of
computer programs that can simulate a spectra quite accurately. Unfortunately, if you already know the
structure, you usually don’t need a spectra. But its a good place to start.
The best way to start is to decide how many different types of nuclei you have. Since we’ve already
done cyclohexane, let’s start there. There is only one type of carbon for cyclohexane. (ring flipping makes
them all the same, the NMR is a slow technique that only sees averages of positions at normal temperatures).
So you would predict only one peak. Now you figure out what the chemical shift would be. Looking at chart,
you see that a secondary carbon with no other functional groups has a shift of about 16 ppm. If you look at a
77
Experiment #15
larger chart, or the actual spectra, you find that the shift is  27.7 ppm. Your prediction is a little off, but
remember the scale is fairly large (0-200).
TYPICAL SHIFTS FOR 13C SPECTRA
If there is more than one carbon, the shift is for the underlined carbon
Group
Shift (in ppm)
Primary Methyl group
6-15
CH3 CaH=CbH2
Ca
Cb
115.9
136.2
2o and 3o Methyl
25-30
Cl-C
+20
C6H6
128.7
Br-C
+10
CH3COCH3
205.1
CH3OCH3
59
CH3COOCH3 (ester)
170.7
CH3COCH3 (acetone)
29
CH3COH (aldehyde)
201
CH3-C6H6
21
CH3CO2H
179
CH3-N(CH3)3
47.5
C2H5CaCbH
1-Pentanol
C1
C2
C3
C4
C5
62.2
33.1
26.1
32.3
14.5
Ca
Cb
85.0
67.3
CH3CN
117.8
CH3CN
0.5
78
Experiment #16
Exp #16 – 1H NMR Spectra
Although the 13C NMR is a powerful tool, it is the proton NMR that is the primary analytical technique
of organic chemistry. It requires only a small amount of sample, and can provide a wealth of information about
a molecule. The principles behind the interpretation of 1H NMR are the same as for carbon NMR, but there are
additional pieces of information that you can glean from the 1H spectra that you cannot from 13C.
CHEMICAL SHIFTS: In general, the shifts for proton parallel the shifts for carbon. However, the range of
shifts doesn’t vary as much. So you scale runs from  0 to 10 ppm as opposed to  0 to 200 ppm. Peaks are
more likely to overlap with 1H NMR than with 13C, so be careful!
Aromatic and alkene shifts: Before, I said that the more positive the charge on the nuclei, the farther
downfield it was. But why do neutral compounds like benzene show chemical shifts at  7 ppm? The large
shifts (in both 13C and 1H) are due to the effects of ring current upon the atoms.
INTEGRATION: In the 13C NMR, the heights of the peaks did not tell you anything useful. The peaks from an
aromatic ring could vary in height, even though each peak was caused by the same number of carbon atoms.
(This is due to differences in relaxation times) In 1H NMR, the areas of the peaks is very important.
*The area of each peak is proportional to the number of hydrogens*
*that are causing that peak to occur.*
For example, if you have a NMR spectra of propane, you have two different types of H’s and two
different types of C’s. The 13C will show two peaks, and you can predict which peak comes from which carbon
by examining a table of chemical shifts. But the heights of the peaks will tell you nothing. When you examine
the 1H NMR, you will see two peaks of different sizes. One peak will be three times the area of the other. The
larger peak results from the methyl group; the smaller from the methylene. (note - 6 H’s from CH3 : 2 H’s from
CH2 gives a 3 : 1 ratio)
When you look at 1H NMR, the peaks often will be split into several smaller peaks (see below). It
becomes difficult to compare a tall, thin peak with a short, stubby one. Therefore, integration lines are
calculated by the computer and displayed above each peak. Other times, the area of each peak is simply given
to you. Remember that the numbers given are ratios and not necessarily the number of protons in that molecule.
SPLITTING: The most striking feature of a 1H NMR is the number of peaks that are split into sub-peaks. The
most common patterns are labeled singlet (s), doublet (d), triplet (t), and quartet (q). You may see (dd) for a
“doublet of doublets”. There are many types of patterns!
This splitting is caused by the effect of the neighboring hydrogens on that type of hydrogen. What is a
neighbor? A neighbor is another hydrogen atom that is three bonds away from that nuclei. Hydrogens on the
same carbon (two bonds away) do not count, nor do hydrogens four bonds away.
79
Experiment #16
One minor complication: If an Oxygen or Nitrogen atom is one of nuclei you go through while counting
three bonds, don’t count it as a neighbor. O and N usually prevent splitting from occuring.
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
N
Br
H3C
C
H
H
H
H
H
H3C
H
O
H
H
H
O
Which ones are neighbors?
*For each neighbor a group of hydrogens have (let’s call that number N), *
*you will generate N + 1 peaks.*
This is called the N + 1 rule. So if you have a group of hydrogens with no neighbors (N = 0), you get a
singlet. (e.g. tert-butyl bromide). If you have one neighbor, you get a doublet. (e.g. the methyl of isopropyl
bromide). etc.
This can get confusing. Remember that the area of a peak and it’s position depend upon the nuclei that
cause that peak. The splitting pattern depends upon that peak’s neighbors.
Br
H
CH3
Br
Br
CH3
Cl
Br
How many neighbors does each H type have?
PREDICTING A SPECTRA:
Let’s draw the spectra of a compound, methyl isopropyl ether. To start, set up a chart with an entry for
the number of hydrogens in each group, the expected chemical shift, the number of neighbors for each group,
and for the final area ratio and peak type.
H3C
H C O CH3
H3C
Group Type
# of H's ratio
# of N splitting  (in ppm)
-CH3
CH
OCH3
80
Experiment #16
Now, sketch the expected 1H NMR spectra of the following compounds (on a separate sheet).
O
H3C
CH3
CH3
O
H3C
O
CH3
CH3
H3C
O
CH3
CH3
O
81
Experiment #17
Exp #17 – Where Does the Bromine Go? Puzzles in Aromatic
Electrophilic Substitution
Sometimes, even straight forward reactions can give surprising results. In today’s lab, you’ll perform
one of three reactions and then identify what product you made. Before you try the reaction, predict what you
think the product will be.
Puzzle One: Is the amino or are the methyls more powerful directors?
In this puzzle, you’ll brominate 2,4-dimethylaniline and see what product you obtain. One complication
is that the product of direct bromination is a waxy solid, which makes obtaining a good melting point quite
difficult. Therefore, the amine will be converted into an acetanilide, which is much easier to characterize.
Br
Br
NH2
O
H
N
CH3
NH2
H3C
H3C
CH3
Br
NH2
H3C
CH3
"Br2"
CH3
H3C
acetic
anhydride
CH3
NHCOCH3
Br
H3C
CH3
NHCOCH3
H3C
Br
Before
you
begin
the
reaction,
CH3
Br
what
M.P. = 168-169oC
CH3
NH2
H3C
M.P. = 200oC
product
would
M.P. = 151-152oC
you
predict
will
form?
82
Experiment #17
Puzzle Two: Is the amino group a more powerful director than the methyls?
This reaction is similar to the one above. You’ll brominate 2,6-dimethylaniline and see what product
you obtain. One complication is that the product of direct bromination is a waxy solid, which makes obtaining
a good melting point quite difficult. Therefore, the amine will be converted into an acetanilide, which is much
easier to characterize.
CH3
CH3
NH2
Br
NHCOCH3
Br
CH3
NH2
CH3
"Br2"
M.P. = 136oC
acetic
anhydride
CH3
CH3
CH3
CH3
NH2
NHCOCH3
M.P. = 196-198oC
CH3
Br
CH3
Br
Before you begin the reaction, what product would you predict will form?
Puzzle Three: Is the methoxy more powerful than a hydroxy and an aldehyde?
In this reaction, you will brominate vanillin and measure the melting point of the product obtained.
Unlike the other two puzzles, you can get a good m.p. without making a derivative.
H3CO
CHO
M.P. = 178oC
HO
Br
O
H3CO
HO
H
"Br2"
H3CO
CHO
M.P. = 164oC
HO
Br
Br
H3CO
CHO
M.P. = 154-155oC
HO
83
Experiment #17
How can we brominate a benzene ring?
Because the rings in today’s reactions are all activated, you won’t need to resort to using strong catalysts
such as FeBr3. However, handling liquid bromine can be somewhat dangerous. So, you’ll use a combination
of KBrO3, HBr in acetic acid to generate Br2 in situ. (Latin: in solution)
CH3CO2H +
BrO3-
+
5 HBr
3 Br2 +
3 H2O +
CH3CO2-
Procedures
Puzzle One:
2,4-dimethylaniline (0.18g, 0.0015 mol) and 2mL of acetic acid were placed in a 25-mL Erlenmeyer
flask. The mixture was stirred in an ice bath while first powdered potassium bromate (0.09g, 0.00054 mol) and
then hydrobromic acid (48% or 8.7 M, 0.30 mL, 0.0026 mol) was added. The initial orange color caused by the
bromine faded in 1 min. The mixture was stirred for an additional 4 min, and 10 mL of water was added. This
resulted in a clear, faintly purple solution containing some solid (presumable the anilinium bromide).
The mixture was transferred to a 50-mL beaker and stirred and room temperature. 2 mL of 4M NaOH
was added, followed by 5.0 mL (0.053 mol) of acetic anhydride. The mixture was stirred for 30 min; during
this time the original precipitate dissolved and a new one appeared. The product was isolated by vacuum
filtration, washed with water, and air-dried.
Puzzle Two:
The above procedure was carried out using 2,6-dimethylaniline. The resulting clear solution was stirred
in a 50-mL Erlenmeyer beaker while 0.7 mL of 4 M NaOH and 2.0 mL of acetic anhydride were added. A
precipitate soon formed. After 30 min, solid sodium carbonate was added, a little at a time, until effervescence
stopped and the pH was 8. Vacuum filtration, washing with water, air-drying and vacuum drying gave faintly
pink crystals.
Puzzle Three:
A solution of 0.23 g (0.0015 mol) of vanillin in 3.0 mL of acetic acid was stirred at room temperature,
and 0.09 g of potassium bromate, followed by 0.30 mL of 48% hydrobromic acid, was added. The mixture was
stirred for 50 min and poured into 25 mL of water. The resulting mixture was stirred for 20 min and filtered by
vacuum. The solid was washed with water and dried to give an off-white solid.
Safety:
Hydrobromic acid is toxic and corrosive! Handle in the fume hood!
Potassium bromate is a cancer suspect agent and a strong oxidizer! Do not spill it on the balances.
Clean up all spills immediately!
Acetic anhydride is corrosive and lachrymatory! It will make your eyes sting!
84
Experiment #18
Exp #18 – Reductive Amination: Three Easy Pieces
Reductive amination is usually described as a one-pot procedure in which an aldehyde or ketone reacts
with ammonia or an amine to form an imine, which is selectively reduced as it is formed. Hydrogen over nickel
or a weakened hydride donor (NaBH3CN, NaBH(OAc)3)) is commonly used to reduce the imine as these
reagents are slow to reduce the carbonyl compound. In this experiment we will react ortho-vanillin with paratoluidine to generate an imine.*
O
H
+
N
- H2O
OCH3
N
NaBH4
OH
OH
OCH3
p-toluidene
CH3
H H
CH3
OH H N
2
o-vanillin
CH3
H
H
OCH3
the amine
the imine intermediate
O
CH3
H
H3C
O
O
CH3
H
N
OH H C
3
O
the acetylated amine
OCH3
The reaction occurs between the two solids in a solvent free reaction. The imine is subsequently reduced
with sodium borohydride to the amine, followed by acetylation to afford a solid amide derivative. The entire
reaction sequence is performed in an open beaker.[rk1]
Procedure
Synthesis of 2-methoxy-6-(p-tolyliminomethyl)-phenol: Imine formation
Caution: Organic amines are considered potential carcinogens.
Weigh a 250 mL beaker and then add 0.76 grams (5 mmol.) of ortho-vanillin. Record the total mass of
the beaker plus the ortho-vanillin. Using weighing paper, accurately weigh an equivalent amount of paratoluidine (0.535 grams, 5 mmol.) and add this to the beaker. Observe this mixture for a few minutes and record
what is happening. Using a heavy glass-stirring rod, mix and grind the solids until they become a homogeneous
dry powder. Weigh the beaker and record the mass. Determine the percent yield. Remove a small sample of this
material for an IR or NMR and melting point analysis. Compare the features of your spectrum with those of the
starting materials. The product may be recrystallized from hexanes if it looks impure.
85
Experiment #18
Synthesis of N-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)-p-methylaniline: Reduction of the Imine
Add about 15 mL of 95% ethanol to the beaker containing your imine product and stir the mixture to
partially dissolve the imine. Weigh out approximately 0.1 grams of sodium borohydride and slowly add this to
the beaker in small increments with continued stirring. Record all observations and explain what is occurring in
the reaction.
Synthesis of N-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)-N-p-tolylacetamide: Acetylation of the Amine
Add 2 mL of acetic acid to the amine to destroy the excess borohydride and to neutralize the phenoxide
ion. Add 2 mL of acetic anhydride and a boiling chip and warm the solution on a hot steam bath for 5-10
minutes. Move this beaker to a stir plate, and stir the solution fairly rapidly while slowly adding 75 mL of
water. Continued stirring should leach out the alcohol and acetic acid causing the amide product to precipitate.
Cool the mixture in an ice bath and collect the solid. Allow it to air-dry overnight and then analyze your product
by IR or NMR spectroscopy and melting point. A small sample may be recrystallized from hexanes.
Report
1. Complete two reagent charts: one for the formation of the imine and one for the synthesis of
the amide from the imine.
2. The amine was not isolated in this reaction sequence. Briefly describe a procedure
that would allow you to isolate the amine as a solid product. Predict how the IR
spectrum of the amine would differ from the IR spectrum of the amide.
3. In the reduction of the imine to the amine, the imine appears to slowly dissolve in the solution,
explain what is happening. Explain why the amide product precipitates out of solution as
water is added to the ethanolic solution.
4. Identify the IR absorption peak for the C=N stretch for the imine product and suggest a reason
why the frequency is so low.
5. The structure of capsaicin, the pungent ingredient in red pepper or capsicum annuum, is shown
below. Suggest a multi-step synthetic scheme analogous to the sequence used in this
experiment to prepare capsaicin.
O
NH
CH3
CH3
HO
OCH3
86
Experiment #18
Notes to Instructors:
1. All reagents were purchased from Aldrich Chemical Company and used without further
purification. Reagents used: acetic acid [64-19-7], acetic anhydride [108-24-7], ethanol [64-175], hexanes [73513-42-5], sodium borohydride [16940-66-2], para-toluidine [106-49-0], orthovanillin
[148-53-8], vanillin [121-33-5].
2. The imine, 2-methoxy –6-(p- (tolyliminomethyl)-phenol, is a bright orange solid, (around 100 oC) for the
recrystallized material.
3. Isolation of the amine, N-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)-p-methylaniline, was accomplished
by the addition of ~2mL of acetic acid to destroy the excess sodium borohydride and neutralize
the solution. The reaction mixture was transferred to a separatory funnel, diluted with water,
extracted with ether and dried over sodium sulfate. Recrystallization from hexanes afforded a
white solid, (mp between 50 and 100oC.)
4. The amide, N-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)-N-p-tolylacetamide, is a white crystalline solid,
(mp between 100 and 150oC.)
87
Experiment #19
Exp #19 – Synthesis of Anthranilic Acid from Phthalimide via a Hoffmann
Rearrangement
Today’s Reaction Scheme:
O
O
NH
O
NaOCl
OH
NaOH
H2O
NH2
Mechanism of the Hoffmann Rearrangement:
OH
NH
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
Cl
N
C
O
NH2
NH
O
H
O
H
O
O
O
O
OH
O
N
O
Cl
O
O
O
OH
NH
O
O
O
OH
H
O
OH
OCl
NH
O
N
H
O
O
O
N
O
NH
O
Cl
O
O OH
O
O
NH2
O
HO H
NH
+ CO2
88
Experiment #19
Procedure:
Dissolve 3.88 g of solid sodium hydroxide (NaOH) in 13.0 mL of deionized water in a 125 mL Erlenmeyer
flask. Cool this solution in an ice-water bath until the outside of the flask feels cold to the touch and then add
25 mL of bleach (NaOCl (aq)). Allow the reaction mixture to continue to cool in the ice-water bath. In the
meantime, using a mortar and pestle, grind the phthalimide into a fine powder and measure 2.4 g of this powder
into a weighing boat. Finally, fill a 400 mL beaker about ½ full of water and heat on a hot plate until the
temperature is steady at 80 °C, monitoring the temperature with a digital “lollipop” thermometer (you may need
to adjust the hot plate settings up or down – the important part here is a steady 80 °C water bath!)
Working quickly: Remove the Erlenmeyer flask (containing your bleach mixture) from the ice-water bath and
immediately dump in the solid phthalimide all at once. As soon as the solid is added, swirl the flask vigorously
to mix, then insert an alcohol thermometer and let your flask sit on the benchtop.
As the temperature rises slowly to room temperature, the solid should slowly dissolve. The temperature should
then rise rapidly. As soon as the temperature stops rising on its own, remove the alcohol thermometer from the
reaction mixture and allow the flask to “float” in the 80 °C water bath for about 3-5 minutes.
Wear gloves for this step: Cool the reaction mixture in an ice-water bath until the mixture is below 10 °C (check
the temperature with your alcohol thermometer) and then add concentrated HCl drop-by-drop until the mixture
has a pH of about 8 – this will require about 6.0 mL of HCl. Monitor the pH with pH paper and don’t start
checking the pH until you have added around 5 mL of HCl. Be sure to mix thoroughly before checking the pH.
Wear gloves for this step: Once the correct pH has been reached and while your mixture is still in the ice-water
bath, add 2.5 mL of glacial acetic acid drop-by-drop. The product should precipitate from the reaction mixture.
(WARNING: The reaction will foam at this point. Be sure to add the acetic acid slowly to prevent overflow
and make sure your solution is well mixed!)
Vacuum filter your crude product, then recrystallize from boiling water. Allow to dry in your drawer for one
week. Alternatively, the product can be dried in an oven set to 100 °C for about 20 minutes. Take the mass of
your final product and calculate a percent yield. Then, take an IR and melting point of your product.
89
Experiment #20
Exp #20 – Acetylation of Anthranilic Acid: Triboluminescent Crystals
from the Microwave Oven
By Bruce W. Baldwin, Chemistry Department, Spring Arbor University, Spring Arbor, MI
There are many examples of crystals that spark when they are crushed. This characteristic is called
triboluminescence. The word luminescence means to glow, and tribo comes from the Greek word tribien, which
means to rub. Many people have observed that wintergreen lifesavers exhibit this effect while crunching the
candies in a darkened room. It is thought that the lifesaver sparking is due to triboluminescence of the sugar and
wintergreen flavoring in the candy. There are some other compounds that give even brighter sparks when
crushed. One of these is the subject of this laboratory synthesis. You will be able to check your crystals for the
effect after they dry a little.
O
OH
N
NH
H3C
Acenaphthacene
poorly triboluminescent
O
N-Acetyl anthranilic acid
very triboluminescent
H3C
CH3
N-Isopropyl carbazole
very triboluminescent
Although the triboluminesent effect was first observed by Francis Bacon in the early 1600’s, the cause
of the effect is still debated. Many ways of causing the sparks have been observed including quickly lowering
the temperature of crystals, running mercury across the crystal surface, quickly forming the crystals by
immersion in liquid nitrogen (brhhh!), or grinding them. Triboluminescent crystals have been studied by
shining X-rays on them to determine the arrangement of atoms and molecules within the crystal. The results
have not yet indicated specific, common molecular orientations that predispose a crystal to triboluminesce. An
interesting consequence of making sparks with crystals is that if these crystals are ground in an atmosphere of
neon, the sparks produced cause the neon to electrically discharge so that a red-orange glow is observed!
The most recent theory suggests that when triboluminescent crystals are crushed, the freshly prepared
surfaces of the fractured crystals are highly charged. This causes many electrical potentials to exist inside the
crystal. When the electrons suddenly rearrange to neutralize these potentials, sparks are formed. However, this
has not been directly observed, so there are many questions about the cause of the sparks that remain
unanswered. The question asked by many is “What can triboluminescence be used for?” A 1981 article in the
Japanese journal, Chemistry Letters, provides a speculative application. What if a molecule could be made that
would spark when crushed and polymerize because of the sparks? The Japanese researchers combined these
characteristics in a single molecule.
90
Experiment #20
H2C
N-ethyl-3-vinyl carbazole
triboluminescent and polymerizable
N
CH3
When crystals of this compound were crushed, a portion of them polymerized into molecules similar to
high strength plastics. One application of this could be to include these compounds in lubricants for bearings.
As the bearings moved, the crystals would be ground and sparks would initiate the polymerization, producing a
tough plastic film on the grinding surfaces. Thus the lubricant would form hard coatings on the bearing
surfaces, prolonging the life of moving parts!
This laboratory will provide another type of molecule that sparks when crushed. The microwave oven provides
a little used, though very convenient, heating source for this process. The heating is a result of the oven’s
electrical fields oscillating at a different rate from the molecules in the reaction. When the difference is fairly
small, as is the case for water and certain other polar molecules, heat is absorbed into the mixture. This allows
the use of simple glassware, pyrex beakers and funnels, and fast reaction times, on the order of seconds rather
than minutes. Thus, this laboratory will use an unconventional heating method, the microwave oven, to produce
a compound with an unconventional crystal fracture energy release mechanism, triboluminescence
Safety
Acetic anhydride is corrosive and a lachrymator.
Methanol is a toxic, flammable chemical and will cause blindness if ingested. The students
should be instructed to avoid contact with methanol.
Microwave Ovens - A comment about microwave oven safety is in order. Avoid placing thin or
pointed metal objects like forks, spatulas, or aluminum foil in the oven because the arcing could
pose a fire hazard inside the oven. Interestingly, magnetic stir bars do not cause arcing because they
have no sharp places to act as an arc point. However, it’s probably best to avoid metals in the
microwave as a general rule. The microwave ovens should be placed in a fume hood. This way, if
any vapors from the reaction come out, they’re swept away from the experimenter.
91
Experiment #20
Procedure
O
O
OH
NH2
+
O
H3C
O
O
OH
1) microwave
CH3
NH
2) H2O
H3C
Anthranilic acid
Acetic anhydride
O
N-Acetyl anthranilic acid
1.37 g of anthranilic acid, 4.2 mL of acetic anhydride and 2 boiling stones were mixed in a
100 mL beaker, then placed in the middle of the turntable in a microwave oven (1,000 watts) and irradiated at
full power for about 1 minute. The microwave oven should be turned off as soon as the crystals dissolve and
the mixture boils about 1 second.
Before the next step, a paper towel insulated 250 mL beaker was prepared for cooling the
reaction beaker after irradiation according to the graphical procedure on the next page. After cooling to room
temperature, 6 mL of distilled water was added to the mixture. After ten seconds heating at full power in the
microwave oven, all particles must dissolve and the mixture should boil again for about one second. This
mixture was cooled in the insulated flask. (It is critical to avoid disturbing the mixture while it is cooling
because the crystals could fall out of solution prematurely.)
The platelike crystals were suction filtered in a Büchner funnel and washed with 1.) ice cold water, 2.)
ice cold methanol and air dried overnight to completely remove all solvent. High quality crystals gave yellow
fluorescence when irradiated with a 360 nm mineral lamp. If your crystals fluoresce purple or only a little
yellow, recrystallize them from 90% methanol/water using 0.5 milliliters solution for every 100 milligrams of
crystals. The crystals should now glow yellow or yellow-green using the 360 nm mineral lamp. Crushing the
crystals between two petri dishes in a darkened room demonstrates the triboluminescent effect by emitting
bright blue sparks.
92
Experiment #20
Illustrated Procedure
100 mL
Anthranilic acid
Acetic anhydride
funnel
Boiling Chip
Microwave
Two 30 sec.
full power runs
crumpled paper
Microwave 10 sec
Slowly cool
to room temp
Add 6 mL water
Suction filter crystals
Dry in oven for 30 min.
93
Experiment #20
Write-up
Calculate the percentage yield of your crystals by dividing the mass of your crystals by the expected
amount of product taken from the table. Report this as a percentage.
Another part of the discussion should include a description of the crystal appearance under long wave
UV light (365 nm) and the triboluminescence effect when the crystals were ground between two watch glasses.
Include a reagent chart that clearly shows which reagents were present and how many moles of each
were used. Clearly indicate the limting reactant.
Procedure – Include a detailed step-by-step description of how to conduct the experiment. It’s written
well if another student could perform the experiment using only your notes from the procedure.
Observations - Everything that happens during the laboratory: color changes, appearance of crystals,
actual weights and measurements that you used in the lab (probably slightly different from what you intended),
crude weights, weight of the flask you’re measuring in, melting points, and boiling points
Data - This section is where the data of percent yield and melting point are presented. They should be
clearly marked and easy to find. This is where you show your calculation of the theoretical and percentage
yield.
Discussion - Please don’t write a summary of the procedure! Instead, discuss the reaction. Answer any
questions posed at the end of the procedures in the write-up section. This should allow for a good explanation of
interesting points about the reaction, chemicals used, or application of the products in the real world.
94
Experiment #21
Exp #21 – Thin layer chromatography (TLC)
Theory
One of the most common sights in an organic chemistry lab is that of upright glass tubes, filled with a
white powder and slowly dripping solvent. In biochemical labs, electrophoresis plates identifying proteins and
DNA are often seen. Both of these are forms of chromatography. The word “chromatography” describes any
method that purifies a compound by passing it through some sort of stationary container. There are now many
varieties of chromatography, and they collectively represent the most widely used means of purification. Thin
Layer Chromatography (TLC) is a convenient and quick technique which demonstrates principles that apply to
many types of chromatography.
In most chromatographic separations, compounds are dissolved in a solvent (called the mobile phase)
and are then passed through a material (called the stationary phase). Some compounds pass through the
stationary phase faster than others, and thus the compounds become separated. This simple idea is the basis of
all chromatography.
Polarity
In TLC, the stationary phase is thin layer of silica coated on a plate of glass, aluminum or plastic. The
silica (SiO2) is Lewis acidic and interacts with the functional groups of the compound, therefore the compounds
are separated according to functional groups. Groups that are polar slow the molecule down as it passes
through the silica; molecules without polar groups (termed “greasy”) travel through with little resistance.
What makes a group polar? Having a Lewis basic group increases polarity. The polarity can be related
to the dipole moment, which can be measured. We are only interested in which groups are more polar that
another, not in exact measurements. Also, the type of mobile phase and the nature of the stationary phase can
modify or even reverse the positions of groups on a polarity list. So it is best to remember the rough order of
functional groups, but to realize that they are only a guide
Functional Group Polarity
most polar
least polar (“greasy”)
acids
amides
amines
alcohols
halide
alkenes
alkanes
travels slowest
travels fastest
95
Experiment #21
The nature of the solvent is also very important. The more polar the solvent mixture is, the more it will
“push” all the compounds through the stationary phase. A less polar mobile phase results is the compounds
traveling more slowly. The proverb “a rising tide lifts all boats” is a perfect description of the effect of the
mobile phase’s polarity. Remember that each time you perform a TLC, you should consider the polarity of the
solvent (which affects all the compounds) and the polarity of each component (which affects only that
component’ mobility).
Solvent Polarity
Most polar
Least polar
water
“pushes” compounds most
methanol
acetonitrile
acetone
ethyl acetate
chloroform
dichloromethane
diethyl ether
hexanes
“pushes” compounds least
Obviously, in order to allow people to compare the results of their TLC’s, you need a more exact scale
than “the compound came out pretty fast”. Therefore, the Rf scale was developed. In this simple scale, if a
compound was not move at all by the mobile phase, the Rf is called 0.0. If a compound moves as fast as the
solvent and travels the length of the plate, the Rf is 1.0. If a compound travels halfway through the stationary
phase, the Rf is 0.5. Why not just use a percentage scale (i.e. 0%, 100% or 50%)? No reason at all! It’s just an
arbitrary convention.
backing
Solvent Front Rf = 0.7
Rf = 0.4
Baseline silica gel
Side view of TLC
Front (before elution)
Front (after elution)
Fig. 1 - Views of a TLC Plate
96
Experiment #21
Using TLC
A TLC is usually run to check to see if a reaction is done, or to check the purity of a sample. Usually,
the TLC plate is about 3-4 cm wide and about 10-15 cm tall. A plate this size can accommodate about 3 to 4
spots (a spot is a bit of the compound on the plate). After the plate is eluted, (i.e. when the solvent goes up the
plate) the spots are compared. If two spots are not side-by-side and therefore have a different Rf value, then
they are different compounds. If they have the same Rf value, then they may be the same compound. (the idea
is the same as with melting points)
Placing a known and an unknown compound in the same spot is called co-spotting, and is similar to
doing a mixed melting point. However, even if the two compounds have the same Rf ‘s, it is still possible that
they are different, so be careful!
A
B
These are obviously
different.
C
D
Are these the
same?
C
C&D
D
By co-spotting them, you
can see they’re different.
Fig. 2 - Co-Spotting with a TLC
Why can’t you just have a standard for a TLC, in the same way you have a list of melting points?
Unfortunately, the Rf ‘s can vary depending on factors such as the humidity, the thickness of the silica layer,
small variations in the solvent composition, the amount of compound on the plate, and the age an composition
of the silica. Because of these factors, one should never compare spots done of two different plates without
realizing that they can be quite different.
Techniques
To run a TLC plate, you first need to set up a TLC chamber. This is simply a covered beaker with a
little solvent in the bottom. It is important to only use about 1cm of solvent in the beaker. If you use more, the
solvent will splash above the start line, ruining the plate. You should also include a piece of filter paper around
the inside of the beaker in order to help saturate the atmosphere of the chamber with solvent.
Spotting or applying the compound is a tricky matter. It is better to put less on than more; the instructor
will demonstrate the proper technique. Before you run the plate, check with the UV lamp to see if you can see
your compound.
Visualizing Spots
97
Experiment #21
Most organic compounds are invisible. After you run the plate, you will end up with a plate that looks
blank! In order to see them, chemists use many visualization techniques. The most common is looking at the
plate with a UV lamp, since many compounds absorb UV light and therefore look like dark spots. Another
technique is the use of iodine. The plate is placed in a chamber with iodine crystals, which react with the
compounds to make brownish spots. The last general technique is the use of stains, that is, reagent mixtures
that react with the compounds to give various colors. There are literally hundreds of different stains for every
type of functional groups.
Procedure
You will be given a solution of an over-the-counter medicine. Your goal is to identify the active
ingredients present using TLC, and determine whether it contained any aspirin.
Prepare a TLC chamber
Prepare a TLC plate with the aspirin standard. That is, lightly spot the standard onto a “lane” on the
plate. Then spot your unknown. Before you develop your plate, look at it under the UV lamp (make sure
the solvent has dried!). If you don’t see a dark spot on the baseline, spot the light compounds again until
they are dark. Try to make short, small applications rather than a single big soak. The goal is to put a very
small dot with enough compound to see, but not so much that is overwhelms the plate.
Elute the plate with ethyl acetate-ethanol-acetic acid (25:1:1) as the developing solvvent
Visualize the plate with UV light and an iodine chamber.
Write-up
Sketch the TLC plate.
Report the Rf’s of the compounds present. There may be more than one!
Did your medicine contain any aspirin?
98
Experiment #21
Table of active ingredients, structures and Rf's
CH3
H
CO2H
i-Bu
Rf = 1.00
Ibuprofen
Rf = 0.82
Acetaminophen
2-(4-isobutyl)-propanoic acid
O
H3C
H
N
OH
4'-hydroxyacetanilide
H
O
Cl
H3C
N H
CH3
Rf = 0.028
Diphenhydramine hydrochloride
Rf = 0.92
Aspirin
2-(benzhydryloxy)-N,Ndimethylethylamine hydrochloride
O
COCH3
OH
O
acetylsalicylic acid
O
H3C
CH3
N
N
Rf = 0.40
Caffeine
N
N
CH3
O
3,7-dihydro-1,3,7trimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-dione
O
H3C
O
N
H
N
N
N
CH3
H2 CH3
BrHO C C NH2
CH3
OHH
CH3
H NH2
H3C
Rf = 0.47
parabrom 1:1 complex
Note: Fluoresces under long wave UV
all others visible with short wave only!
Rf = 0.042
Pseudoephedrine
Cl
threo-2-(methylamino)1-phenylpropan-1-ol hydrochloride
99
Experiment #22
Exp #22 – Synthesis of the sweetener Dulcin from the analgesic
Acetaminophen
Dulcin is an “artificial” sweetener that can be prepared from acetaminophen, the active ingredient in
Tylenol. Dulcin was in use for several years, but removed from the market due to concerns over it’s possible
toxicity. In today’s lab, you will perform a series of reactions, isolate the product, and then analyze the purity of
the product using TLC.
In the first step, the phenol is alkylated using ethyl iodide and sodium hydroxide, an example of the
Williamson ether synthesis. Although you might expect to see sodium hydride used here (i.e. NaH), the phenol
is acidic enough (about pH = 10) that sodium hydroxide is sufficient to deprotonate it
O
O
CH3
HO
CH3
1) ethanol, NaOH
NH
2) CH3CH2I / 
O
NH
H3C
Fig. 1 - Alkylation of Tylenol
In the second step, the acetyl group is hydrolyzed under acidic conditions to give the p-ethoxyaniline
hydrochloride salt. The mechanism of this reaction is similar to that of the Fisher esterification. It is driven to
completion by the large excess of water present.
O
CH3
O
NH
HCl (aq)
+
O
NH3
Cl
-
H3C
H3C
Fig. 2 - Hydrolysis of Phenacetin
In the final step, the carbamate is formed under carefully controlled pH conditions. The sodium
bicarbonate reacts with the amine salt to “freebase” it. The aromatic amine can then attack urea, which expels
ammonia in an addition-elimination mechanism.
O
O
H3C
+
NH3
Cl
-
NH2
1) NaHCO3
2) acetic acid
urea
O
H3C
NH
Dulcin
Fig. 3 - Synthesis of Dulcin
100
Experiment #22
Safety:
Safety glasses are to be worn at all times and all chemicals should be considered hazardous. If possible, perform
all experiments and chemical manipulations in the hood. Avoid direct physical contact with chemical
substances. You should be aware of the following health hazards:
Iodoethane is a lachrymator (causes severe eye irritation) and skin irritant. If exposed, flush affected area with
water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing.
Hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide and glacial acetic acid are corrosive and can cause severe damage to eyes
and skin. In case of contact, immediately flush skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes while
removing contaminated clothing.
Phenacetin and dulcin are both considered toxic and should not be ingested or tasted.
Procedure
Step One - Preparation of Phenacetin:
Grind 4 tablets of Tylenol (500mg of acetaminophen per tablet or about 2.0 g total) using a mortar and
pestle and place the powder in a 50-mL round bottom flask with a magnetic stir bar. To the powdered tablets
add 15.5-mL of a 1M ethanolic NaOH solution. Fit the round bottom flask with a water-cooled condenser and
bring to a vigorous reflux.3 Maintain reflux for 15 minutes and then remove the flask from its heat source.
To the hot solution, add 2.0mL of ethyl iodide (iodoethane) using a syringe and return to reflux for an
additional 15 minutes. Filter the hot solution under vacuum through a Buchner funnel and into a 200 to 300-mL
side arm Erlenmeyer flask containing a 40-mL mixture of ice and water.4 Collect the insoluble starches on the
filter paper (if any) and dispose them. The phenacetin, upon contact with the cold water, precipitates from the
filtrate as a white solid.
While still cold, the solid phenacetin is collected by vacuum filtration using a Buchner funnel and
washed with cold water. Residual water can be removed by oven drying at 100oC for 5 to 10 minutes. The
phenacetin prepared in this manner is generally quite pure and can be used directly in the preparation of dulcin.
Obtain the weight of the dry phenacetin for use in yield determinations. Set aside a portion of the
product (~0.1 to 0.2 g is usually sufficient) for analysis by melting point. Weigh and save the remaining product
for use in the preparation of dulcin.
Step Two - The Preparation of Dulcin from Phenacetin7 :
To a 50-mL round bottom flask add a magnetic stir bar and the previously synthesized phenacetin.
Calculate the moles of phenacetin present and using a 6M HCl solution, add 5 molar equivalents HCl relative to
moles of phenacetin.8 Bring the mixture to a boil and maintain a vigorous reflux for 15 minutes during which
time the phenacetin should dissolve and the solution should become clear. This hydrolysis produces the pethoxyaniline hydrochloride salt (see Fig. 2)
101
Experiment #22
While stirring, remove the flask from its heat source (or lower the heat setting) just enough to stop the
reflux yet maintain a hot solution. Slowly and with occasional swirling, use a micro spatula to add small
portions of solid NaHCO3 until the solution is slightly acidic (pH 6 to 6.5).9 The approximate amount of
NaHCO3 to be added can be calculated using the following formula: moles of NaHCO3 to be added = (moles of
HCl) – (moles of phenacetin X 1.1). Indicating pH paper can be used to verify that the pH has been
appropriately adjusted.10
Once a pH of 6 to 6.5 has been achieved, add 4 molar equivalents of urea relative to phenacetin long
with 3 drops of glacial acetic acid. Return the mixture to reflux for about one hour or until the dulcin sets into a
solid mass of white crystals. Chill the mixture in an ice bath and collect the dulcin by acuum filtration using a
Buchner funnel and wash with cold water.
Although it is usually not necessary, the dulcin can be recrystallized from hot water. Residual water can
be removed by storing for one week at room temperature or by use of a microwave oven.
Obtain the weight of the dry dulcin for use in yield determinations. Confirm the melting point of the
compound. Do not taste the sweetener dulcin!!
Instructor (and Student!) Notes
1. The experiment has been successfully performed in our laboratories with a single Tylenol tablet (350 mg of
acetaminophen). However, in our laboratories this experiment is typically carried out towards the end of the second semester by
students who have had considerable experience with the techniques employed. Since the procedure works well with any number of
Tylenol tablets, the experiment can be performed on a scale suitable to the experience of a particular student body. Although the micro
and macro procedures are essentially the same, a full description of each has been provided so that the student instructions can be used
directly from this document.
2. The 1M ethanolic NaOH solution must be prepared in advance since it takes a while for the NaOH to dissolve in the
ethanol.
3. If time is limited, you may recommend to your students that they bring their heat sources to an appropriate temperature
while they are preparing the reaction mixture.
4. The precipitation of the phenacetin works best if solid portions of ice are visible during the filtration.
5. Alternatively, the samples can dry between laboratory periods although active drying allows for yield determinations and
analysis within a single period.
7. It is useful to have a reserve of phenacetin in order to supplement product yields of those students who obtain an
insufficient amount of phenacetin to proceed with the dulcin synthesis. Phenacetin is commercially available from the Aldrich
Chemical Company at an approximate cost of $11.00 for 100 g.
8. Since the second experiment requires longer heating periods than the first, it is recommended that these calculations be
performed either during the first period or prior to the beginning of the second.
9. The sodium bicarbonate must be added slowly and in small portions with a micro spatula to prevent excessive frothing and
loss upon release of carbon dioxide. Also, the reaction should be kept hot since if it cools too much phenetidine hydrochloride salt
may precipitate making it difficult to stir the reaction during the addition of the sodium bicarbonate. It is very important that the pH is
adjusted correctly at this time or the reaction will fail. If too much sodium bicarbonate is added small portions of hydrochloric acid
solution can be used to achieve the proper pH. Make sure that the mixture is well stirred between each assessment of the pH. Finally,
solid NaHCO3 is used instead of an aqueous solution so as to avoid excessive dilution of the final reaction mixture and the reduction
in the amount of dulcin precipitated that would result.
10. Remember that the important point is to adjust the pH. If you need to add more sodium icarbonate, then do so. But stir
the mixture to ensure that the base you’re adding gets mixed with the acid!
Physical Constants
Acetaminophen C8H9NO2 FW = 151.17 MP = 170
Iodoethane C2H5I FW = 155.97 BP = 72.5 0 C d = 1.94g/ml
Phenacetin C10H13NO2 FW = 179.22 MP = 137.5 oC
Phenetidine C8H11NO FW = 137.18 MP = 1.2oC
Urea CH4N2O FW = 60.06 MP = 132.7oC
Dulcin C9H12N2O2 FW = 180.21 MP = 173.5oC
Sodium bicarbonate CHNaO3 FW = 84.01
102
Experiment #22
103
Experiment #22
from Williams, Brian D., J Chem. Ed, 2000, p. 357, v77 no. 3;
104
Experiment #23
Exp #23 – Synthesis of Benzoin from Benzaldehyde
In the first step, you will use thiamine as a catalyst to prepare benzoin from benzaldehyde. This reaction
is interesting mechanistically, although many of the intermediates will be new at first.
O
H3C
O
Thiamine
N
H
HO
Benzaldehyde
N
+
Cl
-
CH3
NH2
H
OH
S
N
Benzoin
Thiamine
Mechanism
This reaction is easier to follow if cyanide is used as a catalyst. In order for this reaction to work, the
catalyst must be nucleophilic enough to attack a carbonyl, good enough of a leaving group that it can leave after
the condensation has occurred, and be able to increase the acidity of the -hydrogen after the initial attack.
O
O
-
-
C
C
N
O
O
-
O
HO
H
C
H
-
C
N
H
C
N
H
HO
O
OH
C
C
C
H
N
O
-
C
C
C
H
N
Thiamine performs an analogous role in today’s reaction and in biochemistry. The enzyme Thiamine
pyrophosphate (TPP) is used to make -hydroxy ketones in vivo.
acts like the C in cyanide
H3C
N
H
C
S
OH
H3C
+
N
N
Cl
NH2
CH3
-
NaOH
N
-
C
S
OH
+
N
N
Cl
NH2
-
CH3
105
Experiment #23
Procedure
Dissolve 1.00 g of thiamine hydrochloride in about 2 mL of DI water in a 25-mL round bottom flask.
Add 8.0 mL of 95% ethanol, and stir until the solution is homogeneous. Add 3.0 mL of 2 M NaOH dropwise to
the solution over a 2 minute period. Note any color change.
When the solution is pale yellow, add 4.0 mL of benzaldehyde and stir until the mixture is
homogeneous. Stopper the flask with a rubber stopper (not glass) and store it in your locker until next week.
Cool the reaction in an ice-bath to crystallize the product, scratching the inside of the flask if necessary.
Let the solution crystallize for at least 5 min. Collect the crystals with vacuum filtration, washing them with
some cold water. Let the product dry and record mass and melting point
To recrystallize the crude product, use 8 mL of 95% ethanol for each gram of product. Gently heat the
mixture until the product just dissolves, remove it from the heat and let slowly cool. Collect the crystals with
vacuum filtration. Let the product air dry, record the mass and melting point and record an IR spectrum.
106
Experiment #24
Exp #24 – Synthesis of Benzil from Benzoin
O
HO
HNO3
O

H
Benzoin
O
Benzil
Procedure
Place the benzoin from the previous step into a 100 mL round bottomed flask. For each 2.0 g of benzoin
you have, add 7 mL of concentrated nitric acid. Don’t use more than 20 mL of nitric acid.
Caution! HNO3 is very corrosive! Wash any spills immediately with baking soda and water!
Warning! Add no more than 5 mL of nitric acid at a time! Place the condenser on top of the flask, the
reaction may foam and ooze out of the flask!! Don’t heat the flask until all of the nitric acid has been added and
5 minutes has elapsed!!
Heat this mixture to 100 oC (or a gentle reflux) for 15 minutes. Use a magnetic stir bar. The reaction is
probably done when all of the benzoin dissolves into the brown solution.
Caution: Lots of brown NO2 fumes will be generated! You must do this whole process in the
hood
Because you’ll only be heating this reaction for a short time and because water is not terribly volatile,
you can simply fill the reflux condenser with water (closing it with a piece of tubing) and set it on the flask. Do
this if the hood is too crowded to allow everyone to use the water lines.
When heating is complete, pour the solution into a beaker with 75mL of water. Let the product (which
may separate as an oil) cool and crystallize. You may need a seed crystal. Don’t chill the solution until you see
crystals form!
Collect the yellow solid with vacuum filtration and wash thoroughly with water to remove the nitric
acid. Stop here for the day.
107
Experiment #26
Exp #25 – Tetraphenylcyclopentadiene From Benzil and 1,3-Diphenylacetone
In this reaction, you will perform a double aldol condensation using potassium hydroxide as a base. The
product formed should be a dark purple, almost black, color which results from the extended conjugation of the
 system.
O
O
Ph
KOH
Ph
O
O
Ph
Benzil
Dibenzylketone
Ph
Tetraphenylcyclopentadienone
Fig. 1 - The overall reaction
The mechanism of the reaction is a classic example of the chemistry of enolizable protons. In the first
step, the base deprotonates the ketone, resulting in a doubly resonance stabilized anion.
HO
O
-
O
+ H2O
C
H
H
H
Fig. 2 - The first step of the mechanism
The anion then attacks one of the destabilized keto carbonyl group of the benzil. The resulting
hydroxy group is removed by base is an example of a hydroxide acting as a leaving group!
O
O
+
C
O
H
O
O
C
O
C
HO
H
O
HO
Fig. 3 - Forming one side of the ring
108
Experiment #26
The process is repeated on the other side to close the ring. The last step, the elimination of the final
hydroxy group, requires heat to drive the reaction eliminate water and form the fully conjugated ring (B). If the
reaction is performed without heat, the intermediate alcohol (A) can be isolated.
O
O
C
O
HO
-
C
H
O
C
C
O
C
C
H
C
O
O
O
C
C
C
HO
-
C
H
C

C
HO
white, isolable
intermediate
A
B Dark, purple-black solid
Fig. 4 - Closing the ring using base and heat.
Procedure
Potassium hydroxide (0.10 g) and anhydrous ethanol* (10 mL) were placed in a 50-mL Erlenmeyer
flask, and the mixture was stirred mechanically until solution was achieved. To the vigorously stirred alkaline
solution was then added benzil (2.0 g) and, before all the benzil had completely dissolved, 1,3-diphenylacetone
(2.0 g). Stirring was then continued for an additional 20 min during which time the product precipitated as a
white solid. The mixture was cooled (ice bath), suction-filtered, and the white solid so obtained washed with
cold ethanol (4 x 5 mL) and sucked dry.
Save some of this product for an IR and melting point.
Notes: *use anhydrous ethanol for the reaction mixture, use 95% (“wet”) ethanol for washing the
product. Wet ethanol is less expensive.
109
Experiment #26
Synthesis of Tetraphenylcyclopentadienone
A 25-mL rb flask is charged with 1.0 g benzyl, 1.0 g of 1,3-diphenylacetone, and 5 mL of anhydrous
ethanol. The flask is heated with stirring on a hot water bath to about 80oC. As soon as the mixture begins to
reflux, 2 mL of 30% ethanolic potassium hydroxide were added slowly (drop-by-drop) through the top of the
condenser.
The solution was refluxed for an additional 10-15 minutes and was then cooled to room
temperature. The resulting solution was crystallized in an ice-water bath, filtered and washed three times using
cold 95% ethanol.
Write-up
*
Record weights of B.
Calculate percent yields based on the limiting reactant present. Also calculate the percent yield based on
*
the amount of benzaldehyde you started with.
*
Record the melting point of the product.
*
Include a short conclusion detailing the result of the experiment.
110
Experiment #26
Exp #26 – Preparation of Hexaphenylbenzene via a Diels-Alder Reaction
Today’s reaction consists of a simple Diels-Alder reaction, which is followed by a sigmatropic*
rearrangement to form hexaphenyl benzene. The dienophile used today will be diphenyl benzene, while the
diene will be tetraphenylcyclopentadienone.
O
Ph
Ph
Ph
C
C
C
O
+
Ph
Ph
Ph
Ph
Ph
Ph
+ CO
Ph
Ph
Ph
Ph
Ph
Ph
Ph
Fig. 1: today’s reaction
The product of today’s experiment has the highest melting point of any non-ionic organic molecular
compound listed in the CRC handbook (1991 Ed.) The melting point is reported at 465oC, at which points it
melts without decomposition.
* - sigmatropic: a rearranging of sigma bonds. (tropic is from the word tropos Gk. Shape)
Procedure

In a 13 x 100mm Pyrex tube, place 200mg of tetraphenylcyclopentadienone and 100mg of
diphenylacetylene. To this tube, add about 1mL of silicone oil.

Clamp the test tube at a 45o angle, with the open end pointing away from your face and any neighbors. You
must wear safety goggles at all times today!

Bring the mixture to a boil over a 3-5min period, the heating with micro-burner flame. On melting, the
reagents dissolve in the hot oil to yield a dark purple-red solution. Continue to heat the mixture gently for
another 10min. During this time, the product will begin to separate from the solution as a tan solid.

Let the test tube cool to room temperature on it’s own. (do not cool it with a wet towel!)
hexane, with stirring, to dilute the oil and dissolve any unreacted starting material.

Collect the solid with a Buchner or Hirsch funnel and suction filtration. Wash the product with a few mL’s
of hexane.

Record the weight and calculate a percent yield.
Add 4mL of
111
Experiment #27
Exp #27 – Aldol Condensations
The aldol reaction is an extremely useful and general reaction that is fairly easy to perform. In today’s
lab, every student will perform a different aldol reaction and obtain a different product.
Crude yields for these reactions are often in the 30-80% range, with crude products of fairly good purity.
O
CHO
benzaldehyde
H3C
H3C
CHO
p-tolualdehyde
H3CO
CHO
anisaldehyde
cinnamaldehye
acetone
CH3
O
H3C
cyclopentanone
O
cyclhexanone
O
4-methylcyclohexanone
CHO
Mix them up! Pick one aldehyde and one ketone. Make sure you draw the structure of your product.
Remember that there are 16 possibilities!
Generic Procedure
In a 125-mL Erlenmeyer flask are placed the ketone (1.0 mL), the aldehyde (3.2 molar equivalents),
95% ethanol (20 mL), and 2M aqueous sodium hydroxide (15 mL). The flask is stirred or gently shaken at
room temperature for 15 min or until no more precipitate is formed. In some cases, no precipitate may have
formed. These can be allowed to stand with occasional stirring or shaking (2-3 h may be needed for
completion) or heated on a steam bath [ed. note: 100oC] for 15 min, then cooled in ice and the product collected
by suction filtration. The product is washed consecutively with ice-cold, 10 mL portions of (1) 95% ethanol,
(2) 4% acetic acid in 95% ethanol, and in (3) 95% ethanol. If the product is no to be recrystallized, it is allowed
to dry, then it is weighed and a melting point taken. If some or all of the product is to be recrystallized, then
solubilities in 95% ethanol and toluene should be checked and the better solvent used.
112
Experiment #27
Sign up sheet ! Please select one “box”…
Don’t double up until every box is taken once!
Acetone
Cyclopentanone
Cyclohexanone
4methylcyclohexanone
Benzaldehyde
Tolualdehyde
Anisaldehyde
Cinnamaldehyde
113
Experiment #28
Exp #28 – The Synthesis of NMP, a Fluoxetine (Prozac®) Precursor
By Daniel M. Perrine, Nathan R. Sabanayagam, and Kristy J. Reynolds
CAUTION! 3-Dimethlyaminopropiophenone (1) is a toxic irritant. Sodium borohydride is a flammable
solid and corrosive. Ethyl alcohol and 4-chlorobenzotrifloride (3) are flammable liquids and irritants.
Sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid, and oxalic acid are corrosive and toxic. Potassium tert-butoxide is
corrosive. N,N-Dimethlyacetamide is an irritant. Ether is a flammable liquid and toxic. Oxalic acid is
toxic. The toxicity of 2, 4, and 4ox are unknown (Ins 1).
Introduction
Fluoxetine, 5, is the international nonproprietary, or generic name for Eli Lilly's Prozac,
an antidepressant drug which was introduced in 1986 as the first in the class of selective serotonin
reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Other more recent drugs in this class include Zoloft and Paxil. SSRIs are
notable for having a much wider margin of safety and lower incidence of side effects than earlier
antidepressants like the tricyclics (Tofranil, Anafranil). Fluoxetine (Prozac) is one of the most widely
used (and most profitable) drugs of all time. In the original patent of Molloy et al. (1982), Prozac was
synthesized by removing a methyl group from 4 (Ins 2) [Fig. 1]
CF 3
CF 3
Br-CN
O
H
O
H
CH3
N
NH
CH3
CH3
Fluoxetine (ProzacTM)
4
Fig. 1 - Demethylation of 4 forms Fluoxetine (This step is not done in this lab!)
We will synthesize 4, which is N-methyl-Prozac (NMP)—i.e., Prozac with an extra methyl group on
the amine nitrogen. NMP is of interest in itself, since it is nearly as active an SSRI as fluoxetine and is
probably a prodrug for fluoxetine—i.e., it is metabolized in vivo to fluoxetine by N-demethylation. In
our experimental procedure we will synthesize 2 the first week using sodium borohydride to reduce 3-N,Ndimethylaminopropiophenone. [Fig. 2]
O
H O
N
H
CH3
N
NaBH4
CH3
1
CH3
CH3
2
Fig. 2 - Reduction of an aryl ketone with sodium borohydride
114
Experiment #28
In the second week to synthesize NMP, which we will isolate as the oxalate salt, 4ox. [Fig. 3]
CF3
H
H O
CH3
N
F3C
Cl
3
CH3
H
O
O
H 3C
N
2
CH3
CH 3
N
CH 3
tert-BuO-K+
CH3
4
Fig. 3 - Nucleophilic aromatic substitution of a substituted benzene with the alkoxide of 2.
CH3
CF3
CH3
N
O
CH3
N
CH3
CF3
CH3
NaBH4
H
2
CH3
NH
N
-
CH3
HO
SOCl2
H
CH3
Cl
CF 3
+
2
OH
O
Prozactm
OH
H
H
OH
CF3
OH
CH3
CH3
NaBH4
Cl
12
5
H
7
6
O
O
BrCN
CH3
CH3
H
O
4
CH3
N
(CH3)2NH
H
3
Cl
CF3
B2H6
CH2O
CH3
O
DMAA
1
HCl
N
KOt-Bu
+
HO
13
NaH
3
14
Cl
Cl
8
B2H6
OH
OH
OH
Cl
9
H
H
H
KI
I
CH3NH2
10
NH
11
CH3
Fig. 4 - Various synthetic routes to Prozactm.
115
Experiment #28
WEEK ONE
Synthesis of 2: (±)-3-(dimethylamino)-1-phenylpropanol. Weigh 2.00 g of 3-dimethylaminopropiophenone
hydrochloride (the amine salt of the free base 1) into a 100 mL beaker. Place the beaker on a magnetic stirrer, add a 1/2-in
magnetic stir bar and 10 mL of water to the beaker, and stir to dissolve. Then add (with stirring) sufficient 10% NaOH
(about 5-6 mL) to bring the solution to pH > 10. The free base of 1 will form and come out of solution as a milky oil. With
continued stirring, add enough 95% EtOH (about 9-10 mL) to dissolve the free base of 1 and to form a clear solution
again. In a vial or small beaker make 10 mL of water basic with 3 drops of 10% NaOH; add 0.40 g of NaBH4 and stir to
dissolve (Student Note 1). Add this NaBH4 solution with stirring to the beaker containing 1. Allow the reaction to stir for
15 min to ensure a complete reaction (Ins 3).
Cautiously (vigorous evolution of hydrogen gas!), with continued stirring, make the mixture acidic by dropwise
addition of 6.0 M hydrochloric acid. (This destroys the excess NaBH4 . About 5 mL will be needed; add the acid until the
"fizzing" stops.)
You now have an aqueous solution of the hydrochloride salt of 2. We will need 2 in its free base form in order to
couple it with 3; to form the free base, make the solution basic again to pH > 10 with 10% NaOH. (About 15 mL will be
needed to make the solution neutral, and a further 5-7 mL will be needed to bring the pH to >10.) Stir in a few chips of ice
to cool the mixture to room temperature, and transfer the solution to a separatory funnel. Add 20 mL of diethyl ether,
shake well (pressure can develop!) allow the layers to settle, and separate them. Reserve the upper ether layer in a beaker
and extract the lower aqueous layer with an additional 10 mL portion of ether; add the second ether extract to the beaker
containing the first ether extract. Discard the aqueous layer and dry the combined ether extracts over anhydrous MgSO4
and (to ensure no MgSO4 is transferred) filter the ether solution through a loose cotton plug in a funnel into a 250 mL RB
flask containing a 1/2-inch stirbar.
Use a simple distillation apparatus (Claisen adaptor, thermometer, condenser; flammable vapors!) with magnetic
stirring to remove the ether (Ins 4). Most of the ether will distill over near its bp of 36oC; continue the distillation until the
temperature of the distilling solvent is about 55-60oC, at which point about 30 mL of ether should have been collected.
The colorless oil which remains behind in the RB is (±)-3-(dimethylamino)-1-phenylpropanol, 2, along with some
residual ether. Leave the stirbar in the flask, stopper it with a ground-glass stopper, and keep it in your drawer for use in
the next lab. Depending on the amount of residual ether, on standing for a few days at cool temperatures, 2 may solidify to
a waxy white solid with a mp slightly above room temperature, but whether this occurs or not will not affect the next step
in your synthesis of NMP (Ins 5).
116
Experiment #28
WEEK TWO
Synthesis of 4 (NMP): (±)-N,N-dimethyl-3-phenyl-3-(4-trifluoromethylphenoxy)propanamine
(Student Note 2) To the 100 mL RB containing 2 and a 1/2-in stir bar, add 4 mL of 4-chlorobenzotrifluoride, 3, and 30
mL of dimethylacetamide (Student Note 3). With stirring, add to this mixture 30 mL of 1.0 M potassium tert-butoxide
(caustic alkali!) in tert-butyl alcohol (Student Note 4). Using a simple distillation apparatus, distill the mixture slowly,
with stirring, over a 15-20 min period, until the temperature of the refluxing solvent mixture reaches 150oC (Ins 6).
Remove the heating mantle and disconnect the RB (hot! use a towel!) from the distillation apparatus. Cool the RB by
briefly immersing it in a cold water bath or a stream of running water. Add 40 mL water and 30 mL ether to the RB, swirl
to dissolve, remove the stirbar, and pour the contents of the RB into a 250-mL separatory funnel.
Shake well, allow the layers to separate, and drain the lower, aqueous layer into a 100 mL beaker. Transfer the
upper, ether layer into a separate 100 mL beaker. Return the water layer to the separatory funnel, add 10 mL fresh ether,
shake and separate, again reserving the lower layer but combining the ether layer with the previous 30 mL extract. Return
the water layer to the separatory funnel and extract it a third time with 10 mL fresh ether. Discard the aqueous layer. Pour
the ether extracts back into the separatory funnel and add 25 mL water. Shake well, allow the layers to settle, and discard
the lower, aqueous layer. Add a final 25 mL water to the separatory funnel, and again shake well, allow the layers to
settle, and discard the lower, aqueous layer. (If the aqueous washings are still cloudy at this point, add another 25 mL
water to the ether solution in the separatory funnel, and once again shake well, allow the layers to settle, and discard the
lower, aqueous layer. Repeat this process until the lower, aqueous layer is completely clear.) Dry the ether solution with
anhydrous MgSO4, and filter it through a funnel containing a cotton plug (to exclude any residual MgSO4) into a dry
dropping funnel (Ins 7).
Synthesis of 4ox, the oxalate salt of NMP
Dissolve 0.85 g of anhydrous oxalic acid (Ins 8) in 15 mL absolute ethanol in a 100-mL beaker. Place a magnetic stirbar
in the solution and put the beaker on a stirring apparatus beneath the dropping funnel. With good stirring, allow the ether
solution of NMP to drop into the acid solution in the beaker until the first permanent insoluble precipitate forms (Student
Note 5). Usually this is a flocculent white material. Stop the addition of NMP at this point and stir the contents of the
beaker for a few minutes. The precipitate will slowly grow in bulk; when formation of new precipitate has stopped,
continue adding the NMP-ether solution from the dropping funnel with stirring. If necessary to maintain stirring, add
additional 5-mL aliquots of absolute alcohol to the beaker. When all the NMP solution has been added, remove the stir bar
from the beaker and allow the product to digest for 5 minutes in an ice bath.
Collect the crystals of 4ox by vacuum filtration using a Büchner funnel. Wash them with ether and
allow them to air dry in your drawer overnight (Ins 9). Report the mass and the melting point. This material sinters
(softens) a few degrees before its actual melting point, which is between 120 and 150oC (Ins 10).
117
Experiment #28
Notes for the Student
Note 1. If the water is neutral or acidic, the sodium borohydride will rapidly react with it forming
hydrogen gas. Note that the product of this borohydride reduction is the ± or racemic form
(hydride is delivered to the ketone randomly from either side), and consequently the final
NMP (and Prozac® itself) are likewise racemates.
Note 2. This coupling reaction of 2 with 3 is an example of a nucleophilic aromatic substitution (also
known as the SNAr mechanism). The alkoxide ion of 2, formed by deprotonation of 2 by the strong (and strongly
hindered) base K t-butoxide, can displace the Cl from the benzene ring only because of the presence of the electron
withdrawing CF3 group. (The trifluoromethyl group functions like the nitro group in this reaction)
Note 3. The dimethylacetamide (DMAA) has a bp of 165oC. Ether boils at 34.6oC, t-butyl alcohol
at 83.0oC , and 4-chlorobenzotrifluoride (3) at 137oC. The coupling reaction of 2 with 3
probably occurs in DMAA as solvent at a temperature > 100oC. The purpose of the
distillation to 155oC is twofold: to ensure that a high enough temperature is achieved for
(rapid) coupling and to remove as much ether, t-butyl alcohol, and excess 3 as possible,
simplifying the workup.
Note 4. The potassium t-butoxide is in about 2.5 molar excess to ensure complete deprotonation of
alcohol 2. Try to make the addition of this base as rapid as possible, avoiding exposure to
moisture or air; if too much water is present, the coupling of 2 and 3 will not take place. On
the other hand, a slower distillation of the reaction mixture, particularly in the range from
100-150oC, seems to favor a more complete reaction and a purer product.
Note 5. The free base of 4 and oxalic acid are both soluble in ethanol and in ether; the oxalate salt 4ox
is soluble in alcohol but very insoluble in ether. Without addition of the alcohol, the
crystallization will occur too rapidly, and very fine crystals are formed which clog the filter
paper.
Notes for the Instructor
These Notes are keyed to (Ins #) within the “Instructions to the Student” document.
Ins 1 The toxicity of 2 and 4 is not known, but is likely to be quite low. While oxalic acid is
poisonous in large quantities, it occurs in the leaves of many edible plants, particularly
rhubarb. It is probably a good idea (in order to disabuse any student adventurers who might
imagine that consuming their product would give them some sort of a “high”) to emphasize
that antidepressants are not euphorigenic, i.e., they will not make you “feel good” if you are
not already depressed any more than aspirin will make you feel better if you don’t have a
headache. (Even if a person is psychologically depressed, antidepressant drugs begin to help
only after they have been taken daily at their regular dosage—which for fluoxetine is about
20-60 mg—for a minimum of two weeks; a one-time dose has no effect.)
Ins 2 The patent uses the von Braun reaction to remove the methyl group. This procedure involves
reacting 4 with cyanogen bromide, CNBr, to eliminate MeBr and replace the N-methyl group
with an N-cyano group (a cyanamide) which can then be easily hydrolyzed to the carbamate
and eliminated. (See March, J. Advanced Organic Chemistry, 4 ed.; Wiley: New York, 1992; pp 436-437.) Other, less
hazardous reagents for removing one of the methyl groups, such as ethyl chloroformate, could be used in an advanced
laboratory for the synthesis of Prozac from NMP.
Ins 3 It is easy to monitor the course of this reaction by noting the disappearance of the ketone
stretch in the IR at 1676 cm . We found it was invariably over in 10 minutes.
Ins 4 If students have access to a rotary evaporator, the ether can be removed from a tared flask
and the yield for this stage of the reaction calculated.
118
Experiment #28
o
Ins 5 A sample recrystallized once from MeOH/HOH had a melting point of 40-42 C; the one
reference we were able to find to the racemic material, like ours, was recrystallized from
pentane, mp 46-47oC (12). For the purpose of this experiment, using the crude oil for the
next step is perfectly satisfactory.
Ins 6 The purest product by mp and GC-MS seemed to come from the students who distilled the
reaction mixture fairly slowly, perhaps allowing time for the reaction. (Better results might be obtained by stopping the
distillation when the distillate is above 100oC and refluxing 5-10 minutes.)
Ins 7 The desired product is usually contaminated by unreacted 2, as well as the excess of 3. (All
the literature methods upon which we modeled this step used an excess of 3. When we
attempted to run the reaction with a molar equivalent, the reaction failed to reach completion.) The presence of 3 is not a
great problem, since it will not form an oxalate salt in the final step and is thus easily separated from the product 4ox.
However, 2 can form an oxalate salt which will make purification and isolation of 4ox much more difficult. Fortunately,
2, which is both an alcohol and an amine, is much more soluble in water than is
4, an ether and an amine. We found that adequate washing of an ether solution of 4 contaminated with 2 resulted in
complete elimination of 2 with no significant loss of 4.
Ins 8 0.85 g of anhydrous oxalic acid is a rounded equivalent of the amount calculated on the basis
of a 100% conversion of the 2.0 g of starting 3-dimethylaminopropiophenone hydrochloride
into NMP free base (a most unlikely event). The anhydrous acid is preferable to the dihydrate. Isopropyl alcohol would
probably be an acceptable substitute for absolute ethanol. Methanol is not a good choice, since the product is too soluble
in it. Generally, amine salts are best formed under anhydrous conditions, hence the use of the anhydrous oxalic acid and
the absolute ethanol. It is better to add the ether solution to the acid rather than the other way around: on reverse addition
it forms a material which filters very poorly.
This may be because a mixture of the dibasic and the monobasic salt is formed when excess base is present or because the
product is so insoluble in ether that a microcrystalline solid is formed which clogs the filter paper.
Ins 9 The oxalate salt takes some time to dry to constant mass. It appears very bulky and copious
when first collected, but shrinks considerably on drying. The highest yield our students obtained by this procedure was
about xx g (xx% based on the initial Mannich base hydrochloride).
Ins 10 The actual melting point is 1xx-1xxoC, but most student samples will melt from 115-130oC. A sample
which was twice recrystallized from an EtOH/EtOEt solvent mixture melted at the 1xx-1xxoC (with no decomposition
noted up to 1xxoC), and was sent to Quantitative Technologies Inc for analysis. Calc: C 58.11, H 5.36, N 3.39, F 13.79 %.
Found: C 58.02, H 5.41, N 3.46, F 13.52%. The only literature data on this compound are the mp and % elemental
analysis which appear in the Eli Lilly patents, and both (mp “117-119oC with decomposition,” “calc. ... H 3.36. . . Found .
. . H 3.49") seem to contain errors or typos (2). I (DMP) called Eli Lilly and spoke to Dr. Bryan Molloy as we were
developing this laboratory exercise, which he found to be pedagogically interesting. But when the issue of this melting
point and percent composition came up, he apologized, saying he had to discontinue the conversation because he was
under orders from the company’s lawyers not to discuss the matter due to pending litigation. A subsequent search of the
Web disclosed that Barr Laboratories is challenging Lilly’s Prozac patents http://www.barrlabs.com/prozac.htm); I had
not been aware of this. The recrystallized material with melting point noted above was transformed to the free base and
had the following spectral data: FTIR: 1616, 1510, 1460, 1330, 1110, 1060, 836 cm ; HNMR (60 MHz, CDCl ) * 1.9-2.2
[10H, m, N-(CH ) , N-CH -CH ], 5.2 (1H, t, J = .5 Hz), 6.8-7.4 (9H, m, ArH). MS m/e 324 (M + 1 , 1.2%), 323 (M ,
6.5%), 58 (Me NCH , 100%). A sample was sent to Spectral Data Services for C DEPT NMR analysis: C NMR (91 MHz,
CDCl ) * 160.5 (C), 141.0 (C), 128.6 (CH), 127.6 (CH), 126.5 (CH), 125.7 (CH), 122.8 (C), 124.3 (q, CF , J = 267 Hz),
122.5 (q, C-CF , J = 30 Hz), 115.7 (CH), 78.5 (CH), 55.7 (CH ), 45.5 (CH ), 36.8 (CH ).
119
Experiment #28
Literature references
1. Corey, E. J.; Reichard, G A. Tetrahedron Lett. 1989, 30, 5207-5210.
2. Srebnik, M.; Ramachandran, P.V.; Brown, H.C. Abstracts of Papers, 193 National Meeting of the American Chemical rd
Society, Denver, CO; American Chemical Society: Washington, D.C., 1987; ORGN 110.
3. Gao, Y.; Sharpless, K. B. J. Org. Chem. 1988, 53, 4081-4084.
4. See Perrine, D. M., The Chemistry of Mind-Altering Drugs: History, Pharmacology, and Cultural Context, American
Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1996); pp 71-74.
5. Robertson, D. W.; Krushinski, J. H.; Fuller, R. W.; Leander, J. D. J. Med. Chem. 1988, 31, 1412-1417 (quoted material
from pp 1415-1416). These workers propose an explanation for the near equivalence of the fluoxetine enantiomers.
6. (a) Molloy, et al. U.S. Patent 4 314 081, 1982; (b) Molloy , et al. U.S. Patent 4 584 404, 1986; (c) Molloy , et al. U.S.
Patent 4 626 549, 1986
7. Maxwell, C. E. Organic Syntheses; Wiley: New York, 1955; Collect. Vol. III, pp 305-306.
8. Mannich, C.; Heilner, G. Ber. 1922, 55, 356.
9. Blicke, F. F.; Burckhalter, J. H. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1942, 64, 451-454.
10. (a) Robertson, D. W.; Krushinski, J. H.; Fuller, R. W.; Leander, J. D. J. Med. Chem. 1988, 31, 1412-1417. (b) Koenig,
T. M.; Mitchell, D. Tetrahedron Letters 1994, 35, 1339-1342.
11. Mitchell, D.; Koenig, T. M. Synthetic Communications 1995, 25, 1231-1238.
12. J. Am. Pharm. Assoc. 1955, 44, 766.
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