2014 - 2015
Table of Contents
A. Bethany’s Mission Statement .......................................................... 1
B. Philosophy of Education .................................................................. 1
Introduction to Classes
A. The Syllabus .................................................................................... 1
B. The Classroom ................................................................................. 2
Sidebar: Abbreviations for Note-Taking ......................................... 2
A. Reading Assignments ...................................................................... 3
B. Writing Assignments: Research Paper ............................................ 4
Sidebar: Common Errors in Spelling .............................................. 7
Sidebar: Common Errors in Sentence Structure ............................. 8
Sidebar: Guide to Commonly Used (and Abused) Abbreviations . 11
C. Writing Assignments: Exegetical Paper ........................................ 11
Sidebar: Academic Biblical & Theological Writing ..................... 12
D. Evaluation of Papers ...................................................................... 13
E. Examinations ................................................................................. 13
IV. Academic Procedures
A. Academic Workload ...................................................................... 14
B. Transfer Credit ............................................................................... 15
C. Challenging a Course..................................................................... 16
D. Class Attendance ........................................................................... 16
E. Evaluation and Marks .................................................................... 17
F. Assignment Procedures ................................................................. 18
G. Plagiarism ...................................................................................... 19
H. Supplemental Work Procedures .................................................... 19
I. Directed Studies Procedures .......................................................... 20
J. Academic Counselling ................................................................... 20
K. Academic Probation....................................................................... 20
L. Ministry Arts and Athletic Team Involvements ............................ 21
M. Final Examination Procedures ....................................................... 21
N. Academic Recognition ................................................................. 22
O. Graduation Requirements .............................................................. 23
Appendix One: Citation Guide
Appendix Two: Principles of Referencing
Welcome to Bethany College! Bethany’s theme verse is 2 Timothy 2:15: “Do your
best to present yourself to God as one approved, a worker who does not need to be
ashamed and who correctly handles the word of truth” (NIV). The purpose of this
manual is to help you attain the goal of doing your best in the study of the “word of
truth.” Bethany’s aim is to help you develop your potential in studying, interpreting
and applying the Word of God to life. We trust that together we will learn in the
context of a caring community.
A. Mission Statement
The mission of Bethany College is to nurture disciples and train leaders to serve.
Bethany nurtures disciples of Jesus Christ in their love for God, their understanding
of Scripture, and their ministry in the Church and the world. As an evangelical
Anabaptist college, Bethany is a biblical learning community that prepares students
for volunteer and vocational ministries through teaching, mentoring, worshipping
B. Philosophy of Education
Bethany’s approach to education is based on the conviction that “no one can lay any
foundation other than the one already laid, which is Jesus Christ” (1 Cor 3:11).
We confess that the Bible is the written record of God’s revelation of his character
and purposes to humanity, therefore the Bible is the integrating centre of our
curriculum. Our interpretive approach is rooted in evangelical Anabaptism, 1
which seeks to live a Christ-shaped life of holistic discipleship envisioned by the
New Testament church. The Bible is taught not only as an academic discipline, but
also as a source of life-changing truths which, through the power of the Holy Spirit,
motivate and enable us to live for the glory of God (Ephesians 1:12). God’s design
for His creation is that we work in partnership with Him in bringing all creation into
harmony with His purposes.
See Bruce Guenther, "Reflections on Mennonite Brethren Evangelical Anabaptist Identity," in Renewing Identity and Mission:
Mennonite Brethren Reflections After 150 Years. Ed. Abe J. Dueck, Bruce Guenther and Doug Heidebrecht (Winnipeg:
Kindred Productions, 2011): 47-82.
II.INTRODUCTION TO CLASSES
A. The Syllabus
The syllabus is a detailed description of each course that outlines the instructor’s
objectives and sources for course material as well as expectations of students. In
particular, the syllabus will identify:
number of credit hours for the course.
a brief course description.
the objectives of the course.
the outline or topics/lecture schedule of the course.
a description and summary list of all assignments .
course policies on attendance and assignments.
a bibliography for the course—the starting point for any research project.
When you receive your syllabus (normally the first class of the semester), use the
information to plan out your work for the months ahead:
Enter all your assignment due dates on a study calendar.
Schedule time for each assignment, giving at least a week to complete larger
assignments and papers.
Be aware of your progress and work ahead whenever possible.
B. The Classroom
The classroom can be a vital place of learning if you seize the opportunity. It is a
setting where students of the Word of God come together to understand and apply
what God is saying.
1. Effective Listening
Listening in class is essential for learning to take place. Several suggestions for
effective learning are:
a. Engage your mind in the listening process. Respond to what is being
presented. Ask questions such as: What are the implications of this? How
does this fit into the course? What is my response? Note: An open laptop is
often a hindrance to learning. To learn you must think about what you
b. Take notes on the ideas, rather than merely the words, of the
presentation. Use your own words to record the concepts presented. By
listening for special emphases, you’ll be able to write down important
ideas and facts. In doing so, you will increase your comprehension and
retention. Note taking will enable you to review and synthesize the subject
matter. Date notes and organize (number pages) as soon as possible after
the class session. Remember to keep notes neat and in order. Do not rely
only on outlines the instructor posts online.
c. Learn to adapt to the different teaching styles of each instructor. Just as
each student has a preferred learning style, so too each instructor will have
a preferred teaching style and will use different instructional methods in
order to achieve a variety of learning goals.
II. Introduction to Classes
Abbreviations for Note-Taking
The following abbreviations are commonly used in Bible and theology classes. You might find
them useful for your own note-taking:
Jesus. variation: JX = Jesus Christ
Christ. variations: Xn = Christian, Xty = Christianity, Xmas = Christmas, Xlogy =
Christology. ( = the Greek letter chi; first letter of CHrist in Greek: ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ
God. variations: θlogy, θy = theology, θ’l=theological. (= the Greek letter theta; first letter
of the Greek word for God: THEOS
kingdom. variation: Kθ = Kingdom of God
2. Classroom Discussions
The discussion following the lecture can be a helpful learning tool because it
usually draws out the significance and implications of a given topic. If
participants have their minds engaged, questions and answers can be thoughtful
and challenging. For class discussion to be successful, the following points are
a. Prepare for class discussion by doing assigned readings and assignments.
Be a contributor to class rather than just a receiver.
b. Express your own questions and thoughts. Think about and respond to
questions that are asked by others.
c. Be sensitive and open to the opinions expressed by others. Be considerate
of the whole class in the learning process.
A. Reading Assignments
Reading exposes you to a wealth of insight and personal experience from people.
Any reading assignment, whether it is an article, chapter, or book, should be
previewed before actually reading through the material. If it is a book, check the
foreword, table of contents, and conclusion. With an article, read the introduction
and conclusion. Question yourself about what point the author is trying to get
across. How is the author developing the topic?
Then read the material. Emphasis will come at the beginning and end of each
paragraph. As you read, write out questions or highlight pages and points of
importance (if it is your own book, do this in the margin).
After having read the material, can you state the author’s points in your own
words? Do you understand the development of the topic? It is usually helpful to
write notes on the covered material in your own words. If the reading material is
highly content-oriented, take notes on key facts and interpretations. By reviewing
these, preparation can be made for a quiz on the material.
2. Reporting Reading
There are several ways for reporting and evaluating reading assignments that
may vary according to the preference of the instructor.
a. The standard green reading slip report forms are found in the Library and
in the Communications Centre. Please complete all parts fully and
carefully. Completing and signing the form indicates that you have
thoroughly read the material.
Electronic reading slips (e-slips): Instructors will provide information on
how these are to be used in class. Again, please include all information on
the form. Note: If the campus computer network is down, so that e-slips
can’t be submitted, simply fill out a hardcopy green slip and submit it to
the assignment box.
Reading response: This includes either a written summary of the content
of the material or journal-like comments of thoughts and feelings in
response to the content of the reading should be in your own words
summarizing the content of the assignment. It should state the main points
of the author and how they were developed. This forces you to integrate
the material and state it in a comprehensive way.
The book report or critique calls for more than understanding content.
Here the instructor is asking you to evaluate the content. Begin by stating
the author’s thesis. Then provide a brief summary of the content of the
book or article. Next, proceed to evaluate the book/article. Your evaluation
should answer questions such as: Is the author’s position valid? Were there
any inconsistencies or weaknesses in his/her argument? Was the
progression of ideas logical? Could the author have stated his/her position
in a better way? Does the writing reflect adequate research? In a critique
the reader will need to do additional research in order to evaluate the
material and compare with other experts on the subject.
Book notations written in the margins of the book itself reflect your
thoughts, impressions and responses to the text as you read.
Some instructors will evaluate your comprehension from your reading
with a quiz. This will be noted in your syllabus.
B. The Research Paper
A research paper is a formal essay involving an analysis of an unanswered question
or problem. The following is a detailed description of how to tackle this assignment.
(Further information can be found in MLA Handbook for Writers of Research
Papers. Seventh ed. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 2009.
Print. Hereafter noted as MLA7)
1. Choosing Your Topic
Some syllabi may include a list of topics from which you can choose. Other times
the choice will be less defined. The following are guidelines when choosing a
a. Work with the instructor to choose a topic that you are interested in and
b. Check the library to ensure you have access to adequate resources for your
c. Be prepared to limit the scope of your chosen topic so that it can be
handled adequately within the page limitations and time frame of the
d. It is often helpful to create a list of all the questions you can think of (and
want answered) about the general topic.
2. Researching Your Topic
You should seek to gather information on your topic from three main sources: 1)
books, 2) journals or magazines, and 3) online databases. Different topics or
instructors will require a different balance of sources. For example, biblical
interpretation will rely more on books while social analysis may rely more on
a. Start with encyclopaedias, dictionaries and other tools from the library’s
reference section. Some of these resources are also available
electronically from the library webpage (for example, Britannica – the
Online Encyclopaedia, Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary and
Thesaurus, Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopaedia Online, Gale
Virtual Reference Library). These sources will give you a concise
summary of your topic.
b. Find what books are available in the library that have information on your
subject. Use the course bibliography (in your syllabus) as a starting point
for identifying key sources. Use the subject, keyword, or related word
searches in the library computer catalogue (L4U). It may take several
searches to find the information you need.
c. Identify articles in journals or magazines on your topic by searching the
library’s electronic databases. Databases subscribed to include: ATLA
Religion Database with ATLASerials (ATLA/ATLAS), Christian
Periodical Index (CPI), Gale Databases (also known as INFOTRAC or
CENGAGE Learning), and ProQuest.
d. Random googling is usually an ineffective and unreliable way to conduct
college-level research. In a few circumstances, searching the Internet can
be useful; for example, the official website for Mennonite Central
Committee (mcc.org) is a rich primary source for those researching its
history and mission. Likewise the Internet is useful for getting very current
news information. Most of the articles indexed in the library’s Christian
Periodical Index (CPI) are freely available on the web. For more
information please see MLA7 pp. 28-31 for Internet research tips.
e. The number of sources you should consult will depend on your topic and
the length of your paper. A minimum of ten sources reflects a basic
research level for a two-thousand word paper. Be sure to consult with the
instructor or Library Services Director if you need more specific help in
3. Taking Research Notes
Using the different sources you have selected, you can now begin gathering
information on your topic. Always note the bibliographic information (author,
title, publication date) and page numbers of your sources.
Some students prefer to take notes in their own words to ensure that they have
understood the material; others would rather quote the author directly for the
same reason (i.e. to guard against possible misunderstanding of the author’s
ideas). If you do choose to paraphrase the author’s ideas, be sure to avoid
plagiarism by citing the author at the end of the relevant sentence or paragraph.
(See section IV.G on page 19 for more on procedures dealing with plagiarism).
You may find it helpful to take notes either on individual index cards (note cards
are available in the Library), on scrap paper, or by entering the information
directly into your laptop. This is a matter of preference; however, using index
cards is a convenient way of organizing your material once you are ready to begin
writing an outline. Limit the amount recorded on each card to only one idea.
Note that common and public information does not need to be referenced (for
example, you wouldn’t need a reference note to say that the Jerusalem Temple
was destroyed in AD 70, or that Canada became a nation in 1867). But the basic
challenge of college education is to learn to distinguish between well-known or
little-known facts, common interpretations/ theories (e.g. that Mark was the first
written gospel), and uncommon or innovative interpretations or theories (e.g. that
the Dead Sea Scrolls describe a cult based on hallucinogenic mushrooms).
Everything but well-known facts should be documented.
4. Basics of Academic Writing Style
As a college student, you will spend a lot of time and energy writing. “Journaling”
is one kind of writing, where you record your thoughts, impressions, and
reflections. A more casual or conversational is normal when you journal. Most
other writing, however (including book reviews and essays) should be more
formal in tone. While formality seems to have fallen out of fashion in many ways
in our society, we can still recognize the appropriateness of formal or casual dress
in different settings. For example, you wouldn’t (or at least, shouldn’t) wear the
same clothes to a job interview at a bank as you would for a landscaping job. The
same principle applies to essay writing. The style is more formal, because what
you have to say is important and worthy of respect among a wide range of readers.
Here are some of the basics of a formal academic style:
a. Write in the “third person” (grammatically speaking). This means, avoid
writing about “you/your” (2nd person) or “I/me/my/our” (1st person). While
there is a place (especially in writing about biblical application) for being
personal, it is important to not degenerate into simply journaling your
feelings or thoughts. When writing an essay, the very fact that it is an essay
(and not a journal) says that there is something of wider applicability here;
thus, don’t limit the application by talking only about yourself.
b. Keep verb tenses consistent, active, and in the present tense. Even when
talking about an ancient piece of writing (such as the Bible), keep your
writing in the present tense.
Isaiah prophesied, all we like sheep have gone astray.
Isaiah prophesies, all we like sheep have gone astray.
Luke reported that Paul answered the Macedonian call.
Luke reports that Paul answered the Macedonian call.
The active voice is preferred to the passive:
The strength of God’s armour for believers is emphasized in
Ephesians chapter 6.
Ephesians chapter 6 emphasizes the strength of God’s armour for
Consistency between a verb and its subject (also known as “agreement”)
is important. The following error in agreement, which uses “There’s…” to
begin a sentence referring to more than one thing, is becoming quite
common in spoken English, but it is still unacceptable in written English:
There’s two key thoughts found in this passage.
There is two key thoughts found in this passage.
There are two key thoughts found in this passage.
c. Avoid Contractions. This means words like: it’s, that’s, could’ve. The
word “it’s” is particularly troublesome: if it has the apostrophe, it means
“it is” and should be written out in full. Otherwise, “its” means “belonging
to it”—and this word does not have an apostrophe.
d. Be inclusive. Formal written English is expected to be gender inclusive.
Different writers have different approaches to this; here are some basic
options for essay writing: You can use “humankind, humanity” rather than
“man, mankind,” “people” rather than “men” (unless you specifically
mean adult males). Use plurals, or both genders, when you need to use a
Listen to the customer because he is right.
? Listen to the customer because they are right.
(Some writing authorities have now declared this—using “they” as a singular
pronoun—to be acceptable; but the following two options are recommended.)
Listen to the customer because he or she is right.
Listen to the customers because they are right.
e. Avoid slang. Do not use street language in a formal essay. Language like
“guys, OK, a lot, cool, pretty much,” is generally a sign of vocabulary
laziness in writing, and should be avoided. Clichés are a dime a dozen, and
are to be avoided like the plague, okay?
f. Spelling: We’re Canadian, eh?, so set your word processor to English
(Canadian). But don’t rely on your spell checker to make all your
corrections: their easy two fool.
Common Errors: Spelling
Make sure you know the difference between the following similar-sounding word sets.
Many college writers still get them confused:
to / too / two
then / than
than will have a comparing word nearby, usually ending in “–er”: rather than,
bigger than, earlier than, worse than
then is a connecting word, either for a connection of logic (try substituting therefore)
or of chronological order (try substituting “after that”)
it’s / its
if you have “it’s,” it is automatically wrong (in formal writing) because it is a
contraction; either you mean “its” (as in, “belonging to it”) or “it is.”
their / there / they’re: If you are unsure, use the following test to help sort them out.
Substitute “they are.” If this works, keep calm and carry on! (You shouldn’t have had
a contraction in the first place.)
Substitute “of them” or “which they have/had.” E.g. “There perspective made it hard for
them to see who Jesus really was.”
Try: “The perspective which they had…” This works, so the correct word is “their.”
“there” is a place word (related to “here”). It is used to specify a certain location ( try
(substituting “over there” to see if this is the right “there”), or at the beginning of the
sentence: “There is…”.
of / have: as in “could have,” “should have,” not “could of”
5. Thesis Statement
The thesis statement is a single sentence that expresses both your topic and your
point of view (MLA7 42). The topic of your paper is not a thesis statement.
Neither is “I want to write about Psalm 23.” Rather, a thesis statement identifies
what you want to say about the topic you have chosen. Most thesis statements
take the form of a position that the writer wishes to demonstrate or prove. If you
can’t debate it, consider it a weak thesis. Consider the following example:
Topic: William Tyndale as a Bible translator
Thesis: William Tyndale was an important Bible translator whose significant
influence is noticeable in the history of English Bible translation right up until
the twentieth century.
Take time crafting your thesis statement because it will guide the direction of
your entire paper.
Your essay writing will go better when you have an outline of where you plan to
a. Developing an outline
Begin your outline by identifying the main headings you wish to cover in your
paper. With your thesis statement in mind, “order your material in a logical
way” by indicating which ideas play major or minor roles in your argument
(Buckley 25). Then under each main heading, identify the significant points
that would support or explain what you wish to say under that main heading.
b. Outline format
You will include your outline in your essay, immediately following your title
page, using the format below. It should not have a page number. If you also
choose to insert your outline into the body of your paper, you must still
include it at the beginning of your paper. Your outline may use either of the
following formats; legal style is preferred.
1. First Main Point
1.1 First Sub-point
1.1.1 First idea under sub-point
I. First Main Point (Roman numeral)
A. First Sub-point (Capital Letter)
1. First idea under sub-point (Arabic Number)
7. Essay Introduction
Your introduction serves two purposes: (1) it gets your readers’ attention and
motivates them to keep reading, and (2) it tells your readers what your
purpose is (thesis statement) (Bailey et al. 80). Is your introduction
interesting? Will your introduction motivate your readers (in particular, your
instructor!) to continue reading your paper? Does your introduction include a
clear thesis statement describing your purpose for writing on the topic you
8. Body of the Paper
You present the argument of your thesis through a series of paragraphs. “A
paragraph must be about one thing” (Buckley 51). Each paragraph represents
one step in your argument and each paragraph needs to be clearly and
logically connected to the paragraphs that precede and follow it (Buckley 51).
Each paragraph needs to contain “a topic sentence that reveals the controlling
idea,” as well as support or explanation of the topic sentence (Buckley 51).
Vary your starting words and sentence structure to enhance interest. A
paragraph will normally have at least three sentences.
Common Errors: Sentence Structure
A sentence must always have a subject (the thing or person you are talking about) and a predicate (what
you say about the subject; it will always have a verb, and may have other clauses, phrases, or words as
well). If a sentence does not have both subject and predicate, it is incomplete (or a “sentence fragment”).
If it has more than one subject, or more than one predicate, it is a run-on sentence. For example:
Jesus spoke about the Kingdom of God.
(A grammatically correct sentence: “Jesus” is the subject; “spoke about the Kingdom of
God” is the predicate, including “spoke” as the main verb.)
Jesus spoke about the Kingdom of God, he went from town to town in Galilee.
(run-on: it has two predicates, “spoke…” and “went….” Each half of the sentence is an
independent sentence, and the simplest way to fix this is to change the comma to a period.
Or, you could add a connecting word like “while he went…”.)
Jesus spoke about the Kingdom of God, the disciples were often puzzled by this though.
(run-on: the subject shifts from “Jesus” to “the disciples.” Fix this by changing the comma
to a period.)
Jesus spoke about the Kingdom of God. Which was hard to understand.
(incomplete: the second sentence does not have a grammatical subject. “which” is a
“relative pronoun” which must always stay in the same sentence as the thing it refers back
to—in this case, “the Kingdom of God.”)
9. Acknowledging Sources
a. Bethany’s method for writers to acknowledge their sources is the
parenthetical reference in the text (not footnotes at the bottom of the
page), as outlined by the Modern Language Association (MLA7). The
reference within the text gives the author’s last name and the page
number(s) of the source, and is called a citation.
b. Basic citation format: “quotation” (name page).
do: include space between close-quote and parenthesis
don’t: use “p.” before the page number
do: put a period after the parenthesis
don’t: include the final punctuation within the quote, even when the
original has a concluding period; the main exception is a question
mark—this affects the meaning of the quote, and must be included.
“…lead to the final judgment and salvation (Geddert 322).”
“…lead to the final judgment and salvation.” (Geddert 322)
“…lead to the final judgment and salvation” (Geddert 322).
While the basic principle is straightforward, there are many variations
depending on the kind of research materials you are using, and you should
familiarize yourself with the Citation Guide included in this manual
(Appendix One, page 24).
c. It is extremely important for you to acknowledge all research sources.
Failure to do so can result in unintentional plagiarism, which is a serious
matter—the academic equivalent of shoplifting. “Plagiarism involves two
kinds of wrongs: 1) using another person’s idea, information, or
expression without acknowledgement or 2) passing off another person’s
ideas, information or expressions as your own” (MLA7 52). In your essays,
you must document “the sources of all material you borrow—exact
wording, paraphrases, ideas, arguments, and facts” (MLA7 61).“Rewriting
does not make an idea yours, it only makes the words yours. A citation
credits the idea to someone else. Quotation marks credit the words to
someone else” (Bauman 259).ropSehero roS15-157ALMeSS
d. For biblical references included in the text, use a similar format to the
parenthetical reference: the biblical book in abbreviated form, chapter and
verse, and Bible translation, if necessary. If the reference follows a biblical
passage, place the reference outside of the quotation marks. See section 11
in Appendix Two (page 29) for standard Bible book abbreviations, and for
further details on biblical referencing.
e. If you want to include a quote that is longer than four lines, you must set it
apart as a block quote: indented one inch; double spaced; no quotation
marks; parenthetical reference after the final period (see MLA7 94 for
f. If your original quote already has quotation marks within it, those (double
““) quotation marks must be changed to single quotation marks ‘‘ when
you borrow the quote in your essay.
Your conclusion serves two purposes: (1) it reminds your readers of your
purpose or thesis statement in a reworded form, and (2) it provides your
readers with a sense of finality (Bailey et al. 84). Your conclusion may
“retrace your line of thought,” conclude your argument, or encourage a
response (Buckley 47-48). Does your conclusion reword your thesis
statement? Does your conclusion bring your essay to an end?
All sources must be listed on a separate page entitled “Works Cited” (not
Bibliography) at the end of the essay. Only include sources that you have
actually cited (quoted or referenced) in your paper. See the Citation Guide
for the specifics. Note the following formatting basics, however:
sources are listed in alphabetical order, by author’s (last) name.
the list is double-spaced throughout
the list is set up as a “hanging indent”: any line after the first one is
indented one tab (half an inch). Important: let your word-processor do the
work (rather than you inserting tabs throughout). Learn how to set it up for
a hanging indent.
12.Formatting the Final Copy
For proper documentation of sources and all other matters of style and form,
please refer to MLA7 used in the First Year Academic Seminar.
a. General formatting guidelines:
All papers should be computer printed; certain assignments may be
handwritten at the instructor’s discretion.
Print pages single-sided, double-spaced, with a one inch (2.5 cm)
Use a standard font at 12-point font size with a legible black ink.
Number pages (starting with the body of the essay). See MLA7 117-18.
b. Assemble and staple your pages together in this order:
Title Page (not numbered)
Outline (not numbered)
Body of Paper (begin with page one)
c. Title page: there are two different formats you may use:
(1) For papers two pages or less in length, include the title page
information on the top of the first page. A separate title page is not
required. See MLA7 116-17.
(2) For longer assignments use a separate title page. Centre the following
information on the page: assignment type (e.g. “Exegetical Essay,”
“Book Review”), title of your assignment, your name, course number
and name, instructor’s name, and date of submission.
(3) You may include your name with the page numbering in the header (see
MLA7 117). Do not include all the assignment information there.
Guide to Commonly Used (and Abused) Abbreviations
= “for example” (Latin, exempli gratia).
Don’t use “ex.”
= “and so on” (Latin, et cetera).
Don’t use “e.g.” and “etc.” together, as in:
The Bible uses many images for God, e.g. Shepherd, King, Fire, etc.
The reason: if you use “etc.” you are implying that I, the reader, should keep on thinking
up examples on my own. It’s your job as writer to supply the examples.
= “that is,” (Latin, id est).
“i.e.” and “e.g.” are not interchangeable. “E.g.” introduces one or more examples;
“i.e.” gives a precise definition of what you are talking about. E.g.:
Jesus makes several major claims about the Temple, e.g. that he will build it upon the
Rock, or that he will raise it in three days.
Jesus says that he will raise up the Temple, i.e. his body, in three days.
= “compare, check out, look at” (Latin confer); also seen as cp (“compare”).
Useful in taking notes: for Paul’s understanding of the return of X, cf Rom 8, 1Cor 15
= “about” (Latin, circa), used in approximate dates: e.g. Abraham lived c. 1800 BC.
C. Exegetical Paper
An exegetical paper is a type of research essay that presents the results of
methodical Bible study on a particular passage or group of passages in Scripture.
An exegetical paper seeks to explain the meaning of a selected biblical text. The
following is an adaptation of the format taught by J. Scott Duvall & J. Daniel
Hays, Grasping God’s Word, 3rd Edition (455-457).
2. Format and Content
a. Title Page: The title page should follow the appropriate format and clearly
state the passage that you are exegeting.
b. Outline: The outline for your paper should include the main sections of the
biblical text under the “Content” heading.
The introduction should gain the readers’ attention and introduce them
to the main question or topic of the passage you are studying.
Identify the biblical text you are exegeting and the reasons for choosing
it (if relevant).
The thesis statement normally concludes the introduction, and should
identify what you are attempting to accomplish or argue in your paper.
Body of Paper:
i) Historical and Cultural Context: What it is about the author, original
audience and their world that is relevant to understanding the meaning
of the passage? This can include a brief overview of the origin of the
biblical book, and specific items of historical or cultural relevance to
ii) Literary Context: How does the genre of the book provide an
interpretive framework for understanding what the author is
communicating? How does this passage fit into the author’s flow of
thought? How does the passage relate to what precedes and follows it?
Explain what the text means. Relate what it means to the historical,
cultural and literary context. Let the main points of your outline
function as subheadings. Include under each subheading a detailed
(normally verse-by-verse) explanation of your passage.
Explain the meaning of key words and concepts.
Compare your observations with those of commentaries. Consult
with commentaries; they do not have to dictate your conclusions. If
different authorities disagree on the meaning of a passage, try to
understand and describe the source of the different options. If you
have a preference, give reasons why.
What is the significance of this passage to your own life and the life of
the Church today? Be as specific as you can, in the possible
applications of this text to contemporary life.
Works Cited: Identify the sources you have cited in your paper.
12 III. Assignments
Academic Biblical & Theological Writing
Here are a few other miscellaneous issues that you might encounter as you do academic writing
specifically dealing with the Bible and theology.
1. Language for God
Pronouns for God: Many Christians capitalize pronouns for God as a sign of respect. On the
other hand, most Christian publishing houses and Bible translations (including NIV) don’t;
obviously, not because of disrespect, but for editorial reasons. For example, it gets unwieldy
if you want to be consistent: you should then capitalize ALL pronouns, not just the personal
“Praise God, from Whom all blessings flow.”
“Come unto Me, …for My yoke is easy and My burden is light.”
What to do? We suggest that you use standard capitalization for words referring to God or Jesus:
i.e. no capitals on pronouns, but capitals on titles: King, Lord, Son of Man, etc. What is most
important, however, is that you are consistent.
“Lord”: If you are quoting or referring to OT passages where Lord is written with capital
letters (i.e. referring to the divine name YHWH, Yahweh), you should do just the same in
your papers, if you are using a computer word processor. Use the SMALL CAPS function: type
“Lord” and format it to become “LORD” (in MS-Word, use ALT+K). But if you are referring
to the NT, or theology in general, don’t use small caps, just “Lord.”
As a general rule, even if nouns are capitalized, their related adjectives are not:
Christ, Christian, non-christian, christology
the Church (referring to the universal body of Christ); but the church (referring to a
specific congregation or building)
There is one exception to this rule: adjectives related to specific names remain capitalized. E.g.:
Abraham, David, Moses Abrahamic, Davidic, Mosaic covenants
Matthew, Mark, Luke, John Matthean, Markan (Marcan) , Lukan (Lucan), Johannine
Paul, Peter Pauline theology, Petrine letters
Academic Biblical & Theological Writing (cont’d)
3. Words in biblical languages
Always italicize foreign words (including biblical Greek and Hebrew), unless you are writing the
word in its own alphabet. Follow any foreign word directly with its English translation in
quotation marks; no comma is needed between the original and the English translation. For
The word kurios “master, lord” became the standard Greek translation for the Hebrew name of God.
D. Evaluation of Papers
1. Marking Correction Symbols
Spelling errors are circled. The following correction symbols are commonly used
space between words/something missing
documentation / reference needed
2. Research Paper Evaluation Form
Bethany instructors use marking rubrics in order to ensure consistency and
fairness in their evaluation of research papers. These forms vary according to the
specific objectives of the class and details of the assignment. Normally 85% of
the value of a research paper is assigned for the content of the paper and 15% to
structural elements. See below for an example.
Introduction (including thesis statement)
Quality and quantity of understanding of subject field 40%
Coherent development of topic (including outline)
Scope and integration of Works Cited
Structure ............................................................................. 15%
Title Page and Outline
Quotations/Works Cited format
Spelling and Punctuation
For grading the structural component, instructors deduct ½ percentage point per
error. For the correlation of percentages, letter grades, and Grade Point Averages,
see IV.E.1 page 18.
1. Studying for Exams
It is best to review the material for exams well in advance. Know what you are
responsible for and what type of examination it will be. Try to study accordingly.
Memorize important facts and points. Use different techniques to help you
IV. Academic Procedures
remember (i.e. alliteration). Despite persistent rumours to the contrary, sleeping
the night before, and eating a decent meal, actually do increase your ability to
perform better on an exam.
2. Writing the Exam
a. Read through the entire exam first and apportion the time you spend on
each question by the mark value.
b. Make sure you understand the question before answering.
c. Answer the easiest questions first.
d. If you are stumped by a question, move on.
e. If it is multiple-choice, think of your answer before you look at the options.
f. For essay questions, organize your thoughts before you begin to write.
g. Leave enough time to review your answers before you submit the exam.
We want to encourage all students to make Bethany a place of learning and intellectual
growth. The following policies have been adopted to help each student in maintaining this
A. Academic Workload
Student workload normally consists of sixteen credits hour plus one hour of Service
Learning practicum. Students contemplating additional academic workload hours
need to consider the time pressures involved in balancing studies with student
leadership, student work, athletics and ministry teams, and their other activities.
1. Diploma and Degree Programs
A three credit hour course involves two seventy-five minute classes and an
additional six hours of work outside of class (including reading, research papers
and other assignments) weekly.
2. Certificate Program
The purpose of the Certificate of Biblical Studies program is to help students who
do not qualify for entrance or continued participation in the Diploma program to
work to their potential in deepening their understanding of the Bible and
integrating biblical truth into their faith and life. Although the Certificate requires
taking the same courses as the Diploma program, assignments and evaluations
are tailored to the abilities of the individual student, and as such, are not normally
transferable to other college programs. Students initially enrolled in the Diploma
program may only be transferred to the Certificate program by recommendation
of the faculty and no later than upon entry into the second year. Assignments and
examinations for each course will be agreed upon by the instructor and student
and recorded on a Certificate Program Course Agreement. This document forms
the basis for evaluating the student’s performance.
3. Audit Courses
The only requirement for audit courses is to attend class faithfully. Appropriate
recognition will be given on the transcript for such courses. Audit tuition fees are
half of regular tuition fees.
IV. Academic Procedures
B. Transfer Credit
1. Association of Biblical Higher Education Guidelines
The 2013 ABHE Commission on Accreditation manual states, “Transfer of credit
from one program to another involves at least the following three considerations:
a. The educational quality of the program from which the student transfers;
b. The comparability of the nature, content, and level of credit earned to that
offered by the receiving institution; and
c. The appropriateness and applicability of the credit earned to the programs
offered by the receiving program in light of the student’s educational
2. General Guidelines
Applicants desiring advanced standing on the basis of courses taken elsewhere
must have official transcripts sent directly from the institution where the credit
was earned. The following guidelines are followed to determine the level of
a. Courses must be equivalent to or nearly equivalent to course offerings at
Bethany. Some substitutions may be allowed for elective courses if the
courses meet Bethany’s program objectives.
b. Transfer courses must have a minimum grade of “C.” Grades from transfer
credits are not considered when calculating the student’s grade point
c. Within the above guidelines, the maximum allowable standing is:
32 credits for the Diploma or Certificate program.
64 credits for the Bachelor of Christian Studies Programs.
96 credits for the Bachelor of Arts Degree program.
d. The Academic Committee determines the final awarding of transfer
3. Unaccredited Institutions
a. Assessment Criteria
Students transferring from unaccredited schools may receive credit for
courses taken from the sending institution, provided some combination of the
following means is demonstrated:
(1) Review of syllabi, faculty credentials, grading standards and other
relevant learning resources of the sending institution.
(2) Successful completion of one semester at Bethany.
(3) Analysis of historic experience regarding success of transfers from the
b. Documentation of the process used to validate transfer credits from
unaccredited institutions will be stored in the student’s permanent file.
c. Guidelines for experience-based schools (e.g. Youth With A Mission,
School of Discipleship, or Capernwray):
(1) Based on the above criteria (IV.B.3.a), transfer credit may be granted
on the basis of fifty percent of credits earned at an experience-based
school to a maximum of sixteen credits per year.
(2) Service Learning Practicum credit may also be granted alongside the
academic credit if warranted.
IV. Academic Procedures
4. Dissimilar Institutions
Transfer of credits from dissimilar institutions, such as a university or
community college, may be given up to a maximum of twenty-five percent of the
required program at Bethany on a course-by-course basis. Rationale for the
maximum is that a Bible College program integrates the Bible into all courses as
well as the environment seeks to foster spiritual growth and mission.
C. Challenging a Course
1. Possible reasons for challenging a course would be:
a. having taken a similar course from a Christian high school, or
b. having considerable life experience in a particular subject area.
2. When a student requests an exemption from a compulsory course, permission
may be granted by the Academic Committee if the student achieves a score of
at least sixty percent on the final exam for the course. The exam given would
likely be from the previous year’s course.
3. The process of determining whether a student may withdraw from the course
must be completed before the change of registration deadline for the semester.
The student would attend classes until proficiency in the course material has
4. This procedure does not imply receiving credit, but rather receiving an
exemption from taking a compulsory course. The credits for the successfully
challenged course would have to be made up through an elective of the same
designation (e.g. a BTH course for a BTH course).
D. Class Attendance
Regular class attendance is required of all students. Instructors take attendance and
share information with the Registrar for academic advising purposes.
Part of the discipline of study includes taking responsibility for faithful
attendance in classes. Faithful attendance helps prepare students for similar
demands in any work situation. It should be noted that Canada Student Loans
requires ninety percent attendance of all recipients.
2. Absentee Procedures
a. An instructor may include a participation mark in the syllabus to reflect
attendance and active class participation.
b. An absence that is known about in advance (e.g. team trip, family
wedding, doctor’s appointment), or that is the result of sickness, should be
noted by means of a “Request for Registered Absence” form, submitted to
c. Any student who misses more than twenty percent of scheduled classes
will be ineligible to receive a passing grade for the course.
d. In cases where the registered absence exceeds the twenty percent limit,
exceptions may be made for two reasons:
(1) prolonged illness or exceptional circumstances (e.g. a death in the
family). Instructors may assign further reading or written work at their
discretion, in lieu of student absences from a class.
(2) absences because of ministry team or athletic team trips. These are
deemed a conflict between two required events of the college. When
IV. Academic Procedures
such conflicts arise, the Registrar will give guidance, in consultation
with either Athletic Director or Ministry Arts Director as necessary. If
such absences exceed the 20% limit, they will not disqualify the student
(provided there are no other unexcused absences).
e. If a student obtains absences in twenty-five percent of the classes in a
course in which he or she is enrolled, the student may be ineligible to
remain as a student of Bethany College.
f. Normally a seventy-five minute class will meet twenty-four times in a
semester. In such a class ten percent absence would be understood to be
two classes, twenty percent would be five classes and twenty-five percent
would be six classes. You the student are responsible to discuss any
absences with your instructor to determine material covered and
3. Food and Drinks in the Classroom
Food should not be brought into the classroom. Drinks are allowed in spill-proof
4. Note Taking
Students are expected to take class notes. Therefore, any activities that impair a
student from doing so are not allowed in class.
5. Electronic Devices
Students are asked to refrain from using their cell phones (for calls or texting),
MP3 players or other personal music devices in the classroom. Laptop computers
may be used solely for classroom purposes; if they become a distraction students
will be asked not to use them. Students are asked to turn Wi-Fi connections off
during class time, unless invited by the instructor to go online for classroom
purposes. Instructors reserve the right to mark as absent those students who use
laptops for purposes unrelated to the class.
E. Evaluation and Marks
Marks are one of the forms of motivation and feedback that help students do their
best at their studies. They give an adequate reflection of their understanding in a
certain subject. Instructors seek to be consistent and fair in their evaluation.
Please see your instructor if you have concern with an evaluation that was given.
Included on each syllabus is the format for how that particular course will be
graded. Normally 80 percent will be comprised of term work, while 20 percent
will be placed on the final examination. This combination means that term work
and examinations need to be completed well in order for someone to attain a high
mark. Grades will be reported to the student in the form of a transcript following
the end of the semester.
IV. Academic Procedures
1. Table of Marks
Letter Percentage GPA*
Failure, supplemental work allowed
Failure, supplemental work not allowed
Failure due to absences
Credit (no grade point value)
(Certificate, Service Learning Practicum)
Audit (class attendance only)
(after one semester this becomes an FN)
*A minimum cumulative Grade Point Average (GPA) of 2.0 is required for graduation.
2. Appealing a Grade
If a student feels that they have been assigned an unfair grade, the following
procedure should be followed.
a) The student should discuss the concern with the instructor and ask for the
assignment to be re-evaluated.
b) If the situation is not resolved, the student should approach the Academic
Dean and ask to begin a formal appeals process.
c) At the discretion of the Academic Dean, the assignment will be
distributed to a committee of three independent faculty members for
reassessment. This group will recommend either that the initial grade be
affirmed or modified. Written rationale of the decision shall be
provided to the student.
d) The decision of this committee shall be final.
3. Certificate Program
If the student is evaluated according to the syllabus, a letter grade is given.
Courses with individually tailored assignments and examinations will receive a
“P” for Pass or an “F” for Failure on the transcript. The GPA is only calculated on
courses that have not been modified.
F. Assignment Procedures
1. Late Assignments
a. Course assignments are expected to be in on time; this means before 10:00
p.m. on the day the assignment is due.
IV. Academic Procedures
b. Late assignments will be penalized by deducting 5 percentage points from
the earned grade, for every regular class day late, to a maximum of five
c. Assignments received more than five days late shall be given 50 percent of
the earned grade.
d. All assigned work must be completed prior to the final assignment
deadline of the semester.
2. Extension Requests
a. Extensions beyond the due date may be granted by the instructor for
prolonged illnesses or exceptional circumstances. Receiving an extension
will defer the late deduction for the duration of the extension.
b. Extension Request Process
(1) The student submits a completed “Extension Request” form to the
instructor. Please fill out the student information on both top and
bottom of the form.
(2) The instructor decides on each request and gives a response to the
student, whether granting, modifying, or denying the extension.
(3) Note: extension requests will not be accepted by email or other social
c. Guidelines for Decisions
(1) The extension request should come to the faculty member at least two
days prior to the due date.
(2) The normal length of extension is several days to a week.
(3) “Prolonged illness” means two or more days missing classes and meals.
(4) “Exceptional circumstances” may include:
(a) a death in the family
(b) a family wedding or previously planned major trip
Plagiarism is using another person’s ideas, words or expressions without
acknowledging the source of the information (see MLA751-62 for specific
examples). Plagiarism is a serious academic offence and is treated as such by
Bethany faculty and instructors. While plagiarism is obviously a failure to
comply with acceptable academic standards, it also involves wilful deception,
which runs contrary to our conviction of the importance of truth-telling for a
follower of Jesus Christ.
If an instructor suspects an assignment has been plagiarized, he or she will notify
the Academic Dean who will convene the Academic Committee to assess the
assignment in question. If there is reasonable evidence that a significant portion
of an assignment has been plagiarized, the student will receive a zero for the
assignment. With approval from the Academic Dean, supplemental work is
A copy of the plagiarized work will be kept on file in the office of the Academic
Dean until the student has completed the program of study. The occurrence of
plagiarism will be noted in the official minutes of both the Academic Committee
and the Faculty Committee. A copy of the letter of notification to the student will
also be placed in the student’s file. If the same student is proved to have
plagiarized a second time, the student may be asked to withdraw.
IV. Academic Procedures
Students are expected to do original work for each course. This means that
original research will be involved. A paper with only minor modifications to one
already submitted will not be accepted. Students intending to write papers on
similar themes for more than one class must clear this with all instructors
involved before proceeding.
H. Supplemental Work Procedures
1. Supplemental work is permissible in courses where the mark attained is
between 40-49 percent. After the supplemental work is completed
satisfactorily, the mark may be raised to a “C” grade level.
2. Supplemental work will not be assigned over the Christmas break. This means
that the student’s first semester grades will not be adjusted before the second
semester begins and Athletic and Ministry Team involvement will be
determined on the basis of first semester grades (see J below).
3. Under exceptional circumstances, supplemental work for those wanting to
raise passing grades will be considered by the Registrar in consultation with
the Academic Committee.
4. Supplemental work is to be completed no later than the final assignment
deadline in any given semester. If supplemental work is completed during the
summer, it must be received no later than August 15.
5. A supplemental fee, equivalent to one credit hour, will be charged for each
course. Work will not be assigned without payment.
I. Directed Studies Procedures
1. Directed Studies may be taken for the following reasons:
a. to take a course not offered in a given year but necessary for a student’s
program. This option is not open to first year students.
b. to take a course when a schedule conflict does not allow a student to
register in the regular course.
c. to redo a course after receiving an FN.
2. The student must fill out and sign the Directed Study Form and include the
Directed Study fee with the request. Directed Study fees are charged at the
current tuition rate. The Directed Study fee must be received by Bethany or
satisfactory payment arrangements need to be made with the Business Office
prior to work being assigned.
3. The Registrar grants permission to do the Directed Study. The Registrar will
approach the appropriate instructor with the Directed Study request. If the
instructor agrees to offer the Directed Study, he/she will develop a syllabus
describing the work that needs to be completed. A guideline of 30 hours of
work per credit hour will be followed. Regular assignment due dates are
4. Directed Studies are six months in duration. Extensions may be available for
up to 12 months in consultation with the instructor. Such extensions will be
assessed an additional one credit hour charge for each three month period. At
the end of 12 months, an incomplete Directed Study will be terminated
without further possibility of extension.
J. Academic Advising
IV. Academic Procedures
1. Certificate students will meet in an accountability relationship with those
providing academic advising under the guidance of the Registrar.
2. Students who fall below a 2.0 GPA will automatically be placed on an
accountability list for academic advising and can expect regular monitoring.
K. Academic Probation
1. Some students may be placed on academic probation upon admission as a
result of graduating from a modified high school program or having a
diagnosed learning disability. Students transferring from unaccredited
postsecondary institutions may also be placed on academic probation.
2. Students who fall below 1.5 GPA in any given semester will be placed on
academic probation. The student must meet regularly with an academic
advisor and may be required to withdraw from athletic teams, student
leadership, ministry arts teams and any Bethany extracurricular activities.
Two terms below 1.5 GPA may result in ineligibility for further enrolment at
Bethany for a period of one year. The same applies to Certificate students with
one or more “F” in each of two consecutive terms.
3. Probationary status is removed by earning a GPA of 1.5 or higher. For
Certificate students, this is achieved by passing all courses.
L. Ministry Arts and Athletic Team Involvements
1. Ministry Arts and athletic team involvement is open to full-time students
(minimum of 10 credit hours) displaying:
a. Evidence of competence, character, attitude and ability to be a team player.
b. A positive attitude toward team expectations as outlined in the syllabus
and the team manual.
c. Class attendance as per academic guidelines. Excessive class absences
would put this requirement in jeopardy.
d. A minimum GPA of 1.5 in the previous semester for involvement in one
team and a minimum cumulative GPA of 2.0 for involvement in two
teams. The exception to this guideline applies to Certificate program
students, where no F’s in the previous semester would allow two ministry
team involvements, one F would restrict involvement to one team, and two
or more F’s would disqualify involvement.
e. Adherence to Student Development guidelines. Appearing before the
Dean of Student Development for a disciplinary concern would put this
requirement in jeopardy. Appearing before the Discipline Committee
could result in a recommendation to faculty for removal from the team for
at least that semester.
2. Failure to meet any of these requirements will be considered sufficient reason
to disqualify involvement or disallow continued involvement as a member of
an athletic and/or Ministry Arts team.
a. When problems arise with the above requirements, communication with
affected students and faculty members will take place to ensure a correct
understanding of the concerns.
b. A recommendation for removal of a student from an athletic or Ministry
Arts team will be processed by Faculty Committee. The initial
IV. Academic Procedures
recommendation may come from the team leader, the Academic Dean, or
the Dean of Student Development.
c. The rationale and appeals process for this policy are available upon request
from the Academic Dean.
3. For attendance conflicts between team and class responsibilities, see section
IV.D.2 (p 16).
M. Final Examination Procedures
1. All students are required to write final examinations at scheduled times.
2. Students who choose not to write final examinations in the Fall semester are
not allowed to remain on campus throughout the examination days.
3. Final exams are ordinarily rescheduled only for individuals if they have two
exams scheduled for the same period or in cases of illness with a doctor’s
certificate. No fee is charged for such changes. Requests for rescheduling an
exam for any other reason must be made at least one week prior to the
beginning of the examination period. A “Request to Reschedule a Final
Exam” form must be submitted to the Registrar. A $50 fee per exam is
applicable for such changes.
4. Students are to enter the examination room quietly. Silence is to be
maintained in the examination room at all times. Students are not permitted to
leave the examination room during the exam. Questions may be addressed to
the supervising faculty member.
5. Only materials needed in the writing of the examination are allowed into the
6. Students are free to leave the examination room one hour after the start of the
exam. Supervising faculty will notify students when the minimum time is
7. Two hours are permitted for each exam. Students should hand in the exam
promptly at the completion of the time.
N. Academic Recognition
1. Academic Honours
a. Academic Honour Roll
Students who earn a GPA of 3.40 or higher in any given semester will have
their names publicly displayed on the Academic Honour Roll the following
b. Graduation with Honours
Students who maintain a cumulative GPA of 3.40-3.69 will graduate “With
c. Graduation with Distinction
Students who maintain a cumulative GPA of 3.70 or higher will graduate
d. The Governor General’s Collegiate Bronze Medal
This medal will be awarded to the Diploma graduate with the highest overall
e. Delta Epsilon Chi
A limited number of degree graduates (7 percent of the class) may be
nominated to membership in Delta Epsilon Chi, the honour society of the
Association for Biblical Higher Education. Nominees are chosen by faculty
IV. Academic Procedures
based upon three criteria: outstanding academic scholarship, approved
Christian character, and Christian leadership. (The Greek letters stand for the
phrase dokimos en Christō “approved in Christ,” Rom 16.10.)
2. Academic Prizes
a. Four Academic Prizes are awarded at the end of the school year to students
submitting the best assignments. Prizes will be awarded for research or
exegetical essays and creative projects. Submissions for these prizes are
made by faculty members near the end of each semester. (Faculty are
asked to submit only one assignment per course.) Winners are chosen by
the Academic Committee at the end of the school year, and prizes are
awarded at an appropriate student gathering.
b. A qualifying assignment will have all of the following characteristics:
It is considered a major assignment requiring a minimum of 10 hours of
It must be an example of excellent work showing evidence of extensive
research and/or considerable creativity.
3. Academic Scholarships for Honour Students
a. Second Year Academic Scholarship
A $200 scholarship will be awarded in the fall semester to returning Second
Year students with a cumulative GPA of 3.40 or higher.
b. Third and Fourth Year Academic Scholarship
A $250 scholarship will be awarded in the fall semester to returning Third and
Fourth students (who are studying full-time on campus) with a cumulative
GPA of 3.40 or higher.
O. Graduation Requirements
Specific graduation requirements may be found in the current College Catalogue
alongside the student’s program of study. General requirements will include
completion of all required courses, as well as a cumulative GPA of 2.0 (a letter grade
If you have further questions or suggestions for improving this manual or the
academic programming of Bethany College, please see the Academic Dean. Our
prayer is that in this academic year your understanding will be increased, your
critical thinking developed, and above all, that you will mature as a follower of
The following recommended resources were referenced in this Manual. They can all be
found in our library or on the Internet:
ABHE Commission on Accreditation Manual. Association for Biblical Higher Education.
Rev. April 2013. PDF file. 15 Aug 2013.
Bailey, Edward P., et al. The Practical Writer: Paragraph to Theme. 4th ed. New York:
Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1989. Print.
IV. Academic Procedures
Bauman, M. Garrett. Ideas and Details: A Guide to College Writing. 2nd ed. Fort Worth:
Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1995. Print.
Buckley, Joanne. Fit to Print: The Canadian Student’s Guide to Essay Writing. 4th ed.
Toronto: Harcourt Brace, 1998. Print.
Duvall, J. Scott and J. Daniel Hays. Grasping God’s Word. 3rd ed. Grand Rapids:
Zondervan, 2012. Print.
MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 7th ed. New York: Modern Language
Association of America, 2009. Print.
Academic Manual last updated: 20 August 2013
Appendix One: Citation Guide
Comprehensive Citation Guide
for Bethany College Academic Papers
(Based on MLA7 Style)
Sample Citation Format
Book: one author
Schmidt, Thomas. A Scandalous Beauty: the Artistry of God and the Way of the Cross. 2
Grand Rapids: Brazos, 2002. Print.
In text citation: (Schmidt 42)
Book: two authors
Duvall, J. Scott and J. Daniel Hays. Grasping God’s Word. 3rd ed. Grand Rapids:
Zondervan, 2012. Print.
In text citation: (Duvall and Hays 286)
Book: three authors
Klein, William, Craig Blomberg, and Robert L. Hubbard. Introduction to Biblical
Interpretation. Dallas: Word, 1993. Print.
In text citation: (Klein, Blomberg, and Hubbard 230)
Book: 4+ authors
Beasley, James, et al. An Introduction to the Bible. Nashville: Abingdon, 1991. Print.
In text citation: (Beasley et al. 154)
Book: editor as author Dyck, Cornelius J., ed. An Introduction to Mennonite History. Waterloo, Ont.: Herald
Book: edited reference Zondervan Handbook to the Bible. Eds. Pat Alexander and David Alexander. 4th ed.
Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2009. Print.
citation: (Zondervan Handbook 403)
Book section (e.g.
signed article or
essay) in edited
4 5 6
Press, 1967. Print.
In text citation: (Dyck 212)
Barton, David. "Portrait of Jeremiah." Zondervan Handbook to the Bible. Eds. Pat
Alexander and David Alexander. 3rd ed. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1999.
In text citation: (Barton 441)
Block, Daniel I. "All Creatures Great and Small: Recovering a Deuteronomistic
Theology of Animals." The Old Testament in the Life of God's People: Essays in
Honor of Elmer A. Martens. Ed. Jon Isaak. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2009.
In text citation: (Block 303)
Tolkien, J.R.R. The Hobbit. 1937. London: HarperCollins, 1999. Print.
In text citation: (Tolkien 130; ch. 7)
These notes explain further details about references in general, and citation formatting in particular.
Capitalize the first, the last and all significant words of a title and subtitle regardless of how they are
capitalized in your source. (See attached Principles of Referencing, section 5a.)
Place of publication: omit prov/state if it is a well known or commonly referenced publisher. Name of
publisher: omit “Press,” “Publishing House,” “and Co.” etc.(See Principles of Referencing, section 6a.)
List author/editor names in the order of the original source. (See Principles of Referencing, section 4a.)
If the book has a long subtitle (e.g. Grasping God’s Word: A Hands-on Approach to Reading, Interpreting,
and Applying the Bible), it can safely be omitted.
Note the edition this way (after title, followed by period). Use the most recent year as the date of
“et al.” is a Latin abbreviation: “et alii” = “and others.”
“Eds.” means “Editors.” If there is only one editor, use “Ed.”
Note the extra information given: the year following the title is the original year of publication; the final
year listed is the most recent date of your edition. In the citation reference: give a chapter (“ch.”)
number as well, in case a reader does not have the same edition as you.
Appendix One: Citation Guide
Janzen, Waldemar. Exodus. Waterloo: Herald Press, 2000. Print. Believers Church
type 1: multi-volume
citation: (Janzen 214)
one author per volume
Durhum, John. Exodus. Waco: Word, 1987. Print. Word Biblical Commentary 3.
In text citation: (Durhum 39)
Tenney, Merrill. "Gospel of John." Expositor's Bible Commentary. Ed. Frank E.
10. Bible Commentary,
Gaebelein. Vol. 9. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1981. 1-203. Print.
type 2: multi-volume
citation: (Tenney 153)
more than one author
Hubbard, Moyer. "2 Corinthians." Zondervan Illustrated Bible Backgrounds
Commentary. Ed. Clinton Arnold. Vol. 3. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2002.
In text citation: (Hubbard 214)
Hammett, John S. "Camel." Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Ed. David Noel
Freedman. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2000. 212. Print.
In text citation: (Hammett 212)
Niehaus, Jeffrey J. "Theophany, Theology Of." New International Dictionary of Old
Testament Theology & Exegesis. Ed. Willem A. VanGemeren. Vol. 4. Grand
Rapids: Zondervan, 1997. 1247-50. Print.
In text citation: (Niehaus 1248)
Averbeck, Richard E. "hatta’t " New International Dictionary of Old Testament
Theology & Exegesis. Ed. Willem A. VanGemeren. Vol. 2. Grand Rapids:
Zondervan, 1997. 93-103. Print.
In text citation: (Averbeck 95)
"Genizah." Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Ed. David Noel Freedman. Grand
Rapids: Eerdmans, 2000. 493. Print.
citation: (“Genizah” 493)
13. Journal article, print.
Dueck, Gil, and Doug Heidebrecht. "Fault Lines in Evangelical Theology." Direction
36.1 (2007): 20-30. Print.
In text citation: (Dueck and Heidebrecht 27)
14. Journal article, online Schellenberg, Ryan. "Seeing the World Whole: Intertextuality and the New Jerusalem 16
(Revelation 21-22)." Perspectives in Religious Studies 33.4 (2006): 467-76.
source (e.g. ATLA).
ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials. Web. 31 May 2012.
In text citation: (Schellenberg 471)
15. ebook, online source
Barker, Margaret. Creation: A Biblical Vision for the Environment. London: Continuum,
2010. EBSCOhost. Web. 6 Jun 2012.
In text citation: (Barker 193)
Series name is not italicized. Some series give a volume number; include that (but without “vol.”).
Herald Press is located in both Waterloo, Ont., and Scottdale, Penn. Use the first place given. (Why is
“Press” included in the publisher’s name? Herald Press is a small publishing company not well known
outside the orbit of Mennonite schools and churches. Hence the full name is used.)
A surprising number of students type “World Biblical Commentary” instead of “Word Biblical….” Don’t.
Gaebelein is the editor, not the author, of the Expositor’s Bible Commentary. Make sure you look up the
The Averbeck reference is to a Hebrew word entry. Foreign words are always italicized, so this word is
also in italics here, even when it is also in quotation marks as the title of the dictionary entry.
The “493” refers to the one page on which this short article is found.
IMPORTANT: if the online source is formatted as a print source (e.g. a PDF file), give the page numbers
according to the print source (this will cover most everything you can find with the ATLA database
through our library). If you have a choice between an unformatted (unpaginated) online source, and a
paginated print source (e.g. National Geographic magazine), use the print source so you can give page
Appendix One: Citation Guide
16. online encyclopedia
Driscoll, James F. "Adam." The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton,
1907. Web. 06 Jun 2012.
In text citation: (Driscoll)
17. e-book in electronic Drane, John W. Introducing the Old Testament. Oxford: Lion, 2000. Logos Bible
Software. Bellingham, Wash.: Logos, 2002-2009. CD-ROM.
collection (e.g. Logos
In text citation: (Drane 42)
"Amen." Harper's Bible Dictionary. San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1985. Logos Bible
18. unsigned article in
Software. Bellingham, Wash.: Logos, 2002-2009. CD-ROM.
e-book in electronic
citation: (“Amen” 3)
collection (e.g. Logos
19. Website, specific
Guenther, Bruce and Abe J. Dueck. "Bethany College (Hepburn, Saskatchewan,
Canada)." Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online. 2009. Web. 28
In text citation: (Guenther and Dueck)
20. Website, specific
“Native Spirituality Guide." Royal Canadian Mounted Police. 12 Jul 2010. Web. 4 Jun
In text citation: (“Native Spirituality”)
The Great Pyramid: The Bible in Stone. n.d. Web. 31 May 2012.
21. Website (general
page), no author, no
citation: (Great Pyramid)
Dueck, Ryan. "Comb-Overs and the Kingdom of God." Rumblings. 16 Mar 2007. Web.
6 Jun 2012.
In text citation: (Dueck)
Tremonti, Anna Maria. "Unworthy Creature: Aruna Papp." The Current. CBC Radio,
24 May 2012. Web. 25 May 2012.
In text citation: (Tremonti)
24. Online video (e.g.
Lublin, Nancy. "Texting That Saves Lives." YouTube. TED Talks, 27 April 2012. Web. 21
11 Jun 2012.
In text citation: (Lublin)
25. Newspaper article
Jackson, Harry Jr. "Research Suggests Musical Know-How Offsets Some Signs of
Aging." Saskatoon StarPhoenix 9 Jun 2012: E10. Print.
In text citation: (Jackson E10)
Wall, Howie. Personal interview. 6 June 2012.
In text citation: (Wall)
Klassen, Randy. "Jesus the Rabbi." BTH102 Introduction to Jesus and the Gospels.
Bethany College, Hepburn. 5 Mar 2012. Lecture.
In text citation: (Klassen)
28. Class notes (PDF).
Klassen, Randy. "Jesus the Rabbi." BTH102 Introduction to Jesus and the Gospels.
Bethany College, Hepburn. 5 Mar 2012. PDF.
In text citation: (Klassen)
The bibliographic information for this entry is given at the bottom of the website page (which is where
you’ll normally find it). Note that you do not include the URL for an internet-based source, unless there
is little else to identify it. (See example 21.)
The final date, after “Web.”, is the date you accessed the website.
Websites generally don’t have page numbers, so you can’t / won’t include that in your in-text reference;
if there is no author given, give an abbreviated (1-2 word) title.
“n.d.” = “no date.” Because there is no author or other clearly identifying information, you must give the
full URL address of the website. (You should always be extra careful—i.e. discerning—in using an
unsigned, undated website. This particular website is rather misguided when it comes to interpreting
the Bible; as with so much of the “free knowledge” on the internet, you only get what you pay for.)
In this entry, “YouTube” is the site where you found the video (which, like many videos, can be found in
more than one place on the internet); “TED Talks” is the source (i.e. the publisher) of the video.
Appendix Two: Principles of Referencing
Principles of Referencing
and Other Handy Hints for Citation
1. You are accountable for what you write. In everyday financial transactions, receipts are the
“paper trail” you need for accountability (like when it’s time to file your income tax). In formal
“intellectual transactions” (sharing or passing on information and insights), accountability
happens by means of citations. These consist of two parts: a citation reference in the body of
your essay writing, and an entry for the source (book, article, website, etc) in a specially
designed listing at the end of the essay, called Works Cited.
2. Simplicity and uniformity are important values for citation. Modern Language Association ,
7th ed., (MLA7) format is the approved academic style for Bethany College.
3. Basic concept for an MLA style entry in your Works Cited list: it has four pieces of information,
each one followed by a period. This information provides other readers with what they need if
they want to follow up your reference. (Why would someone want to do that? Here are several
reasons: a prof might want to (a) to follow up an interesting thought and read more of what
the original source has to say; (b) to check the quality or reliability of a source; (c) to see if a
controversial quote is being taken in context, or was misunderstood).
Thus, the basic template looks like this:
Author last name, first name. Title of Resource. City: Publisher, year. Medium
If it helps, think of each entry as an exciting hockey game with overtime—hence, four periods:
a) First period: the person responsible (author or editor).
b) Second period: the source itself (book, article, etc).
c) Third period: publisher’s info (publisher, and place and year of publication). If your
source comes out of the “virtual” world (online or digital media), you will also include
the electronic source (e.g. online database), and specify when the source was “last
updated” (usually indicated at the bottom of a web page).
d) Fourth period (and this will be new for some of us): medium of publication of the
work (print, web, DVD, interview, lecture, etc). Again, if the source is from the “virtual”
world, you will also need to specify the date you accessed it.
Remember: all four periods are needed for a complete reference. Without these, the formatting
is considered incomplete or incorrect. Use only one space after a punctuation mark.
Now, a few more details to keep in mind:
4. First Period: Names
a) When listing authors (or editors), each entry always begins last name first, and the
entries must be listed in alphabetical order.
if there is more than one author/editor, any further names are listed in normal (first
name first) order.
if there is more than one author/editor, always list them in the order they are
presented in the source (book etc).
authors sharing a last name (e.g. a married couple, family members) are still listed
as two individuals (e.g. David Alexander and Pat Alexander, Zondervan Illustrated
Handbook…; Penner, Cliff, and Joyce Penner).
b) When you have references to two or more works by one author:
in the text: distinguish them by a shortened title (use comma, italics) – use one or
two words to abbreviate the title—just enough to make clear which title from
Works Cited you are referring to.
in Works Cited:
o use three hyphens and a period: ---. (If you are OCD about appearances, you
can use <alt-0151> on a PC for three “em dashes” instead: ———. If you are a
Appendix Two: Principles of Referencing
Mac user, you probably can just wave a magic wand and it will do the same
thing for you.)
o if there are variations, re-use actual names, no hyphens (the three hyphens
mean that exactly the same person/s in the previous entry is being referred
to; if there are any changes, you must start from scratch and write out the
o entries are alphabetized by title.
Works Cited formatting:
Wright, N.T. After You Believe: Why Christian Character Matters. New York: HarperOne, 2010. Print.
———. Evil. Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 2006. DVD.
Wright, N.T., and Marcus Borg. The Meaning of Jesus: Two Visions. New York: HarperCollins, 1999. Print.
in text citations: (Wright, After 142)
(Wright and Borg 14)22
5. Second Period: Titles
a) Titles: capitalize the first, the last and all significant words of a title and subtitle
regardless of how they are capitalized in your source. (The most common words that
are considered “insignificant” for capitalization: a, an, and, from, of, out, the, to.)
b) Hint for title formatting: remember the difference between your outside voice (Hey!
I’m shouting in italics!) and your inside voice (“just speak normally”): If a title is on the
outside (book title, journal title, encyclopedia title, CD album title, website, etc), use
your outside voice (italics). If you have to look inside for the title (encyclopedia article,
essay in a collection, poem in an anthology, name of song on a CD, individual page on a
website, etc), use “quotation marks” for your “inside voice.”
c) The title of a multi-volume series of books (most commonly encountered in a Bible
commentary series) is handled like this: the name of the series is placed after the “type
of resource” period. No italics needed; if a book has a volume number, include it after
the series name, but without the “vol.” abbreviation. See citation example #9, above.
6. Third Period: Publication information
a) Use only the main identifying name. It is not necessary to include obvious elements
like “Publishing Company” or “Press”: write “Zondervan” not “Zondervan Publishing
Company,” “Eerdmans” not “William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company,” “Brazos” not
“Brazos Press,” etc. One exception: “University Press” is abbreviated UP (no periods).
Examples: Oxford: Oxford UP, 2007. Edmonton: U of Alberta P, 2010.
The following are some of the common publishing houses in biblical and theological
Baker, Brazos, Broadman & Holman, Eerdmans, Eisenbrauns, Fortress, Harper, Hendrickson, InterVarsity, Moody,
SPCK, Thomas Nelson, Word, Zondervan.
b) Place of publication: List the city and province/state of the publisher. Use regular
abbreviations (not two-letter postal code versions): that is, write B.C., Alta., Sask., Man.,
Ont., not BC, AB, SK, MB, ON; write Wash., Ore., Calif., and so on.
c) For commonly used publishers such as those mentioned above, you only need to
indicate the city, not the province or state.
7. Fourth Period: Medium of publication
Note: no comma is used, because there is no title given in the citation reference.
Appendix Two: Principles of Referencing
Here is a list of different types of media that you might access in your research. In the Works
Cited entry, this entry will begin with a capital letter, and be followed by a period.
Print, web, CD, DVD, CD-ROM, personal interview, telephone interview, film, radio,
television, lecture, address, sermon, reading, performance.
Digital files can exist independently of the Web or a CD-ROM, and should be treated as a
separate category. Cite them according to the type of file, always followed by the word “file”
(Titles of software programs will be italicized.) Common types:
PDF file, MP3 file, Microsoft Word file, JPEG file. (If you’re not sure of the type, just indicate
Works of visual art can be cited. Sample media might be:
bronze (i.e. statue), oil on canvas, graphite on paper.
The kinds of media that one might use will undoubtedly keep on growing as computer
technology evolves; for anything not covered here, consult the referencing handbook (see
section 14, below).
A few more issues to keep in mind:
8. “Name it & Claim it”: Only use sources that have an authorial name to them. If you can’t find
the author’s name (e.g. in a study Bible), avoid the source. (Not because it’s bad, but because
it’s a matter of accountability. In the academic world, it’s usually not enough to say “I heard it
somewhere…”; if an idea or interpretation is important enough to consider, and not considered
common knowledge (or no longer considered common sense), you should be able to find a
credible person who is willing to stand behind that idea.) Exceptions: some standard
dictionaries or encyclopedias may have unsigned articles.
9. Bibles are not included in Works Cited, unless you are quoting from the Study Notes of a
specific edition (which you will normally not do—see point 8).
10. Concordances are not included in Works Cited. (Reason: they function simply as an index to
the work you are studying—the Bible.)
11. Bible references.
a) When you refer to books of the Bible in the main text, without chapter or chapter and
verse, spell out the full name. Books of the Bible cited with chapter or chapter and
verse should be abbreviated, unless they come at the beginning of the sentence. Use
either a colon (:) or a period (.) to separate chapter and verse22; there is no space after
this punctuation. In a parenthetical reference, always abbreviate, using the following
forms, without a period:
The passage in 1 Cor 15 is often considered crucial.
The passage, 1 Cor 15.17is often considered crucial.
First Corinthians 15:17 is a crucial text.
“But in fact Christ has been raised from the dead, the firstfruits of those who
have fallen asleep” (1 Cor 15.17 ESV).
1 Cor 15:17 is a crucial text.
1 Corinthians 5.17 is a crucial text.
b. Bible translations: Scripture references are placed in parentheses ( ) after the quote
itself. Indicate the translation the first time you quote a Bible passage; the reader
assumes that this will cover all following quotations. If, however, you use several
translations throughout the essay, always indicate which one you are quoting. Use the
following standard abbreviations used, and place them after the Scripture reference:
Appendix Two: Principles of Referencing
NIV, TNIV, ESV, NRSV, NASB, NLT etc.
c. Multiple references: Use a comma (,) to separate references to more than one verse in
a chapter. Use a semicolon (;) to separate references to more than one chapter in a book,
or to more than one book. E.g.
Rom 1.14-15, 21
Rom 1.16-17; 3.21
Rom 1:14-15, 21
Rom 1:16-17; 3:21
Rom 4.1-3, 13; Jms
Rom 4:1-2, 13; Jms
Romans chapter 1, verses 14, 15, and 21
Romans chapter 1, verses 16 and 17, and chapter
3 verse 21
Romans chapter 4, verses 1 through 3 and verse
13; James chapter 2, verses 20 through 24.
d. The following abbreviations are useful: “v.” for “verse,” “vv.” for “verses”; likewise, “ch.”
for “chapter” and “chs.” for “chapters.” But always write out the word in full when it is
the first word of a sentence.
12. Multiple citations in one reference: separate individual citations with a semicolon.
E.g. (Wright 32; Piper 17).
13. Web Sites. Here’s the basic guide for citing internet sources (see examples above): include as
many of the following elements as are available:
1. Name of the author(s).
2. Title of the work (italicized if the work is independent; in “quotation marks” if it is part
of a larger web site).
3. Title of the overall web site if it is distinct from #2 (italicized).
4. Version or edition used if available
5. Publisher or sponsor of the site. Use n.p. if no publisher or sponsor is available.
6. Date of publication (day month year, as available). Use n.d. if no date is available.
7. Medium of publication (Web).
8. Date of access (day month year).
Use a period after each item except the publisher or sponsor, which is followed by a comma. An
untitled work may be identified by a genre label (e.g. Home page, Introduction, Online posting). Put the
genre label in place of the title of the work, but don’t enclose it in quotes or use italics.
14. Finally: For anything not covered in this guide, you’ll have to consult the mother of all MLA
MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 7th ed. New York: Modern Language Association of
America, 2009. Print.
The Society of Biblical Literature Manual of Style, and the MLA Citation guides of the following
institutions were particularly useful in assembling this guide: Columbia Bible College, Asbury
Theological Seminary, Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL).
Last updated: 14 June 2012.