MySQL Reference Manual

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MySQL Reference Manual
c 1997-2001 MySQL AB
Copyright Table of Contents
1
General Information About MySQL. . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 What Is MySQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.2 What Is MySQL AB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.3 About This Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.3.1 Conventions Used in This Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.4 History of MySQL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.5 Books About MySQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.6 The Main Features of MySQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.7 How Stable Is MySQL? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.8 Year 2000 Compliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1.9 General SQL Information and Tutorials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1.10 Useful MySQL-related Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2
MySQL Mailing Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
3
The MySQL Mailing Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Asking Questions or Reporting Bugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How to Report Bugs or Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Guidelines for Answering Question on the Mailing List . . . .
29
31
31
36
MySQL Licensing and Support . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
3.1
3.2
MySQL Licensing Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Copyrights Used by MySQL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.1 Copyright Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3 Example Licensing Situations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.1 Selling Products that use MySQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.2 ISP MySQL Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.3 Running a Web Server Using MySQL . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4 MySQL Licensing and Support Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.1 Payment information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.2 Contact Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5 Types of Commercial Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.1 Basic E-mail Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.2 Extended E-mail Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.3 Login Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.4 Extended Login Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.5 Telephone Support. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.6 Support for other table handlers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
37
38
38
39
39
39
40
40
41
42
42
43
44
44
45
45
45
4
Installing MySQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10
4.11
4.12
How to Get MySQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Operating Systems Supported by MySQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Which MySQL Version to Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How and When Updates Are Released . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installation Layouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing a MySQL Binary Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6.1 Linux RPM Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6.2 Building Client Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6.3 System-specific Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6.3.1 Linux Notes for Binary Distributions . . .
4.6.3.2 HP-UX Notes for Binary Distributions . .
Installing a MySQL Source Distribution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.7.1 Quick Installation Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.7.2 Applying Patches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.7.3 Typical configure Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing from the Development Source Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Problems Compiling? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIT-pthreads Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Perl Installation Comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.11.1 Installing Perl on Unix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.11.2 Installing ActiveState Perl on Windows . . . . . . . .
4.11.3 Installing the MySQL Perl Distribution on
Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.11.4 Problems Using the Perl DBI/DBD Interface . . . . .
System-specific Issues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.12.1 Solaris Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.12.2 Solaris 2.7/2.8 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.12.3 Solaris x86 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.12.4 SunOS 4 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.12.5 Linux Notes (All Linux Versions) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.12.5.1 Linux-x86 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.12.5.2 RedHat Version 5.0 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.12.5.3 RedHat Version 5.1 notes . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.12.5.4 Linux-SPARC Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.12.5.5 Linux-Alpha Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.12.5.6 MkLinux Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.12.5.7 Qube2 Linux Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.12.5.8 Linux IA64 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.12.6 Alpha-DEC-UNIX Notes (Tru64) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.12.7 Alpha-DEC-OSF1 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.12.8 SGI-Irix Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.12.9 FreeBSD Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.12.10 NetBSD notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.12.11 OpenBSD Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.12.11.1 OpenBSD 2.5 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.12.11.2 OpenBSD 2.8 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.12.12 BSD/OS Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
47
50
51
54
55
55
58
59
59
59
60
61
62
64
65
67
68
71
72
72
73
73
74
75
75
77
78
79
79
82
83
84
84
84
85
85
85
85
87
88
89
90
90
90
90
90
4.13
4.14
4.15
4.16
4.17
4.18
4.12.12.1 BSD/OS Version 2.x Notes . . . . . . . . . . 90
4.12.12.2 BSD/OS Version 3.x Notes . . . . . . . . . . 91
4.12.12.3 BSD/OS Version 4.x Notes . . . . . . . . . . 91
4.12.13 SCO Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
4.12.14 SCO Unixware Version 7.0 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
4.12.15 IBM-AIX notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
4.12.16 HP-UX Version 10.20 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
4.12.17 HP-UX Version 11.x Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
4.12.18 Mac OS X Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
4.12.18.1 Mac OS X Public beta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
4.12.18.2 Mac OS X Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
4.12.19 BeOS Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Windows Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
4.13.1 Installing MySQL on Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
4.13.2 Starting MySQL on Windows 95 or Windows 98
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
4.13.3 Starting MySQL on Windows NT or Windows 2000
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
4.13.4 Running MySQL on Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
4.13.5 Connecting to a Remote MySQL from Windows
with SSH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
4.13.6 Splitting Data Across Different Disks on Windows
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
4.13.7 Compiling MySQL Clients on Windows . . . . . . . 103
4.13.8 MySQL-Windows Compared to Unix MySQL . . 104
OS/2 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
MySQL Binaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Post-installation Setup and Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
4.16.1 Problems Running mysql_install_db . . . . . . . . 112
4.16.2 Problems Starting the MySQL Server . . . . . . . . . 113
4.16.3 Starting and Stopping MySQL Automatically . . 115
4.16.4 mysqld Command-line Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
4.16.5 Option Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Installing Many Servers on the Same Machine . . . . . . . . . . 123
Upgrading/Downgrading MySQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
4.18.1 Upgrading From Version 3.22 to Version 3.23 . . 125
4.18.2 Upgrading from Version 3.21 to Version 3.22 . . . 126
4.18.3 Upgrading from Version 3.20 to Version 3.21 . . . 127
4.18.4 Upgrading to Another Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . 128
5
How Standards-compatible Is MySQL?. . . . 130
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
6
130
132
132
133
133
134
134
136
136
137
137
138
138
139
The MySQL Access Privilege System . . . . . 141
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
6.10
6.11
6.12
6.13
6.14
6.15
6.16
7
MySQL Extensions to ANSI SQL92 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Running MySQL in ANSI Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MySQL Differences Compared to ANSI SQL92 . . . . . . . . . .
Functionality Missing from MySQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.1 Sub-selects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.2 SELECT INTO TABLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.3 Transactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.4 Stored Procedures and Triggers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.5 Foreign Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.5.1 Reasons NOT to Use Foreign Keys
constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.6 Views. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.7 ‘--’ as the Start of a Comment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What Standards Does MySQL Follow? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How to Cope Without COMMIT/ROLLBACK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How to Make MySQL Secure Against Crackers . . . . . . . . . .
Startup Options for mysqld Concerning Security . . . . . . . . .
What the Privilege System Does . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MySQL User Names and Passwords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connecting to the MySQL Server. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Keeping Your Password Secure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Privileges Provided by MySQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How the Privilege System Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Access Control, Stage 1: Connection Verification . . . . . . .
Access Control, Stage 2: Request Verification . . . . . . . . . .
When Privilege Changes Take Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Up the Initial MySQL Privileges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding New Users to MySQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Up Passwords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Causes of Access denied Errors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
141
143
145
146
146
147
148
149
151
154
156
159
159
161
163
164
MySQL Language Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
7.1
7.2
7.3
Literals: How to Write Strings and Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
7.1.1 Strings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
7.1.2 Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
7.1.3 Hexadecimal Values. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
7.1.4 NULL Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
7.1.5 Database, Table, Index, Column, and Alias Names
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
7.1.5.1 Case Sensitivity in Names . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
User Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
Column Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
7.3.1 Column Type Storage Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . 178
7.3.2
7.3.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
7.10
7.11
7.12
7.13
7.14
7.15
7.16
7.17
7.18
7.19
7.20
Numeric Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
Date and Time Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
7.3.3.1 Y2K Issues and Date Types. . . . . . . . . . . 183
7.3.3.2 The DATETIME, DATE, and TIMESTAMP Types
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
7.3.3.3 The TIME Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
7.3.3.4 The YEAR Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
7.3.4 String Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
7.3.4.1 The CHAR and VARCHAR Types . . . . . . . . . 188
7.3.4.2 The BLOB and TEXT Types . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
7.3.4.3 The ENUM Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
7.3.4.4 The SET Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
7.3.5 Choosing the Right Type for a Column. . . . . . . . . 192
7.3.6 Column Indexes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
7.3.7 Multiple-column Indexes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
7.3.8 Using Column Types from Other Database Engines
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
Functions for Use in SELECT and WHERE Clauses . . . . . . . . . 194
7.4.1 Grouping Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
7.4.2 Normal Arithmetic Operations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
7.4.3 Bit Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
7.4.4 Logical Operations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
7.4.5 Comparison Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
7.4.6 String Comparison Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
7.4.7 Cast Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
7.4.8 Control Flow Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
7.4.9 Mathematical Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
7.4.10 String Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
7.4.11 Date and Time Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
7.4.12 Miscellaneous Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
7.4.13 Functions for Use with GROUP BY Clauses . . . . . . 227
CREATE DATABASE Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
DROP DATABASE Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
CREATE TABLE Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
7.7.1 Silent Column Specification Changes . . . . . . . . . . . 236
ALTER TABLE Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
RENAME TABLE Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
DROP TABLE Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
OPTIMIZE TABLE Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
CHECK TABLE Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
BACKUP TABLE Syntax. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
RESTORE TABLE Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
ANALYZE TABLE Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
REPAIR TABLE Syntax. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
DELETE Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
TRUNCATE Syntax. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
SELECT Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
JOIN Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
7.21 INSERT Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.21.1 INSERT ... SELECT Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.21.2 INSERT DELAYED syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.22 REPLACE Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.23 LOAD DATA INFILE Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.24 UPDATE Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.25 USE Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.26 FLUSH Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.27 KILL Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.28 SHOW Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.28.1 SHOW Information About Databases, Tables,
Columns, and Indexes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.28.2 SHOW TABLE STATUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.28.3 SHOW STATUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.28.4 SHOW VARIABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.28.5 SHOW LOGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.28.6 SHOW PROCESSLIST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.28.7 SHOW GRANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.28.8 SHOW CREATE TABLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.29 EXPLAIN Syntax (Get Information About a SELECT) . . . . .
7.30 DESCRIBE Syntax (Get Information About Columns) . . . .
7.31 BEGIN/COMMIT/ROLLBACK Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.32 LOCK TABLES/UNLOCK TABLES Syntax. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.33 SET Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.34 SET TRANSACTION Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.35 GRANT and REVOKE Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.36 CREATE INDEX Syntax. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.37 DROP INDEX Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.38 Comment Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.39 CREATE FUNCTION/DROP FUNCTION Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.40 Is MySQL Picky About Reserved Words? . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8
251
252
253
255
255
261
262
262
263
264
264
265
266
270
279
279
279
280
280
285
285
286
287
290
290
293
294
294
295
295
MySQL Table Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
MyISAM Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
8.1.1 Space Needed for Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
8.1.2 MyISAM Table Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
8.1.2.1 Static (Fixed-length) Table Characteristics
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
8.1.2.2 Dynamic Table Characteristics . . . . . . . . 302
8.1.2.3 Compressed Table Characteristics . . . . . 303
8.1.3 MyISAM table problems.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
8.1.3.1 Corrupted MyISAM tables. . . . . . . . . . . . 304
8.1.3.2 Clients is using or hasn’t closed the table
properly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
MERGE Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
ISAM Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
HEAP Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
BDB or Berkeley DB Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
8.5.1 Overview of BDB Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
8.5.2 Installing BDB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
8.5.3 BDB startup options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
8.5.4 Some characteristic of BDB tables: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
8.5.5 Some things we need to fix for BDB in the near
future: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
8.5.6 Operating systems supported by BDB . . . . . . . . . . 312
8.5.7 Errors You May Get When Using BDB Tables . . 313
8.6 GEMINI Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
8.6.1 GEMINI Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
8.6.1.1 GEMINI Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
8.6.1.2 GEMINI Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
8.6.1.3 GEMINI Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
8.6.2 Using GEMINI Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
8.6.2.1 Startup Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
8.6.2.2 Creating GEMINI Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
8.6.2.3 Backing Up GEMINI Tables . . . . . . . . . . 320
8.6.2.4 Restoring GEMINI Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
8.6.2.5 Using Auto Increment Columns With
GEMINI Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
8.6.2.6 Performance Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . 322
8.6.2.7 Sample Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
8.6.2.8 When To Use GEMINI Tables . . . . . . . . 323
8.7 InnoDB Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
8.7.1 InnoDB tables overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
8.7.2 InnoDB startup options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
8.7.3 Creating InnoDB table space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
8.7.3.1 If something goes wrong in database
creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
8.7.4 Creating InnoDB tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
8.7.4.1 Converting MyISAM tables to InnoDB
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
8.7.5 Adding and removing InnoDB data and log files
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
8.7.6 Backing up and recovering an InnoDB database
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
8.7.6.1 Checkpoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
8.7.7 Moving an InnoDB database to another machine
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
8.7.8 InnoDB transaction model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
8.7.8.1 Consistent read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
8.7.8.2 Locking reads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
8.7.8.3 Next-key locking: avoiding the phantom
problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
8.7.8.4 Locks set by different SQL statements in
InnoDB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
8.7.8.5 Deadlock detection and rollback . . . . . . . 335
8.7.9 Performance tuning tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
8.7.10
8.7.11
8.7.12
8.7.13
8.7.14
8.7.15
9
Implementation of multiversioning . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
Table and index structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
8.7.11.1 Physical structure of an index . . . . . . . . 338
8.7.11.2 Insert buffering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
8.7.11.3 Adaptive hash indexes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
8.7.11.4 Physical record structure . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
8.7.11.5 How an auto-increment column works in
InnoDB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
File space management and disk i/o . . . . . . . . . . 340
8.7.12.1 Disk i/o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
8.7.12.2 File space management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
8.7.12.3 Defragmenting a table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
Error handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
Some restrictions on InnoDB tables . . . . . . . . . . . 342
InnoDB contact information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
MySQL Tutorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
9.1 Connecting to and Disconnecting from the Server . . . . . . . . 344
9.2 Entering Queries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
9.3 Creating and Using a Database. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
9.3.1 Creating and Selecting a Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
9.3.2 Creating a Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
9.3.3 Loading Data into a Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
9.3.4 Retrieving Information from a Table . . . . . . . . . . . 352
9.3.4.1 Selecting All Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
9.3.4.2 Selecting Particular Rows . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
9.3.4.3 Selecting Particular Columns . . . . . . . . . 354
9.3.4.4 Sorting Rows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
9.3.4.5 Date Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
9.3.4.6 Working with NULL Values . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
9.3.4.7 Pattern Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
9.3.4.8 Counting Rows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
9.3.4.9 Using More Than one Table . . . . . . . . . . 365
9.4 Getting Information About Databases and Tables . . . . . . . 367
9.5 Examples of Common Queries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
9.5.1 The Maximum Value for a Column . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
9.5.2 The Row Holding the Maximum of a Certain
Column . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
9.5.3 Maximum of Column per Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
9.5.4 The Rows Holding the Group-wise Maximum of a
Certain Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
9.5.5 Using user variables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
9.5.6 Using Foreign Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
9.5.7 Searching on Two Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
9.6 Using mysql in Batch Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
9.7 Queries from Twin Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
9.7.1 Find all Non-distributed Twins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
9.7.2 Show a Table on Twin Pair Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
10
MySQL Server Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
10.1
10.2
11
379
379
380
382
382
382
383
Replication in MySQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
11.6
11.7
11.8
12
What Languages Are Supported by MySQL? . . . . . . . . . . .
10.1.1 The Character Set Used for Data and Sorting . .
10.1.2 Adding a New Character Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.1.3 The character definition arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.1.4 String Collating Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.1.5 Multi-byte Character Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How Big MySQL Tables Can Be . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Replication Implementation Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HOWTO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Replication Features and known problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Replication Options in my.cnf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SQL Commands Related to Replication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Replication FAQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting Replication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
384
384
385
386
388
391
393
396
MySQL Full-text Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399
12.1
12.2
Fine-tuning MySQL Full-text Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
New Features of Full-text Search to Appear in MySQL 4.0
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
12.3 Full-text Search TODO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402
13
Getting Maximum Performance from MySQL
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403
13.1
13.2
13.3
13.4
13.5
Optimization Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403
System/Compile Time and Startup Parameter Tuning . . 403
13.2.1 How Compiling and Linking Affects the Speed of
MySQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404
13.2.2 Disk Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
13.2.3 Using Symbolic Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407
13.2.3.1 Using Symbolic Links for Databases . . 407
13.2.3.2 Using Symbolic Links for Tables . . . . . 407
13.2.4 Tuning Server Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408
13.2.5 How MySQL Opens and Closes Tables . . . . . . . . 410
13.2.6 Drawbacks to Creating Large Numbers of Tables in
the Same Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
13.2.7 Why So Many Open tables? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
13.2.8 How MySQL Uses Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
13.2.9 How MySQL Locks Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413
13.2.10 Table Locking Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414
13.2.11 How MySQL uses DNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415
Get Your Data as Small as Possible. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416
How MySQL Uses Indexes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416
Speed of Queries that Access or Update Data . . . . . . . . . . 419
13.5.1 Estimating Query Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419
13.5.2 Speed of SELECT Queries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
13.5.3 How MySQL Optimizes WHERE Clauses . . . . . . . . 420
13.5.4 How MySQL Optimizes DISTINCT . . . . . . . . . . . . 422
13.5.5 How MySQL Optimizes LEFT JOIN and RIGHT JOIN
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422
13.5.6 How MySQL Optimizes LIMIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423
13.5.7 Speed of INSERT Queries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423
13.5.8 Speed of UPDATE Queries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425
13.5.9 Speed of DELETE Queries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425
13.6 Other Optimization Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426
13.7 Using Your Own Benchmarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428
13.8 Design Choices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429
13.9 MySQL Design Limitations/Tradeoffs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429
13.10 Portability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430
13.11 What Have We Used MySQL For? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431
14
The MySQL Benchmark Suite . . . . . . . . . . . 433
15
MySQL Utilites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435
15.1 Overview of the Different MySQL Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . 435
15.2 mysqld-max, An extended mysqld server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436
15.3 safe mysqld, the wrapper around mysqld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438
15.4 mysqld multi, program for managing multiple MySQL
servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439
15.5 The Command-line Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443
15.6 Administering a MySQL Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448
15.7 Dumping the Structure and Data from MySQL Databases
and Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449
15.8 Copying MySQL Databases and Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453
15.9 Importing Data from Text Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454
15.10 Converting an error code to the corresponding error
message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456
15.11 Showing Databases, Tables, and Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457
15.12 The MySQL Compressed Read-only Table Generator . . 457
16
Maintaining a MySQL Installation . . . . . . . 465
16.1
Using myisamchk for Table Maintenance and Crash Recovery
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465
16.1.1 myisamchk Invocation Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465
16.1.1.1 General Options for myisamchk . . . . . . 466
16.1.1.2 Check Options for myisamchk . . . . . . . . 467
16.1.1.3 Repair Options for myisamchk . . . . . . . 468
16.1.1.4 Other Options for myisamchk . . . . . . . . 469
16.1.2 myisamchk Memory Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470
16.2 Using mysqlcheck for Table Maintenance and Crash
Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471
16.3 Setting Up a Table Maintenance Regimen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473
16.4 Getting Information About a Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474
16.5 Using myisamchk for Crash Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480
16.5.1 How to Check Tables for Errors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481
16.5.2 How to Repair Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482
16.5.3 Table Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484
16.6 Log file Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485
17
Adding New Functions to MySQL . . . . . . . 486
17.1
17.2
18
Adding New Procedures to MySQL. . . . . . 494
18.1
18.2
19
Adding a New User-definable Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 486
17.1.1 UDF Calling Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487
17.1.2 Argument Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488
17.1.3 Return Values and Error Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . 490
17.1.4 Compiling and Installing User-definable Functions
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490
Adding a New Native Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492
Procedure Analyse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494
Writing a Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494
MySQL ODBC Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495
19.1
19.2
How To Install MyODBC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How to Fill in the Various Fields in the ODBC
Administrator Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.3 Connect parameters for MyODBC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.4 How to Report Problems with MyODBC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.5 Programs Known to Work with MyODBC . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.6 How to Get the Value of an AUTO_INCREMENT Column in
ODBC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.7 Reporting Problems with MyODBC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20
495
496
497
498
498
503
503
Using MySQL with Some Common Programs
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505
20.1
20.2
Using MySQL with Apache . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505
Borland C++ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505
21
Problems and Common Errors . . . . . . . . . . 506
21.1
21.2
21.3
How to Determine What Is Causing Problems . . . . . . . . . .
What to Do if MySQL Keeps Crashing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Problems When Linking with the MySQL Client Library
......................................................
21.4 Some Common Errors When Using MySQL . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.4.1 Access denied Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.4.2 MySQL server has gone away Error . . . . . . . . . . .
21.4.3 Can’t connect to [local] MySQL server error
...............................................
21.4.4 Host ’...’ is blocked Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.4.5 Too many connections Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.4.6 Some non-transactional changed tables
couldn’t be rolled back Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.4.7 Out of memory Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.4.8 Packet too large Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.4.9 Communication Errors / Aborted Connection . .
21.4.10 The table is full Error. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.4.11 Can’t create/write to file Error . . . . . . . . . .
21.4.12 Commands out of sync Error in Client . . . . . . .
21.4.13 Ignoring user Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.4.14 Table ’xxx’ doesn’t exist Error . . . . . . . . . . .
21.4.15 Cant́ initialize character set xxx error. . .
21.5 How MySQL Handles a Full Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.6 How to Run SQL Commands from a Text File . . . . . . . . .
21.7 Where MySQL Stores Temporary Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.8 How to Protect ‘/tmp/mysql.sock’ from Being Deleted . .
21.9 How to Run MySQL As a Normal User . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.10 How to Reset a Forgotten Password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.11 Problems with File Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.12 File Not Found . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.13 Problems Using DATE Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.14 Time Zone Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.15 Case Sensitivity in Searches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.16 Problems with NULL Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.17 Problems with alias . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.18 Deleting Rows from Related Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.19 Solving Problems with No Matching Rows . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.20 Problems with ALTER TABLE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.21 How To Change the Order of Columns in a Table . . . . . .
21.22 TEMPORARY TABLE problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22
506
507
509
510
510
511
511
513
513
514
514
515
515
516
516
516
516
517
517
518
518
519
519
519
520
521
521
522
523
523
524
524
525
525
526
526
527
Solving Some Common Problems with
MySQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528
22.1
22.2
22.3
Database Replication with Update Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528
Database Backups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528
Running Multiple MySQL Servers on the Same Machine
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 530
23
The MySQL log files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532
23.1
23.2
23.3
23.4
23.5
24
The
The
The
The
The
Error Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Query Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Update Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Binary Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Slow Query Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
532
532
533
533
535
MySQL APIs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536
24.1
MySQL
24.1.1
24.1.2
24.1.3
C API . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C API Datatypes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C API Function Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C API Function Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.1.3.1 mysql_affected_rows() . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.1.3.2 mysql_close() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.1.3.3 mysql_connect() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.1.3.4 mysql_change_user() . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.1.3.5 mysql_character_set_name(). . . . . . .
24.1.3.6 mysql_create_db() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.1.3.7 mysql_data_seek() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.1.3.8 mysql_debug() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.1.3.9 mysql_drop_db() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.1.3.10 mysql_dump_debug_info() . . . . . . . . .
24.1.3.11 mysql_eof() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.1.3.12 mysql_errno() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.1.3.13 mysql_error() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.1.3.14 mysql_escape_string() . . . . . . . . . . .
24.1.3.15 mysql_fetch_field() . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.1.3.16 mysql_fetch_fields() . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.1.3.17 mysql_fetch_field_direct() . . . . .
24.1.3.18 mysql_fetch_lengths() . . . . . . . . . . .
24.1.3.19 mysql_fetch_row() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.1.3.20 mysql_field_count() . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.1.3.21 mysql_field_seek() . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.1.3.22 mysql_field_tell() . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.1.3.23 mysql_free_result() . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.1.3.24 mysql_get_client_info() . . . . . . . . .
24.1.3.25 mysql_get_host_info() . . . . . . . . . . .
24.1.3.26 mysql_get_proto_info() . . . . . . . . . .
24.1.3.27 mysql_get_server_info() . . . . . . . . .
24.1.3.28 mysql_info() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.1.3.29 mysql_init() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.1.3.30 mysql_insert_id() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.1.3.31 mysql_kill() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.1.3.32 mysql_list_dbs(). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.1.3.33 mysql_list_fields() . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.1.3.34 mysql_list_processes() . . . . . . . . . .
24.1.3.35 mysql_list_tables() . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.1.3.36 mysql_num_fields() . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
536
536
539
543
543
544
545
545
546
547
547
548
548
549
550
551
552
552
552
553
554
555
555
557
558
558
559
559
559
560
560
560
561
562
562
563
564
564
565
566
24.2
24.3
24.4
24.5
24.6
24.7
24.8
24.1.3.37 mysql_num_rows(). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 567
24.1.3.38 mysql_options() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 567
24.1.3.39 mysql_ping() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 569
24.1.3.40 mysql_query() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 570
24.1.3.41 mysql_real_connect() . . . . . . . . . . . . 570
24.1.3.42 mysql_real_escape_string() . . . . . 573
24.1.3.43 mysql_real_query() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 574
24.1.3.44 mysql_reload() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575
24.1.3.45 mysql_row_seek(). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575
24.1.3.46 mysql_row_tell(). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 576
24.1.3.47 mysql_select_db() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 576
24.1.3.48 mysql_shutdown(). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 577
24.1.3.49 mysql_stat() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 578
24.1.3.50 mysql_store_result() . . . . . . . . . . . . 578
24.1.3.51 mysql_thread_id() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 579
24.1.3.52 mysql_use_result() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 580
24.1.4 Common questions and problems when using the C
API . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 581
24.1.4.1 Why Is It that After mysql_query()
Returns Success, mysql_store_result()
Sometimes Returns NULL? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 581
24.1.4.2 What Results Can I Get From a Query?
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 581
24.1.4.3 How Can I Get the Unique ID for the Last
Inserted Row? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 582
24.1.4.4 Problems Linking with the C API . . . . 582
24.1.5 How to Make a Thread-safe Client . . . . . . . . . . . . 583
MySQL Perl API . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 584
24.2.1 DBI with DBD::mysql . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 584
24.2.2 The DBI Interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 584
24.2.3 More DBI/DBD Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 590
MySQL Eiffel wrapper. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 590
MySQL Java Connectivity (JDBC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 591
MySQL PHP API . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 591
24.5.1 Common Problems with MySQL and PHP . . . . 591
MySQL C++ APIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 591
MySQL Python APIs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 591
MySQL Tcl APIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 592
25
How MySQL Compares to Other Databases
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 593
25.1
25.2
26
How MySQL Compares to mSQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 593
25.1.1 How to Convert mSQL Tools for MySQL . . . . . . . 596
25.1.2 How mSQL and MySQL Client/Server
Communications Protocols Differ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 596
25.1.3 How mSQL 2.0 SQL Syntax Differs from MySQL
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 597
How MySQL Compares to PostgreSQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 599
25.2.1 MySQL and PostgreSQL development strategies
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 599
25.2.2 Featurevise Comparison of MySQL and PostgreSQL
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 600
25.2.3 Benchmarking MySQL and PostgreSQL . . . . . . . 603
MySQL Internals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 607
26.1
26.2
MySQL
MySQL
26.2.1
26.2.2
26.2.3
Threads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Test Suite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Running the MySQL Test Suite . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Extending the MySQL Test Suite . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reporting bugs in the MySQL Test Suite . . . . . .
607
607
608
608
609
Appendix A
Environment Variables . . . . . . . . 611
Appendix B
Some MySQL Users . . . . . . . . . . . 612
B.1
B.2
B.3
General News Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Some Web Search Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Some Information Search Engines Concentrated on Some
Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B.4 Online Magazines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B.5 Web Sites that Use MySQL as a Backend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B.6 Some Domain/Internet/Web and Related Services . . . . . . .
B.7 Web Sites that Use PHP and MySQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B.8 Some MySQL Consultants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B.9 Programming. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B.10 Uncategorized Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix C
612
612
612
613
613
614
614
615
615
615
MySQL customer usage. . . . . . . . 618
Appendix D
D.1
D.2
D.3
D.4
D.5
D.6
D.7
D.8
D.9
D.10
D.11
D.12
Contributed Programs . . . . . . . . . 619
APIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Web Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Performance Benchmarking Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Authentication Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Converters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using MySQL with Other Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Useful Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RPMs for Common Tools (Most Are for RedHat 6.1) . . . .
Useful Functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Windows programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Uncategorized . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix E
619
622
626
627
627
628
629
630
631
631
631
631
Credits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 632
E.0.1 Developers at MySQL AB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 632
E.0.2 Contributors to MySQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 634
E.0.3 Supporters to MySQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 639
Appendix F
F.1
F.2
MySQL change history . . . . . . . . 641
Changes
F.1.1
Changes
F.2.1
F.2.2
F.2.3
F.2.4
F.2.5
F.2.6
F.2.7
F.2.8
F.2.9
F.2.10
F.2.11
F.2.12
F.2.13
F.2.14
F.2.15
F.2.16
F.2.17
F.2.18
F.2.19
F.2.20
F.2.21
F.2.22
F.2.23
F.2.24
in release 4.0.x (Development; Alpha) . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 4.0.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
in release 3.23.x (Stable) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.23.39 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.23.38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.23.37 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.23.36 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.23.35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.23.34a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.23.34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.23.33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.23.32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.23.31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.23.30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.23.29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.23.28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.23.27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.23.26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.23.25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.23.24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.23.23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.23.22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.23.21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.23.20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.23.19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.23.18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.23.17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
641
641
641
642
642
643
644
645
645
645
646
647
648
648
649
651
653
653
654
655
655
657
657
658
658
659
659
F.3
F.2.25
F.2.26
F.2.27
F.2.28
F.2.29
F.2.30
F.2.31
F.2.32
F.2.33
F.2.34
F.2.35
F.2.36
F.2.37
F.2.38
F.2.39
F.2.40
F.2.41
Changes
F.3.1
F.3.2
F.3.3
F.3.4
F.3.5
F.3.6
F.3.7
F.3.8
F.3.9
F.3.10
F.3.11
F.3.12
F.3.13
F.3.14
F.3.15
F.3.16
F.3.17
F.3.18
F.3.19
F.3.20
F.3.21
F.3.22
F.3.23
F.3.24
F.3.25
F.3.26
F.3.27
F.3.28
F.3.29
F.3.30
Changes in release 3.23.16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.23.15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.23.14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.23.13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.23.12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.23.11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.23.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.23.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.23.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.23.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.23.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.23.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.23.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.23.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.23.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.23.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.23.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
in release 3.22.x (Older; Still supported). . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.22.35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.22.34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.22.33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.22.32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.22.31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.22.30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.22.29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.22.28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.22.27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.22.26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.22.25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.22.24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.22.23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.22.22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.22.21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.22.20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.22.19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.22.18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.22.17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.22.16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.22.15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.22.14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.22.13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.22.12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.22.11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.22.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.22.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.22.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.22.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.22.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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F.4
F.5
F.3.31
F.3.32
F.3.33
F.3.34
F.3.35
F.3.36
Changes
F.4.1
F.4.2
F.4.3
F.4.4
F.4.5
F.4.6
F.4.7
F.4.8
F.4.9
F.4.10
F.4.11
F.4.12
F.4.13
F.4.14
F.4.15
F.4.16
F.4.17
F.4.18
F.4.19
F.4.20
F.4.21
F.4.22
F.4.23
F.4.24
F.4.25
F.4.26
F.4.27
F.4.28
F.4.29
F.4.30
F.4.31
F.4.32
F.4.33
F.4.34
F.4.35
Changes
F.5.1
F.5.2
F.5.3
F.5.4
F.5.5
Changes in release 3.22.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.22.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.22.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.22.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.22.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.22.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
in release 3.21.x . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.21.33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.21.32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.21.31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.21.30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.21.29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.21.28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.21.27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.21.26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.21.25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.21.24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.21.23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.21.22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.21.21a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.21.21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.21.20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.21.19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.21.18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.21.17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.21.16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.21.15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.21.14b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.21.14a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.21.13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.21.12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.21.11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.21.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.21.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.21.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.21.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.21.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.21.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.21.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.21.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.21.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.21.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
in release 3.20.x . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.20.18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.20.17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.20.16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.20.15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.20.14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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695
695
696
697
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698
698
698
698
699
699
700
701
701
702
703
703
704
F.6
F.5.6
F.5.7
F.5.8
F.5.9
F.5.10
F.5.11
F.5.12
F.5.13
F.5.14
Changes
F.6.1
F.6.2
F.6.3
Changes in release 3.20.13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.20.11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.20.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.20.9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.20.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.20.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.20.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.20.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.20.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
in release 3.19.x . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.19.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.19.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in release 3.19.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
704
705
705
705
705
706
706
707
708
708
709
709
709
Appendix G Known errors and design
deficiencies in MySQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 710
Appendix H MySQL and the future (The
TODO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 713
H.1
H.2
H.3
H.4
Things that should be in 4.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Things that must be done in the real near future . . . . . . . .
Things that have to be done sometime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Some things we don’t have any plans to do . . . . . . . . . . . . .
713
714
718
719
Appendix I Comments on porting to other
systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 720
I.1
I.2
I.3
I.4
I.5
I.6
Debugging a MySQL server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I.1.1 Compiling MYSQL for debugging.. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I.1.2 Creating trace files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I.1.3 Debugging mysqld under gdb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I.1.4 Using a stack trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I.1.5 Using log files to find cause of errors in mysqld . .
I.1.6 Making a test case when you experience table
corruption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Debugging a MySQL client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The DBUG package. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Locking methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Comments about RTS threads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Differences between different thread packages . . . . . . . . . . . .
721
721
722
722
723
724
725
726
726
728
729
731
Appendix J Description of MySQL regular
expression syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 733
Appendix K
What is Unireg? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 736
Appendix L
GNU General Public License . . . 737
Appendix M GNU Library General Public
License . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 745
SQL command, type and function index . . . . . . 756
Concept Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 764
1
Chapter 1: General Information About MySQL
1 General Information About MySQL
This is the MySQL reference manual; it documents MySQL Version 3.23.39. As MySQL is
work in progress, the manual gets updated frequently. There is a very good chance that this
version is out of date, unless you are looking at it online. The most recent version of this
manual is available at http://www.mysql.com/documentation/ in many different formats.
If you have a hard time finding information in the manual, you can try the searchable PHP
version at http://www.mysql.com/documentation/manual.php.
MySQL is a very fast, multi-threaded, multi-user, and robust SQL (Structured Query Language) database server.
MySQL is free software. It is licensed with the GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
http://www.gnu.org/. See Chapter 3 [Licensing and Support], page 37.
The MySQL home page (http://www.mysql.com/) provides the latest information about
MySQL.
The following list describes some useful sections of the manual:
• For information about the company behind MySQL, see Section 1.2 [What is MySQL
AB], page 3.
• For a discussion of MySQL’s capabilities, see Section 1.6 [Features], page 12.
• For installation instructions, see Chapter 4 [Installing], page 47.
• For tips on porting MySQL to new architectures or operating systems, see Appendix I
[Porting], page 720.
• For information about upgrading from a Version 3.22 release, see Section 4.18.1
[Upgrading-from-3.22], page 125.
• For a tutorial introduction to MySQL, see Chapter 9 [Tutorial], page 344.
• For examples of SQL and benchmarking information, see the benchmarking directory
(‘sql-bench’ in the distribution).
• For a history of new features and bug fixes, see Appendix F [News], page 641.
• For a list of currently known bugs and misfeatures, see Appendix G [Bugs], page 710.
• For future plans, see Appendix H [TODO], page 713.
• For a list of all the contributors to this project, see Appendix E [Credits], page 632.
IMPORTANT:
Reports of errors (often called bugs), as well as questions and comments, should be sent
to the mailing list at [email protected] See Section 2.3 [Bug reports], page 31.
The mysqlbug script should be used to generate bug reports. For source distributions, the
mysqlbug script can be found in the ‘scripts’ directory. For binary distributions, mysqlbug
can be found in the ‘bin’ directory. If you have found a sensitive security bug in MySQL,
you should send an email to [email protected]
If you have any suggestions concerning additions or corrections to this manual, please send
them to the manual team at [email protected]
Version: 3.23.39 Printed: 13 June 2001
2
Chapter 1: General Information About MySQL
This is a reference manual; it does not provide general instruction on SQL or relational
database concepts. If you want general information about SQL, see Section 1.9 [GeneralSQL], page 18. For books that focus more specifically on MySQL, see Section 1.5 [MySQLBooks], page 6.
1.1 What Is MySQL
MySQL, the most popular Open Source SQL database, is provided by MySQL AB. MySQL
AB is a commercial company that builds its business providing services around the MySQL
database. See Section 1.2 [What is MySQL AB], page 3.
MySQL is a database management system.
A database is a structured collection of data. It may be anything from a simple shopping list to a picture gallery or the vast amounts of information in
a corporate network. To add, access, and process data stored in a computer
database, you need a database management system such as MySQL. Since computers are very good at handling large amounts of data, database management
plays a central role in computing, as stand-alone utilities, or as parts of other
applications.
MySQL is a relational database management system.
A relational database stores data in separate tables rather than putting all the
data in one big storeroom. This adds speed and flexibility. The tables are linked
by defined relations making it possible to combine data from several tables on
request. The SQL part of MySQL stands for "Structured Query Language" the most common standardized language used to access databases.
MySQL is Open Source Software.
Open Source means that it is possible for anyone to use and modify. Anybody
can download MySQL from the Internet and use it without paying anything.
Anybody so inclined can study the source code and change it to fit their needs.
MySQL uses the GPL (GNU General Public License) http://www.gnu.org,
to define what you may and may not do with the software in different situations. If you feel uncomfortable with the GPL or need to embed MySQL into
a commercial application you can buy a commercially licensed version from us.
Why use MySQL?
MySQL is very fast, reliable, and easy to use. If that is what you are looking
for, you should give it a try. MySQL also has a very practical set of features
developed in very close cooperation with our users. You can find a performance
comparison of MySQL to some other database managers on our benchmark
page. See Section 13.7 [Benchmarks], page 428.
MySQL was originally developed to handle very large databases much faster
than existing solutions and has been successfully used in highly demanding production environments for several years. Though under constant development,
MySQL today offers a rich and very useful set of functions. The connectivity,
Version: 3.23.39 Printed: 13 June 2001
3
Chapter 1: General Information About MySQL
speed, and security make MySQL highly suited for accessing databases on the
Internet.
The technical features of MySQL
For advanced technical information, see Chapter 7 [Reference], page 169.
MySQL is a client/server system that consists of a multi-threaded SQL server
that supports different backends, several different client programs and libraries,
administrative tools, and several programming interfaces.
We also provide MySQL as a multi-threaded library which you can link into
your application to get a smaller, faster, easier to manage product.
MySQL has a lot of contributed software available.
It is very likely that you will find that your favorite application or language
already supports MySQL.
The official way to pronounce MySQL is “My Ess Que Ell” (not MY-SEQUEL). But we try
to avoid correcting people who say MY-SEQUEL.
1.2 What Is MySQL AB
MySQL AB is the Swedish company owned and run by the MySQL founders and main
developers. We are dedicated to developing MySQL and spreading our database to new
users. MySQL AB owns the copyright to the MySQL server source code and the MySQL
trademark. A significant amount of revenues from our services goes to developing MySQL.
See Section 1.1 [What-is], page 2.
MySQL AB has been profitable providing MySQL from the start. We don’t get any outside
funding, but have earned all our money ourselves.
We are searching after partners that would like to support our development of MySQL so
that we could accelerate the development pace. If you are interested in doing this, you can
email [email protected] about this!
MySQL AB has currently 20+ people on its payroll and is growing rapidly. http://www.mysql.com/develop
Our main sources of income are:
• Commercial high quality support for MySQL provided by the MySQL developers
themselves. If you are interested in purchasing a support contract, please visit
https://order.mysql.com/ to view our support options or to order support.
• Consulting services. We have developers and consultants in 12 countries and partners in many other countries that can help you with almost any MySQL related issues. If you need consulting services, please email a good description of your needs to
[email protected]! If we can’t handle this ourselves we can usually find a partner or a
developer that can help you with your problems.
• We sell licenses for using MySQL as an embedded database. See Section 3.4 [Cost],
page 40. If you have a commercial product for which you need a fast, high quality
database, but you can’t afford to make your product Open Source, you can buy the right
to use the MySQL server under a normal commercial copyright. If you are interested
Version: 3.23.39 Printed: 13 June 2001
4
Chapter 1: General Information About MySQL
in this you can buy MySQL licenses at https://order.mysql.com/ or contact us at
[email protected]
• Advertising. http://www.mysql.com/ is a very popular web site with more than
10,000,000 page views per months (January 2001). By putting a banner on this you
are guaranteed to reach a lot of potential customers in the Open source, Linux and
database community. If you are interested in this email [email protected]
• We are building a partner program to be able to provide MySQL services in every
country. If you are interested in becoming a partner of MySQL AB please visit
http://www.mysql.com/information/partners.html or email [email protected]
• We provide MySQL training through our partner programs. For more information,
please email [email protected]
• The MySQL brand has, since 1995, been associated with speed and reliability, and is
known to be something you can depend upon. If you are interested in using the MySQL
trademark in your marketing, you can email [email protected] about this.
The MySQL core values show our dedication to MySQL and Open Source.
We want MySQL to be:
• The best and the most used database in the world.
• Available and affordable for all.
• Easy to use.
• Continuously improved while remaining fast and safe.
• Fun to use and improve.
• Free from bugs.
MySQL AB and the people of MySQL AB:
• Promote Open Source Philosophy and support the Open Source Community.
• Aim to be good citizens.
• Prefer partners that share our values and mind-set.
• Answer mail and give support.
• Are a virtual company, networking with others.
• Work against software patents.
1.3 About This Manual
This manual is currently available in Texinfo, plain text, Info, HTML, PostScript, and
PDF versions. The primary document is the Texinfo file. The HTML version is produced
automatically using a modified version of texi2html. The plain text and Info versions are
produced with makeinfo. The Postscript version is produced using texi2dvi and dvips.
The PDF version is produced with pdftex.
This manual is written and maintained by David Axmark, Michael (Monty) Widenius,
Jeremy Cole, and Paul DuBois. For other contributors, see Appendix E [Credits], page 632.
Version: 3.23.39 Printed: 13 June 2001
5
Chapter 1: General Information About MySQL
1.3.1 Conventions Used in This Manual
This manual uses certain typographical conventions:
constant
Constant-width font is used for command names and options; SQL statements;
database, table and column names; C and Perl code; and environment variables.
Example: “To see how mysqladmin works, invoke it with the --help option.”
‘filename’
Constant-width font with surrounding quotes is used for filenames and pathnames. Example: “The distribution is installed under the ‘/usr/local/’ directory.”
‘c’
Constant-width font with surrounding quotes is also used to indicate character
sequences. Example: “To specify a wild card, use the ‘%’ character.”
italic
Italic font is used for emphasis, like this.
boldface
Boldface font is used for access privilege names (for example, “do not grant the
process privilege lightly”) and occasionally to convey especially strong emphasis.
When commands are shown that are meant to be executed by a particular program, the
program is indicated by a prompt shown before the command. For example, shell> indicates a command that you execute from your login shell, and mysql> indicates a command
that you execute from the mysql client program:
shell> type a shell command here
mysql> type a mysql command here
Shell commands are shown using Bourne shell syntax. If you are using a csh-style shell,
you may need to issue commands slightly differently. For example, the sequence to set an
environment variable and run a command looks like this in Bourne shell syntax:
shell> VARNAME=value some_command
For csh, you would execute the sequence like this:
shell> setenv VARNAME value
shell> some_command
Often, database, table, and column names must be substituted into commands. To indicate
that such substitution is necessary, this manual uses db_name, tbl_name and col_name.
For example, you might see a statement like this:
mysql> SELECT col_name FROM db_name.tbl_name;
This means that if you were to enter a similar statement, you would supply your own
database, table, and column names, perhaps like this:
mysql> SELECT author_name FROM biblio_db.author_list;
SQL statements may be written in uppercase or lowercase. When this manual shows a SQL
statement, uppercase is used for particular keywords if those keywords are under discussion
(to emphasize them) and lowercase is used for the rest of the statement. For example, you
might see the following in a discussion of the SELECT statement:
Version: 3.23.39 Printed: 13 June 2001
6
Chapter 1: General Information About MySQL
mysql> SELECT count(*) FROM tbl_name;
On the other hand, in a discussion of the COUNT() function, the same statement would be
written like this:
mysql> select COUNT(*) from tbl_name;
If no particular emphasis is intended, all keywords are written uniformly in uppercase.
In syntax descriptions, square brackets (‘[’ and ‘]’) are used to indicate optional words or
clauses:
DROP TABLE [IF EXISTS] tbl_name
When a syntax element consists of a number of alternatives, the alternatives are separated by
vertical bars (‘|’). When one member from a set of choices may be chosen, the alternatives
are listed within square brackets (‘[’ and ‘]’):
TRIM([[BOTH | LEADING | TRAILING] [remstr] FROM] str)
When one member from a set of choices must be chosen, the alternatives are listed within
braces (‘{’ and ‘}’):
{DESCRIBE | DESC} tbl_name {col_name | wild}
1.4 History of MySQL
We once started out with the intention of using mSQL to connect to our tables using our
own fast low-level (ISAM) routines. However, after some testing we came to the conclusion
that mSQL was not fast enough nor flexible enough for our needs. This resulted in a new
SQL interface to our database but with almost the same API interface as mSQL. This API
was chosen to ease porting of third-party code.
The derivation of the name MySQL is not perfectly clear. Our base directory and a large
number of our libraries and tools have had the prefix “my” for well over 10 years. However,
Monty’s daughter (some years younger) is also named My. Which of the two gave its name
to MySQL is still a mystery, even for us.
1.5 Books About MySQL
While this manual is still the right place for up to date technical information, its primary
goal is to contain everything there is to know about MySQL. It is sometimes nice to have
a bound book to read in bed or while you travel. Here is a list of books about MySQL and
related subjects (in English).
By purchasing a book through these hyperlinks provided herein, you are contributing to
the development of MySQL.
MySQL
Available
Publisher
Author
Barnes and Noble (http://service.bfast.com/bfast/click?bfmid=2181&
New Riders
Paul DuBois
Version: 3.23.39 Printed: 13 June 2001
7
Chapter 1: General Information About MySQL
Pub Date
ISBN
Pages
Price
Downloadable examples
Errata
1st Edition December 1999
0735709211
800
$49.99 US
samp_db distribution (http://www.kitebird.com/mysql-book/)
are available here (http://www.kitebird.com/mysql-book/errata.html)
Foreword by Michael “Monty” Widenius, MySQL Moderator.
In MySQL, Paul DuBois provides you with a comprehensive guide to one of the most popular
relational database systems. Paul has contributed to the online documentation for MySQL
and is an active member of the MySQL community. The principal MySQL developer, Monty
Widenius, and a network of his fellow developers reviewed the manuscript, and provided
Paul with the kind of insight no one else could supply.
Instead of merely giving you a general overview of MySQL, Paul teaches you how to make
the most of its capabilities. Through two sample database applications that run throughout
the book, he gives you solutions to problems you’re sure to face. He helps you integrate
MySQL efficiently with third-party tools, such as PHP and Perl, enabling you to generate
dynamic Web pages through database queries. He teaches you to write programs that access
MySQL databases, and also provides a comprehensive set of references to column types,
operators, functions, SQL syntax, MySQL programming, C API, Perl DBI, and PHP API.
MySQL simply gives you the kind of information you won’t find anywhere else.
If you use MySQL, this book provides you with:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
An introduction to MySQL and SQL.
Coverage of MySQL’s data types and how to use them.
Thorough treatment of how to write client programs in C.
A guide to using the Perl DBI and PHP APIs for developing command-line and Webbased applications.
Tips on administrative issues such as user accounts, backup, crash recovery, and security.
Help in choosing an ISP for MySQL access.
A comprehensive reference for MySQL’s data types, operators, functions, and SQL
statements and utilities.
Complete reference guides for MySQL’s C API, the Perl DBI API, and PHP’s MySQLrelated functions.
MySQL & mSQL
Available
Publisher
Authors
Barnes and Noble (http://service.bfast.com/bfast/click?bfmid=2181&
O’Reilly
Randy Jay Yarger, George Reese & Tim King
Version: 3.23.39 Printed: 13 June 2001
8
Chapter 1: General Information About MySQL
Pub Date
1st Edition July 1999
ISBN
1-56592-434-7, Order Number: 4347
Pages
506
Price
$34.95
This book teaches you how to use MySQL and mSQL, two popular and robust database
products that support key subsets of SQL on both Linux and Unix systems. Anyone who
knows basic C, Java, Perl, or Python can write a program to interact with a database,
either as a stand-alone application or through a Web page. This book takes you through
the whole process, from installation and configuration to programming interfaces and basic
administration. Includes plenty of tutorial material.
Sams’ Teach Yourself MySQL in 21 Days
Available
Barnes and Noble (http://service.bfast.com/bfast/click?bfmid=2181&
Publisher
Sams
Authors
Mark Maslakowski and Tony Butcher
Pub Date
June 2000
ISBN
0672319144
Pages
650
Price
$39.99
Sams’ Teach Yourself MySQL in 21 Days is for intermediate Linux users who want to move
into databases. A large share of the audience is Web developers who need a database to
store large amounts of information that can be retrieved via the Web.
Sams’ Teach Yourself MySQL in 21 Days is a practical, step-by-step tutorial. The reader
will learn to design and employ this open source database technology into his or her Web
site using practical, hands-on examples to follow.
E-Commerce Solutions with
Available
Publisher
Authors
Pub Date
ISBN
Pages
Price
No description available.
MySQL
Barnes and Noble (http://service.bfast.com/bfast/click?bfmid=2181&
Prima Communications, Inc.
N/A
January 2000
0761524452
500
$39.99
MySQL and PHP from Scratch
Available
Barnes and Noble (http://service.bfast.com/bfast/click?bfmid=2181&
Publisher
Que
Authors
N/A
Pub Date
September 2000
ISBN
0789724405
Pages
550
Price
$34.99
Version: 3.23.39 Printed: 13 June 2001
9
Chapter 1: General Information About MySQL
This book puts together information on installing, setting up, and troubleshooting Apache,
MySQL, PHP3, and IMP into one complete volume. You also learn how each piece is part
of a whole by learning, step-by-step, how to create a web-based e-mail system. Learn to
run the equivalent of Active Server Pages (ASP) using PHP3, set up an e-commerce site
using a database and the Apache web server, and create a data entry system (such as sales,
product quality tracking, customer preferences, etc) that no installation in the PC.
Professional MySQL Programming
Available
Barnes and Noble (http://shop.barnesandnoble.com/bookSearch/isbnIn
Publisher
Wrox Press, Inc.
Authors
N/A
Pub Date
Late 2001
ISBN
1861005164
Pages
1000
Price
$49.99
No description available.
Professional Linux Programming
Available
Barnes and Noble (http://service.bfast.com/bfast/click?bfmid=2181&
Publisher
Wrox Press, Inc.
Authors
N/A
Pub Date
September 2000
ISBN
1861003013
Pages
1155
Price
$47.99
In this follow-up to the best-selling Beginning Linux Programming, you will learn from the
authors’ real-world knowledge and experience of developing software for Linux; you’ll be
taken through the development of a sample ’DVD Store’ application, with ’theme’ chapters
addressing different aspects of its implementation. Meanwhile, individual “take-a-break”
chapters cover important topics that go beyond the bounds of the central theme. All focus
on the practical aspects of programming, showing how crucial it is to choose the right tools
for the job, use them as they should be used, and get things right first time.
PHP and MySQL Web Development
Available
Barnes and Noble (http://service.bfast.com/bfast/click?bfmid=2181&
Publisher
Sams
Authors
Luke Welling, Laura Thomson
Pub Date
March 2001
ISBN
0672317842
Pages
700
Price
$49.99
PHP and MySQL Web Development introduces you to the advantages of implementing both
MySQL and PHP. These advantages are detailed through the provision of both statistics
and several case studies. A practical web application is developed throughout the book,
Version: 3.23.39 Printed: 13 June 2001
10
Chapter 1: General Information About MySQL
providing you with the tools necessary to implement a functional online database. Each
function is developed separately, allowing you the choice to incorporate only those parts
that you would like to implement. Programming concepts of the PHP language are highlighted, including functions which tie MySQL support into a PHP script and advanced
topics regarding table manipulation.
Books recommended by the MySQL Developers
SQL-99 Complete, Really
Available
Barnes and Noble (http://service.bfast.com/bfast/click?bfmid=2181&
Publisher
CMP Books
Authors
Peter Gulutzan, Trudy Pelzer
Pub Date
April 1999
ISBN
0879305681
Pages
1104
Price
$55.96
This book contains complete descriptions of the new standards for syntax, data structures,
and retrieval processes of SQL databases. As an example-based reference manual, it includes
all of the CLI functions, information, schema tables, and status codes, as well as a working
SQL database provided on the companion disk.
C, A reference manual
Available
Barnes and Noble (http://service.bfast.com/bfast/click?bfmid=2181&
Publisher
Prentice Hall
Authors
Samuel P. Harbison, Guy L. Steele
Pub Date
September 1994
ISBN
0133262243
Pages
480
Price
$35.99
A new and improved revision of the bestselling C language reference. This manual introduces the notion of "Clean C", writing C code that can be compiled as a C++ program,
C programming style that emphasizes correctness, portability, maintainability, and incorporates the ISO C Amendment 1 (1994) which specifies new facilities for writing portable,
international programs in C.
C++ for Real Programmers
Available
Barnes and Noble (http://service.bfast.com/bfast/click?bfmid=2181&
Publisher
Academic Press, Incorporated
Authors
Jeff Alger, Jim Keogh
Pub Date
February 1998
ISBN
0120499428
Pages
388
Price
$39.95
C++ For Real Programmers bridges the gap between C++ as described in beginner and
intermediate-level books and C++ as it is practiced by experts. Numerous valuable techVersion: 3.23.39 Printed: 13 June 2001
11
Chapter 1: General Information About MySQL
niques are described, organized into three simple themes: indirection, class hierarchies, and
memory management. It also provides in-depth coverage of template creation, exception
handling, pointers and optimization techniques. The focus of the book is on ANSI C++ and,
as such, is compiler independent.
C++ For Real Programmers is a revision of Secrets of the C++ Masters and includes a new
appendix comparing C++ with Java. The book comes with a 3.5" disk for Windows with
source code.
Algorithms in C
Available
Barnes and Noble (http://service.bfast.com/bfast/click?bfmid=2181&
Publisher
Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.
Authors
Robert Sedgewick
Pub Date
April 1990
ISBN
0201514257
Pages
648
Price
$45.75
Algorithms in C describes a variety of algorithms in a number of areas of interest, including:
sorting, searching, string-processing, and geometric, graph and mathematical algorithms.
The book emphasizes fundamental techniques, providing readers with the tools to confidently implement, run, and debug useful algorithms.
Multithreaded Programming with Pthreads
Available
Barnes and Noble (http://service.bfast.com/bfast/click?bfmid=2181&
Publisher
Prentice Hall
Authors
Bil Lewis, Daniel J. Berg
Pub Date
October 1997
ISBN
0136807291
Pages
432
Price
$34.95
Based on the best-selling Threads Primer, Multithreaded Programming with Pthreads gives
you a solid understanding of Posix threads: what they are, how they work, when to use
them, and how to optimize them. It retains the clarity and humor of Threads Primer,
but includes expanded comparisons to Win32 and OS/2 implementations. Code examples
tested on all of the major UNIX platforms are featured along with detailed explanations of
how and why they use threads.
Programming the PERL DBI: Database Programming with PERL
Available
Barnes and Noble (http://service.bfast.com/bfast/click?bfmid=2181&
Publisher
O’Reilly & Associates, Incorporated
Authors
Alligator Descartes, Tim Bunce
Pub Date
February 2000
ISBN
1565926994
Pages
400
Price
$27.96
Version: 3.23.39 Printed: 13 June 2001
12
Chapter 1: General Information About MySQL
Programming the Perl DBI is coauthored by Alligator Descartes, one of the most active
members of the DBI community, and by Tim Bunce, the inventor of DBI. For the uninitiated, the book explains the architecture of DBI and shows you how to write DBI-based
programs. For the experienced DBI dabbler, this book explains DBI’s nuances and the
peculiarities of each individual DBD.
The book includes:
• An introduction to DBI and its design.
• How to construct queries and bind parameters.
• Working with database, driver, and statement handles.
• Debugging techniques.
• Coverage of each existing DBD.
• A complete reference to DBI.
1.6 The Main Features of MySQL
The following list describes some of the important characteristics of MySQL:
• Fully multi-threaded using kernel threads. This means it can easily use multiple CPUs
if available.
• C, C++, Eiffel, Java, Perl, PHP, Python and Tcl APIs. See Chapter 24 [Clients],
page 536.
• Works on many different platforms. See Section 4.2 [Which OS], page 50.
• Many column types: signed/unsigned integers 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8 bytes long, FLOAT,
DOUBLE, CHAR, VARCHAR, TEXT, BLOB, DATE, TIME, DATETIME, TIMESTAMP, YEAR, SET,
and ENUM types. See Section 7.3 [Column types], page 174.
• Very fast joins using an optimized one-sweep multi-join.
• Full operator and function support in the SELECT and WHERE parts of queries. For
example:
mysql> SELECT CONCAT(first_name, " ", last_name) FROM tbl_name
WHERE income/dependents > 10000 AND age > 30;
• SQL functions are implemented through a highly optimized class library and should
be as fast as possible! Usually there isn’t any memory allocation at all after query
initialization.
• Full support for SQL GROUP BY and ORDER BY clauses. Support for group functions
(COUNT(), COUNT(DISTINCT ...), AVG(), STD(), SUM(), MAX() and MIN()).
• Support for LEFT OUTER JOIN and RIGHT OUTER JOIN with ANSI SQL and ODBC syntax.
• You can mix tables from different databases in the same query (as of Version 3.22).
Version: 3.23.39 Printed: 13 June 2001
13
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• A privilege and password system that is very flexible and secure, and allows host-based
verification. Passwords are secure because all password traffic is encrypted when you
connect to a server.
• ODBC (Open-DataBase-Connectivity) support for Win32 (with source). All ODBC
2.5 functions and many others. For example, you can use MS Access to connect to
your MySQL server. See Chapter 19 [ODBC], page 495.
• Very fast B-tree disk tables with index compression.
• Up to 32 indexes per table are allowed. Each index may consist of 1 to 16 columns or
parts of columns. The maximum index length is 500 bytes (this may be changed when
compiling MySQL). An index may use a prefix of a CHAR or VARCHAR field.
• Fixed-length and variable-length records.
• In-memory hash tables which are used as temporary tables.
• Handles large databases. We are using MySQL with some databases that contain
50,000,000 records and we know of users that uses MySQL with 60,000 tables and
about 5,000,000,000 rows
• All columns have default values. You can use INSERT to insert a subset of a table’s
columns; those columns that are not explicitly given values are set to their default
values.
• Uses GNU Automake, Autoconf, and Libtool for portability.
• Written in C and C++. Tested with a broad range of different compilers.
• A very fast thread-based memory allocation system.
• No memory leaks. MySQL has been tested with Purify, a commercial memory leakage
detector.
• Includes myisamchk, a very fast utility for table checking, optimization, and repair. All
of the functionality of myisamchk is also available through the SQL interface as well.
See Chapter 16 [Maintenance], page 465.
• Full support for several different character sets, including ISO-8859-1 (Latin1), big5,
ujis, and more. For example, the Scandinavian characters ‘å’, ‘ä’ and ‘ö’ are allowed in
table and column names.
• All data are saved in the chosen character set. All comparisons for normal string
columns are case insensitive.
• Sorting is done according to the chosen character set (the Swedish way by default). It
is possible to change this when the MySQL server is started up. To see an example of
very advanced sorting, look at the Czech sorting code. MySQL supports many different
character sets that can be specified at compile and run time.
• Aliases on tables and columns are allowed as in the SQL92 standard.
• DELETE, INSERT, REPLACE, and UPDATE return the number of rows that were changed
(affected). It is possible to return the number of rows matched instead by setting a
flag when connecting to the server.
• Function names do not clash with table or column names. For example, ABS is a valid
column name. The only restriction is that for a function call, no spaces are allowed
between the function name and the ‘(’ that follows it. See Section 7.40 [Reserved
words], page 295.
Version: 3.23.39 Printed: 13 June 2001
14
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• All MySQL programs can be invoked with the --help or -? options to obtain online
assistance.
• The server can provide error messages to clients in many languages. See Section 10.1
[Languages], page 379.
• Clients may connect to the MySQL server using TCP/IP Sockets, Unix Sockets (Unix),
or Named Pipes (NT).
• The MySQL-specific SHOW command can be used to retrieve information about
databases, tables, and indexes. The EXPLAIN command can be used to determine
how the optimizer resolves a query.
1.7 How Stable Is MySQL?
This section addresses the questions “How stable is MySQL?” and “Can I depend on MySQL
in this project?” We will try to clarify some issues and to answer some of the more important
questions that seem to concern many people. This section has been put together from
information gathered from the mailing list (which is very active in reporting bugs).
At TcX, MySQL has worked without any problems in our projects since mid-1996. When
MySQL was released to a wider public, we noticed that there were some pieces of “untested
code” that were quickly found by the new users who made queries in a manner different
than our own. Each new release has had fewer portability problems than the previous one
(even though each has had many new features).
Each release of MySQL has been usable, and there have been problems only when users
start to use code from the “gray zones.” Naturally, outside users don’t know what the
gray zones are; this section attempts to indicate those that are currently known. The
descriptions deal with Version 3.23 of MySQL. All known and reported bugs are fixed in
the latest version, with the exception of the bugs listed in the bugs section, which are things
that are design-related. See Appendix G [Bugs], page 710.
MySQL is written in multiple layers and different independent modules. These modules are
listed below with an indication of how well-tested each of them is:
The ISAM table handler — Stable
This manages storage and retrieval of all data in MySQL Version 3.22 and
earlier. In all MySQL releases there hasn’t been a single (reported) bug in this
code. The only known way to get a corrupted table is to kill the server in the
middle of an update. Even that is unlikely to destroy any data beyond rescue,
because all data are flushed to disk between each query. There hasn’t been a
single bug report about lost data because of bugs in MySQL.
The MyISAM table handler — Stable
This is new in MySQL Version 3.23. It’s largely based on the ISAM table code
but has a lot of new and very useful features.
The parser and lexical analyser — Stable
There hasn’t been a single reported bug in this system for a long time.
Version: 3.23.39 Printed: 13 June 2001
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The C client code — Stable
No known problems. In early Version 3.20 releases, there were some limitations
in the send/receive buffer size. As of Version 3.21, the buffer size is now dynamic
up to a default of 16M.
Standard client programs — Stable
These include mysql, mysqladmin, mysqlshow, mysqldump, and mysqlimport.
Basic SQL — Stable
The basic SQL function system and string classes and dynamic memory handling. Not a single reported bug in this system.
Query optimizer — Stable
Range optimizer — Stable
Join optimizer — Stable
Locking — Gamma
This is very system-dependent. On some systems there are big problems using
standard OS locking (fcntl()). In these cases, you should run the MySQL
daemon with the --skip-locking flag. Problems are known to occur on some
Linux systems, and on SunOS when using NFS-mounted file systems.
Linux threads — Stable
The major problem found has been with the fcntl() call, which is fixed by
using the --skip-locking option to mysqld. Some people have reported lockup
problems with Version 0.5. LinuxThreads will need to be recompiled if you plan
to use 1000+ concurrent connections. Although it is possible to run that many
connections with the default LinuxThreads (however, you will never go above
1021), the default stack spacing of 2 MB makes the application unstable, and
we have been able to reproduce a coredump after creating 1021 idle connections.
See Section 4.12.5 [Linux], page 79.
Solaris 2.5+ pthreads — Stable
We use this for all our production work.
MIT-pthreads (Other systems) — Stable
There have been no reported bugs since Version 3.20.15 and no known bugs
since Version 3.20.16. On some systems, there is a “misfeature” where some
operations are quite slow (a 1/20 second sleep is done between each query). Of
course, MIT-pthreads may slow down everything a bit, but index-based SELECT
statements are usually done in one time frame so there shouldn’t be a mutex
locking/thread juggling.
Other thread implementions — Beta - Gamma
The ports to other systems are still very new and may have bugs, possibly in
MySQL, but most often in the thread implementation itself.
LOAD DATA ..., INSERT ... SELECT — Stable
Some people thought they had found bugs here, but these usually have turned
out to be misunderstandings. Please check the manual before reporting problems!
Version: 3.23.39 Printed: 13 June 2001
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Chapter 1: General Information About MySQL
ALTER TABLE — Stable
Small changes in Version 3.22.12.
DBD — Stable
Now maintained by Jochen Wiedmann ([email protected]). Thanks!
mysqlaccess — Stable
Written and maintained by Yves Carlier ([email protected]). Thanks!
GRANT — Stable
Big changes made in MySQL Version 3.22.12.
MyODBC (uses ODBC SDK 2.5) — Gamma
It seems to work well with some programs.
Replication – Beta / Gamma
We are still working on replication, so don’t expect this to be rock solid yet. On
the other hand, some MySQL users are already using this with good results.
BDB Tables – Beta
The Berkeley DB code is very stable, but we are still improving the interface
between MySQL and BDB tables, so it will take some time before this is as
tested as the other table types.
InnoDB Tables – Alpha
This is a very recent addition to MySQL and is not very tested yet.
Automatic recovery of MyISAM tables - Beta
This only affects the new code that checks if the table was closed properly on
open and executes an automatic check/repair of the table if it wasn’t.
MERGE tables – Beta / Gamma
The usage of keys on MERGE tables is still not that tested. The other part of
the MERGE code is quite well tested.
FULLTEXT – Beta
Text search seems to work, but is still not widely used.
MySQL AB provides e-mail support for paying customers, but the MySQL mailing list
usually provides answers to common questions. Bugs are usually fixed right away with a
patch; for serious bugs, there is almost always a new release.
1.8 Year 2000 Compliance
MySQL itself has no problems with Year 2000 (Y2K) compliance:
• MySQL uses Unix time functions and has no problems with dates until 2069; all 2-digit
years are regarded to be in the range 1970 to 2069, which means that if you store 01
in a year column, MySQL treats it as 2001.
• All MySQL date functions are stored in one file ‘sql/time.cc’ and coded very carefully
to be year 2000-safe.
Version: 3.23.39 Printed: 13 June 2001
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Chapter 1: General Information About MySQL
• In MySQL Version 3.22 and later, the new YEAR column type can store years 0 and
1901 to 2155 in 1 byte and display them using 2 or 4 digits.
You may run into problems with applications that use MySQL in a way that is not Y2Ksafe. For example, many old applications store or manipulate years using 2-digit values
(which are ambiguous) rather than 4-digit values. This problem may be compounded by
applications that use values such as 00 or 99 as “missing” value indicators.
Unfortunately, these problems may be difficult to fix, because different applications may be
written by different programmers, each of whom may use a different set of conventions and
date-handling functions.
Here is a simple demonstration illustrating that MySQL doesn’t have any problems with
dates until the year 2030:
mysql> DROP TABLE IF EXISTS y2k;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)
mysql> CREATE TABLE y2k (date date, date_time datetime, time_stamp timestamp);
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
mysql> INSERT INTO y2k VALUES
-> ("1998-12-31","1998-12-31 23:59:59",19981231235959),
-> ("1999-01-01","1999-01-01 00:00:00",19990101000000),
-> ("1999-09-09","1999-09-09 23:59:59",19990909235959),
-> ("2000-01-01","2000-01-01 00:00:00",20000101000000),
-> ("2000-02-28","2000-02-28 00:00:00",20000228000000),
-> ("2000-02-29","2000-02-29 00:00:00",20000229000000),
-> ("2000-03-01","2000-03-01 00:00:00",20000301000000),
-> ("2000-12-31","2000-12-31 23:59:59",20001231235959),
-> ("2001-01-01","2001-01-01 00:00:00",20010101000000),
-> ("2004-12-31","2004-12-31 23:59:59",20041231235959),
-> ("2005-01-01","2005-01-01 00:00:00",20050101000000),
-> ("2030-01-01","2030-01-01 00:00:00",20300101000000),
-> ("2050-01-01","2050-01-01 00:00:00",20500101000000);
Query OK, 13 rows affected (0.01 sec)
Records: 13 Duplicates: 0 Warnings: 0
mysql> SELECT * FROM y2k;
+------------+---------------------+----------------+
| date
| date_time
| time_stamp
|
+------------+---------------------+----------------+
| 1998-12-31 | 1998-12-31 23:59:59 | 19981231235959 |
| 1999-01-01 | 1999-01-01 00:00:00 | 19990101000000 |
| 1999-09-09 | 1999-09-09 23:59:59 | 19990909235959 |
| 2000-01-01 | 2000-01-01 00:00:00 | 20000101000000 |
| 2000-02-28 | 2000-02-28 00:00:00 | 20000228000000 |
| 2000-02-29 | 2000-02-29 00:00:00 | 20000229000000 |
| 2000-03-01 | 2000-03-01 00:00:00 | 20000301000000 |
| 2000-12-31 | 2000-12-31 23:59:59 | 20001231235959 |
| 2001-01-01 | 2001-01-01 00:00:00 | 20010101000000 |
Version: 3.23.39 Printed: 13 June 2001
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Chapter 1: General Information About MySQL
| 2004-12-31 | 2004-12-31 23:59:59 | 20041231235959 |
| 2005-01-01 | 2005-01-01 00:00:00 | 20050101000000 |
| 2030-01-01 | 2030-01-01 00:00:00 | 20300101000000 |
| 2050-01-01 | 2050-01-01 00:00:00 | 00000000000000 |
+------------+---------------------+----------------+
13 rows in set (0.00 sec)
This shows that the DATE and DATETIME types will not give any problems with future dates
(they handle dates until the year 9999).
The TIMESTAMP type, which is used to store the current time, has a range up to only 203001-01. TIMESTAMP has a range of 1970 to 2030 on 32-bit machines (signed value). On
64-bit machines it handles times up to 2106 (unsigned value).
Even though MySQL is Y2K-compliant, it is your responsibility to provide unambiguous
input. See Section 7.3.3.1 [Y2K issues], page 183 for MySQL’s rules for dealing with ambiguous date input data (data containing 2-digit year values).
1.9 General SQL Information and Tutorials
The following book has been recommended by several people on the MySQL mailing list:
Judith S. Bowman, Sandra L. Emerson and Marcy Darnovsky
The Practical SQL Handbook: Using Structured Query Language
Second Edition
Addison-Wesley
ISBN 0-201-62623-3
http://www.awl.com
The following book has also received some recommendations by MySQL users:
Martin Gruber
Understanding SQL
ISBN 0-89588-644-8
Publisher Sybex 510 523 8233
Alameda, CA USA
A SQL tutorial is available on the net at http://w3.one.net/~jhoffman/sqltut.htm
1.10 Useful MySQL-related Links
Apart from the following links, you can find and download a lot of MySQL programs, tools
and APIs from the Contrib directory (http://www.mysql.com/Downloads/Contrib/).
MySQL
Tutorials and Manuals
MySQL Myths Debunked (http://netgraft.com/~mbac/research/mysqlmyths.html)
MySQL used in the real world.
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http://www.4t2.com/mysql
Information about the German MySQL mailing list.
http://www2.rent-a-database.de/mysql/
MySQL handbook in German.
http://www.bitmover.com:8888//home/bk/mysql
Web access to the MySQL BitKeeper repository.
http://www.analysisandsolutions.com/code/mybasic.htm
Beginners MySQL Tutorial on how to install and set up MySQL on a Windows
machine.
http://www.devshed.com/Server_Side/MySQL/
A lot of MySQL tutorials.
http://mysql.hitstar.com/
MySQL manual in Chinese.
http://www.linuxplanet.com/linuxplanet/tutorials/1046/1/
Setting Up a MySQL-based Web site.
http://www.hotwired.com/webmonkey/backend/tutorials/tutorial1.html
MySQL-Perl tutorial.
http://www.iserver.com/support/contrib/perl5/modules.html
Installing new Perl modules that require locally installed modules.
http://www.hotwired.com/webmonkey/databases/tutorials/tutorial4.html
PHP/MySQL Tutorial.
http://www.useractive.com/
Hands on tutorial for MySQL.
Porting MySQL/Using MySQL on Different Systems
http://xclave.macnn.com/MySQL/
The Mac OS Xclave. Running MySQL on Mac OS X.
http://www.prnet.de/RegEx/mysql.html
MySQL for Mac OS X Server.
http://www.latencyzero.com/macosx/mysql.html
Building MySQL for Mac OS X.
http://www.essencesw.com/Software/mysqllib.html
New Client libraries for the Mac OS Classic (Macintosh).
http://www.lilback.com/macsql/
Client libraries for Mac OS Classic (Macintosh).
http://sixk.maniasys.com/index_en.html
MySQL for Amiga
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Perl-related Links
http://dbimysql.photoflux.com/
Perl DBI with MySQL FAQ.
MySQL Discussion Forums
http://www.weberdev.com/
Examples using MySQL; (check Top 20)
http://futurerealm.com/forum/futureforum.htm
FutureForum Web Discussion Software.
Commercial Applications that Support MySQL
http://www.supportwizard.com/
SupportWizard; Interactive helpdesk on the Web (This product includes a licensed copy of MySQL.)
http://www.sonork.com/
Sonork, Instant Messenger that is not only Internet oriented. It’s focused on
private networks and on small to medium companies. Client is free, server is
free for up to 5 seats.
http://www.stweb.org/
StWeb - Stratos Web and Application server - An easy-to-use, cross platform,
Internet/Intranet development and deployment system for development of webenabled applications. The standard version of StWeb has a native interface to
MySQL database.
http://www.rightnowtech.com/
Right Now Web; Web automation for customer service.
http://www.icaap.org/Bazaar/
Bazaar; Interactive Discussion Forums with Web interface.
http://www.phonesweep.com/
PhoneSweepT is the world’s first commercial Telephone Scanner. Many breakins in recent years have come not through the Internet, but through unauthorized dial-up modems. PhoneSweep lets you find these modems by repeatedly placing phone calls to every phone number that your organization controls. PhoneSweep has a built-in expert system that can recognize more than
250 different kinds of remote-access programs, including Carbon Copy(TM),
pcANYWHERE(TM), and Windows NT RAS. All information is stored in the
SQL database. It then generates a comprehensive report detailing which services were discovered on which dial-up numbers in your organization.
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SQL Clients and Report Writers
urSQL (http://www.urbanresearch.com/software/utils/urbsql/index.html)
SQL Editor and Query Utility. Custom syntax highlighting, editable results
grid, exportable result-sets, basic MySQL admin functions, Etc.. For Windows.
MySQL Data Manager (http://www.edatanew.com/)
MySQL Data Manager * is platform independent web client (written in perl)
for MySQL server over TCP/IP.
http://ksql.sourceforge.net/
KDE MySQL client.
http://www.ecker-software.de
A Windows GUI client by David Ecker.
http://www.icaap.org/software/kiosk/
Kiosk; a MySQL client for database management. Written in Perl. Will be a
part of Bazaar.
http://www.casestudio.com/
Db design tool that supports MySQL 3.23.
http://home.skif.net/~voland/zeos/eng/index.html
Zeos - A client that supports MySQL, Interbase and PostgreSQL.
http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Ridge/4280/GenericReportWriter/grwhome.html
A free report writer in Java
http://www.javaframework.de
MySQLExport - Export of MySQL create statements and data in a lot of different formats (SQL, HTML, CVS, text, ZIP, GZIP...)
http://dlabs.4t2.com
M2D, a MySQL Administration client for Windows. M2D supports administration of MySQL databases, creation of new databases and tables, editing, and
more.
http://dlabs.4t2.com
Dexter, a small server written in Perl which can be used as a proxy server for
MySQL or as a database extender.
http://www.scibit.com/Products/Software/Utils/Mascon.asp
Mascon is a powerful Win32 GUI for administering MySQL databases.
http://www.rtlabs.com/
MacSQL Monitor. GUI for MySQL, ODBC, and JDBC databases for the Mac
OS.
Distributions that Include MySQL
http://www.suse.com/
SuSE Linux (6.1 and above)
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http://www.redhat.com/
RedHat Linux (7.0 and above)
http://distro.conectiva.com.br
Conectiva Linux (4.0 and above)
Web Development Tools that Support MySQL
http://www.php.net/
PHP: A server-side HTML-embedded scripting language.
http://www.midgard-project.org
The Midgard Application Server; a powerful Web development environment
based on MySQL and PHP.
http://www.smartworker.org
SmartWorker is a platform for Web application development.
http://xsp.lentus.se/
XSP: e(X)tendible (S)erver (P)ages and is a HTML embedded tag language
written in Java (previously known as XTAGS.)
http://www.dbServ.de/
dbServ is an extension to a web server to integrate database output into your
HTML code. You may use any HTML function in your output. Only the client
will stop you. It works as standalone server or as Java servlet.
http://www.chilisoft.com/
Platform independent ASP from Chili!Soft
http://www.voicenet.com/~zellert/tjFM
A JDBC driver for MySQL.
http://www.wernhart.priv.at/php/
MySQL + PHP demos.
http://www.dbwww.com/
ForwardSQL: HTML interface to manipulate MySQL databases.
http://www.daa.com.au/~james/www-sql/
WWW-SQL: Display database information.
http://www.minivend.com/minivend/
Minivend: A Web shopping cart.
http://www.heitml.com/
HeiTML: A server-side extension of HTML and a 4GL language at the same
time.
http://www.metahtml.com/
Metahtml: A Dynamic Programming Language for WWW Applications.
http://www.binevolve.com/
VelocityGen for Perl and Tcl.
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http://hawkeye.net/
Hawkeye Internet Server Suite.
http://www.fastflow.com/
Network Database Connection For Linux
http://www.wdbi.net/
WDBI: Web browser as a universal front end to databases which supports
MySQL well.
http://www.webgroove.com/
WebGroove Script: HTML compiler and server-side scripting language.
http://www.ihtml.com/
A server-side Web site scripting language.
ftp://ftp.igc.apc.org/pub/myodbc/README
How to use MySQL with ColdFusion on Solaris.
http://calistra.com/MySQL/
Calistra’s ODBC MySQL Administrator.
http://www.webmerger.com
Webmerger - This CGI tool interprets files and generates dynamic output based
on a set of simple tags. Ready-to-run drivers for MySQL and PostgreSQL
through ODBC.
http://phpclub.net/
PHPclub - Tips and tricks for PHP.
http://www.penguinservices.com/scripts
MySQL and Perl Scripts.
http://www.widgetchuck.com
The Widgetchuck; Web Site Tools and Gadgets
http://www.adcycle.com/
AdCycle - advertising management software.
http://sourceforge.net/projects/pwpage/
pwPage - provides an extremely fast and simple approach to the creation of
database forms. That is, if a database table exists and an HTML page has been
constructed using a few simple guidelines, pwPage can be immediately used for
table data selections, insertions, updates, deletions and selectable table content
reviewing.
http://www.omnis-software.com/products/studio/studio.html
OMNIS Studio is a rapid application development (RAD) tool.
http://www.webplus.com
talentsoft Web+ 4.6 - a powerful and comprehensive development language for
use in creating web-based client/server applications without writing complicated, low-level, and time-consuming CGI programs.
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Database Design Tools with MySQL Support
http://www.mysql.com/documentation/dezign/
"DeZign for databases" is a database development tool that uses an entity
relationship diagram (ERD).
Web Servers with MySQL Tools
http://bourbon.netvision.net.il/mysql/mod_auth_mysql/
An Apache authentication module.
http://www.roxen.com/
The Roxen Challenger Web server.
Extensions for Other Programs
http://www.seawood.org/msql_bind/
MySQL support for BIND (The Internet Domain Name Server).
http://www.inet-interactive.com/sendmail/
MySQL support for Sendmail and Procmail.
Using MySQL with Other Programs
http://www.iserver.com/support/addonhelp/database/mysql/msaccess.html
Using MySQL with Access.
http://www.iserver.com/support/contrib/perl5/modules.html
Installing new Perl modules that require locally installed modules.
ODBC-related Links
http://www.iodbc.org/
Popular iODBC Driver Manager (libiodbc) now available as Open Source.
http://users.ids.net/~bjepson/freeODBC/
The FreeODBC Pages.
http://genix.net/unixODBC/
The unixODBC Project goals are to develop and promote unixODBC to be the
definitive standard for ODBC on the Linux platform. This is to include GUI
support for KDE.
http://www.sw-soft.com/products/BtrieveODBC/
A MySQL-based ODBC driver for Btrieve.
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API-related Links
http://www.jppp.com/
Partially implemented TDataset-compatible components for MySQL.
http://www.riverstyx.net/qpopmysql/
qpopmysql - A patch to allow POP3 authentication from a MySQL database.
There’s also a link to Paul Khavkine’s patch for Procmail to allow any MTA to
deliver to users in a MySQL database.
http://www.pbc.ottawa.on.ca
Visual Basic class generator for Active X.
http://www.essencesw.com/Software/mysqllib.html
New Client libraries for the Mac OS Classic (Macintosh).
http://www.lilback.com/macsql/
Client libraries for the Macintosh.
http://www.essencesw.com/Plugins/mysqlplug.html
Plugin for REALbasic (for Macintosh)
http://www.iis.ee.ethz.ch/~neeri/macintosh/gusi-qa.html
A library that emulates BSD sockets and pthreads on Macintosh. This can be
used if you want to compile the MySQL client library on Mac. It could probably
even be sued to port MySQL to Macintosh, but we don’t know of anyone that
has tried that.
http://www.dedecker.net/jessie/scmdb/
SCMDB - an add-on for SCM that ports the MySQL C library to scheme
(SCM). With this library scheme developers can make connections to a MySQL
database and use embedded SQL in their programs.
Other MySQL-related Links
SAT (http://www.satisoft.com/)
The Small Application Toolkit (SAT) is a collection of utilities intended to
simplify the development of small, multi-user, GUI based applications in a
(Microsoft -or- X) Windows Client / Unix Server environment.
http://www.wix.com/mysql-hosting/
Registry of Web providers who support MySQL.
http://www.softagency.co.jp/mysql/index.en.html
Links about using MySQL in Japan/Asia.
http://abattoir.cc.ndsu.nodak.edu/~nem/mysql/udf/
MySQL UDF Registry.
http://www.open.com.au/products.html
Commercial Web defect tracking system.
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http://www.stonekeep.com/pts/
PTS: Project Tracking System.
http://tomato.nvgc.vt.edu/~hroberts/mot
Job and software tracking system.
http://www.cynergi.net/exportsql/
ExportSQL: A script to export data from Access95+.
http://SAL.KachinaTech.COM/H/1/MYSQL.html
SAL (Scientific Applications on Linux) MySQL entry.
http://www.infotech-nj.com/itech/index.shtml
A consulting company which mentions MySQL in the right company.
http://www.pmpcs.com/
PMP Computer Solutions. Database developers using MySQL and mSQL.
http://www.aewa.org/
Airborne Early Warning Association.
http://www.dedserius.com/y2kmatrix/
Y2K tester.
SQL and Database Interfaces
http://java.sun.com/products/jdbc/
The JDBC database access API.
http://www.gagme.com/mysql
Patch for mSQL Tcl.
http://www.amsoft.ru/easysql/
EasySQL: An ODBC-like driver manager.
http://www.lightlink.com/hessling/rexxsql.html
A REXX interface to SQL databases.
http://www.mytcl.cx/
Tcl interface based on tcl-sql with many bugfixes.
http://www.binevolve.com/~tdarugar/tcl-sql/
Tcl interface.
http://www.contrib.andrew.cmu.edu/~shadow/sql.html
SQL Reference Page with a lot of interesting links.
Examples of MySQL Use
http://www.little6.com/about/linux/
Little6 Inc., An online contract and job finding site that is powered by MySQL,
PHP3, and Linux.
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http://www.delec.com/is/products/prep/examples/BookShelf/index.html
DELECis - A tool that makes it very easy to create an automatically generated
table documentation. They have used MySQL as an example.
http://www.worldrecords.com
World Records - A search engine for information about music that uses MySQL
and PHP.
http://www.webtechniques.com/archives/1998/01/note/
A Contact Database using MySQL and PHP.
http://modems.rosenet.net/mysql/
Web based interface and Community Calendar with PHP.
http://www.odbsoft.com/cook/sources.htm
Perl package to generate html from a SQL table structure and for generating
SQL statements from an html form.
http://www.gusnet.cx/proj/telsql/
Basic telephone database using DBI/DBD.
http://tecfa.unige.ch/guides/java/staf2x/ex/jdbc/coffee-break
JDBC examples by Daniel K. Schneider.
http://www.spade.com/linux/howto/PostgreSQL-HOWTO-41.html
SQL BNF
http://www.ooc.com/
Object Oriented Concepts Inc; CORBA applications with examples in source.
http://www.pbc.ottawa.on.ca/
DBWiz; Includes an example of how to manage cursors in VB.
http://keilor.cs.umass.edu/pluribus/
Pluribus is a free search engine that learns to improve the quality of its results
over time. Pluribus works by recording which pages a user prefers among those
returned for a query. A user votes for a page by selecting it; Pluribus then uses
that knowledge to improve the quality of the results when someone else submits
the same (or similar) query. Uses PHP and MySQL.
http://www.stopbit.com/
Stopbit - A technology news site using MySQL and PHP.
http://www.linuxsupportline.com/~kalendar/
KDE based calendar manager - The calendar manager has both single user (file
based) and multi-user (MySQL database) support.
http://tim.desert.net/~tim/imger/
Example of storing/retrieving images with MySQL and CGI.
http://www.penguinservices.com/scripts
Online shopping cart system.
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http://www.city-gallery.com/album/
Old Photo Album - The album is a collaborative popular history of photography
project that generates all pages from data stored in a MySQL database. Pages
are dynamically generated through a php3 interface to the database content.
Users contribute images and descriptions. Contributed images are stored on
the web server to avoid storing them in the database as BLOBs. All other
information is stored on the shared MySQL server.
General Database Links
http://www.pcslink.com/~ej/dbweb.html
Database Jump Site
http://black.hole-in-the.net/guy/webdb/
Homepage of the webdb-l (Web Databases) mailing list.
http://www.symbolstone.org/technology/perl/DBI/index.html
Perl DBI/DBD modules homepage.
http://www.student.uni-koeln.de/cygwin/
Cygwin tools. Unix on top of Windows.
http://dbasecentral.com/
dbasecentral.com; Development and distribution of powerful and easy-to-use
database applications and systems.
http://www.tek-tips.com/
Tek-Tips Forums are 800+ independent peer-to-peer non-commercial support
forums for Computer Professionals. Features include automatic e-mail notification of responses, a links library, and member confidentiality guaranteed.
http://www.public.asu.edu/~peterjn/btree/
B-Trees: Balanced Tree Data Structures.
http://www.fit.qut.edu.au/~maire/baobab/lecture/sld001.htm
A lecture about B-Trees.
There are also many Web pages that use MySQL. See Appendix B [Users], page 612. Send
any additions to this list to [email protected] We now require that you show a MySQL
logo somewhere if you wish your site to be added. It is okay to have it on a “used tools”
page or something similar.
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Chapter 2: MySQL Mailing Lists
2 MySQL Mailing Lists
This chapter introduces you to the MySQL mailing lists, and gives some guidelines as to
how to use them.
2.1 The MySQL Mailing Lists
To subscribe to the main MySQL mailing list, send a message to the electronic mail address
[email protected]
To unsubscribe from the main MySQL mailing list, send a message to the electronic mail
address [email protected]
Only the address to which you send your messages is significant. The subject line and the
body of the message are ignored.
If your reply address is not valid, you can specify your address explicitly. Adding a hyphen to
the subscribe or unsubscribe command word, followed by your address with the [email protected] character
in your address replaced by a ‘=’. For example, to subscribe [email protected], send
a message to [email protected]
Mail to [email protected] or [email protected] is
handled automatically by the ezmlm mailing list processor. Information about ezmlm is
available at The ezmlm Website (http://www.ezmlm.org).
To post a message to the list itself, send your message to [email protected] However, please do not send mail about subscribing or unsubscribing to [email protected],
because any mail sent to that address is distributed automatically to thousands of other
users.
Your local site may have many subscribers to [email protected] If so, it may have a
local mailing list, so that messages sent from lists.mysql.com to your site are propagated
to the local list. In such cases, please contact your system administrator to be added to or
dropped from the local MySQL list.
The following MySQL mailing lists exist:
[email protected] announce
This is for announcement of new versions of MySQL and related programs.
This is a low volume list all MySQL users should subscribe to.
[email protected] mysql
The main list for general MySQL discussion. Please note that some topics are
better discussed on the more-specialized lists. If you post to the wrong list, you
may not get an answer!
[email protected] mysql-digest
The mysql list in digest form. That means you get all individual messages, sent
as one large mail message once a day.
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[email protected] bugs
On this list you should only post a full, repeatable bug report using the
mysqlbug script (if you are running on Windows, you should include a description of the operating system and the MySQL version). Preferably, you should
test the problem using the latest stable or development version of MySQL
before posting! Anyone should be able to repeat the bug by just using mysql
test < script on the included test case. All bugs posted on this list will be
corrected or documented in the next MySQL release! If there are only small
code changes involved, we will also post a patch that fixes the problem.
[email protected] bugs-digest
The bugs list in digest form.
[email protected] internals
A list for people who work on the MySQL code. On this list one can also discuss
MySQL development and post patches.
[email protected] internals-digest
A digest version of the internals list.
[email protected] java
Discussion about MySQL and Java. Mostly about the JDBC drivers.
[email protected] java-digest
A digest version of the java list.
[email protected] win32
All things concerning MySQL on Microsoft operating systems such as Win95,
Win98, NT, and Win2000.
[email protected] win32-digest
A digest version of the win32 list.
[email protected] myodbc
All things about connecting to MySQL with ODBC.
[email protected] myodbc-digest
A digest version of the myodbc list.
[email protected] plusplus
All things concerning programming with the C++ API to MySQL.
[email protected] plusplus-digest
A digest version of the plusplus list.
[email protected] msql-mysql-modules
A list about the Perl support in MySQL. msql-mysql-modules
[email protected]
msql-mysql-modules-digest
A digest version of the msql-mysql-modules list.
You subscribe or unsubscribe to all lists in the same way as described above. In your
subscribe or unsubscribe message, just put the appropriate mailing list name rather than
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mysql. For example, to subscribe to or unsubscribe from the myodbc list, send a message
to [email protected] or [email protected]
The following table shows some MySQL mailing in other languages than English. Note that
these are not operated by MySQL AB, so we can’t guarantee the quality on these.
[email protected] A French mailing list
[email protected] A Korean mailing list
Email subscribe mysql [email protected] to this list.
[email protected] A German mailing list
Email subscribe mysql-de [email protected] to this list. You can find
information about this mailing list at http://www.4t2.com/mysql.
[email protected] A Portugese mailing list
Email subscribe mysql-br [email protected] to this list.
[email protected] A Spanish mailing list
Email subscribe mysql [email protected] to this list.
2.2 Asking Questions or Reporting Bugs
Before posting a bug report or question, please do the following:
• Start by searching the MySQL online manual at:
http://www.mysql.com/documentation/manual.php
We try to keep the manual up to date by updating it frequently with solutions to newly
found problems!
• Search the MySQL mailing list archives:
http://www.mysql.com/documentation/
• You can also use http://www.mysql.com/search.html to search all the Web pages
(including the manual) that are located at http://www.mysql.com/.
If you can’t find an answer in the manual or the archives, check with your local MySQL
expert. If you still can’t find an answer to your question, go ahead and read the next section
about how to send mail to [email protected]
2.3 How to Report Bugs or Problems
Writing a good bug report takes patience, but doing it right the first time saves time for
us and for you. A good bug report containing a full test case for the bug will make it very
likely that we will fix it in the next release. This section will help you write your report
correctly so that you don’t waste your time doing things that may not help us much or at
all.
We encourage everyone to use the mysqlbug script to generate a bug report (or a report
about any problem), if possible. mysqlbug can be found in the ‘scripts’ directory in the
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source distribution, or, for a binary distribution, in the ‘bin’ directory under your MySQL
installation directory. If you are unable to use mysqlbug, you should still include all the
necessary information listed in this section.
The mysqlbug script helps you generate a report by determining much of the following
information automatically, but if something important is missing, please include it with
your message! Please read this section carefully and make sure that all the information
described here is included in your report.
The normal place to report bugs and problems is [email protected] If you
can make a test case that clearly demonstrates the bug, you should post it to the
[email protected] list. Note that on this list you should only post a full, repeatable
bug report using the mysqlbug script. If you are running on Windows, you should include a
description of the operating system and the MySQL version. Preferably, you should test the
problem using the latest stable or development version of MySQL before posting! Anyone
should be able to repeat the bug by just using “mysql test < script” on the included test
case or run the shell or perl script that is included in the bug report. All bugs posted on
the bugs list will be corrected or documented in the next MySQL release! If there are only
small code changes involved to correct this problem, we will also post a patch that fixes
the problem.
Remember that it is possible to respond to a message containing too much information,
but not to one containing too little. Often people omit facts because they think they know
the cause of a problem and assume that some details don’t matter. A good principle is: if
you are in doubt about stating something, state it! It is a thousand times faster and less
troublesome to write a couple of lines more in your report than to be forced to ask again
and wait for the answer because you didn’t include enough information the first time.
The most common errors are that people don’t indicate the version number of the MySQL
distribution they are using, or don’t indicate what platform they have MySQL installed on
(including the platform version number). This is highly relevant information, and in 99
cases out of 100 the bug report is useless without it! Very often we get questions like, “Why
doesn’t this work for me?” then we find that the feature requested wasn’t implemented in
that MySQL version, or that a bug described in a report has been fixed already in newer
MySQL versions. Sometimes the error is platform dependent; in such cases, it is next to
impossible to fix anything without knowing the operating system and the version number
of the platform.
Remember also to provide information about your compiler, if it is related to the problem.
Often people find bugs in compilers and think the problem is MySQL-related. Most compilers are under development all the time and become better version by version. To determine
whether or not your problem depends on your compiler, we need to know what compiler is
used. Note that every compiling problem should be regarded as a bug report and reported
accordingly.
It is most helpful when a good description of the problem is included in the bug report.
That is, a good example of all the things you did that led to the problem and the problem
itself exactly described. The best reports are those that include a full example showing how
to reproduce the bug or problem. See Section I.1.6 [Reproduceable test case], page 725.
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If a program produces an error message, it is very important to include the message in your
report! If we try to search for something from the archives using programs, it is better that
the error message reported exactly matches the one that the program produces. (Even the
case should be observed!) You should never try to remember what the error message was;
instead, copy and paste the entire message into your report!
If you have a problem with MyODBC, you should try to generate a MyODBC trace file.
See Section 19.7 [MyODBC bug report], page 503.
Please remember that many of the people who will read your report will do so using an
80-column display. When generating reports or examples using the mysql command line
tool, you should therefore use the --vertical option (or the \G statement terminator) for
output that would exceed the available width for such a display (for example, with the
EXPLAIN SELECT statement; see the example below).
Please include the following information in your report:
• The version number of the MySQL distribution you are using (for example, MySQL Version 3.22.22). You can find out which version you are running by executing mysqladmin
version. mysqladmin can be found in the ‘bin’ directory under your MySQL installation directory.
• The manufacturer and model of the machine you are working on.
• The operating system name and version. For most operating systems, you can get this
information by executing the Unix command uname -a.
• Sometimes the amount of memory (real and virtual) is relevant. If in doubt, include
these values.
• If you are using a source distribution of MySQL, the name and version number of the
compiler used is needed. If you have a binary distribution, the distribution name is
needed.
• If the problem occurs during compilation, include the exact error message(s) and also
a few lines of context around the offending code in the file where the error occurred.
• If mysqld died, you should also report the query that crashed mysqld. You can usually
find this out by running mysqld with logging enabled. See Section I.1.5 [Using log files],
page 725.
• If any database table is related to the problem, include the output from mysqldump -no-data db_name tbl_name1 tbl_name2 .... This is very easy to do and is a powerful
way to get information about any table in a database that will help us create a situation
matching the one you have.
• For speed-related bugs or problems with SELECT statements, you should always include
the output of EXPLAIN SELECT ..., and at least the number of rows that the SELECT
statement produces. The more information you give about your situation, the more
likely it is that someone can help you! For example, the following is an example of a
very good bug report (it should of course be posted with the mysqlbug script):
Example run using the mysql command line tool (note the use of the \G statement
terminator for statements whose output width would otherwise exceed that of an 80column display device):
mysql> SHOW VARIABLES;
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•
•
•
•
•
•
Chapter 2: MySQL Mailing Lists
mysql> SHOW COLUMNS FROM ...\G
<output from SHOW COLUMNS>
mysql> EXPLAIN SELECT ...\G
<output from EXPLAIN>
mysql> FLUSH STATUS;
mysql> SELECT ...;
<A short version of the output from SELECT,
including the time taken to run the query>
mysql> SHOW STATUS;
<output from SHOW STATUS>
If a bug or problem occurs while running mysqld, try to provide an input script that
will reproduce the anomaly. This script should include any necessary source files. The
more closely the script can reproduce your situation, the better. If you can make a
repeatable test case, you should post this to [email protected] for a high priority
treatment!
If you can’t provide a script, you should at least include the output from mysqladmin
variables extended-status processlist in your mail to provide some information
of how your system is performing!
If you can’t produce a test case in a few rows, or if the test table is too big to be mailed
to the mailing list (more than 10 rows), you should dump your tables using mysqldump
and create a ‘README’ file that describes your problem.
Create a compressed archive of your files using tar and gzip or zip, and use ftp to
transfer the archive to ftp://support.mysql.com/pub/mysql/secret/. Then send a
short description of the problem to [email protected]
If you think that MySQL produces a strange result from a query, include not only the
result, but also your opinion of what the result should be, and an account describing
the basis for your opinion.
When giving an example of the problem, it’s better to use the variable names, table
names, etc., that exist in your actual situation than to come up with new names. The
problem could be related to the name of a variable or table! These cases are rare,
perhaps, but it is better to be safe than sorry. After all, it should be easier for you to
provide an example that uses your actual situation, and it is by all means better for us.
In case you have data you don’t want to show to others, you can use ftp to transfer it
to ftp://support.mysql.com/pub/mysql/secret/. If the data are really top secret
and you don’t want to show them even to us, then go ahead and provide an example
using other names, but please regard this as the last choice.
Include all the options given to the relevant programs, if possible. For example, indicate
the options that you use when you start the mysqld daemon and that you use to run
any MySQL client programs. The options to programs like mysqld and mysql, and to
the configure script, are often keys to answers and are very relevant! It is never a
bad idea to include them anyway! If you use any modules, such as Perl or PHP, please
include the version number(s) of those as well.
If your question is related to the privilege system, please include the output of
mysqlaccess, the output of mysqladmin reload, and all the error messages you
get when trying to connect! When you test your privileges, you should first run
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Chapter 2: MySQL Mailing Lists
mysqlaccess. After this, execute mysqladmin reload version and try to connect
with the program that gives you trouble. mysqlaccess can be found in the ‘bin’
directory under your MySQL installation directory.
• If you have a patch for a bug, that is good, but don’t assume the patch is all we need,
or that we will use it, if you don’t provide some necessary information, such as test
cases showing the bug that your patch fixes. We might find problems with your patch
or we might not understand it at all; if so, we can’t use it.
If we can’t verify exactly what the patch is meant for, we won’t use it. Test cases will
help us here. Show that the patch will handle all the situations that may occur. If we
find a borderline case (even a rare one) where the patch won’t work, it may be useless.
• Guesses about what the bug is, why it occurs, or what it depends on, are usually
wrong. Even the MySQL team can’t guess such things without first using a debugger
to determine the real cause of a bug.
• Indicate in your mail message that you have checked the reference manual and mail
archive so others know that you have tried to solve the problem yourself.
• If you get a parse error, please check your syntax closely! If you can’t find something
wrong with it, it’s extremely likely that your current version of MySQL doesn’t support
the query you are using. If you are using the current version and the manual at
http://www.mysql.com/documentation/manual.php doesn’t cover the syntax you are
using, MySQL doesn’t support your query. In this case, your only options are to
implement the syntax yourself or e-mail [email protected] and ask for an
offer to implement it!
If the manual covers the syntax you are using, but you have an older version of MySQL,
you should check the MySQL change history to see when the syntax was implemented.
In this case, you have the option of upgrading to a newer version of MySQL. See
Appendix F [News], page 641.
• If you have a problem such that your data appears corrupt or you get errors when you
access some particular table, you should first check and then try repairing your tables
with myisamchk or CHECK TABLE and REPAIR TABLE. See Chapter 16 [Maintenance],
page 465.
• If you often get corrupted tables you should try to find out when and why this happens!
In this case, the ‘mysql-data-directory/’hostname’.err’ file may contain some information about what happened. See Section 23.1 [Error log], page 532. Please include
any relevant information from this file in your bug report! Normally mysqld should
NEVER crash a table if nothing killed it in the middle of an update! If you can find
the cause of mysqld dying, it’s much easier for us to provide you with a fix for the
problem! See Section 21.1 [What is crashing], page 506.
• If possible, download and install the most recent version of MySQL and check whether
or not it solves your problem. All versions of MySQL are thoroughly tested and should
work without problems! We believe in making everything as backward compatible as
possible, and you should be able to switch MySQL versions in minutes! See Section 4.3
[Which version], page 52.
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If you are a support customer, please cross-post the bug report to [email protected]
for higher priority treatment, as well as to the appropriate mailing list to see if someone
else has experienced (and perhaps solved) the problem.
For information on reporting bugs in MyODBC, see Section 19.4 [ODBC Problems],
page 498.
For solutions to some common problems, see See Chapter 21 [Problems], page 506.
When answers are sent to you individually and not to the mailing list, it is considered good
etiquette to summarize the answers and send the summary to the mailing list so that others
may have the benefit of responses you received that helped you solve your problem!
2.4 Guidelines for Answering Question on the Mailing List
If you consider your answer to have broad interest, you may want to post it to the mailing
list instead of replying directly to the individual who asked. Try to make your answer
general enough that people other than the original poster may benefit from it. When you
post to the list, please make sure that your answer is not a duplication of a previous answer.
Try to summarize the essential part of the question in your reply; don’t feel obliged to quote
the entire original message.
Please don’t post mail messages from your browser with HTML mode turned on! Many
users don’t read mail with a browser!
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Chapter 3: MySQL Licensing and Support
3 MySQL Licensing and Support
This chapter describes MySQL support and licensing arrangements:
• The copyrights under which MySQL is distributed (see Section 3.2 [Copyright], page 38)
• Sample situations illustrating when a license is required (see Section 3.3 [Licensing
examples], page 39)
• Support costs (see Section 3.4 [Cost], page 40) and support benefits (see Section 3.5
[Support], page 42)
• Commercial licensing costs
3.1 MySQL Licensing Policy
The formal terms of the GPL license can be found at Appendix L [GPL license], page 737.
Basically, our licensing policy and interpretation of the GPL is as follows:
Note that older versions of MySQL are still using a more strict license (http://www.mysql.com/support/arr
See the documentation for that version for more information. If you need a commercial
MySQL license, because the GPL license doesn’t suit your application, you can buy one at
https://order.mysql.com/license.htmy.
For normal internal use, MySQL costs nothing. You do not have to pay us if you do not
want to.
A license is required if:
− You link a part of the of MySQL that has a GPL Copyright to a program that is not
free software (embedded usage of the MySQL server). In this case your application
would also become GPL through the clause in the GPL license that acts as a virus. By
licensing MySQL from us under a commercial license you will avoid this problem.
− You have a commercial application that ONLY works with MySQL and ships the
application with the MySQL server. This is because we view this as linking even if it
is done over the network.
− You have a distribution of MySQL and you don’t provide the source code for your copy
of the MySQL server, as defined in the GPL license.
A license is NOT required if:
− You do not need a license to include the client code in commercial programs. The client
part of MySQL licensed with the LGPL GNU Library General Public License. The
mysql command-line client includes code from the readline library that is under the
GPL.
− If your use of MySQL does not require a license, but you like MySQL and want to
encourage further development, you are certainly welcome to purchase a license or
MySQL support anyway.
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Chapter 3: MySQL Licensing and Support
− If you use MySQL in a commercial context such that you profit by its use, we ask
that you further the development of MySQL by purchasing some level of support. We
feel that if MySQL helps your business, it is reasonable to ask that you help MySQL.
(Otherwise, if you ask us support questions, you are not only using for free something
into which we’ve put a lot a work, you’re asking us to provide free support, too.)
For circumstances under which a MySQL license is required, you need a license per machine
that runs the mysqld server. However, a multiple-CPU machine counts as a single machine,
and there is no restriction on the number of MySQL servers that run on one machine, or
on the number of clients concurrently connected to a server running on that machine!
If you have any questions as to whether or not a license is required for your particular use of
MySQL, please read this again and then contact us. See Section 3.4.2 [Contact information],
page 42.
If you require a MySQL license, the easiest way to pay for it is to use the license form
on MySQL’s secure server at https://order.mysql.com/license.htmy. Other forms of
payment are discussed in Section 3.4.1 [Payment information], page 41.
3.2 Copyrights Used by MySQL
There are several different copyrights on the MySQL distribution:
1. The MySQL-specific source needed to build the mysqlclient library is licensed under
the LGPL and programs in the ‘client’ directory is GPL. Each file has a header that
shows which copyright is used for that file.
2. The client library and the (GNU getopt) library are covered by the “GNU LIBRARY
GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE.” See Appendix M [LGPL license], page 745.
3. Some parts of the source (the regexp library) are covered by a Berkeley-style copyright.
4. All the source in the server and the (GNU readline) library is covered by the “GNU
GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE.” See Appendix L [GPL license], page 737. This is also
available as the file ‘COPYING’ in the distributions.
One goal is that the SQL client library should be free enough that it is possible to add
MySQL support into commercial products without a license. For this reason, we chose the
LGPL license for the client code.
This means that you can use MySQL for free with any program that uses any of the free
software licenses. MySQL is also free for any end user for his own or company usage.
However, if you use MySQL for something important to you, you may want to help secure
its development by purchasing licenses or a support contract. See Section 3.5 [Support],
page 42.
3.2.1 Copyright Changes
Version 3.22 of MySQL is still using a more strict license. See the documentation for that
version for more information.
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Chapter 3: MySQL Licensing and Support
3.3 Example Licensing Situations
This section describes some situations illustrating whether or not you must license the
MySQL server. Generally these examples involve providing MySQL as an integral part of
a product.
Note that a single MySQL license covers any number of CPUs and mysqld servers on a
machine! There is no artificial limit on the number of clients that connect to the server in
any way.
3.3.1 Selling Products that use MySQL
To determine whether or not you need a MySQL license when selling your application, you
should ask whether the proper functioning of your application is dependent on the use of
MySQL and whether you include the MySQL server with your product. There are several
cases to consider:
• Does your application require MySQL to function properly?
• If your product requires MySQL, you need a license for any machine that runs the
mysqld server. For example, if you’ve designed your application around MySQL, then
you’ve really made a commercial product that requires the engine, so you need a license.
• If your application does not require MySQL, you do not need to obtain a license. For
example, if using MySQL just adds some new optional features to your product (such
as adding logging to a database if MySQL is used rather than logging to a text file), it
should fall within normal use, and a license would not be required.
• In other words, you need a license if you sell a product designed specifically for use with
MySQL or that requires the MySQL server to function at all. This is true whether or
not you provide MySQL for your client as part of your product distribution.
• It also depends on what you’re doing for the client. Do you plan to provide your client
with detailed instructions on installing MySQL with your software? Then your product
may be contingent on the use of MySQL; if so, you need to buy a license. If you are
simply tying into a database that you expect already to have been installed by the time
your software is purchased, then you probably don’t need a license.
3.3.2 ISP MySQL Services
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) often host MySQL servers for their customers. With the
GPL license this does not require a license.
On the other hand, we do encourage people to use ISPs that have MySQL support, as this
will give them the confidence that if they have some problem with their MySQL installation,
their ISP will be able to solve the problem for them (in some cases with the help from the
MySQL development team).
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Chapter 3: MySQL Licensing and Support
All ISPs that want to keep themselves up-to-date should subscribe to our announce mailing list so that they can be aware of fatal issues that may be relevant for their MySQL
installations.
Note that if the ISP doesn’t have a license for MySQL, it should give its customers at least
read access to the source of the MySQL installation so that its customer can verify that it
is patched correctly.
3.3.3 Running a Web Server Using MySQL
If you use MySQL in conjunction with a Web server on Unix, you don’t have to pay for a
license.
This is true even if you run a commercial Web server that uses MySQL, because you are
not selling an embedded MySQL version yourself. However, in this case we would like you
to purchase MySQL support, because MySQL is helping your enterprise.
3.4 MySQL Licensing and Support Costs
Our current license prices are shown below. These prices are now under review because of
the change to a GPL copyright. New prices and terms will be posted on the MySQL web
site at http://www.mysql.com/ as soon as they are ready.
All prices are in US Dollars. If you pay by credit card, the currency is EURO (European
Union Euro) so the prices will differ slightly.
Number of licenses
1
10 pack
50 pack
Per copy
200 EURO
150 EURO
120 EURO
Total
200 EURO
1500 EURO
6000 EURO
For high volume (OEM) purchases, the following prices apply:
Number of licenses
100-999
1000-2499
2500-4999
Per copy
40 EURO
25 EURO
20 EURO
Minimum
100
200
400
Minimum payment
4000 EURO
5000 EURO
8000 EURO
For OEM purchases, you must act as the middle-man for eventual problems or extension
requests from your users. We also require that OEM customers have at least an extended
e-mail support contract. Note that OEM licenses only apply for products where the user
doesn’t have direct access to the MySQL server (embedded system). In other words, the
MySQL server should only be used with the application that was supplied you.
If you have a low-margin, high-volume product, you can always talk to us about other
terms (for example, a percent of the sale price). If you do, please be informative about your
product, pricing, market, and any other information that may be relevant.
A full-price license is not a support agreement and includes very minimal support. This
means that we try to answer any relevant questions. If the answer is in the documentation,
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Chapter 3: MySQL Licensing and Support
we will direct you to the appropriate section. If you have not purchased a license or support,
we probably will not answer at all.
If you discover what we consider a real bug, we are likely to fix it in any case. But if you
pay for support we will notify you about the fix status instead of just fixing it in a later
release.
More comprehensive support is sold separately. Descriptions of what each level of support
includes are given in Section 3.5 [Support], page 42. Costs for the various types of commercial support are shown below. Support level prices are in EURO (European Union Euro).
One EURO is about 1.06 USD.
Type of support
Cost per year
Basic e-mail support. See Section 3.5.1 [Basic EURO 200
email support], page 43.
Extended e-mail support See Section 3.5.2 EURO 1000
[Extended email support], page 44.
Login support See Section 3.5.3 [Login sup- EURO 2000
port], page 44.
Extended login support See Section 3.5.4 [Ex- EURO 5000
tended login support], page 45.
Telephone support See Section 3.5.5 [Tele- EURO 12000
phone support], page 45.
You may upgrade from any lower level of support to a higher level of support for the
difference in price between the two support levels.
We do also provide telephone support (mostly emergency support but also 24/7 support).
This support option doesn’t however have a fixed price but is negotiated for case to case.
If you are interested in this option you can email [email protected] and tell us about your
needs.
Note that as our sales staff is very busy, it may take some time until your request is handled.
Our support staff does however always answer promptly to support questions!
3.4.1 Payment information
Currently we can take SWIFT payments, checks, or credit cards.
Payment should be made to:
Postgirot Bank AB
105 06 STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN
MySQL AB
BOX 6434
11382 STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN
SWIFT address: PGSI SESS
Account number: 96 77 06 - 3
Specify: license and/or support and your name and e-mail address.
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Chapter 3: MySQL Licensing and Support
In Europe and Japan you can use EuroGiro (that should be less expensive) to the same
account.
If you want to pay by check, make it payable to “MySQL Finland AB” and mail it to the
address below:
MySQL AB
BOX 6434, Torsgatan 21
11382 STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN
If you want to pay by credit card over the Internet, you can use MySQL AB’s secure license
form (https://order.mysql.com/license.htmy).
You can also print a copy of the license form, fill it in, and send it by fax to:
+46-8-729 69 05
If you want us to bill you, you can use the license form and write “bill us” in the comment
field. You can also mail a message to [email protected] (not [email protected]!)
with your company information and ask us to bill you.
3.4.2 Contact Information
For commercial licensing, please contact the MySQL licensing team. The much preferred
method is by e-mail to [email protected] Fax is also possible but handling of these
may take much longer (Fax +46-8-729 69 05).
If you represent a business that is interested in partnering with MySQL, please send e-mail
to [email protected]
For timely, precise answers to technical questions about MySQL you should order (https://order.mysql.co
one of our support contracts (http://www.mysql.com/support/arrangements/types.html).
MySQL support is provided by the MySQL developers so the standard is extremely high.
If you are interested in placing a banner advertisement on our Web site, please send e-mail
to [email protected]
If you are interested in any of the jobs listed in our jobs (http://www.mysql.com/development/jobs/)
section, please send e-mail to [email protected]
For general discussion amongst our many users, please direct your attention to the appropriate mailing list (http://www.mysql.com/documentation/lists.html).
For general information inquires, please send e-mail to [email protected]
For questions or comments about the workings or content of the Web site, please send e-mail
to [email protected]
3.5 Types of Commercial Support
The following is true of all support options:
• The support is per year.
• We will fix, or provide a reasonable workaround for any repeatable bug.
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Chapter 3: MySQL Licensing and Support
• We will give a reasonable effort to find and fix any other MySQL related bug.
• The higher level of support contract the more effort we will put into finding a solution
to your problems.
• The following is true for all support contracts except Basic email support:
For non-bug related things, like helping you optimize your queries or your system,
extending MySQL with new functionality, etc., we charge 200 EURO/hour, which is
deducted from your support contract. In other words, if you have login support (2000
EURO), you can expect us to work up to 10 hours to help you with things like this.
3.5.1 Basic E-mail Support
Basic e-mail support is a very inexpensive support option and should be thought of more as
a way to support our development of MySQL than as a real support option. We at MySQL
do give a lot of free support in all the different MySQL lists, and the money we get from
basic e-mail support is largely used to make this possible.
At this support level, the MySQL mailing lists are the preferred means of communication.
Questions normally should be mailed to the primary mailing list ([email protected])
or one of the other regular lists (for example, [email protected] for Windows-related
MySQL questions), as someone else already may have experienced and solved the problem
you have. See Section 2.2 [Asking questions], page 31.
However, by purchasing basic e-mail support, you also have access to the support address
[email protected], which is not available as part of the minimal support that
you get by purchasing a MySQL license. This means that for especially critical questions,
you can cross-post your message to [email protected] (If the message contains
sensitive data, you should post only to [email protected])
REMEMBER! to ALWAYS include your registration number and expiration date when you
send a message to [email protected]
Note that if you have encountered a critical, repeatable bug, and follow the rules outlined in
the manual section of how to report bugs and send it to [email protected], we promise
to try to fix this as soon as possible, regardless of your support level! See Section 2.3 [Bug
reports], page 31.
Basic e-mail support includes the following types of service:
• If your question is already answered in the manual, we will inform you of the correct
section in which you can find the answer. If the answer is not in the manual, we will
point you in the right direction to solve your problem.
• We guarantee a timely answer for your e-mail messages. We can’t guarantee that we
can solve any problem, but at least you will receive an answer if we can contact you by
e-mail.
• We will help with unexpected problems when you install MySQL from a binary distribution on supported platforms. This level of support does not cover installing MySQL
from a source distribution. Supported platforms are those for which MySQL is known
to work. See Section 4.2 [Which OS], page 50.
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• We will help you with bugs and missing features. Any bugs that are found are fixed
for the next MySQL release. If the bug is critical for you, we will mail you a patch for
it as soon the bug is fixed. Critical bugs always have the highest priority for us, and
we ensure that they are fixed as soon as possible.
• Your suggestions for the further development of MySQL will be taken into consideration. By taking email support you have already helped the further development of
MySQL. If you want to have more input, upgrade to a higher level of support.
• If you want us to help optimize your system, you must upgrade to a higher level of
support.
3.5.2 Extended E-mail Support
Extended e-mail support includes everything in basic e-mail support with these additions:
• Your e-mail will be dealt with before mail from basic e-mail support users and nonregistered users.
• Your suggestions for the further development of MySQL will receive strong consideration. Simple extensions that suit the basic goals of MySQL are implemented in a
matter of days. By taking extended e-mail support you have already helped the further
development of MySQL.
• Typical situations that are covered by extended e-mail support are:
− We will answer and (within reason) solve questions that relate to possible bugs in
MySQL. As soon as the bug is found and corrected, we will mail a patch for it.
− We will help with unexpected problems when you install MySQL from a source or
binary distribution on supported platforms.
− We will answer questions about missing features and offer hints how to work around
them.
− We will provide hints on optimizing mysqld for your situation.
• You are allowed to influence the priority of items on the MySQL TODO List. See
Appendix H [TODO], page 713. This will ensure that the features you really need will
be implemented sooner than they might be otherwise.
3.5.3 Login Support
Login support includes everything in extended e-mail support with these additions:
• Your e-mail will be dealt with even before e-mail from extended e-mail support users.
• Your suggestions for the further development of MySQL will be taken into very high
consideration. Realistic extensions that can be implemented in a couple of hours and
that suit the basic goals of MySQL will be implemented as soon as possible.
• If you have a very specific problem, we can try to log in on your system to solve the
problem “in place.”
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• Like any database vendor, we can’t guarantee that we can rescue any data from crashed
tables, but if the worst happens, we will help you rescue as much as possible. MySQL
has proven itself very reliable, but anything is possible due to circumstances beyond our
control (for example, if your system crashes or someone kills the server by executing a
kill -9 command).
• We will provide hints on optimizing your system and your queries.
• You are allowed to call a MySQL developer (in moderation) and discuss your MySQLrelated problems. This option is however only to be used as a last result during an
emergency after we have failed to grasp the total problem with email. To make efficient
use of our time we need to first get all facts about the problem, before talking on phone,
to be able to work as efficiently as possible on solving the problem.
3.5.4 Extended Login Support
Extended login support includes everything in login support with these additions:
• Your e-mail has the highest possible priority.
• We will actively examine your system and help you optimize it and your queries. We
may also optimize and/or extend MySQL to better suit your needs.
• You may also request special extensions just for you. For example:
mysql> select MY_FUNC(col1,col2) from table;
• We will provide a binary distribution of all important MySQL releases for your system,
as long as we can get an account on a similar system. In the worst case, we may require
access to your system to be able to create a binary distribution.
• If you can provide accommodations and pay for traveler fares, you can even get a
MySQL developer to visit you and offer you help with your troubles. Extended login
support entitles you to one personal encounter per year, but we are always very flexible
towards our customers! If the visit takes 16 hours or more, the first 8 hours is without
charge. For the hours above 8 hours, you will be charged with a rate that is at least
20 % less than our standard rates.
3.5.5 Telephone Support
Telephone support includes everything in extended login support with these additions:
• We will provide you with a dynamic web page showing the current list of MySQL developers that you can phone when you have a critical problem.
• For non critical problem, you can request a MySQL developer to phone back within 48
hours to discuss MySQL related issues.
3.5.6 Support for other table handlers
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Chapter 3: MySQL Licensing and Support
To get support for BDB tables, InnoDB tables or GEMINI tables you have to pay an additional
30% on the standard support price for each of the table handlers you would like to have
support for.
We at MySQL AB will help you create a proper bug report for the table handler and submit
it to the developers for the specific table handler. We will also do our best to ensure that
you will get a timely answer or solution from the developers of the table handler.
Even if we are quite confident that we can solve most problems within a timely manner,
we can’t guarantee a quick solution for any problems you can get with the different table
handlers. We will however do our best to help you get the problem solved.
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4 Installing MySQL
This chapter describes how to obtain and install MySQL:
• For a list of sites from which you can obtain MySQL, see Section 4.1 [Getting MySQL],
page 47.
• To see which platforms are supported, see Section 4.2 [Which OS], page 50. Please
note that not all supported system are equally good for running MySQL on them. On
some it is much more robust and efficient than others - see Section 4.2 [Which OS],
page 50 for details.
• Several versions of MySQL are available in both binary and source distributions. We
also provide public access to our current source tree for those who want to see our
most recent developments and help us test new code. To determine which version and
type of distribution you should use, see Section 4.3 [Which version], page 52. When in
doubt, use the binary distribution.
• Installation instructions for binary and source distributions are described in Section 4.6
[Installing binary], page 55 and Section 4.7 [Installing source], page 61. Each set of
instructions includes a section on system-specific problems you may run into.
• For post-installation procedures, see Section 4.16 [Post-installation], page 108. These
procedures apply whether you install MySQL using a binary or source distribution.
4.1 How to Get MySQL
Check the MySQL home page (http://www.mysql.com/) for information about the current
version and for downloading instructions.
Our main download mirror is located at:
http://download.sourceforge.net/mirrors/mysql/
If you are interested in becoming a MySQL mirror site, you may anonymously rsync with:
rsync://download.sourceforge.net/mysql/. Please send e-mail to [email protected]
notifying us of your mirror to be added to the list below.
If you have problems downloading from our main site, try using one of the mirrors listed
below.
Please report bad or out-of-date mirrors to [email protected]
Europe:
• Austria [Univ. of Technology/Vienna] WWW (http://gd.tuwien.ac.at/db/mysql/)
FTP (ftp://gd.tuwien.ac.at/db/mysql/)
• Bulgaria [online.bg/Sofia] WWW (http://mysql.online.bg/) FTP (ftp://mysql.online.bg/)
• Czech Republic [Masaryk University in Brno] WWW (http://mysql.linux.cz/index.html)
FTP (ftp://ftp.fi.muni.cz/pub/mysql/)
• Czech Republic [www.sopik.cz] WWW (http://www.mysql.cz/)
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Chapter 4: Installing MySQL
Czech Republic [www.gin.cz] WWW (http://mysql.gin.cz/) FTP (ftp://ftp.gin.cz/pub/MIRROR
Denmark [Borsen] WWW ( http://mysql.borsen.dk/)
Denmark [SunSITE] WWW (http://SunSITE.auc.dk/mysql/) FTP (ftp://SunSITE.auc.dk/pub/d
Estonia [OKinteractive] WWW (http://mysql.mirror.ok.ee)
France [mtesa.net] WWW (http://mysql.mtesa.net/)
Finland [tonnikala.net] WWW (http://mysql.tonnikala.org/)
Germany [Kernelnotes.de, Bonn] WWW (http://www.kernelnotes.de/mysql/)
FTP (ftp://ftp.kernelnotes.de/pub/mirror/mysql.org/)
Germany [Wolfenbuettel] WWW (http://www.fh-wolfenbuettel.de/ftp/pub/database/mysql/)
FTP (ftp://ftp.fh-wolfenbuettel.de/pub/database/mysql/)
Greece [NTUA, Athens] WWW (http://www.ntua.gr/mysql/) FTP (ftp://ftp.ntua.gr/pub/data
Hungary [Xenia] WWW (http://mysql.sote.hu/) FTP (ftp://xenia.sote.hu/pub/mirrors/www.
Hungary [TiszaneT] WWW (http://mysql.tiszanet.hu/) FTP (ftp://mysql.tiszanet.hu/pub/m
Iceland [GM] WWW (http://mysql.gm.is/) FTP (ftp://ftp.gm.is/pub/mysql/)
Italy [feelinglinux.com] WWW (http://mysql.feelinglinux.com/)
Italy [Teta Srl] WWW (http://www.teta.it/mysql/)
Italy [tzone.it] WWW (http://mysql.tzone.it/)
Ireland [Esat Net] WWW (http://ftp.esat.net/mirrors/download.sourceforge.net/pub/mirror
FTP (ftp://ftp.esat.net/mirrors/download.sourceforge.net/pub/mirrors/mysql/)
Latvia [linux.lv] FTP (ftp://ftp.linux.lv/pub/software/mysql/)
Netherlands [Silverpoint] WWW (http://mysql.silverpoint.nl/)
Netherlands [Widexs BV] WWW (http://mysql.widexs.nl/) FTP (ftp://mysql.widexs.nl/pub/m
Netherlands [ProServe] WWW (http://mysql.proserve.nl/)
Poland [Sunsite] WWW (http://sunsite.icm.edu.pl/mysql/) FTP (ftp://sunsite.icm.edu.pl/p
Poland [ncservice.com/Gdansk] WWW (http://mysql.service.net.pl/)
Portugal [Netc] WWW (http://ftp.netc.pt/pub/mysql/) FTP (ftp://ftp.netc.pt/pub/mysql/)
Romania [roedu.net/Bucharest] FTP (ftp://ftp.roedu.net/pub/mirrors/ftp.mysql.com/)
Russia [DirectNet] WWW (http://mysql.directnet.ru/) FTP (ftp://ftp.dn.ru/pub/MySQL/)
Russia [Scientific Center/Chernogolovka] FTP (ftp://ftp.chg.ru/pub/databases/mysql/)
Switzerland [Sunsite] WWW (http://sunsite.cnlab-switch.ch/ftp/mirror/mysql/)
FTP (ftp://sunsite.cnlab-switch.ch/mirror/mysql/)
UK [Omnipotent/UK] WWW (http://mysql.omnipotent.net/) FTP (ftp://mysql.omnipotent.ne
UK [PLiG/UK] WWW (http://ftp.plig.org/pub/mysql/) FTP (ftp://ftp.plig.org/pub/mysql
UK [Telekon Internet/UK] FTP (ftp://ftp.telekon.co.uk/pub/mysql/)
Ukraine [PACO] WWW (http://mysql.paco.net.ua) FTP (ftp://mysql.paco.net.ua/)
Ukraine [ISP Alkar Teleport/Dnepropetrovsk] WWW (http://mysql.dp.ua/)
North America:
• Canada [Tryc] WWW (http://web.tryc.on.ca/mysql/)
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• USA [Hurricane Electric/San Jose] WWW (http://mysql.he.net/)
• USA [ValueClick, Los Angeles CA] WWW (http://mysql.valueclick.com/) FTP
(ftp://mysql.valueclick.com/mysql/)
• USA [Wisconsin University/Wisconsin] WWW (http://mirror.sit.wisc.edu/mysql/)
FTP (ftp://mirror.sit.wisc.edu/mirrors/mysql/)
• USA [LinuxWired/Scottsdale, AZ] WWW (http://mysql.linuxwired.net/) FTP
(ftp://ftp.linuxwired.net/pub/mirrors/mysql/)
• USA [adgrafix.com/Boston, MA] WWW (http://mysql.adgrafix.com/)
South America:
• Argentina [bannerlandia.com] WWW (http://mysql.bannerlandia.com.ar/) FTP
(ftp://mysql.bannerlandia.com.ar/mirrors/mysql/)
• Chile [Vision] WWW (http://mysql.vision.cl/)
• Chile [PSINet] WWW (http://mysql.psinet.cl/) FTP (ftp://ftp.psinet.cl/pub/database/mys
• Chile [Tecnoera] WWW (http://mysql.tecnoera.com/)
Asia:
• China [Freecode] WWW (http://www.freecode.net.cn/mirror/mysql/)
• China [linuxforum.net] WWW (http://www2.linuxforum.net/mirror/mysql/)
• China [ISL/Hong Kong] WWW (http://mysql.islnet.net)
• China [xcyber.org/Hong Kong] WWW (http://mysql.xcyber.org/)
• South Korea [Webiiz] WWW (http://mysql.webiiz.com/)
• South Korea [PanworldNet] WWW (http://mysql.holywar.net/)
• Japan [Soft Agency] WWW (http://www.softagency.co.jp/MySQL)
• Japan [u-aizu.ac.jp/Aizu] FTP (ftp://ftp.u-aizu.ac.jp/ftp/pub/dbms/mysql/mysql.com)
• Singapore [HJC] WWW (http://mysql.hjc.edu.sg) FTP (ftp://ftp.hjc.edu.sg/mysql)
• Taiwan [TTN] WWW (http://mysql.ttn.net)
• Taiwan [nctu.edu/HsinChu] WWW (http://mysql.nctu.edu.tw/)
Australia:
• Australia [AARNet/Queensland] WWW (http://mysql.mirror.aarnet.edu.au/)
FTP (ftp://mysql.mirror.aarnet.edu.au/)
Africa:
• South-Africa [Mweb] WWW (http://www.mysql.mweb.co.za/)
• South Africa [The Internet Solution/Johannesburg] FTP (ftp://ftp.is.co.za/linux/mysql/)
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4.2 Operating Systems Supported by MySQL
We use GNU Autoconf, so it is possible to port MySQL to all modern systems with working
Posix threads and a C++ compiler. (To compile only the client code, a C++ compiler is
required but not threads.) We use and develop the software ourselves primarily on Sun
Solaris (Versions 2.5 - 2.7) and SuSE Linux Version 7.x.
Note that for many operating systems, the native thread support works only in the latest
versions. MySQL has been reported to compile successfully on the following operating
system/thread package combinations:
• AIX 4.x with native threads. See Section 4.12.15 [IBM-AIX], page 94.
• Amiga.
• BSDI 2.x with the included MIT-pthreads package. See Section 4.12.12 [BSDI], page 90.
• BSDI 3.0, 3.1 and 4.x with native threads. See Section 4.12.12 [BSDI], page 90.
• DEC Unix 4.x with native threads. See Section 4.12.6 [Alpha-DEC-UNIX], page 85.
• FreeBSD 2.x with the included MIT-pthreads package. See Section 4.12.9 [FreeBSD],
page 89.
• FreeBSD 3.x and 4.x with native threads. See Section 4.12.9 [FreeBSD], page 89.
• HP-UX 10.20 with the included MIT-pthreads package. See Section 4.12.16 [HP-UX
10.20], page 95.
• HP-UX 11.x with the native threads. See Section 4.12.17 [HP-UX 11.x], page 96.
• Linux 2.0+ with LinuxThreads 0.7.1+ or glibc 2.0.7+. See Section 4.12.5 [Linux],
page 79.
• Mac OS X Server. See Section 4.12.18 [Mac OS X], page 97.
• NetBSD 1.3/1.4 Intel and NetBSD 1.3 Alpha (Requires GNU make).
tion 4.12.10 [NetBSD], page 90.
See Sec-
• OpenBSD > 2.5 with native therads. OpenBSD < 2.5 with the included MIT-pthreads
package. See Section 4.12.11 [OpenBSD], page 90.
• OS/2 Warp 3, FixPack 29 and OS/2 Warp 4, FixPack 4. See Section 4.14 [OS/2],
page 106.
• SGI Irix 6.x with native threads. See Section 4.12.8 [SGI-Irix], page 88.
• Solaris 2.5 and above with native threads on SPARC and x86. See Section 4.12.1
[Solaris], page 75.
• SunOS 4.x with the included MIT-pthreads package. See Section 4.12.1 [Solaris],
page 75.
• SCO OpenServer with a recent port of the FSU Pthreads package. See Section 4.12.13
[SCO], page 92.
• SCO UnixWare 7.0.1. See Section 4.12.14 [SCO Unixware], page 93.
• Tru64 Unix
• Win95, Win98, NT, and Win2000. See Section 4.13 [Windows], page 98.
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Note that not all platforms are suited equally well for running MySQL. How well a certain platform is suited for a high-load mission critical MySQL server is determined by the
following factors:
General stability of the thread library. A platform may have excellent reputation
otherwise, but if the thread library is unstable in the code that is called by MySQL,
even if everything else is perfect, MySQL will be only as stable as the thread library.
The ability of the kernel and/or thread library to take advantage of SMP on multiprocessor systems. In other words, when a process creates a thread, it should be
possible for that thread to run on a different CPU than the original process.
The ability of the kernel and/or the thread library to run many threads which acquire/release a mutex over a short critical region frequently without excessive context
switches. In other words, if the implementation of pthread_mutex_lock() is too anxious to yield CPU, this will hurt MySQL tremendously. If this issue is not taken care
of, adding extra CPUs will actually make MySQL slower.
General file system stability/performance.
Ability of the file system to deal with large files at all and deal with them efficiently, if
your tables are big.
Our level of expertise here at MySQL AB with the platform. If we know a platform
well, we introduce platform-specific optimizations/fixes enabled at compile time. We
can also provide advice on configuring your system optimally for MySQL.
The amount of testing of similar configurations we have done internally.
The number of users that have successfully run MySQL on that platform in similar
configurations. If this number is high, the chances of hitting some platform-specific
surprise are much smaller.
Based on the above criteria, the best platforms for running MySQL at this point are x86
with SuSE Linux 7.1, 2.4 kernel and ReiserFS (or any similar Linux distribution) and Sparc
with Solaris 2.7 or 2.8. FreeBSD comes third, but we really hope it will join the top club
once the thread library is improved. We also hope that at some point we will be able to
include all other platforms on which MySQL compiles, runs ok, but not quite with the same
level of stability and performance, into the top category. This will require some effort on
our part in cooperation with the developers of the OS/library components MySQL depends
upon. If you are interested in making one of those components better, are in a position to
influence their development, and need more detailed instructions on what MySQL needs to
run better, send an e-mail to [email protected]
Please note that the comparison above is not to say that one OS is better or worse than the
other in general. We are talking about choosing a particular OS for a dedicated purpose running MySQL, and compare platforms in that regard only. With this in mind, the result
of this comparison would be different if we included more issues into it. And in some cases,
the reason one OS is better than the other could simply be that we have put forth more
effort into testing on and optimizing for that particular platform. We are just stating our
observations to help you make a decision on which platform to use MySQL on in your setup.
4.3 Which MySQL Version to Use
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The first decision to make is whether you want to use the latest development release or the
last stable release:
• Normally, if you are beginning to use MySQL for the first time or trying to port it to
some system for which there is no binary distribution, we recommend going with the
stable release (currently Version 3.23.39. Note that all MySQL releases are checked
with the MySQL benchmarks and an extensive test suite before each release.
• Otherwise, if you are running an old system and want to upgrade, but don’t want to
take chances with a non-seamless upgrade, you should upgrade to the latest in the same
branch you are using (where only the last version number is newer than yours). We
have tried to fix only fatal bugs and make small, relatively safe changes to that version.
The second decision to make is whether you want to use a source distribution or a binary
distribution. In most cases you should probably use a binary distribution, if one exists for
your platform, as this generally will be easier to install than a source distribution.
In the following cases you probably will be better off with a source installation:
• If you want to install MySQL at some explicit location. (The standard binary distributions are “ready to run” at any place, but you may want to get even more flexibility).
• To be able to satisfy different user requirements, we are providing two different binary
versions; One compiled with the non-transactional table handlers, (a small, fast binary),
and one configured with the most important extended options like transaction-safe
tables. Both versions are compiled from the same source distribution. All native MySQL
clients can connect to both MySQL versions.
The extended MySQL binary distribution is marked with the -max suffix and is configured with the same options as mysqld-max. See Section 15.2 [mysqld-max], page 436.
If you want to use the MySQL-Max RPM, you must first install the standard MySQL
RPM.
• If you want to configure mysqld with some extra feature that are NOT in the standard
binary distributions. Here is a list of the most common extra options that you may
want to use:
• –with-berkeley-db
• –with-innodb
• –with-raid
• –with-libwrap
• –with-named-z-lib (This is done for some of the binaries)
• –with-debug[=full]
• The default binary distribution is normally compiled with support for all characters
sets and should work on a variety of processors from the same processor family.
If you want a faster MySQL server you may want to recompile it with support for only
the character sets you need, use a better compiler (like pgcc) or use compiler options
that are better optimized for your processor.
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• If you have found a bug and reported it to the MySQL development team you will
probably receive a patch that you need to apply to the source distribution to get the
bug fixed.
• If you want to read (and/or modify) the C and C++ code that makes up MySQL,
you should get a source distribution. The source code is always the ultimate manual.
Source distributions also contain more tests and examples than binary distributions.
The MySQL naming scheme uses release numbers that consist of three numbers and a suffix.
For example, a release name like mysql-3.21.17-beta is interpreted like this:
• The first number (3) describes the file format. All Version 3 releases have the same file
format.
• The second number (21) is the release level. Normally there are two to choose from.
One is the release/stable branch (currently 23) and the other is the development branch
(currently 4.0). Normally both are stable, but the development version may have
quirks, missing documentation on new features, or may fail to compile on some systems.
• The third number (17) is the version number within the release level. This is incremented for each new distribution. Usually you want the latest version for the release
level you have chosen.
• The suffix (beta) indicates the stability level of the release. The possible suffixes are:
− alpha indicates that the release contains some large section of new code that hasn’t
been 100% tested. Known bugs (usually there are none) should be documented in
the News section. See Appendix F [News], page 641. There are also new commands
and extensions in most alpha releases. Active development that may involve major
code changes can occur on an alpha release, but everything will be tested before
doing a release. There should be no known bugs in any MySQL release.
− beta means that all new code has been tested. No major new features that could
cause corruption on old code are added. There should be no known bugs. A
version changes from alpha to beta when there haven’t been any reported fatal
bugs within an alpha version for at least a month and we don’t plan to add any
features that could make any old command more unreliable.
− gamma is a beta that has been around a while and seems to work fine. Only minor
fixes are added. This is what many other companies call a release.
− If there is no suffix, it means that the version has been run for a while at many
different sites with no reports of bugs other than platform-specific bugs. Only
critical bug fixes are applied to the release. This is what we call a stable release.
All versions of MySQL are run through our standard tests and benchmarks to ensure that
they are relatively safe to use. Because the standard tests are extended over time to check
for all previously found bugs, the test suite keeps getting better.
Note that all releases have been tested at least with:
An internal test suite
This is part of a production system for a customer. It has many tables with
hundreds of megabytes of data.
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The MySQL benchmark suite
This runs a range of common queries. It is also a test to see whether the
latest batch of optimizations actually made the code faster. See Section 13.7
[Benchmarks], page 428.
The crash-me test
This tries to determine what features the database supports and what its capabilities and limitations are. See Section 13.7 [Benchmarks], page 428.
Another test is that we use the newest MySQL version in our internal production environment, on at least one machine. We have more than 100 gigabytes of data to work with.
4.4 How and When Updates Are Released
MySQL is evolving quite rapidly here at MySQL AB and we want to share this with other
MySQL users. We try to make a release when we have very useful features that others seem
to have a need for.
We also try to help out users who request features that are easy to implement. We take note
of what our licensed users want to have, and we especially take note of what our extended
e-mail supported customers want and try to help them out.
No one has to download a new release. The News section will tell you if the new release
has something you really want. See Appendix F [News], page 641.
We use the following policy when updating MySQL:
• For each minor update, the last number in the version string is incremented. When
there are major new features or minor incompatibilities with previous versions, the
second number in the version string is incremented. When the file format changes, the
first number is increased.
• Stable tested releases are meant to appear about 1-2 times a year, but if small bugs
are found, a release with only bug fixes will be released.
• Working releases are meant to appear about every 1-8 weeks.
• Binary distributions for some platforms will be made by us for major releases. Other
people may make binary distributions for other systems but probably less frequently.
• We usually make patches available as soon as we have located and fixed small bugs.
• For non-critical but annoying bugs, we will make patches available if they are sent to
us. Otherwise we will combine many of them into a larger patch.
• If there is, by any chance, a fatal bug in a release we will make a new release as soon
as possible. We would like other companies to do this, too.
The current stable release is Version 3.23; We have already moved active development to
Version 4.0. Bugs will still be fixed in the stable version. We don’t believe in a complete
freeze, as this also leaves out bug fixes and things that “must be done.” “Somewhat frozen”
means that we may add small things that “almost surely will not affect anything that’s
already working.”
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4.5 Installation Layouts
This section describes the default layout of the directories created by installing binary and
source distributions.
A binary distribution is installed by unpacking it at the installation location you choose
(typically ‘/usr/local/mysql’) and creates the following directories in that location:
Directory
Contents of directory
‘bin’
Client programs and the mysqld server
‘data’
Log files, databases
‘include’
Include (header) files
‘lib’
Libraries
‘scripts’
mysql_install_db
‘share/mysql’
Error message files
‘sql-bench’
Benchmarks
A source distribution is installed after you configure and compile it. By default, the installation step installs files under ‘/usr/local’, in the following subdirectories:
Directory
Contents of directory
‘bin’
Client programs and scripts
‘include/mysql’
Include (header) files
‘info’
Documentation in Info format
‘lib/mysql’
Libraries
‘libexec’
The mysqld server
‘share/mysql’
Error message files
‘sql-bench’
Benchmarks and crash-me test
‘var’
Databases and log files
Within an installation directory, the layout of a source installation differs from that of a
binary installation in the following ways:
• The mysqld server is installed in the ‘libexec’ directory rather than in the ‘bin’
directory.
• The data directory is ‘var’ rather than ‘data’.
• mysql_install_db is installed in the ‘/usr/local/bin’ directory rather than in
‘/usr/local/mysql/scripts’.
• The header file and library directories are ‘include/mysql’ and ‘lib/mysql’ rather
than ‘include’ and ‘lib’.
You can create your own binary installation from a compiled source distribution by executing
the script ‘scripts/make_binary_distribution’.
4.6 Installing a MySQL Binary Distribution
You need the following tools to install a MySQL binary distribution:
• GNU gunzip to uncompress the distribution.
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• A reasonable tar to unpack the distribution. GNU tar is known to work. Sun tar is
known to have problems.
An alternative installation method under Linux is to use RPM (RedHat Package Manager)
distributions. See Section 4.6.1 [Linux-RPM], page 58.
If you run into problems, PLEASE ALWAYS USE mysqlbug when posting questions to
[email protected] Even if the problem isn’t a bug, mysqlbug gathers system information that will help others solve your problem. By not using mysqlbug, you lessen
the likelihood of getting a solution to your problem! You will find mysqlbug in the ‘bin’
directory after you unpack the distribution. See Section 2.3 [Bug reports], page 31.
The basic commands you must execute to install and use a MySQL binary distribution are:
shell> groupadd mysql
shell> useradd -g mysql mysql
shell> cd /usr/local
shell> gunzip < /path/to/mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz | tar xvf shell> ln -s mysql-VERSION-OS mysql
shell> cd mysql
shell> scripts/mysql_install_db
shell> chown -R root /usr/local/mysql
shell> chown -R mysql /usr/local/mysql/data
shell> chgrp -R mysql /usr/local/mysql
shell> chown -R root /usr/local/mysql/bin/
shell> bin/safe_mysqld --user=mysql &
You can add new users using the bin/mysql_setpermission script if you install the DBI
and Msql-Mysql-modules Perl modules.
A more detailed description follows.
To install a binary distribution, follow the steps below, then proceed to Section 4.16 [Postinstallation], page 108, for post-installation setup and testing:
1. Pick the directory under which you want to unpack the distribution, and move into
it. In the example below, we unpack the distribution under ‘/usr/local’ and create a
directory ‘/usr/local/mysql’ into which MySQL is installed. (The following instructions therefore assume you have permission to create files in ‘/usr/local’. If that
directory is protected, you will need to perform the installation as root.)
2. Obtain a distribution file from one of the sites listed in Section 4.1 [Getting MySQL],
page 47.
MySQL binary distributions are provided as compressed tar archives and have names
like ‘mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz’, where VERSION is a number (for example, 3.21.15),
and OS indicates the type of operating system for which the distribution is intended
(for example, pc-linux-gnu-i586).
3. If you see a binary distribution marked with the -max prefix, this means that the
binary has support for transaction-safe tables and other features. See Section 15.2
[mysqld-max], page 436. Note that all binaries are built from the same MySQL source
distribution.
4. Add a user and group for mysqld to run as:
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shell> groupadd mysql
shell> useradd -g mysql mysql
These commands add the mysql group and the mysql user. The syntax for useradd
and groupadd may differ slightly on different versions of Unix. They may also be
called adduser and addgroup. You may wish to call the user and group something else
instead of mysql.
5. Change into the intended installation directory:
shell> cd /usr/local
6. Unpack the distribution and create the installation directory:
shell> gunzip < /path/to/mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz | tar xvf shell> ln -s mysql-VERSION-OS mysql
The first command creates a directory named ‘mysql-VERSION-OS’. The second command makes a symbolic link to that directory. This lets you refer more easily to the
installation directory as ‘/usr/local/mysql’.
7. Change into the installation directory:
shell> cd mysql
You will find several files and subdirectories in the mysql directory. The most important
for installation purposes are the ‘bin’ and ‘scripts’ subdirectories.
‘bin’
This directory contains client programs and the server You should add
the full pathname of this directory to your PATH environment variable so
that your shell finds the MySQL programs properly. See Appendix A
[Environment variables], page 611.
‘scripts’
This directory contains the mysql_install_db script used to initialize the
mysql database containing the grant tables that store the server access
permissions.
8. If you would like to use mysqlaccess and have the MySQL distribution in some nonstandard place, you must change the location where mysqlaccess expects to find the
mysql client. Edit the ‘bin/mysqlaccess’ script at approximately line 18. Search for
a line that looks like this:
$MYSQL
= ’/usr/local/bin/mysql’;
# path to mysql executable
Change the path to reflect the location where mysql actually is stored on your system.
If you do not do this, you will get a Broken pipe error when you run mysqlaccess.
9. Create the MySQL grant tables (necessary only if you haven’t installed MySQL before):
shell> scripts/mysql_install_db
Note that MySQL versions older than Version 3.22.10 started the MySQL server when
you run mysql_install_db. This is no longer true!
10. Change ownership of binaries to root and ownership of the data directory to the user
that you will run mysqld as:
shell> chown -R root /usr/local/mysql
shell> chown -R mysql /usr/local/mysql/var
shell> chgrp -R mysql /usr/local/mysql
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The first command changes the owner attribute of the files to the root user, the second
one changes the owner attribute of the data directory to the mysql user, and the third
one changes the group attribute to the mysql group.
11. If you want to install support for the Perl DBI/DBD interface, see Section 4.11 [Perl
support], page 72.
12. If you would like MySQL to start automatically when you boot your machine, you can
copy support-files/mysql.server to the location where your system has its startup
files. More information can be found in the support-files/mysql.server script itself
and in Section 4.16.3 [Automatic start], page 115.
After everything has been unpacked and installed, you should initialize and test your distribution.
You can start the MySQL server with the following command:
shell> bin/safe_mysqld --user=mysql &
See Section 15.3 [safe_mysqld], page 438.
See Section 4.16 [Post-installation], page 108.
4.6.1 Linux RPM Notes
The recommended way to install MySQL on Linux is by using an RPM file. The MySQL
RPMs are currently being built on a RedHat Version 6.2 system but should work on other
versions of Linux that support rpm and use glibc.
If you have problems with an RPM file, for example, if you receive the error “Sorry, the
host ’xxxx’ could not be looked up”, see Section 4.6.3.1 [Binary notes-Linux], page 59.
The RPM files you may want to use are:
• MySQL-VERSION.i386.rpm
The MySQL server. You will need this unless you only want to connect to a MySQL
server running on another machine.
• MySQL-client-VERSION.i386.rpm
The standard MySQL client programs. You probably always want to install this package.
• MySQL-bench-VERSION.i386.rpm
Tests and benchmarks. Requires Perl and msql-mysql-modules RPMs.
• MySQL-devel-VERSION.i386.rpm
Libraries and include files needed if you want to compile other MySQL clients, such as
the Perl modules.
• MySQL-VERSION.src.rpm
This contains the source code for all of the above packages. It can also be used to try
to build RPMs for other architectures (for example, Alpha or SPARC).
To see all files in an RPM package, run:
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shell> rpm -qpl MySQL-VERSION.i386.rpm
To perform a standard minimal installation, run:
shell> rpm -i MySQL-VERSION.i386.rpm MySQL-client-VERSION.i386.rpm
To install just the client package, run:
shell> rpm -i MySQL-client-VERSION.i386.rpm
The RPM places data in ‘/var/lib/mysql’. The RPM also creates the appropriate entries
in ‘/etc/rc.d/’ to start the server automatically at boot time. (This means that if you
have performed a previous installation, you may want to make a copy of your previously
installed MySQL startup file if you made any changes to it, so you don’t lose your changes.)
After installing the RPM file(s), the mysqld daemon should be running and you should now
be able to start using MySQL. See Section 4.16 [Post-installation], page 108.
If something goes wrong, you can find more information in the binary installation chapter.
See Section 4.6 [Installing binary], page 55.
4.6.2 Building Client Programs
If you compile MySQL clients that you’ve written yourself or that you obtain from a third
party, they must be linked using the -lmysqlclient -lz option on the link command. You
may also need to specify a -L option to tell the linker where to find the library. For example, if the library is installed in ‘/usr/local/mysql/lib’, use -L/usr/local/mysql/lib
-lmysqlclient -lz on the link command.
For clients that use MySQL header files, you may need to specify a -I option when you
compile them (for example, -I/usr/local/mysql/include), so the compiler can find the
header files.
4.6.3 System-specific Issues
The following sections indicate some of the issues that have been observed on particular
systems when installing MySQL from a binary distribution or from RPM files.
4.6.3.1 Linux Notes for Binary Distributions
MySQL needs at least Linux Version 2.0.
The binary release is linked with -static, which means you do not normally need to worry
about which version of the system libraries you have. You need not install LinuxThreads,
either. A program linked with -static is slightly bigger than a dynamically linked program
but also slightly faster (3-5%). One problem, however, is that you can’t use user-definable
functions (UDFs) with a statically linked program. If you are going to write or use UDF
functions (this is something only for C or C++ programmers), you must compile MySQL
yourself, using dynamic linking.
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If you are using a libc-based system (instead of a glibc2 system), you will probably get
some problems with hostname resolving and getpwnam() with the binary release. (This
is because glibc unfortunately depends on some external libraries to resolve hostnames
and getpwent(), even when compiled with -static). In this case you probably get the
following error message when you run mysql_install_db:
Sorry, the host ’xxxx’ could not be looked up
or the following error when you try to run mysqld with the --user option:
getpwnam: No such file or directory
You can solve this problem in one of the following ways:
• Get a MySQL source distribution (an RPM or the tar.gz distribution) and install this
instead.
• Execute mysql_install_db --force; This will not execute the resolveip test in
mysql_install_db. The downside is that you can’t use host names in the grant tables; you must use IP numbers instead (except for localhost). If you are using an old
MySQL release that doesn’t support --force, you have to remove the resolveip test
in mysql_install with an editor.
• Start mysqld with su instead of using --user.
The Linux-Intel binary and RPM releases of MySQL are configured for the highest possible
speed. We are always trying to use the fastest stable compiler available.
MySQL Perl support requires Version Perl 5.004 03 or newer.
On some Linux 2.2 versions, you may get the error Resource temporarily unavailable
when you do a lot of new connections to a mysqld server over TCP/IP.
The problem is that Linux has a delay between when you close a TCP/IP socket and until
this is actually freed by the system. As there is only room for a finite number of TCP/IP
slots, you will get the above error if you try to do too many new TCP/IP connections during
a small time, like when you run the MySQL ‘test-connect’ benchmark over TCP/IP.
We have mailed about this problem a couple of times to different Linux mailing lists but
have never been able to resolve this properly.
The only known ’fix’ to this problem is to use persistent connections in your clients or use
sockets, if you are running the database server and clients on the same machine. We hope
that the Linux 2.4 kernel will fix this problem in the future.
4.6.3.2 HP-UX Notes for Binary Distributions
Some of the binary distributions of MySQL for HP-UX is distributed as an HP depot file
and as a tar file. To use the depot file you must be running at least HP-UX 10.x to have
access to HP’s software depot tools.
The HP version of MySQL was compiled on an HP 9000/8xx server under HP-UX 10.20,
and uses MIT-pthreads. It is known to work well under this configuration. MySQL Version
3.22.26 and newer can also be built with HP’s native thread package.
Other configurations that may work:
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• HP 9000/7xx running HP-UX 10.20+
• HP 9000/8xx running HP-UX 10.30
The following configurations almost definitely won’t work:
• HP 9000/7xx or 8xx running HP-UX 10.x where x < 2
• HP 9000/7xx or 8xx running HP-UX 9.x
To install the distribution, use one of the commands below, where /path/to/depot is the
full pathname of the depot file:
• To install everything, including the server, client and development tools:
shell> /usr/sbin/swinstall -s /path/to/depot mysql.full
• To install only the server:
shell> /usr/sbin/swinstall -s /path/to/depot mysql.server
• To install only the client package:
shell> /usr/sbin/swinstall -s /path/to/depot mysql.client
• To install only the development tools:
shell> /usr/sbin/swinstall -s /path/to/depot mysql.developer
The depot places binaries and libraries in ‘/opt/mysql’ and data in ‘/var/opt/mysql’. The
depot also creates the appropriate entries in ‘/etc/init.d’ and ‘/etc/rc2.d’ to start the
server automatically at boot time. Obviously, this entails being root to install.
To install the HP-UX tar.gz distribution, you must have a copy of GNU tar.
4.7 Installing a MySQL Source Distribution
Before you proceed with the source installation, check first to see if our binary is available
for your platform and if it will work for you. We put in a lot of effort into making sure that
our binaries are built with the best possible options.
You need the following tools to build and install MySQL from source:
• GNU gunzip to uncompress the distribution.
• A reasonable tar to unpack the distribution. GNU tar is known to work. Sun tar is
known to have problems.
• A working ANSI C++ compiler. gcc >= 2.95.2, egcs >= 1.0.2 or egcs 2.91.66, SGI
C++, and SunPro C++ are some of the compilers that are known to work. libg++ is
not needed when using gcc. gcc 2.7.x has a bug that makes it impossible to compile
some perfectly legal C++ files, such as ‘sql/sql_base.cc’. If you only have gcc 2.7.x,
you must upgrade your gcc to be able to compile MySQL. gcc 2.8.1 is also known to
have problems on some platforms so it should be avoided if there exists a new compiler
for the platform..
gcc >= 2.95.2 is recommended when compiling MySQL Version 3.23.x.
• A good make program. GNU make is always recommended and is sometimes required.
If you have problems, we recommend trying GNU make 3.75 or newer.
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If you are using a recent version of gcc, recent enough to understand -fno-exceptions
option, it is VERY IMPORTANT that you use it. Otherwise, you may compile a binary
that crashes randomly. We also recommend that you use -felide-contructors and -fnortti along with -fno-exceptions. When in doubt, do the following:
CFLAGS="-O3" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" .
On most systems this will give you a fast and stable binary.
If you run into problems, PLEASE ALWAYS USE mysqlbug when posting questions to
[email protected] Even if the problem isn’t a bug, mysqlbug gathers system information that will help others solve your problem. By not using mysqlbug, you lessen the
likelihood of getting a solution to your problem! You will find mysqlbug in the ‘scripts’
directory after you unpack the distribution. See Section 2.3 [Bug reports], page 31.
4.7.1 Quick Installation Overview
The basic commands you must execute to install a MySQL source distribution are:
shell>
shell>
shell>
shell>
shell>
shell>
shell>
shell>
shell>
shell>
shell>
shell>
shell>
groupadd mysql
useradd -g mysql mysql
gunzip < mysql-VERSION.tar.gz | tar -xvf cd mysql-VERSION
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql
make
make install
scripts/mysql_install_db
chown -R root /usr/local/mysql
chown -R mysql /usr/local/mysql/var
chgrp -R mysql /usr/local/mysql
cp support-files/my-medium.cnf /etc/my.cnf
/usr/local/mysql/bin/safe_mysqld --user=mysql &
If you want have support for InnoDB tables, you should edit the /etc/my.cnf file and remove the # character before the parameters that starts with innodb_.... See Section 4.16.5
[Option files], page 121. See Section 8.7.2 [InnoDB start], page 324.
If you start from a source RPM, then do the following:
shell> rpm --rebuild MySQL-VERSION.src.rpm
This will make a binary RPM that you can install.
You can add new users using the bin/mysql_setpermission script if you install the DBI
and Msql-Mysql-modules Perl modules.
A more detailed description follows.
To install a source distribution, follow the steps below, then proceed to Section 4.16 [Postinstallation], page 108, for post-installation initialization and testing:
1. Pick the directory under which you want to unpack the distribution, and move into it.
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2. Obtain a distribution file from one of the sites listed in Section 4.1 [Getting MySQL],
page 47.
3. If you are interested in using Berkeley DB tables with MySQL, you will need to obtain
a patched version of the Berkeley DB source code. Please read the chapter on Berkeley
DB tables before proceeding. See Section 8.5 [BDB], page 309.
MySQL source distributions are provided as compressed tar archives and have names
like ‘mysql-VERSION.tar.gz’, where VERSION is a number like 3.23.39.
4. Add a user and group for mysqld to run as:
shell> groupadd mysql
shell> useradd -g mysql mysql
These commands add the mysql group, and the mysql user. The syntax for useradd
and groupadd may differ slightly on different versions of Unix. They may also be
called adduser and addgroup. You may wish to call the user and group something else
instead of mysql.
5. Unpack the distribution into the current directory:
shell> gunzip < /path/to/mysql-VERSION.tar.gz | tar xvf This command creates a directory named ‘mysql-VERSION’.
6. Change into the top-level directory of the unpacked distribution:
shell> cd mysql-VERSION
Note that currently you must configure and build MySQL from this top-level directory.
You can not build it in a different directory.
7. Configure the release and compile everything:
shell> ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql
shell> make
When you run configure, you might want to specify some options. Run ./configure
--help for a list of options. Section 4.7.3 [configure options], page 65, discusses some
of the more useful options.
If configure fails, and you are going to send mail to [email protected] to ask
for assistance, please include any lines from ‘config.log’ that you think can help
solve the problem. Also include the last couple of lines of output from configure if
configure aborts. Post the bug report using the mysqlbug script. See Section 2.3
[Bug reports], page 31.
If the compile fails, see Section 4.9 [Compilation problems], page 68, for help with a
number of common problems.
8. Install everything:
shell> make install
You might need to run this command as root.
9. Create the MySQL grant tables (necessary only if you haven’t installed MySQL before):
shell> scripts/mysql_install_db
Note that MySQL versions older than Version 3.22.10 started the MySQL server when
you run mysql_install_db. This is no longer true!
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10. Change ownership of binaries to root and ownership of the data directory to the user
that you will run mysqld as:
shell> chown -R root /usr/local/mysql
shell> chown -R mysql /usr/local/mysql/var
shell> chgrp -R mysql /usr/local/mysql
The first command changes the owner attribute of the files to the root user, the second
one changes the owner attribute of the data directory to the mysql user, and the third
one changes the group attribute to the mysql group.
11. If you want to install support for the Perl DBI/DBD interface, see Section 4.11 [Perl
support], page 72.
12. If you would like MySQL to start automatically when you boot your machine, you can
copy support-files/mysql.server to the location where your system has its startup
files. More information can be found in the support-files/mysql.server script itself
and in Section 4.16.3 [Automatic start], page 115.
After everything has been installed, you should initialize and test your distribution:
shell> /usr/local/mysql/bin/safe_mysqld --user=mysql &
If that command fails immediately with mysqld daemon ended then you can find some
information in the file ‘mysql-data-directory/’hostname’.err’. The likely reason is
that you already have another mysqld server running. See Section 22.3 [Multiple servers],
page 530.
See Section 4.16 [Post-installation], page 108.
4.7.2 Applying Patches
Sometimes patches appear on the mailing list or are placed in the patches area (http://www.mysql.com/Dow
of the MySQL Web site.
To apply a patch from the mailing list, save the message in which the patch appears in a file,
change into the top-level directory of your MySQL source tree, and run these commands:
shell> patch -p1 < patch-file-name
shell> rm config.cache
shell> make clean
Patches from the FTP site are distributed as plain text files or as files compressed with gzip.
Apply a plain patch as shown above for mailing list patches. To apply a compressed patch,
change into the top-level directory of your MySQL source tree and run these commands:
shell> gunzip < patch-file-name.gz | patch -p1
shell> rm config.cache
shell> make clean
After applying a patch, follow the instructions for a normal source install, beginning with
the ./configure step. After running the make install step, restart your MySQL server.
You may need to bring down any currently running server before you run make install.
(Use mysqladmin shutdown to do this.) Some systems do not allow you to install a new
version of a program if it replaces the version that is currently executing.
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4.7.3 Typical configure Options
The configure script gives you a great deal of control over how you configure your MySQL
distribution. Typically you do this using options on the configure command line. You can
also affect configure using certain environment variables. See Appendix A [Environment
variables], page 611. For a list of options supported by configure, run this command:
shell> ./configure --help
Some of the more commonly-used configure options are described below:
• To compile just the MySQL client libraries and client programs and not the server, use
the --without-server option:
shell> ./configure --without-server
If you don’t have a C++ compiler, mysql will not compile (it is the one client program
that requires C++). In this case, you can remove the code in configure that tests
for the C++ compiler and then run ./configure with the --without-server option.
The compile step will still try to build mysql, but you can ignore any warnings about
‘mysql.cc’. (If make stops, try make -k to tell it to continue with the rest of the build
even if errors occur.)
• If you don’t want your log files and database directories located under ‘/usr/local/var’,
use a configure command, something like one of these:
shell> ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql
shell> ./configure --prefix=/usr/local \
--localstatedir=/usr/local/mysql/data
The first command changes the installation prefix so that everything is installed under
‘/usr/local/mysql’ rather than the default of ‘/usr/local’. The second command
preserves the default installation prefix, but overrides the default location for database
directories (normally ‘/usr/local/var’) and changes it to /usr/local/mysql/data.
• If you are using Unix and you want the MySQL socket located somewhere other than
the default location (normally in the directory ‘/tmp’ or ‘/var/run’) use a configure
command like this:
shell> ./configure --with-unix-socket-path=/usr/local/mysql/tmp/mysql.sock
Note that the given file must be an absolute pathname!
• If you want to compile statically linked programs (for example, to make a binary
distribution, to get more speed, or to work around problems with some RedHat Linux
distributions), run configure like this:
shell> ./configure --with-client-ldflags=-all-static \
--with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static
• If you are using gcc and don’t have libg++ or libstdc++ installed, you can tell
configure to use gcc as your C++ compiler:
shell> CC=gcc CXX=gcc ./configure
When you use gcc as your C++ compiler, it will not attempt to link in libg++ or
libstdc++.
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Here is some common environment variables to set depending on the compiler you are
using:
gcc 2.7.2.1
egcs 1.0.3a
CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -felide-constructors"
CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -felide-constructors -fnoexceptions -fno-rtti"
gcc 2.95.2
CFLAGS="-O3 -mpentiumpro" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 mpentiumpro -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti"
pgcc 2.90.29 or CFLAGS="-O3 -mpentiumpro -mstack-align-double" CXX=gcc
newer
CXXFLAGS="-O3 -mpentiumpro -mstack-align-double -felideconstructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti"
In most cases you can get a reasonably optimal MySQL binary by using the options
from the above and adding the following options to the configure line:
--prefix=/usr/local/mysql --enable-assembler --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static
The full configure line would in other words be something like the following for all
recent gcc versions:
CFLAGS="-O3 -mpentiumpro" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -mpentiumpro -felide-constructor
The binaries we provide on the MySQL Web site at http://www.mysql.com are all
compiled with full optimization and should be perfect for most users. See Section 4.15
[MySQL binaries], page 107. There are some things you can tweak to make an even
faster binary, but this is only for advanced users. See Section 13.2.1 [Compile and link
options], page 404.
If the build fails and produces errors about your compiler or linker not being able to
create the shared library ‘libmysqlclient.so.#’ (‘#’ is a version number), you can
work around this problem by giving the --disable-shared option to configure. In
this case, configure will not build a shared libmysqlclient.so.# library.
• You can configure MySQL not to use DEFAULT column values for non-NULL columns
(that is, columns that are not allowed to be NULL). This causes INSERT statements
to generate an error unless you explicitly specify values for all columns that require a
non-NULL value. To suppress use of default values, run configure like this:
shell> CXXFLAGS=-DDONT_USE_DEFAULT_FIELDS ./configure
• By default, MySQL uses the ISO-8859-1 (Latin1) character set. To change the default
set, use the --with-charset option:
shell> ./configure --with-charset=CHARSET
CHARSET may be one of big5, cp1251, cp1257, czech, danish, dec8, dos, euc_kr,
gb2312, gbk, german1, hebrew, hp8, hungarian, koi8_ru, koi8_ukr, latin1, latin2,
sjis, swe7, tis620, ujis, usa7, or win1251ukr. See Section 10.1.1 [Character sets],
page 379.
If you want to convert characters between the server and the client, you should take
a look at the SET OPTION CHARACTER SET command. See Section 7.33 [SET OPTION],
page 287.
Warning: If you change character sets after having created any tables, you will have to
run myisamchk -r -q on every table. Your indexes may be sorted incorrectly otherwise.
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(This can happen if you install MySQL, create some tables, then reconfigure MySQL
to use a different character set and reinstall it.)
• To configure MySQL with debugging code, use the --with-debug option:
shell> ./configure --with-debug
This causes a safe memory allocator to be included that can find some errors and that
provides output about what is happening. See Section I.1 [Debugging server], page 721.
• If your client programs are using threads, you need to also compile a thread-safe version
of the MySQL client library with the --with-thread-safe-client configure options.
This will create a libmysqlclient_r library with which you should link your threaded
applications. See Section 24.1.5 [Thread-safe clients], page 583.
• Options that pertain to particular systems can be found in the system-specific sections
later in this chapter. See Section 4.12 [Source install system issues], page 75.
4.8 Installing from the Development Source Tree
CAUTION: You should read this section only if you are interested in helping us test our
new code. If you just want to get MySQL up and running on your system, you should use
a standard release distribution (either a source or binary distribution will do).
To obtain our most recent development source tree, use these instructions:
1. Download BitKeeper from http://www.bitmover.com/cgi-bin/download.cgi. You
will need Bitkeeper 2.0 or newer to access our repository.
2. Follow the instructions to install it.
3. After BitKeeper is installed, use this command if you want to clone the MySQL 3.23
branch:
shell> bk clone bk://work.mysql.com:7000 mysql
To clone the 4.0 branch, use this command instead:
shell> bk clone bk://work.mysql.com:7001 mysql-4.0
The initial download of the source tree may take a while, depending on the speed of
your connection; be patient.
4. You will need GNU autoconf, automake, libtool, and m4 to run the next set of
commands. If you get some strange error during this stage, check that you really have
libtool installed!
shell> cd mysql
shell> bk -r edit
shell> aclocal; autoheader; autoconf; automake;
shell> ./configure # Add your favorite options here
shell> make
A collection of our standard configure scripts is located in the ‘BUILD/’ subdirectory.
If you are lazy, you can use ‘BUILD/compile-pentium-debug’. It will actually work on
a lot of non-x86 machines despite its name.
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5. When the build is done, run make install. Be careful with this on a production
machine; the command may overwrite your live release installation. If you have another
installation of MySQL, we recommand that you run ./configure with different values
for the prefix, tcp-port, and unix-socket-path options than those used for your
production server.
6. Play hard with your new installation and try to make the new features crash. Start by
running make test. See Section 26.2 [MySQL test suite], page 607.
7. If you have gotten to the make stage and the distribution does not compile, please
report it to [email protected] If you have installed the latest versions of the
required GNU tools, and they crash trying to process our configuration files, please
report that also. However, if you execute aclocal and get a command not found error
or a similar problem, do not report it. Instead, make sure all the necessary tools are
installed and that your PATH variable is set correctly so your shell can find them.
8. After the initial bk clone operation to get the source tree, you should run bk pull
periodically to get the updates.
9. You can examine the change history for the tree with all the diffs by using bk sccstool.
If you see some funny diffs or code that you have a question about, do not hesitate to
send e-mail to [email protected] Also, if you think you have a better idea
on how to do something, send an email to the same address with a patch. bk diffs
will produce a patch for you after you have made changes to the source. If you do not
have the time to code your idea, just send a description.
10. BitKeeper has a nice help utility that you can access via bk helptool.
4.9 Problems Compiling?
All MySQL programs compile cleanly for us with no warnings on Solaris using gcc. On other
systems, warnings may occur due to differences in system include files. See Section 4.10
[MIT-pthreads], page 71 for warnings that may occur when using MIT-pthreads. For other
problems, check the list below.
The solution to many problems involves reconfiguring. If you do need to reconfigure, take
note of the following:
• If configure is run after it already has been run, it may use information that was
gathered during its previous invocation. This information is stored in ‘config.cache’.
When configure starts up, it looks for that file and reads its contents if it exists, on
the assumption that the information is still correct. That assumption is invalid when
you reconfigure.
• Each time you run configure, you must run make again to recompile. However, you
may want to remove old object files from previous builds first, because they were
compiled using different configuration options.
To prevent old configuration information or object files from being used, run these commands before rerunning configure:
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shell> rm config.cache
shell> make clean
Alternatively, you can run make distclean.
The list below describes some of the problems compiling MySQL that have been found to
occur most often:
• If you get errors when compiling ‘sql_yacc.cc’, such as the ones shown below, you
have probably run out of memory or swap space:
Internal compiler error: program cc1plus got fatal signal 11
or
Out of virtual memory
or
Virtual memory exhausted
The problem is that gcc requires huge amounts of memory to compile ‘sql_yacc.cc’
with inline functions. Try running configure with the --with-low-memory option:
shell> ./configure --with-low-memory
This option causes -fno-inline to be added to the compile line if you are using gcc
and -O0 if you are using something else. You should try the --with-low-memory option
even if you have so much memory and swap space that you think you can’t possibly
have run out. This problem has been observed to occur even on systems with generous
hardware configurations, and the --with-low-memory option usually fixes it.
• By default, configure picks c++ as the compiler name and GNU c++ links with -lg++.
If you are using gcc, that behavior can cause problems during configuration such as
this:
configure: error: installation or configuration problem:
C++ compiler cannot create executables.
You might also observe problems during compilation related to g++, libg++, or
libstdc++.
One cause of these problems is that you may not have g++, or you may have g++ but
not libg++, or libstdc++. Take a look at the ‘config.log’ file. It should contain the
exact reason why your c++ compiler didn’t work! To work around these problems, you
can use gcc as your C++ compiler. Try setting the environment variable CXX to "gcc
-O3". For example:
shell> CXX="gcc -O3" ./configure
This works because gcc compiles C++ sources as well as g++ does, but does not link in
libg++ or libstdc++ by default.
Another way to fix these problems, of course, is to install g++, libg++ and libstdc++.
• If your compile fails with errors, such as any of the following, you must upgrade your
version of make to GNU make:
making all in mit-pthreads
make: Fatal error in reader: Makefile, line 18:
Badly formed macro assignment
or
make: file ‘Makefile’ line 18: Must be a separator (:
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or
pthread.h: No such file or directory
Solaris and FreeBSD are known to have troublesome make programs.
GNU make Version 3.75 is known to work.
• If you want to define flags to be used by your C or C++ compilers, do so by adding
the flags to the CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS environment variables. You can also specify the
compiler names this way using CC and CXX. For example:
shell> CC=gcc
shell> CFLAGS=-O3
shell> CXX=gcc
shell> CXXFLAGS=-O3
shell> export CC CFLAGS CXX CXXFLAGS
See Section 4.15 [MySQL binaries], page 107, for a list of flag definitions that have been
found to be useful on various systems.
• If you get an error message like this, you need to upgrade your gcc compiler:
client/libmysql.c:273: parse error before ‘__attribute__’
gcc 2.8.1 is known to work, but we recommend using gcc 2.95.2 or egcs 1.0.3a instead.
• If you get errors such as those shown below when compiling mysqld, configure
didn’t correctly detect the type of the last argument to accept(), getsockname(), or
getpeername():
cxx: Error: mysqld.cc, line 645: In this statement, the referenced
type of the pointer value "&length" is "unsigned long", which
is not compatible with "int".
new_sock = accept(sock, (struct sockaddr *)&cAddr, &length);
To fix this, edit the ‘config.h’ file (which is generated by configure). Look for these
lines:
/* Define as the base type of the last arg to accept */
#define SOCKET_SIZE_TYPE XXX
Change XXX to size_t or int, depending on your operating system. (Note that you
will have to do this each time you run configure, because configure regenerates
‘config.h’.)
• The ‘sql_yacc.cc’ file is generated from ‘sql_yacc.yy’. Normally the build process doesn’t need to create ‘sql_yacc.cc’, because MySQL comes with an alreadygenerated copy. However, if you do need to re-create it, you might encounter this
error:
"sql_yacc.yy", line xxx fatal: default action causes potential...
This is a sign that your version of yacc is deficient. You probably need to install bison
(the GNU version of yacc) and use that instead.
• If you need to debug mysqld or a MySQL client, run configure with the --with-debug
option, then recompile and link your clients with the new client library. See Section I.2
[Debugging client], page 726.
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4.10 MIT-pthreads Notes
This section describes some of the issues involved in using MIT-pthreads.
Note that on Linux you should NOT use MIT-pthreads but install LinuxThreads! See
Section 4.12.5 [Linux], page 79.
If your system does not provide native thread support, you will need to build MySQL using
the MIT-pthreads package. This includes older FreeBSD systems, SunOS 4.x, Solaris 2.4
and earlier, and some others. See Section 4.2 [Which OS], page 50.
• On most systems, you can force MIT-pthreads to be used by running configure with
the --with-mit-threads option:
shell> ./configure --with-mit-threads
Building in a non-source directory is not supported when using MIT-pthreads, because
we want to minimize our changes to this code.
• The checks that determine whether or not to use MIT-pthreads occur only during the
part of the configuration process that deals with the server code. If you have configured
the distribution using --without-server to build only the client code, clients will not
know whether or not MIT-pthreads is being used and will use Unix socket connections
by default. Because Unix sockets do not work under MIT-pthreads, this means you
will need to use -h or --host when you run client programs.
• When MySQL is compiled using MIT-pthreads, system locking is disabled by default
for performance reasons. You can tell the server to use system locking with the --uselocking option.
• Sometimes the pthread bind() command fails to bind to a socket without any error
message (at least on Solaris). The result is that all connections to the server fail. For
example:
shell> mysqladmin version
mysqladmin: connect to server at ’’ failed;
error: ’Can’t connect to mysql server on localhost (146)’
The solution to this is to kill the mysqld server and restart it. This has only happened
to us when we have forced the server down and done a restart immediately.
• With MIT-pthreads, the sleep() system call isn’t interruptible with SIGINT (break).
This is only noticeable when you run mysqladmin --sleep. You must wait for the
sleep() call to terminate before the interrupt is served and the process stops.
• When linking, you may receive warning messages like these (at least on Solaris); they
can be ignored:
ld: warning: symbol ‘_iob’ has differing sizes:
(file /my/local/pthreads/lib/libpthread.a(findfp.o) value=0x4;
file /usr/lib/libc.so value=0x140);
/my/local/pthreads/lib/libpthread.a(findfp.o) definition taken
ld: warning: symbol ‘__iob’ has differing sizes:
(file /my/local/pthreads/lib/libpthread.a(findfp.o) value=0x4;
file /usr/lib/libc.so value=0x140);
/my/local/pthreads/lib/libpthread.a(findfp.o) definition taken
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• Some other warnings also can be ignored:
implicit declaration of function ‘int strtoll(...)’
implicit declaration of function ‘int strtoul(...)’
• We haven’t gotten readline to work with MIT-pthreads. (This isn’t needed, but may
be interesting for someone.)
4.11 Perl Installation Comments
4.11.1 Installing Perl on Unix
Perl support for MySQL is provided by means of the DBI/DBD client interface. See Section 24.2 [Perl], page 584. The Perl DBD/DBI client code requires Perl Version 5.004 or later.
The interface will not work if you have an older version of Perl.
MySQL Perl support also requires that you’ve installed MySQL client programming support.
If you installed MySQL from RPM files, client programs are in the client RPM, but client
programming support is in the developer RPM. Make sure you’ve installed the latter RPM.
As of Version 3.22.8, Perl support is distributed separately from the main MySQL distribution. If you want to install Perl support, the files you will need can be obtained from
http://www.mysql.com/Downloads/Contrib/.
The Perl distributions are provided as compressed tar archives and have names like
‘MODULE-VERSION.tar.gz’, where MODULE is the module name and VERSION is the version
number. You should get the Data-Dumper, DBI, and Msql-Mysql-modules distributions and
install them in that order. The installation procedure is shown below. The example shown
is for the Data-Dumper module, but the procedure is the same for all three distributions:
1. Unpack the distribution into the current directory:
shell> gunzip < Data-Dumper-VERSION.tar.gz | tar xvf This command creates a directory named ‘Data-Dumper-VERSION’.
2. Change into the top-level directory of the unpacked distribution:
shell> cd Data-Dumper-VERSION
3. Build the distribution and compile everything:
shell> perl Makefile.PL
shell> make
shell> make test
shell> make install
The make test command is important because it verifies that the module is working. Note
that when you run that command during the Msql-Mysql-modules installation to exercise
the interface code, the MySQL server must be running or the test will fail.
It is a good idea to rebuild and reinstall the Msql-Mysql-modules distribution whenever
you install a new release of MySQL, particularly if you notice symptoms such as all your
DBI scripts dumping core after you upgrade MySQL.
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If you don’t have the right to install Perl modules in the system directory or if you to install
local Perl modules, the following reference may help you:
http://www.iserver.com/support/contrib/perl5/modules.html
Look under the heading Installing New Modules that Require Locally Installed Modules.
4.11.2 Installing ActiveState Perl on Windows
To install the MySQL DBD module with ActiveState Perl on Windows, you should do the
following:
• Get ActiveState Perl from http://www.activestate.com/Products/ActivePerl/index.html
and install it.
• Open a DOS shell.
• If required, set the HTTP proxy variable. For example, you might try:
set HTTP_proxy=my.proxy.com:3128
• Start the PPM program:
C:\> c:\perl\bin\ppm.pl
• If you have not already done so, install DBI:
ppm> install DBI
• If this succeeds, run the following command:
install ftp://ftp.de.uu.net/pub/CPAN/authors/id/JWIED/DBD-mysql-1.2212.x86.ppd
The above should work at least with ActiveState Perl Version 5.6.
If you can’t get the above to work, you should instead install the MyODBC driver and
connect to MySQL server through ODBC:
use DBI;
$dbh= DBI->connect("DBI:ODBC:$dsn","$user","$password") ||
die "Got error $DBI::errstr when connecting to $dsn\n";
4.11.3 Installing the MySQL Perl Distribution on Windows
The MySQL Perl distribution contains DBI, DBD:MySQL and DBD:ODBC.
• Get the Perl distribution for Windows from http://www.mysql.com/download.html.
• Unzip the distribution in C: so that you get a ‘C:\PERL’ directory.
• Add the directory ‘C:\PERL\BIN’ to your path.
• Add the directory ‘C:\PERL\BIN\MSWIN32-x86-thread’ or ‘C:\PERL\BIN\MSWIN32-x86’
to your path.
• Test that perl works by executing perl -v in a DOS shell.
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4.11.4 Problems Using the Perl DBI/DBD Interface
If Perl reports that it can’t find the ‘../mysql/mysql.so’ module, then the problem is
probably that Perl can’t locate the shared library ‘libmysqlclient.so’.
You can fix this by any of the following methods:
• Compile the Msql-Mysql-modules distribution with perl Makefile.PL -static config rather than perl Makefile.PL.
• Copy libmysqlclient.so to the directory where your other shared libraries are located
(probably ‘/usr/lib’ or ‘/lib’).
• On Linux you can add the pathname of the directory where ‘libmysqlclient.so’ is
located to the ‘/etc/ld.so.conf’ file.
• Add the pathname of the directory where ‘libmysqlclient.so’ is located to the LD_
RUN_PATH environment variable.
If you get the following errors from DBD-mysql, you are probably using gcc (or using an old
binary compiled with gcc):
/usr/bin/perl: can’t resolve symbol ’__moddi3’
/usr/bin/perl: can’t resolve symbol ’__divdi3’
Add -L/usr/lib/gcc-lib/... -lgcc to the link command when the ‘mysql.so’ library
gets built (check the output from make for ‘mysql.so’ when you compile the Perl client).
The -L option should specify the pathname of the directory where ‘libgcc.a’ is located on
your system.
Another cause of this problem may be that Perl and MySQL aren’t both compiled with
gcc. In this case, you can solve the mismatch by compiling both with gcc.
If you get the following error from Msql-Mysql-modules when you run the tests:
t/00base............install_driver(mysql) failed: Can’t load ’../blib/arch/auto/DBD/
it means that you need to include the compression library, -lz, to the link line. This can be
doing the following change in the file ‘lib/DBD/mysql/Install.pm’:
$sysliblist .= " -lm";
to
$sysliblist .= " -lm -lz";
After this, you MUST run ’make realclean’ and then proceed with the installation from the
beginning.
If you want to use the Perl module on a system that doesn’t support dynamic linking (like
SCO) you can generate a static version of Perl that includes DBI and DBD-mysql. The way
this works is that you generate a version of Perl with the DBI code linked in and install it
on top of your current Perl. Then you use that to build a version of Perl that additionally
has the DBD code linked in, and install that.
On SCO, you must have the following environment variables set:
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shell>
or
shell>
shell>
shell>
LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/lib:/usr/lib:/usr/local/lib:/usr/progressive/lib
LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/usr/lib:/lib:/usr/local/lib:/usr/ccs/lib:/usr/progressive/li
LIBPATH=/usr/lib:/lib:/usr/local/lib:/usr/ccs/lib:/usr/progressive/lib:/usr/s
MANPATH=scohelp:/usr/man:/usr/local1/man:/usr/local/man:/usr/skunk/man:
First, create a Perl that includes a statically linked DBI by running these commands in the
directory where your DBI distribution is located:
shell>
shell>
shell>
shell>
perl Makefile.PL -static -config
make
make install
make perl
Then you must install the new Perl. The output of make perl will indicate the exact make
command you will need to execute to perform the installation. On SCO, this is make -f
Makefile.aperl inst_perl MAP_TARGET=perl.
Next, use the just-created Perl to create another Perl that also includes a statically-linked
DBD::mysql by running these commands in the directory where your Msql-Mysql-modules
distribution is located:
shell>
shell>
shell>
shell>
perl Makefile.PL -static -config
make
make install
make perl
Finally, you should install this new Perl. Again, the output of make perl indicates the
command to use.
4.12 System-specific Issues
The following sections indicate some of the issues that have been observed to occur on
particular systems when installing MySQL from a source distribution.
4.12.1 Solaris Notes
On Solaris, you may run into trouble even before you get the MySQL distribution unpacked!
Solaris tar can’t handle long file names, so you may see an error like this when you unpack
MySQL:
x mysql-3.22.12-beta/bench/Results/ATIS-mysql_odbc-NT_4.0-cmp-db2,informix,ms-sql,my
tar: directory checksum error
In this case, you must use GNU tar (gtar) to unpack the distribution. You can find a
precompiled copy for Solaris at http://www.mysql.com/Downloads/.
Sun native threads work only on Solaris 2.5 and higher. For Version 2.4 and earlier, MySQL
will automatically use MIT-pthreads. See Section 4.10 [MIT-pthreads], page 71.
If you get the following error from configure:
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checking for restartable system calls... configure: error can not run test
programs while cross compiling
This means that you have something wrong with your compiler installation! In this case
you should upgrade your compiler to a newer version. You may also be able to solve this
problem by inserting the following row into the ‘config.cache’ file:
ac_cv_sys_restartable_syscalls=${ac_cv_sys_restartable_syscalls=’no’}
If you are using Solaris on a SPARC, the recommended compiler is gcc 2.95.2. You can
find this at http://gcc.gnu.org/. Note that egcs 1.1.1 and gcc 2.8.1 don’t work reliably
on SPARC!
The recommended configure line when using gcc 2.95.2 is:
CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3" \
CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-low-memory --enable-assembler
If you have a ultra sparc, you can get 4 % more performance by adding "-mcpu=v8 -Wa,xarch=v8plusa" to CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS.
If you have the Sun Workshop (SunPro) 4.2 (or newer) compiler, you can run configure
like this:
CC=cc CFLAGS="-Xa -fast -xO4 -native -xstrconst -mt" \
CXX=CC CXXFLAGS="-noex -xO4 -mt" \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --enable-assembler
You may also have to edit the configure script to change this line:
#if !defined(__STDC__) || __STDC__ != 1
to this:
#if !defined(__STDC__)
If you turn on __STDC__ with the -Xc option, the Sun compiler can’t compile with the
Solaris ‘pthread.h’ header file. This is a Sun bug (broken compiler or broken include file).
If mysqld issues the error message shown below when you run it, you have tried to compile
MySQL with the Sun compiler without enabling the multi-thread option (-mt):
libc internal error: _rmutex_unlock: rmutex not held
Add -mt to CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS and try again.
If you get the following error when compiling MySQL with gcc, it means that your gcc is
not configured for your version of Solaris:
shell> gcc -O3 -g -O2 -DDBUG_OFF -o thr_alarm ...
./thr_alarm.c: In function ‘signal_hand’:
./thr_alarm.c:556: too many arguments to function ‘sigwait’
The proper thing to do in this case is to get the newest version of gcc and compile it with
your current gcc compiler! At least for Solaris 2.5, almost all binary versions of gcc have
old, unusable include files that will break all programs that use threads (and possibly other
programs)!
Solaris doesn’t provide static versions of all system libraries (libpthreads and libdl), so
you can’t compile MySQL with --static. If you try to do so, you will get the error:
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ld: fatal: library -ldl: not found
If too many processes try to connect very rapidly to mysqld, you will see this error in the
MySQL log:
Error in accept: Protocol error
You might try starting the server with the --set-variable back_log=50 option as a
workaround for this. See Section 4.16.4 [Command-line options], page 116.
If you are linking your own MySQL client, you might get the following error when you try
to execute it:
ld.so.1: ./my: fatal: libmysqlclient.so.#: open failed: No such file or directory
The problem can be avoided by one of the following methods:
• Link the client with the following flag (instead of -Lpath): -Wl,r/full-path-tolibmysqlclient.so.
• Copy ‘libmysqclient.so’ to ‘/usr/lib’.
• Add the pathname of the directory where ‘libmysqlclient.so’ is located to the LD_
RUN_PATH environment variable before running your client.
When using the --with-libwrap configure option, you must also include the libraries that
‘libwrap.a’ needs:
--with-libwrap="/opt/NUtcpwrapper-7.6/lib/libwrap.a -lnsl -lsocket
If you have problems with configure trying to link with -lz and you don’t have zlib
installed, you have two options:
• If you want to be able to use the compressed communication protocol, you need to get
and install zlib from ftp.gnu.org.
• Configure with --with-named-z-libs=no.
If you are using gcc and have problems with loading UDF functions into MySQL, try adding
-lgcc to the link line for the UDF function.
If you would like MySQL to start automatically, you can copy ‘support-files/mysql.server’
to ‘/etc/init.d’ and create a symbolic link to it named ‘/etc/rc3.d/S99mysql.server’.
4.12.2 Solaris 2.7/2.8 Notes
You can normally use a Solaris 2.6 binary on Solaris 2.7 and 2.8. Most of the Solaris 2.6
issues also apply for Solaris 2.7 and 2.8.
Note that MySQL Version 3.23.4 and above should be able to autodetect new versions of
Solaris and enable workarounds for the following problems!
Solaris 2.7 / 2.8 has some bugs in the include files. You may see the following error when
you use gcc:
/usr/include/widec.h:42: warning: ‘getwc’ redefined
/usr/include/wchar.h:326: warning: this is the location of the previous
definition
If this occurs, you can do the following to fix the problem:
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Copy /usr/include/widec.h to .../lib/gcc-lib/os/gcc-version/include and change
line 41 from:
#if
!defined(lint) && !defined(__lint)
to
#if
!defined(lint) && !defined(__lint) && !defined(getwc)
Alternatively, you can edit ‘/usr/include/widec.h’ directly. Either way, after you make
the fix, you should remove ‘config.cache’ and run configure again!
If you get errors like this when you run make, it’s because configure didn’t detect the
‘curses.h’ file (probably because of the error in ‘/usr/include/widec.h’):
In file included from mysql.cc:50:
/usr/include/term.h:1060: syntax error before ‘,’
/usr/include/term.h:1081: syntax error before ‘;’
The solution to this is to do one of the following:
• Configure with CFLAGS=-DHAVE_CURSES_H CXXFLAGS=-DHAVE_CURSES_H ./configure.
• Edit ‘/usr/include/widec.h’ as indicted above and rerun configure.
• Remove the #define HAVE_TERM line from ‘config.h’ file and run make again.
If you get a problem that your linker can’t find -lz when linking your client program, the
problem is probably that your ‘libz.so’ file is installed in ‘/usr/local/lib’. You can fix
this by one of the following methods:
• Add ‘/usr/local/lib’ to LD_LIBRARY_PATH.
• Add a link to ‘libz.so’ from ‘/lib’.
• If you are using Solaris 8, you can install the optional zlib from your Solaris 8 CD
distribution.
• Configure MySQL with the --with-named-z-libs=no option.
4.12.3 Solaris x86 Notes
On Solaris 2.8 on x86, mysqld will core dump if you run ’strip’ in.
If you are using gcc or egcs on Solaris x86 and you experience problems with core dumps
under load, you should use the following configure command:
CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3 -fomit-frame-pointer -DHAVE_CURSES_H" \
CXX=gcc \
CXXFLAGS="-O3 -fomit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti -D
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql
This will avoid problems with the libstdc++ library and with C++ exceptions.
If this doesn’t help, you should compile a debug version and run it with a trace file or under
gdb. See Section I.1.3 [Using gdb on mysqld], page 722.
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4.12.4 SunOS 4 Notes
On SunOS 4, MIT-pthreads is needed to compile MySQL, which in turn means you will
need GNU make.
Some SunOS 4 systems have problems with dynamic libraries and libtool. You can use
the following configure line to avoid this problem:
shell> ./configure --disable-shared --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static
When compiling readline, you may get warnings about duplicate defines. These may be
ignored.
When compiling mysqld, there will be some implicit declaration of function warnings.
These may be ignored.
4.12.5 Linux Notes (All Linux Versions)
The notes below regarding glibc apply only to the situation when you build MySQL yourself.
If you are running Linux on an x86 machine, in most cases it is much better for you to just
use our binary. We link our binaries against the best patched version of glibc we can come
up with and with the best compiler options, in an attempt to make it suitable for a highload server. So if you read the text below, and are in doubt about what you should do, try
our binary first to see if it meets your needs, and worry about your own build only after
you have discovered that our binary is not good enough. In that case, we would appreciate
a note about it, so we can build a better binary next time. For a typical user, even for
setups with a lot of concurrent connections and/or tables exceeding 2GB limit, our binary
in most cases is the best choice.
MySQL uses LinuxThreads on Linux. If you are using an old Linux version that doesn’t
have glibc2, you must install LinuxThreads before trying to compile MySQL. You can get
LinuxThreads at http://www.mysql.com/Downloads/Linux.
NOTE: We have seen some strange problems with Linux 2.2.14 and MySQL on SMP systems; If you have a SMP system, we recommend you to upgrade to Linux 2.4 ASAP! Your
system will be faster and more stable by doing this!
Note that glibc versions before and including Version 2.1.1 have a fatal bug in pthread_
mutex_timedwait handling, which is used when you do INSERT DELAYED. We recommend
you to not use INSERT DELAYED before upgrading glibc.
If you plan to have 1000+ concurrent connections, you will need to make some changes to
LinuxThreads, recompile it, and relink MySQL against the new ‘libpthread.a’. Increase
PTHREAD_THREADS_MAX in ‘sysdeps/unix/sysv/linux/bits/local_lim.h’ to 4096 and decrease STACK_SIZE in ‘linuxthreads/internals.h’ to 256 KB. The paths are relative to
the root of glibc Note that MySQL will not be stable with around 600-1000 connections if
STACK_SIZE is the default of 2 MB.
The STACK_SIZE constant in LinuxThreads controls the spacing of thread stacks in the
address space. It needs to be large enough so that there will be plenty of room for the
stack of each individual thread, but small enough to keep the stack of some thread from
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running into the global mysqld data. Unfortunately, the Linux implementation of mmap(),
as we have experimentally discovered, will successfully unmap an already mapped region if
you ask it to map out an address already in use, zeroing out the data on the entire page,
instead of returning an error. So, the safety of mysqld or any other threaded application
depends on the "gentleman" behavior of the code that creates threads. The user must take
measures to make sure the number of running threads at any time is sufficiently low for
thread stacks to stay away from the global heap. With mysqld, you should enforce this
"gentleman" behavior by setting a reasonable value for the max_connections variable.
If you build MySQL yourself and do not what to mess with patching LinuxThreads, you
should set max_connections to a value no higher than 500. It should be even less if you
have a large key buffer, large heap tables, or some other things that make mysqld allocate
a lot of memory or if you are running a 2.2 kernel with a 2GB patch. If you are using
our binary or RPM version 3.23.25 or later, you can safely set max_connections at 1500,
assuming no large key buffer or heap tables with lots of data. The more you reduce STACK_
SIZE in LinuxThreads the more threads you can safely create. We recommend the values
between 128K and 256K.
If you use a lot of concurrent connections, you may suffer from a "feature" in the 2.2
kernel that penalizes a process for forking or cloning a child in an attempt to prevent a
fork bomb attack. This will cause MySQL not to scale well as you increase the number
of concurrent clients. On single CPU systems, we have seen this manifested in a very
slow thread creation, which means it may take a long time to connect to MySQL (as long
as 1 minute), and it may take just as long to shut it down. On multiple CPU systems,
we have observed a gradual drop in query speed as the number of clients increases. In
the process of trying to find a solution, we have received a kernel patch from one of our
users, who claimed it made a lot of difference for his site. The patch is available here
(http://www.mysql.com/Downloads/Patches/linux-fork.patch). We have now done
rather extensive testing of this patch on both development and production systems. It
has significantly improved MySQL performance without causing any problems and we now
recommend it to our users who are still running high-load servers on 2.2 kernels. This issue
has been fixed in the 2.4 kernel, so if you are not satisfied with the current performance of
your system, rather than patching your 2.2 kernel, it might be easier to just upgrade to 2.4,
which will also give you a nice SMP boost in addition to fixing this fairness bug.
We have tested MySQL on the 2.4 kernel on a 2 CPU machine and found MySQL scales
MUCH better - there was virtually no slowdown on query throughput all the way up to
1000 clients, and MySQL scaling factor ( computed as the ratio of maximum throughput to
the throughput with one client) was 180%. We have observed similar results on a 4-CPU
system - virtually no slowdown as the number of clients was increased up to 1000, and 300%
scaling factor. So for a high-load SMP server we would definitely recommend the 2.4 kernel
at this point. We have discovered that it is essential to run mysqld process with the highest
possible priority on the 2.4 kernel to achieve maximum performance. This can be done
by adding renice -20 $$ command to safe_mysqld. In our testing on a 4-CPU machine,
increasing the priority gave 60% increase in throughput with 400 clients.
We are currently also trying to collect more info on how well MySQL performs on 2.4 kernel on
4-way and 8-way systems. If you have access such a system and have done some benchmarks,
please send a mail to [email protected] with the results - we will include them in the manual.
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There is another issue that greatly hurts MySQL performance, especially on SMP systems.
The implementation of mutex in LinuxThreads in glibc-2.1 is very bad for programs with
many threads that only hold the mutex for a short time. On an SMP system, ironic as it
is, if you link MySQL against unmodified LinuxThreads, removing processors from the machine improves MySQL performance in many cases. We have made a patch available for glibc
2.1.3, linuxthreads-2.1-patch (http://www.mysql.com/Downloads/Linux/linuxthreads-2.1-patch)
to correct this behavior.
With glibc-2.2.2 MySQL version 3.23.36 will use the adaptive mutex, which is much better than even the patched one in glibc-2.1.3. Be warned, however, that under some
conditions, the current mutex code in glibc-2.2.2 overspins, which hurts MySQL performance. The chance of this condition can be reduced by renicing mysqld process to the
highest priority. We have also been able to correct the overspin behavior with a patch,
available here (http://www.mysql.com/Downloads/Linux/linuxthreads-2.2.2.patch).
It combines the correction of overspin, maximum number of threads, and stack spacing
all in one. You will need to apply it in the linuxthreads directory with patch -p0
</tmp/linuxthreads-2.2.2.patch. We hope it will be included in some form in to the
future releases of glibc-2.2. In any case, if you link against glibc-2.2.2 you still need
to correct STACK_SIZE and PTHREAD_THREADS_MAX. We hope that the defaults will be corrected to some more acceptable values for high-load MySQL setup in the future, so that
your own build can be reduced to ./configure; make; make install.
We recommend that you use the above patches to build a special static version of
libpthread.a and use it only for statically linking against MySQL. We know that the
patches are safe for MySQL and significantly improve its performance, but we cannot say
anything about other applications. If you link other applications against the patched version of the library, or build a patched shared version and install it on your system, you are
doing it at your own risk with regard to other applications that depend on LinuxThreads.
If you experience any strange problems during the installation of MySQL, or with some
common utilties hanging, it is very likely that they are either library or compiler related.
If this is the case, using our binary will resolve them.
One known problem with the binary distribution is that with older Linux systems that use
libc (like RedHat 4.x or Slackware), you will get some non-fatal problems with hostname
resolution. See Section 4.6.3.1 [Binary notes-Linux], page 59.
When using LinuxThreads you will see a minimum of three processes running. These are in
fact threads. There will be one thread for the LinuxThreads manager, one thread to handle
connections, and one thread to handle alarms and signals.
Note that the Linux kernel and the LinuxThread library can by default only have 1024
threads. This means that you can only have up to 1021 connections to MySQL on an
unpatched system. The page http://www.volano.com/linuxnotes.html contains information how to go around this limit.
If you see a dead mysqld daemon process with ps, this usually means that you have found
a bug in MySQL or you have a corrupted table. See Section 21.2 [Crashing], page 507.
To get a core dump on Linux if mysqld dies with a SIGSEGV signal, you can start mysqld
with the --core-file option. Note that you also probably need to raise the core file
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size by adding ulimit -c 1000000 to safe_mysqld or starting safe_mysqld with --corefile-sizes=1000000. See Section 15.3 [safe_mysqld], page 438.
To get a core dump on Linux if mysqld dies with a SIGSEGV signal, you can start mysqld
with the --core-file option. Note that you also probably need to raise the core file
size by adding ulimit -c 1000000 to safe_mysqld or starting safe_mysqld with --corefile-sizes=1000000. See Section 15.3 [safe_mysqld], page 438.
If you are linking your own MySQL client and get the error:
ld.so.1: ./my: fatal: libmysqlclient.so.4: open failed: No such file or directory
When executing them, the problem can be avoided by one of the following methods:
• Link the client with the following flag (instead of -Lpath): -Wl,r/path-libmysqlclient.so.
• Copy libmysqclient.so to ‘/usr/lib’.
• Add the pathname of the directory where libmysqlclient.so is located to the LD_
RUN_PATH environment variable before running your client.
If you are using the Fujitsu compiler (fcc / FCC) you will have some problems compiling
MySQL because the Linux header files are very gcc oriented.
The following configure line should work with fcc/FCC:
CC=fcc CFLAGS="-O -K fast -K lib -K omitfp -Kpreex -D_GNU_SOURCE -DCONST=const -DNO_
4.12.5.1 Linux-x86 Notes
MySQL requires libc Version 5.4.12 or newer. It’s known to work with libc 5.4.46. glibc
Version 2.0.6 and later should also work. There have been some problems with the glibc
RPMs from RedHat, so if you have problems, check whether or not there are any updates!
The glibc 2.0.7-19 and 2.0.7-29 RPMs are known to work.
On some older Linux distributions, configure may produce an error like this:
Syntax error in sched.h. Change _P to __P in the /usr/include/sched.h file.
See the Installation chapter in the Reference Manual.
Just do what the error message says and add an extra underscore to the _P macro that has
only one underscore, then try again.
You may get some warnings when compiling; those shown below can be ignored:
mysqld.cc -o objs-thread/mysqld.o
mysqld.cc: In function ‘void init_signals()’:
mysqld.cc:315: warning: assignment of negative value ‘-1’ to ‘long unsigned int’
mysqld.cc: In function ‘void * signal_hand(void *)’:
mysqld.cc:346: warning: assignment of negative value ‘-1’ to ‘long unsigned int’
In Debian GNU/Linux, if you want MySQL to start automatically when the system boots,
do the following:
shell> cp support-files/mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysql.server
shell> /usr/sbin/update-rc.d mysql.server defaults 99
mysql.server can be found in the ‘share/mysql’ directory under the MySQL installation
directory or in the ‘support-files’ directory of the MySQL source tree.
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If mysqld always core dumps when it starts up, the problem may be that you have an old
‘/lib/libc.a’. Try renaming it, then remove ‘sql/mysqld’ and do a new make install
and try again. This problem has been reported on some Slackware installations. RedHat
Version 5.0 also has a similar problem with some new glibc versions. See Section 4.12.5.2
[Linux-RedHat50], page 83.
If you get the following error when linking mysqld, it means that your ‘libg++.a’ is not
installed correctly:
/usr/lib/libc.a(putc.o): In function ‘_IO_putc’:
putc.o(.text+0x0): multiple definition of ‘_IO_putc’
You can avoid using ‘libg++.a’ by running configure like this:
shell> CXX=gcc ./configure
4.12.5.2 RedHat Version 5.0 Notes
If you have any problems with MySQL on RedHat, you should start by upgrading glibc
to the newest possible version!
If you install all the official RedHat patches (including glibc-2.0.7-19 and glibc-devel2.0.7-19), both the binary and source distributions of MySQL should work without any
trouble!
The updates are needed because there is a bug in glibc 2.0.5 in how pthread_key_create
variables are freed. With glibc 2.0.5, you must use a statically linked MySQL binary
distribution. If you want to compile from source, you must install the corrected version of
LinuxThreads from http://www.mysql.com/Downloads/Linux or upgrade your glibc.
If you have an incorrect version of glibc or LinuxThreads, the symptom is that mysqld
crashes after each connection. For example, mysqladmin version will crash mysqld when
it finishes!
Another symptom of incorrect libraries is that mysqld crashes at once when it starts. On
some Linux systems, this can be fixed by configuring like this:
shell> ./configure --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static
On Redhat Version 5.0, the easy way out is to install the glibc 2.0.7-19 RPM and run
configure without the --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static option.
For the source distribution of glibc 2.0.7, a patch that is easy to apply and is tested with
MySQL may be found at:
http://www.mysql.com/Downloads/Linux/glibc-2.0.7-total-patch.tar.gz
If you experience crashes like these when you build MySQL, you can always download the
newest binary version of MySQL. This is statically-linked to avoid library conflicts and
should work on all Linux systems!
MySQL comes with an internal debugger that can generate trace files with a lot of information that can be used to find and solve a wide range of different problems. See Section I.1
[Debugging server], page 721.
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4.12.5.3 RedHat Version 5.1 notes
The glibc of RedHat Version 5.1 (glibc 2.0.7-13) has a memory leak, so to get a stable
MySQL version, you must upgrade glibc, to 2.0.7-19, downgrade glibc or use a binary
version of mysqld. If you don’t do this, you will encounter memory problems (out of memory,
etc.). The most common error in this case is:
Can’t create a new thread (errno 11). If you are not out of available
memory, you can consult the manual for any possible OS dependent bug
After you have upgraded to glibc 2.0.7-19, you can configure MySQL with dynamic linking
(the default), but you cannot run configure with the --with-mysqld-ldflags=-allstatic option until you have installed glibc 2.0.7-19 from source!
You can check which version of glibc you have with rpm -q glibc.
Another reason for the above error is if you try to use more threads than your Linux kernel
is configured for. In this case you should raise the limits in ‘include/linux/tasks.h’ and
recompile your kernel!
4.12.5.4 Linux-SPARC Notes
In some implementations, readdir_r() is broken. The symptom is that SHOW DATABASES always returns an empty set. This can be fixed by removing HAVE_READDIR_R from ‘config.h’
after configuring and before compiling.
Some problems will require patching your Linux installation. The patch can be found at
http://www.mysql.com/Downloads/patches/Linux-sparc-2.0.30.diff. This patch is
against the Linux distribution ‘sparclinux-2.0.30.tar.gz’ that is available at vger.rutgers.edu
(a version of Linux that was never merged with the official 2.0.30). You must also install
LinuxThreads Version 0.6 or newer.
4.12.5.5 Linux-Alpha Notes
MySQL Version 3.23.12 is the first MySQL version that is tested on Linux-Alpha. If you
plan to use MySQL on Linux-Alpha, you should ensure that you have this version or newer.
We have tested MySQL on Alpha with our benchmarks and test suite, and it appears to
work nicely. The main thing we haven’t yet had time to test is how things works with many
concurrent users.
When we compiled the standard MySQL binary we are using SuSE 6.4, kernel 2.2.13-SMP,
Compaq C compiler (V6.2-504) and Compaq C++ compiler (V6.3-005) on a Comaq DS20
machine with an Alpha EV6 processor.
You can find the above compilers at http://www.support.compaq.com/alpha-tools). By
using these compilers, instead of gcc, we get about 9-14 % better performance with MySQL.
Note that the configure line optimized the binary for the current CPU; This means you
can only use our binary if you have an Alpha EV6 processor. We also compile statically to
avoid library problems.
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CC=ccc CFLAGS="-fast" CXX=cxx CXXFLAGS="-fast -noexceptions -nortti" ./configure --p
If you want to use egcs the following configure line worked for us:
CFLAGS="-O3 -fomit-frame-pointer" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -fomit-frame-pointer -felide
Some known problems when running MySQL on Linux-Alpha:
• Debugging threaded applications like MySQL will not work with gdb 4.18. You should
download and use gdb 5.0 instead!
• If you try linking mysqld statically when using gcc, the resulting image will core dump
at start. In other words, DON’T use --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static with gcc.
4.12.5.6 MkLinux Notes
MySQL should work on MkLinux with the newest glibc package (tested with glibc 2.0.7).
4.12.5.7 Qube2 Linux Notes
To get MySQL to work on Qube2, (Linux Mips), you need the newest glibc libraries
(glibc-2.0.7-29C2 is known to work). You must also use the egcs C++ compiler (egcs1.0.2-9, gcc 2.95.2 or newer).
4.12.5.8 Linux IA64 Notes
To get MySQL to compile on Linux Ia64, we had to do the following (we assume that this
will be easier when next gcc version for ia64 is released).
Using gcc-2.9-final:
CFLAGS="-O2" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O2 -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" .
After make you will get an error that sql/opt_range.cc will not compile (internal compiler
error). To fix this, go to the sql directory and type make again. Copy the compile line, but
change -O2 to -O0. The file should now compile.
Now you can do:
cd ..
make
make_install
and mysqld should be ready to run.
4.12.6 Alpha-DEC-UNIX Notes (Tru64)
If you are using egcs 1.1.2 on Digital Unix, you should upgrade to gcc 2.95.2, as egcs on
DEC has some serious bugs!
When compiling threaded programs under Digital Unix, the documentation recommends
using the -pthread option for cc and cxx and the libraries -lmach -lexc (in addition to
-lpthread). You should run configure something like this:
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CC="cc -pthread" CXX="cxx -pthread -O" \
./configure --with-named-thread-libs="-lpthread -lmach -lexc -lc"
When compiling mysqld, you may see a couple of warnings like this:
mysqld.cc: In function void handle_connections()’:
mysqld.cc:626: passing long unsigned int *’ as argument 3 of
accept(int,sockadddr *, int *)’
You can safely ignore these warnings. They occur because configure can detect only errors,
not warnings.
If you start the server directly from the command line, you may have problems with it dying
when you log out. (When you log out, your outstanding processes receive a SIGHUP signal.)
If so, try starting the server like this:
shell> nohup mysqld [options] &
nohup causes the command following it to ignore any SIGHUP signal sent from the terminal.
Alternatively, start the server by running safe_mysqld, which invokes mysqld using nohup
for you. See Section 15.3 [safe_mysqld], page 438.
If you get a problem when compiling mysys/get opt.c, just remove the line #define
NO PROTO from the start of that file!
If you are using Compac’s CC compiler, the following configure line should work:
CC="cc -pthread"
CFLAGS="-O4 -ansi_alias -ansi_args -fast -inline speed -speculate all -arch host"
CXX="cxx -pthread"
CXXFLAGS="-O4 -ansi_alias -ansi_args -fast -inline speed -speculate all -arch host"
export CC CFLAGS CXX CXXFLAGS
./configure \
--prefix=/usr/local/mysql \
--with-low-memory \
--enable-large-files \
--enable-shared=yes \
--with-named-thread-libs="-lpthread -lmach -lexc -lc"
gnumake
If you get a problem with libtool, when compiling with shared libraries as above, when
linking mysql, you should be able to get around this by issuing:
cd mysql
/bin/sh ../libtool --mode=link cxx -pthread -O3 -DDBUG_OFF \
-O4 -ansi_alias -ansi_args -fast -inline speed \
-speculate all \ -arch host -DUNDEF_HAVE_GETHOSTBYNAME_R \
-o mysql mysql.o readline.o sql_string.o completion_hash.o \
../readline/libreadline.a -lcurses \
../libmysql/.libs/libmysqlclient.so -lm
cd ..
gnumake
gnumake install
scripts/mysql_install_db
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4.12.7 Alpha-DEC-OSF1 Notes
If you have problems compiling and have DEC CC and gcc installed, try running configure
like this:
CC=cc CFLAGS=-O CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql
If you get problems with the ‘c_asm.h’ file, you can create and use a ’dummy’ ‘c_asm.h’
file with:
touch include/c_asm.h
CC=gcc CFLAGS=-I./include \
CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql
Note that the following problems with the ld program can be fixed by downloading the
latest DEC (Compaq) patch kit from: http://ftp.support.compaq.com/public/unix/.
On OSF1 V4.0D and compiler "DEC C V5.6-071 on Digital Unix V4.0 (Rev. 878)" the
compiler had some strange behavior (undefined asm symbols). /bin/ld also appears to
be broken (problems with _exit undefined errors occuring while linking mysqld). On
this system, we have managed to compile MySQL with the following configure line, after
replacing /bin/ld with the version from OSF 4.0C:
CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql
With the Digital compiler "C++ V6.1-029", the following should work:
CC=cc -pthread
CFLAGS=-O4 -ansi_alias -ansi_args -fast -inline speed -speculate all -arch host
CXX=cxx -pthread
CXXFLAGS=-O4 -ansi_alias -ansi_args -fast -inline speed -speculate all -arch host -n
export CC CFLAGS CXX CXXFLAGS
./configure --prefix=/usr/mysql/mysql --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static --disable-sh
In some versions of OSF1, the alloca() function is broken. Fix this by removing the line
in ‘config.h’ that defines ’HAVE_ALLOCA’.
The alloca() function also may have an incorrect prototype in /usr/include/alloca.h.
This warning resulting from this can be ignored.
configure will use the following thread libraries automatically: --with-named-threadlibs="-lpthread -lmach -lexc -lc".
When using gcc, you can also try running configure like this:
shell> CFLAGS=-D_PTHREAD_USE_D4 CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 ./configure ....
If you have problems with signals (MySQL dies unexpectedly under high load), you may
have found an OS bug with threads and signals. In this case you can tell MySQL not to
use signals by configuring with:
shell> CFLAGS=-DDONT_USE_THR_ALARM \
CXXFLAGS=-DDONT_USE_THR_ALARM \
./configure ...
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This doesn’t affect the performance of MySQL, but has the side effect that you can’t kill
clients that are “sleeping” on a connection with mysqladmin kill or mysqladmin shutdown.
Instead, the client will die when it issues its next command.
With gcc 2.95.2, you will probably run into the following compile error:
sql_acl.cc:1456: Internal compiler error in ‘scan_region’, at except.c:2566
Please submit a full bug report.
To fix this you should change to the sql directory and do a “cut and paste” of the last gcc
line, but change -O3 to -O0 (or add -O0 immediately after gcc if you don’t have any -O
option on your compile line.) After this is done you can just change back to the top-level
directly and run make again.
4.12.8 SGI-Irix Notes
If you are using Irix Version 6.5.3 or newer mysqld will only be able to create threads if you
run it as a user with CAP_SCHED_MGT privileges (like root) or give the mysqld server this
privilege with the following shell command:
shell> chcap "CAP_SCHED_MGT+epi" /opt/mysql/libexec/mysqld
You may have to undefine some things in ‘config.h’ after running configure and before
compiling.
In some Irix implementations, the alloca() function is broken. If the mysqld server dies
on some SELECT statements, remove the lines from ‘config.h’ that define HAVE_ALLOC and
HAVE_ALLOCA_H. If mysqladmin create doesn’t work, remove the line from ‘config.h’ that
defines HAVE_READDIR_R. You may have to remove the HAVE_TERM_H line as well.
SGI recommends that you install all of the patches on this page as a set: http://support.sgi.com/surfzone/pa
At the very minimum, you should install the latest kernel rollup, the latest rld rollup, and
the latest libc rollup.
You definitely need all the POSIX patches on this page, for pthreads support:
http://support.sgi.com/surfzone/patches/patchset/6.2_posix.rps.html
If you get the something like the following error when compiling ‘mysql.cc’:
"/usr/include/curses.h", line 82: error(1084): invalid combination of type
Type the following in the top-level directory of your MySQL source tree:
shell> extra/replace bool curses_bool < /usr/include/curses.h > include/curses.h
shell> make
There have also been reports of scheduling problems. If only one thread is running, things
go slow. Avoid this by starting another client. This may lead to a 2-to-10-fold increase in
execution speed thereafter for the other thread. This is a poorly understood problem with
Irix threads; you may have to improvise to find solutions until this can be fixed.
If you are compiling with gcc, you can use the following configure command:
CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 \
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4.12.9 FreeBSD Notes
FreeBSD 3.x is recommended for running MySQL since the thread package is much more
integrated.
The easiest and therefor the preferred way to install is to use the mysql-server and mysqlclient ports available on http://www.freebsd.org.
Using these gives you:
• A working MySQL with all optimizations known to work on your version of FreeBSD
enabled.
• Automatic configuration and build.
• Startup scripts installed in /usr/local/etc/rc.d.
• Ability to see which files that are installed with pkg info -L. And to remove them all
with pkg delete if you no longer want MySQL on that machine.
It is recommended you use MIT-pthreads on FreeBSD 2.x and native threads on Versions
3 and up. It is possible to run with native threads on some late 2.2.x versions but you may
encounter problems shutting down mysqld.
The MYSQL Makefiles require GNU make (gmake) to work. If you want to compile MYSQL
you need to install GNU make first.
Be sure to have your name resolver setup correct. Otherwise you may experience resolver
delays or failures when connecting to mysqld.
Make sure that the localhost entry in the ‘/etc/hosts’ file is correct (otherwise you will
have problems connecting to the database). The ‘/etc/hosts’ file should start with a line:
127.0.0.1
localhost localhost.your.domain
If you notice that configure will use MIT-pthreads, you should read the MIT-pthreads
notes. See Section 4.10 [MIT-pthreads], page 71.
If you get an error from make install that it can’t find ‘/usr/include/pthreads’,
configure didn’t detect that you need MIT-pthreads. This is fixed by executing these
commands:
shell> rm config.cache
shell> ./configure --with-mit-threads
FreeBSD is also known to have a very low default file handle limit. See Section 21.12 [Not
enough file handles], page 521. Uncomment the ulimit -n section in safe mysqld or raise the
limits for the mysqld user in /etc/login.conf (and rebuild it with cap mkdb /etc/login.conf).
Also be sure you set the appropriate class for this user in the password file if you are not using
the default (use: chpass mysqld-user-name). See Section 15.3 [safe_mysqld], page 438.
If you get problems with the current date in MySQL, setting the TZ variable will probably
help. See Appendix A [Environment variables], page 611.
To get a secure and stable system you should only use FreeBSD kernels that are marked
-STABLE.
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4.12.10 NetBSD notes
To compile on NetBSD you need GNU make. Otherwise the compile will crash when make
tries to run lint on C++ files.
4.12.11 OpenBSD Notes
4.12.11.1 OpenBSD 2.5 Notes
On OpenBSD Version 2.5, you can compile MySQL with native threads with the following
options:
CFLAGS=-pthread CXXFLAGS=-pthread ./configure --with-mit-threads=no
4.12.11.2 OpenBSD 2.8 Notes
Our users have reported that OpenBSD 2.8 has a threading bug which causes problems
with MySQL. The OpenBSD Developers have fixed the problem, but as of January 25th,
2001, it’s only available in the “-current” branch. The symptoms of this threading bug are:
slow response, high load, high CPU usage, and crashes.
4.12.12 BSD/OS Notes
4.12.12.1 BSD/OS Version 2.x Notes
If you get the following error when compiling MySQL, your ulimit value for virtual memory
is too low:
item_func.h: In method ‘Item_func_ge::Item_func_ge(const Item_func_ge &)’:
item_func.h:28: virtual memory exhausted
make[2]: *** [item_func.o] Error 1
Try using ulimit -v 80000 and run make again. If this doesn’t work and you are using
bash, try switching to csh or sh; some BSDI users have reported problems with bash and
ulimit.
If you are using gcc, you may also use have to use the --with-low-memory flag for
configure to be able to compile ‘sql_yacc.cc’.
If you get problems with the current date in MySQL, setting the TZ variable will probably
help. See Appendix A [Environment variables], page 611.
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4.12.12.2 BSD/OS Version 3.x Notes
Upgrade to BSD/OS Version 3.1. If that is not possible, install BSDIpatch M300-038.
Use the following command when configuring MySQL:
shell> env CXX=shlicc++ CC=shlicc2 \
./configure \
--prefix=/usr/local/mysql \
--localstatedir=/var/mysql \
--without-perl \
--with-unix-socket-path=/var/mysql/mysql.sock
The following is also known to work:
shell> env CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 \
./configure \
--prefix=/usr/local/mysql \
--with-unix-socket-path=/var/mysql/mysql.sock
You can change the directory locations if you wish, or just use the defaults by not specifying
any locations.
If you have problems with performance under heavy load, try using the --skip-threadpriority option to mysqld! This will run all threads with the same priority; on BSDI
Version 3.1, this gives better performance (at least until BSDI fixes their thread scheduler).
If you get the error virtual memory exhausted while compiling, you should try using
ulimit -v 80000 and run make again. If this doesn’t work and you are using bash, try
switching to csh or sh; some BSDI users have reported problems with bash and ulimit.
4.12.12.3 BSD/OS Version 4.x Notes
BSDI Version 4.x has some thread-related bugs. If you want to use MySQL on this, you
should install all thread-related patches. At least M400-023 should be installed.
On some BSDI Version 4.x systems, you may get problems with shared libraries. The
symptom is that you can’t execute any client programs, for example, mysqladmin. In this
case you need to reconfigure not to use shared libraries with the --disable-shared option
to configure.
Some customers have had problems on BSDI 4.0.1 that the mysqld binary after a while
can’t open tables. This is because some library/system related bug causes mysqld to change
current directory without asking for this!
The fix is to either upgrade to 3.23.34 or after running configure remove the line #define
HAVE_REALPATH from config.h before running make.
Note that the above means that you can’t symbolic link a database directories to another
database directory or symbolic link a table to another database on BSDI! (Making a symbolic link to another disk is ok).
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4.12.13 SCO Notes
The current port is tested only on a “sco3.2v5.0.4” and “sco3.2v5.0.5” system. There has
also been a lot of progress on a port to “sco 3.2v4.2”.
For the moment the recommended compiler on OpenServer is gcc 2.95.2. With this you
should be able to compile MySQL with just:
CC=gcc CXX=gcc ./configure ... (options)
1. For OpenServer 5.0.X you need to use GDS in Skunkware 95 (95q4c). This is necessary
because GNU gcc 2.7.2 in Skunkware 97 does not have GNU as. You can also use
egcs 1.1.2 or newer http://www.egcs.com/. If you are using egcs 1.1.2 you have to
execute the following command:
shell> cp -p /usr/include/pthread/stdtypes.h /usr/local/lib/gcc-lib/i386-pc-sco3
2. You need the port of GCC 2.5.x for this product and the Development system. They
are required on this version of SCO Unix. You cannot just use the GCC Dev system.
3. You should get the FSU Pthreads package and install it first. This can be found
at http://www.cs.wustl.edu/~schmidt/ACE_wrappers/FSU-threads.tar.gz. You
can also get a precompiled package from http://www.mysql.com/Downloads/SCO/FSU-threads-3.5c.
4. FSU Pthreads can be compiled with SCO Unix 4.2 with tcpip. Or OpenServer 3.0
or Open Desktop 3.0 (OS 3.0 ODT 3.0), with the SCO Development System installed
using a good port of GCC 2.5.x ODT or OS 3.0 you will need a good port of GCC 2.5.x
There are a lot of problems without a good port. The port for this product requires
the SCO Unix Development system. Without it, you are missing the libraries and the
linker that is needed.
5. To build FSU Pthreads on your system, do the following:
a. Run ./configure in the ‘threads/src’ directory and select the SCO OpenServer
option. This command copies ‘Makefile.SCO5’ to ‘Makefile’.
b. Run make.
c. To install in the default ‘/usr/include’ directory, login as root, then cd to the
‘thread/src’ directory, and run make install.
6. Remember to use GNU make when making MySQL.
7. If you don’t start safe_mysqld as root, you probably will get only the default 110 open
files per process. mysqld will write a note about this in the log file.
8. With SCO 3.2V5.0.5, you should use FSU Pthreads version 3.5c or newer. You should
also use gcc 2.95.2 or newer!
The following configure command should work:
shell> ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --disable-shared
9. With SCO 3.2V4.2, you should use FSU Pthreads version 3.5c or newer. The following
configure command should work:
shell> CFLAGS="-D_XOPEN_XPG4" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-D_XOPEN_XPG4" \
./configure \
--prefix=/usr/local/mysql \
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--with-named-thread-libs="-lgthreads -lsocket -lgen -lgthreads" \
--with-named-curses-libs="-lcurses"
You may get some problems with some include files. In this case, you can find new SCOspecific include files at http://www.mysql.com/Downloads/SCO/SCO-3.2v4.2-includes.tar.gz.
You should unpack this file in the ‘include’ directory of your MySQL source tree.
SCO development notes:
• MySQL should automatically detect FSU Pthreads and link mysqld with -lgthreads
-lsocket -lgthreads.
• The SCO development libraries are re-entrant in FSU Pthreads. SCO claims that its
libraries’ functions are re-entrant, so they must be reentrant with FSU Pthreads. FSU
Pthreads on OpenServer tries to use the SCO scheme to make re-entrant libraries.
• FSU Pthreads (at least the version at http://www.mysql.com/) comes linked with
GNU malloc. If you encounter problems with memory usage, make sure that
‘gmalloc.o’ is included in ‘libgthreads.a’ and ‘libgthreads.so’.
• In FSU Pthreads, the following system calls are pthreads-aware: read(), write(),
getmsg(), connect(), accept(), select(), and wait().
If you want to install DBI on SCO, you have to edit the ‘Makefile’ in DBI-xxx and each
subdirectory.
Note that the following assumes gcc 2.95.2 or newer:
OLD:
NEW:
CC = cc
CC = gcc
CCCDLFLAGS = -KPIC -W1,-Bexport
CCCDLFLAGS = -fpic
CCDLFLAGS = -wl,-Bexport
CCDLFLAGS =
LD = ld
LDDLFLAGS = -G -L/usr/local/lib
LDFLAGS = -belf -L/usr/local/lib
LD = gcc -G -fpic
LDDLFLAGS = -L/usr/local/lib
LDFLAGS = -L/usr/local/lib
LD = ld
OPTIMISE = -Od
LD = gcc -G -fpic
OPTIMISE = -O1
OLD:
CCCFLAGS = -belf -dy -w0 -U M_XENIX -DPERL_SCO5 -I/usr/local/include
NEW:
CCFLAGS = -U M_XENIX -DPERL_SCO5 -I/usr/local/include
This is because the Perl dynaloader will not load the DBI modules if they were compiled
with icc or cc.
Perl works best when compiled with cc.
4.12.14 SCO Unixware Version 7.0 Notes
You must use a version of MySQL at least as recent as Version 3.22.13 because that version
fixes some portability problems under Unixware.
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We have been able to compile MySQL with the following configure command on Unixware
Version 7.0.1:
CC=cc CXX=CC ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql
If you want to use gcc, you must use gcc 2.95.2 or newer.
4.12.15 IBM-AIX notes
Automatic detection of xlC is missing from Autoconf, so a configure command something
like this is needed when compiling MySQL (This example uses the IBM compiler):
export
export
export
export
export
export
CC="xlc_r -ma -O3 -qstrict -qoptimize=3 -qmaxmem=8192 "
CXX="xlC_r -ma -O3 -qstrict -qoptimize=3 -qmaxmem=8192"
CFLAGS="-I /usr/local/include"
LDLFAGS="-L /usr/local/lib"
CPPFLAGS=$CFLAGS
CXXFLAGS=$CFLAGS
./configure --prefix=/usr/local \
--localstatedir=/var/mysql \
--sysconfdir=/etc/mysql \
--sbindir=’/usr/local/bin’ \
--libexecdir=’/usr/local/bin’ \
--enable-thread-safe-client \
--enable-large-files
Above are the options used to compile the MySQL distribution that can be found at
http://www-frec.bull.com/.
If you change the -O3 to -O2 in the above configure line, you must also remove the -qstrict
option (this is a limitation in the IBM C compiler).
If you are using gcc or egcs to compile MySQL, you MUST use the -fno-exceptions flag,
as the exception handling in gcc/egcs is not thread safe! (This is tested with egcs 1.1.).
There are also some known problems with IBM’s assembler, which may cause it to generate
bad code when used with gcc.
We recommend the following configure line with egcs and gcc 2.95 on AIX:
CC="gcc -pipe -mcpu=power -Wa,-many" \
CXX="gcc -pipe -mcpu=power -Wa,-many" \
CXXFLAGS="-felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-low-memory
The -Wa,-many is necessary for the compile to be successful. IBM is aware of this problem
but is in to hurry to fix it because of the workaround available. We don’t know if the
-fno-exceptions is required with gcc 2.95, but as MySQL doesn’t use exceptions and the
above option generates faster code, we recommend that you should always use this option
with egcs / gcc.
If you get a problem with assembler code try changing the -mcpu=xxx to match your cpu.
Typically power2, power, or powerpc may need to be used, alternatively you might need
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to use 604 or 604e. I’m not positive but I would think using "power" would likely be safe
most of the time, even on a power2 machine.
If you don’t know what your cpu is then do a "uname -m", this will give you back a
string that looks like "000514676700", with a format of xxyyyyyymmss where xx and ss
are always 0’s, yyyyyy is a unique system id and mm is the id of the CPU Planar. A
chart of these values can be found at http://www.rs6000.ibm.com/doc_link/en_US/a_
doc_lib/cmds/aixcmds5/uname.htm. This will give you a machine type and a machine
model you can use to determine what type of cpu you have.
If you have problems with signals (MySQL dies unexpectedly under high load) you may
have found an OS bug with threads and signals. In this case you can tell MySQL not to
use signals by configuring with:
shell> CFLAGS=-DDONT_USE_THR_ALARM CXX=gcc \
CXXFLAGS="-felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti -DDONT_USE_THR_ALARM
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-debug --with-low-memory
This doesn’t affect the performance of MySQL, but has the side effect that you can’t kill
clients that are “sleeping” on a connection with mysqladmin kill or mysqladmin shutdown.
Instead, the client will die when it issues its next command.
On some versions of AIX, linking with libbind.a makes getservbyname core dump. This
is an AIX bug and should be reported to IBM.
For AIX 4.2.1 and gcc you have to do the following changes.
After configuring, edit ‘config.h’ and ‘include/my_config.h’ and change the line that
says
#define HAVE_SNPRINTF 1
to
#undef HAVE_SNPRINTF
And finally, in ‘mysqld.cc’ you need to add a prototype for initgoups.
#ifdef _AIX41
extern "C" int initgroups(const char *,int);
#endif
4.12.16 HP-UX Version 10.20 Notes
There are a couple of small problems when compiling MySQL on HP-UX. We recommend
that you use gcc instead of the HP-UX native compiler, because gcc produces better code!
We recommend using gcc 2.95 on HP-UX. Don’t use high optimization flags (like -O6) as
this may not be safe on HP-UX.
Note that MIT-pthreads can’t be compiled with the HP-UX compiler because it can’t
compile .S (assembler) files.
The following configure line should work:
CFLAGS="-DHPUX -I/opt/dce/include" CXXFLAGS="-DHPUX -I/opt/dce/include -felide-const
If you are compiling gcc 2.95 yourself, you should NOT link it with the DCE libraries
(libdce.a or libcma.a) if you want to compile MySQL with MIT-pthreads. If you mix
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the DCE and MIT-pthreads packages you will get a mysqld to which you cannot connect.
Remove the DCE libraries while you compile gcc 2.95!
4.12.17 HP-UX Version 11.x Notes
For HP-UX Version 11.x we recommend MySQL Version 3.23.15 or later.
Because of some critical bugs in the standard HP-UX libraries, you should install the following patches before trying to run MySQL on HP-UX 11.0:
PHKL_22840 Streams cumulative
PHNE_22397 ARPA cumulative
This will solve a problem that one gets EWOULDBLOCK from recv() and EBADF from accept()
in threaded applications.
If you are using gcc 2.95.1 on an unpatched HP-UX 11.x system, you will get the error:
In file included from /usr/include/unistd.h:11,
from ../include/global.h:125,
from mysql_priv.h:15,
from item.cc:19:
/usr/include/sys/unistd.h:184: declaration of C function ...
/usr/include/sys/pthread.h:440: previous declaration ...
In file included from item.h:306,
from mysql_priv.h:158,
from item.cc:19:
The problem is that HP-UX doesn’t define pthreads_atfork() consistently. It has conflicting prototypes in ‘/usr/include/sys/unistd.h’:184 and ‘/usr/include/sys/pthread.h’:440
(details below).
One solution is to copy ‘/usr/include/sys/unistd.h’ into ‘mysql/include’ and edit
‘unistd.h’ and change it to match the definition in ‘pthread.h’. Here’s the diff:
183,184c183,184
<
extern int pthread_atfork(void (*prepare)(), void (*parent)(),
<
void (*child)());
-->
extern int pthread_atfork(void (*prepare)(void), void (*parent)(void),
>
void (*child)(void));
After this, the following configure line should work:
CFLAGS="-fomit-frame-pointer -O3 -fpic" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-felide-constructors -fnoHere is some information that a HP-UX Version 11.x user sent us about compiling MySQL
with HP-UX:x compiler:
Environment:
proper compilers.
setenv CC cc
setenv CXX aCC
flags
setenv CFLAGS -D_REENTRANT
setenv CXXFLAGS -D_REENTRANT
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setenv CPPFLAGS -D_REENTRANT
% aCC -V
aCC: HP ANSI C++ B3910B X.03.14.06
% cc -V /tmp/empty.c
cpp.ansi: HP92453-01 A.11.02.00 HP C Preprocessor (ANSI)
ccom: HP92453-01 A.11.01.00 HP C Compiler
cc: "/tmp/empty.c", line 1: warning 501: Empty source file.
configuration:
./configure --with-pthread
\
--prefix=/source-control/mysql
\
--with-named-thread-libs=-lpthread \
--with-low-memory
added ’#define _CTYPE_INCLUDED’ to include/m_ctype.h. This
symbol is the one defined in HP’s /usr/include/ctype.h:
/* Don’t include std ctype.h when this is included */
#define _CTYPE_H
#define __CTYPE_INCLUDED
#define _CTYPE_INCLUDED
#define _CTYPE_USING
/* Don’t put names in global namespace. */
• I had to use the compile-time flag -D_REENTRANT to get the compiler to recognize
the prototype for localtime_r. Alternatively I could have supplied the prototype for
localtime_r. But I wanted to catch other bugs without needing to run into them. I
wasn’t sure where I needed it, so I added it to all flags.
• The optimization flags used by MySQL (-O3) are not recognized by HP’s compilers. I
did not change the flags.
If you get the following error from configure
checking for cc option to accept ANSI C... no
configure: error: MySQL requires a ANSI C compiler (and a C++ compiler). Try gcc. Se
Check that you don’t have the path to the K&R compiler before the path to the HP-UX C
and C++ compiler.
4.12.18 Mac OS X Notes
4.12.18.1 Mac OS X Public beta
MySQL should work without any problems on Mac OS X Public Beta (Darwin). You don’t
need the pthread patches for this OS!
4.12.18.2 Mac OS X Server
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Before trying to configure MySQL on Mac OS X server you must first install the pthread
package from http://www.prnet.de/RegEx/mysql.html.
Our binary for Mac OS X is compiled on Rhapsody 5.5 with the following configure line:
CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O2 -fomit-frame-pointer" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O2 -fomit-frame-pointer"
You might want to also add aliases to your shell’s resource file to access mysql and
mysqladmin from the command line:
alias mysql ’/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql’
alias mysqladmin ’/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin’
4.12.19 BeOS Notes
We are really interested in getting MySQL to work on BeOS, but unfortunately we don’t
have any person who knows BeOS or has time to do a port.
We are interested in finding someone to do a port, and we will help them with any technical
questions they may have while doing the port.
We have previously talked with some BeOS developers that have said that MySQL is 80%
ported to BeOS, but we haven’t heard from them in a while.
4.13 Windows Notes
This section describes installation and use of MySQL on Windows. This information is also
provided in the ‘README’ file that comes with the MySQL Windows distribution.
4.13.1 Installing MySQL on Windows
The following instructions apply to precompiled binary distributions. If you download a
source distribution, you will have to compile and install it yourself.
If you don’t have a copy of the MySQL distribution, you should first download one from
http://www.mysql.com/downloads/mysql-3.23.html.
If you plan to connect to MySQL from some other program, you will probably also need the
MyODBC driver. You can find this at the MyODBC download page (http://www.mysql.com/downloads/a
To install either distribution, unzip it in some empty directory and run the Setup.exe
program.
By default, MySQL-Windows is configured to be installed in ‘C:\mysql’. If you want to
install MySQL elsewhere, install it in ‘C:\mysql’ first, then move the installation to where
you want it. If you do move MySQL, you must indicate where everything is located by
supplying a --basedir option when you start the server. For example, if you have moved
the MySQL distribution to ‘D:\programs\mysql’, you must start mysqld like this:
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C:\> D:\programs\mysql\bin\mysqld --basedir D:\programs\mysql
Use mysqld --help to display all the options that mysqld understands!
With all newer MySQL versions, you can also create a ‘C:\my.cnf’ file that holds any default
options for the MySQL server. Copy the file ‘\mysql\my-xxxxx.cnf’ to ‘C:\my.cnf’ and
edit it to suit your setup. Note that you should specify all paths with ‘/’ instead of ‘\’. If
you use ‘\’, you need to specify it twice, because ‘\’ is the escape character in MySQL. See
Section 4.16.5 [Option files], page 121.
Starting with MySQL 3.23.38, the Windows distribution includes both the normal and the
MySQL-Max binaries. The main benefit of using the normal mysqld.exe binary is that it’s
a little faster and uses less resources.
Here is a list of the different MySQL servers you can use:
mysqld
mysqld-opt
mysqld-nt
mysqld-max
mysqld-max-nt
Compiled with full debugging and automatic memory allocation
checking, symbolic links, BDB and InnoDB tables.
Optimized binary with no support for transactional tables.
Optimized binary for NT with support for named pipes. You can
run this version on Win98, but in this case no named pipes are
created and you must have TCP/IP installed.
Optimized binary with support for symbolic links, BDB and InnoDB tables.
Like mysqld-max, but compiled with support for named pipes.
All of the above binaries are optimized for the Pentium Pro processor but should work on
any Intel processor >= i386.
NOTE: If you want to use InnoDB tables, there are certain startup options that must be
specified in your ‘my.ini’ file! See Section 8.7.2 [InnoDB start], page 324.
4.13.2 Starting MySQL on Windows 95 or Windows 98
MySQL uses TCP/IP to connect a client to a server. (This will allow any machine on your
network to connect to your MySQL server.) Because of this, you must install TCP/IP on
your machine before starting MySQL. You can find TCP/IP on your Windows CD-ROM.
Note that if you are using an old Win95 release (for example OSR2), it’s likely that you
have an old Winsock package! MySQL requires Winsock 2! You can get the newest Winsock
from http://www.microsoft.com/. Win98 has the new Winsock 2 library, so the above
doesn’t apply for Win98.
To start the mysqld server, you should start an MS-DOS window and type:
C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqld
This will start mysqld in the background without a window.
You can kill the MySQL server by executing:
C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqladmin -u root shutdown
Note that Win95 and Win98 don’t support creation of named pipes. On Win95 and Win98,
you can only use named pipes to connect to a remote MySQL server running on a Windows
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NT server host. (The MySQL server must also support named pipes, of course. For example,
using mysqld-opt under NT will not allow named pipe connections. You should use either
mysqld-nt or mysqld-max-nt.)
If mysqld doesn’t start, please check the ‘\mysql\data\mysql.err’ file to see if the server
wrote any message there to indicate the cause of the problem. You can also try to start
the server with mysqld --standalone; In this case, you may get some useful information
on the screen that may help solve the problem.
The last option is to start mysqld with --standalone --debug. In this case mysqld will
write a log file ‘C:\mysqld.trace’ that should contain the reason why mysqld doesn’t start.
See Section I.1.2 [Making trace files], page 722.
4.13.3 Starting MySQL on Windows NT or Windows 2000
The Win95/Win98 section also applies to MySQL on NT/Win2000, with the following
differences:
To get MySQL to work with TCP/IP on NT, you must install service pack 3 (or newer)!
Note that everything in the following that applies for NT also applies for Win2000!
For NT/Win2000, the server name is mysqld-nt. Normally you should install MySQL as a
service on NT/Win2000:
C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqld-nt --install
or
C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqld-max-nt --install
(Under Windows NT, you can actually install any of the server binaries as a service, but
only those having names that end with -nt.exe provide support for named pipes.)
You can start and stop the MySQL service with these commands:
C:\> NET START mysql
C:\> NET STOP mysql
Note that in this case you can’t use any other options for mysqld-nt!
You can also run mysqld-nt as a stand-alone program on NT if you need to start mysqld-nt
with any options! If you start mysqld-nt without options on NT, mysqld-nt tries to start
itself as a service with the default service options. If you have stopped mysqld-nt, you have
to start it with NET START mysql.
The service is installed with the name MySQL. Once installed, it must be started using
the Services Control Manager (SCM) Utility found in the Control Panel, or by using the
NET START MySQL command. If any options are desired, they must be specified as “Startup
parameters” in the SCM utility before you start the MySQL service. Once running, mysqldnt can be stopped using mysqladmin, or from the SCM utility or by using the command
NET STOP MySQL. If you use SCM to stop mysqld-nt, there is a strange message from SCM
about mysqld shutdown normally. When run as a service, mysqld-nt has no access to a
console and so no messages can be seen.
On NT you can get the following service error messages:
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Permission Denied
Cannot Register
Failed to install service.
Means that it cannot find mysqld-nt.exe.
Means that the path is incorrect.
Means that the service is already installed or that the Service
Control Manager is in bad state.
If you have problems installing mysqld-nt as a service, try starting it with the full path:
C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqld-nt --install
If this doesn’t work, you can get mysqld-nt to start properly by fixing the path in the
registry!
If you don’t want to start mysqld-nt as a service, you can start it as follows:
C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqld-nt --standalone
or
C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqld --standalone --debug
The last version gives you a debug trace in ‘C:\mysqld.trace’. See Section I.1.2 [Making
trace files], page 722.
4.13.4 Running MySQL on Windows
MySQL supports TCP/IP on all Windows platforms and named pipes on NT. The default
is to use named pipes for local connections on NT and TCP/IP for all other cases if the
client has TCP/IP installed. The host name specifies which protocol is used:
Host name
NULL (none)
.
localhost
hostname
Protocol
On NT, try named pipes first; if that doesn’t work, use
TCP/IP. On Win95/Win98, TCP/IP is used.
Named pipes
TCP/IP to current host
TCP/IP
You can force a MySQL client to use named pipes by specifying the --pipe option or by
specifying . as the host name. Use the --socket option to specify the name of the pipe.
You can test whether or not MySQL is working by executing the following commands:
C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqlshow
C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqlshow -u root mysql
C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqladmin version status proc
C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysql test
If mysqld is slow to answer to connections on Win95/Win98, there is probably a problem with your DNS. In this case, start mysqld with --skip-name-resolve and use only
localhost and IP numbers in the MySQL grant tables. You can also avoid DNS when
connecting to a mysqld-nt MySQL server running on NT by using the --pipe argument
to specify use of named pipes. This works for most MySQL clients.
There are two versions of the MySQL command-line tool:
mysql
Compiled on native Windows, which offers very limited text editing capabilities.
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Compiled with the Cygnus GNU compiler and libraries, which
offers readline editing.
If you want to use mysqlc.exe, you must copy ‘C:\mysql\lib\cygwinb19.dll’ to your
Windows system directory (‘\windows\system’ or similar place).
The default privileges on Windows give all local users full privileges to all databases without
specifying a password. To make MySQL more secure, you should set a password for all users
and remove the row in the mysql.user table that has Host=’localhost’ and User=’’.
You should also add a password for the root user. The following example starts by removing
the anonymous user that can be used by anyone to access the test database, then sets a
root user password:
C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysql mysql
mysql> DELETE FROM user WHERE Host=’localhost’ AND User=’’;
mysql> QUIT
C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqladmin reload
C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqladmin -u root password your_password
After you’ve set the password, if you want to take down the mysqld server, you can do so
using this command:
C:\> mysqladmin --user=root --password=your_password shutdown
If you are using the old shareware version of MySQL Version 3.21 under Windows, the
above command will fail with an error: parse error near ’SET OPTION password’. The
fix is in to upgrade to the current MySQL version, which is freely available.
With the current MySQL versions you can easily add new users and change privileges with
GRANT and REVOKE commands. See Section 7.35 [GRANT], page 290.
mysqlc
4.13.5 Connecting to a Remote MySQL from Windows with SSH
Here is a note about how to connect to get a secure connection to remote MySQL server
with SSH (by David Carlson [email protected]):
• Install an SSH client on your Windows machine. As a user, the best non-free one
I’ve found is from SecureCRT from http://www.vandyke.com/. Another option
is f-secure from http://www.f-secure.com/. You can also find some free ones
on Google at http://directory.google.com/Top/Computers/Security/Products_
and_Tools/Cryptography/SSH/Clients/Windows/.
• Start your Windows SSH client. Set Host_Name = yourmysqlserver_URL_or_IP. Set
userid=your_userid to log in to your server (probably not the same as your MySQL
login/password.
• Set up port forwarding. Either do a remote forward (Set local_port: 3306, remote_
host: yourmysqlservername_or_ip, remote_port: 3306 ) or a local forward (Set
port: 3306, host: localhost, remote port: 3306).
• Save everything, otherwise you’ll have to redo it the next time.
• Log in to your server with SSH session you just created.
• On your Windows machine, start some ODBC application (such as Access).
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• Create a new file in Windows and link to MySQL using the ODBC driver the same
way you normally do, EXCEPT type in localhost for the MySQL host server — not
yourmysqlservername.
You should now have an ODBC connection to MySQL, encrypted using SSH.
4.13.6 Splitting Data Across Different Disks on Windows
Beginning with MySQL Version 3.23.16, the mysqld-max and mysql-max-nt servers in the
MySQL distribution are compiled with the -DUSE_SYMDIR option. This allows you to put a
database on different disk by adding a symbolic link to it (in a manner similar to the way
that symbolic links work on Unix).
On Windows, you make a symbolic link to a database by creating a file that contains the
path to the destination directory and saving this in the ‘mysql_data’ directory under the
filename ‘database.sym’. Note that the symbolic link will be used only if the directory
‘mysql_data_dir\database’ doesn’t exist.
For example, if the MySQL data directory is ‘C:\mysql\data’ and you want to have
database foo located at ‘D:\data\foo’, you should create the file ‘C:\mysql\data\foo.sym’
that contains the text D:\data\foo\. After that, all tables created in the database foo will
be created in ‘D:\data\foo’.
Note that because of the speed penalty you get when opening every table, we have not
enabled this by default even if you have compiled MySQL with support for this. To enable
symlinks you should put in your my.cnf or my.ini file the following entry:
[mysqld]
use-symbolic-links
In MySQL 4.0 we will enable symlinks by default. Then you should instead use the skipsymlink option if you want to disable this.
4.13.7 Compiling MySQL Clients on Windows
In your source files, you should include ‘windows.h’ before you include ‘mysql.h’:
#if defined(_WIN32) || defined(_WIN64)
#include <windows.h>
#endif
#include <mysql.h>
You can either link your code with the dynamic ‘libmysql.lib’ library, which is just a
wrapper to load in ‘libmysql.dll’ on demand, or link with the static ‘mysqlclient.lib’
library.
Note that as the mysqlclient libraries are compiled as threaded libraries, you should also
compile your code to be multi-threaded!
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4.13.8 MySQL-Windows Compared to Unix MySQL
MySQL-Windows has by now proven itself to be very stable. This version of MySQL has
the same features as the corresponding Unix version with the following exceptions:
Win95 and threads
Win95 leaks about 200 bytes of main memory for each thread creation. Each
connection in MySQL creates a new thread, so you shouldn’t run mysqld for
an extended time on Win95 if your server handles many connections! WinNT
and Win98 don’t suffer from this bug.
Concurrent reads
MySQL depends on the pread() and pwrite() calls to be able to mix INSERT
and SELECT. Currently we use mutexes to emulate pread()/pwrite(). We
will, in the long run, replace the file level interface with a virtual interface so
that we can use the readfile()/writefile() interface on NT to get more
speed. The current implementation limits the number of open files MySQL can
use to 1024, which means that you will not be able to run as many concurrent
threads on NT as on Unix.
Blocking read
MySQL uses a blocking read for each connection. This means that:
• A connection will not be disconnected automatically after 8 hours, as happens with the Unix version of MySQL.
• If a connection hangs, it’s impossible to break it without killing MySQL.
• mysqladmin kill will not work on a sleeping connection.
• mysqladmin shutdown can’t abort as long as there are sleeping connections.
We plan to fix this problem when our Windows developers have figured out a
nice workaround.
UDF functions
For the moment, MySQL-Windows does not support user-definable functions.
DROP DATABASE
You can’t drop a database that is in use by some thread.
Killing MySQL from the task manager
You can’t kill MySQL from the task manager or with the shutdown utility in
Win95. You must take it down with mysqladmin shutdown.
Case-insensitive names
Filenames are case insensitive on Windows, so database and table names are also
case insensitive in MySQL for Windows. The only restriction is that database
and table names must be specified using the same case throughout a given
statement. See Section 7.1.5.1 [Name case sensitivity], page 173.
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The ‘\’ directory character
Pathname components in Win95 are separated by the ‘\’ character, which is
also the escape character in MySQL. If you are using LOAD DATA INFILE or
SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE, you must double the ‘\’ character:
mysql> LOAD DATA INFILE "C:\\tmp\\skr.txt" INTO TABLE skr;
mysql> SELECT * INTO OUTFILE ’C:\\tmp\\skr.txt’ FROM skr;
Alternatively, use Unix style filenames with ‘/’ characters:
mysql> LOAD DATA INFILE "C:/tmp/skr.txt" INTO TABLE skr;
mysql> SELECT * INTO OUTFILE ’C:/tmp/skr.txt’ FROM skr;
Can’t open named pipe error
If you use a MySQL 3.22 version on NT with the newest mysql-clients you will
get the following error:
error 2017: can’t open named pipe to host: . pipe...
This is because the release version of MySQL uses named pipes on NT by
default. You can avoid this error by using the --host=localhost option to
the new MySQL clients or create an option file ‘C:\my.cnf’ that contains the
following information:
[client]
host = localhost
Access denied for user error
If you get the error Access denied for user: [email protected] to database
’mysql’ when accessing a MySQL server on the same machine, this means that
MySQL can’t resolve your host name properly.
To fix this, you should create a file ‘\windows\hosts’ with the following information:
127.0.0.1
localhost
ALTER TABLE
While you are executing an ALTER TABLE statement, the table is locked from
usage by other threads. This has to do with the fact that on Windows, you
can’t delete a file that is in use by another threads. (In the future, we may find
some way to work around this problem.)
DROP TABLE on a table that is in use by a MERGE table will not work
The MERGE handler does its table mapping hidden from MySQL. Because Windows doesn’t allow you to drop files that are open, you first must flush all MERGE
tables (with FLUSH TABLES) or drop the MERGE table before dropping the table.
We will fix this at the same time we introduce VIEWs.
Here are some open issues for anyone who might want to help us with the Windows release:
• Make a single-user MYSQL.DLL server. This should include everything in a standard
MySQL server, except thread creation. This will make MySQL much easier to use in
applications that don’t need a true client/server and don’t need to access the server
from other hosts.
• Add some nice start and shutdown icons to the MySQL installation.
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• Create a tool to manage registry entries for the MySQL startup options. The registry
entry reading is already coded into ‘mysqld.cc’, but it should be recoded to be more
parameter oriented. The tool should also be able to update the ‘C:\my.cnf’ option file
if the user prefers to use that instead of the registry.
• When registering mysqld as a service with --install (on NT) it would be nice if you
could also add default options on the command line. For the moment, the workaround
is to list the parameters in the ‘C:\my.cnf’ file instead.
• When you suspend a laptop running Win95, the mysqld daemon doesn’t accept new
connections when the laptop is resumed. We don’t know if this is a problem with
Win95, TCP/IP, or MySQL.
• It would be real nice to be able to kill mysqld from the task manager. For the moment,
you must use mysqladmin shutdown.
• Port readline to Windows for use in the mysql command line tool.
• GUI versions of the standard MySQL clients (mysql, mysqlshow, mysqladmin, and
mysqldump) would be nice.
• It would be nice if the socket read and write functions in ‘net.c’ were interruptible.
This would make it possible to kill open threads with mysqladmin kill on Windows.
• mysqld always starts in the "C" locale and not in the default locale. We would like to
have mysqld use the current locale for the sort order.
• Implement UDF functions with .DLLs.
• Add macros to use the faster thread-safe increment/decrement methods provided by
Windows.
Other Windows-specific issues are described in the ‘README’ file that comes with the MySQLWindows distribution.
4.14 OS/2 Notes
MySQL uses quite a few open files. Because of this, you should add something like the
following to your ‘CONFIG.SYS’ file:
SET EMXOPT=-c -n -h1024
If you don’t do this, you will probably run into the following error:
File ’xxxx’ not found (Errcode: 24)
When using MySQL with OS/2 Warp 3, FixPack 29 or above is required. With OS/2 Warp
4, FixPack 4 or above is required. This is a requirement of the Pthreads library. MySQL
must be installed in a partition that supports long filenames such as HPFS, FAT32, etc.
The ‘INSTALL.CMD’ script must be run from OS/2’s own ‘CMD.EXE’ and may not work with
replacement shells such as ‘4OS2.EXE’.
The ‘scripts/mysql-install-db’ script has been renamed. It is now called ‘install.cmd’
and is a REXX script, which will set up the default MySQL security settings and create
the WorkPlace Shell icons for MySQL.
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Dynamic module support is compiled in but not fully tested. Dynamic modules should be
compiled using the Pthreads run-time library.
gcc -Zdll -Zmt -Zcrtdll=pthrdrtl -I../include -I../regex -I.. \
-o example udf_example.cc -L../lib -lmysqlclient udf_example.def
mv example.dll example.udf
Note: Due to limitations in OS/2, UDF module name stems must not exceed 8 characters.
Modules are stored in the ‘/mysql2/udf’ directory; the safe-mysqld.cmd script will put this
directory in the BEGINLIBPATH environment variable. When using UDF modules, specified
extensions are ignored — it is assumed to be ‘.udf’. For example, in Unix, the shared
module might be named ‘example.so’ and you would load a function from it like this:
mysql> CREATE FUNCTION metaphon RETURNS STRING SONAME "example.so";
Is OS/2, the module would be named ‘example.udf’, but you would not specify the module
extension:
mysql> CREATE FUNCTION metaphon RETURNS STRING SONAME "example";
4.15 MySQL Binaries
As a service, we at MySQL AB provide a set of binary distributions of MySQL that are
compiled at our site or at sites where customers kindly have given us access to their machines.
These distributions are generated with scripts/make_binary_distribution and are configured with the following compilers and options:
SunOS 4.1.4 2 sun4c with gcc 2.7.2.1
CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -felide-constructors" ./configure -prefix=/usr/local/mysql --disable-shared --with-extra-charsets=complex
--enable-assembler
SunOS 5.5.1 sun4u with egcs 1.0.3a
CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -felide-constructors -fnoexceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --withlow-memory --with-extra-charsets=complex
SunOS 5.6 sun4u with egcs 2.90.27
CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -felide-constructors -fnoexceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --withlow-memory --with-extra-charsets=complex
SunOS 5.6 i86pc with gcc 2.8.1
CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql -with-low-memory --with-extra-charsets=complex
Linux 2.0.33 i386 with pgcc 2.90.29 (egcs 1.0.3a)
CFLAGS="-O3 -mpentium -mstack-align-double" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 mpentium -mstack-align-double -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions
-fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --enable-assembler
--with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static --with-extra-charsets=complex
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Linux 2.2.x with x686 with gcc 2.95.2
CFLAGS="-O3 -mpentiumpro" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -mpentiumpro -felideconstructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql
--enable-assembler --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static --disable-shared
--with-extra-charset=complex
SCO 3.2v5.0.4 i386 with gcc 2.7-95q4
CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql -with-extra-charsets=complex
AIX 2 4 with gcc 2.7.2.2
CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql -with-extra-charsets=complex
OSF1 V4.0 564 alpha with gcc 2.8.1
CC=gcc CFLAGS=-O CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql
--with-low-memory --with-extra-charsets=complex
Irix 6.3 IP32 with gcc 2.8.0
CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql -with-extra-charsets=complex
BSDI BSD/OS 3.1 i386 with gcc 2.7.2.1
CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql -with-extra-charsets=complex
BSDI BSD/OS 2.1 i386 with gcc 2.7.2
CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql -with-extra-charsets=complex
Anyone who has more optimal options for any of the configurations listed above can always
mail them to the developer’s mailing list at [email protected]
RPM distributions prior to MySQL Version 3.22 are user-contributed. Beginning with
Version 3.22, the RPMs are generated by us at MySQL AB.
If you want to compile a debug version of MySQL, you should add --with-debug or -with-debug=full to the above configure lines and remove any -fomit-frame-pointer
options.
4.16 Post-installation Setup and Testing
Once you’ve installed MySQL (from either a binary or source distribution), you need to
initialize the grant tables, start the server, and make sure that the server works okay. You
may also wish to arrange for the server to be started and stopped automatically when your
system starts up and shuts down.
Normally you install the grant tables and start the server like this for installation from a
source distribution:
shell> ./scripts/mysql_install_db
shell> cd mysql_installation_directory
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shell> ./bin/safe_mysqld --user=mysql &
For a binary distribution (not RPM or pkg packages), do this:
shell> cd mysql_installation_directory
shell> ./bin/mysql_install_db
shell> ./bin/safe_mysqld --user=mysql &
This creates the mysql database which will hold all database privileges, the test database
which you can use to test MySQL and also privilege entries for the user that run mysql_
install_db and a root user (without any passwords). This also starts the mysqld server.
mysql_install_db will not overwrite any old privilege tables, so it should be safe to run
in any circumstances. If you don’t want to have the test database you can remove it with
mysqladmin -u root drop test.
Testing is most easily done from the top-level directory of the MySQL distribution.
For a binary distribution, this is your installation directory (typically something like
‘/usr/local/mysql’). For a source distribution, this is the main directory of your MySQL
source tree.
In the commands shown below in this section and in the following subsections, BINDIR is
the path to the location in which programs like mysqladmin and safe_mysqld are installed.
For a binary distribution, this is the ‘bin’ directory within the distribution. For a source
distribution, BINDIR is probably ‘/usr/local/bin’, unless you specified an installation
directory other than ‘/usr/local’ when you ran configure. EXECDIR is the location in
which the mysqld server is installed. For a binary distribution, this is the same as BINDIR.
For a source distribution, EXECDIR is probably ‘/usr/local/libexec’.
Testing is described in detail below:
1. If necessary, start the mysqld server and set up the initial MySQL grant tables containing the privileges that determine how users are allowed to connect to the server.
This is normally done with the mysql_install_db script:
shell> scripts/mysql_install_db
Typically, mysql_install_db needs to be run only the first time you install MySQL.
Therefore, if you are upgrading an existing installation, you can skip this step. (However, mysql_install_db is quite safe to use and will not update any tables that already
exist, so if you are unsure of what to do, you can always run mysql_install_db.)
mysql_install_db creates six tables (user, db, host, tables_priv, columns_priv,
and func) in the mysql database. A description of the initial privileges is given in
Section 6.13 [Default privileges], page 159. Briefly, these privileges allow the MySQL
root user to do anything, and allow anybody to create or use databases with a name
of ’test’ or starting with ’test_’.
If you don’t set up the grant tables, the following error will appear in the log file when
you start the server:
mysqld: Can’t find file: ’host.frm’
The above may also happen with a binary MySQL distribution if you don’t start
MySQL by executing exactly ./bin/safe_mysqld! See Section 15.3 [safe_mysqld],
page 438.
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You might need to run mysql_install_db as root. However, if you prefer, you can
run the MySQL server as an unprivileged (non-root) user, provided that user can
read and write files in the database directory. Instructions for running MySQL as an
unprivileged user are given in Section 21.9 [Changing MySQL user], page 519.
If you have problems with mysql_install_db, see Section 4.16.1 [mysql_install_db],
page 112.
There are some alternatives to running the mysql_install_db script as it is provided
in the MySQL distribution:
• You may want to edit mysql_install_db before running it, to change the initial
privileges that are installed into the grant tables. This is useful if you want to
install MySQL on a lot of machines with the same privileges. In this case you
probably should need only to add a few extra INSERT statements to the mysql.user
and mysql.db tables!
• If you want to change things in the grant tables after installing them, you can run
mysql_install_db, then use mysql -u root mysql to connect to the grant tables
as the MySQL root user and issue SQL statements to modify the grant tables
directly.
• It is possible to re-create the grant tables completely after they have already been
created. You might want to do this if you’ve already installed the tables but then
want to re-create them after editing mysql_install_db.
For more information about these alternatives, see Section 6.13 [Default privileges],
page 159.
2. Start the MySQL server like this:
shell> cd mysql_installation_directory
shell> bin/safe_mysqld &
If you have problems starting the server, see Section 4.16.2 [Starting server], page 113.
3. Use mysqladmin to verify that the server is running. The following commands provide
a simple test to check that the server is up and responding to connections:
shell> BINDIR/mysqladmin version
shell> BINDIR/mysqladmin variables
The output from mysqladmin version varies slightly depending on your platform and
version of MySQL, but should be similar to that shown below:
shell> BINDIR/mysqladmin version
mysqladmin Ver 8.14 Distrib 3.23.32, for linux on i586
Copyright (C) 2000 MySQL AB & MySQL Finland AB & TCX DataKonsult AB
This software comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. This is free software,
and you are welcome to modify and redistribute it under the GPL license
Server version
Protocol version
Connection
TCP port
UNIX socket
Uptime:
3.23.32-debug
10
Localhost via Unix socket
3306
/tmp/mysql.sock
16 sec
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Threads: 1
Questions: 9
Slow queries: 0
Opens: 7
Flush tables: 2
To get a feeling for what else you can do with BINDIR/mysqladmin, invoke it with the
--help option.
4. Verify that you can shut down the server:
shell> BINDIR/mysqladmin -u root shutdown
5. Verify that you can restart the server. Do this using safe_mysqld or by invoking
mysqld directly. For example:
shell> BINDIR/safe_mysqld --log &
If safe_mysqld fails, try running it from the MySQL installation directory (if you are
not already there). If that doesn’t work, see Section 4.16.2 [Starting server], page 113.
6. Run some simple tests to verify that the server is working. The output should be
similar to what is shown below:
shell> BINDIR/mysqlshow
+-----------+
| Databases |
+-----------+
| mysql
|
+-----------+
shell> BINDIR/mysqlshow mysql
Database: mysql
+--------------+
|
Tables
|
+--------------+
| columns_priv |
| db
|
| func
|
| host
|
| tables_priv |
| user
|
+--------------+
shell> BINDIR/mysql -e "select host,db,user from db" mysql
+------+--------+------+
| host | db
| user |
+------+--------+------+
| %
| test
|
|
| %
| test_% |
|
+------+--------+------+
There is also a benchmark suite in the ‘sql-bench’ directory (under the MySQL installation directory) that you can use to compare how MySQL performs on different
platforms. The ‘sql-bench/Results’ directory contains the results from many runs
against different databases and platforms. To run all tests, execute these commands:
shell> cd sql-bench
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shell> run-all-tests
If you don’t have the ‘sql-bench’ directory, you are probably using an RPM for a binary
distribution. (Source distribution RPMs include the benchmark directory.) In this case,
you must first install the benchmark suite before you can use it. Beginning with MySQL
Version 3.22, there are benchmark RPM files named ‘mysql-bench-VERSION-i386.rpm’
that contain benchmark code and data.
If you have a source distribution, you can also run the tests in the ‘tests’ subdirectory.
For example, to run ‘auto_increment.tst’, do this:
shell> BINDIR/mysql -vvf test < ./tests/auto_increment.tst
The expected results are shown in the ‘./tests/auto_increment.res’ file.
4.16.1 Problems Running mysql_install_db
The purpose of the mysql_install_db script is to generate new MySQL privilege tables.
It will not affect any other data! It will also not do anything if you already have MySQL
privilege tables installed!
If you want to re-create your privilege tables, you should take down the mysqld server, if
it’s running, and then do something like:
mv mysql-data-directory/mysql mysql-data-directory/mysql-old
mysql_install_db
This section lists problems you might encounter when you run mysql_install_db:
mysql_install_db doesn’t install the grant tables
You may find that mysql_install_db fails to install the grant tables and terminates after displaying the following messages:
starting mysqld daemon with databases from XXXXXX
mysql daemon ended
In this case, you should examine the log file very carefully! The log should
be located in the directory ‘XXXXXX’ named by the error message, and should
indicate why mysqld didn’t start. If you don’t understand what happened,
include the log when you post a bug report using mysqlbug! See Section 2.3
[Bug reports], page 31.
There is already a mysqld daemon running
In this case, you probably don’t have to run mysql_install_db at all. You
have to run mysql_install_db only once, when you install MySQL the first
time.
Installing a second mysqld daemon doesn’t work when one daemon is running
This can happen when you already have an existing MySQL installation, but
want to put a new installation in a different place (for example, for testing,
or perhaps you simply want to run two installations at the same time). Generally the problem that occurs when you try to run the second server is that
it tries to use the same socket and port as the old one. In this case you will
get the error message: Can’t start server: Bind on TCP/IP port: Address
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already in use or Can’t start server : Bind on unix socket.... See Section 4.17 [Installing many servers], page 123.
You don’t have write access to ‘/tmp’
If you don’t have write access to create a socket file at the default place (in
‘/tmp’) or permission to create temporary files in ‘/tmp,’ you will get an error
when running mysql_install_db or when starting or using mysqld.
You can specify a different socket and temporary directory as follows:
shell> TMPDIR=/some_tmp_dir/
shell> MYSQL_UNIX_PORT=/some_tmp_dir/mysqld.sock
shell> export TMPDIR MYSQL_UNIX_PORT
‘some_tmp_dir’ should be the path to some directory for which you have write
permission. See Appendix A [Environment variables], page 611.
After this you should be able to run mysql_install_db and start the server
with these commands:
shell> scripts/mysql_install_db
shell> BINDIR/safe_mysqld &
mysqld crashes immediately
If you are running RedHat Version 5.0 with a version of glibc older than
2.0.7-5, you should make sure you have installed all glibc patches! There
is a lot of information about this in the MySQL mail archives. Links to the
mail archives are available online at http://www.mysql.com/documentation/.
Also, see Section 4.12.5 [Linux], page 79.
You can also start mysqld manually using the --skip-grant-tables option
and add the privilege information yourself using mysql:
shell> BINDIR/safe_mysqld --skip-grant-tables &
shell> BINDIR/mysql -u root mysql
From mysql, manually execute the SQL commands in mysql_install_db.
Make sure you run mysqladmin flush-privileges or mysqladmin reload afterward to tell the server to reload the grant tables.
4.16.2 Problems Starting the MySQL Server
If you are going to use tables that support transactions (BDB, InnoDB or Gemini), you
should first create a my.cnf file and set startup options for the table types you plan to use.
See Chapter 8 [Table types], page 298.
Generally, you start the mysqld server in one of three ways:
• By invoking mysql.server. This script is used primarily at system startup and shutdown, and is described more fully in Section 4.16.3 [Automatic start], page 115.
• By invoking safe_mysqld, which tries to determine the proper options for mysqld and
then runs it with those options. See Section 15.3 [safe_mysqld], page 438.
• On NT you should install mysqld as a service as follows:
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bin\mysqld-nt --install
# Install MySQL as a service
You can now start/stop mysqld as follows:
NET START mysql
NET STOP mysql
Note that in this case you can’t use any other options for mysqld!
You can remove the service as follows:
bin\mysqld-nt --remove
# remove MySQL as a service
• By invoking mysqld directly.
When the mysqld daemon starts up, it changes directory to the data directory. This is
where it expects to write log files and the pid (process ID) file, and where it expects to find
databases.
The data directory location is hardwired in when the distribution is compiled. However, if
mysqld expects to find the data directory somewhere other than where it really is on your
system, it will not work properly. If you have problems with incorrect paths, you can find
out what options mysqld allows and what the default path settings are by invoking mysqld
with the --help option. You can override the defaults by specifying the correct pathnames
as command-line arguments to mysqld. (These options can be used with safe_mysqld as
well.)
Normally you should need to tell mysqld only the base directory under which MySQL is
installed. You can do this with the --basedir option. You can also use --help to check the
effect of changing path options (note that --help must be the final option of the mysqld
command). For example:
shell> EXECDIR/mysqld --basedir=/usr/local --help
Once you determine the path settings you want, start the server without the --help option.
Whichever method you use to start the server, if it fails to start up correctly, check the
log file to see if you can find out why. Log files are located in the data directory (typically
‘/usr/local/mysql/data’ for a binary distribution, ‘/usr/local/var’ for a source distribution, ‘\mysql\data\mysql.err’ on Windows.) Look in the data directory for files with
names of the form ‘host_name.err’ and ‘host_name.log’ where host_name is the name of
your server host. Then check the last few lines of these files:
shell> tail host_name.err
shell> tail host_name.log
If you find something like the following in the log file:
000729 14:50:10 bdb: Recovery function for LSN 1 27595 failed
000729 14:50:10 bdb: warning: ./test/t1.db: No such file or directory
000729 14:50:10 Can’t init databases
This means that you didn’t start mysqld with --bdb-no-recover and Berkeley DB found
something wrong with its log files when it tried to recover your databases. To be able
to continue, you should move away the old Berkeley DB log file from the database directory to some other place, where you can later examine these. The log files are named
‘log.0000000001’, where the number will increase over time.
If you are running mysqld with BDB table support and mysqld core dumps at start this
could be because of some problems with the BDB recover log. In this case you can try
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starting mysqld with --bdb-no-recover. If this helps, then you should remove all ‘log.*’
files from the data directory and try starting mysqld again.
If you get the following error, it means that some other program (or another mysqld server)
is already using the TCP/IP port or socket mysqld is trying to use:
Can’t start server: Bind on TCP/IP port: Address already in use
or
Can’t start server : Bind on unix socket...
Use ps to make sure that you don’t have another mysqld server running. If you can’t
find another server running, you can try to execute the command telnet your-host-name
tcp-ip-port-number and press RETURN a couple of times. If you don’t get an error message
like telnet: Unable to connect to remote host: Connection refused, something is using the TCP/IP port mysqld is trying to use. See Section 4.16.1 [mysql install db], page 112
and Section 22.3 [Multiple servers], page 530.
If mysqld is currently running, you can find out what path settings it is using by executing
this command:
shell> mysqladmin variables
or
shell> mysqladmin -h ’your-host-name’ variables
If safe_mysqld starts the server but you can’t connect to it, you should make sure you
have an entry in ‘/etc/hosts’ that looks like this:
127.0.0.1
localhost
This problem occurs only on systems that don’t have a working thread library and for which
MySQL must be configured to use MIT-pthreads.
If you can’t get mysqld to start you can try to make a trace file to find the problem. See
Section I.1.2 [Making trace files], page 722.
If you are using BDB (Berkeley DB) tables, you should familiarize yourself with the different
BDB specific startup options. See Section 8.5.3 [BDB start], page 310.
If you are using Gemini tables, refer to the Gemini-specific startup options. See Section 8.6.2
[Using GEMINI Tables], page 318.
If you are using InnoDB tables, refer to the InnoDB-specific startup options. See Section 8.7.2 [InnoDB start], page 324.
4.16.3 Starting and Stopping MySQL Automatically
The mysql.server and safe_mysqld scripts can be used to start the server automatically
at system startup time. mysql.server can also be used to stop the server.
The mysql.server script can be used to start or stop the server by invoking it with start
or stop arguments:
shell> mysql.server start
shell> mysql.server stop
mysql.server can be found in the ‘share/mysql’ directory under the MySQL installation
directory or in the ‘support-files’ directory of the MySQL source tree.
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Before mysql.server starts the server, it changes directory to the MySQL installation
directory, then invokes safe_mysqld. You might need to edit mysql.server if you have a
binary distribution that you’ve installed in a non-standard location. Modify it to cd into
the proper directory before it runs safe_mysqld. If you want the server to run as some
specific user, add an appropriate user line to the ‘/etc/my.cnf’ file, as shown later in this
section.
mysql.server stop brings down the server by sending a signal to it. You can take down
the server manually by executing mysqladmin shutdown.
You might want to add these start and stop commands to the appropriate places in your
‘/etc/rc*’ files when you start using MySQL for production applications. Note that if
you modify mysql.server, then upgrade MySQL sometime, your modified version will be
overwritten, so you should make a copy of your edited version that you can reinstall.
If your system uses ‘/etc/rc.local’ to start external scripts, you should append the following to it:
/bin/sh -c ’cd /usr/local/mysql ; ./bin/safe_mysqld --user=mysql &’
You can also add options for mysql.server in a global ‘/etc/my.cnf’ file. A typical
‘/etc/my.cnf’ file might look like this:
[mysqld]
datadir=/usr/local/mysql/var
socket=/tmp/mysqld.sock
port=3306
user=mysql
[mysql.server]
basedir=/usr/local/mysql
The mysql.server script understands the following options: datadir, basedir, and pidfile.
The following table shows which option groups each of the startup scripts read from option
files:
Script
Option groups
mysqld
mysqld and server
mysql.server
mysql.server, mysqld, and server
safe_mysqld
mysql.server, mysqld, and server
See Section 4.16.5 [Option files], page 121.
4.16.4 mysqld Command-line Options
mysqld accepts the following command-line options:
--ansi
Use ANSI SQL syntax instead of MySQL syntax. See Section 5.2 [ANSI mode],
page 132.
-b, --basedir=path
Path to installation directory. All paths are usually resolved relative to this.
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--big-tables
Allow big result sets by saving all temporary sets on file. It solves most ’table full’ errors, but also slows down the queries where in-memory tables would
suffice. Since Version 3.23.2, MySQL is able to solve it automatically by using
memory for small temporary tables and switching to disk tables where necessary.
--bind-address=IP
IP address to bind to.
--character-sets-dir=path
Directory where character sets are.
page 379.
See Section 10.1.1 [Character sets],
--chroot=path
Chroot mysqld daemon during startup. Recommended security measure. It
will somewhat limit LOAD DATA INFILE and SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE though.
--core-file
Write a core file if mysqld dies. For some systems you must also specify -core-file-size to safe_mysqld. See Section 15.3 [safe_mysqld], page 438.
-h, --datadir=path
Path to the database root.
--default-character-set=charset
Set the default character set. See Section 10.1.1 [Character sets], page 379.
--default-table-type=type
Set the default table type for tables. See Chapter 8 [Table types], page 298.
--debug[...]=
If MySQL is configured with --with-debug, you can use this option to get
a trace file of what mysqld is doing. See Section I.1.2 [Making trace files],
page 722.
--delay-key-write-for-all-tables
Don’t flush key buffers between writes for any MyISAM table. See Section 13.2.4
[Server parameters], page 408.
--enable-locking
Enable system locking. Note that if you use this option on a system which a
not fully working lockd() (as on Linux) you will easily get mysqld to deadlock.
-T, --exit-info
This is a bit mask of different flags one can use for debugging the mysqld server;
One should not use this option if one doesn’t know exactly what it does!
--flush
Flush all changes to disk after each SQL command. Normally MySQL only does
a write of all changes to disk after each SQL command and lets the operating
system handle the syncing to disk. See Section 21.2 [Crashing], page 507.
-?, --help
Display short help and exit.
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--init-file=file
Read SQL commands from this file at startup.
-L, --language=...
Client error messages in given language. May be given as a full path. See
Section 10.1 [Languages], page 379.
-l, --log[=file]
Log connections and queries to file. See Section 23.2 [Query log], page 532.
--log-isam[=file]
Log all ISAM/MyISAM changes to file (only used when debugging ISAM/MyISAM).
--log-slow-queries[=file]
Log all queries that have taken more than long_query_time seconds to execute
to file. See Section 23.5 [Slow query log], page 535.
--log-update[=file]
Log updates to file.# where # is a unique number if not given. See Section 23.3
[Update log], page 533.
--log-long-format
Log some extra information to update log. If you are using --log-slowqueries then queries that are not using indexes are logged to the slow query
log.
--low-priority-updates
Table-modifying operations (INSERT/DELETE/UPDATE) will have lower priority
than selects. It can also be done via {INSERT | REPLACE | UPDATE | DELETE}
LOW_PRIORITY ... to lower the priority of only one query, or by SET OPTION
SQL_LOW_PRIORITY_UPDATES=1 to change the priority in one thread. See Section 13.2.10 [Table locking], page 414.
--memlock
Lock the mysqld process in memory. This works only if your system supports
the mlockall() system call (like Solaris). This may help if you have a problem
where the operating system is causing mysqld to swap on disk.
--myisam-recover [=option[,option...]]] where option is one of DEFAULT,
BACKUP, FORCE or QUICK.
If this option is used, mysqld will on open check if the table is marked as crashed
or if if the table wasn’t closed properly. (The last option only works if you are
running with --skip-locking). If this is the case mysqld will run check on the
table. If the table was corrupted, mysqld will attempt to repair it.
The following options affects how the repair works.
DEFAULT
The same as not giving any option to --myisam-recover.
BACKUP
If the data table was changed during recover, save
a backup of the ‘table_name.MYD’ data file as
‘table_name-datetime.BAK’.
FORCE
Run recover even if we will loose more than one row from the
.MYD file.
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QUICK
Don’t check the rows in the table if there isn’t any delete
blocks.
Before a table is automatically repaired, MySQL will add a note about this in
the error log. If you want to be able to recover from most things without user
intervention, you should use the options BACKUP,FORCE. This will force a repair
of a table even if some rows would be deleted, but it will keep the old data file
as a backup so that you can later examine what happened.
--pid-file=path
Path to pid file used by safe_mysqld.
-P, --port=...
Port number to listen for TCP/IP connections.
-o, --old-protocol
Use the 3.20 protocol for compatibility with some very old clients. See Section 4.18.3 [Upgrading-from-3.20], page 127.
--one-thread
Only use one thread (for debugging under Linux). See Section I.1 [Debugging
server], page 721.
-O, --set-variable var=option
Give a variable a value. --help lists variables. You can find a full description for
all variables in the SHOW VARIABLES section in this manual. See Section 7.28.4
[SHOW VARIABLES], page 270. The tuning server parameters section includes
information of how to optimize these. See Section 13.2.4 [Server parameters],
page 408.
--safe-mode
Skip some optimize stages. Implies --skip-delay-key-write.
--safe-show-database
Don’t show databases for which the user doesn’t have any privileges.
--secure
IP numbers returned by the gethostbyname() system call are checked to make
sure they resolve back to the original hostname. This makes it harder for
someone on the outside to get access by pretending to be another host. This
option also adds some sanity checks of hostnames. The option is turned off
by default in MySQL Version 3.21 because sometimes it takes a long time to
perform backward resolutions. MySQL Version 3.22 caches hostnames (unless
--skip-host-cache is used) and has this option enabled by default.
--skip-concurrent-insert
Turn off the ability to select and insert at the same time on MyISAM tables.
(This is only to be used if you think you have found a bug in this feature).
--skip-delay-key-write
Ignore the delay_key_write option for all tables. See Section 13.2.4 [Server
parameters], page 408.
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--skip-grant-tables
This option causes the server not to use the privilege system at all. This gives
everyone full access to all databases! (You can tell a running server to start
using the grant tables again by executing mysqladmin flush-privileges or
mysqladmin reload.)
--skip-host-cache
Never use host name cache for faster name-ip resolution, but query DNS server
on every connect instead. See Section 13.2.11 [DNS], page 415.
--skip-locking
Don’t use system locking. To use isamchk or myisamchk you must shut down
the server. See Section 1.7 [Stability], page 14. Note that in MySQL Version
3.23 you can use REPAIR and CHECK to repair/check MyISAM tables.
--skip-name-resolve
Hostnames are not resolved. All Host column values in the grant tables must
be IP numbers or localhost. See Section 13.2.11 [DNS], page 415.
--skip-networking
Don’t listen for TCP/IP connections at all. All interaction with mysqld must
be made via Unix sockets. This option is highly recommended for systems
where only local requests are allowed. See Section 13.2.11 [DNS], page 415.
--skip-new
Don’t use new, possible wrong routines. Implies --skip-delay-key-write.
This will also set default table type to ISAM. See Section 8.3 [ISAM], page 307.
--skip-symlink
Don’t delete or rename files that a symlinked file in the data directory points
to.
--skip-safemalloc
If MySQL is configured with --with-debug=full, all programs will check the
memory for overruns for every memory allocation and memory freeing. As
this checking is very slow, you can avoid this, when you don’t need memory
checking, by using this option.
--skip-show-database
Don’t allow ’SHOW DATABASE’ commands, unless the user has process privilege.
--skip-stack-trace
Don’t write stack traces. This option is useful when you are running mysqld
under a debugger. See Section I.1 [Debugging server], page 721.
--skip-thread-priority
Disable using thread priorities for faster response time.
--socket=path
Socket file to use for local connections instead of default /tmp/mysql.sock.
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transaction-isolation= { READ-UNCOMMITTED | READ-COMMITTED | REPEATABLE-READ
| SERIALIZABLE }
Sets the default transaction isolation level. See Section 7.34 [SET TRANSACTION], page 290.
-t, --tmpdir=path
Path for temporary files. It may be useful if your default /tmp directory resides
on a partition too small to hold temporary tables.
-u, --user=user_name
Run mysqld daemon as user user_name. This option is mandatory when starting mysqld as root.
-V, --version
Output version information and exit.
4.16.5 Option Files
MySQL can, since Version 3.22, read default startup options for the server and for clients
from option files.
MySQL reads default options from the following files on Unix:
Filename
Purpose
/etc/my.cnf
Global options
DATADIR/my.cnf
Server-specific options
defaults-extra-file
The file specified with –defaults-extra-file=#
~/.my.cnf
User-specific options
DATADIR is the MySQL data directory (typically ‘/usr/local/mysql/data’ for a binary
installation or ‘/usr/local/var’ for a source installation). Note that this is the directory
that was specified at configuration time, not the one specified with --datadir when mysqld
starts up! (--datadir has no effect on where the server looks for option files, because it
looks for them before it processes any command-line arguments.)
MySQL reads default options from the following files on Windows:
Filename
Purpose
windows-systemGlobal options
directory\my.ini
C:\my.cnf
Global options
C:\mysql\data\my.cnf
Server-specific options
Note that on Windows, you should specify all paths with / instead of \. If you use \, you
need to specify this twice, as \ is the escape character in MySQL.
MySQL tries to read option files in the order listed above. If multiple option files exist, an
option specified in a file read later takes precedence over the same option specified in a file
read earlier. Options specified on the command line take precedence over options specified
in any option file. Some options can be specified using environment variables. Options
specified on the command line or in option files take precedence over environment variable
values. See Appendix A [Environment variables], page 611.
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The following programs support option files: mysql, mysqladmin, mysqld, mysqldump,
mysqlimport, mysql.server, myisamchk, and myisampack.
You can use option files to specify any long option that a program supports! Run the
program with --help to get a list of available options.
An option file can contain lines of the following forms:
#comment
Comment lines start with ‘#’ or ‘;’. Empty lines are ignored.
[group]
group is the name of the program or group for which you want to set options.
After a group line, any option or set-variable lines apply to the named group
until the end of the option file or another group line is given.
option
This is equivalent to --option on the command line.
option=value
This is equivalent to --option=value on the command line.
set-variable = variable=value
This is equivalent to --set-variable variable=value on the command line.
This syntax must be used to set a mysqld variable.
The client group allows you to specify options that apply to all MySQL clients (not
mysqld). This is the perfect group to use to specify the password you use to connect to the
server. (But make sure the option file is readable and writable only by yourself.)
Note that for options and values, all leading and trailing blanks are automatically deleted.
You may use the escape sequences ‘\b’, ‘\t’, ‘\n’, ‘\r’, ‘\\’, and ‘\s’ in your value string
(‘\s’ == blank).
Here is a typical global option file:
[client]
port=3306
socket=/tmp/mysql.sock
[mysqld]
port=3306
socket=/tmp/mysql.sock
set-variable = key_buffer_size=16M
set-variable = max_allowed_packet=1M
[mysqldump]
quick
Here is typical user option file:
[client]
# The following password will be sent to all standard MySQL clients
password=my_password
[mysql]
no-auto-rehash
set-variable = connect_timeout=2
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[mysqlhotcopy]
interactive-timeout
If you have a source distribution, you will find sample configuration files named ‘my-xxxx.cnf’
in the ‘support-files’ directory. If you have a binary distribution, look in the ‘DIR/support-files’
directory, where DIR is the pathname to the MySQL installation directory (typically
‘/usr/local/mysql’). Currently there are sample configuration files for small, medium,
large, and very large systems. You can copy ‘my-xxxx.cnf’ to your home directory (rename
the copy to ‘.my.cnf’) to experiment with this.
All MySQL clients that support option files support the following options:
–no-defaults
Don’t read any option files.
–print-defaults
Print the program name and all options that it will
get.
–defaults-file=full-path-to-defaultOnly use the given configuration file.
file
–defaults-extra-file=full-path-toRead this configuration file after the global configudefault-file
ration file but before the user configuration file.
Note that the above options must be first on the command line to work! --print-defaults
may however be used directly after the --defaults-xxx-file commands.
Note for developers: Option file handling is implemented simply by processing all matching
options (that is, options in the appropriate group) before any command-line arguments.
This works nicely for programs that use the last instance of an option that is specified
multiple times. If you have an old program that handles multiply-specified options this way
but doesn’t read option files, you need add only two lines to give it that capability. Check
the source code of any of the standard MySQL clients to see how to do this.
In shell scripts you can use the ‘my_print_defaults’ command to parse the config files:
shell> my_print_defaults client mysql
--port=3306
--socket=/tmp/mysql.sock
--no-auto-rehash
The above output contains all options for the groups ’client’ and ’mysql’.
4.17 Installing Many Servers on the Same Machine
In some cases you may want to have many different mysqld daemons (servers) running on
the same machine. You may for example want to run a new version of MySQL for testing
together with an old version that is in production. Another case is when you want to give
different users access to different mysqld servers that they manage themselves.
One way to get a new server running is by starting it with a different socket and port as
follows:
shell> MYSQL_UNIX_PORT=/tmp/mysqld-new.sock
shell> MYSQL_TCP_PORT=3307
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shell> export MYSQL_UNIX_PORT MYSQL_TCP_PORT
shell> scripts/mysql_install_db
shell> bin/safe_mysqld &
The environment variables appendix includes a list of other environment variables you can
use to affect mysqld. See Appendix A [Environment variables], page 611.
The above is the quick and dirty way that one commonly uses for testing. The nice thing
with this is that all connections you do in the above shell will automatically be directed to
the new running server!
If you need to do this more permanently, you should create an option file for each server.
See Section 4.16.5 [Option files], page 121. In your startup script that is executed at boot
time (mysql.server?) you should specify for both servers:
safe_mysqld --default-file=path-to-option-file
At least the following options should be different per server:
port=#
socket=path
pid-file=path
The following options should be different, if they are used:
log=path
log-bin=path
log-update=path
log-isam=path
bdb-logdir=path
If you want more performance, you can also specify the following differently:
tmpdir=path
bdb-tmpdir=path
See Section 4.16.4 [Command-line options], page 116.
If you are installing binary MySQL versions (.tar files) and start them with ./bin/safe_
mysqld then in most cases the only option you need to add/change is the socket and port
argument to safe_mysqld.
4.18 Upgrading/Downgrading MySQL
You can always move the MySQL form and data files between different versions on the same
architecture as long as you have the same base version of MySQL. The current base version
is 3. If you change the character set when running MySQL (which may also change the sort
order), you must run myisamchk -r -q on all tables. Otherwise your indexes may not be
ordered correctly.
If you are afraid of new versions, you can always rename your old mysqld to something like
mysqld-’old-version-number’. If your new mysqld then does something unexpected, you can
simply shut it down and restart with your old mysqld!
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When you do an upgrade you should also back up your old databases, of course.
If after an upgrade, you experience problems with recompiled client programs, like Commands
out of sync or unexpected core dumps, you probably have used an old header or library file
when compiling your programs. In this case you should check the date for your ‘mysql.h’ file
and ‘libmysqlclient.a’ library to verify that they are from the new MySQL distribution.
If not, please recompile your programs!
If you get some problems that the new mysqld server doesn’t want to start or that you
can’t connect without a password, check that you don’t have some old ‘my.cnf’ file from
your old installation! You can check this with: program-name --print-defaults. If this
outputs anything other than the program name, you have an active my.cnf file that will
affect things!
It is a good idea to rebuild and reinstall the Msql-Mysql-modules distribution whenever
you install a new release of MySQL, particularly if you notice symptoms such as all your
DBI scripts dumping core after you upgrade MySQL.
4.18.1 Upgrading From Version 3.22 to Version 3.23
MySQL Version 3.23 supports tables of the new MyISAM type and the old ISAM type. You
don’t have to convert your old tables to use these with Version 3.23. By default, all new
tables will be created with type MyISAM (unless you start mysqld with the --defaulttable-type=isam option). You can change an ISAM table to a MyISAM table with ALTER
TABLE table_name TYPE=MyISAM or the Perl script mysql_convert_table_format.
Version 3.22 and 3.21 clients will work without any problems with a Version 3.23 server.
The following lists tell what you have to watch out for when upgrading to Version 3.23:
• All tables that uses the tis620 character set must be fixed with myisamchk -r or
REPAIR TABLE.
• If you do a DROP DATABASE on a symbolic linked database, both the link and the original
database is deleted. (This didn’t happen in 3.22 because configure didn’t detect the
readlink system call).
• OPTIMIZE TABLE now only works for MyISAM tables. For other table types, you can
use ALTER TABLE to optimize the table. During OPTIMIZE TABLE the table is now locked
from other threads.
• The MySQL client mysql is now by default started with the option --no-namedcommands (-g). This option can be disabled with --enable-named-commands (-G).
This may cause incompatibility problems in some cases, for example in SQL scripts
that use named commands without a semicolon! Long format commands still work
from the first line.
• If you are using the german character sort order, you must repair all your tables with
isamchk -r, as we have made some changes in the sort order!
• The default return type of IF will now depend on both arguments and not only the
first argument.
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• AUTO_INCREMENT will not work with negative numbers. The reason for this is that
negative numbers caused problems when wrapping from -1 to 0. AUTO_INCREMENT is
now for MyISAM tables handled at a lower level and is much faster than before. For
MyISAM tables old numbers are also not reused anymore, even if you delete some rows
from the table.
• CASE, DELAYED, ELSE, END, FULLTEXT, INNER, RIGHT, THEN and WHEN are now reserved
words.
• FLOAT(X) is now a true floating-point type and not a value with a fixed number of
decimals.
• When declaring DECIMAL(length,dec) the length argument no longer includes a place
for the sign or the decimal point.
• A TIME string must now be of one of the following formats: [[[DAYS] [H]H:]MM:]SS[.fraction]
or [[[[[H]H]H]H]MM]SS[.fraction]
• LIKE now compares strings using the same character comparison rules as ’=’. If you
require the old behavior, you can compile MySQL with the CXXFLAGS=-DLIKE_CMP_
TOUPPER flag.
• REGEXP is now case insensitive for normal (not binary) strings.
• When you check/repair tables you should use CHECK TABLE or myisamchk for MyISAM
tables (.MYI) and isamchk for ISAM (.ISM) tables.
• If you want your mysqldump files to be compatible between MySQL Version 3.22 and
Version 3.23, you should not use the --opt or --full option to mysqldump.
• Check all your calls to DATE_FORMAT() to make sure there is a ‘%’ before each format
character. (Later MySQL Version 3.22 did allow this syntax.)
• mysql_fetch_fields_direct is now a function (it was a macro) and it returns a
pointer to a MYSQL_FIELD instead of a MYSQL_FIELD.
• mysql_num_fields() can no longer be used on a MYSQL* object (it’s now a function
that takes MYSQL_RES* as an argument. You should now use mysql_field_count()
instead.
• In MySQL Version 3.22, the output of SELECT DISTINCT ... was almost always sorted.
In Version 3.23, you must use GROUP BY or ORDER BY to obtain sorted output.
• SUM() now returns NULL, instead of 0, if there is no matching rows. This is according
to ANSI SQL.
• An AND or OR with NULL values will now return NULL instead of 0. This mostly affects
queries that use NOT on an AND/OR expression as NOT NULL = NULL. LPAD() and RPAD()
will shorten the result string if it’s longer than the length argument.
4.18.2 Upgrading from Version 3.21 to Version 3.22
Nothing that affects compatibility has changed between Version 3.21 and 3.22. The only
pitfall is that new tables that are created with DATE type columns will use the new way to
store the date. You can’t access these new fields from an old version of mysqld.
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After installing MySQL Version 3.22, you should start the new server and then run the
mysql_fix_privilege_tables script. This will add the new privileges that you need to
use the GRANT command. If you forget this, you will get Access denied when you try to use
ALTER TABLE, CREATE INDEX, or DROP INDEX. If your MySQL root user requires a password,
you should give this as an argument to mysql_fix_privilege_tables.
The C API interface to mysql_real_connect() has changed. If you have an old client
program that calls this function, you must place a 0 for the new db argument (or recode
the client to send the db element for faster connections). You must also call mysql_init()
before calling mysql_real_connect()! This change was done to allow the new mysql_
options() function to save options in the MYSQL handler structure.
The mysqld variable key_buffer has changed names to key_buffer_size, but you can
still use the old name in your startup files.
4.18.3 Upgrading from Version 3.20 to Version 3.21
If you are running a version older than Version 3.20.28 and want to switch to Version 3.21,
you need to do the following:
You can start the mysqld Version 3.21 server with safe_mysqld --old-protocol to use it
with clients from a Version 3.20 distribution. In this case, the new client function mysql_
errno() will not return any server error, only CR_UNKNOWN_ERROR (but it works for client
errors), and the server uses the old password() checking rather than the new one.
If you are NOT using the --old-protocol option to mysqld, you will need to make the
following changes:
• All client code must be recompiled. If you are using ODBC, you must get the new
MyODBC 2.x driver.
• The script scripts/add_long_password must be run to convert the Password field in
the mysql.user table to CHAR(16).
• All passwords must be reassigned in the mysql.user table (to get 62-bit rather than
31-bit passwords).
• The table format hasn’t changed, so you don’t have to convert any tables.
MySQL Version 3.20.28 and above can handle the new user table format without affecting
clients. If you have a MySQL version earlier than Version 3.20.28, passwords will no longer
work with it if you convert the user table. So to be safe, you should first upgrade to at
least Version 3.20.28 and then upgrade to Version 3.21.
The new client code works with a 3.20.x mysqld server, so if you experience problems with
3.21.x, you can use the old 3.20.x server without having to recompile the clients again.
If you are not using the --old-protocol option to mysqld, old clients will issue the error
message:
ERROR: Protocol mismatch. Server Version = 10 Client Version = 9
The new Perl DBI/DBD interface also supports the old mysqlperl interface. The only change
you have to make if you use mysqlperl is to change the arguments to the connect() function. The new arguments are: host, database, user, password (the user and password
arguments have changed places). See Section 24.2.2 [Perl DBI Class], page 584.
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The following changes may affect queries in old applications:
• HAVING must now be specified before any ORDER BY clause.
• The parameters to LOCATE() have been swapped.
• There are some new reserved words. The most notable are DATE, TIME, and TIMESTAMP.
4.18.4 Upgrading to Another Architecture
If you are using MySQL Version 3.23, you can copy the .frm, .MYI, and .MYD files between
different architectures that support the same floating-point format. (MySQL takes care of
any byte swapping issues.)
The MySQL ISAM data and index files (‘.ISD’ and ‘*.ISM’, respectively) are architecturedependent and in some cases OS-dependent. If you want to move your applications to
another machine that has a different architecture or OS than your current machine, you
should not try to move a database by simply copying the files to the other machine. Use
mysqldump instead.
By default, mysqldump will create a file full of SQL statements. You can then transfer the
file to the other machine and feed it as input to the mysql client.
Try mysqldump --help to see what options are available. If you are moving the data to a
newer version of MySQL, you should use mysqldump --opt with the newer version to get a
fast, compact dump.
The easiest (although not the fastest) way to move a database between two machines is to
run the following commands on the machine on which the database is located:
shell> mysqladmin -h ’other hostname’ create db_name
shell> mysqldump --opt db_name \
| mysql -h ’other hostname’ db_name
If you want to copy a database from a remote machine over a slow network, you can use:
shell> mysqladmin create db_name
shell> mysqldump -h ’other hostname’ --opt --compress db_name \
| mysql db_name
You can also store the result in a file, then transfer the file to the target machine and load
the file into the database there. For example, you can dump a database to a file on the
source machine like this:
shell> mysqldump --quick db_name | gzip > db_name.contents.gz
(The file created in this example is compressed.) Transfer the file containing the database
contents to the target machine and run these commands there:
shell> mysqladmin create db_name
shell> gunzip < db_name.contents.gz | mysql db_name
You can also use mysqldump and mysqlimport to accomplish the database transfer. For big
tables, this is much faster than simply using mysqldump. In the commands shown below,
DUMPDIR represents the full pathname of the directory you use to store the output from
mysqldump.
First, create the directory for the output files and dump the database:
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shell> mkdir DUMPDIR
shell> mysqldump --tab=DUMPDIR db_name
Then transfer the files in the DUMPDIR directory to some corresponding directory on the
target machine and load the files into MySQL there:
shell> mysqladmin create db_name
# create database
shell> cat DUMPDIR/*.sql | mysql db_name
# create tables in database
shell> mysqlimport db_name DUMPDIR/*.txt
# load data into tables
Also, don’t forget to copy the mysql database, because that’s where the grant tables (user,
db, host) are stored. You may have to run commands as the MySQL root user on the new
machine until you have the mysql database in place.
After you import the mysql database on the new machine, execute mysqladmin flushprivileges so that the server reloads the grant table information.
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5 How Standards-compatible Is MySQL?
This chapter describes how MySQL relates to the ANSI SQL standards. MySQL has many
extensions to the ANSI SQL standards, and here you will find out what they are, and how
to use them. You will also find information about functionality missing from MySQL, and
how to work around some differences.
5.1 MySQL Extensions to ANSI SQL92
MySQL includes some extensions that you probably will not find in other SQL databases.
Be warned that if you use them, your code will not be portable to other SQL servers. In
some cases, you can write code that includes MySQL extensions, but is still portable, by
using comments of the form /*! ... */. In this case, MySQL will parse and execute the
code within the comment as it would any other MySQL statement, but other SQL servers
will ignore the extensions. For example:
SELECT /*! STRAIGHT_JOIN */ col_name FROM table1,table2 WHERE ...
If you add a version number after the ’!’, the syntax will only be executed if the MySQL
version is equal to or newer than the used version number:
CREATE /*!32302 TEMPORARY */ TABLE (a int);
The above means that if you have Version 3.23.02 or newer, then MySQL will use the
TEMPORARY keyword.
MySQL extensions are listed below:
• The field types MEDIUMINT, SET, ENUM, and the different BLOB and TEXT types.
• The field attributes AUTO_INCREMENT, BINARY, NULL, UNSIGNED, and ZEROFILL.
• All string comparisons are case insensitive by default, with sort ordering determined
by the current character set (ISO-8859-1 Latin1 by default). If you don’t like this, you
should declare your columns with the BINARY attribute or use the BINARY cast, which
causes comparisons to be done according to the ASCII order used on the MySQL server
host.
• MySQL maps each database to a directory under the MySQL data directory, and tables
within a database to filenames in the database directory.
This has a few implications:
− Database names and table names are case sensitive in MySQL on operating systems
that have case-sensitive filenames (like most Unix systems). See Section 7.1.5.1
[Name case sensitivity], page 173.
− Database, table, index, column, or alias names may begin with a digit (but may
not consist solely of digits).
− You can use standard system commands to backup, rename, move, delete, and copy
tables. For example, to rename a table, rename the ‘.MYD’, ‘.MYI’, and ‘.frm’ files
to which the table corresponds.
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• In SQL statements, you can access tables from different databases with the db_
name.tbl_name syntax. Some SQL servers provide the same functionality but call
this User space. MySQL doesn’t support tablespaces as in: create table ralph.my_
table...IN my_tablespace.
• LIKE is allowed on numeric columns.
• Use of INTO OUTFILE and STRAIGHT_JOIN in a SELECT statement. See Section 7.19
[SELECT], page 246.
• The SQL_SMALL_RESULT option in a SELECT statement.
• EXPLAIN SELECT to get a description on how tables are joined.
• Use of index names, indexes on a prefix of a field, and use of INDEX or KEY in a CREATE
TABLE statement. See Section 7.7 [CREATE TABLE], page 230.
• Use of TEMPORARY or IF NOT EXISTS with CREATE TABLE.
• Use of COUNT(DISTINCT list) where ’list’ is more than one element.
• Use of CHANGE col_name, DROP col_name, or DROP INDEX, IGNORE or RENAME in an
ALTER TABLE statement. See Section 7.8 [ALTER TABLE], page 237.
• Use of RENAME TABLE. See Section 7.9 [RENAME TABLE], page 240.
• Use of multiple ADD, ALTER, DROP, or CHANGE clauses in an ALTER TABLE statement.
• Use of DROP TABLE with the keywords IF EXISTS.
• You can drop multiple tables with a single DROP TABLE statement.
• The LIMIT clause of the DELETE statement.
• The DELAYED clause of the INSERT and REPLACE statements.
• The LOW_PRIORITY clause of the INSERT, REPLACE, DELETE, and UPDATE statements.
• Use of LOAD DATA INFILE. In many cases, this syntax is compatible with Oracle’s LOAD
DATA INFILE. See Section 7.23 [LOAD DATA], page 255.
• The ANALYZE TABLE, CHECK TABLE, OPTIMIZE TABLE, and REPAIR TABLE statements.
• The SHOW statement. See Section 7.28 [SHOW], page 264.
• Strings may be enclosed by either ‘"’ or ‘’’, not just by ‘’’.
• Use of the escape ‘\’ character.
• The SET OPTION statement. See Section 7.33 [SET OPTION], page 287.
• You don’t need to name all selected columns in the GROUP BY part. This gives better
performance for some very specific, but quite normal queries. See Section 7.4.13 [Group
by functions], page 227.
• One can specify ASC and DESC with GROUP BY.
• To make it easier for users who come from other SQL environments, MySQL supports
aliases for many functions. For example, all string functions support both ANSI SQL
syntax and ODBC syntax.
• MySQL understands the || and && operators to mean logical OR and AND, as in the
C programming language. In MySQL, || and OR are synonyms, as are && and AND.
Because of this nice syntax, MySQL doesn’t support the ANSI SQL || operator for
string concatenation; use CONCAT() instead. Because CONCAT() takes any number of
arguments, it’s easy to convert use of the || operator to MySQL.
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• CREATE DATABASE or DROP DATABASE. See Section 7.5 [CREATE DATABASE], page 229.
• The % operator is a synonym for MOD(). That is, N % M is equivalent to MOD(N,M). % is
supported for C programmers and for compatibility with PostgreSQL.
• The =, <>, <= ,<, >=,>, <<, >>, <=>, AND, OR, or LIKE operators may be used in column
comparisons to the left of the FROM in SELECT statements. For example:
mysql> SELECT col1=1 AND col2=2 FROM tbl_name;
• The LAST_INSERT_ID() function. See Section 24.1.3.30 [mysql_insert_id()], page 562.
• The REGEXP and NOT REGEXP extended regular expression operators.
• CONCAT() or CHAR() with one argument or more than two arguments. (In MySQL,
these functions can take any number of arguments.)
• The BIT_COUNT(), CASE, ELT(), FROM_DAYS(), FORMAT(), IF(), PASSWORD(), ENCRYPT(),
md5(), ENCODE(), DECODE(), PERIOD_ADD(), PERIOD_DIFF(), TO_DAYS(), or WEEKDAY()
functions.
• Use of TRIM() to trim substrings. ANSI SQL only supports removal of single characters.
• The GROUP BY functions STD(), BIT_OR(), and BIT_AND().
• Use of REPLACE instead of DELETE + INSERT. See Section 7.22 [REPLACE], page 255.
• The FLUSH flush_option statement.
• The possibility to set variables in a statement with :=:
SELECT @a:=SUM(total),@b=COUNT(*),@[email protected] AS avg FROM test_table;
SELECT @t1:=(@t2:=1)[email protected]:=4,@t1,@t2,@t3;
5.2 Running MySQL in ANSI Mode
If you start mysqld with the --ansi option, the following behavior of MySQL changes:
• || is string concatenation instead of OR.
• You can have any number of spaces between a function name and the ‘(’. This forces
all function names to be treated as reserved words.
• ‘"’ will be an identifier quote character (like the MySQL ‘‘’ quote character) and not
a string quote character.
• REAL will be a synonym for FLOAT instead of a synonym of DOUBLE.
• The default transaction isolation level is SERIALIZABLE. See Section 7.34 [SET TRANSACTION], page 290.
5.3 MySQL Differences Compared to ANSI SQL92
We try to make MySQL follow the ANSI SQL standard and the ODBC SQL standard, but
in some cases MySQL does some things differently:
• -- is only a comment if followed by a white space. See Section 5.4.7 [Missing comments],
page 138.
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• For VARCHAR columns, trailing spaces are removed when the value is stored. See Appendix G [Bugs], page 710.
• In some cases, CHAR columns are silently changed to VARCHAR columns. See Section 7.7.1
[Silent column changes], page 236.
• Privileges for a table are not automatically revoked when you delete a table. You must
explicitly issue a REVOKE to revoke privileges for a table. See Section 7.35 [GRANT],
page 290.
• NULL AND FALSE will evaluate to NULL and not to FALSE. This is because we don’t think
it’s good to have to evaluate a lot of extra conditions in this case.
5.4 Functionality Missing from MySQL
The following functionality is missing in the current version of MySQL. For a prioritized
list indicating when new extensions may be added to MySQL, you should consult the online
MySQL TODO list (http://www.mysql.com/documentation/manual.php?section=TODO).
That is the latest version of the TODO list in this manual. See Appendix H [TODO],
page 713.
5.4.1 Sub-selects
The following will not yet work in MySQL:
SELECT * FROM table1 WHERE id IN (SELECT id FROM table2);
SELECT * FROM table1 WHERE id NOT IN (SELECT id FROM table2);
SELECT * FROM table1 WHERE NOT EXISTS (SELECT id FROM table2 where table1.id=table2.
However, in many cases you can rewrite the query without a sub-select:
SELECT table1.* FROM table1,table2 WHERE table1.id=table2.id;
SELECT table1.* FROM table1 LEFT JOIN table2 ON table1.id=table2.id where table2.id
For more complicated subqueries you can often create temporary tables to hold the subquery. In some cases, however this option will not work. The most frequently encountered
of these cases arises with DELETE statements, for which standard SQL does not support joins
(except in sub-selects). For this situation there are two options available until subqueries
are supported by MySQL.
The first option is to use a procedural programming language (such as Perl or PHP) to
submit a SELECT query to obtain the primary keys for the records to be deleted, and then
use these values to construct the DELETE statement (DELETE FROM ... WHERE ... IN (key1,
key2, ...)).
The second option is to use interactive SQL to contruct a set of DELETE statements automatically, using the MySQL extension CONCAT() (in lieu of the standard || operator). For
example:
SELECT CONCAT(’DELETE FROM tab1 WHERE pkid = ’, tab1.pkid, ’;’)
FROM tab1, tab2
WHERE tab1.col1 = tab2.col2;
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You can place this query in a script file and redirect input from it to the mysql command-line
interpreter, piping its output back to a second instance of the interpreter:
prompt> mysql --skip-column-names mydb < myscript.sql | mysql mydb
MySQL only supports INSERT ... SELECT ... and REPLACE ... SELECT ... Independent
sub-selects will probably be available in Version 4.0. You can now use the function IN() in
other contexts, however.
5.4.2 SELECT INTO TABLE
MySQL doesn’t yet support the Oracle SQL extension: SELECT ... INTO TABLE ....
MySQL supports instead the ANSI SQL syntax INSERT INTO ... SELECT ..., which is
basically the same thing. See Section 7.21.1 [INSERT SELECT], page 252.
INSERT INTO tblTemp2 (fldID) SELECT tblTemp1.fldOrder_ID FROM tblTemp1 WHERE
tblTemp1.fldOrder_ID > 100;
Alternatively, you can use SELECT INTO OUTFILE... or CREATE TABLE ... SELECT to solve
your problem.
5.4.3 Transactions
As MySQL does nowadays support transactions, the following discussion is only valid if you
are only using the non-transaction-safe table types. See Section 7.31 [COMMIT], page 285.
The question is often asked, by the curious and the critical, “Why is MySQL not a transactional database?” or “Why does MySQL not support transactions?”
MySQL has made a conscious decision to support another paradigm for data integrity,
“atomic operations.” It is our thinking and experience that atomic operations offer equal
or even better integrity with much better performance. We, nonetheless, appreciate and
understand the transactional database paradigm and plan, within the next few releases,
to introduce transaction-safe tables on a per table basis. We will be giving our users the
possibility to decide if they need the speed of atomic operations or if they need to use
transactional features in their applications.
How does one use the features of MySQL to maintain rigorous integrity and how do these
features compare with the transactional paradigm?
First, in the transactional paradigm, if your applications are written in a way that is dependent on the calling of “rollback” instead of “commit” in critical situations, then transactions
are more convenient. Moreover, transactions ensure that unfinished updates or corrupting
activities are not committed to the database; the server is given the opportunity to do an
automatic rollback and your database is saved.
MySQL, in almost all cases, allows you to solve for potential problems by including simple
checks before updates and by running simple scripts that check the databases for inconsistencies and automatically repair or warn if such occurs. Note that just by using the MySQL
log or even adding one extra log, one can normally fix tables perfectly with no data integrity
loss.
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Moreover, fatal transactional updates can be rewritten to be atomic. In fact,we will go
so far as to say that all integrity problems that transactions solve can be done with LOCK
TABLES or atomic updates, ensuring that you never will get an automatic abort from the
database, which is a common problem with transactional databases.
Not even transactions can prevent all loss if the server goes down. In such cases even a
transactional system can lose data. The difference between different systems lies in just how
small the time-lap is where they could lose data. No system is 100% secure, only “secure
enough.” Even Oracle, reputed to be the safest of transactional databases, is reported to
sometimes lose data in such situations.
To be safe with MySQL, you only need to have backups and have the update logging turned
on. With this you can recover from any situation that you could with any transactional
database. It is, of course, always good to have backups, independent of which database you
use.
The transactional paradigm has its benefits and its drawbacks. Many users and application
developers depend on the ease with which they can code around problems where an abort
appears to be, or is necessary, and they may have to do a little more work with MySQL to
either think differently or write more. If you are new to the atomic operations paradigm,
or more familiar or more comfortable with transactions, do not jump to the conclusion that
MySQL has not addressed these issues. Reliability and integrity are foremost in our minds.
Recent estimates indicate that there are more than 1,000,000 mysqld servers currently
running, many of which are in production environments. We hear very, very seldom from
our users that they have lost any data, and in almost all of those cases user error is involved.
This is, in our opinion, the best proof of MySQL’s stability and reliability.
Lastly, in situations where integrity is of highest importance, MySQL’s current features
allow for transaction-level or better reliability and integrity. If you lock tables with LOCK
TABLES, all updates will stall until any integrity checks are made. If you only obtain a read
lock (as opposed to a write lock), then reads and inserts are still allowed to happen. The
new inserted records will not be seen by any of the clients that have a READ lock until they
release their read locks. With INSERT DELAYED you can queue inserts into a local queue,
until the locks are released, without having the client wait for the insert to complete. See
Section 7.21.2 [INSERT DELAYED], page 253.
“Atomic,” in the sense that we mean it, is nothing magical. It only means that you can
be sure that while each specific update is running, no other user can interfere with it, and
there will never be an automatic rollback (which can happen on transaction based systems
if you are not very careful). MySQL also guarantees that there will not be any dirty reads.
You can find some example of how to write atomic updates in the commit-rollback section.
See Section 5.6 [Commit-rollback], page 139.
We have thought quite a bit about integrity and performance, and we believe that our atomic
operations paradigm allows for both high reliability and extremely high performance, on the
order of three to five times the speed of the fastest and most optimally tuned of transactional
databases. We didn’t leave out transactions because they are hard to do. The main reason
we went with atomic operations as opposed to transactions is that by doing this we could
apply many speed optimizations that would not otherwise have been possible.
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Many of our users who have speed foremost in their minds are not at all concerned about
transactions. For them transactions are not an issue. For those of our users who are
concerned with or have wondered about transactions vis-a-vis MySQL, there is a “MySQL
way” as we have outlined above. For those where safety is more important than speed, we
recommend them to use the BDB, GEMINI or InnoDB tables for all their critical data. See
Chapter 8 [Table types], page 298.
One final note: We are currently working on a safe replication schema that we believe to
be better than any commercial replication system we know of. This system will work most
reliably under the atomic operations, non-transactional, paradigm. Stay tuned.
5.4.4 Stored Procedures and Triggers
A stored procedure is a set of SQL commands that can be compiled and stored in the server.
Once this has been done, clients don’t need to keep reissuing the entire query but can refer
to the stored procedure. This provides better performance because the query has to be
parsed only once, and less information needs to be sent between the server and the client.
You can also raise the conceptual level by having libraries of functions in the server.
A trigger is a stored procedure that is invoked when a particular event occurs. For example, you can install a stored procedure that is triggered each time a record is deleted
from a transaction table and that automatically deletes the corresponding customer from a
customer table when all his transactions are deleted.
The planned update language will be able to handle stored procedures, but without triggers.
Triggers usually slow down everything, even queries for which they are not needed.
To see when MySQL might get stored procedures, see Appendix H [TODO], page 713.
5.4.5 Foreign Keys
Note that foreign keys in SQL are not used to join tables, but are used mostly for checking
referential integrity (foreign key constraints). If you want to get results from multiple tables
from a SELECT statement, you do this by joining tables:
SELECT * from table1,table2 where table1.id = table2.id;
See Section 7.20 [JOIN], page 249. See Section 9.5.6 [example-Foreign keys], page 371.
The FOREIGN KEY syntax in MySQL exists only for compatibility with other SQL vendors’
CREATE TABLE commands; it doesn’t do anything. The FOREIGN KEY syntax without ON
DELETE ... is mostly used for documentation purposes. Some ODBC applications may use
this to produce automatic WHERE clauses, but this is usually easy to override. FOREIGN KEY
is sometimes used as a constraint check, but this check is unnecessary in practice if rows
are inserted into the tables in the right order. MySQL only supports these clauses because
some applications require them to exist (regardless of whether or not they work).
In MySQL, you can work around the problem of ON DELETE ... not being implemented by
adding the appropriate DELETE statement to an application when you delete records from
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a table that has a foreign key. In practice this is as quick (in some cases quicker) and much
more portable than using foreign keys.
In the near future we will extend the FOREIGN KEY implementation so that at least the
information will be saved in the table specification file and may be retrieved by mysqldump
and ODBC. At a later stage we will implement the foreign key constraints for application
that can’t easily be coded to avoid them.
5.4.5.1 Reasons NOT to Use Foreign Keys constraints
There are so many problems with foreign key constraints that we don’t know where to start:
• Foreign key constraints make life very complicated, because the foreign key definitions
must be stored in a database and implementing them would destroy the whole “nice
approach” of using files that can be moved, copied, and removed.
• The speed impact is terrible for INSERT and UPDATE statements, and in this case almost
all FOREIGN KEY constraint checks are useless because you usually insert records in the
right tables in the right order, anyway.
• There is also a need to hold locks on many more tables when updating one table,
because the side effects can cascade through the entire database. It’s MUCH faster to
delete records from one table first and subsequently delete them from the other tables.
• You can no longer restore a table by doing a full delete from the table and then restoring
all records (from a new source or from a backup).
• If you use foreign key constraints you can’t dump and restore tables unless you do so
in a very specific order.
• It’s very easy to do “allowed” circular definitions that make the tables impossible to
re-create each table with a single create statement, even if the definition works and is
usable.
• It’s very easy to overlook FOREIGN KEY ... ON DELETE rules when one codes an application. It’s not unusual that one loses a lot of important information just because a
wrong or misused ON DELETE rule.
The only nice aspect of FOREIGN KEY is that it gives ODBC and some other client programs
the ability to see how a table is connected and to use this to show connection diagrams and
to help in building applications.
MySQL will soon store FOREIGN KEY definitions so that a client can ask for and receive an
answer about how the original connection was made. The current ‘.frm’ file format does
not have any place for it. At a later stage we will implement the foreign key constraints for
application that can’t easily be coded to avoid them.
5.4.6 Views
MySQL doesn’t yet support views, but we plan to implement these to about 4.1.
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Views are mostly useful for letting users access a set of relations as one table (in read-only
mode). Many SQL databases don’t allow one to update any rows in a view, but you have
to do the updates in the separate tables.
As MySQL is mostly used in applications and on web system where the application writer
has full control on the database usage, most of our users haven’t regarded views to be very
important. (At least no one has been interested enough in this to be prepared to finance
the implementation of views).
One doesn’t need views in MySQL to restrict access to columns as MySQL has a very
sophisticated privilege system. See Chapter 6 [Privilege system], page 141.
5.4.7 ‘--’ as the Start of a Comment
Some other SQL databases use ‘--’ to start comments. MySQL has ‘#’ as the start comment
character, even if the mysql command-line tool removes all lines that start with ‘--’. You
can also use the C comment style /* this is a comment */ with MySQL. See Section 7.38
[Comments], page 294.
MySQL Version 3.23.3 and above supports the ‘--’ comment style only if the comment
is followed by a space. This is because this degenerate comment style has caused many
problems with automatically generated SQL queries that have used something like the
following code, where we automatically insert the value of the payment for !payment!:
UPDATE tbl_name SET credit=credit-!payment!
What do you think will happen when the value of payment is negative?
Because 1--1 is legal in SQL, we think it is terrible that ‘--’ means start comment.
In MySQL Version 3.23 you can, however, use: 1-- This is a comment
The following discussion only concerns you if you are running a MySQL version earlier than
Version 3.23:
If you have a SQL program in a text file that contains ‘--’ comments you should use:
shell> replace " --" " #" < text-file-with-funny-comments.sql \
| mysql database
instead of the usual:
shell> mysql database < text-file-with-funny-comments.sql
You can also edit the command file “in place” to change the ‘--’ comments to ‘#’ comments:
shell> replace " --" " #" -- text-file-with-funny-comments.sql
Change them back with this command:
shell> replace " #" " --" -- text-file-with-funny-comments.sql
5.5 What Standards Does MySQL Follow?
Entry level SQL92. ODBC levels 0-2.
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5.6 How to Cope Without COMMIT/ROLLBACK
The following mostly applies only for ISAM, MyISAM, and HEAP tables. If you only use
transaction-safe tables (BDB, GEMINI or InnoDB tables) in an an update, you can do COMMIT
and ROLLBACK also with MySQL. See Section 7.31 [COMMIT], page 285.
The problem with handling COMMIT-ROLLBACK efficiently with the above table types would
require a completely different table layout than MySQL uses today. The table type would
also need extra threads that do automatic cleanups on the tables, and the disk usage would
be much higher. This would make these table types about 2-4 times slower than they are
today.
For the moment, we prefer implementing the SQL server language (something like stored
procedures). With this you would very seldom really need COMMIT-ROLLBACK. This would
also give much better performance.
Loops that need transactions normally can be coded with the help of LOCK TABLES, and you
don’t need cursors when you can update records on the fly.
We at TcX had a greater need for a real fast database than a 100% general database. Whenever we find a way to implement these features without any speed loss, we will probably do
it. For the moment, there are many more important things to do. Check the TODO for
how we prioritize things at the moment. (Customers with higher levels of support can alter
this, so things may be reprioritized.)
The current problem is actually ROLLBACK. Without ROLLBACK, you can do any kind of
COMMIT action with LOCK TABLES. To support ROLLBACK with the above table types, MySQL
would have to be changed to store all old records that were updated and revert everything
back to the starting point if ROLLBACK was issued. For simple cases, this isn’t that hard
to do (the current isamlog could be used for this purpose), but it would be much more
difficult to implement ROLLBACK for ALTER/DROP/CREATE TABLE.
To avoid using ROLLBACK, you can use the following strategy:
1. Use LOCK TABLES ... to lock all the tables you want to access.
2. Test conditions.
3. Update if everything is okay.
4. Use UNLOCK TABLES to release your locks.
This is usually a much faster method than using transactions with possible ROLLBACKs,
although not always. The only situation this solution doesn’t handle is when someone kills
the threads in the middle of an update. In this case, all locks will be released but some of
the updates may not have been executed.
You can also use functions to update records in a single operation. You can get a very
efficient application by using the following techniques:
• Modify fields relative to their current value.
• Update only those fields that actually have changed.
For example, when we are doing updates to some customer information, we update only
the customer data that has changed and test only that none of the changed data, or data
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that depend on the changed data, has changed compared to the original row. The test for
changed data is done with the WHERE clause in the UPDATE statement. If the record wasn’t
updated, we give the client a message: "Some of the data you have changed have been
changed by another user". Then we show the old row versus the new row in a window, so
the user can decide which version of the customer record he should use.
This gives us something that is similar to column locking but is actually even better, because
we only update some of the columns, using values that are relative to their current values.
This means that typical UPDATE statements look something like these:
UPDATE tablename SET pay_back=pay_back+’relative change’;
UPDATE customer
SET
customer_date=’current_date’,
address=’new address’,
phone=’new phone’,
money_he_owes_us=money_he_owes_us+’new_money’
WHERE
customer_id=id AND address=’old address’ AND phone=’old phone’;
As you can see, this is very efficient and works even if another client has changed the values
in the pay_back or money_he_owes_us columns.
In many cases, users have wanted ROLLBACK and/or LOCK TABLES for the purpose of managing unique identifiers for some tables. This can be handled much more efficiently by using
an AUTO_INCREMENT column and either the SQL function LAST_INSERT_ID() or the C API
function mysql_insert_id(). See Section 24.1.3.30 [mysql_insert_id()], page 562.
At MySQL AB, we have never had any need for row-level locking because we have always
been able to code around it. Some cases really need row locking, but they are very few. If
you want row-level locking, you can use a flag column in the table and do something like
this:
UPDATE tbl_name SET row_flag=1 WHERE id=ID;
MySQL returns 1 for the number of affected rows if the row was found and row_flag wasn’t
already 1 in the original row.
You can think of it as MySQL changed the above query to:
UPDATE tbl_name SET row_flag=1 WHERE id=ID and row_flag <> 1;
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6 The MySQL Access Privilege System
MySQL has an advanced but non-standard security/privilege system. This section describes
how it works.
6.1 General Security
Anyone using MySQL on a computer connected to the Internet should read this section to
avoid the most common security mistakes.
In discussing security, we emphasize the necessity of fully protecting the entire server host
(not simply the MySQL server) against all types of applicable attacks: eavesdropping,
altering, playback, and denial of service. We do not cover all aspects of availability and
fault tolerance here.
MySQL uses security based on Access Control Lists (ACLs) for all connections, queries,
and other operations that a user may attempt to perform. There is also some support
for SSL-encrypted connections between MySQL clients and servers. Many of the concepts
discussed here are not specific to MySQL at all; the same general ideas apply to almost all
applications.
When running MySQL, follow these guidelines whenever possible:
• DON’T EVER GIVE ANYONE (EXCEPT THE MySQL ROOT USER) ACCESS TO
THE user TABLE IN THE mysql DATABASE! The encrypted password is the real
password in MySQL. If you know the password listed in the user table for a given user,
you can easily log in as that user if you have access to the host listed for that account.
• Learn the MySQL access privilege system. The GRANT and REVOKE commands are used
for controlling access to MySQL. Do not grant any more privileges than necessary.
Never grant privileges to all hosts.
Checklist:
− Try mysql -u root. If you are able to connect successfully to the server without
being asked for a password, you have problems. Anyone can connect to your
MySQL server as the MySQL root user with full privileges! Review the MySQL
installation instructions, paying particular attention to the item about setting a
root password.
− Use the command SHOW GRANTS and check to see who has access to what. Remove
those privileges that are not necessary using the REVOKE command.
• Do not keep any plain-text passwords in your database. When your computer becomes
compromised, the intruder can take the full list of passwords and use them. Instead
use MD5() or another one-way hashing function.
• Do not choose passwords from dictionaries. There are special programs to break them.
Even passwords like “xfish98” are very bad. Much better is “duag98” which contains
the same word “fish” but typed one key to the left on a standard QWERTY keyboard.
Another method is to use “Mhall” which is taken from the first characters of each word
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in the sentence “Mary had a little lamb.” This is easy to remember and type, but
difficult to guess for someone who does not know it.
• Invest in a firewall. This protects you from at least 50% of all types of exploits in any
software. Put MySQL behind the firewall or in a demilitarized zone (DMZ).
Checklist:
− Try to scan your ports from the Internet using a tool such as nmap. MySQL
uses port 3306 by default. This port should be inaccessible from untrusted hosts.
Another simple way to check whether or not your MySQL port is open is to try
the following command from some remote machine, where server_host is the
hostname of your MySQL server:
shell> telnet server_host 3306
If you get a connection and some garbage characters, the port is open, and should
be closed on your firewall or router, unless you really have a good reason to keep
it open. If telnet just hangs or the connection is refused, everything is OK; the
port is blocked.
• Do not trust any data entered by your users. They can try to trick your code by entering
special or escaped character sequences in Web forms, URLs, or whatever application
you have built. Be sure that your application remains secure if a user enters something
like “; DROP DATABASE mysql;”. This is an extreme example, but large security leaks
and data loss may occur as a result of hackers using similar techniques, if you do not
prepare for them.
Also remember to check numeric data. A common mistake is to protect only strings.
Sometimes people think that if a database contains only publicly available data that it
need not be protected. This is incorrect. At least denial-of-service type attacks can be
performed on such databases. The simplest way to protect from this type of attack is to
use apostrophes around the numeric constants: SELECT * FROM table WHERE ID=’234’
rather than SELECT * FROM table WHERE ID=234. MySQL automatically converts this
string to a number and strips all non-numeric symbols from it.
Checklist:
− All Web applications:
• Try to enter ‘’’ and ‘"’ in all your Web forms. If you get any kind of MySQL
error, investigate the problem right away.
• Try to modify any dynamic URLs by adding %22 (‘"’), %23 (‘#’), and %27 (‘’’)
in the URL.
• Try to modify datatypes in dynamic URLs from numeric ones to character
ones containing characters from previous examples. Your application should
be safe against this and similar attacks.
• Try to enter characters, spaces, and special symbols instead of numbers in
numeric fields. Your application should remove them before passing them
to MySQL or your application should generate an error. Passing unchecked
values to MySQL is very dangerous!
• Check data sizes before passing them to MySQL.
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• Consider having your application connect to the database using a different
user name than the one you use for administrative purposes. Do not give
your applications any more access privileges than they need.
− Users of PHP:
• Check out the addslashes() function. As of PHP 4.0.3, a mysql_escape_
string() function is available that is based on the function of the same name
in the MySQL C API.
− Users of MySQL C API:
• Check out the mysql_escape_string() API call.
− Users of MySQL++:
• Check out the escape and quote modifiers for query streams.
− Users of Perl DBI:
• Check out the quote() method or use placeholders.
− Users of Java JDBC:
• Use a PreparedStatement object and placeholders.
• Do not transmit plain (unencrypted) data over the Internet. These data are accessible
to everyone who has the time and ability to intercept it and use it for their own
purposes. Instead, use an encrypted protocol such as SSL or SSH. MySQL supports
internal SSL connections as of Version 3.23.9. SSH port-forwarding can be used to
create an encrypted (and compressed) tunnel for the communication.
• Learn to use the tcpdump and strings utilities. For most cases, you can check whether
or not MySQL data streams are unencrypted by issuing a command like the following:
shell> tcpdump -l -i eth0 -w - src or dst port 3306 | strings
(This works under Linux and should work with small modifications under other systems). Warning: If you do not see data this doesn’t always actually mean that it is
encrypted. If you need high security, you should consult with a security expert.
6.2 How to Make MySQL Secure Against Crackers
When you connect to a MySQL server, you normally should use a password. The password
is not transmitted in clear text over the connection, however the encryption algorithm is
not very strong, and with some effort a clever attacker can crack the password if he is able
to sniff the traffic between the client and the server. If the connection between the client
and the server goes through an untrusted network, you should use an SSH tunnel to encrypt
the communication.
All other information is transferred as text that can be read by anyone who is able to
watch the connection. If you are concerned about this, you can use the compressed
protocol (in MySQL Version 3.22 and above) to make things much harder. To make
things even more secure you should use ssh. You can find an open source ssh client
at http://www.openssh.org, and a commercial ssh client at http://www.ssh.com. With
this, you can get an encrypted TCP/IP connection between a MySQL server and a MySQL
client.
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To make a MySQL system secure, you should strongly consider the following suggestions:
• Use passwords for all MySQL users. Remember that anyone can log in as any other
person as simply as mysql -u other_user db_name if other_user has no password.
It is common behavior with client/server applications that the client may specify any
user name. You can change the password of all users by editing the mysql_install_db
script before you run it, or only the password for the MySQL root user like this:
shell> mysql -u root mysql
mysql> UPDATE user SET Password=PASSWORD(’new_password’)
WHERE user=’root’;
mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
• Don’t run the MySQL daemon as the Unix root user. This is very dangerous, because any user with FILE privileges will be able to create files as root (for example,
~root/.bashrc). To prevent this, mysqld will refuse to run as root unless it is specified
directly using a --user=root option.
mysqld can be run as an ordinary unprivileged user instead. You can also create a new
Unix user mysql to make everything even more secure. If you run mysqld as another
Unix user, you don’t need to change the root user name in the user table, because
MySQL user names have nothing to do with Unix user names. To start mysqld as
another Unix user, add a user line that specifies the user name to the [mysqld] group
of the ‘/etc/my.cnf’ option file or the ‘my.cnf’ option file in the server’s data directory.
For example:
[mysqld]
user=mysql
This will cause the server to start as the designated user whether you start it manually or by using safe_mysqld or mysql.server. For more details, see Section 21.9
[Changing MySQL user], page 519.
• Don’t support symlinks to tables (This can be disabled with the --skip-symlink
option. This is especially important if you run mysqld as root as anyone that has write
access to the mysqld data directories could then delete any file in the system! See
Section 13.2.3.2 [Symbolic links to tables], page 407.
• Check that the Unix user that mysqld runs as is the only user with read/write privileges
in the database directories.
• Don’t give the process privilege to all users. The output of mysqladmin processlist
shows the text of the currently executing queries, so any user who is allowed to execute that command might be able to see if another user issues an UPDATE user SET
password=PASSWORD(’not_secure’) query.
mysqld reserves an extra connection for users who have the process privilege, so that
a MySQL root user can log in and check things even if all normal connections are in
use.
• Don’t give the file privilege to all users. Any user that has this privilege can write a file
anywhere in the file system with the privileges of the mysqld daemon! To make this a
bit safer, all files generated with SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE are readable to everyone,
and you cannot overwrite existing files.
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The file privilege may also be used to read any file accessible to the Unix user that
the server runs as. This could be abused, for example, by using LOAD DATA to load
‘/etc/passwd’ into a table, which can then be read with SELECT.
• If you don’t trust your DNS, you should use IP numbers instead of hostnames in the
grant tables. In principle, the --secure option to mysqld should make hostnames
safe. In any case, you should be very careful about creating grant table entries using
hostname values that contain wild cards!
• If you want to restrict the number of connections for a single user, you can do this by
setting the max_user_connections variable in mysqld.
6.3 Startup Options for mysqld Concerning Security
The following mysqld options affect networking security:
--secure
IP numbers returned by the gethostbyname() system call are checked to make
sure they resolve back to the original hostname. This makes it harder for
someone on the outside to get access by pretending to be another host. This
option also adds some sanity checks of hostnames. The option is turned off
by default in MySQL Version 3.21 because sometimes it takes a long time to
perform backward resolutions. MySQL Version 3.22 caches hostnames and has
this option enabled by default.
--skip-grant-tables
This option causes the server not to use the privilege system at all. This gives
everyone full access to all databases! (You can tell a running server to start
using the grant tables again by executing mysqladmin flush-privileges or
mysqladmin reload.)
--skip-name-resolve
Hostnames are not resolved. All Host column values in the grant tables must
be IP numbers or localhost.
--skip-networking
Don’t allow TCP/IP connections over the network. All connections to mysqld
must be made via Unix sockets. This option is unsuitable for systems that
use MIT-pthreads, because the MIT-pthreads package doesn’t support Unix
sockets.
--skip-show-database
With this option, the SHOW DATABASES statement doesn’t return anything.
--safe-show-database
With this option, SHOW DATABASES returns only those databases for which the
user has some kind of privilege.
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6.4 What the Privilege System Does
The primary function of the MySQL privilege system is to authenticate a user connecting
from a given host, and to associate that user with privileges on a database such as select,
insert, update and delete.
Additional functionality includes the ability to have an anonymous user and to grant privileges for MySQL-specific functions such as LOAD DATA INFILE and administrative operations.
6.5 MySQL User Names and Passwords
There are several distinctions between the way user names and passwords are used by
MySQL and the way they are used by Unix or Windows:
• User names, as used by MySQL for authentication purposes, have nothing to do with
Unix user names (login names) or Windows user names. Most MySQL clients by default
try to log in using the current Unix user name as the MySQL user name, but that is
for convenience only. Client programs allow a different name to be specified with the
-u or --user options. This means that you can’t make a database secure in any way
unless all MySQL user names have passwords. Anyone may attempt to connect to the
server using any name, and they will succeed if they specify any name that doesn’t
have a password.
• MySQL user names can be up to 16 characters long; Unix user names typically are
limited to 8 characters.
• MySQL passwords have nothing to do with Unix passwords. There is no necessary
connection between the password you use to log in to a Unix machine and the password
you use to access a database on that machine.
• MySQL encrypts passwords using a different algorithm than the one used during the
Unix login process. See the descriptions of the PASSWORD() and ENCRYPT() functions
in Section 7.4.12 [Miscellaneous functions], page 224. Note that even if the password
is stored ’scrambled’, and knowing your ’scrambled’ password is enough to be able to
connect to the MySQL server!
MySQL users and they privileges are normally created with the GRANT command. See
Section 7.35 [GRANT], page 290.
When you login to a MySQL server with a command line client you should specify the
password with --password=your-password. See Section 6.6 [Connecting], page 147.
mysql --user=monty --password=guess database_name
If you want the client to prompt for a password, you should use --password without any
argument
mysql --user=monty --password database_name
or the short form:
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mysql -u monty -p database_name
Note that in the last example the password is NOT ’database name’.
If you want to use the -p option to supply a password you should do like this:
mysql -u monty -pguess database_name
On some system the library call that MySQL uses to prompt for a password will automaticly
cut the password to 8 characters. Internally MySQL doesn’t have any limit for the length
of the password.
6.6 Connecting to the MySQL Server
MySQL client programs generally require that you specify connection parameters when you
want to access a MySQL server: the host you want to connect to, your user name, and your
password. For example, the mysql client can be started like this (optional arguments are
enclosed between ‘[’ and ‘]’):
shell> mysql [-h host_name] [-u user_name] [-pyour_pass]
Alternate forms of the -h, -u, and -p options are --host=host_name, --user=user_name,
and --password=your_pass. Note that there is no space between -p or --password= and
the password following it.
NOTE: Specifying a password on the command line is not secure! Any user on your system
may then find out your password by typing a command like: ps auxww. See Section 4.16.5
[Option files], page 121.
mysql uses default values for connection parameters that are missing from the command
line:
• The default hostname is localhost.
• The default user name is your Unix login name.
• No password is supplied if -p is missing.
Thus, for a Unix user joe, the following commands are equivalent:
shell> mysql -h localhost -u joe
shell> mysql -h localhost
shell> mysql -u joe
shell> mysql
Other MySQL clients behave similarly.
On Unix systems, you can specify different default values to be used when you make a
connection, so that you need not enter them on the command line each time you invoke a
client program. This can be done in a couple of ways:
• You can specify connection parameters in the [client] section of the ‘.my.cnf’ configuration file in your home directory. The relevant section of the file might look like
this:
[client]
host=host_name
user=user_name
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password=your_pass
See Section 4.16.5 [Option files], page 121.
• You can specify connection parameters using environment variables. The host can be
specified for mysql using MYSQL_HOST. The MySQL user name can be specified using
USER (this is for Windows only). The password can be specified using MYSQL_PWD
(but this is insecure; see the next section). See Appendix A [Environment variables],
page 611.
6.7 Keeping Your Password Secure
It is inadvisable to specify your password in a way that exposes it to discovery by other
users. The methods you can use to specify your password when you run client programs
are listed below, along with an assessment of the risks of each method:
• Never give a normal user access to the mysql.user table. Knowing the encrypted
password for a user makes it possible to login as this user. The passwords are only
scrambled so that one shouldn’t be able to see the real password you used (if you
happen to use a similar password with your other applications).
• Use a -pyour_pass or --password=your_pass option on the command line. This
is convenient but insecure, because your password becomes visible to system status
programs (such as ps) that may be invoked by other users to display command lines.
(MySQL clients typically overwrite the command-line argument with zeroes during
their initialization sequence, but there is still a brief interval during which the value is
visible.)
• Use a -p or --password option (with no your_pass value specified). In this case, the
client program solicits the password from the terminal:
shell> mysql -u user_name -p
Enter password: ********
The ‘*’ characters represent your password.
It is more secure to enter your password this way than to specify it on the command line
because it is not visible to other users. However, this method of entering a password
is suitable only for programs that you run interactively. If you want to invoke a client
from a script that runs non-interactively, there is no opportunity to enter the password
from the terminal. On some systems, you may even find that the first line of your
script is read and interpreted (incorrectly) as your password!
• Store your password in a configuration file. For example, you can list your password
in the [client] section of the ‘.my.cnf’ file in your home directory:
[client]
password=your_pass
If you store your password in ‘.my.cnf’, the file should not be group or world readable
or writable. Make sure the file’s access mode is 400 or 600.
See Section 4.16.5 [Option files], page 121.
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• You can store your password in the MYSQL_PWD environment variable, but this method
must be considered extremely insecure and should not be used. Some versions of ps
include an option to display the environment of running processes; your password will
be in plain sight for all to see if you set MYSQL_PWD. Even on systems without such
a version of ps, it is unwise to assume there is no other method to observe process
environments. See Appendix A [Environment variables], page 611.
All in all, the safest methods are to have the client program prompt for the password or to
specify the password in a properly protected ‘.my.cnf’ file.
6.8 Privileges Provided by MySQL
Information about user privileges is stored in the user, db, host, tables_priv, and
columns_priv tables in the mysql database (that is, in the database named mysql). The
MySQL server reads the contents of these tables when it starts up and under the circumstances indicated in Section 6.12 [Privilege changes], page 159.
The names used in this manual to refer to the privileges provided by MySQL are shown
below, along with the table column name associated with each privilege in the grant tables
and the context in which the privilege applies:
Privilege
Column
Context
select
Select_priv
tables
insert
Insert_priv
tables
update
Update_priv
tables
delete
Delete_priv
tables
index
Index_priv
tables
alter
Alter_priv
tables
create
Create_priv
databases, tables, or indexes
drop
Drop_priv
databases or tables
grant
Grant_priv
databases or tables
references
References_priv
databases or tables
reload
Reload_priv
server administration
shutdown
Shutdown_priv
server administration
process
Process_priv
server administration
file
File_priv
file access on server
The select, insert, update, and delete privileges allow you to perform operations on rows in
existing tables in a database.
SELECT statements require the select privilege only if they actually retrieve rows from a
table. You can execute certain SELECT statements even without permission to access any
of the databases on the server. For example, you could use the mysql client as a simple
calculator:
mysql> SELECT 1+1;
mysql> SELECT PI()*2;
The index privilege allows you to create or drop (remove) indexes.
The alter privilege allows you to use ALTER TABLE.
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The create and drop privileges allow you to create new databases and tables, or to drop
(remove) existing databases and tables.
Note that if you grant the drop privilege for the mysql database to a user, that user can
drop the database in which the MySQL access privileges are stored!
The grant privilege allows you to give to other users those privileges you yourself possess.
The file privilege gives you permission to read and write files on the server using the LOAD
DATA INFILE and SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE statements. Any user to whom this privilege
is granted can read or write any file that the MySQL server can read or write.
The remaining privileges are used for administrative operations, which are performed using the mysqladmin program. The table below shows which mysqladmin commands each
administrative privilege allows you to execute:
Privilege
Commands permitted to privilege holders
reload
reload, refresh, flush-privileges, flush-hosts, flush-logs, and
flush-tables
shutdown
shutdown
process
processlist, kill
The reload command tells the server to re-read the grant tables. The refresh command
flushes all tables and opens and closes the log files. flush-privileges is a synonym for
reload. The other flush-* commands perform functions similar to refresh but are more
limited in scope, and may be preferable in some instances. For example, if you want to
flush just the log files, flush-logs is a better choice than refresh.
The shutdown command shuts down the server.
The processlist command displays information about the threads executing within the
server. The kill command kills server threads. You can always display or kill your own
threads, but you need the process privilege to display or kill threads initiated by other
users. See Section 7.27 [KILL], page 263.
It is a good idea in general to grant privileges only to those users who need them, but you
should exercise particular caution in granting certain privileges:
• The grant privilege allows users to give away their privileges to other users. Two users
with different privileges and with the grant privilege are able to combine privileges.
• The alter privilege may be used to subvert the privilege system by renaming tables.
• The file privilege can be abused to read any world-readable file on the server into a
database table, the contents of which can then be accessed using SELECT. This includes
the contents of all databases hosted by the server!
• The shutdown privilege can be abused to deny service to other users entirely, by terminating the server.
• The process privilege can be used to view the plain text of currently executing queries,
including queries that set or change passwords.
• Privileges on the mysql database can be used to change passwords and other access
privilege information. (Passwords are stored encrypted, so a malicious user cannot
simply read them to know the plain text password). If they can access the mysql.user
password column, they can use it to log into the MySQL server for the given user.
(With sufficient privileges, the same user can replace a password with a different one.)
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There are some things that you cannot do with the MySQL privilege system:
• You cannot explicitly specify that a given user should be denied access. That is, you
cannot explicitly match a user and then refuse the connection.
• You cannot specify that a user has privileges to create or drop tables in a database but
not to create or drop the database itself.
6.9 How the Privilege System Works
The MySQL privilege system ensures that all users may do exactly the things that they
are supposed to be allowed to do. When you connect to a MySQL server, your identity
is determined by the host from which you connect and the user name you specify. The
system grants privileges according to your identity and what you want to do.
MySQL considers both your hostname and user name in identifying you because there is
little reason to assume that a given user name belongs to the same person everywhere on
the Internet. For example, the user bill who connects from whitehouse.gov need not
be the same person as the user bill who connects from microsoft.com. MySQL handles
this by allowing you to distinguish users on different hosts that happen to have the same
name: you can grant bill one set of privileges for connections from whitehouse.gov, and
a different set of privileges for connections from microsoft.com.
MySQL access control involves two stages:
• Stage 1: The server checks whether or not you are even allowed to connect.
• Stage 2: Assuming you can connect, the server checks each request you issue to see
whether or not you have sufficient privileges to perform it. For example, if you try to
select rows from a table in a database or drop a table from the database, the server
makes sure you have the select privilege for the table or the drop privilege for the
database.
The server uses the user, db, and host tables in the mysql database at both stages of access
control. The fields in these grant tables are shown below:
Table name
user
db
host
Scope fields
Host
User
Password
Host
Db
User
Host
Db
Privilege fields
Select_priv
Insert_priv
Update_priv
Delete_priv
Index_priv
Alter_priv
Create_priv
Drop_priv
Grant_priv
Select_priv
Insert_priv
Update_priv
Delete_priv
Index_priv
Alter_priv
Create_priv
Drop_priv
Grant_priv
Select_priv
Insert_priv
Update_priv
Delete_priv
Index_priv
Alter_priv
Create_priv
Drop_priv
Grant_priv
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References_priv
Reload_priv
Shutdown_priv
Process_priv
File_priv
For the second stage of access control (request verification), the server may, if the request
involves tables, additionally consult the tables_priv and columns_priv tables. The fields
in these tables are shown below:
Table name
tables_priv
columns_priv
Scope fields
Host
Db
User
Table_name
Host
Db
User
Table_name
Column_name
Privilege fields
Table_priv
Column_priv
Column_priv
Other fields
Timestamp
Grantor
Timestamp
Each grant table contains scope fields and privilege fields.
Scope fields determine the scope of each entry in the tables, that is, the context in
which the entry applies. For example, a user table entry with Host and User values of
’thomas.loc.gov’ and ’bob’ would be used for authenticating connections made to the
server by bob from the host thomas.loc.gov. Similarly, a db table entry with Host, User,
and Db fields of ’thomas.loc.gov’, ’bob’ and ’reports’ would be used when bob connects
from the host thomas.loc.gov to access the reports database. The tables_priv and
columns_priv tables contain scope fields indicating tables or table/column combinations
to which each entry applies.
For access-checking purposes, comparisons of Host values are case insensitive. User,
Password, Db, and Table_name values are case sensitive. Column_name values are case
insensitive in MySQL Version 3.22.12 or later.
Privilege fields indicate the privileges granted by a table entry, that is, what operations
can be performed. The server combines the information in the various grant tables to form
a complete description of a user’s privileges. The rules used to do this are described in
Section 6.11 [Request access], page 156.
Scope fields are strings, declared as shown below; the default value for each is the empty
string:
Field name
Host
User
Password
Db
Table_name
Type
CHAR(60)
CHAR(16)
CHAR(16)
CHAR(64)
CHAR(60)
(CHAR(60) for the tables_priv and columns_priv tables)
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Column_name CHAR(60)
In the user, db and host tables, all privilege fields are declared as ENUM(’N’,’Y’) — each
can have a value of ’N’ or ’Y’, and the default value is ’N’.
In the tables_priv and columns_priv tables, the privilege fields are declared as SET fields:
Table name
Field name
Possible set elements
tables_priv
Table_priv
’Select’, ’Insert’, ’Update’, ’Delete’,
’Create’, ’Drop’, ’Grant’, ’References’,
’Index’, ’Alter’
tables_priv
Column_priv
’Select’, ’Insert’, ’Update’, ’References’
columns_priv
Column_priv
’Select’, ’Insert’, ’Update’, ’References’
Briefly, the server uses the grant tables like this:
• The user table scope fields determine whether to allow or reject incoming connections.
For allowed connections, any privileges granted in the user table indicate the user’s
global (superuser) privileges. These privileges apply to all databases on the server.
• The db and host tables are used together:
− The db table scope fields determine which users can access which databases from
which hosts. The privilege fields determine which operations are allowed.
− The host table is used as an extension of the db table when you want a given db
table entry to apply to several hosts. For example, if you want a user to be able
to use a database from several hosts in your network, leave the Host value empty
in the user’s db table entry, then populate the host table with an entry for each
of those hosts. This mechanism is described more detail in Section 6.11 [Request
access], page 156.
• The tables_priv and columns_priv tables are similar to the db table, but are more
fine-grained: they apply at the table and column levels rather than at the database
level.
Note that administrative privileges (reload, shutdown, etc.) are specified only in the user
table. This is because administrative operations are operations on the server itself and are
not database-specific, so there is no reason to list such privileges in the other grant tables.
In fact, only the user table need be consulted to determine whether or not you can perform
an administrative operation.
The file privilege is specified only in the user table, too. It is not an administrative
privilege as such, but your ability to read or write files on the server host is independent of
the database you are accessing.
The mysqld server reads the contents of the grant tables once, when it starts up. Changes
to the grant tables take effect as indicated in Section 6.12 [Privilege changes], page 159.
When you modify the contents of the grant tables, it is a good idea to make sure that your
changes set up privileges the way you want. For help in diagnosing problems, see Section 6.16
[Access denied], page 164. For advice on security issues, see Section 6.2 [Security], page 143.
A useful diagnostic tool is the mysqlaccess script, which Yves Carlier has provided for the
MySQL distribution. Invoke mysqlaccess with the --help option to find out how it works.
Note that mysqlaccess checks access using only the user, db and host tables. It does not
check table- or column-level privileges.
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6.10 Access Control, Stage 1: Connection Verification
When you attempt to connect to a MySQL server, the server accepts or rejects the connection based on your identity and whether or not you can verify your identity by supplying
the correct password. If not, the server denies access to you completely. Otherwise, the
server accepts the connection, then enters Stage 2 and waits for requests.
Your identity is based on two pieces of information:
• The host from which you connect
• Your MySQL user name
Identity checking is performed using the three user table scope fields (Host, User, and
Password). The server accepts the connection only if a user table entry matches your
hostname and user name, and you supply the correct password.
Values in the user table scope fields may be specified as follows:
• A Host value may be a hostname or an IP number, or ’localhost’ to indicate the
local host.
• You can use the wild-card characters ‘%’ and ‘_’ in the Host field.
• A Host value of ’%’ matches any hostname.
• A blank Host value means that the privilege should be anded with the entry in the
host table that matches the given host name. You can find more information about
this in the next chapter.
• As of MySQL Version 3.23, for Host values specified as IP numbers, you can specify a
netmask indicating how many address bits to use for the network number. For example:
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES on db.* to [email protected]/255.255.255.0’;
This will allow everyone to connect from an IP where the following is true:
user_ip & netmask = host_ip.
In the above example all IP:s in the interval 192.58.197.0 - 192.58.197.255 can connect
to the MySQL server.
• Wild-card characters are not allowed in the User field, but you can specify a blank
value, which matches any name. If the user table entry that matches an incoming
connection has a blank user name, the user is considered to be the anonymous user
(the user with no name), rather than the name that the client actually specified. This
means that a blank user name is used for all further access checking for the duration
of the connection (that is, during Stage 2).
• The Password field can be blank. This does not mean that any password matches, it
means the user must connect without specifying a password.
Non-blank Password values represent encrypted passwords. MySQL does not store passwords in plaintext form for anyone to see. Rather, the password supplied by a user who
is attempting to connect is encrypted (using the PASSWORD() function). The encrypted
password is then used when the client/server is checking if the password is correct (This is
done without the encrypted password ever traveling over the connection.) Note that from
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MySQL’s point of view the encrypted password is the REAL password, so you should not
give anyone access to it! In particular, don’t give normal users read access to the tables in
the mysql database!
The examples below show how various combinations of Host and User values in user table
entries apply to incoming connections:
Host value
’thomas.loc.gov’
’thomas.loc.gov’
’%’
’%’
’%.loc.gov’
User value
’fred’
’’
’fred’
’’
’fred’
’x.y.%’
’fred’
’144.155.166.177’
’fred’
’144.155.166.%’
’fred’
’144.155.166.0/255.255.255.0’
’fred’
Connections matched by entry
fred, connecting from thomas.loc.gov
Any user, connecting from thomas.loc.gov
fred, connecting from any host
Any user, connecting from any host
fred, connecting from any host in the loc.gov
domain
fred, connecting from x.y.net, x.y.com,x.y.edu,
etc. (this is probably not useful)
fred, connecting from the host with IP address
144.155.166.177
fred, connecting from any host in the 144.155.166
class C subnet
Same as previous example
Because you can use IP wild-card values in the Host field (for example, ’144.155.166.%’
to match every host on a subnet), there is the possibility that someone might try to exploit
this capability by naming a host 144.155.166.somewhere.com. To foil such attempts,
MySQL disallows matching on hostnames that start with digits and a dot. Thus, if you
have a host named something like 1.2.foo.com, its name will never match the Host column
of the grant tables. Only an IP number can match an IP wild-card value.
An incoming connection may be matched by more than one entry in the user table. For
example, a connection from thomas.loc.gov by fred would be matched by several of the
entries just shown above. How does the server choose which entry to use if more than
one matches? The server resolves this question by sorting the user table after reading it
at startup time, then looking through the entries in sorted order when a user attempts to
connect. The first matching entry is the one that is used.
user table sorting works as follows. Suppose the user table looks like this:
+-----------+----------+| Host
| User
| ...
+-----------+----------+| %
| root
| ...
| %
| jeffrey | ...
| localhost | root
| ...
| localhost |
| ...
+-----------+----------+When the server reads in the table, it orders the entries with the most-specific Host values
first (’%’ in the Host column means “any host” and is least specific). Entries with the same
Host value are ordered with the most-specific User values first (a blank User value means
“any user” and is least specific). The resulting sorted user table looks like this:
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+-----------+----------+| Host
| User
| ...
+-----------+----------+| localhost | root
| ...
| localhost |
| ...
| %
| jeffrey | ...
| %
| root
| ...
+-----------+----------+When a connection is attempted, the server looks through the sorted entries and uses
the first match found. For a connection from localhost by jeffrey, the entries with
’localhost’ in the Host column match first. Of those, the entry with the blank user name
matches both the connecting hostname and user name. (The ’%’/’jeffrey’ entry would
have matched, too, but it is not the first match in the table.)
Here is another example. Suppose the user table looks like this:
+----------------+----------+| Host
| User
| ...
+----------------+----------+| %
| jeffrey | ...
| thomas.loc.gov |
| ...
+----------------+----------+The sorted table looks like this:
+----------------+----------+| Host
| User
| ...
+----------------+----------+| thomas.loc.gov |
| ...
| %
| jeffrey | ...
+----------------+----------+A connection from thomas.loc.gov by jeffrey is matched by the first entry, whereas a
connection from whitehouse.gov by jeffrey is matched by the second.
A common misconception is to think that for a given user name, all entries that explicitly
name that user will be used first when the server attempts to find a match for the connection.
This is simply not true. The previous example illustrates this, where a connection from
thomas.loc.gov by jeffrey is first matched not by the entry containing ’jeffrey’ as the
User field value, but by the entry with no user name!
If you have problems connecting to the server, print out the user table and sort it by hand
to see where the first match is being made.
6.11 Access Control, Stage 2: Request Verification
Once you establish a connection, the server enters Stage 2. For each request that comes in
on the connection, the server checks whether you have sufficient privileges to perform it,
based on the type of operation you wish to perform. This is where the privilege fields in
the grant tables come into play. These privileges can come from any of the user, db, host,
tables_priv, or columns_priv tables. The grant tables are manipulated with GRANT and
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REVOKE commands. See Section 7.35 [GRANT], page 290. (You may find it helpful to refer to
Section 6.9 [Privileges], page 151, which lists the fields present in each of the grant tables.)
The user table grants privileges that are assigned to you on a global basis and that apply
no matter what the current database is. For example, if the user table grants you the
delete privilege, you can delete rows from any database on the server host! In other words,
user table privileges are superuser privileges. It is wise to grant privileges in the user table
only to superusers such as server or database administrators. For other users, you should
leave the privileges in the user table set to ’N’ and grant privileges on a database-specific
basis only, using the db and host tables.
The db and host tables grant database-specific privileges. Values in the scope fields may
be specified as follows:
• The wild-card characters ‘%’ and ‘_’ can be used in the Host and Db fields of either
table.
• A ’%’ Host value in the db table means “any host.” A blank Host value in the db
table means “consult the host table for further information.”
• A ’%’ or blank Host value in the host table means “any host.”
• A ’%’ or blank Db value in either table means “any database.”
• A blank User value in either table matches the anonymous user.
The db and host tables are read in and sorted when the server starts up (at the same time
that it reads the user table). The db table is sorted on the Host, Db, and User scope fields,
and the host table is sorted on the Host and Db scope fields. As with the user table, sorting
puts the most-specific values first and least-specific values last, and when the server looks
for matching entries, it uses the first match that it finds.
The tables_priv and columns_priv tables grant table- and column-specific privileges.
Values in the scope fields may be specified as follows:
• The wild-card characters ‘%’ and ‘_’ can be used in the Host field of either table.
• A ’%’ or blank Host value in either table means “any host.”
• The Db, Table_name and Column_name fields cannot contain wild cards or be blank in
either table.
The tables_priv and columns_priv tables are sorted on the Host, Db, and User fields.
This is similar to db table sorting, although the sorting is simpler because only the Host
field may contain wild cards.
The request verification process is described below. (If you are familiar with the accesschecking source code, you will notice that the description here differs slightly from the
algorithm used in the code. The description is equivalent to what the code actually does;
it differs only to make the explanation simpler.)
For administrative requests (shutdown, reload, etc.), the server checks only the user table
entry, because that is the only table that specifies administrative privileges. Access is
granted if the entry allows the requested operation and denied otherwise. For example, if
you want to execute mysqladmin shutdown but your user table entry doesn’t grant the
shutdown privilege to you, access is denied without even checking the db or host tables.
(They contain no Shutdown_priv column, so there is no need to do so.)
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For database-related requests (insert, update, etc.), the server first checks the user’s global
(superuser) privileges by looking in the user table entry. If the entry allows the requested
operation, access is granted. If the global privileges in the user table are insufficient, the
server determines the user’s database-specific privileges by checking the db and host tables:
1. The server looks in the db table for a match on the Host, Db, and User fields. The
Host and User fields are matched to the connecting user’s hostname and MySQL user
name. The Db field is matched to the database the user wants to access. If there is no
entry for the Host and User, access is denied.
2. If there is a matching db table entry and its Host field is not blank, that entry defines
the user’s database-specific privileges.
3. If the matching db table entry’s Host field is blank, it signifies that the host table
enumerates which hosts should be allowed access to the database. In this case, a
further lookup is done in the host table to find a match on the Host and Db fields. If
no host table entry matches, access is denied. If there is a match, the user’s databasespecific privileges are computed as the intersection (not the union!) of the privileges
in the db and host table entries, that is, the privileges that are ’Y’ in both entries.
(This way you can grant general privileges in the db table entry and then selectively
restrict them on a host-by-host basis using the host table entries.)
After determining the database-specific privileges granted by the db and host table entries,
the server adds them to the global privileges granted by the user table. If the result allows
the requested operation, access is granted. Otherwise, the server checks the user’s table
and column privileges in the tables_priv and columns_priv tables and adds those to the
user’s privileges. Access is allowed or denied based on the result.
Expressed in boolean terms, the preceding description of how a user’s privileges are calculated may be summarized like this:
global privileges
OR (database privileges AND host privileges)
OR table privileges
OR column privileges
It may not be apparent why, if the global user entry privileges are initially found to be
insufficient for the requested operation, the server adds those privileges to the database-,
table-, and column-specific privileges later. The reason is that a request might require more
than one type of privilege. For example, if you execute an INSERT ... SELECT statement,
you need both insert and select privileges. Your privileges might be such that the user
table entry grants one privilege and the db table entry grants the other. In this case, you
have the necessary privileges to perform the request, but the server cannot tell that from
either table by itself; the privileges granted by the entries in both tables must be combined.
The host table can be used to maintain a list of secure servers.
At TcX, the host table contains a list of all machines on the local network. These are
granted all privileges.
You can also use the host table to indicate hosts that are not secure. Suppose you have
a machine public.your.domain that is located in a public area that you do not consider
secure. You can allow access to all hosts on your network except that machine by using
host table entries like this:
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+--------------------+----+| Host
| Db | ...
+--------------------+----+| public.your.domain | % | ... (all privileges set to ’N’)
| %.your.domain
| % | ... (all privileges set to ’Y’)
+--------------------+----+Naturally, you should always test your entries in the grant tables (for example, using
mysqlaccess) to make sure your access privileges are actually set up the way you think
they are.
6.12 When Privilege Changes Take Effect
When mysqld starts, all grant table contents are read into memory and become effective at
that point.
Modifications to the grant tables that you perform using GRANT, REVOKE, or SET PASSWORD
are noticed by the server immediately.
If you modify the grant tables manually (using INSERT, UPDATE, etc.), you should execute a FLUSH PRIVILEGES statement or run mysqladmin flush-privileges or mysqladmin
reload to tell the server to reload the grant tables. Otherwise your changes will have no
effect until you restart the server. If you change the grant tables manually but forget to
reload the privileges, you will be wondering why your changes don’t seem to make any
difference!
When the server notices that the grant tables have been changed, existing client connections
are affected as follows:
• Table and column privilege changes take effect with the client’s next request.
• Database privilege changes take effect at the next USE db_name command.
Global privilege changes and password changes take effect the next time the client connects.
6.13 Setting Up the Initial MySQL Privileges
After installing MySQL, you set up the initial access privileges by running scripts/mysql_
install_db. See Section 4.7.1 [Quick install], page 62. The mysql_install_db script
starts up the mysqld server, then initializes the grant tables to contain the following set of
privileges:
• The MySQL root user is created as a superuser who can do anything. Connections
must be made from the local host.
NOTE: The initial root password is empty, so anyone can connect as root without a
password and be granted all privileges.
• An anonymous user is created that can do anything with databases that have a name of
’test’ or starting with ’test_’. Connections must be made from the local host. This
means any local user can connect without a password and be treated as the anonymous
user.
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• Other privileges are denied. For example, normal users can’t use mysqladmin shutdown
or mysqladmin processlist.
NOTE: The default privileges are different for Windows. See Section 4.13.4 [Windows
running], page 101.
Because your installation is initially wide open, one of the first things you should do is
specify a password for the MySQL root user. You can do this as follows (note that you
specify the password using the PASSWORD() function):
shell> mysql -u root mysql
mysql> UPDATE user SET Password=PASSWORD(’new_password’)
WHERE user=’root’;
mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
You can, in MySQL Version 3.22 and above, use the SET PASSWORD statement:
shell> mysql -u root mysql
mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR root=PASSWORD(’new_password’);
Another way to set the password is by using the mysqladmin command:
shell> mysqladmin -u root password new_password
Only users with write/update access to the mysql database can change the password for
others users. All normal users (not anonymous ones) can only change their own password
with either of the above commands or with SET PASSWORD=PASSWORD(’new password’).
Note that if you update the password in the user table directly using the first method,
you must tell the server to re-read the grant tables (with FLUSH PRIVILEGES), because the
change will go unnoticed otherwise.
Once the root password has been set, thereafter you must supply that password when you
connect to the server as root.
You may wish to leave the root password blank so that you don’t need to specify it while you
perform additional setup or testing. However, be sure to set it before using your installation
for any real production work.
See the scripts/mysql_install_db script to see how it sets up the default privileges. You
can use this as a basis to see how to add other users.
If you want the initial privileges to be different than those just described above, you can
modify mysql_install_db before you run it.
To re-create the grant tables completely, remove all the ‘.frm’, ‘.MYI’, and ‘.MYD’ files in
the directory containing the mysql database. (This is the directory named ‘mysql’ under
the database directory, which is listed when you run mysqld --help.) Then run the mysql_
install_db script, possibly after editing it first to have the privileges you want.
NOTE: For MySQL versions older than Version 3.22.10, you should NOT delete the ‘.frm’
files. If you accidentally do this, you should copy them back from your MySQL distribution
before running mysql_install_db.
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6.14 Adding New Users to MySQL
You can add users two different ways: by using GRANT statements or by manipulating the
MySQL grant tables directly. The preferred method is to use GRANT statements, because
they are more concise and less error-prone. See Section 7.35 [GRANT], page 290.
There is also a lot of contributed programs like phpmyadmin that can be used to create and
administrate users. See Appendix D [Contrib], page 619.
The examples below show how to use the mysql client to set up new users. These examples
assume that privileges are set up according to the defaults described in the previous section.
This means that to make changes, you must be on the same machine where mysqld is
running, you must connect as the MySQL root user, and the root user must have the
insert privilege for the mysql database and the reload administrative privilege. Also, if you
have changed the root user password, you must specify it for the mysql commands below.
You can add new users by issuing GRANT statements:
shell> mysql --user=root mysql
mysql> GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO [email protected]
IDENTIFIED BY ’some_pass’ WITH GRANT OPTION;
mysql> GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO monty@"%"
IDENTIFIED BY ’some_pass’ WITH GRANT OPTION;
mysql> GRANT RELOAD,PROCESS ON *.* TO [email protected];
mysql> GRANT USAGE ON *.* TO [email protected];
These GRANT statements set up three new users:
monty
A full superuser who can connect to the server from anywhere, but who must use
a password ’some_pass’ to do so. Note that we must issue GRANT statements
for both [email protected] and monty@"%". If we don’t add the entry with
localhost, the anonymous user entry for localhost that is created by mysql_
install_db will take precedence when we connect from the local host, because
it has a more specific Host field value and thus comes earlier in the user table
sort order.
admin
A user who can connect from localhost without a password and who is granted
the reload and process administrative privileges. This allows the user to execute the mysqladmin reload, mysqladmin refresh, and mysqladmin flush-*
commands, as well as mysqladmin processlist . No database-related privileges are granted. (They can be granted later by issuing additional GRANT
statements.)
dummy
A user who can connect without a password, but only from the local host. The
global privileges are all set to ’N’ — the USAGE privilege type allows you to
create a user with no privileges. It is assumed that you will grant databasespecific privileges later.
You can also add the same user access information directly by issuing INSERT statements
and then telling the server to reload the grant tables:
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shell> mysql --user=root mysql
mysql> INSERT INTO user VALUES(’localhost’,’monty’,PASSWORD(’some_pass’),
’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’);
mysql> INSERT INTO user VALUES(’%’,’monty’,PASSWORD(’some_pass’),
’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’);
mysql> INSERT INTO user SET Host=’localhost’,User=’admin’,
Reload_priv=’Y’, Process_priv=’Y’;
mysql> INSERT INTO user (Host,User,Password)
VALUES(’localhost’,’dummy’,’’);
mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
Depending on your MySQL version, you may have to use a different number of ’Y’ values
above (versions prior to Version 3.22.11 had fewer privilege columns). For the admin user,
the more readable extended INSERT syntax that is available starting with Version 3.22.11
is used.
Note that to set up a superuser, you need only create a user table entry with the privilege
fields set to ’Y’. No db or host table entries are necessary.
The privilege columns in the user table were not set explicitly in the last INSERT statement
(for the dummy user), so those columns are assigned the default value of ’N’. This is the
same thing that GRANT USAGE does.
The following example adds a user custom who can connect from hosts localhost,
server.domain, and whitehouse.gov. He wants to access the bankaccount database only
from localhost, the expenses database only from whitehouse.gov, and the customer
database from all three hosts. He wants to use the password stupid from all three hosts.
To set up this user’s privileges using GRANT statements, run these commands:
shell> mysql --user=root mysql
mysql> GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE,CREATE,DROP
ON bankaccount.*
TO [email protected]
IDENTIFIED BY ’stupid’;
mysql> GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE,CREATE,DROP
ON expenses.*
TO [email protected]
IDENTIFIED BY ’stupid’;
mysql> GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE,CREATE,DROP
ON customer.*
TO [email protected]%’
IDENTIFIED BY ’stupid’;
The reason that we do to grant statements for the user ’custom’ is that we want the give
the user access to MySQL both from the local machine with Unix sockets and from the
remote machine ’whitehouse.gov’ over TCP/IP.
To set up the user’s privileges by modifying the grant tables directly, run these commands
(note the FLUSH PRIVILEGES at the end):
shell> mysql --user=root mysql
mysql> INSERT INTO user (Host,User,Password)
VALUES(’localhost’,’custom’,PASSWORD(’stupid’));
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mysql> INSERT INTO user (Host,User,Password)
VALUES(’server.domain’,’custom’,PASSWORD(’stupid’));
mysql> INSERT INTO user (Host,User,Password)
VALUES(’whitehouse.gov’,’custom’,PASSWORD(’stupid’));
mysql> INSERT INTO db
(Host,Db,User,Select_priv,Insert_priv,Update_priv,Delete_priv,
Create_priv,Drop_priv)
VALUES
(’localhost’,’bankaccount’,’custom’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’);
mysql> INSERT INTO db
(Host,Db,User,Select_priv,Insert_priv,Update_priv,Delete_priv,
Create_priv,Drop_priv)
VALUES
(’whitehouse.gov’,’expenses’,’custom’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’);
mysql> INSERT INTO db
(Host,Db,User,Select_priv,Insert_priv,Update_priv,Delete_priv,
Create_priv,Drop_priv)
VALUES(’%’,’customer’,’custom’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’,’Y’);
mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
The first three INSERT statements add user table entries that allow user custom to connect from the various hosts with the given password, but grant no permissions to him (all
privileges are set to the default value of ’N’). The next three INSERT statements add db
table entries that grant privileges to custom for the bankaccount, expenses, and customer
databases, but only when accessed from the proper hosts. As usual, when the grant tables
are modified directly, the server must be told to reload them (with FLUSH PRIVILEGES) so
that the privilege changes take effect.
If you want to give a specific user access from any machine in a given domain, you can issue
a GRANT statement like the following:
mysql> GRANT ...
ON *.*
TO myusername@"%.mydomainname.com"
IDENTIFIED BY ’mypassword’;
To do the same thing by modifying the grant tables directly, do this:
mysql> INSERT INTO user VALUES (’%.mydomainname.com’, ’myusername’,
PASSWORD(’mypassword’),...);
mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
You can also use xmysqladmin, mysql_webadmin, and even xmysql to insert, change, and
update values in the grant tables. You can find these utilities in the Contrib directory of
the MySQL Website (http://www.mysql.com/Downloads/Contrib/).
6.15 Setting Up Passwords
In most cases you should use GRANT to set up your users/passwords, so the following only
applies for advanced users. See Section 7.35 [GRANT], page 290.
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The examples in the preceding sections illustrate an important principle: when you store
a non-empty password using INSERT or UPDATE statements, you must use the PASSWORD()
function to encrypt it. This is because the user table stores passwords in encrypted form,
not as plaintext. If you forget that fact, you are likely to attempt to set passwords like this:
shell> mysql -u root mysql
mysql> INSERT INTO user (Host,User,Password)
VALUES(’%’,’jeffrey’,’biscuit’);
mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
The result is that the plaintext value ’biscuit’ is stored as the password in the user table.
When the user jeffrey attempts to connect to the server using this password, the mysql
client encrypts it with PASSWORD() and sends the result to the server. The server compares
the value in the user table (the encrypted value of ’biscuit’) to the encrypted password
(which is not ’biscuit’). The comparison fails and the server rejects the connection:
shell> mysql -u jeffrey -pbiscuit test
Access denied
Passwords must be encrypted when they are inserted in the user table, so the INSERT
statement should have been specified like this instead:
mysql> INSERT INTO user (Host,User,Password)
VALUES(’%’,’jeffrey’,PASSWORD(’biscuit’));
You must also use the PASSWORD() function when you use SET PASSWORD statements:
mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR jeffrey@"%" = PASSWORD(’biscuit’);
If you set passwords using the GRANT ... IDENTIFIED BY statement or the mysqladmin
password command, the PASSWORD() function is unnecessary. They both take care of
encrypting the password for you, so you would specify a password of ’biscuit’ like this:
mysql> GRANT USAGE ON *.* TO jeffrey@"%" IDENTIFIED BY ’biscuit’;
or
shell> mysqladmin -u jeffrey password biscuit
NOTE: PASSWORD() does not perform password encryption in the same way that Unix
passwords are encrypted. You should not assume that if your Unix password and your
MySQL password are the same, that PASSWORD() will result in the same encrypted value
as is stored in the Unix password file. See Section 6.5 [User names], page 146.
6.16 Causes of Access denied Errors
If you encounter Access denied errors when you try to connect to the MySQL server, the
list below indicates some courses of action you can take to correct the problem:
• After installing MySQL, did you run the mysql_install_db script to set up the initial
grant table contents? If not, do so. See Section 6.13 [Default privileges], page 159.
Test the initial privileges by executing this command:
shell> mysql -u root test
The server should let you connect without error. You should also make sure you have a
file ‘user.MYD’ in the MySQL database directory. Ordinarily, this is ‘PATH/var/mysql/user.MYD’,
where PATH is the pathname to the MySQL installation root.
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• After a fresh installation, you should connect to the server and set up your users and
their access permissions:
shell> mysql -u root mysql
The server should let you connect because the MySQL root user has no password
initially. That is also a security risk, so setting the root password is something you
should do while you’re setting up your other MySQL users.
If you try to connect as root and get this error:
Access denied for user: [email protected] to database mysql
this means that you don’t have an entry in the user table with a User column value of
’root’ and that mysqld cannot resolve the hostname for your client. In this case,
you must restart the server with the --skip-grant-tables option and edit your
‘/etc/hosts’ or ‘\windows\hosts’ file to add an entry for your host.
• If you get an error like the following:
shell> mysqladmin -u root -pxxxx ver
Access denied for user: [email protected] (Using password: YES)
It means that you are using a wrong password. See Section 6.15 [Passwords], page 163.
If you have forgot the root password, you can restart mysqld with --skip-granttables to change the password. You can find more about this option later on in this
manual section.
If you get the above error even if you haven’t specified a password, this means that
you a wrong password in some my.ini file. See Section 4.16.5 [Option files], page 121.
You can avoid using option files with the --no-defaults option, as follows:
shell> mysqladmin --no-defaults -u root ver
• If you updated an existing MySQL installation from a version earlier than Version
3.22.11 to Version 3.22.11 or later, did you run the mysql_fix_privilege_tables
script? If not, do so. The structure of the grant tables changed with MySQL Version
3.22.11 when the GRANT statement became functional.
• If your privileges seem to have changed in the middle of a session, it may be that a
superuser has changed them. Reloading the grant tables affects new client connections,
but it also affects existing connections as indicated in Section 6.12 [Privilege changes],
page 159.
• If you can’t get your password to work, remember that you must use the PASSWORD()
function if you set the password with the INSERT, UPDATE, or SET PASSWORD statements. The PASSWORD() function is unnecessary if you specify the password using the
GRANT ... INDENTIFIED BY statement or the mysqladmin password command. See
Section 6.15 [Passwords], page 163.
• localhost is a synonym for your local hostname, and is also the default host to
which clients try to connect if you specify no host explicitly. However, connections
to localhost do not work if you are running on a system that uses MIT-pthreads
(localhost connections are made using Unix sockets, which are not supported by
MIT-pthreads). To avoid this problem on such systems, you should use the --host
option to name the server host explicitly. This will make a TCP/IP connection to the
mysqld server. In this case, you must have your real hostname in user table entries
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on the server host. (This is true even if you are running a client program on the same
host as the server.)
If you get an Access denied error when trying to connect to the database with mysql
-u user_name db_name, you may have a problem with the user table. Check this by
executing mysql -u root mysql and issuing this SQL statement:
mysql> SELECT * FROM user;
The result should include an entry with the Host and User columns matching your
computer’s hostname and your MySQL user name.
The Access denied error message will tell you who you are trying to log in as, the
host from which you are trying to connect, and whether or not you were using a
password. Normally, you should have one entry in the user table that exactly matches
the hostname and user name that were given in the error message. For example if you
get an error message that contains Using password: NO, this means that you tried to
login without an password.
If you get the following error when you try to connect from a different host than the
one on which the MySQL server is running, then there is no row in the user table that
matches that host:
Host ... is not allowed to connect to this MySQL server
You can fix this by using the command-line tool mysql (on the server host!) to add
a row to the user, db, or host table for the user/hostname combination from which
you are trying to connect and then execute mysqladmin flush-privileges. If you are
not running MySQL Version 3.22 and you don’t know the IP number or hostname of
the machine from which you are connecting, you should put an entry with ’%’ as the
Host column value in the user table and restart mysqld with the --log option on the
server machine. After trying to connect from the client machine, the information in
the MySQL log will indicate how you really did connect. (Then replace the ’%’ in the
user table entry with the actual hostname that shows up in the log. Otherwise, you’ll
have a system that is insecure.)
Another reason for this error on Linux is that you are using a binary MySQL version
that is compiled with a different glibc version than the one you are using. In this case
you should either upgrade your OS/glibc or download the source MySQL version and
compile this yourself. A source RPM is normally trivial to compile and install, so this
isn’t a big problem.
If you get an error message where the hostname is not shown or where the hostname
is an IP, even if you try to connect with a hostname:
shell> mysqladmin -u root -pxxxx -h some-hostname ver
Access denied for user: ’root´ (Using password: YES)
This means that MySQL got some error when trying to resolve the IP to a hostname.
In this case you can execute mysqladmin flush-hosts to reset the internal DNS cache.
See Section 13.2.11 [DNS], page 415.
Some permanent solutions are:
− Try to find out what is wrong with your DNS server and fix this.
− Specify IPs instead of hostnames in the MySQL privilege tables.
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− Start mysqld with --skip-name-resolve.
− Start mysqld with --skip-host-cache.
− Connect to localhost if you are running the server and the client on the same
machine.
− Put the client machine names in /etc/hosts.
• If mysql -u root test works but mysql -h your_hostname -u root test results in
Access denied, then you may not have the correct name for your host in the user table. A common problem here is that the Host value in the user table entry specifies an
unqualified hostname, but your system’s name resolution routines return a fully qualified domain name (or vice-versa). For example, if you have an entry with host ’tcx’ in
the user table, but your DNS tells MySQL that your hostname is ’tcx.subnet.se’,
the entry will not work. Try adding an entry to the user table that contains the IP
number of your host as the Host column value. (Alternatively, you could add an entry
to the user table with a Host value that contains a wild card—for example, ’tcx.%’.
However, use of hostnames ending with ‘%’ is insecure and is not recommended!)
• If mysql -u user_name test works but mysql -u user_name other_db_name doesn’t
work, you don’t have an entry for other_db_name listed in the db table.
• If mysql -u user_name db_name works when executed on the server machine, but mysql
-u host_name -u user_name db_name doesn’t work when executed on another client
machine, you don’t have the client machine listed in the user table or the db table.
• If you can’t figure out why you get Access denied, remove from the user table all
entries that have Host values containing wild cards (entries that contain ‘%’ or ‘_’). A
very common error is to insert a new entry with Host=’%’ and User=’some user’,
thinking that this will allow you to specify localhost to connect from the same machine. The reason that this doesn’t work is that the default privileges include an
entry with Host=’localhost’ and User=’’. Because that entry has a Host value
’localhost’ that is more specific than ’%’, it is used in preference to the new entry when connecting from localhost! The correct procedure is to insert a second
entry with Host=’localhost’ and User=’some_user’, or to remove the entry with
Host=’localhost’ and User=’’.
• If you get the following error, you may have a problem with the db or host table:
Access to database denied
If the entry selected from the db table has an empty value in the Host column, make
sure there are one or more corresponding entries in the host table specifying which
hosts the db table entry applies to.
If you get the error when using the SQL commands SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE or LOAD
DATA INFILE, your entry in the user table probably doesn’t have the file privilege
enabled.
• Remember that client programs will use connection parameters specified in configuration files or environment variables. See Appendix A [Environment variables], page 611.
If a client seems to be sending the wrong default connection parameters when you don’t
specify them on the command line, check your environment and the ‘.my.cnf’ file in
your home directory. You might also check the system-wide MySQL configuration files,
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though it is far less likely that client connection parameters will be specified there. See
Section 4.16.5 [Option files], page 121. If you get Access denied when you run a client
without any options, make sure you haven’t specified an old password in any of your
option files! See Section 4.16.5 [Option files], page 121.
If you make changes to the grant tables directly (using an INSERT or UPDATE statement) and your changes seem to be ignored, remember that you must issue a FLUSH
PRIVILEGES statement or execute a mysqladmin flush-privileges command to cause
the server to re-read the privilege tables. Otherwise your changes have no effect until
the next time the server is restarted. Remember that after you set the root password with an UPDATE command, you won’t need to specify it until after you flush the
privileges, because the server won’t know you’ve changed the password yet!
If you have access problems with a Perl, PHP, Python, or ODBC program, try to connect to the server with mysql -u user_name db_name or mysql -u user_name -pyour_
pass db_name. If you are able to connect using the mysql client, there is a problem
with your program and not with the access privileges. (Note that there is no space
between -p and the password; you can also use the --password=your_pass syntax to
specify the password. If you use the -p option alone, MySQL will prompt you for the
password.)
For testing, start the mysqld daemon with the --skip-grant-tables option. Then
you can change the MySQL grant tables and use the mysqlaccess script to check
whether or not your modifications have the desired effect. When you are satisfied
with your changes, execute mysqladmin flush-privileges to tell the mysqld server
to start using the new grant tables. Note: Reloading the grant tables overrides the
--skip-grant-tables option. This allows you to tell the server to begin using the
grant tables again without bringing it down and restarting it.
If everything else fails, start the mysqld daemon with a debugging option (for example, --debug=d,general,query). This will print host and user information about
attempted connections, as well as information about each command issued. See Section I.1.2 [Making trace files], page 722.
If you have any other problems with the MySQL grant tables and feel you must post
the problem to the mailing list, always provide a dump of the MySQL grant tables.
You can dump the tables with the mysqldump mysql command. As always, post your
problem using the mysqlbug script. See Section 2.3 [Bug reports], page 31. In some
cases you may need to restart mysqld with --skip-grant-tables to run mysqldump.
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7 MySQL Language Reference
MySQL has a very complex, but intuitive and easy to learn SQL interface. This chapter
describes the various commands, types, and functions you will need to know in order to use
MySQL efficiently and effectively. This chapter also serves as a reference to all functionality
included in MySQL. In order to use this chapter effectively, you may find it useful to refer
to the various indexes.
7.1 Literals: How to Write Strings and Numbers
This section describes the various ways to write strings and numbers in MySQL. It also
covers the various nuances and “gotchas” that you may run into when dealing with these
basic types in MySQL.
7.1.1 Strings
A string is a sequence of characters, surrounded by either single quote (‘’’) or double quote
(‘"’) characters (only the single quote if you run in ANSI mode). Examples:
’a string’
"another string"
Within a string, certain sequences have special meaning. Each of these sequences begins
with a backslash (‘\’), known as the escape character. MySQL recognizes the following
escape sequences:
\0
An ASCII 0 (NUL) character.
\’
A single quote (‘’’) character.
\"
A double quote (‘"’) character.
\b
A backspace character.
\n
A newline character.
\r
A carriage return character.
\t
A tab character.
\z
ASCII(26) (Control-Z). This character can be encoded to allow you to go
around the problem that ASCII(26) stands for END-OF-FILE on Windows.
(ASCII(26) will cause problems if you try to use mysql database < filename).
\\
A backslash (‘\’) character.
\%
A ‘%’ character. This is used to search for literal instances of ‘%’ in contexts
where ‘%’ would otherwise be interpreted as a wild-card character. See Section 7.4.6 [String comparison functions], page 200.
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A ‘_’ character. This is used to search for literal instances of ‘_’ in contexts
where ‘_’ would otherwise be interpreted as a wild-card character. See Section 7.4.6 [String comparison functions], page 200.
Note that if you use ‘\%’ or ‘\_’ in some string contexts, these will return the strings ‘\%’
and ‘\_’ and not ‘%’ and ‘_’.
There are several ways to include quotes within a string:
• A ‘’’ inside a string quoted with ‘’’ may be written as ‘’’’.
• A ‘"’ inside a string quoted with ‘"’ may be written as ‘""’.
• You can precede the quote character with an escape character (‘\’).
• A ‘’’ inside a string quoted with ‘"’ needs no special treatment and need not be doubled
or escaped. In the same way, ‘"’ inside a string quoted with ‘’’ needs no special
treatment.
The SELECT statements shown below demonstrate how quoting and escaping work:
mysql> SELECT ’hello’, ’"hello"’, ’""hello""’, ’hel’’lo’, ’\’hello’;
+-------+---------+-----------+--------+--------+
| hello | "hello" | ""hello"" | hel’lo | ’hello |
+-------+---------+-----------+--------+--------+
mysql> SELECT "hello", "’hello’", "’’hello’’", "hel""lo", "\"hello";
+-------+---------+-----------+--------+--------+
| hello | ’hello’ | ’’hello’’ | hel"lo | "hello |
+-------+---------+-----------+--------+--------+
mysql> SELECT "This\nIs\nFour\nlines";
+--------------------+
| This
Is
Four
lines |
+--------------------+
If you want to insert binary data into a BLOB column, the following characters must be
represented by escape sequences:
NUL
ASCII 0. You should represent this by ‘\0’ (a backslash and an ASCII ‘0’
character).
\
ASCII 92, backslash. Represent this by ‘\\’.
’
ASCII 39, single quote. Represent this by ‘\’’.
"
ASCII 34, double quote. Represent this by ‘\"’.
If you write C code, you can use the C API function mysql_escape_string() to escape
characters for the INSERT statement. See Section 24.1.2 [C API function overview], page 539.
In Perl, you can use the quote method of the DBI package to convert special characters to
the proper escape sequences. See Section 24.2.2 [Perl DBI Class], page 584.
You should use an escape function on any string that might contain any of the special
characters listed above!
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7.1.2 Numbers
Integers are represented as a sequence of digits. Floats use ‘.’ as a decimal separator. Either
type of number may be preceded by ‘-’ to indicate a negative value.
Examples of valid integers:
1221
0
-32
Examples of valid floating-point numbers:
294.42
-32032.6809e+10
148.00
An integer may be used in a floating-point context; it is interpreted as the equivalent
floating-point number.
7.1.3 Hexadecimal Values
MySQL supports hexadecimal values. In number context these act like an integer (64-bit
precision). In string context these act like a binary string where each pair of hex digits is
converted to a character:
mysql> SELECT 0xa+0;
-> 10
mysql> select 0x5061756c;
-> Paul
Hexadecimal strings are often used by ODBC to give values for BLOB columns.
7.1.4 NULL Values
The NULL value means “no data” and is different from values such as 0 for numeric types
or the empty string for string types. See Section 21.16 [Problems with NULL], page 524.
NULL may be represented by \N when using the text file import or export formats (LOAD
DATA INFILE, SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE). See Section 7.23 [LOAD DATA], page 255.
7.1.5 Database, Table, Index, Column, and Alias Names
Database, table, index, column, and alias names all follow the same rules in MySQL.
Note that the rules changed starting with MySQL Version 3.23.6 when we introduced quoting of identifiers (database, table, and column names) with ‘‘’. ‘"’ will also work to quote
identifiers if you run in ANSI mode. See Section 5.2 [ANSI mode], page 132.
Identifier
Max
Allowed characters
length
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64
Any character that is allowed in a directory name except ‘/’
or ‘.’.
Table
64
Any character that is allowed in a file name, except ‘/’ or ‘.’.
Column
64
All characters.
Alias
255
All characters.
Note that in addition to the above, you can’t have ASCII(0) or ASCII(255) or the quoting
character in an identifier.
Note that if the identifier is a restricted word or contains special characters you must always
quote it with ‘ when you use it:
SELECT * from ‘select‘ where ‘select‘.id > 100;
In previous versions of MySQL, the name rules are as follows:
• A name may consist of alphanumeric characters from the current character set and also
‘_’ and ‘$’. The default character set is ISO-8859-1 Latin1; this may be changed with
the --default-character-set option to mysqld. See Section 10.1.1 [Character sets],
page 379.
• A name may start with any character that is legal in a name. In particular, a name
may start with a number (this differs from many other database systems!). However,
a name cannot consist only of numbers.
• You cannot use the ‘.’ character in names because it is used to extend the format by
which you can refer to columns (see immediately below).
It is recommended that you do not use names like 1e, because an expression like 1e+1 is
ambiguous. It may be interpreted as the expression 1e + 1 or as the number 1e+1.
In MySQL you can refer to a column using any of the following forms:
Column reference
Meaning
col_name
Column col_name from whichever table used in the query
contains a column of that name.
tbl_name.col_name
Column col_name from table tbl_name of the current
database.
db_name.tbl_name.col_name
Column col_name from table tbl_name of the database
db_name. This form is available in MySQL Version 3.22
or later.
‘column_name‘
A column that is a keyword or contains special
characters.
You need not specify a tbl_name or db_name.tbl_name prefix for a column reference in a
statement unless the reference would be ambiguous. For example, suppose tables t1 and
t2 each contain a column c, and you retrieve c in a SELECT statement that uses both t1
and t2. In this case, c is ambiguous because it is not unique among the tables used in the
statement, so you must indicate which table you mean by writing t1.c or t2.c. Similarly,
if you are retrieving from a table t in database db1 and from a table t in database db2, you
must refer to columns in those tables as db1.t.col_name and db2.t.col_name.
The syntax .tbl_name means the table tbl_name in the current database. This syntax is
accepted for ODBC compatibility, because some ODBC programs prefix table names with
a ‘.’ character.
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7.1.5.1 Case Sensitivity in Names
In MySQL, databases and tables correspond to directories and files within those directories.
Consequently, the case sensitivity of the underlying operating system determines the case
sensitivity of database and table names. This means database and table names are case
sensitive in Unix and case insensitive in Windows. See Section 5.1 [Extensions to ANSI],
page 130.
NOTE: Although database and table names are case insensitive for Windows, you should not
refer to a given database or table using different cases within the same query. The following
query would not work because it refers to a table both as my_table and as MY_TABLE:
mysql> SELECT * FROM my_table WHERE MY_TABLE.col=1;
Column names are case insensitive in all cases.
Aliases on tables are case sensitive. The following query would not work because it refers
to the alias both as a and as A:
mysql> SELECT col_name FROM tbl_name AS a
WHERE a.col_name = 1 OR A.col_name = 2;
Aliases on columns are case insensitive.
If you have a problem remembering the used cases for a table names, adopt a consistent
convention, such as always creating databases and tables using lowercase names.
One way to avoid this problem is to start mysqld with -O lower_case_table_names=1. By
default this option is 1 on Windows and 0 on Unix.
If lower_case_table_names is 1 MySQL will convert all table names to lower case on
storage and lookup. Note that if you change this option, you need to first convert your old
table names to lower case before starting mysqld.
7.2 User Variables
MySQL supports thread-specific variables with the @variablename syntax. A variable
name may consist of alphanumeric characters from the current character set and also ‘_’,
‘$’, and ‘.’ . The default character set is ISO-8859-1 Latin1; this may be changed with the
--default-character-set option to mysqld. See Section 10.1.1 [Character sets], page 379.
Variables don’t have to be initialized. They contain NULL by default and can store an
integer, real, or string value. All variables for a thread are automatically freed when the
thread exits.
You can set a variable with the SET syntax:
SET @variable= { integer expression | real expression | string expression }
[,@variable= ...].
You can also set a variable in an expression with the @variable:=expr syntax:
select @t1:=(@t2:=1)[email protected]:=4,@t1,@t2,@t3;
+----------------------+------+------+------+
| @t1:=(@t2:=1)[email protected]:=4 | @t1 | @t2 | @t3 |
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+----------------------+------+------+------+
|
5 |
5 |
1 |
4 |
+----------------------+------+------+------+
(We had to use the := syntax here, because = was reserved for comparisons.)
User variables may be used where expressions are allowed. Note that this does not currently
include use in contexts where a number is explicitly required, such as in the LIMIT clause
of a SELECT statement, or the IGNORE number LINES clause of a LOAD DATA statement.
NOTE: In a SELECT statement, each expression is only evaluated when it’s sent to the
client. This means that in the HAVING, GROUP BY, or ORDER BY clause, you can’t refer to
an expression that involves variables that are set in the SELECT part. For example, the
following statement will NOT work as expected:
SELECT (@aa:=id) AS a, (@aa+3) AS b FROM table_name HAVING b=5;
The reason is that @aa will not contain the value of the current row, but the value of id for
the previous accepted row.
7.3 Column Types
MySQL supports a number of column types, which may be grouped into three categories:
numeric types, date and time types, and string (character) types. This section first gives
an overview of the types available and summarizes the storage requirements for each column type, then provides a more detailed description of the properties of the types in each
category. The overview is intentionally brief. The more detailed descriptions should be
consulted for additional information about particular column types, such as the allowable
formats in which you can specify values.
The column types supported by MySQL are listed below. The following code letters are
used in the descriptions:
M
Indicates the maximum display size. The maximum legal display size is 255.
D
Applies to floating-point types and indicates the number of digits following the
decimal point. The maximum possible value is 30, but should be no greater
than M-2.
Square brackets (‘[’ and ‘]’) indicate parts of type specifiers that are optional.
Note that if you specify ZEROFILL for a column, MySQL will automatically add the
UNSIGNED attribute to the column.
TINYINT[(M)] [UNSIGNED] [ZEROFILL]
A very small integer. The signed range is -128 to 127. The unsigned range is
0 to 255.
SMALLINT[(M)] [UNSIGNED] [ZEROFILL]
A small integer. The signed range is -32768 to 32767. The unsigned range is
0 to 65535.
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MEDIUMINT[(M)] [UNSIGNED] [ZEROFILL]
A medium-size integer. The signed range is -8388608 to 8388607. The unsigned range is 0 to 16777215.
INT[(M)] [UNSIGNED] [ZEROFILL]
A normal-size integer. The signed range is -2147483648 to 2147483647. The
unsigned range is 0 to 4294967295.
INTEGER[(M)] [UNSIGNED] [ZEROFILL]
This is a synonym for INT.
BIGINT[(M)] [UNSIGNED] [ZEROFILL]
A large integer. The signed range is -9223372036854775808 to 9223372036854775807.
The unsigned range is 0 to 18446744073709551615.
Some things you should be aware about BIGINT columns:
• As all arithmetic is done using signed BIGINT or DOUBLE values, so you
shouldn’t use unsigned big integers larger than 9223372036854775807 (63
bits) except with bit functions! If you do that, some of the last digits in
the result may be wrong because of rounding errors when converting the
BIGINT to a DOUBLE.
• You can always store an exact integer value in a BIGINT column by storing
it as a string, as there is in this case there will be no intermediate double
representation.
• ‘-’, ‘+’, and ‘*’ will use BIGINT arithmetic when both arguments are
INTEGER values! This means that if you multiply two big integers (or results from functions that return integers) you may get unexpected results
when the result is larger than 9223372036854775807.
FLOAT(precision) [ZEROFILL]
A floating-point number. Cannot be unsigned. precision can be <=24 for
a single-precision floating-point number and between 25 and 53 for a doubleprecision floating-point number. These types are like the FLOAT and DOUBLE
types described immediately below. FLOAT(X) has the same range as the corresponding FLOAT and DOUBLE types, but the display size and number of decimals
is undefined.
In MySQL Version 3.23, this is a true floating-point value. In earlier MySQL
versions, FLOAT(precision) always has 2 decimals.
Note that using FLOAT may give you some unexpected problems as all calculation in MySQL is done with double precision. See Section 21.19 [No matching
rows], page 525.
This syntax is provided for ODBC compatibility.
FLOAT[(M,D)] [ZEROFILL]
A small (single-precision) floating-point number. Cannot be unsigned. Allowable values are -3.402823466E+38 to -1.175494351E-38, 0, and 1.175494351E-38
to 3.402823466E+38. The M is the display width and D is the number of decimals. FLOAT without an argument or with an argument of <= 24 stands for a
single-precision floating-point number.
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DOUBLE[(M,D)] [ZEROFILL]
A normal-size (double-precision) floating-point number. Cannot be unsigned.
Allowable values are -1.7976931348623157E+308 to -2.2250738585072014E-308,
0, and 2.2250738585072014E-308 to 1.7976931348623157E+308. The M is
the display width and D is the number of decimals. DOUBLE without an argument or FLOAT(X) where 25 <= X <= 53 stands for a double-precision
floating-point number.
DOUBLE PRECISION[(M,D)] [ZEROFILL]
REAL[(M,D)] [ZEROFILL]
These are synonyms for DOUBLE.
DECIMAL[(M[,D])] [ZEROFILL]
An unpacked floating-point number. Cannot be unsigned. Behaves like a CHAR
column: “unpacked” means the number is stored as a string, using one character
for each digit of the value. The decimal point and, for negative numbers, the ‘-’
sign, are not counted in M (but space for these are reserved). If D is 0, values
will have no decimal point or fractional part. The maximum range of DECIMAL
values is the same as for DOUBLE, but the actual range for a given DECIMAL
column may be constrained by the choice of M and D.
If D is left out it’s set to 0. If M is left out it’s set to 10.
Note that in MySQL Version 3.22 the M argument had to includes the space
needed for the sign and the decimal point.
NUMERIC(M,D) [ZEROFILL]
This is a synonym for DECIMAL.
DATE
A date. The supported range is ’1000-01-01’ to ’9999-12-31’. MySQL
displays DATE values in ’YYYY-MM-DD’ format, but allows you to assign values
to DATE columns using either strings or numbers. See Section 7.3.3.2 [DATETIME], page 183.
DATETIME
A date and time combination. The supported range is ’1000-01-01 00:00:00’
to ’9999-12-31 23:59:59’. MySQL displays DATETIME values in ’YYYY-MM-DD
HH:MM:SS’ format, but allows you to assign values to DATETIME columns using
either strings or numbers. See Section 7.3.3.2 [DATETIME], page 183.
TIMESTAMP[(M)]
A timestamp. The range is ’1970-01-01 00:00:00’ to sometime in the year
2037. MySQL displays TIMESTAMP values in YYYYMMDDHHMMSS, YYMMDDHHMMSS,
YYYYMMDD, or YYMMDD format, depending on whether M is 14 (or missing), 12, 8,
or 6, but allows you to assign values to TIMESTAMP columns using either strings
or numbers. A TIMESTAMP column is useful for recording the date and time of
an INSERT or UPDATE operation because it is automatically set to the date and
time of the most recent operation if you don’t give it a value yourself. You
can also set it to the current date and time by assigning it a NULL value. See
Section 7.3.3 [Date and time types], page 182.
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A TIMESTAMP is always stored in 4 bytes. The M argument only affects how the
TIMESTAMP column is displayed.
Note that TIMESTAMP(X) columns where X is 8 or 14 are reported to be numbers
while other TIMESTAMP(X) columns are reported to be strings. This is just to
ensure that one can reliably dump and restore the table with these types! See
Section 7.3.3.2 [DATETIME], page 183.
TIME
A time. The range is ’-838:59:59’ to ’838:59:59’. MySQL displays TIME
values in ’HH:MM:SS’ format, but allows you to assign values to TIME columns
using either strings or numbers. See Section 7.3.3.3 [TIME], page 186.
YEAR[(2|4)]
A year in 2- or 4-digit format (default is 4-digit). The allowable values are 1901
to 2155, 0000 in the 4-digit year format, and 1970-2069 if you use the 2-digit
format (70-69). MySQL displays YEAR values in YYYY format, but allows you to
assign values to YEAR columns using either strings or numbers. (The YEAR type
is new in MySQL Version 3.22.). See Section 7.3.3.4 [YEAR], page 187.
[NATIONAL] CHAR(M) [BINARY]
A fixed-length string that is always right-padded with spaces to the specified
length when stored. The range of M is 1 to 255 characters. Trailing spaces are
removed when the value is retrieved. CHAR values are sorted and compared in
case-insensitive fashion according to the default character set unless the BINARY
keyword is given.
NATIONAL CHAR (short form NCHAR) is the ANSI SQL way to define that a CHAR
column should use the default CHARACTER set. This is the default in MySQL.
CHAR is a shorthand for CHARACTER.
MySQL allows you to create a column of type CHAR(0). This is mainly useful
when you have to be compliant with some old applications that depend on the
existence of a column but that do not actually use the value. This is also quite
nice when you need a column that only can take 2 values: A CHAR(0), that is
not defined as NOT NULL, will only occupy one bit and can only take 2 values:
NULL or "". See Section 7.3.4.1 [CHAR], page 188.
[NATIONAL] VARCHAR(M) [BINARY]
A variable-length string. NOTE: Trailing spaces are removed when the value
is stored (this differs from the ANSI SQL specification). The range of M is 1
to 255 characters. VARCHAR values are sorted and compared in case-insensitive
fashion unless the BINARY keyword is given. See Section 7.7.1 [Silent column
changes], page 236.
VARCHAR is a shorthand for CHARACTER VARYING. See Section 7.3.4.1 [CHAR],
page 188.
TINYBLOB
TINYTEXT
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A BLOB or TEXT column with a maximum length of 255 (2^8 - 1) characters. See
Section 7.7.1 [Silent column changes], page 236. See Section 7.3.4.2 [BLOB],
page 189.
BLOB
TEXT
A BLOB or TEXT column with a maximum length of 65535 (2^16 - 1) characters.
See Section 7.7.1 [Silent column changes], page 236. See Section 7.3.4.2 [BLOB],
page 189.
MEDIUMBLOB
MEDIUMTEXT
A BLOB or TEXT column with a maximum length of 16777215 (2^24 - 1) characters. See Section 7.7.1 [Silent column changes], page 236. See Section 7.3.4.2
[BLOB], page 189.
LONGBLOB
LONGTEXT
A BLOB or TEXT column with a maximum length of 4294967295 (2^32 - 1)
characters. See Section 7.7.1 [Silent column changes], page 236. Note that
because the server/client protocol and MyISAM tables has currently a limit of
16M per communication packet / table row, you can’t yet use this the whole
range of this type. See Section 7.3.4.2 [BLOB], page 189.
ENUM(’value1’,’value2’,...)
An enumeration. A string object that can have only one value, chosen from
the list of values ’value1’, ’value2’, ..., NULL or the special "" error value.
An ENUM can have a maximum of 65535 distinct values. See Section 7.3.4.3
[ENUM], page 190.
SET(’value1’,’value2’,...)
A set. A string object that can have zero or more values, each of which must
be chosen from the list of values ’value1’, ’value2’, ... A SET can have a
maximum of 64 members. See Section 7.3.4.4 [SET], page 191.
7.3.1 Column Type Storage Requirements
The storage requirements for each of the column types supported by MySQL are listed
below by category.
Storage requirements for numeric types
Column type
TINYINT
SMALLINT
MEDIUMINT
INT
Storage required
1 byte
2 bytes
3 bytes
4 bytes
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INTEGER
BIGINT
FLOAT(X)
FLOAT
DOUBLE
DOUBLE PRECISION
REAL
DECIMAL(M,D)
NUMERIC(M,D)
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4 bytes
8 bytes
4 if X <= 24 or 8 if 25 <= X <= 53
4 bytes
8 bytes
8 bytes
8 bytes
M+2 bytes if D > 0, M+1 bytes if D = 0 (D+2,
if M < D)
M+2 bytes if D > 0, M+1 bytes if D = 0 (D+2,
if M < D)
Storage requirements for date and time types
Column type
DATE
DATETIME
TIMESTAMP
TIME
YEAR
Storage required
3 bytes
8 bytes
4 bytes
3 bytes
1 byte
Storage requirements for string types
Column type
CHAR(M)
VARCHAR(M)
TINYBLOB, TINYTEXT
BLOB, TEXT
MEDIUMBLOB, MEDIUMTEXT
LONGBLOB, LONGTEXT
ENUM(’value1’,’value2’,...)
Storage required
M bytes, 1 <= M <= 255
L+1 bytes, where L <= M and 1 <= M <= 255
L+1 bytes, where L < 2^8
L+2 bytes, where L < 2^16
L+3 bytes, where L < 2^24
L+4 bytes, where L < 2^32
1 or 2 bytes, depending on the number of enumeration values (65535 values
maximum)
SET(’value1’,’value2’,...)
1, 2, 3, 4 or 8 bytes, depending on the number of set members (64 members maximum)
VARCHAR and the BLOB and TEXT types are variable-length types, for which the storage requirements depend on the actual length of column values (represented by L in the preceding
table), rather than on the type’s maximum possible size. For example, a VARCHAR(10) column can hold a string with a maximum length of 10 characters. The actual storage required
is the length of the string (L), plus 1 byte to record the length of the string. For the string
’abcd’, L is 4 and the storage requirement is 5 bytes.
The BLOB and TEXT types require 1, 2, 3, or 4 bytes to record the length of the column
value, depending on the maximum possible length of the type. See Section 7.3.4.2 [BLOB],
page 189.
If a table includes any variable-length column types, the record format will also be variablelength. Note that when a table is created, MySQL may, under certain conditions, change a
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column from a variable-length type to a fixed-length type, or vice-versa. See Section 7.7.1
[Silent column changes], page 236.
The size of an ENUM object is determined by the number of different enumeration values.
One byte is used for enumerations with up to 255 possible values. Two bytes are used for
enumerations with up to 65535 values. See Section 7.3.4.3 [ENUM], page 190.
The size of a SET object is determined by the number of different set members. If the set
size is N, the object occupies (N+7)/8 bytes, rounded up to 1, 2, 3, 4, or 8 bytes. A SET can
have a maximum of 64 members. See Section 7.3.4.4 [SET], page 191.
7.3.2 Numeric Types
MySQL supports all of the ANSI/ISO SQL92 numeric types. These types include the exact
numeric data types (NUMERIC, DECIMAL, INTEGER, and SMALLINT), as well as the approximate
numeric data types (FLOAT, REAL, and DOUBLE PRECISION). The keyword INT is a synonym
for INTEGER, and the keyword DEC is a synonym for DECIMAL.
The NUMERIC and DECIMAL types are implemented as the same type by MySQL, as permitted
by the SQL92 standard. They are used for values for which it is important to preserve exact
precision, for example with monetary data. When declaring a column of one of these types
the precision and scale can be (and usually is) specified; for example:
salary DECIMAL(9,2)
In this example, 9 (precision) represents the number of significant decimal digits that
will be stored for values, and 2 (scale) represents the number of digits that will be stored
following the decimal point. In this case, therefore, the range of values that can be stored in
the salary column is from -9999999.99 to 9999999.99. In ANSI/ISO SQL92, the syntax
DECIMAL(p) is equivalent to DECIMAL(p,0). Similarly, the syntax DECIMAL is equivalent to
DECIMAL(p,0), where the implementation is allowed to decide the value of p. MySQL does
not currently support either of these variant forms of the DECIMAL/NUMERIC data types.
This is not generally a serious problem, as the principal benefits of these types derive from
the ability to control both precision and scale explicitly.
DECIMAL and NUMERIC values are stored as strings, rather than as binary floating-point
numbers, in order to preserve the decimal precision of those values. One character is used
for each digit of the value, the decimal point (if scale > 0), and the ‘-’ sign (for negative
numbers). If scale is 0, DECIMAL and NUMERIC values contain no decimal point or fractional
part.
The maximum range of DECIMAL and NUMERIC values is the same as for DOUBLE, but the
actual range for a given DECIMAL or NUMERIC column can be constrained by the precision
or scale for a given column. When such a column is assigned a value with more digits
following the decimal point than are allowed by the specified scale, the value is rounded
to that scale. When a DECIMAL or NUMERIC column is assigned a value whose magnitude
exceeds the range implied by the specified (or defaulted) precision and scale, MySQL
stores the value representing the corresponding end point of that range.
As an extension to the ANSI/ISO SQL92 standard, MySQL also supports the integral
types TINYINT, MEDIUMINT, and BIGINT as listed in the tables above. Another extension
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is supported by MySQL for optionally specifying the display width of an integral value in
parentheses following the base keyword for the type (for example, INT(4)). This optional
width specification is used to left-pad the display of values whose width is less than the
width specified for the column, but does not constrain the range of values that can be
stored in the column, nor the number of digits that will be displayed for values whose
width exceeds that specified for the column. When used in conjunction with the optional
extension attribute ZEROFILL, the default padding of spaces is replaced with zeroes. For
example, for a column declared as INT(5) ZEROFILL, a value of 4 is retrieved as 00004.
Note that if you store larger values than the display width in an integer column, you may
experience problems when MySQL generates temporary tables for some complicated joins,
as in these cases MySQL trusts that the data did fit into the original column width.
All integral types can have an optional (non-standard) attribute UNSIGNED. Unsigned values
can be used when you want to allow only positive numbers in a column and you need a
little bigger numeric range for the column.
The FLOAT type is used to represent approximate numeric data types. The ANSI/ISO
SQL92 standard allows an optional specification of the precision (but not the range of the
exponent) in bits following the keyword FLOAT in parentheses. The MySQL implementation
also supports this optional precision specification. When the keyword FLOAT is used for a
column type without a precision specification, MySQL uses four bytes to store the values. A
variant syntax is also supported, with two numbers given in parentheses following the FLOAT
keyword. With this option, the first number continues to represent the storage requirements
for the value in bytes, and the second number specifies the number of digits to be stored
and displayed following the decimal point (as with DECIMAL and NUMERIC). When MySQL
is asked to store a number for such a column with more decimal digits following the decimal
point than specified for the column, the value is rounded to eliminate the extra digits when
the value is stored.
The REAL and DOUBLE PRECISION types do not accept precision specifications. As an extension to the ANSI/ISO SQL92 standard, MySQL recognizes DOUBLE as a synonym for the
DOUBLE PRECISION type. In contrast with the standard’s requirement that the precision for
REAL be smaller than that used for DOUBLE PRECISION, MySQL implements both as 8-byte
double-precision floating-point values (when not running in “ANSI mode”). For maximum
portability, code requiring storage of approximate numeric data values should use FLOAT or
DOUBLE PRECISION with no specification of precision or number of decimal points.
When asked to store a value in a numeric column that is outside the column type’s allowable
range, MySQL clips the value to the appropriate endpoint of the range and stores the
resulting value instead.
For example, the range of an INT column is -2147483648 to 2147483647. If you try to insert
-9999999999 into an INT column, the value is clipped to the lower endpoint of the range,
and -2147483648 is stored instead. Similarly, if you try to insert 9999999999, 2147483647
is stored instead.
If the INT column is UNSIGNED, the size of the column’s range is the same but its endpoints
shift up to 0 and 4294967295. If you try to store -9999999999 and 9999999999, the values
stored in the column become 0 and 4294967296.
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Conversions that occur due to clipping are reported as “warnings” for ALTER TABLE, LOAD
DATA INFILE, UPDATE, and multi-row INSERT statements.
7.3.3 Date and Time Types
The date and time types are DATETIME, DATE, TIMESTAMP, TIME, and YEAR. Each of these
has a range of legal values, as well as a “zero” value that is used when you specify a really
illegal value. Note that MySQL allows you to store certain ’not strictly’ legal date values,
for example 1999-11-31. The reason for this is that we think it’s the responsibility of the
application to handle date checking, not the SQL servers. To make the date checking ’fast’,
MySQL only checks that the month is in the range of 0-12 and the day is in the range of
0-31. The above ranges are defined this way because MySQL allows you to store, in a DATE
or DATETIME column, dates where the day or month-day is zero. This is extremely useful
for applications that need to store a birth-date for which you don’t know the exact date.
In this case you simply store the date like 1999-00-00 or 1999-01-00. (You cannot expect
to get a correct value from functions like DATE_SUB() or DATE_ADD for dates like these.)
Here are some general considerations to keep in mind when working with date and time
types:
• MySQL retrieves values for a given date or time type in a standard format, but it
attempts to interpret a variety of formats for values that you supply (for example,
when you specify a value to be assigned to or compared to a date or time type).
Nevertheless, only the formats described in the following sections are supported. It is
expected that you will supply legal values, and unpredictable results may occur if you
use values in other formats.
• Although MySQL tries to interpret values in several formats, it always expects the year
part of date values to be leftmost. Dates must be given in year-month-day order (for
example, ’98-09-04’), rather than in the month-day-year or day-month-year orders
commonly used elsewhere (for example, ’09-04-98’, ’04-09-98’).
• MySQL automatically converts a date or time type value to a number if the value is
used in a numeric context, and vice versa.
• When MySQL encounters a value for a date or time type that is out of range or
otherwise illegal for the type (see the start of this section), it converts the value to the
“zero” value for that type. (The exception is that out-of-range TIME values are clipped
to the appropriate endpoint of the TIME range.) The table below shows the format of
the “zero” value for each type:
Column type
“Zero” value
DATETIME
’0000-00-00 00:00:00’
DATE
’0000-00-00’
TIMESTAMP
00000000000000 (length depends on display size)
TIME
’00:00:00’
YEAR
0000
• The “zero” values are special, but you can store or refer to them explicitly using the
values shown in the table. You can also do this using the values ’0’ or 0, which are
easier to write.
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• “Zero” date or time values used through MyODBC are converted automatically to NULL
in MyODBC Version 2.50.12 and above, because ODBC can’t handle such values.
7.3.3.1 Y2K Issues and Date Types
MySQL itself is Y2K-safe (see Section 1.8 [Year 2000 compliance], page 16), but input values
presented to MySQL may not be. Any input containing 2-digit year values is ambiguous,
because the century is unknown. Such values must be interpreted into 4-digit form because
MySQL stores years internally using four digits.
For DATETIME, DATE, TIMESTAMP, and YEAR types, MySQL interprets dates with ambiguous
year values using the following rules:
• Year values in the range 00-69 are converted to 2000-2069.
• Year values in the range 70-99 are converted to 1970-1999.
Remember that these rules provide only reasonable guesses as to what your data mean.
If the heuristics used by MySQL don’t produce the correct values, you should provide
unambiguous input containing 4-digit year values.
ORDER BY will sort 2-digit YEAR/DATE/DATETIME types properly.
Note also that some functions like MIN() and MAX() will convert a TIMESTAMP/DATE to a
number. This means that a timestamp with a 2-digit year will not work properly with these
functions. The fix in this case is to convert the TIMESTAMP/DATE to 4-digit year format or
use something like MIN(DATE_ADD(timestamp,INTERVAL 0 DAYS)).
7.3.3.2 The DATETIME, DATE, and TIMESTAMP Types
The DATETIME, DATE, and TIMESTAMP types are related. This section describes their characteristics, how they are similar, and how they differ.
The DATETIME type is used when you need values that contain both date and time information. MySQL retrieves and displays DATETIME values in ’YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS’ format. The supported range is ’1000-01-01 00:00:00’ to ’9999-12-31 23:59:59’. (“Supported” means that although earlier values might work, there is no guarantee that they
will.)
The DATE type is used when you need only a date value, without a time part. MySQL
retrieves and displays DATE values in ’YYYY-MM-DD’ format. The supported range is ’100001-01’ to ’9999-12-31’.
The TIMESTAMP column type provides a type that you can use to automatically mark INSERT
or UPDATE operations with the current date and time. If you have multiple TIMESTAMP
columns, only the first one is updated automatically.
Automatic updating of the first TIMESTAMP column occurs under any of the following conditions:
• The column is not specified explicitly in an INSERT or LOAD DATA INFILE statement.
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• The column is not specified explicitly in an UPDATE statement and some other column
changes value. (Note that an UPDATE that sets a column to the value it already has
will not cause the TIMESTAMP column to be updated, because if you set a column to its
current value, MySQL ignores the update for efficiency.)
• You explicitly set the TIMESTAMP column to NULL.
TIMESTAMP columns other than the first may also be set to the current date and time. Just
set the column to NULL or to NOW().
You can set any TIMESTAMP column to a value different than the current date and time by
setting it explicitly to the desired value. This is true even for the first TIMESTAMP column.
You can use this property if, for example, you want a TIMESTAMP to be set to the current
date and time when you create a row, but not to be changed whenever the row is updated
later:
• Let MySQL set the column when the row is created. This will initialize it to the current
date and time.
• When you perform subsequent updates to other columns in the row, set the TIMESTAMP
column explicitly to its current value.
On the other hand, you may find it just as easy to use a DATETIME column that you initialize
to NOW() when the row is created and leave alone for subsequent updates.
TIMESTAMP values may range from the beginning of 1970 to sometime in the year 2037, with
a resolution of one second. Values are displayed as numbers.
The format in which MySQL retrieves and displays TIMESTAMP values depends on the display size, as illustrated by the table below. The ‘full’ TIMESTAMP format is 14 digits, but
TIMESTAMP columns may be created with shorter display sizes:
Column type
TIMESTAMP(14)
TIMESTAMP(12)
TIMESTAMP(10)
TIMESTAMP(8)
TIMESTAMP(6)
TIMESTAMP(4)
TIMESTAMP(2)
Display format
YYYYMMDDHHMMSS
YYMMDDHHMMSS
YYMMDDHHMM
YYYYMMDD
YYMMDD
YYMM
YY
All TIMESTAMP columns have the same storage size, regardless of display size. The most
common display sizes are 6, 8, 12, and 14. You can specify an arbitrary display size at table
creation time, but values of 0 or greater than 14 are coerced to 14. Odd-valued sizes in the
range from 1 to 13 are coerced to the next higher even number.
You can specify DATETIME, DATE, and TIMESTAMP values using any of a common set of
formats:
• As a string in either ’YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS’ or ’YY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS’ format. A
“relaxed” syntax is allowed—any punctuation character may be used as the delimiter
between date parts or time parts. For example, ’98-12-31 11:30:45’, ’98.12.31
11+30+45’, ’98/12/31 11*30*45’, and ’98@12@31 11^30^45’ are equivalent.
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• As a string in either ’YYYY-MM-DD’ or ’YY-MM-DD’ format. A “relaxed” syntax is allowed here, too. For example, ’98-12-31’, ’98.12.31’, ’98/12/31’, and ’98@12@31’
are equivalent.
• As a string with no delimiters in either ’YYYYMMDDHHMMSS’ or ’YYMMDDHHMMSS’ format,
provided that the string makes sense as a date. For example, ’19970523091528’ and
’970523091528’ are interpreted as ’1997-05-23 09:15:28’, but ’971122129015’ is
illegal (it has a nonsensical minute part) and becomes ’0000-00-00 00:00:00’.
• As a string with no delimiters in either ’YYYYMMDD’ or ’YYMMDD’ format, provided
that the string makes sense as a date. For example, ’19970523’ and ’970523’ are
interpreted as ’1997-05-23’, but ’971332’ is illegal (it has nonsensical month and
day parts) and becomes ’0000-00-00’.
• As a number in either YYYYMMDDHHMMSS or YYMMDDHHMMSS format, provided that the
number makes sense as a date. For example, 19830905132800 and 830905132800 are
interpreted as ’1983-09-05 13:28:00’.
• As a number in either YYYYMMDD or YYMMDD format, provided that the number makes
sense as a date. For example, 19830905 and 830905 are interpreted as ’1983-09-05’.
• As the result of a function that returns a value that is acceptable in a DATETIME, DATE,
or TIMESTAMP context, such as NOW() or CURRENT_DATE.
Illegal DATETIME, DATE, or TIMESTAMP values are converted to the “zero” value of the appropriate type (’0000-00-00 00:00:00’, ’0000-00-00’, or 00000000000000).
For values specified as strings that include date part delimiters, it is not necessary to specify
two digits for month or day values that are less than 10. ’1979-6-9’ is the same as ’197906-09’. Similarly, for values specified as strings that include time part delimiters, it is
not necessary to specify two digits for hour, month, or second values that are less than 10.
’1979-10-30 1:2:3’ is the same as ’1979-10-30 01:02:03’.
Values specified as numbers should be 6, 8, 12, or 14 digits long. If the number is 8 or 14
digits long, it is assumed to be in YYYYMMDD or YYYYMMDDHHMMSS format and that the year
is given by the first 4 digits. If the number is 6 or 12 digits long, it is assumed to be in
YYMMDD or YYMMDDHHMMSS format and that the year is given by the first 2 digits. Numbers
that are not one of these lengths are interpreted as though padded with leading zeros to
the closest length.
Values specified as non-delimited strings are interpreted using their length as given. If the
string is 8 or 14 characters long, the year is assumed to be given by the first 4 characters.
Otherwise the year is assumed to be given by the first 2 characters. The string is interpreted
from left to right to find year, month, day, hour, minute, and second values, for as many
parts as are present in the string. This means you should not use strings that have fewer
than 6 characters. For example, if you specify ’9903’, thinking that will represent March,
1999, you will find that MySQL inserts a “zero” date into your table. This is because the
year and month values are 99 and 03, but the day part is missing (zero), so the value is not
a legal date.
TIMESTAMP columns store legal values using the full precision with which the value was
specified, regardless of the display size. This has several implications:
• Always specify year, month, and day, even if your column types are TIMESTAMP(4) or
TIMESTAMP(2). Otherwise, the value will not be a legal date and 0 will be stored.
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• If you use ALTER TABLE to widen a narrow TIMESTAMP column, information will be
displayed that previously was “hidden”.
• Similarly, narrowing a TIMESTAMP column does not cause information to be lost, except
in the sense that less information is shown when the values are displayed.
• Although TIMESTAMP values are stored to full precision, the only function that operates
directly on the underlying stored value is UNIX_TIMESTAMP(). Other functions operate
on the formatted retrieved value. This means you cannot use functions such as HOUR()
or SECOND() unless the relevant part of the TIMESTAMP value is included in the formatted
value. For example, the HH part of a TIMESTAMP column is not displayed unless the
display size is at least 10, so trying to use HOUR() on shorter TIMESTAMP values produces
a meaningless result.
You can to some extent assign values of one date type to an object of a different date type.
However, there may be some alteration of the value or loss of information:
• If you assign a DATE value to a DATETIME or TIMESTAMP object, the time part of the
resulting value is set to ’00:00:00’, because the DATE value contains no time information.
• If you assign a DATETIME or TIMESTAMP value to a DATE object, the time part of the
resulting value is deleted, because the DATE type stores no time information.
• Remember that although DATETIME, DATE, and TIMESTAMP values all can be specified
using the same set of formats, the types do not all have the same range of values. For
example, TIMESTAMP values cannot be earlier than 1970 or later than 2037. This means
that a date such as ’1968-01-01’, while legal as a DATETIME or DATE value, is not a
valid TIMESTAMP value and will be converted to 0 if assigned to such an object.
Be aware of certain pitfalls when specifying date values:
• The relaxed format allowed for values specified as strings can be deceiving. For example,
a value such as ’10:11:12’ might look like a time value because of the ‘:’ delimiter,
but if used in a date context will be interpreted as the year ’2010-11-12’. The value
’10:45:15’ will be converted to ’0000-00-00’ because ’45’ is not a legal month.
• Year values specified as two digits are ambiguous, because the century is unknown.
MySQL interprets 2-digit year values using the following rules:
− Year values in the range 00-69 are converted to 2000-2069.
− Year values in the range 70-99 are converted to 1970-1999.
7.3.3.3 The TIME Type
MySQL retrieves and displays TIME values in ’HH:MM:SS’ format (or ’HHH:MM:SS’ format
for large hours values). TIME values may range from ’-838:59:59’ to ’838:59:59’. The
reason the hours part may be so large is that the TIME type may be used not only to
represent a time of day (which must be less than 24 hours), but also elapsed time or a time
interval between two events (which may be much greater than 24 hours, or even negative).
You can specify TIME values in a variety of formats:
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• As a string in ’D HH:MM:SS.fraction’ format. (Note that MySQL doesn’t yet store
the fraction for the time column). One can also use one of the following “relaxed”
syntax:
HH:MM:SS.fraction, HH:MM:SS, HH:MM, D HH:MM:SS, D HH:MM, D HH or SS. Here D is
days between 0-33.
• As a string with no delimiters in ’HHMMSS’ format, provided that it makes sense as a
time. For example, ’101112’ is understood as ’10:11:12’, but ’109712’ is illegal (it
has a nonsensical minute part) and becomes ’00:00:00’.
• As a number in HHMMSS format, provided that it makes sense as a time. For example, 101112 is understood as ’10:11:12’. The following alternative formats are also
understood: SS, MMSS,HHMMSS, HHMMSS.fraction. Note that MySQL doesn’t yet store
the fraction part.
• As the result of a function that returns a value that is acceptable in a TIME context,
such as CURRENT_TIME.
For TIME values specified as strings that include a time part delimiter, it is not necessary
to specify two digits for hours, minutes, or seconds values that are less than 10. ’8:3:2’
is the same as ’08:03:02’.
Be careful about assigning “short” TIME values to a TIME column. Without semicolon,
MySQL interprets values using the assumption that the rightmost digits represent seconds.
(MySQL interprets TIME values as elapsed time rather than as time of day.) For example,
you might think of ’1112’ and 1112 as meaning ’11:12:00’ (12 minutes after 11 o’clock),
but MySQL interprets them as ’00:11:12’ (11 minutes, 12 seconds). Similarly, ’12’ and
12 are interpreted as ’00:00:12’. TIME values with semicolon, instead, are always treated
as time of the day. That is ’11:12’ will mean ’11:12:00’, not ’00:11:12’.
Values that lie outside the TIME range but are otherwise legal are clipped to the appropriate
endpoint of the range. For example, ’-850:00:00’ and ’850:00:00’ are converted to ’838:59:59’ and ’838:59:59’.
Illegal TIME values are converted to ’00:00:00’. Note that because ’00:00:00’ is itself
a legal TIME value, there is no way to tell, from a value of ’00:00:00’ stored in a table,
whether the original value was specified as ’00:00:00’ or whether it was illegal.
7.3.3.4 The YEAR Type
The YEAR type is a 1-byte type used for representing years.
MySQL retrieves and displays YEAR values in YYYY format. The range is 1901 to 2155.
You can specify YEAR values in a variety of formats:
• As a four-digit string in the range ’1901’ to ’2155’.
• As a four-digit number in the range 1901 to 2155.
• As a two-digit string in the range ’00’ to ’99’. Values in the ranges ’00’ to ’69’
and ’70’ to ’99’ are converted to YEAR values in the ranges 2000 to 2069 and 1970
to 1999.
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• As a two-digit number in the range 1 to 99. Values in the ranges 1 to 69 and 70 to
99 are converted to YEAR values in the ranges 2001 to 2069 and 1970 to 1999. Note
that the range for two-digit numbers is slightly different than the range for two-digit
strings, because you cannot specify zero directly as a number and have it be interpreted
as 2000. You must specify it as a string ’0’ or ’00’ or it will be interpreted as 0000.
• As the result of a function that returns a value that is acceptable in a YEAR context,
such as NOW().
Illegal YEAR values are converted to 0000.
7.3.4 String Types
The string types are CHAR, VARCHAR, BLOB, TEXT, ENUM, and SET. This section describes how
these types work, their storage requirements, and how to use them in your queries.
7.3.4.1 The CHAR and VARCHAR Types
The CHAR and VARCHAR types are similar, but differ in the way they are stored and retrieved.
The length of a CHAR column is fixed to the length that you declare when you create the
table. The length can be any value between 1 and 255. (As of MySQL Version 3.23, the
length of CHAR may be 0 to 255.) When CHAR values are stored, they are right-padded with
spaces to the specified length. When CHAR values are retrieved, trailing spaces are removed.
Values in VARCHAR columns are variable-length strings. You can declare a VARCHAR column
to be any length between 1 and 255, just as for CHAR columns. However, in contrast to CHAR,
VARCHAR values are stored using only as many characters as are needed, plus one byte to
record the length. Values are not padded; instead, trailing spaces are removed when values
are stored. (This space removal differs from the ANSI SQL specification.)
If you assign a value to a CHAR or VARCHAR column that exceeds the column’s maximum
length, the value is truncated to fit.
The table below illustrates the differences between the two types of columns by showing
the result of storing various string values into CHAR(4) and VARCHAR(4) columns:
Value
CHAR(4)
’’
’ab’
’abcd’
’abcdefgh’
’
’
’ab ’
’abcd’
’abcd’
Storage
required
4 bytes
4 bytes
4 bytes
4 bytes
VARCHAR(4)
Storage required
’’
’ab’
’abcd’
’abcd’
1
3
5
5
byte
bytes
bytes
bytes
The values retrieved from the CHAR(4) and VARCHAR(4) columns will be the same in each
case, because trailing spaces are removed from CHAR columns upon retrieval.
Values in CHAR and VARCHAR columns are sorted and compared in case-insensitive fashion,
unless the BINARY attribute was specified when the table was created. The BINARY attribute
means that column values are sorted and compared in case-sensitive fashion according to
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the ASCII order of the machine where the MySQL server is running. BINARY doesn’t affect
how the column is stored or retrieved.
The BINARY attribute is sticky. This means that if a column marked BINARY is used in an
expression, the whole expression is compared as a BINARY value.
MySQL may silently change the type of a CHAR or VARCHAR column at table creation time.
See Section 7.7.1 [Silent column changes], page 236.
7.3.4.2 The BLOB and TEXT Types
A BLOB is a binary large object that can hold a variable amount of data. The four BLOB
types TINYBLOB, BLOB, MEDIUMBLOB, and LONGBLOB differ only in the maximum length of
the values they can hold. See Section 7.3.1 [Storage requirements], page 178.
The four TEXT types TINYTEXT, TEXT, MEDIUMTEXT, and LONGTEXT correspond to the four
BLOB types and have the same maximum lengths and storage requirements. The only
difference between BLOB and TEXT types is that sorting and comparison is performed in
case-sensitive fashion for BLOB values and case-insensitive fashion for TEXT values. In other
words, a TEXT is a case-insensitive BLOB.
If you assign a value to a BLOB or TEXT column that exceeds the column type’s maximum
length, the value is truncated to fit.
In most respects, you can regard a TEXT column as a VARCHAR column that can be as big
as you like. Similarly, you can regard a BLOB column as a VARCHAR BINARY column. The
differences are:
• You can have indexes on BLOB and TEXT columns with MySQL Version 3.23.2 and
newer. Older versions of MySQL did not support this.
• There is no trailing-space removal for BLOB and TEXT columns when values are stored,
as there is for VARCHAR columns.
• BLOB and TEXT columns cannot have DEFAULT values.
MyODBC defines BLOB values as LONGVARBINARY and TEXT values as LONGVARCHAR.
Because BLOB and TEXT values may be extremely long, you may run up against some constraints when using them:
• If you want to use GROUP BY or ORDER BY on a BLOB or TEXT column, you must convert
the column value into a fixed-length object. The standard way to do this is with the
SUBSTRING function. For example:
mysql> select comment from tbl_name,substring(comment,20) as substr
ORDER BY substr;
If you don’t do this, only the first max_sort_length bytes of the column are used when
sorting. The default value of max_sort_length is 1024; this value can be changed
using the -O option when starting the mysqld server. You can group on an expression
involving BLOB or TEXT values by specifying the column position or by using an alias:
mysql> select id,substring(blob_col,1,100) from tbl_name
GROUP BY 2;
mysql> select id,substring(blob_col,1,100) as b from tbl_name
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GROUP BY b;
• The maximum size of a BLOB or TEXT object is determined by its type, but the largest
value you can actually transmit between the client and server is determined by the
amount of available memory and the size of the communications buffers. You can
change the message buffer size, but you must do so on both the server and client ends.
See Section 13.2.4 [Server parameters], page 408.
Note that each BLOB or TEXT value is represented internally by a separately allocated object.
This is in contrast to all other column types, for which storage is allocated once per column
when the table is opened.
7.3.4.3 The ENUM Type
An ENUM is a string object whose value normally is chosen from a list of allowed values that
are enumerated explicitly in the column specification at table creation time.
The value may also be the empty string ("") or NULL under certain circumstances:
• If you insert an invalid value into an ENUM (that is, a string not present in the list of
allowed values), the empty string is inserted instead as a special error value.
• If an ENUM is declared NULL, NULL is also a legal value for the column, and the default
value is NULL. If an ENUM is declared NOT NULL, the default value is the first element of
the list of allowed values.
Each enumeration value has an index:
• Values from the list of allowable elements in the column specification are numbered
beginning with 1.
• The index value of the empty string error value is 0. This means that you can use the
following SELECT statement to find rows into which invalid ENUM values were assigned:
mysql> SELECT * FROM tbl_name WHERE enum_col=0;
• The index of the NULL value is NULL.
For example, a column specified as ENUM("one", "two", "three") can have any of the
values shown below. The index of each value is also shown:
Value
Index
NULL
NULL
""
0
"one"
1
"two"
2
"three"
3
An enumeration can have a maximum of 65535 elements.
Lettercase is irrelevant when you assign values to an ENUM column. However, values retrieved
from the column later have lettercase matching the values that were used to specify the
allowable values at table creation time.
If you retrieve an ENUM in a numeric context, the column value’s index is returned. For
example, you can retrieve numeric values from an ENUM column like this:
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mysql> SELECT enum_col+0 FROM tbl_name;
If you store a number into an ENUM, the number is treated as an index, and the value stored
is the enumeration member with that index. (However, this will not work with LOAD DATA,
which treats all input as strings.)
ENUM values are sorted according to the order in which the enumeration members were listed
in the column specification. (In other words, ENUM values are sorted according to their index
numbers.) For example, "a" sorts before "b" for ENUM("a", "b"), but "b" sorts before "a"
for ENUM("b", "a"). The empty string sorts before non-empty strings, and NULL values sort
before all other enumeration values.
If you want to get all possible values for an ENUM column, you should use: SHOW COLUMNS
FROM table_name LIKE enum_column_name and parse the ENUM definition in the second column.
7.3.4.4 The SET Type
A SET is a string object that can have zero or more values, each of which must be chosen
from a list of allowed values specified when the table is created. SET column values that
consist of multiple set members are specified with members separated by commas (‘,’). A
consequence of this is that SET member values cannot themselves contain commas.
For example, a column specified as SET("one", "two") NOT NULL can have any of these
values:
""
"one"
"two"
"one,two"
A SET can have a maximum of 64 different members.
MySQL stores SET values numerically, with the low-order bit of the stored value corresponding to the first set member. If you retrieve a SET value in a numeric context, the value
retrieved has bits set corresponding to the set members that make up the column value.
For example, you can retrieve numeric values from a SET column like this:
mysql> SELECT set_col+0 FROM tbl_name;
If a number is stored into a SET column, the bits that are set in the binary representation of
the number determine the set members in the column value. Suppose a column is specified
as SET("a","b","c","d"). Then the members have the following bit values:
SET member
Decimal value
Binary value
a
1
0001
b
2
0010
c
4
0100
d
8
1000
If you assign a value of 9 to this column, that is 1001 in binary, so the first and fourth SET
value members "a" and "d" are selected and the resulting value is "a,d".
For a value containing more than one SET element, it does not matter what order the elements are listed in when you insert the value. It also does not matter how many times a
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given element is listed in the value. When the value is retrieved later, each element in the
value will appear once, with elements listed according to the order in which they were specified at table creation time. For example, if a column is specified as SET("a","b","c","d"),
then "a,d", "d,a", and "d,a,a,d,d" will all appear as "a,d" when retrieved.
SET values are sorted numerically. NULL values sort before non-NULL SET values.
Normally, you perform a SELECT on a SET column using the LIKE operator or the FIND_IN_
SET() function:
mysql> SELECT * FROM tbl_name WHERE set_col LIKE ’%value%’;
mysql> SELECT * FROM tbl_name WHERE FIND_IN_SET(’value’,set_col)>0;
But the following will also work:
mysql> SELECT * FROM tbl_name WHERE set_col = ’val1,val2’;
mysql> SELECT * FROM tbl_name WHERE set_col & 1;
The first of these statements looks for an exact match. The second looks for values containing the first set member.
If you want to get all possible values for a SET column, you should use: SHOW COLUMNS FROM
table_name LIKE set_column_name and parse the SET definition in the second column.
7.3.5 Choosing the Right Type for a Column
For the most efficient use of storage, try to use the most precise type in all cases. For
example, if an integer column will be used for values in the range between 1 and 99999,
MEDIUMINT UNSIGNED is the best type.
Accurate representation of monetary values is a common problem. In MySQL, you should
use the DECIMAL type. This is stored as a string, so no loss of accuracy should occur. If
accuracy is not too important, the DOUBLE type may also be good enough.
For high precision, you can always convert to a fixed-point type stored in a BIGINT. This
allows you to do all calculations with integers and convert results back to floating-point
values only when necessary.
7.3.6 Column Indexes
All MySQL column types can be indexed. Use of indexes on the relevant columns is the
best way to improve the performance of SELECT operations.
The maximum number of keys and the maximum index length is defined per table handler.
See Chapter 8 [Table types], page 298. You can with all table handlers have at least 16 keys
and a total index length of at least 256 bytes.
For CHAR and VARCHAR columns, you can index a prefix of a column. This is much faster and
requires less disk space than indexing the whole column. The syntax to use in the CREATE
TABLE statement to index a column prefix looks like this:
KEY index_name (col_name(length))
The example below creates an index for the first 10 characters of the name column:
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mysql> CREATE TABLE test (
name CHAR(200) NOT NULL,
KEY index_name (name(10)));
For BLOB and TEXT columns, you must index a prefix of the column. You cannot index the
entire column.
In MySQL Version 3.23.23 or later, you can also create special FULLTEXT indexes. They
are used for full-text search. Only the MyISAM table type supports FULLTEXT indexes. They
can be created only from VARCHAR and TEXT columns. Indexing always happens over the
entire column and partial indexing is not supported. See Chapter 12 [Fulltext Search],
page 399 for details.
7.3.7 Multiple-column Indexes
MySQL can create indexes on multiple columns. An index may consist of up to 15 columns.
(On CHAR and VARCHAR columns you can also use a prefix of the column as a part of an
index).
A multiple-column index can be considered a sorted array containing values that are created
by concatenating the values of the indexed columns.
MySQL uses multiple-column indexes in such a way that queries are fast when you specify a
known quantity for the first column of the index in a WHERE clause, even if you don’t specify
values for the other columns.
Suppose a table is created using the following specification:
mysql> CREATE TABLE test (
id INT NOT NULL,
last_name CHAR(30) NOT NULL,
first_name CHAR(30) NOT NULL,
PRIMARY KEY (id),
INDEX name (last_name,first_name));
Then the index name is an index over last_name and first_name. The index will be used
for queries that specify values in a known range for last_name, or for both last_name and
first_name. Therefore, the name index will be used in the following queries:
mysql> SELECT * FROM test WHERE last_name="Widenius";
mysql> SELECT * FROM test WHERE last_name="Widenius"
AND first_name="Michael";
mysql> SELECT * FROM test WHERE last_name="Widenius"
AND (first_name="Michael" OR first_name="Monty");
mysql> SELECT * FROM test WHERE last_name="Widenius"
AND first_name >="M" AND first_name < "N";
However, the name index will NOT be used in the following queries:
mysql> SELECT * FROM test WHERE first_name="Michael";
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mysql> SELECT * FROM test WHERE last_name="Widenius"
OR first_name="Michael";
For more information on the manner in which MySQL uses indexes to improve query performance, see Section 13.4 [MySQL indexes], page 417.
7.3.8 Using Column Types from Other Database Engines
To make it easier to use code written for SQL implementations from other vendors, MySQL
maps column types as shown in the table below. These mappings make it easier to move
table definitions from other database engines to MySQL:
Other vendor type
BINARY(NUM)
CHAR VARYING(NUM)
FLOAT4
FLOAT8
INT1
INT2
INT3
INT4
INT8
LONG VARBINARY
LONG VARCHAR
MIDDLEINT
VARBINARY(NUM)
MySQL type
CHAR(NUM) BINARY
VARCHAR(NUM)
FLOAT
DOUBLE
TINYINT
SMALLINT
MEDIUMINT
INT
BIGINT
MEDIUMBLOB
MEDIUMTEXT
MEDIUMINT
VARCHAR(NUM) BINARY
Column type mapping occurs at table creation time. If you create a table with types used
by other vendors and then issue a DESCRIBE tbl_name statement, MySQL reports the table
structure using the equivalent MySQL types.
7.4 Functions for Use in SELECT and WHERE Clauses
A select_expression or where_definition in a SQL statement can consist of any expression using the functions described below.
An expression that contains NULL always produces a NULL value unless otherwise indicated
in the documentation for the operators and functions involved in the expression.
NOTE: There must be no whitespace between a function name and the parenthesis following
it. This helps the MySQL parser distinguish between function calls and references to tables
or columns that happen to have the same name as a function. Spaces around arguments
are permitted, though.
You can force MySQL to accept spaces after the function name by starting mysqld with -ansi or using the CLIENT_IGNORE_SPACE to mysql_connect(), but in this case all function
names will become reserved words. See Section 5.2 [ANSI mode], page 132.
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For the sake of brevity, examples display the output from the mysql program in abbreviated
form. So this:
mysql> select MOD(29,9);
1 rows in set (0.00 sec)
+-----------+
| mod(29,9) |
+-----------+
|
2 |
+-----------+
is displayed like this:
mysql> select MOD(29,9);
-> 2
7.4.1 Grouping Functions
( ... )
Parentheses. Use these to force the order of evaluation in an expression:
mysql> select 1+2*3;
-> 7
mysql> select (1+2)*3;
-> 9
7.4.2 Normal Arithmetic Operations
The usual arithmetic operators are available. Note that in the case of ‘-’, ‘+’, and ‘*’, the
result is calculated with BIGINT (64-bit) precision if both arguments are integers!
+
Addition:
mysql> select 3+5;
-> 8
-
Subtraction:
mysql> select 3-5;
-> -2
*
Multiplication:
mysql> select 3*5;
-> 15
mysql> select 18014398509481984*18014398509481984.0;
-> 324518553658426726783156020576256.0
mysql> select 18014398509481984*18014398509481984;
-> 0
The result of the last expression is incorrect because the result of the integer
multiplication exceeds the 64-bit range of BIGINT calculations.
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Division:
mysql> select 3/5;
-> 0.60
Division by zero produces a NULL result:
mysql> select 102/(1-1);
-> NULL
A division will be calculated with BIGINT arithmetic only if performed in a
context where its result is converted to an integer!
7.4.3 Bit Functions
MySQL uses BIGINT (64-bit) arithmetic for bit operations, so these operators have a maximum range of 64 bits.
|
Bitwise OR:
mysql> select 29 | 15;
-> 31
&
Bitwise AND:
mysql> select 29 & 15;
-> 13
<<
Shifts a longlong (BIGINT) number to the left:
mysql> select 1 << 2;
-> 4
>>
Shifts a longlong (BIGINT) number to the right:
mysql> select 4 >> 2;
-> 1
~
Invert all bits:
mysql> select 5 & ~1;
-> 4
BIT_COUNT(N)
Returns the number of bits that are set in the argument N:
mysql> select BIT_COUNT(29);
-> 4
7.4.4 Logical Operations
All logical functions return 1 (TRUE), 0 (FALSE) or NULL (unknown, which is in most cases
the same as FALSE):
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NOT
!
OR
||
AND
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Logical NOT. Returns 1 if the argument is 0, otherwise returns 0. Exception:
NOT NULL returns NULL:
mysql> select NOT 1;
-> 0
mysql> select NOT NULL;
-> NULL
mysql> select ! (1+1);
-> 0
mysql> select ! 1+1;
-> 1
The last example returns 1 because the expression evaluates the same way as
(!1)+1.
Logical OR. Returns 1 if either argument is not 0 and not NULL:
mysql> select 1 || 0;
-> 1
mysql> select 0 || 0;
-> 0
mysql> select 1 || NULL;
-> 1
Logical AND. Returns 0 if either argument is 0 or NULL, otherwise returns 1:
mysql> select 1 && NULL;
-> 0
mysql> select 1 && 0;
-> 0
7.4.5 Comparison Operators
Comparison operations result in a value of 1 (TRUE), 0 (FALSE), or NULL. These functions
work for both numbers and strings. Strings are automatically converted to numbers and
numbers to strings as needed (as in Perl).
MySQL performs comparisons using the following rules:
• If one or both arguments are NULL, the result of the comparison is NULL, except for the
<=> operator.
• If both arguments in a comparison operation are strings, they are compared as strings.
• If both arguments are integers, they are compared as integers.
• Hexadecimal values are treated as binary strings if not compared to a number.
• If one of the arguments is a TIMESTAMP or DATETIME column and the other argument is a
constant, the constant is converted to a timestamp before the comparison is performed.
This is done to be more ODBC-friendly.
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• In all other cases, the arguments are compared as floating-point (real) numbers.
By default, string comparisons are done in case-independent fashion using the current character set (ISO-8859-1 Latin1 by default, which also works excellently for English).
The examples below illustrate conversion of strings to numbers for comparison operations:
mysql> SELECT 1 > ’6x’;
-> 0
mysql> SELECT 7 > ’6x’;
-> 1
mysql> SELECT 0 > ’x6’;
-> 0
mysql> SELECT 0 = ’x6’;
-> 1
=
<>
!=
Equal:
mysql> select
-> 0
mysql> select
-> 1
mysql> select
-> 1
mysql> select
-> 0
mysql> select
-> 1
1 = 0;
’0’ = 0;
’0.0’ = 0;
’0.01’ = 0;
’.01’ = 0.01;
Not equal:
mysql> select ’.01’ <> ’0.01’;
-> 1
mysql> select .01 <> ’0.01’;
-> 0
mysql> select ’zapp’ <> ’zappp’;
-> 1
<=
Less than or equal:
mysql> select 0.1 <= 2;
-> 1
<
Less than:
mysql> select 2 <= 2;
-> 1
>=
Greater than or equal:
mysql> select 2 >= 2;
-> 1
>
Greater than:
mysql> select 2 > 2;
-> 0
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Null safe equal:
mysql> select 1 <=> 1, NULL <=> NULL, 1 <=> NULL;
-> 1 1 0
IS NULL
IS NOT NULL
Test whether or not a value is or is not NULL:
mysql> select 1 IS NULL, 0 IS NULL, NULL IS NULL;
-> 0 0 1
mysql> select 1 IS NOT NULL, 0 IS NOT NULL, NULL IS NOT NULL;
-> 1 1 0
expr BETWEEN min AND max
If expr is greater than or equal to min and expr is less than or equal to max,
BETWEEN returns 1, otherwise it returns 0. This is equivalent to the expression
(min <= expr AND expr <= max) if all the arguments are of the same type. The
first argument (expr) determines how the comparison is performed as follows:
• If expr is a TIMESTAMP, DATE, or DATETIME column, MIN() and MAX() are
formatted to the same format if they are constants.
• If expr is a case-insensitive string expression, a case-insensitive string comparison is done.
• If expr is a case-sensitive string expression, a case-sensitive string comparison is done.
• If expr is an integer expression, an integer comparison is done.
• Otherwise, a floating-point (real) comparison is done.
mysql> select 1 BETWEEN 2 AND 3;
-> 0
mysql> select ’b’ BETWEEN ’a’ AND ’c’;
-> 1
mysql> select 2 BETWEEN 2 AND ’3’;
-> 1
mysql> select 2 BETWEEN 2 AND ’x-3’;
-> 0
expr IN (value,...)
Returns 1 if expr is any of the values in the IN list, else returns 0. If all values
are constants, then all values are evaluated according to the type of expr and
sorted. The search for the item is then done using a binary search. This means
IN is very quick if the IN value list consists entirely of constants. If expr is
a case-sensitive string expression, the string comparison is performed in casesensitive fashion:
mysql> select 2 IN (0,3,5,’wefwf’);
-> 0
mysql> select ’wefwf’ IN (0,3,5,’wefwf’);
-> 1
expr NOT IN (value,...)
Same as NOT (expr IN (value,...)).
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ISNULL(expr)
If expr is NULL, ISNULL() returns 1, otherwise it returns 0:
mysql> select ISNULL(1+1);
-> 0
mysql> select ISNULL(1/0);
-> 1
Note that a comparison of NULL values using = will always be false!
COALESCE(list)
Returns first non-NULL element in list:
mysql> select COALESCE(NULL,1);
-> 1
mysql> select COALESCE(NULL,NULL,NULL);
-> NULL
INTERVAL(N,N1,N2,N3,...)
Returns 0 if N < N1, 1 if N < N2 and so on. All arguments are treated as integers.
It is required that N1 < N2 < N3 < ... < Nn for this function to work correctly.
This is because a binary search is used (very fast):
mysql> select INTERVAL(23, 1, 15, 17, 30, 44, 200);
-> 3
mysql> select INTERVAL(10, 1, 10, 100, 1000);
-> 2
mysql> select INTERVAL(22, 23, 30, 44, 200);
-> 0
7.4.6 String Comparison Functions
Normally, if any expression in a string comparison is case sensitive, the comparison is
performed in case-sensitive fashion.
expr LIKE pat [ESCAPE ’escape-char’]
Pattern matching using SQL simple regular expression comparison. Returns
1 (TRUE) or 0 (FALSE). With LIKE you can use the following two wild-card
characters in the pattern:
%
Matches any number of characters, even zero characters
_
Matches exactly one character
mysql> select ’David!’ LIKE ’David_’;
-> 1
mysql> select ’David!’ LIKE ’%D%v%’;
-> 1
To test for literal instances of a wild-card character, precede the character with
the escape character. If you don’t specify the ESCAPE character, ‘\’ is assumed:
\%
Matches one % character
\_
Matches one _ character
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mysql> select ’David!’ LIKE ’David\_’;
-> 0
mysql> select ’David_’ LIKE ’David\_’;
-> 1
To specify a different escape character, use the ESCAPE clause:
mysql> select ’David_’ LIKE ’David|_’ ESCAPE ’|’;
-> 1
LIKE is allowed on numeric expressions! (This is a MySQL extension to the
ANSI SQL LIKE.)
mysql> select 10 LIKE ’1%’;
-> 1
Note: Because MySQL uses the C escape syntax in strings (for example, ‘\n’),
you must double any ‘\’ that you use in your LIKE strings. For example, to
search for ‘\n’, specify it as ‘\\n’. To search for ‘\’, specify it as ‘\\\\’ (the
backslashes are stripped once by the parser and another time when the pattern
match is done, leaving a single backslash to be matched).
expr NOT LIKE pat [ESCAPE ’escape-char’]
Same as NOT (expr LIKE pat [ESCAPE ’escape-char’]).
expr REGEXP pat
expr RLIKE pat
Performs a pattern match of a string expression expr against a pattern pat.
The pattern can be an extended regular expression. See Appendix J [Regexp],
page 733. Returns 1 if expr matches pat, otherwise returns 0. RLIKE is a
synonym for REGEXP, provided for mSQL compatibility. Note: Because MySQL
uses the C escape syntax in strings (for example, ‘\n’), you must double any
‘\’ that you use in your REGEXP strings. As of MySQL Version 3.23.4, REGEXP
is case insensitive for normal (not binary) strings:
mysql> select
-> 0
mysql> select
-> 1
mysql> select
-> 1
mysql> select
-> 1
mysql> select
-> 1
’Monty!’ REGEXP ’m%y%%’;
’Monty!’ REGEXP ’.*’;
’new*\n*line’ REGEXP ’new\\*.\\*line’;
"a" REGEXP "A", "a" REGEXP BINARY "A";
0
"a" REGEXP "^[a-d]";
REGEXP and RLIKE use the current character set (ISO-8859-1 Latin1 by default)
when deciding the type of a character.
expr NOT REGEXP pat
expr NOT RLIKE pat
Same as NOT (expr REGEXP pat).
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STRCMP(expr1,expr2)
STRCMP() returns 0 if the strings are the same, -1 if the first argument is smaller
than the second according to the current sort order, and 1 otherwise:
mysql> select STRCMP(’text’, ’text2’);
-> -1
mysql> select STRCMP(’text2’, ’text’);
-> 1
mysql> select STRCMP(’text’, ’text’);
-> 0
MATCH (col1,col2,...) AGAINST (expr)
MATCH ... AGAINST() is used for full-text search and returns relevance - similarity measure between the text in columns (col1,col2,...) and the query
expr. Relevance is a positive floating-point number. Zero relevance means no
similarity. For MATCH ... AGAINST() to work, a FULLTEXT index must be
created first. See Section 7.7 [CREATE TABLE], page 230. MATCH ... AGAINST()
is available in MySQL Version 3.23.23 or later. For details and usage examples
see Chapter 12 [Fulltext Search], page 399.
7.4.7 Cast Operators
BINARY
The BINARY operator casts the string following it to a binary string. This is an
easy way to force a column comparison to be case sensitive even if the column
isn’t defined as BINARY or BLOB:
mysql> select "a" = "A";
-> 1
mysql> select BINARY "a" = "A";
-> 0
BINARY was introduced in MySQL Version 3.23.0.
Note that in some context MySQL will not be able to use the index efficiently
when you cast an indexed column to BINARY.
If you want to compare a blob case-insensitively you can always convert the blob to upper
case before doing the comparison:
SELECT ’A’ LIKE UPPER(blob_col) FROM table_name;
We plan to soon introduce casting between different character sets to make string comparison even more flexible.
7.4.8 Control Flow Functions
IFNULL(expr1,expr2)
If expr1 is not NULL, IFNULL() returns expr1, else it returns expr2. IFNULL()
returns a numeric or string value, depending on the context in which it is used:
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mysql> select IFNULL(1,0);
-> 1
mysql> select IFNULL(NULL,10);
-> 10
mysql> select IFNULL(1/0,10);
-> 10
mysql> select IFNULL(1/0,’yes’);
-> ’yes’
NULLIF(expr1,expr2)
If expr1 = expr2 is true, return NULL else return expr1. This is the same as
CASE WHEN x = y THEN NULL ELSE x END:
mysql> select NULLIF(1,1);
-> NULL
mysql> select NULLIF(1,2);
-> 1
Note that expr1 is evaluated twice in MySQL if the arguments are equal.
IF(expr1,expr2,expr3)
If expr1 is TRUE (expr1 <> 0 and expr1 <> NULL) then IF() returns expr2,
else it returns expr3. IF() returns a numeric or string value, depending on the
context in which it is used:
mysql> select IF(1>2,2,3);
-> 3
mysql> select IF(1<2,’yes’,’no’);
-> ’yes’
mysql> select IF(strcmp(’test’,’test1’),’no’,’yes’);
-> ’no’
expr1 is evaluated as an integer value, which means that if you are testing
floating-point or string values, you should do so using a comparison operation:
mysql> select IF(0.1,1,0);
-> 0
mysql> select IF(0.1<>0,1,0);
-> 1
In the first case above, IF(0.1) returns 0 because 0.1 is converted to an integer
value, resulting in a test of IF(0). This may not be what you expect. In the
second case, the comparison tests the original floating-point value to see whether
it is non-zero. The result of the comparison is used as an integer.
The default return type of IF() (which may matter when it is stored into a
temporary table) is calculated in MySQL Version 3.23 as follows:
Expression
Return value
expr2 or expr3 returns string
string
expr2 or expr3 returns a floating-point value
floating-point
expr2 or expr3 returns an integer
integer
CASE value WHEN [compare-value] THEN result [WHEN [compare-value] THEN result
...] [ELSE result] END
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CASE WHEN [condition] THEN result [WHEN [condition] THEN result ...] [ELSE
result] END
The first version returns the result where value=compare-value. The second
version returns the result for the first condition, which is true. If there was no
matching result value, then the result after ELSE is returned. If there is no ELSE
part then NULL is returned:
mysql> SELECT CASE 1 WHEN 1 THEN "one" WHEN 2 THEN "two" ELSE "more" END;
-> "one"
mysql> SELECT CASE WHEN 1>0 THEN "true" ELSE "false" END;
-> "true"
mysql> SELECT CASE BINARY "B" when "a" then 1 when "b" then 2 END;
-> NULL
The type of the return value (INTEGER, DOUBLE or STRING) is the same as the type of the
first returned value (the expression after the first THEN).
7.4.9 Mathematical Functions
All mathematical functions return NULL in case of an error.
-
Unary minus. Changes the sign of the argument:
mysql> select - 2;
-> -2
Note that if this operator is used with a BIGINT, the return value is a BIGINT!
This means that you should avoid using - on integers that may have the value
of -2^63!
ABS(X)
Returns the absolute value of X:
mysql> select ABS(2);
-> 2
mysql> select ABS(-32);
-> 32
This function is safe to use with BIGINT values.
SIGN(X)
Returns the sign of the argument as -1, 0, or 1, depending on whether X is
negative, zero, or positive:
mysql> select SIGN(-32);
-> -1
mysql> select SIGN(0);
-> 0
mysql> select SIGN(234);
-> 1
MOD(N,M)
%
Modulo (like the % operator in C). Returns the remainder of N divided by M:
mysql> select MOD(234, 10);
-> 4
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mysql> select 253 % 7;
-> 1
mysql> select MOD(29,9);
-> 2
This function is safe to use with BIGINT values.
FLOOR(X)
Returns the largest integer value not greater than X:
mysql> select FLOOR(1.23);
-> 1
mysql> select FLOOR(-1.23);
-> -2
Note that the return value is converted to a BIGINT!
CEILING(X)
Returns the smallest integer value not less than X:
mysql> select CEILING(1.23);
-> 2
mysql> select CEILING(-1.23);
-> -1
Note that the return value is converted to a BIGINT!
ROUND(X)
Returns the argument X, rounded to the nearest integer:
mysql> select ROUND(-1.23);
-> -1
mysql> select ROUND(-1.58);
-> -2
mysql> select ROUND(1.58);
-> 2
Note that the behavior of ROUND() when the argument is half way between two
integers depends on the C library implementation. Some round to the nearest
even number, always up, always down, or always towards zero. If you need one
kind of rounding, you should use a well-defined function like TRUNCATE() or
FLOOR() instead.
ROUND(X,D)
Returns the argument X, rounded to a number with D decimals. If D is 0, the
result will have no decimal point or fractional part:
mysql> select ROUND(1.298, 1);
-> 1.3
mysql> select ROUND(1.298, 0);
-> 1
EXP(X)
Returns the value of e (the base of natural logarithms) raised to the power of
X:
mysql> select EXP(2);
-> 7.389056
mysql> select EXP(-2);
-> 0.135335
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LOG(X)
Returns the natural logarithm of X:
mysql> select LOG(2);
-> 0.693147
mysql> select LOG(-2);
-> NULL
If you want the log of a number X to some arbitary base B, use the formula
LOG(X)/LOG(B).
LOG10(X)
Returns the base-10 logarithm of X:
mysql> select LOG10(2);
-> 0.301030
mysql> select LOG10(100);
-> 2.000000
mysql> select LOG10(-100);
-> NULL
POW(X,Y)
POWER(X,Y)
Returns the value of X raised to the power of Y:
mysql> select POW(2,2);
-> 4.000000
mysql> select POW(2,-2);
-> 0.250000
SQRT(X)
Returns the non-negative square root of X:
mysql> select SQRT(4);
-> 2.000000
mysql> select SQRT(20);
-> 4.472136
PI()
Returns the value of PI:
mysql> select PI();
-> 3.141593
COS(X)
Returns the cosine of X, where X is given in radians:
mysql> select COS(PI());
-> -1.000000
SIN(X)
Returns the sine of X, where X is given in radians:
mysql> select SIN(PI());
-> 0.000000
TAN(X)
Returns the tangent of X, where X is given in radians:
mysql> select TAN(PI()+1);
-> 1.557408
ACOS(X)
Returns the arc cosine of X, that is, the value whose cosine is X. Returns NULL
if X is not in the range -1 to 1:
mysql> select ACOS(1);
-> 0.000000
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mysql> select ACOS(1.0001);
-> NULL
mysql> select ACOS(0);
-> 1.570796
ASIN(X)
Returns the arc sine of X, that is, the value whose sine is X. Returns NULL if X
is not in the range -1 to 1:
mysql> select ASIN(0.2);
-> 0.201358
mysql> select ASIN(’foo’);
-> 0.000000
ATAN(X)
Returns the arc tangent of X, that is, the value whose tangent is X:
mysql> select ATAN(2);
-> 1.107149
mysql> select ATAN(-2);
-> -1.107149
ATAN2(Y,X)
Returns the arc tangent of the two variables X and Y. It is similar to calculating
the arc tangent of Y / X, except that the signs of both arguments are used to
determine the quadrant of the result:
mysql> select ATAN(-2,2);
-> -0.785398
mysql> select ATAN(PI(),0);
-> 1.570796
COT(X)
RAND()
RAND(N)
Returns the cotangent of X:
mysql> select COT(12);
-> -1.57267341
mysql> select COT(0);
-> NULL
Returns a random floating-point value in the range 0 to 1.0. If an integer
argument N is specified, it is used as the seed value:
mysql> select RAND();
-> 0.5925
mysql> select RAND(20);
-> 0.1811
mysql> select RAND(20);
-> 0.1811
mysql> select RAND();
-> 0.2079
mysql> select RAND();
-> 0.7888
You can’t use a column with RAND() values in an ORDER BY clause, because
ORDER BY would evaluate the column multiple times. In MySQL Version 3.23,
you can, however, do: SELECT * FROM table_name ORDER BY RAND()
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This is useful to get a random sample of a set SELECT * FROM table1,table2
WHERE a=b AND c<d ORDER BY RAND() LIMIT 1000.
Note that a RAND() in a WHERE clause will be re-evaluated every time the WHERE
is executed.
LEAST(X,Y,...)
With two or more arguments, returns the smallest (minimum-valued) argument.
The arguments are compared using the following rules:
• If the return value is used in an INTEGER context, or all arguments are
integer-valued, they are compared as integers.
• If the return value is used in a REAL context, or all arguments are realvalued, they are compared as reals.
• If any argument is a case-sensitive string, the arguments are compared as
case-sensitive strings.
• In other cases, the arguments are compared as case-insensitive strings:
mysql> select LEAST(2,0);
-> 0
mysql> select LEAST(34.0,3.0,5.0,767.0);
-> 3.0
mysql> select LEAST("B","A","C");
-> "A"
In MySQL versions prior to Version 3.22.5, you can use MIN() instead of LEAST.
GREATEST(X,Y,...)
Returns the largest (maximum-valued) argument. The arguments are compared
using the same rules as for LEAST:
mysql> select GREATEST(2,0);
-> 2
mysql> select GREATEST(34.0,3.0,5.0,767.0);
-> 767.0
mysql> select GREATEST("B","A","C");
-> "C"
In MySQL versions prior to Version 3.22.5, you can use MAX() instead of
GREATEST.
DEGREES(X)
Returns the argument X, converted from radians to degrees:
mysql> select DEGREES(PI());
-> 180.000000
RADIANS(X)
Returns the argument X, converted from degrees to radians:
mysql> select RADIANS(90);
-> 1.570796
TRUNCATE(X,D)
Returns the number X, truncated to D decimals. If D is 0, the result will have
no decimal point or fractional part:
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mysql> select TRUNCATE(1.223,1);
-> 1.2
mysql> select TRUNCATE(1.999,1);
-> 1.9
mysql> select TRUNCATE(1.999,0);
-> 1
Note that as decimal numbers are normally not stored as exact numbers in
computers, but as double values, you may be fooled by the following result:
mysql> select TRUNCATE(10.28*100,0);
-> 1027
The above happens because 10.28 is actually stored as something like 10.2799999999999999.
7.4.10 String Functions
String-valued functions return NULL if the length of the result would be greater than the
max_allowed_packet server parameter. See Section 13.2.4 [Server parameters], page 408.
For functions that operate on string positions, the first position is numbered 1.
ASCII(str)
Returns the ASCII code value of the leftmost character of the string str. Returns 0 if str is the empty string. Returns NULL if str is NULL:
mysql> select ASCII(’2’);
-> 50
mysql> select ASCII(2);
-> 50
mysql> select ASCII(’dx’);
-> 100
See also the ORD() function.
ORD(str)
If the leftmost character of the string str is a multi-byte character, returns the
code of multi-byte character by returning the ASCII code value of the character in the format of: ((first byte ASCII code)*256+(second byte ASCII
code))[*256+third byte ASCII code...]. If the leftmost character is not a
multi-byte character, returns the same value as the like ASCII() function does:
mysql> select ORD(’2’);
-> 50
CONV(N,from_base,to_base)
Converts numbers between different number bases. Returns a string representation of the number N, converted from base from_base to base to_base.
Returns NULL if any argument is NULL. The argument N is interpreted as an
integer, but may be specified as an integer or a string. The minimum base is 2
and the maximum base is 36. If to_base is a negative number, N is regarded as
a signed number. Otherwise, N is treated as unsigned. CONV works with 64-bit
precision:
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mysql> select CONV("a",16,2);
-> ’1010’
mysql> select CONV("6E",18,8);
-> ’172’
mysql> select CONV(-17,10,-18);
-> ’-H’
mysql> select CONV(10+"10"+’10’+0xa,10,10);
-> ’40’
BIN(N)
Returns a string representation of the binary value of N, where N is a longlong
(BIGINT) number. This is equivalent to CONV(N,10,2). Returns NULL if N is
NULL:
mysql> select BIN(12);
-> ’1100’
OCT(N)
Returns a string representation of the octal value of N, where N is a longlong
number. This is equivalent to CONV(N,10,8). Returns NULL if N is NULL:
mysql> select OCT(12);
-> ’14’
HEX(N)
Returns a string representation of the hexadecimal value of N, where N is a
longlong (BIGINT) number. This is equivalent to CONV(N,10,16). Returns
NULL if N is NULL:
mysql> select HEX(255);
-> ’FF’
CHAR(N,...)
CHAR() interprets the arguments as integers and returns a string consisting of
the characters given by the ASCII code values of those integers. NULL values
are skipped:
mysql> select CHAR(77,121,83,81,’76’);
-> ’MySQL’
mysql> select CHAR(77,77.3,’77.3’);
-> ’MMM’
CONCAT(str1,str2,...)
Returns the string that results from concatenating the arguments. Returns
NULL if any argument is NULL. May have more than 2 arguments. A numeric
argument is converted to the equivalent string form:
mysql> select CONCAT(’My’, ’S’, ’QL’);
-> ’MySQL’
mysql> select CONCAT(’My’, NULL, ’QL’);
-> NULL
mysql> select CONCAT(14.3);
-> ’14.3’
CONCAT_WS(separator, str1, str2,...)
CONCAT_WS() stands for CONCAT With Separator and is a special form of
CONCAT(). The first argument is the separator for the rest of the arguments.
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The separator can be a string as well as the rest of the arguments. If the
separator is NULL, the result will be NULL. The function will skip any NULLs
and empty strings, after the separator argument. The separator will be added
between the strings to be concatenated:
mysql> select CONCAT_WS(",","First name","Second name","Last Name");
-> ’First name,Second name,Last Name’
mysql> select CONCAT_WS(",","First name",NULL,"Last Name");
-> ’First name,Last Name’
LENGTH(str)
OCTET_LENGTH(str)
CHAR_LENGTH(str)
CHARACTER_LENGTH(str)
Returns the length of the string str:
mysql> select LENGTH(’text’);
-> 4
mysql> select OCTET_LENGTH(’text’);
-> 4
Note that for CHAR_LENGTH(), multi-byte characters are only counted once.
LOCATE(substr,str)
POSITION(substr IN str)
Returns the position of the first occurrence of substring substr in string str.
Returns 0 if substr is not in str:
mysql> select LOCATE(’bar’, ’foobarbar’);
-> 4
mysql> select LOCATE(’xbar’, ’foobar’);
-> 0
This function is multi-byte safe.
LOCATE(substr,str,pos)
Returns the position of the first occurrence of substring substr in string str,
starting at position pos. Returns 0 if substr is not in str:
mysql> select LOCATE(’bar’, ’foobarbar’,5);
-> 7
This function is multi-byte safe.
INSTR(str,substr)
Returns the position of the first occurrence of substring substr in string str.
This is the same as the two-argument form of LOCATE(), except that the arguments are swapped:
mysql> select INSTR(’foobarbar’, ’bar’);
-> 4
mysql> select INSTR(’xbar’, ’foobar’);
-> 0
This function is multi-byte safe.
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LPAD(str,len,padstr)
Returns the string str, left-padded with the string padstr until str is len
characters long. If str is longer than len’ then it will be shortened to len
characters.
mysql> select LPAD(’hi’,4,’??’);
-> ’??hi’
RPAD(str,len,padstr)
Returns the string str, right-padded with the string padstr until str is len
characters long. If str is longer than len’ then it will be shortened to len
characters.
mysql> select RPAD(’hi’,5,’?’);
-> ’hi???’
LEFT(str,len)
Returns the leftmost len characters from the string str:
mysql> select LEFT(’foobarbar’, 5);
-> ’fooba’
This function is multi-byte safe.
RIGHT(str,len)
Returns the rightmost len characters from the string str:
mysql> select RIGHT(’foobarbar’, 4);
-> ’rbar’
This function is multi-byte safe.
SUBSTRING(str,pos,len)
SUBSTRING(str FROM pos FOR len)
MID(str,pos,len)
Returns a substring len characters long from string str, starting at position
pos. The variant form that uses FROM is ANSI SQL92 syntax:
mysql> select SUBSTRING(’Quadratically’,5,6);
-> ’ratica’
This function is multi-byte safe.
SUBSTRING(str,pos)
SUBSTRING(str FROM pos)
Returns a substring from string str starting at position pos:
mysql> select SUBSTRING(’Quadratically’,5);
-> ’ratically’
mysql> select SUBSTRING(’foobarbar’ FROM 4);
-> ’barbar’
This function is multi-byte safe.
SUBSTRING_INDEX(str,delim,count)
Returns the substring from string str before count occurrences of the delimiter
delim. If count is positive, everything to the left of the final delimiter (counting
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from the left) is returned. If count is negative, everything to the right of the
final delimiter (counting from the right) is returned:
mysql> select SUBSTRING_INDEX(’www.mysql.com’, ’.’, 2);
-> ’www.mysql’
mysql> select SUBSTRING_INDEX(’www.mysql.com’, ’.’, -2);
-> ’mysql.com’
This function is multi-byte safe.
LTRIM(str)
Returns the string str with leading space characters removed:
mysql> select LTRIM(’ barbar’);
-> ’barbar’
RTRIM(str)
Returns the string str with trailing space characters removed:
mysql> select RTRIM(’barbar
’);
-> ’barbar’
This function is multi-byte safe.
TRIM([[BOTH | LEADING | TRAILING] [remstr] FROM] str)
Returns the string str with all remstr prefixes and/or suffixes removed. If
none of the specifiers BOTH, LEADING or TRAILING are given, BOTH is assumed.
If remstr is not specified, spaces are removed:
mysql> select TRIM(’ bar
’);
-> ’bar’
mysql> select TRIM(LEADING ’x’ FROM ’xxxbarxxx’);
-> ’barxxx’
mysql> select TRIM(BOTH ’x’ FROM ’xxxbarxxx’);
-> ’bar’
mysql> select TRIM(TRAILING ’xyz’ FROM ’barxxyz’);
-> ’barx’
This function is multi-byte safe.
SOUNDEX(str)
Returns a soundex string from str. Two strings that sound almost the same
should have identical soundex strings. A standard soundex string is 4 characters
long, but the SOUNDEX() function returns an arbitrarily long string. You can
use SUBSTRING() on the result to get a standard soundex string. All nonalphanumeric characters are ignored in the given string. All international alpha
characters outside the A-Z range are treated as vowels:
mysql> select SOUNDEX(’Hello’);
-> ’H400’
mysql> select SOUNDEX(’Quadratically’);
-> ’Q36324’
SPACE(N)
Returns a string consisting of N space characters:
mysql> select SPACE(6);
-> ’
’
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REPLACE(str,from_str,to_str)
Returns the string str with all all occurrences of the string from_str replaced
by the string to_str:
mysql> select REPLACE(’www.mysql.com’, ’w’, ’Ww’);
-> ’WwWwWw.mysql.com’
This function is multi-byte safe.
REPEAT(str,count)
Returns a string consisting of the string str repeated count times. If count
<= 0, returns an empty string. Returns NULL if str or count are NULL:
mysql> select REPEAT(’MySQL’, 3);
-> ’MySQLMySQLMySQL’
REVERSE(str)
Returns the string str with the order of the characters reversed:
mysql> select REVERSE(’abc’);
-> ’cba’
This function is multi-byte safe.
INSERT(str,pos,len,newstr)
Returns the string str, with the substring beginning at position pos and len
characters long replaced by the string newstr:
mysql> select INSERT(’Quadratic’, 3, 4, ’What’);
-> ’QuWhattic’
This function is multi-byte safe.
ELT(N,str1,str2,str3,...)
Returns str1 if N = 1, str2 if N = 2, and so on. Returns NULL if N is less
than 1 or greater than the number of arguments. ELT() is the complement of
FIELD():
mysql> select ELT(1, ’ej’, ’Heja’, ’hej’, ’foo’);
-> ’ej’
mysql> select ELT(4, ’ej’, ’Heja’, ’hej’, ’foo’);
-> ’foo’
FIELD(str,str1,str2,str3,...)
Returns the index of str in the str1, str2, str3, ... list. Returns 0 if str is
not found. FIELD() is the complement of ELT():
mysql> select FIELD(’ej’, ’Hej’, ’ej’, ’Heja’, ’hej’, ’foo’);
-> 2
mysql> select FIELD(’fo’, ’Hej’, ’ej’, ’Heja’, ’hej’, ’foo’);
-> 0
FIND_IN_SET(str,strlist)
Returns a value 1 to N if the string str is in the list strlist consisting of N
substrings. A string list is a string composed of substrings separated by ‘,’
characters. If the first argument is a constant string and the second is a column
of type SET, the FIND_IN_SET() function is optimized to use bit arithmetic!
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Returns 0 if str is not in strlist or if strlist is the empty string. Returns
NULL if either argument is NULL. This function will not work properly if the
first argument contains a ‘,’:
mysql> SELECT FIND_IN_SET(’b’,’a,b,c,d’);
-> 2
MAKE_SET(bits,str1,str2,...)
Returns a set (a string containing substrings separated by ‘,’ characters) consisting of the strings that have the corresponding bit in bits set. str1 corresponds to bit 0, str2 to bit 1, etc. NULL strings in str1, str2, ... are not
appended to the result:
mysql> SELECT MAKE_SET(1,’a’,’b’,’c’);
-> ’a’
mysql> SELECT MAKE_SET(1 | 4,’hello’,’nice’,’world’);
-> ’hello,world’
mysql> SELECT MAKE_SET(0,’a’,’b’,’c’);
-> ’’
EXPORT_SET(bits,on,off,[separator,[number_of_bits]])
Returns a string where for every bit set in ’bit’, you get an ’on’ string and for
every reset bit you get an ’off’ string. Each string is separated with ’separator’
(default ’,’) and only ’number of bits’ (default 64) of ’bits’ is used:
mysql> select EXPORT_SET(5,’Y’,’N’,’,’,4)
-> Y,N,Y,N
LCASE(str)
LOWER(str)
Returns the string str with all characters changed to lowercase according to
the current character set mapping (the default is ISO-8859-1 Latin1):
mysql> select LCASE(’QUADRATICALLY’);
-> ’quadratically’
This function is multi-byte safe.
UCASE(str)
UPPER(str)
Returns the string str with all characters changed to uppercase according to
the current character set mapping (the default is ISO-8859-1 Latin1):
mysql> select UCASE(’Hej’);
-> ’HEJ’
This function is multi-byte safe.
LOAD_FILE(file_name)
Reads the file and returns the file contents as a string. The file must be on
the server, you must specify the full pathname to the file, and you must have
the file privilege. The file must be readable by all and be smaller than max_
allowed_packet.
If the file doesn’t exist or can’t be read due to one of the above reasons, the
function returns NULL:
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mysql> UPDATE table_name
SET blob_column=LOAD_FILE("/tmp/picture")
WHERE id=1;
If you are not using MySQL Version 3.23, you have to do the reading of the file inside
your application and create an INSERT statement to update the database with the file
information. One way to do this, if you are using the MySQL++ library, can be found at
http://www.mysql.com/documentation/mysql++/mysql++-examples.html.
MySQL automatically
mysql> SELECT
-> 2
mysql> SELECT
-> ’2
converts numbers to strings as necessary, and vice-versa:
1+"1";
CONCAT(2,’ test’);
test’
If you want to convert a number to a string explicitly, pass it as the argument to CONCAT().
If a string function is given a binary string as an argument, the resulting string is also a
binary string. A number converted to a string is treated as a binary string. This only affects
comparisons.
7.4.11 Date and Time Functions
See Section 7.3.3 [Date and time types], page 182 for a description of the range of values
each type has and the valid formats in which date and time values may be specified.
Here is an example that uses date functions. The query below selects all records with a
date_col value from within the last 30 days:
mysql> SELECT something FROM table
WHERE TO_DAYS(NOW()) - TO_DAYS(date_col) <= 30;
DAYOFWEEK(date)
Returns the weekday index
for date (1 = Sunday, 2 = Monday, ... 7 = Saturday). These index values
correspond to the ODBC standard:
mysql> select DAYOFWEEK(’1998-02-03’);
-> 3
WEEKDAY(date)
Returns the weekday index for date (0 = Monday, 1 = Tuesday, ... 6 = Sunday):
mysql> select WEEKDAY(’1997-10-04 22:23:00’);
-> 5
mysql> select WEEKDAY(’1997-11-05’);
-> 2
DAYOFMONTH(date)
Returns the day of the month for date, in the range 1 to 31:
mysql> select DAYOFMONTH(’1998-02-03’);
-> 3
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DAYOFYEAR(date)
Returns the day of the year for date, in the range 1 to 366:
mysql> select DAYOFYEAR(’1998-02-03’);
-> 34
MONTH(date)
Returns the month for date, in the range 1 to 12:
mysql> select MONTH(’1998-02-03’);
-> 2
DAYNAME(date)
Returns the name of the weekday for date:
mysql> select DAYNAME("1998-02-05");
-> ’Thursday’
MONTHNAME(date)
Returns the name of the month for date:
mysql> select MONTHNAME("1998-02-05");
-> ’February’
QUARTER(date)
Returns the quarter of the year for date, in the range 1 to 4:
mysql> select QUARTER(’98-04-01’);
-> 2
WEEK(date)
WEEK(date,first)
With a single argument, returns the week for date, in the range 0 to 53 (yes,
there may be the beginnings of a week 53), for locations where Sunday is the
first day of the week. The two-argument form of WEEK() allows you to specify
whether the week starts on Sunday or Monday. The week starts on Sunday if
the second argument is 0, on Monday if the second argument is 1:
mysql> select
-> 7
mysql> select
-> 7
mysql> select
-> 8
mysql> select
-> 53
WEEK(’1998-02-20’);
WEEK(’1998-02-20’,0);
WEEK(’1998-02-20’,1);
WEEK(’1998-12-31’,1);
YEAR(date)
Returns the year for date, in the range 1000 to 9999:
mysql> select YEAR(’98-02-03’);
-> 1998
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YEARWEEK(date)
YEARWEEK(date,first)
Returns year and week for a date. The second arguments works exactly like
the second argument to WEEK(). Note that the year may be different from the
year in the date argument for the first and the last week of the year:
mysql> select YEARWEEK(’1987-01-01’);
-> 198653
HOUR(time)
Returns the hour for time, in the range 0 to 23:
mysql> select HOUR(’10:05:03’);
-> 10
MINUTE(time)
Returns the minute for time, in the range 0 to 59:
mysql> select MINUTE(’98-02-03 10:05:03’);
-> 5
SECOND(time)
Returns the second for time, in the range 0 to 59:
mysql> select SECOND(’10:05:03’);
-> 3
PERIOD_ADD(P,N)
Adds N months to period P (in the format YYMM or YYYYMM). Returns a value in
the format YYYYMM.
Note that the period argument P is not a date value:
mysql> select PERIOD_ADD(9801,2);
-> 199803
PERIOD_DIFF(P1,P2)
Returns the number of months between periods P1 and P2. P1 and P2 should
be in the format YYMM or YYYYMM.
Note that the period arguments P1 and P2 are not date values:
mysql> select PERIOD_DIFF(9802,199703);
-> 11
DATE_ADD(date,INTERVAL expr type)
DATE_SUB(date,INTERVAL expr type)
ADDDATE(date,INTERVAL expr type)
SUBDATE(date,INTERVAL expr type)
These functions perform date arithmetic. They are new for MySQL Version
3.22. ADDDATE() and SUBDATE() are synonyms for DATE_ADD() and DATE_
SUB().
In MySQL Version 3.23, you can use + and - instead of DATE_ADD() and DATE_
SUB() if the expression on the right side is a date or datetime column. (See
example)
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date is a DATETIME or DATE value specifying the starting date. expr is an
expression specifying the interval value to be added or subtracted from the
starting date. expr is a string; it may start with a ‘-’ for negative intervals.
type is a keyword indicating how the expression should be interpreted.
The EXTRACT(type FROM date) function returns the ’type’ interval from the
date.
The following table shows how the type and expr arguments are related:
type value
Expected expr format
SECOND
SECONDS
MINUTE
MINUTES
HOUR
HOURS
DAY
DAYS
MONTH
MONTHS
YEAR
YEARS
MINUTE_SECOND
"MINUTES:SECONDS"
HOUR_MINUTE
"HOURS:MINUTES"
DAY_HOUR
"DAYS HOURS"
YEAR_MONTH
"YEARS-MONTHS"
HOUR_SECOND
"HOURS:MINUTES:SECONDS"
DAY_MINUTE
"DAYS HOURS:MINUTES"
DAY_SECOND
"DAYS HOURS:MINUTES:SECONDS"
MySQL allows any punctuation delimiter in the expr format. Those shown in
the table are the suggested delimiters. If the date argument is a DATE value
and your calculations involve only YEAR, MONTH, and DAY parts (that is, no time
parts), the result is a DATE value. Otherwise the result is a DATETIME value:
mysql> SELECT "1997-12-31 23:59:59" + INTERVAL 1 SECOND;
-> 1998-01-01 00:00:00
mysql> SELECT INTERVAL 1 DAY + "1997-12-31";
-> 1998-01-01
mysql> SELECT "1998-01-01" - INTERVAL 1 SECOND;
-> 1997-12-31 23:59:59
mysql> SELECT DATE_ADD("1997-12-31 23:59:59",
INTERVAL 1 SECOND);
-> 1998-01-01 00:00:00
mysql> SELECT DATE_ADD("1997-12-31 23:59:59",
INTERVAL 1 DAY);
-> 1998-01-01 23:59:59
mysql> SELECT DATE_ADD("1997-12-31 23:59:59",
INTERVAL "1:1" MINUTE_SECOND);
-> 1998-01-01 00:01:00
mysql> SELECT DATE_SUB("1998-01-01 00:00:00",
INTERVAL "1 1:1:1" DAY_SECOND);
-> 1997-12-30 22:58:59
mysql> SELECT DATE_ADD("1998-01-01 00:00:00",
INTERVAL "-1 10" DAY_HOUR);
-> 1997-12-30 14:00:00
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mysql> SELECT DATE_SUB("1998-01-02", INTERVAL 31 DAY);
-> 1997-12-02
mysql> SELECT EXTRACT(YEAR FROM "1999-07-02");
-> 1999
mysql> SELECT EXTRACT(YEAR_MONTH FROM "1999-07-02 01:02:03");
-> 199907
mysql> SELECT EXTRACT(DAY_MINUTE FROM "1999-07-02 01:02:03");
-> 20102
If you specify an interval value that is too short (does not include all the interval
parts that would be expected from the type keyword), MySQL assumes you
have left out the leftmost parts of the interval value. For example, if you
specify a type of DAY_SECOND, the value of expr is expected to have days,
hours, minutes, and seconds parts. If you specify a value like "1:10", MySQL
assumes that the days and hours parts are missing and the value represents
minutes and seconds. In other words, "1:10" DAY_SECOND is interpreted in
such a way that it is equivalent to "1:10" MINUTE_SECOND. This is analogous
to the way that MySQL interprets TIME values as representing elapsed time
rather than as time of day.
Note that if you add or subtract a date value against something that contains a
time part, the date value will be automatically converted to a datetime value:
mysql> select date_add("1999-01-01", interval 1 day);
-> 1999-01-02
mysql> select date_add("1999-01-01", interval 1 hour);
-> 1999-01-01 01:00:00
If you use really incorrect dates, the result is NULL. If you add MONTH, YEAR_
MONTH, or YEAR and the resulting date has a day that is larger than the maximum
day for the new month, the day is adjusted to the maximum days in the new
month:
mysql> select DATE_ADD(’1998-01-30’, Interval 1 month);
-> 1998-02-28
Note from the preceding example that the word INTERVAL and the type keyword
are not case sensitive.
TO_DAYS(date)
Given a date date, returns a daynumber (the number of days since year 0):
mysql> select TO_DAYS(950501);
-> 728779
mysql> select TO_DAYS(’1997-10-07’);
-> 729669
TO_DAYS() is not intended for use with values that precede the advent of the
Gregorian calendar (1582), because it doesn’t take into account the days that
were lost when the calendar was changed.
FROM_DAYS(N)
Given a daynumber N, returns a DATE value:
mysql> select FROM_DAYS(729669);
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-> ’1997-10-07’
FROM_DAYS() is not intended for use with values that precede the advent of the
Gregorian calendar (1582), because it doesn’t take into account the days that
were lost when the calendar was changed.
DATE_FORMAT(date,format)
Formats the date value according to the format string. The following specifiers
may be used in the format string:
%M
%W
%D
%Y
%y
%X
%x
%a
%d
%e
%m
%c
%b
%j
%H
%k
%h
%I
%l
%i
%r
%T
%S
%s
%p
%w
%U
%u
%V
%v
Month name (January..December)
Weekday name (Sunday..Saturday)
Day of the month with English suffix (1st, 2nd, 3rd,
etc.)
Year, numeric, 4 digits
Year, numeric, 2 digits
Year for the week where Sunday is the first day of
the week, numeric, 4 digits, used with ’%V’
Year for the week, where Monday is the first day of
the week, numeric, 4 digits, used with ’%v’
Abbreviated weekday name (Sun..Sat)
Day of the month, numeric (00..31)
Day of the month, numeric (0..31)
Month, numeric (01..12)
Month, numeric (1..12)
Abbreviated month name (Jan..Dec)
Day of year (001..366)
Hour (00..23)
Hour (0..23)
Hour (01..12)
Hour (01..12)
Hour (1..12)
Minutes, numeric (00..59)
Time, 12-hour (hh:mm:ss [AP]M)
Time, 24-hour (hh:mm:ss)
Seconds (00..59)
Seconds (00..59)
AM or PM
Day of the week (0=Sunday..6=Saturday)
Week (0..53), where Sunday is the first day of the
week
Week (0..53), where Monday is the first day of the
week
Week (1..53), where Sunday is the first day of the
week. Used with ’%X’
Week (1..53), where Monday is the first day of the
week. Used with ’%x’
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%%
A literal ‘%’.
All other characters are just copied to the result without interpretation:
mysql> select DATE_FORMAT(’1997-10-04 22:23:00’, ’%W %M %Y’);
-> ’Saturday October 1997’
mysql> select DATE_FORMAT(’1997-10-04 22:23:00’, ’%H:%i:%s’);
-> ’22:23:00’
mysql> select DATE_FORMAT(’1997-10-04 22:23:00’,
’%D %y %a %d %m %b %j’);
-> ’4th 97 Sat 04 10 Oct 277’
mysql> select DATE_FORMAT(’1997-10-04 22:23:00’,
’%H %k %I %r %T %S %w’);
-> ’22 22 10 10:23:00 PM 22:23:00 00 6’
mysql> select DATE_FORMAT(’1999-01-01’, ’%X %V’);
-> ’1998 52’
As of MySQL Version 3.23, the ‘%’ character is required before format specifier
characters. In earlier versions of MySQL, ‘%’ was optional.
TIME_FORMAT(time,format)
This is used like the DATE_FORMAT() function above, but the format string may
contain only those format specifiers that handle hours, minutes, and seconds.
Other specifiers produce a NULL value or 0.
CURDATE()
CURRENT_DATE
Returns today’s date as a value in ’YYYY-MM-DD’ or YYYYMMDD format, depending on whether the function is used in a string or numeric context:
mysql> select CURDATE();
-> ’1997-12-15’
mysql> select CURDATE() + 0;
-> 19971215
CURTIME()
CURRENT_TIME
Returns the current time as a value in ’HH:MM:SS’ or HHMMSS format, depending
on whether the function is used in a string or numeric context:
mysql> select CURTIME();
-> ’23:50:26’
mysql> select CURTIME() + 0;
-> 235026
NOW()
SYSDATE()
CURRENT_TIMESTAMP
Returns the current date and time as a value in ’YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS’ or
YYYYMMDDHHMMSS format, depending on whether the function is used in a string
or numeric context:
mysql> select NOW();
-> ’1997-12-15 23:50:26’
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mysql> select NOW() + 0;
-> 19971215235026
UNIX_TIMESTAMP()
UNIX_TIMESTAMP(date)
If called with no argument, returns a Unix timestamp (seconds since ’197001-01 00:00:00’ GMT). If UNIX_TIMESTAMP() is called with a date argument,
it returns the value of the argument as seconds since ’1970-01-01 00:00:00’
GMT. date may be a DATE string, a DATETIME string, a TIMESTAMP, or a number
in the format YYMMDD or YYYYMMDD in local time:
mysql> select UNIX_TIMESTAMP();
-> 882226357
mysql> select UNIX_TIMESTAMP(’1997-10-04 22:23:00’);
-> 875996580
When UNIX_TIMESTAMP is used on a TIMESTAMP column, the function will receive
the value directly, with no implicit “string-to-unix-timestamp” conversion. If
you give UNIX_TIMESTAMP() a wrong or out-of-range date, it will return 0.
FROM_UNIXTIME(unix_timestamp)
Returns a representation of the unix_timestamp argument as a value in ’YYYYMM-DD HH:MM:SS’ or YYYYMMDDHHMMSS format, depending on whether the function is used in a string or numeric context:
mysql> select FROM_UNIXTIME(875996580);
-> ’1997-10-04 22:23:00’
mysql> select FROM_UNIXTIME(875996580) + 0;
-> 19971004222300
FROM_UNIXTIME(unix_timestamp,format)
Returns a string representation of the Unix timestamp, formatted according to
the format string. format may contain the same specifiers as those listed in
the entry for the DATE_FORMAT() function:
mysql> select FROM_UNIXTIME(UNIX_TIMESTAMP(),
’%Y %D %M %h:%i:%s %x’);
-> ’1997 23rd December 03:43:30 x’
SEC_TO_TIME(seconds)
Returns the seconds argument, converted to hours, minutes, and seconds, as a
value in ’HH:MM:SS’ or HHMMSS format, depending on whether the function is
used in a string or numeric context:
mysql> select SEC_TO_TIME(2378);
-> ’00:39:38’
mysql> select SEC_TO_TIME(2378) + 0;
-> 3938
TIME_TO_SEC(time)
Returns the time argument, converted to seconds:
mysql> select TIME_TO_SEC(’22:23:00’);
-> 80580
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mysql> select TIME_TO_SEC(’00:39:38’);
-> 2378
7.4.12 Miscellaneous Functions
DATABASE()
Returns the current database name:
mysql> select DATABASE();
-> ’test’
If there is no current database, DATABASE() returns the empty string.
USER()
SYSTEM_USER()
SESSION_USER()
Returns the current MySQL user name:
mysql> select USER();
-> ’davida@localhost’
In MySQL Version 3.22.11 or later, this includes the client hostname as well as
the user name. You can extract just the user name part like this (which works
whether or not the value includes a hostname part):
mysql> select substring_index(USER(),"@",1);
-> ’davida’
PASSWORD(str)
Calculates a password string from the plaintext password str. This is the function that is used for encrypting MySQL passwords for storage in the Password
column of the user grant table:
mysql> select PASSWORD(’badpwd’);
-> ’7f84554057dd964b’
PASSWORD() encryption is non-reversible.
PASSWORD() does not perform password encryption in the same way that Unix
passwords are encrypted. You should not assume that if your Unix password
and your MySQL password are the same, PASSWORD() will result in the same
encrypted value as is stored in the Unix password file. See ENCRYPT().
ENCRYPT(str[,salt])
Encrypt str using the Unix crypt() system call. The salt argument should
be a string with two characters. (As of MySQL Version 3.22.16, salt may be
longer than two characters.):
mysql> select ENCRYPT("hello");
-> ’VxuFAJXVARROc’
If crypt() is not available on your system, ENCRYPT() always returns NULL.
ENCRYPT() ignores all but the first 8 characters of str, at least on some systems.
This will be determined by the behavior of the underlying crypt() system call.
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ENCODE(str,pass_str)
Encrypt str using pass_str as the password. To decrypt the result, use
DECODE().
The results is a binary string of the same length as string. If you want to save
it in a column, use a BLOB column type.
DECODE(crypt_str,pass_str)
Descrypts the encrypted string crypt_str using pass_str as the password.
crypt_str should be a string returned from ENCODE().
MD5(string)
Calculates a MD5 checksum for the string. Value is returned as a 32 long hex
number that may, for example, be used as a hash key:
mysql> select MD5("testing");
-> ’ae2b1fca515949e5d54fb22b8ed95575’
This is an "RSA Data Security, Inc. MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm".
LAST_INSERT_ID([expr])
Returns the last automatically generated value that was inserted into an AUTO_
INCREMENT column. See Section 24.1.3.30 [mysql_insert_id()], page 562.
mysql> select LAST_INSERT_ID();
-> 195
The last ID that was generated is maintained in the server on a per-connection
basis. It will not be changed by another client. It will not even be changed if
you update another AUTO_INCREMENT column with a non-magic value (that is,
a value that is not NULL and not 0).
If you insert many rows at the same time with an insert statement, LAST_
INSERT_ID() returns the value for the first inserted row. The reason for this is
so that you it makes it possible to easily reproduce the same INSERT statement
against some other server.
If expr is given as an argument to LAST_INSERT_ID() in an UPDATE clause,
then the value of the argument is returned as a LAST_INSERT_ID() value. This
can be used to simulate sequences.
First create the table:
mysql> create table sequence (id int not null);
mysql> insert into sequence values (0);
Then the table can be used to generate sequence numbers like this:
mysql> update sequence set id=LAST_INSERT_ID(id+1);
You can generate sequences without calling LAST_INSERT_ID(), but the utility
of using the function this way is that the ID value is maintained in the server
as the last automatically generated value. You can retrieve the new ID as
you would read any normal AUTO_INCREMENT value in MySQL. For example,
LAST_INSERT_ID() (without an argument) will return the new ID. The C API
function mysql_insert_id() can also be used to get the value.
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FORMAT(X,D)
Formats the number X to a format like ’#,###,###.##’, rounded to D decimals.
If D is 0, the result will have no decimal point or fractional part:
mysql> select FORMAT(12332.123456, 4);
-> ’12,332.1235’
mysql> select FORMAT(12332.1,4);
-> ’12,332.1000’
mysql> select FORMAT(12332.2,0);
-> ’12,332’
VERSION()
Returns a string indicating the MySQL server version:
mysql> select VERSION();
-> ’3.23.13-log’
Note that if your version ends with -log this means that logging is enabled.
CONNECTION_ID()
Returns the connection id (thread_id) for the connection. Every connection
has its own unique id:
mysql> select CONNECTION_ID();
-> 1
GET_LOCK(str,timeout)
Tries to obtain a lock with a name given by the string str, with a timeout
of timeout seconds. Returns 1 if the lock was obtained successfully, 0 if the
attempt timed out, or NULL if an error occurred (such as running out of memory
or the thread was killed with mysqladmin kill). A lock is released when you
execute RELEASE_LOCK(), execute a new GET_LOCK(), or the thread terminates.
This function can be used to implement application locks or to simulate record
locks. It blocks requests by other clients for locks with the same name; clients
that agree on a given lock string name can use the string to perform cooperative
advisory locking:
mysql> select GET_LOCK("lock1",10);
-> 1
mysql> select GET_LOCK("lock2",10);
-> 1
mysql> select RELEASE_LOCK("lock2");
-> 1
mysql> select RELEASE_LOCK("lock1");
-> NULL
Note that the second RELEASE_LOCK() call returns NULL because the lock
"lock1" was automatically released by the second GET_LOCK() call.
RELEASE_LOCK(str)
Releases the lock named by the string str that was obtained with GET_LOCK().
Returns 1 if the lock was released, 0 if the lock wasn’t locked by this thread (in
which case the lock is not released), and NULL if the named lock didn’t exist.
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The lock will not exist if it was never obtained by a call to GET_LOCK() or if it
already has been released.
BENCHMARK(count,expr)
The BENCHMARK() function executes the expression expr repeatedly count
times. It may be used to time how fast MySQL processes the expression. The
result value is always 0. The intended use is in the mysql client, which reports
query execution times:
mysql> select BENCHMARK(1000000,encode("hello","goodbye"));
+----------------------------------------------+
| BENCHMARK(1000000,encode("hello","goodbye")) |
+----------------------------------------------+
|
0 |
+----------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (4.74 sec)
The time reported is elapsed time on the client end, not CPU time on the server
end. It may be advisable to execute BENCHMARK() several times, and interpret
the result with regard to how heavily loaded the server machine is.
INET_NTOA(expr)
Returns the network address (4 or 8 byte) for the numeric expression:
mysql> select INET_NTOA(3520061480);
-> "209.207.224.40"
INET_ATON(expr)
Returns an integer that represents the numeric value for a network address.
Addresses may be 4 or 8 byte addresses:
mysql> select INET_ATON("209.207.224.40");
-> 3520061480
The generated number is always in network byte order; For example the above
number is calculated as 209*255^3 + 207*255^2 + 224*255 +40.
MASTER_POS_WAIT(log_name, log_pos)
Blocks until the slave reaches the specified position in the master log during
replication. If master information is not initialized, returns NULL. If the slave
is not running, will block and wait until it is started and goes to or past the
specified position. If the slave is already past the specified position, returns
immediately. The return value is the number of log events it had to wait to
get to the specified position, or NULL in case of error. Useful for control of
master-slave synchronization, but was originally written to facilitate replication
testing.
7.4.13 Functions for Use with GROUP BY Clauses
If you use a group function in a statement containing no GROUP BY clause, it is equivalent
to grouping on all rows.
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COUNT(expr)
Returns a count of the number of non-NULL values in the rows retrieved by a
SELECT statement:
mysql> select student.student_name,COUNT(*)
from student,course
where student.student_id=course.student_id
GROUP BY student_name;
COUNT(*) is somewhat different in that it returns a count of the number of rows
retrieved, whether or not they contain NULL values.
COUNT(*) is optimized to return very quickly if the SELECT retrieves from one
table, no other columns are retrieved, and there is no WHERE clause. For example:
mysql> select COUNT(*) from student;
COUNT(DISTINCT expr,[expr...])
Returns a count of the number of different non-NULL values:
mysql> select COUNT(DISTINCT results) from student;
In MySQL you can get the number of distinct expression combinations that
don’t contain NULL by giving a list of expressions. In ANSI SQL you would
have to do a concatenation of all expressions inside CODE(DISTINCT ..).
AVG(expr)
Returns the average value of expr:
mysql> select student_name, AVG(test_score)
from student
GROUP BY student_name;
MIN(expr)
MAX(expr)
Returns the minimum or maximum value of expr. MIN() and MAX() may take
a string argument; in such cases they return the minimum or maximum string
value. See Section 13.4 [MySQL indexes], page 417.
mysql> select student_name, MIN(test_score), MAX(test_score)
from student
GROUP BY student_name;
SUM(expr)
Returns the sum of expr. Note that if the return set has no rows, it returns
NULL!
STD(expr)
STDDEV(expr)
Returns the standard deviation of expr. This is an extension to ANSI SQL.
The STDDEV() form of this function is provided for Oracle compatibility.
BIT_OR(expr)
Returns the bitwise OR of all bits in expr. The calculation is performed with
64-bit (BIGINT) precision.
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BIT_AND(expr)
Returns the bitwise AND of all bits in expr. The calculation is performed with
64-bit (BIGINT) precision.
MySQL has extended the use of GROUP BY. You can use columns or calculations in the
SELECT expressions that don’t appear in the GROUP BY part. This stands for any possible
value for this group. You can use this to get better performance by avoiding sorting and
grouping on unnecessary items. For example, you don’t need to group on customer.name
in the following query:
mysql> select order.custid,customer.name,max(payments)
from order,customer
where order.custid = customer.custid
GROUP BY order.custid;
In ANSI SQL, you would have to add customer.name to the GROUP BY clause. In MySQL,
the name is redundant if you don’t run in ANSI mode.
Don’t use this feature if the columns you omit from the GROUP BY part aren’t unique in the
group! You will get unpredictable results.
In some cases, you can use MIN() and MAX() to obtain a specific column value even if it
isn’t unique. The following gives the value of column from the row containing the smallest
value in the sort column:
substr(MIN(concat(rpad(sort,6,’ ’),column)),7)
See Section 9.5.4 [example-Maximum-column-group-row], page 370.
Note that if you are using MySQL Version 3.22 (or earlier) or if you are trying to follow
ANSI SQL, you can’t use expressions in GROUP BY or ORDER BY clauses. You can work around
this limitation by using an alias for the expression:
mysql> SELECT id,FLOOR(value/100) AS val FROM tbl_name
GROUP BY id,val ORDER BY val;
In MySQL Version 3.23 you can do:
mysql> SELECT id,FLOOR(value/100) FROM tbl_name ORDER BY RAND();
7.5 CREATE DATABASE Syntax
CREATE DATABASE [IF NOT EXISTS] db_name
CREATE DATABASE creates a database with the given name. Rules for allowable database
names are given in Section 7.1.5 [Legal names], page 171. An error occurs if the database
already exists and you didn’t specify IF NOT EXISTS.
Databases in MySQL are implemented as directories containing files that correspond to
tables in the database. Because there are no tables in a database when it is initially
created, the CREATE DATABASE statement only creates a directory under the MySQL data
directory.
You can also create databases with mysqladmin. See Section 15.1 [Programs], page 435.
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7.6 DROP DATABASE Syntax
DROP DATABASE [IF EXISTS] db_name
DROP DATABASE drops all tables in the database and deletes the database. If you do a DROP
DATABASE on a symbolic linked database, both the link and the original database is deleted.
Be VERY careful with this command!
DROP DATABASE returns the number of files that were removed from the database directory.
Normally, this is three times the number of tables, because normally each table corresponds
to a ‘.MYD’ file, a ‘.MYI’ file, and a ‘.frm’ file.
The DROP DATABASE command removes from the given database directory all files with the
following extensions:
.BAK
.DAT
.HSH
.ISD
.ISM
.ISM
.MRG
.MYD
.MYI
.db
.frm
All subdirectories that consists of 2 digits (RAID directories) are also removed.
In MySQL Version 3.22 or later, you can use the keywords IF EXISTS to prevent an error
from occurring if the database doesn’t exist.
You can also drop databases with mysqladmin. See Section 15.1 [Programs], page 435.
7.7 CREATE TABLE Syntax
CREATE [TEMPORARY] TABLE [IF NOT EXISTS] tbl_name [(create_definition,...)]
[table_options] [select_statement]
create_definition:
col_name type [NOT NULL | NULL] [DEFAULT default_value] [AUTO_INCREMENT]
[PRIMARY KEY] [reference_definition]
or
PRIMARY KEY (index_col_name,...)
or
KEY [index_name] (index_col_name,...)
or
INDEX [index_name] (index_col_name,...)
or
UNIQUE [INDEX] [index_name] (index_col_name,...)
or
FULLTEXT [INDEX] [index_name] (index_col_name,...)
or
[CONSTRAINT symbol] FOREIGN KEY index_name (index_col_name,...)
[reference_definition]
or
CHECK (expr)
type:
or
or
or
or
or
TINYINT[(length)] [UNSIGNED] [ZEROFILL]
SMALLINT[(length)] [UNSIGNED] [ZEROFILL]
MEDIUMINT[(length)] [UNSIGNED] [ZEROFILL]
INT[(length)] [UNSIGNED] [ZEROFILL]
INTEGER[(length)] [UNSIGNED] [ZEROFILL]
BIGINT[(length)] [UNSIGNED] [ZEROFILL]
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or
or
or
or
or
or
or
or
or
or
or
or
or
or
or
or
or
or
or
or
or
REAL[(length,decimals)] [UNSIGNED] [ZEROFILL]
DOUBLE[(length,decimals)] [UNSIGNED] [ZEROFILL]
FLOAT[(length,decimals)] [UNSIGNED] [ZEROFILL]
DECIMAL(length,decimals) [UNSIGNED] [ZEROFILL]
NUMERIC(length,decimals) [UNSIGNED] [ZEROFILL]
CHAR(length) [BINARY]
VARCHAR(length) [BINARY]
DATE
TIME
TIMESTAMP
DATETIME
TINYBLOB
BLOB
MEDIUMBLOB
LONGBLOB
TINYTEXT
TEXT
MEDIUMTEXT
LONGTEXT
ENUM(value1,value2,value3,...)
SET(value1,value2,value3,...)
index_col_name:
col_name [(length)]
reference_definition:
REFERENCES tbl_name [(index_col_name,...)]
[MATCH FULL | MATCH PARTIAL]
[ON DELETE reference_option]
[ON UPDATE reference_option]
reference_option:
RESTRICT | CASCADE | SET NULL | NO ACTION | SET DEFAULT
table_options:
TYPE = {BDB | HEAP | ISAM | InnoDB | MERGE | MYISAM }
or AUTO_INCREMENT = #
or AVG_ROW_LENGTH = #
or CHECKSUM = {0 | 1}
or COMMENT = "string"
or MAX_ROWS = #
or MIN_ROWS = #
or PACK_KEYS = {0 | 1}
or PASSWORD = "string"
or DELAY_KEY_WRITE = {0 | 1}
or
ROW_FORMAT= { default | dynamic | fixed | compressed }
or RAID_TYPE= {1 | STRIPED | RAID0 } RAID_CHUNKS=# RAID_CHUNKSIZE=#
or UNION = (table_name,[table_name...])
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or
or
DATA DIRECTORY="directory"
INDEX DIRECTORY="directory"
select_statement:
[IGNORE | REPLACE] SELECT ...
(Some legal select statement)
CREATE TABLE creates a table with the given name in the current database. Rules for
allowable table names are given in Section 7.1.5 [Legal names], page 171. An error occurs
if there is no current database or if the table already exists.
In MySQL Version 3.22 or later, the table name can be specified as db_name.tbl_name.
This works whether or not there is a current database.
In MySQL Version 3.23, you can use the TEMPORARY keyword when you create a table. A
temporary table will automatically be deleted if a connection dies and the name is per
connection. This means that two different connections can both use the same temporary
table name without conflicting with each other or with an existing table of the same name.
(The existing table is hidden until the temporary table is deleted).
In MySQL Version 3.23 or later, you can use the keywords IF NOT EXISTS so that an error
does not occur if the table already exists. Note that there is no verification that the table
structures are identical.
Each table tbl_name is represented by some files in the database directory. In the case of
MyISAM-type tables you will get:
File
tbl_name.frm
tbl_name.MYD
tbl_name.MYI
Purpose
Table definition (form) file
Data file
Index file
For more information on the properties of the various column types, see Section 7.3 [Column
types], page 174:
• If neither NULL nor NOT NULL is specified, the column is treated as though NULL had
been specified.
• An integer column may have the additional attribute AUTO_INCREMENT. When you
insert a value of NULL (recommended) or 0 into an AUTO_INCREMENT column, the column
is set to value+1, where value is the largest value for the column currently in the table.
AUTO_INCREMENT sequences begin with 1. See Section 24.1.3.30 [mysql_insert_id()],
page 562.
If you delete the row containing the maximum value for an AUTO_INCREMENT column,
the value will be reused with an ISAM, GEMINI or BDB table but not with a MyISAM
or InnoDB table. If you delete all rows in the table with DELETE FROM table_name
(without a WHERE) in AUTOCOMMIT mode, the sequence starts over for all table types.
NOTE: There can be only one AUTO_INCREMENT column per table, and it must be
indexed. MySQL Version 3.23 will also only work properly if the auto increment column
only has positive values. Inserting a negative number is regarded as inserting a very
large positive number. This is done to avoid precision problems when numbers ’wrap’
over from positive to negative and also to ensure that one doesn’t accidentally get an
auto increment column that contains 0.
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To make MySQL compatible with some ODBC applications, you can find the last
inserted row with the following query:
SELECT * FROM tbl_name WHERE auto_col IS NULL
• NULL values are handled differently for TIMESTAMP columns than for other column types.
You cannot store a literal NULL in a TIMESTAMP column; setting the column to NULL
sets it to the current date and time. Because TIMESTAMP columns behave this way, the
NULL and NOT NULL attributes do not apply in the normal way and are ignored if you
specify them.
On the other hand, to make it easier for MySQL clients to use TIMESTAMP columns,
the server reports that such columns may be assigned NULL values (which is true), even
though TIMESTAMP never actually will contain a NULL value. You can see this when you
use DESCRIBE tbl_name to get a description of your table.
Note that setting a TIMESTAMP column to 0 is not the same as setting it to NULL,
because 0 is a valid TIMESTAMP value.
• If no DEFAULT value is specified for a column, MySQL automatically assigns one.
If the column may take NULL as a value, the default value is NULL.
If the column is declared as NOT NULL, the default value depends on the column type:
− For numeric types other than those declared with the AUTO_INCREMENT attribute,
the default is 0. For an AUTO_INCREMENT column, the default value is the next
value in the sequence.
− For date and time types other than TIMESTAMP, the default is the appropriate zero
value for the type. For the first TIMESTAMP column in a table, the default value is
the current date and time. See Section 7.3.3 [Date and time types], page 182.
− For string types other than ENUM, the default value is the empty string. For ENUM,
the default is the first enumeration value.
Default values must be constants. This means, for example, that you cannot set the
default for a date column to be the value of a function such as NOW() or CURRENT_DATE.
• KEY is a synonym for INDEX.
• In MySQL, a UNIQUE key can have only distinct values. An error occurs if you try to
add a new row with a key that matches an existing row.
• A PRIMARY KEY is a unique KEY with the extra constraint that all key columns must
be defined as NOT NULL. In MySQL the key is named PRIMARY. A table can have only
one PRIMARY KEY. If you don’t have a PRIMARY KEY and some applications ask for the
PRIMARY KEY in your tables, MySQL will return the first UNIQUE key, which doesn’t
have any NULL columns, as the PRIMARY KEY.
• A PRIMARY KEY can be a multiple-column index. However, you cannot create a multiplecolumn index using the PRIMARY KEY key attibute in a column specification. Doing so
will mark only that single column as primary. You must use the PRIMARY KEY(index_
col_name, ...) syntax.
• If the PRIMARY or UNIQUE key consists of only one column and this is of type integer,
you can also refer to it as _rowid (new in Version 3.23.11).
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• If you don’t assign a name to an index, the index will be assigned the same name as
the first index_col_name, with an optional suffix (_2, _3, ...) to make it unique. You
can see index names for a table using SHOW INDEX FROM tbl_name. See Section 7.28
[SHOW], page 264.
• Only the MyISAM table type supports indexes on columns that can have NULL values.
In other cases you must declare such columns NOT NULL or an error results.
• With col_name(length) syntax, you can specify an index that uses only a part of a
CHAR or VARCHAR column. This can make the index file much smaller. See Section 7.3.6
[Indexes], page 192.
• Only the MyISAM table type supports indexing on BLOB and TEXT columns. When
putting an index on a BLOB or TEXT column you MUST always specify the length of
the index:
CREATE TABLE test (blob_col BLOB, index(blob_col(10)));
• When you use ORDER BY or GROUP BY with a TEXT or BLOB column, only the first max_
sort_length bytes are used. See Section 7.3.4.2 [BLOB], page 189.
• In MySQL Version 3.23.23 or later, you can also create special FULLTEXT indexes.
They are used for full-text search. Only the MyISAM table type supports FULLTEXT
indexes. They can be created only from VARCHAR and TEXT columns. Indexing always
happens over the entire column, partial indexing is not supported. See Chapter 12
[Fulltext Search], page 399 for details of operation.
• The FOREIGN KEY, CHECK, and REFERENCES clauses don’t actually do anything. The
syntax for them is provided only for compatibility, to make it easier to port code
from other SQL servers and to run applications that create tables with references. See
Section 5.4 [Missing functions], page 133.
• Each NULL column takes one bit extra, rounded up to the nearest byte.
• The maximum record length in bytes can be calculated as follows:
row length = 1
+ (sum of column lengths)
+ (number of NULL columns + 7)/8
+ (number of variable-length columns)
• The table_options and SELECT options are only implemented in MySQL Version 3.23
and above.
The different table types are:
BDB or
ley db
GEMINI
HEAP
ISAM
InnoDB
Berke-
Transaction-safe tables with page locking. See Section 8.5 [BDB],
page 309.
Transaction-safe tables with row-level locking See Section 8.6 [GEMINI], page 313.
The data for this table is only stored in memory. See Section 8.4
[HEAP], page 308.
The original table handler. See Section 8.3 [ISAM], page 307.
Transaction-safe tables with row locking. See Section 8.7 [InnoDB],
page 324.
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MERGE
A collection of MyISAM tables used as one table. See Section 8.2
[MERGE], page 305.
MyISAM
The new binary portable table handler that is replacing ISAM. See
Section 8.1 [MyISAM], page 299.
See Chapter 8 [Table types], page 298.
If a table type is specified, and that particular type is not available, MySQL will choose
the closest table type to the one that you have specified. For example, if TYPE=BDB is
specified, and that distribution of MySQL does not support BDB tables, the table will
be created as MyISAM instead.
The other table options are used to optimize the behavior of the table. In most cases,
you don’t have to specify any of them. The options work for all table types, if not
otherwise indicated:
AUTO_INCREMENT
The next auto increment value you want to set for your table
(MyISAM).
AVG_ROW_LENGTH
An approximation of the average row length for your table. You only
need to set this for large tables with variable size records.
CHECKSUM
Set this to 1 if you want MySQL to maintain a checksum for all rows
(makes the table a little slower to update but makes it easier to find
corrupted tables) (MyISAM).
COMMENT
A 60-character comment for your table.
MAX_ROWS
Max number of rows you plan to store in the table.
MIN_ROWS
Minimum number of rows you plan to store in the table.
PACK_KEYS
Set this to 1 if you want to have a smaller index. This usually makes
updates slower and reads faster (MyISAM, ISAM).
PASSWORD
Encrypt the .frm file with a password. This option doesn’t do anything
in the standard MySQL version.
DELAY_KEY_WRITE Set this to 1 if want to delay key table updates until the table is closed
(MyISAM).
ROW_FORMAT
Defines how the rows should be stored (for the future).
When you use a MyISAM table, MySQL uses the product of max_rows * avg_row_
length to decide how big the resulting table will be. If you don’t specify any of
the above options, the maximum size for a table will be 4G (or 2G if your operating
systems only supports 2G tables). The reason for this is just to keep down the pointer
sizes to make the index smaller and faster if you don’t really need big files.
If you don’t use PACK_KEYS, the default is to only pack strings, not numbers. If you
use PACK_KEYS=1, numbers will be packed as well.
When packing binary number keys, MySQL will use prefix compression. This means
that you will only get a big benefit of this if you have many numbers that are the same.
Prefix compression means that every key needs one extra byte to indicate how many
bytes of the previous key are the same for the next key (note that the pointer to the
row is stored in high-byte-first-order directly after the key, to improve compression.)
This means that if you have many equal keys on two rows in a row, all following ’same’
keys will usually only take 2 bytes (including the pointer to the row). Compare this to
the ordinary case where the following keys will take storage size for key + pointer size
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(usually 4). On the other hand, if all keys are totally different, you will lose 1 byte per
key, if the key isn’t a key that can have NULL values (In this case the packed key length
will be stored in the same byte that is used to mark if a key is NULL.)
• If you specify a SELECT after the CREATE STATEMENT, MySQL will create new fields for
all elements in the SELECT. For example:
mysql> CREATE TABLE test (a int not null auto_increment,
primary key (a), key(b))
TYPE=MyISAM SELECT b,c from test2;
This will create a MyISAM table with 3 columns. Note that the table will automatically
be deleted if any errors occur while copying data into the table.
To ensure that the update log/binary log can be used to re-create the original tables,
MySQL will not allow concurrent inserts during CREATE TABLE .... SELECT.
• The RAID_TYPE option will help you to break the 2G/4G limit for the MyISAM data
file (not the index file) on operating systems that don’t support big files. You can
get also more speed from the I/O bottleneck by putting RAID directories on different
physical disks. RAID_TYPE will work on any OS, as long as you have configured MySQL
with --with-raid. For now the only allowed RAID_TYPE is STRIPED (1 and RAID0 are
aliases for this).
If you specify RAID_TYPE=STRIPED for a MyISAM table, MyISAM will create RAID_CHUNKS
subdirectories named 00, 01, 02 in the database directory. In each of these directories
MyISAM will create a table_name.MYD. When writing data to the data file, the RAID
handler will map the first RAID_CHUNKSIZE *1024 bytes to the first file, the next RAID_
CHUNKSIZE *1024 bytes to the next file and so on.
• UNION is used when you want to use a collection of identical tables as one. This only
works with MERGE tables. See Section 8.2 [MERGE], page 305.
For the moment you need to have SELECT, UPDATE, and DELETE privileges on the tables
you map to a MERGE table. All mapped tables must be in the same database as the
MERGE table.
• In the created table the PRIMARY key will be placed first, followed by all UNIQUE keys
and then the normal keys. This helps the MySQL optimizer to prioritize which key to
use and also more quickly detect duplicated UNIQUE keys.
• By using DATA DIRECTORY="directory" or INDEX DIRECTORY="directory" you can
specify where the table handler should put it’s table and index files. This only works
for MyISAM tables in MySQL 4.0, when you are not using the --skip-symlink option.
See Section 13.2.3.2 [Symbolic links to tables], page 407.
7.7.1 Silent Column Specification Changes
In some cases, MySQL silently changes a column specification from that given in a CREATE
TABLE statement. (This may also occur with ALTER TABLE.):
• VARCHAR columns with a length less than four are changed to CHAR.
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• If any column in a table has a variable length, the entire row is variable-length as a
result. Therefore, if a table contains any variable-length columns (VARCHAR, TEXT, or
BLOB), all CHAR columns longer than three characters are changed to VARCHAR columns.
This doesn’t affect how you use the columns in any way; in MySQL, VARCHAR is just
a different way to store characters. MySQL performs this conversion because it saves
space and makes table operations faster. See Chapter 8 [Table types], page 298.
• TIMESTAMP display sizes must be even and in the range from 2 to 14. If you specify a
display size of 0 or greater than 14, the size is coerced to 14. Odd-valued sizes in the
range from 1 to 13 are coerced to the next higher even number.
• You cannot store a literal NULL in a TIMESTAMP column; setting it to NULL sets it to the
current date and time. Because TIMESTAMP columns behave this way, the NULL and NOT
NULL attributes do not apply in the normal way and are ignored if you specify them.
DESCRIBE tbl_name always reports that a TIMESTAMP column may be assigned NULL
values.
• MySQL maps certain column types used by other SQL database vendors to MySQL
types. See Section 7.3.8 [Other-vendor column types], page 194.
If you want to see whether or not MySQL used a column type other than the one you
specified, issue a DESCRIBE tbl_name statement after creating or altering your table.
Certain other column type changes may occur if you compress a table using myisampack.
See Section 8.1.2.3 [Compressed format], page 303.
7.8 ALTER TABLE Syntax
ALTER [IGNORE] TABLE tbl_name alter_spec [, alter_spec ...]
alter_specification:
ADD [COLUMN] create_definition [FIRST | AFTER column_name ]
or
ADD [COLUMN] (create_definition, create_definition,...)
or
ADD INDEX [index_name] (index_col_name,...)
or
ADD PRIMARY KEY (index_col_name,...)
or
ADD UNIQUE [index_name] (index_col_name,...)
or
ADD FULLTEXT [index_name] (index_col_name,...)
or ADD [CONSTRAINT symbol] FOREIGN KEY index_name (index_col_name,...)
[reference_definition]
or
ALTER [COLUMN] col_name {SET DEFAULT literal | DROP DEFAULT}
or
CHANGE [COLUMN] old_col_name create_definition
or
MODIFY [COLUMN] create_definition
or
DROP [COLUMN] col_name
or
DROP PRIMARY KEY
or
DROP INDEX index_name
or
RENAME [TO] new_tbl_name
or
ORDER BY col
or
table_options
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ALTER TABLE allows you to change the structure of an existing table. For example, you can
add or delete columns, create or destroy indexes, change the type of existing columns, or
rename columns or the table itself. You can also change the comment for the table and
type of the table. See Section 7.7 [CREATE TABLE], page 230.
If you use ALTER TABLE to change a column specification but DESCRIBE tbl_name indicates
that your column was not changed, it is possible that MySQL ignored your modification
for one of the reasons described in Section 7.7.1 [Silent column changes], page 236. For
example, if you try to change a VARCHAR column to CHAR, MySQL will still use VARCHAR if
the table contains other variable-length columns.
ALTER TABLE works by making a temporary copy of the original table. The alteration is
performed on the copy, then the original table is deleted and the new one is renamed. This
is done in such a way that all updates are automatically redirected to the new table without
any failed updates. While ALTER TABLE is executing, the original table is readable by other
clients. Updates and writes to the table are stalled until the new table is ready.
Note that if you use any other option to ALTER TABLE than RENAME, MySQL will always
create a temporary table, even if the data wouldn’t strictly need to be copied (like when
you change the name of a column). We plan to fix this in the future, but as one doesn’t
normally do ALTER TABLE that often this isn’t that high on our TODO.
• To use ALTER TABLE, you need select, insert, delete, update, create, and drop privileges
on the table.
• IGNORE is a MySQL extension to ANSI SQL92. It controls how ALTER TABLE works if
there are duplicates on unique keys in the new table. If IGNORE isn’t specified, the copy
is aborted and rolled back. If IGNORE is specified, then for rows with duplicates on a
unique key, only the first row is used; the others are deleted.
• You can issue multiple ADD, ALTER, DROP, and CHANGE clauses in a single ALTER TABLE
statement. This is a MySQL extension to ANSI SQL92, which allows only one of each
clause per ALTER TABLE statement.
• CHANGE col_name, DROP col_name, and DROP INDEX are MySQL extensions to ANSI
SQL92.
• MODIFY is an Oracle extension to ALTER TABLE.
• TRUNCATE is an Oracle extension. See Section 7.18 [TRUNCATE], page 246.
• The optional word COLUMN is a pure noise word and can be omitted.
• If you use ALTER TABLE tbl_name RENAME TO new_name without any other options,
MySQL simply renames the files that correspond to the table tbl_name. There is no
need to create the temporary table. See Section 7.9 [RENAME TABLE], page 240.
• create_definition clauses use the same syntax for ADD and CHANGE as for CREATE
TABLE. Note that this syntax includes the column name, not just the column type. See
Section 7.7 [CREATE TABLE], page 230.
• You can rename a column using a CHANGE old_col_name create_definition clause.
To do so, specify the old and new column names and the type that the column currently
has. For example, to rename an INTEGER column from a to b, you can do this:
mysql> ALTER TABLE t1 CHANGE a b INTEGER;
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If you want to change a column’s type but not the name, CHANGE syntax still requires
two column names even if they are the same. For example:
mysql> ALTER TABLE t1 CHANGE b b BIGINT NOT NULL;
However, as of MySQL Version 3.22.16a, you can also use MODIFY to change a column’s
type without renaming it:
mysql> ALTER TABLE t1 MODIFY b BIGINT NOT NULL;
• If you use CHANGE or MODIFY to shorten a column for which an index exists on part of
the column (for instance, if you have an index on the first 10 characters of a VARCHAR
column), you cannot make the column shorter than the number of characters that are
indexed.
• When you change a column type using CHANGE or MODIFY, MySQL tries to convert data
to the new type as well as possible.
• In MySQL Version 3.22 or later, you can use FIRST or ADD ... AFTER col_name to add
a column at a specific position within a table row. The default is to add the column
last.
• ALTER COLUMN specifies a new default value for a column or removes the old default
value. If the old default is removed and the column can be NULL, the new default is
NULL. If the column cannot be NULL, MySQL assigns a default value. Default value
assignment is described in Section 7.7 [CREATE TABLE], page 230.
• DROP INDEX removes an index. This is a MySQL extension to ANSI SQL92.
• If columns are dropped from a table, the columns are also removed from any index of
which they are a part. If all columns that make up an index are dropped, the index is
dropped as well.
• DROP PRIMARY KEY drops the primary index. If no such index exists, it drops the first
UNIQUE index in the table. (MySQL marks the first UNIQUE key as the PRIMARY KEY if
no PRIMARY KEY was specified explicitly.)
• ORDER BY allows you to create the new table with the rows in a specific order. Note
that the table will not remain in this order after inserts and deletes. In some cases, it
may make sorting easier for MySQL if the table is in order by the column that you wish
to order it by later. This option is mainly useful when you know that you are mostly
going to query the rows in a certain order; By using this option after big changes to
the table, you may be able to get higher performance.
• If you use ALTER TABLE on a MyISAM table, all non-unique indexes are created in a
separate batch (like in REPAIR). This should make ALTER TABLE much faster when you
have many indexes.
• With the C API function mysql_info(), you can find out how many records were
copied, and (when IGNORE is used) how many records were deleted due to duplication
of unique key values.
• The FOREIGN KEY, CHECK, and REFERENCES clauses don’t actually do anything. The
syntax for them is provided only for compatibility, to make it easier to port code
from other SQL servers and to run applications that create tables with references. See
Section 5.4 [Missing functions], page 133.
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Here is an example that shows some of the uses of ALTER TABLE. We begin with a table t1
that is created as shown below:
mysql> CREATE TABLE t1 (a INTEGER,b CHAR(10));
To rename the table from t1 to t2:
mysql> ALTER TABLE t1 RENAME t2;
To change column a from INTEGER to TINYINT NOT NULL (leaving the name the same), and
to change column b from CHAR(10) to CHAR(20) as well as renaming it from b to c:
mysql> ALTER TABLE t2 MODIFY a TINYINT NOT NULL, CHANGE b c CHAR(20);
To add a new TIMESTAMP column named d:
mysql> ALTER TABLE t2 ADD d TIMESTAMP;
To add an index on column d, and make column a the primary key:
mysql> ALTER TABLE t2 ADD INDEX (d), ADD PRIMARY KEY (a);
To remove column c:
mysql> ALTER TABLE t2 DROP COLUMN c;
To add a new AUTO_INCREMENT integer column named c:
mysql> ALTER TABLE t2 ADD c INT UNSIGNED NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
ADD INDEX (c);
Note that we indexed c, because AUTO_INCREMENT columns must be indexed, and also that
we declare c as NOT NULL, because indexed columns cannot be NULL.
When you add an AUTO_INCREMENT column, column values are filled in with sequence numbers for you automatically. You can set the first sequence number by executing SET INSERT_
ID=# before ALTER TABLE or using the AUTO_INCREMENT = # table option. See Section 7.33
[SET OPTION], page 287.
With MyISAM tables, if you don’t change the AUTO_INCREMENT column, the sequence number will not be affected. If you drop an AUTO_INCREMENT column and then add another
AUTO_INCREMENT column, the numbers will start from 1 again.
See Section 21.20 [ALTER TABLE problems], page 526.
7.9 RENAME TABLE Syntax
RENAME TABLE tbl_name TO new_table_name[, tbl_name2 TO new_table_name2,...]
The rename is done atomically, which means that no other thread can access any of the
tables while the rename is running. This makes it possible to replace a table with an empty
one:
CREATE TABLE new_table (...);
RENAME TABLE old_table TO backup_table, new_table TO old_table;
The rename is done from left to right, which means that if you want to swap two tables
names, you have to:
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RENAME TABLE old_table
TO backup_table,
new_table
TO old_table,
backup_table TO new_table;
As long as two databases are on the same disk you can also rename from one database to
another:
RENAME TABLE current_database.table_name TO other_database.table_name;
When you execute RENAME, you can’t have any locked tables or active transactions. You
must also have the ALTER and DROP privilege on the original table and CREATE and INSERT
privilege on the new table.
If MySQL encounters any errors in a multiple table rename, it will do a reverse rename for
all renamed tables to get everything back to the original state.
7.10 DROP TABLE Syntax
DROP TABLE [IF EXISTS] tbl_name [, tbl_name,...] [RESTRICT | CASCADE]
DROP TABLE removes one or more tables. All table data and the table definition are removed,
so be careful with this command!
In MySQL Version 3.22 or later, you can use the keywords IF EXISTS to prevent an error
from occurring for tables that don’t exist.
RESTRICT and CASCADE are allowed to make porting easier. For the moment they don’t do
anything.
NOTE: DROP TABLE is not transaction-safe and will automatically commit any active transactions.
7.11 OPTIMIZE TABLE Syntax
OPTIMIZE TABLE tbl_name[,tbl_name]...
OPTIMIZE TABLE should be used if you have deleted a large part of a table or if you have
made many changes to a table with variable-length rows (tables that have VARCHAR, BLOB,
or TEXT columns). Deleted records are maintained in a linked list and subsequent INSERT
operations reuse old record positions. You can use OPTIMIZE TABLE to reclaim the unused
space and to defragment the data file.
For the moment OPTIMIZE TABLE only works on MyISAM and BDB tables. For BDB tables, OPTIMIZE TABLE is currently mapped to ANALYZE TABLE. See Section 7.15 [ANALYZE
TABLE], page 244.
You can get optimize table to work on other table types by starting mysqld with --skip-new
or --safe-mode, but in this case OPTIMIZE TABLE is just mapped to ALTER TABLE.
OPTIMIZE TABLE works the following way:
• If the table has deleted or split rows, repair the table.
• If the index pages are not sorted, sort them.
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• If the statistics are not up to date (and the repair couldn’t be done by sorting the
index), update them.
OPTIMIZE TABLE for MyISAM tables is equvialent of running myisamchk --quick --checkchanged-tables --sort-index --analyze on the table.
Note that the table is locked during the time OPTIMIZE TABLE is running!
7.12 CHECK TABLE Syntax
CHECK TABLE tbl_name[,tbl_name...] [option [option...]]
option = QUICK | FAST | MEDIUM | EXTEND | CHANGED
CHECK TABLE only works on MyISAM tables. On MyISAM tables it’s the same thing as running
myisamchk -m table_name on the table.
If you don’t specify any option MEDIUM is used.
Checks the table(s) for errors. For MyISAM tables the key statistics is updated. The command returns a table with the following columns:
Column
Table
Op
Msg type
Msg text
Value
Table name.
Always “check”.
One of status, error, info, or warning.
The message.
Note that you can get many rows of information for each checked table. The last row will
be of Msg_type status and should normally be OK. If you don’t get OK, or Not checked you
should normally run a repair of the table. See Section 16.1 [Table maintenance], page 465.
Not checked means that the table the given TYPE told MySQL that there wasn’t any need
to check the table.
The different check types stand for the following:
Type
QUICK
FAST
CHANGED
Meaning
Don’t scan the rows to check for wrong links.
Only check tables which haven’t been closed properly.
Only check tables which have been changed since last check or haven’t
been closed properly.
MEDIUM
Scan rows to verify that deleted links are ok. This also calculates a key
checksum for the rows and verifies this with a calcualted checksum for
the keys.
EXTENDED
Do a full key lookup for all keys for each row. This ensures that the
table is 100 % consistent, but will take a long time!
For dynamic sized MyISAM tables a started check will always do a MEDIUM check. For static
size rows we skip the row scan for QUICK and FAST as the rows are very seldom corrupted.
You can combine check options as in:
CHECK TABLE test_table FAST QUICK;
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Which only would do a quick check on the table if it wasn’t closed properly.
NOTE: that in some case CHECK TABLE will change the table! This happens if the table is
marked as ’corrupted’ or ’not closed properly’ but CHECK TABLE didn’t find any problems
in the table. In this case CHECK TABLE will mark the table as ok.
If a table is corrupted, then it’s most likely that the problem is in the indexes and not in
the data part. All of the above check types checks the indexes throughly and should thus
find most errors.
If you just want to check a table that you assume is ok, you should use no check options or
the QUICK option. The later should be used when you are in a hurry and can take the very
small risk that QUICK didn’t find an error in the data file (In most cases MySQL should
find, under normal usage, any error in the data file. If this happens then the table will be
marked as ’corrupted’, in which case the table can’t be used until it’s repaired).
FAST and CHANGED are mostly intended to be used from a script (for example to be executed
from cron) if you want to check your table from time to time. In most cases you FAST is to
be prefered over CHANGED. (The only case when it isn’t is when you suspect a bug you have
found a bug in the MyISAM code.).
EXTENDED is only to be used after you have run a normal check but still get strange errors
from a table when MySQL tries to update a row or find a row by key (this is VERY unlikely
to happen if a normal check has succeeded!).
7.13 BACKUP TABLE Syntax
BACKUP TABLE tbl_name[,tbl_name...] TO ’/path/to/backup/directory’
Make a copy of all the table files to the backup directory that are the minimum needed
to restore it. Currenlty only works for MyISAM tables. For MyISAM table, copies .frm
(definition) and .MYD (data) files. The index file can be rebuilt from those two.
During the backup, read lock will be held for each table, one at time, as they are being
backed up. If you want to backup several tables as a snapshot, you must first issue LOCK
TABLES obtaining a read lock for each table in the group.
The command returns a table with the following columns:
Column
Table
Op
Msg type
Msg text
Value
Table name
Always “backup”
One of status, error, info or warning.
The message.
Note that BACKUP TABLE is only available in MySQL version 3.23.25 and later.
7.14 RESTORE TABLE Syntax
RESTORE TABLE tbl_name[,tbl_name...] FROM ’/path/to/backup/directory’
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Restores the table(s) from the backup that was made with BACKUP TABLE. Existing tables
will not be overwritten - if you try to restore over an existing table, you will get an error.
Restore will take longer than BACKUP due to the need to rebuilt the index. The more
keys you have, the longer it is going to take. Just as BACKUP TABLE, currently only works
of MyISAM tables.
The command returns a table with the following columns:
Column
Table
Op
Msg type
Msg text
Value
Table name
Always “restore”
One of status, error, info or warning.
The message.
7.15 ANALYZE TABLE Syntax
ANALYZE TABLE tbl_name[,tbl_name...]
Analyze and store the key distribution for the table. During the analyze the table is locked
with a read lock. This works on MyISAM and BDB tables.
This is equivalent to running myisamchk -a on the table.
MySQL uses the stored key distribution to decide in which order tables should be joined
when one does a join on something else than a constant.
The command returns a table with the following columns:
Column
Table
Op
Msg type
Msg text
Value
Table name
Always “analyze”
One of status, error, info or warning.
The message.
You can check the stored key distribution with the SHOW INDEX command. See Section 7.28.1
[SHOW DATABASE INFO], page 264.
If the table hasn’t changed since the last ANALYZE TABLE command, the table will not be
analyzed again.
7.16 REPAIR TABLE Syntax
REPAIR TABLE tbl_name[,tbl_name...] [QUICK] [EXTENDED]
REPAIR TABLE only works on MyISAM tables and is the same as running myisamchk -r
table_name on the table.
Normally you should never have to run this command, but if disaster strikes you are very
likely to get back all your data from a MyISAM table with REPAIR TABLE. If your tables
get corrupted a lot you should try to find the reason for this! See Section 21.2 [Crashing],
page 507. See Section 8.1.3 [MyISAM table problems], page 304.
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REPAIR TABLE repairs a possible corrupted table. The command returns a table with the
following columns:
Column
Value
Table
Table name
Op
Always “repair”
Msg type
One of status, error, info or warning.
Msg text
The message.
Note that you can get many rows of information for each repaired table. The last one row
will be of Msg_type status and should normally be OK. If you don’t get OK, you should
try repairing the table with myisamchk -o, as REPAIR TABLE does not yet implement all the
options of myisamchk. In the near future, we will make it more flexible.
If QUICK is given then MySQL will try to do a REPAIR of only the index tree.
If you use EXTENDED then MySQL will create the index row by row instead of creating one
index at a time with sorting; This may be better than sorting on fixed-length keys if you
have long char() keys that compress very good.
7.17 DELETE Syntax
DELETE [LOW_PRIORITY] FROM tbl_name
[WHERE where_definition]
[LIMIT rows]
DELETE deletes rows from tbl_name that satisfy the condition given by where_definition,
and returns the number of records deleted.
If you issue a DELETE with no WHERE clause, all rows are deleted. If you do this in AUTOCOMMIT
mode, this works as TRUNCATE. See Section 7.18 [TRUNCATE], page 246. One problem
with this is that DELETE will return zero as the number of affected records, but this will be
fixed in 4.0.
If you really want to know how many records are deleted when you are deleting all rows,
and are willing to suffer a speed penalty, you can use a DELETE statement of this form:
mysql> DELETE FROM tbl_name WHERE 1>0;
Note that this is MUCH slower than DELETE FROM tbl_name with no WHERE clause, because
it deletes rows one at a time.
If you specify the keyword LOW_PRIORITY, execution of the DELETE is delayed until no other
clients are reading from the table.
Deleted records are maintained in a linked list and subsequent INSERT operations reuse
old record positions. To reclaim unused space and reduce file sizes, use the OPTIMIZE
TABLE statement or the myisamchk utility to reorganize tables. OPTIMIZE TABLE is easier,
but myisamchk is faster. See Section 7.11 [OPTIMIZE TABLE], page 241 and Section 16.5.3
[Optimization], page 484.
The MySQL-specific LIMIT rows option to DELETE tells the server the maximum number of
rows to be deleted before control is returned to the client. This can be used to ensure that
a specific DELETE command doesn’t take too much time. You can simply repeat the DELETE
command until the number of affected rows is less than the LIMIT value.
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7.18 TRUNCATE Syntax
TRUNCATE TABLE table_name
Is in 3.23 and the same thing as DELETE FROM table_name. See Section 7.17 [DELETE],
page 245. The differences are:
• Implemented as a drop and re-create of the table, which makes this much faster when
deleting many rows.
• Not transaction-safe; TRUNCATE TABLE will automatically end the current transaction
as if COMMIT would have been called.
• Doesn’t return the number of deleted rows.
• As long as the table definition file ‘table_name.frm’ is valid, the table can be re-created
this way, even if the data or index files have become corrupted.
7.19 SELECT Syntax
SELECT [STRAIGHT_JOIN] [SQL_SMALL_RESULT] [SQL_BIG_RESULT] [SQL_BUFFER_RESULT]
[HIGH_PRIORITY]
[DISTINCT | DISTINCTROW | ALL]
select_expression,...
[INTO {OUTFILE | DUMPFILE} ’file_name’ export_options]
[FROM table_references
[WHERE where_definition]
[GROUP BY {unsigned_integer | col_name | formula} [ASC | DESC], ...]
[HAVING where_definition]
[ORDER BY {unsigned_integer | col_name | formula} [ASC | DESC] ,...]
[LIMIT [offset,] rows]
[PROCEDURE procedure_name]
[FOR UPDATE | LOCK IN SHARE MODE]]
SELECT is used to retrieve rows selected from one or more tables. select_expression
indicates the columns you want to retrieve. SELECT may also be used to retrieve rows
computed without reference to any table. For example:
mysql> SELECT 1 + 1;
-> 2
All keywords used must be given in exactly the order shown above. For example, a HAVING
clause must come after any GROUP BY clause and before any ORDER BY clause.
• A SELECT expression may be given an alias using AS. The alias is used as the expression’s
column name and can be used with ORDER BY or HAVING clauses. For example:
mysql> select concat(last_name,’, ’,first_name) AS full_name
from mytable ORDER BY full_name;
• The FROM table_references clause indicates the tables from which to retrieve rows.
If you name more than one table, you are performing a join. For information on join
syntax, see Section 7.20 [JOIN], page 249.
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• You can refer to a column as col_name, tbl_name.col_name, or db_name.tbl_
name.col_name. You need not specify a tbl_name or db_name.tbl_name prefix for a
column reference in a SELECT statement unless the reference would be ambiguous. See
Section 7.1.5 [Legal names], page 171, for examples of ambiguity that require the more
explicit column reference forms.
• A table reference may be aliased using tbl_name [AS] alias_name:
mysql> select t1.name, t2.salary from employee AS t1, info AS t2
where t1.name = t2.name;
mysql> select t1.name, t2.salary from employee t1, info t2
where t1.name = t2.name;
• Columns selected for output may be referred to in ORDER BY and GROUP BY clauses using
column names, column aliases, or column positions. Column positions begin with 1:
mysql> select college, region, seed from tournament
ORDER BY region, seed;
mysql> select college, region AS r, seed AS s from tournament
ORDER BY r, s;
mysql> select college, region, seed from tournament
ORDER BY 2, 3;
To sort in reverse order, add the DESC (descending) keyword to the name of the column
in the ORDER BY clause that you are sorting by. The default is ascending order; this
may be specified explicitly using the ASC keyword.
• You can in the WHERE clause use any of the functions that MySQL support. See Section 7.4 [Functions], page 194.
• The HAVING clause can refer to any column or alias named in the select_expression.
It is applied last, just before items are sent to the client, with no optimization. Don’t
use HAVING for items that should be in the WHERE clause. For example, do not write
this:
mysql> select col_name from tbl_name HAVING col_name > 0;
Write this instead:
mysql> select col_name from tbl_name WHERE col_name > 0;
In MySQL Version 3.22.5 or later, you can also write queries like this:
mysql> select user,max(salary) from users
group by user HAVING max(salary)>10;
In older MySQL versions, you can write this instead:
mysql> select user,max(salary) AS sum from users
group by user HAVING sum>10;
• SQL_SMALL_RESULT, SQL_BIG_RESULT, SQL_BUFFER_RESULT, STRAIGHT_JOIN, and
HIGH_PRIORITY are MySQL extensions to ANSI SQL92.
• HIGH_PRIORITY will give the SELECT higher priority than a statement that updates a
table. You should only use this for queries that are very fast and must be done at once.
A SELECT HIGH_PRIORITY query will run if the table is locked for read even if there is
an update statement that is waiting for the table to be free.
• SQL_BIG_RESULT can be used with GROUP BY or DISTINCT to tell the optimizer that
the result set will have many rows. In this case, MySQL will directly use disk-based
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temporary tables if needed. MySQL will also, in this case, prefer sorting to doing a
temporary table with a key on the GROUP BY elements.
If you use GROUP BY, the output rows will be sorted according to the GROUP BY as if you
would have had an ORDER BY over all the fields in the GROUP BY. MySQL has extended
the GROUP BY so that you can also specify ASC and DESC to GROUP BY:
SELECT a,COUNT(b) FROM test_table GROUP BY a DESC
MySQL has extended the use of GROUP BY to allow you to select fields which are not
mentioned in the GROUP BY clause. If you are not getting the results you expect from
your query, please read the GROUP BY description. See Section 7.4.13 [Group by functions], page 227.
SQL_BUFFER_RESULT will force the result to be put into a temporary table. This will
help MySQL free the table locks early and will help in cases where it takes a long time
to send the result set to the client.
SQL_SMALL_RESULT, a MySQL-specific option, can be used with GROUP BY or DISTINCT
to tell the optimizer that the result set will be small. In this case, MySQL will use
fast temporary tables to store the resulting table instead of using sorting. In MySQL
Version 3.23 this shouldn’t normally be needed.
STRAIGHT_JOIN forces the optimizer to join the tables in the order in which they are
listed in the FROM clause. You can use this to speed up a query if the optimizer joins
the tables in non-optimal order. See Section 7.29 [EXPLAIN], page 280.
The LIMIT clause can be used to constrain the number of rows returned by the SELECT
statement. LIMIT takes one or two numeric arguments.
If two arguments are given, the first specifies the offset of the first row to return, the
second specifies the maximum number of rows to return. The offset of the initial row
is 0 (not 1):
mysql> select * from table LIMIT 5,10; # Retrieve rows 6-15
If one argument is given, it indicates the maximum number of rows to return:
mysql> select * from table LIMIT 5;
# Retrieve first 5 rows
In other words, LIMIT n is equivalent to LIMIT 0,n.
The SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE ’file_name’ form of SELECT writes the selected rows
to a file. The file is created on the server host and cannot already exist (among
other things, this prevents database tables and files such as ‘/etc/passwd’ from being
destroyed). You must have the file privilege on the server host to use this form of
SELECT.
SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE is mainly intended to let you very quickly dump a table on
the server machine. If you want to create the resulting file on some other host than the
server host you can’t use SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE. In this case you should instead
use some client program like mysqldump --tab or mysql -e "SELECT ..." > outfile
to generate the file.
SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE is the complement of LOAD DATA INFILE; the syntax for the
export_options part of the statement consists of the same FIELDS and LINES clauses
that are used with the LOAD DATA INFILE statement. See Section 7.23 [LOAD DATA],
page 255.
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In the resulting text file, only the following characters are escaped by the ESCAPED BY
character:
• The ESCAPED BY character
• The first character in FIELDS TERMINATED BY
• The first character in LINES TERMINATED BY
Additionally, ASCII 0 is converted to ESCAPED BY followed by 0 (ASCII 48).
The reason for the above is that you MUST escape any FIELDS TERMINATED BY,
ESCAPED BY, or LINES TERMINATED BY characters to reliably be able to read the file
back. ASCII 0 is escaped to make it easier to view with some pagers.
As the resulting file doesn’t have to conform to the SQL syntax, nothing else need be
escaped.
Here follows an example of getting a file in the format used by many old programs.
SELECT a,b,a+b INTO OUTFILE "/tmp/result.text"
FIELDS TERMINATED BY ’,’ OPTIONALLY ENCLOSED BY ’"’
LINES TERMINATED BY "\n"
FROM test_table;
• If you use INTO DUMPFILE instead of INTO OUTFILE, MySQL will only write one row
into the file, without any column or line terminations and without any escaping. This
is useful if you want to store a blob in a file.
• Note that any file created by INTO OUTFILE and INTO DUMPFILE is going to be readable
for all users! The reason is that the MySQL server can’t create a file that is owned by
anyone else than the user it’s running as (you should never run mysqld as root), the
file has to be word readable so that you can retrieve the rows.
• If you are using FOR UPDATE on a table handler with page/row locks, the examined rows
will be write locked.
7.20 JOIN Syntax
MySQL supports the following JOIN syntaxes for use in SELECT statements:
table_reference, table_reference
table_reference [CROSS] JOIN table_reference
table_reference INNER JOIN table_reference join_condition
table_reference STRAIGHT_JOIN table_reference
table_reference LEFT [OUTER] JOIN table_reference join_condition
table_reference LEFT [OUTER] JOIN table_reference
table_reference NATURAL [LEFT [OUTER]] JOIN table_reference
{ oj table_reference LEFT OUTER JOIN table_reference ON conditional_expr }
table_reference RIGHT [OUTER] JOIN table_reference join_condition
table_reference RIGHT [OUTER] JOIN table_reference
table_reference NATURAL [RIGHT [OUTER]] JOIN table_reference
Where table_reference is defined as:
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table_name [[AS] alias] [USE INDEX (key_list)] [IGNORE INDEX (key_list)]
and join_condition is defined as:
ON conditional_expr |
USING (column_list)
Note that in versions before Version 3.23.16, the INNER JOIN didn’t take a join condition!
The last LEFT OUTER JOIN syntax shown above exists only for compatibility with ODBC:
• A table reference may be aliased using tbl_name AS alias_name or tbl_name alias_
name:
mysql> select t1.name, t2.salary from employee AS t1, info AS t2
where t1.name = t2.name;
• INNER JOIN and , (comma) are semantically equivalent. Both do a full join between
the tables used. Normally, you specify how the tables should be linked in the WHERE
condition.
• The ON conditional is any conditional of the form that may be used in a WHERE clause.
• If there is no matching record for the right table in the ON or USING part in a LEFT
JOIN, a row with all columns set to NULL is used for the right table. You can use this
fact to find records in a table that have no counterpart in another table:
mysql> select table1.* from table1
LEFT JOIN table2 ON table1.id=table2.id
where table2.id is NULL;
This example finds all rows in table1 with an id value that is not present in table2
(that is, all rows in table1 with no corresponding row in table2). This assumes that
table2.id is declared NOT NULL, of course. See Section 13.5.5 [LEFT JOIN optimization], page 422.
• The USING (column_list) clause names a list of columns that must exist in both
tables. A USING clause such as:
A LEFT JOIN B USING (C1,C2,C3,...)
is defined to be semantically identical to an ON expression like this:
A.C1=B.C1 AND A.C2=B.C2 AND A.C3=B.C3,...
• The NATURAL [LEFT] JOIN of two tables is defined to be semantically equivalent to an
INNER JOIN or a LEFT JOIN with a USING clause that names all columns that exist in
both tables.
• RIGHT JOIN works analogously as LEFT JOIN. To keep code portable across databases,
it’s recommended to use LEFT JOIN instead of RIGHT JOIN.
• STRAIGHT_JOIN is identical to JOIN, except that the left table is always read before the
right table. This can be used for those (few) cases where the join optimizer puts the
tables in the wrong order.
• As of MySQL Version 3.23.12, you can give hints about which index MySQL should use
when retrieving information from a table. This is useful if EXPLAIN shows that MySQL
is using the wrong index. By specifying USE INDEX (key_list), you can tell MySQL
to use only one of the specified indexes to find rows in the table. The alternative syntax
IGNORE INDEX (key_list) can be used to tell MySQL to not use some particular index.
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Some examples:
mysql> select *
mysql> select *
mysql> select *
mysql> select *
LEFT
mysql> select *
key3=3;
mysql> select *
key3=3;
See Section 13.5.5 [LEFT
from
from
from
from
JOIN
from
table1,table2 where table1.id=table2.id;
table1 LEFT JOIN table2 ON table1.id=table2.id;
table1 LEFT JOIN table2 USING (id);
table1 LEFT JOIN table2 ON table1.id=table2.id
table3 ON table2.id=table3.id;
table1 USE INDEX (key1,key2) WHERE key1=1 and key2=2 AND
from table1 IGNORE INDEX (key3) WHERE key1=1 and key2=2 AND
JOIN optimization], page 422.
7.21 INSERT Syntax
or
or
or
INSERT [LOW_PRIORITY | DELAYED] [IGNORE]
[INTO] tbl_name [(col_name,...)]
VALUES (expression,...),(...),...
INSERT [LOW_PRIORITY | DELAYED] [IGNORE]
[INTO] tbl_name [(col_name,...)]
SELECT ...
INSERT [LOW_PRIORITY | DELAYED] [IGNORE]
[INTO] tbl_name
SET col_name=expression, col_name=expression, ...
INSERT [LOW_PRIORITY] [IGNORE] [INTO] tbl_name
SELECT ...
INSERT inserts new rows into an existing table. The INSERT ... VALUES form of the statement inserts rows based on explicitly specified values. The INSERT ... SELECT form inserts
rows selected from another table or tables. The INSERT ... VALUES form with multiple
value lists is supported in MySQL Version 3.22.5 or later. The col_name=expression
syntax is supported in MySQL Version 3.22.10 or later.
tbl_name is the table into which rows should be inserted. The column name list or the SET
clause indicates which columns the statement specifies values for:
• If you specify no column list for INSERT ... VALUES or INSERT ... SELECT, values for
all columns must be provided in the VALUES() list or by the SELECT. If you don’t know
the order of the columns in the table, use DESCRIBE tbl_name to find out.
• Any column not explicitly given a value is set to its default value. For example, if you
specify a column list that doesn’t name all the columns in the table, unnamed columns
are set to their default values. Default value assignment is described in Section 7.7
[CREATE TABLE], page 230.
• An expression may refer to any column that was set earlier in a value list. For
example, you can say this:
mysql> INSERT INTO tbl_name (col1,col2) VALUES(15,col1*2);
But not this:
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mysql> INSERT INTO tbl_name (col1,col2) VALUES(col2*2,15);
If you specify the keyword LOW_PRIORITY, execution of the INSERT is delayed until no
other clients are reading from the table. In this case the client has to wait until the insert
statement is completed, which may take a long time if the table is in heavy use. This is
in contrast to INSERT DELAYED, which lets the client continue at once. See Section 7.21.2
[INSERT DELAYED], page 253. Note that LOW_PRIORITY should normally not be
used with MyISAM tables as this disables concurrent inserts. See Section 8.1 [MyISAM],
page 299.
If you specify the keyword IGNORE in an INSERT with many value rows, any rows
that duplicate an existing PRIMARY or UNIQUE key in the table are ignored and are
not inserted. If you do not specify IGNORE, the insert is aborted if there is any row
that duplicates an existing key value. You can determine with the C API function
mysql_info() how many rows were inserted into the table.
If MySQL was configured using the DONT_USE_DEFAULT_FIELDS option, INSERT statements generate an error unless you explicitly specify values for all columns that require
a non-NULL value. See Section 4.7.3 [configure options], page 65.
You can find the value used for an AUTO_INCREMENT column with the mysql_insert_id
function. See Section 24.1.3.30 [mysql_insert_id()], page 562.
If you use INSERT ... SELECT or an INSERT ... VALUES statement with multiple value lists,
you can use the C API function mysql_info() to get information about the query. The
format of the information string is shown below:
Records: 100 Duplicates: 0 Warnings: 0
Duplicates indicates the number of rows that couldn’t be inserted because they would
duplicate some existing unique index value. Warnings indicates the number of attempts to
insert column values that were problematic in some way. Warnings can occur under any of
the following conditions:
• Inserting NULL into a column that has been declared NOT NULL. The column is set to
its default value.
• Setting a numeric column to a value that lies outside the column’s range. The value is
clipped to the appropriate endpoint of the range.
• Setting a numeric column to a value such as ’10.34 a’. The trailing garbage is stripped
and the remaining numeric part is inserted. If the value doesn’t make sense as a number
at all, the column is set to 0.
• Inserting a string into a CHAR, VARCHAR, TEXT, or BLOB column that exceeds the column’s
maximum length. The value is truncated to the column’s maximum length.
• Inserting a value into a date or time column that is illegal for the column type. The
column is set to the appropriate zero value for the type.
7.21.1 INSERT ... SELECT Syntax
INSERT [LOW_PRIORITY] [IGNORE] [INTO] tbl_name [(column list)] SELECT ...
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With INSERT ... SELECT statement you can quickly insert many rows into a table from one
or many tables.
INSERT INTO tblTemp2 (fldID) SELECT tblTemp1.fldOrder_ID FROM tblTemp1 WHERE
tblTemp1.fldOrder_ID > 100;
The following conditions hold for an INSERT ... SELECT statement:
− The query cannot contain an ORDER BY clause.
− The target table of the INSERT statement cannot appear in the FROM clause of the
SELECT part of the query because it’s forbidden in ANSI SQL to SELECT from the same
table into which you are inserting. (The problem is that the SELECT possibly would
find records that were inserted earlier during the same run. When using sub-select
clauses, the situation could easily be very confusing!)
− AUTO_INCREMENT columns work as usual.
− You can use the C API function mysql_info() to get information about the query.
See Section 7.21 [INSERT], page 251.
− To ensure that the update log/binary log can be used to re-create the original tables,
MySQL will not allow concurrent inserts during INSERT .... SELECT.
You can of course also use REPLACE instead of INSERT to overwrite old rows.
7.21.2 INSERT DELAYED syntax
INSERT DELAYED ...
The DELAYED option for the INSERT statement is a MySQL-specific option that is very
useful if you have clients that can’t wait for the INSERT to complete. This is a common
problem when you use MySQL for logging and you also periodically run SELECT and UPDATE
statements that take a long time to complete. DELAYED was introduced in MySQL Version
3.22.15. It is a MySQL extension to ANSI SQL92.
INSERT DELAYED only works with ISAM and MyISAM tables. Note that as MyISAM tables
supports concurrent SELECT and INSERT, if there is no empty blocks in the data file, you
very seldom need to use INSERT DELAYED with MyISAM.
When you use INSERT DELAYED, the client will get an OK at once and the row will be
inserted when the table is not in use by any other thread.
Another major benefit of using INSERT DELAYED is that inserts from many clients are bundled together and written in one block. This is much faster than doing many separate
inserts.
Note that currently the queued rows are only stored in memory until they are inserted into
the table. This means that if you kill mysqld the hard way (kill -9) or if mysqld dies
unexpectedly, any queued rows that weren’t written to disk are lost!
The following describes in detail what happens when you use the DELAYED option to INSERT
or REPLACE. In this description, the “thread” is the thread that received an INSERT DELAYED
command and “handler” is the thread that handles all INSERT DELAYED statements for a
particular table.
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• When a thread executes a DELAYED statement for a table, a handler thread is created
to process all DELAYED statements for the table, if no such handler already exists.
• The thread checks whether or not the handler has acquired a DELAYED lock already;
if not, it tells the handler thread to do so. The DELAYED lock can be obtained even if
other threads have a READ or WRITE lock on the table. However, the handler will wait
for all ALTER TABLE locks or FLUSH TABLES to ensure that the table structure is up to
date.
• The thread executes the INSERT statement, but instead of writing the row to the table,
it puts a copy of the final row into a queue that is managed by the handler thread.
Any syntax errors are noticed by the thread and reported to the client program.
• The client can’t report the number of duplicates or the AUTO_INCREMENT value for the
resulting row; it can’t obtain them from the server, because the INSERT returns before
the insert operation has been completed. If you use the C API, the mysql_info()
function doesn’t return anything meaningful, for the same reason.
• The update log is updated by the handler thread when the row is inserted into the
table. In case of multiple-row inserts, the update log is updated when the first row is
inserted.
• After every delayed_insert_limit rows are written, the handler checks whether or
not any SELECT statements are still pending. If so, it allows these to execute before
continuing.
• When the handler has no more rows in its queue, the table is unlocked. If no new INSERT
DELAYED commands are received within delayed_insert_timeout seconds, the handler
terminates.
• If more than delayed_queue_size rows are pending already in a specific handler queue,
the thread requesting INSERT DELAYED waits until there is room in the queue. This is
done to ensure that the mysqld server doesn’t use all memory for the delayed memory
queue.
• The handler thread will show up in the MySQL process list with delayed_insert in
the Command column. It will be killed if you execute a FLUSH TABLES command or kill it
with KILL thread_id. However, it will first store all queued rows into the table before
exiting. During this time it will not accept any new INSERT commands from another
thread. If you execute an INSERT DELAYED command after this, a new handler thread
will be created.
• Note that the above means that INSERT DELAYED commands have higher priority than
normal INSERT commands if there is an INSERT DELAYED handler already running!
Other update commands will have to wait until the INSERT DELAYED queue is empty,
someone kills the handler thread (with KILL thread_id), or someone executes FLUSH
TABLES.
• The following status variables provide information about INSERT DELAYED commands:
Variable
Delayed_insert_threads
Delayed_writes
Not_flushed_delayed_rows
Meaning
Number of handler threads
Number of rows written with INSERT DELAYED
Number of rows waiting to be written
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You can view these variables by issuing a SHOW STATUS statement or by executing a
mysqladmin extended-status command.
Note that INSERT DELAYED is slower than a normal INSERT if the table is not in use. There
is also the additional overhead for the server to handle a separate thread for each table on
which you use INSERT DELAYED. This means that you should only use INSERT DELAYED
when you are really sure you need it!
7.22 REPLACE Syntax
or
or
REPLACE [LOW_PRIORITY | DELAYED]
[INTO] tbl_name [(col_name,...)]
VALUES (expression,...)
REPLACE [LOW_PRIORITY | DELAYED]
[INTO] tbl_name [(col_name,...)]
SELECT ...
REPLACE [LOW_PRIORITY | DELAYED]
[INTO] tbl_name
SET col_name=expression, col_name=expression,...
REPLACE works exactly like INSERT, except that if an old record in the table has the same
value as a new record on a unique index, the old record is deleted before the new record is
inserted. See Section 7.21 [INSERT], page 251.
In other words, you can’t access the values of the old row from a REPLACE statement. In
some old MySQL version it looked like you could do this, but that was a bug that has been
corrected.
7.23 LOAD DATA INFILE Syntax
LOAD DATA [LOW_PRIORITY | CONCURRENT] [LOCAL] INFILE ’file_name.txt’
[REPLACE | IGNORE]
INTO TABLE tbl_name
[FIELDS
[TERMINATED BY ’\t’]
[[OPTIONALLY] ENCLOSED BY ’’]
[ESCAPED BY ’\\’ ]
]
[LINES TERMINATED BY ’\n’]
[IGNORE number LINES]
[(col_name,...)]
The LOAD DATA INFILE statement reads rows from a text file into a table at a very high
speed. If the LOCAL keyword is specified, the file is read from the client host. If LOCAL is
not specified, the file must be located on the server. (LOCAL is available in MySQL Version
3.22.6 or later.)
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For security reasons, when reading text files located on the server, the files must either
reside in the database directory or be readable by all. Also, to use LOAD DATA INFILE on
server files, you must have the file privilege on the server host. See Section 6.8 [Privileges
provided], page 149.
If you specify the keyword LOW_PRIORITY, execution of the LOAD DATA statement is delayed
until no other clients are reading from the table.
If you specify the keyword CONCURRENT with a MyISAM table, then other threads can retrieve
data from the table while LOAD DATA is executing. Using this option will of course affect the
performance of LOAD DATA a bit even if no other thread is using the table at the same time.
Using LOCAL will be a bit slower than letting the server access the files directly, because the
contents of the file must travel from the client host to the server host. On the other hand,
you do not need the file privilege to load local files.
If you are using MySQL before Version 3.23.24 you can’t read from a FIFO with LOAD DATA
INFILE. If you need to read from a FIFO (for example the output from gunzip), use LOAD
DATA LOCAL INFILE instead.
You can also load data files by using the mysqlimport utility; it operates by sending a LOAD
DATA INFILE command to the server. The --local option causes mysqlimport to read data
files from the client host. You can specify the --compress option to get better performance
over slow networks if the client and server support the compressed protocol.
When locating files on the server host, the server uses the following rules:
• If an absolute pathname is given, the server uses the pathname as is.
• If a relative pathname with one or more leading components is given, the server searches
for the file relative to the server’s data directory.
• If a filename with no leading components is given, the server looks for the file in the
database directory of the current database.
Note that these rules mean a file given as ‘./myfile.txt’ is read from the server’s data
directory, whereas a file given as ‘myfile.txt’ is read from the database directory of the
current database. For example, the following LOAD DATA statement reads the file ‘data.txt’
from the database directory for db1 because db1 is the current database, even though the
statement explicitly loads the file into a table in the db2 database:
mysql> USE db1;
mysql> LOAD DATA INFILE "data.txt" INTO TABLE db2.my_table;
The REPLACE and IGNORE keywords control handling of input records that duplicate existing
records on unique key values. If you specify REPLACE, new rows replace existing rows that
have the same unique key value. If you specify IGNORE, input rows that duplicate an existing
row on a unique key value are skipped. If you don’t specify either option, an error occurs
when a duplicate key value is found, and the rest of the text file is ignored.
If you load data from a local file using the LOCAL keyword, the server has no way to stop
transmission of the file in the middle of the operation, so the default bahavior is the same
as if IGNORE is specified.
If you use LOAD DATA INFILE on an empty MyISAM table, all non-unique indexes are created
in a separate batch (like in REPAIR). This normally makes LOAD DATA INFILE much faster
when you have many indexes.
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LOAD DATA INFILE is the complement of SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE. See Section 7.19
[SELECT], page 246. To write data from a database to a file, use SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE.
To read the file back into the database, use LOAD DATA INFILE. The syntax of the FIELDS
and LINES clauses is the same for both commands. Both clauses are optional, but FIELDS
must precede LINES if both are specified.
If you specify a FIELDS clause, each of its subclauses (TERMINATED BY, [OPTIONALLY]
ENCLOSED BY, and ESCAPED BY) is also optional, except that you must specify at least one
of them.
If you don’t specify a FIELDS clause, the defaults are the same as if you had written this:
FIELDS TERMINATED BY ’\t’ ENCLOSED BY ’’ ESCAPED BY ’\\’
If you don’t specify a LINES clause, the default is the same as if you had written this:
LINES TERMINATED BY ’\n’
In other words, the defaults cause LOAD DATA INFILE to act as follows when reading input:
• Look for line boundaries at newlines.
• Break lines into fields at tabs.
• Do not expect fields to be enclosed within any quoting characters.
• Interpret occurrences of tab, newline, or ‘\’ preceded by ‘\’ as literal characters that
are part of field values.
Conversely, the defaults cause SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE to act as follows when writing
output:
• Write tabs between fields.
• Do not enclose fields within any quoting characters.
• Use ‘\’ to escape instances of tab, newline or ‘\’ that occur within field values.
• Write newlines at the ends of lines.
Note that to write FIELDS ESCAPED BY ’\\’, you must specify two backslashes for the value
to be read as a single backslash.
The IGNORE number LINES option can be used to ignore a header of column names at the
start of the file:
mysql> LOAD DATA INFILE "/tmp/file_name" into table test IGNORE 1 LINES;
When you use SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE in tandem with LOAD DATA INFILE to write data
from a database into a file and then read the file back into the database later, the field and
line handling options for both commands must match. Otherwise, LOAD DATA INFILE will
not interpret the contents of the file properly. Suppose you use SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE
to write a file with fields delimited by commas:
mysql> SELECT * INTO OUTFILE ’data.txt’
FIELDS TERMINATED BY ’,’
FROM ...;
To read the comma-delimited file back in, the correct statement would be:
mysql> LOAD DATA INFILE ’data.txt’ INTO TABLE table2
FIELDS TERMINATED BY ’,’;
If instead you tried to read in the file with the statement shown below, it wouldn’t work
because it instructs LOAD DATA INFILE to look for tabs between fields:
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mysql> LOAD DATA INFILE ’data.txt’ INTO TABLE table2
FIELDS TERMINATED BY ’\t’;
The likely result is that each input line would be interpreted as a single field.
LOAD DATA INFILE can be used to read files obtained from external sources, too. For example, a file in dBASE format will have fields separated by commas and enclosed in double
quotes. If lines in the file are terminated by newlines, the command shown below illustrates
the field and line handling options you would use to load the file:
mysql> LOAD DATA INFILE ’data.txt’ INTO TABLE tbl_name
FIELDS TERMINATED BY ’,’ ENCLOSED BY ’"’
LINES TERMINATED BY ’\n’;
Any of the field or line handling options may specify an empty string (’’). If not empty,
the FIELDS [OPTIONALLY] ENCLOSED BY and FIELDS ESCAPED BY values must be a single
character. The FIELDS TERMINATED BY and LINES TERMINATED BY values may be more than
one character. For example, to write lines that are terminated by carriage return-linefeed
pairs, or to read a file containing such lines, specify a LINES TERMINATED BY ’\r\n’ clause.
For example, to read a file of jokes, that are separated with a line of %%, into a SQL table
you can do:
create table jokes (a int not null auto_increment primary key, joke text
not null);
load data infile "/tmp/jokes.txt" into table jokes fields terminated by ""
lines terminated by "\n%%\n" (joke);
FIELDS [OPTIONALLY] ENCLOSED BY controls quoting of fields. For output (SELECT ...
INTO OUTFILE), if you omit the word OPTIONALLY, all fields are enclosed by the ENCLOSED
BY character. An example of such output (using a comma as the field delimiter) is shown
below:
"1","a string","100.20"
"2","a string containing a , comma","102.20"
"3","a string containing a \" quote","102.20"
"4","a string containing a \", quote and comma","102.20"
If you specify OPTIONALLY, the ENCLOSED BY character is used only to enclose CHAR and
VARCHAR fields:
1,"a string",100.20
2,"a string containing a , comma",102.20
3,"a string containing a \" quote",102.20
4,"a string containing a \", quote and comma",102.20
Note that occurrences of the ENCLOSED BY character within a field value are escaped by
prefixing them with the ESCAPED BY character. Also note that if you specify an empty
ESCAPED BY value, it is possible to generate output that cannot be read properly by LOAD
DATA INFILE. For example, the output just shown above would appear as shown below if
the escape character is empty. Observe that the second field in the fourth line contains a
comma following the quote, which (erroneously) appears to terminate the field:
1,"a string",100.20
2,"a string containing a , comma",102.20
3,"a string containing a " quote",102.20
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4,"a string containing a ", quote and comma",102.20
For input, the ENCLOSED BY character, if present, is stripped from the ends of field values.
(This is true whether or not OPTIONALLY is specified; OPTIONALLY has no effect on input
interpretation.) Occurrences of the ENCLOSED BY character preceded by the ESCAPED BY
character are interpreted as part of the current field value. In addition, duplicated ENCLOSED
BY characters occurring within fields are interpreted as single ENCLOSED BY characters if the
field itself starts with that character. For example, if ENCLOSED BY ’"’ is specified, quotes
are handled as shown below:
"The ""BIG"" boss" -> The "BIG" boss
The "BIG" boss
-> The "BIG" boss
The ""BIG"" boss
-> The ""BIG"" boss
FIELDS ESCAPED BY controls how to write or read special characters. If the FIELDS ESCAPED
BY character is not empty, it is used to prefix the following characters on output:
• The FIELDS ESCAPED BY character
• The FIELDS [OPTIONALLY] ENCLOSED BY character
• The first character of the FIELDS TERMINATED BY and LINES TERMINATED BY values
• ASCII 0 (what is actually written following the escape character is ASCII ’0’, not a
zero-valued byte)
If the FIELDS ESCAPED BY character is empty, no characters are escaped. It is probably not
a good idea to specify an empty escape character, particularly if field values in your data
contain any of the characters in the list just given.
For input, if the FIELDS ESCAPED BY character is not empty, occurrences of that character
are stripped and the following character is taken literally as part of a field value. The
exceptions are an escaped ‘0’ or ‘N’ (for example, \0 or \N if the escape character is ‘\’).
These sequences are interpreted as ASCII 0 (a zero-valued byte) and NULL. See below for
the rules on NULL handling.
For more information about ‘\’-escape syntax, see Section 7.1 [Literals], page 169.
In certain cases, field and line handling options interact:
• If LINES TERMINATED BY is an empty string and FIELDS TERMINATED BY is non-empty,
lines are also terminated with FIELDS TERMINATED BY.
• If the FIELDS TERMINATED BY and FIELDS ENCLOSED BY values are both empty (’’), a
fixed-row (non-delimited) format is used. With fixed-row format, no delimiters are used
between fields. Instead, column values are written and read using the “display” widths
of the columns. For example, if a column is declared as INT(7), values for the column
are written using 7-character fields. On input, values for the column are obtained by
reading 7 characters. Fixed-row format also affects handling of NULL values; see below.
Note that fixed-size format will not work if you are using a multi-byte character set.
Handling of NULL values varies, depending on the FIELDS and LINES options you use:
• For the default FIELDS and LINES values, NULL is written as \N for output and \N is
read as NULL for input (assuming the ESCAPED BY character is ‘\’).
• If FIELDS ENCLOSED BY is not empty, a field containing the literal word NULL as its
value is read as a NULL value (this differs from the word NULL enclosed within FIELDS
ENCLOSED BY characters, which is read as the string ’NULL’).
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• If FIELDS ESCAPED BY is empty, NULL is written as the word NULL.
• With fixed-row format (which happens when FIELDS TERMINATED BY and FIELDS
ENCLOSED BY are both empty), NULL is written as an empty string. Note that this
causes both NULL values and empty strings in the table to be indistinguishable when
written to the file because they are both written as empty strings. If you need to be
able to tell the two apart when reading the file back in, you should not use fixed-row
format.
Some cases are not supported by LOAD DATA INFILE:
• Fixed-size rows (FIELDS TERMINATED BY and FIELDS ENCLOSED BY both empty) and
BLOB or TEXT columns.
• If you specify one separator that is the same as or a prefix of another, LOAD DATA INFILE
won’t be able to interpret the input properly. For example, the following FIELDS clause
would cause problems:
FIELDS TERMINATED BY ’"’ ENCLOSED BY ’"’
• If FIELDS ESCAPED BY is empty, a field value that contains an occurrence of FIELDS
ENCLOSED BY or LINES TERMINATED BY followed by the FIELDS TERMINATED BY value
will cause LOAD DATA INFILE to stop reading a field or line too early. This happens
because LOAD DATA INFILE cannot properly determine where the field or line value
ends.
The following example loads all columns of the persondata table:
mysql> LOAD DATA INFILE ’persondata.txt’ INTO TABLE persondata;
No field list is specified, so LOAD DATA INFILE expects input rows to contain a field for each
table column. The default FIELDS and LINES values are used.
If you wish to load only some of a table’s columns, specify a field list:
mysql> LOAD DATA INFILE ’persondata.txt’
INTO TABLE persondata (col1,col2,...);
You must also specify a field list if the order of the fields in the input file differs from the
order of the columns in the table. Otherwise, MySQL cannot tell how to match up input
fields with table columns.
If a row has too few fields, the columns for which no input field is present are set to default
values. Default value assignment is described in Section 7.7 [CREATE TABLE], page 230.
An empty field value is interpreted differently than if the field value is missing:
• For string types, the column is set to the empty string.
• For numeric types, the column is set to 0.
• For date and time types, the column is set to the appropriate “zero” value for the type.
See Section 7.3.3 [Date and time types], page 182.
Note that these are the same values that result if you assign an empty string explicitly to
a string, numeric, or date or time type explicitly in an INSERT or UPDATE statement.
TIMESTAMP columns are only set to the current date and time if there is a NULL value for
the column, or (for the first TIMESTAMP column only) if the TIMESTAMP column is left out
from the field list when a field list is specified.
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If an input row has too many fields, the extra fields are ignored and the number of warnings
is incremented.
LOAD DATA INFILE regards all input as strings, so you can’t use numeric values for ENUM or
SET columns the way you can with INSERT statements. All ENUM and SET values must be
specified as strings!
If you are using the C API, you can get information about the query by calling the API
function mysql_info() when the LOAD DATA INFILE query finishes. The format of the
information string is shown below:
Records: 1
Deleted: 0
Skipped: 0
Warnings: 0
Warnings occur under the same circumstances as when values are inserted via the INSERT
statement (see Section 7.21 [INSERT], page 251), except that LOAD DATA INFILE also generates warnings when there are too few or too many fields in the input row. The warnings are
not stored anywhere; the number of warnings can only be used as an indication if everything
went well. If you get warnings and want to know exactly why you got them, one way to do
this is to use SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE into another file and compare this to your original
input file.
If you need LOAD DATA to read from a pipe, you can use the following trick:
mkfifo /mysql/db/x/x
chmod 666 /mysql/db/x/x
cat < /dev/tcp/10.1.1.12/4711 > /nt/mysql/db/x/x
mysql -e "LOAD DATA INFILE ’x’ INTO TABLE x" x
If you are using a version of MySQL older than 3.23.25 you can only do the above with
LOAD DATA LOCAL INFILE.
For more information about the efficiency of INSERT versus LOAD DATA INFILE and speeding
up LOAD DATA INFILE, See Section 13.5.7 [Insert speed], page 423.
7.24 UPDATE Syntax
UPDATE [LOW_PRIORITY] [IGNORE] tbl_name
SET col_name1=expr1, [col_name2=expr2, ...]
[WHERE where_definition]
[ORDER BY ...]
[LIMIT #]
UPDATE updates columns in existing table rows with new values. The SET clause indicates
which columns to modify and the values they should be given. The WHERE clause, if given,
specifies which rows should be updated. Otherwise all rows are updated. If the ORDER BY
clause is specified, the rows will be updated in the order that is specified.
If you specify the keyword LOW_PRIORITY, execution of the UPDATE is delayed until no other
clients are reading from the table.
If you specify the keyword IGNORE, the update statement will not abort even if we get
duplicate key errors during the update. Rows that would cause conflicts will not be updated.
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If you access a column from tbl_name in an expression, UPDATE uses the current value of
the column. For example, the following statement sets the age column to one more than
its current value:
mysql> UPDATE persondata SET age=age+1;
UPDATE assignments are evaluated from left to right. For example, the following statement
doubles the age column, then increments it:
mysql> UPDATE persondata SET age=age*2, age=age+1;
If you set a column to the value it currently has, MySQL notices this and doesn’t update
it.
UPDATE returns the number of rows that were actually changed. In MySQL Version 3.22
or later, the C API function mysql_info() returns the number of rows that were matched
and updated and the number of warnings that occurred during the UPDATE.
In MySQL Version 3.23, you can use LIMIT # to ensure that only a given number of rows
are changed.
7.25 USE Syntax
USE db_name
The USE db_name statement tells MySQL to use the db_name database as the default
database for subsequent queries. The database remains current until the end of the session
or until another USE statement is issued:
mysql>
mysql>
mysql>
mysql>
USE db1;
SELECT count(*) FROM mytable;
USE db2;
SELECT count(*) FROM mytable;
# selects from db1.mytable
# selects from db2.mytable
Making a particular database current by means of the USE statement does not preclude you
from accessing tables in other databases. The example below accesses the author table
from the db1 database and the editor table from the db2 database:
mysql> USE db1;
mysql> SELECT author_name,editor_name FROM author,db2.editor
WHERE author.editor_id = db2.editor.editor_id;
The USE statement is provided for Sybase compatibility.
7.26 FLUSH Syntax
FLUSH flush_option [,flush_option]
You should use the FLUSH command if you want to clear some of the internal caches MySQL
uses. To execute FLUSH, you must have the RELOAD privilege.
flush_option can be any of the following:
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HOSTS
Empties the host cache tables. You should flush the host tables if some
of your hosts change IP number or if you get the error message Host ...
is blocked. When more than max_connect_errors errors occur in a row
for a given host while connection to the MySQL server, MySQL assumes
something is wrong and blocks the host from further connection requests.
Flushing the host tables allows the host to attempt to connect again. See
Section 21.4.4 [Blocked host], page 513.) You can start mysqld with -O
max_connection_errors=999999999 to avoid this error message.
LOGS
Closes and reopens all log files. If you have specified the update log file or
a binary log file without an extension, the extension number of the log file
will be incremented by one relative to the previous file. If you have used
an extension in the file name, MySQL will close and reopen the update log
file. See Section 23.3 [Update log], page 533.
PRIVILEGES
Reloads the privileges from the grant tables in the mysql database.
TABLES
Closes all open tables and force all tables in use to be closed.
[TABLE |
TABLES]
table_name
[,table_
name...]
TABLES WITH
READ LOCK
Flushes only the given tables.
STATUS
Resets most status variables to zero.
Closes all open tables and locks all tables for all databases with a read until
one executes UNLOCK TABLES. This is very convenient way to get backups
if you have a file system, like Veritas,that can take snapshots in time.
You can also access each of the commands shown above with the mysqladmin utility, using
the flush-hosts, flush-logs, reload, or flush-tables commands.
7.27 KILL Syntax
KILL thread_id
Each connection to mysqld runs in a separate thread. You can see which threads are
running with the SHOW PROCESSLIST command and kill a thread with the KILL thread_id
command.
If you have the process privilege, you can see and kill all threads. Otherwise, you can see
and kill only your own threads.
You can also use the mysqladmin processlist and mysqladmin kill commands to examine and kill threads.
When you do a KILL, a thread specific kill flag is set for the thread.
In most cases it may take some time for the thread to die as the kill flag is only checked at
specific intervals.
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• In SELECT, ORDER BY and GROUP BY loops, the flag is checked after reading a block of
rows. If the kill flag is set the statement is aborted
• When doing an ALTER TABLE the kill flag is checked before each block of rows are
read from the original table. If the kill flag was set the command is aborted and the
temporary table is deleted.
• When doing an UPDATE TABLE and DELETE TABLE, the kill flag is checked after each
block read and after each updated or delete row. If the kill flag is set the statement
is aborted. Note that if you are not using transactions, the changes will not be rolled
back!
• GET_LOCK() will abort with NULL.
• An INSERT DELAYED thread will quickly flush all rows it has in memory and die.
• If the thread is in the table lock handler (state: Locked), the table lock will be quickly
aborted.
• If the thread is waiting for free disk space in a write call, the write is aborted with an
disk full error message.
7.28 SHOW Syntax
or
or
or
or
or
or
or
or
or
or
or
or
or
SHOW
SHOW
SHOW
SHOW
SHOW
SHOW
SHOW
SHOW
SHOW
SHOW
SHOW
SHOW
SHOW
SHOW
DATABASES [LIKE wild]
[OPEN] TABLES [FROM db_name] [LIKE wild]
[FULL] COLUMNS FROM tbl_name [FROM db_name] [LIKE wild]
INDEX FROM tbl_name [FROM db_name]
TABLE STATUS [FROM db_name] [LIKE wild]
STATUS [LIKE wild]
VARIABLES [LIKE wild]
LOGS
[FULL] PROCESSLIST
GRANTS FOR user
CREATE TABLE table_name
MASTER STATUS
MASTER LOGS
SLAVE STATUS
SHOW provides information about databases, tables, columns, or status information about
the server. If the LIKE wild part is used, the wild string can be a string that uses the SQL
‘%’ and ‘_’ wild-card characters.
7.28.1 SHOW Information About Databases, Tables, Columns, and
Indexes
You can use db_name.tbl_name as an alternative to the tbl_name FROM db_name syntax.
These two statements are equivalent:
mysql> SHOW INDEX FROM mytable FROM mydb;
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mysql> SHOW INDEX FROM mydb.mytable;
SHOW DATABASES lists the databases on the MySQL server host. You can also get this list
using the mysqlshow command.
SHOW TABLES lists the tables in a given database. You can also get this list using the
mysqlshow db_name command.
NOTE: If a user doesn’t have any privileges for a table, the table will not show up in the
output from SHOW TABLES or mysqlshow db_name.
SHOW OPEN TABLES lists the tables that are currently open in the table cache. See Section 13.2.5 [Table cache], page 410. The Comment field tells how many times the table is
cached and in_use.
SHOW COLUMNS lists the columns in a given table. If you specify the FULL option, you will
also get the privileges you have for each column. If the column types are different than
you expect them to be based on a CREATE TABLE statement, note that MySQL sometimes
changes column types. See Section 7.7.1 [Silent column changes], page 236.
The DESCRIBE statement provides information similar to SHOW COLUMNS. See Section 7.30
[DESCRIBE], page 285.
SHOW FIELDS is a synonym for SHOW COLUMNS, and SHOW KEYS is a synonym for SHOW INDEX.
You can also list a table’s columns or indexes with mysqlshow db_name tbl_name or
mysqlshow -k db_name tbl_name.
SHOW INDEX returns the index information in a format that closely resembles the SQLStatistics
call in ODBC. The following columns are returned:
Column
Table
Non_unique
Key_name
Seq_in_index
Column_name
Collation
Cardinality
Sub_part
Comment
Meaning
Name of the table.
0 if the index can’t contain duplicates.
Name of the index.
Column sequence number in index, starting with 1.
Column name.
How the column is sorted in the index. In MySQL, this
can have values ‘A’ (Ascending) or NULL (Not sorted).
Number of unique values in the index. This is updated
by running isamchk -a.
Number of indexed characters if the column is only partly
indexed. NULL if the entire key is indexed.
Various remarks. For now, it tells whether index is
FULLTEXT or not.
Note that as the Cardinality is counted based on statistics stored as integers, it’s not
necessarily accurate for small tables.
7.28.2 SHOW TABLE STATUS
SHOW TABLE STATUS [FROM db_name] [LIKE wild]
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SHOW TABLE STATUS (new in Version 3.23) works likes SHOW STATUS, but provides a lot of
information about each table. You can also get this list using the mysqlshow --status
db_name command. The following columns are returned:
Column
Name
Type
Row_format
Rows
Avg_row_length
Data_length
Max_data_length
Index_length
Data_free
Auto_increment
Create_time
Update_time
Check_time
Create_options
Comment
Meaning
Name of the table.
Type of table. See Chapter 8 [Table types], page 298.
The row storage format (Fixed, Dynamic, or Compressed).
Number of rows.
Average row length.
Length of the data file.
Max length of the data file.
Length of the index file.
Number of allocated but not used bytes.
Next autoincrement value.
When the table was created.
When the data file was last updated.
When the table was last checked.
Extra options used with CREATE TABLE.
The comment used when creating the table (or some information why MySQL couldn’t access the table information).
InnoDB tables will report the free space in the tablespace in the table comment.
7.28.3 SHOW STATUS
SHOW STATUS provides server status information (like mysqladmin extended-status). The
output resembles that shown below, though the format and numbers probably differ:
+--------------------------+------------+
| Variable_name
| Value
|
+--------------------------+------------+
| Aborted_clients
| 0
|
| Aborted_connects
| 0
|
| Bytes_received
| 155372598 |
| Bytes_sent
| 1176560426 |
| Connections
| 30023
|
| Created_tmp_disk_tables | 0
|
| Created_tmp_tables
| 8340
|
| Created_tmp_files
| 60
|
| Delayed_insert_threads
| 0
|
| Delayed_writes
| 0
|
| Delayed_errors
| 0
|
| Flush_commands
| 1
|
| Handler_delete
| 462604
|
| Handler_read_first
| 105881
|
| Handler_read_key
| 27820558
|
| Handler_read_next
| 390681754 |
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| Handler_read_prev
| 6022500
|
| Handler_read_rnd
| 30546748
|
| Handler_read_rnd_next
| 246216530 |
| Handler_update
| 16945404
|
| Handler_write
| 60356676
|
| Key_blocks_used
| 14955
|
| Key_read_requests
| 96854827
|
| Key_reads
| 162040
|
| Key_write_requests
| 7589728
|
| Key_writes
| 3813196
|
| Max_used_connections
| 0
|
| Not_flushed_key_blocks
| 0
|
| Not_flushed_delayed_rows | 0
|
| Open_tables
| 1
|
| Open_files
| 2
|
| Open_streams
| 0
|
| Opened_tables
| 44600
|
| Questions
| 2026873
|
| Select_full_join
| 0
|
| Select_full_range_join
| 0
|
| Select_range
| 99646
|
| Select_range_check
| 0
|
| Select_scan
| 30802
|
| Slave_running
| OFF
|
| Slave_open_temp_tables
| 0
|
| Slow_launch_threads
| 0
|
| Slow_queries
| 0
|
| Sort_merge_passes
| 30
|
| Sort_range
| 500
|
| Sort_rows
| 30296250
|
| Sort_scan
| 4650
|
| Table_locks_immediate
| 1920382
|
| Table_locks_waited
| 0
|
| Threads_cached
| 0
|
| Threads_created
| 30022
|
| Threads_connected
| 1
|
| Threads_running
| 1
|
| Uptime
| 80380
|
+--------------------------+------------+
The status variables listed above have the following meaning:
Variable
Aborted_clients
Aborted_connects
Meaning
Number of connections aborted because the client died
without closing the connection properly.
See Section 21.4.9 [Communication errors], page 515.
Number of tries to connect to the MySQL server that
failed.
See Section 21.4.9 [Communication errors],
page 515.
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Bytes_received
Bytes_sent
Connections
Created_tmp_disk_tables
Created_tmp_tables
Created_tmp_files
Delayed_insert_threads
Delayed_writes
Delayed_errors
Flush_commands
Handler_delete
Handler_read_first
Handler_read_key
Handler_read_next
Handler_read_rnd
Handler_read_rnd_next
Handler_update
Handler_write
Key_blocks_used
Key_read_requests
Key_reads
Key_write_requests
Key_writes
Max_used_connections
Not_flushed_key_blocks
Chapter 7: MySQL Language Reference
Number of bytes received from all clients.
Number of bytes sent to all clients.
Number of connection attempts to the MySQL server.
Number of implicit temporary tables on disk created
while executing statements.
Number of implicit temporary tables in memory created
while executing statements.
How many temporary files mysqld have created.
Number of delayed insert handler threads in use.
Number of rows written with INSERT DELAYED.
Number of rows written with INSERT DELAYED for which
some error occurred (probably duplicate key).
Number of executed FLUSH commands.
Number of times a row was deleted from a table.
Number of times the first entry was read from an index.
If this is high, it suggests that the server is doing a lot
of full index scans, for example, SELECT col1 FROM foo,
assuming that col1 is indexed.
Number of requests to read a row based on a key. If
this is high, it is a good indication that your queries and
tables are properly indexed.
Number of requests to read next row in key order. This
will be incremented if you are querying an index column
with a range constraint. This also will be incremented if
you are doing an index scan.
Number of requests to read a row based on a fixed position. This will be high if you are doing a lot of queries
that require sorting of the result.
Number of requests to read the next row in the datafile.
This will be high if you are doing a lot of table scans.
Generally this suggests that your tables are not properly indexed or that your queries are not written to take
advantage of the indexes you have.
Number of requests to update a row in a table.
Number of requests to insert a row in a table.
The number of used blocks in the key cache.
The number of requests to read a key block from the
cache.
The number of physical reads of a key block from disk.
The number of requests to write a key block to the cache.
The number of physical writes of a key block to disk.
The maximum number of connections in use
simultaneously.
Keys blocks in the key cache that has changed but hasn’t
yet been flushed to disk.
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Not_flushed_delayed_rows
Open_tables
Open_files
Open_streams
Opened_tables
Select_full_join
Select_full_range_join
Select_range
Select_scan
Select_range_check
Questions
Slave_open_temp_tables
Slow_launch_threads
Slow_queries
Sort_merge_passes
Sort_range
Sort_rows
Sort_scan
Table_locks_immediate
Table_locks_waited
Threads_cached
Threads_connected
Threads_created
Threads_running
Uptime
Chapter 7: MySQL Language Reference
Number of rows waiting to be written in INSERT DELAY
queues.
Number of tables that are open.
Number of files that are open.
Number of streams that are open (used mainly for
logging).
Number of tables that have been opened.
Number of joins without keys (Should be 0).
Number of joins where we used a range search on reference table.
Number of joins where we used ranges on the first table.
(It’s normally not critical even if this is big.)
Number of joins where we scanned the first table.
Number of joins without keys where we check for key
usage after each row (Should be 0).
Number of queries sent to the server.
Number of temporary tables currently open by the slave
thread
Number of threads that have taken more than slow_
launch_time to connect.
Number of queries that have taken more than long_
query_time. See Section 23.5 [Slow query log], page 535.
Number of merges the sort has to do. If this value is large
you should consider increasing sort_buffer.
Number of sorts that where done with ranges.
Number of sorted rows.
Number of sorts that where done by scanning the table.
Number of times a table lock was acquired immediately.
Available after 3.23.33.
Number of times a table lock could not be acquired immediately and a wait was needed. If this is high, and
you have performance problems, you should first optimize your queries, and then either split your table(s) or
use replication. Available after 3.23.33.
Number of threads in the thread cache.
Number of currently open connections.
Number of threads created to handle connections.
Number of threads that are not sleeping.
How many seconds the server has been up.
Some comments about the above:
• If Opened_tables is big, then your table_cache variable is probably too small.
• If key_reads is big, then your key_cache is probably too small. The cache hit rate
can be calculated with key_reads/key_read_requests.
• If Handler_read_rnd is big, then you probably have a lot of queries that require MySQL
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to scan whole tables or you have joins that don’t use keys properly.
• If Threads_created is big, you may want to increase the thread_cache_size variable.
7.28.4 SHOW VARIABLES
SHOW VARIABLES [LIKE wild]
SHOW VARIABLES shows the values of some MySQL system variables. You can also get
this information using the mysqladmin variables command. If the default values are
unsuitable, you can set most of these variables using command-line options when mysqld
starts up. See Section 4.16.4 [Command-line options], page 116.
The output resembles that shown below, though the format and numbers may differ somewhat:
+-------------------------+---------------------------+
| Variable_name
| Value
|
+-------------------------+---------------------------+
| ansi_mode
| OFF
|
| back_log
| 50
|
| basedir
| /my/monty/
|
| bdb_cache_size
| 16777216
|
| bdb_log_buffer_size
| 32768
|
| bdb_home
| /my/monty/data/
|
| bdb_max_lock
| 10000
|
| bdb_logdir
|
|
| bdb_shared_data
| OFF
|
| bdb_tmpdir
| /tmp/
|
| binlog_cache_size
| 32768
|
| concurrent_insert
| ON
|
| connect_timeout
| 5
|
| datadir
| /my/monty/data/
|
| delay_key_write
| ON
|
| delayed_insert_limit
| 100
|
| delayed_insert_timeout | 300
|
| delayed_queue_size
| 1000
|
| flush
| OFF
|
| flush_time
| 0
|
| have_bdb
| YES
|
| have_gemini
| NO
|
| have_innodb
| YES
|
| have_raid
| YES
|
| have_ssl
| NO
|
| init_file
|
|
| interactive_timeout
| 28800
|
| join_buffer_size
| 131072
|
| key_buffer_size
| 16776192
|
| language
| /my/monty/share/english/ |
| large_files_support
| ON
|
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| log
| OFF
|
| log_update
| OFF
|
| log_bin
| OFF
|
| log_slave_updates
| OFF
|
| long_query_time
| 10
|
| low_priority_updates
| OFF
|
| lower_case_table_names | 0
|
| max_allowed_packet
| 1048576
|
| max_binlog_cache_size
| 4294967295
|
| max_connections
| 100
|
| max_connect_errors
| 10
|
| max_delayed_threads
| 20
|
| max_heap_table_size
| 16777216
|
| max_join_size
| 4294967295
|
| max_sort_length
| 1024
|
| max_tmp_tables
| 32
|
| max_write_lock_count
| 4294967295
|
| myisam_recover_options | DEFAULT
|
| myisam_sort_buffer_size | 8388608
|
| net_buffer_length
| 16384
|
| net_read_timeout
| 30
|
| net_retry_count
| 10
|
| net_write_timeout
| 60
|
| open_files_limit
| 0
|
| pid_file
| /my/monty/data/donna.pid |
| port
| 3306
|
| protocol_version
| 10
|
| record_buffer
| 131072
|
| query_buffer_size
| 0
|
| safe_show_database
| OFF
|
| server_id
| 0
|
| skip_locking
| ON
|
| skip_networking
| OFF
|
| skip_show_database
| OFF
|
| slow_launch_time
| 2
|
| socket
| /tmp/mysql.sock
|
| sort_buffer
| 2097116
|
| table_cache
| 64
|
| table_type
| MYISAM
|
| thread_cache_size
| 4
|
| thread_stack
| 65536
|
| tmp_table_size
| 1048576
|
| tmpdir
| /tmp/
|
| version
| 3.23.29a-gamma-debug
|
| wait_timeout
| 28800
|
+-------------------------+---------------------------+
Each option is described below. Values for buffer sizes, lengths, and stack sizes are given in
bytes. You can specify values with a suffix of ‘K’ or ‘M’ to indicate kilobytes or megabytes.
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For example, 16M indicates 16 megabytes. The case of suffix letters does not matter; 16M
and 16m are equivalent:
ansi_mode.
Is ON if mysqld was started with --ansi. See Section 5.2 [ANSI mode], page 132.
back_log
The number of outstanding connection requests MySQL can have. This comes
into play when the main MySQL thread gets VERY many connection requests
in a very short time. It then takes some time (although very little) for the
main thread to check the connection and start a new thread. The back_log
value indicates how many requests can be stacked during this short time before
MySQL momentarily stops answering new requests. You need to increase this
only if you expect a large number of connections in a short period of time.
In other words, this value is the size of the listen queue for incoming TCP/IP
connections. Your operating system has its own limit on the size of this queue.
The manual page for the Unix listen(2) system call should have more details. Check your OS documentation for the maximum value for this variable.
Attempting to set back_log higher than your operating system limit will be
ineffective.
basedir
The value of the --basedir option.
bdb_cache_size
The buffer that is allocated to cache index and rows for BDB tables. If you don’t
use BDB tables, you should start mysqld with --skip-bdb to not waste memory
for this cache.
bdb_log_buffer_size
The buffer that is allocated to cache index and rows for BDB tables. If you don’t
use BDB tables, you should set this to 0 or start mysqld with --skip-bdb to
not waste memory for this cache.
bdb_home
The value of the --bdb-home option.
bdb_max_lock
The maximum number of locks (1000 by default) you can have active on a
BDB table. You should increase this if you get errors of type bdb: Lock table
is out of available locks or Got error 12 from ... when you have do long
transactions or when mysqld has to examine a lot of rows to calculate the query.
bdb_logdir
The value of the --bdb-logdir option.
bdb_shared_data
Is ON if you are using --bdb-shared-data.
bdb_tmpdir
The value of the --bdb-tmpdir option.
binlog_cache_size. The size of the cache to hold the SQL
statements for the binary log during a transaction. If you often use big, multistatement transactions you can increase this to get more performance. See
Section 7.31 [COMMIT], page 285.
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character_set
The default character set.
character_sets
The supported character sets.
concurrent_inserts
If ON (the default), MySQL will allow you to use INSERT on MyISAM tables at
the same time as you run SELECT queries on them. You can turn this option
off by starting mysqld with --safe or --skip-new.
connect_timeout
The number of seconds the mysqld server is waiting for a connect packet before
responding with Bad handshake.
datadir
The value of the --datadir option.
delay_key_write
If enabled (is on by default), MySQL will honor the delay_key_write option
CREATE TABLE. This means that the key buffer for tables with this option will
not get flushed on every index update, but only when a table is closed. This
will speed up writes on keys a lot, but you should add automatic checking of all
tables with myisamchk --fast --force if you use this. Note that if you start
mysqld with the --delay-key-write-for-all-tables option this means that
all tables will be treated as if they were created with the delay_key_write
option. You can clear this flag by starting mysqld with --skip-new or -safe-mode.
delayed_insert_limit
After inserting delayed_insert_limit rows, the INSERT DELAYED handler will
check if there are any SELECT statements pending. If so, it allows these to
execute before continuing.
delayed_insert_timeout
How long a INSERT DELAYED thread should wait for INSERT statements before
terminating.
delayed_queue_size
What size queue (in rows) should be allocated for handling INSERT DELAYED.
If the queue becomes full, any client that does INSERT DELAYED will wait until
there is room in the queue again.
flush
This is ON if you have started MySQL with the --flush option.
flush_time
If this is set to a non-zero value, then every flush_time seconds all tables will be
closed (to free up resources and sync things to disk). We only recommend this
option on Win95, Win98, or on systems where you have very little resources.
have_bdb
YES if mysqld supports Berkeley DB tables. DISABLED if --skip-bdb is used.
have_gemini
YES if mysqld supports Gemini tables. DISABLED if --skip-gemini is used.
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have_innodb
YES if mysqld supports InnoDB tables. DISABLED if --skip-innodb is used.
have_raid
YES if mysqld supports the RAID option.
have_ssl
YES if mysqld supports SSL (encryption) on the client/server protocol.
init_file
The name of the file specified with the --init-file option when you start the
server. This is a file of SQL statements you want the server to execute when it
starts.
interactive_timeout
The number of seconds the server waits for activity on an interactive connection before closing it. An interactive client is defined as a client that uses
the CLIENT_INTERACTIVE option to mysql_real_connect(). See also wait_
timeout.
join_buffer_size
The size of the buffer that is used for full joins (joins that do not use indexes).
The buffer is allocated one time for each full join between two tables. Increase
this value to get a faster full join when adding indexes is not possible. (Normally
the best way to get fast joins is to add indexes.)
key_buffer_size
Index blocks are buffered and are shared by all threads. key_buffer_size is
the size of the buffer used for index blocks.
Increase this to get better index handling (for all reads and multiple writes) to
as much as you can afford; 64M on a 256M machine that mainly runs MySQL
is quite common. If you, however, make this too big (more than 50% of your
total memory?) your system may start to page and become REALLY slow.
Remember that because MySQL does not cache data read, that you will have
to leave some room for the OS filesystem cache.
You can check the performance of the key buffer by doing show status and
examine the variables Key_read_requests, Key_reads, Key_write_requests,
and Key_writes. The Key_reads/Key_read_request ratio should normally be
< 0.01. The Key_write/Key_write_requests is usually near 1 if you are using
mostly updates/deletes but may be much smaller if you tend to do updates
that affect many at the same time or if you are using delay_key_write. See
Section 7.28 [SHOW], page 264.
To get even more speed when writing many rows at the same time, use LOCK
TABLES. See Section 7.32 [LOCK TABLES], page 286.
language
The language used for error messages.
large_file_support
If mysqld was compiled with options for big file support.
locked_in_memory
If mysqld was locked in memory with --memlock
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If logging of all queries is enabled.
log_update
If the update log is enabled.
log_bin
If the binary log is enabled.
log_slave_updates
If the updates from the slave should be logged.
long_query_time
If a query takes longer than this (in seconds), the Slow_queries counter will be
incremented. If you are using --log-slow-queries, the query will be logged
to the slow query logfile. See Section 23.5 [Slow query log], page 535.
lower_case_table_names
If set to 1 table names are stored in lowercase on disk. This will enable you to
access the table names case-insensitive also on Unix. See Section 7.1.5.1 [Name
case sensitivity], page 173.
max_allowed_packet
The maximum size of one packet. The message buffer is initialized to net_
buffer_length bytes, but can grow up to max_allowed_packet bytes when
needed. This value by default is small, to catch big (possibly wrong) packets.
You must increase this value if you are using big BLOB columns. It should
be as big as the biggest BLOB you want to use. The current protocol limits
max_allowed_packet to 16M.
max_binlog_cache_size
If a multi-statement transaction requires more than this amount of memory, one will get the error "Multi-statement transaction required more than
’max binlog cache size’ bytes of storage".
max_binlog_size
Available after 3.23.33. If a write to the binary (replication) log exceeds the
given value, rotate the logs. You cannot set it to less than 1024 bytes, or more
than 1 GB. Default is 1 GB.
max_connections
The number of simultaneous clients allowed. Increasing this value increases the
number of file descriptors that mysqld requires. See below for comments on file
descriptor limits. See Section 21.4.5 [Too many connections], page 513.
max_connect_errors
If there is more than this number of interrupted connections from a host this
host will be blocked from further connections. You can unblock a host with the
command FLUSH HOSTS.
max_delayed_threads
Don’t start more than this number of threads to handle INSERT DELAYED statements. If you try to insert data into a new table after all INSERT DELAYED
threads are in use, the row will be inserted as if the DELAYED attribute wasn’t
specified.
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max_heap_table_size
Don’t allow creation of heap tables bigger than this.
max_join_size
Joins that are probably going to read more than max_join_size records return
an error. Set this value if your users tend to perform joins that lack a WHERE
clause, that take a long time, and that return millions of rows.
max_sort_length
The number of bytes to use when sorting BLOB or TEXT values (only the first
max_sort_length bytes of each value are used; the rest are ignored).
max_user_connections
The maximum number of active connections for a single user (0 = no limit).
max_tmp_tables
(This option doesn’t yet do anything.) Maximum number of temporary tables
a client can keep open at the same time.
max_write_lock_count
After this many write locks, allow some read locks to run in between.
myisam_recover_options
The value of the --myisam-recover option.
myisam_sort_buffer_size
The buffer that is allocated when sorting the index when doing a REPAIR or
when creating indexes with CREATE INDEX or ALTER TABLE.
myisam_max_extra_sort_file_size.
If the creating of the temporary file for fast index creation would be this much
bigger than using the key cache, then prefer the key cache method. This
is mainly used to force long character keys in large tables to use the slower
key cache method to create the index. NOTE that this parameter is given in
megabytes!
myisam_max_sort_file_size
The maximum size of the temporary file MySQL is allowed to create to while
recreating the index (during REPAIR, ALTER TABLE or LOAD DATA INFILE. If the
file size would be bigger than this, the index will be created through the key
cache (which is slower). NOTE that this parameter is given in megabytes!
net_buffer_length
The communication buffer is reset to this size between queries. This should
not normally be changed, but if you have very little memory, you can set it to
the expected size of a query. (That is, the expected length of SQL statements
sent by clients. If statements exceed this length, the buffer is automatically
enlarged, up to max_allowed_packet bytes.)
net_read_timeout
Number of seconds to wait for more data from a connection before aborting the
read. Note that when we don’t expect data from a connection, the timeout is
defined by write_timeout.
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net_retry_count
If a read on a communication port is interrupted, retry this many times before
giving up. This value should be quite high on FreeBSD as internal interrupts
are sent to all threads.
net_write_timeout
Number of seconds to wait for a block to be written to a connection before
aborting the write.
open_files_limit
If this is not 0, then mysqld will use this value to reserve file descriptors
to use with setrlimit(). If this value is 0 then mysqld will reserve max_
connections*5 or max_connections + table_cache*2 (whichever is larger)
number of files. You should try increasing this if mysqld gives you the error
’Too many open files’.
pid_file
The value of the --pid-file option.
port
The value of the --port option.
protocol_version
The protocol version used by the MySQL server.
record_buffer
Each thread that does a sequential scan allocates a buffer of this size for each
table it scans. If you do many sequential scans, you may want to increase this
value.
query_buffer_size
The initial allocation of the query buffer. If most of your queries are long (like
when inserting blobs), you should increase this!
safe_show_databases
Don’t show databases for which the user doesn’t have any database or table
privileges. This can improve security if you’re concerned about people being
able to see what databases other users have. See also skip_show_databases.
server_id
The value of the --server-id option.
skip_locking
Is OFF if mysqld uses external locking.
skip_networking
Is ON if we only allow local (socket) connections.
skip_show_databases
This prevents people from doing SHOW DATABASES if they don’t have the
PROCESS_PRIV privilege. This can improve security if you’re concerned about
people being able to see what databases other users have. See also safe_show_
databases.
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slow_launch_time
If creating the thread takes longer than this value (in seconds), the Slow_
launch_threads counter will be incremented.
socket
The Unix socket used by the server.
sort_buffer
Each thread that needs to do a sort allocates a buffer of this size. Increase this
value for faster ORDER BY or GROUP BY operations. See Section 21.7 [Temporary
files], page 519.
table_cache
The number of open tables for all threads. Increasing this value increases the
number of file descriptors that mysqld requires. MySQL needs two file descriptors for each unique open table. See below for comments on file descriptor
limits. You can check if you need to increase the table cache by checking the
Opened_tables variable. See Section 7.28 [SHOW], page 264. If this variable
is big and you don’t do FLUSH TABLES a lot (which just forces all tables to be
closed and reopenend), then you should increase the value of this variable.
Make sure that your operating system can handle the number of open file descriptors implied by the table_cache setting. If table_cache is set too high,
MySQL may run out of file descriptors and refuse connections, fail to perform
queries, and be very unreliable.
For information about how the table cache works, see Section 13.2.5 [Table
cache], page 410.
table_type
The default table type
thread_cache_size
How many threads we should keep in a cache for reuse. When a client disconnects, the client’s threads are put in the cache if there aren’t more than
thread_cache_size threads from before. All new threads are first taken from
the cache, and only when the cache is empty is a new thread created. This
variable can be increased to improve performance if you have a lot of new connections. (Normally this doesn’t give a notable performance improvement if
you have a good thread implementation.) By examing the difference between
the Connections and Threads_created you can see how efficient the current
thread cache is for you.
thread_concurrency
On Solaris, mysqld will call thr_setconcurrency() with this value. thr_
setconcurrency() permits the application to give the threads system a hint
for the desired number of threads that should be run at the same time.
thread_stack
The stack size for each thread. Many of the limits detected by the crash-me test
are dependent on this value. The default is large enough for normal operation.
See Section 13.7 [Benchmarks], page 428.
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The timezone for the server.
tmp_table_size
If an in-memory temporary table exceeds this size, MySQL will automatically
convert it to an on-disk MyISAM table. Increase the value of tmp_table_size if
you do many advanced GROUP BY queries and you have lots of memory.
tmpdir
The directory used for temporary files and temporary tables.
version
The version number for the server.
wait_timeout
The number of seconds the server waits for activity on a connection before
closing it. See also interactive_timeout.
The manual section that describes tuning MySQL contains some information of how to tune
the above variables. See Section 13.2.4 [Server parameters], page 408.
7.28.5 SHOW LOGS
SHOW LOGS shows you status information about existing log files. It currently only displays
information about Berkeley DB log files.
• File shows the full path to the log file
• Type shows the type of the log file (BDB for Berkeley DB log files)
• Status shows the status of the log file (FREE if the file can be removed, or IN USE if
the file is needed by the transaction subsystem)
7.28.6 SHOW PROCESSLIST
SHOW PROCESSLIST shows you which threads are running. You can also get this information
using the mysqladmin processlist command. If you have the process privilege, you can
see all threads. Otherwise, you can see only your own threads. See Section 7.27 [KILL],
page 263. If you don’t use the FULL option, then only the first 100 characters of each query
will be shown.
This command is very useful if you get the ’too many connections’ error message and want
to find out what’s going on. MySQL reserves one extra connection for a client with the
Process_priv privilege to ensure that you should always be able to login and check the
system (assuming you are not giving this privilege to all your users).
7.28.7 SHOW GRANTS
SHOW GRANTS FOR user lists the grant commands that must be issued to duplicate the grants
for a user.
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mysql> SHOW GRANTS FOR root@localhost;
+---------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Grants for root@localhost
|
+---------------------------------------------------------------------+
| GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO ’root’@’localhost’ WITH GRANT OPTION |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------+
7.28.8 SHOW CREATE TABLE
Shows a CREATE TABLE statement that will create the given table:
mysql> show create table t\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
Table: t
Create Table: CREATE TABLE t (
id int(11) default NULL auto_increment,
s char(60) default NULL,
PRIMARY KEY (id)
) TYPE=MyISAM
SHOW CREATE TABLE will quote table and column names according to SQL_QUOTE_SHOW_
CREATE option. Section 7.33 [SET OPTION SQL_QUOTE_SHOW_CREATE], page 287.
7.29 EXPLAIN Syntax (Get Information About a SELECT)
EXPLAIN tbl_name
or EXPLAIN SELECT select_options
EXPLAIN tbl_name is a synonym for DESCRIBE tbl_name or SHOW COLUMNS FROM tbl_name.
When you precede a SELECT statement with the keyword EXPLAIN, MySQL explains how it
would process the SELECT, providing information about how tables are joined and in which
order.
With the help of EXPLAIN, you can see when you must add indexes to tables to get a faster
SELECT that uses indexes to find the records. You can also see if the optimizer joins the
tables in an optimal order. To force the optimizer to use a specific join order for a SELECT
statement, add a STRAIGHT_JOIN clause.
For non-simple joins, EXPLAIN returns a row of information for each table used in the SELECT
statement. The tables are listed in the order they would be read. MySQL resolves all joins
using a single-sweep multi-join method. This means that MySQL reads a row from the first
table, then finds a matching row in the second table, then in the third table and so on.
When all tables are processed, it outputs the selected columns and backtracks through the
table list until a table is found for which there are more matching rows. The next row is
read from this table and the process continues with the next table.
Output from EXPLAIN includes the following columns:
table
The table to which the row of output refers.
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The join type. Information about the various types is given below.
possible_keys
The possible_keys column indicates which indexes MySQL could use to find
the rows in this table. Note that this column is totally independent of the order
of the tables. That means that some of the keys in possible keys may not be
usable in practice with the generated table order.
If this column is empty, there are no relevant indexes. In this case, you may be
able to improve the performance of your query by examining the WHERE clause
to see if it refers to some column or columns that would be suitable for indexing.
If so, create an appropriate index and check the query with EXPLAIN again. See
Section 7.8 [ALTER TABLE], page 237.
To see what indexes a table has, use SHOW INDEX FROM tbl_name.
key
The key column indicates the key that MySQL actually decided to use. The
key is NULL if no index was chosen. If MySQL chooses the wrong index, you can
probably force MySQL to use another index by using myisamchk --analyze,
See Section 16.1.1 [myisamchk syntax], page 465, or by using USE INDEX/IGNORE
INDEX. See Section 7.20 [JOIN], page 249.
key_len
The key_len column indicates the length of the key that MySQL decided to
use. The length is NULL if the key is NULL. Note that this tells us how many
parts of a multi-part key MySQL will actually use.
ref
The ref column shows which columns or constants are used with the key to
select rows from the table.
rows
The rows column indicates the number of rows MySQL believes it must examine
to execute the query.
Extra
This column contains additional information of how MySQL will resolve the
query. Here is an explanation of the different text strings that can be found in
this column:
Distinct
MySQL will not continue searching for more rows for the current
row combination after it has found the first matching row.
Not exists
MySQL was able to do a LEFT JOIN optimization on the query and
will not examine more rows in this table for a row combination after
it finds one row that matches the LEFT JOIN criteria.
range checked for each record (index map: #)
MySQL didn’t find a real good index to use. It will, instead, for
each row combination in the preceding tables, do a check on which
index to use (if any), and use this index to retrieve the rows from
the table. This isn’t very fast but is faster than having to do a join
without an index.
Using filesort
MySQL will need to do an extra pass to find out how to retrieve
the rows in sorted order. The sort is done by going through all
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rows according to the join type and storing the sort key + pointer
to the row for all rows that match the WHERE. Then the keys are
sorted. Finally the rows are retrieved in sorted order.
Using index
The column information is retrieved from the table using only information in the index tree without having to do an additional seek
to read the actual row. This can be done when all the used columns
for the table are part of the same index.
Using temporary
To resolve the query MySQL will need to create a temporary table
to hold the result. This typically happens if you do an ORDER BY
on a different column set than you did a GROUP BY on.
Where used
A WHERE clause will be used to restrict which rows will be matched
against the next table or sent to the client. If you don’t have this information and the table is of type ALL or index, you may have something wrong in your query (if you don’t intend to fetch/examine all
rows from the table).
If you want to get your queries as fast as possible, you should look out for Using
filesort and Using temporary.
The different join types are listed below, ordered from best to worst type:
system
The table has only one row (= system table). This is a special case of the const
join type.
const
The table has at most one matching row, which will be read at the start of the
query. Because there is only one row, values from the column in this row can
be regarded as constants by the rest of the optimizer. const tables are very
fast as they are read only once!
eq_ref
One row will be read from this table for each combination of rows from the
previous tables. This is the best possible join type, other than the const types.
It is used when all parts of an index are used by the join and the index is UNIQUE
or a PRIMARY KEY.
ref
All rows with matching index values will be read from this table for each combination of rows from the previous tables. ref is used if the join uses only a
leftmost prefix of the key, or if the key is not UNIQUE or a PRIMARY KEY (in other
words, if the join cannot select a single row based on the key value). If the key
that is used matches only a few rows, this join type is good.
range
Only rows that are in a given range will be retrieved, using an index to select
the rows. The key column indicates which index is used. The key_len contains
the longest key part that was used. The ref column will be NULL for this type.
index
This is the same as ALL, except that only the index tree is scanned. This is
usually faster than ALL, as the index file is usually smaller than the data file.
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ALL
A full table scan will be done for each combination of rows from the previous
tables. This is normally not good if the table is the first table not marked
const, and usually very bad in all other cases. You normally can avoid ALL by
adding more indexes, so that the row can be retrieved based on constant values
or column values from earlier tables.
You can get a good indication of how good a join is by multiplying all values in the rows
column of the EXPLAIN output. This should tell you roughly how many rows MySQL must
examine to execute the query. This number is also used when you restrict queries with the
max_join_size variable. See Section 13.2.4 [Server parameters], page 408.
The following example shows how a JOIN can be optimized progressively using the information provided by EXPLAIN.
Suppose you have the SELECT statement shown below, that you examine using EXPLAIN:
EXPLAIN SELECT tt.TicketNumber, tt.TimeIn,
tt.ProjectReference, tt.EstimatedShipDate,
tt.ActualShipDate, tt.ClientID,
tt.ServiceCodes, tt.RepetitiveID,
tt.CurrentProcess, tt.CurrentDPPerson,
tt.RecordVolume, tt.DPPrinted, et.COUNTRY,
et_1.COUNTRY, do.CUSTNAME
FROM tt, et, et AS et_1, do
WHERE tt.SubmitTime IS NULL
AND tt.ActualPC = et.EMPLOYID
AND tt.AssignedPC = et_1.EMPLOYID
AND tt.ClientID = do.CUSTNMBR;
For this example, assume that:
• The columns being compared have been declared as follows:
Table
tt
tt
tt
et
do
Column
ActualPC
AssignedPC
ClientID
EMPLOYID
CUSTNMBR
Column type
CHAR(10)
CHAR(10)
CHAR(10)
CHAR(15)
CHAR(15)
• The tables have the indexes shown below:
Table
tt
tt
tt
et
do
Index
ActualPC
AssignedPC
ClientID
EMPLOYID (primary key)
CUSTNMBR (primary key)
• The tt.ActualPC values aren’t evenly distributed.
Initially, before any optimizations have been performed, the EXPLAIN statement produces
the following information:
table type possible_keys
key key_len ref rows Extra
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et
do
et_1
tt
ALL PRIMARY
NULL NULL
NULL 74
ALL PRIMARY
NULL NULL
NULL 2135
ALL PRIMARY
NULL NULL
NULL 74
ALL AssignedPC,ClientID,ActualPC NULL NULL
NULL 3872
range checked for each record (key map: 35)
Because type is ALL for each table, this output indicates that MySQL is doing a full join for
all tables! This will take quite a long time, as the product of the number of rows in each table
must be examined! For the case at hand, this is 74 * 2135 * 74 * 3872 = 45,268,558,720
rows. If the tables were bigger, you can only imagine how long it would take.
One problem here is that MySQL can’t (yet) use indexes on columns efficiently if they are
declared differently. In this context, VARCHAR and CHAR are the same unless they are declared
as different lengths. Because tt.ActualPC is declared as CHAR(10) and et.EMPLOYID is
declared as CHAR(15), there is a length mismatch.
To fix this disparity between column lengths, use ALTER TABLE to lengthen ActualPC from
10 characters to 15 characters:
mysql> ALTER TABLE tt MODIFY ActualPC VARCHAR(15);
Now tt.ActualPC and et.EMPLOYID are both VARCHAR(15). Executing the EXPLAIN statement again produces this result:
table type
possible_keys
key
key_len ref
rows
Extra
tt
ALL
AssignedPC,ClientID,ActualPC NULL NULL NULL 3872
where used
do
ALL
PRIMARY
NULL
NULL
NULL
2135
range checked for each record (key map: 1)
et_1 ALL
PRIMARY
NULL
NULL
NULL
74
range checked for each record (key map: 1)
et
eq_ref PRIMARY
PRIMARY 15
tt.ActualPC 1
This is not perfect, but is much better (the product of the rows values is now less by a
factor of 74). This version is executed in a couple of seconds.
A second alteration can be made to eliminate the column length mismatches for the
tt.AssignedPC = et_1.EMPLOYID and tt.ClientID = do.CUSTNMBR comparisons:
mysql> ALTER TABLE tt MODIFY AssignedPC VARCHAR(15),
MODIFY ClientID
VARCHAR(15);
Now EXPLAIN produces the output shown below:
table type
possible_keys
key
key_len ref
rows
Extra
et
ALL
PRIMARY
NULL
NULL
NULL
74
tt
ref
AssignedPC,ClientID,ActualPC ActualPC 15 et.EMPLOYID 52 where used
et_1 eq_ref PRIMARY
PRIMARY 15
tt.AssignedPC 1
do
eq_ref PRIMARY
PRIMARY 15
tt.ClientID
1
This is almost as good as it can get.
The remaining problem is that, by default, MySQL assumes that values in the tt.ActualPC
column are evenly distributed, and that isn’t the case for the tt table. Fortunately, it is
easy to tell MySQL about this:
shell> myisamchk --analyze PATH_TO_MYSQL_DATABASE/tt
shell> mysqladmin refresh
Now the join is perfect, and EXPLAIN produces this result:
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table type
possible_keys
key
key_len ref
rows
Extra
tt
ALL
AssignedPC,ClientID,ActualPC NULL NULL NULL
3872
where used
et
eq_ref PRIMARY
PRIMARY 15
tt.ActualPC
1
et_1 eq_ref PRIMARY
PRIMARY 15
tt.AssignedPC 1
do
eq_ref PRIMARY
PRIMARY 15
tt.ClientID
1
Note that the rows column in the output from EXPLAIN is an educated guess from the
MySQL join optimizer. To optimize a query, you should check if the numbers are even
close to the truth. If not, you may get better performance by using STRAIGHT_JOIN in your
SELECT statement and trying to list the tables in a different order in the FROM clause.
7.30 DESCRIBE Syntax (Get Information About Columns)
{DESCRIBE | DESC} tbl_name {col_name | wild}
DESCRIBE provides information about a table’s columns. col_name may be a column name
or a string containing the SQL ‘%’ and ‘_’ wild-card characters.
If the column types are different than you expect them to be based on a CREATE TABLE
statement, note that MySQL sometimes changes column types. See Section 7.7.1 [Silent
column changes], page 236.
This statement is provided for Oracle compatibility.
The SHOW statement provides similar information. See Section 7.28 [SHOW], page 264.
7.31 BEGIN/COMMIT/ROLLBACK Syntax
By default, MySQL runs in autocommit mode. This means that as soon as you execute an
update, MySQL will store the update on disk.
If you are using transactions safe tables (like BDB, InnoDB or GEMINI), you can put MySQL
into non-autocommit mode with the following command:
SET AUTOCOMMIT=0
After this you must use COMMIT to store your changes to disk or ROLLBACK if you want to
ignore the changes you have made since the beginning of your transaction.
If you want to switch from AUTOCOMMIT mode for one series of statements, you can use the
BEGIN or BEGIN WORK statement:
BEGIN;
SELECT @A:=SUM(salary) FROM table1 WHERE type=1;
UPDATE table2 SET summmary=@A WHERE type=1;
COMMIT;
Note that if you are using non-transaction-safe tables, the changes will be stored at once,
independent of the status of the autocommit mode.
If you do a ROLLBACK when you have updated a non-transactional table you will get an error
(ER_WARNING_NOT_COMPLETE_ROLLBACK) as a warning. All transactional safe tables will be
restored but any non-transactional table will not change.
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If you are using BEGIN or SET AUTOCOMMIT=0, you should use the MySQL binary log for
backups instead of the older update log. Transactions are stored in the binary log in one
chunk, upon COMMIT, to ensure that transactions which are rolled back are not stored. See
Section 23.4 [Binary log], page 533.
The following commands automatically end a transaction (as if you had done a COMMIT
before executing the command):
ALTER TABLE
DROP DATABASE
TRUNCATE
BEGIN
DROP TABLE
CREATE INDEX
RENAME TABLE
You can change the isolation level for transactions with SET TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL
.... See Section 7.34 [SET TRANSACTION], page 290.
7.32 LOCK TABLES/UNLOCK TABLES Syntax
LOCK TABLES tbl_name [AS alias] {READ | [READ LOCAL] | [LOW_PRIORITY] WRITE}
[, tbl_name {READ | [LOW_PRIORITY] WRITE} ...]
...
UNLOCK TABLES
LOCK TABLES locks tables for the current thread. UNLOCK TABLES releases any locks held
by the current thread. All tables that are locked by the current thread are automatically
unlocked when the thread issues another LOCK TABLES, or when the connection to the server
is closed.
If a thread obtains a READ lock on a table, that thread (and all other threads) can only read
from the table. If a thread obtains a WRITE lock on a table, then only the thread holding
the lock can READ from or WRITE to the table. Other threads are blocked.
The difference between READ LOCAL and READ is that READ LOCAL allows non-conflicting
INSERT statements to execute while the lock is held. This can’t however be used if you are
going to manipulate the database files outside MySQL while you hold the lock.
Each thread waits (without timing out) until it obtains all the locks it has requested.
WRITE locks normally have higher priority than READ locks, to ensure that updates are
processed as soon as possible. This means that if one thread obtains a READ lock and then
another thread requests a WRITE lock, subsequent READ lock requests will wait until the
WRITE thread has gotten the lock and released it. You can use LOW_PRIORITY WRITE locks
to allow other threads to obtain READ locks while the thread is waiting for the WRITE lock.
You should only use LOW_PRIORITY WRITE locks if you are sure that there will eventually
be a time when no threads will have a READ lock.
LOCK TABLES and UNLOCK TABLES both commits any active transactions.
When you use LOCK TABLES, you must lock all tables that you are going to use and you
must use the same alias that you are going to use in your queries! If you are using a table
multiple times in a query (with aliases), you must get a lock for each alias! This policy
ensures that table locking is deadlock free and makes the locking code smaller, simpler and
much faster.
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Note that you should NOT lock any tables that you are using with INSERT DELAYED. This
is because that in this case the INSERT is done by a separate thread.
Normally, you don’t have to lock tables, as all single UPDATE statements are atomic; no
other thread can interfere with any other currently executing SQL statement. There are a
few cases when you would like to lock tables anyway:
• If you are going to run many operations on a bunch of tables, it’s much faster to lock
the tables you are going to use. The downside is, of course, that no other thread can
update a READ-locked table and no other thread can read a WRITE-locked table.
• If you are using a table handler in MySQL that doesn’t support transactions, you must
use LOCK TABLES if you want to ensure that no other thread comes between a SELECT
and an UPDATE. The example shown below requires LOCK TABLES in order to execute
safely:
mysql> LOCK TABLES trans READ, customer WRITE;
mysql> select sum(value) from trans where customer_id= some_id;
mysql> update customer set total_value=sum_from_previous_statement
where customer_id=some_id;
mysql> UNLOCK TABLES;
Without LOCK TABLES, there is a chance that another thread might insert a new row
in the trans table between execution of the SELECT and UPDATE statements.
By using incremental updates (UPDATE customer SET value=value+new_value) or the
LAST_INSERT_ID() function, you can avoid using LOCK TABLES in many cases.
You can also solve some cases by using the user-level lock functions GET_LOCK() and
RELEASE_LOCK(). These locks are saved in a hash table in the server and implemented with
pthread_mutex_lock() and pthread_mutex_unlock() for high speed. See Section 7.4.12
[Miscellaneous functions], page 224.
See Section 13.2.9 [Internal locking], page 413, for more information on locking policy.
You can also lock all tables in all databases with read locks with the FLUSH TABLES WITH
READ LOCK command. See Section 7.26 [FLUSH], page 262. This is very convenient way to
get backups if you have a file system, like Veritas, that can take snapshots in time.
NOTE: LOCK TABLES is not transaction-safe and will automatically commit any active transactions before attempting to lock the tables.
7.33 SET Syntax
SET [OPTION] SQL_VALUE_OPTION= value, ...
SET OPTION sets various options that affect the operation of the server or your client. Any
option you set remains in effect until the current session ends, or until you set the option
to a different value.
CHARACTER SET character_set_name | DEFAULT
This maps all strings from and to the client with the given mapping. Currently
the only option for character_set_name is cp1251_koi8, but you can easily
add new mappings by editing the ‘sql/convert.cc’ file in the MySQL source
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distribution. The default mapping can be restored by using a character_set_
name value of DEFAULT.
Note that the syntax for setting the CHARACTER SET option differs from the
syntax for setting the other options.
PASSWORD = PASSWORD(’some password’)
Set the password for the current user. Any non-anonymous user can change his
own password!
PASSWORD FOR user = PASSWORD(’some password’)
Set the password for a specific user on the current server host. Only a user
with access to the mysql database can do this. The user should be given in
user@hostname format, where user and hostname are exactly as they are listed
in the User and Host columns of the mysql.user table entry. For example, if
you had an entry with User and Host fields of ’bob’ and ’%.loc.gov’, you
would write:
mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR bob@"%.loc.gov" = PASSWORD("newpass");
or
mysql> UPDATE mysql.user SET password=PASSWORD("newpass") where user="bob’
SQL_AUTO_IS_NULL = 0 | 1
If set to 1 (default) then one can find the last inserted row for a table with
an auto increment row with the following construct: WHERE auto_increment_
column IS NULL. This is used by some ODBC programs like Access.
AUTOCOMMIT= 0 | 1
If set to 1 all changes to a table will be done at once. To start a multi-command
transaction, you have to use the BEGIN statement. See Section 7.31 [COMMIT],
page 285. If set to 0 you have to use COMMIT / ROLLBACK to accept/revoke that
transaction. See Section 7.31 [COMMIT], page 285. Note that when you change
from not AUTOCOMMIT mode to AUTOCOMMIT mode, MySQL will do an automatic
COMMIT on any open transactions.
SQL_BIG_TABLES = 0 | 1
If set to 1, all temporary tables are stored on disk rather than in memory.
This will be a little slower, but you will not get the error The table tbl_name
is full for big SELECT operations that require a large temporary table. The
default value for a new connection is 0 (that is, use in-memory temporary
tables).
SQL_BIG_SELECTS = 0 | 1
If set to 0, MySQL will abort if a SELECT is attempted that probably will take
a very long time. This is useful when an inadvisable WHERE statement has been
issued. A big query is defined as a SELECT that probably will have to examine
more than max_join_size rows. The default value for a new connection is 1
(which will allow all SELECT statements).
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SQL_BUFFER_RESULT = 0 | 1
SQL_BUFFER_RESULT will force the result from SELECT’s to be put into a temporary table. This will help MySQL free the table locks early and will help in
cases where it takes a long time to send the result set to the client.
SQL_LOW_PRIORITY_UPDATES = 0 | 1
If set to 1, all INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, and and LOCK TABLE WRITE statements
wait until there is no pending SELECT or LOCK TABLE READ on the affected table.
SQL_MAX_JOIN_SIZE = value | DEFAULT
Don’t allow SELECTs that will probably need to examine more than value row
combinations. By setting this value, you can catch SELECTs where keys are
not used properly and that would probably take a long time. Setting this to a
value other than DEFAULT will reset the SQL_BIG_SELECTS flag. If you set the
SQL_BIG_SELECTS flag again, the SQL_MAX_JOIN_SIZE variable will be ignored.
You can set a default value for this variable by starting mysqld with -O max_
join_size=#.
SQL_SAFE_MODE = 0 | 1
If set to 1, MySQL will abort if an UPDATE or DELETE is attempted that doesn’t
use a key or LIMIT in the WHERE clause. This makes it possible to catch wrong
updates when creating SQL commands by hand.
SQL_SELECT_LIMIT = value | DEFAULT
The maximum number of records to return from SELECT statements. If a SELECT
has a LIMIT clause, the LIMIT takes precedence over the value of SQL_SELECT_
LIMIT. The default value for a new connection is “unlimited.” If you have
changed the limit, the default value can be restored by using a SQL_SELECT_
LIMIT value of DEFAULT.
SQL_LOG_OFF = 0 | 1
If set to 1, no logging will be done to the standard log for this client, if the
client has the process privilege. This does not affect the update log!
SQL_LOG_UPDATE = 0 | 1
If set to 0, no logging will be done to the update log for the client, if the client
has the process privilege. This does not affect the standard log!
SQL_QUOTE_SHOW_CREATE = 0 | 1
If set to 1, SHOW CREATE TABLE will quote table and column names. This is on
by default, for replication of tables with fancy column names to work. Section 7.28.8 [SHOW CREATE TABLE], page 280.
TIMESTAMP = timestamp_value | DEFAULT
Set the time for this client. This is used to get the original timestamp if you
use the update log to restore rows.
LAST_INSERT_ID = #
Set the value to be returned from LAST_INSERT_ID(). This is stored in the
update log when you use LAST_INSERT_ID() in a command that updates a
table.
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INSERT_ID = #
Set the value to be used by the following INSERT or ALTER TABLE command
when inserting an AUTO_INCREMENT value. This is mainly used with the update
log.
7.34 SET TRANSACTION Syntax
SET [GLOBAL | SESSION] TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL
[READ UNCOMMITTED |READ COMMITTED | REPEATABLE READ | SERIALIZABLE]
Sets the transaction isolation level for the global, whole session or the next transaction.
The default behavior is to set the isolation level for the next (not started) transaction.
If you set the GLOBAL privilege it will affect all new created threads. You will need the
PROCESS privilege to do do this.
Setting the SESSION privilege will affect the following and all future transactions.
You can set the default isolation level for mysqld with --transaction-isolation=....
See Section 4.16.4 [Command-line options], page 116.
7.35 GRANT and REVOKE Syntax
GRANT priv_type [(column_list)] [, priv_type [(column_list)] ...]
ON {tbl_name | * | *.* | db_name.*}
TO user_name [IDENTIFIED BY ’password’]
[, user_name [IDENTIFIED BY ’password’] ...]
[WITH GRANT OPTION]
REVOKE priv_type [(column_list)] [, priv_type [(column_list)] ...]
ON {tbl_name | * | *.* | db_name.*}
FROM user_name [, user_name ...]
GRANT is implemented in MySQL Version 3.22.11 or later. For earlier MySQL versions, the
GRANT statement does nothing.
The GRANT and REVOKE commands allow system administrators to create users and grant
and revoke rights to MySQL users at four privilege levels:
Global level
Global privileges apply to all databases on a given server. These privileges are
stored in the mysql.user table.
Database level
Database privileges apply to all tables in a given database. These privileges are
stored in the mysql.db and mysql.host tables.
Table level
Table privileges apply to all columns in a given table. These privileges are
stored in the mysql.tables_priv table.
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Column level
Column privileges apply to single columns in a given table. These privileges
are stored in the mysql.columns_priv table.
If you give a grant for a users that doesn’t exists, that user is created. For examples of how
GRANT works, see Section 6.14 [Adding users], page 161.
For the GRANT and REVOKE statements, priv_type may be specified as any of the following:
ALL PRIVILEGES
FILE
RELOAD
ALTER
INDEX
SELECT
CREATE
INSERT
SHUTDOWN
DELETE
PROCESS
UPDATE
DROP
REFERENCES
USAGE
ALL is a synonym for ALL PRIVILEGES. REFERENCES is not yet implemented. USAGE is
currently a synonym for “no privileges.” It can be used when you want to create a user
that has no privileges.
To revoke the grant privilege from a user, use a priv_type value of GRANT OPTION:
REVOKE GRANT OPTION ON ... FROM ...;
The only priv_type values you can specify for a table are SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE,
CREATE, DROP, GRANT, INDEX, and ALTER.
The only priv_type values you can specify for a column (that is, when you use a column_
list clause) are SELECT, INSERT, and UPDATE.
You can set global privileges by using ON *.* syntax. You can set database privileges by
using ON db_name.* syntax. If you specify ON * and you have a current database, you will
set the privileges for that database. (WARNING: If you specify ON * and you don’t have a
current database, you will affect the global privileges!)
In order to accommodate granting rights to users from arbitrary hosts, MySQL supports
specifying the user_name value in the form user@host. If you want to specify a user string
containing special characters (such as ‘-’), or a host string containing special characters
or wild-card characters (such as ‘%’), you can quote the user or host name (for example,
’test-user’@’test-hostname’).
You can specify wild cards in the hostname. For example, user@"%.loc.gov" applies to
user for any host in the loc.gov domain, and user@"144.155.166.%" applies to user for
any host in the 144.155.166 class C subnet.
The simple form user is a synonym for user@"%". NOTE: If you allow anonymous users
to connect to the MySQL server (which is the default), you should also add all local users
as user@localhost because otherwise the anonymous user entry for the local host in the
mysql.user table will be used when the user tries to log into the MySQL server from the
local machine! Anonymous users are defined by inserting entries with User=’’ into the
mysql.user table. You can verify if this applies to you by executing this query:
mysql> SELECT Host,User FROM mysql.user WHERE User=’’;
For the moment, GRANT only supports host, table, database, and column names up to 60
characters long. A user name can be up to 16 characters.
The privileges for a table or column are formed from the logical OR of the privileges at each
of the four privilege levels. For example, if the mysql.user table specifies that a user has
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a global select privilege, this can’t be denied by an entry at the database, table, or column
level.
The privileges for a column can be calculated as follows:
global privileges
OR (database privileges AND host privileges)
OR table privileges
OR column privileges
In most cases, you grant rights to a user at only one of the privilege levels, so life isn’t
normally as complicated as above. The details of the privilege-checking procedure are
presented in Chapter 6 [Privilege system], page 141.
If you grant privileges for a user/hostname combination that does not exist in the
mysql.user table, an entry is added and remains there until deleted with a DELETE
command. In other words, GRANT may create user table entries, but REVOKE will not
remove them; you must do that explicitly using DELETE.
In MySQL Version 3.22.12 or later, if a new user is created or if you have global grant
privileges, the user’s password will be set to the password specified by the IDENTIFIED BY
clause, if one is given. If the user already had a password, it is replaced by the new one.
WARNING: If you create a new user but do not specify an IDENTIFIED BY clause, the user
has no password. This is insecure.
Passwords can also be set with the SET PASSWORD command. See Section 7.33 [SET OPTION],
page 287.
If you grant privileges for a database, an entry in the mysql.db table is created if needed.
When all privileges for the database have been removed with REVOKE, this entry is deleted.
If a user doesn’t have any privileges on a table, the table is not displayed when the user
requests a list of tables (for example, with a SHOW TABLES statement).
The WITH GRANT OPTION clause gives the user the ability to give to other users any privileges
the user has at the specified privilege level. You should be careful to whom you give the
grant privilege, as two users with different privileges may be able to join privileges!
You cannot grant another user a privilege you don’t have yourself; the grant privilege allows
you to give away only those privileges you possess.
Be aware that when you grant a user the grant privilege at a particular privilege level,
any privileges the user already possesses (or is given in the future!) at that level are also
grantable by that user. Suppose you grant a user the insert privilege on a database. If you
then grant the select privilege on the database and specify WITH GRANT OPTION, the user
can give away not only the select privilege, but also insert. If you then grant the update
privilege to the user on the database, the user can give away the insert, select and update.
You should not grant alter privileges to a normal user. If you do that, the user can try to
subvert the privilege system by renaming tables!
Note that if you are using table or column privileges for even one user, the server examines
table and column privileges for all users and this will slow down MySQL a bit.
When mysqld starts, all privileges are read into memory. Database, table, and column privileges take effect at once, and user-level privileges take effect the next time the user connects.
Modifications to the grant tables that you perform using GRANT or REVOKE are noticed by the
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server immediately. If you modify the grant tables manually (using INSERT, UPDATE, etc.),
you should execute a FLUSH PRIVILEGES statement or run mysqladmin flush-privileges
to tell the server to reload the grant tables. See Section 6.12 [Privilege changes], page 159.
The biggest differences between the ANSI SQL and MySQL versions of GRANT are:
• In MySQL privileges are given for an username + hostname combination and not only
for an username.
• ANSI SQL doesn’t have global or database-level privileges, and ANSI SQL doesn’t
support all privilege types that MySQL supports. MySQL doesn’t support the ANSI
SQL TRIGGER, EXECUTE or UNDER privileges.
• ANSI SQL privileges are structured in a hierarchal manner. If you remove an user, all
privileges the user has granted are revoked. In MySQL the granted privileges are not
automatically revoked, but you have to revoke these yourself if needed.
• If you in MySQL have the INSERT grant on only part of the columns in a table, you
can execute INSERT statements on the table; The columns for which you don’t have
the INSERT privilege will set to their default values. ANSI SQL requires you to have
the INSERT privilege on all columns.
• When you drop a table in ANSI SQL, all privileges for the table are revoked. If you
revoke a privilege in ANSI SQL, all privileges that were granted based on this privilege
are also revoked. In MySQL, privileges can be dropped only with explicit REVOKE
commands or by manipulating the MySQL grant tables.
7.36 CREATE INDEX Syntax
CREATE [UNIQUE|FULLTEXT] INDEX index_name ON tbl_name (col_name[(length)],... )
The CREATE INDEX statement doesn’t do anything in MySQL prior to Version 3.22. In
Version 3.22 or later, CREATE INDEX is mapped to an ALTER TABLE statement to create
indexes. See Section 7.8 [ALTER TABLE], page 237.
Normally, you create all indexes on a table at the time the table itself is created with CREATE
TABLE. See Section 7.7 [CREATE TABLE], page 230. CREATE INDEX allows you to add indexes
to existing tables.
A column list of the form (col1,col2,...) creates a multiple-column index. Index values
are formed by concatenating the values of the given columns.
For CHAR and VARCHAR columns, indexes can be created that use only part of a column,
using col_name(length) syntax. (On BLOB and TEXT columns the length is required). The
statement shown below creates an index using the first 10 characters of the name column:
mysql> CREATE INDEX part_of_name ON customer (name(10));
Because most names usually differ in the first 10 characters, this index should not be much
slower than an index created from the entire name column. Also, using partial columns
for indexes can make the index file much smaller, which could save a lot of disk space and
might also speed up INSERT operations!
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Note that you can only add an index on a column that can have NULL values or on a
BLOB/TEXT column if you are using MySQL Version 3.23.2 or newer and are using the
MyISAM table type.
For more information about how MySQL uses indexes, see Section 13.4 [MySQL indexes],
page 417.
FULLTEXT indexes can index only VARCHAR and TEXT columns, and only in MyISAM tables.
FULLTEXT indexes are available in MySQL Version 3.23.23 and later. Chapter 12 [Fulltext
Search], page 399.
7.37 DROP INDEX Syntax
DROP INDEX index_name ON tbl_name
DROP INDEX drops the index named index_name from the table tbl_name. DROP INDEX
doesn’t do anything in MySQL prior to Version 3.22. In Version 3.22 or later, DROP INDEX
is mapped to an ALTER TABLE statement to drop the index. See Section 7.8 [ALTER TABLE],
page 237.
7.38 Comment Syntax
The MySQL server supports the # to end of line, -- to end of line and /* in-line or
multiple-line */ comment styles:
mysql> select 1+1;
# This comment continues to the end of line
mysql> select 1+1;
-- This comment continues to the end of line
mysql> select 1 /* this is an in-line comment */ + 1;
mysql> select 1+
/*
this is a
multiple-line comment
*/
1;
Note that the -- comment style requires you to have at least one space after the --!
Although the server understands the comment syntax just described, there are some limitations on the way that the mysql client parses /* ... */ comments:
• Single-quote and double-quote characters are taken to indicate the beginning of a
quoted string, even within a comment. If the quote is not matched by a second quote
within the comment, the parser doesn’t realize the comment has ended. If you are
running mysql interactively, you can tell that it has gotten confused like this because
the prompt changes from mysql> to ’> or ">.
• A semicolon is taken to indicate the end of the current SQL statement and anything
following it to indicate the beginning of the next statement.
These limitations apply both when you run mysql interactively and when you put commands
in a file and tell mysql to read its input from that file with mysql < some-file.
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MySQL doesn’t support the ‘--’ ANSI SQL comment style. See Section 5.4.7 [Missing
comments], page 138.
7.39 CREATE FUNCTION/DROP FUNCTION Syntax
CREATE [AGGREGATE] FUNCTION function_name RETURNS {STRING|REAL|INTEGER}
SONAME shared_library_name
DROP FUNCTION function_name
A user-definable function (UDF) is a way to extend MySQL with a new function that works
like native (built in) MySQL functions such as ABS() and CONCAT().
AGGREGATE is a new option for MySQL Version 3.23. An AGGREGATE function works exactly
like a native MySQL GROUP function like SUM or COUNT().
CREATE FUNCTION saves the function’s name, type, and shared library name in the
mysql.func system table. You must have the insert and delete privileges for the mysql
database to create and drop functions.
All active functions are reloaded each time the server starts, unless you start mysqld with
the --skip-grant-tables option. In this case, UDF initialization is skipped and UDFs
are unavailable. (An active function is one that has been loaded with CREATE FUNCTION
and not removed with DROP FUNCTION.)
For instructions on writing user-definable functions, see Chapter 17 [Adding functions],
page 486. For the UDF mechanism to work, functions must be written in C or C++,
your operating system must support dynamic loading and you must have compiled mysqld
dynamically (not statically).
7.40 Is MySQL Picky About Reserved Words?
A common problem stems from trying to create a table with column names that use the
names of datatypes or functions built into MySQL, such as TIMESTAMP or GROUP. You’re
allowed to do it (for example, ABS is an allowed column name), but whitespace is not allowed
between a function name and the ‘(’ when using functions whose names are also column
names.
The following words are explicitly reserved in MySQL. Most of them are forbidden by ANSI
SQL92 as column and/or table names (for example, group). A few are reserved because
MySQL needs them and is (currently) using a yacc parser:
action
add
aggregate
all
alter
after
and
as
asc
avg
avg_row_length
auto_increment
between
bigint
bit
binary
blob
bool
both
by
cascade
case
char
character
change
check
checksum
column
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columns
cross
data
datetime
day_second
dec
delay_key_write
distinct
end
enclosed
fields
float4
from
global
having
hour_minute
ignore
inner
integer
int3
if
key
leading
lines
lock
longtext
match
middleint
modify
natural
null
optionally
outfile
precision
processlist
references
replace
rlike
select
smallint
sql_low_priority_
updates
sql_small_result
starting
tables
Chapter 7: MySQL Language Reference
comment
current_date
database
day
dayofmonth
decimal
delete
distinctrow
else
enum
file
float8
for
grant
heap
hour_second
in
insert
interval
int4
is
keys
left
limit
logs
low_priority
mediumblob
min_rows
month
numeric
on
or
pack_keys
primary
privileges
reload
restrict
row
set
soname
sql_log_off
constraint
current_time
databases
day_hour
dayofweek
default
desc
double
escape
explain
first
flush
full
grants
high_priority
hosts
index
insert_id
int1
int8
isam
kill
length
load
long
max
mediumtext
minute
monthname
no
optimize
order
partial
procedure
read
regexp
returns
rows
show
sql_big_tables
sql_log_update
create
current_timestamp
date
day_minute
dayofyear
delayed
describe
drop
escaped
exists
float
foreign
function
group
hour
identified
infile
int
int2
into
join
last_insert_id
like
local
longblob
max_rows
mediumint
minute_second
myisam
not
option
outer
password
process
real
rename
revoke
second
shutdown
sql_big_selects
sql_select_limit
sql_big_result
status
temporary
sql_warnings
string
terminated
straight_join
table
text
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then
time
timestamp
tinyblob
tinytext
tinyint
trailing
to
type
use
using
unique
unlock
unsigned
update
usage
values
varchar
variables
varying
varbinary
with
write
when
where
year
year_month
zerofill
The following symbols (from the table above) are disallowed by ANSI SQL but allowed
by MySQL as column/table names. This is because some of these names are very natural
names and a lot of people have already used them.
• ACTION
• BIT
• DATE
• ENUM
• NO
• TEXT
• TIME
• TIMESTAMP
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8 MySQL Table Types
As of MySQL Version 3.23.6, you can choose between three basic table formats (ISAM, HEAP
and MyISAM. Newer MySQL may support additional table type (BDB, GEMINI or InnoDB),
depending on how you compile it.
When you create a new table, you can tell MySQL which table type it should use for the
table. MySQL will always create a .frm file to hold the table and column definitions.
Depending on the table type, the index and data will be stored in other files.
Note that to use InnoDB tables you have to use at least the innodb_data_file_path startup
option. See Section 8.7.2 [InnoDB start], page 324.
The default table type in MySQL is MyISAM. If you are trying to use a table type that
is not compiled-in or activated, MySQL will instead create a table of type MyISAM. This
is a very useful feature when you want to copy tables between different SQL servers that
supports different table types (like copying tables to a slave that is optimized for speed by
not having transactional tables). This automatic table changing can however also be very
confusing for new MySQL users. We plan to fix this by introducing warnings in MySQL
4.0 and giving a warning when a table type is automatically changed.
You can convert tables between different types with the ALTER TABLE statement. See Section 7.8 [ALTER TABLE], page 237.
Note that MySQL supports two different kinds of tables. Transaction-safe tables (BDB,
InnoDB or GEMINI) and not transaction-safe tables (HEAP, ISAM, MERGE, and MyISAM).
Advantages of transaction-safe tables (TST):
• Safer. Even if MySQL crashes or you get hardware problems, you can get your data
back, either by automatic recovery or from a backup + the transaction log.
• You can combine many statements and accept these all in one go with the COMMIT
command.
• You can execute ROLLBACK to ignore your changes (if you are not running in auto
commit mode).
• If an update fails, all your changes will be restored. (With NTST tables all changes
that have taken place are permanent)
Advantages of not transaction-safe tables (NTST):
• Much faster as there is no transaction overhead.
• Will use less disk space as there is no overhead of transactions.
• Will use less memory to do updates.
You can combine TST and NTST tables in the same statements to get the best of both
worlds.
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8.1 MyISAM Tables
MyISAM is the default table type in MySQL Version 3.23. It’s based on the ISAM code and
has a lot of useful extensions.
The index is stored in a file with the .MYI (MYIndex) extension, and the data is stored
in a file with the .MYD (MYData) extension. You can check/repair MyISAM tables with
the myisamchk utility. See Section 16.5 [Crash recovery], page 480. You can compress
MyISAM tables with myisampack to take up much less space. See Section 15.12 [myisampack],
page 457.
The following is new in MyISAM:
• There is a flag in the MyISAM file that indicates whether or not the table was closed correctly. If mysqld is started with --myisam-recover, MyISAM tables will automatically
be checked and/or repaired on open if the table wasn’t closed properly.
• You can INSERT new rows in a table without deleted rows, while other threads are
reading from the table.
• Support for big files (63-bit) on filesystems/operating systems that support big files.
• All data is stored with the low byte first. This makes the data machine and OS
independent. The only requirement is that the machine uses two’s-complement signed
integers (as every machine for the last 20 years has) and IEEE floating-point format
(also totally dominant among mainstream machines). The only area of machines that
may not support binary compatibility are embedded systems (because they sometimes
have peculiar processors).
There is no big speed penalty in storing data low byte first; The bytes in a table row
is normally unaligned and it doesn’t take that much more power to read an unaligned
byte in order than in reverse order. The actual fetch-column-value code is also not
time critical compared to other code.
• All number keys are stored with high byte first to give better index compression.
• Internal handling of one AUTO_INCREMENT column. MyISAM will automatically update
this on INSERT/UPDATE. The AUTO_INCREMENT value can be reset with myisamchk.
This will make AUTO_INCREMENT columns faster (at least 10 %) and old numbers will
not be reused as with the old ISAM. Note that when an AUTO_INCREMENT is defined on
the end of a multi-part-key the old behavior is still present.
• When inserted in sorted order (as when you are using an AUTO_INCREMENT column) the
key tree will be split so that the high node only contains one key. This will improve
the space utilization in the key tree.
• BLOB and TEXT columns can be indexed.
• NULL values are allowed in indexed columns. This takes 0-1 bytes/key.
• Maximum key length is 500 bytes by default (can be changed by recompiling). In cases
of keys longer than 250 bytes, a bigger key block size than the default of 1024 bytes is
used for this key.
• Maximum number of keys/table is 32 as default. This can be enlarged to 64 without
having to recompile myisamchk.
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• myisamchk will mark tables as checked if one runs it with --update-state. myisamchk
--fast will only check those tables that don’t have this mark.
• myisamchk -a stores statistics for key parts (and not only for whole keys as in ISAM).
• Dynamic size rows will now be much less fragmented when mixing deletes with updates
and inserts. This is done by automatically combining adjacent deleted blocks and by
extending blocks if the next block is deleted.
• myisampack can pack BLOB and VARCHAR columns.
• You can use put the datafile and index file on different directories to get more speed
(with the DATA/INDEX DIRECTORY="path" option to CREATE TABLE). See Section 7.7
[CREATE TABLE], page 230.
MyISAM also supports the following things, which MySQL will be able to use in the near
future:
• Support for a true VARCHAR type; A VARCHAR column starts with a length stored in 2
bytes.
• Tables with VARCHAR may have fixed or dynamic record length.
• VARCHAR and CHAR may be up to 64K. All key segments have their own language
definition. This will enable MySQL to have different language definitions per column.
• A hashed computed index can be used for UNIQUE. This will allow you to have UNIQUE
on any combination of columns in a table. (You can’t search on a UNIQUE computed
index, however.)
Note that index files are usually much smaller with MyISAM than with ISAM. This means
that MyISAM will normally use less system resources than ISAM, but will need more CPU
when inserting data into a compressed index.
The following options to mysqld can be used to change the behavior of MyISAM tables. See
Section 7.28.4 [SHOW VARIABLES], page 270.
Option
--myisam-recover=#
-O myisam_sort_buffer_size=#
--delay-key-write-for-alltables
-O myisam_max_extra_sort_file_
size=#
-O myisam_max_sort_file_size=#
Meaning
Automatic recover of crashed tables.
Buffer used when recovering tables.
Don’t flush key buffers between writes for any MyISAM table
Used to help MySQL to decide when to use the slow
but safe key cache index create method. NOTE that
this parameter is given in megabytes!
Don’t use the fast sort index method to created index if the temporary file would get bigger than this.
NOTE that this paramter is given in megabytes!
The automatic recovery is activated if you start mysqld with --myisam-recover=#. See
Section 4.16.4 [Command-line options], page 116. On open, the table is checked if it’s
marked as crashed or if the open count variable for the table is not 0 and you are running
with --skip-locking. If either of the above is true the following happens.
• The table is checked for errors.
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• If we found an error, try to do a fast repair (with sorting and without re-creating the
data file) of the table.
• If the repair fails because of an error in the data file (for example a duplicate key error),
we try again, but this time we re-create the data file.
• If the repair fails, retry once more with the old repair option method (write row by
row without sorting) which should be able to repair any type of error with little disk
requirements..
If the recover wouldn’t be able to recover all rows from a previous completed statement and
you didn’t specify FORCE as an option to myisam-recover, then the automatic repair will
abort with an error message in the error file:
Error: Couldn’t repair table: test.g00pages
If you in this case had used the FORCE option you would instead have got a warning in the
error file:
Warning: Found 344 of 354 rows when repairing ./test/g00pages
Note that if you run automatic recover with the BACKUP option, you should have a cron
script that automatically moves file with names like ‘tablename-datetime.BAK’ from the
database directories to a backup media.
See Section 4.16.4 [Command-line options], page 116.
8.1.1 Space Needed for Keys
MySQL can support different index types, but the normal type is ISAM or MyISAM. These
use a B-tree index, and you can roughly calculate the size for the index file as (key_
length+4)/0.67, summed over all keys. (This is for the worst case when all keys are
inserted in sorted order and we don’t have any compressed keys.)
String indexes are space compressed. If the first index part is a string, it will also be prefix
compressed. Space compression makes the index file smaller than the above figures if the
string column has a lot of trailing space or is a VARCHAR column that is not always used
to the full length. Prefix compression is used on keys that start with a string. Prefix
compression helps if there are many strings with an identical prefix.
In MyISAM tables, you can also prefix compress numbers by specifying PACK_KEYS=1 when
you create the table. This helps when you have many integer keys that have an identical
prefix when the numbers are stored high-byte first.
8.1.2 MyISAM Table Formats
MyISAM supports 3 different table types. Two of them are chosen automatically depending
on the type of columns you are using. The third, compressed tables, can only be created
with the myisampack tool.
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8.1.2.1 Static (Fixed-length) Table Characteristics
This is the default format. It’s used when the table contains no VARCHAR, BLOB, or TEXT
columns.
This format is the simplest and most secure format. It is also the fastest of the on-disk
formats. The speed comes from the easy way data can be found on disk. When looking up
something with an index and static format it is very simple. Just multiply the row number
by the row length.
Also, when scanning a table it is very easy to read a constant number of records with each
disk read.
The security is evidenced if your computer crashes when writing to a fixed-size MyISAM
file, in which case myisamchk can easily figure out where each row starts and ends. So it
can usually reclaim all records except the partially written one. Note that in MySQL all
indexes can always be reconstructed:
• All CHAR, NUMERIC, and DECIMAL columns are space-padded to the column width.
• Very quick.
• Easy to cache.
• Easy to reconstruct after a crash, because records are located in fixed positions.
• Doesn’t have to be reorganized (with myisamchk) unless a huge number of records are
deleted and you want to return free disk space to the operating system.
• Usually requires more disk space than dynamic tables.
8.1.2.2 Dynamic Table Characteristics
This format is used if the table contains any VARCHAR, BLOB, or TEXT columns or if the table
was created with ROW_FORMAT=dynamic.
This format is a little more complex because each row has to have a header that says how
long it is. One record can also end up at more than one location when it is made longer at
an update.
You can use OPTIMIZE table or myisamchk to defragment a table. If you have static data
that you access/change a lot in the same table as some VARCHAR or BLOB columns, it might
be a good idea to move the dynamic columns to other tables just to avoid fragmentation:
• All string columns are dynamic (except those with a length less than 4).
• Each record is preceded by a bitmap indicating which columns are empty (’’) for string
columns, or zero for numeric columns. (This isn’t the same as columns containing NULL
values.) If a string column has a length of zero after removal of trailing spaces, or a
numeric column has a value of zero, it is marked in the bit map and not saved to disk.
Non-empty strings are saved as a length byte plus the string contents.
• Usually takes much less disk space than fixed-length tables.
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• Each record uses only as much space as is required. If a record becomes larger, it is
split into as many pieces as are required. This results in record fragmentation.
• If you update a row with information that extends the row length, the row will be
fragmented. In this case, you may have to run myisamchk -r from time to time to get
better performance. Use myisamchk -ei tbl_name for some statistics.
• Not as easy to reconstruct after a crash, because a record may be fragmented into many
pieces and a link (fragment) may be missing.
• The expected row length for dynamic sized records is:
3
+ (number of columns + 7) / 8
+ (number of char columns)
+ packed size of numeric columns
+ length of strings
+ (number of NULL columns + 7) / 8
There is a penalty of 6 bytes for each link. A dynamic record is linked whenever an
update causes an enlargement of the record. Each new link will be at least 20 bytes, so
the next enlargement will probably go in the same link. If not, there will be another
link. You may check how many links there are with myisamchk -ed. All links may be
removed with myisamchk -r.
8.1.2.3 Compressed Table Characteristics
This is a read-only type that is generated with the optional myisampack tool (pack_isam
for ISAM tables):
• All MySQL distributions, even those that existed before MySQL went GPL, can read
tables that were compressed with myisampack.
• Compressed tables take very little disk space. This minimizes disk usage, which is very
nice when using slow disks (like CD-ROMs).
• Each record is compressed separately (very little access overhead). The header for a
record is fixed (1-3 bytes) depending on the biggest record in the table. Each column
is compressed differently. Some of the compression types are:
− There is usually a different Huffman table for each column.
− Suffix space compression.
− Prefix space compression.
− Numbers with value 0 are stored using 1 bit.
− If values in an integer column have a small range, the column is stored using the
smallest possible type. For example, a BIGINT column (8 bytes) may be stored as
a TINYINT column (1 byte) if all values are in the range 0 to 255.
− If a column has only a small set of possible values, the column type is converted
to ENUM.
− A column may use a combination of the above compressions.
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• Can handle fixed- or dynamic-length records, but not BLOB or TEXT columns.
• Can be uncompressed with myisamchk.
8.1.3 MyISAM table problems.
The file format that MySQL uses to store data has been extensively tested, but there are
always circumstances that may cause database tables to become corrupted.
8.1.3.1 Corrupted MyISAM tables.
Even if the MyISAM table format is very reliable (all changes to a table is written before
the SQL statements returns) , you can still get corrupted tables if some of the following
things happens:
• The mysqld process being killed in the middle of a write.
• Unexpected shutdown of the computer (for example, if the computer is turned off).
• A hardware error.
• You are using an external program (like myisamchk) on a live table.
• A software bug in the MySQL or MyISAM code.
Typial typical symptoms for a corrupt table is:
• You get the error Incorrect key file for table: ’...’. Try to repair it while selecting data from the table.
• Queries doesn’t find rows in the table or returns incomplete data.
You can check if a table is ok with the command CHECK TABLE. See Section 7.12 [CHECK
TABLE], page 242.
You can repair a corrupted table with REPAIR TABLE. See Section 7.16 [REPAIR TABLE],
page 244. You can also repair a table, when mysqld is not running with the myisamchk
command. myisamchk syntax.
If your tables get corrupted a lot you should try to find the reason for this! See Section 21.2
[Crashing], page 507.
In this case the most important thing to know is if the table got corrupted if the mysqld
died (one can easily verify this by checking if there is a recent row restarted mysqld in
the mysqld error file). If this isn’t the case, then you should try to make a test case of this.
See Section I.1.6 [Reproduceable test case], page 725.
8.1.3.2 Clients is using or hasn’t closed the table properly
Each MyISAM .MYI file has in the header a counter that can be used to check if a table has
been closed properly.
If you get the following warning from CHECK TABLE or myisamchk:
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# clients is using or hasn’t closed the table properly
this means that this counter has come out of sync. This doesn’t mean that the table is
corrupted, but means that you should at least do a check on the table to verify that it’s ok.
The counter works as follows:
• The first time a table is updated in MySQL, a counter in the header of the index files
is incremented.
• The counter is not changed during further updates.
• When the last instance of a table is closed (because of a FLUSH or because there isn’t
room in the table cache) the counter is decremented if the table has been updated at
any point.
• When you repair the table or check the table and it was ok, the counter is reset to 0.
• To avoid problems with interaction with other processes that may do a check on the
table, the counter is not decremented on close if it was 0.
In other words, the only ways this can go out of sync are:
• The MyISAM tables are copied without a LOCK and FLUSH TABLES.
• MySQL has crashed between an update and the final close (Note that the table may
still be ok, as MySQL always issues writes for everything between each statement).
• Someone has done a myisamchk --repair or myisamchk --update-stateon a table
that was in use by mysqld.
• Many mysqld servers are using the table and one has done a REPAIR or CHECK of the
table while it was in use by another server. In this setup the CHECK is safe to do (even
if you will get the warning from other servers), but REPAIR should be avoided as it
currently replaces the data file with a new one, which is not signaled to the other
servers.
8.2 MERGE Tables
MERGE tables are new in MySQL Version 3.23.25. The code is still in gamma, but should be
resonable stable.
A MERGE table is a collection of identical MyISAM tables that can be used as one. You can
only SELECT, DELETE, and UPDATE from the collection of tables. If you DROP the MERGE table,
you are only dropping the MERGE specification.
Note that DELETE FROM merge_table used without a WHERE will only clear the mapping for
the table, not delete everything in the mapped tables. (We plan to fix this in 4.0).
With identical tables we mean that all tables are created with identical column and key
information. You can’t put a MERGE over tables where the columns are packed differently
or doesn’t have exactly the same columns. Some of the tables can however be compressed
with myisampack. See Section 15.12 [myisampack], page 457.
When you create a MERGE table, you will get a .frm table definition file and a .MRG table
list file. The .MRG just contains a list of the index files (.MYI files) that should be used as
one.
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For the moment you need to have SELECT, UPDATE, and DELETE privileges on the tables you
map to a MERGE table.
MERGE tables can help you solve the following problems:
• Easily manage a set of log tables. For example, you can put data from different months
into separate files, compress some of them with myisampack, and then create a MERGE
to use these as one.
• Give you more speed. You can split a big read-only table based on some criteria and
then put the different table part on different disks. A MERGE table on this could be
much faster than using the big table. (You can, of course, also use a RAID to get the
same kind of benefits.)
• Do more efficient searches. If you know exactly what you are looking after, you can
search in just one of the split tables for some queries and use MERGE table for others.
You can even have many different MERGE tables active, with possible overlapping files.
• More efficient repairs. It’s easier to repair the individual files that are mapped to a
MERGE file than trying to repair a real big file.
• Instant mapping of many files as one. A MERGE table uses the index of the individual
tables. It doesn’t need to maintain an index of its one. This makes MERGE table
collections VERY fast to make or remap. Note that you must specify the key definitions
when you create a MERGE table!.
• If you have a set of tables that you join to a big table on demand or batch, you should
instead create a MERGE table on them on demand. This is much faster and will save a
lot of disk space.
• Go around the file size limit for the operating system.
• You can create an alias/synonym for a table by just using MERGE over one table.
There shouldn’t be any really notable performance impacts of doing this (only a couple
of indirect calls and memcpy’s for each read).
The disadvantages with MERGE tables are:
• You can’t use INSERT on MERGE tables, as MySQL can’t know in which of the tables
we should insert the row.
• You can only use identical MyISAM tables for a MERGE table.
• MERGE tables uses more file descriptors. If you are using a MERGE that maps over 10
tables and 10 users are using this, you are using 10*10 + 10 file descriptors. (10 data
files for 10 users and 10 shared index files.)
• Key reads are slower. When you do a read on a key, the MERGE handler will need to
issue a read on all underlying tables to check which one most closely matches the given
key. If you then do a ’read-next’ then the merge table handler will need to search the
read buffers to find the next key. Only when one key buffer is used up, the handler
will need to read the next key block. This makes MERGE keys much slower on eq_ref
searches, but not much slower on ref searches. See Section 7.29 [EXPLAIN], page 280.
• You can’t do DROP TABLE, ALTER TABLE or DELETE FROM table_name without a WHERE
clause on any of the table that is mapped by a MERGE table that is ’open’. If you do
this, the MERGE table may still refer to the original table and you will get unexpected
results.
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The following example shows you how to use MERGE tables:
CREATE TABLE t1 (a INT AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY, message CHAR(20));
CREATE TABLE t2 (a INT AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY, message CHAR(20));
INSERT INTO t1 (message) VALUES ("Testing"),("table"),("t1");
INSERT INTO t2 (message) VALUES ("Testing"),("table"),("t2");
CREATE TABLE total (a INT NOT NULL, message CHAR(20), KEY(a)) TYPE=MERGE UNION=(t1,t
Note that we didn’t create a UNIQUE or PRIMARY KEY in the total table as the key isn’t
going to be unique in the total table.
Note that you can also manipulate the .MRG file directly from the outside of the MySQL
server:
shell> cd /mysql-data-directory/current-database
shell> ls -1 t1.MYI t2.MYI > total.MRG
shell> mysqladmin flush-tables
Now you can do things like:
mysql> select * from total;
+---+---------+
| a | message |
+---+---------+
| 1 | Testing |
| 2 | table
|
| 3 | t1
|
| 1 | Testing |
| 2 | table
|
| 3 | t2
|
+---+---------+
To remap a MERGE table you can do one of the following:
• DROP the table and re-create it
• Use ALTER TABLE table_name UNION(...)
• Change the .MRG file and issue a FLUSH TABLE on the MERGE table and all underlying
tables to force the handler to read the new definition file.
8.3 ISAM Tables
You can also use the deprecated ISAM table type. This will disappear rather soon because
MyISAM is a better implementation of the same thing. ISAM uses a B-tree index. The index
is stored in a file with the .ISM extension, and the data is stored in a file with the .ISD
extension. You can check/repair ISAM tables with the isamchk utility. See Section 16.5
[Crash recovery], page 480.
ISAM has the following features/properties:
• Compressed and fixed-length keys
• Fixed and dynamic record length
• 16 keys with 16 key parts/key
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• Max key length 256 (default)
• Data is stored in machine format; this is fast, but is machine/OS dependent.
Most of the things true for MyISAM tables are also true for ISAM tables. See Section 8.1
[MyISAM], page 299. The major differences compared to MyISAM tables are:
• ISAM tables are not binary portable across OS/Platforms.
• Can’t handle tables > 4G.
• Only support prefix compression on strings.
• Smaller key limits.
• Dynamic tables get more fragmented.
• Tables are compressed with pack_isam rather than with myisampack.
If you want to convert an ISAM table to a MyISAM table so that you can use utilities such as
mysqlcheck, use an ALTER TABLE statement:
mysql> ALTER TABLE tbl_name TYPE = MYISAM;
8.4 HEAP Tables
HEAP tables use a hashed index and are stored in memory. This makes them very fast, but
if MySQL crashes you will lose all data stored in them. HEAP is very useful for temporary
tables!
The MySQL internal HEAP tables use 100% dynamic hashing without overflow areas. There
is no extra space needed for free lists. HEAP tables also don’t have problems with delete +
inserts, which normally is common with hashed tables:
mysql> CREATE TABLE test TYPE=HEAP SELECT ip,SUM(downloads) as down
FROM log_table GROUP BY ip;
mysql> SELECT COUNT(ip),AVG(down) FROM test;
mysql> DROP TABLE test;
Here are some things you should consider when you use HEAP tables:
• You should always use specify MAX_ROWS in the CREATE statement to ensure that you
accidentally do not use all memory.
• Indexes will only be used with = and <=> (but are VERY fast).
• HEAP tables can only use whole keys to search for a row; compare this to MyISAM tables
where any prefix of the key can be used to find rows.
• HEAP tables use a fixed record length format.
• HEAP doesn’t support BLOB/TEXT columns.
• HEAP doesn’t support AUTO_INCREMENT columns.
• HEAP doesn’t support an index on a NULL column.
• You can have non-unique keys in a HEAP table (this isn’t common for hashed tables).
• HEAP tables are shared between all clients (just like any other table).
• You can’t search for the next entry in order (that is, to use the index to do an ORDER
BY).
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• Data for HEAP tables are allocated in small blocks. The tables are 100% dynamic (on
inserting). No overflow areas and no extra key space are needed. Deleted rows are put
in a linked list and are reused when you insert new data into the table.
• You need enough extra memory for all HEAP tables that you want to use at the same
time.
• To free memory, you should execute DELETE FROM heap_table, TRUNCATE heap_table
or DROP TABLE heap_table.
• MySQL cannot find out approximately how many rows there are between two values
(this is used by the range optimizer to decide which index to use). This may affect
some queries if you change a MyISAM table to a HEAP table.
• To ensure that you accidentally don’t do anything foolish, you can’t create HEAP tables
bigger than max_heap_table_size.
The memory needed for one row in a HEAP table is:
SUM_OVER_ALL_KEYS(max_length_of_key + sizeof(char*) * 2)
+ ALIGN(length_of_row+1, sizeof(char*))
sizeof(char*) is 4 on 32-bit machines and 8 on 64-bit machines.
8.5 BDB or Berkeley DB Tables
8.5.1 Overview of BDB Tables
Support for BDB tables is included in the MySQL source distribution starting from Version
3.23.34 and is activated in the MySQL-Max binary.
BerkeleyDB, available at http://www.sleepycat.com/ has provided MySQL with a transactional table handler. By using BerkeleyDB tables, your tables may have a greater chance
of surviving crashes, and also provides COMMIT and ROLLBACK on transactions. The MySQL
source distribution comes with a BDB distribution that has a couple of small patches to
make it work more smoothly with MySQL. You can’t use a non-patched BDB version with
MySQL.
We at MySQL AB are working in close cooperation with Sleepycat to keep the quality of
the MySQL/BDB interface high.
When it comes to supporting BDB tables, we are committed to help our users to locate
the problem and help creating a reproducable test case for any problems involving BDB
tables. Any such test case will be forwarded to Sleepycat who in turn will help us find and
fix the problem. As this is a two stage operation, any problems with BDB tables may take
a little longer for us to fix than for other table handlers. However, as the BerkeleyDB code
itself has been used by many other applications than MySQL, we don’t envision any big
problems with this. See Section 3.5.6 [Table handler support], page 46.
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8.5.2 Installing BDB
If you have downloaded a binary version of MySQL that includes support for BerkeleyDB,
simply follow the instructions for installing a binary version of MySQL. See Section 4.6
[Installing binary], page 55. See Section 15.2 [mysqld-max], page 436.
To compile MySQL with Berkeley DB support, download MySQL Version 3.23.34 or newer
and configure MySQL with the --with-berkeley-db option. See Section 4.7 [Installing
source], page 61.
cd /path/to/source/of/mysql-3.23.34
./configure --with-berkeley-db
Please refer to the manual provided with the BDB distribution for more updated information.
Even though Berkeley DB is in itself very tested and reliable, the MySQL interface is still
considered beta quality. We are actively improving and optimizing it to get it stable very
soon.
8.5.3 BDB startup options
If you are running with AUTOCOMMIT=0 then your changes in BDB tables will not be updated
until you execute COMMIT. Instead of commit you can execute ROLLBACK to forget your
changes. See Section 7.31 [COMMIT], page 285.
If you are running with AUTOCOMMIT=1 (the default), your changes will be committed immediately. You can start an extended transaction with the BEGIN WORK SQL command, after
which your changes will not be committed until you execute COMMIT (or decide to ROLLBACK
the changes).
The following options to mysqld can be used to change the behavior of BDB tables:
Option
--bdb-home=directory
--bdb-lock-detect=#
--bdb-logdir=directory
--bdb-no-sync
--bdb-no-recover
--bdb-shared-data
--bdb-tmpdir=directory
--skip-bdb
-O bdb_max_lock=1000
Meaning
Base directory for BDB tables. This should be the same directory you use for –datadir.
Berkeley lock detect. One of (DEFAULT, OLDEST, RANDOM, or YOUNGEST).
Berkeley DB log file directory.
Don’t synchronously flush logs.
Don’t start Berkeley DB in recover mode.
Start Berkeley DB in multi-process mode (Don’t use DB_
PRIVATE when initializing Berkeley DB)
Berkeley DB tempfile name.
Don’t use berkeley db.
Set the maximum number of locks possible. See Section 7.28.4
[SHOW VARIABLES], page 270.
If you use --skip-bdb, MySQL will not initialize the Berkeley DB library and this will save
a lot of memory. Of course, you cannot use BDB tables if you are using this option.
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Normally you should start mysqld without --bdb-no-recover if you intend to use BDB
tables. This may, however, give you problems when you try to start mysqld if the BDB log
files are corrupted. See Section 4.16.2 [Starting server], page 113.
With bdb_max_lock you can specify the maximum number of locks (10000 by default) you
can have active on a BDB table. You should increase this if you get errors of type bdb:
Lock table is out of available locks or Got error 12 from ... when you have do long
transactions or when mysqld has to examine a lot of rows to calculate the query.
You may also want to change binlog_cache_size and max_binlog_cache_size if you are
using big multi-line transactions. See Section 7.31 [COMMIT], page 285.
8.5.4 Some characteristic of BDB tables:
• To be able to rollback transactions BDB maintain log files. For maximum performance
you should place these on another disk than your databases by using the --bdb_log_
dir options.
• MySQL performs a checkpoint each time a new BDB log file is started, and removes
any log files that are not needed for current transactions. One can also run FLUSH LOGS
at any time to checkpoint the Berkeley DB tables.
For disaster recovery, one should use table backups plus MySQL’s binary log. See
Section 22.2 [Backup], page 528.
Warning: If you delete old log files that are in use, BDB will not be able to do recovery
at all and you may loose data if something goes wrong.
• MySQL requires a PRIMARY KEY in each BDB table to be able to refer to previously
read rows. If you don’t create one, MySQL will create an maintain a hidden PRIMARY
KEY for you. The hidden key has a length of 5 bytes and is incremented for each insert
attempt.
• If all columns you access in a BDB table are part of the same index or part of the primary
key, then MySQL can execute the query without having to access the actual row. In a
MyISAM table the above holds only if the columns are part of the same index.
• The PRIMARY KEY will be faster than any other key, as the PRIMARY KEY is stored together with the row data. As the other keys are stored as the key data + the PRIMARY
KEY, it’s important to keep the PRIMARY KEY as short as possible to save disk and get
better speed.
• LOCK TABLES works on BDB tables as with other tables. If you don’t use LOCK TABLE,
MYSQL will issue an internal multiple-write lock on the table to ensure that the table
will be properly locked if another thread issues a table lock.
• Internal locking in BDB tables is done on page level.
• SELECT COUNT(*) FROM table_name is slow as BDB tables doesn’t maintain a count of
the number of rows in the table.
• Scanning is slower than with MyISAM tables as one has data in BDB tables stored in
B-trees and not in a separate data file.
• The application must always be prepared to handle cases where any change of a BDB
table may make an automatic rollback and any read may fail with a deadlock error.
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• Keys are not compressed to previous keys as with ISAM or MyISAM tables. In other
words, the key information will take a little more space in BDB tables compared to
MyISAM tables which don’t use PACK_KEYS=0.
• There is often holes in the BDB table to allow you to insert new rows in the middle of
the key tree. This makes BDB tables somewhat larger than MyISAM tables.
• The optimizer needs to know an approximation of the number of rows in the table.
MySQL solves this by counting inserts and maintaining this in a separate segment in
each BDB table. If you don’t do a lot of DELETE or ROLLBACK:s this number should
be accurate enough for the MySQL optimizer, but as MySQL only store the number
on close, it may be wrong if MySQL dies unexpectedly. It should not be fatal even if
this number is not 100 % correct. One can update the number of rows by executing
ANALYZE TABLE or OPTIMIZE TABLE. See Section 7.15 [ANALYZE TABLE], page 244 .
See Section 7.11 [OPTIMIZE TABLE], page 241.
• If you get full disk with a BDB table, you will get an error (probably error 28) and the
transaction should roll back. This is in contrast with MyISAM and ISAM tables where
mysqld will wait for enough free disk before continuing.
8.5.5 Some things we need to fix for BDB in the near future:
• It’s very slow to open many BDB tables at the same time. If you are going to use
BDB tables, you should not have a very big table cache (> 256 ?) and you should use
--no-auto-rehash with the mysql client. We plan to partly fix this in 4.0.
• SHOW TABLE STATUS doesn’t yet provide that much information for BDB tables.
• Optimize performance.
• Change to not use page locks at all when we are scanning tables.
8.5.6 Operating systems supported by BDB
If you after having built MySQL with support for BDB tables get the following error in the
log file when you start mysqld:
bdb: architecture lacks fast mutexes: applications cannot be threaded
Can’t init dtabases
This means that BDB tables are not supported for your architecture. In this case you have
to rebuild MySQL without BDB table support.
NOTE: The following list is not complete; We will update this as we get more information
about this.
Currently we know that BDB tables works with the following operating system.
• Linux 2.x intel
• Solaris sparc
• SCO OpenServer
• SCO UnixWare 7.0.1
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It doesn’t work with the following operating systems:
• Linux 2.x Alpha
• Max OS X
8.5.7 Errors You May Get When Using BDB Tables
• If you get the following error in the hostname.err log when starting mysqld:
bdb: Ignoring log file: .../log.XXXXXXXXXX: unsupported log version #
it means that the new BDB version doesn’t support the old log file format. In this case
you have to delete all BDB log BDB from your database directory (the files that has the
format log.XXXXXXXXXX ) and restart mysqld. We would also recommend you to do a
mysqldump --opt of your old BDB tables, delete the old table and restore the dump.
• If you are running in not auto_commit mode and delete a table you are using by another
thread you may get the following error messages in the MySQL error file:
001119 23:43:56 bdb: Missing log fileid entry
001119 23:43:56 bdb: txn_abort: Log undo failed for LSN: 1 3644744: Invalid
This is not fatal but we don’t recommend that you delete tables if you are not in
auto_commit mode, until this problem is fixed (the fix is not trivial).
8.6 GEMINI Tables
8.6.1 GEMINI Overview
GEMINI is a transaction-safe table handler for MySQL. It provides row-level locking, robust
transaction support and reliable crash recovery. It is targeted for databases that need to
handle heavy multi-user updates typical of transaction processing applications while still
providing excellent performance for read-intensive operations. The GEMINI table type is
developed and supported by NuSphere Corporation (see http://www.nusphere.com ).
GEMINI provides full ACID transaction properties (Atomic, Consistent, Independent, and
Durable) with a programming model that includes support for statement atomicity and all
four standard isolation levels (Read Uncommitted, Read Committed, Repeatable Read, and
Serializable) defined in the SQL standard.
The GEMINI tables support row-level and table-level locking to increase concurrency in
applications and allow reading of tables without locking for maximum concurrency in a
heavy update environment. The transaction, locking, and recovery mechanisms are tightly
integrated to eliminate unnecessary administration overhead.
In general, if GEMINI tables are selected for an application, it is recommended that all tables
updated in the application be GEMINI tables to provide well-defined system behavior. If nonGEMINI tables are mixed into the application then, ACID transaction properties cannot be
maintained. While there are clearly cases where mixing table types is appropriate, it should
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always be done with careful consideration of the impact on transaction consistency and
recoverability needs of the application and underlying database.
The GEMINI table type is derived from a successful commercial database and uses the storage
kernel technology tightly integrated with MySQL server. The basic GEMINI technology is in
use by millions of users worldwide in production environments today. This maturity allows
GEMINI tables to provide a solution for those users who require transaction-based behavior
as part of their applications.
The GEMINI table handler supports a configurable data cache that allows a significant portion of any database to be maintained in memory while still allowing durable updates.
8.6.1.1 GEMINI Features
The following summarizes the major features provided by GEMINI tables.
• Supports all optimization statistics used by the MySQL optimizer including table cardinality, index range estimates and multi-component selectivity to insure optimal query
performance.
• Maintains exact cardinality information for each table so SELECT COUNT(*) FROM tablename always returns an answer immediately.
• Supports index-only queries; when index data is sufficient to resolve a query no record
data is read (for non character types).
• GEMINI uses block based I/O for better performance. There is no performance penalty
for using VARCHAR fields. The maximum record size is currently 32K.
• The number of rows in a single GEMINI table can be 4 quintillion (full use of 64 bits).
• Individual tables can be as large as 16 petabytes.
• Locking is done at a record or row level rather than at table level unless table locks are
explicitly requested. When a row is inserted into a table, other rows can be updated,
inserted or deleted without waiting for the inserted row to be committed.
• Provides durable transactions backed by a crash recovery mechanism that returns the
database to a known consistent state in the event of an unexpected failure.
• Support for all isolation levels and statement atomicity defined in the SQL standard.
• Reliable Master Replication; the master database can survive system failure and recover
all committed transactions.
8.6.1.2 GEMINI Concepts
This section highlights some of the important concepts behind GEMINI and the GEMINI
programming model, including:
• ACID Transactions
• Transaction COMMIT/ROLLBACK
• Statement Atomicity
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• Recovery
• Isolation Levels
• Row-Level Locking
These features are described below.
ACID Transactions
ACID in the context of transactions is an acronym which stands for Atomicity, Consistency,
Isolation, Durability.
Attribute
Description
Atomicity
A transaction allows for the grouping of one or more changes to
tables and rows in the database to form an atomic or indivisible
operation. That is, either all of the changes occur or none of
them do. If for any reason the transaction cannot be completed,
everything this transaction changed can be restored to the state it
was in prior to the start of the transaction via a rollback operation.
Consistency
Transactions always operate on a consistent view of the data and
when they end always leave the data in a consistent state. Data
may be said to be consistent as long as it conforms to a set of
invariants, such as no two rows in the customer table have the
same customer ID and all orders have an associated customer row.
While a transaction executes, these invariants may be violated, but
no other transaction will be allowed to see these inconsistencies,
and all such inconsistencies will have been eliminated by the time
the transaction ends.
Isolation
To a given transaction, it should appear as though it is running
all by itself on the database. The effects of concurrently running
transactions are invisible to this transaction, and the effects of this
transaction are invisible to others until the transaction is committed.
Durability
Once a transaction is committed, its effects are guaranteed to persist even in the event of subsequent system failures. Until the
transaction commits, not only are any changes made by that transaction not durable, but are guaranteed not to persist in the face
of a system failures, as crash recovery will rollback their effects.
Transaction COMMIT/ROLLBACK
As stated above, a transaction is a group of work being done to data. Unless otherwise
directed, MySQL considers each statement a transaction in itself. Multiple updates can be
accomplished by placing them in a single statement, however they are limited to a single
table.
Applications tend to require more robust use of transaction concepts. Take, for example, a
system that processes an order: A row may be inserted in an order table, additional rows
may be added to an order-line table, updates may be made to inventory tables, etc. It is
important that if the order completes, all the changes are made to all the tables involved;
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likewise if the order fails, none of the changes to the tables must occur. To facilitate this
requirement, MySQL has syntax to start a transaction called BEGIN WORK. All statements
that occur after the BEGIN WORK statement are grouped into a single transaction. The end
of this transaction occurs when a COMMIT or ROLLBACK statement is encountered. After
the COMMIT or ROLLBACK the system returns back to the behavior before the BEGIN WORK
statement was encountered where every statement is a transaction.
To permanently turn off the behavior where every statement is a transaction, MySQL added
a variable called AUTOCOMMIT. The AUTOCOMMIT variable can have two values, 1 and 0. The
mode where every statement is a transaction is when AUTOCOMMIT is set to 1 (AUTOCOMMIT=1).
When AUTOCOMMIT is set to 0 (AUTOCOMMIT=0), then every statement is part of the same
transaction until the transaction end by either COMMIT or ROLLBACK. Once a transaction
completes, a new transaction is immediately started and the process repeats.
Here is an example of the SQL statements that you may find in a typical order:
BEGIN WORK;
INSERT INTO order VALUES ...;
INSERT INTO order-lines VALUES ...;
INSERT INTO order-lines VALUES ...;
INSERT INTO order-lines VALUES ...;
UPDATE inventory WHERE ...;
COMMIT;
This example shows how to use the BEGIN WORK statement to start a transaction. If the
variable AUTOCOMMIT is set to 0, then a transaction would have been started already. In this
case, the BEGIN WORK commits the current transaction and starts a new one.
Statement Atomicity
As mentioned above, when running with AUTOCOMMIT set to 1, each statement executes as a
single transaction. When a statement has an error, then all changes make by the statement
must be undone. Transactions support this behavior. Non-transaction safe table handlers
would have a partial statement update where some of the changes from the statement would
be contained in the database and other changes from the statement would not. Work would
need to be done to manually recover from the error.
Recovery
Transactions are the basis for database recovery. Recovery is what supports the Durability
attribute of the ACID transaction.
GEMINI uses a separate file called the Recovery Log located in the $DATADIR directory
named gemini.rl. This file maintains the integrity of all the GEMINI tables. GEMINI can
not recover any data from non-GEMINI tables. In addition, the gemini.rl file is used to
rollback transactions in support of the ROLLBACK statement.
In the event of a system failure, the next time the MySQL server is started, GEMINI will
automatically go through its crash recovery process. The result of crash recovery is that all
the GEMINI tables will contain the latest changes made to them, and all transactions that
were open at the time of the crash will have been rolled back.
The GEMINI Recovery Log reuses space when it can. Space can be reused when information
in the Recovery Log is no longer needed for crash recovery or rollback.
Isolation Levels
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There are four isolation levels supported by GEMINI:
• READ UNCOMMITTED
• READ COMMITTED
• REPEATABLE READ
• SERIALIZABLE
These isolation levels apply only to shared locks obtained by select statements, excluding
select for update. Statements that get exclusive locks always retain those locks until the
transaction commits or rolls back.
By default, GEMINI operates at the READ COMMITTED level. You can override the default
using the following command:
SET [GLOBAL | SESSION] TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL [READ UNCOMMITTED |
READ COMMITTED | REPEATABLE READ | SERIALIZABLE ]
If the SESSION qualifier used, the specified isolation level persists for the entire session. If the
GLOBAL qualifier is used, the specified isolation level is applied to all new connections from
this point forward. Note that the specified isolation level will not change the behavior for
existing connections including the connection that exectues the SET GLOBAL TRANSACTION
ISOLATION LEVEL statement.
Isolation Level
Description
READ UNCOMMITTED
Does not obtain any locks when reading rows. This means
that if a row is locked by another process in a transaction
that has a more strict isolation level, the READ UNCOMMITTED
query will not wait until the locks are released before reading
the row. You will get an error if attempt any updates while
running at this isolation level.
READ COMMITTED
Locks the requested rows long enough to copy the row from
the database block to the client row buffer. If a READ
COMMITTED query finds that a row is locked exclusively by
another process, it will wait until either the row has been
released, or the lock timeout value has expired.
REPEATABLE READ
Locks all the rows needed to satisfy the query. These locks are
held until the transaction ends (commits or rolls back). If a
REPEATABLE READ query finds that a row is locked exclusively
by another process, it will wait until either the row has been
released, or the lock timeout value has expired.
SERIALIZABLE
Locks the table that contains the rows needed to satisfy the
query. This lock is held until the transaction ends (commits
or rolls back). If a SERIALIZABLE query finds that a row is
exclusively locked by another process, it will wait until either the row has been released, or the lock timeout value has
expired.
The statements that get exclusive locks are INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE and SELECT ... FOR
UPDATE. Select statements without the FOR UPDATE qualifier get shared locks which allow
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other not ”for update” select statements to read the same rows but block anyone trying to
update the row from accessing it. Rows or tables with exclusive locks block all access to
the row from other transactions until the transaction ends.
In general terms, the higher the Isolation level the more likelihood of having concurrent
locks and therefore lock conflicts. In such cases, adjust the -O gemini_lock_table_size
accordingly.
Row-Level Locking
GEMINI uses row locks, which allows high concurrency for requests on the same table.
In order to avoid lock table overflow, SQL statements that require applying locks to a large
number of rows should either be run at the serializable isolation level or should be covered
by a lock table statement.
Memory must be pre-allocated for the lock table. The mysqld server startup option -0
gemini_lock_table_size can be used to adjust the number of concurrent locks.
8.6.1.3 GEMINI Limitations
The following limitations are in effect for the current version of GEMINI:
• DROP DATABASE does not work with GEMINI tables; instead, drop all the tables in the
database first, then drop the database.
• Maximum number of GEMINI tables is 1012.
• Maximum number of GEMINI files a server can manage is 1012. Each table consumes
one file; an additional file is consumed if the table has any indexes defined on it.
• Maximum size of BLOBs is 16MB.
• FULLTEXT indexes are not supported with GEMINI tables.
• There is no support for multi-component AUTO_INCREMENT fields that provide alternating values at the component level. If you try to create such a field, GEMINI will
refuse.
• TEMPORARY TABLES are not supported by GEMINI. The statement CREATE TEMPORARY
TABLE ... TYPE=GEMINI will generate the response: ERROR 1005: Can’t create table
’/tmp/#sqlxxxxx’ (errno: 0).
• FLUSH TABLES has not been implemented with GEMINI tables.
8.6.2 Using GEMINI Tables
This section explains the various startup options you can use with GEMINI tables, how to
backup GEMINI tables, some performance considerations and sample configurations, and a
brief discussion of when to use GEMINI tables.
Specifically, the topics covered in this section are:
• Startup Options
• Creating GEMINI Tables
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• Backing Up GEMINI Tables
• Using Auto Increment Columns With GEMINI Tables
• Performance Considerations
• Sample Configurations
• When To Use GEMINI Tables
8.6.2.1 Startup Options
The table below lists options to mysqld that can be used to change the behavior of GEMINI
tables.
Option
Description
--default-table-type=gemini
Sets the default table handler to be GEMINI. All create table statements will create GEMINI tables unless
otherwise specified with TYPE=table-type. As noted
above, there is currently a limitation with TEMPORARY
tables using GEMINI.
--gemini-flush-log-at-commit
Forces the recovery log buffers to be flushed after
every commit. This can have a serious performance
penalty, so use with caution.
--gemini-recovery=FULL | NONE |
FORCE
Sets the recovery mode. Default is FULL. NONE is useful for performing repeatable batch operations because the updates are not recorded in the recovery
log. FORCE skips crash recovery upon startup; this
corrupts the database, and should be used in emergencies only.
--gemini-unbuffered-io
All database writes bypass the OS cache. This can
provide a performance boost on heavily updated systems where most of the dataset being worked on is
cached in memory with the gemini_buffer_cache
parameter.
--O gemini_buffer_cache=size
Amount of memory to allocate for database buffers,
including Index and Record information. It is recommended that this number be 10% of the total size of
all GEMINI tables. Do not exceed amount of memory
on the system!
--O gemini_connection_limit=#
Maximum number of connections to GEMINI; default
is 100. Each connection consumes about 1K of memory.
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--O gemini_io_threads=#
Number of background I/O threads; default is
2. Increase the number when using --geminiunbuffered-io
--O gemini_lock_table_size=#
Sets the maximum number of concurrent locks;
default is 4096. Using SET [ GLOBAL | SESSION ]
TRANSACTION ISOLATION = ... will determine how
long a program will hold row locks.
--O gemini_lock_wait_timeout=seconds
Number of seconds to wait for record locks when
performing queries; default is 10 seconds. Using SET
[ GLOBAL | SESSION ] TRANSACTION ISOLATION =
... will determine how long a program will hold
row locks.
--skip-gemini
Do not use GEMINI. If you use --skip-gemini,
MySQL will not initialize the GEMINI table handler,
saving memory; you cannot use GEMINI tables if you
use --skip-gemini.
--transaction-isolation=READUNCOMMITTED | READ-COMMITTED |
REPEATABLE-READ | SERIALIZABLE
Sets the GLOBAL transaction isolation level for all
users that connect to the server; can be overridden
with the SET ISOLATION LEVEL statement.
8.6.2.2 Creating GEMINI Tables
GEMINI tables can be created by either using the CREATE TABLE syntax or the ALTER TABLE
syntax.
• The syntax for creating a GEMINI table is:
CREATE TABLE table-name (....) TYPE=GEMINI;
• The syntax to convert a table to GEMINI is:
ALTER TABLE table-name TYPE=GEMINI;
See Chapter 9 [Tutorial], page 344, for more information on how to create and use MySQL
tables.
8.6.2.3 Backing Up GEMINI Tables
GEMINI supports both BACKUP TABLE and RESTORE TABLE syntax. To learn more about how
to use BACKUP and RESTORE, see Section 7.13 [BACKUP TABLE], page 243 and Section 7.14
[RESTORE TABLE], page 243.
To backup GEMINI tables outside of the MySQL environment, you must first shut down the
MySQL server. Once the server is shut down, you can copy the files associated with GEMINI
to a different location. The files that make up the GEMINI table handler are:
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• All files associated with a table with a .gmd extention below the $DATADIR directory.
Such files include table.gmd, table.gmi, and table.frm
• gemini.db in the $DATADIR directory
• gemini.rl in the $DATADIR directory
• gemini.lg in the $DATADIR directory
All the GEMINI files must be copied together. You can not copy just the .gmi and .gmd
files to a different $DATADIR and have them become part of a new database. You can copy
an entire $DATADIR directory to another location and start a MySQL server using the new
$DATADIR.
8.6.2.4 Restoring GEMINI Tables
To restore GEMINI tables outside of the MySQL environment, you must first shut down the
MySQL server. Once the server is shut down, you can remove all GEMINI files in the target
$DATADIR and then copy the files previously backed up into the $DATADIR directory.
As mentioned above, the files that make up the GEMINI table handler are:
• All files associated with a table with a .gmd extention below the $DATADIR directory.
Such files include table.gmd, table.gmi, and table.frm
• gemini.db in the $DATADIR directory
• gemini.rl in the $DATADIR directory
• gemini.lg in the $DATADIR directory
When restoring a table, all the GEMINI files must be copied together. You can not restore
just the .gmi and .gmd files.
8.6.2.5 Using Auto Increment Columns With GEMINI Tables
As mentioned previously, GEMINI tables support row-level and table-level locking to increase
concurrency in applications and to allow reading of tables without locking for maximum
concurrency in heavy update environments. This feature has several implications when
working with auto_increment tables.
In MySQL, when a column is defined as an auto_increment column, and a row is inserted
into the table with a NULL for the column, the auto_increment column is updated to be 1
higher than the highest value in the column.
With MyISAM tables, the auto_increment function is implemented by looking in the index
and finding the highest value and adding 1 to it. This is possible because the entire ISAM
table is locked during the update period and the increment value is therefore guaranteed to
not be changing.
With GEMINI tables, the auto_increment function is implemented by maintaining a counter
in a separate location from the table data. Instead of looking at the highest value in the
table index, GEMINI tables look at this separately maintained counter. This means that
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in a transactional model, unlike the bottleneck inherent in the MyISAM approach, GEMINI
users do not have to wait until the transaction that added the last value either commits or
rollbacks before looking at the value.
Two side-effects of the GEMINI implementation are:
• If an insert is done where the column with the auto_increment is specified, and this
specified value is the highest value, MyISAM uses it as its auto_increment value, and
every subsequent insert is based on this. By contrast, GEMINI does not use this value,
but instead uses the value maintained in the separate GEMINI counter location.
• To set the counter to a specific value, you can use SET insert_id=# and insert a new
row in the table. However, as a general rule, values should not be inserted into an
auto_increment column; the database manager should be maintaining this field, not
the application. SET insert_id is a recovery mechanism that should be used in case
of error only.
Note that if you delete the row containing the maximum value for an auto_increment
column, the value will be reused with a GEMINI table but not with a MyISAM table.
See Section 7.7 [CREATE TABLE], page 230 for more information about creating auto_
increment columns.
8.6.2.6 Performance Considerations
In addition to designing the best possible application, configuration of the data and the
server startup parameters need to be considered. How the hardware is being used can have
a dramatic affect on how fast the system will respond to queries. Disk Drives and Memory
must both be considered.
Disk Drives
For best performance, you want to spread the data out over as many disks as possible.
Using RAID 10 stripes work very well. If there are a lot of updates then the recovery log
(gemini.rl) should be on a relatively quiet disk drive.
To spread the data out without using RAID 10, you can do the following:
• Group all the tables into three categories: Heavy Use, Moderate Use, Light Use.
• Take the number of disk drives available and use a round-robin approach to the three
categories grouping the tables on a disk drive. The result will be an equal distribution
of Heavy/Moderate/Light tables assigned to each disk drive.
• Once the tables have been converted to GEMINI by using the ALTER TABLE <name>
TYPE=GEMINI statements, move (mv) the .gmd and .gmi files to a different disk drive
and link (ln -s) them back to the original directory where the .frm file resides.
• Finally, move the gemini.rl file to its quiet disk location and link the file back to the
$DATADIR directory.
Memory
The more data that can be placed in memory the faster the access to the data. Figure out
how large the GEMINI data is by adding up the .gmd and .gmi file sizes. If you can, put at
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least 10% of the data into memory. You allocate memory for the rows and indexes by using
the gemini_buffer_cache startup parameter. For example:
mysqld -O gemini_buffer_cache=800M
would allocate 800 MB of memory for the GEMINI buffer cache.
8.6.2.7 Sample Configurations
Based on the performance considerations above, we can look at some examples for how to
get the best performance out of the system when using GEMINI tables.
Hardware
One CPU, 128MB memory,
one disk drive
Configuration
Allocate 80MB of memory for reading and updating GEMINI
tables by starting the mysqld server with the following option:
-O gemini_buffer_cache=80M
Two CPUs, 512MB memory, four disk drives
Use RAID 10 to stripe the data across all available disks,
or use the method described in the performance considerations section, above. Allocate 450MB of memory for reading/updating GEMINI tables:
-O gemini_buffer_cache=450M
8.6.2.8 When To Use GEMINI Tables
Because the GEMINI table handler provides crash recovery and transaction support, there
is extra overhead that is not found in other non-transaction safe table handlers. Here are
some general guidelines for when to employ GEMINI and when to use other non-transaction
safe tables (NTST).
Access Trends
Read-only
Critical data
High concurrency
Heavy update
Table Type
NTST
GEMINI
GEMINI
GEMINI
Reason
Less overhead and faster
Crash recovery protection
Row-level locking
Row-level locking
The table below shows how a typical application schema could be defined.
Table
account
Contents
Customer account data
Table Type
GEMINI
order
Orders for a customer
GEMINI
orderline
GEMINI
invdesc
Orderline detail for an
order
Inventory description
salesrep
Sales rep information
NTST
NTST
Reason
Critical data, heavy
update
Critical data, heavy
update
Critical data, heavy
update
Read-only,
frequent
access
Infrequent update
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inventory
Inventory information
GEMINI
config
System configuration
NTST
High concurrency, critical data
Read-only
8.7 InnoDB Tables
8.7.1 InnoDB tables overview
InnoDB tables are included in the MySQL source distribution starting from 3.23.34a and
are activated in the MySQL -max binary.
If you have downloaded a binary version of MySQL that includes support for InnoDB
(mysqld-max), simply follow the instructions for installing a binary version of MySQL. See
Section 4.6 [Installing binary], page 55. See Section 15.2 [mysqld-max], page 436.
To compile MySQL with InnoDB support, download MySQL-3.23.37 or newer and configure
MySQL with the --with-innodb option. See Section 4.7 [Installing source], page 61.
cd /path/to/source/of/mysql-3.23.37
./configure --with-innodb
InnoDB provides MySQL with a transaction-safe table handler with commit, rollback,
and crash recovery capabilities. InnoDB does locking on row level, and also provides an
Oracle-style consistent non-locking read in SELECTS, which increases transaction concurrency. There is not need for lock escalation in InnoDB, because row level locks in InnoDB
fit in very small space.
InnoDB has been designed for maximum performance when processing large data volumes.
Its CPU efficiency is probably not matched by any other disk-based relational database
engine.
You can find the latest information about InnoDB at http://www.innodb.com. The most
up-to-date version of the InnoDB manual is always placed there, and you can also order
commercial support for InnoDB.
Technically, InnoDB is a database backend placed under MySQL. InnoDB has its own buffer
pool for caching data and indexes in main memory. InnoDB stores its tables and indexes in
a tablespace, which may consist of several files. This is different from, for example, MyISAM
tables where each table is stored as a separate file.
InnoDB is distributed under the GNU GPL License Version 2 (of June 1991). In the source
distribution of MySQL, InnoDB appears as a subdirectory.
8.7.2 InnoDB startup options
Beginning from MySQL-3.23.37 the prefix of the options is changed from innobase_... to
innodb_....
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To use InnoDB tables you MUST specify configuration parameters in the MySQL configuration file in the [mysqld] section of the configuration file ‘my.cnf’. See Section 4.16.5
[Option files], page 121.
The only required parameter to use InnoDB is innodb_data_file_path, but you should
set others if you want to get a better performance.
Suppose you have a Windows NT machine with 128 MB RAM and a single 10 GB hard
disk. Below is an example of possible configuration parameters in ‘my.cnf’ for InnoDB:
innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:2000M;ibdata2:2000M
innodb_data_home_dir = c:\ibdata
set-variable = innodb_mirrored_log_groups=1
innodb_log_group_home_dir = c:\iblogs
set-variable = innodb_log_files_in_group=3
set-variable = innodb_log_file_size=30M
set-variable = innodb_log_buffer_size=8M
innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit=1
innodb_log_arch_dir = c:\iblogs
innodb_log_archive=0
set-variable = innodb_buffer_pool_size=80M
set-variable = innodb_additional_mem_pool_size=10M
set-variable = innodb_file_io_threads=4
set-variable = innodb_lock_wait_timeout=50
Suppose you have a Linux machine with 512 MB RAM and three 20 GB hard disks (at
directory paths ‘/’, ‘/dr2’ and ‘/dr3’). Below is an example of possible configuration
parameters in ‘my.cnf’ for InnoDB:
innodb_data_file_path = ibdata/ibdata1:2000M;dr2/ibdata/ibdata2:2000M
innodb_data_home_dir = /
set-variable = innodb_mirrored_log_groups=1
innodb_log_group_home_dir = /dr3
set-variable = innodb_log_files_in_group=3
set-variable = innodb_log_file_size=50M
set-variable = innodb_log_buffer_size=8M
innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit=1
innodb_log_arch_dir = /dr3/iblogs
innodb_log_archive=0
set-variable = innodb_buffer_pool_size=400M
set-variable = innodb_additional_mem_pool_size=20M
set-variable = innodb_file_io_threads=4
set-variable = innodb_lock_wait_timeout=50
Note that we have placed the two data files on different disks. The reason for the name
innodb_data_file_path is that you can also specify paths to your data files, and innodb_
data_home_dir is just textually catenated before your data file paths, adding a possible
slash or backslash in between. InnoDB will fill the tablespace formed by the data files from
bottom up. In some cases it will improve the performance of the database if all data is not
placed on the same physical disk. Putting log files on a different disk from data is very
often beneficial for performance.
The meanings of the configuration parameters are the following:
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innodb_data_home_dir
innodb_data_file_path
innodb_mirrored_log_
groups
innodb_log_group_home_
dir
innodb_log_files_in_
group
innodb_log_file_size
innodb_log_buffer_size
innodb_flush_log_at_
trx_commit
innodb_log_arch_dir
innodb_log_archive
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The common part of the directory path for all innobase data
files.
Paths to individual data files and their sizes. The full directory path to each data file is acquired by concatenating innodb data home dir to the paths specified here. The file sizes
are specified in megabytes, hence the ’M’ after the size specification above. Do not set a file size bigger than 4000M, and
on most operating systems not bigger than 2000M. InnoDB
also understands the abbreviation ’G’, 1G meaning 1024M.
The sum of the sizes of the files must be at least 10 MB.
Number of identical copies of log groups we keep for the
database. Currently this should be set to 1.
Directory path to InnoDB log files.
Number of log files in the log group. InnoDB writes to the
files in a circular fashion. Value 3 is recommended here.
Size of each log file in a log group in megabytes. Sensible
values range from 1M to the size of the buffer pool specified
below. The bigger the value, the less checkpoint flush activity
is needed in the buffer pool, saving disk i/o. But bigger log
files also mean that recovery will be slower in case of a crash.
File size restriction as for a data file.
The size of the buffer which InnoDB uses to write log to the
log files on disk. Sensible values range from 1M to half the
combined size of log files. A big log buffer allows large transactions to run without a need to write the log to disk until
the transaction commit. Thus, if you have big transactions,
making the log buffer big will save disk i/o.
Normally this is set to 1, meaning that at a transaction commit the log is flushed to disk, and the modifications made by
the transaction become permanent, and survive a database
crash. If you are willing to compromise this safety, and you
are running small transactions, you may set this to 0 to reduce
disk i/o to the logs.
The directory where fully written log files would be archived
if we used log archiving. The value of this parameter should
currently be set the same as innodb_log_group_home_dir.
This value should currently be set to 0. As recovery from
a backup is done by MySQL using its own log files, there is
currently no need to archive InnoDB log files.
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innodb_buffer_pool_
size
innodb_additional_mem_
pool_size
innodb_file_io_threads
innodb_lock_wait_
timeout
innodb_unix_file_
flush_method
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The size of the memory buffer InnoDB uses to cache data and
indexes of its tables. The bigger you set this the less disk i/o
is needed to access data in tables. On a dedicated database
server you may set this parameter up to 90 % of the machine
physical memory size. Do not set it too large, though, because
competition of the physical memory may cause paging in the
operating system.
Size of a memory pool InnoDB uses to store data dictionary
information and other internal data structures. A sensible
value for this might be 2M, but the more tables you have in
your application the more you will need to allocate here. If
InnoDB runs out of memory in this pool, it will start to allocate memory from the operating system, and write warning
messages to the MySQL error log.
Number of file i/o threads in InnoDB. Normally, this should
be 4, but on Windows NT disk i/o may benefit from a larger
number.
Timeout in seconds an InnoDB transaction may wait for a
lock before being rolled back. InnoDB automatically detects transaction deadlocks in its own lock table and rolls
back the transaction. If you use LOCK TABLES command, or
other transaction-safe table handlers than InnoDB in the same
transaction, then a deadlock may arise which InnoDB cannot
notice. In cases like this the timeout is useful to resolve the
situation.
(Available from 3.23.39 up.) The default value for this is
fdatasync. Another option is O_DSYNC. Options littlesync
and nosync have the risk that in an operating system crash
or a power outage you may easily end up with a half-written
database page, and you have to do a recovery from a backup.
See the section "InnoDB performance tuning", item 6, below for tips on how to set this parameter. If you are happy
with your database performance it is wisest not to specify this
parameter at all, in which case it will get the default value.
8.7.3 Creating InnoDB table space
Suppose you have installed MySQL and have edited ‘my.cnf’ so that it contains the necessary InnoDB configuration parameters. Before starting MySQL you should check that the
directories you have specified for InnoDB data files and log files exist and that you have
access rights to those directories. InnoDB cannot create directories, only files. Check also
you have enough disk space for the data and log files.
When you now start MySQL, InnoDB will start creating your data files and log files. InnoDB
will print something like the following:
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~/mysqlm/sql > mysqld
InnoDB: The first specified data file /home/heikki/data/ibdata1 did not exist:
InnoDB: a new database to be created!
InnoDB: Setting file /home/heikki/data/ibdata1 size to 134217728
InnoDB: Database physically writes the file full: wait...
InnoDB: Data file /home/heikki/data/ibdata2 did not exist: new to be created
InnoDB: Setting file /home/heikki/data/ibdata2 size to 262144000
InnoDB: Database physically writes the file full: wait...
InnoDB: Log file /home/heikki/data/logs/ib_logfile0 did not exist: new to be c
reated
InnoDB: Setting log file /home/heikki/data/logs/ib_logfile0 size to 5242880
InnoDB: Log file /home/heikki/data/logs/ib_logfile1 did not exist: new to be c
reated
InnoDB: Setting log file /home/heikki/data/logs/ib_logfile1 size to 5242880
InnoDB: Log file /home/heikki/data/logs/ib_logfile2 did not exist: new to be c
reated
InnoDB: Setting log file /home/heikki/data/logs/ib_logfile2 size to 5242880
InnoDB: Started
mysqld: ready for connections
A new InnoDB database has now been created. You can connect to the MySQL server with
the usual MySQL client programs like mysql. When you shut down the MySQL server with
‘mysqladmin shutdown’, InnoDB output will be like the following:
010321 18:33:34
010321 18:33:34
InnoDB: Starting
InnoDB: Shutdown
mysqld: Normal shutdown
mysqld: Shutdown Complete
shutdown...
completed
You can now look at the data files and logs directories and you will see the files created.
The log directory will also contain a small file named ‘ib_arch_log_0000000000’. That file
resulted from the database creation, after which InnoDB switched off log archiving. When
MySQL is again started, the output will be like the following:
~/mysqlm/sql > mysqld
InnoDB: Started
mysqld: ready for connections
8.7.3.1 If something goes wrong in database creation
If something goes wrong in an InnoDB database creation, you should delete all files created
by InnoDB. This means all data files, all log files, the small archived log file, and in the case
you already did create some InnoDB tables, delete also the corresponding ‘.frm’ files for
these tables from the MySQL database directories. Then you can try the InnoDB database
creation again.
8.7.4 Creating InnoDB tables
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Suppose you have started the MySQL client with the command mysql test. To create
a table in the InnoDB format you must specify TYPE = InnoDB in the table creation SQL
command:
CREATE TABLE CUSTOMER (A INT, B CHAR (20), INDEX (A)) TYPE = InnoDB;
This SQL command will create a table and an index on column A into the InnoDB tablespace
consisting of the data files you specified in ‘my.cnf’. In addition MySQL will create a file
‘CUSTOMER.frm’ to the MySQL database directory ‘test’. Internally, InnoDB will add to
its own data dictionary an entry for table ’test/CUSTOMER’. Thus you can create a table
of the same name CUSTOMER in another database of MySQL, and the table names will not
collide inside InnoDB.
You can query the amount of free space in the InnoDB tablespace by issuing the table status
command of MySQL for any table you have created with TYPE = InnoDB. Then the amount
of free space in the tablespace appears in the table comment section in the output of SHOW.
An example:
SHOW TABLE STATUS FROM test LIKE ’CUSTOMER’
Note that the statistics SHOW gives about InnoDB tables are only approximate: they are
used in SQL optimization. Table and index reserved sizes in bytes are accurate, though.
NOTE: DROP DATABASE does not currently work for InnoDB tables! You must drop the
tables individually. Also take care not to delete or add ‘.frm’ files to your InnoDB database
manually: use CREATE TABLE and DROP TABLE commands. InnoDB has its own internal data
dictionary, and you will get problems if the MySQL ‘.frm’ files are out of ’sync’ with the
InnoDB internal data dictionary.
8.7.4.1 Converting MyISAM tables to InnoDB
InnoDB does not have a special optimization for separate index creation. Therefore it does
not pay to export and import the table and create indexes afterwards. The fastest way to
alter a table to InnoDB is to do the inserts directly to an InnoDB table, that is, use ALTER
TABLE ... TYPE=INNODB, or create an empty InnoDB table with identical definitions and
insert the rows with INSERT INTO ... SELECT * FROM ....
To get better control over the insertion process, it may be good to insert big tables in pieces:
INSERT INTO newtable SELECT * FROM oldtable WHERE yourkey > something
AND yourkey <= somethingelse;
After all data has been inserted you can rename the tables.
During the conversion of big tables you should set the InnoDB buffer pool size big to reduce
disk i/o. Not bigger than 80 % of the physical memory, though. You should set InnoDB
log files big, and also the log buffer large.
Make sure you do not run out of tablespace: InnoDB tables take a lot more space than
MyISAM tables. If an ALTER TABLE runs out of space, it will start a rollback, and that can
take hours if it is disk-bound. In inserts InnoDB uses the insert buffer to merge secondary
index records to indexes in batches. That saves a lot of disk i/o. In rollback no such
mechanism is used, and the rollback can take 30 times longer than the insertion.
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In the case of a runaway rollback, if you do not have valuable data in your database, it is
better that you kill the database process and delete all InnoDB data and log files and all
InnoDB table ‘.frm’ files, and start your job again, rather than wait for millions of disk
i/os to complete.
8.7.5 Adding and removing InnoDB data and log files
You cannot increase the size of an InnoDB data file. To add more into your tablespace
you have to add a new data file. To do this you have to shut down your MySQL database,
edit the ‘my.cnf’ file, adding a new file to innodb_data_file_path, and then start MySQL
again.
Currently you cannot remove a data file from InnoDB. To decrease the size of your database
you have to use mysqldump to dump all your tables, create a new database, and import
your tables to the new database.
If you want to change the number or the size of your InnoDB log files, you have to shut
down MySQL and make sure that it shuts down without errors. Then copy the old log
files into a safe place just in case something went wrong in the shutdown and you will need
them to recover the database. Delete then the old log files from the log file directory, edit
‘my.cnf’, and start MySQL again. InnoDB will tell you at the startup that it is creating
new log files.
8.7.6 Backing up and recovering an InnoDB database
The key to safe database management is taking regular backups. To take a ’binary’ backup
of your database you have to do the following:
• Shut down your MySQL database and make sure it shuts down without errors.
• Copy all your data files into a safe place.
• Copy all your InnoDB log files to a safe place.
• Copy your ‘my.cnf’ configuration file(s) to a safe place.
• Copy all the ‘.frm’ files for your InnoDB tables into a safe place.
There is currently no on-line or incremental backup tool available for InnoDB, though they
are in the TODO list.
In addition to taking the binary backups described above, you should also regularly take
dumps of your tables with ‘mysqldump’. The reason to this is that a binary file may be
corrupted without you noticing it. Dumped tables are stored into text files which are humanreadable and much simpler than database binary files. Seeing table corruption from dumped
files is easier, and since their format is simpler, the chance for serious data corruption in
them is smaller.
A good idea is to take the dumps at the same time you take a binary backup of your
database. You have to shut out all clients from your database to get a consistent snapshot
of all your tables into your dumps. Then you can take the binary backup, and you will then
have a consistent snapshot of your database in two formats.
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To be able to recover your InnoDB database to the present from the binary backup described
above, you have to run your MySQL database with the general logging and log archiving of
MySQL switched on. Here by the general logging we mean the logging mechanism of the
MySQL server which is independent of InnoDB logs.
To recover from a crash of your MySQL server process, the only thing you have to do
is to restart it. InnoDB will automatically check the logs and perform a roll-forward of
the database to the present. InnoDB will automatically roll back uncommitted transactions which were present at the time of the crash. During recovery, InnoDB will print out
something like the following:
~/mysqlm/sql > mysqld
InnoDB: Database was not shut down normally.
InnoDB: Starting recovery from log files...
InnoDB: Starting log scan based on checkpoint at
InnoDB: log sequence number 0 13674004
InnoDB: Doing recovery: scanned up to log sequence number 0 13739520
InnoDB: Doing recovery: scanned up to log sequence number 0 13805056
InnoDB: Doing recovery: scanned up to log sequence number 0 13870592
InnoDB: Doing recovery: scanned up to log sequence number 0 13936128
...
InnoDB: Doing recovery: scanned up to log sequence number 0 20555264
InnoDB: Doing recovery: scanned up to log sequence number 0 20620800
InnoDB: Doing recovery: scanned up to log sequence number 0 20664692
InnoDB: 1 uncommitted transaction(s) which must be rolled back
InnoDB: Starting rollback of uncommitted transactions
InnoDB: Rolling back trx no 16745
InnoDB: Rolling back of trx no 16745 completed
InnoDB: Rollback of uncommitted transactions completed
InnoDB: Starting an apply batch of log records to the database...
InnoDB: Apply batch completed
InnoDB: Started
mysqld: ready for connections
If your database gets corrupted or your disk fails, you have to do the recovery from a backup.
In the case of corruption, you should first find a backup which is not corrupted. From a
backup do the recovery from the general log files of MySQL according to instructions in the
MySQL manual.
8.7.6.1 Checkpoints
InnoDB implements a checkpoint mechanism called a fuzzy checkpoint. InnoDB will flush
modified database pages from the buffer pool in small batches, there is no need to flush
the buffer pool in one single batch, which would in practice stop processing of user SQL
statements for a while.
In crash recovery InnoDB looks for a checkpoint label written to the log files. It knows that
all modifications to the database before the label are already present on the disk image of
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the database. Then InnoDB scans the log files forward from the place of the checkpoint
applying the logged modifications to the database.
InnoDB writes to the log files in a circular fashion. All committed modifications which make
the database pages in the buffer pool different from the images on disk must be available
in the log files in case InnoDB has to do a recovery. This means that when InnoDB starts
to reuse a log file in the circular fashion, it has to make sure that the database page images
on disk already contain the modifications logged in the log file InnoDB is going to reuse. In
other words, InnoDB has to make a checkpoint and often this involves flushing of modified
database pages to disk.
The above explains why making your log files very big may save disk i/o in checkpointing.
It can make sense to set the total size of the log files as big as the buffer pool or even bigger.
The drawback in big log files is that crash recovery can last longer because there will be
more log to apply to the database.
8.7.7 Moving an InnoDB database to another machine
InnoDB data and log files are binary-compatible on all platforms if the floating point number format on the machines is the same. You can move an InnoDB database simply by
copying all the relevant files, which we already listed in the previous section on backing up
a database. If the floating point formats on the machines are different but you have not
used FLOAT or DOUBLE data types in your tables then the procedure is the same: just copy
the relevant files. If the formats are different and your tables contain floating point data,
you have to use ‘mysqldump’ and ‘mysqlimport’ to move those tables.
A performance tip is to switch off the auto commit when you import data into your database,
assuming your tablespace has enough space for the big rollback segment the big import
transaction will generate. Do the commit only after importing a whole table or a segment
of a table.
8.7.8 InnoDB transaction model
In the InnoDB transaction model the goal has been to combine the best sides of a multiversioning database to traditional two-phase locking. InnoDB does locking on row level
and runs queries by default as non-locking consistent reads, in the style of Oracle. The lock
table in InnoDB is stored so space-efficiently that lock escalation is not needed: typically
several users are allowed to lock every row in the database, or any random subset of the
rows, without InnoDB running out of memory.
In InnoDB all user activity happens inside transactions. If the auto commit mode is used
in MySQL, then each SQL statement will form a single transaction. If the auto commit
mode is switched off, then we can think that a user always has a transaction open. If he
issues the SQL COMMIT or ROLLBACK statement, that ends the current transaction, and a
new starts. Both statements will release all InnoDB locks that were set during the current
transaction. A COMMIT means that the changes made in the current transaction are made
permanent and become visible to other users. A ROLLBACK on the other hand cancels all
modifications made by the current transaction.
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8.7.8.1 Consistent read
A consistent read means that InnoDB uses its multiversioning to present to a query a
snapshot of the database at a point in time. The query will see the changes made by
exactly those transactions that committed before that point of time, and no changes made
by later or uncommitted transactions. The exception to this rule is that the query will see
the changes made by the transaction itself which issues the query.
When a transaction issues its first consistent read, InnoDB assigns the snapshot, or the
point of time, which all consistent reads in the same transaction will use. In the snapshot
are all transactions that committed before assigning the snapshot. Thus the consistent
reads within the same transaction will also be consistent with respect to each other. You
can get a fresher snapshot for your queries by committing the current transaction and after
that issuing new queries.
Consistent read is the default mode in which InnoDB processes SELECT statements. A
consistent read does not set any locks on the tables it accesses, and therefore other users
are free to modify those tables at the same time a consistent read is being performed on
the table.
8.7.8.2 Locking reads
A consistent read is not convenient in some circumstances. Suppose you want to add a
new row into your table CHILD, and make sure that the child already has a parent in table
PARENT.
Suppose you use a consistent read to read the table PARENT and indeed see the parent of
the child in the table. Can you now safely add the child row to table CHILD? No, because
it may happen that meanwhile some other user has deleted the parent row from the table
PARENT, and you are not aware of that.
The solution is to perform the SELECT in a locking mode, LOCK IN SHARE MODE.
SELECT * FROM PARENT WHERE NAME = ’Jones’ LOCK IN SHARE MODE;
Performing a read in share mode means that we read the latest available data, and set a
shared mode lock on the rows we read. If the latest data belongs to a yet uncommitted
transaction of another user, we will wait until that transaction commits. A shared mode
lock prevents others from updating or deleting the row we have read. After we see that the
above query returns the parent ’Jones’, we can safely add his child to table CHILD, and
commit our transaction. This example shows how to implement referential integrity in your
application code.
Let us look at another example: we have an integer counter field in a table CHILD_CODES
which we use to assign a unique identifier to each child we add to table CHILD. Obviously,
using a consistent read or a shared mode read to read the present value of the counter is not
a good idea, since then two users of the database may see the same value for the counter,
and we will get a duplicate key error when we add the two children with the same identifier
to the table.
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In this case there are two good ways to implement the reading and incrementing of the
counter: (1) update the counter first by incrementing it by 1 and only after that read it, or
(2) read the counter first with a lock mode FOR UPDATE, and increment after that:
SELECT COUNTER_FIELD FROM CHILD_CODES FOR UPDATE;
UPDATE CHILD_CODES SET COUNTER_FIELD = COUNTER_FIELD + 1;
A SELECT ... FOR UPDATE will read the latest available data setting exclusive locks on each
row it reads. Thus it sets the same locks a searched SQL UPDATE would set on the rows.
8.7.8.3 Next-key locking: avoiding the phantom problem
In row level locking InnoDB uses an algorithm called next-key locking. InnoDB does the row
level locking so that when it searches or scans an index of a table, it sets shared or exclusive
locks on the index records in encounters. Thus the row level locks are more precisely called
index record locks.
The locks InnoDB sets on index records also affect the ’gap’ before that index record. If a
user has a shared or exclusive lock on record R in an index, then another user cannot insert
a new index record immediately before R in the index order. This locking of gaps is done to
prevent the so-called phantom problem. Suppose I want to read and lock all children with
identifier bigger than 100 from table CHILD, and update some field in the selected rows.
SELECT * FROM CHILD WHERE ID > 100 FOR UPDATE;
Suppose there is an index on table CHILD on column ID. Our query will scan that index
starting from the first record where ID is bigger than 100. Now, if the locks set on the
index records would not lock out inserts made in the gaps, a new child might meanwhile be
inserted to the table. If now I in my transaction execute
SELECT * FROM CHILD WHERE ID > 100 FOR UPDATE;
again, I will see a new child in the result set the query returns. This is against the isolation
principle of transactions: a transaction should be able to run so that the data it has read
does not change during the transaction. If we regard a set of rows as a data item, then the
new ’phantom’ child would break this isolation principle.
When InnoDB scans an index it can also lock the gap after the last record in the index.
Just that happens in the previous example: the locks set by InnoDB will prevent any insert
to the table where ID would be bigger than 100.
You can use the next-key locking to implement a uniqueness check in your application: if
you read your data in share mode and do not see a duplicate for a row you are going to
insert, then you can safely insert your row and know that the next-key lock set on the
successor of your row during the read will prevent anyone meanwhile inserting a duplicate
for your row. Thus the next-key locking allows you to ’lock’ the non-existence of something
in your table.
8.7.8.4 Locks set by different SQL statements in InnoDB
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• SELECT ... FROM ... : this is a consistent read, reading a snapshot of the database
and setting no locks.
• SELECT ... FROM ... LOCK IN SHARE MODE : sets shared next-key locks on all index
records the read encounters.
• SELECT ... FROM ... FOR UPDATE : sets exclusive next-key locks on all index records
the read encounters.
• INSERT INTO ... VALUES (...) : sets an exclusive lock on the inserted row; note that
this lock is not a next-key lock and does not prevent other users from inserting to the
gap before the inserted row. If a duplicate key error occurs, sets a shared lock on the
duplicate index record.
• INSERT INTO T SELECT ... FROM S WHERE ... sets an exclusive (non-next-key) lock on
each row inserted into T. Does the search on S as a consistent read, but sets shared
next-key locks on S if the MySQL logging is on. InnoDB has to set locks in the latter
case because in roll-forward recovery from a backup every SQL statement has to be
executed in exactly the same way as it was done originally.
• CREATE TABLE ... SELECT ... performs the SELECT as a consistent read or with shared
locks, like in the previous item.
• REPLACE is done like an insert if there is no collision on a unique key. Otherwise, an
exclusive next-key lock is placed on the row which has to be updated.
• UPDATE ... SET ... WHERE ... : sets an exclusive next-key lock on every record the
search encounters.
• DELETE FROM ... WHERE ... : sets an exclusive next-key lock on every record the search
encounters.
• LOCK TABLES ... : sets table locks. In the implementation the MySQL layer of code
sets these locks. The automatic deadlock detection of InnoDB cannot detect deadlocks
where such table locks are involved: see the next section below. See also section 13
’InnoDB restrictions’ about the following: since MySQL does know about row level
locks, it is possible that you get a table lock on a table where another user currently
has row level locks. But that does not put transaction integerity into danger.
8.7.8.5 Deadlock detection and rollback
InnoDB automatically detects a deadlock of transactions and rolls back the transaction
whose lock request was the last one to build a deadlock, that is, a cycle in the waits-for
graph of transactions. InnoDB cannot detect deadlocks where a lock set by a MySQL
LOCK TABLES statement is involved, or if a lock set in another table handler than InnoDB
is involved. You have to resolve these situations using innodb_lock_wait_timeout set in
‘my.cnf’.
When InnoDB performs a complete rollback of a transaction, all the locks of the transaction
are released. However, if just a single SQL statement is rolled back as a result of an error,
some of the locks set by the SQL statement may be preserved. This is because InnoDB
stores row locks in a format where it cannot afterwards know which was set by which SQL
statement.
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8.7.9 Performance tuning tips
1. If the Unix ‘top’ or the Windows ‘Task Manager’ shows that the CPU usage percentage
with your workload is less than 70 %, your workload is probably disk-bound. Maybe you
are making too many transaction commits, or the buffer pool is too small. Making the
buffer pool bigger can help, but do not set it bigger than 80 % of physical memory.
2. Wrap several modifications into one transaction. InnoDB must flush the log to disk at
each transaction commit, if that transaction made modifications to the database. Since the
rotation speed of a disk is typically at most 167 revolutions/second, that constrains the
number of commits to the same 167/second if the disk does not fool the operating system.
3. If you can afford the loss of some latest committed transactions, you can set the ‘my.cnf’
parameter innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit to zero. InnoDB tries to flush the log anyway once in a second, though the flush is not guaranteed.
4. Make your log files big, even as big as the buffer pool. When InnoDB has written the
log files full, it has to write the modified contents of the buffer pool to disk in a checkpoint.
Small log files will cause many unnecessary disk writes. The drawback in big log files is
that recovery time will be longer.
5. Also the log buffer should be quite big, say 8 MB.
6. (Relevant from 3.23.39 up.) In some versions of Linux and Unix, flushing files to disk
with the Unix fdatasync and other similar methods is surprisingly slow. The default
method InnoDB uses is the fdatasync function. If you are not satisfied with the database
write performance, you may try setting innodb_unix_file_flush_method in ‘my.cnf’ to
O_DSYNC, though O DSYNC seems to be slower on most systems. You can also try setting it
to littlesync, which means that InnoDB does not call the file flush for every write it does
to a file, but only in log flush at transaction commits and data file flush at a checkpoint. The
drawback in littlesync is that if the operating system crashes, you can easily end up with
a half-written database page, and you have to do a recovery from a backup. With nosync
you have even less safety: InnoDB will only flush the database files to disk at database
shutdown
7. In importing data to InnoDB, make sure that MySQL does not have autocommit=1 on.
Then every insert requires a log flush to disk. Put before your plain SQL import file line
set autocommit=0;
and after it
commit;
If you use the ‘mysqldump’ option --opt, you will get dump files which are fast to import
also to an InnoDB table, even without wrapping them to the above set autocommit=0;
... commit; wrappers.
8. Beware of big rollbacks of mass inserts: InnoDB uses the insert buffer to save disk i/o in
inserts, but in a corresponding rollback no such mechanism is used. A disk-bound rollback
can take 30 times the time of the corresponding insert. Killing the database process will
not help because the rollback will start again at the database startup. The only way to
get rid of a runaway rollback is to increase the buffer pool so that the rollback becomes
CPU-bound and runs fast, or delete the whole InnoDB database.
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9. Beware also of other big disk-bound operations. Use DROP TABLE or TRUNCATE (from
MySQL-4.0 up) to empty a table, not DELETE FROM yourtable.
10. Use the multi-line INSERT to reduce communication overhead between the client and
the server if you need to insert many rows:
INSERT INTO yourtable VALUES (1, 2), (5, 5);
This tip is of course valid for inserts into any table type, not just InnoDB.
8.7.10 Implementation of multiversioning
Since InnoDB is a multiversioned database, it must keep information of old versions of rows
in the tablespace. This information is stored in a data structure we call a rollback segment
after an analogous data structure in Oracle.
InnoDB internally adds two fields to each row stored in the database. A 6-byte field tells
the transaction identifier for the last transaction which inserted or updated the row. Also
a deletion is internally treated as an update where a special bit in the row is set to mark
it as deleted. Each row also contains a 7-byte field called the roll pointer. The roll pointer
points to an undo log record written to the rollback segment. If the row was updated, then
the undo log record contains the information necessary to rebuild the content of the row
before it was updated.
InnoDB uses the information in the rollback segment to perform the undo operations needed
in a transaction rollback. It also uses the information to build earlier versions of a row for
a consistent read.
Undo logs in the rollback segment are divided into insert and update undo logs. Insert undo
logs are only needed in transaction rollback and can be discarded as soon as the transaction
commits. Update undo logs are used also in consistent reads, and they can be discarded
only after there is no transaction present for which InnoDB has assigned a snapshot that
in a consistent read could need the information in the update undo log to build an earlier
version of a database row.
You must remember to commit your transactions regularly. Otherwise InnoDB cannot
discard data from the update undo logs, and the rollback segment may grow too big, filling
up your tablespace.
The physical size of an undo log record in the rollback segment is typically smaller than
the corresponding inserted or updated row. You can use this information to calculate the
space need for your rollback segment.
In our multiversioning scheme a row is not physically removed from the database immediately when you delete it with an SQL statement. Only when InnoDB can discard the update
undo log record written for the deletion, it can also physically remove the corresponding
row and its index records from the database. This removal operation is called a purge, and
it is quite fast, usually taking the same order of time as the SQL statement which did the
deletion.
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8.7.11 Table and index structures
Every InnoDB table has a special index called the clustered index where the data of the
rows is stored. If you define a PRIMARY KEY on your table, then the index of the primary
key will be the clustered index.
If you do not define a primary key for your table, InnoDB will internally generate a clustered
index where the rows are ordered by the row id InnoDB assigns to the rows in such a table.
The row id is a 6-byte field which monotonically increases as new rows are inserted. Thus
the rows ordered by the row id will be physically in the insertion order.
Accessing a row through the clustered index is fast, because the row data will be on the
same page where the index search leads us. In many databases the data is traditionally
stored on a different page from the index record. If a table is large, the clustered index
architecture often saves a disk i/o when compared to the traditional solution.
The records in non-clustered indexes (we also call them secondary indexes), in InnoDB
contain the primary key value for the row. InnoDB uses this primary key value to search
for the row from the clustered index. Note that if the primary key is long, the secondary
indexes will use more space.
8.7.11.1 Physical structure of an index
All indexes in InnoDB are B-trees where the index records are stored in the leaf pages of the
tree. The default size of an index page is 16 kB. When new records are inserted, InnoDB
tries to leave 1 / 16 of the page free for future insertions and updates of the index records.
If index records are inserted in a sequential (ascending or descending) order, the resulting
index pages will be about 15/16 full. If records are inserted in a random order, then the
pages will be 1/2 - 15/16 full. If the fillfactor of an index page drops below 1/2, InnoDB
will try to contract the index tree to free the page.
8.7.11.2 Insert buffering
It is a common situation in a database application that the primary key is a unique identifier
and new rows are inserted in the ascending order of the primary key. Thus the insertions
to the clustered index do not require random reads from a disk.
On the other hand, secondary indexes are usually non-unique and insertions happen in a
relatively random order into secondary indexes. This would cause a lot of random disk i/o’s
without a special mechanism used in InnoDB.
If an index record should be inserted to a non-unique secondary index, InnoDB checks if
the secondary index page is already in the buffer pool. If that is the case, InnoDB will do
the insertion directly to the index page. But, if the index page is not found from the buffer
pool, InnoDB inserts the record to a special insert buffer structure. The insert buffer is
kept so small that it entirely fits in the buffer pool, and insertions can be made to it very
fast.
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The insert buffer is periodically merged to the secondary index trees in the database. Often
we can merge several insertions on the same page in of the index tree, and hence save disk
i/o’s. It has been measured that the insert buffer can speed up insertions to a table up to
15 times.
8.7.11.3 Adaptive hash indexes
If a database fits almost entirely in main memory, then the fastest way to perform queries
on it is to use hash indexes. InnoDB has an automatic mechanism which monitors index
searches made to the indexes defined for a table, and if InnoDB notices that queries could
benefit from building of a hash index, such an index is automatically built.
But note that the hash index is always built based on an existing B-tree index on the table.
InnoDB can build a hash index on a prefix of any length of the key defined for the B-tree,
depending on what search pattern InnoDB observes on the B-tree index. A hash index
can be partial: it is not required that the whole B-tree index is cached in the buffer pool.
InnoDB will build hash indexes on demand to those pages of the index which are often
accessed.
In a sense, through the adaptive hash index mechanism InnoDB adapts itself to ample main
memory, coming closer to the architecture of main memory databases.
8.7.11.4 Physical record structure
• Each index record in InnoDB contains a header of 6 bytes. The header is used to link
consecutive records together, and also in the row level locking.
• Records in the clustered index contain fields for all user-defined columns. In addition,
there is a 6-byte field for the transaction id and a 7-byte field for the roll pointer.
• If the user has not defined a primary key for a table, then each clustered index record
contains also a 6-byte row id field.
• Each secondary index record contains also all the fields defined for the clustered index
key.
• A record contains also a pointer to each field of the record. If the total length of the
fields in a record is < 128 bytes, then the pointer is 1 byte, else 2 bytes.
8.7.11.5 How an auto-increment column works in InnoDB
After a database startup, when a user first does an insert to a table T where an autoincrement column has been defined, and the user does not provide an explicit value for the
column, then InnoDB executes SELECT MAX(auto-inc-column) FROM T, and assigns that
value incremented by one to the the column and the auto-increment counter of the table.
We say that the auto-increment counter for table T has been initialized.
InnoDB follows the same procedure in initializing the auto-increment counter for a freshly
created table.
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Note that if the user specifies in an insert the value 0 to the auto-increment column, then
InnoDB treats the row like the value would not have been specified.
After the auto-increment counter has been initialized, if a user inserts a row where he
explicitly specifies the column value, and the value is bigger than the current counter value,
then the counter is set to the specified column value. If the user does not explicitly specify a
value, then InnoDB increments the counter by one and assigns its new value to the column.
The auto-increment mechanism, when assigning values from the counter, bypasses locking
and transaction handling. Therefore you may also get gaps in the number sequence if you
roll back transactions which have got numbers from the counter.
The behavior of auto-increment is not defined if a user gives a negative value to the column
or if the value becomes bigger than the maximum integer that can be stored in the specified
integer type.
8.7.12 File space management and disk i/o
8.7.12.1 Disk i/o
In disk i/o InnoDB uses asynchronous i/o. On Windows NT it uses the native asynchronous
i/o provided by the operating system. On Unix, InnoDB uses simulated asynchronous i/o
built into InnoDB: InnoDB creates a number of i/o threads to take care of i/o operations,
such as read-ahead. In a future version we will add support for simulated aio on Windows
NT and native aio on those versions of Unix which have one.
On Windows NT InnoDB uses non-buffered i/o. That means that the disk pages InnoDB
reads or writes are not buffered in the operating system file cache. This saves some memory
bandwidth.
You can also use a raw disk in InnoDB, though this has not been tested yet: just define
the raw disk in place of a data file in ‘my.cnf’. You must give the exact size in bytes of the
raw disk in ‘my.cnf’, because at startup InnoDB checks that the size of the file is the same
as specified in the configuration file. Using a raw disk you can on some versions of Unix
perform non-buffered i/o.
There are two read-ahead heuristics in InnoDB: sequential read-ahead and random readahead. In sequential read-ahead InnoDB notices that the access pattern to a segment
in the tablespace is sequential. Then InnoDB will post in advance a batch of reads of
database pages to the i/o system. In random read-ahead InnoDB notices that some area
in a tablespace seems to be in the process of being fully read into the buffer pool. Then
InnoDB posts the remaining reads to the i/o system.
8.7.12.2 File space management
The data files you define in the configuration file form the tablespace of InnoDB. The files
are simply catenated to form the tablespace, there is no striping in use. Currently you
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cannot directly instruct where the space is allocated for your tables, except by using the
following fact: from a newly created tablespace InnoDB will allocate space starting from
the low end.
The tablespace consists of database pages whose default size is 16 kB. The pages are grouped
into extents of 64 consecutive pages. The ’files’ inside a tablespace are called segments in
InnoDB. The name of the rollback segment is somewhat misleading because it actually
contains many segments in the tablespace.
For each index in InnoDB we allocate two segments: one is for non-leaf nodes of the B-tree,
the other is for the leaf nodes. The idea here is to achieve better sequentiality for the leaf
nodes, which contain the data.
When a segment grows inside the tablespace, InnoDB allocates the first 32 pages to it
individually. After that InnoDB starts to allocate whole extents to the segment. InnoDB
can add to a large segment up to 4 extents at a time to ensure good sequentiality of data.
Some pages in the tablespace contain bitmaps of other pages, and therefore a few extents in
an InnoDB tablespace cannot be allocated to segments as a whole, but only as individual
pages.
When you issue a query SHOW TABLE STATUS FROM ... LIKE ... to ask for available free
space in the tablespace, InnoDB will report you the space which is certainly usable in
totally free extents of the tablespace. InnoDB always reserves some extents for clean-up
and other internal purposes; these reserved extents are not included in the free space.
When you delete data from a table, InnoDB will contract the corresponding B-tree indexes.
It depends on the pattern of deletes if that frees individual pages or extents to the tablespace,
so that the freed space is available for other users. Dropping a table or deleting all rows
from it is guaranteed to release the space to other users, but remember that deleted rows
can be physically removed only in a purge operation after they are no longer needed in
transaction rollback or consistent read.
8.7.12.3 Defragmenting a table
If there are random insertions or deletions in the indexes of a table, the indexes may become
fragmented. By fragmentation we mean that the physical ordering of the index pages on
the disk is not close to the alphabetical ordering of the records on the pages, or that there
are many unused pages in the 64-page blocks which were allocated to the index.
It can speed up index scans if you periodically use mysqldump to dump the table to a text
file, drop the table, and reload it from the dump. Another way to do the defragmenting is
to ALTER the table type to MyISAM and back to InnoDB again. Note that a MyISAM table
must fit in a single file on your operating system.
If the insertions to and index are always ascending and records are deleted only from the end,
then the the file space management algorithm of InnoDB guarantees that fragmentation in
the index will not occur.
8.7.13 Error handling
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The error handling in InnoDB is not always the same as specified in the ANSI SQL standards. According to the ANSI standard, any error during an SQL statement should cause
the rollback of that statement. InnoDB sometimes rolls back only part of the statement.
The following list specifies the error handling of InnoDB.
• If you run out of file space in the tablespace, you will get the MySQL ’Table is full’
error and InnoDB rolls back the SQL statement.
• A transaction deadlock or a timeout in a lock wait will give ’Table handler error
1000000’ and InnoDB rolls back the SQL statement.
• A duplicate key error only rolls back the insert of that particular row, even in a statement like INSERT INTO ... SELECT .... This will probably change so that the SQL
statement will be rolled back if you have not specified the IGNORE option in your statement.
• A ’row too long’ error rolls back the SQL statement.
• Other errors are mostly detected by the MySQL layer of code, and they roll back the
corresponding SQL statement.
8.7.14 Some restrictions on InnoDB tables
• SHOW TABLE STATUS does not give accurate statistics on InnoDB tables, except for the
physical size reserved by the table. The row count is only a rough estimate used in
SQL optimization.
• If you try to create an unique index on a prefix of a column you will get an error:
CREATE TABLE T (A CHAR(20), B INT, UNIQUE (A(5))) TYPE = InnoDB;
If you create a non unique index on a prefix of a column, InnoDB will create an index
over the whole column.
• INSERT DELAYED is not supported for InnoDB tables.
• The MySQL LOCK TABLES operation does not know of InnoDB row level locks set in
already completed SQL statements: this means that you can get a table lock on a table
even if there still exist transactions of other users which have row level locks on the
same table. Thus your operations on the table may have to wait if they collide with
these locks of other users. Also a deadlock is possible. However, this does not endanger
transaction integrity, because the row level locks set by InnoDB will always take care
of the integrity. Also, a table lock prevents other transactions from acquiring more row
level locks (in a conflicting lock mode) on the table.
• You cannot have a key on a BLOB or TEXT column.
• A table cannot contain more than 1000 columns.
• DELETE FROM TABLE does not regenerate the table but instead deletes all rows, one by
one, which is not that fast. In future versions of MySQL you can use TRUNCATE which
is fast.
• Before dropping a database with InnoDB tables one has to drop the individual InnoDB
tables first.
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• The default database page size in InnoDB is 16 kB. By recompiling the code one can set
it from 8 kB to 64 kB. The maximun row length is slightly less than a half of a database
page, the row length also includes BLOB and TEXT type columns. The restriction on
the size of BLOB and TEXT columns will be removed by June 2001 in a future version of
InnoDB.
• The maximum data or log file size is 2 GB or 4 GB depending on how large files your
operating system supports. Support for > 4 GB files will be added to InnoDB in a
future version.
• The maximum tablespace size is 4 billion database pages. This is also the maximum
size for a table. The minimum tablespace size is 10 MB.
8.7.15 InnoDB contact information
Contact information of Innobase Oy, producer of the InnoDB engine. Website: http://www.innodb.com.
Email: Heikki.Tuuri@innodb.com
phone: 358-9-6969 3250 (office) 358-40-5617367 (mobile)
InnoDB Oy Inc.
World Trade Center Helsinki
Aleksanterinkatu 17
P.O.Box 800
00101 Helsinki
Finland
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9 MySQL Tutorial
This chapter provides a tutorial introduction to MySQL by showing how to use the mysql
client program to create and use a simple database. mysql (sometimes referred to as the
“terminal monitor” or just “monitor”) is an interactive program that allows you to connect
to a MySQL server, run queries, and view the results. mysql may also be used in batch
mode: you place your queries in a file beforehand, then tell mysql to execute the contents
of the file. Both ways of using mysql are covered here.
To see a list of options provided by mysql, invoke it with the --help option:
shell> mysql --help
This chapter assumes that mysql is installed on your machine and that a MySQL server is
available to which you can connect. If this is not true, contact your MySQL administrator.
(If you are the administrator, you will need to consult other sections of this manual.)
This chapter describes the entire process of setting up and using a database. If you are
interested only in accessing an already-existing database, you may want to skip over the
sections that describe how to create the database and the tables it contains.
Because this chapter is tutorial in nature, many details are necessarily left out. Consult the
relevant sections of the manual for more information on the topics covered here.
9.1 Connecting to and Disconnecting from the Server
To connect to the server, you’ll usually need to provide a MySQL user name when you
invoke mysql and, most likely, a password. If the server runs on a machine other than the
one where you log in, you’ll also need to specify a hostname. Contact your administrator
to find out what connection parameters you should use to connect (that is, what host, user
name, and password to use). Once you know the proper parameters, you should be able to
connect like this:
shell> mysql -h host -u user -p
Enter password: ********
The ******** represents your password; enter it when mysql displays the Enter password:
prompt.
If that works, you should see some introductory information followed by a mysql> prompt:
shell> mysql -h host -u user -p
Enter password: ********
Welcome to the MySQL monitor. Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 459 to server version: 3.22.20a-log
Type ’help’ for help.
mysql>
The prompt tells you that mysql is ready for you to enter commands.
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Some MySQL installations allow users to connect as the anonymous (unnamed) user to the
server running on the local host. If this is the case on your machine, you should be able to
connect to that server by invoking mysql without any options:
shell> mysql
After you have connected successfully, you can disconnect any time by typing QUIT at the
mysql> prompt:
mysql> QUIT
Bye
You can also disconnect by pressing Control-D.
Most examples in the following sections assume you are connected to the server. They
indicate this by the mysql> prompt.
9.2 Entering Queries
Make sure you are connected to the server, as discussed in the previous section. Doing so
will not in itself select any database to work with, but that’s okay. At this point, it’s more
important to find out a little about how to issue queries than to jump right in creating
tables, loading data into them, and retrieving data from them. This section describes the
basic principles of entering commands, using several queries you can try out to familiarize
yourself with how mysql works.
Here’s a simple command that asks the server to tell you its version number and the current
date. Type it in as shown below following the mysql> prompt and hit the RETURN key:
mysql> SELECT VERSION(), CURRENT_DATE;
+--------------+--------------+
| version()
| CURRENT_DATE |
+--------------+--------------+
| 3.22.20a-log | 1999-03-19
|
+--------------+--------------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)
mysql>
This query illustrates several things about mysql:
• A command normally consists of a SQL statement followed by a semicolon. (There are
some exceptions where a semicolon is not needed. QUIT, mentioned earlier, is one of
them. We’ll get to others later.)
• When you issue a command, mysql sends it to the server for execution and displays the
results, then prints another mysql> to indicate that it is ready for another command.
• mysql displays query output as a table (rows and columns). The first row contains
labels for the columns. The rows following are the query results. Normally, column
labels are the names of the columns you fetch from database tables. If you’re retrieving
the value of an expression rather than a table column (as in the example just shown),
mysql labels the column using the expression itself.
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• mysql shows how many rows were returned and how long the query took to execute,
which gives you a rough idea of server performance. These values are imprecise because
they represent wall clock time (not CPU or machine time), and because they are affected
by factors such as server load and network latency. (For brevity, the “rows in set” line
is not shown in the remaining examples in this chapter.)
Keywords may be entered in any lettercase. The following queries are equivalent:
mysql> SELECT VERSION(), CURRENT_DATE;
mysql> select version(), current_date;
mysql> SeLeCt vErSiOn(), current_DATE;
Here’s another query. It demonstrates that you can use mysql as a simple calculator:
mysql> SELECT SIN(PI()/4), (4+1)*5;
+-------------+---------+
| SIN(PI()/4) | (4+1)*5 |
+-------------+---------+
|
0.707107 |
25 |
+-------------+---------+
The commands shown thus far have been relatively short, single-line statements. You can
even enter multiple statements on a single line. Just end each one with a semicolon:
mysql> SELECT VERSION(); SELECT NOW();
+--------------+
| version()
|
+--------------+
| 3.22.20a-log |
+--------------+
+---------------------+
| NOW()
|
+---------------------+
| 1999-03-19 00:15:33 |
+---------------------+
A command need not be given all on a single line, so lengthy commands that require several
lines are not a problem. mysql determines where your statement ends by looking for the
terminating semicolon, not by looking for the end of the input line. (In other words, mysql
accepts free-format input: it collects input lines but does not execute them until it sees the
semicolon.)
Here’s a simple multiple-line statement:
mysql> SELECT
-> USER()
-> ,
-> CURRENT_DATE;
+--------------------+--------------+
| USER()
| CURRENT_DATE |
+--------------------+--------------+
| joesmith@localhost | 1999-03-18
|
+--------------------+--------------+
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In this example, notice how the prompt changes from mysql> to -> after you enter the first
line of a multiple-line query. This is how mysql indicates that it hasn’t seen a complete
statement and is waiting for the rest. The prompt is your friend, because it provides valuable
feedback. If you use that feedback, you will always be aware of what mysql is waiting for.
If you decide you don’t want to execute a command that you are in the process of entering,
cancel it by typing \c:
mysql> SELECT
-> USER()
-> \c
mysql>
Here, too, notice the prompt. It switches back to mysql> after you type \c, providing
feedback to indicate that mysql is ready for a new command.
The following table shows each of the prompts you may see and summarizes what they
mean about the state that mysql is in:
Prompt
mysql>
->
’>
">
Meaning
Ready for new command.
Waiting for next line of multiple-line command.
Waiting for next line, collecting a string that begins with a single quote (‘’’).
Waiting for next line, collecting a string that begins with a double quote (‘"’).
Multiple-line statements commonly occur by accident when you intend to issue a command
on a single line, but forget the terminating semicolon. In this case, mysql waits for more
input:
mysql> SELECT USER()
->
If this happens to you (you think you’ve entered a statement but the only response is a
-> prompt), most likely mysql is waiting for the semicolon. If you don’t notice what the
prompt is telling you, you might sit there for a while before realizing what you need to do.
Enter a semicolon to complete the statement, and mysql will execute it:
mysql> SELECT USER()
-> ;
+--------------------+
| USER()
|
+--------------------+
| joesmith@localhost |
+--------------------+
The ’> and "> prompts occur during string collection. In MySQL, you can write strings
surrounded by either ‘’’ or ‘"’ characters (for example, ’hello’ or "goodbye"), and mysql
lets you enter strings that span multiple lines. When you see a ’> or "> prompt, it means
that you’ve entered a line containing a string that begins with a ‘’’ or ‘"’ quote character,
but have not yet entered the matching quote that terminates the string. That’s fine if you
really are entering a multiple-line string, but how likely is that? Not very. More often,
the ’> and "> prompts indicate that you’ve inadvertantly left out a quote character. For
example:
mysql> SELECT * FROM my_table WHERE name = "Smith AND age < 30;
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">
If you enter this SELECT statement, then hit RETURN and wait for the result, nothing will
happen. Instead of wondering why this query takes so long, notice the clue provided by the
"> prompt. It tells you that mysql expects to see the rest of an unterminated string. (Do
you see the error in the statement? The string "Smith is missing the second quote.)
At this point, what do you do? The simplest thing is to cancel the command. However,
you cannot just type \c in this case, because mysql interprets it as part of the string that
it is collecting! Instead, enter the closing quote character (so mysql knows you’ve finished
the string), then type \c:
mysql> SELECT * FROM my_table WHERE name = "Smith AND age < 30;
"> "\c
mysql>
The prompt changes back to mysql>, indicating that mysql is ready for a new command.
It’s important to know what the ’> and "> prompts signify, because if you mistakenly enter
an unterminated string, any further lines you type will appear to be ignored by mysql —
including a line containing QUIT! This can be quite confusing, especially if you don’t know
that you need to supply the terminating quote before you can cancel the current command.
9.3 Creating and Using a Database
Now that you know how to enter commands, it’s time to access a database.
Suppose you have several pets in your home (your menagerie) and you’d like to keep track
of various types of information about them. You can do so by creating tables to hold your
data and loading them with the desired information. Then you can answer different sorts
of questions about your animals by retrieving data from the tables. This section shows you
how to:
•
•
•
•
•
Create a database
Create a table
Load data into the table
Retrieve data from the table in various ways
Use multiple tables
The menagerie database will be simple (deliberately), but it is not difficult to think of realworld situations in which a similar type of database might be used. For example, a database
like this could be used by a farmer to keep track of livestock, or by a veterinarian to keep
track of patient records. A menagerie distribution containing some of the queries and sample
data used in the following sections can be obtained from the MySQL Web site. It’s available
in either compressed tar format (http://www.mysql.com/Downloads/Contrib/Examples/menagerie.tar.
or Zip format (http://www.mysql.com/Downloads/Contrib/Examples/menagerie.zip).
Use the SHOW statement to find out what databases currently exist on the server:
mysql> SHOW DATABASES;
+----------+
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| Database |
+----------+
| mysql
|
| test
|
| tmp
|
+----------+
The list of databases is probably different on your machine, but the mysql and test
databases are likely to be among them. The mysql database is required because it describes user access privileges. The test database is often provided as a workspace for users
to try things out.
If the test database exists, try to access it:
mysql> USE test
Database changed
Note that USE, like QUIT, does not require a semicolon. (You can terminate such statements
with a semicolon if you like; it does no harm.) The USE statement is special in another way,
too: it must be given on a single line.
You can use the test database (if you have access to it) for the examples that follow, but
anything you create in that database can be removed by anyone else with access to it. For
this reason, you should probably ask your MySQL administrator for permission to use a
database of your own. Suppose you want to call yours menagerie. The administrator needs
to execute a command like this:
mysql> GRANT ALL ON menagerie.* TO your_mysql_name;
where your_mysql_name is the MySQL user name assigned to you.
9.3.1 Creating and Selecting a Database
If the administrator creates your database for you when setting up your permissions, you
can begin using it. Otherwise, you need to create it yourself:
mysql> CREATE DATABASE menagerie;
Under Unix, database names are case sensitive (unlike SQL keywords), so you must always
refer to your database as menagerie, not as Menagerie, MENAGERIE, or some other variant.
This is also true for table names. (Under Windows, this restriction does not apply, although
you must refer to databases and tables using the same lettercase throughout a given query.)
Creating a database does not select it for use; you must do that explicitly. To make
menagerie the current database, use this command:
mysql> USE menagerie
Database changed
Your database needs to be created only once, but you must select it for use each time
you begin a mysql session. You can do this by issuing a USE statement as shown above.
Alternatively, you can select the database on the command line when you invoke mysql.
Just specify its name after any connection parameters that you might need to provide. For
example:
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shell> mysql -h host -u user -p menagerie
Enter password: ********
Note that menagerie is not your password on the command just shown. If you want to
supply your password on the command line after the -p option, you must do so with no
intervening space (for example, as -pmypassword, not as -p mypassword). However, putting
your password on the command line is not recommended, because doing so exposes it to
snooping by other users logged in on your machine.
9.3.2 Creating a Table
Creating the database is the easy part, but at this point it’s empty, as SHOW TABLES will
tell you:
mysql> SHOW TABLES;
Empty set (0.00 sec)
The harder part is deciding what the structure of your database should be: what tables you
will need and what columns will be in each of them.
You’ll want a table that contains a record for each of your pets. This can be called the pet
table, and it should contain, as a bare minimum, each animal’s name. Because the name
by itself is not very interesting, the table should contain other information. For example,
if more than one person in your family keeps pets, you might want to list each animal’s
owner. You might also want to record some basic descriptive information such as species
and sex.
How about age? That might be of interest, but it’s not a good thing to store in a database.
Age changes as time passes, which means you’d have to update your records often. Instead,
it’s better to store a fixed value such as date of birth. Then, whenever you need age, you can
calculate it as the difference between the current date and the birth date. MySQL provides
functions for doing date arithmetic, so this is not difficult. Storing birth date rather than
age has other advantages, too:
• You can use the database for tasks such as generating reminders for upcoming pet
birthdays. (If you think this type of query is somewhat silly, note that it is the same
question you might ask in the context of a business database to identify clients to whom
you’ll soon need to send out birthday greetings, for that computer-assisted personal
touch.)
• You can calculate age in relation to dates other than the current date. For example, if
you store death date in the database, you can easily calculate how old a pet was when
it died.
You can probably think of other types of information that would be useful in the pet table,
but the ones identified so far are sufficient for now: name, owner, species, sex, birth, and
death.
Use a CREATE TABLE statement to specify the layout of your table:
mysql> CREATE TABLE pet (name VARCHAR(20), owner VARCHAR(20),
-> species VARCHAR(20), sex CHAR(1), birth DATE, death DATE);
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VARCHAR is a good choice for the name, owner, and species columns because the column
values will vary in length. The lengths of those columns need not all be the same, and
need not be 20. You can pick any length from 1 to 255, whatever seems most reasonable to
you. (If you make a poor choice and it turns out later that you need a longer field, MySQL
provides an ALTER TABLE statement.)
Animal sex can be represented in a variety of ways, for example, "m" and "f", or perhaps
"male" and "female". It’s simplest to use the single characters "m" and "f".
The use of the DATE data type for the birth and death columns is a fairly obvious choice.
Now that you have created a table, SHOW TABLES should produce some output:
mysql> SHOW TABLES;
+---------------------+
| Tables in menagerie |
+---------------------+
| pet
|
+---------------------+
To verify that your table was created the way you expected, use a DESCRIBE statement:
mysql> DESCRIBE pet;
+---------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| Field
| Type
| Null | Key | Default | Extra |
+---------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| name
| varchar(20) | YES |
| NULL
|
|
| owner
| varchar(20) | YES |
| NULL
|
|
| species | varchar(20) | YES |
| NULL
|
|
| sex
| char(1)
| YES |
| NULL
|
|
| birth
| date
| YES |
| NULL
|
|
| death
| date
| YES |
| NULL
|
|
+---------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
You can use DESCRIBE any time, for example, if you forget the names of the columns in
your table or what types they are.
9.3.3 Loading Data into a Table
After creating your table, you need to populate it. The LOAD DATA and INSERT statements
are useful for this.
Suppose your pet records can be described as shown below. (Observe that MySQL expects
dates in YYYY-MM-DD format; this may be different than what you are used to.)
name
owner
species
sex
birth
death
Fluffy
Harold
cat
f
1993-02-04
Claws
Gwen
cat
m
1994-03-17
Buffy
Harold
dog
f
1989-05-13
Fang
Benny
dog
m
1990-08-27
Bowser
Diane
dog
m
1989-08-31
1995-07-29
Chirpy
Gwen
bird
f
1998-09-11
Whistler
Gwen
bird
1997-12-09
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Slim
Benny
snake
m
1996-04-29
Because you are beginning with an empty table, an easy way to populate it is to create a
text file containing a row for each of your animals, then load the contents of the file into
the table with a single statement.
You could create a text file ‘pet.txt’ containing one record per line, with values separated
by tabs, and given in the order in which the columns were listed in the CREATE TABLE
statement. For missing values (such as unknown sexes or death dates for animals that
are still living), you can use NULL values. To represent these in your text file, use \N.
For example, the record for Whistler the bird would look like this (where the whitespace
between values is a single tab character):
Whistler
Gwen
bird
\N
1997-12-09
\N
To load the text file ‘pet.txt’ into the pet table, use this command:
mysql> LOAD DATA LOCAL INFILE "pet.txt" INTO TABLE pet;
You can specify the column value separator and end of line marker explicitly in the LOAD
DATA statement if you wish, but the defaults are tab and linefeed. These are sufficient for
the statement to read the file ‘pet.txt’ properly.
When you want to add new records one at a time, the INSERT statement is useful. In its
simplest form, you supply values for each column, in the order in which the columns were
listed in the CREATE TABLE statement. Suppose Diane gets a new hamster named Puffball.
You could add a new record using an INSERT statement like this:
mysql> INSERT INTO pet
-> VALUES (’Puffball’,’Diane’,’hamster’,’f’,’1999-03-30’,NULL);
Note that string and date values are specified as quoted strings here. Also, with INSERT,
you can insert NULL directly to represent a missing value. You do not use \N like you do
with LOAD DATA.
From this example, you should be able to see that there would be a lot more typing involved
to load your records initially using several INSERT statements rather than a single LOAD DATA
statement.
9.3.4 Retrieving Information from a Table
The SELECT statement is used to pull information from a table. The general form of the
statement is:
SELECT what_to_select
FROM which_table
WHERE conditions_to_satisfy
what_to_select indicates what you want to see. This can be a list of columns, or * to
indicate “all columns.” which_table indicates the table from which you want to retrieve
data. The WHERE clause is optional. If it’s present, conditions_to_satisfy specifies
conditions that rows must satisfy to qualify for retrieval.
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9.3.4.1 Selecting All Data
The simplest form of SELECT retrieves everything from a table:
mysql> SELECT * FROM pet;
+----------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| name
| owner | species | sex | birth
| death
|
+----------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| Fluffy
| Harold | cat
| f
| 1993-02-04 | NULL
|
| Claws
| Gwen
| cat
| m
| 1994-03-17 | NULL
|
| Buffy
| Harold | dog
| f
| 1989-05-13 | NULL
|
| Fang
| Benny | dog
| m
| 1990-08-27 | NULL
|
| Bowser
| Diane | dog
| m
| 1998-08-31 | 1995-07-29 |
| Chirpy
| Gwen
| bird
| f
| 1998-09-11 | NULL
|
| Whistler | Gwen
| bird
| NULL | 1997-12-09 | NULL
|
| Slim
| Benny | snake
| m
| 1996-04-29 | NULL
|
| Puffball | Diane | hamster | f
| 1999-03-30 | NULL
|
+----------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+
This form of SELECT is useful if you want to review your entire table, for instance, after
you’ve just loaded it with your initial dataset. As it happens, the output just shown reveals
an error in your data file: Bowser appears to have been born after he died! Consulting your
original pedigree papers, you find that the correct birth year is 1989, not 1998.
There are are least a couple of ways to fix this:
• Edit the file ‘pet.txt’ to correct the error, then empty the table and reload it using
DELETE and LOAD DATA:
mysql> SET AUTOCOMMIT=1; # Used for quick re-create of the table
mysql> DELETE FROM pet;
mysql> LOAD DATA LOCAL INFILE "pet.txt" INTO TABLE pet;
However, if you do this, you must also re-enter the record for Puffball.
• Fix only the erroneous record with an UPDATE statement:
mysql> UPDATE pet SET birth = "1989-08-31" WHERE name = "Bowser";
As shown above, it is easy to retrieve an entire table. But typically you don’t want to do
that, particularly when the table becomes large. Instead, you’re usually more interested in
answering a particular question, in which case you specify some constraints on the information you want. Let’s look at some selection queries in terms of questions about your pets
that they answer.
9.3.4.2 Selecting Particular Rows
You can select only particular rows from your table. For example, if you want to verify the
change that you made to Bowser’s birth date, select Bowser’s record like this:
mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name = "Bowser";
+--------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+
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| name
| owner | species | sex | birth
| death
|
+--------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| Bowser | Diane | dog
| m
| 1989-08-31 | 1995-07-29 |
+--------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+
The output confirms that the year is correctly recorded now as 1989, not 1998.
String comparisons are normally case insensitive, so you can specify the name as "bowser",
"BOWSER", etc. The query result will be the same.
You can specify conditions on any column, not just name. For example, if you want to know
which animals were born after 1998, test the birth column:
mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE birth >= "1998-1-1";
+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| name
| owner | species | sex | birth
| death |
+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| Chirpy
| Gwen | bird
| f
| 1998-09-11 | NULL |
| Puffball | Diane | hamster | f
| 1999-03-30 | NULL |
+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+-------+
You can combine conditions, for example, to locate female dogs:
mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE species = "dog" AND sex = "f";
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| name | owner | species | sex | birth
| death |
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| Buffy | Harold | dog
| f
| 1989-05-13 | NULL |
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
The preceding query uses the AND logical operator. There is also an OR operator:
mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE species = "snake" OR species = "bird";
+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| name
| owner | species | sex | birth
| death |
+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| Chirpy
| Gwen | bird
| f
| 1998-09-11 | NULL |
| Whistler | Gwen | bird
| NULL | 1997-12-09 | NULL |
| Slim
| Benny | snake
| m
| 1996-04-29 | NULL |
+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+-------+
AND and OR may be intermixed. If you do that, it’s a good idea to use parentheses to indicate
how conditions should be grouped:
mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE (species = "cat" AND sex = "m")
-> OR (species = "dog" AND sex = "f");
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| name | owner | species | sex | birth
| death |
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| Claws | Gwen
| cat
| m
| 1994-03-17 | NULL |
| Buffy | Harold | dog
| f
| 1989-05-13 | NULL |
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
9.3.4.3 Selecting Particular Columns
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If you don’t want to see entire rows from your table, just name the columns in which you’re
interested, separated by commas. For example, if you want to know when your animals
were born, select the name and birth columns:
mysql> SELECT name, birth FROM pet;
+----------+------------+
| name
| birth
|
+----------+------------+
| Fluffy
| 1993-02-04 |
| Claws
| 1994-03-17 |
| Buffy
| 1989-05-13 |
| Fang
| 1990-08-27 |
| Bowser
| 1989-08-31 |
| Chirpy
| 1998-09-11 |
| Whistler | 1997-12-09 |
| Slim
| 1996-04-29 |
| Puffball | 1999-03-30 |
+----------+------------+
To find out who owns pets, use this query:
mysql> SELECT owner FROM pet;
+--------+
| owner |
+--------+
| Harold |
| Gwen
|
| Harold |
| Benny |
| Diane |
| Gwen
|
| Gwen
|
| Benny |
| Diane |
+--------+
However, notice that the query simply retrieves the owner field from each record, and some
of them appear more than once. To minimize the output, retrieve each unique output record
just once by adding the keyword DISTINCT:
mysql> SELECT DISTINCT owner FROM pet;
+--------+
| owner |
+--------+
| Benny |
| Diane |
| Gwen
|
| Harold |
+--------+
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You can use a WHERE clause to combine row selection with column selection. For example,
to get birth dates for dogs and cats only, use this query:
mysql> SELECT name, species, birth FROM pet
-> WHERE species = "dog" OR species = "cat";
+--------+---------+------------+
| name
| species | birth
|
+--------+---------+------------+
| Fluffy | cat
| 1993-02-04 |
| Claws | cat
| 1994-03-17 |
| Buffy | dog
| 1989-05-13 |
| Fang
| dog
| 1990-08-27 |
| Bowser | dog
| 1989-08-31 |
+--------+---------+------------+
9.3.4.4 Sorting Rows
You may have noticed in the preceding examples that the result rows are displayed in no
particular order. However, it’s often easier to examine query output when the rows are
sorted in some meaningful way. To sort a result, use an ORDER BY clause.
Here are animal birthdays, sorted by date:
mysql> SELECT name, birth FROM pet ORDER BY birth;
+----------+------------+
| name
| birth
|
+----------+------------+
| Buffy
| 1989-05-13 |
| Bowser
| 1989-08-31 |
| Fang
| 1990-08-27 |
| Fluffy
| 1993-02-04 |
| Claws
| 1994-03-17 |
| Slim
| 1996-04-29 |
| Whistler | 1997-12-09 |
| Chirpy
| 1998-09-11 |
| Puffball | 1999-03-30 |
+----------+------------+
To sort in reverse order, add the DESC (descending) keyword to the name of the column you
are sorting by:
mysql> SELECT name, birth FROM pet ORDER BY birth DESC;
+----------+------------+
| name
| birth
|
+----------+------------+
| Puffball | 1999-03-30 |
| Chirpy
| 1998-09-11 |
| Whistler | 1997-12-09 |
| Slim
| 1996-04-29 |
| Claws
| 1994-03-17 |
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| Fluffy
| 1993-02-04 |
| Fang
| 1990-08-27 |
| Bowser
| 1989-08-31 |
| Buffy
| 1989-05-13 |
+----------+------------+
You can sort on multiple columns. For example, to sort by type of animal, then by birth
date within animal type with youngest animals first, use the following query:
mysql> SELECT name, species, birth FROM pet ORDER BY species, birth DESC;
+----------+---------+------------+
| name
| species | birth
|
+----------+---------+------------+
| Chirpy
| bird
| 1998-09-11 |
| Whistler | bird
| 1997-12-09 |
| Claws
| cat
| 1994-03-17 |
| Fluffy
| cat
| 1993-02-04 |
| Fang
| dog
| 1990-08-27 |
| Bowser
| dog
| 1989-08-31 |
| Buffy
| dog
| 1989-05-13 |
| Puffball | hamster | 1999-03-30 |
| Slim
| snake
| 1996-04-29 |
+----------+---------+------------+
Note that the DESC keyword applies only to the column name immediately preceding it
(birth); species values are still sorted in ascending order.
9.3.4.5 Date Calculations
MySQL provides several functions that you can use to perform calculations on dates, for
example, to calculate ages or extract parts of dates.
To determine how many years old each of your pets is, compute age as the difference between
the birth date and the current date. Do this by converting the two dates to days, take the
difference, and divide by 365 (the number of days in a year):
mysql> SELECT name, (TO_DAYS(NOW())-TO_DAYS(birth))/365 FROM pet;
+----------+-------------------------------------+
| name
| (TO_DAYS(NOW())-TO_DAYS(birth))/365 |
+----------+-------------------------------------+
| Fluffy
|
6.15 |
| Claws
|
5.04 |
| Buffy
|
9.88 |
| Fang
|
8.59 |
| Bowser
|
9.58 |
| Chirpy
|
0.55 |
| Whistler |
1.30 |
| Slim
|
2.92 |
| Puffball |
0.00 |
+----------+-------------------------------------+
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Although the query works, there are some things about it that could be improved. First,
the result could be scanned more easily if the rows were presented in some order. Second,
the heading for the age column isn’t very meaningful.
The first problem can be handled by adding an ORDER BY name clause to sort the output by
name. To deal with the column heading, provide a name for the column so that a different
label appears in the output (this is called a column alias):
mysql> SELECT name, (TO_DAYS(NOW())-TO_DAYS(birth))/365 AS age
-> FROM pet ORDER BY name;
+----------+------+
| name
| age |
+----------+------+
| Bowser
| 9.58 |
| Buffy
| 9.88 |
| Chirpy
| 0.55 |
| Claws
| 5.04 |
| Fang
| 8.59 |
| Fluffy
| 6.15 |
| Puffball | 0.00 |
| Slim
| 2.92 |
| Whistler | 1.30 |
+----------+------+
To sort the output by age rather than name, just use a different ORDER BY clause:
mysql> SELECT name, (TO_DAYS(NOW())-TO_DAYS(birth))/365 AS age
-> FROM pet ORDER BY age;
+----------+------+
| name
| age |
+----------+------+
| Puffball | 0.00 |
| Chirpy
| 0.55 |
| Whistler | 1.30 |
| Slim
| 2.92 |
| Claws
| 5.04 |
| Fluffy
| 6.15 |
| Fang
| 8.59 |
| Bowser
| 9.58 |
| Buffy
| 9.88 |
+----------+------+
A similar query can be used to determine age at death for animals that have died. You
determine which animals these are by checking whether or not the death value is NULL.
Then, for those with non-NULL values, compute the difference between the death and birth
values:
mysql> SELECT name, birth, death, (TO_DAYS(death)-TO_DAYS(birth))/365 AS age
-> FROM pet WHERE death IS NOT NULL ORDER BY age;
+--------+------------+------------+------+
| name
| birth
| death
| age |
+--------+------------+------------+------+
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| Bowser | 1989-08-31 | 1995-07-29 | 5.91 |
+--------+------------+------------+------+
The query uses death IS NOT NULL rather than death != NULL because NULL is a special
value. This is explained later. See Section 9.3.4.6 [Working with NULL], page 360.
What if you want to know which animals have birthdays next month? For this type of
calculation, year and day are irrelevant; you simply want to extract the month part of the
birth column. MySQL provides several date-part extraction functions, such as YEAR(),
MONTH(), and DAYOFMONTH(). MONTH() is the appropriate function here. To see how it
works, run a simple query that displays the value of both birth and MONTH(birth):
mysql> SELECT name, birth, MONTH(birth) FROM pet;
+----------+------------+--------------+
| name
| birth
| MONTH(birth) |
+----------+------------+--------------+
| Fluffy
| 1993-02-04 |
2 |
| Claws
| 1994-03-17 |
3 |
| Buffy
| 1989-05-13 |
5 |
| Fang
| 1990-08-27 |
8 |
| Bowser
| 1989-08-31 |
8 |
| Chirpy
| 1998-09-11 |
9 |
| Whistler | 1997-12-09 |
12 |
| Slim
| 1996-04-29 |
4 |
| Puffball | 1999-03-30 |
3 |
+----------+------------+--------------+
Finding animals with birthdays in the upcoming month is easy, too. Suppose the current
month is April. Then the month value is 4 and you look for animals born in May (month
5) like this:
mysql> SELECT name, birth FROM pet WHERE MONTH(birth) = 5;
+-------+------------+
| name | birth
|
+-------+------------+
| Buffy | 1989-05-13 |
+-------+------------+
There is a small complication if the current month is December, of course. You don’t just
add one to the month number (12) and look for animals born in month 13, because there
is no such month. Instead, you look for animals born in January (month 1).
You can even write the query so that it works no matter what the current month is. That
way you don’t have to use a particular month number in the query. DATE_ADD() allows
you to add a time interval to a given date. If you add a month to the value of NOW(), then
extract the month part with MONTH(), the result produces the month in which to look for
birthdays:
mysql> SELECT name, birth FROM pet
-> WHERE MONTH(birth) = MONTH(DATE_ADD(NOW(), INTERVAL 1 MONTH));
A different way to accomplish the same task is to add 1 to get the next month after the
current one (after using the modulo function (MOD) to wrap around the month value to 0 if
it is currently 12):
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mysql> SELECT name, birth FROM pet
-> WHERE MONTH(birth) = MOD(MONTH(NOW()), 12) + 1;
Note that MONTH returns a number between 1 and 12. And MOD(something,12) returns a
number between 0 and 11. So the addition has to be after the MOD() otherwise we would
go from November (11) to January (1).
9.3.4.6 Working with NULL Values
The NULL value can be surprising until you get used to it. Conceptually, NULL means missing
value or unknown value and it is treated somewhat differently than other values. To test
for NULL, you cannot use the arithmetic comparison operators such as =, <, or !=. To
demonstrate this for yourself, try the following query:
mysql> SELECT 1 = NULL, 1 != NULL, 1 < NULL, 1 > NULL;
+----------+-----------+----------+----------+
| 1 = NULL | 1 != NULL | 1 < NULL | 1 > NULL |
+----------+-----------+----------+----------+
|
NULL |
NULL |
NULL |
NULL |
+----------+-----------+----------+----------+
Clearly you get no meaningful results from these comparisons. Use the IS NULL and IS NOT
NULL operators instead:
mysql> SELECT 1 IS NULL, 1 IS NOT NULL;
+-----------+---------------+
| 1 IS NULL | 1 IS NOT NULL |
+-----------+---------------+
|
0 |
1 |
+-----------+---------------+
In MySQL, 0 or NULL means false and anything else means true. The default truth value
from a boolean operation is 1.
This special treatment of NULL is why, in the previous section, it was necessary to determine
which animals are no longer alive using death IS NOT NULL instead of death != NULL.
9.3.4.7 Pattern Matching
MySQL provides standard SQL pattern matching as well as a form of pattern matching
based on extended regular expressions similar to those used by Unix utilities such as vi,
grep, and sed.
SQL pattern matching allows you to use ‘_’ to match any single character and ‘%’ to match
an arbitrary number of characters (including zero characters). In MySQL, SQL patterns
are case insensitive by default. Some examples are shown below. Note that you do not
use = or != when you use SQL patterns; use the LIKE or NOT LIKE comparison operators
instead.
To find names beginning with ‘b’:
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mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name LIKE "b%";
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| name
| owner | species | sex | birth
| death
|
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| Buffy | Harold | dog
| f
| 1989-05-13 | NULL
|
| Bowser | Diane | dog
| m
| 1989-08-31 | 1995-07-29 |
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+
To find names ending with ‘fy’:
mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name LIKE "%fy";
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| name
| owner | species | sex | birth
| death |
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| Fluffy | Harold | cat
| f
| 1993-02-04 | NULL |
| Buffy | Harold | dog
| f
| 1989-05-13 | NULL |
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
To find names containing a ‘w’:
mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name LIKE "%w%";
+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| name
| owner | species | sex | birth
| death
|
+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| Claws
| Gwen | cat
| m
| 1994-03-17 | NULL
|
| Bowser
| Diane | dog
| m
| 1989-08-31 | 1995-07-29 |
| Whistler | Gwen | bird
| NULL | 1997-12-09 | NULL
|
+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+
To find names containing exactly five characters, use the ‘_’ pattern character:
mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name LIKE "_____";
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| name | owner | species | sex | birth
| death |
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| Claws | Gwen
| cat
| m
| 1994-03-17 | NULL |
| Buffy | Harold | dog
| f
| 1989-05-13 | NULL |
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
The other type of pattern matching provided by MySQL uses extended regular expressions.
When you test for a match for this type of pattern, use the REGEXP and NOT REGEXP operators
(or RLIKE and NOT RLIKE, which are synonyms).
Some characteristics of extended regular expressions are:
• ‘.’ matches any single character.
• A character class ‘[...]’ matches any character within the brackets. For example,
‘[abc]’ matches ‘a’, ‘b’, or ‘c’. To name a range of characters, use a dash. ‘[a-z]’
matches any lowercase letter, whereas ‘[0-9]’ matches any digit.
• ‘*’ matches zero or more instances of the thing preceding it. For example, ‘x*’ matches
any number of ‘x’ characters, ‘[0-9]*’ matches any number of digits, and ‘.*’ matches
any number of anything.
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• Regular expressions are case sensitive, but you can use a character class to match both
lettercases if you wish. For example, ‘[aA]’ matches lowercase or uppercase ‘a’ and
‘[a-zA-Z]’ matches any letter in either case.
• The pattern matches if it occurs anywhere in the value being tested. (SQL patterns
match only if they match the entire value.)
• To anchor a pattern so that it must match the beginning or end of the value being
tested, use ‘^’ at the beginning or ‘$’ at the end of the pattern.
To demonstrate how extended regular expressions work, the LIKE queries shown above are
rewritten below to use REGEXP.
To find names beginning with ‘b’, use ‘^’ to match the beginning of the name:
mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name REGEXP "^b";
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| name
| owner | species | sex | birth
| death
|
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| Buffy | Harold | dog
| f
| 1989-05-13 | NULL
|
| Bowser | Diane | dog
| m
| 1989-08-31 | 1995-07-29 |
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+
Prior to MySQL Version 3.23.4, REGEXP is case sensitive, and the previous query will return
no rows. To match either lowercase or uppercase ‘b’, use this query instead:
mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name REGEXP "^[bB]";
From MySQL 3.23.4 on, to force a REGEXP comparison to be case sensitive, use the BINARY
keyword to make one of the strings a binary string. This query will match only lowercase
‘b’ at the beginning of a name:
mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name REGEXP BINARY "^b";
To find names ending with ‘fy’, use ‘$’ to match the end of the name:
mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name REGEXP "fy$";
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| name
| owner | species | sex | birth
| death |
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| Fluffy | Harold | cat
| f
| 1993-02-04 | NULL |
| Buffy | Harold | dog
| f
| 1989-05-13 | NULL |
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
To find names containing a lowercase or uppercase ‘w’, use this query:
mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name REGEXP "w";
+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| name
| owner | species | sex | birth
| death
|
+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| Claws
| Gwen | cat
| m
| 1994-03-17 | NULL
|
| Bowser
| Diane | dog
| m
| 1989-08-31 | 1995-07-29 |
| Whistler | Gwen | bird
| NULL | 1997-12-09 | NULL
|
+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+
Because a regular expression pattern matches if it occurs anywhere in the value, it is not
necessary in the previous query to put a wild card on either side of the pattern to get it to
match the entire value like it would be if you used a SQL pattern.
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To find names containing exactly five characters, use ‘^’ and ‘$’ to match the beginning and
end of the name, and five instances of ‘.’ in between:
mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name REGEXP "^.....$";
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| name | owner | species | sex | birth
| death |
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| Claws | Gwen
| cat
| m
| 1994-03-17 | NULL |
| Buffy | Harold | dog
| f
| 1989-05-13 | NULL |
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
You could also write the previous query using the ‘{n}’ “repeat-n-times” operator:
mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name REGEXP "^.{5}$";
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| name | owner | species | sex | birth
| death |
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| Claws | Gwen
| cat
| m
| 1994-03-17 | NULL |
| Buffy | Harold | dog
| f
| 1989-05-13 | NULL |
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
9.3.4.8 Counting Rows
Databases are often used to answer the question, “How often does a certain type of data
occur in a table?” For example, you might want to know how many pets you have, or how
many pets each owner has, or you might want to perform various kinds of censuses on your
animals.
Counting the total number of animals you have is the same question as “How many rows
are in the pet table?” because there is one record per pet. The COUNT() function counts
the number of non-NULL results, so the query to count your animals looks like this:
mysql> SELECT COUNT(*) FROM pet;
+----------+
| COUNT(*) |
+----------+
|
9 |
+----------+
Earlier, you retrieved the names of the people who owned pets. You can use COUNT() if you
want to find out how many pets each owner has:
mysql> SELECT owner, COUNT(*) FROM pet GROUP BY owner;
+--------+----------+
| owner | COUNT(*) |
+--------+----------+
| Benny |
2 |
| Diane |
2 |
| Gwen
|
3 |
| Harold |
2 |
+--------+----------+
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Note the use of GROUP BY to group together all records for each owner. Without it, all you
get is an error message:
mysql> SELECT owner, COUNT(owner) FROM pet;
ERROR 1140 at line 1: Mixing of GROUP columns (MIN(),MAX(),COUNT()...)
with no GROUP columns is illegal if there is no GROUP BY clause
COUNT() and GROUP BY are useful for characterizing your data in various ways. The following
examples show different ways to perform animal census operations.
Number of animals per species:
mysql> SELECT species, COUNT(*) FROM pet GROUP BY species;
+---------+----------+
| species | COUNT(*) |
+---------+----------+
| bird
|
2 |
| cat
|
2 |
| dog
|
3 |
| hamster |
1 |
| snake
|
1 |
+---------+----------+
Number of animals per sex:
mysql> SELECT sex, COUNT(*) FROM pet GROUP BY sex;
+------+----------+
| sex | COUNT(*) |
+------+----------+
| NULL |
1 |
| f
|
4 |
| m
|
4 |
+------+----------+
(In this output, NULL indicates sex unknown.)
Number of animals per combination of species and sex:
mysql> SELECT species, sex, COUNT(*) FROM pet GROUP BY species, sex;
+---------+------+----------+
| species | sex | COUNT(*) |
+---------+------+----------+
| bird
| NULL |
1 |
| bird
| f
|
1 |
| cat
| f
|
1 |
| cat
| m
|
1 |
| dog
| f
|
1 |
| dog
| m
|
2 |
| hamster | f
|
1 |
| snake
| m
|
1 |
+---------+------+----------+
You need not retrieve an entire table when you use COUNT(). For example, the previous
query, when performed just on dogs and cats, looks like this:
mysql> SELECT species, sex, COUNT(*) FROM pet
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-> WHERE species = "dog" OR species = "cat"
-> GROUP BY species, sex;
+---------+------+----------+
| species | sex | COUNT(*) |
+---------+------+----------+
| cat
| f
|
1 |
| cat
| m
|
1 |
| dog
| f
|
1 |
| dog
| m
|
2 |
+---------+------+----------+
Or, if you wanted the number of animals per sex only for known-sex animals:
mysql> SELECT species, sex, COUNT(*) FROM pet
-> WHERE sex IS NOT NULL
-> GROUP BY species, sex;
+---------+------+----------+
| species | sex | COUNT(*) |
+---------+------+----------+
| bird
| f
|
1 |
| cat
| f
|
1 |
| cat
| m
|
1 |
| dog
| f
|
1 |
| dog
| m
|
2 |
| hamster | f
|
1 |
| snake
| m
|
1 |
+---------+------+----------+
9.3.4.9 Using More Than one Table
The pet table keeps track of which pets you have. If you want to record other information
about them, such as events in their lives like visits to the vet or when litters are born, you
need another table. What should this table look like? It needs:
• To contain the pet name so you know which animal each event pertains to.
• A date so you know when the event occurred.
• A field to describe the event.
• An event type field, if you want to be able to categorize events.
Given these considerations, the CREATE TABLE statement for the event table might look like
this:
mysql> CREATE TABLE event (name VARCHAR(20), date DATE,
-> type VARCHAR(15), remark VARCHAR(255));
As with the pet table, it’s easiest to load the initial records by creating a tab-delimited text
file containing the information:
Fluffy
1995-05-15 litter
4 kittens, 3 female, 1 male
Buffy
1993-06-23 litter
5 puppies, 2 female, 3 male
Buffy
1994-06-19 litter
3 puppies, 3 female
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Chirpy
1999-03-21 vet
needed beak straightened
Slim
1997-08-03 vet
broken rib
Bowser
1991-10-12 kennel
Fang
1991-10-12 kennel
Fang
1998-08-28 birthday
Gave him a new chew toy
Claws
1998-03-17 birthday
Gave him a new flea collar
Whistler
1998-12-09 birthday
First birthday
Load the records like this:
mysql> LOAD DATA LOCAL INFILE "event.txt" INTO TABLE event;
Based on what you’ve learned from the queries you’ve run on the pet table, you should be
able to perform retrievals on the records in the event table; the principles are the same.
But when is the event table by itself insufficient to answer questions you might ask?
Suppose you want to find out the ages of each pet when they had their litters. The event
table indicates when this occurred, but to calculate the age of the mother, you need her
birth date. Because that is stored in the pet table, you need both tables for the query:
mysql> SELECT pet.name, (TO_DAYS(date) - TO_DAYS(birth))/365 AS age, remark
-> FROM pet, event
-> WHERE pet.name = event.name AND type = "litter";
+--------+------+-----------------------------+
| name
| age | remark
|
+--------+------+-----------------------------+
| Fluffy | 2.27 | 4 kittens, 3 female, 1 male |
| Buffy | 4.12 | 5 puppies, 2 female, 3 male |
| Buffy | 5.10 | 3 puppies, 3 female
|
+--------+------+-----------------------------+
There are several things to note about this query:
• The FROM clause lists two tables because the query needs to pull information from both
of them.
• When combining (joining) information from multiple tables, you need to specify how
records in one table can be matched to records in the other. This is easy because they
both have a name column. The query uses WHERE clause to match up records in the two
tables based on the name values.
• Because the name column occurs in both tables, you must be specific about which table
you mean when referring to the column. This is done by prepending the table name to
the column name.
You need not have two different tables to perform a join. Sometimes it is useful to join a
table to itself, if you want to compare records in a table to other records in that same table.
For example, to find breeding pairs among your pets, you can join the pet table with itself
to pair up males and females of like species:
mysql> SELECT p1.name, p1.sex, p2.name, p2.sex, p1.species
-> FROM pet AS p1, pet AS p2
-> WHERE p1.species = p2.species AND p1.sex = "f" AND p2.sex = "m";
+--------+------+--------+------+---------+
| name
| sex | name
| sex | species |
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+--------+------+--------+------+---------+
| Fluffy | f
| Claws | m
| cat
|
| Buffy | f
| Fang
| m
| dog
|
| Buffy | f
| Bowser | m
| dog
|
+--------+------+--------+------+---------+
In this query, we specify aliases for the table name in order to refer to the columns and
keep straight which instance of the table each column reference is associated with.
9.4 Getting Information About Databases and Tables
What if you forget the name of a database or table, or what the structure of a given table is
(for example, what its columns are called)? MySQL addresses this problem through several
statements that provide information about the databases and tables it supports.
You have already seen SHOW DATABASES, which lists the databases managed by the server.
To find out which database is currently selected, use the DATABASE() function:
mysql> SELECT DATABASE();
+------------+
| DATABASE() |
+------------+
| menagerie |
+------------+
If you haven’t selected any database yet, the result is blank.
To find out what tables the current database contains (for example, when you’re not sure
about the name of a table), use this command:
mysql> SHOW TABLES;
+---------------------+
| Tables in menagerie |
+---------------------+
| event
|
| pet
|
+---------------------+
If you want to find out about the structure of a table, the DESCRIBE command is useful; it
displays information about each of a table’s columns:
mysql> DESCRIBE pet;
+---------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| Field
| Type
| Null | Key | Default | Extra |
+---------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| name
| varchar(20) | YES |
| NULL
|
|
| owner
| varchar(20) | YES |
| NULL
|
|
| species | varchar(20) | YES |
| NULL
|
|
| sex
| char(1)
| YES |
| NULL
|
|
| birth
| date
| YES |
| NULL
|
|
| death
| date
| YES |
| NULL
|
|
+---------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
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Field indicates the column name, Type is the data type for the column, Null indicates
whether or not the column can contain NULL values, Key indicates whether or not the
column is indexed, and Default specifies the column’s default value.
If you have indexes on a table, SHOW INDEX FROM tbl_name produces information about
them.
9.5 Examples of Common Queries
Here are examples of how to solve some common problems with MySQL.
Some of the examples use the table shop to hold the price of each article (item number)
for certain traders (dealers). Supposing that each trader has a single fixed price per article,
then (item, trader) is a primary key for the records.
Start the command line tool mysql and select a database:
mysql your-database-name
(In most MySQL installations, you can use the database-name ’test’).
You can create the example table as:
CREATE TABLE shop (
article INT(4) UNSIGNED ZEROFILL DEFAULT ’0000’ NOT NULL,
dealer CHAR(20)
DEFAULT ’’
NOT NULL,
price
DOUBLE(16,2)
DEFAULT ’0.00’ NOT NULL,
PRIMARY KEY(article, dealer));
INSERT INTO shop VALUES
(1,’A’,3.45),(1,’B’,3.99),(2,’A’,10.99),(3,’B’,1.45),(3,’C’,1.69),
(3,’D’,1.25),(4,’D’,19.95);
Okay, so the example data is:
mysql> SELECT * FROM shop;
+---------+--------+-------+
| article | dealer | price |
+---------+--------+-------+
|
0001 | A
| 3.45 |
|
0001 | B
| 3.99 |
|
0002 | A
| 10.99 |
|
0003 | B
| 1.45 |
|
0003 | C
| 1.69 |
|
0003 | D
| 1.25 |
|
0004 | D
| 19.95 |
+---------+--------+-------+
9.5.1 The Maximum Value for a Column
“What’s the highest item number?”
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SELECT MAX(article) AS article FROM shop
+---------+
| article |
+---------+
|
4 |
+---------+
9.5.2 The Row Holding the Maximum of a Certain Column
“Find number, dealer, and price of the most expensive article.”
In ANSI SQL this is easily done with a sub-query:
SELECT article, dealer, price
FROM
shop
WHERE price=(SELECT MAX(price) FROM shop)
In MySQL (which does not yet have sub-selects), just do it in two steps:
1. Ge