X-Ways Forensics/ WinHex

Document technical information

Format pdf
Size 1.5 MB
First found Jun 9, 2017

Document content analysis

Language
English
Type
not defined
Concepts
no text concepts found

Persons

Ernest Hemingway
Ernest Hemingway

wikipedia, lookup

Mark Adler
Mark Adler

wikipedia, lookup

Organizations

Places

Transcript

X-Ways Software Technology AG
X-Ways Forensics/
WinHex
Integrated Computer Forensics Environment.
Data Recovery & IT Security Tool.
Hexadecimal Editor for Files, Disks & RAM.
Manual
Copyright © 1995-2014 Stefan Fleischmann, X-Ways Software Technology AG. All rights reserved.
Contents
1
Preface ..................................................................................................................................................1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
2
Technical Background ........................................................................................................................5
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10
3
About WinHex and X-Ways Forensics.........................................................................................1
Legalities.......................................................................................................................................2
License Types ...............................................................................................................................2
Differences between WinHex and X-Ways Forensics..................................................................3
Getting Started with X-Ways Forensics........................................................................................4
Using a Hex Editor........................................................................................................................5
Endian-ness ...................................................................................................................................6
Integer Data Types........................................................................................................................6
Floating-Point Data Types ............................................................................................................7
Date Types ....................................................................................................................................7
ANSI ASCII/IBM ASCII..............................................................................................................8
Checksums ....................................................................................................................................9
Digests ........................................................................................................................................10
Attribute Legend .........................................................................................................................10
Technical Hints ...........................................................................................................................11
User Interface.....................................................................................................................................12
3.1
Overview.....................................................................................................................................12
3.2
Start Center .................................................................................................................................13
3.3
Directory Browser.......................................................................................................................13
3.3.1 General Description ................................................................................................................13
3.3.2 Virtual Objects........................................................................................................................15
3.3.3 Options ...................................................................................................................................16
3.3.4 Filters......................................................................................................................................19
3.3.5 Columns and Column-based Filters........................................................................................21
3.4
Mode Buttons..............................................................................................................................28
3.5
Status Bar ....................................................................................................................................31
3.6
Data Interpreter ...........................................................................................................................32
3.7
Position Manager ........................................................................................................................33
3.8
Useful Hints ................................................................................................................................33
4
Menu Reference .................................................................................................................................34
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10
4.11
4.12
4.13
4.14
5
Directory Browser Context Menu...............................................................................................35
Data Window Context Menu ......................................................................................................42
File Menu ....................................................................................................................................43
Edit Menu ...................................................................................................................................45
Search Menu ...............................................................................................................................46
Navigation Menu ........................................................................................................................47
View Menu..................................................................................................................................48
Tools Menu .................................................................................................................................50
File Tools ....................................................................................................................................52
Specialist Menu...........................................................................................................................54
Options Menu .............................................................................................................................56
Window Menu ............................................................................................................................57
Help Menu ..................................................................................................................................57
Windows Context Menu .............................................................................................................58
Forensic Features...............................................................................................................................58
5.1
Case Management .......................................................................................................................58
II
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
5.10
5.11
5.12
5.13
5.14
5.15
5.16
5.17
5.18
5.19
6
Multi-User Coordination For Large Cases..................................................................................60
Evidence Objects ........................................................................................................................64
Case Log .....................................................................................................................................65
Case Report.................................................................................................................................66
Report Tables ..............................................................................................................................67
Internal Viewer ...........................................................................................................................69
Registry Report ...........................................................................................................................71
Simultaneous Search ...................................................................................................................73
Logical Search ............................................................................................................................74
Search Hit Lists...........................................................................................................................78
Search Term List.........................................................................................................................79
Event Lists ..................................................................................................................................81
File Type Categories.txt..............................................................................................................83
Hash Database.............................................................................................................................84
Time Zone Concept.....................................................................................................................86
Evidence File Containers ............................................................................................................87
Related Items ..............................................................................................................................89
External Analysis Interface.........................................................................................................90
Volume Snapshots and their Refinement ........................................................................................91
6.1
Introduction.................................................................................................................................91
6.2
Refinement at the Volume/Sector Level .....................................................................................91
6.2.1 Run X-Tensions......................................................................................................................91
6.2.2 Particularly thorough file system data structure search ..........................................................92
6.2.3 File Header Signature Search .................................................................................................93
6.2.4 Block-wise Hashing and Matching.........................................................................................94
6.3
Refinement at the File Level.......................................................................................................94
6.3.1 Hash Value Computation and Matching.................................................................................95
6.3.2 File Type Verification ............................................................................................................95
6.3.3 Extraction of Internal Metadata ..............................................................................................96
6.3.4 Archive Exploration ...............................................................................................................97
6.3.5 E-mail Extraction....................................................................................................................98
6.3.6 Uncovering Embedded Data...................................................................................................99
6.3.7 Extraction of Video Stills .....................................................................................................101
6.3.8 Pictures Processing ...............................................................................................................102
6.3.9 Detection of Encryption........................................................................................................103
6.3.10
Indexing...................................................................................................................103
6.4
More Information about Volume Snapshot Refinement ...........................................................105
6.4.1 Interdependencies .................................................................................................................106
6.4.2 Important Note......................................................................................................................106
7
Some Basic Concepts .......................................................................................................................107
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
8
Edit Modes ................................................................................................................................107
Scripts .......................................................................................................................................108
X-Tensions API ........................................................................................................................109
WinHex API..............................................................................................................................110
Disk Editor ................................................................................................................................110
RAM Editor/Analysis ...............................................................................................................111
Template Editing.......................................................................................................................113
Data Recovery ..................................................................................................................................113
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
File Recovery with the Directory Browser ...............................................................................113
File Recovery by Type/File Header Signature Search..............................................................113
File Type Definitions ................................................................................................................116
Manual Data Recovery .............................................................................................................119
III
9
Options..............................................................................................................................................120
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
10
General Options ........................................................................................................................120
Volume Snapshot Options ........................................................................................................125
Viewer Programs ......................................................................................................................127
Undo Options ............................................................................................................................129
Security Options .......................................................................................................................129
Search Options ..........................................................................................................................130
Replace Options ........................................................................................................................134
Miscellaneous ...................................................................................................................................135
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6
10.7
10.8
10.9
10.10
10.11
Block .........................................................................................................................................135
Modify Data ..............................................................................................................................136
Conversions ..............................................................................................................................137
Sector Superimposition .............................................................................................................138
Wiping and Initializing .............................................................................................................139
Disk Cloning .............................................................................................................................140
Images and Backups .................................................................................................................141
Hints on Disk Cloning, Imaging, Image Restoration................................................................145
Skeleton Images ........................................................................................................................145
Backup Manager...................................................................................................................150
Reconstructing RAID Systems .............................................................................................150
Appendix A:
1
2
3
4
Template Definition...............................................................................................153
Header ...........................................................................................................................................153
Body: Variable Declarations .........................................................................................................154
Body: Advanced Commands.........................................................................................................155
Body: Flexible Integer Variables ..................................................................................................157
Appendix B:
Script Commands ..................................................................................................158
Appendix C:
Master Boot Record...............................................................................................165
IV
1
Preface
1.1 About WinHex and X-Ways Forensics
Copyright © 1995-2014 Stefan Fleischmann, X-Ways Software Technology AG. All rights
reserved.
X-Ways Software Technology AG
Carl-Diem-Str. 32
32257 Bünde
Germany
Fax: +49 3212-123 2029
Web: http://www.x-ways.net
Product homepage: http://www.x-ways.net/winhex/
Ordering: http://www.x-ways.net/winhex/order.html
Support forum: http://www.winhex.net
E-mail address: [email protected]
Registered in Bad Oeynhausen (HRB 7475). CEO: Stefan Fleischmann. Board of directors (chairwoman): Dr. M.
Horstmeyer.
X-Ways Software Technology AG is a stock corporation incorporated under the laws of the
Federal Republic of Germany. WinHex was first released in 1995. This manual was compiled
from the online help of WinHex/X-Ways Forensics v17.9, released October 2014. It is available
in English and German.
Supported platforms: Windows XP, Windows 2003 Server, Windows Vista/2008 Server,
Windows 7, Windows 8/Windows 2012 Server, Windows 8.1. 32-bit and 64-bit. Standard, PE
and FE.
User interface translation: Chinese by Sprite Guo. Japanese by Takao Horiuchi and Ichiro
Sugiyama. French by Jérôme Broutin, revised by Bernard Leprêtre. Spanish by José María
Tagarro Martí. Italian by Fabrizio Degni, updated by Michele Larese de Prata, further completed
and updated by Andrea Ghirardini. Brazilian Portuguese by Heyder Lino Ferreira. Polish by
ProCertiv Sp. z o.o. (LLC).
We would like to thank the state law enforcement agency of Rhineland-Palatinate for
extraordinarily numerous and essential suggestions on the development of X-Ways Forensics and
X-Ways Investigator.
Thanks to Dr. A. Kuiper for his method to process videos with MPlayer.
Professional users around the world include... (this list is from ~12 years ago)
U.S. and German federal law enforcement agencies, ministries such as the Australian Department of Defence, U.S.
national institutes (e.g. the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee), the Technical University of Vienna, the
Technical University of Munich (Institute of Computer Science), the German Aerospace Center, the German federal
bureau of aviation accident investigation, Microsoft Corp., Hewlett Packard, Toshiba Europe, Siemens AG, Siemens
Business Services, Siemens VDO AG, Infineon Technologies Flash GmbH & Co. KG, Ontrack Data International
Inc., Deloitte & Touche, KPMG Forensic, Ernst & Young, Ericsson, National Semiconductor, Lockheed Martin,
BAE Systems, TDK Corporation, Seoul Mobile Telecom, Visa International, DePfa Deutsche Pfandbriefbank AG,
1
Analytik Jena AG, and many other companies and scientific institutes.
1.2 Legalities
Copyright © 1995-2014 Stefan Fleischmann, X-Ways Software Technology AG. No part of this
publication may be reproduced, or stored in a database or retrieval system without the prior
permission of the author. Any brand names and trademarks mentioned in the program or in this
manual are properties of their respective holders and are generally protected by laws.
This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the
subject matter covered. However, the author neither offers any warranties or representations nor
does he accept any liability with respect to the program or the manual.
License Agreement
Acknowledgements
The MD5 message digest is copyright by RSA Data Security Inc.
The “zlib” compression library is copyright by Jean-loup Gailly and Mark Adler. Homepage:
ftp://ftp.cdrom.com/pub/infozip/zlib/zlib.html
X-Ways Forensics contains software by Igor Pavlov, www.7-zip.com, and an Adler32
implementation by Arnaud Bouchez.
Outside In® Viewer Technology © 1991, 2007, 2008 Oracle.
NEXT3® is a registered trademark of CTERA Networks.
X-Ways Forensics uses ResIL, a fork of DevIL. ResIL is governed by the LGPL
(http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/lesser.html), version 2.1. The original source code can be
downloaded from http://sourceforge.net/projects/resil.
X-Ways Forensics contains an unofficial build of libPFF. libPFF is governed by the LGPL
(http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/lesser.html), version 3.0. The original source code can be
downloaded from http://libpff.sourceforge.net/.
Windows event log (.evtx) viewing capability based on works by Andreas Schuster.
1.3 License Types
The full version of WinHex will save files larger than 200 KB, write disk sectors, edit virtual
memory and show no evaluation version reminders. It will reveal its license status on start-up and
in the About box. To use WinHex as a full version, you need at least one license (base license). If
you are going to use WinHex on multiple machines, you will also need additional licenses.
2
• Personal licenses are available at a reduced price for non-commercial purposes only, in a nonbusiness, non-institutional, and non-government environment.
• Professional licenses allow usage of the software in any environment (at home, in a company,
in an organization, or in public administration). Professional licenses provide the ability to
execute scripts and to use the WinHex API.
• Specialist licenses in addition to this allow to use the Specialist Tools menu section, to fully
interpret exFAT, Ext2, Ext3, Ext4, Next3®, CDFS/ISO9660, and UDF media, and enable
support for RAID reconstruction, Windows dynamic disks, Linux LVM2 and reverse disk
cloning/imaging. Particularly useful for IT security specialists.
• Forensic licenses (i.e. licenses for X-Ways Forensics) in addition to the above allow to use the
powerful case managing and report generating capabilities, the internal viewer and the
separate viewer component, the gallery view, all advanced features of refined volume
snapshots, all columns and filters in the directory browser, comments and report tables, plus
ReiserFS, Reiser4, HFS, HFS+, UFS and XFS support. Furthermore, they allow to read and
write evidence files (.e01) and much more! Particularly useful for computer forensic
examiners. The forensic edition of WinHex is called X-Ways Forensics.
A more complete license comparison can be found online at http://www.xways.net/winhex/comparison.html. Please see http://www.x-ways.net/order.html on how to order
your licenses.
1.4 Differences between WinHex and X-Ways Forensics
WinHex (main executable file is winhex.exe or winhex64.exe) always identifies itself as WinHex
in the user interface, X-Ways Forensics (main executable file xwforensics.exe or
xwforensics64.exe) as X-Ways Forensics. The shared program help and the shared manual,
however, statically refer to the name “WinHex” in most cases, sometimes “X-Ways Forensics”.
WinHex and X-Ways Forensics share the same code base. X-Ways Forensics offers numerous
additional forensic features over WinHex with a specialist license, but does not allow to edit disk
sectors or interpreted images and lacks various functions to wipe data known from WinHex. In
X-Ways Forensics, disks, interpreted image files, virtual memory, and physical RAM are strictly
opened in view mode (read-only) only, to enforce forensic procedures, where no evidence must
be altered in the slightest. This strict write protection of X-Ways Forensics ensures that no
original evidence can possibly be altered accidentally, which can be a crucial aspect in court
proceedings.
Only when not bound by strict forensic procedures and/or when in need to work more
aggressively on disks or images (e.g. you have to repair a boot sector or wipe classified or
unrelated data), then a user of X-Ways Forensics would run WinHex instead. With WinHex you
can edit disk sectors and wipe entire hard disks, free space, slack space, selected files, selected
disk areas etc.
3
Since v17.1, users of X-Ways Forensics may simply copy their xwforensics.exe executable file
and name the copy winhex.exe (or for the 64-bit edition copy their xwforensics64.exe executable
file and name the copy winhex64.exe) to get WinHex. Or they may use the setup program, which
creates hard links named like that in the target directory. Or they can create hard links themselves
(which is much cooler than ordinary copying). If the program is executed as *winhex*.exe, it will
identify itself as WinHex everywhere (in the user interface, case report, case log, image
descriptions, and all screenshots) and act/behave like WinHex. That version is the best of both
worlds, with the full forensics feature set of X-Ways Forensics plus the sector editing and data
wiping capability of WinHex in one.
The WinHex API can only be used in conjunction with WinHex.
1.5 Getting Started with X-Ways Forensics
For the latest download instructions, if your update maintenance is current, you can check your
license status here. For more information about the installation of WinHex and X-Ways Forensics
please see this web page.
Extract the files in the X-Ways Forensics download to a directory of your choice. An installation
with the setup program is not necessary. The program is portable and can also be started directly
from a USB stick on other computers, e.g. live systems that you would like to examine. Also
download the viewer component (which is not included in the standard download as it is updated
much more rarely). Use the 64-bit edition of the viewer component for the 64-bit edition of XWays Forensics. By default, the viewer component is expected in the subdirectory \viewer (32
bit) or \x64\viewer (64 bit). Please be advised that the viewer component creates files in the
profiles of the user who is currently logged on, unlike X-Ways Forensics, so if you wish to avoid
to create files on a live system that you examine, don't let X-Ways Forensics use the viewer
component. You may also wish to download MPlayer if you intend to have X-Ways Forensics
produce stills from videos to see them in the gallery. Newer releases can always be extracted into
the existing directory of an earlier release. You may continue to use WinHex.cfg configuration
files from earlier releases in later releases (but never the other way around).
Here are some instructions to help you get started and find some important features: Create a
case, add an evidence object (such as your own C: drive or hard disk 0, or an image file). In the
directory tree, you may use a right click to list the contents of a directory in the directory browser
including all its subdirectories. For example, if you right-click the root directory of a volume, you
will get a listing of all files in the entire volume. At the same time you can use a dynamic filter to
focus on files based with certain filenames, of a certain file type, size, or with certain timestamps,
etc. via Options | Directory Browser.
The powerful logical search functionality can be found in Search | Simultaneous Search. More
interesting functions in X-Ways Forensics can be found in the context menu of the directory
browser (e.g. the ability to copy files off an image) and in the Specialist menu, in particular
“Refine Volume Snapshot”). The latter allows you to further process files automatically, e.g.
explore zip archives, extract e-mail messages and attachments, check pictures for the amount of
4
skin tones, check documents for encryption, etc.
There are a thousand different purposes for which X-Ways Forensics can be used, so in our
opinion step-by-step instructions (click here first, then there, then look here) are not the right way
to explain the software. This program help/user manual is rather meant to accurately describe all
the available functionality and let you creatively combine different commands to achieve a
certain goal. It is still the user who has to do the thinking, know what he/she is doing and how to
interpret findings.
The 64-bit edition is recommended especially in situations where the 32-bit memory address
space may be insufficient, when dealing with disks or images that contain many millions of files,
or when dealing with many millions of search hits, provided that you have plenty of physical
RAM installed. Certain operations that are computationally intensive (e.g. hashing or encrypting)
may also be faster in the 64-bit edition.
2
Technical Background
2.1 Using a Hex Editor
A hex editor is capable of completely displaying the contents of each file type. Unlike a text
editor, a hex editor even displays control codes (e.g. linefeed and carriage-return characters) and
executable code, using a two-digit number based on the hexadecimal system.
Consider one byte to be a sequence of 8 bits. Each bit is either 0 or 1, it assumes one of two
possible states. Therefore one byte can have one of 2•2•2•2•2•2•2•2 = 28 = 256 different values.
Since 256 is the square of 16, a byte value can be defined by a two-digit number based on the
hexadecimal system, where each digit represents a tetrade or nibble of a byte, i.e. 4 bits. The
sixteen digits used in the hexadecimal system are 0-9, A-F.
You can change the value of a byte by changing these digits in the hexadecimal mode. It is also
possible to enter the character that is assigned to a certain byte value by a character set (cf.
Entering Characters). All kinds of characters are allowed (e.g. letters and punctuation marks).
Example: A byte whose decimal value is 65 is displayed as 41 in hexadecimal notation
(4•16+1=65) and as the letter A in text mode. The ASCII character set defines the capital letter A
to have the decimal value of 65.
When editing files of a certain type (for instance executable files), it is essential not to change the
file size. Moving the addresses of executable code and included data results in severely damaging
such files. Please note that changing the contents of a file generally may be the reason for the
corresponding application to behave anomalously. It is quite safe to edit text passages in a file. At
any rate, it is recommendable to create backup files before editing.
The command “Combined Search” was especially designed for editing files created by computer
games to save the game state. If you know the value of a variable in two of such files, you can
5
find out the offset, i.e. the position, at which this data is saved. Example: If two files hold the
information that you have 5 resp. 7 points/lives/..., search simultaneously for the hex value 05 in
the first and 07 in the second file.
2.2 Endian-ness
Microprocessors differ in the position of the least significant byte: Intel®, MIPS®, National
Semiconductor, and VAX processors have the least significant byte first. A multi-byte value is
stored in memory from the lowest byte (the “little end”) to the highest byte. For example, the
hexadecimal number 12345678 is stored as 78 56 34 12. This is called the little-endian format.
Motorola and Sparc processors have the least significant byte last. A multi-byte value is stored in
memory from the highest byte (the “big end”) to the lowest byte. For example, the hexadecimal
number 12345678 is stored as 12 34 56 78. This is called the big-endian format.
2.3 Integer Data Types
Format/Type
Range
Example
signed 8 bit
unsigned 8 bit
signed 16 bit
unsigned 16 bit
signed 24 bit
unsigned 24 bit
signed 32 bit
unsigned 32 bit
signed 64 bit
-128...127
0...255
-32,768...32,767
0...65,535
-8,388,608...8,388,607
0...16,777,215
-2,147,483,648...2,147,483,647
0...4,294,967,295
-263 (≈-9·1018)...263-1 (≈9·1018)
FF = -1
FF = 255
00 80 = -32,768
00 80 = 32,768
00 00 80 = -8,388,608
00 00 80 = 8,388,608
00 00 00 80 = -2,147,483,648
00 00 00 80 = 2,147,483,648
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 80 = -263
Unless stated otherwise, multi-byte numbers are stored in little-endian format, meaning that the
first byte of a number is the least significant and the last byte is the most significant. This is the
common format for computers running Microsoft Windows. Following the little-endian
paradigm, the hexadecimal values 10 27 can be interpreted as the hexadecimal number 2710
(decimal: 10,000).
The Data Interpreter is capable of interpreting data as all of the aforementioned integer types,
plus unsigned 48-bit integers.
6
2.4 Floating-Point Data Types
Type
Range
Float (Single)
Real
Double (Double)
Long Double (Extended)
± 1.5-45...3.438
± 2.9-39...1.738
± 5.0-324...1.7308
± 3.4-4932...1.14932
Precision [Digits]
Bytes
7-8
11-12
15-16
19-20
4
6
8
10
The type names originate from the C programming language. The corresponding Pascal names
are specified in brackets. The Real type exists only in Pascal. The Data Interpreter is capable of
translating hex values in an editor window into floating-point numbers of all four types and viceversa.
In the computer, a floating-point number F is represented by a mantissa M and an exponent E,
where M × 2E = F. Both M and E are signed integer values themselves. The four data types differ
in their value ranges (i.e. the number of bits reserved for the exponent) and in their precision (i.e.
the number of bits reserved for the mantissa).
On Intel®-based systems, calculations upon floating-point numbers are carried out by a math
coprocessor while the main processor waits. The Intel® 80x87 uses 80-bit precision for
calculations, whereas RISC processors often use 64-bit precision.
2.5 Date Types
The following date formats are supported by the Data Interpreter:
• MS-DOS Date & Time (4 bytes)
The lower word determines the time, the upper word the date. Used by several DOS function
calls, by the FAT file systems and many system utilities such as file archivers.
Bits
0-4
5-10
11-15
16-20
21-24
25-31
Contents
Second divided by 2
Minute (0-59)
Hour (0-23 on a 24-hour clock)
Day of the month (1-31)
Month (1 = January, 2 = February, etc.)
Year offset from 1980
• Win32 FILETIME (8 bytes)
The FILETIME structure is a 64-bit integer value representing the number of 100-nanosecond
intervals since January 1, 1601. Used by the Win32 API.
7
• OLE 2.0 Date & Time (8 bytes)
A floating-point value (more exactly: a double) whose integral part determines the number of
days passed since December 30, 1899. The fractional part is interpreted as the day time (e.g. 1/4
= 6:00 a.m.). This is the OLE 2.0 standard date type, e.g. it is used by MS Excel. ICQ 7.0 uses
big-endian OLE 2.0 timestamps in chat messages
• ANSI SQL Date & Time (8 bytes)
Two consecutive 32-bit integer values. The first one determines the number of days since
November 17, 1858. The second one is the number of 100-microsecond intervals since midnight.
This is the ANSI SQL standard and used in many databases (e.g. InterBase 6.0).
• UNIX, C, FORTRAN Date & Time (4 bytes)
A 32-bit integer value that determines the number of seconds since January 1, 1970. This data
type was used in UNIX, by C and C++ (“time_t”), and by FORTRAN programs since the 80's.
Sporadically defined as the number of minutes since January 1, 1970. The Data Interpreter
options let you switch between both sub-types.
• Macintosh HFS+ Date & Time (4 bytes)
A 32-bit integer value that determines the number of seconds since January 1, 1904 GMT (HFS:
local time). The maximum representable date is February 6, 2040 at 06:28:15 GMT. The date
values do not account for leap seconds. They do include a leap day in every year that is evenly
divisible by 4.
• Java Date & Time (8 bytes)
A 64-bit integer value that specifies the number of milliseconds since January 1, 1970. Usually
stored in big endian, which is the typical byte order in Java, but in little endian in BlackBerry
memory.
• Mac Absolute Time, a.k.a. Mac epoch time (4 bytes)
A 32-bit integer value that determines the number of seconds since January 1, 2001.
2.6 ANSI ASCII/IBM ASCII
ANSI ASCII is the name utilized in WinHex for an extension of the ASCII character set as used
in non-Unicode Windows applications. It was named ANSI by Microsoft after the American
National Standards Institute, but not defined by that institute. Several different regional variants
exist, one of which is active in Windows, typically code page 1252 in countries where a Western
European language is spoken. MS-DOS and Windows command prompt windows use what is
called the IBM ASCII character set in WinHex (also called OEM or DOS character set
elsewhere). All of these 8-bit extensions of the 7-bit ASCII character sets differ in the characters
8
with values greater than 127. If for example if you store plain text file with Windows Notepad in
ANSI encoding and later view it with the type command in a command prompt window, special
characters such as German umlauts will not be displayed correctly. Some of the regional ANSI
code pages are double-byte code pages, i.e. use even 2 bytes for some characters instead of just 1
per character.
Select the character set for the text column in the View menu. Use the “Convert” command of the
Edit menu to convert text files from one character set to the other.
The first 32 ASCII values do not define printable characters, but control codes:
Hex
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
0A
0B
0C
0D
0E
0F
Control Code
Null
Start of Header
Start of Text
End of Text
End of Transmission
Enquiry
Acknowledge
Bell
Backspace
Horizontal Tab
Line Feed
Vertical Tab
Form Feed
Carriage Return
Shift Out
Shift In
Hex
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
1A
1B
1C
1D
1E
1F
Control Code
Data Link Escape
Device Control 1
Device Control 2
Device Control 3
Device Control 4
Negative Acknowledge
Synchronous Idle
End of Transmission Block
Cancel
End of Medium
Substitute
Escape
File Separator
Group Separator
Record Separator
Unit Separator
2.7 Checksums
A checksum is a characteristic number used for verification of data authenticity. Two files with
equal checksums are highly likely to be equal themselves (byte by byte). Calculating and
comparing the checksums of a file before and after a possibly inaccurate transmission may reveal
transmission errors. An unaffected checksum indicates that the files are (in all likelihood) still
identical. However, a file can be manipulated on purpose in such a way that its checksum remains
unaffected. Digests are used instead of checksums in such a case, where malicious (i.e. not mere
random) modifications to the original data are to be detected.
In WinHex, checksums can be calculated for example with a command in the Tools Menu.
The standard checksum is simply the sum of all bytes in a file, calculated on an 8-bit, 16-bit, 32bit, or 64-bit accumulator. The CRC (cyclic redundancy code) is based on more sophisticated
algorithms, which are safer.
Example: If a transmission alters two bytes of a file in such a way that the modifications are
countervailing (for instance byte one +1, byte two -1), the standard checksum remains
unaffected, whereas the CRC changes.
9
2.8 Digests
A so-called digest is, similar to a checksum, a characteristic number used for verification of data
authenticity. But digests are more than that: digests are strong one-way hash codes.
It is computationally feasible to manipulate any data in such a way that its checksum remains
unaffected. Verifying the checksum in such a case would lead to the assumption that the data has
not been changed, although it has. Therefore, digests are used instead of checksums if malicious
(i.e. not mere random) modifications to the original data are to be detected. It is computationally
infeasible to find any data that corresponds to a given digest. It is even computationally infeasible
to find two pieces of data that correspond to the same digest.
Of course, random modifications, e.g. caused by an inaccurate transmission, can also be detected
when using digests, but checksums are sufficient and serve better for this purpose, because they
can be calculated much faster.
WinHex can compute the following digests: MD4, MD5, SHA-1, SHA-256, RipeMD-128,
RipeMD-160, and ed2k (specialist and forensic licenses only).
2.9 Attribute Legend
A: to be archived
R: read-only
H: hidden
S: system
X: not indexed
P: NTFS reparse point
O: offline
T: temporary
I: has object ID
C: compressed at filesystem level
c: compressed in archive
E: encrypted at filesystem level
e: encrypted in archive
e!: file type specific encryption/DRM
e?: high entropy, possibly fully encrypted
(Res): HFS+ resouce
($EFS): NTFS encryption metadata
(INDX): NTFS non-directory index attribute
(ADS): NTFS alternate data stream
(SC): found in a volume shadow copy
(SUID): Set User ID
(SGID): Set Group ID
File mode:
10
l=symbolic link
c=character device
b= block device
s=socket
p=pipe
Permissions:
owner read/write/execute
group read/write/execute
other read/write/execute
2.10 Technical Hints
• Technical specifications
Supported disk and file size:..................................................................................at least 16 TB
Maximum number of sectors:.............................................................................................. 240-1
Maximum number of clusters:............................................................................................. 232-1
File systems supported for volumes > 232 sectors: ....................NTFS, Ext*, ReiserFS, Reiser4
Maximum number of simultaneously open interpreted disk images....................................... 57
Maximum number of simultaneously open partitions and interpreted volume images .......... 99
Maximum number of data windows:................................................................................... 1000
Maximum number of simultaneous program instances:.......................................................... 99
Maximum number of reversible keyboard inputs: ............................................................ 65535
Encryption depth: ......................................................................................................128-256 bit
Offset presentation: ................................................................................... hexadecimal/decimal
• In most cases, the progress display shows the completed percentage of an operation. However,
during search and replace operations it indicates the relative position in the current file or disk.
• Keys you specify for encryption/decryption are not saved on the hard disk. Provided that the
corresponding security option is enabled, the key is stored in an encrypted state within the
RAM, as long as WinHex is running.
• Search and replace operations generally run fastest with case sensitivity switched on and
without wildcards enabled.
• When searching with the option “count occurrences” activated or when replacing without
prompting, for a search algorithm there are generally two ways to behave when an occurrence
has been found, which in some cases may have different results. This is explained by the
following example:
The letters ana are searched in the word “banana”. The first occurrence has already been
found at the second character.
1st alternative: The algorithm continues the search at the third character. So ana is found
again at the fourth character.
11
2nd alternative: The three letters ana found in the word “banana” are skipped. The remaining
letters na do not contain ana any more.
WinHex is programmed in the second manner, because this delivers the more reasonable
results when counting or replacing occurrences. However, if you continue a search using the
F3 key or you choose the replace option “prompt when found”, the algorithm follows the first
paradigm.
3
User Interface
3.1 Overview
To familiarize yourself with the names of the various elements of the user interface, please refer
to this screenshot:
12
3.2 Start Center
The so-called Start Center is a dialog window that is optionally displayed at startup and is meant
as a simplified control panel for beginning your work. It allows to quickly open files, disks,
memory modules, and folders as well as up to 255 recently edited documents (16 by default, lefthand list). These may be files, folders, logical drives or physical disks. When opened again,
WinHex restores the last cursor position, the scrolling position, and the block (if defined) of each
document, unless the corresponding option is disabled.
From the Start Center you are also able to access projects and cases (right-hand top list). A
project consists of one or more documents to edit (files or disks). It remembers the editing
positions, the window sizes and positions and some display options. By saving a window
arrangement as a project you can continue to work in several documents right where you left
them, with a single click only. This is especially useful for recurring tasks. When you load a
project, all currently opened windows are automatically closed first.
Besides, WinHex automatically saves the window arrangement from the end of a WinHex
session as a project, and can re-create it next time at startup. Each project is stored in a .prj file. It
can be deleted or renamed right within the Start Center (context menu or DELETE/F2 key).
Last not least, the Start Center is the place where to manage scripts. You may check, edit, create,
rename, and delete scripts using the context menu. To execute a script, double-click it or singleclick it and click the OK button.
3.3 Directory Browser
3.3.1 General Description
The perhaps most essential user interface element in WinHex and X-Ways Forensics is the socalled directory browser, which resembles the Windows Explorer's right-hand list. Its main task
is to display (and interact with) the volume snapshot. Complete functionality is available only
with a forensic license. By default, the directory browser lists directories first, then files.
Compressed files are displayed in blue, encrypted files in green. Right-clicking any item in the
directory browser brings up a context menu with commands for opening a file or directory,
exploring a directory, locating the beginning of a file or directory on the disk, locating the
corresponding directory entry (FAT) or file record (NTFS), listing the allocated clusters in a
separate window, etc.
When navigating from one directory to another, exploring files with child objects (e.g. e-mail
messages that have attachments), navigating to the parent of a child object, activating or
deactivating filters, trying different sort criteria etc., please note that you can easily return to a
previous view using the Back command in the Position menu or the Back button in the toolbar.
13
The icons are explained in the legend directly in the program (forensic license only). Deleted
files and directories are represented in the directory browser with lighter icons. Icons with a blue
question mark indicate that the original file or directory contents may be still available. Deleted
objects that WinHex knows are no longer accessible (either because their first cluster has been
reallocated, because it is unknown, or because they have a size of 0 bytes) have icons crossed out
in red. Icons with an arrow on FAT volumes (only with a specialist or forensic license) and (after
refining the volume snapshot) NTFS volumes show renamed and moved files with their original
name/in their former directory. On Reiser4 these are moved files with their current name in their
former directory. A blue arrow indicates that contents for a file are available (though these are
not specifically the contents from before the file was renamed or moved). A red arrow indicates
that no contents are available.
In the caption line of the directory browser you see on the left the explored path (in case of
recursive exploration in italics and turquoise color) and on the right the number of listed files and
directories (typically separate figures for existing objects + previously existing objects + virtual
objects). Also, the number of listed tagged files is indicated, if any are tagged. The number of
active filters is displayed as well, next to the blue filter symbol on the left. Column-based and
column-independent active filters are counted separately. Useful because there might be columnbased filters active for columns that are not currently visible in the directory browser, and that
column-independent filters are active may be otherwise apparent only when checking in the
directory browser options dialog.
14
The directory browser can sort files and directories in ascending or descending order, and still
reveals the two previous sort criteria with a lighter arrow. For example, if you first click the
filename column and then the filename extension column, files with the same extension will
internally still be sorted by name.
In order to undefine the secondary and tertiary sort criteria, hold the Shift key when clicking on
the column header to determine the primary sort criterion. Internally, this selects the internal ID
as the secondary sort criterion. This is to ensure that the order of items with identical data for the
primary sort criterion is still well defined and reproducible after having sorted by other sort
criteria in the meantime.
The column that functions as the primary sort criterion is also the target of “jump as you type”.
That is, you can type the first character or first few characters of the entry that you are looking
for when the directory browser has the focus to automatically navigate and select the first or next
matching item in the list, starting from the current position. For example, if the directory browser
is sorted by the Type column, type “z” if you wish to find the first zip file in the list. If however
there is another file listed with a type starting with “z”, one that precedes “zip” alphabetically, for
example “zac”, then type the next character (before the feature times out and forgets the “z” that
you have already entered), in this case “i”, until you find what you are looking for or nothing
happens any more (if there is no matching item). Matching occurs in a cycle. That means even if
the current position shows a zip file, you can type any preceding letter to jump to the first
matching item from the top again, for example “d” for .docx. If you are looking for .docx files,
but find a large group of .doc files, then you need to type all four characters of docx, because
only the “x” distinguishes docx from doc.
3.3.2 Virtual Objects
When orphaned objects are found, e.g. files that have been deleted and whose original path is
unknown, they are listed in a special virtual directory “Path unknown”. With a specialist or
forensic license, there are virtual files in the root directory that allow you to conveniently address
special areas in a volume:
File system areas: Reserved sectors and/or clusters that are claimed by the file system itself for
internal purposes.
Free space: Clusters marked by the file system as not in use.
Idle space: Areas in a volume of which WinHex does not know what they are used for, including
in particular clusters marked by the file system as in use, whose exact allocation however could
not be determined. This can be the case if the file system lost track of them, i.e. forgot that these
cluster are actually available for re-allocation. Usually there is no idle space. The size of idle
space and the number of the first idle cluster are only determined when needed (e.g. when you
click the "Idle space" file for the first time), as depending on the number of cluster this is a
potentially time-consuming operation.
15
Volume slack: Sectors at the end of the partition that are unused by the file system because they
do not add to another cluster.
Indirect blocks (Ext2, Ext3, UFS): Special blocks that contain block numbers. Not part of "File
system areas".
Unnoted attribute clusters (NTFS): Clusters that contain non-resident attributes that have not
been individually processed by X-Ways Forensics. Not part of "File system areas".
.journal (ReiserFS): Blocks that form the fixed journalling area. On Ext3 and HFS+, this is not
considered a virtual file because it is defined by the file system itself in dedicated records.
3.3.3 Options
• Grouping files and directories in the directory browser is optional. X-Ways Forensics
remembers the sort criteria and this option separately 1) for the normal directory browser of a
volume, 2) for the normal directory browser of a partitioned disk, 3) for search hit lists and 4)
for event lists.
• Grouping existing and deleted items in the directory browser is optional. There are two
possibilities how to use this feature. Either previously existing files that potentially
recoverable (question mark icon) and known unrecoverable (red X icon) are internally
grouped as well (so that in total there will be three groups) or not (only 2 groups). A small
symbol with either one or two horizontal dividers indicates whether the list is split up into two
or three groups, also in the header of the column that is the primary sort criterion, as a small
reminder that when scrolling in the directory browser and watching out for a certain file for
example based on its name, you need to check in every group, because the sorting takes place
within each group and does not span the groups.
• Double-clicking a directory will explore it. Double-clicking an ordinary file will view it. This
option controls whether files with child objects will be typically viewed or explored on a
double-click. If the checkbox is half-checked, you will be prompted.
• Files can optionally be opened and searched including their slack. The middle state of this
checkbox makes a difference only for logical searches (cf. that topic).
• Listing subdirectories when exploring recursively is optional. They may be needed if you are
interested in their names or timestamps, but they may distract you when you are merely
interested in viewing files.
• The selection statistics are displayed below the directory browser (with a forensic license
only). If computed in a recursive way, they reveal how many subdirectories, files and how
much data are contained in a directory when you select it in the directory browser, except if
you have explored recursively already, taking any active filters into account. If this option is
not enabled, only the statistics tell you about the direct selection in the directory browser only,
16
not about the child objects that may indirectly be selected via selected directories. If this
option is half selected, the statistics take child objects of directories into account, but not child
objects of files.
• Tagging or excluding items in the directory browser can occur recursively or nonrecursively. Non-recursively means that tagging/untagging/excluding/including a file or
directory in the directory browser has no effect on parent or child objects or parent directories
or subdirectories. Useful for example if all child objects of a file should be processed in
volume snapshot refinement or searched, but not the parent object. If it works recursively, then
it is not possible to have an untagged parent object whose child objects are all tagged. If the
recursive tagging option is in its middle state, that means that child objects still inherit the
tagged state from their parent at the moment when they are newly added to the volume
snapshot, e.g. when you extract e-mail and attachment from a tagged e-mail archive. Whether
tagging and excluding work recursively or not can also be controlled by holding the Shift key.
Tagging or untagging recursively can be very slow in large volume snapshots.
• Advanced sorting: Takes 4 to 6 times more time than the highly optimized standard Unicode
sorting (noticeable when sorting millions of files), but has several useful settings and
characteristics:
- Language-specific character equivalence rules (treat ß like ss, treat é similar to e, ü similar to
u etc.)
- Linguistically improved case insensitivity
- Special treatment of hyphens and apostrophes (they are treated differently from other nonalphanumeric characters to ensure that words such as "coop" and "co-op" stay together in a
sorted list).
- Treat decimal digits as numbers, e.g. sort "2" before "10" (not useful for hexadecimal
notation, available under Windows 7 and later only)
- Treat half-width and full-width characters the same (full-width characters are sometimes
used by East Asians when writing English language letters)
- Ignore kana type (treat corresponding Japanese hiragana and katakana characters the same)
Advanced sorting depends on the regional settings of the currently logged on user. For
example, if regional settings of a Nordic country are active, Å comes after Z, as defined in the
alphabets of that region, otherwise near A, as perhaps expected by non-locals. Advanced
sorting rules are also applied when sorting the search hits by the Search Hit column.
There is an option to sort search hits by their data and context instead of just by the search
terms to which they belong. Helpful for keyword searches (not technical, e.g. hex value,
searches). Indeed slower since the data and context of all search hits to sort have to be read
and converted to a comparable code page. Sorting by the data in search hits helps for GREP
searches. It makes a difference only for GREP expressions that match variable data because
for constant search terms the search terms and the data in their corresponding search hits are
identical. For example, after searching for e-mail addresses with the expression [a-zA-Z0-9_\\+\.]{1,20}@[a-zA-Z0-9\-\.]{2,20}\.[a-zA-Z]{2,7}, sorting by the data allows you to quickly
identify and visually skip groups of identical e-mail addresses or see similar e-mail addresses
(starting with the same characters) next to each other. Continuing sorting by the text that
follows the actual search hit if the search hit data is the same will show identical or similar
text passages next to each other and allow you to more quickly review the search hit list. You
17
can specify how many characters of data and context to take into account for sorting. The
more characters, the more memory is needed for sorting, which can make a difference when
listing a huge number of search hits.
Optionally, the names of directories and file with child objects can be included when sorting
by path (full path sorting). The effect is that the child objects will be listed directly after their
respective parents (e.g. e-mail attachments after their containing parent e-mail messages).
• Optionally, after start-up, the directory browser can be not sorted at all, for performance
reasons. That means the program will forget the last sort criteria in use last time. If selected,
there will now also be no sorting when turning off all filters with a single mouse click, to
avoid longer delays when suddenly all files are listed again recursively.
• Directory browser settings (in particular column width, filter settings and sort orders) can be
optionally stored in cases and reactivated when loading cases (if stored by a compatible
version).
• Dynamic e-mail and timestamp columns lets X-Ways Forensics decide whether to include
the columns Sender and Recipient in the directory browser. They will be included if at least
one extracted e-mail message is in the visible portion of the directory browser, otherwise not.
Helpful because that leaves more room for other columns when the columns exclusively filled
for extracted e-mail messages are not needed. The columns with alternative timestamp can
also be shown dynamically, i.e. only when items that have such timestamps in the volume
snapshot are displayed in the visible portion of the directory browser.
• The 1st sector column can optionally show physical start sector numbers for files in partitions
(counted from the start of the physical disk or disk image) instead of logical start sector
numbers, if the partition was opened from within the physical disk/disk image. In that case the
column label contains a P in a circle (P for physical). Only for ordinary partitions, not
Windows dynamic volumes or LVM2 volumes.
• SHA-1 hashes can always be displayed in Base32 notation in the directory browser, as
common in P2P programs.
Keeping Track of Viewed Files
With a forensic license, the program can optionally keep track of which files were already
viewed and flag them visually with a green background color around the tag. This is especially
useful when reviewing hundreds or thousands of documents or pictures over a longer period, to
avoid accidentially viewing the same documents multiple times. A file can automatically be
flagged as already viewed when viewing it in full window or Preview mode, when viewing
pictures in the gallery, or when identifying a file as known good based on the hash database.
When identifying duplicate files based on hash values, and one of the files has been marked as
already viewed, then the duplicates can optionally be marked as already viewed, too. Similarly
(only if the corresponding checkbox is fully checked), if files have been marked already as
having duplicates and their hash values are available, when they are viewed, known duplicates
18
within any open volume will be marked as already viewed at the same time, but this is potentially
slow when used in conjunction with the gallery. When viewing a file with further hard links
(which are also duplicates), those will be automatically marked as already viewed as well, except
in HFS+.
To manually mark files as already viewed, you can press Alt in combination with the cursor keys.
Alt+Left removes the mark. You can also right-click the tag area of a file in the directory browser
to mark it as already viewed or to remove that mark.
A directory is considered viewed if all the files and subdirectories that it contains are flagged as
such.
Columns
Various columns are available in the directory browser. They are all optional. They are displayed
if they have a non-zero column width in pixels, or hidden if their width is zero.
It is possible to redefine the order of the columns in the directory browser. This will also change
the order of the fields in the case report (i.e. in report tables), on print cover pages, in exported
file listings, and the Export/Copy log. You can select a column for relocation by clicking its radio
button. Then use the vertical scrollbar that appears at the top. You can reset the column order to
the default one by right-clicking that scrollbar.
3.3.4 Filters
The following can be dynamically filtered out (by choosing to not list it):
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Existing files. Useful if you are merely interested in previously existing files (which could
reside in existing directories).
Previously existing files and directories.
Tagged files and directories.
Half tagged files and directories (that contain at least 1 tagged and at least 1 untagged
file).
Untagged files and directories.
Files that are marked as already viewed.
Files that are not marked as already viewed.
Excluded files and directories (marked as excluded in the volume snapshot).
Files and directories that are not excluded.
You may also activate filters based on criteria such as filenames, file type categories, attributes,
or hash set. Whenever an active filter actually filters out files or directories in the directory
browser, this is flagged with a blue filter icon in the directory browser's header line, and you will
be informed of how many items exactly have been omitted from the list. You also have the
option, by clicking the icons for "open file"/"save file" on the right-hand side of the caption line
of the directory browser, to store filter and sort settings in a separate file and load them again at
any time. Such files are given the extension ".settings". Note that it is not guaranteed that
19
different versions of the software can load each other’s settings.
Below the filter options in the lower left corner you will find a button in this dialog box that
allows to undo the exclusion of all files and directories in the volume snapshot of the evidence
object in the active data window. To selectively include files, make sure they are not filtered out.
Then you can include them with a context menu command after selecting them.
There is another button that allows to totally remove excluded items from the volume snapshot if
irrelevant/not needed, in particular meaningless garbage files found via a file header signature
search. This will render the volume snapshot smaller, i.e. more efficient to handle, and save main
memory. Useful also if you would like X-Ways Forensics to find certain files once again via a
file header signature search, but for example list them with a different default file size if the
originally specified default file size proved inadequate. The removal operation is faster if you
delete seach hits prior to executing it. As part of the removal, internal IDs are shuffled, so they do
not indicate any more the order in which items were added to the volume snapshot. Excluded
items that have non-excluded child objects are not removed. It is highly recommended to work
with a copy of your case when using this functionality, e.g. produced with the Save As command.
Whenever one or more filters are active that actually filter out items in the currently displayed
directory browser, there are two blue filter symbols in the directory browser's caption line. They
point out that your current view is incomplete because of active files, and they also allow you to
deactivate all filters with a single mouse click, to ensure you are not missing any file when you
no longer want the filter. You can activate or deactivate column-based filters individually with a
single mouse click on the column header's filter symbol when holding the Shift key. The options
of the respective filter remain unchanged in this case.
The filters have been given some "intelligence" when navigating from a parent file to a child file
or vice-versa, so that the filters "know" when it's a good time to be turned off.
For example:
- If you are using a filter to focus on all extracted e-mail messages recursively, and then you
double-click an individual e-mail message to have a look at its attachments in the directory
browser, the filter is automatically deactivated, so that you can actually see these attachments. A
simple click on the Back button returns to the previous point of exploration and restores the
previous filter settings and the last selection, so that you can easily continue reviewing the next email message!
- If you are using a filter to focus on videos or documents, and then you double-click a video or a
document to see the video stills exported for that video or the embedded pictures in that
document, respectively, the filter is automatically deactivated, too.
- When you are viewing video stills only, in a gallery, and you use the Backspace key or "Find
parent object" menu command to navigate to the video that this still belongs to (e.g. in order to
play that video), then any active filters will be turned off so that the video can actually be listed.
A simple click on the Back button returns to the previous overview of stills, enables the previous
filters again, and restores the last selected item, so that you can easily continue with the next still!
- This works analogously when systematically looking at e-mail attachments, if occasionally for
relevant attachments you would like to view the containing e-mail message (and e.g. print it or
include it in a report) and then return to the list of attachments.
For more information about column-based filters, please see the description of the respective column.
20
3.3.5 Columns and Column-based Filters
Most filters and several columns are available with a forensic license only.
Name
Name of the listed file or directory and (only with a forensic license, only for
directories and files with child objects) in parentheses in a different color optionall
the total number of contained files in the volume snapshot. Allows to filter based on
one or multiple filename masks, one per line. This filter is useful if you have a list
of relevant filenames or keywords and want to find out quickly whether files with
such names are present.
There are two different ways how to use the Name filter. The first way is to match
certain expressions against the full name. The expressions may contain asterisks
(wildcards), like *.jpg. Up to two asterisks are allowed per mask if they are located
at the beginning and the end of it. You may exclude files using file masks that start
with a colon (:). Example: All files with names that start with the letter "A", but do
not contain the word "garden": A* in one line and :*garden* in another. When
multiple positive file mask expressions are used, they are combined with a logical
OR, negative expressions (:) with a logical AND.
If the "Substring search in filename" option is active, then all the rules above do not
apply. Instead, a search is run within the filenames for the specified characters or
optionally GREP expressions. For example, just type "invoice" to find files whose
filename contains the word invoice, not "*invoice*". For an explanation of GREP
notation please see Search Options. The anchor $ does not work in this context.
The amount of text that can be pasted into the Name filter has been extended to 2
million characters in v17.7 (30,000 before). That doesn't mean that X-Ways
Forensics can efficiently use a filter with many ten thousands of characters or more.
When in doubt, use the "Match against full name" option, not the substring search,
for better performance.
If an original name is found for a file in the Windows recycle bin or in an iPhone
backup during metadata extraction, that name is displayed in the Name column with
the current unique name in square brackets. The current unique name is now also
shown in square brackets in the case report. Both names are targeted by the Name
filter.
The header of the Name column allows to quickly tag or untag all listed items with
a single mouse click. It also indicates whether among the listed items are any
tagged or untagged items.
Ext.
Filename extension. The part of the filename that follows the last dot, if any, except
if the last dot is the very first character (not uncommon in the Unix/Linux world).
Type
(Forensic license only.) File type. If the header signature of a file was not
specifically checked (see Refine Volume Snaphot), this is merely a repetition of the
filename extension and displayed in gray. Otherwise, if the file signature
21
verification revealed the true nature of the file, a typical extension of that type will
be output. That extension will be displayed in black if it is still the same as the
actual extension of the file, or in blue if the actual extension does not match the
type of the file. A convenient filter can be activated based on this column. In the
filter dialog you can select individual file types or entire categories. You can load
and save your selection. There are buttons that allow to expand or collapse all
categories at once. Expanding all categories can be useful if you would like to
quickly find a certain file type by typing its letters while the tree view window has
the input focus.
Please note that collisions among file type designations become apparent when
selections for the file type filter are loaded from .settings files or cases. For example
if you had originally selected "mmf" = "MailMessage File" (category e-mail), then
you will find that "mmf" is also selected as "Yamaha SMAF" (category
Sound/Music). This is normal and does not change what the Type filter does. When
in doubt, the Type filter also includes other types with the same designation, to
avoid that anything is overlooked.
Type status
(Forensic license only.) The status of the Type column. Initially “not verified”.
After verifying file types based on signatures (as part of refining the volume
snapshot or viewing files in preview or gallery mode): If a file is very small (less
than 8 bytes), the status is “irrelevant”. If neither the extension nor the signature is
known to the file type signature database, the status is “not in list”. If the signature
matches the extension according to the database, the status is “confirmed”. If the
extension is referenced in the database, yet the signature is unknown, the status is
“not confirmed”. If the signature matches a certain file type in the database,
however the extension matches a different file type or there is no extension at all,
the status is “newly identified”. Filter available.
Additionally, this column may contain a hint about the consistency of the format of
files of various supported types as either “OK” or “corrupt”, for carved files
perhaps immediately, for other files perhaps after file type verification or metadata
extraction have taken place.
For an explanation of file type ranks and groups please see the description of File
Type Categories.txt.
Type
description
Displays the name of the application that a file type belongs to, what the filename
extension stands for, etc. as specified in File Type Categories.txt. If the same
extension occurs multiple times in the definition file, all its meanings are listed. For
example, .pm could be a Perl module, a PageMaker document, or Pegasus file, or an
X11 Pixmap file. (forensic license only)
Category
File type category corresponding to the file type, according to the definition in “File
Type Categories.txt” (see below). Filter available. If the same file type/extension is
defined multiple times, belonging to different categories, only one category for this
file type will be displayed. The category filter works nonetheless. The category
filter can be activated using a popup menu. In that popup menu you can also see
statistics about the how many files of each category are currently listed in the
22
directory browser (or would be listed if the category filter was turned off).
Evidence
object
The name of the evidence object that the file or directory is part of. Useful in a
recursive case root listing, i.e. when the directory browser shows all files of all
evidence objects. (forensic license only)
Path
Path of the file or directory, starting with a backward slash, based on a volume's
root. Filter available. The filter expressions are interpreted as substrings that can
match any part of the path, so no wildcards are needed or supported.
Parent
name,
Child
objects
Both columns come with filters. The filter for child object allows you for example
to quickly find all e-mails that have an attachment with a certain name. The filter
for parent name for example allows you to quickly find all attachments that were
attached to e-mail with a subject that contains certain words. Note that filters for the
columns Name, Parent name, and Child objects share the same settings and are
mutually exclusive (cannot be active at the same time, one will deactivate the
other). (forensic license only)
Size
Logical size of the file (i.e. size without slack) or physical size of a directory.
Physical file size and valid data length (for files stored in an NTFS file system) can
be seen in the Info Pane in File mode instead. If recursive selection statistics are
enabled, with a forensic license the size of a directory is the total size of all the files
directly or indirectly contained in that directory, otherwise the size of the data
structures of the directory. Filter available.
Created
The date and time the file or directory was created on the volume it resides on. Not
available on Linux filesystems.
Modified
The date and time the file or directory was last modified. On FAT, time precision is
2-second intervals only. On CDFS, the only available date and time stamp is listed
in this column altough it does not necessarily indicate last modification. Filter
available.
Accessed
The date and time the file or directory was last read or otherwise accessed. NTFS
last access timestamps are displayed in gray if identical to the creation timestamp,
as that on most systems likely means that these timestamps are simply not
maintained, for performance reasons, and thus not very significant. On FAT, only
the date is recorded. Filter available.
Record
changed
The date and time the file's or directory's FILE record (on NTFS) or inode (Linux
filesystems) was last modified. These are filesystem data structures that contain the
file's meta data. Filter available.
Deleted
The date and time the file or directory was deleted. Available generally on Linux
filesystems and possibly on NTFS (after a particular thorough file system data
structure search and viewing/previewing the $UsnJrnl:$J file on the volume, if there
is any). Not to be confused with so-called deletion timestamps that other forensic
tools may show you on NTFS volumes, for files that have not even been deleted
from the file system. Filter available.
Content
created
Creation timestamp that can be extracted from the internally stored metadata in
various file types (see context menu command), as put there by the program that
created the file. Internal timestamps are usually less volatile and can be more
23
difficult to manipulate than file system level timestamps. They are useful for
example for corroboration. Filter available. (forensic license only)
Timestamp columns designated with a superscript 2 (specialist license or higher) contain
alternative timestamps. In the case of NTFS these values are taken from 0x30 attributes and
represent previously valid timestamps from when a file was last renamed or moved, or possibly
before some backdating operation occurred. Backdating operations are often applied by setup
programs and also Windows itself (the infamous creation timestamp tunnelling effect, cf.
http://support.microsoft.com/kb/172190), and of course potentially by ordinary application
programs as well as by users for various legitimate or less noble purposes. Note that these
columns are populated only if these previously valid timestamps are actually different from their
current counterparts, and additionally Modified² and Record changed² only if different from
Created², to avoid cluttering the screen unnecessarily with redundant information. That means any
² timestamps that you see there actually contain additional information and are not redundant.
Created² is also populated for HFS+ file systems, with the relatively new "Added date" timestamp
from Mac OS X Lion and later as well as iOS, where available and if different from the regular
Created date. That timestamp specifies when a file was added to the particular directory in which
it is contained, even if originally created earlier.
The combined filter for all the timestamp columns allows to filter for certain date ranges (typical
application) or for mere times, matching any possible date. For example if you are interested in
unusual activity occurring in the middle of the night when the rightful office computer user is not
working, you could filter for times such as between 22:00:00 and 05:59:59 (on a 24-hour clock).
Obviously, selecting the right local time zone for the timestamp filter is crucial for this.
Please note that for FAT volumes, all timestamps are displayed as they are stored, in local time
(they are not adjusted). For all other file systems the time zone concept applies.
Timestamps in the normal directory browser that meet the timestamp filter condition are
highlighted. Timestamps in an event list that are identical to the event timestamp are also
highlighted.
Attr.
DOS/Windows attributes on FAT/NTFS filesystems, Unix/Linux permissions and
filemode on Unix/Linux/Mac filesystems, plus some proprietary symbols that are
explained in the legend (forensic license only) and in topic 2.9.
“Partial initialization” means that according to the file system (NTFS or exFAT) the
so-called valid data length is smaller than the logical file size, i.e. the data at the end
of the file is undefined, similar to file slack has nothing to do with the file, and was
stored on the disk at that location before. You can see the valid data length of the
file in File mode in the Info Pane, and the undefined area is highlighted in a
different color.
When sorting by the Attr. column, files with “more interesting” attributes are listed
first, e.g. attributes that indicate encryption, and files without any attributes set or
24
whose attributes are unknown are listed last.
Filter available.
1st sector
The number of the sector that contains the beginning file the file's or directory's
data. Sorting by 1st sectors means to sort by physical location on the disk and will
show files next to each other, that are physically stored near to each other.. A filter
is available, which allows to focus on files whose contents start in certain sector
ranges, for example to identify files that are definitely affected by known bad
sectors or to identify files whose contents are stored past the end of a known
incomplete image. Remember that optionally you can see physical (disk-based)
sector numbers here instead of logical (partition-based) sector numbers if so
desired, see Directory Browser Options. The filter also allows to focus on carved
files that are either aligned at sector boundaries or not, for example after having run
a file header signature search at the byte level, to remove garbage files, which are
more frequent among files that are not aligned.
ID
The identifier assigned to the file or directory by the file system or by WinHex. Not
necessarily unique. A filter is available, which makes it more convenient to find
other hard links of a given file.
Int. ID
The unique internal identifier of a file or directory in the volume snapshot. Items
added to a volume snapshot last have the highest identifiers. Filter available. Useful
for example and very easy to use if you would like to focus on the x files that were
added to the volume snapshot last (after having refined it) or if you would like to
resume a logical search with internal ID y (filtering out files that may have already
been searched before).
For evidence objects that contain a huge number of files, the modulo option allows
you to focus on a subset of files that is more or less representative of all files
(though less random than files listed first when sorting by hash value). Applying the
modulo operation to the internal ID will pick files from any directory, with any
name, creation date etc. To see only 1,000 out of 100,000 files, i.e. every 100th file,
use the operation "internal ID modulo 100 = 0". Also useful for testing purposes: If
you wish to compare the performance of different hard disks, RAID systems,
processors, configurations for volume snapshot refinements, you don't have to
process all files in an evidence object. You can get quicker, yet likely representative
results for example in 1/10 of the time if you only process every 10th file, pseudorandomly selected by internal ID.
Even for normal work, examiners may not be required by their bosses/their
prosecutor to conduct a 100% complete examination, for example if after review of
a reasonably sized and representative subset you can extrapolate that about 10% of
several 10,000 photos is illegal material.
Int. parent
The unique internal identifier of the parent directory of a file or directory in the
volume snapshot. Useful e.g. when exporting files and directories and there are
multiple directories with the same name in the same path (e.g. one existing, one
deleted), so that via the internal parent ID you can tell which file resided in which
directory even if the path is ambigous.
25
Unique ID
An internal identifier of a file or directory that is unique within the entire case, not
just within the volume snapshot of one evidence object, and unique for the whole
life time of the case. When creating a new case, you have a choice between easily
readable unique IDs that contain a delimiter (separating evidence object ID and int.
ID) or a completely numeric ID (which may be better usable for some external
programs when exporting a list of files). (forensic license only)
Owner
The ID of the owner of the file or directory, on file systems that record that
information. On NTFS it's the SID, or, if X-Ways Forensics can resolve it to a
username with the help of the SAM registry files already encountered while
working with the case, the username. (forensic license only) Filter available.
Author
Shows the names of the authors of documents of various types (MS Office,
OpenOffice/LibreOffice, RTF, PDF, ...), after metadata extraction. (forensic license
only)
Sender,
Recipient
These columns are populated for e-mail messages and attachments extracted by XWays Forensics from e-mail archives, plus for original .eml files if metadata has
been extracted from them. They come with filters. that allow you to enter any part
of an e-mail address or name to search for certain e-mail messages. The filter
expression is interpreted as a substring, so no wildcards are needed or supported.
(forensic license only)
Link count
The hard link count of the file or directory, i.e. how often it is referenced by a
directory. (forensic license only)
A hard link that just provides a short filename (SFN) to satisfy the legacy 8.3
requirements of old Microsoft DOS/Windows versions is not counted as a hard link.
Instead, such files get their hard link count marked with a ° in the Links column of
the directory browser. That way, the hard link count more accurately reflects the
hard links actually present in the volume snapshot of X-Ways Forensics, and
normal files always have a count of 1, whereas 2 or more means something more
special. If the hard link count is grayed out, that designates files that will be
optionally omitted during a logical search to avoid unnecessary duplicate search
efforts and duplicate search hits.
File count
The total number of files contained in a directory or in a file with child objects, in
the volume snapshot, recursively, i.e. inclusive of further subdirectories. This
number can also be found in the name column in parenthesis (depending on the
settings). Computed only with a forensic license.
Term count
The number of search terms (not search hits) that have been found in a file. This
takes into account all search terms ever used in simultaneous searches in a case, not
for only the search terms that may have been selected in the search term list, unless
you have deleted search hits. You can sort by this column to get files listed first that
are likely more relevant (because they contain more of the search terms that you
were looking for). This column is populated only for evidence objects of a case.
(forensic license only)
Search
terms
Lists up to 25 of the search terms found in a file, those that are counted in the
preceding column. Useful to get an idea of the search hits in a file even in the
26
normal directory browser, without the need to switch to a search hit list. (forensic
license only) Filter available, which is not limited to the 25 search terms displayed
in this column.
Page count
The page count is extracted from PDF and some Office file types as part of
metadata extraction and shown in this column. (forensic license only)
Pixels
The roughly rounded dimensions of a picture in thousand pixels (KP) or million
pixels (MP, megapixels), as the result of width times height, for efficiency reasons
stored as a very low precision value. The dimensions are computed simultaneously
with skin color percentages, plus when viewing pictures (full-screen mode, preview
mode, or in the gallery). Allows to easily distinguish between e.g. small browser
cache garbage graphics and high-quality digital photos, with the associated filter,
which allows you to focus on pictures with less or equal to the number of pixels that
you specify or more or equal or both at the same time. (Works only approximately
because of the low precision storage of pixel numbers.) Once at least 1 video still
has been exported from a video file, the approximate resolution of the video can
also be seen in this column. (forensic license only)
SC%
Skin color percentage. Available after refining the volume snapshot. Indicates the
degree pictures are composed of skin tones. Sorting or filtering by this column is
the most efficient way to discover traces of e.g. child pornography or search for
scanned documents (gray scale or black and white pictures). (forensic license only)
Hash
The file's hash value, if computed. Filter available with a specialist and forensic
license. Allows to filter for files that have a hash value, do not have a hash value,
whose hash values start with certain hex values (if you specify only the beginning
of a hash value) or have a certain value (if you specify a complete hash value). This
filter can compare the hash values of files to up to 4 hash values that the user
supplies as hex ASCII. Quicker alternative to creating a small hash set in the hash
database if you just wish to quickly find a few files, e.g. duplicates of files with a
known hash value that you can just copy from the hash column in the directory
browser.
The easiest way to use this filter when looking for duplicates of a file, which does
not require copy & paste of hash values, is to right-click a hash value of a given file
in the directory browser in hex ASCII notation (not Base32) and invoke the new
"Filter by" command in the context menu.
The Hash column displays pseudo-hash values in light gray color until real hash
values have been computed. Pseudo-hash values are based on the file metadata, not
on the file contents. They are available instantly even for very large files. They
allow you to list files in a random order just like when you sort by real hash values,
but without having to invest time to compute real hash values first. Useful for
example for triage, if you have limited time and just wish to quickly look at some
randomly selected files in a large evidence object first (e.g. pictures in a gallery) to
determine how relevant an evidence object might be.
Looking at files in a random order might give you a more complete and accurate
impression of what is stored in an evidence object, because the first x% of the files
27
listed are more varied and more representative of the evidence object as a whole if
they are in a truly random order. If you sort by name or path or size or timestamps
on the other hand, many of the files you see will likely be somewhat similar
(created by the same application or by the operating system, by the same user, for a
similar purpose, created or copied or received around the same time, same file
format, ...), so with some bad luck you will only see irrelevant files even if there is
an equally large group of relevant files. Remember that if you don't sort in the
directory browser at all, the view is skewed as well, because you will see the files in
the order in which they are referenced by the volume snapshot, which is more or
less the order in which they are referenced by the file system and thus not random.
Sorting by hash values can be combined with any filter, for example to see only
pictures larger than 1 MB in a random order or only files of a certain user. Pseudohashes are not guaranteed to be unique or even remain the same when you close and
re-open the evidence object.
Hash set
In the internal hash database, the name of the hash set that the file's hash value, if
available, belongs to. Note that this is only the name of a single hash set even if the
hash value is contained in multiple hash sets in the hash database. Filter available.
(forensic license only)
Hash
category
The category of the hash set that the file's hash value, if available, belongs to. Either
"irrelevant", "notable", or blank. Filter available. (forensic license only)
Report
table
The name(s) of the report table(s) that the file or directory has been assigned to.
Filter available. If the parent file of a file has been assigned to one or more report
tables by the user, then this is pointed out in the "Report table" column for the child
object as well, in light gray color and with an arrow, except if the child object has
report table associations itself. Reminds the user that the parent was reviewed and
marked as relevant already, which can spare him or her the extra step of navigating
to the parent again. (forensic license only)
Comment
The free text comment that may have been assigned to the file or directory by the
examiner. Filter available. (forensic license only)
Metadata
Metadata that can be extracted from files of various types with the context menu.
Filter available. (forensic license only)
Additional columns for search hit lists: Physical/absolute offset, logical/relative offset,
description on the nature of the search hit (code page/Unicode, whether in decoded text, whether
in file slack), search hit with context preview. If the logical relative offset is printed in gray, that
means the search hit was found in the decoded text and the offset is not an offset in the file, but in
the decoded text.
Additional columns for event lists: Timestamp, event type, event type category, description.
3.4 Mode Buttons
When examining a logical drive, partition, or image file with a file system supported by WinHex,
28
there are several buttons that determine the display in the lower half of the window, below the
directory browser. Forensic licenses only.
Disk/Partition/Volume/Container
Previously labeled “Sectors”, this default view shows the binary data in all sectors of the disk/
partition/volume/container represented by the active data window as hexadecimal code, as text,
or both. Offsets and sector numbers are relative to the start of the respective
disk/partition/volume/ container.
File
Looks similar to Disk/Partition/Volume/Container mode, but shows only the clusters allocated to
the file or directory that is currently selected in the directory browser, in the order as used by the
file, defragmented if fragmented, decompressed if compressed, with offsets relative to the
beginning of the file. When switching from File mode to Partition/Volume mode, X-Ways
Forensics will automatically point you to the offset from the point of view of the partition/volume
that is equivalent to the offset within the file where the cursor was positioned last, even if the file
is fragmented, if there is an equivalent position (not if the file is a compressed or virtual attached
file or an extracted e-mail message or an exported video still etc.).
Preview
Checks the type of the file currently selected in the directory browser and displays the file with
the help of the separate viewer component, except if the viewer component is not active or if it's a
picture (supported file types see Gallery below) and the viewer component should not be used for
pictures. Even incomplete pictures (e.g. files incompletely recovered because of fragmention) can
usually be displayed partially. If the viewer component is not active and the file is not a picture in
one of the supported formats, a rudimentary ASCII text extract from the beginning of the file is
displayed.
Details
Contains all the information on a single selected file from all the directory browser columns,
including those that are not currently visible. Very useful for example if the path is very long and
does not fit on the screen in the path column, maybe not even in the path tooltip display. Also
allows to easily copy the filename or file path or selected other data to the clipboard.
The Details mode also shows NTFS file permissions (stored in access control lists, ACLs). Each
element has typically the property "Grant" or "Deny" and an SID to which the permission
applies. The SID is translated into a friendly name if possible. The permission itself is either R =
Read Permission, C = Change Permission, Full Control or Special Access. For a Special Access
right, all individual rights are listed. For each permission there can be two inheritance flags:
container inherit (CI), object inherit (OI) or two propagation flags: inherit only (IO), nopropagate inherit (NP). Usually the final list element is the group membership property.
The Details mode also extracts some essential internal metadata from OLE2 compound files (e.g.
pre-2007 MS Office documents), MS Office 2007 XML, OpenOffice XML, StarOffice XML,
HTML, MS Access, MDI, PDF, RTF, WRI, AOL PFC, ASF, WMV, WMA, MOV, MP4, 3GP,
M4V, M4A, JPEG, BMP, EXE/DLL, JIDX (Java applet cache), THM, TIFF, GIF, PNG, GZ,
29
ZIP, PF, IE cookies, DMP memory dumps, hiberfil.sys, PNF, SHD & SPL printer spool,
RecentFilecache.bcf, WIM Vista image files, PhotoShop PSD, INDD (Adobe InDesign),
DocumentSummary alternate data streams, tracking.log, .mdb MS Access database,
manifest.mbdx/mbdb iPhone backup, IconCache.db. For MS Office documents, you will often
see many more timestamps (e.g. Last Printed), subject, author, organization, keywords, total edit
time, and much more.
Gallery
Checks the file signature of all the files in the currently visible portion of the directory browser.
If found to be a picture, a thumbnail is displayed, otherwise a brief summary (filename, size,
signature). By scrolling in the directory browser, the gallery view scrolls as well. You may
switch the directory even while the thumbnails are still loading. By double-clicking a thumbnail,
you get a full-size view of a picture, where you may zoom in and out using the keys + and -.
Even incomplete pictures (e.g. file incompletely recovered because of fragmention) can usually
be displayed partially. Supported picture file types: JPEG, PNG, GIF, TIFF, BMP, PSD, HDR,
PSP, SGI, PCX, CUT, PNM/PBM/PGM/PPM, ICO. The gallery does not go together very well
with search hit lists.
Calendar
Gives a convenient visual overview of the timestamps of all listed files/directories, from all 6
timestamp columns of the directory browser, in the form of a calendar, or when in event list
mode a similar overview of all listed event timestamps. Each day with at least one time stamp is
marked in the calendar with a gray color. The more activity on a day, the darker the color.
Weekends (Saturdays and Sundays) are specially marked with x. Hover the mouse over a day to
find out how many timestamps exactly fall into that day. Left-click a day to select that day as the
left boundary of the timestamp filter, or right-click it to define it as a right boundary. Middleclick a day to filter for timestamps on that particular day only. If the same file is listed more than
once (which can happen in a search hit list if it contains more than 1 search hit), then its
timestamps are also represented more than once in the calendar.
When not showing events, you can now decide which column's timestamp should be included in
the calendar. Columns that are hidden (have a width of 0 pixels) are excluded, all other columns
are included. The status bar reminds you which columns are included even if not currently visible
because of horizontal scrolling.
Years in the calendar with no timestamps are grayed out. The number of a year is displayed in a
darker shade of gray the more timestamps are listed for that. All shades of gray try to give the
examiner a better and quicker impression of peaks or absence of activity.
Example: During which period of time were most JPEG files processed on a volume? Right-click
the root directory in the directory tree (case data window) to recursively list all files from all
subdirectories, then use the file type filter to limit the view to JPEG files, enable the calendar
view.
Raw
30
In Preview mode, in conjunction with the viewer component, Raw mode renders the file as plain
text. This can be useful for example for HTML files to see the HTML source code, for .eml files
to the see complete e-mail header, and generally when in search hit list mode the viewer
component cannot highlight a search hit in Preview mode (because then it might contained in
metadata or control code that would be represented in raw Preview mode, but not normal Preview
mode). You can make Raw preview mode persistent by holding the Shift key when activating
Raw mode.
Sync
Synchronizes the directory browser and the directory tree in that when in a recursive view you
select a file in the directory browser, its parent directory will be highlighted. Also when clicking
the Sync button, unless the volume snapshot was created without cluster allocation information
(see Security Options), the file that occupies the currently displayed sector in Volume/Partition
mode will be automatically selected.
Exploration Mode
Button with a curly turquoise arrow. Toggles between normal and recursive exploration of a
directory. When exploring recursively, you do not only see the contents of the current directory,
but also the contents of all its subdirectories and their subdirectories, and so forth. To explore a
directory recursively, you may also right-click it in the directory tree.
Multi-monitor support
It is possible to detach the lower half of a data window (with Disk/Partition/Volume mode, File
mode, Preview, Gallery etc.) from the data window, by clicking the three dots that are located left
to the mode buttons. After that, you can freely move and resize it on the screen. On multi-monitor
this allows you to have that part of the user interface on a separate screen and even maximize it
there. Reintegrating it into the main window is done by clicking the same three dots again or by
clicking the Minimize button.
3.5 Status Bar
The status bar displays the following information about a file:
1. Number of current page and total number of pages (disk editor: sectors)
2. Current position (offset)
3. Decimal translation of the hex values at the current position
4. Beginning and end of the current block (if currently defined)
5. Size of current block in bytes (ditto)
Click the status bar cells in order to...
1. Move to another page/sector,
2. Move to another offset,
3. Define the integer type for decimal translation and
31
4. Define the block.
Right-click the status bar in order to copy pieces of information from the status bar into the
clipboard.
Right-clicking the 2nd status bar field allows switching between absolute (default) and relative
offset presentation. This is useful when examining data that consists of records of a fixed length.
After specifying the record length in bytes, the status bar displays the current record number and
the relative offset therein.
Right-clicking the 3rd status bar field allows copying the four hex values at the current position in
reverse order into the clipboard. This is useful for following pointers.
3.6 Data Interpreter
The Data Interpreter is a small window that offers possible translations for the data at the current
cursor position. Whether it is shown or not can be controlled via the View menu, not with the
options of the data interpreter. Contrary to popular belief among some WinHex users, it totally
disregards any block if selected and always interprets from the byte where the cursor is. The
options dialog lets you specify the data types to interpret. These are various integer data types (by
default in decimal notation, optionally hexadecimal or octal), the binary format (8, 16 or 32 bits
of a byte), four floating-point data types, assembler opcodes (Intel®), and date types.
The Data Interpreter can interpret UNIX/C, Java/BlackBerry/Android and Mac Absolute
timestamps stored as decimal ASCII text instead of in binary. You will find a context menu item
for that as well as a checkbox in the options dialog. The Data Interpreter optionally translates
timestamps of all formats except MS-DOS date & time to local time (the time zone defined in the
General Options). You will find a context menu item for that as well as a checkbox in the option
dialog.
The Data Interpreter is also capable of translating most data types back into hex values. Make
sure a file is open in an edit mode other than read-only mode, enter a new value in the Data
Interpreter, and press ENTER. The Data Interpreter will then enter the corresponding hex values
into the edit window at the current cursor position.
Right-click the data interpreter to bring up a context menu. This will let you switch between bigendian and little-endian translation of integer and floating-point data. You may also choose
between decimal, octal, or hexadecimal integer representation. See the Data Interpreter Options
for more settings.
The decomposition of V1 GUIDs into timestamp, sequence number and MAC address in the Data
Interpreter as well as in templates is optional. In the Data Interpreter options you can now choose
to force the decomposition (fully checked) or prevent it (to always get the standard GUID
notation is braces) or to see the decomposition only if the timestamp is not too implausible (half
checked). The latter setting is helpful for example for Apple GPT values that claim to be V1
GUIDs, but contain twisted ASCII text instead of valid timestamps.
32
Hints:
• Some hex values cannot be translated into floating-point numbers. For these hex values the
Data Interpreter displays NAN (not a number).
• Some hex values cannot be translated into valid dates. The value ranges of different date types
are more or less narrow.
• There are redundancies in the Intel® instruction set, which show up in the Data Interpreter as
duplication of both hex opcodes and mnemonics. Floating-point instructions are generally
displayed as F***. More detailed reference can be found in the Intel® Architecture Software
Developer’s Manual Volume 2: Instruction Set Reference, available in PDF format on the
Internet.
3.7 Position Manager
The Position Manager maintains a list of file or disk offsets and corresponding descriptions, also
called annotations. It is also used for search hits when not working with a case, but much less
powerful than a search hit list. Navigating from one entry to the next is easy if you press
Ctrl+Left and Ctrl+Right. You may enter new positions and edit or delete existing entries. If a
special offset in a file is important to you, you can add it to the Position Manager. This makes it a
lot easier to find it again later, and you do not have to remember it. Descriptions may be up to
8192 characters in size. An appropriate description for instance could be “Data chunk begins
here!”. Optionally all positions maintained by the Position Manager can be highlighted in the
editor window in a unique color you specify, and their descriptions displayed in yellow tooltip
windows when the mouse cursor is moved over them. You may also add or edit positions with
the context menu of an edit window or by clicking the middle mouse button in an edit window.
Click the right mouse button in order to see a context menu in the Position Manager. The context
menu provides additional commands. You may delete, load or save positions, even export the list
as HTML. If the position list in the general Position Manager was changed, it is saved in the file
WinHex.pos when exiting WinHex, so that they are still available in the next session. Only search
hits are not permanently saved, unless they have been edited via the context menu.
The complete documentation of the POS file format is available from the WinHex homepage at
http://www.x-ways.net/winhex/.
3.8 Useful Hints
• Menu commands that affect individual, selected items in the directory browser or in a search
hit or bookmark list can be found in the context menu that opens when you right-click such
items. You won't find such commands in the main menu.
• Use the mouse buttons as follows to define the block (if the context menu is switched off):
• Double-clicking left sets the block beginning.
• Single-clicking right sets the block end.
33
• Double-clicking the right button clears the block.
• You may want to define the block using the keyboard (SHIFT+arrow keys or ALT+1 and
ALT+2).
• Use the TAB key to switch between hexadecimal and text mode.
• Use the INS key to switch between insert and overwrite mode.
• ENTER displays the Start Center.
• ESC aborts the current operation if any, otherwise clears the block, dismisses an active dialog
or template window.
• PAUSE stops or continues the current operation.
• F11 repeats the last Go To Offset command. CTRL+F11 works in the opposite direction (from
the current position).
• ALT++ is a variant of the Go To Offset command specifically to jump a certain number of
sectors down.
• ALT+- is another variant specifically to jump a certain number of sectors up.
• SHIFT+F7 switches between three character sets.
• (SHIFT+)ALT+F11 repeats the last Move Block command.
• CTRL+SHIFT+M invokes an open evidence object's annotations.
• ALT+F2 recalculates the auto-hash (checksum or digest) after a file was modified.
• ALT+LEFT and ALT+RIGHT allow for switching between records within a template (just as
the "<" and ">" buttons). ALT+HOME and ALT+END access the first and the last record,
respectively.
• ALT+G moves the cursor in the edit window to the current template position and closes the
template window.
• CTRL+F9 opens the Access button menu (disk edit windows only).
• Ability to specify how cooperative X-Ways Forensics behaves during long operations (e.g.
hashing, searching) when competing with other processes for CPU time, by pressing Shift+
Ctrl+F5. 0 is the default setting (not specially cooperative). You could try values like 10,
25, 50, or 100 (maximum willingness to share CPU time) e.g. if X-Ways Forensics is
executed simultaneously by different users on the same server, for a fairer distribution of
CPU time.
• WinHex accepts filenames specified in the command line and is drag-and-drop capable.
• Use scripts to make your work with WinHex more efficient.
• You can specify the name of a script as a command line parameter.
• “Invalid input”: When clicking OK in a dialog box and getting the “Invalid input” error, pay
attention to what control item in the dialog box is blinking, as the value in that item is the one
that is not accepted.
• Switch from hexadecimal to decimal offset presentation by clicking the offset numbers.
• Try clicking the status bar cells (left and right mouse button).
4
Menu Reference
Note: Commands in the main menu (File, Edit, Search, ...) always apply to the active data
window as a whole (which e.g. represents an open file or an open disk), or to files/disks that are
still to be specified by the user. They never apply to the file(s) currently selected in the directory
34
browser. That’s what the directory browser context menu is there for.
4.1 Directory Browser Context Menu
The directory browser context menu allows the user to directly interact with the currently
selected files/directories, notably not the tagged items. There are a number of menu commands
which are available depending on the selected items. Double-clicking files and directories will,
depending on the circumstances, either invoke “View”, “Explore” or the associated external
program.
View
This command allows viewing the selected file with WinHex' internal viewers for Windows
Registry files and various graphical file formats. If the separate viewer component that comes
with X-Ways Forensics is active, all other files are sent to that viewer. If it is not, the first
installed external program will be called instead. Exceptions to all of the above are files beyond 2
GB in size and NTFS system files. These are always opened as data windows.
When viewing a file in a separate window, you may press (Ctrl+) Page Dn/Up to close the
window and view the next file in the directory browser in a new window. If a View window
displays a picture and viewing pictures if limited to one picture at a time, that window will be
updated when you press the cursor keys in the gallery. Useful especially on a spanned desktop, if
the View window is centered on the second monitor and if the gallery is on the first monitor.
Avoids having to press the Enter key to view the picture and another key to close the View
window to get the input focus back to the gallery.
Explore
Only available for directories and archives (ZIP, RAR, TAR...), this command allows navigating
into them within the directory browser. Double-clicking archives or directories does the same. A
command that allows listing the contents of directories as well as their subdirectories at the same
time can be found in the directory tree's context menu instead (in the Case Data window,
"Explore recursively").
Viewer Programs
Allows to send the selected file(s) to one of the external programs currently configured or the
file's associated program in the current Windows installation. This association is determined
based on file extension as is usual within Windows.
You also have the option to open files in an external program that you select ad hoc. The program
that you select will be saved as a standard custom viewer program if you have not used all slots
for external viewer programs yet, and then also remembered for next time when you invoke the
same menu command.
Open
35
Opens currently selected files or directories in separate data windows. Unlike File | Open, where
files can be opened just like in any other application with the help of the operating system, this is
a forensically sound operation in that it does not update any timestamps etc. because the
operating system is circumvented and the logic to read the file's contents from the correct disk
sectors is implemented in WinHex itself for various file systems. No changes can be made to files
that were opened in this fashion, however. In the case of a directory, the directory's data
structures will be opened.
Print
If the separate viewer component is active, you may select files for printing. Allows to print
multiple selected documents without interruption/the need to click somewhere after each
document, optionally along with child objects (e.g. e-mail attachments together with their
respective e-mail message).. The optional cover page contains the date and time when the print
job was started and selected meta-information, e.g. filename, path, evidence object title, file size,
description, time stamps, comments, ... The cover page is printed by X-Ways Forensics itself, the
following pages with the actual document are printed by the viewer component. Another option
is to have X-Ways Forensics print the filename and path on the first page. This option is not
bound by the same path length limitations as the header optionally printed by the viewer
component. To avoid that the path is printed twice on the first page, have either X-Ways
Forensics or the viewer component print it, not both. You can print just the cover page by
choosing to print only the pages 0 through 0 of the document or picture itself. The header line of
the cover page, which specifies which user and which program and version created the print job,
is optional. Useful if you wish to show the printout to witnesses or the suspect who should not
know the username of the examiner.
Recover/Copy
Allows to copy the selected files from their current location to a location available for a standard
Windows file dialog, e.g. out of an interpreted image file or from a local disk. This can be applied
to both existing and deleted files and directories. Illegal filename characters are filtered out.
If necessary, you can manually enter the output path by clicking the "..." button in the same line
where the path is displayed. Useful if you wish to specify a network location that Windows does
not list automatically.
Numerous extra features are available with a forensic license:
• The complete original path can optionally be recreated in the output directory, or
optionally (if half checked) only a partial path. The evidence object name becomes part of
the recreated path, too, if you either copy from within the case root or if you do not have
X-Ways Forensics default to the evidence object folder as the output directory (see case
properties). A partial path is the path starting from the currently explored directory, or
when copying from the recursively explored case root window only the evidence object
name, not the path within the evidence object.
• Overlong paths are supported (more than 260, up to 510 characters, for output path +
optional original path + original filename). You can still limit paths to the ordinary length
of 260 characters or less if you would not be able to access (e.g. view, copy or delete)
36
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
such files otherwise (because ordinary tools like the Windows Explorer do not allow
that). If the output path of a selected file exceeds the limit, the name of the is shortened
until it fits. If shortening the name does not help to stay under the specified path length
limit, the file not copied, but added to a report table, so that you can conveniently select
all the omitted files later and copy them seperately without original path if you like.
Available when copying without original path, when clicking the "..." button, is an option
to name output files after their unique ID, while preserving the filename extension.
Files that could not be copied (e.g. if path too long) are added to a report table.
The original timestamps (creation, modification, last access, if available) are re-applied to
the recovered/copied files.
Duplicate filenames will be changed to unique filenames by inserting incrementing
numbers before the extension. So if you copy all files to the same directory, even those
from different evidence object, all output filenames will be unique (and the copylog file
allows you to later find out which file was originally named how and originated from
where and which metadata it had).
The presumed correct file type of newly identified files, if different from the extension in
the original filename or if the filename does not have any extension, can optionally be
appended to the output filename. This option also has an effect when copying files to
view them with the associated program.
When working with an active case and if special logging for this command is enabled, the
copy/recovery process is documented in the file “copylog.html” or “copylog.txt”. All
available metadata and the output filename (optionally including target path) can be
recorded. The file can be created either in the _log subdirectory of the case or in the
Recover/Copy target folder. Cf. also Case Properties.
Slack space can optionally be included in the output, either as part of the file or
separately, or solely slack can be copied.
You can choose whether to also copy child objects of selected files, of any kind of child
objects (if fully checked) or only e-mail attachments (if half checked).
You can also choose whether to copy files that are filtered out.
If you have X-Ways Forensics recreate the original path for copied files, the hierarchical
location of files that are child objects of other files must be reflected appropriately, too.
And that must happen with the help of a directory, because ordinary file systems do not
support the concept that a file can contain further files, as is normal with volume
snapshots in X-Ways Forensics. However, there would be a name conflict if an artificial
directory was created with the same name as the parent file, as that parent file might be
selected for copying as well, and would of course be created in the same directory as the
aforementioned artificial directory that is needed to reflect the path of the child object.
Hence the artificial directory must be named slightly differently. It can be truncated after
a user-defined number of characters, and this is useful in particular for e-mail messages
that are named after the subject line and of course can contain attachments as child
objects, to avoid overlong paths. Also either a single suffix character of your choice is
appended (and by default that is a special Unicode character that is invisible in complete
Unicode fonts, such that the directory seems to have exactly the same name as the
corresponding parent file), or otherwise some descriptive words like " child objects" are
appended to the name (but that unfortunately increases the total path length, which all too
often exceeds common limits). If the edit box for the suffix character seems to be blank,
that is most likely because the aforementioned invisible Unicode character is in there. It
37
has a width of 0. To replace it with any other character, remove the invisible character
first, by clicking in the edit box and hitting the backspace key on your keyboard.
• Existing and deleted objects can be grouped together in separate output directories named
“Ex” and “Del”.
• Further grouping/classification of copied files in separate directories based on selected
directory browser columns is supported: description, file type, file type description, file
type category, sender, owner, hash set, hash category, report table associations, search
terms.
• If both an attachment and the corresponding e-mail message (its parent) are selected for
copying and not excluded by filters, the attachment can optionally be embedded in the
resulting output .eml file as Base64 code instead of copied separately. That facilitates
viewing the complete e-mail including attachments. To view .eml files you can use
Outlook Express, Windows Mail, Windows Live Mail or Thunderbird (all free of charge).
If certain attachments cannot be embedded, you will be informed via the Messages
window, and in such a case they will be copied separately, as if the embedding option was
not selected.
• NTFS alternative data streams (ADS) can optionally be output as ADS. By default, they
are recreated as ordinary files, to make them more easily accessible.
When using the Recover/Copy command in search hit lists, directories that contain hits are
recreated in the output folder as files, as the user likely wishes to retain the original data that
contain the actual search hit. Child objects are never copied along with their parent objects from
within a search hit list.
Export List
Requires a specialist license. Exports data about the selected items in the directory browser to a
tab-delimited text file or to an HTML file, which can be easily viewed in any web browser, also
imported and further processed e.g. in MS Excel and MS Word. A third option (except for search
hit lists) is an XML file. The list can alternatively be copied into the clipboard in the format as
chosen, for example to paste it directly into an externally edited report. The columns to export are
freely selectable. Even the search hit column can be exported, with the textual context around
each and every actual hit, where the search term itself can be visually highlighted with a yellow
background color (not recommended for output to MS Excel).
Report Table Association
for Report Tables, see above
Edit Comment
Requires a forensic license. Use this command to add a comment to an item in the directory
browser or to edit or remove an existing comment. After entering comments, you can
conveniently set the filter such that only commented items are shown or only items with specific
comments, e.g. those with a certain relevance.
Edit Metadata
38
Requires a forensic license. Allows to edit the metadata field of a file once metadata was
extracted. Useful if you wish to include selected metadata (not all extracted metadata) in a report.
Refine Volume Snapshot and Simultaneous Search in items that are selected in the directory
browser
Tag/Untag Item
Requires a forensic license. Tagging files means highlighting them visually (placing a blue
square at the beginning of a directory browser item), for various reasons, e.g. to mark them as
relevant, or memorize a position in a sorted list, or to limit volume snapshot refinements to
tagged files. Tagging is not to be confused with selecting.
Exclude/Include
You may exclude selected items or all tagged or all untagged items. If actually filtered out,
excluded files are omitted from the directory browser, the gallery view, and all commands that
can be run from the directory browser context menu. If you are only allowed to examine the
contents of certain directories, you could initially exclude all files in all other directories to
ensure that. Refining the volume snapshot can be limited to files that are not excluded. Excluded
items are actually filtered out only if the corresponding filter is enabled in the directory browser
options. If not filtered out, they are listed in gray and can be included again with the directory
browser context menu.
If you wish to review files with identical contents only once and if filenames, timestamps,
deletion status and other file system level metadata are of secondary relevance, then you can use
the command Exclude | “Identify duplicates in directory browser based on hash” to identify
duplicates among all the currently listed files (listed, not selected files!), based on hash values (if
hash values were calculated!) and exclude them. Only one file in each group of identical files will
not be excluded. Do not apply this command more than once to the same files, or else all
identical files might be excluded, depending on the sort criteria.
Special rules: When in doubt, this function chooses to keep existing (not deleted) files, and
among deleted files rather discards carved files and keeps files found via file system data
structures.
Optional special rules: Identical e-mail messages with different attachments (child objects) will
be marked as duplicates, but not excluded. Identical attachments (child objects) will be marked as
duplicates, but they will be excluded only indirectly if they are part of identical e-mail messages
and those are excluded, too. This facilitates the examination and also avoids a situation where the
parent (e-mail message) of one e-mail+attachment family and the child object (attachment) of
another family is excluded.
If later you find a relevant file for which there were duplicates and you are interested in the
duplicates, too (e.g. in their filenames, paths, or timestamps), you could create a hash set of that
files to conveniently and automatically identify all the duplicates, by matching the hash values of
all files against that particular hash set and using the hash set filter.
In search hit lists you may
1) permanently delete selected search hits,
2) permanently delete duplicate search hits. Search hits are considered duplicates if they either
39
have identical physical offsets or, if they don't have physical offsets, if their logical offsets and
the corresponding internal file IDs are the same. When in doubt, X-Ways Forensics will keep the
longer search hit (as "Smithsonian" for example is more specific than "Smith") and favors search
hits in existing files.
Navigation
The Navigation group of commands allows interactions with the currently selected file on a
generally more technical level. It allows to directly locate the data structure in the file system that
defines a file (e.g. FILE record in NTFS, inode in Ext2/Ext3/Ext4, directory entry in FAT) and
also to sort files by the offset of their defining data structures.
The Navigation menu also allows to produce a list of all the clusters allocated to the selected file
or directory. From the context menu of that list window, the cluster list can be exported to a text
file. Optionally the list can be shortened and its creation greatly accelerated by omitting clusters
in the middle of a fragment. Omissions are indicated by ellipses. This option takes effect only
when you produce a cluster list the next time.
Find parent object: Navigates to and selects the parent object of the selected object. Equivalent to
pressing the Backspace key. The child object can be an ordinary file in a directory, or an e-mail
message in an e-mail archive or a file attachment in an e-mail message or a picture in a document
or a file in a compressed archive etc.
Find related object: This command allows you to conveniently navigate to the so-called related
object if one exists for the selected file or directory. Alternatively, you can press
Shift+Backspace.
See selected item in its directory: Will show you the selected file or directory among its siblings.
Useful to quickly check out whether there are more notable files in the same directory or to better
understand the function of the file when you see it in context.
See selected item from volume root: Will show you the selected file among all other files in the
same volume, recursively explored from the root of that file system. Useful for example to see
whether there are any files with the same name, the same ID (e.g. previous version from a
volume shadow copy), same owner, same sender, or similar timestamps etc. in the same file
system (just sort accordingly).
Both commands can be also be used from within the case root window and from within search hit
lists (so the previous "Go to file in directory browser" command becomes obsolete). Remember
you can click the Back button in the toolbar to conveniently return to the previous view.
Refine Volume Snapshot, Simultaneous Search, Run X-Tensions
These commands are known from the main menu. From the directory browser context menu they
can be applied to the selected files.
Create Hash Set
Creates a hash set of the currently selected files and directories and their subdirectories directly
within the internal hash database, either with ordinary file hash values or with block hash values.
40
Attach External File/Dir
Requires a forensic license. Ability to attach one or more external files or a directory including
subdirectories to the volume snapshot and have them processed by X-Ways Forensics like regular
files in the volume snapshot. Useful if you need to translate, convert, or decrypt original files and
would like to reintegrate the result back in the original volume snapshot, in the original path, for
further examination, reporting, filtering, searches etc. Such external files will be completely
managed by X-Ways Forensics once attached, copied to the internal evidence object subdirectory
of the case, and marked as virtual files.
When attaching a single external file and holding the Shift key, X-Ways Forensics proposes a
new name for that file that is based on the name of the file that is selected, and the attached file
will be added to the same directory. Otherwise the external filenames of the files will be used and
they will become child objects of the selected object. It is still possible to rename virtual files in
the volume snapshot later at any time.
When attaching an external directory to the volume snapshot, you are prompted whether the
selected directory itself should also be attached or just its contents. Usually X-Ways Forensics
creates virtual files in subdirectories in new virtual directories in the volume snapshot. There is,
however, an option to accommodate the files in existing directories in the volume snapshot of the
same name at the same position in the directory tree. Useful if you copy an entire directory
structure off the image to convert/decrypt/translate/... files outside of X-Ways Forensics, and then
want to bring the results back into the volume snapshot and see the edited files next to their
original counterparts in the corresponding subdirectories. This can help for example if you wish
to OCR and convert PDF documents that X-Ways Forensics has deemed non-searchable, using
Adobe Acrobat.
Rename
Allows you to rename virtual directories and virtual attached files in a volume snapshot, or if the
Shift key is pressed even ordinary files. Although the latter is not exactly forensically sound
when dealing with original evidence, this can prove helpful in special situations, for example if a
filename or directory name is too long to copy a file out of an image etc. The original filename
will be kept as the alternative filename. Note that this does not rename the file in the file system
(nothing is altered on the disk or in the image!), only in the volume snapshot, i.e. the internal
database in X-Ways Forensics about the file system.
Specify type
Ability to specify the type of selected files yourself. Useful if you wish to identify types or
subtypes in an individual way unknown to X-Ways Forensics, for example to be able to filter by
these types later. For instance, how about categorizing TIFF pictures that are digitally stored
faxes as type "fax"? Remember you can define your own file types in File Type Categories.txt.
Wipe securely
Files and directories that are selected in the directory browser can be securely wiped in WinHex
41
(not X-Ways Forensics). The data in the logical portion of a file (i.e. excluding the file slack) and
the main data structures of a directory (e.g. INDX buffers in NTFS and directory entries in FAT)
will be erased/overwritten with a hex value pattern of your choice. The existence status of the file
in its file system will not be changed. No file system level metadata such as timestamps or
attributes will updated because no operating system file level write commands are used. No file
system data structures are changed, and no filenames will be erased, only the contents of files
will be overwritten. Files that are compressed in archives or generally files within other files (e.g.
e-mails and attachments in e-mail archives) cannot be erased. Previously existing files whose
clusters are known to have been reused will not be erased. Note that by erasing deleted files you
might erase data in clusters that belong to other files, so only select existing files if you want to
avoid that (assuming consistent file systems). Also note that by erasing carved files you may
erase too much or not enough data, depending on the detected file size and depending on whether
the file was originally fragmented.
Useful for example if copies of images are forwarded to investigators/examiners/other parties
involved in a case who are not allowed to see the contents of certain files. Useful also if you have
to return computer media on which child pornography has been found to the owner after clearing
these files. Also useful if you are preparing images for training purposes that you would like to
publish and if you would like to retroactively erase the contents of copyrighted files (e.g.
operating system or application program files).
Both successfully erased files and files that could not be successfully erased will be added to
separate report tables (when working with a case, with a forensic license only) by which you can
filter to verify the result.
Filter for duplicates
Ability to filter for duplicates of a single selected file that are also currently listed in the directory
browser, only if a hash value is available for the selected file and the other files. Actually filters
for that hash value at that time, and thus does not depend on previous mass identification of
duplicate files using the above-mentioned command Exclude | Duplicates in directory browser
based on hash. In X-Ways Investigator the actual hash values are not displayed and cannot be
computed, but they are imported from evidence file containers that come with hash values for
files.
Mark hit as notable
In a search hit list, marks selected hits with a yellow flag and includes in them in the list of
notable search hits. You may also press the space bar to mark a hit as notable or remove that
mark.
4.2 Data Window Context Menu
When you right-click the hex editor display (consisting of offset column, hex column, text
column) of a file or a disk, you will get a context menu that allows you to define the boundaries
of the block (start and end) and invoke a few more commands that apply to that block:
42
Add to User Search Hits: Forensic license only. Allows you to define search hits manually.
Whenever you come across some relevant text, for example floating around in free space in
Disk/Partition/Volume mode or within a certain file in File mode, you can select it as a block and
right-click the block to add it as a so-called user search hit (i.e. some kind of search hit not found
by the program). You can assign the search hit to an arbitrarily named search term/category. For
example, if what you have found is related to suspect A, assign it as a search hit to a search term
named after suspect A. If also related to suspect B, you can also assign it to another search term.
You could also assign it to a real search term that you have used for an automatic search.
User search hits can be conveniently listed in and nicely exported from search hit lists just like
ordinary (automatically generated) search hits. To distinguish then from ordinary search hits, in
the search hit description column user search hits are marked with an asterisk (*). You can
specify the correct code page for user search hits yourself when you define them, which may be
essential to get the text displayed correctly. User search hits are stored related to an object in the
volume snapshot if you define them in File mode. User search hits are forward compatible, i.e.
older versions (v16.2 and later) can also see user search hits created by v16.6.
Add Block as Virtual File: Forensic license only. See Edit menu.
Add Position: Allows you to remember the position indicated by the currently defined block,
either in the General Position Manager or in the Position Manager of the evidence object (when
working with a case, if you right-click a block that is defined in an evidence object, forensic
license only). Makes it easier to find the same position again later, and can be used to nicely
highlight and explain (with tooltips) the structure of files or records of a certain format that you
are analyzing/trying to reverse-engineer etc.
If search hits are highlighted in File mode (see General Options), you can also delete them via the
context menu.
You can also get the complete Edit menu from here.
4.3 File Menu
New: This command is used to create a file. The file is principally opened in default edit mode.
You have to specify the desired file size.
Open: Lets you open one or more files. You may choose an edit mode in case it is not
predetermined in the Options menu.
Also allows to open physical disks, partitions and volumes as a file, by clicking a button labeled
"Device..." in the file selection dialog. You can enter a device path such as
\\.\PhysicalDrive1 (for hard disk 1)
\\?\Volume{12345678-9abc-11a1-abcd-0123456789ab} (for a volume with that GUID)
\\.\C: (for a volume mounted as drive letter C: )
This functionality allows to open volumes that are not mounted as drive letters. To get an
overview of volumes known to Windows, type "mountvol" in a command prompt window. You
43
can also try to open exotic devices supported by Windows such as tapes and changers (not
tested). Also this is how you can open alternate data streams whose path and name you know,
which cannot be opened through the ordinary File | Open dialog, without opening the volume on
which they reside.
Opening a hard disk as a file can be useful for example if you wish to clone that disk and if
source and destination disk have different sector sizes (whether it makes sense in the first place to
clone a hard disk despite the sector mismatch depends on the data). When treated as a file, there
is no defined sector size and hence no possibility for a sector size mismatch. Device files can also
be interpreted as disks like images can.
Save: Saves the currently displayed file to the disk. In in-place edit mode, using this command is
not necessary. When using the disk editor, this command is named “Save Sectors”.
Save As: Saves the currently displayed file under a different name.
Create Disk Image/Make Backup Copy: cf. “Images and Backups”
Create/Verify Skeleton Image: cf. “Skeleton Images”
Restore Image: Select an image that you would like to restore, i.e. whose sectors you would like
to copy back to the original medium or some other medium, or select a or WinHex backup (.whx)
file whose contents you would like to restore (could be a file or disk sectors). In the case of an
image, the image will be preset as the source in the Clone Disk window (with a specialist license
or higher, interpreted). Without a speciaIist license or higher, only WinHex backups can be
restored if they are split.
Backup Manager: cf. “Backups”
Execute: Executes the current file if executable, or otherwise the associated program.
Print: Use this command to print a file, disk sectors or RAM contents. Define the printing range
via offsets. You may select and set up a printer. Choose the character set for printing and accept
or change the suggested font size. The recommended font size is calculated as follows: print
resolution (e.g. 720 dpi) / 6 (e.g. = 120). If desired you may enter a comment which will be
printed at the end.
In case you need more flexibility with printing, you can define a block and copy it using “Edit>Copy->Editor Display” as a hex-editor-formatted text into the clipboard. You may paste it in
your favorite word processor. It should look perfect in “Courier New”, 10 pt.
Properties: Allows you edit the size, the time stamp and attributes of a file or a directory in your
own Windows system, in WinHex only. Changeable attributes are: A (to be archived), S
(system), H (hidden), R (read-only), X (not to be indexed), T (temporary), ~ (sparse). After
entering new values in any area (size, timestamps or attributes), simply press the ENTER key to
apply them. Click the button with the ellipsis to select a new file, or enter path and name directly
into the edit box next to that button and press the ENTER key. The latter will also work for a
directory.
44
Please note that setting or removing the sparse attribute does not necessarily change the
allocation status of already assigned clusters, but will definitely have an effect on newly assigned
clusters when you expand the file by setting a larger file size in the same dialog window.
Open Directory: Opens a window that represents a directory on your own computer and allows
you to see all its files and subdirectories.
Open Files: This command is used open several files that meet special requirements at a time.
Select a folder in which to open files. Subfolders are browsed optionally. You may specify a
series of file masks (like “w*.exe;x*.dll”). There is also a switch that permits opening only those
files that contain a certain text or certain hex values. The standard search dialogs are displayed
upon request for this purpose. If WinHex is not set up to work as a viewer or in-place editor (this
can be done in the Tools menu), you may choose an edit mode.
Save Modified Files: All files which have been changed are written to the disk.
Save All Files: All files that have not been opened in view mode are written to the disk.
Exit: Use this command to end WinHex. You will be prompted to save any modifications to files
and disks.
4.4 Edit Menu
Undo: Reverses the last modification, in case the corresponding undo option was activated.
Cut: Removes the current block from the file and puts it into the clipboard. The data following
the block is pulled to the former block beginning.
Copy Block/All/Sector:
• Normally: Copies the current block/the entire file/the current sector into the clipboard. The
contents of the clipboard can be pasted or written later.
• Into New File: Copies the data directly into a new file (not via the clipboard). For instance,
this command can be used to recover a lost file from disk sectors.
• Hex Values: Copies the data as concatenated hex values.
• Editor Display: Copies the data as text, formatted as if it was displayed in the hex editor, i.e.
with an offset, a hex and a text column.
• GREP Hex: Copies the data as hex values in GREP syntax.
• C/Pascal Source: Copies the data as C/Pascal-formatted source code into the clipboard.
Paste Clipboard: Inserts the clipboard contents at the current position of a file. The file data
following this position is moved forward.
Write Clipboard: Copies the clipboard contents to the current file at the current position. The
data at this position is overwritten. If the end of the file is encountered, the file size is increased
so that the clipboard contents finds place.
45
Paste Clipboard Into New File: Creates a new file of the clipboard contents.
Empty Clipboard: This command is used to free the memory used by the clipboard.
Remove: Deletes the current block from the file. The data following the block is pulled to the
former block beginning. The clipboard is not affected by this command. If the block is equally
defined in all open files (i.e. it begins and ends at the same offsets), this command can even be
applied to all open files at the same time.
Paste Zero Bytes: Use this command to insert zero bytes at the current position of a file.
Add Block as Virtual File: (forensic license only) If you manually define a block in
Volume/Partition/Disk/File mode, this command allows you to add it to the volume snapshot as a
carved file, or (in case of File mode) as a child object of the original file. Useful if you wish to
treat data in a certain area (e. g. HTML code or e-mail messages found floating around in free
space) as a file, e.g. to view it, search it specifically, comment on it, add it to a report, etc. If you
manually carve a file within another file in File mode, the resulting file will be marked in the
Attr. column as an excerpt and can be filtered as such. Already carved areas in host files are
highlighted in File mode. Useful to remind the user whether he or she already has created
excerpts from a file and where (e.g. from a large free space virtual file) when continuing to look
at that host file.
Define Block: This function is accessible from the menu and the status bar. A dialog box lets you
specify the desired block limits. This command can also be applied to all open files.
Select All: Defines the beginning and the end of the current file as its block limits.
Superimpose Sectors: see below
Convert: cf. Conversions
Modify Data: see below
Fill Block/File/Disk Sectors: see below (Wiping and Initializing)
4.5 Search Menu
Simultaneous Search: see above
Indexing, Search in Index: see above
Optimize Index: see above
Export Word List: Available once an index has been created. Allows to save a list of all the
word in the index to a text file. In that list, each word that occurs in the files that were indexed
will be present, and only contained once. Useful for a customized dictionary attack.
46
Find Text: This command is used to search for a specified string of up to 50 ASCII characters in
the current file, disk or RAM section (cf. Search Options). Only supports those Unicode
characters that are in the 0x00...0xFF range. For a more powerful search variant try Simultaneous
Search.
Find Hex Values: This command is used to search for a sequence of up to 50 two-character hex
values (cf. Search Options).
Replace Text: Use this command to replace occurrences of a specified string with another string
(each of up to 50 ASCII characters), cf. Replace Options. Only supports those Unicode characters
that are in the 0x00...0xFF range.
Replace Hex Values: Functions exactly as the Replace Text command, but is applied to a
sequence of hex values (50 at max.), cf. Replace Options.
Combined Search: Provides a complex search mechanism. In the current and in a second file a
common offset is searched, where each file contains the specified respective hex values.
Integer Value: Enter an integer (within the limits of the signed 64-bit integer data type). This
function searches data in the current file, which can be interpreted as this integer.
Floating-Point Value: Enter a floating-point number (e.g. 12.34 = 0.1234 * 102 = 0.1234E2) and
select a floating-point data type. This function searches data in the current file, which can be
interpreted as this floating-point value.
Text Passages: Use this command to look for a sequence of letters (a-z, A-Z), digits (0-9) and/or
punctuation marks. It is useful for instance if you intend to translate text passages hidden
somewhere in a file with executable code.
Set the sensitivity of the search by specifying how long a character sequence must be to be
recognized. Click “Tolerate Unicode characters” in order to force the algorithm to accept zero
bytes between two characters.
Continue Global Search: This command is used to continue a global search operation (i.e. a
search operation applied to all opened files) in the next file.
Continue Search: Lets you continue a search operation in the current file at the current position.
4.6 Navigation Menu
Go To Offset: Moves the current position to the specified offset. Normally this is done relative
to the beginning of the file (offset 0). You can also move the cursor relative to the current
position (forward or backward) or from the end of the file (backward). An offset can be specified
in bytes (default), words (2 bytes), doublewords (4 bytes), records (if defined), or sectors. Press
F11 to repeat the last position movement.
47
Go To Page/Sector: Browses to the specified page, sector, or cluster. Note that the data area on
FAT drives starts with cluster #2. The Go To Sector dialog, when applied to a physical disk,
optionally allows to jump to the designated sector within the respective partition window, so that
you can immediately see the allocation status of the corresponding cluster. Only for ordinary
partitions, not Windows dynamic volumes or LVM2 volumes.
Go To FAT Entry/FILE Record: Jump to a certain entry in the file allocation table on a FAT
drive or to a certain FILE record in the master file table on an NTFS drive, respectively.
Move Block: Moves the current block selection (not the data within the block) forward or
backward. Specify the distance in bytes. Press ALT+F11 to repeat the last block movement, press
SHIFT+ALT+F11 to reverse the movement. This command may facilitate editing a file that
consists of homogeneous records of a fixed length.
WinHex and X-Ways Forensics keep a history of your offset jumps within a file or disk and
allow to go back and forward in the chain later. Forensic license only: With Back and Forward
you can also conveniently go back to a certain directory browser setting. This takes into account:
explored path, recursive or non-recursive, sort criteria, on/off state of all filters, settings of some
of the filters, some directory browser options. The Back and Forward commands also allow to
activate the previously active data window again when switching between windows.
Go To...
Beginning Of File: Display the first page of the current file and moves the current position to
offset 0.
End Of File: Displays the last page of the current file and moves the current position to the last
byte (offset = file size - 1).
Beginning Of Block: Moves the current position to the beginning of the current block.
End Of Block: Moves the current position to the end of the current block.
Mark Position: Marks the current position and thus enables you to find it again later.
Delete Marker: Removes the marker from the screen.
Go To Marker: Moves the current position to the marker set by Mark Position.
Position Manager: see below
4.7 View Menu
Text Display Only: Hides the hex column and uses the full width of the editor window for the
text display.
48
Character Set: Allows you to choose from ANSI ASCII, IBM ASCII, any other code page, and
the Unicode character set for the text column. Keyboard input is supported only for ANSI and
IBM ASCII. You may also use SHIFT+F7 to change the active character set. It makes sense to
select "IBM ASCII" only when viewing or editing files belonging to a DOS program. Select
Unicode if you wish to read text in a language that is not Western European if it is stored in UTF16. Unicode characters are always expected at even offsets. Select a specific code page if
necessary. The default setting is ANSI ASCII. It uses the most efficient and uncomplicated
display method in WinHex, invoking only the most simple Windows API functions, and it seems
to always show character interpretations according to code page 1252, even if regional settings in
Windows are different, if in the font selection dialog (accessible via General Options) the
"Western" script is selected.
Hex Display Only: Hides the text column and uses the full width of the editor window for the
hexadecimal data display.
Record Presentation: When editing subsequent data records of the same size (for instance, table
entries of a database) you may now have WinHex display every other record with a different
background color, as a kind of visual aid. The color can be selected in the General Options
dialog. Also, WinHex offers to display the current record number and the offset within that
record (relative offset) in the status bar, based the record size and the offset of the first record as
specified.
If any of the two record features is enabled, the Go To Offset command allows moving the
current position in units of the current record size. If relative offsets are enabled, the Page Dn/Up
keys move the cursor in units of the record size, except if you hold the Ctrl key.
Show: The Case Data window is part of the forensic user interface of WinHex/X-Ways
Forensics and required for working with a case (when hiding the window, the case is closed). The
directory browser is available for logical drives/partitions opened with the disk editor. The Data
Interpreter is a small window that provides "translation services" for the data at the current
cursor position. The toolbar is displayed optionally, too. A tab control makes each edit window
accessible with a single mouse click only. The info pane provides in-depth information on any
open object (file, disk, RAM).
Template Manager
Tables: Provides four conversion tables (cf. ANSI ASCII/IBM ASCII).
Lines & Columns
Synchronize Scrolling: Synchronizes up to four tiled windows on identical absolute offsets.
Hold the Shift key when enabling this feature to tile the windows horizontally instead of
vertically.
Synchronize & Compare: Synchronizes up to four windows and visually displays byte value
differences. If no more than two windows are involved, WinHex maintains the initial distance
between the offsets of the first shown byte in these windows when scrolling. Not synchronizing
on absolute offsets is useful for example when comparing two copies of the file allocation table,
49
which are obviously at different offsets. You may jump to the next or to the previous byte value
difference by clicking the extra arrow buttons that are provided in one of the two edit windows.
Refresh View: Redraws the contents of the current edit window. In case the current file was
updated by an external program, WinHex offers to dismiss any changes made in WinHex and
reload the file from scratch.
Also refills the directory browser if the directory browser has the input focus. Useful for example
when a filter for tagged items is active and you remove the tag marks of some of the listed files,
if you wish to update the listing in the directory browser and get rid of those files that are no
longer tagged.
4.8 Tools Menu
Open Disk: See chapter “Disk Editor”.
Clone Disk: See chapter “Disk Cloning”.
Explore recursively: Changes into a recursive view for the directory that is currently listed in
the directory browser or back to the normal view. A recursive view means that not only files will
be listed that are contained directly in the current directory, but also all files in all subdirectories
of that directory and their subdirectories etc. For example, this allows to copy/recover selected
files from different paths in a single step.
File Recovery by Type: See below.
Take New Volume Snapshot: Available for partitions with one of the supported file systems.
WinHex traverses all cluster chains and thereby generates a drive map. This enables WinHex to
fill the directory browser and to display for each sector which file or directory it is allocated to. It
is recommended to invoke this command again after file operations on a drive to keep the
information displayed by WinHex up to date. Cf. Security options.
Initialize Free Space: Confidential information is possibly stored in currently unused parts of a
drive as a result of normal delete, copy and save actions. Free space on a drive can be initialized
for security reasons. This effectively overwrites all data in unused parts of the disk and makes it
impossible to recover this data. Available for partitions opened as drive letters. Available in
WinHex only, not in X-Ways Forensics.
Initialize Slack Space: Overwrites slack space (the unused bytes in the respective last clusters of
all cluster chains, beyond the actual end of a file) with zero bytes. This may be used in addition to
"Initialize Free Space" to securely wipe confidential data on a drive or to minimize the space a
compressed disk backup (like a WinHex backup) requires. Close any running or resident program
that may write to the disk prior to using this command. Available in WinHex only, not in X-Ways
Forensics.
Initialize MFT Records: On NTFS volumes, WinHex can clear all currently unused $MFT
(Master File Table) FILE records, which may contain metadata (e.g. names) and even contents of
50
previously existing files. Available in WinHex only, not in X-Ways Forensics.
Initialize Directory Entries: On FAT volumes, WinHex can clear all currently unused directory
entries, to thoroughly remove traces of previously existing files or earlier names/locations of
existing files from the file system. Useful especially in conjunction with the function to initialize
all free space. Available in WinHex only, not in X-Ways Forensics.
Scan For Lost Partitions: Formerly existing hard disk partitions that were not automatically
found when opening a physical hard disk (or an image of a physical hard disk) may be found and
properly identified with this command. This command searches for the signature of master boot
records, partition table sectors, FAT and NTFS boot sectors via the 0x55 0xAA signature plus for
Ext2/Ext3/Ext4 superblocks, optionally only from the first sector that follows the last (locationwise) partition that was already found, and lists newly found partitions in the directory browser.
Works with sector size 512 bytes only.
Interpret as Partition Start: When you find the start sector of a volume (e.g. lost partition) on a
physical disk, this menu command allows you to make such a partition easily accessible via the
Access button menu. If no known file system is detected starting at the currently displayed sector,
you will be asked for the number of sectors that you wish to include in the newly defined
partition.
Set Disk Parameters: Using this command on a physical disk, you may override the total
number of sectors or optionally (can be left blank) the number of cylinders, heads, and sectors
per track as recognized by WinHex. This can be useful to access surplus sectors at the end of the
disk (in case they were not detected by WinHex), or to adjust the CHS coordinate system to your
needs. Also you have the option to change the detected sector size of a physical hard disk that
WinHex works with. Remember you should adjust the sector count accordingly. For example, if
you change the detected sector size from 512 bytes to 4 KB (i.e. you multiply it by 8), then you
also need to divide the total number of sectors by 8 to keep the same total detected disk capacity
(assuming the capacity was detected correctly). Use this command on a logical drive to override
the total number of clusters WinHex detects on that drive.
Open RAM: See chapter “RAM Editor”.
View: Available only with a forensic license. Invokes the internal viewer.
External Viewer: Invokes external file viewing programs such as Quick View Plus etc., as
selected in the Options menu, and opens the current file.
Invoke X-Ways Trace: Available only if X-Ways Trace is installed. This software can analyze
the history/cache files of various Internet browsers.
Calculator: Runs the Windows calculator “calc.exe”. Switching to scientific mode is highly
recommended.
Hex Converter: Enables you to convert hexadecimal numbers into decimal numbers and vice
versa. Simply type in the number and press ENTER.
51
Tables: Provides four conversion tables (cf. ANSI-/IBM-ASCII).
Analyze Block/File: Scans the data within the current block/the entire file and counts the
occurrences of each byte value (0...255). The result is graphically displayed by proportional
vertical lines. The number of occurrences and the percentage are displayed for each byte value
when moving the mouse over the corresponding vertical line.
Use this command for instance to identify data of unknown type. Audio data, compressed data,
executable code etc. produce characteristic graphics. Use the context menu of the window to
switch zero byte consideration on or off, to print the analysis window, or to export the analysis to
a text file.
When analyzing small amounts of data (<50,000 bytes), the compression ratio that zlib achieves
for that data is displayed in the analysis window caption, which also allows to draw conclusions
about the nature of the data.
Compute Hash: Calculates one of the following checksums/digest of the entire current file,
disks, or the currently selected block: 8-bit, 16-bit, 32-bit, 64-bit checksum, CRC16, CRC32,
MD5, SHA-1, SHA-256, or PSCHF.
4.9 File Tools
Concatenate: Select several source files that are to be copied into one destination file. The
source files are not affected.
Split: This command creates several destination files using the contents of a single source file.
Specify a split offset for each destination file. The source file is not affected by this function.
Unify: Select two source files and one destination file. The bytes/words from the source files will
be written alternately into the destination file. The first byte/word originates from the source file
that was specified first. Use this function to create a file with odd and even bytes/words
originating from separate files (e.g. in EPROM programming).
Dissect: Select a source file and two destination files. The bytes/words from the source files will
be written alternately into the destination files. The first byte/word will be transfered to the
destination file that was specified first. Use this function to create two separate files each
containing either the odd or the even bytes/words of the original file (e.g. in EPROM
programming).
Compare: This command is used to compare two edit windows (files or disks) byte by byte.
Decide whether different or identical bytes shall be reported. You may indicate how many bytes
to compare. If desired, the operation can abort automatically after having found a certain number
of differences or identical bytes. The report is stored as a text file, whose size might otherwise
grow dramatically.
The comparison starts at the respective offsets specified for each edit window. These offsets may
differ, such that e.g. the byte at offset 0 in file A is compared to the byte at offset 32 in file B, the
byte at offset 1 with the one at offset 33, etc. When you select an edit window for comparison,
52
the current cursor position will automatically be entered in the “From offset” box.
There is yet another compare function in WinHex: you may also compare edit windows visually
and synchronize scrolling in these windows (see View menu).
Create Hard Link: Cool function to create hard links of files in NTFS volumes. Useful for
example to play around with hard links when attending NTFS file systems training, or if you
would like to add the same image to the same case again, which is only possible under a different
name, or if you would like to create a hard link to xwforensics.exe named WinHex.exe, in order
to run X-Ways Forensics as WinHe. First you select the existing file, then a path and name for
the additional hard link.
Copy Sparse: Can copy a selected file and preserves the sparse nature if it is an NTFS sparse
file, in the destination file. That means for example when copying a 1 TB skeleton disk image
that only has 100 MB of data allocated, the copy process will finish almost instantly because only
100 MB out of 1 TB of data have to be copied. Conventional copy functions do not preserve the
sparse nature of a file and copy the amount of data as indicated by the nominal file size, even if
most of the data is internally unallocated and read virtually as binary zeroes.
Replicate Directory: Copies a directory with all its files and subdirectories, recursively, and
recreates individually NTFS-compressed source files as NTFS-compressed in the respective
output folder if supported by the destination file system and any layer in between. The command
does not retroactively compress such files after their creation, but writes them immediately as
compressed, which is more efficient. However, it still has to copy/send the decompressed amount
of data of the source file. Supports overlong paths. Select the source directory first, then
specify/create the destination directory. This function is useful for example if you wish to copy or
move a case directory, which contains a few NTFS-compressed files that would be inefficient to
store as uncompressed. Note that alternatively you can open a case and use the Save As
command in the Case Data window for the same effect.
Wipe Securely: This command is used to erase the contents of one or more files irrevocably on
magnetic disks, such that they cannot be restored by WinHex or other special data recover
software. Each selected file is overwritten with data as selected by the user, shortened to a length
of zero and then deleted. The name entry of the file is erased as well. Even professional attempts
to restore the file will be futile. Therefore this command should be applied to files with
confidential contents that are to be destroyed. Available in WinHex only, not in X-Ways
Forensics.
Delete Recursively: This command can be used to recursively delete a directory with all its
subdirectories if they cannot be deleted with Windows Explorer or other Windows tools and
commands because of illegal characters in the directory names or because of missing rights (for
example if "Trusted Installer" is the owner) if you can get those rights (if you are running
WinHex with administrator rights). Note that you cannot apply this command to such a
problematic directory itself, only to a parent directory.
53
4.10 Specialist Menu
Specialist and forensic licenses only.
Refine Volume Snapshot: see separate chapter
Technical Details Report: Shows information about the currently active disk or file and lets you
copy it e.g. into a report you are writing. Most extensive on physical hard disks, where details for
each partition and even unallocated gaps between existing partitions are pointed out. Under
Windows 2000 and XP, WinHex also reports the password protection status of ATA disks.
Forensic license only: WinHex is able to detect hidden host-protected areas (HPAs, a.k.a. ATAprotected areas) and device configuration overlays (DCO areas) on IDE hard disks up under
Windows 2000 and XP. A message box with a warning will be displayed in case the disk size has
been artificially reduced. At any rate, the real total number of sectors according to ATA, if it can
be determined, is listed in the details report. Some important SMART status information is also
displayed, for hard disks connected via [S]ATA that support SMART. Useful to check for one's
own hard disk as well as that of suspects. For example, you can learn how often and how long the
hard disk was used and whether it has had any bad sectors (in the sense that unreliable sectors
were replaced internally with spare sectors). If a hard disk is returned to a suspect and he or she
consequently complains about bad sectors and accuses you of having damaged the disk, a details
report created when the hard disk was initially captured can now show whether it was already in
a bad shape at that time. Also, seeing that spare sectors are in use means knowing that there is
additional data to gain from the hard disk (with the appropriate technical means).
Interpret Image File As Disk: Treats a currently open and active disk image file as either a
logical drive or physical disk. This is useful if you wish to closely examine the file system
structure of a disk image, extract files, etc. without copying it back to a disk. If interpreted as a
physical disk, WinHex can access and open the partitions contained in the image individually as
known from “real” physical hard disks.
WinHex is even able to interpret spanned raw image files, that is, image files that consist of
separate segments of any size. For WinHex to detect a spanned image file, the first segment may
have an arbitrary name and a non-numeric extension or the extension “.001”. The second
segment must have the same base name, but the extension “.002”, the third segment “.003”, and
so forth. The Create Disk Image command can image disks and produce canonically named file
segments. Image segmentation is useful because the maximum file size supported in FAT32 file
systems or on media such as DVD is considerably limited. Four-digit extensions of raw image
file segments are also supported for interpretation.
In some rare cases WinHex may be unable to correctly determine the nature of the image, i.e.
whether it is an image of a physical disk or of a volume, consequently interprets the data in the
image in a wrong way. If so, hold the Shift key when invoking this command. That way WinHex
will ask you and not decide on its own. That will also make WinHex prompt you for the correct
sector size and in the case of raw images for an additional storage location of further image file
segments (in case you had to spread them across two different drives).
Should there be any problems with detecting the file system in a volume, you may hold the Shift
key when opening the volume to indicate the file system type you suppose in the volume.
Mode 1 and Mode 2 Form 1 ISO CD images with 2,352 bytes per sector are also supported, if
they are not spanned, and (with a forensic license) also main memory dumps. Also VMware's
54
Virtual Machine Disk images (VMDK) and dynamic Virtual PC VHD images can be interpreted.
VMDK images with ESXi Host Sparse Extents (also referred to as "Copy-on-Write Disks" or
COWD), as used by ESXi servers e.g. for virtual machine snapshots, are not supported. Only
allocated areas in virtual machine images can be edited. With a forensic license, WinHex can also
interpret .e01 evidence files, which can be created with the Create Disk Image command.
The Technical Details Report also checks for certain read inconsistencies that can occur with
flash media (for example USB stick of certain brands/models, but not others) in data areas that
have never been written/used, where the data is undefined. The data that is read in such areas, for
example when imaging the media, may depend on the amount of data that is read at a time with a
single internal read command. The result is mentioned in the report. If inconsistencies are
detected (“Inconsistent read results!” in the report), you will see a message box, which offers to
read sectors in smaller chunks from that device as long as it is open, which likely yields the
expected zero value bytes instead of some random looking non-zero pattern data when reading
such areas. Use of this option does not give you data that is somehow more accurate or original
(undefined is undefined and does not mean zeroed out) or contains more or less evidence, it can
just have a big impact on compression ratio achieved and reproducibility of hash values with
other tools, which may use different chunk sizes for reading and thus produce different data and
hash values. Note that it is possible that read inconsistencies occur that are not detected by XWays Forensics, because a complete check would be very slow. Again, these inconsistencies are
not fatal and not the fault of the software, and they can be explained. Note that the Technical
Details Report is routinely created already when you start disk imaging with the File | Create
Disk Image command, so you do not need to invoke the report yourself prior to imaging.
Reconstruct RAID System: see below
Gather Free Space: Traverses the currently open logical drive and gathers all unused clusters in
a destination file you specify. Useful to examine data fragments from previously existing files
that have not been deleted securely. Does not alter the source drive in any way. The destination
file must reside on another drive.
Gather Slack Space: Collects slack space (the unused bytes in the respective last clusters of all
cluster chains, beyond the actual end of a file) in a destination file. Otherwise similar to Gather
Free Space. WinHex cannot access slack space of files that are compressed or encrypted at the
file system level.
Gather Inter-Partition Space: Captures all space on a physical hard disk that does not belong to
any partition in a destination file, for quick inspection to find out if something is hidden there or
left from a prior partitioning.
Gather Text: Recognizes text according to the parameters you specify and captures all
occurrences from a file, a disk, or a memory range in a file. This kind of filter is useful to
considerably reduce the amount of data to handle e.g. if a computer forensics specialist is looking
for leads in the form of text, such as e-mail messages, documents, etc. The target file can easily
be split at a user-defined size. This function can also be applied to a file with collected slack
space or free space, or to damaged files in a proprietary format than can no longer be opened by
their native applications, like MS Word, to recover at least unformatted text.
55
Evidence File Container: see above
External Virus Check: (Forensic license only.) Sends all files or all tagged files in an evidence
object's volume snapshot to an external virus scanner, optionally only files with a size below a
certain threshold. Files that are locked, deleted, or renamed by the virus scanner in the output
directory will be added to a report table named “Virus suspected”. It is the responsibility of the
user to verify that a virus scanner is active, that it watches the folder for temporary files, and that
it will indeed lock, delete or rename infected files. After verifying whether the file has been
locked, deleted, or renamed externally, X-Ways Forensics deletes it itself if it still exists.
Bates-Number Files: Bates-numbers all the files within a given folder and its subfolders for
discovery or evidentiary use. A constant prefix (up to 13 characters long) and a unique serial
number are inserted between the filename and the extension in a way attorneys traditionally label
paper documents for later accurate identification and reference.
Trusted Download: Solves a security problem. When transferring unclassified material from a
classified hard disk drive to unclassified media, you need to be certain that it will have no
extraneous information in any cluster or sector "overhang" spuriously copied along with the
actual file, since this slack space may still contain classified material from a time when it was
allocated to a different file. This command copies file in their current size, and no byte more. It
does not copy entire sectors or clusters, as conventional copy commands do. Multiple files in the
same folder can be copied at the same time.
Highlight Free Space/Slack Space: Displays offsets and data in softer colors (light blue and
gray, respectively). Helps to easily identify these special drive areas. Works on FAT, NTFS, and
Ext2/Ext3 partitions.
4.11 Options Menu
General Options: see below
Viewer Programs: see below
Undo Options: see below
Security Options: see below
Data Interpreter Options: cf. Data Interpreter
Edit Mode: Allows you to select the edit mode used in Winhex globally. (The info pane's
context menu allows to select the edit mode specifically for the active edit window only.)
56
4.12 Window Menu
Window Manager: Displays all windows and provides “instant window switching”
functionality. You may also close windows and save files.
Save Arrangement As Project: Writes the current window constellation into a project file.
From the Start Center you will then be able to load the project and restore editing positions in
each document at any time, to conveniently continue your work right where you left it or to begin
your work in case of a recurring task.
Close All: Closes all windows and thus all open files, disks and RAM sections.
Close All Without Prompting: Closes all windows and thus all opened files and disks without
giving you the opportunity to save your modifications.
Cascade/Tile: Arranges the windows in the aforementioned way.
Minimize All: Minimizes all windows.
Arrange Icons: This command arranges minimized windows.
4.13 Help Menu
Contents: Displays the contents of the program help.
Setup: Allows you switch the language of the user interface. With Initialize you can restore the
default settings of the program. Uninstall: Use this command to remove WinHex from your
system. This works properly even if you did not install WinHex using the setup program.
Online: Opens in your browser, if you have an Internet connection, the X-Ways web site, the
support forum, the newsletter subscription page, and a page where you can check your license
status, retrieve the latest download links and get upgrade offers. There is also an option to check
for updates online occasionally upon start-up of the software or at any time when you like. This
can report the availability of later versions or new service releases of the currently used version
(not pre-release versions) and allow to start the download. Does not send any data from within
the program to the Internet, for example no system or user information or dongle ID, neither
directly nor encrypted nor anonymized, of course no case data, not even the currently used
version number, nothing. This option is active by default only if the program determines that it is
running on the user's own system (if it is executed from the C: drive or if it was installed using
the setup program). The check does not occur when running the program for the first time, so that
you definitely have a chance to turn off this option before anything happens. Given the fact that
most systems on which X-Ways Investigator and X-Ways Forensics are run do not have an
Internet connection, this option has a limited effect.
57
About WinHex: Displays information about WinHex (the program version, your license status,
and more).
4.14 Windows Context Menu
The Windows shell displays the context menu when the user clicks an object with the right
mouse button. WinHex is present in the context menu only if you enable to corresponding option
(see “General Options”).
Edit with WinHex: Opens the selected file in WinHex.
Open in WinHex: Lets you open all files of the selected folder in WinHex, just like the Open
Folder command of the File menu.
Edit Disk: Opens the selected disk in the disk editor of WinHex. If you hold the SHIFT key,
instead of the selected logical drive the corresponding physical disk is opened, if any.
WinHex provides its own context menus on the status bar, the Data Interpreter, and in the
Position Manager.
5
Forensic Features
5.1 Case Management
The integrated computer forensics environment in WinHex can be used with a forensic license of
WinHex only. It offers complete case management, automated log and report file generation, and
various additional features such as gallery view, file signature check, HPA detection, and skin
color detection in pictures.
When starting up WinHex for the first time, you are asked whether to run it with the forensic
interface. This means the “Case Data” window is displayed, WinHex is run in read-only mode,
and you are asked to make sure the folders for temporary files and for case data are set correctly,
in order to prevent WinHex from writing files to the wrong drive.
In order to work with a case, make sure the “Case Data” window is visible on the left of the main
window. If not, enable View | Show | Case Data.
From the File menu, you may create a new case (start from scratch), open an existing case, close
the active case, save the active case, back up the case file and the entire case folder in a ZIP
archive (only for files < 4 GB), or automatically generate a case report. You may add media as
evidence objects to the case, or images (files that will be interpreted like media, see Specialist
menu), or memory dumps, or directories on your own computer. Adding a directory instead of a
58
whole partition or disk can be useful if a directory or a file of interest resides on a drive with
many irrelevant files, if you merely wish to view, hash, or search a few of those files, check their
metadata or copy them to an evidence file container etc.
A case is stored in a .xfc file (xfc stands for X-Ways Forensics Case) and in a subfolder of the
same name, just without the .xfc extension. This subfolder and its child folders are created
automatically when the case is created. You may select the base folder for your cases in General
Options. It is not necessary to explicitly save a case, unless you need to be sure it is saved at a
given time. A case is saved automatically at latest when you close it or exit the program.
In the case properties window, you may name a case according to your own conventions (e.g.
title or number). The date and time you create a case is recorded and displayed. The internal case
filename is displayed as well. You may enter a description of the case (of arbitrary length) and
the examiner's name, the examiner's organization's name and address. You may enable or disable
the automated log feature for the whole case. Optionally, the evidence object subfolders in the
case folder are always suggested as default output folders for files recovered/copied off a file
system. You may wish to disable that feature if your preference is to copy files from various
evidence objects into the same output folder.
You may select up to two code pages related to the case (more precisely: related to the locale
where the original media related to the case were used). These code pages are used when naming
.eml files based on subject lines (.eml files extracted from e-mail archives). If both code pages
are identical, that does no harm. If identical to the currently active code page in Windows, they
do not have any effect. These code pages are also used to convert the filenames in zip archives to
Unicode. There may be further uses in future versions.
Case files can be password-protected. This does not involve encryption and is just a kind of lock.
If the password is lost by a user, case files saved by X-Ways Investigator can be unlocked with a
super-user password if such a password had already been entered in the installation used at the
time when the case file was saved (undocumented on request).
When creating a new case, you have the option to make X-Ways Forensics recognize evidence
objects that are physical media (not images) by their own intrinsic properties, not by the
Windows disk number. Using this option will prevent earlier versions of X-Ways Forensics from
opening the case. The advantage is that you may add multiple hard disks or external USB disks
or sticks to the case that are attached to the computer at different times and get the same disk
number assigned by Windows. Another advantage is that if the number of the same disk as
assigned by Windows changes, X-Ways Forensics will still recognize the disk. Useful especially
for triage, when not working with images. Please note that X-Ways Forensics may be unable to
recognize external media already known to the case if next time they are attached through a
different hardware write blocker. In that situation you can still use the "Replace with new disk"
command in the evidence object context menu to point X-Ways Forensics to the correct disk.
Note that component disks of an internally reconstructed RAID (read disks, not images) are still
remembered by the Windows disk number when re-opening a RAID that you have added to a
case.
When clicking the “SIDs...” button you can see a collection of all SID/username combinations
encountered in that case (gathered from SAM registry hives in all Windows installations on
59
images/media ever added to the case). They are used by X-Ways Forensics to resolve SIDs to
usernames when working with that case.
The most powerful concept in X-Ways Forensics, that allows to systematically and completely
review files on computer media, is the so-called refined volume snapshot. It is possible to refine
the standard volume snapshot for all evidence objects of a case in one step, and to search all
evidence objects with volume snapshots logically with the help of the virtual global case root
window. Note that it is possible to generate a flat overview of all existing and deleted files from
all subdirectories on an partition or image file of a partition by recursively exploring the root
directory. In order to explore a directory recursively (i.e. list its contents plus the contents of all
its subdirectories plus their subdirectories), right-click the directory in the directory tree in the
Case Data window. In order to tag a directory, you can click it with the middle mouse button in
the directory tree.
In order to completely delete a case, you need to delete its .xfc file and the corresponding
directory with the same name and all its subdirectories.
Export Files for Analysis: This menu command in the Case Data window can be applied to the
entire case and from there to selected evidence objects, or to the active evidence object only. It
uses the interface for external analysis of files to invoke external automated analysis tools such as
DoublePics.
Export subtree: This context menu command in the Case Data window allows you to export a
pseudo-graphical representation of the selected subtree in a Unicode text file, which is best
viewed with a fixed-width font. The exported tree reflects the current state subdirectories
(expanded or collapsed). The menu command is available for evidence objects and also for
directories if you hold the Ctrl key when right-clicking a directory in the case tree. Remember to
fully recursively expand a portion of the tree that you want to export, you can click the root of
that portion and press the asterisk (multiplication) key on the numeric keypad.
5.2 Multi-User Coordination For Large Cases
All cases created or opened with v17.5 and later offer enhanced multi-user support, where XWays Forensics distinguishes between different examiners working with the same case at
different times or at the same time and keeps their results separate. Multi-user support is
especially helpful for large cases. Cases opened with v17.5 and later cannot be opened with
earlier versions. A maximum of 255 users (examiners) is supported per case. Examiners are
recognized internally by their Windows user accounts.
Multiple users may open the same evidence objects in the same case simultaneously for
examination. By same case we mean the same case file, not a copy, stored in a shared network
location or on a terminal server. X-Ways Forensics is responsible for synchronizing report table
associations, comments and additions of files to the volume snapshot, and for making users aware
of access conflicts before they occur and preventing them in most situations.
All related options can be found by clicking the button labelled "Multi-user support options" in
60
the case properties dialog window. In particular, when creating the case (and only then), you can
choose to make X-Ways Forensics not distinguish between different users. That would be useful
if you know that only you will process that case and if you wish to process it on different
computers where you have Windows accounts with different SIDs, so that you will always be
treated as the same user. Also useful if multiple examiners are going to process the same case at
different times and wish to share all their results directly, as it was the case in X-Ways Forensics
before v17.5.
Another multi-user support option coordinates certain kinds of accesses to volume snapshots
(related to adding items to the snapshot as well as editing comments and metadata) more
carefully. It may have some performance benefits if disabled. Disabling this synchronization is
recommendable only for cases that are definitely only processed by 1 user at a time.
Report table associations and comments of different examiners can optionally be distinguished,
by showing the creating examiner's initials (default), or alternatively other abbreviations of their
names or (if no abbreviation is specified) their complete usernames. Comments and report table
associations are shared between all examiners. Examiners can choose whether or not they get to
see report table associations of other users. The same file can be associated with the same report
table only by 1 examiner. X-Ways Forensics imports and shows newly created report table
associations of simultaneous other users in shared analysis mode when re-opening an evidence
object or when case auto-save interval elapses or when manually invoking the Save Case
command. The option to show initials for report table associations is represented as a 3-state
checkbox. If half-checked, it has an effect on the directory browser only, not for the Export List
or Recover/Copy command for example and not in the case report.
X-Ways Forensics remembers the "tagged", "already viewed" and "excluded" status of files
separately for each examiner. You can choose to adopt the "already viewed" status of files in
volume snapshots from all other examiners when opening evidence objects. That is useful if the
goal is to avoid duplicate work, if you do not wish to review files that were reviewed by any of
your colleagues already. Please note that individual file statuses ("tagged", "already viewed" and
"excluded") as well as search hits of other users are lost if one examiners removes items from the
volume snapshot.
Search hits and search terms are stored on a per-user basis as well. The first examiner opening an
older case with v17.5 or later will absorb the search hits and search terms that were stored in the
case by v17.4 or earlier. The "Multi-user support options" dialog window contains a button that
allows you to import the search hits and search terms of another user. An option is available to
limit the import of another user's search hits to search hits that are marked as notable or to that
user's manually defined search hits (so-called user search hits). Another option allows to take
away the search hits from the other user when importing them. Useful if the other user is going to
resume his work later and will want to import your search hits back when he or she is taking over
again, to avoid duplications of search hits, because your search hits include his or her hits already
after you have imported them.
To view all the results of a colleague (report table associations, search hits, tag marked, already
viewed status of files, exclusion status of files), you can open the case in read-only mode as him
or her. For that, try the "Options..." checkbox when opening a case. You may prevent your
colleagues from opening the case in read-only mode as you.
61
The "Options..." checkbox allows you to open a case in any of the following three modes:
1) entire case read-only (case file and volume snapshots),
2) shared analysis mode (ability to cooperatively produce report table associations,
comments, search hit hits, and virtual files; tag files; remember already viewed files,
exclude files)
3) full access
If the same user wishes to open the same case (the same copy) in more than 1 instance of the
program simultaneously, that user has three options. Either
1) in the second instance the entire case (including evidence objects) is opened as read-only,
or
2) the user opens the case as a separate, fictitious user (called his or her "alter ego") with
separate file statuses, search hits, report table associations etc. (shared use of the case and
the evidence objects is coordinated by X-Ways Forensics exactly as if the alter ego was a
real, different examiner, even though the username is the same), or
3) if extended multi-user coordination is disabled, the user may open the same case more
than once at a time as him or herself and assumes responsibility for coordination problems
(e.g. conflicts arising from changes to the volume snapshot of the same evidence objects
opened at the same time in different sessions of the program), or better makes sure to
open an evidence object that is open in one session already as read-only in the other
session (right-click an evidence object for that option).
The aforementioned "Options..." checkbox allows you at any time to open the case as your alter
ego, not only when opening the same case in a second instance of the program. It also allows you
to open a case in shared analysis mode if it is not open anywhere else at the moment.
Multiple users running searches, creating report table associations, entering or editing comments,
editing extracted metadata, tagging files, excluding files, marking files as already viewed is all
supported for the same evidence object at the same time. Removing items from a volume
snapshot while the evidence object is open somewhere else, however, is forbidden and will be
refused by the program. The goal of the multi-user coordination in v17.5 and later is to support
concurrent analysis/review work by multiple examiners. Removing files from a volume snapshot
is not considered ordinary review/analysis work. Volume snapshot refinements should be done
systematically in advance.
The initials of the examiner who has attached files to the volume snapshot or manually carved
files in v17.5 and later can be seen in square brackets next to the filename, so that it is easy to tell
who has introduced such files to the case.
Technical changes to the way how multiple simultaneously users are coordinated are reserved.
To be on the safe side, please make sure that simultaneous users are running the same version of
the software.
Last not least v17.5 allows you to review the processing history of a case in its properties. This
reveals which versions were used on it (recorded only by v17.3 SR-10 and later, v17.4 SR-4 and
later and v17.5 and later) and by which users (recorded only by v17.5 and later).
62
You may turn off "Extended multi-user coordination" for some performance benefits if you are
the only user of a case at a time and don’t need some of the advanced options. This will also
allow you to open the same case more than once at the same time as the same user (but then do
not open the same evidence objects in more than one session at the same time with read & write
access to the volume snapshot).
There is an option to always suggest to open a case with active extended multi-user coordination
in shared analysis mode. That mode can be useful even for the first of many simultaneous users
of the case because only in that mode newly created report table associations are shared out to
other simultaneous users at regularly intervals (depending on the case auto-save option).
Alternative Ways of Sharing Analysis Work
Option #1: Multiple computer forensic examiners can work simultaneously with their own copy
of the same case simultaneously (always copy both the .xfc file and the corresponding
subdirectory) and exchange results with each other or reconcile all results in the main copy of the
case, by exporting and importing report table associations (i.e. their categorization of all the
relevant files, e-mails, etc.).
Option #2: Potentially relevant files are copied from the original evidence objects to multiple
evidence file containers. The containers are examined by different investigators simultaneously
in newly created cases (in X-Ways Forensics or X-Ways Investigator). They also can export their
report table associations, which can then be imported back into the original case.
Both commands, the export and import of report table associations, can be found in the context
menu of the case tree. Export is supported at the case and evidence object level, import at the
case level. The names of the examiners/investigators could be included in the names of the report
tables if in the original case it should be obvious who created which associations. Please note that
you cannot import report table associations in the original case any more if you have taken a new
volume snapshot or if you have removed objects from the volume snapshot in the meantime.
Distributed Volume Snapshot Refinement
X-Ways Forensics allows to refine the volume snapshots of different evidence objects of the
same case using multiple machines on the same network, simultaneously, to save time. Each
user/computer opens the same .xfc case file (the same copy on the same computer). All
participating users/computers or all except for one (the master session) have to open the case as
partially read-only, i.e. only allowing for shared analysis work/distributed volume snapshot
refinement. This can be done by checking the “Options…” box in the Open Case dialog window,
or you will be prompted automatically when opening the case if the case if already open in
another session as not read-only (i.e. in the master session).
You have the option to specifically open individual evidence objects (not the entire case) with the
volume snapshot treated as read-only, using a dedicated command in the evidence object context
menu in the Case Data window. Please note that this has nothing to do with how the evidence
object itself (the disk or the image) is treated. X-Ways Forensics never alters data in sectors of
disks or interpreted images files when opening them as evidence object. Only the volume
snapshot, i.e. the database with information about all the files and directories found, is either
63
read-only or, and that is the normal state, changeable.
5.3 Evidence Objects
You may add any currently attached computer medium (such as hard disk, memory card, USB
stick, CD-ROM, DVD, ...), any image file, directory or ordinary single file to the active case. It
will then be permanently associated with this case (unless you remove it from the case later),
displayed in the tree-like case structure, and designated as an evidence object or source of
evidence. A subfolder is created in the case folder for each evidence object, where by default files
will be saved that you copy/recover from that evidence object, so it will always be obvious from
which object exactly (and from which case) recovered files originate. If you wish to add more
than 1 file from the same directory to the case, please add the whole directory, just exclude or
remove those files that are irrelevant.
In the evidence object properties window, you may enter a title or number for that evidence
object according to your own conventions. You may change the order of evidence objects in the
case tree using the small arrow buttons in the upper left corner, except for "dependent" evidence
objects (partitions that belong to a physical disk). The date and time it was associated with the
active case is recorded and displayed. The internal designation of the evidence object is displayed
as well as its original size in bytes. You may enter comments of arbitrary length that apply to the
evidence objects, and a technical description of it is added by WinHex automatically (as known
from the Medial Details Report command in the Specialist menu). You may have WinHex
calculate a hash (checksum or digest) on the evidence object and verify it later, so that you can be
sure that data authenticity has not been compromised in between. Hashes stored in evidence files
are imported automatically when added to a case. You may disable the automated log feature for
a specific evidence object if the log feature is enabled for the case as a whole.
To add images or media to a case. you can use the "Add" commands in the case data window's
File menu. When adding images, you can also select that the volume snapshot of newly added
evidence objects should be refined immediately. Another way how to add opened images or disks
to the case is the "Add" command in the context menu of the data window's tab.
The command “Replace with New Image” in the context menu of an evidence object allows you
to replace a disk that is used as an evidence object in your case with an image (useful if you first
preview the disk before you acquire it, i.e. created an image of it), without losing your volume
snapshot, search hits, comments, etc. Can also be used to simply tell X-Ways Forensics the new
path of an image in case the image was moved or the drive letter has changed, or if the image
filename was changed, or if the type of the image was changed (e.g. raw image to be replaced
with a compressed and encrypted .e01 evidence file). In the case of a physical, partitioned
evidence object it is recommended to apply this command to that parent object (i.e. the physical
disk). The change will then automatically also be applied to the child evidence objects (i.e.
partitions). If the new image is an image of a different disk or a different evidence file container
or an evidence file container that has been filled further, i.e. if the volume snapshots cannot
match, you will likely get a warning because the size of the new image is different from the size
of the previous image. Time and again, users of X-Ways Forensics try to use this command to
replace an evidence object in a case with a different evidence object, although that doesn't make
64
any sense because that way the technical description, the volume snapshot, any search hits,
comments and report table associations don't fit the other evidence object. These users then
typically complain that they receive an error message. The message is displayed because X-Ways
Forensics usually notices based on the size that the new image is a totally different image. If you
don't need evidence object A any more in your case and you need add an evidence object B, then
you can simply remove A and add B. There is no alternative to that, and an alternative is neither
reasonable nor required.
It is possible to open an evidence object even if the disk or image is not currently available, via a
special command in the evidence object's context menu, to see at least the volume snapshot. That
means you can see all the file metadata stored in the volume snapshot (filename, path, file size,
timestamps, attributes, etc.), can use most filters etc., but cannot see any data in sectors and
cannot open/view any files.
In the Case Root window, evidence objects can be marked as important with a yellow flag, via
the context menu or by hitting the Space bar. You will see that yellow flag in the Case Data
window and when selecting evidence objects, for example for recursive exploration from the
Case Root or when generating a report.
5.4 Case Log
When enabled in the case and the evidence properties window, WinHex obstinately logs all
activities performed when the case is open. That allows you to easily track, reproduce, and
document the steps you have followed to reach a certain result, for your own information and for
the court room.
The following is recorded:
• when you a select a menu item, the command title (or at least an ID), and the name of the
active edit window, if not an evidence object, preceded by the keyword "Menu",
• when a message box is displayed, the message text and what button you pressed (OK,
Yes, No, or Cancel), preceded by the keyword "MsgBox",
• when a small progress indicator window is displayed, its title (like "Recovering files...")
and whether the operation was completed or aborted, preceded by the keyword
"Operation",
• a screenshot of each displayed dialog window with all selected options, e.g. for a complex
operation that follows, preceded by the window's title,
• the extensive log produced by Clone Disk and File Recovery by Type,
• your own entries (free text) that you add with the Add Log Entry command, either to the
case as a whole or to a certain evidence object.
The destination path of each file copied/recovered with the directory browser context menu,
along with selected metadata of that file (e.g. original name, original path, size, timestamps, ...),
is logged in a separate file “copylog.html” or “copylog.txt” in the “_log” subdirectory.
All actitivities are logged with their exact date and time, internally in FILETIME format with
65
100-nanosecond interval precision. Logs are by default associated with the case as a whole.
However, logs of activities that apply to a certain evidence object are directly associated with that
evidence object. This determines where they appear in a report. Screenshots are saved as PNG
files in the “_log” subfolder of a case folder. To get valid references to these PNG files from the
HTML output of the case log, save the HTML file in the suggested directory.
5.5 Case Report
You may create a report from the File menu of the Case Data window. The report is saved as an
HTML file and can thus be displayed and opened in a variety of applications. For example, you
may view it in your favorite Internet browser and open and further process it in MS Word. The
application to open the report in can be specified in Options | Viewer Programs. If no such
program is defined, the report file will be opened in the application that is associated with the file
extension on your computer. With the Open Report command you can select any existing file and
open it in the defined or associated application.
The report can consist of the following elements:
•
Basic report: Starts with an optional header line, an optional logo, an optional preface (in
which you may use HTML code), the case title and details, followed by a list of
hyperlinks to the individual evidence object sections. For each evidence object, the report
specifies its title, details, and technical description, your comments, your annotations.
•
Report tables: All files in selected report tables can be output to the report, with selected
metadata such as filename, path, timestamps, comments. Files can be optionally copied
off the evidence objects into a subdirectory of where the report is saved. Then they will
also be linked from the report. Either all files can be copied or merely pictures. By
default, pictures will be displayed directly in the HTML report file and not merely linked.
They are resized to the maximum dimensions you specify while retaining their aspect
ratio. If you specify maximum dimensions of 0×0, then the pictures will only be linked,
just as other files. If you choose to reference multiple files in the same line (to render the
report more compact when printing), you will appreciate that long filenames and paths
can be artificially broken into multiple lines after a user-defined number of pixels, to
make sure the width does not exceed the paper size.
There is an option to only make a copy of tagged files for inclusion in a case report
instead of all or none. Useful if you wish to reference all notable files with their metadata
in your report, but show only a subset of those.
Files can be output either grouped by evidence object and sorted by internal ID or in the
order as they are currently listed in the case root window, where you can freely change
the order thanks to up to 3 sort criteria. If no files are currently listed in the case root
(because it has not been explored recursively), then the second option is grayed out.
Explore the case root recursively first to make it available (right-click it). Note that if you
choose the second option, files that are not listed in the case root window will not be
output, even if they are part of a report table. That means that current filter settings have
66
an effect on the generation of the report, too. If files are omitted because they are not
listed in the case root window at the time of report generation, you will be notified of that
in the report and in a message box.
If the box to output report tables is only half checked, then only the number of items in
each report table will be reported.
•
Case log
By default, the report is created for the entire case. Optionally it is created for selected evidence
objects only. XWFRT (X-Ways Forensics Report Tweaker) is a tool that aims to tweak the
standard report for better presentation, downloadable from https://code.google.com/p/dfirapps/downloads/detail?name=XWFRT.exe.
5.6 Report Tables
In the directory browser of an evidence object, you can associate notable files with report tables.
A report table is a user-defined (virtual) list of files, especially notable files. Files associated with
report tables can then be easily included in the case report with all their metadata and even links
(pictures can be included directly), and you can filter by their report table association in a
recursive view in order to easily locate these files later (like bookmarking files). The filter can
reference multiple report tables at the same time (with OR, AND and NOT operators) and even
has an option that allows to additionally include siblings of the files of a certain report table, i.e.
files in the same directory. That is useful, especially when exploring recursively and sorting by
path, to check whether there are any further notable files in the neighborhood.
E.g. you could create report tables like "related to company X", "evidence against suspect A",
"incriminating pictures", "unjustified expenses", "forward to investigator B", "print later", "get
translated", “show to witness C” etc., and later when you are done viewing files, you can get the
big picture of all relevant files by using the report table filter (e.g. "Show me all files related to
company X that are also considered evidence against suspect B"). You are practically assigning
files to certain custom categories defined by yourself. Also allows you to revisit files later that
are still be closely examined.
Having files in a dedicated report table also allows to conveniently copy/recover them in a single
step at a later point of time or get a gallery overview of these files specifically. The same file can
be associated with multiple report tables. This can be done in the dialog window that appears
when invoking the Report Table Association command in the directory browser context menu,
for one file or several selected files at a time. This dialog window does not show the existing
associations of the selected file or files (that would be quite complicated to achieve anyway for
multiple selected files, instead simply look at the "Report table" column), but creates new report
table associations in a convenient and user-configurable way and/or removes existing
associations. The program remembers the report tables selected last for creating associations. In
the same dialog window you can also create new report tables, rename or delete existing ones,
and remove/override previous associations. For each report table you can specify whether you
would typically like to associate only the selected file or directory to that report table and/or at
67
the same time the selected file's parent file (if any) and/or the file's or directory's child objects
and/or any identified duplicates of the selected file in any currently open evidence object
(duplicates that have been identified based on hash values and marked accordingly in the Attr.
column, see context menu, as well as hard links except in HFS+).
Another option allows to automatically associate siblings of selected files with report tables.
Useful for example when reviewing search hits, if you find a relevant search hit in the attachment
of an e-mail message and want to be sure to include other attachments of the same e-mail
message in further processing, even if they do not contain search hits.
If you need to categorize a lot of files with the help of report tables, you can also use keyboard
shortcuts. X-Ways Forensics automatically assigns the shortcuts Ctrl+1, Ctrl+2, ..., Ctrl+9 to
your report tables. In the dialog window for report table associations you can also assign these
shortcuts to report tables yourself, by simply pressing the keys while a report table is selected.
Ctrl+0 removes all report table associations from a file. Alternatively you may simply press the
keys in the numeric pad on your keyboard if Num Lock is active, without Ctrl. This will not be
considered normal input in the directory browser although the Ctrl key is not pressed. The
numpad keys may not work on all computers.
There is an option to create report table associations for files based on search terms that they
contain according to the "Search terms" column. Useful if you wish to keep the information about
which file contains which search terms even after deleting search hits, or to preserve it in
evidence file containers. Report tables representing contained search terms are the 3rd kind of
report tables, the first two being report tables created by X-Ways Forensics to make the user
aware of certain file specialities and user-created general purpose report tables. Report tables
representing search terms are recognized as such in evidence file containers by v17.3 and later.
It is possible to save and load lists of report table names in the report table association dialog
window. This is useful to start right away with a set of predefined report tables as typically
needed for a certain kind of case. The maximum number of report tables in a case is 256.
Report table associations can be exported and imported (see Case Management).
In order to output report tables to a report (the original purpose of report tables, hence their
name), use the Create Report command in the Case Data window.
Report table associations are also used internally and created automatically by X-Ways
Forensics, to make the user aware of various potential specialties of certain files. It is up to you
whether you wish to follow up and take a closer look at those files or not. The names of
internally created report tables are displayed as indented and in a different color, to avoid mix-up
with your own report tables. Automatically generated report tables include:
No detectable textual contents
Unable to decode text
For error messages see Metadata
Unable to explore
Empty archive?
Spanned archive
68
No e-mails found
Path too long.
Large non-resident $EA
Animated GIF
Multi-page TIFF
Multi-page JPEG marker
Zip bomb? Not fully processed
Unexpected tail (SFX?) / Contains unknown segment (SFX?)
FSG Packer / PECompact / UPX / Unknown segment / Binder?
Contains embedded document(s)
Contains embedded object(s)
Contains embedded file
Contains hidden file
Hybrid MS Office document!
RAR hybrid
Contains embedded non-JPEG/non-PNG picture
Contains invisible old revisions
Concatenated-PDF
Contains private chunk
No pictures extracted
Reason for crash?
Unsupported file type variant
Omitted
Not copied
Virus suspected
Unable to read
Not decompressed
5.7 Internal Viewer
The internal viewer can be invoked with the “View” command in the Tools menu and in the
directory browser's context menu, plus in Preview mode. It shows picture files of various file
formats (JPEG, PNG, GIF, TIFF, BMP, PSD, HDR, PSP, SGI, PCX, CUT,
PNM/PBM/PGM/PPM, ICO, using an internal graphics viewing library) plus the structure of
Windows registry files, Windows Event Logs (.evt and .evtx), Windows shortcut files (.lnk),
Windows Prefetch files, $LogFiles, $UsnJrnl:$J, Windows Task Scheduler (.job), $EFS LUS,
INFO2, Restore Point change.log.1, wtmp and utmp log-in records, MacOS X kcpassword,
MacOS X finder bookmarks (flnk), AOL PFC, Outlook NK2 auto-complete files, Outlook WAB
address books, Internet Explorer travellog files (a.k.a. RecoveryStore) MS Outlook Express DBX
and many other files internally. If you try to view a file that is not supported by the internal
viewer, the separate viewer component is invoked instead.
There is an additional separate viewer component that integrates seamlessly and allows to
conveniently view more than 270 (!) file formats (such as MS Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Access,
Works, Outlook; HTML, PDF, StarOffice, OpenOffice, ...) directly in WinHex and X-Ways
Forensics. This component is provided to all owners of forensic licenses issued for v12.05 and
69
later. It can be enabled in Options | Viewer Programs, optionally also for pictures that could be
displayed by the internal graphics viewer library. More information online. The folder for
temporary files used by the separate viewer component is controlled by WinHex/X-Ways
Forensics, i.e. set to the one the user specifies in General Options. However, unlike X-Ways
Forensics, the viewer component does not silently accept unsuitable paths on read-only media.
Please note that the viewer component since its version 8.2 creates files in the Windows profile
of the currently logged on user, in which it stores its configuration and settings. In earlier
versions, if actually used, not when merely loaded, it left behind entries in the system registry.
Registry Viewer
MS Windows maintains an internal database called registry which contains all important settings
for the local system and installed software in a tree-like structure. The data is persistently stored
in files called registry hives. You can open and view hives by double-clicking them in the
directory browser or using the context menu. This will open them in the integrated registry
viewer. Supported formats are NT/2K/XP/Va/7 hives. Win9x and WinMe hives can only be
loaded by the registry viewer of X-Ways Forensics 15.9 and earlier. NT/2K/XP/Va/7 hives are
located in the file “ntuser.dat” in a user profile and in the directory \system32\config.
Up to 32 hives can be opened in the registry viewer at the same time. The registry viewer has the
ability to find deleted keys and values in hives that contain unused space and lost keys/values in
damaged/incomplete hives. If no complete path is known for keys, they will be listed as children
of a virtual key called "Path unknown".
With a right-click a pop-up menu can be opened anywhere in the window, which lets you invoke
the commands “Search” and “Continue Search”. Clicking “Search” invokes a dialog that lets you
specify a search expression and where you want to search. You can browse either keys or names
or values or all of them. The search always starts at the topmost root of the first loaded hive and
spans all opened hives. "Continue Search" finds the next match after at least one match has been
found. The currently selected element is not relevant for where the search continues. The "search
whole word only" option is not guaranteed to work for values.
In the right-hand window the pop-up menu also contains the command "Copy" which lets you
copy the value of the selected element to the clipboard.
When clicking a value of a loaded hive in the Registry Viewer, if the data window with the
drive/image from which the hive was loaded is in File mode, the cursor will automatically jump
to the selected value in the registry file, and the value will automatically be selected as a block in
that file. Useful as that allows to see the value in hexadecimal and text and as that allows to
easily copy binary values in either binary or as text, not only as hex ASCII.
The Export List command in the registry viewer context menu allows to export all values in the
selected hive to a tab-delimited text file.
When selecting a value, an edit window in the lower right corner tells you the logical size of that
value and the size of its slack. It also interprets registry values of the following types, as known
from the registry report: MRUListEx, BagMRU, ItemPos, ItemOrder, Order (menu),
ViewView2, SlowInfoCache, IconStreams (Tray notifications), UserAssist, Timestamps
70
(FILETIME, Epoch, Epoch8), MountedDevices, OpenSavePidlMRU, and LastVisitedPidlMRU.
The edit window also displays the access rights/permissions of the registry keys if (Default) is
selected.
$LogFile Viewer
Basic Concepts:
Each statement falls into one of the three categories:
1) Log-Operation
The on-disk data at (LCN,Byte offset) is to be replaced in case of a Redo/Undo-Operation with
the one specified within the log operation.
2) The PAGE statement indicates the start of a new log page (multiple of 4 KB). The LSN
specifies the last end LSN for this page. A * marks a stale page.
3) The CheckPoint statement specifies a LSN to restart with.
Each statement is preceeded by an byte offset pointing into the $LogFile.
Abbreviations:
LSN=Logical Sequence Number
LCN=Logical Cluster Number
VCN=Virtual Cluster Number
FID=File ID
Limitations:
Only log operations are shown which affect on-disk structures. FILE records and INDX buffers
are not completely dumped. For complete data, follow the byte offset displayed for the operation
of interest. An NTFS journal is only processed if the path of such a file contain the string
$LogFile.
5.8 Registry Report
From within the registry viewer, WinHex can create an HTML report, listing values of possibly
relevant registry keys, when you invoke the command "Create Registry Report" in the right-click
pop-up menu. The registry keys that are to be reported in all open hives are defined in text files
like the pre-supplied “Reg Report *.txt”, which can be tailored to your needs. The registry files
you view must have their original names, or else the report may fail. You may edit the list of
registry keys in this files to tailor the report to your own needs.
Standard tables have 4 columns: description, extracted value, registry path (provided as a tooltip),
and last modification date of the corresponding key. The dates are displayed in gray for values
that are not the only values in their respective key, as a visual aid to remind the reader that they
are not the modification dates of the values themselves.
Free space in registry hives can be analyzed with the report definition file "Reg Report Free
Space.txt". The free space can be as large as several MB, especially as a consequence of the use
of virus scanners and registry cleaning programs. Deleted registry values are now highlighted in
the report in red color.
71
Also registry value slack has a relevant size in NTUSER.DAT hives. This fact is exploited with 2
measures:
1) If the slack contains text strings, it will be output in the registry report (in green). This new
feature can optionally be turned off the registry viewer context menu.
2) For values that contain item lists (i.e. are binary) you can use the "Reg Report Free Space.txt"
definitions to output registry report will output lists of filenames with timestamps in green. The
first timestamps is an access date, the second one is a creation date. If no timestamps can be
output, these are artifacts from "RecentDocs".
Format of entries in "Reg Report *.txt"
(type) (tab) (registry path) (tab) (description) (linefeed)
type:
??
NT
VT
**
FR
definition for any Windows version
for Windows NT through XP
for Windows Vista and 7
new function (without absolute paths)
query in free space of the hive
registry path:
Full path of registry keys
HKLM: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE
HKCU: HKEY_CURRENT_USER
If an asterisk ("*") is provided as the last key, all keys on the same level and deeper and their
values will be included in the report.
example:
NT
HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\*
report whole Windows branch
If you wish to report a particular value that exists in all subkeys of a certain key, you can as well
write an "*" for all subkeys and include the value after that.
The generated report contains the registry path with its timestamp, the filename of the registry
hive that the key was found in, the description that was provided in the "Reg Report *.txt" file,
and the value.
The description field may contain an additional statement at the end that starts with a %
character. If the % is followed by a numeric character n, the n-th element of the registry path will
be appended to the description in the report. This can be very useful if the path and not the value
(or not only the value) contains the relevant information. If the % is followed by a letter, the
value will be preferably interpreted as the data type that the letter stands for. The following
letters and data types are defined at the moment:
%f
Windows FILETIME timestamp
%e
Epoch (Unix) timestamp
72
%E
Epoch8 (Unix) timestamp as QWORD.
%T
Windows system time timestamp
%s
ANSI-ASCII null-terminated
%S
UTF-16 string null-terminated
%b
binary data not to be interpreted as characters (REG_BINARY)
%P
Windows PIDL data structure
%I
ItemPos data structure (covers Shell Bag, desktop shortcuts, and more)
%B
conditional: if value TRUE
%F
conditional: if value FALSE
%no empty mode
%+
recursion of the subtree
%i
value case-insensitive
%d
deleted values only
It is also possible to combine numeric characters and letters (e.g. %10f). In that case the numeric
character must precede the letter.
// at the start of a line comments out that line (will cause it to be ignored).
## at the start of a line will output explanatory text into the report.
Additional output
In a second phase of the creation of the registry report, additional data will be analyzed and
output as tables at the end of the HTML file. The specifications in the definition file which
belong to this second phase are marked with "Dummy". This causes the first phase to prevent any
normal output. If you would like to get the output of the first phase, you merely need to change
the description in the definition to anything other than "Dummy".
The table "Attached devices by serial number" is created according to the algorithm that Harlan
Carvey describes in chapter 4 of his book. Furthermore you can find the tables "Partitions by disk
signature", "Windows portable devices", "Drivers installed", "File systems installed", "Services
installed", "Networks", and "Network cards".
Another table is called "Browser Helper Objects", compiled with data from the hives
NTUSER.DAT and SOFTWARE, about browser usage. "External Memory Devices" is a table
which can be retrieved from Software hives of Windows Vista and later that lists external media
with access timestamps, hardware serial number, volume label, volume serial number and
volume size (size often only under Vista). Select the definition file "Reg Report Devices.txt" to
get the table.
5.9 Simultaneous Search
This search command in the Search menu is available for owners of specialist and forensic
licenses, and offers all options only for owners of forensic licenses. This search is simultaneous
in that it allows the user to specify a virtually unlimited list of search terms, one per line. The
occurrences of these search terms can be saved and listed in an evidence object's search hit list
(forensic licenses, when working with a case), or in the general Position Manager.
73
You may use the simultaneous search to systematically search multiple hard disks or disk images
in a single pass for words like “drug”, “cocaine”, (street synonym #1 for cocaine), (street
synonym #2 for cocaine), (street synonym #3 for cocaine), (street synonym #3 for cocaine,
alternative spelling), (name of dealer #1), (name of dealer #2), (name of dealer #3), etc. at the
same time. The search results can narrow down the examination to a list of files upon which to
focus.
The simultaneous search can be used to search physically in sectors or logically in file or in a
previously created index. Physically, it searches the sectors on a medium in LBA order (except if
you search upwards, then in reverse order). If you do not have WinHex list the hits of a physical
search, you may use the F3 key to search for the next hit. Logically, the search proceeds file by
file, which is preferable and much more powerful and thorough. More about the logical search.
You can search the same search terms simultaneously in in up to 6 code pages. The default code
page, that is active in your Windows system, is marked with an asterisk and initially preselected.
E.g. on computers in the US and in Western Europe, the usual default code page is 1252 ANSI
Latin I. The code pages named "ANSI" are used in Microsoft Windows. "MAC" indicates an
Apple Macintosh code page. "OEM" indicates a code page used in MS-DOS and Windows
command prompts. If a search term cannot be converted to the specified code page because of
characters unknown in that code page, a warning is issued. Code page independent GREP
searches for exact byte values are possible when searching in a "non" code page called "Direct
byte-wise translation for GREP", which translates byte values without any mapping for certain
code pages or case matching. X-Ways Forensics also allows to search in both little-endian and
big-endian UTF-16, and in any regional Windows code page plus UTF16 with the MS Outlook
cipher (compressible encryption) applied.
You can define which characters should be considered to be parts of words. This is useful to
avoid false hits for short real language words in binary garbage data or Base64 code and
generally for users that consider numbers to be parts of words (such as in “GIF89”). Example: An
undesirable hit for "band" in "7HZsIF9BAND4TpkSbSBS" can be prevented if you search for it
as a whole word only if you redefine the alphabet to include digits 0-9, i.e. consider them word
characters.
It is possible to review the (incomplete) search hit list in the middle of an ongoing simultaneous
search. You can click the search hit list button at any time to view the preliminary search hit list.
Additional search hits that have been collected as the search continues will be listed when you
refresh the search hit list, by clicking the Enter button in the search term list as usually. This
approach to view preliminary search hits is useful e.g. when previewing a live system on site to
determine whether a medium might contain relevant files and should be captured. If after
searching 5% of the data and reviewing the search hits gathered so far the answer is Yes, the
search can be stopped already and a lot of time is saved.
5.10 Logical Search
Powerful subvariant of the simultaneous search. Allows to search either all files, all tagged files,
74
or (if invoked from the directory browser context menu) all selected files. File slack can be
specifically included or excluded. The logical search has several advantages over a physical
search:
•
The search scope can be limited to certain files and folders, through tagging or selecting
files. Please note that the amount of data to search that may be displayed in the dialog
window is an estimate only. The actual scope of the search may vary because of slack
space.
•
Searching in files (usually = in the cluster chains allocated to files) will find search hits
even if the search term happens to be physically split in a fragmented file (occurs at the
end and the beginning of discontiguous clusters).
•
A logical search can be successful even in files that are compressed at the NTFS file
system level, as they are decompressed for searching. This holds true even for files that
were found via a file header signature search, if that was specially adapted for NTFS
compression.
•
If the contents of archives (files in ZIP, RAR, GZ, TAR, BZ2, 7Z, and ARJ, if not
encrypted, forensic license only) and individual e-mail messages and attachments have
been included in the volume snapshot, they can be searched as well.
•
The text that is contained in files whose format is supported by the viewer componet, e.g.
PDF (Adobe), WPD (Corel WordPerfect), VSD (Visio), SWF (Shockwave Flash), can
automatically be extracted/decoded/decompressed prior to search, resulting in
unformatted ASCII or UTF-16 plaintext, which can be reliably searched in addition to the
original data itself. Search hits might otherwise be missed because various file types
typically or at least sometimes store text in an encoded, encrypted, compressed,
fragmented or otherwise garbled way. Important: In particular for HTML, XML and RTF
documents as well as HTML-formatted e-mail messages in .eml files, which may employ
various methods of encoding (e.g. UTF-8) non-7-bit-ASCII characters (e.g. German
umlauts), decoding may be useful, depending on the language of your search terms/the
characters contained in your search terms. When you specify a file mask for decoding,
that mask will not only be applied to the names of searched files, but also to their true
type if verified by signature (see Refined Volume Snapshots). This feature requires the
separate viewer component to be active for the decoding and text extraction part. The
decoded text is output in Latin 1 or Unicode, and can optionally be buffered (cf. Options |
Viewer Programs) to allow for a convenient context preview for search hits in the
decoded text and to accelerate future searches. The default file mask for this option is
*.pdf;*.docx;*.pptx;*.xlsx;*.odt;*.odp;*.ods;*.pages;*.key;*.numbers;*.eml;*.wpd;*.vsd.
It is recommended to add ;*.html;*.xml;*.rtf depending on the characters searched for,
and more depending on your requirements. For example *.doc might be a good idea if
you want to be very thorough because text can be fragmented or change from one
character set to another abruptly in the middle of a MS Word document. Just keep in mind
that the additional decoding and search require more time and like result in duplicated
search hits (search hits found in both the original format and the result of the text
extraction). E-mails will generally not be decoded by X-Ways Forensics when only 7-bit
75
ASCII characters are search. The file mask is applied to both the filename and the
detected true file type. To see what text is extracted from a document by this function,
you can select the document in the directory browser in Preview mode and hold the Shift
key when switching to Raw mode.
•
If you are not interested in each and every search hit, but merely in which files contain at
least one the specified searm terms, a logical search can be greatly accelerated by telling
X-Ways Forensics that only one hit per file is needed, so that it can skip the remainder of
a file once a hit has been recorded and continue with the next file. The resulting search hit
list will be inherently and systematically incomplete, and no assumption must be made
that somehow “the most useful” search hit in each file will be collected, or, if multiple
search terms are used, a search hit for a search term that you consider more important will
be collected. However, it is guaranteed that it contains all the files for which there was at
least one hit (for one of the search terms used), and each such file once only. Such a list is
sufficient (and efficient!) to manually review the affected files, comment on them, copy
the files off an image or pass them on to other investigators in an evidence file container
etc. Note that of course it is not possible to combine search terms with a logical AND if
only 1 hit per file was recorded. That consequence is typically forgotten by unsuspecting
users.
•
Files that have been marked as irrelevant by hash computation and hash database
matching or files that have been excluded by the user or that are filtered out by an active
filter can be omitted from a logical search to save time and reduce the number of
irrelevant search hits. The slack of such files is still covered if the option "Open and
search files incl. slack" is fully checked, so that this option has a higher priority. If only
half checked, the slack of such files is omitted, too.
•
The recommendable data reduction specifically omits certain files from the search to
avoid that time is wasted or duplicate hits are produced unnecessarily.
E-mail archives of the types MBOX and DBX as well as file archives of the supported
types (ZIP, RAR etc.) will not be searched if the e-mails and files that they contain have
already been included in the volume snapshot, in order to save time. In that case only
those extracted e-mails and files will be searched, in their natural (unencoded and
uncompressed) state. This may be reasonable for keyword searches and in particular for
indexing (which has a hard time processing e.g. Base64 code), but not necessarily for
technical searches for signatures etc. Using this option constitutes a compromise. The
slack of archive files is still included if the file slack option is enabled, as that option has
a higher priority.
A file that that is marked as renamed/moved will not be searched either if data reduction
is enabled and if principally all files in the volume are to be searched (as opposed to
tagged or selected files only) because the same file will already be searched under its
current name/in its current location.
If *.docx;*.pptx;*.xlsx;*.odt;*.odp;*.ods;*.pages;*.key;*.numbers are decoded for the
search, the contained .xml files with the main contents (document.xml, content.xml,
76
index.xml, ...) and in case of .pages any existing Preview.pdf are also omitted, to avoid
redundant search hits.
Files with a red X icon will not be searched, except if they are specifically targeted via a
selection or tagmark.
•
In NTFS, all "real" hard links (i.e. hard links other than SFN) except for one can be
optionally omitted from logical searches and indexing. Nowadays on Windows
installations often between 10,000 and 100,000 hard links of system files exist, for
example 27 links to a file like "Ph3xIB64MV.dll" in directories such as
\Windows\System32\DriverStore\FileRepository\ph3xibc9.inf_amd64_neutral_ff3a566…
\Windows\System32\DriverStore\FileRepository\ph3xibc2.inf_amd64_neutral_7621f5…
\Windows\System32\DriverStore\FileRepository\ph3xibc5.inf_amd64_neutral_22703…
\Windows\winsxs\amd64_ph3xibc9.inf_31bf3856ad364e35_6.1.7600.16385_none_a…
\Windows\winsxs\amd64_ph3xibc5.inf_31bf3856ad364e35_6.1.7600.16385_none_9…
\Windows\winsxs\amd64_ph3xibc12.inf_31bf3856ad364e35_6.1.7600.16385_none_6…
etc.
By searching only in one hard link of a file, you can typically exclude several GB of
duplicate data and yet don't miss anything if you search all other files. Those additional
hard links that are omitted are those whose hard link count is grayed out. Search hits in
the only hard link that does get searched are marked with the hint "→Links" in the Descr.
column to remind you of the other hard links of the same file in case those search hits are
relevant.
•
Option to apply logical simultaneous searches to various metadata of files in addition to
the file contents. More precisely, they can be applied to the cells of any selected directory
browser column such as Name, Author, Sender, Recipients or Metadata. That can spare
you from pasting your keywords in the filter dialogs of various directory browser
columns. That methodology is also more thorough because all the text addressed by this
feature is searchable in UTF-16, whereas elsewhere the same data may be fragmented
(e.g. filenames in particular in FAT), specially encoded (e.g. sender and recipients as
quoted printable in e-mails), compressed, or stored in unexpected code pages. It is also
convenient because any hits will be presented and listed in the same fashion as ordinary
search hits in file contents, just specially marked in the search hit description column with
the name of the column that the text that contains the search hits actually belongs to and
highlighted in a different color. You can also filter for search hits in metadata.
When selecting a search hit in metadata, it is automatically searched for and highlighted
in Details mode, just as ordinary search hits in file contents are automatically searched for
and highlighted in Preview mode.
Note that the simultaneous search in metadata does not search in additional cell text that
is displayed in a different color, such as alternative filenames and file counts in the Name
column.
•
Some blind spots that logical searches have in old-fashioned computer forensics software
products in the several thousand dollar price range do not exist in X-Ways Forensics, as
77
such areas on a partition can be addressed specifically, namely any transition from file
slack to directly following free space, and in NTFS and exFAT also from known
uninitialized (but physically allocated) tails of files to directly following free space.
Should this operation freeze on a certain file, remember the internal ID and the name of the
currently processed file are displayed in the small progress indicator window. If this operation is
applied to an evidence object and it crashes, X-Ways Forensics will tell you which file when you
restart the program and associate it with a report table (depends on the Security Options). All that
happens so that you can exclude and omit the file when trying again.
5.11 Search Hit Lists
Available only with a forensic license, when working with a case, for evidence objects with a
volume snapshot. (Otherwise the Position Manager will list search hits.)
The directory browser can show search hits. To get into this display mode (search hit list instead
of ordinary directory browser), click the button with the binoculars and the four horizontal lines.
It is only available for evidence objects. In that mode of operation there are four additional
columns: physical/absolute offsets of the search hits, logical/relative offsets, descriptions that
include the code pages in which search hits were found and hints if found in file slack, and the
search hits themselves (usually with a context preview, sortable by search term, context preview
not accurate for Arabic and Hebrew text or hits in UTF-8). The directory browser's grouping
options have no effect when search hits are sorted by one of these three columns. The search hit
description column comes with a filter that allows to focus on notable hits, user search hits, hits
in a certain code page, hits in the text extraction of documents, and hits in slack space or
uninitialized tail areas of files. Search hits in all variants of UTF-16 that are not aligned at even
offsets are marked in the Descr. column as "unaligned", as a small hint and explanation why you
can read the text only in the alignment-aware context preview of the Search hits column, and not
in the text column.
Almost all commands in the directory browser context menu are available for search hit lists as
well, notably the ability to copy, view, tag and comment files. The dynamic filter based on the
usual directory browser columns can be used in conjunction with search hit lists e.g. to view hits
in all .doc and .xls files with certain last modification dates only.
The search hit list is based on the position and level in the directory tree where you click, so that
you can e.g. see all search hits in files in \Documents and Settings and subdirectories of the same,
and even search hits from all evidence objects of the entire case at the same time, using the case
root window. Also it's possible to conveniently select one or several search terms for search hit
viewing, in the search term list in the Case Data window. Like that it's also an easy task to find
out how many search hits there are for any given search term for any level in the case tree, as that
number is displayed in the directory browser's caption based on the current search hit list.
Search hit lists are "dynamic" in that they are composed "on the fly" depending on selected
search terms, explored path, current filter settings and based on the settings of the search term list
(logical AND combinations and the "1 hit per file" option).
78
Search hits can be marked as notable (such that a yellow flag is displayed on the left) with the
directory browser context menu or by pressing the Space key. With the Space key you may also
remove that mark. You may unmark multiple selected search hits as notable by holding the Shift
key when invoking the "Mark as notable" context menu command. You can filter for notable
search hits via the Descr. column filter.
Search hits are stored in the metadata subdirectory of the respective evidence object. When you
no longer need certain search hits, select them and press the Del key. When you no longer need
any search hits of certain search terms, select the search terms in the search term list and press the
Del key.
5.12 Search Term List
Displayed in the Case Data window when in search hit viewing mode (after clicking the button
with the binoculars and the four horizontal lines). The search term list contains all the search
terms ever search for in the case unless deleted by the user. The search terms can optionally be
sorted alphabetically in ascending order or by the listed search hit count in descending order, via
the context menu of the search term list, to make it easier to locate a certain search term in
lengthy lists.
Selecting search terms in the search term list and then clicking the Enter button allows you to list
all the search hits for these search terms in the currently selected path, subject to filters, in the
search hit list. You can select multiple search terms by holding the Shift or Ctrl key while
clicking them. You may press the Del key to delete selected search terms and all their search hits
permanently.
To reduce a search hit list to a list of unique files that contain at least one search hit, check “List
1 hit per file only” and then click Enter. This can be very useful if you are going to review all
such files manually, as that ensures that each such file is listed only once. No assumption must be
made that somehow “the most useful” search hit in each file is the one that makes it to the list, or
if multiple search terms are selected the one listed search hit is for a search term that you
consider more important. The reduction is non-destructive. Bringing back the original, complete
search hit list merely requires that you uncheck this special option and click the Enter button
again.
It is possible to see (and via the Export list command in the context menu copy) the hit counts for
selected search terms in the search term list. These hit counts are based on the current settings for
the search hit list that is on the screen, take all filters into account, the explored path, any active
AND combination etc. It is the numbers of hits that are actually listed, not the numbers of hits
that have been recorded/saved. To see the total numbers of hits, deactivate any filter and select all
search terms. Note that the "List 1 hit per file only" option also functions like a filter for search
hits.
Question: Why when all the search terms are selected with "List 1 hit per file only" are the counts
returned different from when I click on each search term individually with the same setting?
79
Answer: Because the option is "List 1 hit per file only", and not "List 1 hit per search term per
file only". Many users do not understand that. Imagine if in the same file there is 1 hit for search
term A and 1 hit for search term B, and you select both A and B with that option enabled, then
only 1 hit is listed, either the one for A or the one for B (up to X-Ways Forensics to decide). So
the displayed hit count is 1 for one search term and 0 for the other one. If then you select the
other search term only and click "Enter", the count for that search term will change from 0 to 1
because that is now the only possible search term from which hits can be listed, and up to 1
search hit is listed per file, so that 1 hit is listed.
There are two ways how to logically combine multiple search terms with Boolean operators:
1) By default, multiple selected search terms are combined with a logical OR. To force a search
term, select it and press the “+” key. To exclude a search term, select it and press the “-“ key. To
return a search term to normal OR combination, press the Esc key. You may also use the context
menu of the search term list for all that. The below examples describe the effect of selecting the
search terms A and B depending on their “+” or “-“ status.
A
B
= search hits for A and search hits for B that occur in any files (normal OR combination)
+A
B
= search hits for A and search hits for B that occur in files that contain A
+A
+B
= search hits for A and search hits for B that occur in files that contain both A and B (AND)
A
-B
= search hits for A that occur in files that do not contain B
2) For a logical AND combination, if the search terms are not marked with “+” or “-“, you may
also use the small scrollbar that appears when you select multiple search terms. Allows you to see
only search hits in files that contain all the selected search terms at the same time. You can
combine up to 7 search terms that way. If you select more than 2 search terms, you also have the
option to be less strict and only specify a minimum number of different search terms in the same
file, e.g. require that of search terms A, B, C and D any combination of two of them in the same
file is sufficient, e.g. A and B, or A and C, or B and D, etc. (fuzzy/flexible AND combination).
When 2 search terms are selected in the search term list and combined with a logical AND (using
either of the two available methods), additionally you can now require that search hits must be
"NEAR" to each other to be listed, to find more likely relevant combinations of both search terms
in the same file, exactly like with a proximity search. The maximum distance between the search
hits that constitutes "NEAR" can be defined by the user in bytes. A NEAR combination may also
be applied for more than 2 selected search terms. The effect is that a search hit is listed only if
*any* of the other selected search terms occurs nearby.
80
This paragraph quoted from wikipedia.org: The basic, linguistic, assumption is that the proximity
of the words in a document implies a relationship between the words. Given that authors of
documents try to formulate sentences which contain a single idea, or cluster related ideas within
neighboring sentences or organized into paragraphs, there is an inherent, relatively high,
probability within the document structure that words used together are related. Where as, when
two words are on the opposite ends of a book, the probability there is a relationship between the
words is relatively weak. By limiting search results to only include matches where the words are
within the specified maximum proximity, or distance, the search results are assumed to be of
higher relevance than the matches where the words are scattered.
5.13 Event Lists
Available only with a forensic license, when working with a case, for evidence objects with a
volume snapshot.
When extracting metadata (part of volume snapshot refinements), X-Ways Forensics can compile
a list of events from timestamps that can be found at the file system level as well as internally in
files and in main memory. Conceivable sources are browser histories, Windows event logs,
Windows registry hives, e-mails, etc.. An event list works exactly like a search hit list and can be
displayed by clicking a button which is located next to the search hit list button, with a clock icon
on it. Just like a search hit list, an event list comes with additional columns: the event timestamp,
event type, event category, and some events have an individual description/additional text, for
example events recorded in the Windows registry and in Internet Explorer index.dat files.
If an event list is sorted chronologically, by timestamps, it works like a timeline, which may
allow you to figure out a sequence of events of different kinds stored in different places (e.g. email received, attachment saved, application started, document printed, file deleted) that
otherwise could not be seen together in context. You may see events from different evidence
objects at the same time from the case root window, explore recursively or by path, sort by event
type or event category, see all the usual file properties, view files, navigate to the definition of an
event within a file (if a relative offset is available) and filter for certain date ranges.
You may mark events as notable just like search hits and filter for notable events via the
Timestamp column.
Event-based analysis instead of file-based analysis is a progressive new approach with a totally
different perspective that may lead to knowledge about activities recorded on computers that
otherwise could hardly be gained. You may see connections (related activity) that otherwise
could be overlooked, and may be able to better explain the logic behind what has happened.
The sources of events that are exploited by the metadata extraction in this version include all the
supported file systems (i.e. all the timestamps listed in the timestamp columns of the directory
browser; modification, record update and last access are omitted if identical to the corresponding
creation timestamp), processes in supported memory dumps, extracted or processed e-mail, as
well as files of these types:
81
index.dat
Internet browser SQLite databases
.firefox (~55) fragments
_CACHE_001_ and _CACHE_002_
.lnk shortcuts
.automaticDestination-ms
.chrome Chromium cache data_1, data_2
.usnjrnl fragments
Registry hives*
Windows .evt event logs
Windows .evtx event logs (Most extracted events come with a description that includes the event
source, the event ID and the record number. The record number allows you to quickly search for
the record in the HTML preview if you need further details about that particular event.)
DataStore.edb (MS Windows operating system update events)
.hbin Registry hive fragments
.doc (last printed)
.msg
rp.log XP restore point
INFO2 XP recycle bin
.recycler Vista recyle bin
.snapprop Vista volume shadow copy properties
.cookie
.gthr;.gthr2 Gatherer and Gatherer fragments
.pf prefetch
attach timestamps from EDB
signing date from EXE/DLL/SYS/...
boot time from ETL (event trace log) files
OLE2 last modification
last saved in Office documents and RTF
Skype main.db (chats, calls, file transfers, account creation, ... - you can read entire chats if
sorted chronologically)
internal creation from miscellaneous file types, including Exif timestamps from photos
JPEG GPS
Unix/Linux/Macintosh system logs (These events are practically of significance especially for
USB device history examinations.)
* More specialized events than just standard registry timestamps are output optionally when you
create a registry report, depending on the report definitions used!
The event type is displayed in gray if the timestamp is a previously valid timestamp, for example
such as those found in NTFS in 0x30 attributes or index records of INDX buffer slack or in
$LogFile.
Timestamps from 0x30 attributes in NTFS file systems are output as events only if actually
different from their 0x10 counterparts and not identical to the 0x30 creation timestamp. They are
marked as "0x30" in the Event Type column. Malware might give itself harmless looking
timestamps after deployment, so that it does not seem to be related to the time of
intrusion/infection. The 0x30 attribute timestamps, however, remain unaltered (except if the file
82
is renamed or moved later), and that is the reason why some examiners are interested in them. If
the time frame of intrusion/infection is known, related files would be found in the event list
thanks to the original 0x30 attribute timestamps.
0x30 timestamps are marked in the event list with an asterisk if they are later than the
corresponding 0x10 timestamps, which seems unnatural and in some rare cases might be the
result of backdating by the rightful users of the computers themselves. Under certain
circumstances, backdating documents is seen as fraudulent and illegal. However, much more
commonly 0x10 timestamps predating 0x30 timestamps is just the work of installation programs
or the result of copying a file or moving a file from one volume to another or extracting a file
from a zip archive, where Windows or other programs artificially apply the original creation time
of the source file to the destination once copying turns out to be successful (internal
programmatic backdating).
The selections in the event type filter are not remembered by the program from one session to the
next.
Please see the description of the timestamp columns for more information.
5.14 File Type Categories.txt
This customizable file defines of which file types categories are comprised. The name of a
category is preceded by three asterisks and a space (*** ). Following is a list of file types that
belong to that category, one per line. Such lines must start with either a “+” or a “-“, where “+”
simply means that type is checked in the file type filter. After that, typical extension for that file
type follows, plus a space character, followed by a description of the file type. Only lower-case
letters are to be used in extensions. The same file extension/type may occur in multiple categories
(see Category column description for limitations).
Alternatively to extensions, entire filenames are supported as well. This is useful for certain files
with a well-defined name whose extension alone is not specific enough or which do not have any
extension. Complete filenames have to be enclosed in semicolons. Examples:
-;index.dat; Internet Explorer history/cache
-;history.dat; Mozilla/Firefox browser history
-;passwd; Existing users
There is a virtual “Other/Unknown type” category, which is not specifically defined in the file
and simply covers all files that do not belong to any other, defined category.
You may store additional custom definitions of file types and categories in a separate file named
"File Type Categories User.txt". This file will be read and maintained in addition to the standard
definitions in "File Type Categories.txt" and has the same structure, but is not overwritten by
updates of the software if contained in the installation directory, so that you can easily continue
to use it even when overwriting your installation with a new version.
File types are ranked by importance/relevance and you may filter by this rank. For example,
83
filtering out those file types ranked #0 will exclude font files, cursors, icons, themes, skins, clip
arts, etc. Files with a low rank are of importance just in very specific investigations, for example
source code, in which you would not be interested when looking for office documents or pictures
for example, but definitely when hunting a virus programmer. Higher ranked file types are
relevant in more cases. Generally the rank is useful in simple cases where you can expect to find
what you are looking for in file types that are fairly well known. As another idea, you could make
it a habit to only index files with higher ranks.
You also have the option to assign file types to a so-called group, a concept that is not identical
to a file type category. Useful for example if your standard procedure is to let examiner A check
out pictures and videos, examiner B documents, e-mail, and other Internet activity, and examiner
C operating system files of various kinds, because of their specializations. You can give these
groups meaningful names and filter for them, also using the Type Status dialog window. The
groups are displayed in the Type filter.
All the definitions about file type ranks and file type groups are made in the "File Type
Categories.txt" file. Suggestions for ranks and an example of a group of files that may deserve
special attention are already predefined. Both ranks (from 0 to 9, where missing means 0) and
groups (letters from A to Z) can be optionally specified following a tab at the end of a line, in any
order, for example as "2P" or "DI3". So up to 10 rank levels are possible, but it is not necessary
to fully utilize this range. Up to 26 groups are possible. You do not have to start alphabetically.
The case of the letters is ignored. You may also define ranks and groups for an entire category,
following a tab in a category line. File types that have no rank and category inherit both from the
category to which they belong.
To give a group a more descriptive name than just a single letter, insert group definition lines at
the end of the text file that start with a equal sign, e.g.
=P=Photos and videos for image group
=D=Docs, e-mails and Internet
=I=File types to index
You may store additional custom definitions of file types and categories in a separate file named
"File Type Categories User.txt", which will be read and maintained in addition to the standard
definitions in "File Type Categories.txt" and has the same structure and is not overwritten by
updates of the software if contained in the installation directory, so that you can easily continue
to use it even when overwriting your installation with a new version.
5.15 Hash Database
Functionality only available with a forensic license. The internal hash database, once created,
consists of 257 binary files with the extension .xhd (X-Ways Hash Database). The storage folder
is selected in the General Options dialog. The hash database is organized in a very efficient way,
which maximizes performance when matching hash values. It is up to the user to decide on what
hash type the database will be based (MD5, SHA-1, SHA-256, ...), and it is up to the user to fill
the hash database with hash sets and hash values, either by creating hash sets in X-Ways
Forensics yourself or by importing hash sets from other sources. The same hash database can be
84
shared and used simultaneously by multiple users/instances if the same storage folder is selected.
However, it cannot be updated while other users/instances are using it.
Each hash value in the hash database belongs to one or more hash sets. Each hash set belongs to
either the category “irrelevant” / “known good” / “harmless” or “notable” / “known bad” /
“malicious” / “relevant”.
Hash values of files can be computed and matched against the hash database when refining the
volume snapshot. The directory browser's optional columns “Hash Set” and "Category” will then
reveal for each file to which hash sets and category it belongs, if any (which allows you to
sort/filter by these aspects and ignore irrelevant files easily or focus on files you are looking for).
If the hash value of a file is contained in multiple selected hash sets, the program will report all
matching hash sets and indicate the category of one of the hash sets. It also checks whether the
matching hash sets all belong to the same category, and if not, will show a warning.
An optional second, separate hash database of block hash values (instead of normal file hash
values), stored in a separate directory, allows you to search for incomplete remnants of known
highly relevant files block-wise on other media.
Via the Tools menu you get invoke the dialog window to manage the active hash database(s),
which allows you to
• start a fresh, blank hash database (and discard the existing current database, using the
"Initialize" command, where you have the opportunity to select a new hash type),
• view a list of the hash sets that are contained in the database,
• rename hash sets,
• merge hash sets (note that duplicate hash values in the resulting hash set are not removed
immediately, but next time when you add a hash set, and note that you are not warned if
you are merging hash sets of different categories),
• toggle the category of hash sets,
• verify the integrity of the hash database,
• import selected hash set text files (NSRL RDS 2.x, HashKeeper, and ILook text files as
well as * are supported),
• import all the hash set text files in a certain folder and all its subfolders (ditto), optionally
into a single internal hash set whose name you have to specify,
• export selected hash sets (for example if you wish to exchange individual hash sets with
other examiners, not the whole database),
• and switch between the normal file hash database and the block hash database.
*Another import and the export format is a very simple and universal hash set text file, where the
first line is simply the hash type (e.g. “MD5”) and all the following lines are simply the hash
values as ASCII hex or (for SHA-1) in Base32 notation, one per line. Line break is 0x0D 0x0A.
The Create Hash Set command in the directory browser's context menu allows you to create your
own hash sets in the internal hash database. Whenever importing/creating hash sets, duplicate
hash values within the same hash set will be eliminated. When importing the NSRL RDS hash
database, X-Ways Forensics checks for records with the flags "s" (special) and "m" (malicious)
so that these hash values are not erroneously included in the same internal hash set that should be
85
categorized as irrelevant. The hash database supports up to 65,535 hash sets.
There is a way to efficiently delete individual hash values from an existing hash set, by importing
a hash set file (simple 1-column format, 1 hash value per line), where the hash values to delete
must be listed first and must be prepended with a minus sign ("-"). The file must have the same
name as the existing hash set in the database that you wish to update (additional filename
extension allowed).
5.16 Time Zone Concept
The following applies to WinHex and X-Ways Forensics when operated with a specialist or
forensic license.
X-Ways Forensics employs its own, not Windows' logic for converting UTC to local filetimes. It
displays timestamps independently of the time zone selected in the examiner's system's Control
Panel. The display of timestamps in X-Ways Forensics may differ from Windows because in
Windows a timestamp in daylight saving time is not displayed based on daylight saving time if
daylight saving time is not active when looking at that timestamp.
When working with a case, the time zone selected for that case applies globally to the entire
program (selectable in the Case Properties), otherwise the one selected in the General Options
dialog. When working with a case, optionally it is possible to specify different time zones per
evidence object, so that you can always see local filetimes even for media that were used in
different time zones, if preferable. Note that the timestamps are converted for display only. That
means, in a recursive view in the case root that covers multiple media, sorting is based on
absolute UTC timestamps. Optionally, the actually used conversion bias can be displayed as well
(see directory browser options).
Timestamps on FAT volumes are never converted as they are not available in UTC, but based on
one or several unknown local time zones.
Export lists are output in local time.
The time zone definitions can be adjusted, if necessary. Please note that changing these
definitions in any dialog window affects the definition of time zones throughout the program.
The standard Windows conversion technique, which depends on the time zone selected in the
user's system's Control Panel, is still employed…
• in File | Properties, where the timestamps of files on the user's own system can be
accessed/changed,
• for the case logging feature,
• generally when operated without a specialist or forensic license, and
• when operated without the file “timezone.dat”.
You can tell that either of the latter two is true if the “Display time zone” button in the General
Options dialog is grayed out or not visible.
86
5.17 Evidence File Containers
Only available with a forensic license. The Specialist menu allows to create a new file container,
open an existing one, and close the active file container. The directory browser context menu
allows to fill it with selected files.
When you need to pass on a collection of selected files (even from different evidence objects)
that are of particular relevance to a case, to other persons involved in that case, e.g. specialized
investigators, who do not need to or must not see irrelevant files, evidence file containers may
come in handy. Most file-system level metadata (name, path, size, attributes/file mode,
timestamps, deletion status, classification as alternate data stream or virtual file or e-mail
message or attachment, …) and especially the contents of the file are fully retained in an
evidence file container. Also when a conventional (physical, sector-wise) image is overkill
because you need to acquire only selected files and not entire media, containers are
recommended. Evidence file containers use a special file system (XWFS) that can accomodate
most metadata from conventional file systems of the Windows, Linux, and Apple world.
Evidence file containers can be interpreted, added to a case and conveniently examined like other
image files, and in particular also in X-Ways Investigator [CTR], the simplified version of XWays Forensics for investigators that are not computer forensic examiners, but specialized in
other areas such as corruption, accounting, child pornography, building laws, ... The recipient of
the container can add the container to his or her own case, view the files that it contains just like
in a disk partition or a conventional image, can run keyword searches, comment on files, add files
to report tables, create a report, etc. Report table associations can even be exported and imported
back into the original case, via case tree context menu commands. This allows to split up the
workload in large cases across multiple investigators who work simultaneously and to reconcile
their results.
Evidence file containers of the current format can be understood by certain computer forensic
tools other than from X-Ways. Older versions of WinHex (with a specialist license or higher), XWays Forensics and X-Ways Investigator can also understand them. They can all read the
contents of all files and show the most essential metadata (e.g. filename, path, many attributes,
most timestamps, existing or deleted). To see the maximum amount of metadata, however, please
use WinHex/XWF/XWI 16.3 and later.
Artificial directories can be optionally created in containers to accommodate child objects of
files, for compatibility with tools that do not accept files as child objects of other files (non XWays tools and WinHex/XWF/XWI 15.9 and earlier). WinHex/XWF/XWI 16.0 and later (latest
release, respectively) do not need such artificial directories.
When creating a container, you chose between a direct method and an indirect method to fill it.
Indirect means via your own hard disk, i.e the contents of files are not copied directly into the
container, but to your folder for temporary files first (cf. General Options), and only then from
there into the container. This can be beneficial because it allows a resident antivirus software to
intercept these files (check them for viruses, disinfect/disarm them, rename them,
move/delete/lock them, etc.), so that it prevents viruses from making it into a container. The
resulting container is free of known viruses (depending on the antivirus software in use) and can
87
reasonably be passed on to and used in an environment with higher sensitivity, higher security
requirements, and/or less sophisticated virus protection.
Containers can hold around 1 billion files. In order to retain in the container the source of files
that originate from different evidence objects, the names of these evidence obejcts can be
included in the container as the top directory level.
An optional internal designation can be specified (up to 31 characters), which will become the
volume label of the XWFS file system. An optional description can also be specified (up to
60,000 characters), which will be imported as the evidence object comments once the container is
added to a case in X-Ways Forensics. The description stored in the container can still be added or
edited later.
Files selected in the directory browser can be added to the container that is open in the
background with the directory browser's context menu. Either you copy the logical contents of a
file, the logical contents and the file slack separately, just the slack, only the block selected in
File mode, or merely the file system level metadata of the file. You may also specify whether
child objects of selected files should be copied to the container as well, even if they are not
selected themselves, either child objects of any kind of child objects (if fully checked) or only email attachments (if half checked).
Optionally containers can include the data/contents of directories themselves, i.e. depending on
the file system, directory entries, INDX buffers, etc. Useful if the recipient of the container is
technically versed and might be interested in timestamps or other metadata in these data
structures. If you choose to include directory data in a container when creating it, this has a direct
effect only on directories that are selected themselves. It has an effect on the respective parent
directory of selected items only if you enable an additional option (“Include data
structures/contents of direct parent items”). This additional decision is needed because otherwise
the directory data might unintentionally reveal the names and other metadata of files that were
intentionally omitted from the container, e.g. for reasons of confidentiality.
If in the container you have X-Ways Forensics recreate the original path of files that are child
objects of other files, then those parent files will be included in the container at least as
nominally, without data, so that the child object appears with the correct path and it is clear
where it comes from, just by looking at the container. Examples for such parent files are the email message that a selected attachment belongs to, the zip archive that contains a selected file,
and the document that a selected picture is embedded in. With the option “Include data
structures/contents of direct parent items”, the data of such files is also included in the container,
even if these files were not selected for copying themselves.
Any file that is part of a volume snapshot (e.g. even individual e-mail messages if extracted) can
be added to a container. Once added, a file cannot be physically removed any more, however, its
exclusion can be made permanent in the container.
Optionally, hash values can be stored for the files that are copied into a container. This allows to
verify the integrity of the files later, after having added the container to a case, by refining the
volume snapshot. The hash values are computed directly for the data as read from the original
source medium (unless you copy metadata to the container only) or taken from the volume
88
snapshot, if available.
Optionally, the preparer of an evidence file container can pass on report table associations (either
all or not those created by X-Ways Forensics internally) or comments about included files with
the container. Useful to not only forward a collection of files to other investigators, but also casespecific information and preliminary findings. E.g. computer specialists could add the name of
the owner of a file for non-IT examiners to see, or the reason why a file was selected for
inclusion in the container.
Abort operation upon read error: This option allows to abort copying files into an evidence file
container upon a read error and to not include affected files partially. Useful when acquiring files
from a network location and the connection might be interrupted, if you assume that if that
happens you will get the connection back and will be more successful when you try again, to
avoid having incomplete files in the container, which cannot be replaced with a complete copy
retroactively. Available only when not filling containers indirectly.
When closing a container that is open in the background, the user is offered to compress, encrypt,
and/or split it. Splitting is useful if the container is complete and relatively huge, and e.g. should
be sent to someone else on CDs or DVDs. You may also find it useful to have a verifiable overall
hash value for all the data in the container, which can be computed at that occasion and
embedded in the target container. You can also freeze the file system in the target container that
you create in .e01 evidence file format, so that it cannot be filled further even if it is converted
back later to its plain state again (to a raw image).
5.18 Related Items
Only available with a forensic license.
Files/directories that have a corresponding "related" file or directory in the volume snapshot are
marked in the directory browser with a small blue arrow pointing downwards on the left-hand
side of their icon. A secondary tooltip appears for files with a "related" file when hovering the
mouse cursor over the icon, which conveniently tells you the path and name of that related file,
for example the target of a symbolic link. There are four different kinds of related objects:
1) When taking a volume snapshot of Unix-based file systems, symbolic links are connected to
their targets in the volume snapshot as so-called related files, so that you can conveniently
navigate to the target by pressing Shift+Backspace. Also one of potentially several symlinks
pointing to a certain target will become the related file of the target, so that you can conveniently
navigate to the symlink or quickly see in the first place that one or more symlinks exist that point
to a certain target, since any file that has a "related" file in the volume snapshot is marked with a
tiny blue arrow next to its icon. Also the same arrow will tell you whether the target of a symlink
can actually be found in the file system. If a symlink links to other symlinks, those are not
recursively linked. If resolving symlink takes to long because there are many symlinks in a
volume, you may safely abort that step at any time.
2) When taking a snapshot of volumes with Windows installations, certain reparse points (a.k.a.
89
junction points) are connected to their targets in the volume snapshot just like as symlinks in
Unix-based file systems, so that you can conveniently navigate to the target by pressing
Shift+Backspace. Also there will be a back-reference to one reparse point, so that you can
conveniently navigate to that reparse point or quickly see in the first place that one or more
reparse points exist that link to a certain directory, since any directory that has a "related"
directoy in the volume snapshot is marked with a tiny blue arrow next to its icon. Forensic
license only. Reparse points that do not get connected with their target directories will still show
a comment that advises you of the target path as in earlier versions of X-Ways Forensics.
3) Hard links in HFS+ point to their so-called indirect node file.
4) Files found in volume shadow copies in NTFS point to their shadow copy host file. VSC host
files point to their corresponding snapshot properties file.
5.19 External Analysis Interface
Via the menu command "Export Files for Analysis" in the CaseData window, you can send files
(for example all files in the case that belong to a certain category) to an external program for
further analysis. This external program must comply with the interface described below. Requires
X-Ways Forensics or X-Ways Investigator or WinHex with a forensic license.
The analysis result can be imported back into X-Ways Forensics with the Report Table Import
menu command in the Case Data window. (For example, right-click the case title where it is
printed in bold.) That will associate files classified by the external software with certain report
tables (and may create new report tables), which allows you to filter for such files or create a
report about them.
For example, the software DoublePics can recognize known pictures (even if stored in a different
format or altered) and return a classification such as “CP”, “relevant”, or “irrelevant”.
Technical description of the interface
All files or files in a certain category or all tagged files or all non-excluded files are copied into a
subfolder of the output folder specified by you. The subfolder is named with a CRC in
hexadecimal characters that is unique for the active case. The files are named with unique IDs
(64-bit integer numbers). One additional file named "Checksum" is created that contains 4 bytes
with the same CRC, 4 bytes with the handle of the main window of X-Ways Forensics (or XWays Investigator, for that matter), 8 reserved bytes, and 128 bytes with the case title in UTF-16.
When the files have been copied, X-Ways Forensics executes the external analysis program and
specifies the complete path of the subfolder in quotation marks as a parameter.
The external program can now perform the analysis. It can classify files by creating one .rtd file
for each classification.
When finished, the program can optionally check whether the X-Ways Forensics main window
still exists and, if so, make X-Ways Forensics aware of the availability of the results, by sending
90
a WM_SETTEXT messages to the main window, where the text starts with "Import: ", followed
by the path of the directory where to find the .rtd files, without quotation marks. This will trigger
the import automatically. Alternatively, the user can import the result as described above.
The names of the .rtd files (report table definition files) will be used as the report table name. An
.rtd file starts with a 4-byte signature (0x52, 0x54, 0xDE, 0xF0), the 4 byte checksum (see
above), followed by the 64-bit file IDs (integer numbers) that indicate the files that should be
associated with that report table.
6
Volume Snapshots and their Refinement
6.1 Introduction
A volume snapshot is a database of the contents of a volume or physical medium (files,
directories, …) at a given point of time. The directory tree and the directory browser present
views into this database. Based on the underlying file system's data structures, it consists of one
record per file or directory, and remembers practically all metadata (name, path, size, timestamps,
attributes, ...), but not the contents of files or data of directories.
A volume snapshot usually references both existing and previously existing (e.g. deleted) files,
also virtual (artificially defined) files if they are useful for a computer forensic examination (e.g.
so that even unused parts of a disk or volume are covered). Operations such as logical searches,
indexing, and all commands in the directory browser context menu are applied to the files and
directories as they are referenced in the volume snapshot. Because of compressed files and
because deleted files and the virtual "Free space" file may be associated with the same clusters of
a volume multiple times, the sum of all files and directories in a volume snapshot can easily
exceed the total physical size of a volume.
A volume snapshot is stored on the disk either as a set of files named Volume*.dir in the folder
for temporary files or (if associated with a case) as files named “Main 1”, “Main 2”, “Main 3”,
“Names”, …, in the evidence object's metadata directory.
6.2 Refinement at the Volume/Sector Level
The Specialist menu allows to expand/refine the standard volume snapshot in various ways, such
that they contain more than referenced by the regular file system. Requires a specialist or forensic
license. Full functionality only with a forensic license.
6.2.1 Run X-Tensions
X-Tensions are DLLs, which you can program yourself, to extend the functionality of X-Ways
91
Forensics or use it automatically for your own purposes. More information.
6.2.2 Particularly thorough file system data structure search
Running a particularly thorough file system data structure search is possibly a lengthy operation,
depending on the size of the volume, and for that reason not done automatically when taking the
volume snapshot.
FAT12/FAT16/FAT32: Searches for orphaned subdirectories (subdirectories that are no longer
referenced by any other directory).
ReiserFS, Reiser4: Searches for deleted files (which are not included in the standard volume
snapshot at all).
UDF: While the first and the last session of multi-session UDF CDs/DVDs will be listed
automatically, additional sessions in the middle can be found only with this option.
CDFS: Usually all sessions on a multi-session CD/DVDs are detected automatically. In cases
where they are not (e.g. when CDFS co-exists with UDF or if the gaps between the sessions are
unusually large), this will detect sessions beyond the first one.
RAM (main memory): May find terminated processes and rootkits.
NTFS: Volume shadow copies can be parsed optionally, with a forensic license. Existing and
previously existing volume shadow copy host files are checked for valuable information that
would not be available otherwise, such as files that cannot be found in the current $MFT any
more or previous versions of files whose contents have changed. Those files will be reconstructed
up to 1 GB in length according to the shadow copy. Processing of volume shadow copies, if any,
occurs before all the other operations that are part of the particularly thorough file system data
structure search (parsing $LogFile, optionally searching for FILE record outside of $MFT and
outside of VSC, searching for index records in the slack of INDX buffers). If there are volume
shadow copies, the caption of the small progress indicator window will tell you when they are
being parsed. Volume shadow copy host files that you exclude before processing will be omitted.
Files found in volume shadow copies are specially marked with "SC #" in the Attr. column, or
"SC #, prev. version" if they are previous versions of files that were known to the volume
snapshot already before the thorough file system data structure search, so that it is easy to filter
them in or out. # stands for the sequential number of the snapshot in which these files were
found. Remember you can sort by ID to see the files they are a previous version of next to them.
You can also easily navigate to the VSC host by using the command Navigation | Find related
file in the directory browser context menu, for example so that in Details mode learn more about
that particular snapshot. You could then invoke the same command once more to navigate to the
corresponding snapshot properties file, where in Details mode you learn even more, e.g.
description and official creation date.
Optionally avoid that previous versions of files in volume shadow copies are added to the volume
92
snapshot if they are exact duplicates (identical file contents) so that it is much easier to focus on
files for which actually previous data is still available. Even if modification dates are different,
the file contents are often the same for files installed by the operation system. If fully selected, XWays Forensics will compare files up to 128 MB, if half selected, only up to 16 MB, as to not
waste too much time on this feature.
NTFS: FILE records can be optionally searched everywhere, in sectors that neither belong to the
current MFT nor to a volume shadow copy (VSC) processed by the above-mentioned option.
Such FILE records can be found e.g. in free space after a partition has been recreated,
reformatted, moved, resized, or defragmented. Time consuming on very large partitions.
NTFS: With a forensic license, the current $LogFile as well as old versions of $LogFile found in
processed volume shadow copies can be exploited. The contents of deleted files can often be
reconstructed thanks to $LogFile. Index records remnants in $LogFile as well as in the slack of
INDX buffers can be exploited that either reveal previous names or paths of renamed/moved
files/directories that were known to the volume snapshot before or deleted files that the volume
snapshot was not aware of before (without file contents, though). You can indicate whether you
are interested in earlier names and paths of renamed/moved files and directories or not. If the
checkbox for earlier names/paths is half checked, you may find earlier names/paths of
renamed/moved files in the Metadata column and don't get additional files in the volume
snapshot for each earlier name/path. You can also indicate whether you are interested including
traces of files in the volume snapshot whose clusters are unknown and for which only name, size,
timestamps and attributes are available.
During all the suboperations for NTFS, the inclusion of redundant (identical) files in the volume
snapshot is avoided as much as possible. If the only new information gained from old versions of
FILE records or index records is previously valid timestamps, no earlier names/paths/contents of
files, or if you have indicated that you are not interested in earlier names/paths, then these
timestamps are only output as events, depending on the volume snapshot refinement option
"Provide by-catch timestamps from various sources as events".
NTFS: You can indicate whether you are interested in getting files included in the volume
snapshot whose clusters (and therefore data) are totally unknown, with only metadata (e.g.
filename, path, size, attributes, and timestamps), as may be found in index records in INDX
buffers or in $LogFile. If checked, all previously existing files of which metadata only is known
will be included in a volume snapshot. If not checked, those files will be ignored.
Other file systems: no action taken
6.2.3 File Header Signature Search
The “File header signature search” operation helps to include files in the volume snapshot that
can still be found in free or used drive space based on their file header signature and are no
longer referenced by file system data structures. You are asked to select certain file types for
detection, specify a default file size, an optional filename prefix etc. Please see “File Recovery by
Type” and the file type definitions for details. Files found with this method will be included in
93
the volume snapshot only if there is no other file in the volume snapshot with the same start
sector number yet (overwritten files don't count), to avoid duplicates. Files found with this
method are listed with a generic filename and size as detected by the “File Recovery by Type”
mechanism. If applied to a physical, partitioned evidence object, only unpartitioned space and
partition gaps will be searched for signatures, because the partitions are treated as separate,
additional evidence objects.
6.2.4 Block-wise Hashing and Matching
Available with a forensic license. Block-wise hashing may allow to identify complete or
incomplete remnants of known notable files that are still floating around in free drive space even
if they were fragmented and the location of the fragments is unknown, to show with some or very
high certainty that these files once existed on that medium. The hash values are computed when
reading from the evidence object sector-wise, and that happens at the same time when running a
file header signature search if selected, to avoid unnecessary duplicated I/O, with the same sector
scope. Matches are returned as a special kind of search hits. Multiple matches for contiguous
blocks are more meaningful than isolated individual matches, as they are even less likely the
result of some coincidence, and they are usually combined in a single hit. The size of all such hits
is shown when listing search hits. The larger the size, the higher the evidentiary value of the
match. Please note that X-Ways Forensics does not verify itself that contiguous matching blocks
are in the same order as in the original file(s), but that can be verified manually and for data that
is as unique as compressed data that is most likely the case.
Most suitable for selected notable files larger than a few sectors, files that are ideally compressed
or at least not only sparsely populated with non-zero data and do not contain otherwise trivial
combinations of bytes values that occur frequently. Good examples are zip-styled Office
documents, pictures and video files. Very trivial blocks within a file that consist of mostly just 1
byte value are ignored and not hashed (the same already when creating the hash set). For quicker
matching, ideally work with a small hash database and do not select a hash type stronger than
MD5.
Hash sets of block hashes can be created or imported in the same way as ordinary hash sets, i.e.
for selected files using the directory browser context menu, but they are handled by a separate
hash database for block hashes (as opposed to file hashes). That separate database is internally
stored in a subdirectory of the main hash database directory. You can create hash sets consisting
of the block hashes of 1 file at a time, or combined hash sets of multiple selected files. The block
size is currently always 512 bytes and might be user-definable in a future version.
6.3 Refinement at the File Level
The following operations are applied after the aforementioned operations, to files that are already
contained in the volume snapshot, and they are all applied together and file-wise (i.e. first all
operations to one file, then all operations to the next file, and so on), to process files in the order
of ascending internal IDs. Some of these operations may produce additional files, which will get
the next higher available internal ID. Previously existing files whose first cluster is known to
94
have been overwritten or whose first cluster is unknown are not processed except if you
specifically target them via tagging. Files that are considered irrelevant based on hash matching
can be automatically omitted from all further operations to save time and avoid potentially even
more irrelevant files that might otherwise be extracting from them. There is also an option to
omit files that are filtered out. Both options are particular powerful in that they can target even
files in advance that are not yet part of the volume snapshot when the refinement starts. For
example when additional files are added to the snapshot by the file header signature search,
depending on the file type these files can be further processed (e.g. hashed) or not, if the Type
filter is active during the later stages of the volume snapshot refinement.
6.3.1 Hash Value Computation and Matching
Hash values can be computed for files in the volume snapshot. They are not recomputed if you
apply this operation again to the same files. In addition to the mere hash computation, a forensic
license allows to match the hash values against individually selected (or simply all) hash sets in
the internal hash database. The filter can then later be used to hide known irrelevant files. Files
recognized as irrelevant with the help of the hash database can be optionally excluded from
further volume snapshot refinement operations, which among other benefits saves time. The hash
values will not be updated in the volume snapshot once computed. However, the matching
process (looking up the hash values of files in the volume snapshot) can be repeated for the same
files at any time. This will remove previous hash set matches from these files. The hash category
field will be updated only, but emptied.
A forensic license allows to verify hash values that were computed at an earlier point of time, or
imported from an evidence file container. The result will be output to the messages window. Any
file whose current hash value does not match the originally recorded one will be associated with
a special report table for convenient review. Running the hashing volume snapshot refinement
step a second time never updates the hash values that were already computed for files in the
volume snapshot.
6.3.2 File Type Verification
A forensic license allows you to verify file types based on signatures and various algorithms,
i.e. detect filename/file type mismatches in all files in the volume snapshot except those whose
original first cluster is known to be no longer available. For example, if someone has concealed
an incriminating JPEG picture by naming it "invoice.xls" (wrong filename extension), the
recognized file type "jpg" is stated in the Type column of the directory browser. For more
information see the description of the columns Type and Status. The file signatures and
extensions used for mismatch detection are defined in the accompanying file type definition files,
which you may fully customize. It it the same database also used for file header signature
searches. Please note that the link between the current data in a free cluster and a deleted file that
previously was stored in that cluster and its filename is weak, so that a discrepancy between
filename extension and detected type can simply be the natural result of a reallocation of this
cluster to a totally different file in the meantime. If you wish to repeat the file type verification,
e.g. after editing the file type signature database, be sure to check the Again option. For the status
95
of the Type column of the directory browser, see the “Type status” column.
Most self-extracting .exe archives are internally detected by the file signature check, too. They
are classified as the file type “sfx” and assigned to the category “Archives” so that they can be
specifically targeted. This prevents that compressed files in such archives go totally unnoticed in
an investigation. .exe archives with Zip compression can be viewed in Preview mode, other selfextracting archives need to be copied off the image and opened with an appropriate tool like
WinRAR or 7-Zip.
The file signature check also reveals hybrid MS Office files, i.e. merged MS Word and MS Excel
documents that can be opened in both applications, showing different contents. A notice in the
messages window will be displayed, and any detected files will be associated with a special
report table. Hybrid MS Office files are a clever attempt to conceal the contents of one of the
merged documents.
6.3.3 Extraction of Internal Metadata
Requires a forensic license.
a) Can check the file format consistency of EXE, ZIP, RAR, JPEG, GIF, PNG, RIFF, BMP, and
PDF files. The Type Status column will show the result, either "OK" or "corrupt".
b) Allows to extract internally stored creation times from OLE2 compound files (e.g. pre-2007
MS Office documents), EDB, PDF, MS Office HTML, EML, MDI, ASF, WMV, WMA, MOV,
JPEG, THM, TIFF, PNG, GZ, GHO, PGP pubring.pkr keyring, ETL, SQM, IE Cookies, CAT,
CER, CTL, SHD printer spool, PF prefetch, LNK shortcut, and DocumentSummary alternate data
streams. This timestamps will be shown in the Int. Creation column of the directory browser. In
some cases the earliest timestamp will be extracted, which approximates the real, original
creation date best.
c) Allows to copy certain file metadata to the Metadata column, which will allow you to filter by
this metadata, to export the metadata with the Export List command, and to output it with a report
table in a case report. Metadata can be extracted from all the file types specifically supported in
Details mode plus Windows shortcut files (.lnk) and prefetch files (.pf). Only a subset of the
metadata that you see in Details mode is extracted.
d) Allows to restore original file system metadata (such as filename, timestamps) when found in
certain file types such as $I* recycle bin files and iPhone mobile sync backup indexes
(Manifest.mbdx). Original filenames are typically much more meaningful than random names
that are assigned just to guarantee uniqueness in a single directory for backup purposes.
Examples of such random names are 3a1c41282f45f5f1d1f27a1d14328c0ac49ad5ae (for a file in
an iPhone backup) or $RAE2PBF.jpg (Windows recycle bin). Support for more file types will
follow. The current filename according to the file system can still be seen in square brackets in
the Name column, as well as in Details mode, and the Name filter will find both the original and
the current name, so that current filename is not completely lost.
96
e) Populates the Sender and Recipients columns for original .eml files.
f) Creates previews of Internet browser SQLite databases, which may require that the files have
been checked for their true file type. Supports Firefox history, Firefox downloads, Firefox form
history, Firefox sign-ons, Chrome cookies, Chrome archived history, Chrome history, Chrome
log-in data, Chrome web data, Safari cache, Safari feeds, and Skype's main.db database about
contacts and file transfers. Creates previews also of Internet Explorer index.dat files (including
artificial index.dat files compiled from individual records from various locations during the file
header signature search), Internet Explorer 10's WebCacheV*.dat files, $UsnJrnl:$J, Windows
Event Logs (.evt and .evtx). HTML previews and views of index.dat Internet Explorer browser
cache/history files contain a column with the offset of the record within the file where the data of
each row has been found. This offset is presented as a link. If you click it, you will automatically
navigate to that offset in the corresponding index.dat file in File mode so that it is convenient to
verify the information that X-Ways Forensics has extracted from the record at that location.
(Note that this works correctly only if the link is not broken into 2 lines, which may happen in
v8.4 of the viewer component, but not in v8.3.7. Anyway you can still navigate to that offset
manually.) The HTML child objects that will be generated can not only be used internally by XWays Forensics for previews of the parent file. You can also view all of these tables in an
external program such as your preferred browser or in MS Excel, by sending these child object to
the program of your choice (directory browser context menu). You may have X-Ways Forenscis
split HTML tables after an arbitrary number of rows. You can set this number much higher if you
do view the HTML previews externally with your preferred Internet browser and not with the
viewer component, which cannot deal with very large tables. The existence of HTML child
object with searchable text for browser data, event logs and more data sources also improves
effectiveness of searches and indexing.
g) Extracts tables from various other SQLite databases in TSV format and uses the first one as a
preview of the SQLite database file itself.
h) Extracts the original revision of PDF documents that were edited, if available, as a child
object.
i) Provides timestamps from the file system as events to analyze in an event list.
j) Provides internal timestamps in files as events.
6.3.4 Archive Exploration
A forensic license allows to include the contents of ZIP, RAR, ARJ, GZ, TAR, 7Zip, and BZIP
archives in the volume snapshot, so that files in such archives can be separately listed, examined,
searched, etc., in their decompressed state, as long as the archives are not encrypted.
Theoretically, there is no limit to the number of nested levels that can be processed (i.e. archives
within archives within archives…). If the files are encrypted in the archive, they are marked with
“e” in the attribute column and the archive itself with “e!”. This allows to easily focus on such
files using the attribute filter.
Document files of MS Office 2007/2010, LibreOffice, OpenOffice, and iWork are typically Zip
97
archives, too, technically, and if so will be processed in the same way by default. You can
exclude those files if you or the recipients of evidence file containers that you prepare only wish
to see the documents as a whole, no embedded pictures or XML files separately, and don't need
to extract metadata from these XML files and can recognize nested documents (documents
embedded in other documents) themselves if necessary. Zip subtypes that are usually irrelevant
such as .jar, .apk and .ipa are explored only optionally.
Note that for Zip archives with non-ASCII characters in filenames to be processed correctly, you
need to pick the correct code page in the case properties first. E.g. for Zip archives created under
Linux, that's likely UTF-8. For Zip archives created under Windows with WinZip, that's likely a
regional code page.
Note also that split/spanned/segmented archives are not supported.
6.3.5 E-mail Extraction
A forensic license allows to separately list and examine e-mail messages and e-mail
attachments stored in the following e-mail archive file formats: Outlook Personal Storage (.pst),
Offline Storage (.ost), Exchange (.edb, Exchange 2007 and earlier supported), Outlook Message
(.msg), Outlook Template (.oft), Outlook Express (.dbx), Kerio Connect (store.fdb files that can
be processed like ordinary PST/OST files), AOL PFC files, Mozilla mailbox (including Netscape
and Thunderbird), generic mailbox (mbox, Unix mail format), MHT Web Archive (.mht). By
default, X-Ways Forensics tries to extract from files matched by this filter expression:
*.pst;*.ost;*.edb;*.dbx;*.pfc;*.mbox;*.eml;*.emlx;*.mht;*.olk14MsgSource;*.msg;*.oft;*.mbs;s
tore.fdb.
E-mail messages are usually output as .eml files. To conveniently focus on all extracted e-mail
messages from all e-mail archives (and even processed original .eml files) it is recommended to
explore recursively and use the Attribute filter (not the Type or Category filter).
The timestamp in the "Date:" line in an e-mail message's header (if accompanied by a time zone
indicator like -0700 or +0200) is listed as the creation date & time. The timestamp in the
"Delivery-Date:" line (or alternatively, if not available, the first "Received:" line) is listed as the
last modification date & time. For extracted e-mails and their attachments, sender and recipient
will be displayed in the corresponding columns in the directory browser. You may filter by dates
as well as sender and recipient.
Attachments and embedded files are extracted, too, if found in the e-mail archive (exception e.g.
AOL PFC) and usually become child objects of their respective containing e-mail messages in
the volume snapshot. All extracted e-mails and attachments actually reside in the evidence
object's metadata subdirectory and may utilize a lot of drive space.
You can indicate a preference in particular about how PST and MSG e-mail archives are
processed. PST and MSG e-mail archives can be processed either through the MAPI interface
(old method) or not (new method). If the preferred method fails, the other method is attempted
automatically. If the preferred method is MAPI, the non-MAPI method is still used to find traces
of e-mail messages in unallocated space within the PST files. MAPI processing requires a fully
functioning Extended MAPI system, as it comes with MS Outlook (32-bit version) or Microsoft's
98
free MAPI client (http://www.microsoft.com/download/en/details.aspx?id=1004, which should
be sufficient for MSG and non-Unicode PST). Only Outlook 2003 and newer are capable of
processing the Unicode variant of PST e-mail archives. Non-Unicode PST files can be processed
with earlier versions of MS Outlook. Outlook 97 and older are not recommended and may not
work correctly. If X-Ways Forensics always fails to extract PST e-mail archives through MAPI,
go to the Windows Control Panel and check for an e-mail profile named like "pstloadtmp000"
and delete it. It may happen that in artificially generated PST archives subject lines with Bates
numbers in some e-mail messages do not retain these numbers when extracted.
The extraction method without MAPI is generally faster, has a good chance to work on PST
archives where MAPI fails, has a chance to find traces of deleted e-mail, provides more data from
Calendar/Contact/Notes/Tasks/Journal entries, fully supports non-English Unicode characters,
supports overlong paths, and can process password-protected PST archives without the
password! Even if you use MAPI for PST files, this alternative extraction method is used
additionally to find and extract deleted contents. The same alternative extraction method is
always used for OST files. The alternative extraction method supports the following code pages
for encoded PST files: ISO8859-1, ISO8859-2, ISO8859-3, ISO8859-4, ISO8859-5, ISO8859-6,
ISO8859-7, ISO8859-8, ISO8859-9, ISO8859-10, ISO8859-11, ISO8859-13, ISO8859-14,
ISO8859-15, ISO8859-16, koi8-r, koi8-u, 1250, 1251, 1252, 1253, 1254, 1255, 1256, 1257,
1258, 874, UTF16, UTF32, UTF8
In certain old AOL PFC files, pictures may be embedded in e-mail messages in a special way. In
that case, such an e-mail message will be marked with a paperclip icon, but the picture will not
be separately extracted. The picture, if JPEG or PNG, can be found, however, when extracting
JPEG and PNG files from *.pfc.
6.3.6 Uncovering Embedded Data
Forensic license only. Allows to carve files of various types that are embedded in files of other
various types, through a byte-level file header signature search within certain files. This is
successful if the outer file (host file) is intact and the embedded file is not stored in the host file
in a fragmented manner. Otherwise the embedded files may appear as corrupt. Notably this
function searches for JPEG and PNG pictures, even JPEG pictures in other JPEG files (those that
contain thumbnails of themselves). The files found this way will be generically named as
"Embedded 1....jpg", "Embedded 2....png", etc.
This function also extracts .emf files embedded in multi-page printouts (.spl spooler files). .spl
files that contain a single .emf file only can be viewed directly with the viewer component. Also
extracted this way are .lnk shortcut files from .customdestinations-ms jumplists. In general, XWays Forensics tries to carve files of those types that in the File Header Signatures Search.txt file
are marked with the "e" flag. That means you can have X-Ways Forensics uncover many more
file types in other files than it does by default if you like! It carves flagged file types in those host
files specified by the file masks in an edit box for which no special internal algorithm exists.
Special internal algorithms exist that properly extract, by following the data structures in the
respective file format, even if fragmented, .lnk shortcut files from .automaticdestinations-ms
99
jump lists, files of various types from OLE2 compound files (e.g. MS Word .doc, MS PowerPoint
.ppt), Firefox browser caches (based on "_CACHE_MAP_" files), Chrome browser caches
(based on "index" files), Safari browser caches, Norton Backup files (N360 backup, .nb20) and
Windows Vista/7 Windows.edb databases (from the latter even e-mail messages), and pictures
that are embedded as Base64 in VCF files (electronic business cards).
Also extracted are thumbnails from thumb*.db files, from Google's Picasa 3 image organizer and
viewer software (thumbindex.db and related files), Photoshop thumbnail caches (Adobe Bridge
Cache.bc), Canon ZoomBrowser thumbnail collections (.info), and Paint Shop Pro caches (.jbf).
Thumbnails in certain very old "thumbs.db" files cannot be displayed correctly. Such thumbs.db
files will be assigned to the report table "Unsupported thumbs.db" and can be viewed e.g. with
the freely available program "DM Thumbs" by GreenSpot Technologies Ltd. Thumbcache*.db
files of Windows Vista and later are targeted indirectly if thumbcache_idx.db is in the mask and
if that file is available in the same directory. That speeds up the extraction and avoids the output
of numerous duplicate thumbnails (only the highest available resolution is output). If
thumbcache_idx.db is in the mask, that also means that thumbcache*.db files that are specifically
selected or tagged for processing are not processed unless the thumbcache_idx.db file is also
selected/tagged.
Also, from PDF documents it extracts any kinds of files that are marked as embedded plus JPEG
and JPEG 2000 plus Acrobat form files in XML format plus JavaScript objects (the latter may
make it easier to determine whether a PDF file should be considered malware). Extracts
individual cookie files from Firefox and Chrome SQLite databases, also data blocks embedded as
Base64 in XML-formatted PLists (.plist) and raw data blocks embedded in binary PLists (.bplist).
It is recommended to verify file types at the same time so X-Ways Forensics can distinguish
between traditional (XML-formatted) PLists and binary PLists (BPLists). Many PLists do not
have a .plist extension and need to be identified as PLists first. Since the type of the embedded
data is not identified by the PList as such, the output also benefits from a simultaneous file type
verification. Nested PLists (PLists embedded in PLists) will also be identified and processed
recursively. Another child object created for PLists represents parsed text in a human-readable
way and serves as a preview of the PList itself.
Also reconstructs e-mail messages and extracts contact and account information from the
Livecomm.edb database, which is used by the Windows Mail client (Windows 7 and newer), and
contacts from Windows Live Mail contacts.edb database, also contacts from Windows Live
Messenger's contacts.edb database..
You can also uncover various potentially relevant resources in 32-bit and 64-bit Windows PE
executables (programms and libraries) as child objects, in particular RCDATA, named objects,
bitmaps, icons and manifests. Useful for example for malware analysis. This does not happen
automatically, only if you specifically target executable files via a suitable series of file masks.
Fully Base64-encoded files in the volume snapshot, provided that they have "b64" in the Type
column can be automatically decoded, and the result is output in binary as (surprise) a child
object.
Last not least this function can decompress most hiberfil.sys files and automatically add the result
to the case as raw memory dumps. All other files produced by this function are added to the
100
volume snapshot as child objects of their respective host files in which they were found. Files
smaller than 65 bytes are not touched, for performance reasons.
The default file mask that is used to target files via filename and/or detected file type as of March
15, 2014 is:
*.pdf;*.doc;*.ppt;*.pps;*.xls;*.ole2;*destinations-ms;*.spl;*.jpg;thumbcache_idx.db;
*.thumbsdb;*.thumbsw7;thumbs.db;ehthumbs_vista.db;.thumbdata3*;Adobe Bridge Cache.bc;
cache.db;_CACHE_MAP_;thumbindex.db;*.cr2;*.itc2;index;*.sqlitedb;*.bplist;*.plist;*.nb20;*.
mp3;*.jbf;*.info;Windows.edb;livecomm.edb;contacts.edb;hiberfil.sys
(outdated meanwhile)
You may prepend any element of this list with a colon to temporarily exclude it, but keep it in the
list for convenient later inclusion. E.g. ":*.jpg" means "not files with jpg as the extension or type.
File header signature search in all files not processed above
A separate sub-operation optional allows you to freely carve any kind of file within any file that
is not processed by the first sub-operation. This is not limited to file types that are marked with
the "e" flag. Use great caution to avoid delays and copious amounts of garbage files (false
positives) and duplicates. Please apply this new function very carefully and only with a good
reason to specifically targeted files only, such as swap files or storage files in which backup
application concatenate other files without compression, not blindly to all files or random files.
Remember with great power comes great responsibility.
Signatures marked with the "E" flag (upper case) are never carved within other files, to prevent
the worst effects, for example MPEG frames carved within MPEG videos, zip records carved
within zip archives, .eml, .html and .mbox files carved within e-mail archives, .hbin registry
fragments carved within registry hives. If you know what you are doing, of course you could
remove the E flag.
There is an option to apply the carving procedure recursively, that means to files again that were
already carved within other files. This can lead to many duplicates if the outer file at level 1 is
carved too big so that files can be carved in it that were also carved at level 0 (the original file).
For situations were you want to carve embedded files that are not aligned at 512-byte boundaries
in the original file, you may make use of the extensive byte-level option. In such a case one of the
biggest mistakes to make would be to carve at the byte level in $MFT, which typically contains
many small files with resident storage, but which of course is fully processed already when
taking the volume snapshot. Hence the option to always exclude $MFT at least.
6.3.7 Extraction of Video Stills
A forensic license allows to extract JPEG pictures from video files, in a user-defined interval
(e.g. every 20 seconds) that can be dynamically based on the play length of the video. This
functionality is applied to files whose type matches the specified file mask series. Requires an
external program, either MPlayer or Forensic Framer, and requires that the volume is associated
101
with the active case. Pictures can be extracted from all the video formats and codecs supported by
MPlayer. Useful if you have to systematically check many videos for inappropriate, illegal, or
otherwise relevant content (e.g. child pornography or terrorist training camp instructions). The
use of intervals ensures that you won't miss important parts of videos that are hidden in the
middle of a harmless vacation or birthday party video.
Extracting pictures considerably reduces the amount of data, and looking at stills in the gallery is
much faster, efficient and more comfortable than having to watch all videos one after the other.
The potentially time-consuming extraction process can be run unattended e.g. over night
beforehand.
Also useful if you need to include extracted pictures in a printed report. The first extracted
picture at the same time optionally can serve as a preview picture for the video file in Preview
and Gallery mode. ASF/WMV videos protected with DRM cannot be processed and are
consequentially marked with e! in the Attr. column. Note that you may hear occasional sound
from the videos. Please turn off sound on your computer if you wish to avoid this. Note also that
if you select a small interval (like smaller than 5 seconds), you may not necessarily get additional
pictures. This depends on how the video was encoded/compressed. Duplicate stills are omitted
when extracting pictures with MPlayer.
Once JPEG pictures have been exported from videos, the videos can optionally be dynamically
represented in the gallery, with all extracted stills, showing them stills in a loop, to give a much
more complete impression of the contents of videos without further user interaction (without
having to explore them). Thus an alternative efficient way to review a large number of videos is
this: Explore recursively, filter for videos, sort in descending order by number of child objects (so
that videos with a similar number of stills are shown together), and activate Gallery mode. Watch
the various video stills for each video. Proceed to the next gallery page when you are confident
that no incriminating videos are represented on the current page, for example when all stills have
been shown, which you will know is the case when the gallery has rotated back to the first still
for each video.
6.3.8 Pictures Processing
A forensic license additionally allows to compute the percentage of skin colors in pictures and to
detect black & white pictures. This can be done for the file types JPEG, PNG, GIF, TIFF, BMP,
PSD, HDR, PSP, SGI, PCX, CUT, PNM/PBM/PGM/PPM, ICO. The detection of black & white
or gray-scale pictures is useful when looking for documents that were scanned and faxes that
were stored electronically. A forensic examiner who has to look for traces of child pornography
can sort pictures by skin color percentage in descending order to immensely accelerate the job.
Checking the mass of 0%..9% skin color percentage pictures (e.g. thousands of browser cache
garbage files) may not be necessary any more as the most likely incriminating files will be sorted
near the top of the list. Please note that there may be false positives, i.e. skin-like colors of a nonskin surface. Pictures that cannot be correctly scanned for their color contents, e.g. because they
are too large or corrupt, will be listed with a question mark instead of the skin color percentage.
Pictures with very small dimensions (width or height no more than 8 pixels, or width and height
no more than 16 pixels each) will be marked as irrelevant with the assumption that they cannot
102
contain incriminating pornography or documents.
For large JPEG, PNG, GIF and TIFF files, at the same time when analyzing the colors in the
pictures during volume snapshot refinement, X-Ways Forensics can now optionally also create
thumbnails in advance for much quicker display updates in Gallery mode later. Internal
thumbnails are only created if no original thumbnails are embedded in the files and extracted at
the same time, and they are actually utilized for the gallery only if auxiliary thumbnails are
enabled (see Options | General). (To discard all internal thumbnails, but keep the computed skin
color percentages, you may delete the file "Secondary 1" in the "_" subdirectory of an evidence
object behind X-Ways Forensics' back, i.e. when the evidence object is not currently open.
6.3.9 Detection of Encryption
A forensic license allows to optionally perform file format specific and statistical encryption
tests. With an entropy test, each existing file larger than 255 bytes is checked whether it is fully
encrypted. If the test is positive (the entropy exceeds a certain threshold), the file is flagged with
“e?” in the attribute column, to indicate that it might deserve special attention. Typical example:
Encrypted container files, which can be mounted by encryption programs like TrueCrypt, PGP
Desktop, BestCrypt, or DriveCrypt as drive letters. The entropy test is not applied to ZIP, RAR,
TAR, GZ, BZ, 7Z, ARJ, CAB, JPG, PNG, GIF, TIF, MPG, and SWF files, which are well-known
to be compressed internally and therefore almost indistinguishable from random or encrypted
data. This test is not needed to detect that files are encrypted at the NTFS file system level or
inside archives. Secondly, documents with the extensions/types .doc (MS Word 4...2003), .xls
(MS Excel 2...2003), .ppt, .pps (MS PowerPoint 97-2003), .mpp (MS Project 98-2003), .pst (MS
Outlook), .docx (MS Word 2007...2010), .xlsx (MS Excel 2007...2010), .pptx, .ppsx (MS
PowerPointer 2007-2010), .odt (OpenOffice2 Writer), .ods (OpenOffice2 Calc) and .pdf (Adobe
Acrobat) are checked for file format specific encryption; MS Office documents also for digital
rights management (DRM) protection. If positive, these files are flagged with “e!” in the attribute
column. This check requires that the separate viewer component is active.
Additionally, the encryption test can detect eCryptfs-encrypted files (files stored by the
Enterprise Cryptographic File System for Linux), with a test that is based on eCryptfs
implementations for Ubuntu 8.10, 9.04, 9.10 and 10.04. Such files will by marked with “E” in the
Attributes column, just like EFS-encrypted files in NTFS.
6.3.10
Indexing
Available only with a forensic license. Reads the data with the same logic as a logical search,
with the same advantages (see that topic).
Creates indexes of all words in all or certain files in the volume snapshot, based on characters
you provide, based on the Unicode character set and/or up to two code pages that you select. It is
possible to have up to three such indexes per evidence object (e.g. Cyrillic characters indexed in
Unicode and two Cyrillic code pages). X-Ways Forensics allows you to conveniently select
characters from more than 22 languages for indexing. Currently, most European and many Asian
languages are predefined, e.g. German, Spanish, French, Portuguese, Italian, Scandinavian
103
languages, Russian, South Slavic languages, Eastern European languages, Greek, Turkish,
Hebrew, Arabic, Thai, Vietnamese. You may specify each character individually, or ranges of
characters (e.g. a-zA-Z) if the edit box for the character pool if the edit box starts with "range:".
To index the dash itself (not recommended), specify it as the last character.
Indexing is a potentially time-consuming process and may require a large amount of drive space
(rule of thumb for default settings and average data: 5-25% of the original amount of data).
However, the index will allow you to conduct further searches very quickly and spontaneously.
The index files are saved in the subdirectories of the metadata folder of the corresponding
evidence object. The scope of the index, i.e. which files are to be indexed, can be fine-tuned.
Note that the index of partitioned media such as physical hard disks solely covers unpartitioned
areas. That's because each partition can have its own index.
Words shorter than a lower limit you specify are ignored. The longer the minimum length in
characters, the smaller the index and the faster the indexing procedure. The default lower limit is
4 characters. Frequent irrelevant words can be excluded from the index in the exception list with
a minus prefix (e.g. -and, if 3-letter words are already accepted), which reduces the size of the
index and the time needed to create it. The larger the range of accepted word lengths, the larger
the index becomes and the more time indexing takes. Important 3-letter words can be added to
the exclusion list with a plus prefix (e.g. +xtc), which overrides the default lower limit of 4
characters. The exception list does not have to be sorted alphabetically. Words in the exception
list longer than the upper limit you specify are truncated in the index. Words in the exception list
are bound by the character pool and cannot contain different characters.
X-Ways Forensics can optionally distinguish between uppercase and lowercase letters, i.e. create
a case-sensitive index. This can be useful e.g. if you create the index for the purpose of later
exporting a word list for a customized dictionary attack.
If you have X-Ways Forensics include substrings in the index, this will further slow down index
creation (by a factor of 3 to 5) and inflate the index, however, you will later be able to find e.g.
"wife" in "housewife" and "solve" in "resolve". If you do not include substrings in the index, it
will still be possible to search the index for substrings later, but the result will be incomplete, and
the search speed much slower. Please note that it is the responsibility of the user to enable
substring indexing if the words in the language to index are not delimited with spaces (e.g. in
Chinese, Japanese or Thai).
Indexing will be unnecessarily slow if the data to be indexed resides on the same disk with the
case file and directory, where the index is created. Try to avoid indexing with an active Internet
connection if your Windows system is configured to download updates and reboot automatically
upon installation.
Optionally, text in certain file types can be decoded for indexing (cf. Logical Search), and it is
possible to create indexes for multiple selected computer media/images associated with a case in
a single step.
You can index in Unicode and in up to two different code pages simultaneously. Please note that
X-Ways Forensics cannot simultaneously index characters in the same multi-byte character code
page if some characters utilize just 1 byte and others 2 bytes.
104
It is possible to define a character substitution list in Unicode that causes certain letters to be
indexed as other letters (e.g. "é" as just "e"). This will allow you to find certain spelling
variations with a single index search, e.g. both the name "René" with an accented e at the end and
"Rene" without, with either spelling. This list must have the structure
é>e
è>e
à>a
...
(i.e. 1 substition per line) and needs to be present as a Unicode text file named "indexsub.txt" that
starts with the LE Unicode indicator 0xFF 0xFE. "indexsub.txt" is an optional file and expected
in the X-Ways Forensics installation directory.
You will get a warning if you define a space character as part of words. That is because space
characters are meant to delimit words, they are not part of the words themselves. If a space
character is defined to be part of words, that means a whole sentence like "Mike Smith lost his
credit card today." is considered just a single word.
Search in Index: After indexing files, you may search the index for keywords very quickly,
using the Simultaneous Search function. Select "Search in Index" from the drop-down box at the
bottom. Anything in excess of the maximum word length used for indexing is ignored (so that
"ridiculous" is found in the index even if in the index that word was truncated to "ridicul" based
on a maximum word length of 7 letters). X-Ways Forensics does not distinguish between
uppercase and lowercase letters except if a case-sensitive index was created. In a search hit list
populated by an index search, physical offsets are not available.
You may conveniently run non-GREP index searches for search terms that contain space
characters, just like in conventional searches. This is very important for names (e.g. "John Doe"
or "XYZ Technology Ltd") and spaced compound words (e.g. "bank account" or "credit card
limit"). This works even if the individual components of the compound already exceed the
maximum word length that was indexed (by default 7 characters), so that you will have no
trouble finding "basketball positions" (10+9 letters) or "skyscraper architecture" (10+12 letters).
Just as always the components are only matched up to the length that was indexed, which is not a
big problem because there are not many words other than "basketball" and "skyscraper" that start
with "basketb" or "skyscra", respectively. In fact the spaces in the search terms match unindexed
word delimiters other than spaces as well, such as hyphens, so you will also find "Spider-Man"
and "freeze-dried" when searching for "spider man" and "freeze dried", or underscores as in
"bank_account" (think of a filename like "bank_account.html"), or plus signs as in "credit+card"
(e.g. common in Google search URLs when searching for more than 1 word), or periods as in
"interview.pdf". So in that respect index searches are even more powerful than conventional
searches. Defining spaces as being part of words is a big no-no.
6.4 More Information about Volume Snapshot Refinement
Should processing freeze on a certain file, remember the internal ID and the name of the
currently processed file are displayed in the small progress indicator window. If this operation is
105
applied to an evidence object and it crashes, X-Ways Forensics will tell you which file when you
restart the program and associate it with a report table named “Reason for crash?” (depends on
the Security Options). All that happens so that you can exclude and omit the file when trying
again. It does no harm (does not create duplications and does not cost much time again) if you
restart snapshot refinement for that volume from scratch, as already processed files will quickly
be skipped, up to the point where the refinement progress was last saved, which depends on the
auto-save interval of the case.
If the hash value for a problematic (crashing) file was computed, that file and identical files are
skipped automatically if you (continue to) refine the volume snapshot and compute hash values
(at least if the protection against identical crasher files is active in the properties of the case). To
make the case forget previous crasher files, click the Delete button in the case properties. Skipped
files are also automatically added to the aforementioned report table.
You may schedule a simultaneous search in advance for the time after the volume snapshot
refinement.
6.4.1 Interdependencies
There are various interdependencies between all these operations. For example, if the contents of
archives are included in the volume snapshot, among these files there could be pictures that are to
be checked for skin colors, or documents that are to be checked for encryption. You can work
under the premise that if an additional file is added to the volume snapshot or if the true type of a
file is detected as part of Refine Volume Snapshot, all the appropriate other operations are
applied to that file, if they are all selected. The output of one operation automatically becomes
the input of all other operations (or even the same operation again), where suitable.
Imagine someone tries to conceal an incriminating JPEG picture by embedding it in a MS Word
document, misnaming that .doc file to .dll, compressing that file in a Zip archive, misnaming the
.zip file to .dll, compressing that .dll in another Zip archive, misnaming that .zip file again to .dll,
and then sends this .dll file by e-mail as an attachment using MS Outlook. If all the respective
options are selected, Refine Volume Snapshot does the following: It extracts the e-mail
attachment from the PST e-mail archive. It detects that the .dll attachment is actually a Zip
archive. Then it includes the contents of it in the volume snapshot, namely a file with the .dll
extension. That file is found to be actually another Zip archive. Consequently that archive will be
explored, and the .dll file inside will be detected as a .doc file. Searching for embedded pictures,
X-Ways Forensics finds the JPEG file in the .doc file and can immediately check it for skin
colors if desired. All of this happens in a single step.
6.4.2 Important Note
Except for indexing, X-Ways Forensics conveniently remembers for each and every file in the
volume snapshot which refinement operations have already been applied to it, so that the file will
not unnecessarily be processed again, which would lead to undesirable duplication of child
objects, waste of time etc. It does not remember the individual suboptions of each operation (e.g.
106
whether "Create previews of browser databases" was selected for the metadata extraction) and
cannot catch up on these suboptions individually. If for any reason you wish to apply certain
operations again to the same file (e.g. then with different suboptions or after having updated the
signature database for file type verification), you may reset a file to the state of "still to be
processed" by volume snapshot refinement, by selecting it and pressing Ctrl+Del. This will also
clear any computed skin color percentages, extracted metadata, hash values, hash matches, etc.
However, this function does not remove any child objects from the volume snapshot. That would
have to be done by the user separately, if desired, by hiding and removing them. Neither does this
function delete any events that were created during prior refinement operations.
Certain previously valid timestamps of files are output as events during various suboperations of
the particularly thorough file system data structure search on NTFS, depending on the refinement
option "Provide by-catch timestamps from various sources as events", which may also effect
other operations whose primary purpose is not the retrieval of timestamps/events.
7
Some Basic Concepts
7.1 Edit Modes
The info pane displays for each file/disk, in which mode it was opened in the program. The info
pane's context menu allows to selectively change the edit mode of the active window.
Read-only/View mode: Recommended for computer forensic examinations. In order to enforce
strict forensic procedures, the only mode available in X-Ways Forensics, except for files in the
current case's directory and in the general folder for temporary files, to allow to decode, decrypt,
and convert them, etc. Files or disks that are opened in view mode cannot be (intentionally or
accidentally) edited/altered in WinHex, only viewed. In other words, they are opened writeprotected = read-only by WinHex.
Default edit mode: Modifications to files or disks opened in default edit mode are stored in
temporary files. Those temporary files are created and maintained dynamically when needed.
Only when you close the edit window or use the Save menu command the File Menu, the
modifications are flushed and the original file or disk is updated, after prompting the user.
In-place edit mode: Please use caution when opening files or disks in in-place edit mode. All
kinds of modifications (keyboard input, filling/removing the block, writing clipboard data,
replacements, ...) are written to the original file or disk (“in-place”) without prompting! It is not
necessary to save the file manually after having modified it. Instead, the modifications are saved
lazily and automatically, at latest when closing the edit window. However, you may use the Save
command to ensure the buffer is flushed at a given time.
The in-place edit mode is preferable if the data transfer from the original to the temporary file
and vice-versa, which is obligatory in default edit mode for certain operations, consumed too
much time or disk space. This may be the case when opening very large files or when modifying
107
huge amounts of data. Since usually no temporary files are needed in in-place edit mode, this edit
mode is generally faster than the default edit mode. The in-place edit mode is the only mode
available when using the RAM editor. Hint: Even in in-place edit mode the creation of a
temporary file is unavoidable when altering the file size.
If you open files using the operating system (e.g. via File | Open, from any drive letter currently
available in Windows), then operating system file write commands will be used to change a file.
However, in WinHex it is even possible to edit files without using operating system file write
commands, directly on a disk/in a raw disk image in any file system supported, even if not
supported by Windows, even files not seen by Windows (e.g. deleted files), even in partitions not
seen by Windows (e.g. by damaged or deleted), without changing any timestamps or attributes, in
in-place mode only. For this editing capability, the file must been opened from within the already
opened volume that contains it, via the Open command in the directory browser context menu or
in File mode (forensic license only). Compressed files or generally files within other files (e.g. emails and attachments in e-mail archives) cannot be edited, except in an evidence file container if
they have been copied there from the original disk/image.
Note that files cannot be shortened or expanded that way, only the data in already allocated areas
can be modified. Editing files opened directly from within disks/raw images as described above
is possible in WinHex only, not in X-Ways Forensics or X-Ways Investigator, where sector level
write access (to which file editing is internally translated) is disabled and where the only mode
available for disks and interpreted images and files opened from within volumes continues to be
read-only mode.
In forensic computing, electronic discovery and IT security, this editing capability can be helpful
to manually redact (e.g. overtype) specific data that should not be examined/disclosed/seen or to
securely erase specific areas within files (e.g. define as a block and fill the block). Note that
evidence file containers are raw images if they have not been converted to the .e01 evidence file
format and thus allow for retroactive file editing, which, however will invalidate any
accompanying hash values. It is even possible to edit directories, i.e. the clusters with directory
data, e.g. INDX buffers in NTFS, for example if you need to redact the names of certain files.
7.2 Scripts
Some of the functionality of WinHex can be used in an automated way, e.g. to speed up recurring
routine tasks or to perform certain tasks on unattended remote computers. The ability to execute
scripts other than the supplied sample scripts is limited to owners of professional licenses or
higher. Scripts can be run from the Start Center or the command line. While a script is executed,
you may press Esc to abort. Because of their superior possibilities, scripts supersede routines,
which were the only method of automation in previous versions of WinHex.
WinHex scripts are text files with the filename extension ".whs". They can be edited using any
text editor and simply consist of a sequence of commands. It is recommended to enter one
command per line only, for reasons of visual clarity. Depending on the command, you may need
to specify parameters next to a command. Most commands affect the file or disk presented in the
currently active window.
108
See Appendix B for a description of currently supported script commands.
7.3 X-Tensions API
Automate investigative tasks and extend the functionality of X-Ways Forensics with X-Tensions:
The new X-Ways Forensics X-Tension API (application programming interface) allows you to
use many of the advanced capabilities of the X-Ways Forensics computer software
programmatically and extend them with your own functionality. For example, you could
implement some specialized file carving for certain file types, automated triage functionality,
alternative report generation, or automatically filter out unwanted search hits depending on your
requirements etc.
Among other things, X-Tensions allow you to:
- read from a disk/partition/volume/image
- retrieve abundant information about each file and directory in the volume snapshot
- read from any file
- create new objects in the volume snapshot
- assign files to report tables
- add comments to files
- process, validate and delete search hits
- and do practically everything else that is possible with a Windows program! (thanks to the
Windows API)
You can use your programming language of choice, e.g. C++, Delphi, or Visual Basic, and do
not have to learn any new programming language. You can use your compiler of choice, for
example Visual Studio Express (freeware).
Since an extension is not an interpreted script, but regular compiled executable code that is
running in the address space of the application itself, you can expect highest performance, the
same as with internally implemented functionality. X-Tensions give you easy and direct access
to crucial and powerful functions deep inside X-Ways Forensics.
When X-Tensions functions can get called:
- when refining the volume snapshot
- when running a simultaneous search
- via the directory browser context menu
- in future versions of X-Ways Forensics via the search hit context menu
You may distribute your XWF extension DLLs that you compile and/or your source code free of
charge or even for a fee, under whatever license terms you see fit.
For more information please see http://www.x-ways.net/forensics/x-tensions/api.html.
109
7.4 WinHex API
The WinHex API (application programming interface) allows to use the advanced capabilities of
the WinHex Hex Editor programmatically from your own C++, Delphi, or Visual Basic
programs. In particular, it provides a convenient and simple interface for random access to files
and disks.
Developing software that uses the WinHex API requires a valid professional or specialist
WinHex license. Additionally, you need import declarations for your programming language of
choice, the library file “whxapi.dll”, and the API documentation. Please find those files and more
detailed information online at http://www.x-ways.net/winhex/api/.
You may also distribute both any software that makes use of the WinHex API and WinHex itself.
There are two ways how to distribute WinHex:
1. Distribute the unlicensed WinHex version. For the API to work, your customer has to purchase
professional or specialist licenses according to the number of WinHex installations needed.
-or2. Recommended: distribute a special API version of WinHex that is configured to only provide
the API functionality and that is available at a reduced price. You may place your order online at
http://www.x-ways.net/winhex/api/. Volume discount available on request (please specify the
number of licenses you are interested in). One WinHex API license needed per end user
computer. The product will be licensed to you, you will be the actual owner of the licenses, but
any of your customers may use them. The end user does not have to take care of anything related
to WinHex.
7.5 Disk Editor
The disk editor, that is part of the Tools menu, allows you to access floppy and hard disks below
the file-system level. Disks consist of sectors (commonly units of 512 bytes). You may access a
disk either logically (i.e. controlled by the operating system) or physically (controlled by the
BIOS). On most computer systems you can even access CD-ROM and DVD media. There is an
optional raw mode for optical drives that allows to read from audio CDs and also the complete
2352-byte sectors on data CDs (CD-ROM and Video CDs) that contain error correction codes.
Opening a logical drive means opening a contiguous formatted part of a disk (a partition) that is
accessible under Windows as a drive letter. It's also called a “volume”. WinHex relies on
Windows being able to access the drive. Opening a physical disk means opening the entire
medium, as it is attached to the computer, e.g. a hard disk including all partitions. It could also
called the “raw device”. The disk normally does not need to be properly formatted in order to
open it that way.
Usually it is preferable to open a logical drive instead of a physical disk, because more features
are provided in this case. For example, “clusters” are defined by the file system, the allocation of
clusters to files (and vice versa) is known to WinHex, “free space” and “slack space” have a
110
meaning. If you need to edit sectors outside a logical drive (e.g. the master boot record), if you
wish to search something on several partitions of a hard disk at the same time, or if a partition is
damaged or formatted with a file system unknown to Windows, so Windows is unable to make it
accessible as a drive letter, you would open the physical disk instead. From the window that
represents a physical medium you can usually also open individual partitions, by double-clicking
them in the directory browser of that window. WinHex understands conventional MBR
partitioning, GPT (GUID partition type), Apple partitioning, superfloppy format, Windows
dynamic disks as organized by the LDM (Logical Disk Manager, MBR and GPT style), LVM2
(MBR and GPT style), and PC-compatible BSD disklabel. All dynamic volume types are
supported: simple, spanned, striped, and RAID 5. Holding the Ctrl key when opening hard disks
disables detection and special handling of dynamic volumes and ensures the hard disk is treated
like it has been partitioned in the conventional way. Some of the aforementioned partitioning
types are supported with specialist and forensic licenses only.
Please note the following limitations:
• Administrator rights are needed to access sectors on any kind of media. Under Windows
Vista/7/8 you need to run the program as administrator specifically, just being logged on as
administrator is not sufficient.
• Remote (network) drives cannot be accessed sector-wise.
• X-Ways Forensics cannot edit disk sectors or sectors in interpreted images at all, only WinHex
can.
• WinHex cannot write to CD-ROM or DVD.
• Under Windows Vista/7/8, WinHex cannot write sectors on the partition with the active
Windows installation and on the partition where WinHex is running from.
The appendix C of this manual provides you with specifications of the master boot record, which
can be edited using the disk editor.
Save Sectors: To be used analogously to the Save command for files. Part of the File menu.
Writes all modifications to the disk. Please note that, depending on your changes, this may
severely damage the integrity of the disk data. If the corresponding undo option is enabled, a
backup of the concerned sectors is created, before they are overwritten. This command is only
available in the full version.
7.6 RAM Editor/Analysis
The RAM editor allows to examine the physical RAM/main memory and the logical memory of a
process (i.e. a program that is being executed). All memory pages committed by a process are
presented in a continuous block. Unused (free or reserved) pages are ignored by default, but
optionally included and displayed with “?” characters. With no such gaps, you may compare
memory dumps to files exactly with one another (absolute and virtual addresses are identical),
e.g. to examine stack and heap states or observe virusses.
If you select one of the listed processes, you may access either the so-called primary memory or
the entire memory of this process or one of the loaded modules. The primary memory is used by
programs for nearly all purposes. Usually it also contains the main module of a process (the EXE
111
file), the stack, and the heap. The "entire memory" contains the allocated page of the entire
logical memory address space of a process, including the part of memory that is shared among all
processes.
Please note the following limitations:
• Access to physical RAM under Windows XP (32-bit) only, no more than 4 GB, and with
administrator rights only
• Caution: Only keyboard input can be undone!
• Editing is possible in in-place mode only.
• The evaluation version only supports view mode.
The options relevant for the RAM editor are “Check for virtual memory alteration” and “Virtual
Addresses”.
Main Memory Analysis
Requires a forensic license. When you open the local physical RAM (via Tools | Open RAM,
only under Windows XP) or a main memory dump as a file (and interpret that file exactly like
you would a disk image) or add a memory dump to a case, processes will be listed in the
directory browser, even hidden processes, with their timestamps and process IDs, and their own
respective memory address spaces can be individually viewed in "Process" mode, with pages
concatenated in correct logical order as seen by each process. The "particularly thorough data
structure search" is signature-based, will take a little longer than taking a standard volume
snapshot and may turn up traces of additional processes including rootkits. Memory can be
acquired remotely with the help of F-Response (Tools | Open Disk). The analysis is supported for
most (but not all) variants (service packs) of Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows 2003
Server, Windows Vista, Windows 2008 Server, and Windows 7, 32 bit and (less complete) 64 bit.
Only complete memory dumps are supported, those which include regions in RAM that are
utilized by the BIOS and by PCI devices.
Windows kernel data structures and named objects are conveniently listed in a tree in the volume
snapshot under “Objects”. Loaded modules are listed under “Modules”. That enables X-Ways
Forensics to allocate the memory pages in RAM mode that they occupy to them, and to compute
hashes for them so that they can be identified via special hash sets. For hashing purposes it is
recommended to list the invariant headers of loaded modules only (see Volume Snapshot
Options).
The technical details report informs you of important system-wide parameters as well as of the
current addresses of important kernel data structures and loaded kernel modules. In Details mode
you can find the addresses of process-related data structures for each process and the ID of its
parent process. In RAM mode, the Info Pane shows for each memory page a process to which it
is allocated (if any) and its memory management status.
With the appropriate background knowledge, this functionality can be used learn more about the
current state of the machine and its processes, sockets, open files, loaded drivers, and attached
media, to identify malware, to find the decrypted version of encrypted data, to analyze network
traces in incident response, and to do further research in the field of memory forensics.
112
7.7 Template Editing
A template is a dialog box that provides means for editing custom data structures in a more
comfortable and error-preventing way than raw hex editing does. Editing is done is separate edit
boxes. Changes take effect when pressing the ENTER key or when quitting the template after
being prompted. The data may originate from a file, from disk sectors, or from virtual memory.
Especially when editing databases, you may prefer to define a custom template for ease of access
to the records. You will find the command to print a template in the system menu.
A template definition is stored in a text file with the extension .tpl. The template editor enables
you to write template definitions and offers syntax checking. A template definition mainly
contains variable declarations, that are similar to those in source code of programming languages.
The syntax is explained in detail in Appendix A. The supported data types include all the
common integer, floating-point and boolean variants, date types, hex values, binary, characters,
and strings type. Arrays of both single variables and groups of variables can be used.
The ability to move freely forwards and backwards within the data makes using templates
particularly flexible:
• The same variable may be interpreted and manipulated in several ways.
• Irrelevant data sections can be skipped.
The template manager lists all text files in the WinHex directory that contain template
definitions. The title of the template along with a description, the filename, and the date and time
of the last modification are shown. Click the Apply button to display a template using the
selected template definition for the data in the current editor window at the current position. You
may also create a new template definition, delete or edit an existing one.
WinHex comes with several sample templates.
8
Data Recovery
8.1 File Recovery with the Directory Browser
Most obviously, deleted files and directories that are listed in the directory browser can be
recovered easily and selectively with the directory browser’s context menu. You navigate to a
directory (or explore the root directory recursively), select the files to recover, and use the
Recover/Copy command in the context menu. See chapter “directory browser”.
8.2 File Recovery by Type/File Header Signature Search
Data recovery function in the Disk Tools menu, and also a strategy to find previously existing
files as part of the Refine Volume Snapshot command. This recovery method is also referred to
113
as “file carving”. It searches for files that can be recognized by a characteristic file header
signature (a certain sequence of byte values). Because of this approach, file carving does not
depend on the existence of functional file system structures. When found based on the signature,
the files are saved to the output folder that is specified by the user (File Recovery by Type) or
merely listed in a virtual directory of the volume snapshot (File header signature search).
Optionally, recovered files of each type are put into their own subfolder (...\JPEG, ...\HTML,
etc.). Note that file carving assumes contiguous file clusters, so produces corrupt files in case the
files were originally stored in a fragmented way. A log file "File Recovery by Type.log" about
the selected parameters and the recovery results is written to the output folder for verification
purposes.
You can expand or collapse the entire file type tree in this dialog window with a single mouse
click on the appropriate button. That is useful because when expanded you only need to type the
first few characters of the file type description to automatically jump to the first matching item in
the tree.
Since no use is made of a possible presence of a (consistent or damaged) file system, the original
file sizes are principally unknown to this algorithm, and so are the original filenames. That is why
the resulting files are mostly named generically according to the following pattern:
Prefix#####.ext. "Prefix" is an optional prefix you provide. #####" is an incrementing number
per evidence object. "ext" is the filename extension that corresponds to the file header signature
according to the file type definition. The output filename prefix may optionally contain a
placeholder "%d", which will be replaced by the drive name. This is useful if you apply File
Recovery by Type to multiple drives at a time and wish to be able to easily distinguish files from
different drives.
With a specialist license or higher, the "intelligent naming" option will cause Exif JPEG files to
be named after the digital camera model that created them and their internal time stamp, if
available. Many Windows Registry hive files are given their original names, also some JPEG
files in whose metadata Photoshop has embedded a name. JPEG files without known name and
no Exif metadata that however have been created by a known generator get some additional
information in their artificial name in parantheses: First a designation of the generator signature
(currently e. g. "IJG Library", "Photoshop" and "Photoshop Web", where the latter stands for
Photoshop when saved with optimization for usage in the web), second the quality setting "Q="
when the JPEG file was saved, which ranges from 1 to 100 or 1 to 7 in the case of Photoshop.
Further generators (Apple, Canon, etc.) theoretically could also be identified, but not in the
official release version of WinHex/X-Ways Forensics. Thumbs.db files are always named
thumbs.db, index.dat always index.dat. The aforementioned prefix is not used in conjunction with
original filenames.
The internal algorithm tries to determine the original size of files of various types (among others,
JPEG, GIF, PNG, BMP, TIFF, Nikon NEF, Canon CR2 raw, PSD, CDR, AVI, WAV, MOV,
MPEG, MP3, MP4, 3GP, M4V, M4A, ASF, WMV, WMA, ZIP, GZIP, RAR, 7Z, TAR, MS
Word, MS Excel, MS PowerPoint, RTF, PDF, HTML, XML, XSD, DTD, PST, DBX, AOL
PFC, Windows Registry, index.dat, Prefetch, SPL, EVTX, EML) by examining their data
structure. This affects entries in the file type definition database that have a "~" in the Footer
column. These entries should not be altered in order for the size and type detection to work for
these file types. A footer signature can also help to find the end of a file. For files about whose
114
original size the available algorithms has no idea and for which no footer is specified or for
which a specified footer is not actually found, the files are recovered at the exact default file size
specified by the user in KB. Be generous when specifying this size because whereas files
recovered "too large" can still be opened by their associated applications, prematurely truncated
files however often can't be as they are incomplete. The attempt to detect the original size of files
of certain types by searching for a footer is limited by a maximum size, which is a user-supplied
multiple of the default file size.
Technically it is possible to select as many file types for simultaneous recovery as you like.
However, if you recover files of different types at the same time, that typically have totally
different sizes (e.g. type A a few KB, type B a few GB), using a single general default file size
would not be a good idea. That's why optionally you can define individual default sizes for each
file type in the file type definition databaseTopic81, which if exist optionally have priority over
the general default file size specified in the dialog window.
File headers are usually found at cluster boundaries because that is where file systems mostly put
the start of a file. However, it is more thorough (and not slower) to search for sector-aligned file
headers because that allows to also find files from previously existing partitions with a different
cluster layout. If performed on a physical medium or raw file with no cluster layout defined,
WinHex searches at sector boundaries anyway. There is yet another possibility, a thorough bytelevel search. This is required when you are trying to find files that are not reliably aligned at any
sector boundaries (e.g. files in backup files or tape images or embedded in other files) or when
trying to find entries/records/micro-formats/memory artifacts etc., i.e. not complete ordinary
files. This comes at the cost of a possibly increased number of false positives, though,
misidentified file signatures occurring randomly on a media, not indicating the beginning of a
file. Individual flags in the file type definition database can help on a per file type basis to decide
which files to search for a cluster, sector or byte boundaries.
That the start sectors of files that are already known to the volume snapshot are always excluded
from file carving is optional. Of course, X-Ways Forensics generally still tries to prevent
duplicates, but if the file header signature definition or the internal file size detection is strong
enough to suggest that a known deleted file was overwritten with a new file, then that new file
will be carved although it shares the same start sector with the known file.
If you intentionally abort the file header signature search or if the file header signature search
causes X-Ways Forensics to crash, next time when you start a file header signature search in the
same evidence object, you will find an option to resume it right where it was interrupted, or
where it was when the volume snapshot was last saved before the crash occurred (depends on the
auto-save interval of the case).
You may limit the scope of the recovery to a currently selected block if necessary and/or to
allocated or unallocated space (option available on a logical drive or volume). E.g. in order to
recover files that were deleted, you select to recover from unallocated space only. Files that are
not accessible any more because of file system errors may still be stored in clusters that are
considered as in use.
The option "Ext2/Ext3 block logic" causes this recovery method to deviate from the standard
assumption of no fragmention in that it will follow the typical Ext block pattern, where e.g. the
115
13th block from the header of the file is considered an indirect block that references the
following data blocks. This option has no effect when applied to partitions that WinHex knows
have a file system other than Ext2 and Ext3 or when a header is found that is not block-aligned.
The effects of NTFS compression on file data can optionally be compensated for in a file header
signature search (forensic license only), in many cases successfully. If the signature of an NTFScompressed file is found, the file will be marked as compressed, and an attempt will be made to
decompress the file “on the fly” when needed with a sophisticated algorithm that can even
decompress files that consist of multiple compression units.
8.3 File Type Definitions
“File Type Signatures *.txt” are tab-delimited text files that serves as a file type definition
database for refining volume snapshots and for the File Recovery by Type command.
WinHex comes with various preset file type signatures. You may fully customize the file type
definitions and add your own ones, either in "File Type Signatures Search.txt" or in any
additional such files of the same format named “File Type Signatures *.txt”, which will be loaded
as well and may have the benefit that they will not be overwritten when you install the next
update if they don't have the same name as one of the default files. Only if the filename contains
the word “search”, the file types will be available for file header signature searches. Otherwise
they are used for file type verification only of files that are already part of the volume snapshot
(forensic license only). Up to 4096 entries are supported altogether (1024 for searching).
When you click the Customize button to edit the file "File Type Signatures Search.txt", by
default WinHex opens the file in MS Excel. This is convenient because the file consists of
columns separated by tabs. If you edit the file with a text editor, be sure to retain these tabs, as
WinHex relies on their presence to properly interpret the file type definitions. MS Excel retains
them automatically. After editing the file type definitions, you need to exit the dialog window
and invoke the File Recovery by Type or Refine Volume Snapshot menu command again to see
the changes in the file type list.
1st column: File Type
A human-readable designation of the file type, e.g. "JPEG". Everything beyond the first 19
characters is ignored.
2nd column: Extensions
One or more file type extensions typically used for this file type. E.g. "jpg;jpeg;jpe". Specify the
most common extension first because that one will be used by default for naming recovered files.
If that first extension is specified in upper-case characters, it will be used by the file type
verification to fill the Type column for a file even if the file has one of the alternative plausible
filename extensions. More than 255 characters supported.
3rd column: Header
116
A unique header signature by which files of this file type can be recognized. It is specified in
GREP syntax (see Search Options for an explanation), so that it's possible to match variable byte
values (e.g. [\xE1\xE2] mean "the byte value could be 0xE1 or 0xE2") or undefined areas (.).The
maximum length of the represented signature is 48 bytes. To find out characteristic file header
signatures in the first place, open several existing files of a certain type in WinHex and look for
common byte values near the beginning of the file at identical offsets.
4th column: Offset
The relative offset within a file at which the signature occurs. Often simply 0. The signature must
be contained in the first 512 bytes.
5th column: Footer
Optional. A signature (byte sequence) that reliably indicates the end of a file, specified in GREP
syntax. GREP expressions that represent variably-sized data may not work as expected. A footer
signature may help to achieve a recovery with the correct file size. The recovery algorithm does
not search for the footer further than the number of bytes specified as the maximum file size,
starting from the header.
Even better than a footer is the potential availability of an internally implemented algorithm in XWays Forensics that knows the file format well and can usually find out the correct file size if a
file is not fragmented, incomplete or corrupt. Such an algorithm is indicated in the Footer column
with a tilde (~) and an algorithm ID number.
6th column: Default size
Optional. A file type specific default maximum file size in bytes that can override the global
maximum file size specified in the File Recovery by Type dialog window. Useful because e.g. an
MPEG video could be more around 1 GB in size, where a Windows icon file (.ico) could be
around 1 KB in size.
7th column: Flags
Optional. Can further tailor file carving for certain file types and are yet another indicator of how
sophisticated and powerful file carving is in X-Ways Forensics.
b (lower case): The signature is searched at the byte level when given the choice. Useful
especially for entries/record/micro-formats/memory artifacts (i.e. not complete ordinary files)
that are not typically aligned at any sector or cluster boundaries.
B (upper case): Prevents a byte-level search for that particular signature, for performance
reasons.
c (lower case): If taken into account (depends on user interface settings), ignores header
signatures that are not aligned at cluster boundaries. Can be useful for some file types to avoid to
many false positives.
117
C (upper case): Denotes file type signatures that should not be used to search for NTFScompressed files if compensation for NTFS compression is active, because they are too weak and
would yield too many false positives or would not be actually stored as compressed anyway.
u (lower case): Stands for "unused". Allows to carve files only in clusters that are free according
to the file system.
U (upper case): Allows to carve files only in clusters that are free according to the file system and
also not used by previously existing files as contained in the volume snapshot.
f (lower case): Indicates that the specified footer signature is used to find data that is not part of
the file any more and should excluded. Ordinary footers are included in the carved file. Useful
for file formats that do not have a well defined footer, where the end of the file can be detected
by the occurrence of data that does not belong to the file any more. That could be the same
signature as the header (if files of that type occur typically in groups, back to back) or just \x00
(for file formats such as text files that do not contain zero-value bytes, where however \x00 can
be expected with a high likelihood in the RAM slack). Such footer signatures should be marked
as exclusive because the data matched by it is not part of the file itself.
F (upper case): Makes X-Ways Forensics discard hits of the file header signature search if no
corresponding footer can be found, provided that a footer signature is specified in the definition.
Can be useful to reduce the number of or totally avoid false positives.
h: Indicates that the specified header signature is used to find data that is not part of the file itself
and should excluded.
G: Stands for “greedy”. Greedily allocates all the sectors exclusively. The file type signature
search continues its search for further file headers only after the presumed end of such files. Can
be useful if an internally implemented algorithm is available that is sure that the carved file
contains all valid data, so that it is not necessary to search for other files within the previously
carved file's boundaries.
g (lower case): Weaker version of the same flag. Only if an internal file size detection algorithm
exists for a file type and if a file with the same start sector number exists already with the same
file size as detected, the "g" flag will cause X-Ways Forensics to skip the affected sectors. This
can help to prevent overlapping zip files and thereby avoid potentially many contained duplicate
files.
t: Prevents X-Ways Forensics from presenting the type of carved files immediately as confirmed.
Useful for example for file format families such as XML, to determine the exact subtype later
during file type verification.
e: Stands for "embedded". If a file type has a tilde (~) algorithm in the Footer column and is
marked with this flag, it will be searched embedded in certain other files during volume snapshot
refinements, always at the byte level.
E: Never carved as an embedded file within other files.
118
W (upper case): Identifies header signatures that are too weak to newly detect the type of a file
and are merely used to confirm the type suggested by the name extension of the file.
8.4 Manual Data Recovery
It is possible to restore lost or logically deleted files (or more general: data) that are merely
marked as deleted in the file system, but have not been physically erased (or overwritten).
Open the logical drive where the deleted file resided on using the disk editor. Principally you can
recreate such a file by selecting the disk sectors, that were allocated to the file, as the current
block and saving them using the menu command Edit | Copy Block | Into New File. But it may
prove difficult to find the sectors where the file is still stored. There are two general ways to
accomplish this:
1. In case you know a snippet of the file you are looking for (e.g. the characteristic signature in
the header of a JPEG file or the words “Dear Mr. Smith” in a MS Word document), search it
on the disk using the common search commands (“Find Text” or “Find Hex Values”). This is
a very simple and safe way, and can be recommended to anyone.
2. In case you only know the filename, you will need some knowledge about the filesystem on
the disk (FAT16, FAT32, NTFS, ...) to find traces of former directory entries of the file and
thereby determine the number of the first cluster that was allocated to the file. Detailed
information on file systems is available on the WinHex web site. The following applies to all
FAT variants:
If the directory that contained the file (let's call that directory “D”) still exists, you can find D
on the disk using Tools | Disk Tools | List Directory Clusters. The factory template for FAT
directory entries that comes with WinHex will then be helpful to find out the number of the
first cluster that was allocated to the deleted file in that directory. Otherwise, if D has been
deleted as well, you need to find the contents of D (using the directory entry template) starting
with the directory that contained D.
Deleted files and directories are marked with the character “å” (hexadecimal: E5) as the first
letter in their name.
You may encounter the problem that the file to recover is fragmented, i. e. not stored in
subsequent contiguous clusters. On FAT drives, the next cluster of a file can be looked up in the
file allocation table at the beginning of the drive (simple templates to do this can be found on the
web site), but this information is erased when a file is deleted.
119
9
Options
9.1 General Options
1st column:
• Under Windows Vista and 7 it may be recommendable to always run WinHex/X-Ways
Forensics as administrator if you need sector-level access to media.
• The option Allow multiple program instances allows you to execute WinHex more than
once at a time. If not checked, WinHex makes the main window of the previous instance the
foreground window instead of creating a new program instance. By default, this option is half
selected. That means you will be given a choice when executing the .exe file again, whether to
start a new instance or not. At that time you may also try to recover a previous instance if
caught in an infinite loop.
• At startup, WinHex can optionally show the Start Center or restore the last window
arrangement (all windows with their sizes and the positions as you left them in the precedent
WinHex session).
• By default, edit windows are not opened in a maximized state.
• Specify the number of recently opened documents to remember and to list in the Start Center
(255 at max.). Up to 9 of them are also listed at the end of the File menu.
• Do not update file time means that WinHex will preserve the last modification time when a
modified file is saved with File | Save or Save As.
• You may have WinHex appear in the Windows context menu. The shell displays the context
menu when the user clicks an object with the right mouse button. WinHex provides menu
items for files, folders and disks. If this option is not fully selected, there is no menu item for
files.
• On a right click, WinHex can bring up a special context menu, the regular edit menu, or
define the end of the current block. If this option is disabled, you can still bring up the context
menu if you hold the Shift key while right-clicking.
• Save program settings in .cfg file: If half checked, the settings are saved whenever the
program terminates (cleanly). If fully checked, then every time when you click OK in any
dialog window (could be useful if the program does not terminate cleanly, to avoid that you
lose your latest settings). If totally unchecked, the program settings will not be saved at all,
except if you hold the Shift key when exiting the program, which is necessary once if you
would like to save in the .cfg file the setting that from then on the settings should not be saved
again.
120
• By default WinHex numbers disk partitions in the order of their physical location.
• If Auto-detect deleted partitions is enabled, WinHex tries to identify obvious deleted
partitions automatically in gaps between existing partitions and in unpartitioned space directly
following the last partition, when opening physical hard disks. Such additionally detected
partitions will be listed in the Access button menu and marked as deleted. Please note that
deleted partitions detected in gaps between existing partitions cause the partition numbering to
be changed. E.g. an existing partition #3 might become partition #4 if a deleted partition is
detected on the disk before it.
• The Sector reading cache accelerates sequential disk access by the disk editor. This option is
recommended particularly when scrolling through CD-ROM and floppy disk sectors, since the
number of necessary physical accesses is significantly reduced.
• If Check for surplus sectors is disabled, WinHex will not try to access surplus sectors when
a physical hard disk is opened. When additional sectors are detected, WinHex will remember
them the next time you open the disk. You may enforce a new check by holding the Shift key
while opening the disk. Checking for surplus sectors may cause very long delays, strange
behavior or even damage to the Windows installation on some very few systems. Only under
Windows XP surplus sectors are included automatically, which renders this option obsolete.
• The alternative access method 1 for physical hard disks may allow to access hard disks
formatted with an unconventional sector size or other media that cannot be accessed
otherwise. Note that it may be slower than the regular access method. If considerably slower,
WinHex will notify you of this and recommend to revert to the standard access method.
Access method 2 affects physical hard disks only as well. Both alternative methods allow you
to specify a timeout in milliseconds after which read attempts will be aborted. This can be
useful on disks with bad sectors, where an attempted read access to a single sector could
otherwise cause a delay of many seconds or minutes.
• The substitute pattern for unreadable sectors is always used instead of the original data
stored in disk sectors if these sectors cannot be read, for all purposes (display on the screen,
imaging, cloning, hashing, searching, ...). If you are going to hash disks with bad sectors and
want to compare/reproduce the results with other tools, then you can specify the same pattern
as used by the other tool here. Just note that such hash values are difficult to reproduce
because bad sectors could multiply in the course of several attempts. If when trying to read
bad sectors you prefer to get zero-value bytes delivered back, totally remove the pattern
(ensure that the edit box is completely blank).
2nd column:
• Specify the folder in which to create temporary files. By default that is the directory
indicated by the TEMP variable in your Windows system. Instead of an absolute path you may
also specify a dot (.) as a placeholder for the directory from where WinHex/X-Ways Forensics
is executed. Or .. for the parent directory of that directory. Or partial path relative to either the
. or .. directory (e.g. .\temp or ..\temp). This concept applies also to the next four folders.
121
• Specify the folder in which to create and expect images and backup files (.whx).
• Specify the folder in which cases and projects are created and expected.
• Specify the folder in which templates and scripts are stored.
• Specify the folder in which to maintain the internal hash database. The hash database of
block hash values, if used at all, is stored in a directory at the same level, with the same base
name plus " [block hash values]" appended.
In all of these standard paths you may use system and user environment variables, where the
variable name has to be enclosed in percentage signs, e.g. %TEMP%.
• X-Ways Investigator [CTR]/X-Ways Imager GUI: Available when operated with a forensic
license. Allows to activate the considerably reduced user interface of X-Ways Investigator
[CTR], which is meant for investigators
- who are specialized in a certain area e.g. of white-collar crime
- who do not need profound knowledge of computer forensics
- who do not need technical insights that WinHex and XWF are well-known to offer
- who receive e.g. convenient-to-handle X-Ways evidence file containers from well-versed
computer forensics examiners with only selected files from various sources (e.g. "all
documents that contain the keywords x and y"), with obviously irrelevant stuff already filtered
out
- who need to review hundreds of electronic documents, identify relevant ones, add comments
to them, identify logical structures and connections between them with the help of their
comments, and print documents, all within the same environment with a few mouse clicks,
which saves the time to extract and load each document in its associated application
- who may or may not need to work in an environment severely restricted by the system
administrator anyway
The X-Ways Investigator interface lacks many advanced technical options, to allow for easier
access to non-technical personnel. X-Ways Investigator licenses that only allow to use this
GUI are available at 50% the regular rate on request. An optional file "investigator.ini"
controls additional simplifications and administrative security precautions, e.g. to allow users
to open evidence file containers only, and only such containers that have been classified as
secure.
• If you select Show file icons, the icons stored in a file are shown in the info pane. If a file
contains no icons, the icon of the file type is shown if this option is “fully” selected. Only for
files opened with the File | Open menu command.
3rd column:
• The ENTER key can be used to enter up to four two-digit hex values. A useful example is
0x0D0A, which is interpreted as an end-of-line marker in the Windows world (Unix: 0x0D).
The Start Center could then still be opened using SHIFT+ENTER.
122
• Decide whether you want to use the TAB key to switch from text to hexadecimal mode and
vice versa or to enter the TAB character (0x09). In any case, TAB+SHIFT can be pressed to
switch the current mode.
• Non-printable characters with a character set value smaller than 0x20 can be represented by a
user-defined other character.
• The bytes in the display can be represented as characters in the text column one by one, or
WinHex can try to combine them, which if the active code page in Windows is a double-byte
character set may be desirable to get the characters right (if 2 bytes = 1 character), or
undesirable because of the variable row length. This has an effect only if View | Character Set
| * ASCII is selected, as only then the code page active in Windows can make a difference for
the display.
• Offsets can be presented and prompted for in a decimal or hexadecimal notation. This setting
is valid for the entire program.
• When using the RAM editor it may be reasonable to have WinHex display virtual addresses
instead of zero-based offsets. This is always done in hexadecimal notation. The dialog window
of the Goto Offset command will also prompt for virtual addresses.
• Page and sector separators may be displayed. If this option is enabled partially, only sector
separators are displayed.
• Specify the number of bytes per line in an edit window. Common values are 16 or 32
(depending on the screen resolution).
• Choose how many bytes shall be displayed in a group. Powers of 2 serve best for most
purposes.
• There is an option to define the size of the extra gap between rows in the hex editor display in
pixels, which together with the official height of the selected font defined the distance
between the rows. The default value has always been 3 before v17.2, but now it can be
decreased, to display more rows at the same time and see more data. For example with the
Courier font the display still looks fine with an extra gap of 1, but you see 15% more data
(based on font size 10). Even negative values are possible. With -1 you may see 35% more
data than before.
• Search hit highlighting in File mode: Option to get all search hits in a file highlighted in File
mode at the same time, either only when a search hit list is displayed (if half checked) or
permanently once search hits have been loaded for an evidence object, i.e. even when working
with the normal directory browser (if fully checked). Search hits are loaded after an evidence
object has been opened as soon as search hits are listed. This feature also applies to user
search hits. Requires forensic license.
• NTFS: MFT auto coloring: Highlights the various elements in FILE records of the NTFS file
123
system, when the cursor is located within such a record, to facilitate navigation and
understanding. Requires a specialist or forensic license. Also automatic highlighting of
aligned FILETIME values in Disk/Partition/Volume and File mode is available. Useful when
manually inspecting files of various Microsoft formats which may contain more timestamps
than can be automatically extracted (try e.g. with index.dat, registry hives, .lnk shortcut files
etc.). If the lower half of a data window has the focus and FILETIME values are highlighted,
you may also hover the mouse cursor over such a value to get a human readable interpretation
of the timestamp. Alternatively, of course, you could get it from the data interpreter if you
click the first byte of the value.
• Select a color used as the background of the current block. You can only change the color if
the option “Use Windows default colors” is switched off.
• Select a color used as the background of every other fixed-length record, if record
presentation is enabled (see Position menu).
• Select the default color for newly created annotations/positions/bookmarks.
• You may want WinHex to highlight modified bytes, i.e. display altered parts of a file, disk,
or memory in a different color, so you can distinguish between original data and changes you
have made so far. You may select the hilite color.
• You may choose a font for the hex editor display, and decide whether the standard Windows
GUI font should be used for the other parts of the WinHex/X-Ways Forensics GUI (via an
additional checkbox).
Last not least, you may select one of several different dialog window and button styles.
“…” button: With a forensic license, you may monitor lengthy operations from other computers
in the same network, i.e. see whether they are still ongoing or completed. You can enable
progress notifications via text files (that can be created in a directory on a network drive) and
via e-mail, in user-defined intervals. Multiple recipient e-mail addresses can be specified as well
if delimited by commas. Delivery by e-mail not tested for a long time.
Notation Options
• Choose your preferred date, time, and number notation settings. This is important especially to
be independent of the Windows regional settings of live system that you want to preview if
you are using X-Ways Forensics on a computer that is not your own one. You may also
choose to display years in dates with 2 digits only.
• There is an option to output dates in the directory browser and in some other parts of the user
interface in a nicer, longer and more locale-specific notation, which can include the weekday
and the name of the month based in your language or in English. Also, that format is Unicodecapable, which allows for example for original Chinese notation of dates. Please see
http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd317787%28v=vs.85%29.aspx for a complete
explanation of what kind of notation is possible. Examples of how to represent the month (in
124
English): MMMM = April, MMM = Apr, MM = 04, M = 4. Example of a complete format:
d/MMM/yyyy (ddd) = 2/Apr/2014 (Wed).
• There is an option to display timestamps with a precision of milliseconds. You may specify
the number of digits after the decimal point (up to 3). Useful for the file systems NTFS,
Reiser4 and FAT, which provide for a higher precision than seconds in all or some
timestamps.
• Optionally, the actually used time zone conversion bias, including daylight saving where
appropriate, can be displayed right in the timestamp columns in the directory browser.
• File sizes can optionally always be displayed in bytes instead of rounded. If the checkbox is
half checked, that applies to items in volumes only, otherwise also items on physical,
partitioned media.
Factory settings of all options can be restored using the Initialize command of the Help menu.
9.2 Volume Snapshot Options
These options can be reached via the Directory Browser Options. Most of them take effect when
taking a new volume snapshot.
• With the option Keep volume snapshots between sessions enabled, all information on file
systems in opened volumes collected by WinHex (Disk Tools menu and/or Specialist menu)
remains in the folder for temporary files even when WinHex terminates. WinHex can then
reuse the snapshots in later sessions. Volume snapshots of evidence objects in a case are
always kept, regardless of this setting, in that evidence object’s metadata subdirectory.
• Quick snapshots without cluster allocation speeds up taking a volume snapshot (in
particular for the file systems Ext2, Ext3 and ReiserFS, and in particular also when the volume
snapshot files are created across a slow USB 1.1 interface or network), however, causes
WinHex to lose its ability to tell each sector’s and cluster’s allocation (for which file it is
used). You may use the command “Take New Volume Snapshot” of the Tools menu to update
the view of a volume, e.g. after unchecking this option.
• Inherit deleted state: Causes deleted partitions to pass on their deleted state to everything
that they contain (files and directories), and deleted e-mail archives to pass on their deleted
state to all the e-mails, directories and attachments that they contain. This may seem logical,
but results in a loss of information, as depending on the reference everything may be listed as
deleted, even files/e-mails that from the point of the file system/the e-mail archive still existed
when the partition/file was deleted. By default, this option is not selected, so that X-Ways
Forensics distinguishes between existing and deleted files and e-mails etc. even in deleted
partitions/deleted e-mail archives, so that more information is retained.
• Net free space computation: Allows you to work with an adjusted virtual free space file that
is net of clusters that were identified as belonging to previously existing files, to minimize the
125
amount of space in file systems that is read twice for logical searches and indexing. After
changing this option or after discovery of more previously existing files, the virtual free space
file is updated when it is opened next time, for example selected in File mode or when it is
that file's turn during a logical search. Relative offsets of search hits in this virtual file may
become wrong when it changes (for example when some more clusters are allocated to more
identified previously existing files, so that the net free space file becomes smaller), so they
cannot be used to navigate to the search hits in File mode. Only physical offsets of search hits,
usable in Partition/Volume mode, are guaranteed to remain valid. The virtual free space will
be frozen and not change any more when it has child objects, i.e. usually files that have been
carved within it manually in File mode, because those depend on unchanged relative offsets
within the virtual free space file. The virtual file is shown in gray in the directory browser if
the "net free space computation" option is active, as a reminder of the fact that it does not
represent the entire free space when opened.
• Keep more data of the volume snapshot in memory, e.g. for much quicker sorting by
timestamps.
• You can indicate whether you are interested in getting files included in the volume snapshot
whose clusters (and therefore data) are totally unknown, with only metadata (e.g. just filename
and path), in Ext*, XFS and Reiser*. If fully checked, all previously existing files of which
metadata only is known will be included in a volume snapshot. If not checked at all, those files
will be ignored. If half checked, only files for which more than just the name is known (e.g.
timestamps) will be included, but not directory entry remnants in Ext* or Reiser file systems.
• Extended attributes in NTFS are optionally included in the volume snapshot as child objects of
the directory or file to which they belong, with the name "$EA" and marked in the Attr.
column with "($EA)". Either all such attributes (if the box is fully checked) or only nonresident ones (if half-checked, default). If none at all, the clusters that belong to non-resident
extended attributes of existing objects will be covered by the virtual file "misc non-resident
attributes" as before. Background information: Microsoft uses extended attributes on system
binaries as part of the secure boot components. Attackers have been using large extended
attributes to hide malware in some high profile cases. Large extended attributes are flagged
automatically by report table associations.
• Including logged utility streams (LUS) in NTFS in newly taken volume snapshots is
optional. Either all LUS can be included (if fully checked) or only non-$EFS LUS (if half
checked) or no LUS at all. Useful for NTFS volumes written by Windows Vista, if you are not
interested in $TXF_DATA LUS.
• Downloaded files in NTFS can be conveniently recognized if their alternative data stream
"Zone.Identifier" is represented as a report table association instead of as a child object in the
volume snapshot. That means you do not need to navigate to the child object to find out what
the child object might be. "ZoneId=3" as the name of the report table identifies files
downloaded from the Internet.
• If you get read errors on a CD/DVD (e.g. because of scratches on the surface) when the
volume snapshot is taken, you know that not all sectors with the data structures of the file
126
system are readable. Listing the ISO9660 file system's directory tree on CDs in addition to a
possibly also existing Joliet file system can be useful because that means a second chance to
get all directories and files listed, if the corresponding data structures of the same directories
are located in readable sectors in the ISO9660 area.
• For better results when matching hash values against special hash sets, only the invariable
header of loaded modules can be listed in main memory analysis
9.3 Viewer Programs
Here you may enable the separate viewer component and specify the path where it is located (by
default: subdirectory "viewer"). The path may be relative to the directory where X-Ways
Forensics is executed (.), e.g. ".\viewer" or relative to the parent directory of that directory, e.g.
"..\viewer". You may decide to use it for pictures, too (instead of the internal graphics viewing
library). You may select your preferred text editor and HTML viewing program. The HTML
viewer program can be e.g. MS Word or NVU, i.e. a program that can be used to further edit the
HTML case reports the X-Ways Forensics can create automatically. For merely viewing and
printing we recommend Internet Explorer.
If the internal graphics viewing library is used to view pictures, not the viewer component, then
optionally the picture viewer window can be closed automatically when a new picture is viewed.
You can also specify the .exe path of MPlayer (tested with v1.0rc2, non-GUI version, also
download the separate codecs package and extract it into the "codecs" subdirectory of MPlayer)
or Forensic Framer, two programs that allow X-Ways Forensics to extract pictures from videos.
If mplayer.exe is found in a subdirectory \MPlayer of the installation directory of X-Ways
Forensics, it will defined as the video extraction program and as an external viewer program
automatically. Relative paths started with .\ or ..\ are supported, where . stands for the directory
from which X-Ways Forensics is executed and .. its parent directory. Please note that we cannot
provide support for external programs.
You may also specify several custom viewer programs that can be conveniently invoked from
inside X-Ways Forensics via the directory browser context menu. Also you may specify which
file types you prefer to view in the program that is associated with their extension in your system,
typically file types that the separate viewer component does not support.
An alternative e-mail representation is available in Preview mode (also in the case report).
Attachments are not linked directly from this kind of e-mail representation (yet). If this option is
half selected, the e-mail header of .eml files is excluded in Preview mode (not Raw mode).
Useful if you would like to see more of the body of the e-mail without scrolling. You can see
subject, sender, recipient and dates already in the directory browser, and attachments are listed
when exploring the parent .eml file.
Crash-safe text decoding: If enabled, text extraction from certain file types for logical searches
and indexing will be done by the viewer component in a separate process, such that if the viewer
component crashes or becomes unstable, it does not render the main process (X-Ways Forensics)
127
unstable or cause it to crash.
Buffer decoded text for context preview: If enabled, the result of the text extraction from certain
file types for logical searches and indexing will be stored by X-Ways Forensics in the volume
snapshot for reuse when searching/indexing again, to save time.
If the crash-safe decoding option is active, you may use a different version of the viewer
component for decoding than for viewing files, at the same time. You can specify separate
directories. This is useful to benefit from the extended file format support of the latest version 8.5
and at the same time employ the more reliable text decoding capabilities of the previous version
8.4.1 for PDF files produced by the OCR software Abbyy Fine Reader 11 and possibly others.
Gallery Options
• If the creation of thumbnails for pictures within large (e.g. solid RAR) archives for gallery
view is too slow, you may want to disable it. This will also disable search hit context preview
for search hits in files in archives.
• If large JPEGs already contain embedded thumbnails and those have been included already in
the volume snapshot or if internal thumbnails have been computed for large pictures, then they
can be optionally used as auxiliary thumbnails in the gallery to represent the main picture.
The benefit is that they are of course much quicker to load than the main large picture. Also
video stills exported from videos can be used as auxiliary thumbnails to represent the video,
even all of them dynamically rotating if fully check.
• The gallery has its own "Dbl-click=View instead of Explore" 3-state option, analogously to
the directory browser. By default, double-clicking means View in the gallery.
• There is an option to view files with a single click in the gallery instead of with a double click.
Useful for example if you wish to view certain pictures on a separate monitor, where you do
not have to close the view window to see the gallery again, when not viewing all pictures one
after the other (for which the Page Up or Dn key is more efficient).
• The gallery can optionally show thumbnails for any file type supported by the viewer
component, including Office documents, PDF, HTML, e-mails, and pictures that the internal
graphics viewing library cannot display (e.g. .emf, .wmf, ...). You can choose between normal
and slightly shrunk and strongly shrunk thumbnails of documents. Shrunk thumbnails show
much more detail from an original document and the original layout, but at the cost of
readability. Larger fonts (in particular captions) in an original document, if not shrunk, are
typically readable in the thumbnail and can already give you an idea what kind of document it
is even if don't view it, so you can more quickly find the documents that you are looking for.
Plus, you will be able to see which files can be nicely viewed with the viewer component at
all. It is strongly recommended run X-Ways Forensics with Aero enabled in Windows when
using the gallery with the non-picture option.
Files that are larger than 16 MB are not represented with a thumbnail, for performance
reasons. X-Ways Forensics tries to abort the generation of a thumbnail if it takes longer than a
128
few seconds. If the generation of a true thumbnail is unsuccessful, you may see a viewer
component error message like "Operation cancelled" in tiny red letters in the thumbnail
instead. If thumbnail generation is not even attempted by X-Ways Forensics, you will just see
the filename and an icon.
• You may specify your preferred thumbnail size in pixels. WinHex will decrease the size
automatically if needed to ensure that at least as many files are displayed in the gallery view
as are displayed in the currently visible section of the directory browser.
9.4 Undo Options
The availability of the “Undo” command depends on the following options:
• Specify how many sequential actions are to be reversed by the Undo command. This option
does not affect the number of reversible keyboard inputs, which is only limited by the
available RAM.
• In order to save time and space on your hard disk, you can specify a file size limit. If a file is
larger than this limit, backups will not be created and the Undo command is not available
except for keyboard input.
• Automatically created backups for the internal use with the Undo command are deleted by
WinHex when closing the file, if the corresponding option is fully selected. If it is partially
selected, they are deleted when WinHex terminates.
• For all kinds of editing operations you choose whether they should be reversible or not. If so,
an internal backup is created before the operation takes place.
9.5 Security Options
Use the option Check for virtual memory alteration to make sure the RAM editor inspects the
structure of virtual memory every time before reading from or writing to it. If the structure has
changed, a possible read error is prevented. Especially under Windows NT the checking may
result in a loss of speed. When editing the “entire memory” of a process, WinHex generally never
checks for alterations before reading, even if this option is enabled.
Before modifications to an existing file are saved (i.e. before the file is updated), you are
prompted for confirmation. To inhibit this behavior of WinHex, switch off the corresponding
option.
If any of the operations Refine Volume Snapshot, Logical Search, or Indexing crashes when
processing a file, X-Ways Forensics when started next time will tell, which file was likely
responsible for the crash, if you had it collect information for a crash report.
129
Output messages about exceptions: Determines the verbosity of the program in case of
exception errors. If totally unchecked, only exception errors with a potentially serious impact
(like considerably incomplete analysis results) will be brought to your attention in the Messages
window. If fully checked, all of them will be output, even those that occur typically with corrupt
files only and have no negative impact on other analysis results. The middle state is a reasonable
compromise. Regardless of this option, exception errors will be noted in the error.log file.
All notices and warnings output to the Messages window can optionally be automatically saved
in a text file “msglog.txt” in the installation directory. If at that time a case is active, the
notice/warning will be written to the msglog.txt file in the log subdirectory of that case instead.
Strict drive letter protection: Only available with a forensic license.Active by default in XWays Forensics. Ensures that saving and editing files is only possible on certain drive letters,
namely those that X-Ways Forensics even when examining a live system can assume are located
on the examiner's own media. They are: 1) the drive letter that hosts the active case if one is
active, 2) the drive letter with the directory for temporary files, 3) the drive letter from which XWays Forensics was run and 4) the drive letter that contains the directory for image files.
The key that is required for encryption and decryption can be entered in a normal edit box.
Optionally, you enter it blindly (asterisks are displayed instead of the actual characters). In this
case you have to confirm the key in a second edit box to detect typos.
By default, the key is kept in main memory (in an encrypted state) as long as WinHex is
running, so that you do not have to type it again and again if you use it several times. Possibly
you prefer WinHex to erase the key after use.
Decide whether or not WinHex shall prompt before executing a script, or only before
executing a script via the command line.
Optionally, files on the logical drive letters A: through Z: can be opened from within the
directory browser with the help of the operating system instead of with the built-in logic at the
sector level. Please note that this is forensically sound only for write-protected media. On
writeable media, Microsoft Windows will at least update (i.e. alter, falsify) the last access
timestamp of files you open. The benefit, however, is that access to such files will be noticeably
faster in many situations, especially on slow media such as CDs and DVDs, e.g. when you
compute hashes or skin color percentages for files in a volume snapshot, because Microsoft
Windows employs read-ahead mechanisms and entertains a file caching system. Another benefit
is that files opened with the help of the operating system are editable in WinHex. Limitation:
Files on multi-sessions CDs and DVDs cannot be read that way.
9.6 Search Options
Case sensitive: By default a search is case-sensitive, so that upper and lower case characters are
distinguished and e. g. “Option” with a capital “O” is not found in the word “optionally”. By
unchecking the checkbox, you search for all upper-case/lower-case variants of the search terms.
Searches can be fully case insensitive only with the Simultaneous Search, with the Find Text
130
command only for letters from the Latin/English alphabet and German umlauts.
Unicode: The specified text is searched in UTF-16 Little Endian. The simultaneous search
allows to search for the same text at the same time in Unicode and in two different code pages.
You may specify a wildcard (one character or a two-digit hex value), which represents one byte.
For example this option can be used to find “Speck” as well as “Spock” when searching for
“Sp?ck” with the question mark as the wildcard.
Only whole words: The search term is found only if it occurs as a whole word, i.e. if delimited
from other words by any character other than a...z, A..Z and German and French letters (e. g. by
punctuation marks, blanks, binary control codes, digits). If this option is enabled, for example
"tomato" is not found in "automaton". Reliable to reduce the number of hits for English, German,
and French text only. In a Simultaneous Search either all search terms are searched as whole
words or only those that are indented (prepended with a tab character) or none, depending on the
state of the corresponding checkbox. For a Simultaneous Search you may customize the word
boundary detection for Latin-based languages, i.e. make it more strict (for less search hits) or
more relaxed (for more search hits), by defining the alphabet of characters that are considered
letters (characters belonging to words) as opposed to non-word characters. A word character
followed by a non-word character or the other way around is considered a word boundary. There
are three easy-to-use pre-defined settings. The setting for the most thorough search results is the
default. Users that are overwhelmed by garbage hits for short keywords in non-text data such as
Base64 or binary garbage may want to try the other two options. These other two options could
lead to valid search hits being missed in some constellations (depends on the file format), but can
still be justifiable as a great time saver for searches in text documents, e.g. rather in electronic
discovery, rather not in computer forensics.
For more explanation and an example of how the whole words option works, please read on: The
alphabet's purpose is to define word boundaries. A word boundary is a boundary between 2
consecutive characters of which one character is a word character and the other character is not a
word character. If both characters are word characters (e.g. "ns"), then obviously the "s" does not
start a new whole word, and the "n" cannot be the end of a whole word. It can be somewhere in
the middle of a whole word (e.g. "mansion"), but in between these two characters "ns" there is
definitely no word boundary. If both characters are non-word characters (e.g. "! ", exclamation
mark followed by a space), then obviously the position between the two is also not a word
boundary. The exclamation mark cannot be the end of a word (cannot occur anywhere within a
word), and the space cannot be the start of a word (cannot occur anywhere within a word either,
excluding compound words).
If you are searching for "man" as a whole word within "our mansion", then XWF will
provisionally/internally find "man", and then first check whether the character before the "m" is a
word character. That character is a space. A space character is not a word character. Then it also
checks whether "m" is a word character according to the alphabet. It is. That means there is a
word boundary before the "m". Next XWF needs to check whether "n" and "s" are word
characters. Both are. That means that after the "n" there is no word boundary. Hence the three
letters "man" within "mansion" are not considered a whole word occurrence of "man".
131
Search direction: Decide whether WinHex shall search from the beginning to the end, or
downwards or upwards from the current position.
Condition: Offset modulo x = y: The search algorithm accepts search string occurrences only at
offsets that meet the given requirements. E.g. if you search for data that typically occurs at the
10th byte of a hard disk sector, you may specify x=512, y=10. If you are looking for DWORDaligned data, you may use x=4, y=0 to narrow down the number of hits.
Search in block only: The search operation is limited to the current block.
Search in all open windows: The search operation is applied to all open edit windows. Press F4
to continue the search in the next window. If “Search in block only” is enabled at the same time,
the search operation is limited to the current block in each window.
Count occurrences/Save occurrence positions: Forces WinHex not to show each single
occurrence, but to count them. If this option is fully enabled, WinHex will enter all occurrences
into the Position Manager.
Search for “non-matches”: In “Find Hex Values” you may specify a single hex value with an
exclamation mark as a prefix (e.g. !00) to make WinHex stop when it encounters the first byte
value that differs.
GREP syntax: Search option available with the Simultaneous Search only. Regular expressions
are a powerful search tool. A single regular expression may match many different words. Either
all search terms are considered GREP expressions or only those prepended with "grep:" or none,
depending on the state of the corresponding checkbox. The following characters have a special
meaning in regular expressions, as explained below: ( ) [ ] { } | \ . # + ?. Where these special
characters are to be taken literally, you need to prefix them with a backslash character (\).
The | operator is used to denote alternative matches. You can use the regular expression car
(wheel|tire) to search for the words "car wheel" and "car tire". Any match must equal the parts
before, after, or between any | operators present. The effect of | is only limited by parentheses.
. and # are wildcards: . matches any character, # matches any numeric character. You can define
sets of characters with the help of square brackets: [xyz] will match any of the characters x, y, z.
[^xyz] will match any character except x, y, or z. You can define ranges of characters using a
dash: [a-z] matches any lower-case letter. [^a-z] matches all characters except lower-case letters.
The listing may comprise individually listed characters and ranges at the same time: [aceg-loq]
matches a, c, e, g, h, i, j, k, l, o, and q. All characters except [, ], -, and \ are taken literally
between square brackets, even the wildcard characters . and #.
\b stands for the start or end of a word, i.e. the boundary between a word character and a nonword character. Which characters/letters are considered word characters by the Simultaneous
Search is user-defined. The start and end of a file also count as word boundaries. \b is only
supported at the start and/or at the end of the search term, and not in conjunction with |. \b, ^, and
$ anchors only work only when searching in evidence objects of a case, and not for index
searches.
132
Byte values that correspond to ASCII characters that cannot be easily produced with a keyboard
can be specified in decimal or hexadecimal notation: For example, \032 and \x20 are both
equivalent to the space character in the ASCII character set. This kind of notation is supported
even in between square brackets. E.g. [\000-\x1f] matches non-printable ASCII characters.
Multiplier characters (*, +, and ?) indicate that the preceding character(s) may or must occur
more than once (see below). Complex example: a(b|cd|e[f-h]i)*j matches aj, abj, acdj, aefij, aegij,
aehij, abcdj, and abefij.
Within [] brackets, the characters .*+?{}()| are not treated as special characters, but literally.
Brief overview of supported syntax features (everything else is interpreted literally)
.
A period matches any single character.
#
A pound sign matches any numeric character [0-9].
\nnn A byte value specified with three decimal digits (0...255)
\xnn A byte value specified with two hexadecimal digits (0…FF).
E.g. \x0D\x0A is the Windows line break.
?
Matches one or zero occurrences of the preceding character or set.
*
Matches any number of occurrences of the preceding character, including zero time.
+
A plus sign after a character matches any number of occurrences of it except zero.
[XYZ] Characters in brackets match any one character that appears in the brackets.
[^XYZ] A circumflex at the start of the string in brackets means NOT. For 8-bit searches only.
[A-Z] A dash within the brackets signifies a range of characters.
\
Indicates that the following special GREP character is to be treated literally.
{X,Y} Repeats the preceding character or group of characters X-Y times.
(ab) Functions like a parenthesis in a mathematical expression.
Groups ab together for +, *, | and {}.
a | b The pipe acts as a logical OR. So it would read "a or b".
\b
Matches a word boundary.
^
Matches the start of a file.
$
Matches the logical or physical end of a file, depending on the search options.
GREP Examples
E-mail addresses
[a-zA-Z0-9_\-\+\.]{1,20}@[a-zA-Z0-9\-\.]{2,20}\.[a-zA-Z]{2,7}
(the + before the @ is supported in Gmail addresses)
Internet addresses starting with http://, https://, ftp://
[a-zA-Z]+://[a-zA-Z0-9/_\?$&=\-\.]+
Visa and Mastercard credit card numbers
[^#a-z][45]###############[^#a-z]
[45]###-####-####-####
[45]### #### #### ####
(ideally check results via an X-Tension with the Luhn algorithm to reduce the number of false
hits and search without [^#a-z])
133
Allow overlapping hits: If you use GREP syntax to search for search hits of variable length,
multiple valid hits at the same location may be the result. If you search for example for e-mail
addresses, and the search algorithm is fed with the character sequence "[email protected]", then
it will determine that the characters from the "m" in "mail" match the GREP expression and it
will record a hit. After that, it proceeds with the "a" in "mail" and realizes, that [email protected]
fits the bill as well, and so do [email protected] and [email protected] All of these might be valid email addresses. So the search algorithm is entirely right, but typically users do not wish to see
those additional hits. So if you do not allow for overlapping hits, new hits are recorded only after
the "m" in ".com". Not allowing overlapping hits means to exclusively assign the characters
covered by a hit to that hit and not to potential other hits any more.
Search window, proximity searches
The GREP search window width is 128 bytes by default. That means it is not guaranteed that
with a variable-length GREP search term (i.e. using {}*+ syntax) you can find data that is longer
than 128 bytes. You may increase the search window width if you need to cover more than that.
This is needed for example for proximity searches. If you require that a document contains two
search terms at the same time, and that the search terms should occur close to one another, you
could search for these search terms with two GREP expressions and specify the maximum
distance allowed between them as the second parameter in the braces:
keyword1.{0,maxdistance}keyword2
keyword2.{0,maxdistance}keyword1
The search window width in bytes required when searching with an 8-bit character set is the sum
of maxdistance, length(keyword1) and length(keyword2).
Please note that the preferred method to find two search terms near to each other is the NEAR
combination in the search term list, when two search terms are already combined with a logical
AND, after they have been searched for separately.
9.7 Replace Options
Prompt when found: WinHex awaits your decision when an occurrence has been found. You
may either replace it, continue or abort the search.
Replace all occurrences: All occurrences are replaced automatically.
Case sensitive: The characters that are to be replaced are searched using this option (cf. Search
Options).
Unicode character set: The specified characters are searched and replaced in Unicode format
(cf. Search Options).
You may specify one character or a two-digit hex value as a wildcard. This is usually done in the
search string. If the substitute contains a wildcard, the character at the corresponding position in
134
an occurrence will not be changed. Thus, “black” and “block” can be replaced simultaneously
with “crack” and “crock” (enter “bl?ck” and “cr?ck”).
Only whole words: The searched string is recognized only if it is separated from other words
e.g. by punctuation marks or blanks. If this option is enabled, “tomato” is not replaced in
“automaton”.
Search direction: Decide whether WinHex shall replace from the beginning to the end, or
downwards or upwards from the current position.
Replace in block only: The replace operation is limited to the current block.
Replace in all opened files: The replace operation is applied to all files not opened in view
mode. If “Replace in block only” is enabled at the same time, the replace operation is limited to
the current block of each file.
Hint:
WinHex is able to replace one string or hex value sequence with another one that has a different
length. You will be prompted, which of the following methods shall be applied:
1st method: The data behind the occurrence is moved due to length difference. So the file size is
changed. This method must not be applied to certain file types, such as executable files. It is even
possible to specify nothing as the substitute, which means all occurrences will be removed from
the file!
2nd method: The substitute is written into the file at the position of the occurrence. If the
substitute is shorter than the searched character sequence, the exceeding characters will remain in
the file. Otherwise even the bytes behind the occurrence will be overwritten (as far as the end of
the file is not reached). The file size is not affected.
10 Miscellaneous
10.1 Block
You can mark a range of bytes or sectors of an open file or disk as a “block”. This part can be
manipulated by several function in the edit menu just as selections in other Windows programs. If
no block is defined, these functions usually are applied to the whole file or disk.
The current position and size of the block are displayed in the status bar. Double-clicking the
right mouse button or pressing the ESC key clears the block.
135
10.2 Modify Data
Use this command to modify the data within the block or within the whole file, in case no block
is defined. In this version of WinHex, four types of data modifications are available. Either a
fixed integer number is added to each element of the data, the bits are inverted, a constant is
XORed with the data (a simple kind of encryption), ORed, or ANDed, bits rotated left in a
circular pattern (first byte rotated by 1 bit, second byte by 2 bits, and so on), bits are shifted
logically, or bytes are swapped. By shifting bits, you can simulate inserting or removing single
bits at the beginning of the block. You may also shift entire bytes (currently to the left only, by
entering a negative number of bytes). This is useful if you wish to cut bytes from a very huge file
in in-place mode, which would otherwise require the creation of a huge temporary file.
Swap Bytes
This command assumes all data to consist of 16-bit elements (32-bit elements resp.) and swaps
high-order and low-order bytes (and high-order and low-order words resp.). Use it in order to
convert big-endian into little-endian data and vice versa.
Addition
Specify a positive or negative, decimal or hexadecimal number, which is to be added to each
element of the current block. An integer format defines size (1, 2 or 4 bytes) and type (signed or
unsigned) of an element.
There are two ways how to proceed if the result of the addition is out of the range of the selected
integer format. Either the range limit is assumed to be the new value (I) or the carry is ignored
(II).
Example: unsigned 8-bit format
I.
FF + 1 → FF (255 + 1 → 255)
II.
FF + 1 → 00 (255 + 1 → 0)
Example: signed 8-bit format
I.
80 - 1 → 80 (-128 - 1 → -128)
II.
80 - 1 → 7F (-128 - 1 → +127)
• If you decide to use the first method, WinHex will tell you, how often the range limit has been
exceeded.
• The second method makes sure the operation is reversible. Simply add -x instead of x based
on the same integer format to recreate the original data.
• When using the second method it does not make a difference whether you choose a signed or
an unsigned format.
136
10.3 Conversions
WinHex provides the Convert command of the Edit menu for easy conversions of different data
formats and for encryption and decryption. The conversion can optionally be applied to all
opened files instead of only the currently displayed one. The formats marked with an asterisk (*)
can only be converted as a whole file, not as a block. The following formats are supported:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
ANSI ASCII, IBM ASCII (two different ASCII character sets)
EBCDIC (an IBM mainframe character set)
Lowercase/uppercase characters (ANSI ASCII)
Binary* (raw data)
Hex ASCII* (hexadecimal representation of raw data as ASCII text)
Intel Hex* (=Extended Intellec; hex ASCII data in a special format, incl. checksums etc.)
Motorola S* (=Extended Exorcisor; ditto)
Base64*
UUCode*
Percentage URL Encode
Quoted Printable
Please note:
• When converting Intel Hex or Motorola S data, the internal checksums of these formats are
not checked.
• Depending on the file size, the smallest possible output subformat is chosen automatically.
Intel Hex: 20-bit or 32-bit. Motorola S: S1, S2, or S3.
• When converting from binary to Intel Hex or Motorola S, only memory regions not filled with
hexadecimal FFs are translated, to keep the resulting file compact.
The Convert command can also decompress any number of complete 16-cluster compression
units compressed by the NTFS file system* and (with a forensic license) entire hiberfil.sys files
that were copied off an image as well as individual xpress chunks from such files. Also, it allows
to convert so-called Nandroid backup files of the NAND flash memory of Android devices to
regular raw images.
Furthermore it can stretch packed 7-bit ASCII to readable 8-bit ASCII*, useful e.g. for SMS from
mobile phones.
Encryption/Decryption
Specify a string consisting of 1-16 characters as the encryption/decryption key. The key is casesensitive. The more characters you enter, the safer is the encryption. The key itself is not used for
encryption and decryption, instead it is digested to the actual key. The key is not saved on your
hard disk. If the corresponding security option is enabled, the key is stored in an encrypted state
in the RAM as long as WinHex is running.
It is recommended to specify a combination of at least 8 characters as the encryption key. Do not
use words of any language, it is better to choose a random combination of letters, punctuation
137
marks, and digits. Note that encryption keys are case sensitive. Remember that you will be
unable to retrieve the encrypted data without the appropriate key. The decryption key you enter is
not verified before decrypting.
Encryption algorithm: 256-bit AES/Rijndael, in counter (CTR) mode. This encryption algorithm
uses a 256-bit key that is digested with SHA-256 from the 512-bit concatenation of the SHA-256
of the key you specify and 256 bits of cryptographically sound random input (“salt”). The file is
expanded by 48 bytes to accommodate the 256 bits of salt, and a randomized 128-bit initial
counter.
WinHex allows you to encrypt not only an entire file, but also a block of data only. In that case
you are warned, however, that no salt is used and no random initial counter is used, so you must
not reuse your key to encrypt other data with the same encryption method. The size of the block
is left unchanged.
10.4 Sector Superimposition
With this feature you can superimpose other data on top of disks or interpreted images that are
opened as read-only. Useful when you need to make minor temporary adjustments to data in
sectors within the program to get it interpreted correctly internally, but do not want to or are not
allowed to alter the sectors on the disk or in the image itself (or cannot because it is not a raw
image, but an .e01 evidence file) and also do not want to make another complete working copy of
an image that is e.g. 2 TB in size if just 1 byte needs to be changed. Such adjustments can be
necessary for example in cases of partitioning or file system metadata corruption, where just a
missing magic number keeps WinHex from detecting the file system or just one flipped bit keeps
WinHex from finding $MFT in NTFS or just one wrong nibble in the partition table keeps
WinHex from recognizing a partition as an LVM2 container partition etc. etc. In these situations
you can manually provide and superimpose the corrected data and then hopefully work with the
disk or image with no further problems, getting all partitions and files listed immediately as if
nothing was wrong. This functionality is intended for advanced users that do not give up easily
when at first they see "nothing" and have some understanding of low level data structures and
know how to fix them.
You can enable and disable superimposition for the disk or partition in the active data window
using the Edit | Superimpose Sectors menu command. This command allows you to select any
file with the raw contents of disk sectors. For example, you can create such a file by selecting one
or more sectors as a block, copying the block into a new file, making the necessary adjustments
(possible even in X-Ways Forensics because ordinary files unlike disks or interpreted images can
be edited) and saving that file. When applied, the contents of this file are superimposed to the
sectors starting with the sector in which the cursor is located, or if the file is named "n.sector",
where n is a number, it will be applied to the sectors starting with sector n, and all other files in
the same directory matching the same mask will also be applied to sector numbers as indicated
within the filename. You will immediately see the superimposed data when navigating to the
affected sectors, and can continue making adjustments to the imposed raw data file if you keep it
open in a separate window. As soon as you have saved changes in that window, they will take
effect in the data window that represents the disk or partition whose data you are trying to fix
when you refresh the view, take a new volume snapshot, define the start of a partition, try again
138
to open a file with a corrupt FILE record etc. etc.
Please note that only complete sectors, not partial sectors, can be superimposed. Superimposition
can be active only for one disk or disk partition or image at a time. If desired, you can make a
copy (image or cloned disk) of the virtually repaired disk or image with the usual commands
while the superimposition is in effect, so that the copy will have the superimposed sectors
directly embedded.
10.5 Wiping and Initializing
To securely erase (shred) data in disk sectors, unused disk areas (Disk Tools menu), or files
selected with the Wipe Securely command, and also simply to fill files with certain byte values,
WinHex offers the following options:
With constant byte values specified in hexadecimal notation: Specify either 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 12,
15, or 16 two-character hex values, which will be copied repeatedly into the current block, the
entire file or all disk sectors, respectively. Very fast.
With simple pseudo-random byte values: Specify a decimal interval (0 to 255 at max.) for
random numbers, which will be copied repeatedly into the current block, the entire file or all disk
sectors, respectively. The random bytes are Laplace-distributed. Fast.
With pseudo-random data that simulates encryption: Random data that is supposed to be
indistinguishable from encrypted data. Quite fast.
With cryptographically sound pseudo-random data: Cryptographically secure pseudo-random
number generator (CSPRNG) named ISAAC, very slow.
In case in all open files either a block or no block is defined, this command can optionally be
applied to all these files at the same time.
To maximize security, if you wish to totally wipe (sanitize) slack space, free space, unused NTFS
records, or an entire media, you may want to apply more than one pass for overwriting disk space
(up to three).
According to the Clearing and Sanitization Matrix, the standard outlined in the U.S. Department
of Defense (DoD) 5220.22-M operating manual, method "c", a hard disk or floppy disk can be
cleared by overwriting (once) all addressable locations with a single character. This is usually the
hexadecimal value 0x00, but can be any other value. To sanitize hard disks according to method
"d", overwrite all addressable locations with a character, its complement, then a random
character, and verify. (This method is not approved by the DoD for sanitizing media that contain
top secret information.)
The "DoD" button configures WinHex for sanitization, such that it will first overwrite with 0x55
(binary 01010101), then with its complement (0xAA = 10101010), and finally with random byte
values.
139
The "0x00" button configures WinHex for simple initialization, wiping once with zero bytes.
10.6 Disk Cloning
Tools | Disk Tools | Clone Disk. This function copies a defined number of sectors from a source
to a destination. Both the source and the destination can be either a disk (click the button with the
disk icon) or a file (click the button with the file icon).
In case both the source and the destination are disks, both disks must have the same sector size.
In order to effectively duplicate a medium (i.e. copy all sectors), simply copy all sectors. Select
the appropriate option, so the correct number of sectors is entered automatically. The destination
disk must not be smaller than the source disk. As a disk you can also select an interpreted image
or a partition opened from within a physical disk in the background. As a target you cannot select
an interpreted .e01 evidence file as such images cannot be rewritten, only raw images. As a file
you can only specify unsegmented raw images, e.g. .dd, .001, .img etc., no other image types
such as .e01, .vhd., .vmdk etc.
Disk cloning offers options that control the behavior when bad sectors are encountered on the
source disk:
• By default, you are notified of the error and prompted for either continuing or aborting the
operation. “Log procedure silently” creates a complete log file of the entire operation in the
folder for temporary files (filename “Cloning Log.txt”), including a report on unreadable
sectors (which cannot be copied), and prevents WinHex from reporting each unreadable sector
separately.
• WinHex can either leave a destination sector that corresponds to a damaged source sector
unchanged or fill it with an ASCII pattern you specify (e.g. your initials, or something like
“BAD ”). Leave the pattern edit box blank to fill such sectors with zero bytes. BTW, the
chosen pattern is also used to display a bad sector's contents in the disk editor.
• Bad sectors often occur in contiguous groups, and each attempt to read a bad sector usually
takes a long time. You may have WinHex avoid such damaged disk areas. When a bad sector
is encountered, WinHex can skip a number of subsequent sectors you specify (32 by default).
This is useful if you wish to accelerate the cloning process and if you do not care about some
actually readable sectors not making it to the clone.
Regular disk cloning is not an option if you want to duplicate a disk in a removable drive (e.g. a
floppy disk) with only one removable drive present. The correct concept for this application is
disk imaging, where the data is first stored in an image file. The image can then be copied to a
different disk. The result is the same as disk cloning.
When you specify a file named “dev-null” as the destination, the data will only be read and not
copied anywhere (and you will be warned of this). This is useful if you are interested in the report
about bad sectors, but do not wish to actually clone or image a disk.
You may try “simultaneous I/O” if the destination is not the same physical medium as the source.
Offers a chance to accelerate the cloning process by up to 30%.
140
Specialist license or higher: In conjunction with simultaneous I/O you may also have WinHex
copy the sectors of a disk in reverse direction, backwards from the end of the source disk. Useful
if the source disk has severe physical defects that for example cause a disk imaging program or
your entire computer to freeze or crash when reaching a certain sector. In such a case you can
additionally create an image in reverse order, by reading sectors from the disk backwards one by
one, or better, you can even automatically complete an existing incomplete unsegmented
conventional ("forward") raw image from the rear end to get an image that is as complete as
possible, filled from both ends, with ideally only a small zeroed gap in the middle that represents
the unreadable damaged spot on the source hard disk. For that you simply select an incomplete
raw image file that you already have as a destination file, and you will be asked whether you
wish to complete it instead of overwrite. WinHex will do the rest, e.g. allocate the missing
sectors in the image file (zeroed out) so that it has the complete size of the source disk and then
fill the file backwards as much as possible. Be sure to create reverse images on NTFS volumes,
not FAT32. The source start sector to specify for reverse imaging is the same as for conventional
forward images, i.e. usually 0 when imaging a complete hard disk.
For disk imaging in general it is recommended to use the File | Create Disk Image functionality
instead, for various reasons (with a forensic license: support for .e01 evidence files, compression,
splitting, hashing, encryption, metadata, technical details report, more convenient). Only in
specific cases, for example when dealing with several physical disk defects or when the goal is to
copy only certain ranges of sectors, advanced users can use Tools | Disk Tools | Clone Disk to
have more detailed control over which sectors are copied from where to where in which order.
10.7 Images and Backups
This command “Create Disk Image”/“Make Backup Copy” in the File menu allows to create a
backup or image of the currently open logical drive, physical disk, or individual file. There are
three possible output file formats, each with unique advantages.
File format:
Filename extension:
Interpretable as disk:
Splittable:
Compressible:
Encryptable:
Optional hash:
Optional description:
Range of sectors only:
Applicable to files:
Automated maintenance:
Compatibility:
Required license:
WinHex Backup
.whx
no
yes
yes
no
integrated
integrated
yes
yes
Backup Manager
no
none
Evidence File
.e01
yes
yes
yes
yes
integrated
integrated
(yes)
no
no
(yes)
forensic
Raw Image
e.g. .dd
yes
yes
no
no
separate
separate
(yes)
no
no
yes
personal
The major advantage of evidence files and raw images is that they can be interpreted by WinHex
like the original disks (with the command in the Specialist menu). This also makes them suitable
for usage as evidence objects in your cases. This holds true for evidence files in particular
because they can store an optional description and an integrated hash for later automated
141
verification. Raw images have the benefit that they can be easily exchanged between even more
forensic tools. All output file formats support splitting into segments of a user-defined size. A
segment size of 650 or 700 MB e.g. is suitable for archiving on CD-R. Evidence files must be
split at 2047 MB at most to make them compatible with X-Ways Forensics versions before v14.9
and EnCase versions before v6 and other tools. With a forensic license, raw image files and
evidence files can automatically be verified immediately after creation, by recomputing the hash
value that was originally computed from the medium, with the image instead.
Evidence file and WinHex backup compression is based on the “Deflate” compression algorithm
that is part of the popular general-purpose library zlib. This algorithm consists of LZ77
compression and Huffman coding. With the “normal” compression level you can reach a
compression ratio of 40-50% on average data. However, this comes at the cost of a considerably
reduced imaging speed. “Fast/adaptive” compression is a very good and intelligent compromise
between speed and good compression, not like the ordinary fast compression option in other
programs. With “high” compression you gain only a few percentage points more compression,
but at disproportional high cost. For WinHex backups, “adaptive” is the same as “normal”.
Raw image files can be compressed at the NTFS file system level, if they are created on NTFS
volumes. Either normal NTFS compression is used, or the image file can be made “sparse”, such
that large amounts of zero-value bytes won’t need drive space.
Cleansed images: With a forensic license, there is an acquisition option for those users who need
to or want to exclude certain files from forensic images, called "Omit excluded files". The data
stored in clusters that are associated with files that you exclude before starting the imaging
process can automatically be zeroed out in the image. That won't have any effect on files whose
contents are not stored in their own clusters. Before you start the imaging process for a
partitioned disk, open the partitions in which the files are located that you would like to exclude.
Wait till the volume snapshot has been taken if it was not taken before. Then exclude the files.
You do not need to open and take volume snapshots of partitions whose data you would like to
include completely. All other data is copied to the image normally. There is an option to
"watermark" wiped sectors in the image with an ASCII or Unicode text string, so that when
working with the image you are reminded of the omission when you look at the affected areas.
Cleansed images are useful for anyone who needs to redact certain files in the file system, but
otherwise wants to create an ordinary forensically sound sector-wise image, compatible with
other tools. A must in countries whose legislation specially protects the most private personal
data of individuals and certain data acquired from custodians of professional secrets (e.g. lawyers
and physicians, whose profession swears them to secrecy/confidentiality). Limitation: Not
available for disks partitioned as Windows dynamic disks or with Linux LVM*. Only files in
supported file systems can be omitted. Note that you can also retroactively cleanse (redact)
already created conventional raw images, in WinHex, by securely wiping files selected files via
the directory browser context menu. The granularity of this operation is not limited to entire
clusters. For example, that means it can also wipe files in NTFS file systems with so-called
resident/inline storage and it does not erase file slack along. For a comparison of evidence file
containers, skeleton images and cleansed images please see our web site. All of those are images
that only transport a subset of the original data.
Another kind of cleansed image is an image in which all the clusters marked by the file system as
free are zeroed out (specialist or forensic license only). That is very useful if you create the image
142
for backup purposes and not for forensic purposes, or if for forensic purposes you do not require
data in free space or are not supposed to acquire it (to only examine existing files). In conjunction
with compression, this option has the potential to save a lot of drive space, depending on how
much free space there is, and imaging speed can be greatly accelerated if there are large
contiguous free drive space areas in volumes/partitions. Note that in case of file system
inconsistencies clusters could be erroneously regarded as free. You have to specifically confirm
the creation of cleansed images as in the traditional sense they are not forensically sound (though
in a more modern sense of the word they can be, depending on the jurisdiction that you work in
in countries with stricter personal privacy rights and depending on the overall situation).
X-Ways Forensics checks for and warns of overlapping partitions when creating a cleansed
image of a partitioned physical disk. Clusters in affected disk areas are not
omitted. In such a situation, it is recommended to image the relevant partitions separately.
Forensic license: When creating an image, the technical details report is created and written to a
text file that accompanies the image file. For an .e01 evidence file it is also incorporated directly
into the .e01 file as a description. The SMART information is queried and written to the text file
again upon completion of the image, so that you can see whether the status of a hard disk in bad
shape has further deteriorated during imaging. Secondly, you can see how the “power on time”
has changed, which is useful to deduce its unit of measurement (usually hours, but can be
different on certain hard disk models). The text file also indicates the amount of time spent
creating the image, the compression ratio achieved, the result of an immediate verification of the
image based on the hash value (if selected), and any sector read errors.
Forensic license: Ability to create a second copy of an image immediately when imaging a disk,
which is much quicker than copying the image file later and makes sense if the 2nd copy is
created on a different drive. Only the first copy will be automatically verified if desired. File
spanning (i.e. when to start another image file segment) is kept in sync between both copies even
when running out of space on one of the two target drives only.
Forensic license: Ability to compute two hash values simultaneously. If you make use of this
option, then both hash values will be stored in the descriptive text file. The first hash value is the
one that can be automatically verified when imaging completes. You could intentionally choose
the faster algorithm for that as the main purpose at that point is to detect I/O errors and file errors.
The second hash value is imported into the evidence object properties when adding the image to
a case.
Forensic license: If you cancel disk imaging in the middle of the process, X-Ways Forensics
quickly finalizes the .e01 evidence file format (more precisely, the current segment) to guarantee
a consistent image even though it is not a complete image. Useful for example in an emergency
situation when imaging media on site, because a incomplete image that can be used without
errors is better than an unusable corrupt image. If hashing was enabled, incomplete .e01 images
even have a hash value that can later be verified later.
Forensic license: You may adjust the compression option while .e01 evidence files are being
created. Useful if your priorities (higher compression rate or higher speed) change, for example
when you see that drive space suddenly seems scarce or you have to finish the process quicker
than previously thought. Also useful to experiment, when not sure which compression option
143
might be best for a particular system configuration (e.g. when imaging a live system on site and
having to write the image to an external hard disk via USB, where I/O is slow and the overall
process may be faster with compression than without).
Forensic license: Ability to specify how many extra threads to use for compression when creating
.e01 evidence files. By default X-Ways Forensics will use no more than 4 or 8, and it depends on
how many processor cores your system has, but you could try to increase the number on very
powerful systems with even more cores usually without problems, for a chance to further
increase the speed, or you can reduce it you run into stability problems.
At the end of the imaging process, the computer can be optionally either shut down or (if
supported by your system) hibernated, to save power. If you select hibernation and Windows
signals that hibernation fails, X-Ways Forensics will instead try to shut down the system.
There is an option to add newly created images to the case and start refining their volume
snapshot(s) automatically without further user interaction if the source disk had not been added to
the case yet and if a case is open at that time when you start imaging.
Using this command is the recommended way to create a disk image. In order to image an
arbitrary range of sectors, you could select a sector range as a block and copy it to a file via Edit |
Copy Block | Into New File, or use Tools | Disk Tools | Clone Disk. The latter is particularly
useful to partially image hard disks with severe physical defects (not just ordinary bad sectors)
and can even copy sectors in reverse order.
It is also possible to image a physical device (e.g. local hard disk or remote hard disk or RAM
opened through F-Response) automatically via the command line. The first parameter should
start with a colon and then specify the number of the device in Windows (e.g. ":1" for hard disk
No. 1). This will cause that device to be opened automatically upon start-up. The second
parameter should start with a pipe, followed by either "e01" or "raw" to indicate the preferred
image file format, followed by another pipe and the path and filename of the image (e.g.
"|e01|G:\Output filename.e01"). The third parameter can be "auto" to automatically exit X-Ways
Forensics after imaging.
The encryption algorithm optionally used in .e01 evidence files is either 128-bit or 256-bit
AES/Rijndael, in counter (CTR) mode. This allows for random read access within evidence files.
The 128-bit implementation is newer and faster and supported only by X-Ways Forensics v16.4
and later. This encryption algorithm uses a 256-bit key that is digested with SHA-256 from the
512-bit concatenation of the SHA-256 of the password you specify and 256 bits of
cryptographically sound random input (“salt”), which is stored in the header of the evidence file.
For 128-bit AES the 256-bit key is reduced to 128 bit by xor-ing the first and second half. The
128-bit counter is randomized and incremented per encryption block, as a little-endian integer in
256-bit AES, as a big-endian integer in 128-bit AES. The encryption block size of AES is 128
bits. An additional SHA-256 is stored in the header as well (optionally for 256-bit AES, see
Security Options) and used later to determine whether a password, specified by the user for
decryption, is correct or not. The SHA-256 algorithm is applied to a concatenation of the salt,
hash x, and hash y to compute this password verification hash, where hash x is the SHA-256 of
the user-supplied password and hash y is the SHA-256 of the concatenation of the user-supplied
password and hash x. For 128-bit AES, y becomes x and is concatenated and hashed over and
144
over again, 100,000 times, to practically render rainbow table attack computationally infeasible.
Please note that when you use compression and encryption at the same time, each chunk in an
.e01 evidence file is first compressed, then encrypted. So an educated guess about the nature of
the data in a given chunk might be possible, merely judging from the compressed size of the
chunk (i.e. its compression ratio), even if the compressed data is encrypted.
If you have WinHex assign a filename for a WinHex backup automatically, the file will be
created in the folder for backups (cf. General Options), named with the next free "slot" according
to the Backup Manager's naming conventions ("xxx.whx"), and will be available in the Backup
Manager. If you explicitly specify a path and a filename, you can restore the backup or image
later using the Restore Backup command, and in case of split backups WinHex will automatically
append the segment number to the filenames.
10.8 Hints on Disk Cloning, Imaging, Image Restoration
Cloning or imaging with WinHex/X-Ways Forensics makes exact sector-wise, forensically sound
copies, including all unused space and slack space. An image is usually preferable to a clone, as
all data (and metadata such as timestamps) in an image file is protected from the operating
system.
If you clone/image a disk for backup purposes, try to avoid that the disk is being written to by the
operating system or other programs during the process, e.g. by unmounting partitions that are
mounted as drive letters before starting. Such write operations are unavoidable, of course, if you
clone/image the disk that contains the active Windows installation from where you execute
WinHex/X-Ways Forensics. If the source disk is being written to during the process, the
clone/image may have an inconsistent state from the point of view of the operating system (e.g. it
may not be able to boot a Windows installation any more). From a forensic standpoint, however,
when cloning/imaging a live system, although it is highly desirable that no writing occurs any
more, that should not be a major problem, as you still get an accurate snapshot of each and every
sector.
If the destination of cloning or image restoration is a partition that is mounted as a drive letter,
WinHex will try to clear all of Windows' internal buffers of that destination partition. If
nonetheless you don't see the new contents in Windows Explorer on the destination after the
operation has complete, you may simply need to reboot your system.
Note that WinHex does not dynamically change partition sizes and adapt partitions to destination
disks larger or smaller than the source.
10.9 Skeleton Images
Forensic license only. A typical X-Ways feature that cements X-Ways Forensics' position as the
tool that gives its users the greatest amount of control when selecting/targeting/filtering data at
any conceivable level: The ability to create forensic physical skeleton disk images that contain
only those sectors that are needed for certain purposes, while maintaining compatibility with
145
other tools. These can be sectors with partition tables, file system data structures, their
neighboring sectors as well as sectors with file contents or any sectors in unpartitioned no man's
land. A skeleton image is typically sparsely populated with data, with vast areas in between
remaining undefined, so that it makes sense to utilize NTFS sparse file technology for it.
Unwritten areas in the skeleton image will act as if zeroed out when read later.
You start skeleton imaging by invoking the File | Create Skeleton Image menu command. Which
sectors from then now will be copied into the image is defined indirectly, by making X-Ways
Forensics read those sectors from the source disk that are needed for a certain purpose. When the
target image is open in the background, next you typically open the disk or partition or open and
interpret the image that you wish to acquire partially. That way it will be automatically defined as
the source, and that way even read operations during the important opening or interpretation step
are triggered already, when partition tables and boot sectors have to be parsed, so that these
essential data structures that define partitions and identify file systems are included in the
skeleton image.
So after opening a partitioned physical disk, you have a "basic skeleton" in your target image:
Partition tables pointing to partition boot sectors or nested partition tables, whose function is to
support all the other data in between (file system data and user data). If you also wish to ensure
that from the skeleton image it is possible to take a volume snapshot of a certain partition, i.e. get
a listing of all files and directories referenced by the file system in that partition, then you open
that partition from the source hard disk so that a volume snapshot is actually taken. Again, all the
sectors read from the source hard disk in the process are simultaneously copied to the image, and
that is the file system data structures, e.g. $MFT in NTFS, all directory clusters in FAT, and the
catalog file in HFS+. That adds considerably more administrative data and also metadata to your
skeleton image, but still no or almost no user contents. Unrelated sectors that are not used by the
file system are not read and therefore not copied. That also means that the ability to find
previously existing files in the skeleton image will be limited.
If you wish to include an arbitrary range of sectors in the image, you only need to find a way to
make X-Ways Forensics read those sectors. For example, to include sectors from number
1,000,000 to 1,000,999, define those 1,000 sectors as a block and hash that block (in Disk mode)
using the Tools | Compute Hash command, or run a physical search in that block only. Or, to
acquire an unusually large partition gap between partition 1 and 2, you could hash the virtual file
representing that gap. You can also manually navigate to any single sector of interest that you
want to be included (e.g. Navigation | Go To Sector) or use any of the file system navigation
menu commands. All of that works because reading sectors triggers their acquisition.
However, if you wish to specifically acquire selected files, that is easier, and it might be a good
idea to turn off the indirect acquisition of any sectors that are read for whatever purpose along the
way, so that for a example file that you preview and that turns out to be irrelevant is not acquired
by the preview action already. For that, you can change the state of the skeleton image that is
open in the background to "idle", using the State command in the File menu. In "idle" mode, only
the "Add to [name of the skeleton image]" command in the directory browser context menu
allows to acquire selected files (by temporarily activating the image and triggering read
operations), .
If you wish to include some operating system files, for example, such as Windows registry hives,
146
explore the partition recursively from the root directory, filter for those files and invoke the "Add
to" command in the directory browser context menu. (Only available if no evidence file container
is open in the background for filling at that time.) The examiner who only has the resulting
skeleton image will consequently be able to view the hives and create a registry report about
them, assuming you had already copied the file system data structures which are required to find
out which sectors contain the data of the file.
The dialog window to change the state of the target image also allows you to close it, i.e. stop the
acquisition for the moment or finalize the image. The same skeleton image can be further
completed at any later time by selecting it again with the "Create Skeleton Image" command, but
then you choose to not overwrite, but to update it.
As you see, you have full control over what data will make it into the image. The methology just
assumes that you have some understanding of what data you want/need and, should that data not
be stored in ordinary easy-to-select files, where to find it/how to get it physically. The sectors can
be targeted in any order. Multiple reads of the same sectors don't change anything in the skeleton
image and have no negative effect, except they may cause unnecessary duplicate lines in the
optional log file that X-Ways Forensics can produce. Such a log file is created in the same
directory as the skeleton image and will list all sector ranges that were copied, optionally along
with the hash value of each sector range, which allows to manually verify the data in certain
areas should there ever be doubt about it. If you use the "Add to" command to copy files to a
skeleton image, the name of each such file will also be output in the log, followed by the sector
ranges that correspond to to it (more than one if the file is fragmented or if X-Ways Forensics
simply chooses to copy sectors in multiple chunks).
You may want to convert the resulting raw skeleton image into a compressed and/or encrypted
.e01 evidence file and hash it or compress it with WinRAR or 7Zip etc. before passing it on to
other users. The compression rate will be unusually high if the skeleton image is only sparsely
populated, and the speed of reading extremely high because undefined/unallocated areas do not
have to be read from the disk. For your own use, you can just keep it as is since it does not use as
much drive space as the nominal file size suggests thanks to NTFS sparse storage. If you wish to
copy the raw skeleton image, be sure to copy it as a sparse file (can be done in X-Ways Forensics
using the Tools | File Tools | Copy Sparse command) so that the copy will also be a sparse file
and only takes as much drive space as the original file. A conventional copy command would
copy even the vast unused and unallocated areas within the sparse file as binary zeroes.
To verify that the data transferred to a skeleton image has not changed, such an image can be
hashed entirely, just like an ordinary image. Alternatively, and much quicker, you can use the
command "Verify Skeleton Image" to hash only those sector ranges again that were actually
transferred, according to the .log file (reading from the skeleton image), and compare the hash
values to those in the .log file. Then, to verify that the .log file has not changed, it will be hashed
itself, and the resulting highly valuable all encompassing master hash value is compared to the
hash value stored in the optional .log.log file, if that file was created. It might be desirable to
additionally verify that all unused areas in a skeleton image are still unallocated or at least filled
with binary zeroes. This is not done by this function.
Options:
147
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
A skeleton image should be created as an NTFS sparse file unless you intend to copy
more than half of the sectors perhaps (just a very rough rule of thumb).
If you don't have X-Ways Forensics set the nominal (logical) image file size to the full
size of the source disk, then when interpreting the skeleton image and reading from it, a
smaller "capacity" will be reported and you may get sector read errors. Still worth
thinking about it for example if you wish to capture merely the first 1 MB of a 1 TB hard
disk. Saves a lot of time if you wish to convert the skeleton image to an .e01 evidence file
or want to hash it in its entirety.
Skipping already zeroed out source sectors (sectors of the source disk that only contain
binary zeroes) will treat such sectors exactly like sectors that were not acquired. This
makes the resulting skeleton image smaller ("more sparse"), but it prevent you from
showing with just the skeleton image that these sectors only contained zeroes on the
source disk. They are indistinguishable from sectors that were not acquired.
"Include directory data structures of the file system" has an effect when you apply the
"Add to" command of the directory browser context menu to selected directories. If this
option is selected, you will also copy the data structures of the file system for these
directories, if there are any, e.g. INDX buffers in NTFS, subdirectory clusters in FAT, etc.
(nothing in HFS+), otherwise only the contents of the files in these directories.
"Report table associations" will create a report table association for every file that you
specifically add to the skeleton image in the source volume snapshot, so that it is easy to
see which files were copied already in case of any doubt.
If "Create log file" is at least half checked, a .log file will be created that references all
copied sector ranges. X-Ways Forensics makes an effort to prevent acquiring duplicate
sectors, e.g. when copying the exact same sector range a second time or when copying
overlapping sector ranges, so that can explain why you may not get more lines in the .log
file when copying the same sectors again. If the checkbox is fully checked, a .log.log file
about the .log file will be created with a hash of the .log file.
All copied sector ranges can be optionally hashed, and the hash values can be written to
the .log file and can be verified after closing the skeleton image.
Benefits of skeleton images:
• Partial image, saves drive space.
• Quick to create, especially when acquiring remote hard disks through a slow network
connection using F-Response.
• Transports/reveals only specifically targeted data, excludes unrelated data, as may be
required by law, common sense, time pressure or the customer.
• Ideally suitable for technical data structures (partition tables, file systems) and files in a
file system as well.
• Ability to acquire all essential file system data without knowing anything about the file
system and in which sectors its data structures are stored.
• Result works exactly like a conventional raw image of the disk for all the intended
purposes if adequately prepared, with original offsets and relative distances between data
structures preserved (unlike in an evidence file container).
• The file format is universal, and all forensic tools that support raw images have a chance
to understand the data, unless they need more data than was included or already don't
understand the partitioning method or file system etc. of the original complete disk/image.
148
Caveats:
• Note that a search hit list on the screen with context previews around the search hits for
example will cause a lot of read activity, so you may want to change the state of the
skeleton image to idle mode when it is open in the background in certain situations.
• To avoid that the start sectors of files or directories that you merely click in the directory
browser in Partition/Volume mode are copied to the skeleton image (because such a click
automatically jumps to the respective 1st sector), you can navigate the directory browser
in Legend mode instead, or have to change the status of the image to "idle".
• Reading data from most extracted files such as e-mail messages, attachments, video stills,
pictures embedded in MS Excel spreadsheets etc. do not trigger corresponding read
operations at the disk level, so they cannot be copied. Skeleton images are suitable only
for files at the file system level, not at any other level seen in volume snapshots. Use
evidence file containers instead for such purposes.
• Note that to an unsuspecting examiner a skeleton image may look very much like an
ordinary complete image. Such an examiner must be made aware of the incomplete,
sparsely populated nature of the image. Unlike in a logical evidence file container, files
whose contents are not contained in the image are not specially marked as such in a
volume snapshot taken of an incomplete physical image. X-Ways Forensics v17.1 and
later informs the examiner of the nature of an image when it's added to a case, if it detects
a skeleton image.
A comparison of evidence file containers and skeleton images can be found on the web site.
Snippet imaging
A variant of skeleton imaging is called "snippet imaging". Click the button labelled "Snippet
imaging" in the file selection dialog of the File | Create Skeleton Image menu command to start
snippet imaging. Any sectors that are being read by X-Ways Forensics from any disk or image
while snippet imaging is active are written into separate files named after the sector number, with
a .sector extension, in a subdirectory of the default directory for images named after the disk or
volume. Contiguous sector reads are copied to a single file.
Snippet imaging mode can be deactivated by invoking the File | Snippet Imaging menu
command. Snippet imaging is helpful in specific situations only, for example for debugging
purposes, when in need for very specific sectors only that are best located by the software
automatically (e.g. data structures needed when opening a particular file). Compared to skeleton
imaging, snippet imaging can be beneficial because no image file of the same size as the source
disk is created. (Even if it's a nominal size only and the image is sparse, sparse does not help if
the file needs to be sent via Internet or copied to a file system that does not preserve the sparse
nature of the file.)
Because of their compatible names, snippet image files can be directly used for sector
superimposition. They can also conveniently and because of their typically small size very, very
quickly be restored to a other disks, all such files in the same directory at the same time, of
course taking the sector numbers in the filenames into account, by clicking the button "Snippet
imaging" in the File | Restore Image dialog window.
149
10.10
Backup Manager
Displays a list of previously created WinHex backups. The items can be listed in a chronological
or alphabetical order. Choose the backup you would like to restore. When that function
completes, the original file or sector contents is shown.
You can restore the backup
• into a temporary file first such that you will still need to save it,
• directly and immediately to the disk, or
• to a new file.
In the case of disk sectors you may also wish to specify a different destination disk or a different
destination sector number. It is also possible to only extract a subset of the sectors from the
backup. (However, sectors at the beginning of a compressed backup cannot be left out during
restoration.) If the backup was saved with a checksum and/or a digest, data authenticity is
verified before the sectors will be directly written to the disk.
The backup manager also allows to delete backups which you do not need any longer. Backups
that were created for internal use by the Undo command can be deleted by WinHex automatically
(cf. Undo Options).
Backup files that are maintained by the backup manager are located in the folder specified in the
General Options dialog. Their filenames are “xxx.whx” where xxx is a unique three-digit
identification number. This number is displayed in the last column of the backup manager list.
10.11
Reconstructing RAID Systems
WinHex and X-Ways Forensics can internally destripe RAID level 0, 5, 5EE and 6 systems as
well as JBOD consisting of up to 16 components. The components may be physical hard disks or
images of physical disks for hardware RAIDs, or partitions for Linux software RAIDs.
Components that are available as images need to be opened and interpreted before you use this
function. You need to select the components in the correct order. WinHex lets you specify the
stripe size in sectors (often 128 or at least a power of 2 like 32, 64, 256) and different RAID
header sizes per component (often simply 0).
The header is a reserved area at the start of a component disk that some RAID controllers set
aside for their private data and thus must be excluded from the reconstruction. If there are a few
reserved sectors at the end of a component disk, as is not uncommon for JBOD, prior to the
reconstruction you would specify the number of actually used sectors plus header size for each
component via Tools | Disk Tools | Set Disk Parameters as the "Sector count".
You can usually tell that either the component order, the stripe size, the stripe pattern, or the
RAID header size was selected incorrectly when no partitions are detected or partitions with
unknown file systems or with file systems that cannot be interpreted properly.
150
When you add a reconstructed RAID system to a case (and optionally partitions opened from
such a RAID system), the selected RAID configuration parameters are saved with the evidence
object, which allows to access the RAID system instantly in later sessions (forensic licenses
only).
In RAID level 5 and 6, data is not only striped across all component disks in a rotating pattern,
but also interspersed with parity blocks for redundancy. RAID level 5 and 6 are implemented in
different ways by different RAID controller manufacturers in that they employ different
stripe/parity patterns. The supported patterns are the following:
Level 5: Backward Parity aka Left Asynchronous (Adaptec)
Component 1: 1 3 P
Component 2: 2 P 5
Component 3: P 4 6
Level 5: Backward Dynamic Parity aka Left Synchronous (AMI and
Linux standard)
Component 1: 1 5 9 P
Component 2: 2 6 P 10
Component 3: 3 P 7 11
Component 4: P 4 8 12
Level 5: Backward Delayed Parity (HP/Compaq)
Component 1: 1 3 5 7
9
11 13 15
Component 2: 2 4 6 8
P
P
P
P
Component 3: P P P P
10 12 14 16
Level 5: Forward
Component 1: P
Component 2: 1
Component 3: 2
Parity (aka Right Asynchronous)
3 5
P 6
4 P
Level 5: Forward
Component 1: P
Component 2: 1
Component 3: 2
Component 4: 3
Dynamic Parity (aka Right Synchronous)
6 8 10
P 9 11
4 P 12
5 7 P
Level 5: Forward Delayed Parity
Level 5: Forward Dynamic Delayed Parity (CRU/Dataport)
Level 5EE: Backward
Component 1: 1 3
Component 2: 2 S
Component 3: S P
Component 4: P 4
Parity (Adaptec)
S P
P 7
5 8
6 S (S = spare)
Level 5EE: Forward Parity
Component 1: 1 P S 7
Component 2: 2 3 P S
Component 3: S 4 5 P
151
Component 4:
P
S
6
8
Level 6: Backward Parity (Adaptec/JetStor)
Component 1: 1 3 P Q
Component 2: 2 P Q 7
Component 3: P Q 5 8
Component 4: Q 4 6 P
Level 6: Backward Dynamic Parity
Component 1: 1 4 P Q
Component 2: 2 P Q 7
Component 3: P Q 5 8
Component 4: Q 3 6 P
Level 6: Forward Delayed Parity
Level 6: Forward Parity
The parity start component can be defined differently if necessary, for many RAID variants. To
stick with the select standard pattern, leave that value at 0. In order to define a non-standard
parity start component, specify the number of the component where the parity is located first (1based).
The delay with that the parity moves on HP/Compaq controllers is most often 4 or 16, but freely
configurable.
If one of the RAID component disks is not available, you can reconstruct a RAID 5 system
nonetheless because one component is redundant. Simply select a dummy substitute (one of the
other, available components of the same RAID system) as the missing component and declare
that component “missing”! RAID 5EE and RAID 6 can also be internally reconstructed if one
component is missing.
152
Appendix A: Template Definition
1
Header
The header of a template definition has the following format:
template "title"
[description "description"]
[applies_to (file/disk/RAM)]
[fixed_start offset]
[sector-aligned]
[requires offset "hex values"]
[big-endian]
[hexadecimal/octal]
[read-only]
[multiple [fixed overall size]]
// Put any general comments to the template here.
begin
variable declarations
end
Tags in brackets are optional. The order of the tags is irrelevant. Expressions must only be
enclosed in inverted commas if they contain space characters. Comments may appear anywhere
in a template definition. Characters following a double slash are ignored by the parser.
The keyword applies_to must be followed by one and only one of the words file, disk, or
RAM. WinHex issues a warning if you are going to use a template on data from a different source.
While by default templates start interpreting the data at the current cursor position when applied,
an optional fixed_start statement ensures interpretation always starts at the specified absolute
offset within the file or disk.
If the template applies to a disk, the keyword sector-aligned ensures the template
interpretation starts at the beginning of the current sector, regardless of the exact cursor position.
Similar to the applies_to statement, the requires statement enables WinHex to prevent an
erroneous application of a template definition to data that does not match. Specify an offset and a
hex-value chain of an arbitrary length that identifies the data for which the template definition
was intended. For example, a valid master boot record can be recognized by the hex values
55 AA at offset 0x1FE, an executable file by the hex values 4D 5A (“MZ”) at offset 0x0. There
may be multiple applies_to statements in a template definition header, which are all
considered.
The keyword big-endian causes all multi-byte integer and boolean variables in the template
definition to be read and written in big-endian order (high-order byte first).
153
The keyword hexadecimal causes all integer variables in the template definition to be
displayed in hexadecimal notation.
The keyword read-only ensures that the template can only be used to examine, but not to
manipulate data structures. The edit controls within the template will be grayed out.
If the keyword multiple is specified in the header, WinHex allows browsing to neighboring
data records while displaying the template. This requires that WinHex has knowledge of the
record's size. If it is not specified as a parameter to the multiple statement, WinHex assumes
the overall size of a template structure (=record) to be the current position at the end of the
template interpretation less the base editing position. If this is a variable size, i.e. array sizes or
move parameters are determined dynamically by the value of variables, WinHex cannot browse
to precedent data records.
2
Body: Variable Declarations
The body of a template definition mainly consists of variable declarations, similar to those in
programming languages. A declaration has the basic form
type "title"
where type can be one of the following:
• int8, uint8 = byte, int16, uint16, int24, uint24, int32,
uint32, uint48, int64,
• uint_flex,
• binary,
• float = single, real, double, longdouble = extended,
• char, char16, string, string16,
• zstring, zstring16,
• boole8 = boolean, boole16, boole32,
• hex,
• DOSDateTime, FileTime, OLEDateTime, SQLDateTime, UNIXDateTime =
time_t, JavaDateTime,
• GUID
title must only be enclosed in inverted commas if it contains space characters. title must not
consist only of digits. WinHex does not distinguish between upper and lower case characters in
titles. 41 characters are used to identify a variable at most.
type can be preceded by at most one member of each of the following modifier groups:
big-endian
hexadecimal
read-only
local
little-endian
decimal
read-write
octal
154
These modifiers only affect the immediately following variable. They are redundant if they
appear in the header already. "local" translates timestamps except DOSDateTime from UTC to
the timezone specified in the General Options.
The number at the end of a type name denotes the size of each variable (strings: of each
character) in bits. With char16 and string16, WinHex supports Unicode characters and
strings. However, Unicode characters other than the first 256 ANSI-equivalent characters are not
supported. The maximum string size that can be edited using a template is 8192 bytes.
The types string, string16, and hex require an additional parameter that specifies the
number of elements. This parameter may be a constant or a previously declared variable. If it is a
constant, it may be specified in hexadecimal format, which is recognized if the number is
preceded by 0x.
You may declare arrays of variables by placing the array size in square brackets next to the type
or the title. Specify "unlimited" as the array size to make the template stop only when the end of
file is encountered. The following two lines declare a dynamically sized ASCII string, whose
length depends on the preceding variable:
uint8
char[len]
"len"
"A string"
The same could be achieved by the following two declarations:
byte
"len"
string len "A string"
The character “~” can be used as placeholder for later replacement with the actual array element
number (see below). This does not apply to arrays of char variables, since they are automatically
translated into a string.
Numerical parameters of string, string16, and hex variables as well as array size expressions
may be specified in mathematical notation. They will be processed by the integrated formula
parser. Such expressions need to be enclosed in brackets. They must not contain space characters.
They may make use of previously declared integer variables whose names do not contain space
characters either. Supported operations are addition (+), subtraction (-), multiplication (*), integer
division (/), modular division (%), bitwise AND (&), bitwise OR (|), and bitwise XOR (^). Valid
mathematical expressions are for example (5*2+1) or (len1/(len2+4)). The result is always an
integer and must be a positive number.
zstring and zstring16 are null-terminated strings whose size is determined dynamically at
run-time.
3
Body: Advanced Commands
When enclosed in braces, several variable declarations comprise a block that can be used
155
repeatedly as a whole. Note, however, that blocks must not be nested in the current
implementation. The character ~ can be used in a variable’s name as a placeholder for later
replacement with the actual repetition count. The optional numbering statement defines where
to begin counting (0 by default).
numbering 1
{
byte
"len"
string len "String No. ~"
}[10]
In this example the actual variable names in the template will be “String No. 1”, “String No. 2”,
..., “String No. 10”. Instead of a constant number of repetitions (10 in this example), you may
also specify “unlimited”. In that case WinHex will repeat the block until the end of file is
encountered. “ExitLoop” can be used to break out of a loop at any time. "Exit" terminates
execution of the template completely.
"IfEqual" is useful for the comparison of two expressions. Operands can be either both numerical
values, be it constant values in decimal notation, integer variables or a formulas, or byte
sequences given as text or hex values which are compared byte by byte. ASCII string expressions
must be enclosed in quotation marks, hex sequences must be preceded by a "0x" identifier.
Formulas need to be enclosed in brackets.
{
byte
Value
IfEqual
Value 1
ExitLoop
EndIf
} [10]
An "IfEqual" command block is terminated with an "EndIf" statement. If the compared
expressions are equal, template interpretation continues after "IfEqual". Optionally, "IfEqual" can
be followed by an "Else" statement. The template processor branches into the "Else" block if the
expressions are not equal. "IfEqual" commands must not be nested. "IfGreater" is similar to
"IfEqual". The condition is true if the first expression is greater than the second. Strings and hex
values are compared lexicographically.
In order to facilitate reading and navigating the template, you may define groups of variables that
are separated by empty space in the dialog box:
section
"...Section Title..."
...
endsection
The section, endsection, and numbering statements do not advance the current position in
the data to be interpreted.
There are two commands that do not declare variables either, but are explicitly used to change the
current position. This can be done to skip irrelevant data (forward movement) or to be able access
certain variables more than once as different types (backward movement). Use the move n
156
statement to skip n bytes from the current position, where n may be negative. goto n navigates
to the specified absolute position from the beginning of the template interpretation (must be
positive). gotoex n jumps to the specified absolute position based on the start of the data
window (e.g. file or disk).
The following example demonstrates how to access a variable both as a 32-bit integer and as a
four-part chain of hex values:
int32
move -4
hex 4
4
"Disk serial number (decimal)"
"Disk serial number (hex)"
Body: Flexible Integer Variables
A special variable type supported by templates is uint_flex. This type allows to compose an
unsigned integer value from various individual bits within a 32-bit (4-byte) range in an arbitrary
order and is even more flexible than a so-called bit field in the C programming language.
uint_flex requires an additional parameter string in inverted commas that specifies exactly which
bits are used in which order, separated by commas. The bit listed first becomes the most
significant bit (high value bit) in the resulting integer, and it is not interpreted as a + or indicator. The bit listed last becomes the least significant bit in the resulting integer.
The bits are counted starting with 0. Bit 0 is the bit that is the least significant bit of the 1st byte.
Bit 31 is the most significant bit of the fourth byte. Thus, the definition is based on little-endian
philosophy.
For example,
uint_flex "15,14,13,12,11,10,9,8,7,6,5,4,3,2,1,0" "Standard 16-bit
integer"
is exactly the same as uint16, the common unsigned 16-bit integer variable.
uint_flex "31,30,29,28,27,26,25,24,23,22,21,20,19,18,17,16,15,14,13,12,
11,10,9,8,7,6,5,4,3,2,1,0" "Standard 32-bit integer"
is exactly the same as uint32, the common unsigned 32-bit integer variable.
The benefit of uint_flex, though, is that the number, the position, and the usage order of all
bits can be chosen arbitrarily. For example,
uint_flex "7,15,23,31" "An unusual 4-bit integer"
composes a 4-bit integer out of the respective most significant bits of each of the four bytes
involved. If these four bytes happen to be
F0 A0 0F 0A =
11110000 10100000 00001111 00001010,
bit 7 is 1, bit 15 is 1, bit 23 is 0, and bit 31 is 0.
So the resulting uint_flex is 1100 = 1*8 + 1*4 + 0*2 + 0*1 = 12.
157
Appendix B: Script Commands
Script commands are case-insensitive. Comments may occur anywhere in a script file and must
be preceded by two slashes. Parameters may be 255 characters long at most. Where in doubt
because hex values, text strings (or even integer numbers) are accepted as parameters, you may
use inverted commas (quotation marks) to enforce the interpretation of a parameter as text.
Inverted commas are required if a text string or variable name contains one or more space
characters, so that all characters between the inverted commas are recognized as constituting one
parameter.
Wherever numerical parameters are expected (integer numbers), the integrated formula parser
allows you to use mathematical expressions. Such expressions need to be enclosed in brackets.
They must not contain space characters. They may make use of variables that can be interpreted
as integer numbers. Supported operations are addition (+), subtraction (-), multiplication (*),
integer division (/), modular division (%), bitwise AND (&), bitwise OR (|), and bitwise XOR
(^). Valid mathematical expressions are for example (5*2+1), (MyVar1/(MyVar2+4)), or (MyVar).
The following is a description of currently supported script commands, including example
parameters.
Create "D:\My File.txt" 1000
Creates the specified file with an initial file size of 1000 bytes. If the file already exists, it is
overwritten.
Open "D:\My File.txt"
Open "D:\*.txt"
Opens the specified file(s). Specify "?" as the parameter to let the user select the file to open.
Open C:
Open D:
Opens the specified logical drive. Specify ":?" as the parameter to let the user select a logical
drive or physical disk to open.
Open 80h
Open 81h
Open 9Eh
Opens the specified physical media. Floppy disk numbering starts with 00h, fixed and removable
drive numbering with 80h, optical media numbering with 9Eh.
Optionally, you may pass a second parameter with the Open command that defines the edit mode
in which to open the file or media ("in-place" or "read-only").
CreateBackup
Creates a WHX backup of the active file in its current state.
158
CreateBackupEx 0 100000 650 true "F:\My backup.whx"
Creates a WHX backup of the active disk, from sector 0 through sector 1,000,000. The backup
file will be split automatically at a size of 650 MB. Compression is enabled (“true”). The output
file is specified as the last parameter.
If the backup file should not be split, specify 0 as the third parameter. To disable compression,
specify “false”. To have the Backup Manager automatically assign a filename and place the file
in the folder for backup files, specify "" as the last parameter.
Goto 0x128
Goto MyVariable
Moves the current cursor position to the hexadecimal offset 0x128. Alternatively, an existing
variable (up to 8 bytes large) can be interpreted as a numeric value, too.
Move -100
Moves the current cursor position 100 bytes back (decimal).
Write "Test"
Write 0x0D0A
Write MyVariable
Writes the four ASCII characters "Test" or the two hexadecimal values "0D0A" at the current
position (in overwrite mode). Can also write the contents of a variable specified as the parameter.
Moves the current position forward by the number of bytes written. When the end of the file is
reached, to accomplish that, a null byte is appended. Useful so that further Write commands don't
overwrite the last byte written by the previous Write command.
Write2
Identical to Write, but does not append a null byte if the end of the file has been reached. So it is
not safe to assume that Write2 always moves the current position forward by the number of bytes
written.
Insert "Test"
Functions just as the "Write" command, but in insert mode. Must only be used with files.
Read MyVariable 10
Reads the 10 bytes from the current position into a variable named "MyVariable". If this variable
does not yet exist, it will be created. Up to 48 different variables allowed. Another way to create
a variable is the Assign command.
ReadLn MyVariable
Reads from the current position into a variable named "MyVariable" until the next line break is
encountered. If the variable already exists, its size will be adjusted accordingly.
Close
Closes the active window without saving.
CloseAll
Closes all windows without saving.
159
Save
Saves changes to the file or disk in the active window.
SaveAs "C:\New Name.txt"
Saves the file in the active window under the specified path. Specify "?" as the parameter to let
the user select the destination.
SaveAll
Saves changes in all windows.
Terminate
Aborts script execution.
Exit
Terminates script execution and ends WinHex.
ExitIfNoFilesOpen
Aborts script execution if no files are already opened in WinHex.
Block 100 200
Block "My Variable 1" "My Variable 2"
Defines the block in the active window to run from offset 100 to offset 200 (decimal).
Alternatively, existing variables (each up to 8 bytes large) can be interpreted as numeric values.
Block1 0x100
Defines the block beginning to be at the hexadecimal offset 0x100. A variable is allowed as the
parameter as well.
Block2 0x200
Defines the block end to be at the hexadecimal offset 0x200. A variable is allowed as the
parameter as well.
Copy
Copies the currently defined block into the clipboard. If no block is defined, it works as known
from the Copy command in the Edit menu.
Cut
Cuts the currently defined block from the file and puts it into the clipboard.
Remove
Removes the currently defined block from the file.
CopyIntoNewFile "D:\New File.dat"
CopyIntoNewFile "D:\File +MyVariable+.dat"
Copies the currently defined block into the specified new file, without using the clipboard. If no
block is defined, it works as known from the Copy command in the Edit menu. Can copy disk
160
sectors as well as files. The new file will not be automatically opened in another edit window.
Allows an unlimited number of "+" concatenations in the parameter. A variable name will be
interpreted as an integer if not be larger than 2^24 (~16 Mio.). Useful for loops and file recovery.
Paste
Pastes the current clipboard contents at the current position in a file, without changing the current
position.
WriteClipboard
Writes the current clipboard contents at the current position in a file or within disk sectors,
without changing the current position, by overwriting the data at the current position.
Convert Param1 Param2
Converts the data in the active file from one format into another one. Valid parameters are ANSI,
IBM, Binary, HexASCII, IntelHex, MotorolaS, Base64, UUCode, LowerCase, UpperCase, and
hiberfil,, in combinations as known from the Convert menu command.
AESEncrypt "My Password"
Encrypts the active file or disk, or selected block thereof, with the specified key (up to 32
characters long) with AES.
AESDecrypt "My Password"
Decrypts the active file or disk.
Find "John" [MatchCase MatchWord Down Up BlockOnly SaveAllPos Unicode Wildcards]
Find 0x1234 [Down Up BlockOnly SaveAllPos Wildcards]
Searches in the active window for the name John or the hexadecimal values 0x1234, respectively,
and stops at the first occurrence. Other parameters are optional. By default, WinHex searches the
entire file/disk. The optional parameters work as known from usual WinHex search options.
ReplaceAll "Jon" "Don" [MatchCase MatchWord Down Up BlockOnly Unicode Wildcards]
ReplaceAll 0x0A 0x0D0A [Down Up BlockOnly Wildcards]
Replaces all occurrences of either a string or hexadecimal values in the active file with something
else. Can only be applied to a disk if in in-place mode.
IfFound
A boolean value that depends on whether or not the last Find or ReplaceAll command was
successful. Place commands that shall be executed if something was found after the IfFound
command.
IfEqual MyVariable "Hello World"
IfEqual 0x12345678 MyVariable
IfEqual MyVariable 1000
IfEqual MyVariable MyOtherVariable
IfEqual MyVariable (10*MyOtherVariable)
Compares either two numerical integer values (each of them being a constant value, an integer
variable or a mathematical expression) or two variables, ASCII strings, or hexadecimal values at
161
the binary level. Comparing two objects at the binary with a different length always returns False
as the result. If equal, the following commands will be executed. If conditions must not be nested.
IfGreater MyVariable "Hello World"
IfGreater 0x12345678 MyVariable
IfGreater MyVariable 1000
IfGreater MyVariable MyOtherVariable
IfGreater MyVariable (10*MyOtherVariable)
Accepts the same parameters as IfEqual. If the first one is greater than the second one, the
following commands will be executed. If conditions must not be nested.
Else
May occur after IfFound or IfEqual. Place commands that shall be executed if nothing was found
or if the compared objects are not equal after the Else command.
EndIf
Ends conditional command execution (after IfFound, IfEqual, IfGreater).
{...
ExitLoop
...}
Exits a loop. A loop is defined by braces. Closing braces may be followed by an integer number
in square brackets, which determines the number of loops to execute. This is may also be a
variable or the keyword "unlimited" (so the loop can only be terminated with an ExitLoop
command). Loops must not be nested.
Example of a loop:
{ Write "Loop" }[10] will write the word "Loop" ten times.
Label ContinueHere
Creates a label named "ContinueHere"
JumpTo ContinueHere
Continues script execution with the command following that label.
NextObj
Switches cyclically to the next open window and makes it the "active" window. E.g. if 3
windows are open, and window #3 is active, NextObj will make #1 the active window.
ForAllObjDo
The following block of script commands (until EndDo occurs) will be applied to all open files
and disks.
CopyFile C:\A.dat D:\B.dat
Copies the contents of C:\A.dat into the file D:\B.dat.
MoveFile C:\A.dat D:\B.dat
162
Moves the file C:\A.dat to D:\B.dat.
DeleteFile C:\A.dat
Surprisingly, deletes C:\A.dat.
InitFreeSpace
InitSlackSpace
Clears free space or slack on the current logical drive, respectively, using the currently set
initialization settings. InitSlackSpace switches the drive temporarily to in-place mode, thus
saving all pending changes.
InitMFTRecords
Clears unused MFT FILE records on the current logical drive if it is formatted with NTFS, using
the currently set initialization settings. Simply does nothing on other file systems. The changes
are written immediately to the disk.
Assign MyVariable 12345
Assign MyVariable 0x0D0A
Assign MyVariable "I like WinHex"
Assign MyVariable MyOtherVariable
Stores the specified integer number, binary data, ASCII text, or other variable's contents in a
variable named "MyVariable". If this variable does not yet exist, it will be created. Other ways to
create variables: e.g. Read, GetUserInput, InttoStr. Up to 48 different variables allowed to exist
simultaneously.
Release MyVariable
Specifically disposes an existing variable. Mandatory to invoke only when more than 48
variables with different names are to be used during the execution of a script, so that earlier
variables that are not needed any more can be destroyed.
SetVarSize MyVariable 1
SetVarSize MyVariable 4
Explicitly sets the allocated memory size of a variable at a given time, in bytes. This can be
useful e.g. for variables that hold integer values and that are the result of a calculation, if this
value is to be written to a binary file with a fixed-length structure. Without SetVarSize, no
assumption must be made about the size of the variable. For instance, the number 300 could be
stored in any number of bytes larger than 1. If the new size set by SetVarSize is smaller than the
old size, the allocated memory is truncated. If the new size is larger, the allocated memory is
expanded. At any rate, the value of the persisting bytes is retained.
GetUserInput MyVariable "Please enter your name:"
Stores the ASCII text or binary data (0x...) specified by the user at script execution time (128
bytes at max.) in a variable named "MyVariable". The user is prompted by the message you
provide as the second parameter. If the variable does not yet exist, it will be created. Other ways
to create variables: Assign, Read.
GetUserInputI MyIntegerVariable "Please enter your age:"
163
Works like GetUserInput, but accepts and stores only integer numbers.
Inc MyVariable
Interprets the variable as an integer (if not larger than 8 bytes) and increments it by one. Useful
for loops.
Dec MyVariable
Interprets the variable as an integer (if not larger than 8 bytes) and decrements it by one.
IntToStr MyStr MyInt
IntToStr MyStr 12345
Stores the decimal ASCII text representation of the integer number specified as the second
parameter in a variable specified as the first parameter.
StrToInt MyInt MyStr
Stores the binary representation of the integer number specified as a decimal ASCII string in the
second parameter in a variable specified as the first parameter.
StrCat MyString MyString2
StrCat MyString ".txt"
Appends one string to another. The second parameter may be a variable or a constant string. The
first parameter must be a variable. The result will be saved in the variable specified by the first
parameter and must not be longer than 255 characters.
GetClusterAlloc MyStr
May be applied to a logical volume. Retrieves a textual description of the current position's
allocation, e.g. which file is stored in the current cluster, and saves that description in the
specified variable.
GetClusterAllocEx IntVar
May be applied to a logical volume. Retrieves an integer value that indicated whether the cluster
at the current position is allocated (1) or not (0), and saves that description in the specified
variable.
GetClusterSize IntVar
May be applied to a logical volume. Retrieves the cluster size and saves that value in the
specified integer variable.
InterpretImageAsDisk
Treats a raw image or evidence file like the original physical disk or partition. Requires a
specialist or forensic license.
CalcHash HashType MyVariable
CalcHashEx HashType MyVariable
Calculates a hash as known from the command in the Tools menu and stores it in the specified
variable (which will be created if it does not yet exist). The HashType parameter must be one of
the following: CS8, CS16, CS32, CS64, CRC16, CRC32, MD5, SHA-1, SHA-256, PSCHF.
164
CalcHashEx in addition displays the hash in a dialog window.
MessageBox "Caution"
Displays a message box with the text "Caution" and offers the user an OK and a Cancel button.
Pressing the Cancel button will abort script execution.
ExecuteScript "ScriptName"
Executes another script from within a running script, at the current execution point, e.g.
depending on a conditional statement. Calls to other scripts may be nested. When the called script
is finished, execution of the original script will be resumed with the next command. This feature
can help you structure your scripts more clearly.
Turbo On
Turbo Off
In turbo mode, most screen elements are not updated during script execution and you are not able
to abort (e.g. by pressing Esc) or pause. This may accelerate script execution if a lot of simple
commands such as Move and NextObj are executed in a loop.
Debug
All the following commands must be confirmed individually by the user.
UseLogFile
Error messages are written into the log file "Scripting.log" in the folder for temporary files. These
messages are not shown in a message box that requires user interaction. Useful especially when
running scripts on unattended remote computers.
CurrentPos
GetSize
unlimited
are keywords that act as a placeholders and may be used where numeric parameters are required.
On script execution, CurrentPos stands for the current offset in the active file or disk window and
GetSize for its size in bytes. unlimited actually stands for the number 2,147,483,647.
Appendix C: Master Boot Record
The Master Boot Record is located at the physical beginning of a hard disk, editable using the
disk editor. It consists of a master bootstrap loader code (446 bytes) and four subsequent,
identically structured partition records. Finally, the hexadecimal signature 55AA completes a
valid Master Boot Record.
The format of a partition record is as follows:
Offset
0
1
Size
8 bit
8 bit
Description
A value of 80 designates an active partition.
Partition start head
165
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
C
8 bit
8 bit
8 bit
8 bit
8 bit
8 bit
32 bit
32 bit
Partition start sector (bits 0-5)
Partition start track (bits 8,9 in “start sector” as bits 6,7)
Operating system indicator, see below
Partition end head
Partition end sector (bits 0-5)
Partition end track (bits 8,9 in “end sector” as bits 6,7)
Sectors preceding partition
Length of partition in sectors
Operating system indicators:
(hexadecimal, incomplete list)
00
01
04
05
06
07
08
09
0A
0B
0C
0E
0F
17
1B
1C
1E
42
50
51
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
A0
BE
C0
C6
C7
DE
Empty partition-table entry
DOS 12-bit FAT
DOS 16-bit FAT (up to 32M)
DOS 3.3+ extended partition
DOS 3.31+ Large File System (16-bit FAT, over 32M)
Windows NT NTFS, OS/2 HPFS, Advanced Unix
OS/2 v1.0-1.3, AIX bootable partition, SplitDrive
AIX data partition
OS/2 Boot Manager
Windows 95 with 32-bit FAT
Windows 95 with 32-bit FAT (using LBA-mode INT 13 extensions)
Logical-block-addressable VFAT (same as 06, but using LBA-mode INT 13)
Logical-block-addressable VFAT (same as 05, but using LBA-mode INT 13)
Hidden NTFS partition
Hidden Windows 95 FAT32 partition
Hidden Windows 95 FAT32 partition (using LBA-mode INT 13 extensions)
Hidden LBA VFAT partition
Dynamic disk volume
OnTrack Disk Manager, read-only partition
OnTrack Disk Manager, read/write partition
Linux
Linux Swap partition, Solaris (Unix)
Linux native file system (ext2fs/xiafs)
Hibernation partition
Linux EXT
FAT 16 volume/stripe set (Windows NT)
HPFS fault-tolerant mirrored partition, NTFS volume/stripe set
Laptop hibernation partition
Solaris boot partition
DR-DOS/Novell DOS secured partition
Corrupted FAT 16 volume/stripe set (Windows NT)
Corrupted NTFS volume/stripe set
DELL OEM partition
166
F2 DOS 3.3+ secondary partition
FE IBM OEM partition
167

Similar documents

×

Report this document