ENGINE TEST SET UP 4 CYLINDR, 4 STROKE, TURBO CHARGED, CRDI DIESEL

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ENGINE TEST SET UP
4 CYLINDR, 4 STROKE, TURBO CHARGED,
CRDI DIESEL
Product Code
226
Instruction manual
Contents
1
2
3
4
Description
Specifications
Installation requirements
Installation Commissioning
21-01-2014
5
6
7
8
Troubleshooting
Components used
Packing slip
Warranty
Im226.docx
9 Theory
10 Experiments
Page 1
Apex Innovations
Description
The setup consists of four
cylinder, four stroke, Turbo
charged, CRDI Diesel engine
connected to eddy current
type
dynamometer
for
loading. It is provided with
necessary
instruments
for
combustion
pressure
and
crank-angle
measurements.
These signals are interfaced to
computer
through
engine
indicator for PPV diagrams.
Provision is also made for
interfacing airflow, fuel flow,
temperatures
and
load
measurement. The set up has
stand-alone
panel
box
consisting of air box, fuel
tank,
manometer,
fuel
measuring unit, transmitters
for
air
and
fuel
flow
measurements,
process
indicator and engine indicator.
Rotameters are provided for
cooling water and calorimeter
water
flow
measurement.
Provision is made to conduct
performance test with and
without turbocharger. The
pressure after turbocharger and temperatures
across intercooler are indicated separately on the
dash board panel.
The setup enables study of engine performance
for brake power, indicated power, frictional
power, BMEP, IMEP, brake thermal efficiency,
indicated
thermal
efficiency,
Mechanical
efficiency, volumetric efficiency, specific fuel
consumption, A/F ratio and heat balance. Labview
based Engine Performance Analysis software
package “Enginesoft” is provided for on line
performance evaluation.
EDDYCURRENT DYNAMOMETER
TURBOCHARGED ENGINE
Specifications
Product Engine test setup 4 cylinder, 4 stroke, Turbo, Diesel
(Computerized)
Product code 226
Engine Engine, Make – Maruti Udyog Ltd, Model –Swift, BS IV CRDI
Diesel with microprocessor based engine management
system(ECU), 4 cylinder,4 stroke, water cooled, power 55 KW
@ 4000 rpm, torque 190 Nm @ 2000 rpm, cap.1248cc, Bore
69.6 mm, stroke 82 mm, turbocharged with intercooler
Dynamometer
Propeller shaft
Air box
Fuel tank
Calorimeter
Piezo sensor
Crank angle sensor
21-01-2014
Type eddy current, water cooled, with loading unit
With universal joints
M S fabricated with orifice meter and manometer
Capacity 15 lit with glass fuel metering column
Type Pipe in pipe
Range 5000 PSI, with low noise cable
Resolution 1 Deg, Speed 5500 RPM with TDC pulse.
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Apex Innovations
Data acquisition device
Piezo powering unit
Digital voltmeter
Temperature sensor
Temperature
transmitter
Load indicator
Temperature indicator
Load sensor
Fuel flow transmitter
Air flow transmitter
Software
Rotameter
Pump
Cooling fan
Overall dimensions
NI USB-6210, 16-bit, 250kS/s.
Make-Apex, Model AX-409.
Range 0-5V, panel mounted
Type RTD, PT100 and Thermocouple, Type K
Type two wire, Input RTD PT100, Range 0–100 Deg C,
Output 4–20 mA and Type two wire, Input
Thermocouple, Range 0–1200 Deg C, Output 4–20 mA
Digital, Range 0-50 Kg, Supply 230VAC
Digital, multi channel with selector switch
Load cell, type strain gauge, range 0-50 Kg
DP transmitter, Range 0-500 mm WC
Pressure transmitter, Range (-) 250 mm WC
“Enginesoft” Engine performance analysis software
Engine cooling 100-1000 LPH; Calorimeter 25-250 LPH
Type Monoblock
Type propeller, Size 450mm, Rpm 1400, 1phase
W 2000 x D 2750 x H 1750 mm
Shipping details
Gross volume 2.05m3, Gross weight 995kg, Net weight 780kg
Installation requirements
Electric supply
Provide 230 +/- 10 VAC, 50 Hz, single
phase electric supply with proper
earthing. (Neutral – Earth voltage less
than 5 VAC)
 5A, three pin socket with switch (2
Nos.)
Water supply
Continuous, clean and soft water
supply @ 4000 LPH, at 10 m. head.
Provide tap with 1” BSP size
connection
Space
3500Lx4000Wx2000H in mm
Drain
Provide suitable drain arrangement
(Drain pipe 65 NB/2.5” size)
Exhaust
Provide suitable exhaust arrangement
(Exhaust pipe 32 NB/1.25” size)
Foundation
As per foundation drawing
Fuel, oil
Diesel @10 liter
Oil @ 3.5 lit. (15W40)
Installation Commissioning
INSTALLATION
 Unpack the box(es) received and ensure that all material is received as per
packing slip (provided in instruction manual). In case of short supply or breakage
contact Apex Innovations / your supplier for further actions.
 Install engine test set up assembly on the foundation.
 Keep panel box structure near foundation (Refer foundation drawing )
 Fit the panel box assembly on the panel box structure and fit following parts
o Piezo powering unit
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Apex Innovations




o Loading unit
o Digital voltmeter
o Load indicator
Keep the Dashboard panel between engine and panel box. Fit the following units
and connect to engine:
o Battery
o Gauges
o Throttle unit
o Temperature indicator
Complete the piping work as follows:
o Exhaust: Engine to calorimeter
o Water: Dynamometer inlet, outlet, Engine cooling inlet, outlet, Calorimeter
water inlet outlet and drain pipe.
o Air: Air box to engine
o Fuel: Fuel measuring unit to engine
Fit the following parts
o Piezo adaptor assembly on engine head with water cooling piping.
o Pressure gauge on dynamometer inlet pipe.
o Temperature sensors
o Crank angle sensor on dynamometer (non driving end)
o Load cell to dynamometer.
Complete the wiring work as follows:
o Crank angle sensor to Piezo powering unit
o Piezo sensor to Piezo powering unit
o Load cell to Load indicator
o Temperature sensors to engine panel
o Temperature sensors to IC turbo dashboard panel
o DLU unit to Dynamometer
o USB cable from Data acquisition device to computer “USB” port
COMMISSIONING











Fill lubrication oil in the engine and fuel in the fuel tank.
Remove air from fuel line connecting fuel measuring unit to fuel transmitter.
Lower jack bolts under dynamometer for free movement.
Provide electric supply to panel box
o Adjust crank angle sensor for TDC matching.
o Confirm all temperatures are correctly displayed on process indicator
o Confirm load signal displayed on process indicator
Fill water in the manometer up to “0” mark level.
Keep “Load” knob on loading unit is at minimum position.
Load the NI-USB driver on the computer from Driver CD.
Connect USB cable from Data acquisition device to computer.
Load “Enginesoft” software package on the same computer.
Ensure water circulation through engine, calorimeter and dynamometer and piezo
adaptor. Start the Engine.
Check engine operation at various loads and ensure respective signals on
computer.
Precautions
 Use clean and filtered water; any suspended particle may clog the piping.
 Piezo Sensor Handling:
o Ensure cooling water circulation for combustion pressure sensor.
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Apex Innovations
o Diaphragm of the sensor is delicate part. Avoid scratches or hammering on
it.
o A long sleeve is provided inside the piezo adapter. This sleeve is protecting
the surface of the diaphragm. While removing sensor from the adapter this
sleeve may come out with the sensor and fell down or lose during handling.
Status of the sensor is indicated on the engine indicator.
o Damages to the electronic parts of the sensor or loose connection are
indicated as "open" or "short" status on piezo powering unit.
 Circulate dynamometer and piezo sensor cooling water for some time after
shutting down the engine.
21-01-2014
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Apex Innovations
Troubleshooting
Note: For component specific problems refer components‟ manual
Problems
Possible causes / remedies
Engine does not start  Insufficient fuel
 Air trapped in fuel line
Dynamometer does
 Faulty wiring
not load the engine
 No DC voltage at the outlet of dynamometer loading
unit
Faulty air flow
 Air hose leakage at connections with air-box and
with engine.
Faulty fuel flow
 Improper closing of fuel cock.
 Air trap in pressure signal line to fuel transmitter
Software does not
 Faulty or wrong USB port
work
 Virus in computer
 Loose connections
Faulty indicated
 TDC setting disturbed. Readjust TDC setting.
power
 Improper configuration data
Faulty pressure crank  Improper earthing
angle diagram
 Wrong reference pressure setting in configuration
file. Adjust the value such that suction stroke
pressure just matches the zero line.
 If peak pressure is not at the TDC, TDC setting
disturbed, readjust
 If peak pressure shifts randomly with respect to
TDC, coupling of crank angle sensor may be loose
Faulty speed
 Broken coupling of crank angle sensor
indication
Incorrect
 Check the connection between thermocouple and
temperature
temperature indicator/transmitter. Note that yellow
indication
cable of thermocouple is positive and red is
negative.
 Open or damaged temperature sensor
Improper load
 Excessively raised jack bolts of the dynamometer.
indication
TDC Setting
 The TDC indicator provided on the engine indicator enables matching of index
pulse of crank angle sensor with TDC(Top Dead Centre) of the cylinder. Take
the piston to its TDC position (match mark provided on the engine
fan/pulley/flywheel).
 Loosen the screws of clamping flange of engine crank angle sensor.
 Slowly rotate the crank angle sensor body till the TDC indicator lamp glows.
At this position clamp the flange screws to fix the crank angle sensor at this position.
21-01-2014
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Page 6
Apex Innovations
Components used
Components
Details
Engine, Make – Maruti Udyog Ltd, Model –Swift, BS IV CRDI
Diesel with microprocessor based engine management
system(ECU), 4 cylinder,4 stroke, water cooled, power 55
KW @ 4000 rpm, torque 190 Nm @ 2000 rpm, cap.1248cc,
Bore 69.6 mm, stroke 82 mm, turbocharged with intercooler
Engine
Dynamometer
Dynamometer Loading
unit
Propeller shaft
Manometer
Fuel measuring unit
Piezo sensor
White
cable
coaxial
teflon
Crank angle sensor
Data acquisition device
Piezo powering unit
Temperature sensor
Temperature sensor
Temperature
transmitter
Temperature
transmitter
Load sensor
Load indicator
Temperature indicator
Power supply
21-01-2014
Make Saj test plant Pvt. Ltd., Model AG80, Type Eddy
current
Make Apex, Model AX-153, Type variable speed,
Supply 230V AC.
Make Hindustan Hardy Spicer, Model 1260, Type A
Make Apex, Model MX-104, Range 100-0-100 mm,
Type U tube, Conn. 1/4`` BSP hose back side,
Mounting panel
Make Omega Glass, Model:FF0.090
Make PCB Piezotronics, Model HSM111A22, Range
5000 psi, Diaphragm stainless steel type & hermetic
sealed
Make PCB piezotronics, Model 002C20, Length 20 ft,
Connections one end BNC plug and other end 10-32
micro
Make Kubler-Germany Model 8.3700.1321.0360 Dia:
37mm Shaft Size: Size 6mmxLength 12.5mm, Supply
Voltage 5-30V DC, Output Push Pull (AA,BB,OO),
PPR: 360, Outlet cable type axial with flange 37 mm
to 58 mm
NI USB-6210 Bus Powered M Series,
Make-Apex, Model AX-409.
Make
Radix
Type
K,
Ungrounded,
Sheath
Dia.6mmX110mmL, SS316, Connection 1/4"BSP (M)
adjustable compression fitting (5Nos)
Make Radix, Type Pt100, Sheath Dia.6mmX110mmL,
SS316,
Connection
1/4"BSP(M)
adjustable
compression fitting (3Nos)
Make
Wika,
model
T19.10.3K0-4NK-Z,
Input
Thermocouple (type K), output 4-20mA, supply
24VDC, Calibration: 0-1200deg.C.
Make Wika, Model T19.10.1PO-1 Input RTD(Pt100),
output 4-20mA, supply 24VDC, Calibration: 0-100C
Make Sensotronics Sanmar Ltd., Model 60001,Type S
beam, Universal, Capacity 0-50 kg
Make ABUS, model SV8-DC10, 85 to 270VAC,
retransmission output 4-20 mA
Digital Multipoint temp. indicator, Model ESD 9043, 6
points,Input thermocouple, size 92X92, 31/2 digit,
range 0-1200DegC
Make Meanwell, model S-15-24, O/P 24 V, 0.7 A
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Apex Innovations
Digital voltmeter
Fuel flow transmitter
Air flow transmitter
Rotameter
Rotameter
Pump
Cooling fan
Battery
21-01-2014
Make Meco, 3.1/2 digit LED display, range 0-20 VDC,
supply 230VAC, model SMP35
Make
Yokogawa,
Model
EJA110-EMS-5A-92NN,
Calibration range 0-500 mm H2O, Output linear
Make Wika, Range (-) 250 mm WC
Make Eureka Model PG 5, Range 25-250 lph,
Connection ¾” BSP vertical, screwed, Packing
neoprene
Make Eureka, Model PG 9, Range 100-1000 lph,
Connection 1” BSP vertical, screwed, Packing
neoprene
Pump make Kirloskar, Model GMC1.542, Head 20m.,
HP 1.5, Single phase, Size 32x25 Type Centrifugal
monoblock
Exhaust fan, Type propeller, Size 450mm, Rpm 1400,
410Watt, 1phase
Make Exide, Model MHD 350 06687, 12 V DC
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Apex Innovations
Packing slip
Total no. of boxes: 12, Volume: 2.79 m3, Gross weight: 985 kg. Net wt. 784
kg
Case
No.1/12
1
Box
No.2/12
1
Box
No.3/12
1
Box
No.4/12
1
Box
No.5/12
1
Box
No.6/12
1
Box
No.7/12
1
Box
No.8/12
1
2
Box
No.9/12
1
2
Box
No.10/1
2
1
2
Box
No.11/1
2
1
2
Engine Set up Assembly
Size W1700xD800xH1200 mm; Volume:1.63m3
Engine
test
setup
assembly
Engine
+
Dynamometer + Base frame
Engine panel box
Size W990xD475xH500 mm; Volume:0.24m3
Engine panel box assembly
Transmitter
panel,
Fuel
pipe,
Fuel
DP
transmitter, Air transmitter, NI USB 6210,
power supply and wiring, Manometer with PU
tube.
Engine panel box structure
Size W800xD475xH500 mm; Volume:0.19m3
Engine panel box structure assembly
Rotameters with piping (2)
Dynamometer loading unit clamp (1)
Calorimeter
Size W650xD275xH325 mm; Volume:0.06m3
Calorimeter assembly
Exhaust pipe
Size W300xD225xH300 mm; Volume:0.02m3
Exhaust pipe
Gross weight: 525kg
Net weight: 525kg
1 No.
Pump
Size W525xD325xH425mm; Volume:0.07m3
Pump
Battery
Size W200xD300xH225 mm; Volume:0.01m3
Battery
Dash board panel
Size W500xD400xH300 mm; Volume:0.06m3
Dash board panel with support structure
Fuel throttle body with cable
Engine wiring swift
Size W550xD300xH275 mm; Volume:0.05m3
Wiring box with support pipes
Engine wiring
Exhaust fan
Size W1075xD575xH325 mm; Volume:0.20m3
Gross weight: 42kg
Net weight: 23kg
1 No.
Gross weight: 25kg
Net weight: 17kg
1 No.
Gross weight: 32kg
Net weight: 20kg
1 No.
1 No.
Gross weight: 35kg
Net weight: 22kg
1 No.
1 set
Gross weight: 40kg
Net weight: 28kg
Exhaust fan with fan support
Turbo charger filter and piping
Engine wiring
Size W500xD400xH300 mm; Volume:0.06m3
1 No.
1 No.
Gross weight: 30kg
Net weight: 12kg
Piezo powering unit
Load indicator
1 No.
1 No.
21-01-2014
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Gross weight: 78kg
Net weight: 50kg
1 No.
Gross weight: 56kg
Net weight: 31kg
1 No.
Gross weight: 45kg
Net weight: 22kg
1 No.
Gross weight: 17kg
Net weight: 9kg
1 No.
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Apex Innovations
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
Box
No.12/1
2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Digital voltmeter
Dynamometer loading unit
Pressure gauge
Wiring set
Load cell with nut bolt
Crank angle sensor
Temperature sensor
Piezo sensor
Piezo adaptor
Low noise cable
Data acquisition device and driver CD
Apex Enginesoft DVD CD
Set of loose nut bolts
Tool kit
Fuel caps(2), Teflon tape(2) & Gasket shellac(1)
Set of instruction manuals consisting of:
Instruction manual CD (Apex)
DP transmitter
Dynamometer
Calibration sheets for load cell and Piezo sensor
Engine piping
Size W1250xD450xH350mm; Volume: 0.20m3
1 No.
1 No.
1 No.
1 No.
1 No.
1 No.
5 Nos.
1No/2Nos.
1 No.
1No/2Nos.
1 No.
1 No.
1 No.
1 No.
1 No.
1 No.
Piping set (14 pieces)
Engine water inlet and outlet, Dynamometer
water inlet and outlet, Calorimeter water inlet
and outlet, Air hose pipe, Pump suction
connection with strainer, Pump outlet, Engine
water inlet and outlet hose, Water supply hose
pipe, Drain pipe (3 components)
Water supply pipe 1.25” hose
Load cell bracket
Fuel measuring unit 2Nos (one spare)
Wiring channel set
Engine air connection pipe
Fuel filter assembly
Exhaust extension pipe with socket and bend
Pump bracket
Air box connection
Calorimeter exhaust outlet flange
1 No.
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Gross weight: 60kg
Net weight: 25kg
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
No.
set
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
Page 10
Apex Innovations
Warranty
This product is warranted for a period of 12 months from the date of supply against
manufacturing defects. You shall inform us in writing any defect in the system
noticed during the warranty period. On receipt of your written notice, Apex at its
option either repairs or replaces the product if proved to be defective as stated
above. You shall not return any part of the system to us before receiving our
confirmation to this effect.
The foregoing warranty shall not apply to defects resulting from:
Buyer/ User shall not have subjected the system to unauthorized alterations/
additions/ modifications.
Unauthorized use of external software/ interfacing.
Unauthorized maintenance by third party not authorized by Apex.
Improper site utilities and/or maintenance.
We do not take any responsibility for accidental injuries caused while working with
the set up.
Apex Innovations Pvt. Ltd.
E9/1, MIDC, Kupwad, Sangli-416436 (Maharashtra) India
Telefax:0233-2644098, 2644398
Email: [email protected] Web: www.apexinnovations-ind.com
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Theory
TERMINOLOGY
Engine Cylinder diameter (bore) (D): The nominal inner diameter of the
working cylinder.
Piston area (A): The area of a circle of diameter equal to engine
2
cylinder diameter (bore). A   / 4  D
Engine Stroke length (L): The nominal distance through which a working
piston moves between two successive reversals of its direction of motion.
Dead center: The position of the working piston and the moving parts, which
are mechanically connected to it at the moment when the direction of the piston
motion is reversed (at either end point of the stroke).
Bottom dead center (BDC): Dead center when the piston is nearest to
the crankshaft. Sometimes it is also called outer dead center (ODC).
Top dead center (TDC): Dead center when the position is farthest from the
crankshaft. Sometimes it is also called inner dead center (IDC).
Swept volume (VS): The nominal volume generated by the working piston
when travelling from one dead center to next one, calculated as the product of
piston area and stroke. The capacity described by engine manufacturers in cc
2
is the swept volume of the engine. Vs  A  L   / 4  D L
Clearance volume (VC): The nominal volume of the space on the combustion side
of the piston at top dead center.
Cylinder volume: The sum of swept volume and clearance volume. V  Vs  Vc
Compression ratio (CR): The numerical value of the cylinder volume divided
by the numerical value of clearance volume. CR  V / Vc
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Bore
D
Cylinder head
Suction valve
Intake or suction manifold
Top dead center T.D.C.
Piston
Gudgeon or wrist pin
Exhaust valve
Exhaust manifold
Clearance volume.Vc
Cylinder volume’V’
Stroke volume.Vs
Bottom dead center B.D.C.
Cylinder
Connecting rod
Crankcase
Crankshaft
Crank pin
Crank
Important positions and volumes in reciprocating engine
Four stroke cycle engine
In four-stroke cycle engine, the cycle of operation is completed in four strokes of the
piston or two revolutions of the crankshaft. Each stroke consists of 180 0 of crankshaft
rotation and hence a cycle consists of 7200 of crankshaft rotation. The series of
operation of an ideal four-stroke engine are as follows:
1. Suction or Induction stroke: The inlet valve is open, and the piston travels
down the cylinder, drawing in a charge of air. In the case of a spark ignition
engine the fuel is usually pre-mixed with the air.
2. Compression stroke: Both valves are closed, and the piston travels up the
cylinder. As the piston approaches top dead centre (TDC), ignition occurs. In the
case of compression ignition engines, the fuel is injected towards the end of
compression stroke.
3. Expansion or Power or Working stroke: Combustion propagates throughout
the charge, raising the pressure and temperature, and forcing the piston down.
At the end of the power stroke the exhaust valve opens, and the irreversible
expansion of the exhaust gases is termed „blow-down‟.
4. Exhaust stroke: The exhaust valve remains open, and as the piston travels up
the cylinder the remaining gases are expelled. At the end of the exhaust stroke,
when the exhaust valve closes some exhaust gas residuals will be left; these will
dilute the next charge.
Two stroke cycle engine
In two stroke engines the cycle is completed in two strokes of piston i.e. one
revolution of the crankshaft as against two revolutions of four stroke cycle engine.
The two-stroke cycle eliminates the separate induction and exhaust strokes.
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1. Compression stroke: The piston travels up the cylinder, so compressing the
trapped charge. If the fuel is not pre-mixed, the fuel is injected towards the end
of the compression stroke; ignition should again occur before TDC.
Simultaneously under side of the piston is drawing in a charge through a springloaded non-return inlet valve.
2. Power stroke: The burning mixture raises the temperature and pressure in the
cylinder, and forces the piston down. The downward motion of the piston also
compresses the charge in the crankcase. As the piston approaches the end of its
stroke the exhaust port is uncovered and blowdown occurs. When the piston is at
BDC the transfer port is also uncovered, and the compressed charge in the
crankcase expands into the cylinder. Some of the remaining exhaust gases are
displaced by the fresh charge; because of the flow mechanism this is called „loop
scavenging'. As the piston travels up the cylinder, the piston closes the first
transfer port, and then the exhaust port is closed.
Performance of I.C.Engines
Indicated thermal efficiency (ηt): Indicated thermal efficiency is the ratio of
energy in the indicated power to the fuel energy.
t  IndicatedP ower / FuelEnergy
 t (%) 
IndicatedP ower ( KW )  3600
 100
FuelFlow ( Kg / Hr)  CalorificV alue( KJ / Kg )
Brake thermal efficiency (ηbth): A measure of overall efficiency of the engine
is given by the brake thermal efficiency. Brake thermal efficiency is the ratio of
energy in the brake power to the fuel energy.
bth  BrakePower / FuelEnergy
 bth (%) 
BrakePower ( KW )  3600
 100
FuelFlow ( Kg / Hr)  CalorificV alue( KJ / Kg )
Mechanical efficiency (ηm): Mechanical efficiency is the ratio of brake horse power
(delivered power) to the indicated horsepower (power provided to the piston).
 m  BrakePower / IndicatedP ower
and Frictional power = Indicated power – Brake power
Following figure gives diagrammatic representation of various efficiencies,
Energy lost in exhaust, coolant, and radiation
Energy lost in friction, pumping etc.
Energy
in fuel
(A)
IP
(B)
BP
(C)
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Indicated thermal efficiency = B/A
Brake thermal efficiency = C/A
Mechanical efficiency = C/B
Volumetric efficiency (ηv): The engine output is limited by the maximum
amount of air that can be taken in during the suction stroke, because only a
certain amount of fuel can be burned effectively with a given quantity of air.
Volumetric efficiency is an indication of the „breathing‟ ability of the engine and
is defined as the ratio of the air actually induced at ambient conditions to the
swept volume of the engine. In practice the engine does not induce a complete
cylinder full of air on each stroke, and it is convenient to define volumetric
efficiency as:
ηv (%) =
 v (%) 
Mass of air consumed
-------------------------------------------------------------------------mass of flow of air to fill swept volume at atmospheric conditions
AirFlow ( Kg / Hr)
 100
 / 4  D L(m )  N ( RPM ) / n  NoofCyl  AirDen( Kg / m 3 )  60
2
3
Where n= 1 for 2 stroke engine and n= 2 for 4 stroke engine.
Air flow:
For air consumption measurement air box with orifice is used.
AitFlow ( Kg / Hr)  Cd   / 4  D 2  2 g  hwater  Wden / Aden  Aden  3600
Where Cd = Coefficient of discharge of orifice
D = Orifice diameter in m
g = Acceleration due to gravity (m/s2) = 9.81 m/s2
h = Differential head across orifice (m of water)
Wden = Water density (kg/m3) [email protected] kg/m3
Wair = Air density at working condition (kg/m3) = p/RT
Where
p= Atmospheric pressure in kgf/m2 (1 Standard atm. = 1.0332X104 kgf/m2)
R= Gas constant = 29.27 kgf.m/kg0k
T= Atmospheric temperature in 0k
Specific fuel consumption (SFC): Brake specific fuel consumption and indicated
specific fuel consumption, abbreviated BSFC and ISFC, are the fuel consumptions
on the basis of Brake power and Indicated power respectively.
Fuel-air (F/A) or air-fuel (A/F) ratio: The relative proportions of the fuel and air
in the engine are very important from standpoint of combustion and efficiency of
the engine. This is expressed either as the ratio of the mass of the fuel to that of
the air or vice versa.
Calorific value or Heating value or Heat of combustion: It is the energy
released per unit quantity of the fuel, when the combustible is burned and the
products of combustion are cooled back to the initial temperature of combustible
mixture. The heating value so obtained is called the higher or gross calorific value
of the fuel. The lower or net calorific value is the heat released when water in the
products of combustion is not condensed and remains in the vapour form.
Power and Mechanical efficiency: Power is defined as rate of doing work and
equal to the product of force and linear velocity or the product of torque and
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angular velocity. Thus, the measurement of power involves the measurement of
force (or torque) as well as speed.
The power developed by an engine at the output shaft is called brake power and
is given by
Power = NT/60,000 in kW
where T= torque in Nm = WR
W = 9.81 * Net mass applied in kg. R= Radius in m
N is speed in RPM
Mean effective pressure and torque: Mean effective pressure is defined as a
hypothetical pressure, which is thought to be acting on the piston throughout the
power stroke.
Power in kW = (Pm LAN/n 100)/60 in bar
where Pm = mean effective pressure
L = length of the stroke in m
A = area of the piston in m2
N = Rotational speed of engine RPM
n= number of revolutions required to complete one engine cycle
n= 1 (for two stroke engine)
n= 2 (for four stroke engine)
Thus we can see that for a given engine the power output can be measured in
terms of mean effective pressure. If the mean effective pressure is based on
brake power it is called brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) and if based on
indicated power it is called indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP).
BMEP (bar ) 
BrakePower ( KW )  60
L  A  ( N / n)  NoOfCyl  100
IMEP (bar ) 
IndicatedP ower ( KW )  60
L  A  ( N / n)  NoOfCyl  100
Similarly, the friction means effective pressure (FMEP) can be defined as
FMEP= IMEP – BMEP
Basic measurements
The basic measurements, which usually should be undertaken to evaluate the
performance of an engine on almost all tests, are the following:
1 Measurement of speed
Following different speed measuring devices are used for speed measurement.
1 Photoelectric/Inductive proximity pickup with speed indicator
2 Rotary encoder
2 Measurement of fuel consumption
I) Volumetric method: The fuel consumed by an engine is measured by
determining the volume flow of the fuel in a given time interval and multiplying it by
the specific gravity of fuel. Generally a glass burette having graduations in ml is used
for volume flow measurement. Time taken by the engine to consume this volume is
measured by stopwatch.
II) Gravimetric method: In this method the time to consume a given weight of the
fuel is measured. Differential pressure transmitters working on hydrostatic head
principles can used for fuel consumption measurement.
3 Measurement of air consumption
Air box method: In IC engines, as the air flow is pulsating, for satisfactory
measurement of air consumption an air box of suitable volume is fitted with orifice.
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The air box is used for damping out the pulsations. The differential pressure across
the orifice is measured by manometer and pressure transmitter.
4 Measurement of brake power
Measurement of BP involves determination of the torque and angular speed of the
engine output shaft. This torque-measuring device is called a dynamometer.
The dynamometers used are of following types:
I) Rope brake dynamometer: It consists of a number of turns of rope wound
around the rotating drum attached to the output shaft. One side of the rope is
connected to a spring balance and the other to a loading device. The power is
absorbed in friction between the rope and the drum. The drum therefore requires
cooling.
Brake power = ∏DN (W-S)/60,000 in kW
where D is the brake drum diameter, W is the weight and S is the spring scale
reading.
II) Hydraulic dynamometer: Hydraulic dynamometer works on the principal of
dissipating the power in fluid friction. It consists of an inner rotating member or
impeller coupled to output shaft of the engine. This impeller rotates in a casing, due
to the centrifugal force developed, tends to revolve with impeller, but is resisted by
torque arm supporting the balance weight. The frictional forces between the impeller
and the fluid are measured by the spring-balance fitted on the casing. Heat
developed due to dissipation of power is carried away by a continuous supply of the
working fluid usually water. The output (power absorbed) can be controlled by
varying the quantity of water circulating in the vortex of the rotor and stator
elements. This is achieved by a moving sluice gate in the dynamometer casing.
III) Eddy current dynamometer: It consists of a stator on which are fitted a
number of electromagnets and a rotor disc and coupled to the output shaft of the
engine. When rotor rotates eddy currents are produced in the stator due to magnetic
flux set up by the passage of field current in the electromagnets. These eddy
currents oppose the rotor motion, thus loading the engine. These eddy currents are
dissipated in producing heat so that this type of dynamometer needs cooling
arrangement. A moment arm measures the torque. Regulating the current in
electromagnets controls the load.
Note: While using with variable speed engines sometimes in certain speed zone the
dynamometer operating line are nearly parallel with engine operating lines which
result in poor stability.
5 Measurement of indicated power
There are two methods of finding the IHP of an engine.
I) Indicator diagram: A dynamic pressure sensor (piezo sensor) is fitted in the
cylinder head to sense combustion pressure. A rotary encoder is fitted on the engine
shaft for crank angle signal. Both signals are simultaneously scanned by an engine
indicator (electronic unit) and communicated to computer. The software in the
computer draws pressure crank-angle and pressure volume plots and computes
indicated power of the engine.
Conversion of pressure crank-angle plot to pressure volume plot:
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The figure shows crank-slider mechanism. The piston pin position is given by
x  r cos   l cos 
From figure r sin   l sin  and recalling cos   1  sin

2


2
x  r  cos   l r 1  r l  sin 2  


The binomial theorem can be used to expand the square root term:



x  r cos   l / r 1  1 (r / l ) 2 sin 2   1 8 (r / l ) 4 sin 4   ...
2
….1
The powers of sin  can be expressed as equivalent multiple angles:
sin 2   1 / 2  1 / 2 cos 2
sin 4   3 / 8  1 / 2 cos 2  1 / 8 cos 4
…….2
Substituting the results from equation 2 in to equation 1 gives



x  r cos   l / r 1  1 (r / l ) 2 1 / 2  1 / 2 cos 2   1 8 (r / l ) 4 3 / 8  1 / 2 cos 2  1 / 8 cos 4   ...
2
2
The geometry of the engine is such that r / l  is invariably less than 0.1, in which
case it is acceptable to neglect the
r / l 4 terms,
as inspection of above equation
shows that these terms will be at least an order of magnitude smaller than
r / l 2
terms.
The approximate position of piston pin end is thus:



x  r cos   l / r 1  1 (r / l ) 2 1 / 2  1 / 2 cos 2 
2
Where r =crankshaft throw and l = connecting rod length.
Calculate x using above equation; then (l  r  x) shall give distance traversed by
piston from its top most position at any angle 
II) Morse test:
It is applicable to multi-cylinder engines. The engine is run at
desired speed and output is noted. Then combustion in one of the cylinders is
stopped by short circuiting spark plug or by cutting off the fuel supply. Under this
condition other cylinders “motor” this cylinder. The output is measured after
adjusting load on the engine to keep speed constant at original value. The difference
in output is measure of the indicated power of cut-out cylinder. Thus for each
cylinder indicated power is obtained to find out total indicated power.
VCR Engines
The standard available engines (with fixed compression ratio) can be modified by
providing additional variable combustion space. This is done by welding a long hollow
sleeve with internal threads to the engine head. A threaded plug is inserted in the
sleeve to vary the combustion chamber volume. With this method the compression
ratio can be changed within designed range.
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Calculations

Brake power (kw):
2NT
60 x1000
2N (WxR )

60000
0.785 xRPMx (Wx9.81) xArmlength

60000
TxN
BHP 
75x60
BP 

Brake mean effective pressure (bar):
BMEP 
BPx 60
 / 4 xD xLx( N / n) xNoOfCylx100
2
n = 2 for 4 stroke
n = 1 for 2 stroke

Indicated power (kw) :From PV diagram
..m3
X scale (volume) 1cm =
Y scale (pressure) 1cm =
Area of PV diagram
=
..bar
..cm2
workdone / cycle / cyl ( Nm)  AreaofPVdi agram  Xscalefact or  Yscalefact or 100000
workdone / cycle / cyl  ( N / n)  NoOfCyl
IP 
60  1000

Indicated mean effective pressure (bar):
IMEP 
IPx 60
 / 4 xD xLx( N / n) xNoOfCylx100
2

Frictional power (kw):

Brake specific fuel consumption (Kg/kwh):
FP  IP  BP
FHP  IHP  BHP
BHP  IHP  FHP
BSFC 

FuelflowIn kg / hr
BP
Brake Thermal Efficiency (%):
BThEff 
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BP  3600  100
FuelFlowIn Kg / hr  CalVal
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IThEff  MechEff
BHP
OR
100
FuelHP
BThEff 


Indicated Thermal Efficiency (%):
IThEff 
IP  3600  100
FuelFlowIn Kg / hr  CalVal
IThEff 
BThEff  100
MechEff
Mechanical Efficiency (%):
MechEff 

BP  100
IP
Air flow (Kg/hr):
AirFlow  Cd   / 4  d 2 2 gh  (Wden / Aden )  3600  Aden

Volumetric Efficiency (%):
VolEff 


AirFlow  100
 / 4  D  Stroke  ( N / n)  60  NoOfCyl  Aden
2
Air fuel ratio:
A/ F 

AirFlow  100
Theoretica lAirFlow
AirFlow
FuelFlow
Heat Balance (KJ/h):
a) HeatSuppli edbyFuel  FuelFlow  CalVal
b) HeatEquivalentToUsefulWork  BP  3600
HeatEquivalentToUsefulWork  100
HeatSuppli edByFuel
C) HeatInJack etCoolingW ater  F 3  C PW  (T 2  T1)
HeatEquivalentToUsefulWorkIn% 
HeatInJack etCoolingW aterIn% 
HeatInJack etCoolingW ater  100
HeatSuppli edByFuel
d) Heat in Exhaust (Calculate CPex value):
C P ex 
F 4  C PW  (T 4  T 3)
..KJ / Kg 0 k
( F1  F 2)  (T 5  T 6)
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Where,
Cpex
Specific heat of exhaust gas
kJ/kg0K
Cpw
Specific heat of water
kJ/kg0K
F1
F2
F4
T3
T4
T5
T6
Fuel consumption
Air consumption
Calorimeter water flow
Calorimeter water inlet temperature
Calorimeter water outlet temperature
Exhaust gas to calorimeter inlet temp.
Exhaust gas from calorimeter outlet temp.
kg/hr
kg/hr
kg/hr
0
K
0
K
0
K
0
K
HeatInExha ust( KJ / h)  ( F1  F 2)  C P ex  (T 5  Tamb)
HeatInExha ust  100
HeatInExha ust % 
HeatSuppli edByFuel
e) Heat to radiation and unaccounted (%)
 HeatSuppli edByFuel (100%)  {( HeatEquivalentToUsefulWork (%) 
HeatInJack etCoolingW ater (%)  HeatToExha ust (%)}
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Experiments
1 Study of engine performance (Manual mode, With turbocharger )
Object
To study the performance of 4 cylinder, 4 stroke, Turbo charged, CRDI Diesel engine
connected to eddy current dynamometer in manual mode
Procedure
 Ensure cooling water circulation for eddy current dynamometer, piezo sensor,
engine cooling and calorimeter.
 Start the set up and run the engine at no load for 4-5 minutes.
 Gradually increase throttle to full open condition and load the engine
simultaneously maintaining engine speed at @ 4000 RPM.
 Wait for steady state (for @ 3 minutes) and collect the reading as per
Observations provided in “Cal226” worksheet in “Engine.xls”.
 Gradually increase the load to decrease the speed in steps of @500 RPM up to
@ 2000 RPM and repeat the observations.
 Fill up the observations in “Cal226” worksheet to get the results and
performance plots.
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2 Study of engine performance with turbocharger (Computerized mode)
Object
To study the performance of 4 cylinder, 4 stroke, Turbo charged, Diesel engine
connected to eddy current dynamometer in computerized mode.
Procedure
 Ensure cooling water circulation for eddy current dynamometer, piezo sensor,
engine cooling and calorimeter.
 Start the set up and run the engine at no load for 4-5 minutes.
 Switch on the computer and run “Enginesoft”. Confirm that the Enginesoft
configuration data is as given below.
 Gradually increase throttle to full open condition and load the engine
simultaneously maintaining engine speed at @ 4000 RPM.
 Wait for steady state (for @ 3 minutes) and log the data in the “Enginesoft”.
 Gradually increase the load to decrease the speed in steps of @500 RPM up to
@ 2000 rpm maximum and repeat the data logging for each observation.
 View the results and performance plots in “Enginesoft”.
Enginesoft Configuration data
Set up constants:
No of PO cycles
Fuel read time
Fuel factor
Orifice diameter
Dynamometer arm length
Engine and set up details:
Engine power
Engine max speed
Cylinder bore
Stroke length
Connecting rod length
Compression ratio
Stoke type
No. of cylinders
Speed type
Cooling type
Dynamometer type
Indicator used type
Data acquisition device
Calorimeter used
Theoretical constants:
Fuel density
Calorific value
Orifice coefficient of discharge
Sp heat of exhaust gas
Max sp heat of exhaust gas
Min sp heat of exhaust gas
Specific heat of water
Water density
Ambient temperature
Sensor range
Exhaust gas temp. trans. (Engine)
Air flow transmitter
21-01-2014
:
:
:
:
:
10
60 sec
0.096 kg/Volt
48 mm
400 mm
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
55 Kw
4000 RPM
69.6mm
82mm
141 mm
17.6:1
Four
Four
Variable
Water
Eddy current
Cylinder pressure
USB-6210
Pipe in pipe
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
830 kg/m^3
42000 kJ/kg
0.60
1.00 kJ/kg-K
1.25 kJ/kg-K
1.00 kJ/kg-K
4.186 kJ/kg-K
1000 kg/m^3
300C
: 0-1200 C
: 0-200 mm WC
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Fuel flow DP transmitter
Load cell
Cylinder pressure transducer
21-01-2014
: 0-500 mm WC
: 0-50 kg
: 0-345.5 bar
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Software
Refer separate instruction manual supplied with software CD
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components
Rotameter (PG series)
Rotameter works on the principle of variable area. Float is free to move up & down in
a tapered measuring glass tube. Upward flow causes the float to take up a position in
which the buoyancy forces and the weight are balanced. The vertical position of the
float as indicated by scale is a measurement of the instantaneous flow rate.
Technical specifications
Model
Make
Pvt. Ltd.
Flow Rate Max.
Packing/Gaskets
Measuring tube
Float
Cover
Accuracy
Range ability
Scale length
Max. Temp.
Connection
PG-1 to 21
Eureka Industrial Equipments
4000 to 40000 Lph
Neoprene
Borosilicate glass
316SS
Glass
+/-2% full flow
10:1
175-200mm.
2000C
Flanged and Threaded, Vertical
Principle of operation
The rotameter valves must be opened slowly and carefully to
adjust the desired flow rate. A sudden jumping of the float,
which may cause damage to the measuring tube, must be avoided.
Fig.1
Edge
The upper edge of the float as shown in fig. 1 indicates the rate of flow. For
alignment a line marked R.P. is provided on the scale which should coincide with the
red line provided on measuring tube at the bottom.
Maintenance
When the measuring tube and float become dirty it is necessary to remove the tube
and clean it with a soft brush, trichloroethylene or compressed air.
Dismantling of the measuring tube
 Shut off the flow.
 Remove the front and rear covers.
 Unscrew the gland adjusting screws, and push the gland upwards incase of bottom
gland and downwards incase of top gland. Then remove the glass by turning it to
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and fro. Care should be taken, not to drop down the glands. Float or float
retainers. The indicating edge of the float should not be damaged.
Fitting of the measuring tube
Normally the old gland packing is replaced by new ones while fitting back the
measuring tube.
 Put the glands first in their position and then put the packing on the tube.
 Insert the tube in its place.
 Push the glands downwards and upwards respectively and fix them with the gland
adjusting screws.
 Tighten the gland adjusting screws evenly till the gap between the gland and the
bottom plate is approximately 1mm. In case, after putting the loflometer into
operation, still there is leakage, then tighten the gland adjusting screw till the
leakage stops.
 Fix the scale, considering the remark given in the test report.
 Fix the front and rear covers.
Troubleshooting
Problem
Leakage on glands
Showing high/low flow rate than
expected
Showing correct reading initially but
starts showing high reading after
few days
Showing correct reading initially but
starts showing high reading after
some months.
Fluctuation of float
Frequent breakage of glass tube
Check
Replace gland packing
Consult manufacturers
Replace float
Incase of gases, check also leakage
Clean the rotameter by suitable solvent or
soft brush
Maintain operating pressure as mentioned
in test report.
Use loflometer to accommodate correct
flow rate.
Maintain
operating
pressure
below
pressure rating of the tube.
Check piping layout.
Manufacturer’s address
If you need any additional details, spares or service support for this unit you may
directly communicate to the manufacturer / Dealer / Indian Supplier.
Eureka Industrial Equipments Pvt. Ltd.
17/20, Royal Chambers,
Paud Road, Pune – 411 038.
Email: [email protected]
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Air flow transmitter
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Manufacturer’s address
If you need any additional details, spares or service support for this unit you may
directly communicate to the manufacturer / Dealer / Indian Supplier.
WIKA Instruments Ltd.
Garmany.
Web: www.wika.de
21-01-2014
Wika Instruments India Pvt. Ltd.
Plot No. 40, GatNo. 94+100, high Cliff Ind.
Estate, Village Kesnand,
Pune 412207
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Load cell
Introduction
Load cell are suitable use for static & dynamic
weighing, bin/hopper weighing, force measurement,
scales and electro-mechanical conversion kit.
Constructed body of special high alloy steel.
Approved for group I, IIA, IIB, & IIC applications and
meets temperature class T4.
Technical specifications
Make
Model
Type
Capacity
Mounting thread
Full scale output (mV/V)
Tolerance on output (FSO)
Zero balance (FSO)
Non-linearity (FSO)
Hysteresis (FSO)
Non-repeatability
Creep (FSO) in 30 min
Operating temperature range
Rated excitation
Maximum excitation
Bridge resistance
Insulation resistance
Span / 0C (of load)
Zero / 0C (of FSO)
Combined error (FSO)
Safe overload (FSO)
Ultimate overload (FSO)
Protection class
Overall dimensions
Weight
Manufacturer’s address
Sensortronics
60001
„S‟ Beam, Universal
0 – 50Kg
M10 x 1.25mm
3.00
+/-0.25%
+/-0.1mV/V
<+/-0.025%
<+/-0.020%
<+/-0.010%
<+/-0.020%
-200C to +700C
10V AC/DC
15V AC/DC
350 Ohms (Nominal)
>1000 Meg ohm @ 50VDC
+/-0.001%
+/-0.002%
<+/-0.025%
150%
300%
IP 67
51 L x 20 W x 76 H mm
380 gm
If you need any additional details, spares or service support for this unit you may
directly communicate to the manufacturer / Dealer / Indian Supplier.
Sensortronics Sanmar Ltd.
38/2A, Old Mahabalipuram Road,
Perungudi, Chennai – 600 096.
E-mail: [email protected]
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Waaree
Pressure gauge
Introduction
Pressures gauges are suitable for use with air, oil, water or compatible gases. The
phosphor bronze bourdon tube is housed within a rugged SS case. The aluminum dial
and pointer are protected by an impact resistant polycarbonate window. Accuracy is
+/- 3-2-3% per ASME grade B. Brass back connection is ¼” male NPT.
Technical specifications
Make
Code
Pressure gauge
Liquid filled
Internals part
Housing
Range
Connection
Accuracy
Media
Bourdon tube
Dial/pointer
Wetted parts
Temperature range
Mounting
Overall dimensions
Weight
Waaree Instruments
PW2.5GNNNS9 0-2.5 ¼”B
2.5” diameter
Glycerin
Brass
SS
0 – 2.5 and 0 – 7 Kg/cm2
¼” center back
+/-3-2-3% per ASME grade B.
Clean, no corrosive liquid
Phosphor bronze
Aluminum dial with black enameled pointer
Phosphor bronze bourdon tube with brass
stem
-10 to 800C
Panel mounting
70diameter x 55mmL
140 gm
Manufacturer’s address
If you need any additional details, spares or service support for this unit you may
directly communicate to the manufacturer / Dealer / Indian Supplier.
Waaree Instruments Ltd.
10, Damji Shamji Industrial Complex,
Off Mahakali Caves Road, Andheri (E),
Mumbai – 400 093.
E-mail: [email protected]
Web: www.waaree.com
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Encoder
Technical specifications
Make
Model
Supply voltage
Output
PPR
Outlet Cable type
Encoder Diameter
Shaft size
Weight
Kubeler
8.3700.1321.0360
5-30VDC
Push pull (AA,BB,OO)
360
axial
Dia. 37,
Dia.6mm x length12mm
120 gm
Manufacturer’s address
If you need any additional details, spares or service
support for this unit you may directly communicate to the manufacturer / Dealer /
Indian Supplier.
Kuebler – Germany
Indian supplier:
Rajdeep Automation Pvt. Ltd.
Survey No. 143, 3rd floor,
Sinhgad Road, Vadgaon Dhayari,
Pune – 411 041.
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Piezo sensor
Introduction
These miniature sensor series are intended for general purpose pressure
measurements. Models HSM111A22 and M108A02 are designed for applications
where acceleration compensation is not required.
Other applications for these sensors include the monitoring of pulsating pneumatic
and hydraulic pressures in R & D and industrial applications.
This versatile transducer series is designed for dynamic measurement of
compression, combustion, explosion, pulsation, cavitations, blast, pneumatic,
hydraulic, fluidic and other such pressures.
Technical specifications
Sensor name
Make
Model
Range, FS (5V output)
Useful range (10V output)
Maximum pressure
Resolution
Sensitivity
Resonant frequency
Rise time
Discharge time constant
Linearity (zero based BSL)
Output impedance
Acceleration sensitivity
Temperature coefficient
Temperature range
Vibration
Shock
Sealing
Excitation (Constant current)
Voltage to current regulator
Sensing geometry
Sensing element
Housing material
Diaphragm
Electrical connector
Mounting thread
Weight
Cable model
Hydraulic pressure transducer
With built in amplifier
PCB Piezotronics, INC.
M108A02
10000 psi
20000 psi
50000 psi
0.4 psi
0.5 mV/psi
300 kHz
2 s
1000 s
2%
100 ohms
0.01 psi/g
0.03 %/0F
-100 to +250 0F
2000 g peak
20000 g peak
Hermetic welded
2 to 20 mA
+18 to 28 VDC
Compression
Quartz
C-300
C-300
10-32 coaxial jack
M10 x 0.1pitch
12 gm
002C20 white coaxial cable
Technical specifications
Sensor name
Make
Model
Range, FS (5V output)
Dynamic pressure transducer
With built in amplifier
PCB Piezotronics, INC.
M111A22
5000 psi
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Useful range (10V output)
Maximum pressure
Resolution
Sensitivity
Resonant frequency
Rise time
Discharge time constant
Low frequency response (-5%)
Linearity (Best straight line)
Output polarity
Output impedance
Output bias
Acceleration sensitivity
Temperature coefficient
Temperature range
Flash temperature
Vibration / Shock
Ground isolation
Excitation (Constant current)
Voltage to current regulator
Sensing geometry
Sensing element
Housing material
Diaphragm
Sealing
Electric connector
Mounting thread
Weight (with clamp nut)
Cable model
10000 psi
15000 psi
0.1 psi
1 mV/psi
400 kHz
2 s
500 s
0.001 Hz
2%
Positive
100 ohms
8-14 volt
0.002 psi/g
0.03 %/0F
-100 to +275 0F
3000 0F
2000 / 20000 g peak
No (2)
2 to 20 mA
+18 to 28 VDC
Compression
Quartz
17.4 SS
Invar
Welded hermetic
10-32 coaxial jack
M7 x 0.75 pitch
6 gm
002C20 white coaxial cable
Principle of operation
1. Hydraulic pressure transducer: Unlike conventional diaphragm type sensors,
the 108A is pressure sensitive over the entire frontal area. For this reason, extra
care should be exercised to avoid bottoming in mounting hole when recessed
mounted and especially when mounting into existing mounting ports. A torque
wrench should be used to monitor the mounting torque valve when installing the
series 108A.
 Mounting in existing recessed ports: Before installing the sensor in previously
used mounting ports, clean off residue from previous tests. This can be
accomplished by hand reaming the required size reamer. During prolonged testing,
should waveform distortion occur, Remove sensor and remove reside.
 Flash Temperature Effects: The ceramic coating on the diaphragm of these
sensors should render the flash thermal effect insignificant in most cases,
especially when recessed mounted. However, if more protection from flash thermal
effects is required with the recessed mount, the passage can be filled with silicone
grease (DC-4 or equivalent). Several layers of black vinyl electrical tape directly on
the diaphragm have proven effective in many cases. Flash temperature effects are
usually longer term and will show up as baseline shift long after the event to be
measured has passed. For flush mount installations, a silicone rubber coating
approximately 0.010” thick can be effective. General electric RTV type 106 silicone
rubbers are recommended.
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2. Dynamic pressure transducer: It is necessary only to supply the sensor with a
2 to 20 mA constant current at +20 to +30 VDC through a current – regulating
diode or equivalent circuit. Most of the signal conditioners manufactured by PCB
have adjustable current features allowing a choice of input currents from 2 to 20
mA. In general, for lowest noise (best resolution), choose the lower current
ranges. When driving long cables (to several thousand feet), use the higher
current, up to 20 mA maximum.
Switch power on and observe reading of bias monitoring voltmeter on front panel
of power unit.
 Flash Temperature Protection
Where flash temperatures such as those generated by combustion processes are
present, it may be necessary to thermally insulate the diaphragm to minimize
spurious signals generated by these effects.
Common black vinyl electrical tape has been found to be an effective insulating
material in many cases. One or more layers may be used across the end of the
diaphragm without affecting response or sensitivity.
A silicone rubber coating approximately 0.010 inches thick has also been proven
effective in many applications. General electric RTV type 106 silicone rubbers are
recommended.
 Low Frequency Response
 The discharge time constant of the sensor.
 If AC – coupled at the power unit, the coupling time constant.
Depending upon the sensor‟s built-in discharge time constant, repetitive output
signals slowly or rapidly move toward a stable condition where the average signal
level corresponds to a zero voltage position.
In this position, the area contained by the signal above zero is equalized with the
area below zero. Such output signal behavior is typical of an AC-coupled system.
Since the signal output from the sensor is inherently AC coupled, any static
pressure influence applied to the unit will decay away according to the nature of
the system‟s discharge time constant.
Troubleshooting
Problem
No signal
Sensor damaged or ceases to
operate
Check
 Remove sensor and clean by dampened cloth
 Return the equipment to company for repair
Calibration
1. Piezoelectric sensors are dynamic devices, but static calibration techniques
can be employed if discharge time constants are sufficiently long. Generally,
static calibration methods are not employed when testing sensors with a
discharge time constant that is less than several hundred seconds.
2. Direct couple the sensor to the DVM readout using a T-connector from the
“Xducer” jack or use the model 484B in the calibrate mode.
3. Apply pressure with a dead weight tester and take reading quickly. Release
pressure after each calibration point.
4. For shorter TC series, rapid step functions of pressure are generated by a
pneumatic pressure pulse calibrator or dead weight tester and readout is by
recorder or storage oscilloscope.
Manufacturer’s address
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If you need any additional details, spares or service support for this unit you may
directly communicate to the manufacturer / Dealer / Indian Supplier.
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
3425 Walden Avenue,
Depew, New York 14043-2495.
E-mail: [email protected]
Web: www.pcb.com
Indian supplier:
Structural soluction (India) Pvt. Ltd.
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Eddy Current Dynamometer
Introduction
The AG Series eddy current dynamometers designed for the testing of engines up to
400kW (536bhp) and may be used with various control systems. The dynamometer
is bi-directional. The shaft mounted finger type rotor runs in a dry gap. A closed
circuit type cooling system permits for a sump.
Dynamometer load measurement is from a strain gauge load cell and speed
measurement is from a shaft mounted sixty tooth wheel and magnetic pulse pick up.
Technical specifications
Model
Make
End flanges both side
Water inlet
Minimum kPa
Pressure lbf/in2
Air gap mm
Torque Nm
Hot coil voltage max.
Continuous current amps
Cold resistance ohms
Speed max.
Load
Bolt size
Weight
AG10
Saj Test Plant Pvt. Ltd.
Cardon shaft model 1260 type A
1.6bar
160
23
0.77/0.63
11.5
60
5.0
9.8
10000rpm
3.5kg
M12 x 1.75
130kg
Model
Make
End flanges both side
Water inlet
Minimum kPa
Pressure lbf/in2
Air gap mm
Torque Nm
Hot coil voltage max.
Continuous current amps
Cold resistance ohms
Speed max.
Load
Bolt size
Weight
AG20
Saj Test Plant Pvt. Ltd.
Cardon shaft model 1260 type A
1.6bar
160
23
0.88/0.72
11.5
60
5.0
9.8
10000rpm
5.0Kg
M12 x 1.75
220Kg
Model
Make
End flanges both side
Water inlet
Minimum kPa
Pressure lbf/in2
Air gap mm
Torque Nm
AG80
Saj Test Plant Pvt. Ltd.
Cardon shaft model 1260 type A
1.0bar
100
14.5
1.047/0.855
11.5
Technical specifications
Technical specifications
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Hot coil voltage max.
Continuous current amps
Cold resistance ohms
Speed max.
Load
Bolt size
Weight
75
5.0
12.8
9000rpm
40kg
M16 x 2.00
330kg
Principle of operation
1. The dynamometer unit comprises basically a rotor mounted on a shaft running in
bearings which rotates within a casing supported in ball bearing trunnions which
form part of the bed plate of the machine.
2. Secured in the casing are two field coils connected in series. When these coils are
supplied with a direct current (DC) a magnetic field is created in the casing across
the air gap at either side of the rotor. When the rotor turns in this magnetic field,
eddy currents are induced creating a breaking effect between the rotor and casing.
The rotational torque exerted on the casing is measured by a strain gauge load cell
incorporated in the restraining linkage between the casing and dynamometer bed
plate.
3. To prevent overheating of the dynamometer a water supply pressurized to
minimum indicated in specification is connected to a flanged inlet on the bed plate.
Water passes from the inlet to the casing via a flexible connection; permitting
movement of the casing. Water passes through loss (Grooved) plates in the casing
positioned either side of the rotor and absorbs the heat generated.
4. Heated water discharges from the casing through a flexible connection to an outlet
flange on the bed plate. An orifice plate is fitted at the bed plate outlet and a
DIFFERENTIAL pressure switch is connected to water passages either side of the
plate. The switch detects a COOLANT FLOW and will function with a free discharge or
under back pressure.
Troubleshooting
Problem
Calibration of dynamometer not coming
in accuracy limit
Vibrations to dynamometer
Abnormal noise
Loss plate temperature high
Bearing temperature high
21-01-2014
Check
 Remove the obstruction for the free
movement of casing
 Calibrate
the
weights
from
authorized source.
 Maintain constant water flow
 Clean & lubricate properly with
grease
 Bearings clean & refit properly
 Load cell link tighten properly
 Clean & refit trunnion bearings
 Dynamometer
foundation
bolts
tighten properly
 Arrest engine vibrations
 Cardon shaft cover secure properly
 Align guard properly
 Replace rotor if warped
 Replace main bearing
 Check correct water flow
 De-scale with suitable solution
 Clear off water passages
 Grease with proper brand
 Remove excess grease & avoid over
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





Dynamometer not rotating
Water leakages at various locations






grease
Use specified grease and do not mix
two types of grease
Clear the drain
Replace the bearings
Replace shaft & coupling
Replace bearings
Replace rotor / loss plates after
checking
Replace casing „o‟ rings
Loss plates bolts tighten properly
Replace loss plate „o‟ rings
Casing plugs tighten properly
Replace pipe „o‟ rings
Pressure switch connection tighten
properly
Calibration
1. It is important to note that the torque applied during calibration is:
Nm = applied weight (kg) x g x arm length (m) S.I. units
Lbf.ft = applied weight (ibf) x arm length (ft) Imperial units
Kg.m = applied weight (kg) x arm length (m) MKS units
2. Switch on the mains electrical supply to the control equipment at least 30
minutes before starting the calibration procedure.
3. Turn on the water supply and allow water to flow through the dynamometer
at normal operating pressure.
4. With no load applied to the dynamometer ensure that the load indicator on
the control unit reads “ZERO” if necessary adjust the control equipment until
“ZERO” is indicated.
Operation
1. New dynamometers are run in before delivery to ensure that all components
run smoothly and grease is evently distributed within the shaft bearings.
2. The dynamometer has been calibrated the power developed by the engine on
test may be calculated using the following formula:
Torque( Nm) xSpeed ( Radians / sec .)
inS .I .units
1000
Torque(lbfft ) xSpeed ( Radians / sec .)
Power (hp) =
in.imperialun its
550
Power (kW) =
3. The dynamometer will be calibrated in either Imperial or S.I. units or MKS as
specified.
Power =
WN
k
Where N = Shaft speed in rev/min
W = Torque (Indicated on torque indicator)
K = Constant dependant on units of power and torque
Manufacturer’s address
If you need any additional details, spares or service support for this unit you may
directly communicate to the manufacturer / Dealer / Indian Supplier.
Saj Test Plant Pvt. Ltd.
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Apex Innovations
72-76, Mundhwa, Pune Cantonment,
Pune – 411 036.
Email:[email protected]
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Apex Innovations
Differential Pressure Transmitter
Introduction
The model EJA110A pressure transmitter
measures the flow rates and the pressure of
the liquids, gases, and steam, and also liquid
levels.
Technical specifications
Model
EJA110A-DMS5A92NN
Make
Yokogawa
Output signal
4 – 20mA DC with
digital communication (Linear)
Measurement span
1 to 100kPa (100
to 10000mmH2O)
Calibration range
0 – 200, 0 – 500
mmH2O
Wetted parts material
Body – SCS14A,
Capsule – SUS316L
Process connections
without process
connector (1/4BSP body connection)
Bolts and nuts material
SCM 435
Installation
Horizontal impulse
piping left side high pressure
Electrical connection
1/2NPT female
Cover „O‟ rings
Buna-N
Supply
10 to 24VDC
Process temperature limit -40 to 120 0C
Housing
Weather proof
Weight
3.9Kg
Manufacturer’s address
If you need any additional details, spares or service support for this unit you may
directly communicate to the manufacturer / Dealer / Indian Supplier.
Yokogawa Electrical Corporation
2-9-32, Nakacho,
Musashino-shi,
Tokyo, 180-8750, Japan.
21-01-2014
Indian supplier:
Yokogawa Blue Star Ltd.
40/4 Lavelle Road,
Bangalore – 560 001.
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