How to Reference using the Harvard System

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2014-2015 Edition
30
How to Reference using the
Harvard System
The Harvard System (also called the Author - Date System) is the preferred referencing method for most LSBU
departments. Other referencing styles include APA (Psychology), OSCOLA (Law) and Numeric (Electrical
Engineering). If you’re not sure which style to follow, please check your module guides or speak to your
lecturers.
If you look at other Harvard Referencing guides available in print or online, you may notice variation between
them. The important thing is to be consistent and to follow any specific instructions from your lecturers.
Contents
1. Why do we need to reference? ............................................................................................................ 3
2. The two stages of the Harvard system ................................................................................................. 3
2.1 In-text citation............................................................................................................................... 3
2.2 Reference list ................................................................................................................................ 3
3. Citing references within the text .......................................................................................................... 3
3.1 Work by a corporate author ......................................................................................................... 3
3.2 Work with three or more authors................................................................................................. 4
3.3 Multiple references with the same author and publication year ................................................. 4
3.4 Citing a direct quote...................................................................................................................... 4
3.5 Secondary referencing .................................................................................................................. 4
4. Format of the reference list .................................................................................................................. 5
5. General style guidelines for references ................................................................................................ 5
6. Missing information .............................................................................................................................. 6
6.1 No date.......................................................................................................................................... 6
6.2 No Author...................................................................................................................................... 6
6.3 No page numbers .......................................................................................................................... 6
7. General guidelines for citing online resources ..................................................................................... 6
7.1 Long URLs ...................................................................................................................................... 6
7.2 Digital Object Identifier (DOI) ....................................................................................................... 7
8. Books ..................................................................................................................................................... 7
8.1 Print book ...................................................................................................................................... 7
8.2 Edited book ................................................................................................................................... 7
8.3 Chapter in an edited book ............................................................................................................ 7
8.4 E-book ........................................................................................................................................... 8
9. Journals ................................................................................................................................................. 8
9.1 Print journal article ....................................................................................................................... 8
9.2 Online journal article .................................................................................................................... 9
10. Newspapers .......................................................................................................................................... 9
10.1 Print newspaper article ................................................................................................................. 9
10.2 Online newspaper ......................................................................................................................... 9
11. Government documents ..................................................................................................................... 10
11.1 Referencing international government documents ................................................................... 10
11.2 Command paper - including Green (consultation) and White (policy statements) papers ........ 10
11.3 Legal material – case report........................................................................................................ 10
1
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
11.4 Act of Parliament (UK Statute) .................................................................................................... 11
11.5 Bill................................................................................................................................................ 11
11.6 Departmental report ................................................................................................................... 11
11.7 House of Commons and House of Lords papers ......................................................................... 11
11.8 Hansard ....................................................................................................................................... 12
11.9 Online government documents .................................................................................................. 12
Reports ................................................................................................................................................ 13
12.1 Market Research Reports ........................................................................................................... 13
12.2 Financial report ........................................................................................................................... 13
Conference proceedings ..................................................................................................................... 13
13.1 Print conference paper ............................................................................................................... 13
13.2 Online conference paper ............................................................................................................ 14
Dissertations and theses ..................................................................................................................... 14
Standards ............................................................................................................................................ 14
Films, TV and online videos................................................................................................................. 14
16.1 Films/DVDs .................................................................................................................................. 14
16.2 TV or radio broadcasts ................................................................................................................ 15
16.3 TV or radio broadcasts on Box of Broadcasts ............................................................................. 15
16.4 Online video ................................................................................................................................ 15
Live performances............................................................................................................................... 16
17.1 Play .............................................................................................................................................. 16
17.2 Dance .......................................................................................................................................... 16
Illustrations/artworks/diagrams/figures............................................................................................. 16
Interviews............................................................................................................................................ 16
Lecture notes/handouts...................................................................................................................... 17
LSBU Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) materials ........................................................................... 17
Web pages........................................................................................................................................... 17
22.1 Web page with author ................................................................................................................ 17
22.2 Web page with no author ........................................................................................................... 18
22.3 Web blogs ................................................................................................................................... 18
Social media sites e.g. Face-book, Twitter .......................................................................................... 18
Discussion list messages ..................................................................................................................... 18
Emails .................................................................................................................................................. 19
Mobile Apps ........................................................................................................................................ 19
Format of bibliography ....................................................................................................................... 19
Referencing tools ................................................................................................................................ 19
Further help ........................................................................................................................................ 20
2
1.
Why do we need to reference?
Referencing is an essential academic skill. You need to reference in order to:
 show evidence of your research
 support your arguments and analysis
 allow readers to identify and locate the sources you’ve used
 acknowledge the work and ideas of others.
If you do not reference properly, you will lose marks and risk plagiarising the work
of others. Plagiarism is the act of passing off someone else’s work as your own and
is a form of cheating. For further information, please read How to Guide 4 on
plagiarism which is available from the library.
NOTE: You need to acknowledge others’ work, even if you’re paraphrasing or
putting their work or ideas into your own words.
2.
The two stages of the Harvard system
2.1
In-text citation
When you refer to someone’s work in your essay, you need to include an in-text
citation. This is normally the surname(s) of the author(s) and the year their work
was published.
The citation normally comes at the end of a sentence in brackets:
Example: …although other authors have denied this (Hartley, 2005).
Or, if you include the author’s name as part of the sentence, put the year of
publication immediately after in brackets:
Example: … Hartley (2005) declared that …
If you use a direct quote, include the page number. See 3.4 for examples of citing
direct quotes.
2.2
Reference list
Include a list of full references at the end of your essay under the title ‘Reference
list’. These references should be arranged alphabetically, normally by author. See
sections 4 onwards for instructions.
Make sure that your in-text citations have corresponding references in the
reference list and vice versa.
3.
Citing references within the text
3.1
Work by a corporate author
If the work is written by a corporate author, include the name of the corporation:
Example: (Nursing and Midwifery Council, 2008)
3
3.2
Work with three or more authors
For three authors or more, put et al. after the name of the first author.
Example: … Anderson et al. (2003) concluded that …
Et al. is an abbreviation of the Latin et alia meaning “and others”.
Note: You should list all authors in the reference list unless there is a very long list
of authors in which case, reference the first six and then put et al.
3.3
Multiple references with the same author and publication year
Documents with the same author and publication year can be distinguished from
each other by putting a letter after the year in both the in-text citations and
reference list.
Example: … (Williamson, 2001a), (Williamson, 2001b) etc. …
3.4
Citing a direct quote
If you quote the exact words directly from a text you must use quotation marks to
indicate this. The author(s) and date must be stated, and if available the page
number.
Example: … Jackson (2004, p. 575) declared that “This is the finest example of
postmodernism …”
For a long quote (over 40 words), indent the text and leave a line space before and
after the quote rather than using quotation marks.
Example:
Pears and Shields provide the following definition:
Plagiarism is a term that describes the unacknowledged use of
someone’s work. This includes material or ideas from any
(published or unpublished) sources, whether print, web-based
(even if freely available) or audiovisual. Using the words or ideas of
others without referencing your source would be construed as
plagiarism and is a very serious academic offence. (Pears and
Shields, 2013, p. 1).
You can leave out any section of a quote as long as you make this clear by inserting
an ellipsis (…).
Example: Flinders (2001, p. 71) comments that, “When MPs had an operational
grievance they were encouraged to direct their question … directly to the agency”.
3.5
Secondary referencing
If you want to cite a work which is referenced in another work, you should try
and track down the original. However, if this isn’t possible, make it clear in your
text where you found the information and only include a reference to the
4
document you’ve read.
Example: Dunn (1988), as cited by Campbell and Muncer (1998), believed …
or
Dunn (1988) revealed that … (cited in Campbell and Muncer, 1998)
or
…(Dunn, 1988, cited in Campbell and Muncer, 1998).
Your reference list will include a reference to Campbell and Muncer’s work, but not
to Dunn’s.
4.
Format of the reference list

The reference list should only contain the details of sources you’ve cited in
your work.

Put all your references in one list under the heading ‘Reference list’. Do NOT
list resources by type.

List references in alphabetical order by the authors’ surnames/names of
corporate authors or by the first letter of the reference. However, if you are
referring to a corporate author that starts with 'The' e.g. The Guardian, list in
alphabetical order by the first word after ‘The’ e.g. The Guardian would be
listed under ‘G’.

Works by the same author, published in the same year can be distinguished
from each other by putting a letter after the year of publication.
Example:
Smith, A. (2012a) A guide to avoiding plagiarism. London: LSBU
Smith, A. (2012b) A guide to Harvard referencing. London: LSBU
5.
General style guidelines for references

Place a colon (:) after the short title, before a sub-title.
Example:
Rees, A. L. (2011) A history of experimental film and video: from the canonical
avante-garde to contemporary British practice. London: BFI.

Begin titles with a capital letter. The rest of the title should be in lowercase,
unless it contains a proper noun (the name of a place, person or thing). The
exceptions are journal and newspaper titles which should have all major words
capitalised.

The title of a source should be italicised. NOTE the title of a chapter in an edited
book and the title of an article in a journal or newspaper are not italicised.

The place of publication is a city or town, not the country. Only include the first
place acknowledged.
5
6.
Missing information
6.1
No date
If you cannot find a year of publication, insert [no date] in the reference.
Example:
National Down Syndrome Society [no date] Associated medical conditions.
Available from: http://www.ndss.org [Accessed 4 May 2010].
In-text citation: (National Down Syndrome Society, no date)
6.2
No Author
If there is no named author and no corporate author, start the reference with the
title of the source.
Example:
A writer’s note-book (1946) Malvern: The Tantivy Press.
In-text citation: (A writer’s note-book, 1946)
If you want to cite a website which has no author or title, cite the website’s
domain name. However, be very wary of citing web pages that have little
information about the author and their credentials.
6.3
No page numbers
When citing a direct quote, if there are no page numbers, use the paragraph no.,
chapter no. or the % (on an e-book reader) instead.
Example: (Smith, 2012, para 4).
7.
General guidelines for citing online resources
In general, if an online source is also available in print then just provide the print
reference. This is particularly advisable for e-books and e-journal articles on LSBU
subscription databases.
If an online resource doesn’t have the same publication information of a print
version, or you’re unsure whether it is available in print, include the URL and the
date you accessed the source.
e.g. … Available from: URL [Accessed day month year].
Alternatively, if a source has a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), include this in place
of the URL. You don’t need to include date of access as the DOI is a permanent
identifier. (See 7.2 for further information about DOIs).
7.1
Long URLs
If an online source has a long URL (e.g. longer than one line), it is acceptable to
shorten the URL up to the first forward slash.
6
7.2
Digital object identifier (DOI)
Many online journal articles, papers and e-books have DOIs. A DOI is unique to a
source and can be added to a reference in place of the URL and accessed date. A
reader can find the location of a source by copying and pasting its DOI into a search
engine, such as Google Scholar. As DOIs are permanent identifiers, unlike URLs, you
do not need to include date of access in the reference.
Example:
Serebryannikov, S. V. (2010) The Moscow power engineering institute (Technical
University): from 1930 to 2010, Thermal Engineering, 57 (12), pp. 12-30. DOI:
10.1134/S0040601510120025.
8.
Books
8.1
Print book
Format:
Author’s surname, Initials. (Year of publication) Title of book. Edition if later than
the first. Place of publication: Publisher.
Example:
Higgs, P. and Jones, I. R. (2009) Medical sociology and old age: towards sociology of
health in later life. London: Routledge.
In-text citation: (Higgs and Jones, 2009)
Finding the year of publication in a book:
If the year of publication is not clear look for the latest copyright date. This is next
to the copyright sign © usually on the reverse of the title page. Do not use a
reprint date.
8.2
Edited book
Format:
Editor’s Surname, Initials. (ed.) or (eds.) (Year of publication) Book title. Edition if
later than the first. Place of Publication: Publisher.
Example:
Ezra, E. (ed.) (2004) European cinema. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
In-text citation: (Ezra, 2004)
NOTE: if you are referencing a chapter or essay in an edited book see the following
guidelines in 8.3 below.
8.3
Chapter in an edited book
Format:
Author’s surname, Initials. (Year of publication) Title of the chapter, in: Editor’s
surname, Initials. (ed.) or (eds.) Title of the book. Place of publication: Publisher,
page range of chapter.
7
Example:
Gaskell, G. (2003) Attitudes, social representations and beyond, in: Deaux, K. and
Philogene, G. (eds.) Representations of the social. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 228-241.
In-text citation: (Gaskell, 2003)
8.4
E-book
If an e-book doesn’t have the same publication information of a print version, or
you’re unsure whether it is available in print, include the URL and the date you
accessed the source.
e.g. … Available from: URL [Accessed day month year].
Format:
Author’s surname, Initials. (Year of publication) Title of e-book. Edition if later than
the first. Place of publication if available: Publisher if available. Available from: URL
[Accessed date].
Alternatively, if the e-book has a digital object identifier (DOI), include this in place
of the URL and date of access. See section 7.2 for more information about DOIs.
If you are accessing an e-book on an e-book reader, you may find it helpful to
mention this in your reference, especially if you’re directly quoting from it.
Author’s surname, Initials. (Year of publication) Title of book. Edition if later than
the first. Place of publication: Publisher. [Name of e-book reader edition].
Example:
James, H. (2012) The ambassadors. Cambridge: Cambridge World Classics. [Kindle
edition].
If no pagination is available use the information you do have to cite a direct quote
e.g. loc, %, or chapter.
Example in-text citation: (James, 2012, 34%)
9.
Journals
9.1
Print journal article
Details for referencing a journal article can normally be found on the first page of
the article.
Format:
Author’s surname, Initials. (Year of publication) Title of the article, Title of the
Journal, volume number (issue number), page range of the article.
Example:
Smith, A. and Jack, K. (2005) Reflective practice: a meaningful task for students,
Nursing Standard, 19 (26), pp. 33-37.
In-text citation: (Smith and Jack, 2005)
8
9.2
Online journal article
If an online journal article doesn’t have the same publication information of a print
version, or you’re unsure whether it is available in print, include the URL and the
date you accessed the source.
e.g. … Available from: URL [Accessed day month year].
Alternatively, if the article has a digital object identifier (DOI), include this in place
of the URL and date of access. See section 7.2 for more information about DOIs.
Format:
Author’s surname, Initials. (Year of publication) Title of the article, Title of the
Journal, volume number (issue number), page range of the article. DOI: DOI
number.
Example:
Serebryannikov, S. V. (2010) The Moscow power engineering institute (Technical
University): from 1930 to 2010, Thermal Engineering, 57 (12), pp. 12-30. DOI:
10.1134/S0040601510120025.
In-text citation: (Serebryannikov, 2010)
10.
Newspapers
10.1
Print newspaper article
The format is similar to that of a journal article except that you provide the specific
date the article was published instead of a volume and issue number. You also
need to indicate if your reference is from a particular section of the paper.
Format:
Author’s surname, Initials. (Year of publication) Title of article, Title of Newspaper,
(details of supplement if relevant), Day Month published, page number(s).
Example:
Tobin, L. (2010) The crush starts here, The Guardian (Education Supplement), 8
June, p. 1.
In-text citation: (Tobin, 2010)
Format for newspaper article with no author:
Title of Newspaper (Year of publication) Title of article, Day Month published, page
number(s).
Example:
The Guardian (2012) Higher education in the EU, 14 July, p. 8.
In-text citation: (The Guardian, 2010)
10.2
Online newspaper
Format:
9
Author’s surname, Initials. (Year of publication) Title of article, Title of Newspaper,
(details of supplement if relevant), day month. Available from: URL [Accessed day
month year].
Example:
Topham, G. (2014) Ryanair profits endure bumpy landing with first drop in five
years, The Guardian, 19 May. Available from:
http://www.theguardian.com/business/2014/may/19/ryanair-profits-down-firstdrop-5-years [Accessed 19 May 2014].
In-text citation: (Topham, 2014)
11.
Government documents
11.1
Referencing international government documents
If referencing government publications from multiple countries, include the
country in brackets after the department’s name.
Example:
Department of Health (Australia) (2011) Healthy body art. Available from:
http://www.health.gov.au [Accessed 29 May 2014]
In-text citation: (Department of Health (Australia), 2011)
11.2
Command paper - including Green (consultation) and White (policy
statements) papers
Format:
Name of committee or Royal commission (Year of publication) Title of paper. Place
of publication: Publisher (Paper number).
Example:
Department for Education and Skills (2005) Higher standards, better schools for all:
more choice for parents and pupil. London: The Stationery Office (Cm. 6677).
In-text citation: (Department for Education and Skills, 2005).
11.3
Legal material – case report
Format:
Names of parties (year) volume number abbreviation for name of report and first
page of report.
NOTE: if there is no volume number, enclose the year in square brackets.
Example with volume number:
BBC v Sugar (2012) 162 N.L.J. 294
In-text citation: The case of BBC v Sugar (2012) …
Example without volume number:
Danks v Qinetiq Holdings Ltd [2012] Pens. L.R. 131
10
In-text citation: The case of Danks v Qinetiq [2012] …
11.4
Act of Parliament (UK Statute)
Format:
Name of Act (c. chapter number). Place of publication: Publisher.
Example:
Housing Act 1996 (c.52). London: HMSO.
In-text citation: The statute (Housing Act 1996) laid down …
11.5
Bill
Format:
Parliament. House of Commons or Lords (Year of publication) Title of bill. Place of
publication: Publisher (Bills number).
Example:
Parliament. House of Commons (2002) Planning and Compulsory Purchase Bill:
explanatory notes: these notes refer to the Planning and Compulsory Purchase Bill
as introduced to the House of Commons on 4th December 2002. London: The
Stationery Office (Bills 2001-2002 12).
In-text citation: (Parliament. House of Commons, 2002)
NOTE: House of Lords bill number should appear between round brackets to
distinguish them from House of Commons bill numbers
Example:
Parliament. House of Lords (2009) Consumer emissions (climate change) Bill.
London: The Stationery Office (Bills 2009-2010 (13)).
In-text citation: (Parliament. House of Lords, 2009)
11.6
Departmental report
Format:
Name of government department (year of publication) Title of report. Place of
publication: Publisher.
Example:
Department of Health (2004) Choosing health: making healthy choices easier.
London: The Stationery Office.
In text citation: (Department of Health, 2004)
11.7
House of Commons and House of Lords papers
Major papers are known by the name of the chair of the committee which
produced them, for example, The Hutton Report. However, they must be
referenced from the exact information on the title page, even if lengthy.
11
Format:
House of Commons or Lords. Name of Committee if relevant (Year of publication)
Title of paper. Place of publication: Publisher (HC or HL years of sessions and paper
number).
Example:
Parliament. House of Commons (2004) Return to an address of the Honourable the
House of Commons dated 28th January 2004 for the report of the inquiry into the
circumstances surrounding the death of Dr David Kelly C.M.G. by Lord Hutton.
London: The Stationery Office (HC 2003-2004 247).
In-text citation: (Parliament. House of Commons, 2004).
NOTE: House of Lords paper numbers should appear in round brackets to
distinguish them from House of Commons paper numbers:
Example:
Parliament. House of Lords (2010) The Lisbon Treaty: procedural implications;
standing order 19; private notice questions; guidance on motions and questions.
London: The Stationery Office (HL 2009-2010 (51)).
In-text citation: (Parliament. House of Lords, 2010).
11.8
Hansard
Format:
HC or HL Deb date of debate, volume number, column number. Available from: URL
[Accessed day month year].
Example:
HL Deb 6 May 2014, vol 753, col 1403. Available from:
http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld201314/ldhansrd/text/1405060001.htm#14050619000594 [Accessed 2 June 2014].
In-text citation: (HL Deb 6 May 2014)
11.9
Online government documents
Use the formatting conventions in 11.1-11.8 above and at the end of the reference
add:
Available from: URL [Accessed day month year].
Example:
Parliament. House of Lords (2010) The Lisbon Treaty: procedural implications;
standing order 19; private notice questions; guidance on motions and questions.
London: The Stationery Office (HL 2009-2010 (51)). Available from:
http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld200910/ldselect/ldprohse/51/51.pdf
[Accessed 14 May 2012].
In-text citation: (Parliament. House of Lords, 2010)
12
12.
Reports
Format:
Author’s surname, Initials. or name of organisation (Year of publication) Title of
report. Edition if available. Place of Publication: Publisher.
Example:
Arts Council England (2010) Arts Council England grant-in-aid and lottery annual
report and accounts 2009/10. London: The Stationery Office.
In-text citation: (Arts Council England, 2010)
12.1
Market Research Reports
The library subscribes to a number of online market reports and financial databases
such as Mintel, Keynote and FAME. Below is an example of how to reference these
online reports.
Format:
Author’s surname, Initials. or Name of Organisation (Year of publication) Title of
report. Edition if available. Available from: URL [Accessed day month year].
Example:
Key Note (2009) The aerospace industry. 30th ed. Available from: http://0www.keynote.co.uk.lispac.lsbu.ac.uk/ [Accessed 10 November 2011].
In-text citation: (Keynote, 2009)
12.2
Financial report
Format:
Author’s surname, initials or Name of Organisation (Year of publication) Title of
report. Edition if available. Available from: URL [Accessed day month year].
Example:
Bureau Van Dijk (2012) Arcadia Group Limited. Available from:
https://fame2.bvdep.com/ [Accessed 20 May 2014].
In-text citation: (Bureau Van Dijk, 2012)
13.
Conference proceedings
13.1
Print conference paper
Format:
Author’s surname, Initials. (Year of publication) Title of conference paper, in: Title
of Conference, Location, date of conference. Place of publication: Publisher, page
range of paper.
Example:
Joo-Ming, L. and Liang-Heng, W. (2008) Developing eco-towns for Singapore’s
public housing development, in: Proceedings of the IStructE centenary conference,
Hong Kong, 24-26 January. London: IStructE, pp. 39-53.
13
In-text citation: (Ming and Liang-Heng, 2008)
Alternatively, if the article has a digital object identifier (DOI), include this in place
of the URL and date of access. See section 7.2 for more information about DOIs.
13.2
Online conference paper
Format:
Surname, Initials. (Year of publication) Title of conference paper, in: Title of
Conference, Location, date of conference, page range of paper. Available from:
Name of database. URL [Accessed day month year].
Example:
Lahti, V. (2010) On the process of translation, in: The 2nd International Conference
on Creativity and Writing, Orivesi, Finland, 19-22 November. Available from:
http://urn.fi/URN:NBN:fi:jyu-2011042910703 [Accessed 21 January 2014].
In-text citation: (Lahti, 2010)
14.
Dissertations and theses
Format:
Author’s surname, Initials. (Year submitted) Title of dissertation/thesis. Level of
award, Location of awarding institution if not clear from name: Name of awarding
institution.
Example:
Smith, M. (2003) The quantity surveyors' contribution to sustainable construction.
MSc dissertation, London South Bank University.
In-text citation: (Smith, 2003)
15.
Standards
Format:
Name of organisation (Year of publication) Standard number: Title of standard.
Place of publication: Publisher.
Example:
British Standards Institution (2005) BS 7000-6: 2005: Guide to managing inclusive
design. London: BSI.
In-text citation: (British Standards Institution, 2005)
16.
Films, TV and online videos
16.1
Films/DVDs
Format:
Title of film/DVD (Year of release) [Film/DVD]. Directed by Director’s name. Place of
distribution: Distribution company.
Example:
14
The artist (2012) [DVD]. Directed by Michel Hazanavicius. France: Warner Home
Video.
In-text citation: (The artist, 2012)
16.2
TV or radio broadcasts
Format:
Title of broadcast (Year of broadcast) [Type of broadcast]. Channel, date of
broadcast.
Example:
Treasures of the Anglo Saxons (2012) [TV programme]. BBC4, 25 June.
In-text citation: (Treasures of the Anglo Saxons, 2012)
If the broadcast is an episode in a series the format would be:
Title of episode (Year of release) Title of programme, series and episode numbers.
[Type of broadcast]. Channel, date of broadcast.
Example:
This is England (2012) Simon Schama’s Shakespeare, Series 1, episode 1. [TV
programme]. BBC2, 22 June.
In-text citation: (This is England, 2012)
16.3
TV or radio broadcasts on Box of Broadcasts
Format:
Title of broadcast (Year of broadcast) [Type of broadcast]. Channel, episode, date
of broadcast. Available from: Box of Broadcasts. http://bobnational.net [Accessed
day month year].
Example:
Treasures of the Anglo Saxons (2012) [TV programme]. BBC4, episode 1, 25 June.
Available from: Box of Broadcasts. http://bobnational.net [Accessed 23 May 2014].
In-text citation: (Treasures of the Anglo Saxons, 2012)
16.4
Online video
Format:
Title of video (Year uploaded) [Online video]. Available from: URL [Accessed day
month year].
Example:
The art of living – R Lanier Anderson (2011) [Online video]. Available from:
http://youtu.be/-YnLyBRvAwA [Accessed 18 May 2014].
In-text citation: (The art of living – R Lanier Anderson, 2011)
15
17.
Live performances
17.1
Play
Format:
Title by Author (Year of performance) Directed by director’s name [Location. Date
seen].
Example:
A small family business by Alan Ayckbourn (2014) Directed by Adam Penford
[National Theatre, London. 26 August].
In-text citation: (A small family business, 2014)
17.2
Dance
Format:
Choreographer’s surname, initials. (Year of premier) Title [Location. Date seen].
Example:
Khan, A. (2013) iTMOi [Sadler’s Wells, London. 11 June 2014].
In-text citation: (Khan, 2013)
18.
Illustrations/artworks/diagrams/figures
If you want to refer to a visual resource found in a book, for example, reference the
book and put the page number and figure number (if available) where you found
the visual resource in the in-text citation.
Example of an in-text citation to an illustration found in a book:
… Barker’s illustration (Whittle, 1998, p. 176, fig. 10.5) shows a young girl leaving
the village …
NOTE: for the above example, you’d only include a reference to Whittle in the
Reference list.
If you viewed an illustration/artwork on location e.g. at a gallery, reference the
artist.
Format for an artwork viewed on location:
Artist’s name, Initials. (Year of the artwork) Title of the artwork. [Type of artwork].
Place, Location.
Example:
Fragonard, J-H. (1766) The swing. [Oil on canvas]. The Wallace Collection, London.
In-text citation: (Fragonard, 1766).
19.
Interviews
If you have conducted an interview as part of your research, include a transcript
and full details of the interview in an appendix rather than referencing it in the
16
reference list. NOTE: Make sure you have the permission of the interviewee before
making the transcript available to others.
If you’ve read or listened to an interview conducted by another person then
reference the publication or broadcast following the guidelines for that format.
20.
Lecture notes/handouts
Format:
Author’s surname, Initials. (Year produced) Title of handout/lecture. [description
and name of course, module code]. Name of teaching establishment, Date of
lecture.
Example:
Smith, J. (2012) Academic misconduct: plagiarism. [Handout to Referencing
Workshop, LLR-001]. London South Bank University, 20 March.
In-text citation: (Smith, 2012)
21.
LSBU Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) materials
For chapters and articles that have been scanned and uploaded onto LSBU VLE,
reference them as print resources.
For lecturer’s note/handouts. Follow guidelines in section 20 above and include the
following at the end:
Available from: https://vle.lsbu.ac.uk/ [Accessed day month year]
Example:
Smith, J. (2013) Academic misconduct: plagiarism. [Handout to Referencing
Workshop, LLR-001]. London South Bank University, 20 March. Available from:
https://vle.lsbu.ac.uk/ [Accessed 23 March 2014].
In-text citation: (Smith, 2013)
22.
Web pages
It’s best to start your research by using LSBU databases before searching the free
web. Remember that anyone can publish anything on the web, so you will need to
evaluate the quality and reliability of a web page or web document before you
refer to it in your assignments.
22.1
Web page with author
Format:
Author’s surname, Initials. or name of organisation (year published or last update)
Title of web page/document. Edition if relevant. Place of publication if available:
Publisher if available. Available from: URL [Accessed day month year].
Example:
Burke, L. (1997) Carbohydrates? They aren’t that simple. Available from:
http://www.sportsci.org/news/compeat/carbo.html [Accessed 14 February 2014].
17
In-text citation: (Burke, 1997)
22.2
Web page with no author
If there is no author, start the reference with the title of the web page or
document.
Format:
Title of web page or web document (Year published or last update) Available from:
URL [Accessed day month year].
Example:
Occupational performance measurement issues and methodologies (2002)
Available from: http://www.otdirect.co.uk/measure.html [Accessed 08 February
2011].
In-text citation: (Occupational performance measurement issues and
methodologies, 2002)
22.3
Web blogs
NOTE: blogs are often anonymous and many authors just use their first names or
pseudonyms.
Format:
Author’s surname, Initials. or pseudonym (Year of posting or last update) Title of
blog entry, Title of blog, dd month of posting. Available from: URL [Accessed day
month year].
Example:
Baker, J. (2014) Crowdsourcing comic art, Digital scholarship blog, 13 May.
Available from: http://britishlibrary.typepad.co.uk/digitalscholarship/2014/05/crowdsourcing-comic-art.html [28 May 2014].
In-text citation: (Baker, 2014)
23.
Social media sites e.g. Face-book, Twitter
Format:
Author’s surname, Initials. or pseudonym (Year published) Title of message, Title of
site, day and month of post. Available from: [Accessed day month year]
Example
Smith, T. (2012) Referencing, Twitter, 14 June. Available from:
http://twitter.com/tomsmith/informationliteracy [Accessed 15 July 2012].
In-text citation: (Smith, 2012)
24.
Discussion list messages
Author’s surname, Initials. (Year posted) Title of message, Message list name, day
and month of post. Available from: URL [Accessed day month year].
18
Example:
Thomas, P. H. (2007) Antibiotic assays on Olympus analysers, Clinical biochemistry
discussion list, 21 June. Available from: http://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/lists/ACB-CLINCHEM-GEN.html [Accessed 10 June 2010].
In-text citation: (Thomas, 2007)
25.
Emails
Format:
Sender’s surname, Initials. (Year sent) Message subject. Personal email to: name of
recipient, day and month of message.
Example:
Beam, J. (2005) RE: New passwords for off-campus access. Personal e-mail to: J.
Daniels, 12 June.
In-text citation: (Beam, 2005)
26.
Mobile Apps
Format:
Originator/author’s surname, Initials or Corporate author if ascertainable
otherwise use the title. (Year or release date). Title of app [Mobile app]. Version no.
Available from: URL [Accessed day month year].
NHS Choices (2014) Change4life smart recipes [Mobile app]. Version 2.1.2.
Available from: https://itunes.apple.com/gb/app/id583000807?mt=8 [28 May
2014].
In-text citation: (NHS Choices, 2014)
27.
Format of bibliography
You may be asked to compile a bibliography as well as a reference list especially if
you’re undertaking a long piece of research such as a dissertation or thesis. A
bibliography lists all the sources you’ve used in your research even if you did not
cite them in your work.
Typically, the bibliography comes after the reference list and follows the same
format.
28.
Referencing tools
There are a number of referencing tools, such as RefWorks and Mendeley, which
will generate references for you. However, you will need to spend time learning
how to use these tools. You will also still need to check that the references they
generate are accurate and adhere to the LSBU Harvard style. If you’d like help with
using referencing management software, please contact the Information Adviser
for your subject (see Further help below).
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29.
Further help
Please contact the Information Adviser for your subject if you have any enquiries
about referencing or to arrange a one-to-one appointment. Contact details of
Information Advisers are available on the Library’s web pages.
Alternatively, drop by the Research Help Desk on level 3 Bridge of the Perry Library
where a member of staff will be able to help you.
For referencing examples of other resources not covered in this guide, please
contact your Information Adviser or consult the following book:
Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2013) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. 9th
ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan. [Available in the LSBU library, classmark
808.027 PEA]
Updated by LLR: June 2014
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