What Is New in HTTP Live Streaming Session 512 Roger Pantos

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What Is New in HTTP Live Streaming
Session 512
Roger Pantos
These are confidential sessions—please refrain from streaming, blogging, or taking pictures
Today
• New HTTP Live Streaming features in iOS 6
Today
• New HTTP Live Streaming features in iOS 6
■
Multinational subtitles
Today
• New HTTP Live Streaming features in iOS 6
Multinational subtitles
• New AVFoundation APIs to make your lives easier
■
Subtitles
Subtitles
• Descriptive/narrative text displayed in time with audio and video
• Used to deliver localization and accessibility
• Displayed explicitly by user, or implicitly by content
• Often added post-production, deployed over time
Subtitle Format—WebVTT
• Web Video Text Tracks (WebVTT)
Published by the W3C Web Media Text Tracks Community Group
■ Origins in earlier SubRip (.srt) format
■ Simple text-based files
■ Subtitles are carried as Unicode strings
■
• Public Specification
http://dev.w3.org/html5/webvtt/
WebVTT Example
• Header has magic number and metadata
• Followed by “cues”
WEBVTT
X-TIMESTAMP-MAP=MPEGTS:900000, LOCAL:00:00:00.000
00:11.000 --> 00:13.000
Let’s play a game
00:15.300 --> 00:17.900
You know I don’t like games
(more cues go here)
WebVTT Example
• Header has magic number and metadata
• Followed by “cues”
WEBVTT
X-TIMESTAMP-MAP=MPEGTS:900000, LOCAL:00:00:00.000
00:11.000 --> 00:13.000
Let’s play a game
00:15.300 --> 00:17.900
You know I don’t like games
(more cues go here)
WebVTT Example
• Header has magic number and metadata
• Followed by “cues”
WEBVTT
X-TIMESTAMP-MAP=MPEGTS:900000, LOCAL:00:00:00.000
00:11.000 --> 00:13.000
Let’s play a game
00:15.300 --> 00:17.900
You know I don’t like games
(more cues go here)
WebVTT in HTTP Live Streaming
• WebVTT files are divided into segments
• Each segment is a complete WebVTT file, with timestamp metadata
• Segments are collected into a subtitle playlist file (m3u8)
• Subtitle playlists may be static, or live
• Subtitle playlists appear as alternative media in master playlist
#EXT-X-MEDIA:TYPE=SUBTITLES
WebVTT in HTTP Live Streaming
Master Playlist
64 kbps
[Audio-Only ]
English Audio
400kbps
800kbps
1500kbps
German Audio
Commentary Audio
WebVTT in HTTP Live Streaming
Master Playlist
64 kbps
[Audio-Only ]
German Audio
German Audio
400kbps
German Audio
800kbps
German Audio
1500kbps
English Audio
German Audio
Commentary Audio
WebVTT in HTTP Live Streaming
Master Playlist
64 kbps
[Audio-Only ]
German Audio
German Audio
400kbps
German Audio
800kbps
German Audio
1500kbps
English Audio
German Audio
Commentary Audio
WebVTT in HTTP Live Streaming
Master Playlist
64 kbps
[Audio-Only ]
German Audio
German Audio
English Audio
German Audio
Commentary Audio
English Subtitles
German Subtitles
...
400kbps
German Audio
800kbps
German Audio
1500kbps
WebVTT in HTTP Live Streaming
Master Playlist
64 kbps
[Audio-Only ]
German Audio
English Subtitles
German Audio
English Audio
German Audio
Commentary Audio
English Subtitles
German Subtitles
...
400kbps
English Subtitles
German Audio
800kbps
English Subtitles
German Audio
1500kbps
English Subtitles
Example: WebVTT in HTTP Live Streaming
• subtitleSegment0.vtt: (0-30s)
WEBVTT
X-TIMESTAMP-MAP=MPEGTS:900000, LOCAL:00:00:00.000
00:11.000 --> 00:13.000
Let’s play a game
• subtitleSegment1.vtt: (30-60s)
WEBVTT
X-TIMESTAMP-MAP=MPEGTS:900000, LOCAL:00:00:00.000
00:35.720 --> 00:39.200
Or at least your faith in random chance
Example: WebVTT in HTTP Live Streaming
Example: WebVTT in HTTP Live Streaming
• Subtitle playlist:
WEBVTT
X-TIMESTAMP-MAP=MPEGTS:900000,
LOCAL:00:00:00.000
00:11.000 --> 00:13.000
Let’s play a game
WEBVTT
X-TIMESTAMP-MAP=MPEGTS:900000,
LOCAL:00:00:00.000
00:28.720 --> 00:32.200
Or at least your faith in
random chance
Example: WebVTT in HTTP Live Streaming
• Subtitle playlist:
WEBVTT
X-TIMESTAMP-MAP=MPEGTS:900000,
LOCAL:00:00:00.000
subtitleSegment0.vtt
00:11.000 --> 00:13.000
WEBVTT
Let’s play a game
X-TIMESTAMP-MAP=MPEGTS:900000,
LOCAL:00:00:00.000
subtitleSegment1.vtt
00:28.720 --> 00:32.200
Or at least your faith in
random chance
Example: WebVTT in HTTP Live Streaming
• Subtitle playlist:
#EXTM3U
#EXT-X-TARGETDURATION:30
#EXT-X-VERSION:3
#EXT-X-MEDIA-SEQUENCE:0
#EXT-X-PLAYLIST-TYPE:VOD
#EXTINF:30,!
subtitleSegment0.vtt
#EXTINF:30,!
subtitleSegment1.vtt
#EXT-X-ENDLIST
Example: WebVTT in HTTP Live Streaming
• Master playlist:
#EXTM3U
#EXT-X-TARGETDURATION:30
#EXT-X-VERSION:3
#EXT-X-MEDIA:TYPE=SUBTITLES,GROUP-ID="subs",NAME="English",
DEFAULT=YES,FORCED=NO,URI="vtt/english.m3u8",LANGUAGE=”en”
#EXT-X-MEDIA-SEQUENCE:0
#EXT-X-MEDIA:TYPE=SUBTITLES,GROUP-ID="subs",NAME="简体中文",
#EXT-X-PLAYLIST-TYPE:VOD
DEFAULT=NO,FORCED=NO,URI="vtt/chinese.m3u8",LANGUAGE=”zh-Hans”
#EXTINF:30,!
subtitleSegment0.vtt
#EXT-X-STREAM-INF:BANDWIDTH=2670000,CODECS="mp4a.40.2,avc1.4d401f",
#EXTINF:30,!
RESOLUTION=640x360,SUBTITLES="subs"
subtitleSegment1.vtt
2.5Mbps/prog_index.m3u8
#EXT-X-ENDLIST
Example: WebVTT in HTTP Live Streaming
• Master playlist:
#EXTM3U
#EXTM3U
#EXT-X-MEDIA:TYPE=SUBTITLES,GROUP-ID="subs",NAME="English",
DEFAULT=YES,FORCED=NO,URI="vtt/english.m3u8",LANGUAGE=”en”
#EXT-X-TARGETDURATION:30
#EXT-X-VERSION:3
#EXT-X-MEDIA-SEQUENCE:0
#EXT-X-PLAYLIST-TYPE:VOD
#EXTINF:30,!
subtitleSegment0.vtt
#EXTINF:30,!
subtitleSegment1.vtt
#EXT-X-MEDIA:TYPE=SUBTITLES,GROUP-ID="subs",NAME="简体中文",
#EXT-X-ENDLIST
DEFAULT=NO,FORCED=NO,URI="vtt/chinese.m3u8",LANGUAGE=”zh-Hans”
#EXT-X-STREAM-INF:BANDWIDTH=2670000,CODECS="mp4a.40.2,avc1.4d401f",
RESOLUTION=640x360,SUBTITLES="subs"
2.5Mbps/prog_index.m3u8
Segmentation Note: Time Mapping
• subtitleSegment0.vtt: (0-30s)
WEBVTT
X-TIMESTAMP-MAP=MPEGTS:900000, LOCAL:00:00:00.000
00:11.000 --> 00:13.000
Let’s play a game
• subtitleSegment1.vtt: (30-60s)
WEBVTT
X-TIMESTAMP-MAP=MPEGTS:900000, LOCAL:00:00:00.000
00:35.720 --> 00:39.200
Or at least your faith in random chance
Segmentation Note: Time Mapping
• subtitleSegment0.vtt: (0-30s)
WEBVTT
X-TIMESTAMP-MAP=MPEGTS:900000, LOCAL:00:00:00.000
00:11.000 --> 00:13.000
Let’s play a game
• subtitleSegment1.vtt: (30-60s)
WEBVTT
X-TIMESTAMP-MAP=MPEGTS:900000, LOCAL:00:00:00.000
00:35.720 --> 00:39.200
Or at least your faith in random chance
Segmentation Note: Time Mapping
• Each WebVTT segment declares a mapping from WebVTT time to
MPEG-2 time
X-TIMESTAMP-MAP:LOCAL=<webVTT timestamp>, MPEGTS=<90000-based timestamp>
e.g.
X-TIMESTAMP-MAP:LOCAL=00:00:00.000, MPEGTS=900000
• Should be updated
On Discontinuity boundaries
■ When 33-bit MPEG timestamps roll over
■
Segmentation Note: Time Mapping
• Each WebVTT segment declares a mapping from WebVTT time to
MPEG-2 time
X-TIMESTAMP-MAP:LOCAL=<webVTT timestamp>, MPEGTS=<90000-based timestamp>
e.g.
X-TIMESTAMP-MAP:LOCAL=00:00:00.000, MPEGTS=900000
• Should be updated
On Discontinuity boundaries
■ When 33-bit MPEG timestamps roll over
■
Segmentation Note: Segment Durations
Segmentation Note: Segment Durations
• #EXTINF duration indicates
timespan of segment data
• Subtitle playlist:
#EXTM3U
#EXT-X-TARGETDURATION:30
#EXT-X-VERSION:3
#EXT-X-MEDIA-SEQUENCE:0
#EXT-X-PLAYLIST-TYPE:VOD
#EXTINF:30,!
subtitleSegment0.vtt
#EXTINF:30,!
subtitleSegment1.vtt
#EXT-X-ENDLIST
Segmentation Note: Segment Durations
• #EXTINF duration indicates
timespan of segment data
• If timespan has no subtitles, .vtt
segment has header but no cues
• Subtitle playlist:
#EXTM3U
#EXT-X-TARGETDURATION:30
#EXT-X-VERSION:3
#EXT-X-MEDIA-SEQUENCE:0
#EXT-X-PLAYLIST-TYPE:VOD
#EXTINF:30,!
subtitleSegment0.vtt
#EXTINF:30,!
subtitleSegment1.vtt
#EXT-X-ENDLIST
Segmentation Note: Segment Durations
• #EXTINF duration indicates
timespan of segment data
• If timespan has no subtitles, .vtt
segment has header but no cues
• Cues that cross segment
boundaries are duplicated
• Subtitle playlist:
#EXTM3U
#EXT-X-TARGETDURATION:30
#EXT-X-VERSION:3
#EXT-X-MEDIA-SEQUENCE:0
#EXT-X-PLAYLIST-TYPE:VOD
#EXTINF:30,!
subtitleSegment0.vtt
#EXTINF:30,!
subtitleSegment1.vtt
#EXT-X-ENDLIST
Segmentation Note: Target Durations
Segmentation Note: Target Durations
• Live subtitle playlists must use
same target duration as other
streams
• Subtitle playlist:
#EXTM3U
#EXT-X-TARGETDURATION:30
#EXT-X-VERSION:3
#EXT-X-MEDIA-SEQUENCE:0
#EXT-X-PLAYLIST-TYPE:VOD
#EXTINF:30,!
subtitleSegment0.vtt
#EXTINF:30,!
subtitleSegment1.vtt
#EXT-X-ENDLIST
Segmentation Note: Target Durations
• Live subtitle playlists must use
same target duration as other
streams
• Subtitle playlist:
#EXTM3U
#EXT-X-TARGETDURATION:30
#EXT-X-VERSION:3
• VOD subtitle playlists can have
longer target durations
■ Should be a reasonable size (1-5
minutes) for efficient access
#EXT-X-MEDIA-SEQUENCE:0
#EXT-X-PLAYLIST-TYPE:VOD
#EXTINF:30,!
subtitleSegment0.vtt
#EXTINF:30,!
subtitleSegment1.vtt
#EXT-X-ENDLIST
Enabling (Non-Forced) Subtitles
• Subtitles appear in an asset as an AVMediaSelectionGroup
characteristics = asset.availableMediaCharacteristicsWithMediaSelectionOptions;
subtitles = [asset mediaSelectionGroupForMediaCharacteristic:
AVMediaCharacteristicLegible];
Enabling (Non-Forced) Subtitles
• Subtitles appear in an asset as an AVMediaSelectionGroup
characteristics = asset.availableMediaCharacteristicsWithMediaSelectionOptions;
subtitles = [asset mediaSelectionGroupForMediaCharacteristic:
AVMediaCharacteristicLegible];
• A MediaSelectionGroup may contain several variants (e.g. languages)
filtered = [AVMediaSelectionGroup
mediaSelectionOptionsFromArray:[subtitles options]
filteredAndSortedAccordingToPreferredLanguages:
[NSLocale preferredLanguages]];
Enabling (Non-Forced) Subtitles
• Subtitles appear in an asset as an AVMediaSelectionGroup
characteristics = asset.availableMediaCharacteristicsWithMediaSelectionOptions;
subtitles = [asset mediaSelectionGroupForMediaCharacteristic:
AVMediaCharacteristicLegible];
• A MediaSelectionGroup may contain several variants (e.g. languages)
filtered = [AVMediaSelectionGroup
mediaSelectionOptionsFromArray:[subtitles options]
filteredAndSortedAccordingToPreferredLanguages:
[NSLocale preferredLanguages]];
• Set an option from the group on the AVPlayerItem
[myPlayerItem selectMediaOption:[filtered objectAtIndex:0]
inMediaSelectionGroup:subtitles];
In Summary
• Create a .vtt file containing all your timed subtitle text
• Divide it into segments; place them on a web server
• Put a URL for each segment into a subtitle playlist file
• Add the subtitle playlist URL to your master playlist
• Discover, select, and enable the subtitle playlist at runtime
Adding Forced Subtitles
• Forced subtitles appear without user intervention
#EXT-X-MEDIA:TYPE=SUBTITLES,GROUP-ID="subs",NAME="English (f)",
DEFAULT=YES,FORCED=YES,URI="forced_subtitles.m3u8"
• Non-forced subtitle alternates must include all forced subtitles
Tagging Subtitles with Semantic Info
• Media can be tagged with “characteristics”
in playlist
• Characteristics appear in
AVMediaSelectionOption
• Subtitles for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing (SDH) should be flagged with:
#EXT-X-MEDIA:TYPE=SUBTITLES,GROUP-ID="subs",NAME="English (sdh)",
DEFAULT=YES,FORCED=NO,URI="sdh_subtitles.m3u8",
CHARACTERISTICS=”public.accessibility.transcribes-spoken-dialog,public.accessibility.describes-music-and-sound”
Tagging Subtitles with Semantic Info
• Media can be tagged with “characteristics”
in playlist
• Characteristics appear in
AVMediaSelectionOption
• Subtitles for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing (SDH) should be flagged with:
#EXT-X-MEDIA:TYPE=SUBTITLES,GROUP-ID="subs",NAME="English (sdh)",
DEFAULT=YES,FORCED=NO,URI="sdh_subtitles.m3u8",
CHARACTERISTICS=”public.accessibility.transcribes-spoken-dialog,public.accessibility.describes-music-and-sound”
Moving Subtitles Out of the Way
• Display position is controlled by cue attributes
00:00:29.500 --> 00:00:31.300 line:20% align:start
and developed so many
amazing technologies
Controlling Built-In Styles
• WebVTT provides built-in Bold, Italic, and Underline styles
00:00:30.000 --> 00:00:35.000
I am <b>emboldened</b>, and <i>emphasized!</i>
Advanced Styling: WebVTT Classes
• Cue text may be tagged with a CSS class:
00:00:45.000 --> 00:00:49.000
an incredible <c.huge>BREAKTHROUGH</c> product
• The styling attached to a class is specified at runtime:
huge = [AVTextStyleRule textStyleRuleWithTextMarkupAttributes:
[NSDictionary dictionaryWithObject:[NSNumber numberWithFloat:1.5]
forKey:kCMTextMarkupAttribute_RelativeFontSize]
textSelector:@”.huge”];
myPlayerItem.textStyleRules = [NSArray arrayWithObject:huge];
Per-Voice Styling
• <v > is a special type of class, used to distinguish voices:
00:00:52.000 --> 00:00:54.000 line:92% align:start
<v Jony>...so capable</v>
00:00:53.000 --> 00:00:56.000 line:95% align:end
<v Phil>The iPhone was a revolution.</v>
Animated Styles
• A cue’s timespan can be divided into ranges
00:00:10.000 --> 00:00:15.000
My <00:00:11.000>heart <00:00:12.000>cries <00:00:13.000>for <00:00:14.000>you
• During its display period
The special style :past is applied to ranges prior to current time
The special style :future is applied to ranges after current time
Demo
WebVTT Subtitles
Bill May
For more information on WebVTT
• WebVTT Specification available from W3C
http://dev.w3.org/html5/webvtt/
More New Stuff
FF/RW Support in MPMoviePlayerController
• Stream must supply at least one I-frame playlist
FF/RW Support in MPMoviePlayerController
• Stream must supply at least one I-frame playlist
Glitch-Free Audio Switching
• Eliminates pops and gaps when switching between different
audio encodings
• Audio timestamps must match exactly for a perfect switch
Glitch-Free Audio Switching
• Eliminates pops and gaps when switching between different
audio encodings
• Audio timestamps must match exactly for a perfect switch
High Quality
Glitch-Free Audio Switching
• Eliminates pops and gaps when switching between different
audio encodings
• Audio timestamps must match exactly for a perfect switch
High Quality
Low Quality
Glitch-Free Audio Switching
• Eliminates pops and gaps when switching between different
audio encodings
• Audio timestamps must match exactly for a perfect switch
High Quality
Low Quality
Switch-up
Glitch-Free Audio Switching
• Eliminates pops and gaps when switching between different
audio encodings
• Audio timestamps must match exactly for a perfect switch
High Quality
Low Quality
Switch-up
AC-3 Pass-Through Support
• Pass-through only, using AirPlay or HDMI Adaptor
■
Requires compatible receiver
AC-3 Pass-Through Support
• Pass-through only, using AirPlay or HDMI Adaptor
■
Requires compatible receiver
• Must be accompanied by AAC variant for compatibility
■
AC-3 is automatically selected if output is available
AC-3 Pass-Through Support
• Pass-through only, using AirPlay or HDMI Adaptor
■
Requires compatible receiver
• Must be accompanied by AAC variant for compatibility
■
AC-3 is automatically selected if output is available
• Indicate AC-3 in CODECS attribute
#EXT-X-STREAM-INF:BANDWIDTH=3016809,CODECS="ac-3,avc1.4d001e"
video_plus_ac3/prog_index.m3u8
#EXT-X-STREAM-INF:BANDWIDTH=2716122,CODECS="mp4a.40.2,avc1.4d001e"
video_plus_aac/prog_index.m3u8
Tuning Bit Rate Switches
• Better Switch-up Algorithm
■
Requires a smaller “bandwidth cushion” if connection is stable
• Better Switch-down Algorithm
■
Identifies rapid bandwidth drops more quickly
Playback Data Starvation Notification
• Sent when playback stalls waiting for network data
NSString *const AVPlayerItemPlaybackStalledNotification;
Access and Error Log Additions
• New fields in Access log, including:
Playback type (VOD, EVENT, LIVE)
■ Minimum, maximum, and standard deviation of observed bandwidth
■ Bandwidth at point of switch
■ Number of segments downloaded slower than real time
■ Number of segments downloaded over cellular
• More details in Error Log when playlist parsing fails
■
Access and Error Log Notifications
• Sent when new entries are added to a log
NSString *const AVPlayerItemAccessLogNewEventAddedNotification;
NSString *const AVPlayerItemErrorLogNewEventAddedNotification;
Easier API for Loading App-Defined URLs
• API on AVURLAsset:
@property AVAssetResourceLoader *resourceLoader;
Easier API for Loading App-Defined URLs
• API on AVURLAsset:
@property AVAssetResourceLoader *resourceLoader;
• Application sets delegate on AVAssetResourceLoader:
[asset.resourceLoader setDelegate:myDelegate queue:my_queue];
Easier API for Loading App-Defined URLs
• API on AVURLAsset:
@property AVAssetResourceLoader *resourceLoader;
• Application sets delegate on AVAssetResourceLoader:
[asset.resourceLoader setDelegate:myDelegate queue:my_queue];
• Delegate receives requests from Loader:
-(BOOL)resourceLoader:shouldWaitForLoadingOfRequestedResource:;
Easier API for Loading App-Defined URLs
• API on AVURLAsset:
@property AVAssetResourceLoader *resourceLoader;
• Application sets delegate on AVAssetResourceLoader:
[asset.resourceLoader setDelegate:myDelegate queue:my_queue];
• Delegate receives requests from Loader:
-(BOOL)resourceLoader:shouldWaitForLoadingOfRequestedResource:;
• Delegate responds to requests:
[asset.resourceLoader finishLoadingWithResponse:data:redirect:];
Sample-Level Stream Encryption
• Only samples require decryption, which means better battery life
• Encrypted files can be processed by standard tools
• Encryption applied to elementary audio and video streams
Which are then carried in regular .ts and .aac files
■ New stream_types for .ts files
■ Codec configuration is carried in the clear
■
• EXT-X-KEY syntax:
#EXT-X-KEY:METHOD=SAMPLE-AES,URI=”foo://key”
Summary
• iOS 6 makes it easy to add subtitles to your streams
• Test your apps and streams with the WWDC seed
• Install the seed on Apple TV and test AirPlay
More Information
HTTP Live Streaming Resources
https://developer.apple.com/resources/http-streaming/
WebVTT
http://dev.w3.org/html5/webvtt/
Eryk Vershen
Media Technology Evangelist
[email protected]
Ask questions in the ADC forum (follow link on Resources page)
Related Sessions
Effective HTTP Live Streaming
Pacific Heights
Tuesday 11:30AM
Labs
HTTP Live Streaming Lab
Graphics, Media & Games Lab B
Wednesday 2:00PM
Q&A

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