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SAMPLE CHAPTER
THE PROMISE OF AMERICA
© 2007
Borrowman / White
ISBN-13: 978-0-321-35471-6
ISBN-10: 0-321-35471-0
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SAMPLE CHAPTER
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6 T H E P R O M I S E O F E Q UA L I T Y
A N D C I V I L L I B E RT Y
The debate in America over civil liberties sometimes seems very recent, to
have only really begun since the terrorist attacks on 9/11 and, shortly thereafter, the codification of the Patriot Act, viewed by some as one of the most
effective tools in the War on Terror, viewed by others as the greatest assault on
individual freedom since America’s founding. The fire of this debate has been
further fueled by the ongoing—but undeclared—wars in Afghanistan and
Iraq, the continuing imprisonment of both American citizens and foreign
nationals at Guantanamo Bay, and the revelations of “domestic spying” on
individual Americans authorized by President George W. Bush (including
collection of telephone records of Americans not suspected of committing
any specific crime). But this perception that civil liberties are suddenly
under assault for the first time is, ultimately, a misperception. Whenever civil
rights, such as freedom of the press, or to privacy, or to petition the government, have appeared to come in conflict with national security or domestic
tranquility—and in times of crisis they always do—these rights seem to many
to carry too much risk. Throughout American history, the defense of these
rights has come under attack from those whose primary concern is public
order and defense of the country.
As the selections in Chapter 1 of this text demonstrate, America has
from its very beginning been in the process of defining what freedom and
equality mean, what legally protected civil liberties actually are, and to
whom all of this legitimately applies. In that chapter, the primary focus was
on the right to vote, one of the foundational rights granted in a republican
democracy such as America and in flux from 1776 to the present day. Initially restricted to free white men, the right to vote was extended to African
American men in 1868 (in the Fourteenth Amendment), to women in 1920
(in the Nineteenth Amendment), to all Native Americans in 1940 (when
they were first recognized by Congress as American citizens, although
their right to vote was not recognized by every state until 1947), and to all
Americans 18 years old or older in 1971. Since the 2000 and 2004 elections,
however, debate has become particularly heated over how the right to vote is
abridged by advances in technology, changes in voting districts, dishonest
campaigning, and legally questionable tactics of intimidation. The fight
for the right to vote continues, with its implications for all other rights.
539
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T H E P R O M I S E O F E Q UA L I T Y A N D C I V I L L I B E RT Y
In this chapter, these debates return to some of this same territory and
then branch into entirely new areas of civil liberty and the meaning of
equality in America.
How does the ideal of democracy, first expressed in ancient Athens,
work in modern America—how does the ideal become the actual? Whatever political perspective one may bring to that question, it is clear that
America has made immense progress toward that ideal in its relatively brief
history. It is also clear that we remain at some distance from the goal.
M A R T I N L U T H E R K I N G, J R.
Martin Luther King, Jr. (1929–1968) was a Baptist minister, Doctor
of Theology, and civil rights activist. Among King’s many notable
actions as a civil rights leader were his involvement in the
1955–1956 Montgomery bus boycott, a protest against segregated
buses; his leadership of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, which was famous for its adherence to principles of nonviolence; and his helping organize the 1963 March on Washington for
Jobs and Freedom.
King wrote his famous “Letter from Birmingham Jail” in 1963
after being arrested for joining an anti-segregation march for which a
permit had not been granted. King wrote the letter during his 11 days
in jail as a response to one written by eight local white clergymen that
called for local African Americans to work with the local white citizens instead of with outsiders such as King. King’s letter, which
argues that nonviolent actions were necessary if social justice was to
be obtained, was originally published in a June 1963 issue of The New
Leader with the title “Letter from Birmingham City Jail.”
Many of King’s aims were accomplished with the passage of
the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. He
was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964, the youngest person
ever to receive the award.
Letter from Birmingham Jail
Prereading Question
Based upon your knowledge of American history—gleaned from courses
you’ve taken, books you’ve read, movies you’ve seen, the television news, and
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MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR. Letter from Birmingham Jail
541
so on—what did Martin Luther King, Jr. believe. That is, what did he stand
for? What did he want for himself and for all blacks? And how did he want to
achieve those goals?
A Call for Unity
[By eight local clergymen]
April 12, 1963
We the undersigned clergymen are among those who, in January, issued
“An Appeal for Law and Order and Common Sense,” in dealing with racial
problems in Alabama. We expressed understanding that honest convictions
in racial matters could properly be pursued in the courts, but urged that
decisions of those courts should in the meantime be peacefully obeyed.
Since that time there had been some evidence of increased forebearance
and a willingness to face facts. Responsible citizens have undertaken to work
on various problems which cause racial friction and unrest. In Birmingham,
recent public events have given indication that we all have opportunity for a
new constructive and realistic approach to racial problems.
However, we are now confronted by a series of demonstrations by some of
our Negro citizens, directed and led in part by outsiders. We recognize the natural impatience of people who feel that their hopes are slow in being realized.
But we are convinced that these demonstrations are unwise and untimely.
We agree rather with certain local Negro leadership which has called
for honest and open negotiation of racial issues in our area. And we believe
this kind of facing of issues can best be accomplished by citizens of our
own metropolitan area, white and Negro, meeting with their knowledge
and experience of the local situation. All of us need to face that responsibility and find proper channels for its accomplishment.
Just as we formerly pointed out that “hatred and violence have no
sanction in our religious and political traditions,” we also point out that
such actions as incite to hatred and violence, however technically peaceful
those actions may be, have not contributed to the resolution of our local
problems. We do not believe that these days of new hope are days when
extreme measures are justified in Birmingham.
We commend the community as a whole, and the local news media and
law enforcement officials in particular, on the calm manner in which these
demonstrations have been handled. We urge the public to continue to show
restraint should the demonstrations continue, and the law enforcement
officials to remain calm and continue to protect our city from violence.
We further strongly urge our own Negro community to withdraw
support from these demonstrations, and to unite locally in working
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T H E P R O M I S E O F E Q UA L I T Y A N D C I V I L L I B E RT Y
peacefully for a better Birmingham. When rights are consistently denied,
a cause should be pressed in the courts and in negotiations among local
leaders, and not in the streets. We appeal to both our white and Negro
citizenry to observe the principles of law and order and common sense.
C.C.J. Carpenter, D. D., L.L.D., Bishop of Alabama; Joseph A.
Durick, D. D., Auxiliary Bishop, Diocese of Mobile-Birmingham; Rabbi
Milton L. Grafman, Temple Emanu-El, Birmingham, Alabama; Bishop
Paul Hardin, Bishop of the Alabama-West Florida Conference of the
Methodist Church; Bishop Nolan B. Harmon; Bishop of the North
Alabama Conference of the Methodist Church; George M. Murray, D. D.,
L.L.D., Bishop Coadjutor, Episcopal Diocese of Alabama; Edward V. Ramage, Moderator, Synod of the Alabama Presbyterian Church in the United
States; Earl Stallings, Pastor, First Baptist Church, Birmingham, Alabama.
Letter From Birmingham Jail
April 16, 1963
My Dear Fellow Clergymen:
While confined here in the Birmingham city jail, I came across your
recent statement calling my present activities “unwise and untimely.”1 Seldom
do I pause to answer criticism of my work and ideas. If I sought to answer all
the criticisms that cross my desk, my secretaries would have little time for anything other than such correspondence in the course of the day, and I would
have no time for constructive work. But since I feel that you are men of genuine good will and that your criticisms are sincerely set forth, I want to try to
answer your statement in what I hope will be patient and reasonable terms.
I think I should indicate why I am here in Birmingham, since you have
been influenced by the view which argues against “outsiders coming in.”
I have the honor of serving as president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, an organization operating in every southern state, with
headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia. We have some eighty-five affiliated organizations across the South, and one of them is the Alabama Christian
1This response to a published statement by eight fellow clergymen from Alabama
(Bishop C.C.J. Carpenter, Bishop Joseph A. Durick, Rabbi Milton L. Grafman, Bishop Paul
Hardin, Bishop Nolan B. Harmon, the Reverend George M. Murray, the Reverend Edward V.
Ramage, and the Reverend Earl Stallings) was composed under somewhat constricting circumstances. Begun on the margins of the newspaper in which the statement appeared while I was
in jail, the letter was continued on scraps of writing paper supplied by a friendly Negro trusty,
and concluded on a pad my attorneys were eventually permitted to leave me. Although the text
remains in substance unaltered, I have indulged in the author’s prerogative of polishing it for
publication. [King’s note.]
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MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR. Letter from Birmingham Jail
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Movement for Human Rights. Frequently we share staff, educational, and
financial resources with our affiliates. Several months ago the affiliate here
in Birmingham asked us to be on call to engage in a nonviolent directaction program if such were deemed necessary. We readily consented, and
when the hour came we lived up to our promise. So I, along with several
members of my staff, am here because I was invited here. I am here because
I have organizational ties here.
But more basically, I am in Birmingham because injustice is here. Just
as the prophets of the eighth century B.C. left their villages and carried their
“thus saith the Lord” far beyond the boundaries of their home towns, and
just as the Apostle Paul left his village of Tarsus and carried the gospel of
Jesus Christ to the far corners of the Greco-Roman world, so am I compelled to carry the gospel of freedom beyond my own home town. Like
Paul, I must constantly respond to the Macedonian call for aid.
Moreover, I am cognizant of the interrelatedness of all communities and
states. I cannot sit idly by in Atlanta and not be concerned about what
happens in Birmingham. Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere.
We are caught in an inescapable network of mutuality; tied in a single
garment of destiny. Whatever affects one directly, affects all indirectly. Never
again can we afford to live with the narrow, provincial “outside agitator” idea.
Anyone who lives inside the United States can never be considered an outsider anywhere within its bounds.
You deplore the demonstrations taking place in Birmingham. But your
statement, I am sorry to say, fails to express a similar concern for the conditions that brought about the demonstrations. I am sure that none of you
would want to rest content with the superficial kind of social analysis that
deals merely with effects and does not grapple with underlying causes. It is
unfortunate that demonstrations are taking place in Birmingham, but it is
even more unfortunate that the city’s white power structure left the Negro
community with no alternative.
In any nonviolent campaign there are four basic steps: collection of the
facts to determine whether injustices exist; negotiation; self-purification;
and direct action. We have gone through all these steps in Birmingham.
There can be no gainsaying the fact that racial injustice engulfs this community. Birmingham is probably the most thoroughly segregated city in
the United States. Its ugly record of brutality is widely known. Negroes
have experienced grossly unjust treatment in the courts. There have been
more unsolved bombings of Negro homes and churches in Birmingham
than in any other city in the nation. These are the hard, brutal facts of the
case. On the basis of these conditions, Negro leaders sought to negotiate
with the city fathers. But the latter consistently refused to engage in goodfaith negotiation.
Then, last September, came the opportunity to talk with leaders of
Birmingham’s economic community. In the course of the negotiations,
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T H E P R O M I S E O F E Q UA L I T Y A N D C I V I L L I B E RT Y
certain promises were made by the merchants—for example, to remove the
stores’ humiliating racial signs. On the basis of these promises, the Reverend
Fred Shuttleworth and the leaders of the Alabama Christian Movement for
Human Rights agreed to a moratorium on all demonstrations. As the weeks
and months went by, we realized that we were the victims of a broken
promise. A few signs, briefly removed, returned; the others remained.
As in so many past experiences, our hopes had been blasted, and the
shadow of deep disappointment settled upon us. We had no alternative
except to prepare for direct action, whereby we would present our very
bodies as a means of laying our case before the conscience of the local and
the national community. Mindful of the difficulties involved, we decided to
undertake a process of self-purification. We began a series of workshops on
nonviolence, and we repeatedly asked ourselves: “Are you able to accept
blows without retaliating?” “Are you able to endure the ordeal of jail?” We
decided to schedule our direct-action program for the Easter season, realizing that except for Christmas, this is the main shopping period of the
year. Knowing that a strong economic-withdrawal program would be the
by-product of direct action, we felt that this would be the best time to
bring pressure to bear on the merchants for the needed change.
Then it occurred to us that Birmingham’s mayoralty election was coming up in March, and we speedily decided to postpone action until after
election day. When we discovered that the Commissioner of Public Safety.
Eugene “Bull” Connor, had piled up enough votes to be in the run-off, we
decided again to postpone action until the day after the run-off so that the
demonstrations could not be used to cloud the issues. Like many others, we
waited to see Mr. Connor defeated, and to this end we endured postponement after postponement. Having aided in this community need, we felt
that our direct-action program could be delayed no longer.
You may well ask: “Why direct action? Why sit-ins, marches, and so
forth? Isn’t negotiation a better path?” You are quite right in calling for
negotiation. Indeed, this is the very purpose of direct action. Nonviolent
direct action seeks to create such a crisis and foster such a tension that a
community which has constantly refused to negotiate is forced to confront
the issue. It seeks so to dramatize the issue that it can no longer be ignored.
My citing the creation of tension as part of the work of the nonviolentresister may sound rather shocking. But I must confess that I am not afraid
of the word “tension.” I have earnestly opposed violent tension, but there is
a type of constructive, nonviolent tension which is necessary for growth.
Just as Socrates felt that it was necessary to create a tension in the mind so
that individuals could rise from the bondage of myths and half-truths to
the unfettered realm of creative analysis and objective appraisal, so must
we see the need for nonviolent gadflies to create the kind of tension in society that will help men rise from the dark depths of prejudice and racism to
the majestic heights of understanding and brotherhood.
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MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR. Letter from Birmingham Jail
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The purpose of our direct-action program is to create a situation so
crisis-packed that it will inevitably open the door to negotiation. I
therefore concur with you in your call for negotiation. Too long has our
beloved Southland been bogged down in a tragic effort to live in monologue rather than dialogue.
One of the basic points in your statement is that the action that I and
my associates have taken in Birmingham is untimely. Some have asked:
“Why didn’t you give the new city administration time to act?” The only
answer that I can give to this query is that the new Birmingham administration must be prodded about as much as the outgoing one, before it will
act. We are sadly mistaken if we feel that the election of Albert Boutwell as
mayor will bring the millennium to Birmingham. While Mr. Boutwell is a
much more gentle person than Mr. Connor, they are both segregationists,
dedicated to maintenance of the status quo. I have hope that Mr. Boutwell
will be reasonable enough to see the futility of massive resistance to desegregation. But he will not see this without pressure from devotees of civil
rights. My friends, I must say to you that we have not made a single gain in
civil rights without determined legal and nonviolent pressure. Lamentably,
it is an historical fact that privileged groups seldom give up their privileges
voluntarily. Individuals may see the moral light and voluntarily give up
their unjust posture; but as Reinhold Niebuhr has reminded us, groups
tend to be more immoral than individuals.
We know through painful experience that freedom is never voluntarily
given by the oppressor; it must be demanded by the oppressed. Frankly,
I have yet to engage in a direct-action campaign that was “well timed” in
the view of those who have not suffered unduly from the disease of segregation. For years now I have heard the word “Wait!” It rings in the ear of
every Negro with piercing familiarity. This “Wait” has almost always meant
“Never.” We must come to see, with one of our distinguished jurists, that
“justice too long delayed is justice denied.”
We have waited for more than 340 years for our constitutional
and God-given rights. The nations of Asia and Africa are moving with
jetlike speed toward gaining political independence, but we still creep at
horse-and-buggy pace toward gaining a cup of coffee at a lunch counter.
Perhaps it is easy for those who have never felt the stinging darts of
segregation to say, “Wait.” But when you have seen vicious mobs lynch
your mothers and fathers at will and drown your sisters and brothers at
whim; when you have seen hate-filled policemen curse, kick, and even
kill your black brothers and sisters; when you see the vast majority of
your twenty million Negro brothers smothering in an airtight cage of
poverty in the midst of an affluent society; when you suddenly find your
tongue twisted and your speech stammering as you seek to explain to
your six-year-old daughter why she can’t go to the public amusement
park that has just been advertised on television, and see tears welling up
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in her eyes when she is told that Funtown is closed to colored children,
and see ominous clouds of inferiority beginning to form in her little
mental sky, and see her beginning to distort her personality by developing an unconscious bitterness toward white people; when you have to
concoct an answer for a five-year-old son who is asking: “Daddy, why do
white people treat colored people so mean?”; when you take a crosscountry drive and find it necessary to sleep night after night in the
uncomfortable corners of your automobile because no motel will accept
you; when you are humiliated day in and day out by nagging signs reading “white” and “colored”; when your first name becomes “nigger,” your
middle name becomes “boy” (however old you are) and your last name
becomes “John,” and your wife and mother are never given the respected
title “Mrs.”; when you are harried by day and haunted by night by the fact
that you are a Negro, living constantly at tiptoe stance, never quite knowing what to expect next, and are plagued with inner fears and outer
resentments; when you are forever fighting a degenerating sense of
“nobodiness”—then you will understand why we find it difficult to wait.
There comes a time when the cup of endurance runs over, and men are
no longer willing to be plunged into the abyss of despair. I hope, sirs, you
can understand our legitimate and unavoidable impatience.
You express a great deal of anxiety over our willingness to break
laws. This is certainly a legitimate concern. Since we so diligently urge
people to obey the Supreme Court’s decision of 1954 outlawing segregation in the public schools, at first glance it may seem rather paradoxical
for us consciously to break laws. One may well ask: “How can you advocate breaking some laws and obeying others?” The answer lies in the fact
that there are two types of laws: just and unjust. I would be the first to
advocate obeying just laws. One has not only a legal but a moral responsibility to obey just laws. Conversely, one has a moral responsibility to
disobey unjust laws. I would agree with St. Augustine that “an unjust law
is no law at all.”
Now, what is the difference between the two? How does one determine whether a law is just or unjust? A just law is a man-made code
that squares with the moral law or the law of God. An unjust law is a code
that is out of harmony with the moral law. To put it in the terms of
St. Thomas Aquinas: An unjust law is a human law that is not rooted in
eternal law and natural law. Any law that uplifts human personality is
just. Any law that degrades human personality is unjust. All segregation
statutes are unjust because segregation distorts the soul and damages the
personality. It gives the segregator a false sense of superiority and the segregated a false sense of inferiority. Segregation, to use the terminology of
the Jewish philosopher Martin Buber, substitutes an “I-it” relationship
for an “I-thou” relationship and ends up relegating persons to the status
of things. Hence segregation is not only politically, economically, and
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MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR. Letter from Birmingham Jail
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sociologically unsound, it is morally wrong and sinful. Paul Tillich has
said that sin is separation. Is not segregation an existential expression of
man’s tragic separation, his awful estrangement, his terrible sinfulness?
Thus it is that I can urge men to obey the 1954 decision of the Supreme
Court, for it is morally right; and I can urge them to disobey segregation
ordinances, for they are morally wrong.
Let us consider a more concrete example of just and unjust laws. An
unjust law is a code that a numerical or power majority group compels a
minority group to obey but does not make binding on itself. This is
difference made legal. By the same token, a just law is a code that a majority
compels a minority to follow and that it is willing to follow itself. This is
sameness made legal.
Let me give another explanation. A law is unjust if it is inflicted on a
minority that, as a result of being denied the right to vote, had no part in
enacting or devising the law. Who can say that the legislature of Alabama
which set up that state’s segregation laws was democratically elected?
Throughout Alabama all sorts of devious methods are used to prevent
Negroes from becoming registered voters, and there are some counties in
which, even though Negroes constitute a majority of the population, not a
single Negro is registered. Can any law enacted under such circumstances
be considered democratically structured?
Sometimes a law is just on its face and unjust in its application. For
instance, I have been arrested on a charge of parading without a permit.
Now, there is nothing wrong in having an ordinance which requires a permit for a parade. But such an ordinance becomes unjust when it is used to
maintain segregation and to deny citizens the First Amendment privilege
of peaceful assembly and protest.
I hope you are able to see the distinction I am trying to point out. In no
sense do I advocate evading or defying the law, as would the rabid segregationist. That would lead to anarchy. One who breaks an unjust law must do
so openly, lovingly, and with a willingness to accept the penalty. I submit
that an individual who breaks a law that conscience tells him is unjust, and
who willingly accepts the penalty of imprisonment in order to arouse the
conscience of the community over its injustice, is in reality expressing the
highest respect for law.
Of course, there is nothing new about this kind of civil disobedience.
It was evidenced sublimely in the refusal of Shadrach, Meshach, and
Abednego to obey the laws of Nebuchadnezzar, on the ground that a
higher moral law was at stake. It was practiced superbly by the early
Christians, who were willing to face hungry lions and the excruciating
pain of chopping blocks rather than submit to certain unjust laws of the
Roman Empire. To a degree, academic freedom is a reality today because
Socrates practiced civil disobedience. In our own nation, the Boston Tea
Party represented a massive act of civil disobedience.
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We should never forget that everything Adolf Hitler did in Germany
was “legal” and everything the Hungarian freedom fighters did in
Hungary was “illegal.” It was “illegal” to aid and comfort a Jew in Hitler’s
Germany. Even so, I am sure that, had I lived in Germany at the time, I
would have aided and comforted my Jewish brothers. If today I lived in
a Communist country where certain principles dear to the Christian
faith are suppressed, I would openly advocate disobeying that country’s
anti-religious laws.
I must make two honest confessions to you, my Christian and Jewish
brothers. First, I must confess that over the past few years I have been
gravely disappointed with the white moderate. I have almost reached the
regrettable conclusion that the Negro’s great stumbling block in his stride
toward freedom is not the White Citizen’s Counciler or the Ku Klux
Klanner, but the white moderate, who is more devoted to “order” than to
justice; who prefers a negative peace which is the absence of tension to a
positive peace which is the presence of justice; who constantly says: “I agree
with you in the goal you seek, but I cannot agree with your methods or
direct action”; who paternalistically believes he can set the timetable for
another man’s freedom; who lives by a mythical concept of time and who
constantly advises the Negro to wait for a “more convenient season.”
Shallow understanding from people of good will is more frustrating than
absolute misunderstanding from people of ill will. Lukewarm acceptance is
much more bewildering than outright rejection.
I had hoped that the white moderate would understand that law and
order exist for the purpose of establishing justice and that when they fail
in this purpose they become the dangerously structured dams that block
the flow of social progress. I had hoped that the white moderate would
understand that the present tension in the South is a necessary phase of
the transition from an obnoxious negative peace, in which the Negro
passively accepted his unjust plight, to a substantive and positive peace,
in which all men will respect the dignity and worth of human personality. Actually, we who engage in nonviolent direct action are not the creators of tension. We merely bring to the surface the hidden tension that is
already alive. We bring it out in the open, where it can be seen and dealt
with. Like a boil that can never be cured so long as it is covered up but
must be opened with all its ugliness to the natural medicines of air and
light, injustice must be exposed, with all the tension its exposure creates,
to the light of human conscience and the air of national opinion before it
can be cured.
In your statement you assert that our actions, even though peaceful,
must be condemned because they precipitate violence. But is this a logical assertion? Isn’t this like condemning a robbed man because his
possession of money precipitated the evil act of robbery? Isn’t this like
condemning Socrates because his unswerving commitment to truth and
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MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR. Letter from Birmingham Jail
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his philosophical inquiries precipitated the act by the misguided populace in which they made him drink hemlock? Isn’t this like condemning
Jesus because his unique God-consciousness and never-ceasing devotion
to God’s will precipitated the evil act of crucifixion? We must come to see
that, as the federal courts have consistently affirmed, it is wrong to urge
an individual to cease his efforts to gain his basic constitutional rights
because the quest may precipitate violence. Society must protect the
robbed and punish the robber.
I had also hoped that the white moderate would reject the myth concerning time in relation to the struggle for freedom. I have just received a
letter from a white brother in Texas. He writes: “All Christians know that
the colored people will receive equal rights eventually, but it is possible that
you are in too great a religious hurry. It has taken Christianity almost two
thousand years to accomplish what it has. The teachings of Christ take
time to come to earth.” Such an attitude stems from a tragic misconception
of time, from the strangely irrational notion that there is something in the
very flow of time that will inevitably cure all ills. Actually, time itself is neutral; it can be used either destructively or constructively. More and more
I feel that the people of ill will have used time much more effectively than
have the people of good will. We will have to repent in this generation not
merely for the hateful words and actions of the bad people but for the
appalling silence of the good people. Human progress never rolls in on
wheels of inevitability; it comes through the tireless efforts of men willing
to be co-workers with God, and without this hard work, time itself
becomes an ally of the forces of social stagnation. We must use time creatively, in the knowledge that the time is always ripe to do right. Now is the
time to make real the promise of democracy and transform our pending
national elegy into a creative psalm of brotherhood. Now is the time to lift
our national policy from the quicksand of racial injustice to the solid rock
of human dignity.
You speak of our activity in Birmingham as extreme. At first I was
rather disappointed that fellow clergymen would see my nonviolent
efforts as those of an extremist. I began thinking about the fact that I
stand in the middle of two opposing forces in the Negro community. One
is a force of complacency, made up in part of Negroes who, as a result of
long years of oppression, are so drained of self-respect and a sense of
“somebodiness” that they have adjusted to segregation; and in part of a
few middle-class Negroes who, because of a degree of academic and economic security and because in some ways they profit by segregation, have
become insensitive to the problems of the masses. The other force is one
of bitterness and hatred, and it comes perilously close to advocating violence. It is expressed in the various black nationalist groups that are
springing up across the nation, the largest and best-known being Elijah
Muhammad’s Muslim movement. Nourished by the Negro’s frustration
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over the continued existence of racial discrimination, this movement is
made up of people who have lost faith in America, who have absolutely
repudiated Christianity, and who have concluded that the white man is an
incorrigible “devil.”
I have tried to stand between these two forces, saying that we need
emulate neither the “do-nothingism” of the complacent nor the hatred and
despair of the black nationalist. For there is the more excellent way of love
and nonviolent protest. I am grateful to God that, through the influence of
the Negro church, the way of nonviolence became an integral part of our
struggle.
If this philosophy had not emerged, by now many streets of the South
should, I am convinced, be flowing with blood. And I am further convinced that if our white brothers dismiss as “rabble-rousers” and “outside
agitators” those of us who employ nonviolent direct action, and if they
refuse to support our nonviolent efforts, millions of Negroes will, out of
frustration and despair, seek solace and security in black-nationalist
ideologies—a development that would inevitably lead to a frightening
racial nightmare.
Oppressed people cannot remain oppressed forever. The yearning for
freedom eventually manifests itself, and that is what has happened to the
American Negro. Something within has reminded him of his birthright of
freedom, and something without has reminded him that it can be gained.
Consciously or unconsciously, he has been caught up by the Zeitgeist,2 and
with his black brothers of Africa and his brown and yellow brothers of
Asia, South America, and the Caribbean, the United States Negro is moving with a sense of great urgency toward the promised land of racial justice.
If one recognizes this vital urge that has engulfed the Negro community,
one should readily understand why public demonstrations are taking
place. The Negro has many pent-up resentments and latent frustrations,
and he must release them. So let him march; let him make prayer pilgrimages to the city hall; let him go on freedom rides—and try to understand
why he must do so. If his repressed emotions are not released in nonviolent
ways, they will seek expression through violence; this is not a threat but a
fact of history. So I have not said to my people: “Get rid of your discontent.” Rather, I have tried to say that this normal and healthy discontent can
be channeled into the creative outlet of nonviolent direct action. And now
this approach is being termed extremist.
But though I was initially disappointed at being categorized as an
extremist, as I continued to think about the matter I gradually gained a
measure of satisfaction from the label. Was not Jesus an extremist for love:
“Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate
you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and persecute you.” Was
2Zeitgeist
German for “spirit of the age.”
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not Amos an extremist for justice: “Let justice roll down like waters and
righteousness like an ever-flowing stream.” Was not Paul an extremist for
the Christian gospel: “I bear in my body the marks of the Lord Jesus.” Was
not Martin Luther an extremist; “Here I stand; I cannot do otherwise, so
help me God.” And John Bunyan: “I will stay in jail to the end of my days
before I make a butchery of my conscience.” And Abraham Lincoln: “This
nation cannot survive half slave and half free.” And Thomas Jefferson: “We
hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal. . . . ” So
the question is not whether we will be extremists, but what kind of
extremists we will be. Will we be extremists for hate or for love? Will we be
extremists for the preservation of injustice or for the extension of justice?
In that dramatic scene on Calvary’s hill three men were crucified. We must
never forget that all three were crucified for the same crime—the crime of
extremism. Two were extremists for immorality, and thus fell below their
environment. The other, Jesus Christ, was an extremist for love, truth, and
goodness, and thereby rose above his environment. Perhaps the South, the
nation, and the world are in dire need of creative extremists.
I had hoped that the white moderate would see this need. Perhaps I
was too optimistic; perhaps I expected too much. I suppose I should have
realized that few members of the oppressor race can understand the deep
groans and passionate yearnings of the oppressed race, and still fewer have
the vision to see that injustice must be rooted out by strong, persistent, and
determined action. I am thankful, however, that some of our white brothers in the South have grasped the meaning of this social revolution and
committed themselves to it. They are still all too few in quantity, but they
are big in quality. Some—such as Ralph McGill, Lillian Smith, Harry
Golden, James McBride Dabbs, Ann Braden, and Sarah Patton Boyle—
have written about our struggle in eloquent and prophetic terms. Others
have marched with us down nameless streets of the South. They have languished in filthy, roach-infested jails, suffering the abuse and brutality of
policemen who view them as “dirty nigger-lovers.” Unlike so many of their
moderate brothers and sisters, they have recognized the urgency of the
moment and sensed the need for powerful “action” antidotes to combat the
disease of segregation.
Let me take note of my other major disappointment. I have been so
greatly disappointed with the white church and its leadership. Of course,
there are some notable exceptions. I am not unmindful of the fact that each
of you has taken some significant stands on this issue. I commend you,
Reverend Stallings, for your Christian stand on this past Sunday, in
welcoming Negroes to your worship service on a nonsegregated basis.
I commend the Catholic leaders of this state for integrating Spring Hill
College several years ago.
But despite these notable exceptions, I must honestly reiterate that I
have been disappointed with the church. I do not say this as one of those
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negative critics who can always find something wrong with the church.
I say this as a minister of the gospel, who loves the church; who was
nurtured in its bosom; who has been sustained by its spiritual blessings
and who will remain true to it as long as the cord of life shall lengthen.
When I was suddenly catapulted into the leadership of the bus protest
in Montgomery, Alabama, a few years ago, I felt we would be supported by
the white church. I felt that the white ministers, priests, and rabbis of the
South would be among our strongest allies. Instead, some have been outright opponents, refusing to understand the freedom movement and misrepresenting its leaders; all too many others have been more cautious than
courageous and have remained silent behind the anesthetizing security of
stained-glass windows.
In spite of my shattered dreams, I came to Birmingham with the
hope that the white religious leadership of this community would see
the justice of our cause and, with deep moral concern, would serve as the
channel through which our just grievances could reach the power structure. I had hoped that each of you would understand. But again I have
been disappointed.
I have heard numerous southern religious leaders admonish their worshipers to comply with a desegregation decision because it is the law, but I
have longed to hear white ministers declare: “Follow this decree because
integration is morally right and because the Negro is your brother.” In the
midst of blatant injustices inflicted upon the Negro, I have watched white
churchmen stand on the sideline and mouth pious irrelevancies and sanctimonious trivialities. In the midst of a mighty struggle to rid our nation of
racial and economic injustice, I have heard many ministers say: “Those are
social issues, with which the gospel has no real concern.” And I have
watched many churches commit themselves to a completely otherworldly
religion which makes a strange, unbiblical distinction between body and
soul, between the sacred and the secular.
I have traveled the length and breadth of Alabama, Mississippi, and all
the other southern states. On sweltering summer days and crisp autumn
mornings I have looked at the South’s beautiful churches with their lofty
spires pointing heavenward. I have beheld the impressive outlines of her
massive religious-education buildings. Over and over I have found myself
saying: “What kind of people worship here? Who is their God? Where were
their voices when the lips of Governor Barnett dripped with words of
interposition and nullification? Where were they when Governor Wallace
gave a clarion call for defiance and hatred? Where were their voices of support when bruised and weary Negro men and women decided to rise from
the dark dungeons of complacency to the bright hills of creative protest?”
Yes, these questions are still in my mind. In deep disappointment I
have wept over the laxity of the church. But be assured that my tears have
been tears of love. There can be no deep disappointment where there is not
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deep love. Yes, I love the church. How could I do otherwise? I am in the
rather unique position of being the son, the grandson, and the greatgrandson of preachers. Yes, I see the church as the body of Christ. But, Oh!
How we have blemished and scarred that body through social neglect and
through fear of being nonconformists.
There was a time when the church was very powerful—in the time
when the early Christians rejoiced at being deemed worthy to suffer for
what they believed. In those days the church was not merely a thermometer that recorded the ideas and principles of popular opinion; it was a
thermostat that transformed the mores of society. Whenever the early
Christians entered a town, the people in power became disturbed and
immediately sought to convict the Christians for being “disturbers of the
peace” and “outside agitators.” But the Christians pressed on, in the conviction that they were “a colony of heaven,” called to obey God rather than
man. Small in number, they were big in commitment. They were too
God-intoxicated to be “astronomically intimidated.” By their effort and
example they brought an end to such ancient evils as infanticide and gladiatorial contests.
Things are different now. So often the contemporary church is a weak,
ineffectual voice with an uncertain sound. So often it is an archdefender of
the status quo. Far from being disturbed by the presence of the church, the
power structure of the average community is consoled by the church’s
silent—and often even vocal—sanction of things as they are.
But the judgment of God is upon the church as never before. If today’s
church does not recapture the sacrificial spirit of the early church, it will
lose its authenticity, forfelt the loyalty of millions, and be dismissed as an
irrelevant social club with no meaning for the twentieth century. Every day
I meet young people whose disappointment with the church has turned
into outright disgust.
Perhaps I have once again been too optimistic. Is organized religion
too inextricably bound to the status quo to save our nation and the world?
Perhaps I must turn my faith to the inner spiritual church, the church
within the church, as the true ekklesia and the hope of the world. But again
I am thankful to God that some noble souls from the ranks of organized
religion have broken loose from the paralyzing chains of conformity and
joined us as active partners in the struggle for freedom. They have left their
secure congregations and walked the streets of Albany, Georgia, with us.
They have gone down the highways of the South on tortuous rides for freedom. Yes, they have gone to jail with us. Some have been dismissed from
their churches, have lost the support of their bishops and fellow ministers.
But they have acted in the faith that right defeated is stronger than evil triumphant. Their witness has been the spiritual salt that has preserved the
true meaning of the gospel in these troubled times. They have carved a
tunnel of hope through the dark mountain of disappointment.
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I hope the church as a whole will meet the challenge of this decisive
hour. But even if the church does not come to the aid of justice, I have no
despair about the future. I have no fear about the outcome of our struggle
in Birmingham, even if our motives are at present misunderstood. We will
reach the goal of freedom in Birmingham and all over the nation, because
the goal of America is freedom. Abused and scorned though we may be,
our destiny is tied up with America’s destiny. Before the pilgrims landed at
Plymouth, we were here. Before the pen of Jefferson etched the majestic
words of the Declaration of Independence across the pages of history, we
were here. For more than two centuries our forebears labored in this country without wages; they made cotton king; they built the homes of their
masters while suffering gross injustice and shameful humiliation—and yet
out of a bottomless vitality they continue to thrive and develop. If the inexpressible cruelties of slavery could not stop us, the opposition we now face
will surely fail. We will win our freedom because the sacred heritage of our
nation and the eternal will of God are embodied in our echoing demands.
Before closing I feel impelled to mention one other point in your statement that has troubled me profoundly. You warmly commended the
Birmingham police force for keeping “order” and “preventing violence.” I
doubt that you would have so warmly commended the police force if you
had seen its dogs sinking their teeth into unarmed, nonviolent Negroes. I
doubt that you would so quickly commend the policemen if you were to
observe their ugly and inhumane treatment of Negroes here in the city jail;
if you were to watch them push and curse old Negro women and young
Negro girls; if you were to see them slap and kick old Negro men and
young boys; if you were to observe them, as they did on two occasions,
refuse to give us food because we wanted to sing our grace together. I cannot join you in your praise of the Birmingham police department.
It is true that the police have exercised a degree of discipline in
handling the demonstrators. In this sense they have conducted themselves
rather “nonviolently” in public. But for what purpose? To preserve the evil
system of segregation. Over the past few years I have consistently preached
that nonviolence demands that the means we use must be as pure as the
ends we seek. I have tried to make clear that it is wrong to use immoral
means to attain moral ends. But now I must affirm that it is just as wrong,
or perhaps even more so, to use moral means to preserve immoral ends.
Perhaps Mr. Connor and his policemen have been rather nonviolent in
public, as was Chief Pritchett in Albany, Georgia, but they used the moral
means of nonviolence to maintain the immoral end of racial injustice. As
T. S. Eliot has said: “The last temptation is the greatest treason: To do the
right deed for the wrong reason.”
I wish you had commended the Negro sit-inners and demonstrators of
Birmingham for their sublime courage, their willingness to suffer, and
their amazing discipline in the midst of great provocation. One day the
South will recognize its real heroes. They will be the James Merediths, with
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the noble sense of purpose that enables them to face jeering and hostile
mobs, and with the agonizing loneliness that characterizes the life of the
pioneer. They will be old, oppressed, battered Negro women, symbolized
in a seventy-two-year-old woman in Montgomery, Alabama, who rose up
with a sense of dignity and with her people decided not to ride segregated
buses, and who responded with ungrammatical profundity to one who
inquired about her weariness: “My feets is tired, but my soul is at rest.”
They will be the young high school and college students, the young ministers of the gospel and a host of their elders, courageously and nonviolently
sitting in at lunch counters and willingly going to jail for conscience’ sake.
One day the South will know that when these disinherited children of God
sat down at lunch counters, they were in reality standing up for what is best
in the American dream and for the most sacred values in our JudaeoChristian heritage, thereby bringing our nation back to those great wells of
democracy which were dug deep by the founding fathers in their formulation of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence.
Never before have I written so long a letter. I’m afraid it is much too
long to take your precious time. I can assure you that it would have been
much shorter if I had been writing from a comfortable desk, but what else
can one do when he is alone in a narrow jail cell, other than write long letters, think long thoughts, and pray long prayers?
If I have said anything in this letter that overstates the truth and indicates
an unreasonable impatience, I beg you to forgive me. If I have said anything
that understates the truth and indicates my having a patience that allows me
to settle for anything less than brotherhood, I beg God to forgive me.
I hope this letter finds you strong in the faith. I also hope that circumstances will soon make it possible for me to meet each of you, not as an
integrationist or a civil-rights leader but as a fellow clergyman and a Christian brother. Let us all hope that the dark clouds of racial prejudice will
soon pass away and the deep fog of misunderstanding will be lifted from
our fear-drenched communities, and in some not too distant tomorrow
the radiant stars of love and brotherhood will shine over our great nation
with all their scintillating beauty.
Yours for the cause of Peace and Brotherhood,
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Textual Questions
1. Consider the letter “A Call for Unity” to which King’s own letter is a
response. What points are made in “A Call for Unity”? How does King
address each of these points in his own letter, directly and/or indirectly?
2. Where does King use “I” in his letter? Where does he use “we” and
“us”? Where does he use “you”? Why, when he uses each of these
pronouns, does he choose to do so?
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3. Where and how does King define himself in his letter—and his goals
and reasons for participating in the march that led to his confinement?
Rhetorical Questions
4. As a response, directly, to “A Call for Unity,” how persuasive is “Letter
from Birmingham Jail”? As an indirect call to the nation’s people as a
whole, how effective are both letters? What makes one weaker/stronger
than the other?
5. Are both of these letters—“A Call for Unity” and “Letter from
Birmingham Jail”—written to the same audience? If so, then how can
you tell? If not, then to whom is each letter written, and how is this
clear to you?
6. What references to religion does King make, where, and why? In what
way are these references a response to “A Call for Unity”? In what way
are these something else entirely?
Intertextual Questions
7. Compare “Letter from Birmingham Jail” with “I Have a Dream”
(chapter one). How are these two texts alike? How are they different?
8. In what ways is President Lyndon B. Johnson’s speech “The Great
Society” (chapter one) similar to or different from King’s “Letter from
Birmingham Jail”?
Thinking Beyond the Text
9. Would King’s “Letter from Birmingham Jail,” with its many references
to religion, be as persuasive if penned today as it was in the 1960s?
Why? What has/has not changed in America that would affect the ways
in which the religious rhetoric of this letter is perceived?
10. Given the massive inequities between white and black America in
1963, and the violence with which many civil rights marches were
being met, how does King establish and maintain a reasonable, rational, moderate tone in his argument? Ultimately, do you believe that
change occurred because of this moderation or in spite of it?
For Writing & Discussion
11. King’s “Letter from Birmingham Jail” is a response to “A Call for
Unity,” but what were the immediate responses to King’s letter itself?
Searching online and/or in your school’s library, locate at least one
response to King’s letter and bring it to class to read aloud.
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RO B E RT F. K E N N E DY
The younger brother of President John Fitzgerald Kennedy,
Robert “Bobby” Kennedy (1925–1968) was Attorney General in
his brother’s administration and under Lyndon B. Johnson after
JFK’s assassination in 1963. From 1964–1968 Kennedy represented
New York in the U.S. Senate, and he ran for the Democratic
presidential nomination in 1968. A powerful civil rights advocate,
Kennedy supported the integration of universities, busing in
public schools, anti-poverty programs, and the Voting Rights Act
of 1965. Kennedy was assassinated in June 1968, two months after
the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.
Kennedy gave this unplanned, unscripted speech, “On the
Death of Martin Luther King, Jr.,” when he learned of King’s death
while on a campaign stop in Indianapolis, Indiana. Audience members, many of whom were African American, had not yet heard
about the assassination. Considering the rioting in other cities
following the announcement, some of his advisors suggested he
cancel the speech. Instead Kennedy chose not only to appear but
also to speak directly about the racism that King had dedicated his
life to overcoming and to plead with his listeners, black and white, to
continue King’s work.
On the Death of Martin Luther King, Jr.
Prereading Question
Assassinations of major political figures in America are, ultimately, quite rare,
overall. Yet the 1960s saw many such assassinations—President John F.
Kennedy, Medgar Evars, Martin Luther King, Jr., Robert Kennedy. Why?
April 4, 1968
Indianapolis, Indiana
I have bad news for you, for all of our fellow citizens, and people who love
peace all over the world, and that is that Martin Luther King was shot and
killed tonight.
Martin Luther King dedicated his life to love and to justice for his fellow human beings, and he died because of that effort.
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In this difficult day, in this difficult time for the United States, it is
perhaps well to ask what kind of a nation we are and what direction we
want to move in. For those of you who are black—considering the evidence there evidently is that there were white people who were responsible—
you can be filled with bitterness, with hatred, and a desire for revenge. We
can move in that direction as a country, in great polarization—black
people amongst black, white people amongst white, filled with hatred
toward one another.
Or we can make an effort, as Martin Luther King did, to understand
and to comprehend, and to replace that violence, that stain of bloodshed
that has spread across our land, with an effort to understand with compassion and love.
For those of you who are black and are tempted to be filled with hatred
and distrust at the injustice of such an act, against all white people, I can only
say that I feel in my own heart the same kind of feeling. I had a member of
my family killed, but he was killed by a white man. But we have to make an
effort in the United States, we have to make an effort to understand, to go
beyond these rather difficult times.
My favorite poet was Aesehylus. He wrote: “In our sleep, pain which
cannot forget falls drop by drop upon the heart until, in our own
despair, against our will, comes wisdom through the awful grace
of God.”
What we need in the United States is not division; what we need in the
United States is not hatred; what we need in the United States is not violence or lawlessness; but love and wisdom, and compassion toward one
another, and a feeling of justice toward those who still suffer within our
country, whether they be white or they be black.
So I shall ask you tonight to return home, to say a prayer for the family
of Martin Luther King, that’s true, but more importantly to say a prayer for
our own country, which all of us love—a prayer for understanding and
that compassion of which I spoke.
We can do well in this country. We will have difficult times; we’ve had
difficult times in the past; we will have difficult times in the future. It is not
the end of violence; it is not the end of lawlessness; it is not the end of
disorder.
But the vast majority of white people and the vast majority of black
people in this country want to live together, want to improve the
quality of our life, and want justice for all human beings who abide in
our land.
Let us dedicate ourselves to what the Greeks wrote so many years ago:
to tame the savageness of man and make gentle the life of this world.
Let us dedicate ourselves to that, and say a prayer for our country and
for our people.
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Textual Questions
1. Where does Kennedy use “I” and where does he use “we” in his speech?
Why? What effect does each have, in its place?
2. How and where does Kennedy use the death of Martin Luther King, Jr.
to make a larger point about America’s present and future?
3. How is Kennedy’s speech organized so that it builds logically and emotionally to its climax in the last two paragraphs?
Rhetorical Questions
4. Kennedy, on the campaign trail for President of the United States at the
time, was advised not to mention the death of Martin Luther King, Jr.,
in his speech—even though it had just happened, and the members of
his audience did not yet know. Why does he, instead, choose not only to
mention the death of MLK but to use this tragedy to make a point
about America? Why might his advisers have been against any mention
of MLK?
5. Consider paragraphs 3 and 4. How effective is Kennedy’s explanation
of what could happen—paragraph 3—and what should happen (paragraph 4)? Is the effect of the latter heightened by its placement after the
former? Why?
6. What call to action does Kennedy make in his speech, and how effectively does he make it?
Intertextual Questions
7. How does Kennedy’s description of the possible legacies of the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. compare with the description of this
same tragedy offered by Cesar Chavez (later in this chapter)?
8. If the dates of their assassinations were reversed, then how might
Martin Luther King, Jr. have responded to the death of Robert F.
Kennedy? Why?
Thinking Beyond the Text
9. Why would Robert Kennedy be in a position to speak with great
authority on issues of racism, violence, and hatred in America?
10. Based upon the modern American definition, would you consider the
assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. a terrorist act? Would the
assassinations of President John F. Kennedy and presidential candidate
Robert Kennedy also be terrorist acts? Why/why not?
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For Writing & Discussion
11. Searching online or in your library, examine how other prominent
Americans responded to the death of Martin Luther King, Jr. In what
ways were their responses similar to that of Robert Kennedy? How
were their responses different?
MICHAEL LEVIN
Michael Levin (1944? –) is a professor of philosophy in the Honors
College of the City College of New York (CCNY). He has published
widely in scholarly journals and also in nonacademic publications
including Newsweek and the National Review.
“The Case for Torture” was first published in Newsweek in
1982. It poses a range of hypothetical situations in which, Levin
suggests, torture is in fact an acceptable option. Levin also has
written on affirmative action, feminism, race, and other topics.
His books include Feminism and Freedom (1987), Why Race
Matters: Race Differences and What They Mean (1997), and
Sexual Orientation and Human Rights (1999, with Laurence M.
Thomas).
Levin, who has called for the repeal of the 1964 Civil Rights
Act and other anti-discrimination legislation, has sparked considerable controversy. In the 1980s he was picketed at CCNY by
student members of the International Committee Against Racism
for an anti-affirmative action letter he wrote to the New York
Times, and in 1988 was formally censured by the faculty senate at
CCNY for another article, although the senate also supported his
right to freedom of expression.
The Case for Torture
Prereading Question
How do you define “torture”? What, physically, can be considered torturous?
Mentally? Is there a “spiritual torture”?
It is generally assumed that torture is impermissible, a throwback to
a more brutal age. Enlightened societies reject it outright, and regimes
suspected of using it risk the wrath of the United States.
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I believe this attitude is unwise. There are situations in which torture is
not merely permissible but morally mandatory. Moreover, these situations
are moving from the realm of imagination to fact.
Suppose a terrorist has hidden an atomic bomb on Manhattan Island
which will detonate at noon on July 4 unless . . . (here follow the usual
demands for money and release of his friends from jail). Suppose, further,
that he is caught at 10 A.M. of the fateful day, but—preferring death to
failure—won’t disclose where the bomb is. What do we do? If we follow
due process—wait for his lawyer, arraign him—millions of people will
die. If the only way to save those lives is to subject the terrorist to the most
excruciating possible pain, what grounds can there be for not doing so? I
suggest there are none. In any case, I ask you to face the question with an
open mind.
Torturing the terrorist is unconstitutional? Probably. But millions of
lives surely outweigh constitutionality. Torture is barbaric? Mass murder
is far more barbaric. Indeed, letting millions of innocents die in deference to one who flaunts his guilt is moral cowardice, an unwillingness to
dirty one’s hands. If you caught the terrorist, could you sleep nights
knowing that millions died because you couldn’t bring yourself to apply
the electrodes?
Once you concede that torture is justified in extreme cases, you have
admitted that the decision to use torture is a matter of balancing innocent
lives against the means needed to save them. You must now face more
realistic cases involving more modest numbers. Someone plants a bomb
on a jumbo jet. He alone can disarm it, and his demands cannot be met
(or if they can, we refuse to set a precedent by yielding to his threats).
Surely we can, we must, do anything to the extortionist to save the passengers. How can we tell 300, or 100, or 10 people who never asked to be put
in danger, “I’m sorry, you’ll have to die in agony, we just couldn’t bring
ourselves to . . .”
Here are the results of an informal poll about a third, hypothetical, case.
Suppose a terrorist group kidnapped a newborn baby from a hospital. I asked
four mothers if they would approve of torturing kidnappers if that were
necessary to get their own newborns back. All said yes, the most “liberal”
adding that she would administer it herself.
I am not advocating torture as punishment. Punishment is addressed
to deeds irrevocably past. Rather, I am advocating torture as an acceptable
measure for preventing future evils. So understood, it is far less objectionable than many extant punishments. Opponents of the death penalty, for
example, are forever insisting that executing a murderer will not bring back
his victim (as if the purpose of capital punishment were supposed to be
resurrection, not deterrence or retribution). But torture, in the cases
described, is intended not to bring anyone back but to keep innocents from
being dispatched. The most powerful argument against using torture as
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a punishment or to secure confessions is that such practices disregard the
rights of the individual. Well, if the individual is all that important—and
he is—it is correspondingly important to protect the rights of individuals
threatened by terrorists. If life is so valuable that it must never be taken, the
lives of the innocents must be saved even at the price of hurting the one
who endangers them.
Better precedents for torture are assassination and preemptive attack.
No Allied leader would have flinched at assassinating Hitler, had that been
possible. (The Allies did assassinate Heydrich.) Americans would be
angered to learn that Roosevelt could have had Hitler killed in 1943—
thereby shortening the war and saving millions of lives—but refused on
moral grounds. Similarly, if nation A learns that nation B is about to
launch an unprovoked attack, A has a right to save itself by destroying B’s
military capability first. In the same way, if the police can by torture save
those who would otherwise die at the hands of kidnappers or terrorists,
they must.
There is an important difference between terrorists and their victims
that should mute talk of the terrorists’“rights.” The terrorist’s victims are at
risk unintentionally, not having asked to be endangered. But the terrorist
knowingly initiated his actions. Unlike his victims, he volunteered for the
risks of his deed. By threatening to kill for profit or idealism, he renounces
civilized standards, and he can have no complaint if civilization tries to
thwart him by whatever means necessary.
Just as torture is justified only to save lives (not extort confessions or
recantations), it is justifiably administered only to those known to hold
innocent lives in their hands. Ah, but how can the authorities ever be sure
they have the right malefactor? Isn’t there a danger of error and abuse?
Won’t We turn into Them?
Questions like these are disingenuous in a world in which terrorists
proclaim themselves and perform for television. The name of their game is
public recognition. After all, you can’t very well intimidate a government
into releasing your freedom fighters unless you announce that it is your
group that has seized its embassy. “Clear guilt” is difficult to define, but
when 40 million people see a group of masked gunmen seize an airplane
on the evening news, there is not much question about who the perpetrators are. There will be hard cases where the situation is murkier. Nonetheless, a line demarcating the legitimate use of torture can be drawn. Torture
only the obviously guilty, and only for the sake of saving innocents, and the
line between Us and Them will remain clear.
There is little danger that the Western democracies will lose their way
if they choose to inflict pain as one way of preserving order. Paralysis in the
face of evil is the greater danger. Some day soon a terrorist will threaten
tens of thousands of lives, and torture will be the only way to save them.
We had better start thinking about this.
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Textual Questions
1. How does Levin’s opening paragraph make a point about torture that
is completely reversed in paragraph 2? Why?
2. In paragraph 4, Levin asks and answers a short set of questions. How
well does this Q&A structure work for you as a reader? Does it develop
his points enough to allow them to be persuasive?
3. What examples does Levin use to construct his argument? What comparisons does he make? What ultimate point does he make about the
use of torture by a nation such as the United States?
Rhetorical Questions
4. Levin’s essay was published in 1982, nearly 20 years before the terrorist
attacks of 9/11 and the long War on Terror. How would his essay need
to be revised if it were to be published today? What changes would you
make and why?
5. Levin writes that “Torturing the terrorist is unconstitutional? Probably. But millions of lives surely outweigh constitutionality.” There are
two assertions here, separated by “Probably.” Do you agree with
either/both? Why or why not?
6. Where does Levin appeal to reason in his essay? Where does he appeal
to emotion? Which is most effective, in your opinion, and why?
How does Levin, in his argument built around reason and emotion,
build to his final paragraph? And do you agree or disagree with his
final points? Why?
Intertextual Questions
7. How does Levin’s discussion of torture compare with that of Andrew C.
McCarthy in “Torture: Thinking about the Unthinkable” (Chapter 7)?
8. Based upon your reading of “Just War—or a Just War?” (Chapter 7)
how would former President Jimmy Carter respond to Levin’s
argument—as a politician, a statesman, and a man of faith?
Thinking Beyond the Text
9. Levin’s argument is built on a foundation of emotional logic: Of
course it’s better to hurt one person if the lives of millions can be
saved. But is emotional logic enough? If a terrorist plans to attack a
free nation of laws by killing millions of its citizens, what does it mean
for the nation if its legal representative breaks its laws in order to save
the lives of those millions? Lives are saved, but is the nation saved?
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10. There are nations that allow what the United States considers torture
of suspected criminals such as terrorists. Yet the information gained
through torture is frequently flawed or fabricated, according to
experts. If the information itself may prove useless, and the terrorist’s
attack may or may not be foiled because the terrorist is tortured, then
is the use of torture justified? Logical? Ethical?
For Writing & Discussion
11. What nations allow the torture of prisoners—and under what circumstances? Where does the United States stand, legally, on the issue of
torture? What treatment does the United States legally allow of its
prisoners—either enemy combatants or criminals—that is/can be
considered torture?
RONALD REAGAN
Ronald Reagan (1911–2004) served as governor of California
from 1967–1975, and as president of the United States from
1981–1989. Before entering politics, he worked as a radio sports
announcer, movie and television actor, and head of the Screen
Actors Guild. As a politician, Reagan was a social and fiscal conservative and a strong promoter of supply-side economics and of
a military buildup that was based on the concept of “peace
through strength.” Opponents liked to call Reagan “The Teflon
President” because no criticism seemed to stick to him, while
supporters dubbed him “The Great Communicator” because of
his personable delivery.
In the speech “America’s Best Days are Yet to Come,” delivered at the 1992 Republican Convention in Houston, Reagan
supported President George H. W. Bush and Vice-President Dan
Quayle’s bid for a second term. This and other speeches are
available in Speaking My Mind: Selected Speeches (2004).
Reagan’s 1992 speech shows his characteristic optimism and
humor while also stressing the values that characterized his
presidency. For example, Reagan is remembered for ending an
American policy of détente and shifting the United States
toward a more interventionist foreign policy. In keeping with
that, his speech illustrates his belief that America’s focus on civil
rights should extend beyond its own citizens to people in other
countries.
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America’s Best Days are Yet to Come
Prereading Question
One aspect of the American dream is the belief that America is always getting
better—safer, stronger, more prosperous. The implications of this for the
present are two: (1) The future will be better than the present and (2) the past
was, by definition, worse than the present. Would you agree that either of
these assertions is true? Or are both simply easy ways of talking about the
past/future that don’t require any critical thought?
Delivered at the Republican National Convention, Houston, Texas, August 17,
1992
Thank you. Thank you very much. Thank you, Paul for that kind introduction. And Mr. Chairman, delegates, friends, fellow Americans, thank
you so very much for that welcome.
You’ve given Nancy and me so many wonderful memories, so much
of your warmth and affection, we cannot thank you enough for the
honor of your friendship.
Over the years, I’ve addressed this convention as a private citizen, as a
governor, as a presidential candidate, as a president. And now, once again
tonight, as private citizen Ronald Reagan.
Tonight is a very special night for me. Of course, at my age, every
night’s a special night. After all—after all, I was born in 1911. Indeed,
according to the experts, I have exceeded my life expectancy by quite a few
years. Now, this is a source of great annoyance to some, especially those in
the Democratic party.
But, here’s the remarkable thing about being born in 1911. In my life’s
journey over these past eight decades, I have seen the human race through
a period of unparalleled tumult and triumph. I have seen the birth of
communism and the death of communism. I have witnessed the bloody
futility of two World Wars, and Korea, Vietnam and the Persian Gulf. I have
seen Germany united, divided and united again. I have seen television
grow from a parlor novelty to become the most powerful vehicle of communication in history. As a boy, I saw streets filled with model-T’s. As
a man, I have met men who walked on the moon.
I have not only seen, but lived the marvels of what historians have called
the “American Century.”Yet, tonight is not a time to look backward. For while
I take inspiration from the past, like most Americans, I live for the future.
So this evening, for just a few minutes, I hope you will let me talk
about a country that is forever young.
There was a time when empires were defined by land mass, subjugated
peoples, and military might. But the United States is unique because we are
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an empire of ideals. For two hundred years we have been set apart by our
faith in the ideals of democracy, of free men and free markets, and of the
extraordinary possibilities that lie within seemingly ordinary men and
women. We believe that no power of government is as formidable a force for
good as the creativity and entrepreneurial drive of the American people.
Those are the ideals that invented revolutionary technologies and a culture envied by people everywhere. This powerful sense of energy has made
America synonymous for opportunity the world over. And after generations
of struggle, America is the moral force that defeated communism—and all
those who would put the human soul itself into bondage.
But in a few short years, we Americans have experienced the most
sweeping changes of this century—the fall of the Soviet Union and the rise
of the global economy. No transition is without its problems, but as
uncomfortable as it may feel at the moment, the changes of the 1990s will
leave America more dynamic and less in danger than at any time in my life.
A fellow named James Allen once wrote in his diary, “many thinking
people believe America has seen its best days.” He wrote that July 26, 1775.
There are still those who believe America is weakening, that our glory was
the brief flash of time called the 20th Century, that ours was a burst of
greatness too bright and brilliant to sustain, that America’s purpose is past.
My friends, I utterly reject those views. That’s not the America we know.
We were meant to be masters of destiny, not victims of fate. Who
among us would trade America’s future for that of any other country in the
world? And who could possibly have so little faith in our American people
that they would trade our tomorrow for our yesterday? I’ll give you a hint.
They put on quite a production in New York a few weeks ago.
You might even call it “slick.”
A stone’s throw from Broadway, it was. And how appropriate. Over
and over they told us they were not the party they were. They kept telling
us with straight faces that they’re for family values, they’re for a strong
America, they’re for less intrusive government. And they call me an actor!
To hear them—to hear them talk, you’d never know that the nightmare of nuclear annihilation has been lifted from our sleep. You’d never
know that our standard of living remains the highest in the world. You’d
never know that our air is cleaner than it was 20 years ago. You’d never
know that we remain the one nation the rest of the world looks to for
leadership.
All right. All right, thank you.
It always—or wasn’t always this way. We mustn’t forget, even if they
would like to, the very different America that existed just twelve years
ago—an America with 21 percent interest rates and back-to-back years of
double-digit inflation; an America where mortgage payments doubled,
pay-checks plunged, and motorists sat in gas lines; an America whose
leaders told us it was our own fault, that ours was a future of scarcity and
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sacrifice, and that what we really needed was another good dose of government
control and higher taxes.
It wasn’t so long ago that the world was a far more dangerous place as
well. It was a world where aggressive Soviet communism was on the rise
and America’s strength was in decline. It was a world where our children
came of age under the threat of nuclear holocaust. It was a world where
our leaders told us that standing up to aggressors was dangerous, that
American might and determination were somehow obstacles to peace.
But we stood tall and proclaimed that communism was destined for
the ash-heap of history. We never heard so much ridicule from our liberal
friends. The only thing that got them more upset was two simple words:
“Evil Empire.”
But we knew then what the liberal Democrat leaders just couldn’t
figure out—the sky would not fall if America restored her strength and
resolve, the sky would not fall if an American president spoke the truth.
The only thing that would fall was the Berlin Wall.
I heard those speakers at that other convention saying “we won the Cold
War.”And I couldn’t help wondering, just who exactly do they mean by “we”?
All right. And to top it off—to top it off, they even tried to portray themselves as sharing the same fundamental values of our party. But, they truly
don’t understand the principle so eloquently stated by Abraham Lincoln:
You cannot strengthen the weak by weakening the strong. You cannot help the
wage-earner by pulling down the wage-payer. You cannot help the poor by
destroying the rich. You cannot help men permanently by doing for them
what they could and should do for themselves.
If we ever hear the Democrats quoting that passage by Lincoln and
acting like they mean it, then my friends, we will know that the opposition
has really changed. Until then, when we see all that rhetorical smoke blowing out from the Democrats, well Ladies and Gentlemen, I’d follow the
example of their nominee—don’t inhale.
All right. But listen to me. This fellow they’ve nominated claims he’s
the new Thomas Jefferson. Well, let me tell you something—I knew
Thomas Jefferson. He was a friend of mine. And, governor, you’re no
Thomas Jefferson.
But now, let’s not dismiss our current troubles. But where they see only
problems, I see possibilities as vast and diverse as the American family
itself. Even as we meet, the rest of the world is astounded by the pundits
and fingerpointers who are so down on us as a nation.
Well I’ve said it before and I’ll say it again: America’s best days are yet
to come.
Our proudest moments are yet to be. Our most glorious achievements
are just ahead. America remains what Emerson called her 150 years ago,
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“the country of tomorrow.” What a wonderful description and how true.
And yet tomorrow might never have happened had we lacked the courage
in the 1980s to chart a course of strength and honor.
All the more reason—all the more reason no one should underestimate
the importance of this campaign and what the outcome will mean. The stakes
are high. The presidency is serious business. We cannot afford to take a
chance. We need a man of serious purpose, unmatched experience, knowledge and ability—a man who understands government, who understands our
country and who understands the world—a man who has been at the table
with Gorbachev and Yeltsin—a man whose performance as commanderin-chief of the bravest and most effective fighting force in history left the
world in awe and the people of Kuwait free of foreign tyranny—yes, yes, yes,
four more years, a man who has devoted more than half of his life to serving
his country—a man of decency, integrity and honor.
And tonight I come to tell you that I warmly, genuinely, wholeheartedly support the reelection of George Bush as President of the United
States.
All right. Okay. All right.
We know President Bush. By his own admission, he is a quiet man, not
a showman. He is a trustworthy and level-headed leader who is respected
around the world. His is a steady hand on the tiller through the choppy
waters of the ’90s, which is exactly what we need. We need George Bush!
Yes—yes—yes—we need Bush. We also need another real fighter,
a man who happens to be with us this evening, someone—someone who
has repeatedly stood up for his deepest convictions. We need our vice president, Dan Quayle.
Now—now—now, it’s true. A lot of liberal Democrats are saying it’s
time for a change. And they’re right. The only trouble is they’re pointing to
the wrong end of Pennsylvania Avenue.
What we should change is a Democratic Congress that wastes precious
time on partisan matters of absolutely no relevance to the needs of the
average American. So to all the entrenched interests along the Potomac—
the gavel-wielding chairmen, the bloated staffs, the taxers and takers and
congressional rulemakers—we have a simple slogan for November 1992:
Clean House!
Yes, yes—
For you see, my fellow Republicans, we are the change! For 50 of the last
60 years, the Democrats have controlled the Senate. And they’ve had the
House of Representatives for 56 of the last 60 years. It is time to clean house,
to clean out the privileges and perks, clean out the arrogance and the big
egos, clean out the scandals, the corner-cutting and the foot-dragging. What
kind of job do you think they’ve done during all those years they’ve been
running the Congress?
You’re absolutely right.
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RONALD REAGAN America’s Best Days are Yet to Come
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You know, I used to say to some of those Democrats who chair every
committee in the House: “You need to balance the Government’s checkbook the same way you balance your own.” Then I learned how they ran
the House bank—and I realized that was exactly what they had been doing!
Now just change what they would do if they controlled the Executive
Branch, too!
This is the 21st presidential election in my lifetime, the 16th in which
I will cast a ballot. Each of those elections had its shifting moods of the
moment, its headlines of one day that were forgotten the next. There have
been a few more twists and turns this year than in others, a little more
shouting about who was up or down, in or out, as we went about selecting
our candidates. But now we have arrived, as we always do, at the moment
of truth—the serious business of selecting a president.
Now is the time for choosing.
As it did twelve years ago, and as we have seen many times in history,
our country stands at a crossroads. There is widespread doubt about our
public institutions and profound concern, not merely about the economy
but about the overall direction of this great country. And as they did then,
the American people are clamoring for change and sweeping reform. The
kind of question we had to ask twelve years ago is the question we ask
today, what kind of change can we Republicans offer the American people?
Some might believe that the things we’ve talked about tonight are
irrelevant to the choice. These new isolationists claim that the American
people don’t care about how or why we prevailed in the great defining
struggle of our age, the victory of liberty over our adversaries. They insist
that our triumph is yesterday’s news, part of a past that holds no lessons for
the future.
Well nothing could be more tragic, after having come all this way on
the journey of renewal we began 12 years ago, then if America herself forgot the lessons of individual liberty that she has taught to a grateful world.
Emerson was right. We are the country of tomorrow. Our revolution
did not end at Yorktown. More than two centuries later, America remains
on a voyage of discovery, a land that has never become, but is always in the
act of becoming.
But just as we have led the crusade for democracy beyond our shores,
we have a great task to do together in our own home. Now, I would appeal
to you to invigorate democracy in your own neighborhoods.
Whether we come from poverty or wealth; whether we are AfroAmerican or Irish-American; Christian or Jewish, from the big cities or
small towns, we are all equal in the eyes of God. But as Americans, that
is not enough. We must be equal in the eyes of each other. We can no
longer judge each other on the basis of what we are, but must, instead,
start finding out who we are. In America, our origins matter less than our
destinations and that is what democracy is all about.
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A decade after we summoned America to a new beginning, we are
beginning still. Every day brings fresh challenges and opportunities to
match. With each sunrise we are reminded that millions of our citizens
have yet to share in the abundance of American prosperity. Many languish
in neighborhoods riddled with drugs and bereft of hope. Still others hesitate to venture out on the streets for fear of criminal violence. Let us pledge
ourselves to a new beginning for them.
Let us apply our ingenuity and remarkable spirit to revolutionize education in America so that everyone among us will have the mental tools to
build a better life. And while we do so, let’s remember that the most profound education begins in the home.
And let us harness the competitive energy that built America into
rebuilding our inner cities so that real jobs can be created for those who
live there and real hope can rise out of despair.
Let us strengthen our health care system so that Americans of all ages
can be secure in their futures without the fear of financial ruin.
And my friends, once and for all, let us get control of the federal deficit
through a Balanced Budget Amendment—yes—yes—yes—, a budget
amendment and a line item veto for the president.
And let us all renew our commitment, Renew our pledge to day by day,
person by person, make our country and the world a better place to live.
Then when the nations of the world turn to us and say, “America, you are
the model of freedom and prosperity,” we can turn to them and say, “you
ain’t seen nothing, yet!”
For me, tonight is the latest chapter in a story that began a quarter of a
century ago, when the people of California entrusted me with the stewardship of their dreams.
My fellow citizens—those of you here in this hall and those of you at
home—I want you to know that I have always had the highest respect for
you, for your common sense and intelligence and for your decency. I have
always believed in you and in what you could accomplish for yourselves
and for others.
And whatever else history may say about me when I’m gone, I hope it
will record that I appealed to your best hopes, not your worst fears, to your
confidence rather than your doubts. My dream is that you will travel the
road ahead with liberty’s lamp guiding your steps and opportunity’s arm
steadying your way.
My fondest hope for each one of you, and especially for the young
people here—Friends, what this is, is my hope that you will love your country, not for her power or wealth, but for her selflessness and her idealism.
May each of you have the heart to conceive, the understanding to direct, and
the hand to execute works that will make the world a little better for your
having been here.
May all of you as Americans never forget your heroic origins, never fail
to seek divine guidance, and never lose your natural, God-given optimism.
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And finally, my fellow Americans, may every dawn be a great new
beginning for America and every evening bring us closer to that shining
city upon a hill.
Before I go, I would like to ask the person who has made my life’s journey so meaningful, someone I have been so very proud of over the years, to
join me. Nancy—
My fellow Americans—my fellow Americans, on behalf of both of us,
goodbye and God bless each and every one of you. And God bless this
country we love.
Textual Questions
1. How does Ronald Reagan describe “the America that [he] know[s]”?
How does his view of America contrast with the view of those who
would argue against him?
2. Where and how does Ronald Reagan make references to American
history, both recent and distant?
3. What major points does Ronald Reagan make in his concluding section, beginning with the single-sentence paragraph “Now is the time
for choosing”? Which of these points are most persuasive and why?
Which are least persuasive and why?
Rhetorical Questions
4. Ronald Reagan’s text is addressed to two primary audiences—the
immediate delegates at the 1992 Republican National Convention and
the millions of television viewers. How does he tailor the speech simultaneously to both audiences—one obviously and entirely sympathetic
to him and to his views of America and one that may agree, disagree,
or not care at all?
5. How does Reagan use his own experiences, his first-person perspective, to organize his entire essay? How effective is this organization?
Why? What makes this organization especially effective or ineffective
for a speech made by this man at this time in this place?
6. Reread “America’s Best Days are Yet to Come” and mark all/each of the
words that has totally positive connotations and denotations—words such
as “hope” and “faith,” for example. How many of these kinds of words does
Reagan use? Where? Why are there so many of them in so many places?
Intertextual Questions
7. How do former President Ronald Reagan’s assertions in this speech
directly contradict the assertions made by President Jimmy Carter in
“Energy Crisis” (in the introduction to this textbook)?
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8. How does Ronald Reagan’s optimism about America and its future
compare and contrast with the view of America offered by Michael
Ignatieff in “Who Are Americans to Think That Freedom Is Theirs to
Spread?” (Chapter 7)?
Thinking Beyond the Text
9. If the American generation that fought the Second World War is called
“The Greatest Generation,” as it often is, then doesn’t that, by default,
mean that America has been in a steady arc of descent since 1945? Could
you, whether you believe it or not, construct a version of America’s
history that completely refutes that offered by former President Reagan?
What events would you include?
10. Considering that the Republican candidate for President in 1992,
George H. W. Bush, lost the election, why did American voters favor
William Jefferson Clinton (in both the 1992 and 1996 elections)? What
did Reagan perhaps leave out of his description of America, the
Republican Party, and the Democratic Party that could account for the
Republican loss?
For Writing & Discussion
11. Searching online or in your school’s library, locate an archive of television campaign advertisements from 1980 and 1984, the two years in
which Ronald Reagan was elected president of the United States. Select
one ad and, in a short essay, explain how the ad expresses the same
view of America that Reagan expresses in his speech.
C E S A R C H AV E Z
Cesar Chavez (1927–1993) was a farm worker’s rights advocate
and founder of the National Farm Workers Association (NFWA)
which later became the United Farm Workers (UFW).
Born and raised in a family of migrant farm workers, Chavez
began working in the fields at the age of 10 when his family lost
their Arizona farm during the Great Depression. He served in
the U.S. Navy during World War II, then settled in California
where he worked on farms and began his civil rights career by
speaking out in favor of worker’s rights. During the 1950s he
worked for the Community Services Organization, a Latino civil
rights group, and in 1962 he and Dolores Huerta founded the
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NFWA/UFW. The UFW’s first major campaign, a boycott of
table grapes in support of California’s migrant grape-pickers,
was supported by then-Senator Robert Kennedy and was ultimately successful. The UFW has continued supporting farm
workers in many states.
“Lessons of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.” is a speech Chavez
gave on King’s birthday, January 12, in 1990. In it he describes
King’s life as one of actions as well as words, and calls for listeners
to honor King by acting for social justice.
Chavez is now celebrated in many parts of the country. State
workers in California have a paid holiday on his birthday, and
Arizona, Colorado, and Texas also recognize the day. President
Clinton awarded him a posthumous Presidential Medal of Freedom
in 1994.
Lessons of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Prereading Question
Early in his address, made in 1990, Chavez argues that America is at war
both with its neighbors and with itself. Why, at that time, would he make
this statement—in what ways was America at war with its neighbors and
with itself?
My friends, today we honor a giant among men; today we honor the reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. Dr. King was a powerful figure of destiny, of
courage, of sacrifice, and of vision. Few people in the long history of this
nation can rival his accomplishment, his reason, or his selfless dedication
to the cause of peace and social justice. Today we honor a wise teacher, an
inspiring leader, and a true visionary, but to truly honor Dr. King we must
do more than say words of praise. We must learn his lessons and put his
views into practice, so that we may truly be free at last.
Who was Dr. King?
Many people will tell you of his wonderful qualities and his many
accomplishments, but what makes him special to me, the truth many
people don’t want you to remember, is that Dr. King was a great activist,
fighting for radical social change with radical methods. While other
people talked about change, Dr. King used direct action to challenge the
system. He welcomed it, and used it wisely. In his famous “Letter from
the Birmingham Jail,” Dr. King wrote that “The purpose of direct action
is to create a situation so crisis-packed that it will inevitably open the
door to negotiation.”
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Dr. King was also radical in his beliefs about violence. He learned
how to successfully fight hatred and violence with the unstoppable power of
nonviolence. He once stopped an armed mob, saying: “We are not advocating
violence. We want to love our enemies. I want you to love our enemies. Be
good to them. This is what we live by. We must meet hate with love.” Dr. King
knew that he very probably wouldn’t survive the struggle that he led so well.
But he said “If I am stopped, the movement will not stop. If I am stopped, our
work will not stop. For what we are doing is right. What we are doing is just,
and God is with us.”
My friends, as we enter a new decade, it should be clear to all of us that
there is an unfinished agenda, that we have miles to go before we reach the
promised land. The men who rule this country today never learned the
lessons of Dr. King, they never learned that non-violence is the only way to
peace and justice. Our nation continues to wage war upon its neighbors,
and upon itself. The powers that be rule over a racist society, filled with
hatred and ignorance. Our nation continues to be segregated along racial
and economic lines. The powers that be make themselves richer by exploiting the poor. Our nation continues to allow children to go hungry, and will
not even house its own people.
The time is now for people, of all races and backgrounds, to sound the
trumpets of change. As Dr. King proclaimed “There comes a time when
people get tired of being trampled over by the iron feet of oppression.” My
friends, the time for action is upon us. The enemies of justice want you to
think of Dr. King as only a civil rights leader, but he had a much broader
agenda. He was a tireless crusader for the rights of the poor, for an end to
the war in Vietnam long before it was popular to take that stand, and for
the rights of workers everywhere.
Many people find it convenient to forget that Martin was murdered while
supporting a desperate strike on that tragic day in Memphis, Tennessee. He
died while fighting for the rights of sanitation workers. Dr. King’s dedication
to the rights of the workers who are so often exploited by the forces of greed
has profoundly touched my life and guided my struggle. During my first fast
in 1968, Dr. King reminded me that our struggle was his struggle too. He sent
me a telegram which said “Our separate struggles are really one. A struggle for
freedom, dignity, and for humanity.” I was profoundly moved that someone
facing such a tremendous struggle himself would take the time to worry
about a struggle taking place on the other side of the continent.
Just as Dr. King was a disciple of Gandhi and Christ, we must now be
Dr. King’s disciples. Dr. King challenged us to work for a greater humanity.
I only hope that we are worthy of his challenge. The United Farm Workers
are dedicated to carrying on the dream of Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr.
My friends, I would like to tell you about the struggle of the farmworkers
who are waging a desperate struggle for our rights, for our children’s
rights, and for our very lives.
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Many decades ago the chemical industry promised the growers that pesticides would bring great wealth and bountiful harvests to the fields. Just
recently, the experts are learning what farmworkers, and the truly organized
farmers have known for years. The prestigious National Academy of Sciences
recently concluded an exhaustive five-year study which determined that pesticides do not improve profits and do not produce more crops. What, then, is
the effect of pesticides? Pesticides have created a legacy of pain, and misery,
and death for farmworkers and consumers alike.
The crop which poses the greatest danger, and the focus of our struggle,
is the table grape crop. These pesticides soak the fields. They drift with the
wind, pollute the water, and are eaten by unwitting consumers. These poisons are designed to kill, and pose a very real threat to consumers and farmworkers alike. The fields are sprayed with pesticides like Captan, Parathion,
Phosdrin, and Methyl Bromide. These poisons cause cancer, DNA mutation, and horrible birth defects.
The Central Valley of California is one of the wealthiest agricultural
regions in the world. In its midst are clusters of children dying from cancer.
The children live in communities surrounded by the grape fields that
employ their parents. The children come into contact with the poisons
when they play outside, when they drink the water, and when they hug
their parents returning from the fields. And the children are dying.
They are dying slow, painful, cruel deaths in towns called cancer clusters, in cancer clusters like McFarland, where the children’s cancer rate is
800 percent above normal. A few months ago, the parents of a brave little
girl in the agricultural community of Earlimart came to the United Farm
Workers to ask for help. The Ramirez family knew about our protests in
nearby McFarland and thought there might be a similar problem in Earlimart. Our union members went door to door in Earlimart, and found that
the Ramirez family’s worst fears were true.
There are at least four other children suffering from cancer in the
little town of Earlimart, a rate 1200 percent above normal. In Earlimart,
little Jimmy Candillo died recently from leukemia at the age of three.
Three other young children in Earlimart, in addition to Jimmy and
Natalie, are suffering from similar fatal diseases that the experts believe
are caused by pesticides. These same pesticides can be found on the grapes
you buy in the stores.
My friends, the suffering must end. So many children are dying, so
many babies are born without limbs and vital organs, so many workers are
dying in the fields. We have no choice, we must stop the plague of pesticides.
The growers responsible for this outrage are blinded by greed, by
racism, and by power. The same inhumanity displayed at Selma, at
Birmingham, in so many of Dr. King’s battlegrounds, is displayed every day
in the vineyards of California. The farm labor system in place today is a
system of economic slavery.
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My friends, even those farmworkers who do not have to bury their
young children are suffering from abuse, neglect, and poverty. Our workers
labor for many hours every day under the hot sun, often without safe
drinking water or toilet facilities. Our workers are constantly subjected to
incredible pressures and intimidation to meet excessive quotas. The
women who work in the fields are routinely subjected to sexual harassment
and sexual assaults by the growers’ thugs. When our workers complain, or
try to organize, they are fired, assaulted, and even murdered. Just as Bull
Connor turned the dogs loose on nonviolent marchers in Alabama, the
growers turn armed foremen on innocent farmworkers in California.
The stench of injustice in California should offend every American.
Some people, especially those who just don’t care, or don’t understand, like
to think that the government can take care of these problems. The government should, but won’t. The growers used their wealth to buy good friends
like Governor George Deukmajian, Ronald Reagan, and George Bush.
My friends, if we are going to end the suffering, we must use the same
people power that vanquished injustice in Montgomery, Selma, and
Birmingham. I have seen many boycotts succeed. Dr. King showed us the
way with the bus boycott, and with our first boycott we were able to get
DDT, Aldrin, and Dieldrin banned in our first contracts with grape
growers. Now, even more urgently we are trying to get deadly pesticides
banned. The growers and their allies have tried to stop us for years with
intimidation, with character assassination, with public relations campaigns, with outright lies, and with murder. But those same tactics did not
stop Dr. King, and they will not stop us.
Once social change begins, it cannot be reversed. You cannot uneducate the person who has learned to read. You cannot humiliate the person
who feels pride. And you cannot oppress the people who are not afraid
anymore.
In our life and death struggle for justice we have turned to the court of
last resort: the American people. And the people are ruling in our favor. As
a result, grape sales keep falling. We have witnessed truckloads of grapes
being dumped because no one would stop to buy them. As demand drops,
so do prices and profits. The growers are under tremendous economic
pressure.
We are winning, but there is still much hard work ahead of us. I hope
that you will join our struggle. The simple act of refusing to buy table
grapes laced with pesticides is a powerful statement that the growers
understand. Economic pressure is the only language the growers speak,
and they are beginning to listen. Please, boycott table grapes. For your
safety, for the workers, and for the children, we must act together.
My friends, Dr. King realized that the only real wealth comes from
helping others. I challenge each and every one of you to be a true disciple
of Dr. King, to be truly wealthy. I challenge you to carry on his work by vol-
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unteering to work for a just cause you believe in. Consider joining
our movement because the farmworkers, and so many other oppressed
peoples, depend on the unselfish dedication of its volunteers, people just
like you.
Thousands of people have worked for our cause and have gone on to
achieve success in many different fields. Our non-violent cause will give
you skills that will last a lifetime. When Dr. King sounded the call for
justice, the freedom riders answered the call in droves. I am giving you the
same opportunity to join the same cause, to free your fellow human beings
from the yoke of oppression.
I have faith that in this audience there are men and women with the
same courage and the same idealism that put young Martin Luther
King, Jr. on the path to social change. I challenge you to join the struggle
of the United Farm Workers. And if you don’t join our cause, then seek
out the many organizations seeking peaceful social change. Seek out the
many outstanding leaders who will speak to you this week, and make a
difference.
If we fail to learn that each and every person can make a difference, then
we will have betrayed Dr. King’s life’s work. The Reverend Martin Luther
King, Jr. had more than just a dream, he had the love and the faith to act.
God bless you.
Textual Questions
1. How does Chavez use Dr. King to organize his essay, to pulls its parts
together and keep them connected?
2. What crop poses the greatest danger, according to Chavez, and why?
3. Reread Chavez’s speech, marking each of the places where he says “we,”
“us,” and “my friends” (and any other friendly, inclusive terms such as
these). Where does he use such terms and why? What tone do these
terms set, overall?
Rhetorical Questions
4. What call to action is Chavez making, and where is he making it? How
is he supporting this call, and how effective is this support?
5. How does Chavez use respect for Martin Luther King, Jr. to construct
his argument? How does he use fear—and fear of what—to balance
the speech?
6. If Chavez’s primary argument is about pesticides and their effects, then
do his introduction and conclusion adequately address this issue? Or
are there too many “main” points to make the focus of this argument
entirely clear?
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Intertextual Questions
7. How does Chavez’s argument about pesticides and their effects on
human health compare and contrast with Terry Tempest Williams’
argument in “The Clan of One-Breasted Women” (Chapter 4)?
8. How might Robert Hinkley, author of “How Corporate Law Inhibits
Social Responsibility” (Chapter 5), respond to the topic Chavez
addresses in the body of his essay?
Thinking Beyond the Text
9. Why would Cesar Chavez be regarded as an authority on the range of
issues he addresses in his speech? What in his history gives him this
perceived authority?
10. In the movie American History X, the leader of the white supremacists
refers to Cesar Chavez at one point as “Cesar Commie Chavez.” What
in Chavez’s history—or his political beliefs—would make such a slur
even possible (though inaccurate)?
For Writing & Discussion
11. Searching online and/or in your school’s library, locate another speech
made by Cesar Chavez. In an essay, summarize this speech located in
your research and explain how it argues similar/dissimilar points to
the text produced here.
W I L F R E D M.
M
C
C L AY
Wilfred M. McClay (1951–) is a history professor at the University of
Tennessee at Chattanooga, where he has held the SunTrust Bank Chair
of Excellence in Humanities since 1999. He also is a Senior Scholar at
the Woodrow Wilson Center for Scholars, and a Senior Fellow at the
Ethics and Public Policy Center in Washington, D.C. Since 2002 he has
served on the National Council on the Humanities.
McClay’s 1994 book, The Masterless: Self and Society in Modern
America, received the Merle Curti Award in Intellectual History
from the Organization of American Historians. His other publications include A Student’s Guide to U.S. History (2000), Religion
Returns to the Public Square: Faith and Policy in America (2003),
and more than 50 essays and articles. He is currently working on
a biography of the sociologist David Riesman.
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In “The Church of Civil Rights,” originally published in 2005
in the magazine Commentary, McClay discusses the legacy of the
American civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s. He counters the tendency to oversimplify the movement’s issues and
actions by calling attention to religion. In particular, McClay uses
the roles of Southern churches, both black and white, to show how
integral religion is to American social and political change.
The Church of Civil Rights
Prereading Question
When you think of the 1960s, especially of the civil rights movement, what
images do you see on the movie screen in your mind? Whose voices do you
hear? What music do you think of and why? How does the Vietnam War figure
into your images of the 1960s and the civil rights movement, if it does at all?
Nearly a half-century has passed since the heyday of the early civil-rights
movement, and race relations in America have grown far too complex to
be reckoned by its simple compass. But the campaign to undo the system
of segregation in the South seems to have lost none of its moral appeal.
If my own experience as a teacher is any guide, a sizable percentage of
applicants for graduate study in U.S. history are still likely to cite the
civil-rights movement of the 1950’s and 1960’s as one of their chief inspirations. A surprising number of them set out with hopes of making the
movement itself an object of their research.
One wonders what fresh discoveries these earnest young scholars
expect to happen upon in such a well-sifted field. But that is beside the
point. Clearly, a different kind of motivation is at work here, deeper than
mere intellectual curiosity, political calculation, or professional ambition.
One cannot help being impressed by it, particularly since the prospective
students themselves are nearly always white and economically privileged.
But neither is their choice free of self-regard. On the contrary: the felt
urgency of the subject is an indication that they are, in some sense, hoping
to work out their own salvation in the process of studying it. Reared in a
world full of imperfect heroes and compromised ideals, in which their own
wealth and ease fill them with ambivalence if not guilt, they seem to harbor
a powerful need to redeem their lives through association with a cause they
regard as incontrovertibly pure, simple, and noble.
By a similar process, for better or worse, the civil-rights movement has
become a moral icon for American society as a whole, as well as for much
of the rest of the world. For better, because it was indeed an admirable
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movement, in both its means and its ends, and one that clearly had
the effect of improving the American nation and recalling it to its own
professed ideals. For worse, because to the extent that the movement’s
example has come to be used mindlessly and mechanically, as a template
for all social and political struggles, its exaltation has also tended to elevate
social movements over institutional politics, demonstrations over deliberations, righteous theatrics over reasoned compromise.
This is not the fault of the movement itself. Nor is it the only factor
contributing to the widespread tendency to reduce the multifarious
patterns of history to variations upon a few easily grasped arche types.
Nevertheless, that habit is as wrongheaded as it is tempting. Not every
tyrant is a Hitler, not every intervention a Vietnam, not every massacre a
Holocaust—and not every aspiring social cause is analogous to the civilrights movement or deserves to be placed on a continuum with it.
How, then, to find our way back to a truer and more precise understanding
of the movement and its place in American history? One of the many
virtues of David L. Chappell’s new book, A Stone of Hope: Prophetic
Religion, Liberalism, and the Death of Jim Crow,1 is its insistence that we
look carefully at the particulars of this great undertaking and the specific
reasons it succeeded. A briskly written volume by a professor of history at
the University of Arkansas, feisty in tone but impressive in its scholarly
documentation, A Stone of Hope stands back from the welter of comment
accumulated over the past 50 years and asks some refreshingly direct and
simple questions. How and why did this great cultural change happen?
Why did the dominant liberalism of the Democratic party contribute
so little, and so late, to the effort? Where did black Southerners find
the inspiration to rebel against a massively entrenched social system?
And why did their white Southern opponents turn out to be so surprisingly weak?
The short answer to each of these four questions can be put in a single
word: religion. More specifically, Chappell argues that one cannot apprehend the movement’s success without taking into account the pervasive
cultural setting of Southern Protestantism within which it unfolded. He is
not merely claiming religion as “a neglected factor.” Instead, he is claiming
it as the absolutely crucial conditioning factor, without which nothing
could have occurred as it did.
In this view, the civil-rights movement was not a fundamentally political
mobilization, with lots of soulful gospel songs and other colorful trappings
of African-American religious culture added in on the side—a position that
Chappell dismisses for the subtle condescension that it is. Instead, it was
primarily a high-octane religious revival, full of prophetic utterances
and messianic expectations, which had the effect, almost as a byproduct, of
leading to profound political and social change.
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In making this argument, Chappell gives the back of his hand to white
liberal commentators like Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. and Gunnar Myrdal,
who at the time envisioned the cause of racial justice as but one element
in the great unfolding of a progressive agenda. Their untroubled confidence
in the inevitable triumph of their own ideas, Chappell believes, ironically
made them complacent and unwilling to act decisively. Even when they
tempered their rational optimism with the gloomier outlook of the Protestant theologian Reinhold Niebuhr, as Schlesinger did repeatedly, they never
really took on board the full weight of Niebuhr’s pessimistic view of human
nature. Whatever the setbacks of the moment, liberals knew themselves to
be anointed by history as the party of the future, and so deemed the cause of
black civil rights in the South to be insufficiently pressing to jeopardize
the liberals’ electoral chances. As Chappell puts it acidly, “opportunism on
this issue dictated the same [empty] gestures as idealism.”
By contrast, black Southern preachers and their followers approached
life with a different anthropology, and a different view of progress. Martin
Luther King, Jr.’s fundamentalist Baptist background may have been at odds
with his seminary education in the liberal North, but the two meshed well
in his view of human nature and the prophetic calling of the Christian
leader. The doctrine of original sin, the tendency of all human endeavors to
slide into corruption, the incapacity of human institutions to reform themselves without divine favor, the need for the man of God to stand outside
the comfort of the status quo and speak with the boldness of Jeremiah calling the people to repentance, and the need for the faithful to experience suffering and submission to God’s will as the price of their redemption: these
were things that King, and his followers, all instinctively grasped.
The biblical view of man and God and sin and suffering and humility and
redemption was, for those black Southerners, their chief sustenance, their spiritual meat and drink, their everyday solace and their hope for the end-times.
Without the primal, driving force of their deep religious convictions, Chappell
contends, the civil-rights movement would never have begun to move.
This part of Chappell’s argument, though convincing, is not entirely original. Most standard accounts of the movement do give a good deal of space
to its religious elements, even if they often tend (not entirely without reason) to emphasize the black church as a political and social institution
rather than as a religious one. In recent years, moreover, students of the
struggle have increased the attention paid to religion, as in works like
Charles Marsh’s God’s Long Summer: Stories of Faith and Civil Rights (1999)
and Stewart Burns’s To the Mountaintop: Martin Luther King Jr.’s Sacred
Mission to Save America (2004). Even Chappell’s portrayal of King’s philosophy of “hope without optimism” has been presented before, notably in an
extraordinarily insightful chapter of Christopher Lasch’s The True and
Only Heaven (1991), upon which this book draws.
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If Chappell is far from unique in emphasizing the depth and specific
character of the movement’s religious commitments, he may also be too
sweeping in his condemnation of cold-war liberalism and too hard on the
particular liberals he has chosen to pin to the wall. He himself has a certain
prophetic impatience with the inevitable messiness and compromise
of electoral politics, an impatience that is one of those ambivalent legacies
of the movement itself. (Max Weber’s great and gloomy lecture on “Politics
as Vocation” was written with just such impatience in mind.) Similarly, he
gives too little weight to the long-term legal strategy by which the NAACP
sought to break the hold of segregation through a carefully calibrated
succession of court cases, thereby establishing an essential (though morally
far less impressive) complement to the movement’s more expansive and
faith-suffused impulses.
Nor does Chappell adequately stress the fact that many key players in
the intellectual leadership of the movement, including Bayard Rustin and
Robert Moses, espoused views that did not line up with the evangelical
Protestantism of King. (It is a bit of stretch, for example, to argue that
Moses’s commitment to the philosophy of Albert Camus was somehow the
same as a religious commitment to biblical Christianity.) This book, in
short, is not without flaws, and in a number of respects may well turn out to
be a corrective in need of correction.
But what makes A Stone of Hope a truly exciting and important intellectual breakthrough is not its claims about the religiosity of the movement
itself. Rather, it is Chappell’s careful and imaginative approach to white
Southern religious convictions and the white Christian response to
the movement. This has been a long time in coming. The standard image of
the white South in the civil-rights struggle,” Chappell rightly observes, “is a
mob.” In that respect, this book, although it can hardly be considered overly
sympathetic to the white South, is a real advance.
It is frequently assumed, for example, that in this great cultural conflict, each
side devised its own self-contained and self-confirming version of the Christian faith. King himself, in a famous line that Chappell strangely misrenders
here, spoke of eleven o’clock on a Sunday morning being “the most segregated hour of Christian America.” But this turns out to be far less true of the
white South in the civil-rights era than King’s words would suggest. As Chappell points out, even though most white Southern Protestant churches were
still aligned with the same sectionalist denominations that had been created
a century earlier by the Civil War, they were by and large unsupportive of the
segregationist cause.
In some cases, this unsupportiveness took the form of outright and
unambiguous opposition. Thus, the denominational assemblies of the
Southern Baptists and Southern Presbyterians went on the record with
resolutions strongly favoring desegregation. The evangelist Rev. Billy
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Graham was admirably consistent in his opposition to racial segregation
from the very beginning of his career, both in his public utterances and
in his private and personal behavior.
Elsewhere, to be sure, the picture was different. Far from repudiating
segregation, white churches characteristically adopted an attitude of quiet,
passive, evasive neutrality. This naturally frustrated King, though it also
fed his hopeful conviction that the majority of white Southerners could
eventually be won over to his position.
In any event, as Chappell perceptively notes, the muted response
of white Southern clergy also frustrated the segregationists, leaving them
disabled in crucial ways. White Southern faith may not have been strong
enough to overcome ingrained racial and social barriers—it was too tied
to the status quo for that—but it was at least strong enough to withhold
from those barriers the full mantle of legitimacy. This in turn made it necessary for segregationist politicians to fight for their cause on strictly sociological and constitutional grounds—or with undiluted demagoguery.
And that made all the difference. From the beginning, the specific
dynamics of the civil-rights movement were traceable to the fact that both
sides agreed on something—and that something was the truth and legitimizing force of Christianity. Though mightier than the civil-rights movement in
many superficial respects, the movement’s white Southern opponents were
disarmed by their inability to count on the moral support of the South’s
most characteristic institution or to draw on the same sources of strength
that animated their foes.
In Chappell’s telling, the presence of this shared cultural premise
was just as fundamental as anything the two sides disagreed about. It
permeated the field of forces, as essential a feature of the battle as the air
the antagonists breathed. And it determined the outcome: for in this
struggle, as Chappell writes, the winners were those who “got strength
from old-time religion,” and who “used religion to inspire solidarity and
self-sacrificial devotion to their cause.”
If Chappell’s reading of the movement is right, it ought to affect the way we
assess its significance in American and world history.
For one thing, Chappell’s reading should help explain to Americans why
Tiananmen Square was not Selma, and why the tactics of King and Gandhi
do not work against a Saddam Hussein or the Iranian mullahs. Such tactics
seek to prick consciences that are shaped like one’s own: but they fall pitiably
short when the “other” inhabits a genuinely different moral universe. For all
its shortcomings, the United States has always had such a shared moral
framework, grounded not merely in abstract ideas of human rights and individual liberty but also in a longer and deeper heritage of biblical narratives,
tropes, parables, and moral wisdom. This is one reason why our own struggles and triumphs are so difficult to replicate in the rest of the world.
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In addition, A Stone of Hope reminds us that movements for change
in American history are likely to succeed and endure only to the degree that
they respect the country’s religious heritage or are broadly congruent with it.
Here one might cite not only the civil-rights movement but also the abolition
of slavery, women’s suffrage, and even the American Revolution itself. On all
of these hard-fought issues one can find both religious and secular rationales
being advanced, but the two sets of justifications are also mutually supportive
and even intermingle to an extent unthinkable in other cultures.
That congruency is a key element in the genius of American politics,
as of American religion. It is why Martin Luther King’s finest rhetoric
could with equal plausibility invoke nor only the prophetic Scriptures but
also the Declaration and the Constitution and the founders, and why the
historian Stewart Burns is not being fanciful in interpreting King’s life’s
work as a “sacred mission” to “save America.” We enshrine the separation of
church and state, but at the same time we practice the mingling of religion
and public life. It is not always logical, but it frequently makes good sense.
Of course, in each of these cases (and especially slavery and suffrage).
there were also religiously grounded arguments against change. Sometimes, moreover, religious and secular arguments for reform may be united
in their mistakenness: consider Prohibition. Nothing in life is foolproof.
But there are almost no examples in the American past of successful and
widely accepted reforms that have not paid their respect to Americans’
religious and secular sensibilities alike. They are required to pass muster
with, so to speak, a bicameral body politic.
This fact also has profound implications for the larger meanings we have
allowed ourselves to derive from the civil-rights movement. In the first
place, one must view with the profoundest regret the transformation of the
movement by the late 1960’s from an instrument of national integration
and reconciliation into an instrument of what Lasch rightly called “the
politics of resentment and reparations.” That transformation corresponded exactly with the loss of the movement’s religious core and its turn
toward a rather different combination of impulses; strident social militancy on the one hand, court-imposed legalism on the other.
This purely coercive combination is still with us today, with the consequence that as the material conditions of American blacks have steadily
improved, race relations remain mired in mutual suspicion—a state that
has reached a kind of culmination in the astoundingly pointless and divisive
debate over reparations for slavery. Whatever the outcome of that debate, it
will never further the cause of reconciliation.
If, in the area of race relations, it makes no sense to abstract the movement from its relationship to its larger religious context, the same goes for
its use as an analogy in other contexts. Two of the most contentious issues
of recent years have been abortion and gay marriage. In both cases, not
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only have policy changes been imposed by courts rather than through
representative institutions, but those involved have sought to challenge and
override the very core of the country’s prevailing religious convictions.
This tactic has been enormously costly, Even today, three decades after
Roe v. Wade, the cause of unrestricted abortion rights stands largely on the
acts of unelected judges and on the morally unimpressive principle of stare
decisis. It has few if any full-throated defenders among the religiously
devour—and many fervent opponents, who look increasingly to the
19th century abolitionists and the 20th-century civil-rights movement for
inspiration. One can safely predict that the issue will continue to be a
source of social division in the years to come.
Proponents of gay marriage, for their part, also invoke the civil-rights
movement as precedent, comparing proscriptions against same-sex unions
to anti-miscegenation laws and other forms of discrimination. But there
is a reason why no subgroup registers more negatively on this issue in
opinion surveys than blacks. It is not just that they know when their movement is being hijacked. It is that the religious sensibility that animated the
civil-rights movement, and that is still very much alive in the American
black community today, is bound up in a biblical world view that would
no more countenance the radical redefinition of marriage than it would
the reimposition of slavery. When King and his followers joyfully invoked
the word “freedom,” they did not mean the unlimited expressive liberty of
autonomous individuals. Their conception of freedom was inseparable not
only from their rootedness in their own particular place and time but in
obedience to the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.
None of this is meant to imply that the religious are always right, or
should have supervisory power over all social change, any more than should
the federal and state judiciaries. It is merely to recognize the longstanding
and indispensable place of religion in the American experiment, and the
high price to be paid when it is sundered from the cause of social change.
Fortunately, as David Chappell’s book shows, we do not have to choose
whether to call the story of the civil-rights movement a Christian story, a
Southern story, or an American story, for it is all three. This is a fact for
which all Americans, not only Christians or Southerners—or secularists—
can be grateful, and an example to ponder with care.
Textual Questions
1. What point does McClay make in paragraph 2 about race and the
study of the civil rights movement? How does this point connect with
his overall argument in the remainder of the essay?
2. According to McClay’s introductory section, what are the positive and
negative aspects of the civil rights movement in America and beyond?
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In what ways does the remainder of his essay serve to either support or
refute these positives and negatives?
3. What four questions does McClay use to organize his essay? How
and where does he ask each? How and where does he answer each
question?
Rhetorical Questions
4. How does McClay connect Christianity with the civil rights movement? How effectively does this connection work in his essay? Why?
5. How much of McClay’s essay is a rebuttal of or critique of Chappell’s
argument? Why is this rebuttal/critique effective or ineffective overall?
Which piece of the rebuttal/critique is most persuasively argued? Why?
Which is least persuasively argued and why?
6. To whom is McClay directing his argument—who would be most
likely to agree with him? How do you know? Who would be least likely
to agree with McClay, other than Chappell? Why?
Intertextual Questions
7. How would Martin Luther King, Jr. (see applicable reading from King
in this chapter and in Chapter 1) respond to McClay? How would his
response to McClay be similar to and/or different from the response of
Cesar Chavez (also in this chapter)?
8. How is McClay’s definition of “civil rights” similar to/different from
the definition used by Hillary Rodham Clinton in “Women’s Rights
Are Human Rights” (Chapter 1)?
Thinking Beyond the Text
9. Near the end of his introductory section, McClay argues that “Not
every tyrant is a Hitler, not every intervention a Vietnam, not every
massacre a Holocaust.” In your experience, how often are these exact
comparisons used? Thinking of the American war in Iraq alone,
Saddam Hussein was often referred to as an incarnation of Hitler, his
deliberate and large-scale killing of ethnic minorities such as Kurds as
a Holocaust, and the political and military situation of the United
States and its allies is frequently (and unfavorably) compared to
Vietnam. But what other examples can you think of?
10. Does McClay’s description of the civil rights movement compare or
contrast with the image you have of this same movement, which you
may have described in writing or in discussion as you worked through
the prereading question for this essay? Where are you and McClay in
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some kind of agreement? Where do your ideas and images of the civil
rights movement differ from his?
For Writing & Discussion
11. Searching online or in your library, find a review of David L.
Chappell’s book A Stone of Hope. In a single paragraph, explain how
this review either supports or refutes the claims about Chappell’s work
made by McClay.
J O NAT H A N R AU C H
Jonathan Rauch (1960–) is a journalist and gay rights activist who
works as a senior writer and opinion columnist for the National
Journal. In addition to writing his biweekly National Journal column,
“Social Studies,” Rauch is a correspondent for the Atlantic Monthly
and has written for The Economist, Fortune, Harpers, The Jewish
World Review, the New York Times, the Wall Street Journal, and the
Washington Post. Rauch is a writer-in-residence at the Brookings
Institution, an independent think-tank in Washington, D.C., and
vice president of the Independent Gay Forum, an organization that
describes itself as “forging a gay mainstream.” He has appeared on
radio and television programs, including the PBS television show
Think Tank where he discussed the question “What is Wrong with
Congress?”
Rauch has published five books, including Kindly Inquisitors:
The New Attacks on Free Thought (1993) and Government’s End:
Why Washington Stopped Working (1999). His work has been
anthologized in The Best American Science and Nature Writing
2004 and The Best American Magazine Writing 2005, and he has
won the 2005 National Magazine Award and received secondplace in 2000 and 2001 for the National Headliner Award for
magazine columns.
“A More Perfect Union” was first published in the Atlantic
Monthly in April 2004. Rauch also has a book on the topic, Gay
Marriage: Why It Is Good for Gays, Good for Straights, and Good for
America (2004). Although Rauch’s gay rights advocacy focuses on
supporting same-sex marriage and opposing hate-crimes laws, he
also writes about topics ranging from campaign finance reform to
living or working with introverts. The most personal information
on his Web site is that he dislikes shrimp.
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A More Perfect Union
How the Founding Fathers Would Have
Handled Gay Marriage
Prereading Question
When some cities and states began to recognize marriages between two men or
two women as being legally equal to a “traditional” marriage of a man and a
woman, some political and religious groups argued for a constitutional
amendment that would define marriage in its man-and-woman incarnation.
President George W. Bush even expressed some support for such an
amendment. In your opinion, is such an amendment necessary to define
marriage? Why? What are/would be the legal, social, and economic
consequences of defining marriage as legally existing only between a man and
a woman?
Last November the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts ruled that
excluding gay couples from civil marriage violated the state constitution.
The court gave the legislature six months—until May—to do something
about it. Some legislators mounted efforts to amend the state constitution
to ban same-sex marriage, but as of this writing they have failed (and even if
passed, a ban would not take effect until at least 2006). With unexpected
urgency the country faces the possibility that marriage licenses might soon
be issued to homosexual couples. To hear the opposing sides talk, a national
culture war is unavoidable.
But same-sex marriage neither must nor should be treated as an allor-nothing national decision. Instead individual states should be left to
try gay marriage if and when they choose—no national ban, no national
mandate. Not only would a decentralized approach be in keeping with the
country’s most venerable legal traditions; it would also improve, in three
ways the odds of making same-sex marriage work for gay and straight
Americans alike.
First, it would give the whole country a chance to learn. Nothing terrible—
in fact, nothing even noticeable—seems to have happened to marriage
since Vermont began allowing gay civil unions, in 2000. But civil unions
are not marriages. The only way to find out what would happen if samesex couples got marriage certificates is to let some of us do it. Turning marriage into a nationwide experiment might be rash, but trying it in a few
states would provide test cases on a smaller scale. Would the divorce rate
rise? Would the marriage rate fall? We should get some indications before
long. Moreover, states are, as the saying goes, the laboratories of democracy. One state might opt for straightforward legalization. Another might
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add some special provisions (for instance, regarding child custody or
adoption). A third might combine same-sex marriage with counseling or
other assistance (not out of line with a growing movement to offer socialservice support to so-called fragile families). Variety would help answer
some important questions: Where would gay marriage work best? What
kind of community support would it need? What would be the avoidable
pitfalls? Either to forbid same-sex marriage nationwide or to legalize it
nationwide would be to throw away a wealth of potential information.
Just as important is the social benefit of letting the states find their
own way. Law is only part of what gives marriage its binding power,
community support and social expectations are just as important. In
a community that looked on same-sex marriage with bafflement or hostility, a gay couple’s marriage certificate, while providing legal benefits, would
confer no social support from the heterosexual majority. Both the couple
and the community would be shortchanged. Letting states choose gay
marriage wouldn’t guarantee that everyone in the state recognized such
marriages as legitimate, but it would pretty well ensure that gay married
couples could find some communities in their state that did.
Finally, the political benefit of a state-by-state approach is not to be
underestimated. This is the benefit of avoiding a national culture war.
The United States is not (thank goodness) a culturally homogeneous
country. It consists of many distinct moral communities. On certain social
issues, such as abortion and homosexuality, people don’t agree and probably
never will—and the signal political advantage of the federalist system is that
they don’t have to. Individuals and groups who find the values or laws of one
state obnoxious have the right to live somewhere else.
The nationalization of abortion policy in the Supreme Court’s 1973
Roe v. Wade decision created a textbook example of what can happen when
this federalist principle is ignored. If the Supreme Court had not stepped
in, abortion would today be legal in most states but not all; prolifers would
have the comfort of knowing they could live in a state whose law was compatible with their views. Instead of endlessly confronting a cultural schism
that affects every Supreme Court nomination, we would see occasional
local flare-ups in state legislatures or courtrooms.
America is a stronger country for the moral diversity that federalism
uniquely allows. Moral law and family law govern the most intimate and,
often, the most controversial spheres of life. For the sake of domestic tranquillity, domestic law is best left to a level of government that is close to home.
So well suited is the federalist system to the gay-marriage issue that it might
almost have been set up to handle it. In a new land whose citizens followed
different religious traditions, it would have made no sense to centralize marriage or family law. And so marriage has been the domain of local law not just
since the days of the Founders but since Colonial times, before the states were
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states. To my knowledge, the federal government has overruled the states on
marriage only twice. The first time was when it required Utah to ban
polygamy as a condition for joining the Union—and note that this ruling was
issued before Utah became a state. The second time was in 1967, when the
Supreme Court, in Loving v. Virginia, struck down sixteen states bans on
interracial marriage. Here the Court said not that marriage should be defined
by the federal government but only that states could not define marriage in
ways that violated core constitutional rights. On the one occasion when Congress directly addressed same-sex marriage, in the 1996 Defense of Marriage
Act, it decreed that the federal government would not recognize same-sex
marriages but took care not to impose that role on the states.
Marriage laws (and, of course, divorce laws) continue to be established
by the states. They differ on many points, from age of consent to who may
marry whom. In Arizona, for example, first cousins are allowed to marry
only if both are sixty-five or older or the couple can prove to a judge “that
one of the cousins is unable to reproduce.” (So much for the idea that marriage is about procreation.) Conventional wisdom notwithstanding the
Constitution does not require states to recognize one another’s marriages.
The Full Faith and Credit clause (Article IV, Section 1) does require states to
honor one another’s public acts and judgments. But in 1939 and again in
1988 the Supreme Court ruled that the clause does not compel a state “to
substitute the statutes of other states for its own statutes dealing with a subject matter concerning which it is competent to legislate.” Date Carpeater,
a law professor at the University of Minnesota, notes that the Full Faith and
Credit clause “has never been interpreted to mean that every state must recognize every marriage performed in every other state.” He writes, “Each
state may refuse to recognize a marriage performed in another state if that
marriage would violate the state’s public policy. If Delaware, for example,
decided to lower its age of consent to ten, no other state would be required
to regard a ten-year-old as legally married. The public-policy exception, as it
is called, is only common sense. If each state could legislate for all the rest.
American-style federalism would be at an end.
Why, then, do the states all recognize one another’s marriages? Because
they choose to. Before the gay-marriage controversy arose, the country
enjoyed a general consensus on the terms of marriage. Interstate differences
were so small that states saw no need to split hairs, and mutual recognition
was a big convenience. The issue of gay marriage, of course, changes the
picture, by asking states to reconsider an accepted boundary of marriage.
This is just the sort of controversy in which the Founders imagined that
individual states could and often should go their separate ways.
Paradoxically, the gay left and the antigay right have found themselves
working together against the center. They agree on little else, but where
marriage is concerned, they both want the federal government to take over.
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To many gay people, anything less than nationwide recognition of
same-sex marriage seems both unjust and impractical. “Wait a minute,”
a gay person might protest. “How is this supposed to work? I get married in
Maryland (say), but every time I cross the border into Virginia during my
morning commute, I’m single? Am I married or not? Portability is one of
the things that make marriage different from civil union. If it isn’t portable,
it isn’t really marriage, it’s second-class citizenship. Obviously, as soon as
same-sex marriage is approved in any one state, we’re going to sue in federal court to have it recognized in all the others.”
“Exactly!” a conservative might reply. “Gay activists have no intention
of settling for marriage in just one or two states. They will keep suing until
they find some activist federal judge—and there are plenty—who agrees
with them. Public-policy exception and Defense of Marriage Act notwithstanding, the courts, not least the Supreme Court, do as they please, and
lately they have signed on to the gay cultural agenda. Besides, deciding on
a state-by-state basis is impractical; the gay activists are right about that.
The sheer inconvenience of dealing with couples who went in and out of
matrimony every time they crossed state lines would drive states to the
lowest common denominator, and gay marriages would wind up being
recognized everywhere.”
Neither of the arguments I have just sketched is without merit. But both
sides are asking the country to presume that the Founders were wrong and to
foreclose the possibility that seems the most likely to succeed. Both sides want
something life doesn’t usually offer—a guarantee. Gay-marriage supporters
want a guarantee of full legal equality, and gay-marriage opponents want a
guarantee that same-sex marriage will never happen at all. I can’t offer any
guarantees. But I can offer some reassurance.
Is a state-by-state approach impractical and unsustainable? Possibly,
but the time to deal with any problems is if and when they arise. Going
in, there is no reason to expect any great difficulty. There are many precedents for state-by-state action. The country currently operates under a
tangle of different state banking laws. As any banker will tell you, the lack
of uniformity has made interstate banking more difficult. But we do have
interstate banks. Bankers long ago got used to meeting different requirements in different states. Similarly, car manufacturers have had to deal
with zero-emission rules in California and a few other states. Contract
law, property law, and criminal law all vary significantly from state to
state. Variety is the point of federalism. Uniform national policies may be
convenient, but they risk sticking us with the same wrong approach
everywhere.
My guess is that if one or two states allowed gay marriage, a confusing
transitional period, while state courts and legislatures worked out what to
do, would quickly lead in all but a few places to routines that everyone
would soon take for granted. If New Jersey adopted gay marriage, for
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instance, New York would have a number of options. It might refuse to recognize the marriages. It might recognize them. It might honor only certain
aspects of them—say, medical power of attorney, or inheritance and tenancy rights. A state with a civil-union or domestic-partner law might automatically confer that law’s benefits on any gay couple who got married in
New Jersey. My fairly confident expectation is that initially most states
would reject out-of-state gay marriages (as, indeed, most states have preemptively done), but a handful would fully accept them, and others would
choose an intermediate option.
For married gay couples, this variation would be a real nuisance. If
my partner and I got married in Maryland, we would need to be aware
of differences in marriage laws and make arrangements—medical power
of attorney, a will, and so on—for whenever we were out of state. Pesky
and, yes unfair (or at least unequal). And outside Maryland the line
between being married and not being married would be blurred. In
Virginia, people who saw my wedding band would be unsure whether
I was “really married” or just “Maryland married.”
Even so, people in Virginia who learned that I was “Maryland married”
would know I had made the strongest possible commitment in my home
state and thus in the eyes of my community and its law. They would know
I had gone beyond cohabitation or even domestic partnership. As a Jew,
I may not recognize the spiritual authority of a Catholic priest, but I do
recognize and respect the special commitment he has made to his faith and
his community. In much the same way, even out-of-state gay marriages
would command a significant degree of respect.
If you are starving, one or two slices of bread may not be as good as a
loaf—but it is far better than no bread at all. The damage that exclusion
from marriage has done to gay lives and gay culture comes not just from
being unable to marry right now and right here but from knowing the law
forbids us ever to marry at all. The first time a state adopted same-sex
marriage, gay life would change forever. The full benefits would come only
when same-sex marriage was legal everywhere. But gay people’s lives would
improve with the first state’s announcement that in this community,
marriage is open to everyone.
Building consensus takes time. The nationwide imposition of samesex marriage by a federal court might discredit both gay marriage and the
courts and the public rancor it unleashed might be at least as intense as
that surrounding abortion. My confidence in the public’s decency and in
its unfailing, if sometimes slow-acting commitment to liberal principles is
robust. For me personally, the pace set by a state-by-state approach would
be too slow. It would be far from ideal. But it would be something much
more important than ideal: it would be right.
Would a state-by-state approach inevitably lead to a nationwide court
mandate anyway? Many conservatives fear that the answer is yes, and they
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want a federal constitutional amendment to head off the courts—an
amendment banning gay marriage nationwide. These days it is a fact of life
that someone will sue over anything, that some court will hear any lawsuit, and that there is no telling what a court might do. Still, I think that
conservatives fears on this score are unfounded.
Remember, all precedent leaves marriage to the states. All precedent
supports the public-policy exception. The Constitution gives Congress a voice
in determining which of one another’s laws states must recognize and
Congress has spoken clearly: the Defense of Marriage Act explicitly decrees
that no state most recognize any other state’s same-sex marriages. In order
to mandate interstate recognition of gay marriages, a court would thus need
to burn through three different firewalls—a tall order, even for an activist
court. The current Supreme Court, moreover, has proved particularly fierce
in resisting federal incursions into states rights. We typically reserve constitutional prohibitions for imminent threats to liberty, justice, or popular sovereignty. If we are going to get into the business of constitutionally banning
anything that someone imagines the Supreme Court might one day mandate,
we will need a Constitution the size of the Manhattan phone book.
Social conservatives have lost one cultural battle after another in the
past five decades: over divorce, abortion, pornography, gambling, school
prayer, homosexuality. They have seen that every federal takeover of state
and local powers comes with strings attached. They have learned all too well
the power of centralization to marginalize moral dissenters—including
religious ones. And yet they are willing to risk federal intervention in matrimony. Why?
Not, I suspect, because they fear gay marriage would fail. Rather,
because they fear it would succeed.
One of the conservative arguments against gay marriage is particularly
revealing: the contention that even if federal courts don’t decide the matter
on a national level, convenience will cause gay marriage to spread from
state to state. As noted, I don’t believe questions of convenience would
force the issue either way. But let me make a deeper point here.
States recognized one another’s divorce reforms in the 1960s and 1970s
without giving the matter much thought (which was too bad). But the likelihood that they would recognize another state’s same-sex marriages without
serious debate is just about zero, especially at first: the issue is simply too
controversial. As time went on, states without gay marriage might get used to
the idea. They might begin to wave through other states same-sex marriages
as a convenience for all concerned. If that happened, however, it could only
be because gay marriage had not turned out to be a disaster. It might even be
because gay marriage was working pretty well. This would not be contagion.
It would be evolution—a sensible response to a successful experiment. Try
something here or there. If it works, let it spread. If it fails, let it fade.
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The opponents of gay marriage want to prevent the experiment altogether. If you care about finding the best way forward for gay people and
for society in a changing world, that posture is hard to justify. One rationale goes something like this: “Gay marriage is so certain to be a calamity
that even the smallest trial anywhere should be banned.” To me, that line of
argument smacks more of hysteria than of rational thought. In the 1980s
and early 1990s some liberals were sure that reforming the welfare system
to emphasize work would put millions of children out on the street. Even
trying welfare reform, they said, was irresponsible. Fortunately, the states
didn’t listen. They experimented—responsibly. The results were positive
enough to spark a successful national reform.
Another objection cites not certain catastrophe but insidious decay.
A conservative once said to me, “Changes in complicated institutions like
marriage take years to work their way through society. They are often subtle. Social scientists will argue until the cows come home about the positive
and negative effects of gay marriage. So states might adopt it before they
fully understood the harm it did.”
Actually, you can usually tell pretty quickly what effects a major policy
change is having—at least you can get a general idea. States knew quite soon
that welfare reforms were working better than the old program. That’s why
the idea caught on. If same-sex marriage is going to cause problems, some
of them should be apparent within a few years of its legalization.
And notice how the terms of the discussion have shifted. Now the
anticipated problem is not sudden, catastrophic social harm but subtle,
slow damage. Well there might be subtle and slow social benefits, too. But
more important, there would be one large and immediate benefit: the
benefit for gay people of being able to get married. If we are going to
exclude a segment of the population from arguably the most important
of all civic institutions, we need to be certain that the group’s participation would cause severe disruptions. If we are going to put the burden on
gay people to prove that same-sex marriage would never cause even any
minor difficulty, then we are assuming that any cost to heterosexuals,
however small, outweighs every benefit to homosexuals, however large.
That gay people’s welfare counts should of course, be obvious and inarguable; but to some it is not.
I expect same-sex marriage to have many subtle ramifications—many
of them good not just for gay people but for marriage. Same-sex marriage
would dramatically reaffirm the country’s preference for marriage as the gold
standard for committed relationships. Of course there might be harmful and
neutral effects as well. I don’t expect that social science would be able to sort
them all out. But the fact that the world is complicated is the very reason to
run the experiment. We can never know for sure what the effects of any public policy will be, so we conduct a limited experiment if possible and then
decide how to proceed on the basis of necessarily imperfect information.
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If conservatives genuinely oppose same-sex marriage because they fear
it would harm straight marriage they should be willing to let states that
want to try gay marriage do so. If, on the other hand, conservatives oppose
same-sex marriage because they believe that it is immoral and wrong
by definition, fine—but let them have the honesty to acknowledge that
they are nor fighting for the good of marriage so much as they are using
marriage as a weapon in their fight against gays.
Textual Questions
1. How is the title—“A More Perfect Union”—a play on words in two
ways, one concerning marriage and one concerning the Founding
Fathers?
2. How is the issue of gay marriage an example of the “culture war” in
America? What are other examples?
3. According to Rauch’s argument, what groups have “paradoxically”
found themselves working together against legalization of gay marriage? How can their immediate goals be the same when the long-term
goals of these groups are completely at odds?
Rhetorical Questions
4. Rauch divides his argument into five sections. Section one is only
two paragraphs long, while section four is seven times longer. Does
such uneven development strengthen or weaken the essay? Why?
What effect does this uneven development have on a reader? Does it
cause some points to stand out/not stand out more than others for
readers?
5. In section two of his essay, Rauch argues that “The United States is not
(thank goodness) a culturally homogenous country.” Why, in Rauch’s
opinion, is this a good thing—good enough for him to add the parenthetical “thank goodness”? Wouldn’t there be an upside to living in a
culture that is homogenous?
6. According to Rauch’s argument, what “guarantee” is being sought by
each of the groups involved in the fight over gay marriage? Why is any
guarantee unlikely, if not impossible?
Intertextual Questions
7. Thinking of social and economic issues only, how is Rauch’s argument
about gay marriage similar to/different from Timothy Sandefur’s
argument about eminent domain in “They’re Coming for Your Land”
(this chapter)?
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8. In what ways can the fight over gay marriage, as described by Rauch,
be compared to and contrasted with the fight for equality before the
law as represented by Frederick Douglass in “Appeal to Congress for
Impartial Suffrage” and Hillary Rodham Clinton in “Women’s Rights
Are Human Rights” (both in Chapter 1)?
Thinking Beyond the Text
9. Why is the issue of gay marriage such a divisive one for Americans?
How do history, religion, and economics fuel the fires of controversy
that burn around this issue?
10. What city and state governments currently respect gay marriages and
offer gay couples who are married the same rights and benefits offered
to male–female couples that are married?
For Writing & Discussion
11. How does your school or local city/county government recognize or
not recognize gay marriages? For example, do the partners of gay
students or employees receive health benefits? Are they barred from
receiving such benefits, either formally or informally? What other
benefits and rights affect gay couples?
M AT T H EW B R Z E Z I N S K I
Matthew Brzezinski (1965–) is an investigative reporter who
writes regularly for Mother Jones and The New York Times Magazine. In the 1990s Brzezinski lived in and wrote articles on Eastern
Europe for The Economist, The Guardian, the New York Times, and
the Toronto Globe and Mail. From 1996–1998 he was the Moscow
correspondent for the Wall Street Journal.
Brzezinski’s 2002 book Casino Moscow: A Tale of Greed and
Adventure on Capitalism’s Wildest Frontier describes post-Communist
Russia. Following his return to the United States and the September
11, 2001, attacks, Brzezinski began writing about the American
government’s response to terrorism. Articles on the fear-mongering
and reduction and civil rights that followed 9/11 led to his 2004
book, Fortress America: On the Frontlines of Homeland Security—An
Inside Look at the Coming Surveillance State.
In addition to writing articles on American homeland security,
Brzezinski also has examined other challenges in America today
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ranging from heroin dealers in Baltimore to the FBI’s torture of a
legal immigrant from Egypt. In “Hillbangers,” published in The
New York Times Magazine in August 2004, Brzezinski writes about
the dispersal of urban gangs into rural areas.
Returning to his interest in Soviet Russia, Brzezinski is currently
working on a book about Sputnik, Red Moon Rising: The Story of
a Little Satellite that Started the Space-Race and Gave Birth to the
Modern Wireless World. Times Books will publish Red Moon Rising
in 2007, Sputnik’s 50th anniversary.
Hillbangers
Prereading Question
Gangs, as criminal organizations, have always existed in America, yet they
were not perceived as a major, terrifying threat to social order until the 1980s.
Books such as The Outsiders and movies such as The Warriors portrayed
gangs as negative, certainly, but not in a way that was dangerous to anyone
beyond gang members. (Note: The film version of The Warriors is very
different—and much less dark—than the novel by the same name.) Why did
this largely benevolent, harmless image of gangs in America change? How are
gangs viewed in your home community now?
The area around the crime scene was as picturesque as a postcard. A lazy
river ran through it, the lush green mountains of Shenandoah County, Va.,
formed a rustic backdrop and an old wooden covered bridge and sunbleached hayfields completed the tableau.
The crime scene itself was another story. The body was found
on July 17, 2003, by a fisherman and his son. It was badly decomposed,
lying contorted in the underbrush near a brier patch on the west bank
of the Shenandoah River. The age, sex and race of the victim were
difficult to determine, but the body appeared to be that of a young
woman. Her throat had been slashed so violently that her head was
almost completely severed.
The Shenandoah County chief deputy sheriff, Tim Carter, who was
overseeing the investigators on the case, shipped the corpse to the nearest
state forensic lab, about an hour’s drive away, in Fairfax, Va. It turned out
that the victim had indeed been young, probably in her late teens, and
had suffered multiple stab wounds. The lack of water in her lungs
confirmed that there was no possibility that she had been drowned and
mutilated and floated downriver: she had been murdered, or at least
dumped, on the spot.
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The killing shook Shenandoah in ways that can be hard for urbanites to
comprehend. For weeks following the discovery of Jane Doe, her murder was
the talk of the towns along Route 11 in Virginia—from the dairy cooperative
in Strasburg, to the C.E. Thompson & Son hardware store in Edinburg, to
the old-fashioned lunch counter at the Walton & Smoot pharmacy in Woodstock, across Main Street from the sheriff’s office. This sort of thing simply
did not happen in a place where many families trace their ancestries in the
region to before the Civil War, where people still take the time to stop in on
their neighbors, where few people say they feel the need to lock their front
doors. This was not Washington, 80 miles and a world away to the east. Folks
here tended to worry more about copperheads and rattlesnakes than about
knife-wielding murderers.
The sheriff ’s office had one promising clue to the victim’s identity: an
extensive collection of tattoos on her arms, legs and torso. Carter asked a
colleague to sketch some of the images—a pair of comedy and tragedy
masks, a clown smoking a marijuana cigarette, letters rendered in threeinch-high Gothic script—and began circulating them to the media in
neighboring areas with the hope that somebody would recognize them.
The sketches went out to Winchester and Front Royal, and then farther
afield to Fauquier, Warren and Prince William Counties, but there was no
response. Soon, Carter was sending them all the way to Loudoun County,
Va., and the suburbs of Washington.
Finally, one day, Carter got a call from an investigator in the Washington
metropolitan area. “He recognized the sketches instantly,” Carter recalls.
“They were gang tattoos.”
The tattoos signaled the victim’s membership in Mara Salvatrucha,
or MS-13, a large street gang with ties to El Salvador that has long been a
violent presence in the Hispanic neighborhoods of Washington, New
York and Los Angeles. Forensic investigators were able to identify the
victim as Brenda Paz, known as Smiley to her street friends, a 17-year-old
member of MS-13 who had dated Denis (Rabbit) Rivera, one of the more
vicious gang leaders in the Washington area. Paz, who had been a key
witness in half a dozen federal cases against MS-13, had gone missing
from suburban Virginia shortly before she was to testify against some of
her former friends.
At first, Carter, like the rest of the community, considered the incident
to be an aberration. Paz’s murder was tragic and puzzling—what was a dead
member of MS-13 doing in the Shenandoah Valley?—but not something
that threatened the well-being of people in Edinburg, Woodstock or
Strasburg. A few months later, though, after Carter was elected sheriff, an
informant casually mentioned to one of his investigators that it was possible
to buy drugs from gang members in the county. The way Carter tells it, the
passing reference floored his investigator: “ ‘You can?’ my guy asks. ‘We have
gang members living here?’ ”
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They did indeed. Before long you could spot gang-related graffiti on
local barns and buildings—and at the foot of the covered bridge in Meem’s
Bottom, near where Paz’s body had been found.
Carter’s job, and the life of his small rural community, had suddenly
become a lot more complicated.
Gangs have been a fixture of urban life in the United States for more than
150 years, making their presence known in inner-city ghettos and poor
immigrant neighborhoods ever since the Irish settled the Five Points district
of New York. But as Carter and other small-town cops in America have discovered over the past few years, gangs are no longer just a big-city problem.
Gang activity has traditionally been a function of immigration and
labor-migration patterns. Today, with those patterns changing—with
unskilled jobs shifting from cities to rural regions, with sprawl pushing
suburbs and exurbs deeper into the countryside—gangs are cropping up in
unexpected places: tiny counties and quaint villages, farming communities
and cookie-cutter developments, small towns and tourist resorts. In
Toombs County, Ga., for instance, 10 Hispanic gangs roam an area marked
by cotton, tobacco and onion fields, according to Art Villegas, who tracks
gang activity there for the sheriff ’s office.
The blue-collar jobs that do not require much training or fluency in
English are increasingly found in the countryside. Thanks in part to the
explosive growth of the fast-food industry and the huge agro-conglomerates
that service it, giant food factories now dot pastoral America. The plants
actively recruit south of the border and in poor Hispanic neighborhoods on
both coasts of the United States, drawing legions of immigrants to places
barely big enough to register on state maps.
Not long ago, I met Fermin, a 25-year-old Guatemalan immigrant who
moved to Woodstock from Delaware, four years ago. (Uncomfortable with
being mentioned in an article about local gangs, he would be identified by
only his first name.) Fermin had heard from a fellow immigrant that the
poultry plants in the area were hiring and landed one of the better-paying
jobs, as a crane operator, at a plant in nearby Edinburg. He moved into the
Valley Vista apartments, Shenandoah County’s equivalent of an inner-city
barrio. “It seemed like a good place to start a family,” he says.
Set at a distance from the lovingly preserved 200-year-old log homes
that line Woodstock’s historic district, Valley Vista’s dozen or so three-story
brown-brick buildings sit on the more recently developed edge of town
near a car wash and a strip mall. A Hispanic grocery store sells phone cards,
money orders to Mexico and Goya food products. Clean and well kept, the
courtyards at Valley Vista are a far cry from the projects. The parking lot is
filled with modest late-model cars, and a van from a local Pentecostal
church regularly makes rounds, picking up parishioners and those enrolled
in the church’s free English classes.
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But beneath the surface tranquillity is a dark side to this immigrant
community, as illustrated by a drunken brawl and stabbing that took place
at the Valley Vista a few days before my visit. Labor migration to areas like
Shenandoah has created a work force of often illegal, itinerant industrial
workers who migrate from factory to factory much as California’s seasonal
fruit pickers move from orchard to orchard. Alienated and isolated in what
are effectively rural ghettos, many immigrant workers find solace in alcohol
and are easy prey for drug dealers.
Del Hendrixson, who tours food-factory towns like Woodstock as the
head of a nonprofit gang-outreach organization called Bajito Onda, or the
Underground Scene, sees firsthand evidence of the disillusionment that can
set in among the workers. “When you’re stuck in the middle of nowhere
slaughtering beef for six or seven dollars an hour, 60 hours a week,” she says,
“the American dream can pretty quickly turn into a nightmare.”
As far as law enforcement can tell, MS-13 gang members arrived on the
scene in Shenandoah early last year. For them, the Hispanic communities
springing up around food-processing facilities across the country present
an opportunity to expand their business interests—in particular, dealing
methamphetamine—and to attract new members. (For now, the rise of
rural gangs does not include African-American gangs, which remain based
in large and midsize urban areas.) In addition to drug trafficking, MS-13
cells across the country engage in a range of criminal activities. In Houston,
for instance, MS-13 is involved in the large-scale theft of baby formula.
Some groups steal cars for chop shops or resale south of the border; others
are into extortion or run prostitution rackets.
Many rural gang members, however, are not so much drawn to the
opportunities of the countryside as they are pushed out of the city. In
the crowded and carved-up inner cities, competition among gangs is
fierce. One block that I recently visited in the Columbia Heights neighborhood of Washington was being contested by four different groups. In
big-city barrios, trespassing on another gang’s turf can get you killed.
But in the countryside, the territory is wide open. Gangs operate on a
franchise model, and as with fast-food outlets, the closer you get to
crowded city centers, the smaller the individual turf. (Think how many
McDonald’s restaurants there are every few blocks downtown.) In
less-populated outlying areas, by contrast, a single gang can service an
entire neighborhood, town or county. For an ambitious young gang
member, it is easiest to move up the ranks by moving to the countryside.
“You recruit a couple of farm kids, and you’re an instant jefe,” or boss,
says Jessie (Chuco) Chavez, a gang leader in Dallas whom Hendrixson
arranged for me to interview. Of course, not every gang member in the
countryside is an amateur: according to Villegas, hard-core ex-cons from
California gangs, eager to avoid the consequences of that state’s “three
strikes” law, are also moving to the heartland.
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The countryside has another appealing feature: weak law enforcement.
“In small towns, the police are punks,” says Chicocano, a former gang member and a friend of Chavez’s who agreed to be identified by only his street
name.“You can have your way with them.” The statistics seem to bear this out.
Murder rates, according to the F.B.I.’s latest annual survey, have remained stable in big cities. But they have jumped in the smallest cities (those with fewer
than 10,000 residents), where the police do not have the means to pursue violent offenders with the same intensity as the L.A.P.D. and N.Y.P.D. And by
jumping from county to county, state to state, gang members can usually stay
one step ahead of the understaffed local authorities.
One measure of the range of jurisdictions spanned by gangs is that
Brenda Paz, before her death, was helping federal prosecutors with MS-13
shootings, stabbings and armed robberies across the country. According to
a recent F.B.I. report, MS-13 is thought to be active in 31 states in the
United States, from Alaska to Oklahoma, the Carolinas to Colorado, and
has tens of thousands of members in Honduras and El Salvador.
Consider, too, the picture of a farflung criminal network that emerges
from the details disclosed in law-enforcement documents about Paz’s
murder. Jailhouse recordings of her ex-boyfriend (against whom she was
expected to testify) include calls from the detention facility in Virginia
where he was held, in which he said that she needed to be “planted so hard,
she would never get up.” MS-13 members called her in Kansas City, Mo.,
where United States marshals from the Witness Protection Program had
her stashed away in a Marriott hotel, and were presumably able to persuade
her to leave the program voluntarily. The white S.U.V. that drove her to the
site of her death in Virginia had license plates from Georgia.
“This isn’t just a local issue,” says Frank Wolf, a congressman from
Virginia who has backed a number of antigang measures. “It must be
treated as a national problem.”
Like 19th-century Irish-American gangs, which arose from an immigrant
community that had fled famine, MS-13 has its origins in turmoil abroad.
As the brutal civil war in El Salvador was waged in the 80’s, pitting leftist
guerrillas against the American-backed government, more than a million
Salvadorans sought refuge in the United States. Thousands literally walked
much of the way to America, initially settling in the Rampart neighborhood of Los Angeles, where they were not warmly welcomed by the established Hispanic community. “Mexican gangs picked on them mercilessly,”
says Al Valdez, a veteran gang investigator in the district attorney’s office in
Orange Country, Calif.
Like the Irish before them, the Salvadorans banded together to protect
themselves. Salvadoran teenagers were particularly susceptible to the lure
of gang life, argues Juan Romagoza, a Salvadoran community leader in Washington who runs a health clinic, because the United States government viewed
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Salvadoran refugees as suspect guerrilla sympathizers and made it difficult for
them to get green cards. “These kids suffer from a severe identity crisis,” he
says. “They don’t see themselves as fully American because the country is not
making room for them. El Salvador is closed to them as well. They can’t relate
to their parents, who still think in the old ways and often don’t speak English.”
Following the end of civil war, in 1992, a second wave of immigration
from El Salvador transformed MS-13. The new arrivals included veterans
from both sides of the conflict. “These people had weapons training and
had seen and done terrible things,” Valdez says. Almost immediately the
level of violence escalated. While gangs typically confine themselves to
fighting one another and knocking off rivals, MS-13 killed wantonly,
shooting police officers and even civilians, simply to gain street cred.
“It was no longer about self-protection,” Valdez says, “but about the
bragging rights of who was the biggest and baddest in town.”
Today, what brings MS-13 to the Shenandoah is the lucrative rural
market for methamphetamine, or crank. Made in trailer-park labs and the
backs of barns, crank is the drug of choice in rural America. It is what you
will find kids in Iowa or Idaho smoking in convenience-store parking lots
on Friday nights. It is also sometimes used by Hispanic assembly-line
workers in the food-processing industry, where the pressure to keep up
with the line leads some to look for a chemical edge. “Supervisors have
been known to sell crank to their workers or to supply it for free in return
for certain favors, such as working a second shift,” Eric Schlosser writes in
“Fast Food Nation,” his exposé about the fast-food industry.
Hispanic gangs do not manufacture crank, but with their national and
international networks they have a natural advantage in distribution. Over
the past five years, according to Valdez, they have supplanted the biker
gangs that dominated the methamphetamine trade since World War II.
In the Shenandoah Valley, crank has been moved by a biker gang called
the Warlocks. But MS-13 is simply outhustling the competition with its
immigrant work ethic.
“The Warlocks got high on their own supply and loafed around,” says
Carter, the sheriff. “What amazed me was that a lot of these guys”—MS-13
members—“had jobs. They’d put in 50 hours at the poultry plant and then
on weekends drive down to the Carolinas to pick up loads of meth. They
certainly weren’t lazy.”
When Carter discovered that gangs were moving into Shenandoah, he did
a quick survey of the resources at his disposal. As sheriff, he had 56 people
on his payroll. Nineteen of them manned the county jail and could not
be deployed elsewhere. Of his remaining employees, many were support
staff members who performed administrative work or were officers on
highway and road patrol who could not be easily removed from their
assigned duties. His captains were often tied up with paperwork and court
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proceedings. Rotating shifts winnowed his forces further still. The numbers alone were troubling, and the odds against him rose further still
when the lack of Spanish speakers on his staff, extra money in his budget
or firsthand experience dealing with gangs were factored in. “We had to
learn about gang history and culture virtually from scratch,” he says.
Carter didn’t need to dig too deep to see what he was up against. MS-13’s
explosive growth and violent activity in the suburbs of northern Virginia was
well documented. According to a Department of Justice memorandum to
Attorney General John Ashcroft, in Fairfax County alone, MS-13 was
responsible for most of the 700 gang-related incidents reported by the police
department in 2003. In one Fairfax case, a 14-year-old stabbed a stranger
to death simply to impress fellow MS-13 members. In another case, in
May, MS-13 members attacked a teenager with a machete. All told, the
gang’s various local cliques—there are about 30 in northern Virginia, with
nearly 1,500 members—are reportedly linked to at least half a dozen deaths
in the state.
Faced with such a dangerous adversary, Carter did something other
small-town sheriffs in America tend to resist: he went public and sought
outside help. Community leaders are often loath to acknowledge the presence of gangs, much less to call for reinforcements. “They don’t want to
scare away tourists, risk property values or getting themselves re-elected,”
says an F.B.I. analyst in Washington, who in accordance with bureau policy,
spoke on condition of anonymity. “It’s part of the reason why gang activity
is underreported.”
But Carter realized that there was institutional knowledge out there for
him to tap. “I started sending my officers for outside training,” he says, “and
had gang intel experts come in to instruct us.” Instruction covered the
basics, including a primer on how to spot gang members. In MS-13’s case,
that meant getting to know its colors (blue and white), brand preferences
(Nike) and local enemies (the South Side Locos). The group’s hand sign
(the thumb holding the two middle fingers pressed to the palm), initiation
rites and the significance and placement of various identifying tattoos had
to be mastered. In addition to gaining some facility with Spanish, Carter’s
men had to familiarize themselves with street and gang slang.
Carter also needed to grapple with the issue of which police tactics
he should adopt for fighting back. Unlike parts of Central America, the
United States doesn’t have laws forbidding gang membership. (In El Salvador and Honduras, by contrast, draconian new measures make gang
membership punishable by up to 12 years in prison, prompting fears in
Washington that thousands of Central American members of MS-13 will
head north to avoid the crackdown.) And Carter could not simply conduct
a mass roundup of Hispanic immigrants. Aside from being discriminatory,
it would be impractical and counterproductive. In the late 90’s, officials in
Toombs County, Ga., tried that strategy, with poor results. “The I.N.S.
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arrested hundreds of people,” recalls Lance Hamilton, a municipal court
judge in rural Georgia. “But there was a huge outcry from assemblymen
and the business community.” Without workers, the Vidalia onions for
which Toombs is best known rotted in the fields. Processing plants stood
idle. The local economy sputtered. “In the end, they allowed the workers to
return to the fields to pick the crop,” Hamilton says.
Carter was going to have to walk the same fine line, balancing his
constituents’ economic interests, their expectations of safety and the rights of
the local Hispanic community. The odds, he realized, were stacked against
him. But he wasn’t going to sit by and watch thugs take over his county.
In early May, Carter decided that it was time to send MS-13 a message. He
had learned that the group’s members were implicated in a drug investigation that his officers conducted in the fall of 2003, and he decided to call in
the cavalry—federal and other agencies—for a crackdown. “We had
reached a point in that investigation,” he says, “where, as a small department, we had exhausted all our resources.” It was important, he stressed,
to continue to deal with MS-13 in the context of a narcotics investigation to
avoid the perception that he was initiating raids on the Hispanic community more generally. He contacted a friend of his at the Bureau of Alcohol,
Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives. “In my experience,” he says, “whenever
the A.T.F. gets involved, people go to jail.”
The message was delivered to MS-13 at 2 a.m. on a brisk Monday
morning, as more than 130 law-enforcement officers from a dozen state,
local and federal agencies started kicking down doors at 10 Shenandoah
locations, including the Valley Vista apartments, in what was one of the
largest drug raids in county history. The raids lasted most of the day, and
when the dust settled, crank and cocaine with a street value of half a
million dollars had been seized. There were 47 people in custody (some for
immigration violations), some defiantly flashing MS-13 hand signs as they
were paraded in a long, manacled procession to the county jail.
Emergency funds to finance Carter’s antigang effort followed from
state and federal coffers. This spring, Gov. Mark Warner of Virginia
created a state task force on gangs, and thanks in part to the lobbying
efforts of Frank Wolf, the Virginia congressman, the Shenandoah Valley
received $500,000 from the Justice Department to create a regional
gang unit.
Since then, no new graffiti have appeared in Woodstock. Fermin,
the Guatemalan crane operator, says he thinks gang members are lying
low in another town, farther up the valley, where there is a large applejuice bottling plant. But the crackdown, in the meantime, is continuing.
In late June, four MS-13 members, including Denis Rivera, were
indicted in the United States District Court in Alexandria, Va., for
Brenda Paz’s murder.
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Carter says he is relieved that Paz’s killers will finally be brought to
justice but harbors no illusions about seeing the last of gangs like MS-13.
“This problem,” he says, “is still in its infancy.”
Textual Questions
1. According to Brzezinski’s argument, why is the killing he describes in
his introduction more shocking to residents of Shenandoah County
than it would be to “urbanites”? Do you agree or disagree with this
piece of his argument?
2. Where and how does Brzezinski describe the history of gangs in America?
Does his description seem fair and accurate to you, based upon your
knowledge of history?
3. How does Brzezinski use Carter’s story to organize his essay? Is this
organization effective or ineffective?
Rhetorical Questions
4. How does Brzezinski describe the history and activities of MS-13?
How does his description support his conclusion that the problem
represented by this gang is only in its early stages of development?
5. Where and how does Brzezinski argue that the problem of gangs as
criminal organizations is related to issues of social and economic
status, race, and ethnicity? How persuasive are these aspects of his
argument?
6. Brzezinski’s argument is divided into five sections. How does he connect these sections with previous/subsequent sections, directly and
indirectly, and how effective is this organization, overall? Which section is most compelling and/or convincing to a reader? Which section
is the weakest? Why?
Intertextual Questions
7. Consider the actions of men such as Martin Luther King, Jr. that can
be (and sometimes have been) considered by some Americans to be
acts of civil disobedience, deliberate violation of a law perceived to
be unjust. Is there ever a situation in which gang activity—even
violent activity or other criminal activity—can be considered civil
disobedience?
8. In “No Country Left Behind” (Chapter 7), Colin L. Powell discusses
factors that affect the security of the American nation. Based his
discussions, is a group such as MS-13 a potential threat to national
security?
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Thinking Beyond the Text
9. Based on Brzezinski’s argument and your own knowledge and
experience, how are social, economic, and political issues related to
the development of gangs as criminal organizations? What part
do issues of race, ethnicity, and social class play in the development
of gangs?
10. As Brzezinski describes the history and criminal activity of MS-13,
would you define this group as a terrorist organization? Why or
why not?
For Writing & Discussion
11. In an essay, describe gang activity in either the place you live now or
a place you once lived for an extended period of time. What gangs
exist? What activities do they engage in? Are there positive aspects to
these gangs, even if members also engage in criminal activity? If there
are no gangs, then consider why not. What forces are at work in the
community that you describe that cause gangs to exist/not to exist?
TIMOTHY SANDEFUR
Timothy Sandefur (1976–) is an attorney who leads the Economic
Liberty Project at the Pacific Legal Foundation where he works on
issues having to do with eminent domain and the Fourteenth
Amendment. He has worked as a legal clerk for the libertarian
Institute of Justice, and in 2002 he served as a Lincoln Fellow at the
Claremont Institute. Sandefur writes for publications including
The American Enterprise, The Claremont Review of Books, The
Humanist, Ideas on Liberty, The Independent Review, The Orange
County Register, and the Washington Times. He has won the
George Washington Honor Medal from The Freedoms Foundation, the Felix Morley Journalism Competition from the Institute
for Humane Studies, the Madison-Maibach Award from the
Center for the Study of the Presidency, and a Ronald Reagan
Medal from Claremont Institute.
Sandefur is a contributing editor for Liberty magazine, where
“They’re Coming for Your Land” was published in March, 2005. In
this article, Sandefur explains how eminent domain laws, created
to allow governments to forcibly buy private lands for public use,
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have been gradually redefined until they are extremely susceptible
to eminent domain abuse.
In addition to his published writing, Sandefur maintains
a personal blog called “Freespace” and a blog on evolution and
creationism called “Panda’s Thumb.”
They’re Coming for Your Land
Prereading Question
Who should have the right to take land away from individual property
owners, when, why, and with what compensation?
“With no power, of which they are possessed, do [legislatures] seem to
be less familiar, or to handle less awkwardly, than that of eminent
domain. . . . At times they fail, or seem to fail, to distinguish accurately
between public and private ends, and if their terms and language
be alone consulted, to pervert the power to uses to which it cannot
lawfully be applied.”
—Sherman v. Buick (California Supreme Court, 1867)
Frank Bugryn and his three elderly siblings owned two houses and a
Christmas tree farm in Bristol, Conn. The 32-acre family homestead had
been in the family for over 60 years when city officials decided the land
would produce more tax revenue if it were transferred to industrial use.
Specifically, the city wanted to give the land to the Yarde Metals Corporation, which hoped the state highway frontage area would allow them to
construct a large sign and entranceway. When the Bugryn family turned
down the city’s offers to buy the property, the city began eminent domain
proceedings.
In May 1998, Bugryn and his family asked a state court to bar the condemnation of his property. “I don’t want to go anywhere,” he told the court.
“My parents built the family house in 1939, and I built my own house on
the property 42 years ago. I’m almost 78. Where am I going to go now?” But
Mayor Frank Nicastro testified that the industrial park was “in the best
interest of the future growth of the city,” because it would “build up the tax
base.” The court denied the injunction, holding that the condemnations of
the Bugryns’ homes “do not . . . constitute serious or material injuries.” In
the face of unremitting pressure from the community, and particularly
from the Hartford Courant, which editorialized repeatedly against them,
the Bugryns appealed. But the Court of Appeals also refused to stop the
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taking, and the city continued its plans even when Yarde Metals chose to
relocate due to the legal delays.
Finally, in 2004, when the family refused to leave their homes, the city
initiated proceedings to evict them. Once again, the Courant decried them
in an editorial, calling their resistance a “public farce,” and a “melodrama,”
and denouncing the family for “stall[ing] and draw[ing] upon the public’s
sympathy.” Meanwhile, 76-year-old Michael Dudko, husband of one of the
Bugryn sisters, and a Polish immigrant who at the age of 15 had been taken
from his home by the Nazis and forced into farm labor, suffered a relapse of
cancer and died. After a nearby radio station ran a story about the Bugryns’
plight, an anonymous, irate telephone call forced the police to post a guard
in the mayor’s office. Relations within the Bugryn family itself became
strained; when one sister failed to leave her house in time, her nephew took
the city’s side, telling reporters “people are pointing the finger at the mayor
and the council and city officials, but all they’re really doing in taking the
property is using an eminent domain system that was given to them by the
legislature.” The reverberating effects of eminent domain not only disrupted the family and community, it also bred a sense of disillusionment
best expressed by Frank Bugryn himself, who told a reporter, “I’m a veteran
of World War II, I fought for our freedom, democracy. But it seems 60 years
later it doesn’t work.”
Eminent domain—the government’s power to force a person to sell real
estate against his will, at a price the government deems “just compensation”—
is one of the most extreme forms of government coercion, and today, among
the most common. Used for centuries for building railroads, highways, and
post offices, eminent domain is now a multibillion dollar industry, and a classic example of rent-seeking run amok. Governments throughout America
routinely seize property to transfer it to private companies to “create jobs” and
increase the tax base in a community. In 1999, the city of Merriam, Kan., condemned a Toyota dealership to sell the land to the BMW dealership next door.
That same year, Bremerton, Wash., condemned 22 homes to resell the land to
private developers. In one especially notorious case, billionaire Donald
Trump convinced the government of Atlantic City, N.J., to condemn the
home of an elderly widow so that he could build a limousine parking lot. As
attorney Jennifer Kruckeberg puts it, “Whether you know it or not, your
house is for sale. Corporations, using cities as their personal real estate agents,
are proposing the following assignment: ‘Find me your most prominent location, get rid of what is on it, help me pay for it, and maybe you will be lucky
enough to have me move to your city.’ Such is the state of the current eminent
domain power.”
The exploitation of eminent domain by such private interests is a
relatively new phenomenon, and is explicitly prohibited by the U.S.
Constitution, which holds that “private property” may be taken only “for
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public use.” But a series of court decisions beginning in the first years of
the 20th century, and culminating in the 1954 decision Berman v. Parker,
eroded the “public use” limitation to such a degree that, as Richard
Epstein once noted, some law professors have taken to replacing that
clause with an ellipsis when writing out the text of the 5th Amendment.
In Berman, the Supreme Court held that eliminating slums was a public
use because once the legislature deems a project worthy of its attention, that
project is necessarily a public one: “[W]hen the legislature has spoken, the
public interest has been declared in terms well-nigh conclusive,” wrote Justice
William O. Douglas for a unanimous Court.“In such cases the legislature, not
the judiciary, is the main guardian of the public needs to be served by social
legislation.”
This level of deference from the Court had become standard fare for
property rights and economic liberty by 1954. With the coming of the
New Deal, the Supreme Court had decided to take a hands-off approach
to regulations of economic rights, which it decided—without the slightest
constitutional basis—were “lesser” rights, deserving only “rational basis
scrutiny.” Under “rational basis,” a law regulating economic or property
rights is presumed to be constitutional unless it is shown to lack a “rational relationship to a legitimate government interest”—a standard so
advantageous to the government that laws hardly ever violate it. But if
government’s decisions regarding property rights are supposed to be
related to a “legitimate government interest,” what interests are not legitimate? Are there goals that are off-limits to the state, or beyond the acceptable use of eminent domain? Berman was followed by the Michigan
Supreme Court’s 1981 decision of Poletown Neighborhood Council v.
Detroit, which held that the state could seize an entire working-class
neighborhood and transfer it to the General Motors Corporation to build
an automobile factory. Since the factory would “create jobs,” and creating
jobs is a legitimate government interest, the public use clause was satisfied. A few years later, the United States Supreme Court came to a similar
conclusion in Hawaii Housing v. Midkiff, holding that the Hawaii legislature was within its constitutional limits when it wrote a law allowing
renters to buy their landlords’ property at a fraction of the actual value.
Decisions like this rendered so little protection to property owners that
the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals once declared that “the whole scheme
is for a public agency to take one man’s property away from him and sell it
to another. The Founding Fathers may have never thought of this, but the
process has been upheld uniformly by latter-day judicial decision. . . . Our
hands are tied—if the book on the procedure is followed.”
By failing to define, let alone limit, the scope of “legitimate government
interests,” the courts sparked an explosion of condemnations in the service
of any interest that the legislature decided to pursue. “The ‘legitimate state
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interest’ test in vogue today,” wrote Epstein shortly after Midkiff, “is a bare
conclusion, tantamount to asserting that the action is legitimate because it
is lawful. . . . As such, it functions, at best, as a convenient label for serious
inquiry, without defining the set of permissible ends of government action.”
With the eminent domain power thus unmoored, the result was
predictable to public choice theorists: the power to redistribute property
fell into the hands, not of the most deserving, but of the most politically
adept. As government became capable of transferring unlimited amounts
of land between private parties, the business community began investing
an ever-increasing amount in lobbying to persuade it to give the land
to them. These companies portray the redistribution of land as a benefit to
the community, in the form of job creation and increased funding for
public services, as well as an eradication of “economic blight,” a vague term
attached to any neighborhood that is less than affluent but not an actual
slum. Meanwhile, government officials have come to see their roles, not as
defenders of the public’s safety and welfare, but as sculptors of neighborhoods, for whom citizens and land are raw materials to be formed into the
ideal community.
Boynton Beach, Fla., for example, is gradually implementing the “Heart
of Boynton Redevelopment Plan,” an immense redesign involving potentially hundreds of condemnations. After an attorney from the Pacific Legal
Foundation attended a community meeting to challenge officials about the
plan, City Redevelopment Director Quintus Greene gave a presentation to
the city council entitled “Why We Are Doing This.” Greene told the council
that although the cities of Boynton Beach and Delray Beach have almost the
same population, “when comparing median household incomes, Boynton
Beach ranks lower at $39,845 than Delray at $43,371. Boynton Beach ranks
higher in median household income than West Palm Beach at $36,774. . . .
The purpose of this redevelopment, is to compensate for the loss of one
of the City’s major taxpayers. Our property tax values are meager compared
to other cities and this redevelopment is our attempt to enhance property
values within this City. Our choices are to expand our tax base, raise
property taxes or reduce services to our citizens. . . . In Boynton Beach,
there is a significant amount of property that pays little or no taxes. Given
that reality, we must do other things to compensate for that loss of tax
dollars.”
In plain English: throw poor folks out of their homes, and the city’s
median income will be higher. Well, that is undeniably true.
But this marriage of government and private industry doesn’t just
benefit bureaucrats eager to be seen as “creating jobs” and “cleaning up the
community.” It also yields enormous boons for companies that are adept at
political persuasion. Recent articles in the Wall Street Journal and Mother
Jones have detailed the enormous pressure that Home Depot, Bed Bath &
Beyond, Wal-Mart, Target, and especially Costco, exert on governments to
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give them somebody else’s real estate. These efforts can be extremely enticing to government officials pursuing “the vision thing,” not to mention
local residents desperate for new jobs. The plans are presented with a
smooth and authoritative style—with sophisticated PowerPoint presentations including lovely artist’s renditions of gleaming new streets and
bustling pedestrian malls—that is hard for bureaucrats to resist. There’s
even a website, www.eminentdomainonline.com, which bills itself as
“an internet based business to government (b2g) clearinghouse for
professionals in the eminent domain, right of way, and infrastructure
development fields.” If the lobbying efforts should include donations to
mayoral election campaigns, and promises to fund giant public works
projects on the side, so much the better. As one city planner told Mother
Jones, “The reality is that you need to rely on developer interest in order to
facilitate projects. We’re not paying for this party.” (Conveniently enough,
the Internal Revenue Code allows money expended by a company seeking
to persuade a city official to exert eminent domain to be deducted from the
company’s gross income when determining income tax liability.)
Industry uses sticks as well as carrots when prodding officials to use
eminent domain on its behalf. The Poletown case is a prime example: GM
presented its plan to the city in July of 1980. On Sept. 30, the city’s
Economic Development Corporation approved it. Eight days later, GM
chairman Thomas Murphy wrote the mayor and the chairman of the
Detroit Economic Development Corporation, strongly urging them to
adopt the plan: “I firmly believe the prospect of retaining some 6,000 jobs,
and the attendant revitalization of these communities is a tremendous
challenge,” he wrote, adding ominously, “it also is an opportunity and
a responsibility which none of us can ignore.” This letter and GM’s other
maneuvers, Michigan Supreme Court Justice James Ryan later said, “suggest
the withering economic clout of the country’s largest auto firm,” and indeed
Detroit was more than eager to do GM’s bidding. Preliminary paperwork
was finished within days, and the city council and mayor approved the final
documents less than a month after Murphy’s letter. Action in the courts
moved with the same rare speed, culminating in oral arguments before the
state Supreme Court on March 3, 1981, and a decision only ten days later.
Meanwhile, wrote Justice Ryan, an “overwhelming psychological pressure . . .
was brought to bear upon property owners in the affected area,” as a
“crescendo of supportive applause sustained the city and General Motors. . . .
The promise of new tax revenues, retention of a mighty GM manufacturing
facility in the heart of Detroit, new opportunities for satellite businesses,
retention of 6,000 or more jobs . . . all fostered a community-wide chorus of
support for the project.”
Other cases present similar David-and-Goliath scenarios. In 2001,
Mississippi redevelopment officials gave the Nissan Corporation 1,300 acres
of state-owned land to construct an auto factory. When Nissan hesitated,
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the state condemned a middle-class black neighborhood to give Nissan
another 23 acres. James Burns, Jr., executive director of the state’s development authority, told the New York Times that the property was not actually
a part of the project: “It’s not that Nissan is going to leave if we don’t get that
land. What’s important is the message it would send to other companies if
we are unable to do what we said we would do. If you make a promise to a
company like Nissan, you have to be able to follow through.” Attorneys from
the Institute for Justice, a Washington, D.C.-based libertarian law firm,
managed to fight off the state, and the residents kept their homes. Less fortunate were the residents of the Toledo, Ohio, neighborhood that was taken
to build a Jeep factory, which received the blessing of Ohio courts in the fall
of 2004, or the property owners in Redwood City, Calif., where the city condemned land to build a movie theater. Knowing that a theater is probably
not a “public use,” the city declared it was really building a parking lot—and
it just happened to include a theater above the parking lot.
The precise amount of money involved in the eminent domain industry is impossible to assess, but Mother Jones’ Gary Greenberg notes that one
project in Ohio—an attempt to condemn 13 acres for the benefit of a
shopping mall called Rockwood Pavilion—involves about $125 million in
planning and construction costs, and promises the local city some
$1.5 million per year in tax revenue once completed. Multiplied by countless cases, as well as the legal expenses and the detriment to property values
caused by a city’s unpredictable tendency to exert eminent domain, the
costs are incalculable.
Eminent domain abuse can have perverse social consequences, too.
One of the most commonly voiced justifications for eminent domain is that
it is necessary for cleaning up unsightly neighborhoods, which include
“adult” businesses or other low-class uses. But in 1997, a consortium of Las
Vegas casinos persuaded the city to take the retail property owned by Greek
immigrants John and Carol Pappas to build a parking lot for the “Fremont
Street Experience,” a pedestrian mall including such adult attractions as the
“Topless Girls of Glitter Gulch.” Moreover, the concept of “blight” is so elastic that economic interest groups can easily exploit it. A mall in St. Louis was
recently determined to be blighted, despite the fact that it was 100% occupied and had $100 million in annual sales. And a prep school in Wisconsin
was declared blighted despite its elite $10,000 tuition price (which conveniently enough qualified it for a $5.6 million tax-exempt bond issue).
Costco, the nation’s leading corporate abuser of eminent domain, has
persuaded cities across the nation to engage in such transfers. Lancaster,
Calif., tried to condemn a 99 Cents store to transfer it to Costco, even though
Costco already had a store in the same mini-mall with the 99 Cents store.
The city did so, not on the grounds that the property was blighted—it wasn’t;
in fact, it’s probably the cleanest 99 Cents store in America—but on the
grounds that the neighborhood might be blighted in the future, if the
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government did not act now. A federal court struck down this condemnation
(an extremely rare occurrence) after noting that “by Lancaster’s own admissions, it was willing to go to any lengths—even so far as condemning commercially viable, unblighted real property—simply to keep Costco within the
city’s boundaries. In short, the very reason that Lancaster decided to condemn 99 Cents’ leasehold interest was to appease Costco. . . . ” It is impossible to tell how many properties Costco has taken through eminent domain
because the company hasn’t released exact figures and has tried to stifle
shareholder attempts to reverse the company’s policies. But the cases
abound. Institute for Justice lawyer Dana Berliner, who recently published a
catalogue of some 10,000 instances of eminent domain abuse, reports that
“of the big-box retailers, Costco shows up the most.” But the company is
unrepentant. Asked for an explanation, Costco senior vice president Joel
Benoliel told investors that if they didn’t exploit eminent domain, “our competitors . . . would . . . and our shareholders would be the losers.”
It’s hard to deny that assertion. So long as the power is available to the
highest bidder, Costco executives would violate their duty to investors
to withdraw from the scramble for other people’s land. Although it is easy
to damn powerful companies so insensitive to homeowners unable to
afford a legal defense—a Costco attorney once told the city council of
Lenexa, Kan., that the property he wanted condemned was “not much of a
neighborhood, anyway”—the blame rightfully rests on the courts that have
gradually erased the public use clause.
But in confronting this problem, the courts suffer from a serious
intellectual handicap, which dates back to the Progressive Era at the opening of the 20th century. During this period, leading intellectuals came to
reject the individualistic natural rights premises of the American founding.
As Michael McGerr writes, the Progressives “wanted not only to use the
state to regulate the economy; strikingly, they intended nothing less than to
transform other Americans.” But remaking Americans meant inverting the
premise that the state was a tool of the people. John Dewey, philosophical
champion of the Progressives, denounced “the notion that there are two
different ‘spheres’ of action and of rightful claims; that of political society
and that of the individual, and that in the interest of the latter the former
must be as contracted as possible.” Such a notion, he said, would be
replaced with “that form of social organization, extending to all the areas
and ways of living, in which the powers of individuals shall not be merely
released from mechanical external constraint but shall be fed, sustained
and directed.”
The Progressives thought society should mold individuals in a manner
best suited for the survival and flourishing of the state. It was during this
period that various devices for controlling citizens—everything from the
Pledge of Allegiance to eugenics and forced sterilization—were introduced.
In his great book on this era, The Metaphysical Club, Louis Menand explains
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just how opposite the Progressive idea was to the views of the Founding
Fathers. To the Progressives, “Coercion is natural; freedom is artificial. Freedoms are socially engineered spaces where parties engaged in specified pursuits enjoy protection from parties who would otherwise naturally seek to
interfere in those pursuits . . . We . . . think of rights as privileges retained by
individuals against the rest of society, but rights are created not for the good
of individuals, but for the good of society. Individual freedoms are manufactured to achieve group ends. This way of thinking about freedoms helps
explain why the . . . [Progressives] were indifferent to the notion of individual rights.”
The Progressive Era began to dissolve the public-private boundary
by holding that the things we think of as rights are really just permissions
granted by society and revocable whenever society decides. Understandably,
this period brought a corresponding explosion in the use of eminent
domain. In 1923, for the first time, the Supreme Court held that government could condemn land not just for necessities, but for mere recreational
facilities like scenic highways. A California court held in 1911 that “[g]enerally speaking, anything calculated to promote the education, the recreation
or the pleasure of the public is to be included within the legitimate domain
of public purposes” served by eminent domain.
In short, the Progressive goal of “remaking Americans” meant breaking
down the limits on state power. The difference between “legitimate” and
“illegitimate” government interests was accordingly dissolved. Since government would “extend to all the areas and ways of living,” it would now be free
to do “anything calculated to promote . . . the pleasure of the public.”
It is no coincidence that the Progressive Era was the first time the word
“blight” was applied to economic stagnation. The Progressives saw society
as an organic whole, with each person a cell. Thus the term “blight,” originally a term for a plant disease, was applied to neighborhoods that failed to
perform to the standard the society desired. Private businesses were no
longer private, they were a tool by which society produced a certain
standard of living, and if they failed to do so, society could simply revoke
the permission (formerly called property rights) and give that land to
someone else.
With the boundaries of “legitimate government interests” erased, New
Dealers built on the Progressives’ work by establishing the concept of judicial deference. In previous decades, courts had been willing to block the
more extreme Progressive social experiments, but in the 1930s they took a
more deferential view. Louis Brandeis, a Progressive attorney who had once
coined the term “right of privacy,” was appointed to the Supreme Court,
where he would instead declare that “in the interest of the public and in
order to preserve the liberty and the property of the great majority of the
citizens of a state, rights of property and the liberty of the individual must
be remolded, from time to time, to meet the changing needs of society.”
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President Roosevelt’s other appointees (including Justice Douglas, who
would later write the Berman decision) agreed not only that government
could “remold” the “liberty of the individual,” but that courts should not
stand in the way. The result was the creation of “rational basis scrutiny.”
Today, courts are unable to decide whether an asserted “government
interest” is legitimate or illegitimate. Indeed, the Supreme Court has
confessed that “our cases have not elaborated on the standards for determining what constitutes a ‘legitimate state interest.’ ” But without such an
elaboration, it is impossible to determine whether a law is “rationally related
to a legitimate state interest.” Since anything at all might qualify as a “legitimate interest,” anything subject to this test will receive a pass from the
Court. The result is that government’s power to manipulate individuals, and
their property, is limited only in the rarest possible circumstances.
There is reason for optimism, however. The severest abuses of eminent
domain have already forced many people to reexamine their views about
the lesser stature of property rights. When the Michigan Supreme Court
indicated its willingness to reconsider its Poletown decision, the ACLU
joined forces with the Pacific Legal Foundation urging the court to declare
eminent domain abuse unconstitutional. The court agreed, unanimously
overruling its decades-old decision. To permit the condemnation of land
“solely on the basis of the fact that use of that property by a private entity
seeking its own profit might contribute to the economy’s health” would
“render impotent our constitutional limitations on the government’s
power of eminent domain,” said the court. “Poletown’s ‘economic benefit’
rationale would validate practically any exercise of the power of eminent
domain on behalf of a private entity. After all, if one’s ownership of private
property is forever subject to the government’s determination that another
private party would put one’s land to better use, then the ownership of real
property is perpetually threatened by the expansion plans of any large
discount retailer, ‘megastore,’ or the like.”
Only months later, the United States Supreme Court agreed to hear
Kelo v. New London, a case challenging Connecticut’s attempt to seize a
neighborhood for the benefit of Pfizer. Although it is impossible to predict
what the court will do, there are three main possibilities. The first is that the
court may allow government to redistribute private land of New London
residents to a private company on the grounds that any benefit to the public
is good enough. Second, it might hold, on very narrow grounds, that in
some cases, the private benefit is just too extreme to be labeled public. This
seems the most likely outcome, but it is an unsatisfying one, because it
would leave the important question unanswered. The third and least likely
option is that the court could invest serious thought into the difference
between what is public and what is private, and could declare that attenuated social effects of private behavior aren’t enough to make it into a public
concern. Just because a private business affects the public in some way
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doesn’t make it the government’s business. If the court embraced this view,
the answer to the Kelo case would be obvious: of course a private company
is not a public use, even if the public likes to purchase its products.
It is not impossible that this will happen. In Lawrence v. Texas, the
Supreme Court declared that alleged harm to society by private, adult,
consensual sexual activity is not enough to allow the state to pry into people’s
private bedrooms. It would be refreshing indeed if it also said that alleged
social effects of private business interests are not enough to make a private
business into a public use. But, again, I think it unlikely. Such a decision would
require the court to reexamine old and politically volatile assumptions which
trace back to the Progressive abandonment of America’s founding principles.
To city planners, your neighborhood is theirs to shape as they please. The fact
that a business uses condemned land for its own profit is irrelevant to them
because private businesses are public uses, in their minds. They are the tools
by which society creates jobs and provides people with goods. President
Eisenhower once warned the nation about the military-industrial complex,
but today local governments are wrapped up in the Costco-WalMart-Home
Depot complex. They believe in what they call “partnerships” between
government and private industry in which government and corporations
decide the shape and layout of whole neighborhoods, with no regard for the
rights of the landowners who stand in their way.
But even a favorable outcome in Kelo might come too late to help Curtis
Blanc of Liberty, Mo. Through his company, Mid-America Car, Inc., Blanc
owns a well-maintained brick warehouse which he leases for $1 per year to
two charities: In As Much Ministries, and Love, Inc. These ministries feed
more than 400 families per month—despite one city council member’s
statement during a council meeting that “there are no poor people in Liberty,”
But the council has other plans for Blanc’s land: it wants to construct a business district on “Liberty Triangle,” which consists of 88 acres of land, including
Blanc’s warehouse. The first phase of the Triangle project has already begun,
and a 160,000-square-foot Lowe’s home improvement store recently opened.
Steve Hansen, the city’s public works director, recently told businesses that
those which generate high sales tax income for the city will be allowed to
remain in the area, but that “most of the businesses that are there now are not
high sales producers” and will be condemned to make way for companies that
will raise tax revenue for the city. Blanc has received a final notice from the city
requiring him to sell his property, or face condemnation. Still, Blanc is hopeful. Along with the Bugryn and Pappas families, he agreed to be represented by
the Pacific Legal Foundation in a friend of the court brief in the Kelo case
which urges the court to breathe new life into the “public use” clause.
It is very sad that we have come this far. For the Supreme Court of the
United States to declare that “our cases have not elaborated on the standards
for determining what constitutes a ‘legitimate state interest’ ” is a shocking
statement. Two hundred years after the founding, with the Declaration of
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Independence and the Federalist Papers at hand, and with the experiences
of the Revolution, the Civil War, the World Wars, and the civil-rights movement behind us, we ought to know what a legitimate state interest is. As
Hadley Arkes has put it, “this late in the seasons of our experience, federal
judges should not be in need of this kind of instruction, on the rudiments
of constitutional government. . . . [The Founders] did not expect that the
main instruction would have to be offered to the lawyers and the judges
themselves, and to the resident wits in the schools of law. . . . But that
project has become, in our own day, steady work.”
Textual Questions
1. According to Sandefur’s argument, what are the immediate and longterm effects of current interpretations of eminent domain?
2. How did the legal principle of eminent domain become “unmoored”
and to who did it finally become attached? How? With what results—
for developers and individual property owners?
3. Sandefur’s argument is divided into four sections. What major point
does he make in each section? How does he support each of these
major points—with what examples?
Rhetorical Questions
4. Examine Sandefur’s examples. Based upon your analysis, with whom
is he most sympathetic? How does he want his readers to feel about
this issue, and how can you tell?
5. Given that his argument is about America in the twenty-first century,
how effective is it for Sandefur to open his essay with a quotation from
a California Supreme Court decision in 1867? Why is this effective or
ineffective?
6. According to Sandefur’s conclusion, there is cause “for optimism.”
Given the grim nature of his argument in the preceding sections, how
does he make this turn in his essay? How well does it work, given the
comparatively short nature of this section?
Intertextual Questions
7. Sandefur opens with a description of a homeowner. Why? How does
Matthew Brzezinski use this same strategy in “Hillbangers” (this chapter)?
8. Consider the arguments about civil disobedience made by Martin Luther
King, Jr. (this chapter). Based his definition, is an individual property
owner’s refusal to sell his/her land to a developer an act of civil disobedience? Why or why not?
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Thinking Beyond the Text
9. While Sandefur quotes a California Supreme Court decision from 1867
in the opening of his article, there are many decisions—by state and
federal courts—that affect the legal interpretation of eminent domain.
Locate the most recent decision made in your current state of residence
and explain how that decision affects individual property owners.
10. Sandefur speaks of abuses of eminent domain, but under what conditions is the greater good best served by abridging the rights of individual
property owners? Won’t someone—the local/state/federal government,
a private developer, or others—always benefit from seizing land and
putting it to another use? Won’t someone always lose?
For Writing & Discussion
11. Talk to either a city planner or land developer. What does he/she think
about recent controversies over eminent domain? In a short essay,
explain how this person’s opinions and experiences either support or
refute the claims made by Sandefur.
JACK HITT
Jack Hitt is a contributing editor with GQ, Harpers, Lingua Franca,
and the National Public Radio series “This American Life” where he
has appeared more than 20 times. He also has written for American
Prospect, the Los Angeles Times, Mother Jones, the New York Times,
and Outside magazine. In 1991 he received a Livingston Award for
Young Journalists for his article on hackers breaking into the New
York phone system, and in 2006 he received an MFK Fisher Distinguished Writing Award for an article in Gourmet Magazine. His
“This American Life” episode about a production of Peter Pan is
anthologized on the CD collection, “Lies, Sissies & Fiascoes: The
Best of This American Life.”
In “The Newest Indians,” published in the New York Times
in August 2005, Hitt explores how approaches to ethnic identity,
especially for Native Americans, have changed over time and
discusses the importance of language in Native American communities today. Some of Hitt’s other recent publications include
a 2006 New York Times article about abortion in El Salvador,
“Pro-Life Nation”; a 2006 Los Angeles Times article, “Jesus Was No
GOP Lobbyist”; and a 2006 New York Times article on a bird
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JACK HITT The Newest Indians
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thought until recently to be extinct, “13 Ways of Looking at an
Ivory-Billed Woodpecker.”
The Newest Indians
Prereading Question
In The Redneck Manifesto, Jim Goad argues that impoverished whites,
particularly those who live in southern states of the US, are the most
disenfranchised Americans to exist in modern times. Aside from their poverty
and political disenfranchisement, they are also the last minority about whom
anyone can joke at will. Jokes about Jews and Blacks are, in modern America,
absolutely unacceptable; jokes about rednecks, he argues, are not. Would you
agree or disagree with some/all of his argument, as summarized here? Why?
On a crisp morning in March at the Jaycee Fairgrounds near Jasper, Ala., the
powwow was stirring. Amid pickups with bumper stickers reading “Native
Pride” and “The earth does not belong to us. We belong to the earth,” small
groups gathered to check out the booths selling Indian rugs, dancing sticks,
homemade knives and genealogy books. On one side, under her camper’s
tarp, sat Wynona Morgan, a middle-aged woman wearing a modestly embroidered Indian smock and some jewelry. Morgan had only recently discovered
her Indian heritage, but, she said, in some ways she had known who she was
for years. “My grandmother always told me that she came from Indians,”
Morgan told me. She is now a member of one of the groups meeting here in
Jasper, the Cherokee Tribe of Northeast Alabama, which itself is new, having
organized under that name in 1997. The tribe is committed to telling its story,
in part through an R.V. campground named Cedar Winds that will eventually
expand to include an “authentic, working Cherokee Indian Village.”
“The only real proof we had that we were Indian was this stub,” Morgan went on to say. She had brought along a copy of a century-old receipt
entitling an ancestor to receive some money from the United States
government for being an Indian. With the help of an amateur genealogist
named Bryan Hickman, Morgan was able to connect her line to its Indian
roots, and she began to raise her son, Jo-Jo, as a Native American. She was
particularly proud of Jo-Jo; only a teenager, Jo-Jo had been chosen to serve
as honorary headman and lead the grand entry just after the grass dancers
performed later that afternoon.
“Sometimes Jo-Jo gets teased for being an Indian at school, but he
doesn’t care,” Morgan said. What she didn’t say was that the teasing is
connected to the fact that neither she nor Jo-Jo look as much like Indians
as they do regular Alabama white folks. In fact, every Indian at the
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powwow looked white. More than half my time with this tribe was spent
dealing with their anxiety that I might make this observation.
This ethnic apprehension can be found even among the older tribes,
where outmarriage, or exogamy, has created a contemporary population
that doesn’t look nearly as “Indian” as the characters of our movies and
HBO westerns. What results from this can get funky. For example, among
coastal Indian tribes, who depend upon tourism, it is not uncommon to
see them dressed as Plains Indians with full feathered headdresses and
other outfits that were never their custom. It is a practice known as “chiefing,” and in some tribes it is as regulated as jewelry sales. This is the market
force, ethnic-wise: coastal Indians know that they have to look like an outsider’s vision of an Indian in order to be accepted by tourists as Indian.
Among the newer tribes, this anxiety can get especially intense. All
weekend at the Jaycee Fairgrounds, the Cherokees of Northeast Alabama
whom I spoke to were quite nervous that I might pronounce them, as some
put it, “ethnic frauds.” Hickman, the genealogist, insisted upon knowing if
I was “going to make fun of them.” In the days leading up to the powwow,
he called me repeatedly, his voice filled with panic. Hardly an hour went by
over the weekend that the event’s spokeswoman, Karen Cooper, didn’t sidle
up to ask me if there was anything she could do.
Morgan, though, was happy to talk about her relatively new status as
an American Indian. She had been attending powwows for years as a
white woman, but became official two years ago after her genealogical
work was done. “I hate to put it this way, but I’m a completely new
Indian,” she said. “I have had to learn everything from the ground up,
and I’m learning every day.”
Morgan’s sincerity and her profound pleasure at all these discoveries in
her ancestral line now influences every waking moment of her life, she
said. She confided that she knows that there are fake Indians—so-called
wannabes—and she says she feels sorry for them. “I hear some people say
that they have a ‘Cherokee princess’ up the line,” Morgan said with a laugh.
“I just love that one, because of course the Cherokees didn’t have a
princess.” This joke—about the white person claiming a Cherokee
princess—is heard pretty often these days from any Indian, coast to coast.
In the same way that blacks poke fun at white men who can’t jump or Jews
mock goyim mispronunciations of Yiddish words, it is not meant as much
to put down others as to enunciate the authenticity and insider status of
the person telling the joke. It is a way to assuage a new kind of ethnic
unease that can be felt throughout Indian Country.
The Cherokee Tribe of Northeast Alabama is, according to the University of Oklahoma anthropologist Circe Sturm, one of more than 65 staterecognized tribes, most of which have emerged in the last few decades in
the Southeast. State recognition is merely one of many legal mechanisms
used to legitimate a Native American tribe. They range from the most
difficult—federal recognition, which is required for running a casino—to
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state and local designations and on to unrecognized groups. (The Cherokees alone account for more than 200 of these recently formed unaffiliated
tribes.) All of these tribes have emerged at a moment when Native Americans have experienced skyrocketing growth in population. I had traveled to
Jasper, among other places, to find out what kind of growing pains this
population surge is causing Native Americans.
Soon enough, the shed at the fairgrounds was all commotion as the
grass dance began. Jo-Jo was dressed in full regalia, and like all the dancers
here, he had made his bustle and other ornaments. The grass dancers were
pouring their hearts into it. The crowd was mostly other tribal members, as
well as what are called “hobbyists,” non-Indian enthusiasts who like to
attend public powwows. All of them were thrilled with the performance,
and it was hard not to be impressed by the difficult moves and the elaborate costumes. I meant to keep my eye on Jo-Jo, but I was distracted by
another handsome teenage boy with light brown hair, the head grass
dancer, who didn’t seem to have made the full transition to Indian yet. His
outfit was a painstaking interplay of beads and feathers and a series of
striking variations of white and red shapes sewn onto his vest, which for
some reason caught my eye and seduced me into leaving the bleacher seats
in order to wander closer to the rail, elbowing my way out in front of even
small children to peer more carefully and to make absolutely sure that the
tiny red rectangles were—yes, indeed, no doubt about it—little Confederate battle flags.
A century ago, Native Americans were down to a few hundred thousand
people, and the prevailing concern was not about overpopulation but about
extinction. Some observers comfortably predicted that America would close
the book on its “vanishing race” by 1935. But Native Americans didn’t disappear, and after the birth of civil rights, when the Red Power movement
asserted itself in the 1960’s, something unexpected happened in the Indian
population count. In four consecutive censuses, which showed other groups
growing by 7 to 10 percent, Native American populations soared, growing by
more than 50 percent in 1970, by more than 70 percent in 1980 and another
third in 1990. The 2000 census reveals an overall doubling, to more than four
million. Jack D. Forbes, an emeritus professor of Native American studies at
the University of California at Davis, argues that undercounts and other census quirks may mean that the total number of Indians in the United States
today is in fact closer to 15 or even 30 million. Using the 2000 census data,
Indians can be called America’s fastest-growing minority.
The assumption many people make when they hear these huge numbers
is that the new Indians are just cashing in on casino money. But tribes with
casinos or even casino potential have very restrictive enrollment policies.
(If anything, when casinos are involved, the story usually goes heartbreakingly in the other direction. Take the case of Kathy Lewis, whose grandfather
was the chief of the Chukchansi tribe, which now runs a casino with another
tribe outside Fresno, Calif. Her father worked out a deal with the tribal
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council that placed him on the lucrative tribe’s rolls but cut out his own
children. He no longer speaks to his daughter. Impoverished, she lives in a
two-room trailer just outside the reservation.)
Instead, the demographic spike in population is a symptom of what
sociologists call “ethnic shifting” or “ethnic shopping.” This phenomenon
reflects the way more and more Americans have come to feel comfortable
changing out of the identities they were born into and donning new
ethnicities in which they feel more at home. There is almost no group in
this hemisphere immune to the dramas accompanying so much ethnic
innovation. Last year in Montreal, for example, the selection of Tara Hecksher as Irish-Canadian parade queen seemed to many to be inspired. While
the young woman’s father is Irish, her mother is Nigerian. To look at her
face and hair, most people would instinctively categorize her as “black.”
Certainly the thug that interrupted the parade by tossing a white liquid at
her seemed to think that way.
Such agonies of identity abound, but nowhere are they felt more keenly
than among Native Americans. There, many of the markers of being
Indian—the personal adornments, the spiritual life, daily tribal culture—
are the subject of intense debate, in some cases even federal regulation.
Much of what has defined Indianness has been appropriated by everyone
from Hollywood to charlatan spiritual guides and ground into unappealing
cliche. As a result, many Indians are trying to define the new modern Native
American in terms that can’t be so easily commodified. Some argue that this
ethnic mobility in and out of Indian Country is connected to a separate
phenomenon—a rush to revitalize native languages. Many tribes have hired
linguists or sent members to any of several institutes now devoted to helping Indians retain or recreate some form of their tribal languages.
In the past, ethnicity and race seemed like fixed categories, inherent
qualities of self that were not only unchanging but could also be measured,
quantified and reduced to small checkable boxes on bureaucratic forms.
But American diversity and intermarriage (as well as the perfect match
between the Internet and deep genealogical research) have changed this
singular certainty into a multiple-choice question. For most of American
history, identity was centrally controlled: the census taker decided your
identity by quietly writing it down while asking questions at your door. But
in 1960, the census was changed to permit Americans to declare their own
race or ethnicity. The most significant shift, though, came as recently as the
2000 census. Americans were permitted to declare more than one race or
identity. As a result, the old categories become even more fluid.
How much easier (though scarier) life might be if we all got ethnic
identification cards so that when encountering a very light-skinned person
claiming to be black, you could reply, “O.K., show me your federal identification card guaranteeing the proper amount of African blood to qualify
you as an African-American.” Here’s the thing: you could ask an Indian
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that question. Some Native Americans carry what is called, awkwardly, a
white card, officially known as a C.D.I.B., a Certificate of Degree of Indian
Blood. This card certifies a Native American’s “blood quantum” and can be
issued only after a tribe has been cleared by a federal subagency.
The practice of measuring Indian blood dates to the period just after
the Civil War when the American government decided to shift its genocide
policy against the Indians from elimination at gunpoint to the gentler idea
of breeding them out of existence. It wasn’t a new plan. Regarding Indians,
Thomas Jefferson wrote that “the ultimate point of rest and happiness for
them is to let our settlements and theirs meet and blend together, to
intermix, and become one people.” When this idea was pursued bureaucratically under President Ulysses S. Grant, Americans were introduced to
such phrases as “half breed” and “full blood” as scientific terms. In a
diabolical stroke, the government granted more rewards and privileges the
less Indian you were. For instance, when reservation lands were being
broken up into individual land grants, full-blooded Indians were ruled
“incompetent” because they didn’t have enough civilized blood in them
and their lands were administered for them by proxy agents. On the other
hand, the land was given outright to Indians who were half white or threequarters white. Here was the long-term catch: as Indians married among
whites and gained more privileges, their blood fraction would get smaller,
so that in time Indians would reproduce themselves out of existence.
Compounding this federal reward for intermarriage was the generally
amicable tradition most tribes had of welcoming in outsiders. From the
earliest days of European settlement, whites were amicably embraced by
Indian tribes. For instance, the leader of the Cherokee Nation during the
forced exile of 1838–39—the Trail of Tears—was John Ross, often described
as being seven-eighths Scottish.
A lot of Indians haven’t looked “Indian” for quite a while, especially in
the eastern half of the country, where there is a longer history of contact
with Europeans. That fact might not have been the source of much anxiety
in the past, but in the post-Civil Rights era, the connotations of the word
“white” began to shift at the same time that the cultural conversation
progressed from the plight of “Negroes” to the civil rights of “blacks.”
Suddenly “white” acquired a whiff of racism. This association may well
account for the rise of more respectable ethnic descriptions like “IrishAmerican” or “Norwegian-American,” terms that neatly leapfrog your
identity from Old World to New without any hint of the Civil War in between.
According to the work of Ruth Frankenberg and other scholars, some white
people associate whiteness with “mayonnaise” and “paleness” and “spiritual
emptiness.” So whatever is happening in Indian Country is being aggravated
by an unexpected ethnic pressure next door: people who could be considered
white but who can legitimately (or illegitimately) find an Indian ancestor now
prefer to fashion their claim of identity around a different description of self.
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And in a nation defined by ethnic anxiety, what greater salve is there than to
become a member of the one people who have been here all along?
The reaction from lifelong Indians runs the gamut. It is easy to find
Native Americans who denounce many of these new Indians as members
of the wannabe tribe. But it is also easy to find Indians like Clem Iron
Wing, an elder among the Sioux, who sees this flood of new ethnic claims
as magnificent, a surge of Indians “trying to come home.” Those Indians
who ridicule Iron Wing’s lax sense of tribal membership have retrofitted
the old genocidal system of blood quantum—measuring racial purity by
blood—into the new standard for real Indianness, a choice rich with
paradox. The Native American scholar C. Matthew Snipp has written that
the relationship between Native Americans and the agency that issues the
C.D.I.B. card is “not too different than the relationship that exists for
championship collies and the American Kennel Club.”
Out on Chicaugon Lake on a warm afternoon in Michigan, dozens of
families splashed around in the water, having good summer fun. Inside
the nearby picnic shed, a few dozen folks assembled for an Ojibwe
language camp. The camp was off to an awkward start. The adults stood at
uncomfortable attention. The teenagers, off to one side, smoked and
lobbed withering looks everywhere. The little ones raced about, crazed
that they couldn’t join the children in the lake.
The leader was Wendy Geniusz, a young blonde whose cute cheeky
smile seemed to reflect her father’s Polish background (as did that killer surname). She has been raised among the Ojibwe all her life. Her mother,
Mary, is the granddaughter of a Canadian Indian who gave up her native
claim after marrying a Presbyterian Scot. But Mary knew this grandmother,
and about 25 years ago, when she started having her children, she decided
that she could no longer indulge what she saw as the luxury of her multiple
backgrounds. She needed to create a coherent environment for her children.
After finding a spiritual guide to lead her back to the world of her
grandmother, Mary raised her children among the Ojibwe. Wendy Geniusz
was born an Indian. She is known by her birth name, Makoons, and she
has attended local powwows since she can remember. Geniusz’s days begin,
as they have for the past five years, with a tobacco offering and prayer.
She is married to an Ojibwe man, Errol Geniusz (having taken her last
name), and she intends to raise her children speaking Ojibwe in her home;
she mastered the language at the University of Minnesota, where her Ph.D.
topic is “Decolonization of Ojibwe Plant Knowledge.” She teaches the
language to other members of the tribe.
One of the exercises this morning was to get people to ask one another
basic questions in Ojibwe. About 10 kids, all around 11 or 12, were horsing
around as Geniusz struggled to guide them through the paces. It was rough
going. Two kids in particular were jumping on each other. One looked
classically Indian; the other was a blond. The black-haired boy teasingly
referred to the other as “whitey.” There were a few anxious looks among the
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adults, yet here on the Upper Peninsula, no one corrected the black-haired
boy, in part because he is the great grandson of the tribal elder who was in
attendance to lend the language camp a sense of history (and to resolve the
occasional grammar stumper). Later that morning, when the teasing
continued, the blond kid broke into a rap from “Scary Movie 3”: “I’m a
white boy, but my neck is red/I put Miracle Whip on my Wonder Bread.”
The anxiety that was a constant at the Alabama powwow was present here,
too, but it was acknowledged not with panic but with jokes and stories.
“People usually think I’m white,” Geniusz explained. “Like recently, my
sister and I took a bunch of clothing to an Indian rummage sale, and they
thought we were just some white kids bringing clothes down.” On the other
hand, she recalled attending a recent national Indian conference at which
each tribe was asked to stand up and say hello. “I was with the Chicaguan
Chippewa, and they said I should get up and say hello because I spoke more
Ojibwe. So I got up and said something very simple, like ‘Boozhoo giinawaa,’
or ‘Hello, all of you.’ And afterward, I had all these people coming up and
hugging me and telling me that they had thought I was just some little white
girl. When I speak, people get a little startled, and then they accept me.”
Circe Sturm, whose book on new Indian tribes, “Claiming Redness,” is
due next year, suggests that “one big difference between older recognized
tribes and the newer tribes is that the newer groups are marked by a
nervous disavowal of whiteness. You will often hear them talk about their
‘Indian hair’ or their ‘Indian cheekbones.’ They often solemnly conclude
their conversations by saying, ‘For all purposes, I consider myself Indian.’
The older tribes acknowledge their whiteness. Oklahoma Cherokees talk
about ‘white Cherokees’ and often make a joke about it.”
Ethnicity is a tricky thing because it is commonly understood as something fixed and essential rather than what it more likely is: an unarticulated
negotiation between what you call yourself and what other people are willing
to call you back. Geniusz has lived her life culturally among the Ojibwe and
is recognized by them as an Indian. Her easy comfort at calling herself an
Indian comes in part because everyone in her area recognizes the essential
Indian life she has led. Her physically European features are, in this part of
Michigan at least, understood as only marginally curious.
The way the ethnic negotiation works depends on what part of the country you are located in. Native Americans recognize that there exists a kind of
spectrum. At one end there are Indians living on a well-established Western
reservation in a tribe that is branded as seriously authentic—Hopi, say—
where many in the tribe retain the classic Indian physical characteristics.
Moving along, you encounter various tribes that have intermarried a lot—like
the Ojibwe—yet whose members still feel a powerful sense of authenticity.
But once you visit tribes of newcomers, where few members knew their
Indian ancestors personally, you begin to sense a clawing anxiety of identity.
At the far end are hobbyists, those Indian groupies who hang around
powwows, hoping to find a native branch in their family tree. They enjoy
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wearing the traditional tribal garb and are, as the University of Michigan history professor Philip Deloria titled his book,“Playing Indian.” Most hobbyists
do it for fun, although some are just criminals, like Ronald A. Roberts, who
pleaded guilty to federal charges after trying to establish a casino with his
forged genealogical documents, or David Smith, who was jailed for holding a
“healing ceremony” for a 12-year-old girl that included fondling her.
Just where in that spectrum, between land-based tribes in the West and
playful hobbyists, you might locate a bright dividing line of authenticity is
an open question. It is territory that is currently being remapped. It is why
the population of Indians is surging and why there is such fervent debate
among Indians as to just who should be able to make the claim. It becomes
a kind of nature-versus-nurture argument. Do genetics make you Indian
or does culture? Or can either one?
It is in the context of such continued questions that the renewed
interest in language takes on more urgent meaning. According to Laura
Redish, the director of a resource clearinghouse for language revival called
Native Languages of the Americas, there are roughly 150 native languages
that are currently spoken in North America or that have disappeared
recently enough that they could still be revived. She estimates that in the
last 10 years, some 80 to 90 percent of the tribes associated with these
languages have put together some kind of program of revival.
“Language has a different kind of importance now than it did only
20 or 30 years ago,” says Ofelia Zepeda, the director of the American Indian
Language Development Institute in Arizona, whose program in revitalizing
languages works with about 20 tribes each year. “Language is one of those
things that you take for granted, but now it has a different dimension. It is a
conscious act.”
As the sun angled down over Lake Chicaugon, Wendy Geniusz’s
language camp magically came together. The sullen teenagers were still
smoking, but like the little kids were now tuned in. Everyone gathered
around separate picnic tables set for a meal, and they were calling out
the names of table utensils in Ojibwe. One of Geniusz’s assistants, a very
handsome native speaker with a long black ponytail named James
Vukelich, stood up and announced: “If you want to learn how to pick
people up in Ojibwe, come over here. If you don’t know what that means,
stay where you are.” Suddenly, the teenagers were all scrambling over to
Vukelich’s corner. Once the teenagers had decided that talking the ancestral
language was as cool a thing as mastering smoke rings, the next three days
of Ojibwe Language Camp were smooth sailing.
Geniusz is a proselytizer for language revival. She has interviewed tribal
elders, put together CD-ROM’s of language basics and created coloring books
for kids. She attends Indian language revival conferences and exchanges tips
with other tribal members, like Lone Wolf Jackson, an officer with one of the
Mohegan tribes in Connecticut who is pushing his tribe to revive its language.
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“I don’t think we’ll ever see the day when Mohegans are walking down
the street speaking Mohegan to each other,” Jackson told me when I met up
with him at a conference on language revitalization. “But I do think we can
learn enough to conduct a religious service or a funeral in our own language.
And that would be profoundly important.”
If you passed Jackson on the street, you would think he was black. And
he is, on his father’s side. But he was raised by the other side of his family,
his mother and grandmother, who are Mohegan Indians.
“One of the motives behind the assimilation program was to get
Indians to act like everyone else and not retain any cultural distinctiveness,”
philip Deloria says. The revival of Indian language may be the new front in
resisting total assimilation. “For Indians to make a new argument of sovereignty, it will rely on a renewal of Indian distinctiveness.”
Laura Redish sees language revival at the heart of the new anxiety of
identity: “It also takes a commitment to learn a language. I’ve noticed that
urban mixed bloods, especially, want to learn—to not be wannabes. And
language shows they are serious about connecting to who they are.”
From a small country lane in Connecticut, Stephanie Fielding rambled
down a few dirt roads to a small clearing beside a rushing river. Her greatgreat-great-aunt Fidelia Fielding died in 1908, and a memorial stone
dominates the sloping cemetery here. Fidelia was the last speaker of
Mohegan. Today, Stephanie Fielding is devoted to reviving the language
that Fidelia Fielding spoke. She travels from library to library scouring
books and ancient missionary letters and documents. She is putting
together her ancestral language, brick by brick, word by word.
You might mistake Stephanie Fielding for just another nice-looking
lady with reddish hair and, judging from that name, British extraction. But
she is a member of the wealthiest Indian tribe in America—the Connecticut
Mohegans, whose members divide the revenue from two lucrative casinos.
Fielding is 59, and she has devoted the rest of her life to reviving her greatgreat-great-aunt’s language. This June, she received her master’s degree in
linguistics from M.I.T. Like so many people devoted to language restoration, she admires the example of Hebrew, a language that essentially died
more than two millennia ago, surviving only as a sacred text. It wasn’t until
the 19th century that a Zionist linguist took on the painstaking work of
confecting a modern, slangy, day-to-day tongue out of the hallowed idiom
of Moses. Fielding is trying to do the same, and then some. She doesn’t
begin with a body of Scripture, like the revivers of Hebrew had, but with not
much more than some missionaries’ notes and transcripts of long-dead
speakers. Most of Fielding’s work at M.I.T. has focused on creating a kind of
linguistic algorithm that will permit her to take many of the accepted proto
Algonquian words and generate an authentic Mohegan vocabulary. Her
tribe has commissioned her to put together a dictionary and a grammar to
give the next generation a voice from the past.
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Because it is time-consuming and difficult to learn any language, the
commitment it takes to attend one of Wendy Geniusz’s camps or to sign on
with Fielding’s work or to participate in any of the widespread Native
American language revivals weeds out the easy hobbyists and leaves a
cohort of Indians whose authenticity—regardless of genealogy or blood
quantum—may one day be hard to question.
“Language is an important vehicle of transmission of culture,” says
Angela Gonzales, a Hopi Indian and an assistant professor of sociology at
Cornell University. “Some tribes resist letting any outsiders even speak their
language. But that’s why language is important. It’s a great vehicle for the
storage of important inaccessible cultural material.” Since it is no longer
enough for a man passing you on the street to look Indian, maybe the next
generation will note in passing that that guy certainly sounded Indian. In 50
years, many of the tribes now being dissed as wannabes will have age,
tradition and solemnity on their side. Who will be around to question their
authenticity? Far more likely is the possibility that the reshaping of American identity, among Indians as well as other ethnicities, will simply be
accepted as the way it always was and always was meant to be.
Kathleen Hinckley, the executive director of the Association of
Professional Genealogists, explains that she constantly gets calls from people asking her to “find an Indian” in the family tree. But she also says that
such requests were part of a much larger surge of genealogical interest. Her
membership of professional genealogists has leapt from 1,000 to 1,700 in
the last five years. Genealogists will tell you the phone always rings most on
Monday, the day after a Sunday family reunion when some aging great aunt
finally confesses that her grandmother was a Chippewa or a Jew or from one
of the noble clans of Scots, sending another anxious young American into
the domains of ancestry.com or Hinckley’s organization or into city-hall
records to find the answer to the question What is my true past?
As an academic term, ethnic identity has long been associated with
images of immigrant neighborhoods and ghettos—dense collections of
Jews or Italians, Irish or Germans who maintained the old ways, married
among themselves and maybe even kept up the old language. But today’s
scattered, more mobile generations have less access to such stable reservoirs
of ethnic identity, which may account for this rise in ethnic shopping and
the need to lay claim through participation in ethnic festivals or religious
conversion or powwows to an identity that better suits the itch of our
increasingly intermarried, interracial, intertribal America.
Textual Questions
1. Where and how does Hitt argue that the expectations of outsiders are
causing modern tribes of Native Americans to lose touch with their
true cultural roots?
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JACK HITT The Newest Indians
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2. What descriptive details does Hitt use in each paragraph to bring his
subject to life for a reader? Which of these details are most effective?
Which are least effective? Why?
3. Who are the “newest Indians” that Hitt describes? How are they
defined by others? How do they define themselves?
Rhetorical Questions
4. What point does Hitt make about Native American casinos and their
effects on various tribes? How effectively does he support this portion
of his argument? How does this aspect of his argument connect with
his overall argument?
5. In what ways is being a Native American an issue of race or ethnicity?
How is it a legal and linguistic issue? How is it a construct, based upon
such things as cultural expectations? How and where does Hitt discuss
each of these definitions of Native American-ness? How effectively
does he bring all of them together?
6. How does Hitt describe the past and present conditions under which
Native Americans live/lived in America? Based on these descriptions of
the past and present, what future for Native Americans does Hitt posit?
Intertextual Questions
7. How does Hitt’s description of the modern plight of Native Americans
compare and contrast with Martin Luther King, Jr.’s description of the
lives of blacks in “I Have a Dream” (Chapter 1)?
8. How might President Lyndon Baines Johnson (see “The Great Society,”
Chapter 1) respond to Hitt’s argument about Native Americans?
Thinking Beyond the Text
9. With what other groups—religious, ethnic, racial, cultural, and so
on—can the struggle of Native Americans most legitimately be
compared? Why?
10. How is language a part of Native American culture and identity? What role
does language play in the past of Native Americans, their present, and their
future? In what other groups is language a similar/dissimilar feature?
For Writing & Discussion
11. What tribes of Native Americans were/are native to the area in which
you now live? How is their modern culture affected by the factors Hitt
describes in his essay?
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T H E P R O M I S E O F E Q UA L I T Y A N D C I V I L L I B E RT Y
ANNA QUINDLEN
Anna Quindlen (1952–) is a contributing editor at Newsweek, a
former New York Times Op-Ed columnist, and author of four novels,
four nonfiction books, and two children’s books. Quindlen has won
many awards, including a 1992 Pulitzer Prize for Commentary for
her New York Times column, “Public and Private,” and two awards
from the Association for Women in Communications: the Clarion
Award for Best Opinion Column in 2002 and the Clarion Award for
Best Regular Opinion Column in 2006. In 1995, the Child Welfare
League of America created the Anna Quindlen Awards for Excellence
in Journalism in Behalf of Children and Families.
In her back-page Newsweek column, “Final Words,” Quindlen
writes on a range of controversial topics such as immigration, the
government’s treatment of Iraq war veterans, privacy in an age of
wiretapping, and women’s rights. “We’re Missing Some Senators,”
published in Newsweek in March 2005, takes a historical look at
women’s rights in the United States and at our current failure to
ratify CEDAW, an international treaty of women’s rights that has
been signed by every other industrialized nation.
Quindlen’s nonfiction books include Being Perfect (2005) and
A Short Guide to a Happy Life (2000).
We’re Missing Some Senators
Prereading Question
Consider every level of government, from the local mayor and/or city council
to state senators to the governor to members of Congress to the president. At
each level, how equal are women represented, would you guess? Why does this
inequity exist when women make up more than 50 percent of the
population—both nationally and globally?
A question in honor of Women’s History Month: what does the United
States have in common with Brunei, Somalia, Sudan and Oman? The
answer: we are among only a handful of nations on earth that have refused
to ratify the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms
of Discrimination Against Women, a mouthful commonly called CEDAW.
Jimmy Carter signed the treaty in 1980, and ever since it has languished in
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legislative limbo, waiting for the Senate to take action. While country after
country, including such feminist strongholds as Iraq and Afghanistan, has
at least paid lip service to the idea of an egalitarian society by supporting
the treaty, we now stand alone as the sole industrialized nation that has not
done so. “We’ve abdicated a leadership role in the single most important
ongoing international women’s-rights process,” says Jessica Neuwirth,
president of Equality Now.
Of course, we can boast that we’re right up there with Somalia.
If only this were an aberration. I remember the halcyon days of the
early ’70s, when the Equal Rights Amendment was first introduced.
Instead of focusing on the legal need—this was, after all, at a time when
husbands could not be charged with raping their wives, and teachers
could be dismissed from their jobs if their pregnant state began to show—
the attention focused on the lunatic fringe. This resulted in an endless
digression about unisex bathrooms, and no amendment. Score one for the
protectors of the bad old days, when men were men and women were
powerless.
And the same distraction tactics emerged recently as thousands of
women leaders gathered at the United Nations to affirm a program for
progress first developed a decade ago at a historic meeting in Beijing.
Around the world women are being sold into sexual slavery, raped as spoils
of war, even murdered in so-called honor killings. But the Bush administration held up the conference for days with a demand, unsupported by
any other country, that a broad statement of principle include narrow and
irrelevant language against abortion, a demand that was dropped after it
garnered enough publicity to score points with the right wing. While considering the great panorama of gender injustices in the world, the United
States also managed to register its support for abstinence.
There was no similar support for international family planning.
Progress in America in the last three decades can be linked directly to the
increased participation of women and the increased participation of
women can be linked directly to their ability to control their fertility.
(Or perhaps American women have miraculously developed an innate
ability to have only two children.) This president likes to talk about fighting for the freedom of women in the world, but he has a cynically selective definition of what freedom means. Burqas, bad. Ballots, good. Birth
control? Huh?
It’s true that the women’s movement has led to opportunities for
many Americans that outstrip those elsewhere in the world. (One of the
more ironic spectacles is listening as conservative women trash the
women’s movement, the movement that made their lives as activist
lawyers, lobbyists and pundits possible.) Longtime opponents of
CEDAW argue that we’ve come far enough on our own. They also insist
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T H E P R O M I S E O F E Q UA L I T Y A N D C I V I L L I B E RT Y
incorrectly that the treaty would require the United States to provide
paid maternity leave (horrors!) and to allow women in combat. Of
course, women have been serving in combat since the gulf war, but it is
convenient to pretend otherwise. Some conservatives also argue that if
we ratify CEDAW we will have to prohibit Mother’s Day. Score one for
Hallmark.
Perhaps only Jesse Helms, who for years fought the treaty, was honest
about the real impulse behind the obstruction. “I do not intend to be
pushed around by discourteous, demanding women,” he said on the Senate
floor. There’s the ubiquitous subtext: women are expected to ask nicely for
human rights, and to say “please.” A little lipstick doesn’t hurt either. Score
one for the protectors of the bad old days, when men were men and
women were servile.
Like other international treaties, CEDAW amounts to a bill of rights,
rights that may too often be honored in the breach, not so very different
from “life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.” We may not need those
rights in exactly the same way as women facing honor killings or genital
mutilation. But, as we are so quick to note on other fronts, when the
United States stands up for a principle it sends a message to the world
about how that principle ought to be valued. Yet while America signs off on
trade treaties and refugee treaties, it refuses to join the world community
in standing up for the rights of women. Today some nations in Africa and
Asia far outstrip us in female political representation. Even Iraq, under our
tutelage, has written into its Constitution a guarantee that 25 percent of its
legislators will be women. By my count, that means someone owes me
11 senators.
Textual Questions
1. With what nations does Quindlen compare America in her introduction and why?
2. Where does Quindlen use her own experiences to make points?
Why? When does she refer to facts not related to her own experience
and why?
3. How does Quindlen’s essay focus—directly or indirectly—in every
paragraph on the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of
All Forms of Discrimination Against Women?
Rhetorical Questions
4. What tone does Quindlen take toward her subject? Why? How effective
or ineffective is this tone?
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ANNA QUINDLEN We’re Missing Some Senators
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5. How does Quindlen describe the situation in the 1970s that led to
initial debates on the Equal Rights Amendment? How does she
compare/contrast this increasingly distant time with the present
and why?
6. In paragraph 5 Quindlen argues that progress in America since ca. 1970 is
“linked directly to the increased participation of women and the
increased participation of women can be linked directly to their ability to
control their fertility.” Two separate claims are being made here in this
chain of causation: (1) women are the source of American progress in
recent decades and (2) women are the source of American progress
in recent decades because only in recent decades have women had the
legal right to control their biological destiny—with everything from legal
protection from marital rape to the legal right to have an abortion. Would
you agree that either/both of these claims is/are valid? Why does
Quindlen link them?
Intertextual Questions
7. How does Quindlen’s characterization of the 1970s compare with the
description of this same time offered by President Jimmy Carter (in
the Introduction)?
8. How does Quindlen’s argument compare/contrast with that made by
Hillary Rodham Clinton in “Women’s Rights Are Human Rights”
(Chapter 1)?
Thinking Beyond the Text
9. At the end of her opening paragraph, Quindlen quotes Jessica Neuwirth,
then president of Equality Now. What, aside from the United Nations
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against
Women, does this group believe in/support? Why? Does your opinion of
either Quindlen or Equality Now change once you know more?
10. Internationally, which nations have the best/worst record of equal
treatment for women? Where does the United States rank in relation to
these other nations? Why?
For Writing & Discussion
11. Locate, either online or in your library, the full text of the United
Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. In a short essay, explain exactly what CEDAW
argues. Which nations have/have not ratified this document?
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T H E P R O M I S E O F E Q UA L I T Y A N D C I V I L L I B E RT Y
FOCAL POINT
Exploring Images of The Promise of
Equality and Civil Liberty
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FOCAL POINT
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T H E P R O M I S E O F E Q UA L I T Y A N D C I V I L L I B E RT Y
FOCAL POINT
Exploring Images of The Promise of
Equality and Civil Liberty
1.
Based on this photograph (page 634, top), what are your thoughts on
segregation in America? How do you think Americans of all racial backgrounds felt when they encountered symbols of segregation such as the
one depicted in this photo? Would your interpretation be different if
either the Caucasian or African-American were removed? How does the
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FOCAL POINT
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message compare and contrast with the message of the photograph of
Martin Luther King, Jr., on page 118 in chapter 1?
2.
In this photograph (page 634, bottom), new condominiums tower
over a small neighborhood. How does this photograph support the
arguments made in the selections “They’re Coming for Your Land”
Explain in detail.
3.
If the photograph on page 635 (top) appeared within the selection “A
More Perfect Union” by Jonathan Rauch, would it support or refute
Rauch’s argument? What do the facial expressions of the people say
about their views on same-sex marriage? Does the fact that this couple—Hillary and Julie Goodrich—divorced in 2006 change your interpretation?
4.
On the left side of this photograph (page 635, bottom), an unnamed
opponent of same-sex marriage argues with Larry Kessler, in the blue
jacket on the right, a supporter of same-sex marriage. What images in
the background support/refute the positions of each person? How is
your reaction to this photograph similar to or different from your
reaction to the photograph of a same-sex couple on page 635?
5.
What elements in this cartoon (page 636) indicate that it is responding
to the terrorist attacks of 9/11? Does the time and place matter, ultimately, or could it make its argument as well at any time in American
history? Name three other traumatic events from American history
and explain how the message of this cartoon could apply to each.

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