What Is Economics? Economic Systems and Decision Making Business Organizations

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What Is Economics?
Economic Systems and Decision
Business Organizations
As you read this unit, learn how the study of
economics helps answer the following questions:
How do you make the decision
between buying gas for your car
or taking your friend out for pizza?
Why is your friend from Russia
stunned by all the shoes available
at your local shoe store?
Why is an item at a department
store less expensive than that same
item at a specialty shop?
The factors of production—land,
labor, capital, and entrepreneurship—make production possible.
To learn more about basic economic concepts
through information, activities, and links to other
sites, visit the Economics: Principles and Practices
Web site at tx.epp.glencoe.com
The study of economics
will help you become a
better decision maker—it helps
you develop a way of thinking
about how to make the best
choices for you. To learn more
about the scope of economics,
view the Chapter 2 video lesson:
What Is Economics?
Chapter Overview Visit the Economics: Principles
and Practices Web site at tx.epp.glencoe.com and
click on Chapter 1—Chapter Overviews to preview
chapter information.
Consumers must make choices
from many alternatives.
Scarcity and the Science
of Economics
Main Idea
Key Terms
Scarcity forces us to make choices. We can’t have
everything we want, so we are forced to choose
what we want most.
scarcity, economics, need, want, factors of production,
land, capital, financial capital, labor, entrepreneur,
production, Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
Reading Strategy
Graphic Organizer As you read the section, complete a graphic organizer like the one below by listing and describing the three economic choices every
society must make.
Economic choices
After studying this section, you will be able to:
1. Explain the fundamental economic problem.
2. Examine the three basic economic questions every
society must decide.
Applying Economic Concepts
Scarcity Read to find out why scarcity is the basic
economic problem that faces everyone.
Cover Story
Harris Poll Shows High In
in Economics
American adults
have an exceptionally
keen interest in economics. More than
seven in ten say they
share the same high
level of interest in
economics as they do
politics, business and
finance. A full 96%
caThe focus on economics edu
believe basic economg.
tion is gro
ics should be taught in
high sch
two out of three high sch
of these same adults and
ntary quiz on bas
students flunked an eleme
e has come
concepts. Clearly the tim
the national
nomic literacy higher on
ase, The National Council
—April 27, 1999 press rele
on Economic Education
o you think the study of economics is worth
your time and effort? According to the Harris
poll in the cover story, a huge percentage of
Americans think it is. They must know what economists know—that a basic understanding of economics
can help make sense of the world around us.
The Fundamental Economic Problem
Have you ever noticed that very few people
are satisfied with the things they have?
Someone without a home may want a small one;
someone else with a small home may want a larger
one; someone with a large home may want a mansion. Others want things like expensive sports cars,
lavish jewelry, and exotic trips. Whether they are rich
or poor, most people seem to want more than they
already have. In fact, if each of us were to make a list
of all the things we want, it would include more
things than we could ever hope to obtain.
The fundamental economic problem facing all
societies is that of scarcity. Scarcity is the condition
that results from society not having enough resources
to produce all the things people would like to have.
Figure 1.1
to Produce
to Produce
For Whom
to Produce
Using Charts Scarcity is the fundamental
economic problem that forces consumers
and producers to use resources wisely. Why
is scarcity a universal problem?
“There Is No Such Thing as a Free Lunch”
Because resources are limited, virtually everything we do has a cost—even when it seems as if we
are getting something “for free.”
For example, you may think you are getting a
free lunch when you use a “buy one, get one free”
coupon. However, while you may not pay for the
extra lunch then and there, someone had to pay the
farmer for raising the food, the truck driver for
delivering the food, the chef for preparing the
food, and the server for serving the food.
How does business recover these costs? Chances
are that the price of the giveaway is usually hidden
somewhere in the prices the firm charges for its
products. As a result, the more a business gives
away “free,” the more it has to raise the prices for
the items it sells. In the end, someone always pays
for the supposedly “free” lunch—and that someone
may be you!
Unfortunately, most things in life are not free
because someone has to pay for the production in
the first place. Economic educators use the term
TINSTAAFL to describe this concept. In short,
this term means that There Is No Such Thing As A
Free Lunch.
Three Basic Questions
As shown in Figure 1.1, scarcity affects almost
every decision we make. This is where the study of
economics comes in. Economics is the study of
how people try to satisfy what appears to be seemingly unlimited and competing wants through the
careful use of relatively scarce resources.
Because we live in a world of relatively scarce
resources, we have to make wise economic
choices. Figure 1.1 presents three of the basic questions we have to answer. In so doing, we make decisions about the ways our limited resources will be
Needs and Wants
WHAT to Produce
Economists often talk about people’s needs and
wants. A need is a basic requirement for survival
and includes food, clothing, and shelter. A want is
a way of expressing a need. Food, for example, is a
basic need related to survival. To satisfy the need
for food, a person may “want” a pizza or other
favorite meal. Because any number of foods will
satisfy the need for nourishment, the range of
things represented by the term want is much
broader than that represented by the term need.
The first question is that of WHAT to produce.
Should a society direct most of its resources to the
production of military equipment or to other
items such as food, clothing, or housing? Suppose
the decision is to produce housing. Should its limited resources be used for low-income, middleincome, or upper-income housing? How many of
each will be needed? A society cannot have everything its people want, so it must decide WHAT to
HOW to Produce
A second question is that of HOW to produce.
Should factory owners use mass production methods that require a lot of equipment and few workers, or should they use less equipment and more
workers? If an area has many unemployed people,
the second method might be better. On the other
hand, mass production methods in countries where
machinery and equipment are widely available can
often lower production costs. Lower costs make
manufactured items less expensive and, therefore,
available to more people.
FOR WHOM to Produce
The third question deals with FOR WHOM to
produce. After a society decides WHAT and HOW
to produce, the things produced must be allocated
to someone. If the society decides to produce housing, should it be distributed to workers, professional people, or government employees? If there
are not enough houses for everyone, a choice must
be made as to who will receive the existing supply.
These questions concerning
to produce are not easy for any society to answer. Nevertheless, they
must be answered as long as there
are not enough resources to satisfy
people’s seemingly unlimited wants.
not created by humans. “Land” includes deserts,
fertile fields, forests, mineral deposits, livestock,
sunshine, and the climate necessary to grow crops.
Because only so many natural resources are available at any given time, economists tend to think of
land as being fixed, or in limited supply.
For example, there is not enough good farmland to adequately feed all of the earth’s population, nor enough sandy beaches for everyone to
enjoy, nor enough oil and minerals to meet our
expanding energy needs indefinitely. Because the
supply of a productive factor like land is relatively
fixed, the problem of scarcity is likely to become
worse as population grows in the future.
Another factor of production is capital—the
tools, equipment, machinery, and factories used in
the production of goods and services. Such items
are also called capital goods to distinguish them
from financial capital, the money used to buy the
tools and equipment used in production.
Economic Choices
The Factors of Production
The reason people cannot satisfy all their wants and needs is
the scarcity of productive resources.
The factors of production, or
resources required to produce the
things we would like to have, are
land, capital, labor, and entrepreneurs. As shown in Figure 1.2, all
four are required if goods and services are to be produced.
In economics, land refers to the
“gifts of nature,” or natural resources
Making Decisions If we cannot have everything we want,
then we have to choose what we want the most. Why must a
society face the choices about what, how, and for whom to
Figure 1.2
The Factors of Production
Land includes the
“gifts of nature,” or
natural resources not
created by human
Capital includes the
tools, equipment, and
factories used in
Labor includes people
with all their efforts
and abilities.
Entrepreneurs are
individuals who start a
new business or bring
a product to market.
Synthesizing Information The four factors of production are necessary for production to take
place. What four factors of production are necessary to bring jewelry to consumers?
Capital is unique in that it is the result of production. A bulldozer, for example, is a capital
good used in construction. It also was built in a
factory, which makes it the result of earlier production. Like the bulldozer, the cash register in a
neighborhood store is a capital good, as are the
computers in your school that are used to produce
the service of education.
A third factor of production is labor—people
with all their efforts, abilities, and skills. This category includes all people except for a unique
group of individuals called entrepreneurs, which
we single out because of their special role in the
Unlike land, labor is a resource that may vary
in size over time. Historically, factors such as population growth, immigration, famine, war, and
disease have had a dramatic impact on both the
quantity and quality of labor.
Some people are special because they are the innovators responsible for much of the change in our
economy. Such an individual is an entrepreneur, a
risk-taker in search of profits who does something
new with existing resources. Entrepreneurs often are
thought of as being the driving force in an economy
because they exhibit the ability to start new businesses or bring new products to market. They provide the initiative that combines the resources of
land, labor, and capital into new products.
When all factors of production—land, capital,
labor, and entrepreneurs—are present, production, or
the process of creating goods and services, can take
place. In fact, everything we produce requires these
factors. For example, the chalkboards, desks, and
audiovisual equipment used in schools are capital
goods. The labor is in the form of services supplied
by teachers, administrators, and other employees.
Land, such as the iron ore, granite, and timber used
to make the building and desks, as well as the land
where the school is located, is also needed. Finally,
entrepreneurs are needed to organize the other three
factors and make sure that everything gets done.
The Scope of Economics
Economics is the study of human efforts to
satisfy what appear to be unlimited and
competing wants through the careful use of relatively scarce resources. As such, it is a social science
because it deals with the behavior of people as
they deal with this basic issue. There are four key
elements to this study: description, analysis, explanation, and prediction.
Economics deals with the description of economic activity. For example, you will often hear
about the Gross Domestic Product (GDP)—the
A vast majority of the owners of the nearly 20
million businesses in the United States are entrepreneurs. Most either work for themselves or
have a few employees.
A 10-nation study found that the United States
leads when it comes to entrepreneurs. According to
the survey, nearly 1 in 12 Americans is trying to start
a new business. In second place is Canada. The study
also shows a strong link between business start-up
rates and overall economic growth. The graph
shows the percentage of the adult population starting new businesses.
dollar value of all final goods and services, and
structures produced within a country’s borders in a
12-month period. GDP is the most comprehensive
measure of a country’s total output and is a key
measure of the nation’s economic health.
Economics is also concerned with what is produced and who gets how much, as well as with topics such as unemployment, inflation, international
trade, the interaction of business and labor, and the
effects of government spending and taxes.
Description is important because we need to
know what the world around us looks like.
However, description is only part of the picture
because it leaves many important “why” and “how”
questions unanswered.
In order to answer such questions, economics
must focus on the analysis of economic activity as
well. Why, for example, are prices of some items
high while others are low? Why do some people
earn higher incomes than others? How do taxes
affect people’s desire to work and save?
Source: 1999 Global Entrepreneurship Monitor
Critical Thinking
1. Analyzing Information In which nation is
entrepreneurial activity strongest? Weakest?
2. Making Comparisons How does the level
of North America’s entrepreneurial activity
compare with Europe’s?
3. Drawing Conclusions Do you think there is
a link between business start-up rates and
overall economic growth? Why or why not?
“Capital” comprises the tools, equipment, and
factories used to produce goods and services.
As the economy changes, some economists are
adjusting the definition to include “tools” such
as knowledge and intellectual property. An
example of such knowledge and intellectual
property are databases and software.
The importance of analysis is that it helps us to
discover why things work and how things happen.
This, in turn, will help us deal with problems that
we would like to solve.
Economics is also concerned with the explanation of economic activity. After economists understand why and how things work, it is useful and
even necessary to communicate this knowledge to
others. If we all have a common understanding of
the way our economy works, some economic problems will be much easier to address or even fix in
Checking for Understanding
1. Main Idea Using your notes from the graphic
organizer activity on page 5, explain why a
society must face the choices about WHAT,
HOW, and FOR WHOM to produce.
2. Key Terms Define scarcity, economics, need,
want, factors of production, land, capital,
financial capital, labor, entrepreneur, production, Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
3. Describe the fundamental economic problem.
4. List the three basic economic questions every
society must answer.
5. Describe the factors of production.
6. List the four key elements of economics.
the future. When it comes to the GDP, you will
soon discover that economists spend much of their
time explaining why the measure is, or is not, performing in the manner expected.
Finally, economics is concerned with prediction.
For example, we may want to know if people’s
incomes are going to rise or fall in the future,
affecting their spending habits in the marketplace.
Or, perhaps a community trying to choose between
higher taxes on homeowners or higher taxes on
businesses needs to know the consequences of each
alternative before it makes its choice.
The study of economics can help to make the
best decision in both situations. Because economics deals with the study of what is, or what tends to
be, it can help predict what may happen in the
future, as well as the likely consequences of different courses of action.
Finally, it is also important to realize that the
actual decisions about the economic choices to be
made are the responsibility of all citizens in a free
and democratic society. Therefore, the study of
economics helps all of us to become more
informed citizens and better decision makers.
Applying Economic Concepts
7. Scarcity How does scarcity affect your life?
Provide several examples of items you had to
do without because of limited resources.
Explain how you adjusted to this situation.
For example, were you able to substitute
other items for those you could not have?
8. Synthesizing Information Give an example
of a supposedly “free” item that you see
every day. Explain why the item is not really
free by stating who or what actually pays
for it.
Practice and assess key social studies skills with
the Glencoe Skillbuilder Interactive Workbook,
Level 2.
Alexis de Tocqueville, a French traveler,
wrote about his travels in the United
States during the 1830s. His book,
Democracy in America, a two-volume
study of the American people and their
institutions, is still relevant today.
The Role of the
What astonishes me in the United States is
not so much the marvelous grandeur of such
undertakings as the innumerable multitude
of small ones.
—Alexis de Tocqueville, 1835
What [de Tocqueville noticed nearly 160
years ago]—before the advent of Apple
Computer, Genentech, Microsoft, or Nucor—is
just as true today. The only difference is that the
spirit of enterprise is more than ever a global
phenomenon with few bounds.
From the row of kiosks selling goods on nearly
every block in Moscow to the cramped factories in
Taiwan, Russian biznez-men and Chinese changshang are reshaping their nations’ economies in
much the same way as
Yankees created the basis
for America’s business cultures just after independence was won.
Any [de Tocqueville of
modern times] would
notice something else
about this global shift:
Changes in the rules of the
business game are putting
a premium on the
entrepreneurial qualities of [the smaller]
companies. Today’s
successful enterprises
are nimble, innovative, close to the customer, and quick to the
market. They’re not
bureaucratic, centrally controlled institutions that are slow
to change. It adds us to a new management catechism with many of the hallmarks of
small business. . . .
Sure, some industries, such as auto making and
petrochemicals, still require size and scale. But the
swift pace of technological change and the fragmentation of markets are eroding the traditional
economies of scale. Indeed, some management
thinkers now speak of the “diseconomies of
scale,” the unresponsiveness, sluggishness, and
high costs that come with bureaucracy. While the
behemoths try to adjust to new competitive realities, younger and smaller companies have
emerged as the agents of change in economies
around the world. . . .
—Reprinted from Small Business Trends and Entrepreneurship,
by the editors of Business Week, copyright © 1995 by
The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Examining the Newsclip
1. Summarizing Information What are the
entrepreneurial qualities of small companies?
2. Finding the Main Idea What does the writer
mean by “diseconomies of scale”?
Basic Economic Concepts
Main Idea
Key Terms
An economic product is a good or service that is useful, relatively scarce, and exchangeable.
economic product, good, consumer good, capital
good, service, value, paradox of value, utility, wealth,
market, factor market, product market, economic
growth, productivity, division of labor, specialization,
human capital, economic interdependence
Reading Strategy
Graphic Organizer As you read the section, describe
three different transactions that could take place in
the factor market. Use a web like the one below to
help you organize your answer.
Factor market
Applying Economic Concepts
Specialization Read to discover how specialization
increases production.
On Specialization
. One man draws out the
To take an example, . .
it, a third cuts it, a fou
wire, another straightens
it at
points it, a fifth grinds
the top for receiv
head; to make the head
requires two or three
distinct operations;
to put it on, is a
peculiar business, to
whiten the pins is
another; it is even a
trade by itself to put
them into the paper;
and [the making of] a
pin is, in this manner,
divided into about eighteen distinct operations.
After studying this section, you will be able to:
1. Explain the relationship among scarcity, value,
utility, and wealth.
2. Understand the circular flow of economic activity.
conomics, like any other social science, has
its own vocabulary. To understand economics, a review of some key terms is necessary.
Fortunately, most economic terms are widely used,
and many will already be familiar to you.
Cover Story
lth of
—Adam Smith, The Wea
Nations, 1776
Adam Smith
Goods, Services, and Consumers
Economics is concerned with economic
products—goods and services that are useful,
relatively scarce, and transferable to others.
Economic products are scarce in an economic
sense. That is, one cannot get enough to satisfy
individual wants and needs. Because of these characteristics, economic products command a price.
The first type of economic product is a good—
an item that is economically useful or satisfies
an economic want, such as a book, car, or compact disc player. A consumer good is intended
for final use by individuals. When manufactured
goods are used to produce other goods and services, they are called capital goods. An example
of a capital good would be a robot welder in a factory, an oven in a bakery, or a computer in a high
Any good that lasts three years or more when
used on a regular basis is called a durable good.
Durable goods include both capital goods, such as
robot welders, and consumer goods such as automobiles. A nondurable good is an item that lasts
for less than three years when used on a regular
basis. Examples of nondurable goods include food,
writing paper, and most clothing items.
The other type of economic product is a service,
or work that is performed for someone. Services
include haircuts, home repairs, and forms of entertainment such as concerts. They also include the
work that doctors, lawyers, and teachers perform.
The difference between a good and a service is that
a service is intangible, or something that cannot be
The consumer is a person who uses goods and
services to satisfy wants and needs. As consumers,
people indulge in consumption, the process of
using up goods and services in order to satisfy
wants and needs.
Value, Utility, and Wealth
In economics, value refers to a worth that
can be expressed in dollars and cents. Why,
however, does something have value, and why are
some things worth more than others? To answer
these questions, it helps to review an early problem
faced by economists.
Paradox of Value
At first, early economists were puzzled by a contradiction between necessities and value called the
paradox of value. The paradox of value is the situation where some necessities, such as water, have little
monetary value, whereas some non-necessities, such
as diamonds, have a much higher value.
Economists knew that scarcity is required for
value. For example, water was so plentiful in many
areas that it had little or no value. On the other
hand, diamonds were so scarce that they had great
value. The problem was that scarcity by itself is not
enough to create value.
It turned out that for something to have value, it
must also have utility, or the capacity to be useful
and provide satisfaction. Utility is not something
that is fixed or measurable, like weight or height.
Instead, the utility of a good or service may vary
from one person to the next. One person may get
a great deal of satisfaction from a home computer;
another may get very little. One person may enjoy
a rock concert; another may not. A good or service
does not have to have utility for everyone, only
utility for some.
For something to have value, economists
decided, it must be scarce and have utility. This is
the solution to the paradox of value. Diamonds are
scarce and have utility—and therefore they possess
a value that can be stated in monetary terms. Water
has utility, but is not scarce enough in most places
to give it much value. Therefore, water is less
expensive, or has less value, than diamonds.
Durable Goods Orders The Department of Commerce’s report on durable goods orders highlights
the number of new orders placed with domestic
manufacturers for goods intended to last over
three years. The report is divided into broad categories; these include defense, nondefense, and
capital and noncapital goods. Noncapital goods
are generally of the consumer spending variety
and include automobiles and large appliances.
Capital goods tend to be of the investment spending nature, while defense goods indicate government spending.
Another concept is wealth. Wealth, in an economic sense, is the accumulation of those products
that are tangible, scarce, useful, and transferable from
one person to another. Consequently, a nation’s
wealth is comprised of all items, including natural
resources, factories, stores, houses, motels, theaters,
furniture, clothing, books, highways, video games,
and even footballs.
While goods are counted as wealth, services are
not because they are intangible. However, this does
not mean that services are not useful. Indeed, when
Adam Smith wrote The Wealth of Nations in 1776, he
was referring specifically to the ability and skills of
a nation’s people as the source of its wealth. To
illustrate, if a country’s material possessions were
taken away, its people, through their skilled efforts,
could restore these possessions. On the other hand,
if a country’s people were taken away, its wealth
would deteriorate.
The Circular Flow of Economic
The wealth that an economy generates is
made possible by the circular flow of economic activity. The key feature of this circular flow
is the market, a location or other mechanism that
allows buyers and sellers to exchange a certain economic product. Markets may be local, regional,
national, or global. More recently, markets have
evolved in cyberspace, with buyers and sellers interacting through computer networks without leaving
the comfort of their homes.
Factor Markets
How does this circular flow operate? As shown
in Figure 1.3, individuals earn their incomes in
factor markets, the markets where productive
resources are bought and sold. This is where entrepreneurs hire labor for wages and salaries, acquire
land in return for rent, and borrow money for
interest. The concept of a factor market is a simplified version of the real world, of course, but it
is nevertheless realistic. To illustrate, you participate in the factor market whenever you go to work
and sell your labor to an employer.
Product Markets
Natural Resources Fertile land is a natural
resource and an item of wealth. Why are natural resources considered part of the nation’s
After individuals receive their income from the
resources they sell, they spend it in product markets,
markets where producers sell their goods and services to consumers. Thus, the money that individuals receive from businesses in the factor markets
returns to businesses in the product markets.
Businesses then use this money to produce more
goods and services—and the cycle, through economic activity, repeats itself.
As you can see from Figure 1.3, markets serve as
the main links between individuals and businesses.
Note that money circulates on the outside, illustrating payments for goods, services, and the factors of production. The actual factors of
production, and the products made with these productive inputs, flow in the opposite direction on
the inside.
Productivity and Economic Growth
Economic growth occurs when a nation’s
total output of goods and services increases
over time. This means that the circular flow in
Figure 1.3 becomes larger, with more factors of production, goods, and services flowing in one direction, and more payments flowing in the opposite
direction. A number of factors are responsible for
economic growth, but productivity is the most
Everyone benefits when scarce resources are
used efficiently. This is described by the term
productivity, which is a measure of the amount of
output produced by a given amount of inputs in a
specific period of time. Productivity goes up whenever more output can be produced with the same
amount of inputs in the same amount of time. For
example, if a company produced 500 units of a
product in one period, and if it produced 510 in
Figure 1.3
The Circular Flow of Economic Activity
Payments for
Income from
Using Charts
Charts The
The circular
circular flow
flow diagram
diagram shows
shows the
the high
high degree
degree of
of economic
economic interdependence
in our
our economy.
economy. In
In the
the diagram,
diagram, the
the factors
factors of
of production
production and
and the
the products
products made
made from
from them
them flow
flow in
one direction.
direction. The
The payments
payments for
for the
the factors,
factors, which
which consumers
consumers spend
spend on
on goods
goods and
and services,
services, flow
in the
the opposite
opposite direction.
direction. As
As aa consumer,
consumer, what
what role
role do
do you
you play
play in
in the
the circular
circular flow
flow of
economic activity?
the next period with the same number of inputs,
then productivity went up.
Productivity is often discussed in terms of labor,
but it applies to all factors of production. For this
reason, business owners try to buy the most efficient capital goods, and farmers try to use the most
fertile land for their crops.
Specialization takes place when factors of production perform tasks that they can do relatively
more efficiently than others. Note that specialization is not limited to a single factor of production
such as labor. For example, complex industrial
robots are often built to perform just one or two
simple assembly line tasks. In regional specialization, different regions of the country often specialize in the things they can produce best—as when
Division of Labor and Specialization
Idaho specializes in potatoes, Iowa in corn, and
Division of labor and specialization can improve
Texas in oil, cotton, and cattle.
productivity. Division of labor takes place when
One of the best examples of the advantages
work is arranged so that individual workers do fewer
offered by the division of labor and specialization is
tasks than before. In most cases, a worker who perHenry Ford’s introduction of the assembly line into
forms a few tasks many times every day is likely to
automobile manufacturing. This process cut the time
become more proficient than a worker who performs
necessary to assemble a car from a day and a half to
hundreds of different tasks in the same period.
just over 90 minutes. It also cut the price of a new car
by more than 50 percent. The result
was an improvement in productivity.
Another example of the changes
that can result from specialized tools
can be seen in American agriculture.
Figure 1.4
In 1910 it took more than 13 million
farmers to feed the U.S. population,
at that time about 90 million. Today,
2 million farmers can feed a populaAverage Income For
tion that is more than three times as
large as it was in 1910.
Effect of Education on Income
Less Than 9th Grade
9th to 12th Grade (no diploma)
High School Graduate & Equivalency
Some College, no degree
Associate Degree
Bachelor’s Degree
Master’s Degree
Professional Degree
Doctorate Degree
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 2001
Using Tables Education is
one way to invest in human
capital. How does this type
of invest-ment
investment pay
pay off
off for
and their
both employers
Visit tx.epp.glencoe.com and click on
Textbook Updates—Chapter 1 for
an update of the data.
Investing in Human Capital
One of the main contributions to
productivity comes from investments
in human capital, the sum of the
skills, abilities, health, and motivation
of people. Government can invest in
human capital by helping to provide
education and health care. Businesses
can invest in training and other programs that improve the skill and
motivation of its workers. Individuals
can invest in their own education by
completing high school, going to
technical school, or going to college.
Figure 1.4 shows that investments
in education can have substantial
payoffs. According to the data in the
table, high school graduates have
substantially higher incomes than
nongraduates, and college graduates make even
more than high school graduates. Educational
investments require that we make a sacrifice today so
we can have a better life in the future—and few
investments generate higher returns.
Investing in the Future
Businesses, government, and other organizations face many of the same choices that individuals do. Investments in human capital and physical
capital can eventually increase production and promote economic growth. Faster economic growth,
in turn, increases the amount of goods and services
available to us.
Economic Interdependence
The American economy has a remarkable degree
of economic interdependence. This means that we
rely on others, and others rely on us, to provide the
goods and services that we consume.
Events in one part of the country or the world
often have a dramatic impact elsewhere. To illustrate,
a labor dispute between several hundred professional
basketball players and a handful of owners can affect
Checking for Understanding
1. Main Idea Using your notes from the graphic
organizer activity on page 12, explain the
different transactions that take place in the
product market.
2. Key Terms Define economic product, good,
consumer good, capital good, service, value,
paradox of value, utility, wealth, market,
factor market, product market, economic
growth, productivity, division of labor,
specialization, human capital, economic
3. Discuss the relationship among scarcity, value,
utility, and wealth.
4. Describe the circular flow of economic activity.
5. Explain why productivity is important to economic growth.
First and Biggest The world’s first programmable
computer, the Electronic Numerical Integrator and
Computer (ENIAC), was developed in 1946. Standing
almost 10 feet tall and 80 feet wide, ENIAC could
perform up to 5,000 operations per second. Personal
computers today easily outperform ENIAC.
the lives of tens of thousands of people who park
cars, sell tickets, serve food at the games, and sell
NBA apparel and memorabilia all across the country.
Or, bad weather in countries where sugar cane is
grown can affect sugar prices in the United States,
which in turn can affect the price of snack foods and
the demand for sugar substitutes elsewhere.
This does not mean that economic interdependence is necessarily bad. The gain in productivity
and income as a result of increased specialization
almost always offsets the costs associated with the
loss in self-sufficiency. However, we need to understand how all the parts fit together, which is one
reason why we study economics.
Applying Economic Concepts
6. Specialization Provide at least three examples
each of specialized workers and capital that
are used in your school to provide the service
of education. Would productivity go up or
down if these specialized capital goods and
workers were not available to your school?
Explain why or why not.
7. Making Comparisons What is the difference between a durable good and a nondurable good?
8. Drawing Conclusions In what way do businesses and households both supply and
demand in the circular flow model?
Practice and assess key social studies skills with
the Glencoe Skillbuilder Interactive Workbook,
Level 2.
The Father of Modern
Adam Smith
Take a look at a Scottish penny
and you’ll be surprised by what
you see. The person pictured was
not a political or military figure,
but an economist: Adam Smith.
It is a fitting tribute to a man who
contributed so much to economics.
Smith was born in Kirkcaldy,
Scotland. After graduating from
Glasgow University, he traveled
to England and enrolled at Oxford
University. Six years later, Smith
returned to Scotland to lecture
at Edinburgh University and at
his alma mater, where he was
immensely popular with his students. Smith became a tutor to a
young duke, and traveled throughout Europe.
Smith met and exchanged ideas
with French writer Voltaire,
Benjamin Franklin, and the French
economist Quesnay. His travels
helped him formulate the ideas put
forth in The Wealth of Nations (1776).
In The Wealth of Nations, Smith
observed that labor becomes more
productive as each worker becomes
more skilled at a single job. He said
that new machinery and the division of labor and specialization
would lead to an increase in production and greater “wealth of nations.”
Smith also put forth what was then
a radical new idea: that the wealth
of a nation should be defined as the
sum of its labor-produced goods,
not by who owned those goods.
Smith’s most influential contribution, however, concerned competition in the marketplace. Every
individual, Smith wrote, “intends
only his own gain, and he is in this
. . . led by an invisible hand. . . .
By pursuing his own interest he frequently promotes that of the society. . . .” Smith argued that a free
market isn’t chaotic, but that competition acts as an “invisible hand”
that guides resources to their most
productive uses. A truly free,
competitive market—operating with
a minimum of government intervention—would bring about the
greatest good for society as a whole.
The English aristocracy ridiculed
The Wealth of Nations. Business people, however, were delighted to
have a moral justification for their
growing wealth and power. Soon,
Smith’s doctrine of laissez-faire
(French, “let it be”), meaning minimal government intervention in
economic affairs, became the economic watchword in Europe, and is
today the economic watchword of
much of the world.
Examining the Profile
1. Summarizing Ideas Summarize
Smith’s contribution to economic
2. Synthesizing Information Explain
how Smith’s ideas are evident in the
workings of the American economy.
Economic Choices and
Decision Making
Main Idea
Key Terms
Trade-offs are present whenever choices are made.
trade-off, opportunity cost, production possibilities
frontier, cost-benefit analysis, free enterprise economy, standard of living
Reading Strategy
Graphic Organizer As you read this section, complete
a graphic organizer similar to the one below by
explaining what you need to know to become a
good decision maker.
Making decisions
After studying this section, you will be able to:
1. Analyze trade-offs and opportunity costs.
2. Explain decision-making strategies.
Applying Economic Concepts
Opportunity Costs Read to find out how your decisions are measured in terms of opportunity costs.
Cover Story
Cost Benefit Analysis
– Research has
long demonstrated
value of early
intervention for
America’s at-risk
children, but a new
study also shows
the federal programs are a wise
public investment.
[A] cost-benefit
analysis of the fedSuccessful producers realize
Childopportunity costs.
children from low-in
gram, which serves
er city [show
families in Chicago’s inn
per chi
age annual cost of $6,730
total return to society at
e 26, 2001
- AScribe Newswire, Jun
he process of making a choice is not always
easy. Still, individuals, businesses, and government agencies, like the Suffolk County
Bureau of Labor, who try to satisfy people’s wants
and needs, must make decisions. Because resources
are scarce, consumers need to make wise choices.
To become a good decision maker, you need to
know how to identify the problem and then analyze your alternatives. Finally, you have to make
your choice in a way that carefully considers the
costs and benefits of each possibility.
Trade-Offs and Opportunity Cost
There are alternatives and costs to everything we do. In a world where “there is no
such thing as a free lunch,” it pays to examine these
concepts closely.
The first thing we must recognize is that people face trade-offs, or alternative choices, whenever they make an economic decision. To help
make the decision, constructing a grid such as
that in Figure 1.5 shows one way to approach the
problem. This grid summarizes a decision to be
made by Jesse, a newspaper carrier, whose dilemma is
how to spend a gift of $50 in the best way possible.
Jesse realizes that several alternatives are appealing—a soccer ball, jeans, a portable CD player, several CDs, or concert tickets. At the same time, he
realizes that each item has advantages and disadvantages. Some of these items are more durable
than others, and some might require his parents’
consent. Some even have additional costs while
others do not—the CD player requires batteries and
the concert tickets require the use of his parents’
To help with his decision, Jesse draws a grid that
lists his alternatives and several criteria by which to
judge them. Then he evaluates each alternative
with a “yes” or “no.” In the end, Jesse chooses the
jeans because they satisfy more of his criteria than
any other alternative.
Using a decision-making grid is one way to analyze an economic problem. Among other things, it
forces you to consider a number of relevant alternatives. For another, it requires you to identify the
criteria used to evaluate the alternatives. Finally, it
forces you to evaluate each alternative based on the
criteria you selected.
Opportunity Cost
People often think of cost in terms of dollars
and cents. To an economist, however, cost often
means more than the price tag placed on a good
or service. Instead, economists think broadly in
terms of opportunity cost—the cost of the next
best alternative use of money, time, or resources
when one choice is made rather than another.
When Jesse made his choice and decided to purchase the jeans, his opportunity cost was the next
best choice—the soccer ball or the CD player—that
he gave up.
Suppose you spend $5,000 on a used car. The
opportunity cost of the purchase is the value of the
stereo, apartment, vacation, or other items and
activities that you could have purchased with the
money spent on the car.
Even time has an opportunity cost, although
you cannot always put a monetary value on it. The
opportunity cost of taking an economics class, for
example, is the history or math class that you could
not take at the same time. Thus, part of making
economic decisions involves recognizing and evaluating the cost of the alternatives as well as making
choices from among the alternatives.
Figure 1.5
Jesse’s Decision-Making Grid
Will parents
Future expense
Can use
Concert tickets
CD player
Soccer ball
Costs $50
or less?
Several CDs
Adapted from A Framework for Teaching Basic Economics,
Economics America National Council on Economic Education, 1996
Using Tables A decision-making grid is a good way to list and then evaluate alternatives when a
decision must be made. What do economists mean when they talk about costs?
Economic Choices
Trade-Offs In this cartoon, the king faces a trade-off between crops and catapults. What is the opportunity cost of obtaining two more catapults?
Production Possibilities
A popular model economists use to illustrate the concept of opportunity cost is the
production possibilities frontier, a diagram representing various combinations of goods and/or
services an economy can produce when all productive resources are fully employed. In the classic
example shown in Figure 1.6, a mythical country
called Alpha produces two goods—guns and butter.
Identifying Possible Alternatives
Even though Alpha only produces two goods,
the country has a number of alternatives available
to it. For example, it could choose to use all of its
resources to produce 70 units of guns and 300 units
of butter, which is shown as point a in Panel A. Or,
it could shift some of its resources out of gun production and into butter, thereby moving to point b.
Alpha could even choose to produce at point c,
which represents all butter and no guns, or at
point e, which is inside the frontier.
Alpha has many alternatives available to it,
which is why the figure is called a production “possibilities” frontier. Eventually though, Alpha will
have to settle on a single combination such as
point a, b, or any other point on or inside the
curve, because its resources are limited.
Fully Employed Resources
All points on the curve such as a, b, and c represent maximum combinations of output possible if
all resources are fully employed. To illustrate, suppose that Alpha is producing at point a and the
people would like to move to point d, which represents the same amount of guns, but more butter.
As long as all resources are fully employed at
point a, however, there are no extra resources available to produce the extra butter. Therefore, point d
cannot be reached, nor can any other point outside
the curve. This is why the figure is called a production possibilities “frontier”—to indicate the maximum combinations of goods and/or services that
can be produced.
Opportunity Cost
homework and spending time with your friends. If
you decide to spend extra hours on your homework, the opportunity cost of this action is less
time with your friends.
The Cost of Idle Resources
If some resources were not fully employed, then
it would be impossible for Alpha to reach its potential. To illustrate, suppose that Alpha was producing
at point b in Panel A when workers in the butter
industry decided to go on strike. Butter production
would fall, causing total output to change to point e.
The opportunity cost of the unemployed resources
would be the 100 units of lost butter production.
Production at e could also be the result of other
idle resources, such as factories or land that are
available but are not being used. As long as some
resources are idle, the country cannot produce on
its frontier—which is another way of saying that it
cannot reach its full production potential, although
it can produce at some point inside it.
Economic Growth
Making Choices The nation incurs opportunity
costs when it makes choices. The money spent
on defense cannot at the same time be spent on
health services; money spent on health services
cannot be spent on education, and so on. Why
does every choice involve an opportunity cost?
Opportunity Cost
Suppose that Alpha was producing at point a
and that it wanted to move to point b. This is
clearly possible so long as point b is not outside the
frontier. As shown in Panel B, the opportunity cost
of producing the 100 additional units of butter is
the 30 units of guns given up.
As you can see, opportunity cost is a general
concept that is expressed in terms of trade-offs, or
in terms of things given up to get something else.
Opportunity cost is not always measured in terms
of dollars and cents. For example, you need to balance the time you spend studying and doing
The production possibilities frontier represents
potential output at a given point in time.
Eventually, however, population may grow, the capital stock may grow, and productivity may increase.
If this happens, then Alpha will be able to produce
more in the future than it can today.
The effect of economic growth is shown in
Panel C of Figure 1.6. Economic growth made possible by having more resources or increased productivity causes the production possibilities
frontier to move outward. Economic growth will
eventually allow Alpha to produce at point d,
which it could not do earlier.
Student Web Activity Visit the Economics: Principles
and Practices Web site at tx.epp.glencoe.com and click
on Chapter 1—Student Web Activities to learn more
about what economists do.
Thinking Like an Economist
A Alternative Possibilities
Production can take
place anywhere on or
inside the frontier.
B Opportunity Cost
One of the most important strategies of economists is the economic model. A model is a simplified theory or a simplified picture of what
something is like or how something works. Simple
models can often be constructed that reduce complex situations to their most basic elements. To
illustrate, the circular flow diagram in Figure 1.3 is
an example of how complex economic activity can
be reduced to a simple model.
Another basic model is the production possibilities frontier illustrated in Figure 1.6. Realistically,
of course, economies are able to produce more
than two goods or services, but the concepts of
trade-offs and opportunity costs are easier to illustrate if only two products are examined. As a result,
simple models such as these are sometimes all that
economists need to analyze or describe an actual
It is important to remember that models are
based on assumptions, or things that we take for
granted as true. We use them as facts even though
we can’t be sure that they are. For example, you
might assume that a restaurant is out of your price
range. You might not even try it because you
assume you cannot afford it. However, you might
be wrong—the prices at the restaurant might be
quite reasonable. The quality of a model is no better than the assumptions that it is based on.
It is also important to keep in mind that models can be revised. Economists use models to better
understand the past or present and to predict the
future. If an economic model results in a prediction that turns out to be right, the model can be
used again. If the prediction is wrong, the model
might be changed to make better predictions the
next time.
The Production
Possibilities Frontier
The opportunity cost
of producing 100 units
of butter is the 30 guns
given up.
C Economic Growth
Build Simple Models
Figure 1.6
Because economists study how people satisfy seemingly unlimited and competing
wants with the careful use of scarce resources, they
are also concerned with strategies that will help us
make the best choices. Some of these strategies are
discussed here; others will be discussed in later
Increased productivity
and additional factors
of production expand
production possibilities.
Using Graphs A production possibilities
frontier shows the different combinations of
two products that can be produced. What
do points inside the frontier represent?
Employ Cost-Benefit Analysis
Take Small, Incremental Steps
Most economic decisions can be made by using
cost-benefit analysis, a way of thinking about a
problem that compares the costs of an action to
the benefits received. This is what Jesse did in the
decision-making matrix shown in Figure 1.5. This
decision can be made subjectively, as when Jesse
selected the jeans. Or, the decision can be more
formal, especially if the costs of the various alternatives are different.
To illustrate, suppose that you like choices A and
B equally well. If B costs less, however, then it
would be the better choice because you would get
more satisfaction per dollar spent. Businesses make
investment decisions in exactly this manner, choosing to invest in projects which give the highest
return per dollar spent. Cost-benefit studies, like
the one described in the cover story, can also be
used to evaluate the effectiveness of many public
assistance programs.
Finally, and whenever possible, it also helps to
make decisions by taking small, incremental steps
toward the final goal. This is especially valuable
whenever we are unsure of the exact, or total, cost
involved. If the cost turns out to be larger than we
anticipated, then the resulting decision can be
reversed, without too much being lost.
For example, if someone offers you a hot beverage, it might be best to take a small sip first. This
will allow you to find out if the beverage is cool
enough to drink, without paying too high a price
if it is not. Few decisions are all-or-nothing decisions—sometimes it helps to do a little bit at a
Economists study the way society distributes scarce resources to produce
goods and services. They carry on
inquiries, collect and analyze data,
and observe economic trends.
The Work
Economists in the private sector
advise businesses and other organizations on such topics as energy
costs, inflation, imports, and employment levels. Those who work for various government agencies may study
economic conditions in the United
States or in other countries to estimate the economic
effects of new legislation or public policies.
Graduate training is required for most economists in the
private sector. Individuals who wish to secure an entrylevel job in the federal government must have a bachelor’s degree, with a focus on economics and on statistics,
accounting, or calculus.
The Road Ahead
The study of economics does more than
explain how people deal with scarcity.
Economics also includes the study of how things
are made, bought, sold, and used. It helps answer
such questions as, Where do these products come
from? Who makes them? How are they made?
How do they get to the stores? Who buys them?
It provides insight as to how incomes are earned
and spent, how jobs are created, and how the
economy works on a daily basis. It also provides a
more detailed understanding of a free enterprise
economy—one in which consumers and privately
owned businesses, rather than the government,
make the majority of the WHAT, HOW, and FOR
WHOM decisions.
Topics and Issues
The study of economics will provide a working
knowledge of property rights, competition, supply
and demand, the price system, and the economic
incentives that make the American economy function. Along the way, topics such as unemployment,
the business cycle, inflation, productivity, and economic growth will be covered. The role of business,
labor, and government in the American economy
also will be examined, along with the relationship
of the United States economy to the international
community. All of these have a bearing on our
standard of living—the quality of life based on the
possession of the necessities and luxuries that make
life easier. You will learn how we measure the value
of our production and how productivity helps
determine our standard of living. You will find,
however, that the way the American people make
economic decisions is not the only way to make
these decisions. Economists have identified three
basic kinds of economic systems. You will analyze
these systems in Chapter 2.
Economics for Citizenship
The study of economics helps us to become better decision makers—both in our personal lives and
in the voting booths. Economic issues often are
debated during political campaigns, and we need to
understand the issues before deciding which candidate to support. Most of today’s political problems
have important economic aspects: How important
is it that we balance the federal budget? How can we
best keep inflation in check? What methods can we
use to strengthen our economy? The study of economics will not provide you with clear-cut answers
to all questions, of course, but it will give you a better understanding of the issues involved.
Checking for Understanding
1. Main Idea Using your notes from the graphic
organizer activity on page 19, explain what
people try to achieve when they make decisions or trade-offs.
2. Key Terms Define trade-offs, opportunity
cost, production possibilities frontier, costbenefit analysis, free enterprise economy,
standard of living.
Making the Rational Choice
You have already learned in this chapter that
economists study how decisions are made. Every
time a choice is made something is given up.
Rational choice is taking the things with greater
value and giving up those with lesser value. That’s
the rational thing to do.
But which things have greater value? If everyone
felt the same about what they did and did not
want, deciding how to use our resources would be
simple; the problem is we don’t all agree. When
you make a decision for yourself alone, it doesn’t
make much difference how others feel. But many
of your decisions will affect other people who may
not share your ideas. Making the best choices for
groups of people is hard to do.
Textbook economics can be divided into neat
sections for study, but the real world is not so
orderly. Society is dynamic and things are always
changing. In addition, people have different degrees
of ambition, strength, and luck. Opinions also differ, and some issues never seem to be settled.
In practice, the world of economics is complex
and the road ahead is bumpy. Studying and understanding economics, however, is vital to our
understanding of how the world around us works.
Applying Economic Concepts
6. Opportunity Costs Identify several possible
uses of your time that will be available to you
after school today. What will you actually do,
and what will be the opportunity cost of your
decision? Explain how your decision will or
will not affect your friends and members of
your family.
3. Describe the relationship between trade-offs
and opportunity costs.
4. List the decision-making strategies that economists use.
5. Explain why the study of economics is important to the American free enterprise system.
7. Making Generalizations Study the decisionmaking grid on page 20. Explain the advantages of using such a grid to evaluate
Practice and assess key social studies skills with
the Glencoe Skillbuilder Interactive Workbook,
Level 2.
Sequencing and Categorizing Information
Sequencing involves placing facts in the order in which they occur.
Categorizing entails organizing information into groups of related facts and
ideas. Both actions help you deal with large quantities of information in an
understandable way.
Learning the Skill
Excerpt A
Follow these steps to learn sequencing and
categorizing skills:
In the 1950s and early 1960s, the United States
dominated the world steel market. However, construction
of new facilities in other countries hurt the domestic steel
industry in the 1980s. During the next ten years, U.S. steel
firms improved production methods and reduced hourly
wages. By 1990 the number of work-hours required to
produce a ton of steel fell from 10.5 in 1980 to just 5.3 in
1990. Trade protection, beginning with the 1947 General
Agreement on Tariffs and Trades, and later agreements
protected many American jobs.
• Look
for dates or clue words that provide you
with a chronological order: in 2004, the late 1990s,
first, then, finally, and so on.
Excerpt B
Steelworker tends blast furnace
• If the information does not happen in sequence,
you may categorize it instead. To do so, look for
information with similar characteristics.
• List
these characteristics, or categories, as the
headings on a chart.
Competition is the rivalry among producers or sellers of
similar goods to win more business by offering the lowest
prices or best quality. In many industries effective
competition requires a large number of independent buyers
and sellers. This large number of competitors means that no
one company can noticeably affect the price of a particular
product. Competition also requires that companies can
enter or exit any industry they choose. Those who feel they
could make more profit in another industry are free to get
out of the industry they are in.
1. Which passage’s information can be organized
sequentially? List the main ideas in chronological order.
2. What categories can you use to organize the
information in the other excerpt?
• As you read, fill in details under the proper category on the chart.
Practicing the Skill
Read the excerpts that follow, compare the
information they contain, then answer the questions.
Find two print or internet articles about an important local economic issue. Sequence or categorize
the information on note cards or in a chart.
Practice and assess key social studies skills with the
Glencoe Skillbuilder Interactive Workbook, Level 2.
Section 1
Scarcity and the Science of
Economics (pages 5–10)
Productivity and investments in human capital help
economic growth; investments in human capital are
among the most profitable of all investments.
Increases in specialization and division of labor
cause more economic interdependence.
The basic economic problem of scarcity is due to
the combination of people’s seemingly unlimited
wants and relatively scarce resources.
In a world of scarce resources, There Is No Such
Thing As A Free Lunch (TINSTAAFL).
Because of scarcity, society
has to decide WHAT, HOW,
and FOR WHOM to
Land, capital, labor, and
entrepreneurs are the four
factors of production
required to produce the things
that people use.
Entrepreneurs are risk-taking individuals who go into
business in order to make a profit; they organize the
other factors of production.
The scope of economics deals with description,
analysis, explanation, and prediction.
Section 2
Basic Economic Concepts (pages 12–17)
Consumers use goods and services to satisfy their
wants and needs.
Something has value when it has utility and is relatively scarce.
Wealth consists of products that are scarce, useful,
and transferable to others, but wealth does not
include services, which are intangible.
Markets link individuals and businesses in the circular flow of economic activity; the factors of production are traded in factor markets; goods and services
are traded in the product markets.
Section 3
Economic Choices and Decision
Making (pages 19–25)
The opportunity cost of doing something is the next
best alternative, or trade-off, that you give up.
A decision-making grid can be used to help evaluate
A production possibilities frontier shows the various possible combinations of output that can be
produced when all resources are fully employed;
production inside the frontier occurs when some
resources are idle or are not being used to their
maximum capability.
When economic growth takes place, the production
possibilities frontier shifts outward, showing that
more products are produced than before.
The economic way of thinking involves simplification
with model building, cost-benefit analysis to evaluate
alternatives, and incremental decision making.
The study of economics will make you
a better decision maker and will
help you to understand the
world around you; however,
the study of economics
will not tell you which
decisions to make.
The study of economics
helps people understand
how a free enterprise
economy makes the
WHOM decisions.
Reviewing the Facts
Section 1 (pages 5–10)
Self-Check Quiz Visit the Economics: Principles
and Practices Web site at tx.epp.glencoe.com and
click on Chapter 1—Self-Check Quizzes to prepare
for the chapter test.
Identifying Key Terms
Write the key term that best completes the following sentences.
capital goods
consumer goods
factors of production
human capital
opportunity cost
1. Economic products designed to satisfy people’s
wants and needs are called _____ .
2. The _____ of a CD player can be expressed in dollars and cents.
1. Identify the cause of scarcity.
2. List the three basic economic questions that every
society must face.
3. Describe the factors of production required to
deliver a service like education.
4. Explain why economics is considered a social
Section 2 (pages 12–17)
5. Describe the relationship between goods, services,
and consumers.
6. Explain why services are excluded from the measure of wealth.
7. Distinguish between product markets and factor
8. Explain why economists argue that productivity is
3. Haircuts, repairs to home appliances, and entertainment are examples of _____ .
Section 3 (pages 19–25)
4. _____ arises because society does not have enough
resources to produce all the things people would
like to have.
10. Identify the economic concept illustrated by the
production possibilities frontier.
5. The _____ of going to a football game instead of
working would include the money not earned at
your job.
6. _____ is the sum of the skills, abilities, health, and
motivation of people.
7. _____ is another name for the capacity of a product to be useful.
8. The only factors of production that are themselves
the result of earlier production are _____ .
9. Land, capital, labor, and entrepreneurs are _____ .
10. People who use goods and services to satisfy their
wants and needs are called _____ .
9. Describe the nature of an opportunity cost.
11. Describe incremental decision making.
12. Explain why economic education is important.
Thinking Critically
1. Understanding Cause and Effect Suppose that
Alpha, shown in Figure 1.6 on page 23, decided
to produce more guns and less butter. What would
Alpha have to do to make the change? What
would be the opportunity cost of producing more
guns? What conditions would have to be met for
the new mix of guns and butter to be on the production possibilities frontier?
2. Understanding Cause and Effect Copy the two
diagrams of the production possibilities frontiers
shown below. Then, write captions that explain
what each diagram is showing.
Thinking Like an Economist
Use a problem-solving process to gather information
about the alternatives, trade-offs, and opportunity
costs facing the city administrator. List and consider
possible options the administrator may choose to
implement. Consider the advantages and disadvantages of implementing the possible solutions.
Technology Skill
Applying Economic Concepts
1. Scarcity What three choices must a society make
because of scarcity?
2. Utility How is a product’s utility related to its
3. Cost-Benefit Analysis How would you apply the
concept of cost-benefit analysis to the decision to
finish high school? To further your education?
Math Practice
A city administrator with a $100,000 annual budget
is trying to decide between fixing potholes or directing traffic at several busy intersections after school.
Studies have shown that 15 cars hit potholes every
week, causing average damages of $200. Collisions at
the intersections are less frequent, averaging one per
month at an average cost of $6,000, although none
have ever caused injuries or deaths. Use this information to answer the following questions.
Using a Spreadsheet Keep track of your economic
decisions for one week. Use your data to create a
spreadsheet, highlighting your weekly spending habits.
1. In cells B1 through E1, type Food, Clothing,
Entertainment, and Other. In cell F1, type Total.
2. In cells A2 through A8, type the days of the week,
starting with Monday in cell A2. In cell A9, type Total.
3. In cells B2 through E2, enter the amount spent in
each category on Monday.
4. In cell F2, use a formula such as =SUM(B2:E2) to
calculate total expenditures on Monday. Click and
drag this formula to cells F3 through F8 to find the
other weekday sums.
5. Compute total expenditures for cells B9–F9.
Sequencing and Categorizing Information
Identify a reasonably large purchase you
recently made or are about to make. What
are the trade-offs involved, and what are the
criteria you use to evaluate the alternatives?
On a separate sheet of paper, illustrate your
decision in the form of a decision-making
grid like the one below.
1. What are the annual costs from the pothole damage?
Decision-Making Grid
2. What are the annual costs due to damage from
3. Given the size of the annual budget, make your
recommendation as to which project should be
undertaken. Explain you answer in terms of dollar
benefits per dollar spent.
Criteria Criteria Criteria Criteria
Practice and assess key social studies skills with
the Glencoe Skillbuilder Interactive Workbook,
Level 2.
Setting Up the Workshop
For this activity you will need:
• small paper “lunch” bags
• miniature chocolate bars
• marshmallows
• graham crackers
Working with
Resource Scarcity
From the classroom of . . .
Douglas Ide
Mt. Ararat High School
Topsham, Maine
Our resources are limited while our
wants are relatively unlimited. In this
workshop, you will experiment with methods to overcome the problem of scarcity.
You will also answer the three fundamental
questions of economics: what to produce,
how to produce it, and how to distribute
what you produce. Finally, you will analyze why it is important to determine the
answers to these questions.
Review the concept
of scarcity with your
group. Remember that
scarcity is the economic
term that describes a situation where there are not
enough products available to
satisfy people’s needs or wants.
Discuss why scarcity always exists.
Review the concept of production. Note that
production—the creation of goods and services—requires four factors.
The Four Factors of Production:
Natural Resources
Your teacher will provide you with your group’s
“resources.” Do not open the bag.
Read and discuss these instructions:
This bag contains your resources. You must use
these resources and no other, but you may use
them in any way you choose. The resources are
exactly what they appear to be: chocolate,
marshmallows, and graham crackers; they may
not be used to represent anything other than
Open your bag and study the contents. Discuss
what item or items your group can produce
with these “resources.” Due to scarcity, your
group may have difficulty in producing one
complete unit of “product” for each group
Compare the available resources in your bag to
the “demand” for the finished product. How
many units can be produced? How will you
produce them? How will you distribute them?
(e.g. Will each member of the group receive a
completed unit, or will only some of the members receive the product? If not everyone
receives one, how will you determine who
receives one?)
Summary Activity
Once you’ve produced the product, answer the
following questions. Take notes as you determine the answers.
1. What was your first thought when you
opened the bag and examined the amount
of resources?
2. What did you then have to decide?
3. Why did you have to think about how to
produce them, and how they would be
4. Were each of the four factors of production
used in making your product?
5. What resources were used?
6. What type of skills and tools did the workers
7. Create a chart showing the factors of production that are combined into different
consumer products that the members of
your group buy.

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