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Great Speeches: How To Make Them
Brought To You By:
Michael Lee, Self-Help Specialist
Author of How To Be An Expert Persuader
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Table of Contents
Introduction
4
What to Say
10
How to Say It
17
Sources of Power
23
Figures of Emphasis
38
The Rhetoric of Public Speaking
36
Extempore Speaking
45
Gesture and Action
52
Analysis of Webster's Reply to Hayne
57
Types of Speaking
69
After-Dinner Speeches
79
Commemorative Speeches
90
Didactic Speeches
99
Eulogistic Speeches
112
Inaugural Speeches
148
INTRODUCTION
This is the day of concise speech. The tedious, long-drawn-out oratory of former times is no
longer tolerated by intelligent audiences. There is a silent but no less insistent demand that a
speaker waste no time in words, but give expression to his ideas with reasonable brevity.
It is surprising how much can be said in the space of one minute by a speaker who has his
subject well in hand. The most notable example in all history of short speech-making
is Lincoln's Gettysburg speech, which occupied in delivery less than three minutes. At the
inauguration of the new president of Harvard University, the Hon. John D. Long, president of
the Board of Overseers, carried out the impressive ceremony of the day, investing President
Lowell with the ceremonial emblems of the office, in a speech of three sentences, as follows:
Abbott Lawrence Lowell, you having been duly chosen to be President of Harvard College, I
now, in the name of its governing bodies and in accordance with ancient custom, declare that
you are vested with all the powers and privileges of that office. It is a great trust, but it is laid
on you in full confidence that you will discharge it in the interest alike of the college we love
and of the democracy it serves. I deliver into your hands, as badges of your authority, the
college charter, seals and keys. God bless you.
This was an occasion of unusual interest, thousands of persons having gathered from all
parts of the country. The temptation to make a '' great speech'' would have been irresistible to
most men, but President Lowell's acknowledgment occupied only a minute, in these words :
It is with a deep sense of responsibility that I receive at your hands these insignia of the office
to which the governing boards have chosen me. You have charged me with a great trust,
second in importance to no other, for the education of American youth, and therefore for the
intellectual and moral welfare of our country.
I pray that I may be granted the wisdom, the strength, and the patience which are needed in
no common measure; that Harvard may stand in the future, as she has stood under the long
line of my predecessors, for the development of true manhood and for the advancement of
sound learning, and that her sons may go forth with a chivalrous resolve that the world shall
be better for the years they have spent within these walls.
There are primarily two things concerned in the making of a public speaker: (1) the Man, and
(2) the Message. The qualifications laid down by Cicero, Quintilian, and other great authorities
are too severe and comprehensive for present-day needs. We think the following are
essential attributes of a good public speaker:
1. Sterling character.
2. High ideals.
3. Sincerity.
4. Devotion to truth.
5. A good appearance.
6. A well-furnished mind.
7. Graceful action.
8. Fluency of language.
9. A cultivated voice.
10. A refined pronunciation.
11. Unfailing tact.
12. Singleness of purpose.
13. Sympathy.
14 Common sense.
The message should have the three qualities of clearness, vitality, and timeliness. The
attributes just indicated are a matter of acquisition rather than natural gifts. No man should be
dissuaded from developing his speaking powers because he is not "a born orator." If he be
afflicted with timidity, or some other shortcoming, let him take encouragement from the
experience of many of the world's greatest orators. There is inspiration in the case of
Demosthenes, of whom it is recorded:
In his first address to the people he was laughed at and interrupted by their clamors, for the
violence of his manner threw him into a confusion of periods, and a distortion of his argument.
Besides he had a weakness and a stammering in his voice, and a want of breath, which
caused such a distraction in his discourse that it was difficult for the audience to understand
him. At last, upon his quitting the assembly, Ennomus, the Thracian, a man now extremely
old, found him wandering in a dejected condition in the Pircus, and took upon him to set him
right. "You," said he, "have a manner of speaking like that of Perietes, and yet you lose
yourself out of mere timidity and cowardice. You neither bear up against the tumults of a
popular assembly, nor prepare your body by exercise for the labor of the rostrum, but suffer
your parts to wither away by nesrligence and indolence." Another time, we are told, that when
his speeches had been ill received, and he was going home with his head covered, and in the
greatest distress, Satyrus, the plajer, who was an acquaintance of his, followed and went in
with him. Demosthenes lamented to him that, tho he was the most laborious of all the oiators,
and had almost sacrificed his health to that application, yet he could gain no favor with the
people; but drunken seamen and other unlettered persons were heard, and kept the rostrum,
while he was entirely disregarded. "You say true," answered Satyrus; "but I will soon provide a
remedy. if you will repeat to me some speech in Euripides or Sophocles." "When
Demosthenes had done, Satyrus pronounced he same speech, and he did it with such
propriety of action, and so much in character, that it appeared to the orator quite a different
passage. He now understood so well how much grace and dignity of action lend to the best
oration, that he thought it a small matter to premeditate and compose, if the pronunciation and
propriety of gesture were not also attended to.
The rest is familiar to the reader, how Demosthenes built a subterranean room, went there
daily to train his voice and gesture, committing to memory the substance of all the
conversations and speeches he heard, disciplining and developing himself for the high place
he was destined ultimately to fill. He completely overcame his natural defect of stammering
and of indistinctness by practising his speeches with pebbles in his mouth, and strengthened
his weak voice by reciting aloud poems and orations while running or walking up hill.
Numerous illustrations of a similar character might be given to the student who aspires to
proficiency in this great art. The secret does not lie so much in natural gifts as in the iron
qualities of pluck and perseverance.
A man's speech reports not only .the inner workings of his mind, but also his character and
temperament. A public speaker should have it said of him, as Johnson said of
Bacon: '' His hearers could not cough or look aside without loss." Such a man makes every
word count. Fully realizing that'' No train of thought is strengthened by the addition of those
arguments that, like camp-followers, swell the number and the noise without bearing a part in
the organization," he avoids-giving expression to a single superfluous thought.
Naturalness in public speaking is power expressing itself simply and without conscious effort.
It arises from frankness and sincerity. It never "beats about the bush," never equivocates, but
goes straight to the point without fear or question. A natural speaker does not wish to appear
other than he really is, and his modesty is a safeguard against speaking often of himself. The
calm and dignified power of Abraham Lincoln was due to this underlying quality. His simplicity
of speech was the natural expression of his great and tender-hearted nature. No man
despised more than he even a suggestion of sham and artificiality. His clear, direct, frank, and
open manner of expression was merely the outward mark of supreme genuineness. When
urged to give an account of himself, he wrote these simple lines:
I was born February 12, 1809, in Hardin County, Kentucky. My parents were both born in
Virginia, of undistinguished families--second families, perhaps, I should say. My mother, who
died in my tenth year, was of a family by the name of Hanks, some of whom now reside in
Adams, and others in Macon County, Illinois. My paternal grandfather, Abraham Lincoln,
emigrated from Kockingham County, Virginia, to Kentucky, about 1781 or 1782, where a year
or two later he was killed by the Indians, not in battle, but by stealth, when he was laboring to
open a farm in the forest. His ancestors, who were Quakers, went to Virginia from Berks
County, Pennsylvania. An effort to identify them with the New England family of the same
name ended in nothing more definite than a similarity of Christian names in both families,
such as Enoch, Levi, Mordecai, Solomon, Abraham, and the like.
My father, at the death of his father, was but six years of age, and he grew up literally without
education. He removed to Kentucky to what is now Spencer County, Indiana, in my eighth
year. We reached our new home about the time the State came into the Union. It was a wild
region, with many bears and other wild animals still in the woods. There I grew up. There
were some schools, so called, but no qualification was ever required of a teacher beyond
"readin', writin', and cipherin'" to the rule of three. If a straggler supposed to understand Latin
happened to sojourn in the neighborhood he was looked upon as a wizard. There was
absolutely nothing to excite ambition for education. Of course, when I came of age I did not
know much. Still, somehow, I could read, write, and cipher to the rule of three, but that was
all. I have not been to school since. The little advance I now have upon this store of education
I have picked up from time to time under the pressure of necessity.
I was raised to farm-work, which I continued till I was twenty- two. At twenty-one I came to
Illinois, Macon County. Then I got to New Salem, at that time in Sangamon, now in Menard
County, where I remained a year as a sort of clerk in a store. Then came the Black Hawk war,
and I was elected a captain of volunteers, a success which gave me more pleasure than any I
have had since. I went into the campaism, was elected; ran for the legislature the same year
(1832), and was beaten--the only time I ever have been beaten by the people. The next three
succeeding biennial elections I was elected to the legislature. I was not a candidate afterward.
During this legislative period I had studied law and removed to Springfield to practise it. In
1846 I was once elected to the lower house of Congress. Was not a candidate for reelection.
From 1849 to 1854, both inclusive, practised law more assiduously than ever before. Always
a Whig in politics, and generally on the Whig electoral tickets, making active canvasses. I was
losing interest in polities when the repeal of the Missouri Compromise aroused me again.
What I have done since then is pretty well known.
If any personal description of me is thought desirable, it may be said I am, in height, six feet
four inches, nearly; lean in flesh, weighing on an average one hundred and eighty pounds;
dark complexion, with coarse black hair and gray eyes. No other marks or brands recollected.
Naturalness literally means to be in harmony with nature. It is that innate quality that makes a
man obedient to his best self, and is opposed to every form of unreality and exaggeration. It is
developed not by aiming directly at it, but rather by aiming at those things that are known to
produce it. As Lowell says: "To seek to be natural implies a consciousness that forbids all
naturalness for- ever." Therefore the speaker's most vital concern should be always to speak
plain truth, to be scrupulously accurate and precise, and to make every word ring with the
unmistakable qualities of frankness and sincerity.
The test of a successful speaker is the effect he produces upon his audience. He may
exhaust all the arts of elocution, rhetoric, and logic; he may be a master of English style, but
unless he persuade his hearers to act he is not in the highest sense an orator. The speaker
can best be in earnest by aiming at the motives which produce earnestness. He must himself
be moved before he attempts to move others. The purpose of his speaking should be clearly
denned in his own mind, and unlike those who "aim at nothing and hit it," he, on the contrary,
will advance toward distinct and definite ends. There must be no acting, no pretense, no
bombast, no empty and boisterous declamation, but a persistent and sincere application of
his best powers, both of thought and feeling, to the effective delivery of his message.
The value of personal character in the speaker is emphasized in the phrase, "What you are
prevents me from hearing what you say." What an audience may know about a man goes to
determine the mental image they have of him when he stands before them to speak, and in a
very large degree does this affect the importance they attach to his utterance. A sneak need
not try to be an orator, for he can not be. His real character will shortly betray him, if his
reputation does not, and he will be appraised at his true value. His soul's emphasis will
unconsciously disclose the soul itself.
There is a wide difference between having something to say and having to say something.
Thought is a necessary part of successful speech, and if a man really has nothing to say it is
dangerous for him to pretend otherwise. The mind must be cultivated as a field, and from
judiciously planted seeds of knowledge to yield a harvest of fresh, original ideas. Man is a
thinking animal, and his mind thinks whether he wills or not. He can learn to control his
thoughts, to determine the kind of ideas he will harbor in his mind, and, moreover, he can
concentrate upon definite subjects and direct his mental powers in the pursuit of clear and
definite objects.
To become a great speaker a man must assiduously cultivate the positive side of his
character. He should avoid, especially before an audience, such negative expressions as "I
may be wrong," "I am half-inclined to think," "I do not wish to be too positive," "I am ready to
be corrected if I am wrong,'' and similar phrases. He must equip himself so thoroughly for his
work that he will be able truthfully to say, "I speak authoritatively," "I know this to be true,"
"There is not the shadow of a doubt," or "I stake my reputation on it." A positive nature is
essential to leadership. Men are unwilling to entrust themselves to uncertainty and
inexperience. The man whom they fol- low must be one who knows, and knows that he
knows.
Sensitiveness is fatal in a public man, because it indicates a lack of one of the most
fundamental qualities of success--self-confidence. Unless a man have the courage of his
convictions he can not hope to win recognition as a teacher and leader of men. An
inestimable benefit may be derived from studying some of the great and self-reliant speakers
of England and America. Gladstone's speeches breathe throughout this quality of firmness
and belief. James Bryce says of him:
It was by his oratory that he first won fame, and largely by it that he maintained his
ascendency. If Ms eloquence be compared either with that of the great ancient masters of the
art, or with such modern masters as Edmund Burke and Daniel Webster, it does not show an
equal depth and volume of thought nor an equal beauty and polish of diction. Many thought
the speeches of John Bright superior, if considered as fine pieces of English. Mr. Gladstone,
however, possest three great gifts of the parliamentary orator. He had a superb voice and
delivery. His re- sources were inexhaustible. His quiver was always full of arguments, and he
was equally skilful in the setting forth his own case in the most persuasive form and in
answering his opponent's case on the spur of the moment with skill and spirit.
And, above all, he had great fighting force. He enjoyed the clash of wits, and the more
formidable an attack was, the more did it rouse him to the highest point of effectiveness.
Indeed, it was often said in Parliament that his extempore speeches made in some conflict of
debate that arose suddenly were more telling and gave a higher impression of his powers
than the discourses thought over beforehand. This power remained with him to the end.
It was this same quality of self-reliance in Webster that caused him to say to Hayne, "Let the
discussion proceed; I am ready now to receive the gentleman's fire." He was a modest man,
but "He carried men's minds, and overwhelmingly prest his thought upon them, with the
immense current of his physical energy." His style was calm and deliberate, but always
suggested great power in reserve. Hence it is that "Webster's name has been linked with
Demosthenes as the two greatest of the world's orators.
To be a great public speaker one must be a great man. A glance over the enduring speeches
of the world shows that not one was delivered for a consideration. Demosthenes spoke in his
own defense. Cicero excelled all his other efforts in his oration against Catiline. The speeches
that have been preserved in English oratory were made in behalf of the country or for some
other great cause. Burke, Pitt, Erskine, Fox, O'Connell, Macaulay, Gladstone, and Disraeli
spoke at their best when they spoke for the common welfare. The history of oratory in
America testifies to this same quality of disinterestedness. The greatest speeches were not
inspired by any thought of personal reward. "Webster, Lincoln, Clay, Sumner, Phillips, and
other great names are remembered for their devotion to cause and country. Henry Ward
Beecher, with all his pulpit eloquence, never spoke so well as in his speeches against slavery.
When Seward made his eloquent defense of the negro Freeman, he did it without
compensation. He toiled for months, spent his own money, lost lifelong friends, and was
abused and almost mobbed by an infuriated people because he dared to defend a helpless
negro, charged with murder, whom he believed to be insane. The greatest speeches of all
time invariably have been inspired by an overwhelming desire for public service.
It will be seen, then, that the greatness of a speaker's style is merely the expression of his
great character, and that lie is one who is ready to offer himself, if need be, a living sacrifice. A
great speaker labors to make men nobler, to inspire them to higher ideals, and to advance the
welfare of mankind.
We are sometimes told that only a national crisis, or some other unusual event, can produce
great orators. But never before, not even in ancient Greece or Rome, has there been a time
when men were so ready as now to be moved by genuine eloquence. Never before has there
been a time when so many vital national, social, and other problems confronted a people for
solution. In all the history of the world there has never before been so much serious and
substantial work for the well-trained orator. His responsibility is, indeed, a high one,
demanding thoroughness, earnestness, and self-sacrifice. His soul must be set on fire with
ardor for his cause, and that cause must rule his heart and life. In this way, and only in this
way, may he hope to become a master of men, and a truly great public speaker.
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WHAT TO SAY
The student of public speaking will do well to confine his first efforts to simple forms of
speech-making. Plain narrative and clear statement of fact should be his primary objects. The
ornamental graces of rhetoric and oratory may advantageously be left for subsequent
consideration.
His subject may be anything from a personal experience, such as a visit to New York or
London, to a discussion of some social or political question of the day. But whatever theme he
choose to speak upon, it is important that it be timely and of probable interest to his hearers.
The highest oratorical talents will not atone for an inappropriate choice of subject. There are
hundreds of vital topics, in which most men are more or less interested. A selection may be
made from these:
The Unemployed.
Woman Suffrage.
Convict Labor.
Sunday Closing.
Capital Punishment.
Coeducation.
Restricted Immigration.
The Theater.
Aerial Navigation.
Crime and Poverty.
Life Insurance.
Child Labor.
Vivisection.
Trial by Jury.
Free Trade.
Gambling.
Universal Peace.
The Negro.
Strikes.
Anarchy.
Bimetalism.
Free Will.
Degeneration.
Vegetarianism.
The Press.
Suicide.
Cremation.
Divorce.
Imperialism.
Trusts.
Socialism.
Pensions.
Evolution.
Opportunity.
Prohibition.
Success.
Before attempting to write speeches of his own, the student will find it profitable to examine
those of others, a good selection of which is provided in this volume. Cicero says:
Since, all the business and art of an orator is divided into five parts, he ought first to find out
what he should say; next, to arrange and dispose his matter, not only in a certain order, but
with a sort of power and judgment; then to clothe and deck his thoughts with language; then
to secure them in his memory; and lastly, to deliver them with dignity and grace. I had learned
and understood also that before we enter upon the main subject, the minds of the audience
should be conciliated by an exordium; next, that the case should be clearly stated; then, that
the point in controversy should be established; then, that what we may maintain should be
supported by proof, and that whatever was said on the other side should be refuted; and that,
in the conclusion of our speech, whatever was in our favor should be amplified and enforced,
and whatever made for our adversaries should be weakened and invalidated.
The mind once fixt upon a subject, that subject becomes a point of attraction, and material
gathers around it with surprizing rapidity. These spontaneous thoughts should be committed
immediately to paper, and only after the student has exhausted the natural resources of his
mind should he have recourse to books. It is difficult to lay down hard and fast rules as to the
choice of books, but in a general way the young speaker will be well advised if he confines
himself to those which have stood the test of time.
It may be said in passing that the frequent and regular reading of standard books is not only
useful far storing the mind with information, but is an essential part of practical training in
extempore speaking. If much of this reading is done aloud, the results will be all the better,
since many words and phrases will in this manner be actually fitted to the speaker's mouth
and made ready for instant use. Probably no exercise develops as this does the faculty of
ready utterance. History, biography, philosophy, science, poetry and fiction should be laid
under tribute, and each made to render its share toward forming the student's speaking style.
Assuming, then, that the speaker has now gathered his material--from his mind, from books,
men, conversation, observation, and nature--he has before him a mass of general notes on
his subject. His next step is to make a plan and arrange this material in organized form. It
should be clearly understood that this plan, or brief, is merely an outline, and not the speech
itself. It is comprized of single statements arranged as headings and sub-headings, each
indicated by a separate letter or numeral, the whole divided into three parts, known as: The
Introduction, The Discussion, and The Conclusion. This will be made clear by the following
illustration:
Subject: TRADE-UNIONS ARE A BENEFIT TO THE LABORING CLASS
INTRODUCTION
A. Trade-unionism is one of the complex questions of the day, since
(1) The relation of the laborer to the employer is of vital importance, and
(2) Differences between them are inevitable.
DISCUSSION
A. Trade-unions benefit the laboring class, because
(1) They afford protection from low wages,
(2) They prevent working overtime, and
(3) They remove many inhuman conditions of life.
B. Trade-unions give to the laboring class:
(1) The advantages of concentration,
(2) Protection for competent men, and
(3) An incentive for a high level of industrial efficiency.
C. Trade-unions confer other benefits upon the working class by
(1) Making provision against illness and accident, and
(2) Furthering the workers' interests politically.
CONCLUSION
A. Trade-unions confer a benefit upon the working class because they
(1) Insure a uniform scale of wages,
(2) Prevent unduly long hours,
(3) Remove many injustices.
(4) Afford the advantages of concentration,
(5) Protect competent men,
(6) Stimulate men to efficiency,
(7) Provide against illness and accident, and
(8) Fit their men as political representatives.
B. Trade-unions are a power for benefit, inasmuch as
(1) They now exist in every civilized country in the world. and
(2) Are able to work together for the international solidarity of labor.
The time devoted to the careful preparation of this outline or brief will be well spent. It will
save much rewriting and confusion in the speech itself. This plan should be subjected to the
severest analysis before the first draft of the speech proper is made. The various statements
in the brief should be arranged in the strongest and most logical order, and the whole held
together as an unbroken chain. When this is finally done the speaker is ready to write out his
speech with this brief before him as his guide.
In the introduction of his speech he will set down what he thinks is most likely to secure
favorable consideration on the part of his audience. Anything that will at once gain their
attention, respect and sympathy may be employed in these opening sentences. A primary
requisite in an introduction is that it quickly and briefly convey to the hearer whatever
information may be necessary to a clear understanding of the subject.
In his discussion, or the main body of the speech, the student is expected to present his facts,
and here particularly he must be absolutely truthful and scrupulously clear. His ideas and
arguments should be arranged with due regard to their natural order and importance. Familiar
thoughts will be presented first, and if the facts are properly stated with direct reference to the
conclusion, the statement of a formal conclusion may not be necessary. The object of a
speaker need not be so much to secure new facts as to present old and verified facts in new
combinations. Particular attention should be given to transitions, so that each idea will appear
to grow naturally out of the preceding one.
The usual treatment of the conclusion is to sum up what has been said, giving a clear and
condensed view of the whole subject. A few pointed sentences will sometimes produce the
desired effect. If an application is to be made of what has been said, the speaker should be
careful to see that his deductions are clear and accurate. Let it be remembered that it is
disastrous to make a long ending.
It will be seen how important it is that a public speaker be a man of intellectual culture, not for
the purpose merely of accumulating facts and ideas, but in order that he may be able to turn
the force of his mind upon almost any subject at will. To impress intelligent men, and to move
them to action, a speaker must enforce what he says with good and sufficient reasons. If
there be the slightest doubt in his own mind it will swiftly communicate itself to his hearers. It
is better, therefore, to develop a few thoughts thoroughly than to attempt to cover at one time
too large a field. Many failures of public speakers have been due to saying too much rather
than too little, and an unwillingness to present their subject with becoming simplicity and
conciseness.
A carefully prepared speech, written according to a definite outline, is one of the best
safeguards against diffuseness. It enables a speaker to determine in advance precisely what
and what not to say. To know what to say he must possess a discerning and sensitive
knowledge of human nature. He must know how to meet men on their own ground, to see
things from their viewpoint, and to adapt his methods to the common mind and heart. He
must, in short, know how to reach the sympathies of his hearers, how to speak directly to
them. Hence from the moment he puts the first words of his speech on paper he should have
his audience in his mind's eye. It is of distinct advantage to a speaker to know in advance
something of the character of the audience he is to address. A subject and style appropriate
to one class of men may be wholly unsuited to an- other. A scientific address would be out of
place at an after-dinner function, while a humorous speech from the pulpit would be likely to
shock a sensitive congregation. In the preparation of his speech the student should avoid
even the suggestion of exaggeration, knowing that his audience will quickly lose faith in him
should they discern a tendency to overstate his case. Let him constantly bear in mind that his
object is truth, and its presentation in the most attractive and convincing form.
However gifted a man may be in extemporaneous speech he will do well to practise much in
writing. We have the opinion of Lord Brougham on this point. "I should lay it down as a rule,"
he says, "admitting of no exception, that a man will speak well in proportion as he has written
much; and that with equal talents he will be the finest extempore speaker, when no time for
preparation is allowed, who has prepared himself most sedulously when he had the
opportunity of delivering a premeditated speech." The importance of this preparation is also
emphasized by Bautain:
"Writing is a whetstone, or flattening engine, which wonderfully stretches ideas, and brings out
all their malleableness and ductility. If you have time for preparation, never undertake to
speak without having put on paper the sketch of what you have to say, the links of your ideas.
You thus possess your subject better, and consequently speak more closely and with less risk
of digressions. When you write down a thought you analyze it. The division of the subject
becomes clear, becomes determinate, and a crowd of things which were not before perceived
present themselves under the pen. Speaking is thinking aloud, but it is more; it is thinking with
method and more distinctly, so that in embodying your idea you not only make others
understand it, but you understand it better yourself, while spreading it out before your own
eyes and unfolding it by words. Writing adds still more to speech, giving it more precision,
more fixity, more strictness, and by being forced more closely to examine what you wish to
write down you extract hidden relations, you reach greater depths, wherein may be diselosed
rich veins or abundant lodes. Experience teaches us that we are never fully conscious of all
that is in our own thoughts, except after having written it out. So long as it remains shut up in
the mind it preserves a certain haziness. We do not see it completely unfolded, and we can
not consider it in all its aspects and bearings. Make your plan at the first impulse, and follow
your inspiration to the end; after which let things alone for a few days, or at least for several
hours. Then reread attentively what you have written, and give a new form to your plan--that
is, rewrite it from one end to the other, leaving only what is necessary, what is essential. Strike
out inexorably whatever is superfluous. Only take pains to have the principal features well
marked, vividly brought out, and strongly connected, in order that the division of the discourse
may be clear and the links firmly welded.
Enough has been said to show the importance of the most thorough preparation for public
speaking. Many speeches must be delivered on short notice. There is no opportunity for
special research, nor much time for careful writing and revision. The speaker is thrown largely
upon his own re- sources. The work he has already done in gathering material and perfecting
his English style will now help him in this necessarily hurried, effort.
Any one who aspires to becoming a public speaker should realize the serious responsibility
that rests upon him in this matter of previous preparation. All his natural abilities must be
quickened and assiduously developed. As Cicero says, "There ought to be certain lively
powers in the mind and understanding which may be acute to invent, fertile to explain and
adorn, and strong and retentive to remember. '' Few men realize the extent of their powers of
mind until they have diligently set about to cultivate them. Thought and imagination grow
through use; hence, daily practise is a more important thing than natural talent.
It is well to remind the student of public speaking that he should have a large fund of
illustrations. These he will gather principally from books and observation, and his mind must
be trained so as to be quick to see, to arrange, and to adapt such material to practical uses.
Some men have the gift of observation in preeminent degree, while others go about with their
eyes open and minds shut Some there are who find but very many are blind to the teachings
of wisdom which are to be found on every side.
It is difficult for some men to be serious students; yet this is the only way by which they can
become distinguished in public speaking. I can not forbear giving a quotation from Wirt on the
subject of hard study for both its common sense and its stimulating spirit:
Take it for granted that there is no excellence without great labor. No mere aspirations for
eminence, however ardent, will do the business. Wishing, and sighing, and imagining, and
dreaming of greatness will never make you great. If you would get to the mountain's top, on
which the temple of fame stands, it will not do to stand still, looking and admiring, and wishing
you were there. You must gird up your loins and go to work with all the indomitable energy of
Hannibal sealing the Alps. Laborious study and diligent observation of the world are both
indispensable to the attainment of eminence. By the former you must make yourself master of
all that is known of science and letters; by the latter, you must know man at large, and
particularly the character and genius of your own countrymen. We can not all be Franklins, it
is true; but, by imitating his mental habits and unwearied industry, we may reach an eminence
we should never otherwise attain. Nor would he have been the Franklin he was if he had
permitted himself to be discouraged by the reflection that we can not all be Newtons. It is our
business to make the most of our own talents and opportunities; and, instead of discouraging
ourselves by comparisons and impossibilities, to believe all things imaginary possible, as,
indeed, almost all things are to a spirit bravely and firmly resolved. Franklin was a fine model
of a practical man, as contradistinguished from a visionary theorist, as men of genius are very
apt to be. He was great in the greatest of all good qualities--sound, strong common sense. A
mere bookworm is a miserable driveler; and a mere genius a thing of gossamer fit only for the
winds to sport with. Direct your intellectual efforts principally to the cultivation of the strong,
masculine qualities of the mind. Learn (I repeat it) to think—think deeply, comprehensively,
powerfully; and learn the simple, nervous language which is appropriate to that kind of
thinking. Read the legal and political arguments of Chief Justice Marshal and those of
Alexander Hamilton. Read them, study them, and observu with what an omnipotent sweep of
thought they range over the whole field of every subject they take in hand, and that with a
scythe so ample and so keen that not a straw is left standing behind them. Brace yourself up
to these great efforts. Strike for this giant character of mind, and leave prettiness and frivolity
to triflers. It is perfectly consistent with these Herculean habits of thinking to be a laborious
student and to know all that books can teach. You must never be satisfied with the surface of
things; probe them to the bottom, and let nothing go till you understand it as thoroughly as
your powers will enable you. Seize the moment of excited curiosity on any subject to solve
your doubts; for, if you let it pass, the desire may never return, and you remain in ignorance.
The habits which I have been recommending are not merely for college but for life. Franklin's
habits of constant and deep excogitation clung to him to his latest hour. Form these habits
now. Look at Brougham, and see what a man can do if well armed and well resolved. With a
load of professional duties that would, of themselves, have been appalling to most of our
countrymen, he stood, nevertheless, at the head of his party in the House of Commons, and
at the same time set in motion and super- intended various primary schools and various
periodical works, the most instructive and useful that have ever issued from the British press,
for which he furnished with his own pen some of the most masterly contributions, and yet
found time not only to keep pace with the progress of the arts and sciences but to keep at the
head of those whose peculiar and exclusive occupations these arts and sciences were. There
is a model of industry and usefulness worthy of all your emulation.
The various methods of fixing a speech in the mind will be considered in the next chapter, but
whether the student aims to be an extemporaneous speaker or not, he will find that the habit
of composition will suggest to him, even in impromptu efforts, the best word and the most
effective ' sentence. It is true that the greatest thoughts are sometimes struck from the mind
while in the glow heat of actual speaking, but the experience of the greatest orators of the
world testifies to the necessity and advantage of the most severe preparation.
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The naturalness and effectiveness of a speech depend in no small measure upon the attitude
of the speaker's mind toward his subject and the occasion. If he sets out with the express
purpose of making a great oration, or of electrifying his audience, the chances are ten to one
he will fall into extravagance and artificiality. If, on the other hand, he is guided from the
beginning by a desire to be thoroughly sincere, to present his facts simply, clearly, and
concisely, and to impress men with the truth rather than with himself, he need not greatly
concern himself about the ultimate effect of his speaking.
A short, crisp sentence at the beginning of a speech arrests the attention of the listener. The
general style of delivery should be clear and deliberate. It is highly important that the
introduction be brief and clearly understood, since upon the first few sentences of a speech
may depend the whole subsequent argument. It acts in favor of a speaker, too, if he convey at
the very outset the impression of modesty. An apology, however, is the worst prolog. It was
the custom of some ancient orators to assume a modest demeanor in speaking in order to
win favor with their audience. Cicero even goes so far as to recommend a certain degree of
timidity in the public speaker, and says:
To me, those who speak best, and speak with the utmost ease and grace, appear, if they do
not commence their speeches with some timidity and show some confusion in the exordium,
to have almost lost the sense of shame, it is impossible that such should not be the case; for
the better qualified a man is to speak, the more he fears the difficulties of speaking, the
uncertain success of a speech, and the expectation of the audience. But he who can produce
and deliver nothing worthy of his subject, nothing worthy the name of an orator, nothing
worthy the attention of his audience, seems to me, tho he be ever so confused while he is
speaking, to be downright shameless; for we ought to avoid a character for shamelessness,
not by testifying shame but by not doing that which does not become us. But the speaker who
has no shame (as I see to be the case with many) I regard as deserving not only of rebuke,
but of personal castigation. Indeed, what I often observe in you I very frequently experience in
myself, that I turn pale in the outset of my speech, and feel a tremor through my whole
thoughts, as it were, and limbs.
A deliberate style in speaking is most desirable, since it not only indicates self-control, but
permits an audience the more readily to follow the speaker's line of thought. A further
advantage of this style of delivery is that the speaker appears to weigh his thought before
giving it utterance, and by investing it with, a sense of importance leads his audience to do
likewise.
When a speaker stands to address an audience he is esti- mated often before he has uttered
a single syllable. Face, figure, and personality convey a silent but none the less irresistible
impression, and if this first impression be a favorable one it will add greatly to the chances of
success of the speaker. The quality of a man's voice, too, plays an important part in these
initial moments of adjustment between speaker and hearer. If it be a well-trained instrument,
marked by clearness, flexibility and melody, this will act as a recommendation of the speaker.
Let us assume that the speaker has now begun his speech, and has uttered the first few
words slowly, distinctly, and with due regard to his whole audience. The first feeling of timidity,
if any, soon disappears, and he enters more particularly into the heart of his subject. Here and
there a word or a phrase is given special emphasis, a subordinate passage hurried over, an
effective pause made, and possibly an occasional gesture introduced. Gradually the speech
gains in power, momentum, and variety. The face and figure of the speaker become more and
more animated, the gesture and action grow in size and significance, the voice assumes a
new variety and intensity, and at length the feelings of the speaker, now unharnessed, bear
him and his audience along upon a moving tide of eloquence. There are brief moments for
pause and relaxation, but soon the speaker's voice is heard again in all its power and
intensity. Pointed phrase, word picture, telling argument, and vivid illustration are used in turn
to convince and persuade the hearer. Finally the speaker reaches the culminating point of his
address, drives home his message by the full force of his personality, and with all convenient
speed brings his speech to a fitting conclusion.
The relation of the speaker to his audience, it will be seen, is reciprocal. As Gladstone says,
"The work of the orator from its very inception is inextricably mixed up with practise. It is cast
in the mold offered to him by the mind of his hearers. It is an influence principally received
from his audience, so to speak, in vapor, which he pours back upon them in a flood." Here the
speaker's imagination, authority, and enthusiasm play an important part. He must, indeed,
bring all his own powers under subjection before he can hope to master the minds of others.
His personality, which is the sum of all the qualities he has developed within himself, is what
most counts in the final effort to impress and persuade men.
It should be the aim of every public speaker so to train his emotions that they will be
responsive to his varied requirements. Feeling is an intrinsic and essential part of oratory, and
without this power at his ready command, no man need aspire to great oratorical
achievement. Many of the speaker's effects are necessarily premeditated, but they should be
none the less natural and sincere. Artificial outbursts of passion, empty declamation, and
violent cleaving of the air may be the weapons of the barnstorming- actor, but they have no
legitimate place in dignified public speaking. The dictum of the ancients, that a man must
himself be moved with the sentiments he is expressing before he can hope to move others, is
as true to-day as it was then.
It is of paramount importance that a speaker determine definitely in advance how he intends
to begin and end his speech, as well as the length of time he will occupy. One of the most
dangerous mistakes, common to fluent speakers, is that of talking on at great length, simply
because they find themselves being well received by the audience. Such men, tempted into
digressions from their original plan, often find themselves at a loss to reach a graceful
conclusion, and at last having wearied and disappointed the audience, are obliged to end "like
a half-extinguished candle going out in smoke." It is well known that many of the world's great
orators, tho exponents of the extempore style of speaking, gave special attention to the
preparation and memorizing of the introduction and conclusion of their speeches.
There are several ways in which a speech may be prepared and delivered. The speaker may
write out his speech, and read it from the paper. This is the least effective of any, because of
the popular prejudice against the use of manuscript. Except in scientific addresses, or those
requiring unusually cautious statements, it is advisable not to adopt this method. If, however,
a speaker must use a manuscript, let him learn to read it well. He is laboring under a
disadvantage, and he must aim to offset this as much as it lies in his power. He may at least
try to read it as he would speak it, avoiding the monotony and right-onwardness so common
in the reading of speeches. He will accomplish, the best results by assuming that he is really
delivering every word and sentence of his speech, and not merely reading it. He will endeavor
to put into his voice all the expression, energy, and determination of extempore speech, and
altho largely deprived of the advantage of eye-to-eye communication and of bodily movement,
he may, nevertheless, keep his audience so vividly before his mind that he will seem to be
addressing them directly.
The speaker may write out his speech and commit it to memory in full. This is not only a
laborious method, but is attended with one great danger. If the speaker loses the drift of his
premeditated language, he may be so completely thrown off the track that he must either start
again at the beginning, or extemporize as best he may. This is not likely to prove successful,
since he has trained his mind to depend upon certain precise words, and failing these, the
greater probability is that he will be covered with confusion.
Another way is to write out the speech in full, and commit to memory the introduction,
conclusion, and other important parts. This has many advantages, as it secures the speaker
against uneasiness at the vital points of his address, while he is left free to express many of
his care- fully thought-out ideas in the language of the moment. One caution is necessary
here, however, and that is that the speaker must ordinarily have such a command of language
that his impromptu passages will not be noticeably inferior to those he has committed to
memory. This is one of the severest criticisms passed upon Sheridan, who went to the
extreme in rewriting, polishing and memorizing certain parts of his speeches.
Still another method, and that which is recommended as the best of all, is to write out simply
the main divisions of the speech, with headings and subheadings, to think out thoroughly the
thought under each, and leave the actual phraseology to the inspiration of the occasion. This
places a speaker on his mettle, and all that is best within him-- in voice, thought, feeling, and
personality--is challenged to do its utmost. This "thinking on one's feet," to be pre- eminently
successful, requires that a man be thoroughly well read, that he command a large and varied
vocabulary from which to choose on the instant, and that through practise and experience, he
have possession of his speaking powers. One of the best preparations for this form of address is to write out a speech several times, varying the language as much as possible each
time. Then at the time of delivery, it will be found that the mind, having several sets of words
from which to choose, will not be so likely to fail as it would if dependent upon only one set of
phraseology.
What has here been said about writing out only the main headings of a speech implies, of
course, that the speaker has already had much practise in composition. The importance of
frequent practise with the pen, as a means to ready expression, can not be too strongly
emphasized. Every student of public speaking should take to heart the words of Dr. Blair:
Without steady, hard work it is impossible to excel in anything. We must not imagine that it is
by a sort of mushroom growth that one can rise to be a distinguished pleader, or preacher, or
speaker, in any assembly. It is not by starts of application, or by a few years' preparation and
study, afterward discontinued, that eminence can be obtained. No; it can be attained only by
means of regular industry, grown up into a habit, and ready to be exerted on every occasion
that calls for industry-
A speaker should feel that he is addressing himself directly to his audience, much the same
as he would speak in conversation to one person. His subject and the occasion may demand
large effects of emphasis and intensity, but all must be done with ease and naturalness. The
slightest suggestion of declamation seriously militates against a speaker, who is expected
above all else to be unostentatious.
Truth, to be presented attractively, must be easily apprehended. It is a good plan for a
speaker to talk over his subject in advance with a friend, and to invite his criticisms and
suggestions. This rehearsing of a speech serves to clarify the speaker's mind, familiarizes him
with many useful words and phrases, and increases his feeling of self-confidence.
It is well not to be so anxious about words as about ideas. Think intently enough about ideas,
and the words will come of themselves. Obvious attempts at word-painting are rarely
effective, and the student will be well-advised if he avoids, in his early efforts, all such
embellishments.
What an audience really wants from the speaker is common sense, the power of clear
statement, and logical development of ideas. The highest endowments of voice and manner
will not make up for lack of these essential elements.
The extempore speaker finds it necessary to have a large stock of words from which to
choose on the instant. These are among his most important tools, since without them he can
not exercise the powers of his mind freely. However large and varied his vocabulary may be,
he must always regard it as secondary to the thought of which it is merely the symbol. Words
are useful and necessary to the speaker only in so far as they convey truth, beauty, and
pleasure to the hearer.
It has been said that the orator himself must not weep, since he must at all times be superior
to the occasion. Here, as in all forms of passion, a speaker must be careful to guard against
the slightest suspicion of insincerity, ranting, or exaggeration. Feeling should never be
superfluous. If it is not a natural emanation from the heart, the speaker will do well to keep to
simple colloquy. When the orator becomes an actor, intelligent people refuse longer to follow
his leadership. Without, however, falling into insincerity or mannerism, the speaker should
know how to make his face interesting and expressive. The eyes and mouth particularly, may
be made to convey most wonderful effects of power, conviction, earnestness, and
determination.
Parenthetical statements should be used sparingly. If employed frequently they weaken the
force and directness of the main argument. When it is absolutely necessary to introduce a
parenthetical remark, the rules to be observed are: To pause before and after it, to slightly
lower the pitch of the voice, and to quicken the rate of speaking. But as just stated, a
parenthesis should be avoided whenever possible, as it is usually a tax upon the listener's
attention, and, moreover, he dislikes too many details and explanations.
Musical speaking tones depend upon gentle breathing. A speaker should accustom himself,
through previous practise, to take a breath at every pause. One of the commonest faults of
untrained speakers is that of speaking right on until the breath is exhausted. This is a severe
strain upon the throat and voice, since the speaker is then really doing most of his work upon
only half-filled lungs. The guiding rule should be to keep the lungs well inflated whenever
possible, and to utilize every opportunity for taking a fresh breath. This form of deep breathing
will enable a person to speak for hours, if occasion demand, without vocal fatigue.
A speaker should not drink while making a speech. If he does, the tendency will be to
increase the dryness of the throat. The method of breathing just recommended will probably
obviate any trouble of the kind, but if a speaker before rising to address an audience, has a
sensation of dryness of throat, the best plan is to chew a small piece of paper.
The day has gone by when a speaker can safely follow the advice to regard his audience "as
a field of cabbages." It is much better to emulate the example of Lincoln, who always thought
of his audience as probably knowing more about his subject than he did, and preparing
himself accordingly. Many men who can not themselves make a good speech readily know a
good speech from a bad one, and as a usual thing are the severest critics. Consequently, it is
of the utmost importance that a speaker, from the moment he begins the preparation of his
speech until its final delivery, should bear in mind that he is to address intelligent people who
will not be easily convinced nor persuaded, save by sound argument and genuine appeals to
the heart. A man should speak in his own voice, having first developed its power and
responsiveness, knowing that no imitation of another man's style, however excellent, will ever
make him a great speaker.
The conclusion of a speech, which may take the form of a recapitulation of what has been
said, should be delivered in such a way as to give the listener intimation that the speaker is
about to close. It is usually advisable to end with considerable spirit and animation, altho the
general rate of speaking becomes noticeably slow and measured. But a speaker should never
give the impression of finishing his speech, and then just as every one thinks he has ended,
start off again upon some new phase of his subject.
Prolixity is a too common fault of speakers, and no- where is this so apparent as in the
attempt to bring a speech to a conclusion. The advice of Bautain on this subject is worthy of
note:
There is a way of concluding which is most simple, the most rational, and the least adopted.
True, it gives little trouble and affords no room for pompous sentences, and that is why so
many despise it, and do not even give it a thought. It consists merely of winding up by a rapid
recapitulation of the whole discourse, presenting in sum what has been developed in the
various parts, so as to enunciate only the leading ideas with their connection--a process
which gives the opportunity of a nervous and lively summary, foreshortening all that has been
stated, and making the remembrance and profitable application of it easy.
And since you have spoken to gain some point, to convince and persuade your hearer, and
thus influence his will by impressions and considerations, and finally by some paramount
feeling which must give the finishing stroke and determine him to action, the epitome of the
ideas must be itself strengthened, and, as it were, rendered living by a few touching words
which inspirit the feeling in question at the last moment, so that the convinced and affected
auditor shall be ready to do what he is required.
Such, in my mind, is the best peroration, because it is alike the most natural and the most
efficacious. It is the straight aim of the discourse, and as it issues from the very bowels of the
subject and from the direct intention of the speaker, it goes right to the soul listener and
places the two in unison at the close.
I am aware that you may, and with success, adopt a different method of concluding, either by
some pungent things which you reserve for your peroration, and which tend to maintain to the
last and even to reawaken the attention of the audience; or else by well-turned periods which
flatter the ear and excite all sorts of feelings, more or less analogous to the subjects--or, in
fine, by any other way. Undoubtedly there are circumstances in which these oratorical artifices
are in keeping, and may prove advantageous or agreeable; I do not reject them, for in war all
means, not condemned by humanity and honor, and capable of procuring victory, are
allowable--and public speaking is a real conflict; I merely depose that the simplest method is
also the best, and that the others, belonging more to art than to nature, are rather in the
province of rhetoric than of true eloquence.
The truly eloquent man, tho not lacking in oratorical graces, invariably gives the impression
that he is natural and sincere. He is earnest, direct, simple, adaptable, and sympathetic, and it
is largely these great qualities which constitute the greatness of his speaking.
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The testimony of the greatest orators is that, whatever natural gifts a man may possess, no
really good speech is ever made without thorough preparation. There are, of course, many
ways of preparing a speech, some of which are not to be recommended. For example, to
write out a composition, and then so to revise, condense, and polish it as to take out all its
vitality and naturalness, may produce a good essay, but it will not make a good speech.
Thorough preparation does not imply that the speaker must necessarily write out and commit
to memory so many pages of words. It means, rather, that whatever method the speaker finds
best adapted to fix his speech in mind, he so thoroughly prepares the subject-matter that his
ideas are perfectly clear in his mind, and when he comes to "think aloud," he does so with a
precision and confidence born of second nature. He is recommended, therefore, to sketch in
his mind, while out walking, or in the solitude of his library, a clear and vivid outline of his
subject, and, the same as he would do in writing, mentally place under each division of his
outline such headings as he intends to speak upon. He may carry the mental process to the
extent of thinking out what he will say under each heading, until at length the entire subject is
held in his mind with clearness and accuracy.
There can be no doubt that one of the greatest sources of power in extemporaneous
speaking is that of previous practise. The method of a distinguished member of the House of
Commons, described by Lord Dufferin, may be followed to advantage. When he intended to
speak upon an important subject, he would write down his thoughts on paper as rapidly as
possible, and then throw the paper into the fire. This he repeated several times, endeavoring
at each effort to choose new phraseology, and destroying his composition as before. It is said
that when he subsequently stood before his colleagues to speak, his mind was so steeped in
his subject, and he was so fortified with appropriate word and phrase, that his listeners
marveled at his depth and fluency.
The aspirant to distinction in public speaking should accustom himself to memorizing notable
passages from great orations and poems that have found an enduring place in literature.
These both furnish and fertilize the mind, and after a few months' diligent practise give to the
speaker an accumulation of working material that will be to him an inexhaustible source of
power. Here, again, we have the testimony of many of the world's great orators, who
acknowledge their indebtedness to the habit of studying, translating, or memorizing, the great
speeches of their predecessors.
There is no power in a speaker superior to that of clear statement. Nothing else will atone for
lack of it. Tact, felicitous phrase, poetical embellishment, and sonorous voice, are powerless
to convince intelligent men without that substratum of common sense upon which lucid
statement of fact has its foundation. There is a lamentable want of strong reasoning in most
men. The mental machinery has not been finely adjusted to carry on its work with smoothness
and accuracy. Clearness of statement comes from clearness of thought. The mind must be
habituated to close and severe reasoning, to linking thought with thought in logical sequence,
and to making clearly defined deductions from stated premises. This does not imply that a
man is to give his whole mind to the study of abstract questions and philosophical problems.
The student of public speaking will concern himself more particularly with palpable every-day
questions of interest to men generally, and upon which they seek enlightenment.
The object of the real orator is not to be a graceful and faultless declaimer, but a man of
power and authority, speaking out of a full mind and from a soul kindled by enthusiasm and
human affection. When truth is properly conveyed by a speaker, it carries conviction along
with it, and the listener believes in the man because the man believes in himself. Hence it is
that he only is a great artist who has so cultivated and controlled his powers that he can use
them without undue effort and in just such degree as will most effectively convey the truth and
force of his message to others. It will readily be seen, therefore, why long and severe mental
discipline is necessary to success in this difficult art. All great speakers have been profound
and diligent students, and he who seeks a royal road to oratorical fame is doomed to
disappointment.
An examination of the speeches of Demosthenes does not disclose an unusual gift of
language, but what most impresses the reader is the strength and supremacy of the orator's
thought. It is not the man we think of, but of what he is saying, and it is chiefly this
characteristic which constitutes greatness in oratory. The real source of power in speaking is
not in the voice, the imagination, or the emotions, but in the intrinsic thought of the speaker.
There is something unmistakably assuring in a man who is master of the facts. If he speaks
deliberately, as a deep thinker is almost sure to do, the listener follows the working of his mind
at the moment of utterance, and this transparency of method acts as an element of power in
fascinating and influencing the auditor.
What the student of public speaking primarily needs is a frank, truthful, earnest habit of
examining ideas and facts as they are presented to his mind in everyday life. He should look
at questions from every viewpoint, as Lincoln is said to have done, and determine to get the
truth at any cost. It is this fearless pursuit of truth that leads to fearless expression, and only
after the thinker has made the ground good under his own feet can he hope to succeed as a
guide and leader of other men.
Another important element of power is earnestness. This is not to be confounded with
assumed and artificial feeling adapted consciously to certain ends, neither is it sudden
impulse which may or may not do the right thing. Earnestness comes mainly from
concentration of the speaker's energies upon his subject. It is a form of intensity by which all
his best powers are enlisted in behalf of some cause, and stimulated into action by a profound
sense of duty, patriotism, or the desire for useful service. True earnestness is born of sincerity
and unselfishness. It is too great to intimidate, too serious to amuse, and too genuine to fall
into bombast or empty declamation. There is nothing that imparts sympathetic power and a
winning personality to a speaker like innate goodness of heart and life. "When a man shows
that he both understands and feels what he says, he is in a large way toward influencing other
men, and of persuading them to act as he desires. It is the power arising from loftiness of soul
and sublime purpose which touches the lips of the orator, as if by magic, and bids them
vibrate with the heart of humanity. Intelligence points the way, earnestness gives wings for
flight, and consecrated unselfishness carries conviction and persuasion to men.
It goes without saying that one source of power in public speaking comes from selfconfidence. A becoming modesty and even timidity often recommends itself at the beginning
of an address, but the speaker, in order to get possession of his audience, must first get
possession of himself. While there is a "flutter of spirits," or undue anxiety to please, there will
be little chance of success. Self-confidence, like earnestness, is developed from within, by
dwelling intently upon the importance of one's subject, and by placing a high estimate upon
one's self. A man who has trained himself in his every-day conversation to think and speak in
poise, is likely to enjoy the advantages of de- liberate and self-possest speaking while
addressing an audience. This poise, moreover, will manifest itself in his ability to think fluently
on his feet, to phrase new sentences without confusion, and to punctuate his thoughts with
frequent and judicious pauses. These are all elements of power in a speaker, and are worthy
of the highest cultivation.
There is a peculiar power in skilful repetition, which serves to emphasize special thoughts and
to impress them upon the listening mind. A striking example is that of the Master, in St.
Matthew, 7: 24-27:
Therefore whosoever heareth these sayings of mine, and doeth them, I will liken him unto a
wise man, which built his house upon a rock: and the rain descended, and the floods came,
and the winds blew, and beat upon that house; and it fell not: for it was founded upon a rock.
And every one that heareth these sayings of mine, and doeth them not, shall be likened unto
a foolish man, which built his house upon the sand: and the rain descended, and the floods
came, and the winds blew, and beat upon that house; and it fell: and great was the fall of it.
A fine example of iteration, not overdone, is Lord Brougham's closing argument for Queen
Caroline, which he is said to have composed ten times:
Such, my lords, is the case now before you! Such is the evidence in support of this measure-evidence inadequate to prove a debt; impotent to deprive of a civil right; ridiculous to convict
of the lowest offense; scandalous if brought forward to support a charge of the highest nature
which the law knows; monstrous to ruin the honor, to blast the name of an English Queen!
What shall I say, then, if this is the proof by which an act of judicial legislation, a parliamentary
sentence, an ex post facto law, is sought to be passed against this defenseless woman? My
lords, I pray you to pause. I do earnestly beseech you to take heed! You are standing on the
brink of a precipice—then beware! It will go forth as your judgment, if sentence shall go
against the Queen. But it will be the only judgment you ever pronounced, which, instead of
reaching its object, will return and bound back upon those who give it. Save the country, my
lords, from the horrors of this catastrophe; save yourselves from this peril; rescue that country
of which you are the ornaments, but in which you can flourish no longer, when severed from
the people, than the blossom when cut off from the roots and the stem of the tree. Save that
country that you may continue to adorn it; save the crown, which is in jeopardy; the
aristocracy which is shaken; save the altar, which must stagger with the blow that rends its
kindred throne! You have said, my lords, you have willed--the Church and the King have
willed --that the Queen should be deprived of its solemn service! She has, instead of that
solemnity, the heartfelt prayers of the people. She wants no prayers of mine. But I do here
pour forth my humble supplications at the throne of mercy, that the mercy may be poured
down upon the people, in a larger measure than the merits of its rulers may deserve, and that
your hearts may be turned to justice!
The great orators of all time have been essentially of serious mind and manner. It has been
observed that in none of the immortal speeches is there to be found either wit or humor. It is
true that humor has its legitimate place, but it should never be used to deface a serious
speech. The student of public speaking can not too early realize that his habitual attitude of
mind toward the subjects he is studying should be essentially serious, and that his ultimate
purpose is to present them to his audience with all the dignity and power at his command. Let
him ever remember that personal character and disposition constitute one of the highest
elements of power in speaking. Blair says:
In order to be a truly eloquent or persuasive speaker, nothing is more necessary than to be a
virtuous man. Nothing con- tributes more to persuasion than the opinion which we entertain of
the probity, disinterestedness, candor, and other good moral qualities of the person who
endeavors to persuade us. These give weight and force to everything which he utters, nay,
they add beauty to it, they dispose us to listen with attention and pleasure, and create a
secret partiality in favor of that side which he espouses. Whereas if we entertain a suspicion
of craft and disingenuity, of a corrupt or a base mind in the speaker, his eloquence loses all its
real effect. It may entertain and amuse, but it is viewed as artifice, as trick, as the play only of
speech, and viewed in this light, whom can it persuade? We even read a book with more
pleasure when we think favorably of its author, but when we have the living speaker before
our eyes, addressing us personally on some subject of importance, the opinion we entertain
of his character must have a much more powerful effect.
The question is sometimes asked whether this preparation is worth while, and if, after all, a
man might not otherwise spend his time and energy, to greater personal and public
advantage? Two brief quotations on this subject will be sufficient to dispel any such
misapprehension. The first is from Cicero:
No excellence is superior to that of a consummate orator. For to say nothing of the
advantages of eloquence, which has the highest influence in every well-ordered and free
state, there is such delight attendant on the power of eloquent speaking, that nothing more
pleasing can be received into the ears or understanding of man. What music can be found
more sweet than the pronunciation of a well-ordered oration? What poem more agreeable
than the skilful structure of prose? What actor has ever given greater pleasure in imitating,
than the orator in supporting truth? What penetrates the mind more keenly than an acute and
quick succession of arguments? What is more admirable than thoughts illumined by brilliancy
of expression? What nearer to perfection than a speech replete with every variety of matter;
for there is no subject susceptible of being treated with elegance and effect, that may not fall
under the province of the orator ? It is his, in giving counsel on important affairs, to deliver his
opinions with clearness and dignity; it is his to rouse a people when they are languid, and to
calm them when immoderately excited.- By the same power of language, the wickedness of
man is brought to destruction, and virtue to security. Who can exhort to virtue more ardently
than the orator? Who reclaim from vice with greater energy? Who can reprove the bad with
more asperity, or praise the good with better grace? Who can break the force of unlawful
desire by more effective reprehension ? Who can alleviate grief with more soothing
consolation? If there be any other art which professes skill in selecting words; if any one,
beside the orator, is said to form a discourse, and to vary and adorn it with certain distinctions
of words and thoughts; if any method of argument, or expression of thought", or distribution
and arrangement of matter, is taught, except by this one art, let us confess that either that, of
which this art makes profession, is foreign to it, or possest in common with some other art.
The other quotation, from Sheridan, is upon the magical effect of oratory:
Imagine to yourselves a Demosthenes, addressing the most illustrious assembly in the world,
upon a point whereon the fate of the most illustrious of nations depended. How awful such a
meeting! How vast the subject! Is man possest of talents adequate to the great occasion?
Adequate! Yes, superior. By the power of his eloquence, the augustness of the assembly is
lost in the dignity of the orator, and the importance of the subject, for a while, superseded by
the admiration of his talents. With what strength of argument, with what powers of fancy, with
what emotions of the heart, does he assault and subjugate the whole man, and at once
captivate his reason, his imagination, and his passions! To effect this must be the utmost
effort of the most improved state of human nature. Not a faculty that he possesses is here
unemployed: not a faculty that he possesses but is here exerted to its highest pitch. All his
internal powers are at work; all his external testify their energies. Within, the memory, the
fancy, the judgment, the passions, are all busy; without, every muscle, every nerve is exerted;
not a feature, not a limb, but speaks. The organs of the body, attuned to the exertions of the
mind, through the kindred organs of the hearers, instantaneously vibrate those energies from
soul to soul --notwithstanding the diversity of minds in such a multitude, by the lightning of
eloquence, they are melted into one mass-- the whole assembly, actuated in one and the
same way, becomes, as it were, but one man, and has but one voice--the universal cry is, Let
us march against Philip, let us fight for our liberties, let us conquer or die!
The power of the human voice is incomparable. When the Reverend John R. Paxton was in
the trenches, during the Civil "War, he was overcome by an uncontrollable fear. He
endeavored to reassure himself by calling to mind all the deeds of heroism and plucky
adventures he had ever read, but without avail. His fear increased the more, until suddenly he
heard a distant cheer of soldiers, and the voice of the general shouting "Hancock expects
every man to do his duty." His confidence at once returned, and the day went down in victory.
Such is the power of the human voice in speech.
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FIGURES OF EMPHASIS
There are many effects employed by great orators that give additional force and vividness to
their delivery. The use of simile, for example, stimulates the imagination of the hearer by
showing him points of likeness between two things. Through comparisons and similitudes, his
interest is more particularly aroused, and the chances of favorable judgment are increased.
The simile is a comparison in which the resemblance is stated, while in metaphor it is merely
implied. The proper use of this figure requires that it be not too obvious nor far-fetched, and
that it be drawn from a corresponding class of ideas.
When a speaker says of a people that they are "hunting after their own advantage with a step
as steady as time, and an appetite as keen as death," he instantly enlivens the imagination of
the hearer. But figures of speech are dangerous weapons, and may easily react upon the
speaker, as in the case of the fiery orator who said, "Gentlemen, the apple of discord has
been thrown into our midst; and if it be not nipt in the bud, it will burst into a conflagration that
will deluge the entire globe!" A simile may utterly destroy the speaker's purpose if it be
ridiculous, as in the case of the clergyman who preached at New-gate after the escape of
Jack Sheppard, when he said:
"How dexterously did he pick the padlock of his chain with a erooked nail, burst his fetters
asunder, climb up his chimney, wrench out an iron bar, break his way through a stone wall,
make the strong door of a dark entry fly before him, reach the leads of the prison, fix a blanket
to the wall with a spike stolen from the chapel, descend to the top of the turner's house,
cautiously pass downstairs, and make his escape at the street door. I shall spiritualize these
things. Let me exhort ye, then, to open the locks of your hearts with the nail of repentance;
burst asunder the fetters of your beloved lusts; mount the chimney of hope; take thence the
bar of good resolution; break through the stone wall of despair, and force the stronghold in the
dark entry of the valley of the shadow of death; raise yourself to the leads of divine
meditation; fix the blanket of faith with the spike of the Church; let yourselves down to the
turner's house of resignation; descend the stairs of humility. So shall you come to the door of
deliverance from the prison of iniquity, and escape from the clutches of that old executioner,
the devil!"
The use of the figure of interrogation gives increased energy and emphasis by making a
direct appeal to the hearer. It strengthens assertion by challenging contradiction, or it is used
to imply the very opposite of what is asked. There is no expectation of an audible answer, tho
the hearer may and usually does answer it in his own mind. It must not be employed too
often, lest it lose its force. One or two examples will serve as illustrations. The first is from
Chief Justice Marshall, on the Federal Constitution:
What are the favorite maxims of democracy ? A strict observance of justice and public faith
and a steady adherence to virtue. These, sir, are the principles of a good government. No
mischief, no misfortune, ought to deter us from a strict observance of justice and public faith.
Would to heaven that these principles had been observed under the present government!
Had this been the ease the friends of liberty would not be so willing now to part with it. Can
we boast that our government is founded on these maxims? Can we pretend to the enjoyment
of political freedom or security when we are told that a man has been, by an act of Assembly,
struck out of existence without a trial by jury, without examination, without being confronted
with his accusers and witnesses, without the benefits of the law of the land? Where is our
safety when we are told that this act was justifiable because the person was not a Socrates ?
What has become of the worthy member's maxims? Is this one of them ? Shall it be a maxim
that a man shall be deprived of his life without the benefit of law? Shall such a deprivation of
life be justified by answering that a man's life was not taken secundem artem, because he
was a bad man? Shall it be a maxim that government ought not to be empowered to protect
virtue?
It should be noted that each of these questions is significant, and is asked for a well-defined
purpose. It is the legal mind putting swift questions for swift ends. But in the following example
from Cicero we observe that emotion enters more particularly into the interrogation:
When, O Catiline, do yon mean to cease abusing our patience? How long is that madness of
yours still to mock us? When is there to be an end of that unbridled audacity of yours,
swaggering about as it does now? Do not the nightly guards placed on the Palatine Hill- do
not the watches posted throughout the city--does not the alarm of the people, and the union of
all good men--does not the precaution taken of assembling the senate in this most defensible
place--do not the looks and countenances of this venerable body here present, have any
effect upon you? Do you not feel that your plans are detected I Do you not see that your
conspiracy is already arrested and rendered powerless by the knowledge which every one
here possesses of it? What is there that you did last night, what the night before--where is it
that you were--who was there that you summoned to meet you--what design was there which
was adopted by you, with which you think that any one of us is unacquainted ?
The figure of exclamation is used to express increased feeling, abruptness, surprize, and
kindred emotions. It is exceedingly effective in arresting attention and arousing the
sympathies of an audience. All the great orators have more or less employed this figure, as in
the following extract from Webster's Bunker Hill speech:
But ah! Him! the first great martyr in this great cause! Him! the premature victim of his own
self-devoting heart! Him! the head of our civil councils, and the destined leader of our military
bands, whom nothing brought hither but the unquenchable fire of his own spirit! Him! cut off
by Providence in the hour of overwhelming anxiety and thick gloom; falling ere he saw the
star of his country rise; pouring out his generous blood like water, before he knew whether it
would fertilize a land of freedom or of bondage!--how shall I struggle with the emotions that
stifle the utterance of thy name! Our poor work may perish; but thine shall endure! This
monument may molder away; the solid ground it rests upon may sink down to a level with the
sea; but thy memory shall not fail! Wheresoever among men a heart shall be found that beats
to the transports of patriotism and liberty, its aspirations shall be to claim kindred with thy
spirit!
Antithesis, by placing thoughts in contrast, gives increased energy and interest to speech. By
opposing one idea to another, both are brought out into greater prominence. The principal rule
to be observed is that the contrasted clauses be as nearly alike as possible. Demosthenes
often used this figure, notably in his speech "On the Crown," of which the following is an
example:
Contrast now the circumstances of your life and mine, gently and with temper, AEschines; and
then ask these people whose fortune they would each of them prefer. You taught reading, I
went to school: you performed initiations, I received them: you danced in the chorus, I
furnished it: you were assembly- clerk, I was a speaker: you acted third parts, I heard you:
you broke down, and I hissed: you have worked as a states- man for the enemy, I for my
country. I pass by the rest; but this very day I am on my probation for a crown, and am
acknowledged to be innocent of all offense; while you are already judged to be a pettifogger,
and the question is, whether you shall continue that trade, or at once be silenced by not
getting a fifth part of the votes. A happy fortune, do you see, you have enjoyed, that you
should denounce mine as miserable!
The figure of denunciation is another form of passionate and emphatic expression, which is
sometimes employed with telling effect. It usually signifies its disapproval of such men or
course of action as the speaker thinks detrimental to the general welfare. It may easily
antagonize the hearers, however, and should, therefore, be used sparingly and with
discretion. A good example is that from William Pitt the elder, Lord Chatham, a speaker of
great enthusiasm and determination, in his address '" On American Affairs,'' delivered in the
House of Lords, November 18, 1777. Lord Suffolk defended the employment of Indians in the
war, maintaining that '' it was perfectly justifiable to use all the means that God and nature put
into our hands," where- upon Lord Chatham exclaimed:
I am astonished, shocked to hear such principles confest--to hear them avowed in this House,
or in this country; principles equally unconstitutional, inhuman, and unchristian.
Then he continued:
These abominable principles, and this more abominable avowal of them, demand the most
decisive indignation. I call upon that right reverend bench, those holy ministers of the Gospel,
and pious pastors of our Church--I conjure them to join in the holy work, and vindicate the
religion of their God. I appeal to the wisdom and the law of this learned bench to defend and
support the justice of the country. I call upon the bishops to interpose the unsullied sanctity of
their lawn; upon the learned judges, to interpose the purity of their ermine, to save us from
this pollution.
The figure of appeal to deity, like that of denunciation, must be used with great caution, as it
may easily become ridiculous. It is most appropriate in great outbursts of passion, as when
Robert Emmet says in his vindication:
I appeal to the immaculate God--I swear by the throne of heaven, before which I must shortly
appear--by the blood of the murdered patriots who have gone before me--that my conduct
has been through all this peril and all my purposes, governed only by the convictions which I
have uttered, and by no other view, than that of their cure, and the emancipation of my
country from the superinhuman oppression under which she has so long and too patiently
travailed; and that I confidently and assuredly hope that, wild and chimerical as it may appear,
there is still union and strength in Ireland to accomplish this noble enterprise. Of this I speak
with the confidence of intimate knowledge, and with the consolation that appertains to that
confidence. Think not, my lords, I say this for the petty gratification of giving you a transitory
uneasiness; a man who never yet raised his voice to assert a lie, will not hazard his character
with posterity by asserting a falsehood on a subject so important to his country, and on an
occasion like this. Yes, my lords, a man who does not wish to have his epitaph written until his
country is liberated, will not leave a weapon in the power of envy: nor a pretense to impeach
the probity which he means to preserve, even in the grave to which tyranny consigns him.
It is only when an orator rises to conscious superiority that he can safely employ the figure of
command. Demosthenes and Cicero both used it, as did also Brougham, Burke, Clay, Patrick
Henry, and many other modern speakers. The following example is from Lord Brougham, in
his speech on "Emancipation for the Negro":
So now the fulness of time is come for at length discharging our duty to the African captive. I
have demonstrated to you that everything is ordered--every previous step taken--all safe, by
experience shown to be safe, for the long-desired consummation. The time has come, the
trial has been made, the hour is striking; you hate no longer a pretext for hesitation, or
faltering or delay. The slave has shown, by four years' blameless behavior and devotion to the
pursuits of peaceful industry, that he is as fit for his freedom as any English peasant, ay, or
any lord whom I now address.
I demand his rights; I demand his liberty without stint. Tn the name of justice and of law, in the
name of reason, in the name of God, who has given you no right to work injustice. I demand
that your brother be no longer trampled upon as your slave! I make my appeal to the
Commons, who represent the free people of England, and I require at their bands the
performance of that condition for which they paid so enormous a price--that condition which
all their constituents are in breathless anxiety to see fulfilled! I appeal to this House!
Hereditary judges of the first tribunal in the world, to you I appeal for justice! Patrons of all the
arts that humanize man- kind, under your protection I place humanity herself! To the merciful
sovereign of a free people, I call aloud for mercy to the hundreds of thousands for whom half
a million of her Christian sisters have cried out; I ask their cry may not have risen in vain. But,
first, I turn my eye to the Throne of all justice, and devoutly humbling myself before Him who
is of purer eyes than to behold such vast iniquities, I implore that the curse hovering over the
head of the unjust and the oppressor be averted from us, that your hearts may be turned to
mercy, and that over all the earth His will may at length be done!
In the figure of vision, the speaker presents a mental picture of something as if actually before
him. It may be a scene of the past or of the future, and its vividness will largely depend upon
the intensity of his feeling at the moment of description. "When properly employed, it makes a
profound impression. In the case of the murder of Captain Joseph White, Webster used this
figure with striking effect:
The deed was executed with a degree of self-possession and steadiness equal to the
wickedness with which it was planned. The circumstances now clearly in evidence spread out
the whole scene before us. Deep sleep had fallen <on the destined victim, and on all beneath
his roof. A healthful old man, to whom sleep was sweet, the first sound slumbers of the night
held him in their soft, but strong embrace. The assassin enters, through the window already
prepared, into an unoccupied apartment. With noiseless foot he paces the lonely hall, half
lighted by the moon; he winds up the ascent of the stairs, and reaches the door of the
chamber. Of this he moves the lock, by soft and continued pressure, till it turns on its hinges
without noise; and he enters, and beholds his victim before him. The room is uncommonly
open to the admission of light. The face of the innocent sleeper is turned from the murderer,
and the beams of the moon, resting on the gray locks of his aged temple, show him where to
strike. The fatal blow is given! and the victim passes, without a struggle or a motion, from the
repose of sleep to the repose of death! It is the assassin's purpose to make sure work; and he
plies the dagger, tho it is obvious that life has been destroyed by the blow of the bludgeon. He
even raises the aged arm, that he may not fail in his aim at the heart, and replaces it again
over the wounds of the poniard! To finish the picture, he explores the wrist for the pulse! He
feels for it, and ascertains that it beats no longer! It is accomplished. The deed is done. He
retreats, retraces his steps to the window, passes out through it as he came in, and escapes.
He has done the murder. No eye has seen him, no ear has heard him. The secret is his own,
and it is safe.
The figure known as "prediction" usually arises from the discussion or presentation of some
great cause, in which the orator expresses his belief in results he thinks to be inevitable. It is
marked by extreme confidence, intensity, and earnestness, as when Patrick Henry, in his
speech in the second Virginia Convention, March, 1775, closed with this patriotic outburst:
Besides, sir, we shall not fight our battles alone. There is a just God, who presides over the
destinies of nations, and who -will raise up friends to fight our battles for us. The battle, sir, is
not to the strong alone; it is to the vigilant, the active, the brave. Besides, sir, we have no
election. If we were base enough to desire it, it is now too late to retire from the contest.
There is no retreat but in submission and slavery! Our chains are forged. Their clanking may
be heard on the plains of Boston! The war is inevitable--and let it come! I repeat it, sir, let it
come! It is vain, sir, to extenuate the matter. Gentlemen may cry, Peace! peace! but there is
no peace. The war has actually begun!
The next gale that sweeps from the north -will bring to our ears the clash of resounding arms!
Our brethren are already in the field! Why stand we here idle? What is it that the gentlemen
wish? what would they have? Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the
price of chains and slavery? Forbid it, Almighty God. I know not what course others may take,
but, as for me, give me liberty, or give me death!
Rhetorical repetition, sometimes called "The gift of tautology," is an effective means of
enforcing important thoughts. The speaker repeats certain ideas, tho usually varied
phraseology, until such ideas are perfectly clear to his audience. It may be a word or a phrase
that is driven home by repetition, as in the close of the speech by Charles James Fox "On the
Refusal to Negotiate with France."
"But we must pause!" What! must the bowels of Great Britain be torn out--her best blood be
spilled--her treasures wasted--that you may make an experiment? Put yourselves-- oh! that
you would put yourselves in the field of battle, and learn to judge of the sort of horrors that
you excite! In former wars a man might, at least, have some feeling, some interest, that
served to balance in his mind the impressions which a scene of carnage and of death must
inflict.
If a man had been present at the battle of Blenheim, for instance, and had inquired the motive
of battle, there was not a soldier engaged who could not have satisfied his curiosity, and
even, perhaps, allayed his feelings. They were fighting, they knew, to repress the uncontrolled
ambition of the Grand Monarch. But if a man were present now at a field of slaughter, and
were to inquire for what they were fighting--"Fighting!" would be an answer; '' they are not
fighting; they are pausing.'' "Why is that man expiring? Why is that other writhing with agony?
What means this implacable fury?" The answer must be: "You are quite wrong, sir; you
deceive yourself--they are not fighting--do not disturb them--they are merely pausing! This
man is not expiring with agony--that man is not dead-- he is only pausing! Lord help you, sir!
they are not angry with one another; they have no cause of quarrel; but their country thinks
that there should be a pause. All that you see, sir, is nothing like fighting--there is no harm,
nor cruelty, nor bloodshed in it whatever; it is nothing more than a political pause! It is merely
to try an experiment to see whether Bonaparte will not behave himself better than heretofore;
and in the meantime we have agreed to a pause, in pure friendship!" And is this the way, sir,
that you are to show yourselves the advocates of order? You take up a system calculated to
uncivilize the world--to destroy order--to trample on religion--to stifle in the fyeart, not merely
the generosity of noble sentiment, but the affections of social nature; and in the prosecution of
this system, you spread terror and devastation all around you.
Probably the most valuable of all the figures of emphasis is that of climax, since it is required
in greater or less degree in almost every speech. It embodies the principles of suspense, and
the leading from the weaker to the stronger argument and marked by an ascending tendency.
When the emotion and interest are on a descending scale, the mind of the listener suffers
disappointment, and the style is called bathos. The following extract from W. J. Fox, on
Human Brotherhood, is a splendid example of both climax and polished English:
From the dawn of intellect and freedom Greece has been a watchword on the earth. There
rose the social spirit to soften and refine her chosen race, and shelter, as in a nest, her
gentleness from the rushing storm of barbarism--there liberty first built her mountain throne,
first called the waves her own, and shouted across them a proud defiance to despotism's
banded myriads; there the arts and graces danced around humanity, and stored man's home
with comforts, and strewed his path with roses, and bound his brows with myrtle, and
fashioned for him the breathing statue, and summoned him to temples of snowy marble, and
charmed his senses with all forms of eloquence, and threw over his final sleep their veil of
loveliness; there sprang poetry, like their own fabled goddess, mature at once from the
teeming intellect, girt with the arts and armor that defy the assaults of time and subdue the
heart of man; there matchless orators gave the world a model of perfect eloquence, the soul
the instrument on which they played, and every passion of our nature but a tone which the
master's touch called forth at will; there lived and taught the philosophers of bower and porch,
of pride and pleasure, of deep speculation and of useful action, who developed all the
acuteness, and refinement, and exeursiveness, and energy of mind, and were the glory of
their country, when their country was the glory of the earth.
It should be remembered that climax must be in the thought before it can properly be in the
delivery. It is not a mere outward embellishment, but the natural and spontaneous expression
of gradually intensified thought. Quintilian recommends it by the name of "gradation," and
gives this example:
I not only did not say this, but did not even write it; I not only did not write it, but took no part in
the embassy; I not only took no part in the embassy, but used no persuasion to the Thebans.
At the Chicago convention William Jennings Bryan turned the nomination in his own favor by
the closing lines of a speech in which he said:
Having behind us the producing masses of this nation and the world, supported by the
commercial interests, the laboring interests, and the toilers everywhere, we will answer their
demand for a gold standard by saying to them: You shall not press down upon the brow of
labor this crown of thorns; you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold.
It will be seen that climax is an element of great power when properly used. Carefully note the
close of Sumner's great oration on "The True Grandeur of Nations":
But while seeking these blissful glories for ourselves, let us strive to extend them to other
lands. Let the bugles sound the truce of God to the whole world forever. Let the selfish boast
of the Spartan women become the grand chorus of man- kind, that they have never seen the
smoke of an enemy's camp. Let the iron belt of martial music, which now encompasses the
earth, be exchanged for the golden cestus of peace, clothing all with celestial beauty. History
dwells with fondness on the reverent homage that was bestowed, by massacring soldiers,
upon the spot occupied by the sepulcher of the Lord. Vain
man! to restrain his regard to a few feet of sacred mold!
The whole earth is the sepulcher of the Lord; nor can any righteous man profane any part
thereof. Let us recognize this truth, and now, on this Sabbath of our country, lay a new stone
in the grand temple of universal peace, whose dome shall be as lofty as the firmament of
heaven, as broad and comprehensive as the earth itself.
In every speech of Webster we find a discreet and skilful use of this figure of climax. The
closing lines of "The First Bunker Hill Monument Oration," which discloses his power at its
height, is worthy of memorizing:
And let the sacred obligations which have devolved on this generation, and on us, sink deep
into our hearts. Those who established our liberty and our government arc daily dropping from
among us. The great trust now descends to new hands. Let us apply ourselves to that which
is presented to us, as our appropriate object. We can win no laurels in a war for
independence. Earlier and worthier hands have gathered them all. Nor are there places for us
by the side of Solon, and Alfred, and other founders of states. Our fathers have filled them.
But there remains to us a great duty of defense and preservation; and there is opened to us,
also, a noble pursuit, to which the spirit of the times strongly invites us. Our proper business is
improvement. Let our age be the age of improvement. In a day of peace, let us advance the
arts of peace and the works of peace. Let us develop the resources of our land, call forth its
powers, build up its institutions, promote all its great interests, and see whether we also, in
our day and generation, may not perform something worthy to be remembered. Let us
cultivate a true spirit of union and harmony. In pursuing the great objects which our condition
points out to us, let us act under a settled conviction, and an habitual feeling, that these
twenty-four States are one country. Let our conceptions be enlarged to the circle of our duties.
Let us extend our ideas over the whole of the vast field in which we are called to act. Let our
object be, our country, our whole country, and nothing but our country. And, by the blessing of
God, may that country itself become a vast and splendid monument, not of oppression and
terror but of wisdom, of peace, and of liberty, upon which the –world may gaze with
admiration forever!
It is said of Edward Everett that his treatment of every speech he made was so masterly "that
one would think the subject then in hand had been the special study of his life." In the
following extract from his "Eulogy on Lafayette," he combines the figures of exclamation,
interrogation, and climax:
There is not, throughout the world, a friend of liberty who has not dropt his head when he has
heard that Lafayette is no more. Poland, Italy. Greece, Spain, Ireland, the South American
republics--every country where man is struggling to recover his birthright--have lost a
benefactor, a patron in Lafayette. And what is it, fellow citizens, which gave to our Lafayette
his spotless fame? The love of liberty. What has consecrated his memory in the hearts of
good men? The love of liberty. What nerved his youthful arm with strength, and inspired him.
in the morning of his days, with sagacity and counsel? The living love of liberty. To what did he
sacrifice power, and rank, and country, and freedom itself? To the horror of licentiousness--to
the sanctity of plighted faith--to the love of liberty protected by law. Thus the great principle of
your Revolutionary fathers, and of your Pilgrim sires, was the rule of his life--the love of liberty
protected by law.
You have now assembled within these celebrated walls to perform the last duties of respect
and love, on the birthday of your benefactor. The spirit of the departed is in high communion
with the spirit of the place--the temple worthy of the new name which we now behold
inscribed on its walls. Listen, Americans, to the lesson which seems borne to us on the very
air we breathe, while we perform these dutiful rites! Ye winds, that wafted the Pilgrims to the
land of promise, fan. in their children's hearts, the love of freedom! Blood, which our fathers
shed, cry from the ground! Echoing arches of this renowned hall, whisper back the voices of
other days!
Glorious Washington, break the long silence of that votive canvas! Speak, speak, marble lips;
teach us the love of liberty protected by law.
The student of public speaking should pursue this study- further on his own account, by
dissecting some of the world's great orations. He should note in them the use
of these various figures of emphasis--and see wherein they give added clearness and power
to speech. In this way he will secure for himself something of the art by which the master
orators themselves became distinguished.
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THE RHETORIC OF PUBLIC SPEAKING
There is no better way to cultivate oratorical style than to study the models of the world's
great orators. We shall find some of the distinctive qualities of their speeches in their use of
word, phrase, idiom, metaphor, and illustration. If "style is the man," then we may study the
man and his method through his language.
The ultimate object of the oration is to convince and persuade men. It is to move men to
action. Quintilian, in his treatise on the education of an orator, refers to the many celebrated
definitions of oratory before his time, such as. "oratory is the art of persuading," "the power of
persuading by speaking," "the leading of men by speaking to that which the speaker wishes,"
"the power of finding out whatever can persuade in speaking," "to say all that ought to be said
in order to persuade," "the power of saying on every subject whatever can be found to
persuade," "the power of finding whatever is persuasive in speaking," "the power of
discovering and expressing, with elegance, whatever is credible on any subject whatever."
Quintilian contents himself with the definition that "Oratory is the art of speaking well," and
adds that "Its object and ultimate end must be to speak well.''
The difference between an oration and an essay should be clearly defined. An oration is
based upon a brief, or outline, with all its divisions distinctly indicated in the speaker's mind. It
is prepared for the ear, while th'e essay is in- tended for the eye. In the one case the speaker
may repeat his thought as often as he thinks necessary to accomplish his purpose; in the
other, the reader may reread such portions as are not clear to him. The oration may have a
wide range of thought, while the essay must strictly observe unity and method throughout.
The oration, furthermore, is designed to appeal directly to the emotions, and consequently is
more vivid and varied than the essay. First, let us read an extract from Buskin's essay,
"Modern Painters":
It is a strange thing how little in general people know about the sky. It is the part of creation in
which nature has done more for the sake of pleasing man, more for the sole and evident
purpose of talking to him and teaching him, than in any other of her works, and it is just the
part in which we least attend to her. There are not many of her other works in which some
more material or essential purpose than the mere pleasing of man is not answered by every
part of their organization; but every essential purpose of the sky might, so far as we know, be
answered if once in three days, or thereabouts, a great, ugly, black rain-cloud were brought
up over the blue, and everything well watered, and so all left blue again till next time, with
perhaps a film of morning and evening mist of dew. And instead of this there is not a moment
of any day of our lives when nature is not producing scene after scene, picture after picture,
glory after glory, and working still upon such exquisite and constant principles of the most
perfect beauty that it is quite certain that it is all done for us and intended for our perpetual
pleasure. And every man, wherever placed, however far from other sources of interest or of
beauty, has this doing for him constantly. The noblest scenes of the earth can be seen and
known but by few; it is not intended that man should live always in the midst of them; he
injures them by his presence, he ceases to feel them if he be always with them: but the sky is
for all; bright as it is, it is not it is fitted in all its functions for the perpetual comfort and exalting
of the heart, for soothing it and purifying it from its dross and dust. Sometimes gentle,
sometimes capricious, sometimes awful, never the same for two moments together, almost
human in its passions, almost spiritual in its tenderness, almost divine in its infinity, its appeal
to what is immortal in us is as distinct as its ministry of chastisement or of blessing to what is
mortal is essential. And yet we never attend to it, we never make it a subject of thought, but
as it has to do with our animal sensations: we look upon all by which it speaks to us more
clearly than to brutes, upon all which bears witness to the intention of the Supreme that we
are to receive more from the covering vault than the light and the dew which we share with
the weed and the worm, only as a succession of meaningless and monotonous accident, too
common and too vain to be worthy of a moment of watchfulness or a glance of admiration. If
in our moments of utter idleness and insipidity we turn to the sky as a last resource, which of
its phenomena do we speak of? One says it has been wet; and another, it has been windy;
and another, it has been warm. Who, among the whole chattering crowd, can tell me of the
forms and the precipices of the chain of tall, white mountains that girded the horizon at noon
yesterday? Who saw the narrow sunbeam that came out of the south and smote upon their
summits until they melted and moldered away in a dust of blue rain? Who saw the dance of
the dead clouds when the sunlight left them last night and the west wind blew them before it
like withered leaves? All has passed, unregretted as unseen; or if the apathy be ever shaken
off, even for an instant, it is only by what is gross or what is extraordinary; and yet it is not in
the broad and fierce manifestations of the elemental energies, not in the clash of the hail nor
the drift of the whirlwind, that the highest characters of the sub- lime are developed. God is
not in the earthquake nor in the fire, but in the still, small voice. They are but the blunt and the
low faculties of our nature which can only be addrest through lampblack and lightning. It is in
quiet and subdued passages of unobtrusive majesty, the deep and the calm and the
perpetual; that which must be sought ere it is understood; things which the angels work out
for us daily and yet vary eternally, which are never wanting and never repeated, which are to
be found always, yet each found but once; it is through these that the lesson of devotion is
chiefly taught, and the blessing of beauty given. These are what the artist of highest aim must
study; it is these, by the combination of which his ideal is to be created; these, of which so
little notice is ordinarily taken by common observers that I fully believe, little as people in
general are concerned with art, more of their ideas of sky are derived from pictures than from
reality, and that if we could examine the conception formed in the minds of most educated
persons when we talk of clouds, it would frequently be found composed of fragments of blue
and white reminiscences of the old masters.
Fundamental qualities of an effective oratorical style are simplicity and directness. These are
the natural expression of sincerity. A good speaker despises rhetorical tricks and artificiality.
He uses as far as possible pure Saxon words, gives preference to words that are short and
concrete, and avoids ambiguity and circumlocution.
Thoughts, not words, should be great. A man should speak not in a literary style, but in the
language of the people. Beecher well says: "Involved sentences, crooked, circuitous, and
parenthetical, no matter how musically they may be balanced, are prejudicial to a facile
understanding of the truth.'' To insure simplicity of language, one should have a definite
purpose before him, both in writing and delivering his speech. A man who is thoroughly in
earnest is never grandiloquent. The speeches of Abraham Lincoln are models of unaffected
simplicity. His Farewell Speech, delivered at Springfield, 111., February 11, 1861, is a
characteristic example:
My Friends: No one, not in my situation, can appreciate my feeling' of sadness at this parting.
To this place, and the kindness of these people, I owe everything. Here I have lived a quarter
of a century, and have passed from a young to an old man. Here my children have been born,
and one is buried. I now leave, not knowing when or whether ever I may return, with a task
before me greater than that which rested upon Washington. "Without the assistance of that
Divine Being who ever attended him, I can not succeed. With that assistance, I can not fail.
Trusting in Him who can go with me, and remain with you, and be everywhere for good, let us
confidently hope that all will yet be well. To His care commending you, as I hope in your
prayers you will commend me, I bid you an affectionate farewell.
The speaker's style should be clear and compact, but never so concise as to be obscure.
Every student should carefully read Herbert Spencer's essay on "The Philosophy of Style," in
which he says:
Regarding language as an apparatus of symbols for the conveyance of thought, we may say
that, as in a mechanical apparatus, the more simple and the better arranged its parts the
greater will be the effect produced. In either case, what- ever force is absorbed by the
machine is deducted from the result. A reader or listener has at each moment but a limited
amount of mental power available. To recognize and interpret the symbols presented to him.
requires part of this power: to arrange and combine the images suggested requires a further
part; and only that part which remains can be used for realizing the thought conveyed. Hence,
the more time and attention it takes to receive and understand each sentence, the less time
and attention can be given to the contained idea; and the less vividly will that idea be
conceived.
Conciseness will guard the speaker from undue repetition, rambling, and prosiness. The crisp
phrase delights the hearer, because he can grasp it so easily. It gives added strength, force,
and vividness to a speaker's thought. Care- fully note this extract from Emerson's oration on
"The American Scholar," delivered at Cambridge, Mass., on August 31, 1837:
Books are the best of things, well used; abused, among the worst. What is the right use?
What is the one end, which all means go to effect? They are for nothing but to inspire. I had
better never see a book than to be warped by its attraction clean out of my own orbit and
made a satellite instead of a system. The one thing in the world of value is the active soul.
This every man is entitled to; this every man contains within him, altho, in almost all men,
obstructed, and as yet unborn. The soul active sees absolute truth, and utters truth, or
creates. In this action, it is genius; not the privilege of here and there a favorite, but the sound
estate of every man. In its essence it is progressive. The book, the college, the school of art,
the institution of any kind, stop with some past utterance of genius. That is good, say they--let
us hold by this. They pin me down. They look backward and not forward. But genius looks
forward: the eyes of man are set in his forehead, not in his hindhead; man hopes, genius
creates. Whatever talents may be, if the man create not, the pure efflux of the deity is not his;
cinders and smoke there may be, but not yet flame. There are creative manners, there are
creative actions, and creative words; manners, actions, words --that is, indicative of no
custom or authority, but springing spontaneous from the mind's own sense of good and fair.
The best test of euphony is to read aloud. Infelicities of expression that may go unchallenged
in silent reading are quickly detected when sounded. Awkward combinations, jingling
recurrences, harshness not purposely employed, and everything offensive to the ear should
be studiously avoided.
The euphonious style and brilliant diction of Cardinal Newman is worthy of close study. He
invariably read his sermons to the congregation, and to some extent sacrificed delivery to
thought and style, but there was an indescribable fascination about him which kept his
hearers spell- bound. In commenting upon the disadvantage of manu- script speaking, a
writer says of Newman: "You must take the man as a whole; there was a stamp and seal
upon him; thexe was a solemn sweetness and music in the tone and the manner which made
even his delivery, tho exclusively from written sermons, singularly attractive." Still another
says of him, ""What delicacy of style, yet what strength! how simple, yet how suggestive! how
homely, yet how refined! how penetrating, yet how tender-hearted." Newman owed much of
his incomparable use of English to his love of music, and his exquisite taste for harmony and
cadence. His constant use of the pen, and his study of verse, may well be emulated by the
student of public speaking. Cicero was one of Newman's earliest models. For euphony,
simplicity, exactitude, and clearness, it would be difficult to find anything superior to the
following passage from Cardinal Newman's address on "Literature":
A great author, gentlemen, is not one who merely has a copiaverborum, whether in prose or
verse, and can, as it were, turn on at his will any number of splendid phrases and swelling
sentences; but he is one who has something to say and knows how to say it. I do not claim for
him, as such, any great depth of thought, or breadth of view, or philosophy, or saga-city, or
knowledge of human nature, or experience of human life, tho these additional gifts he may
have, and the more he has of them the greater he is; but I ascribe to him, as his characteristic
gift, in a large sense the faculty of expression. He is the master of the twofold Logos, the
thought and the word, distinct, but inseparable from each other. He may, if so be, elaborate
his compositions, or he may pour out his improvisations, but in either ease he has but one
aim, which he keeps steadily before him, and is conscientious and single-minded in fulfilling.
That aim is to give forth what he has within him; and from his very earnestness it comes to
pass that, whatever be the splendor of his diction or the harmony of his periods, he has with
him the charm of an incommunicable simplicity. Whatever be his subject, high or low, he
treats it suitably and for its own sake. If he is a poet, "nil molitur inepte." If he is an orator,
then, too, he speaks not only "distincte" and '"splendide," but also "apte." His page is the lucid
mirror of his mind and life.
He writes passionately, because he feels keenly; forcibly, because he conceives vividly; he
sees too clearly to be vague; he is too serious to be otiose; he can analyze his subject, and
therefore he is rich; he embraces it as a whole and in its parts, and therefore he is consistent;
he has a firm hold of it, and therefore he is luminous. When his imagination wells up, it
overflows in ornament; when his heart is touched, it thrills along his verse. He always has the
right word for the right idea, and never a word too much. If he is brief, it is because few words
suffice; when he is lavish of them, still each word has its mark, and aids, not embarrasses, the
vigorous march of his elocution. He expresses what all feel, but all can not say; and his
sayings pass into proverbs among his people, and his phrases become household words and
idioms of their daily speech, which is tessellated with the rich fragments of his language, as
we see in foreign lands the marbles of Roman grandeur worked into the walls and pavements
of modern palaces.
Such preeminently is Shakespeare among ourselves; such preeminently Yergil among the
Latins; such in their degree are all those writers who in every nation go by the name of
classics. To particular nations they are necessarily attached from the circumstances of the
variety of tongues, and the peculiarities of each; but so far they have a catholic and
ecumenical character, that what they express is common to the whole race of man, and they
alone are able to express it.
If then the power of speech is a gift as great as any that can be named--if the origin of
language is by many philosophers even considered to be nothing short of divine--if by means
of words the secrets of the heart are brought to light, pain of soul is relieved, hidden grief is
carried off, sympathy conveyed, counsel imparted, experience recorded, and wisdom
perpetuated--if by great authors the many are drawn up into unity, national character is fixt, a
people speaks, the past and the future, the east and the west are brought into communication
with each other--if such men are, in a word, the spokes- men and prophets of the human
family--it will not answer to make light of literature or to neglect its study; rather we may be
sure that, in proportion as we master it in whatever language, and imbibe its spirit, we shall
ourselves become in our own measure the ministers of like benefits to others, be they many
or few, be they in the obscurer or the more distinguished walks of life--who are united by us
by social ties, and are within the sphere of our personal influence.
"When a man aims directly at originality, he usually misses it. "When he tries to appear to be
something other than he is, he is almost certain to become unreal and ineffective. Emerson
said: "Eloquence is the power to translate a truth into language perfectly intelligible to the
person with whom you speak." The following is an amusing but instructive illustration of the
passion for big words and unusual expressions:
My Brethren: The cosmical changes continually occurrins', manifest a concatenation of
causes for the multiferous forms that present themselves for meditation and study. As we
pursue our investigations in the various departments, we realize more distinctly the ever
present and eternal relation of things. Cosmological philosophy demonstrates that force is
persistent, and hence is indestructible, therefore this indestructibility is grounded upon the
absolute. To prove this to your entire satisfaction, it is only necessary for me to quote the
formula: “The absolptoid and the abstractoid elementisms of being, echo or reappear by
analogy within the concretoid elaborismus." We reject the theory of the eternity of matter as
well as the hypothesis of an infinite series, and contend that matter in its primordial condition
is but a term in a system of causations ; that after illimitable duration passed through changes
of manifold particularities which we have ultimated in an endless multiplicity of forms that
have produced the present complicated condition of things.
Prolixity soon wearies an audience. Too much brilliancy of style easily dazzles the eyes, and
loftiness of expression may shoot so high over the heads of the hearers as to defeat its
purpose. Sublime thought does not necessarily demand big words and elegant language.
"And God said let there be light: and there was light" is an eloquent example of great thought
in simple words. Coleridge once said: "If men would only say what they have to say in plain
terms, how much more eloquent they would be!" Amateur speakers are too prone to look at
the objective effect of their language, instead of at the subjective quality of their thought. This
will sometimes lead them into Fourth-of-July bombast, such as this:
There is a divinity that shapes our ends, and that same divine inspiration revealed to the
American patriots who fought against colonial oppression, the symbol of liberty that was
destined to float in the cause of humanity until the end of time.
Looking aloft in the evening glow they saw a great, white cloud; the sun, e'er setting, smiled
on it and shot seven golden red rays through its fleecy whiteness, forming thirteen alternating
stripes. A square piece of the sky came down and fastened itself in the upper left corner,
whereupon thirteen glorious stars left the firmament of heaven, formed a symmetrical setting,
and glowed from the blue union. Atop this emblem was a guardian angel holding in her left
hand the scales of justice, and in her right, with point down, a sword, not typical of war, but of
a determination to uphold peace. On the shield that rested against her robe was the promise
that whenever a new State entered the Union another star would descend from the sky, and
guaranteeing to the generations to come that this inspired flag would be a world-respected
symbol of man's humanity to man.
There must be affluence of thought before one can safely attempt elegance of style, and even
then it is better that it arise naturally and unconsciously. Here, again, the right foundation is to
be found in sincerity. Some men think in large ways, like certain artists who paint with broad
sweeps of the brush, and in striking colors. Their souls are too large for the pedantic and
formal, and they must find means of their own. Such a man was Webster, who gave to
common words a new import and personality, as in his use of the word "respectable" in the
following:
I would cheerfully put the question to-day to the intelligence of Europe and the world, what
character of the century, upon the whole, stands out in the relief of history, most pure, most
respectable, most sublime; and I doubt not, that, by a suffrage approaching to unanimity, the
answer would be 'Washington!
Elegance of language has, of course, its legitimate use, and gives enduring pleasure when
exhibited by a real artist. But it is a dangerous plaything for amateurs. An illustration of
masterly magnificence of style is the following passage from Laeordaire:
It might well have been thought that the force of that confession would never have been
surpassed, whether in regard to the genius of the man who wrote it, the authority of his
unbelief, the glory of his name, and the circumstances connected with the age which received
it; but it would have been an error. Another man, another expression, another glory, another
phase of unbelief, another age, another avowal, were greater altogether, if not in each
separate part, than those you have just heard. Our age commenced by a man who outstript
all his contemporaries, and whom we, who have followed, have not equaled. A conqueror, a
soldier, a founder of empire, his name and his ideas are still everywhere present. After having
unconsciously accomplished the work of God, he disappeared, that work being done, and
waned like a setting sun in the deep waters of the ocean. There, upon a barren rock, he loved
to recall the events of his own life; and from himself going back to others who had lived before
him, and to whom he had a right to compare himself, he could not fail to perceive a form
greater than his own upon that illustrious stage whereon he took his place. He often
contemplated it; misfortune opens the soul to illuminations which in prosperity are unseen.
That form constantly rose before him--he was compelled to judge it. One evening in the
course of that long exile which expiated past faults and lighted up the road to the future, the
fallen conqueror asked one of the few companions of his captivity if he could tell him what
Jesus Christ really was. The soldier begged to be excused; he had been too busy during his
sojourn in the world to think about that question. "'What!" sorrowfully replied the inquirer, "you
have been baptized in the Catholic Church, and you can not tell me, even here upon this rock
which consumes us, what Jesus Christ was! Well, then, I will tell you": and, opening the
Gospel, not with his hands, but from a heart filled by it, he compared Jesus Christ with himself
and all the great characters of history; he developed the different characteristics which
distinguished Jesus Christ from all mankind; and, after uttering a torrent of eloquence which
no Father of the Church would have disclaimed, he ended with these words: "In fine, I know
men, and I say that Jesus Christ was not a man!" These words, gentlemen, sum up all I would
say to you of the inner life of Jesus Christ, and express the conclusion which, sooner or later,
every man arrives at who reads the Gospel with just attention. You who are yet young have
life before you; you will see learned men, sages, princes, and their ministers; you will witness
elevations and ruins; sons of time, time will initiate you into the hidden things of man; and
when you have learned them, when you know the measure of what is human, some day,
perhaps, returning from those heights for which you hoped, you will say also, "I know men,
and I say that Jesus Christ was not a man!" The day, too, will come when upon the tomb of
her great captain, France will grave these words, and they will shine there with more immortal luster than the sun of the Pyramids and Austerlitz!
There is a style that is solely intellectual in character, whereby the speaker aims to convince
the hearer through his reason and judgment. There is no attempt to arouse the emotions, but
simply to win a favorable decision by an impartial and accurate statement of facts. To this
class belong most of the speeches of Congress and the law court. A short example, from the
argument of Jeremiah Black in the Milligan case, will suffice:
Keeping the character of the charges in mind, let us come at once to the simple question
upon which the court below divided in opinion: Had the commissioners jurisdiction--were they
invested with legal authority to try the relaters and put them to death for the offense of which
they were accused? We answer, no; and, therefore, the whole proceeding from beginning to
end was utterly null and void. On the other hand, it is absolutely necessary for those who
oppose us to assert, as they do assert, that the commissioners had complete legal jurisdiction
both of the subject matter and of the parties, so that their judgment upon the law and the
facts is absolutely conclusive and binding, not subject to correction nor open to inquiry in any
court whatever. Of these two opposite views, you must adopt one or the other; for there is no
middle ground on which you can possibly stand.
The highest type of oratorical style combines convincing with persuasive elements, by which
the speaker first makes a thing appear possible or desirable, then by an appeal to the heart
moves the hearer to act as he would have him. Lord Erskine was a master of the arts of
climax and persuasion. He would throw himself so completely into his subject that for the time
he became oblivious to all else. Altho slender in form, his sincerity, earnestness, and warmth
of manner imparted to his style and personality a magnetism that was irresistible. In the libel
case of Lord Sandwich, first Lord of the Admiralty, against Captain Baillie, Erskine who as a
youth served as a midshipman, Avon his initial success before a jury. At one point of his
address he was reminded that his lordship was not present, whereupon he burst out
vehemently:
I know that he is not formally before the court, but, for that very reason, I will bring him before
the court. He has placed these men in the front of the battle, in order to escape under their
shelter, but I will not join in battle with them; their vices, tho screwed up to the highest pitch of
depravity, are not of dignity enough to vindicate the combat with me. I will drag him to lia;ht
who is the dark mover behind this scene of iniquity. I assert that the Earl of Sandwich has but
one road to escape out of this business without pollution and disgrace--and that is, by publicly
disavowing the acts of the prosecutors, and restoring Captain Baillie to his command. . . . If,
on the contrary, he continues to protect the prosecutors in spite of the evidence of their guilt,
which has excited the abhorrence of the numerous audience who crowd this court, if he keeps
this injured man suspended, or dares to turn that suspension into a removal, I shall then not
scruple to declare him an accomplice in their guilt, a shameless oppressor, a disgrace to his
rank, and a traitor to his trust.
My lords, this matter is of the last importance. I speak not as an advocate alone--I speak to
you as a man--as a member of the state whose very existence depends upon her naval
strength. If our fleets are to be crippled by the baneful influence of elections, we are lost
indeed. If the seaman, while he exposes his body to fatigues and dangers, looking forward to
Greenwich as an asylum for infirmity and old age, sees the gates of it blocked up by
corruption, and hears the mirth and riot of luxurious landsmen drowning the groans and
complaints of the wounded, helpless companions of his glory—he will tempt the seas no
more. The admiralty may press his body indeed, at the expense of humanity and the
constitution, but they can not press his mind; they can not press the heroic ardor of a British
sailor; and, instead of a fleet to carry terror all around the globe, the admiralty may not be able
much longer to amuse us with even the peaceable, unsubstantial pageant of a review. Fine
and imprisonment! The man deserves a palace, instead of a prison, who prevents the palace
built by the public bounty of his country from being converted into a dungeon, and who
sacrifices his own security to the interests of humanity and virtue!
The gift of tautology is a valuable element in oratorical style. An idea is repeated over and
over again, but in different aspects, until it is driven deeply and securely into the listener's
mind. Demosthenes, Cicero, and other orators, both of ancient and modern times, have
advocated and used this method of repetition. Sometimes it takes the form of climax, in which
a single phrase is repeated, as in this extract from an address by Senator Beveridge:
Like President Taft. I wanted on the free list many raw materials that needed no protection.
Yet only one was so treated. I could not stand for the duties on these articles, and I can not
stand for them now.
Like President Taft, I wanted free iron ore, of which we have the greatest deposits on earth,
and which the steel trust chiefly controls. I could not stand for the duty that was passed, and I
can not stand for it now.
Like President Taft, I wanted the ancient woollen schedule reduced. It gives the woollen trust
unfair control. It raises the price and reduces the weight of the people's clothing. I
stood against the schedule when the bill was passed, and I stand against it now, I could not
stand for the duty on lumber when the tariff bill was passed, and I can not stand for it now.
Sometimes this repetition is made exceedingly effective throughout a long passage, as in this
quotation from Robert Ingersoll:
A little while ago, I stood by the grave of the old Napoleon --a magnificent tomb of gilt and
gold, almost fit for a dead deity--and gazed upon the sarcophagus of black Egyptian marble,
where rest the ashes of that restless man. I leaned over the balustrade and thought about the
career of the greatest soldier of the modern world.
I saw him walking upon the banks of the Seine contemplating suicide. I saw him at Toulon; I
saw him putting down the mob in the streets of Paris; I saw him at the head of the army in
Italy; I saw him crossing the bridge of Lodi with the tricolor in his hand; I saw him in Egypt in
the shadow of the pyramids; I saw him conquer the Alps and mingle the eagles of France with
the eagles of the crags; I saw him at Marengn, at Ulm, and Austerlitz; I saw him in Russia
where the infantry of the snow and the cavalry of the wild blast scattered his legions like
winter's withered leaves; I saw him at Leipsic in defeat and disaster--driven by a million
bayonets back upon Paris--clutched like a wild beast--banished to Elba. I saw him escape
and retake an empire by the force of his genius. I saw him upon the frightful field of Waterloo,
where Chance and Fortune combined to wreck the fortunes of their former king, and I saw
him at St. Helena, with his Lands crossed behind him, gazing out upon the sad and solemn
I thought of the orphans and widows he had made, of the tears that had been shed for his
glory, and of the only woman he ever loved, pushed from his heart by the cold hand of
ambition; and I said I would rather have been a French peasant and worn wooden shoes; I
would rather have lived in a hut with a vine growing over the door and the grapes growing
purple in the rays of the autumn sun; I would rather have been that poor peasant with my
loving wife by my side, knit- ting as the day died out of the sky, with my children about my
knee and their arms about me, I would rather have been that man and gone down to the
tongueless silence of the dreamless dust than have been that imperial personification of force
and murder.
Nothing is more effective in oratorical style than the skilful use of climax, especially at the
close of a speech. The conclusion of Lord Macaulay's speech on Parliamentary Reform,
delivered in the House of Commons, March 2, 1831, is a splendid specimen of his sonorous
style and his rare use of climactic effect:
Turn where we may, within, around, the voice of great events is proclaiming to us, Reform that
you may preserve. Now, therefore, while everything at home and abroad forebodes ruin to
those who persist in a hopeless struggle against the spirit of the age; now, while the crash of
the proudest throne of the continent is still resounding in our ears; now, while the roof of a
British palace affords an ignominious shelter to the exiled heir of forty kings; now, while we
see on every side ancient institutions subverted and great societies dissolved; now, while the
heart of England is still sound; now, while old feelings and old associations retain a power and
a charm which may too soon pass away; now, in this your accepted time; now, in this your
day of salvation, take counsel, not of prejudice, not of party spirit, not of the ignominious pride
of a fatal consistency, but of history, of reason, of the ages which are past, of the signs of this
most portentous time. Pronounce in a manner worthy of the expectation with which this great
debate has been anticipated, and of the long remembrance which it will leave behind. Renew
the youth of the state. Save property, divided against itself. Save the multitude, endangered
by its own ungovernable passions. Save the aristocracy, endangered by its own unpopular
power. Save the greatest, and fairest, and most highly civilized community that ever existed
from calamities which may in a few days sweep away all the rich heritage of so many ages of
wisdom and glory. The danger is terrible. The time is short. If this bill should be rejected, I
pray to God that none of those who concur in rejecting it may ever remember their votes with
unavailing remorse amidst the wreck of laws, the confusion of ranks, the spoliation of
property, and the dissolution of social order.
EXTEMPORE SPEAKING
To speak without manuscript does not imply lack of preparation. A man who essays to stand
before an audience and address them without dependence upon notes, must have his speech
very clearly and vividly imprest upon his own mind. Extempore speaking, to be successful,
really demands greater labor and diligence than any other form of address.
It is undoubtedly true, as Bautain says, that'' There are some men organized to speak well, as
there are birds organized to sing well, bees to make honey, and beavers to build." Some men
are naturally adapted to extempore speaking, while others because of timidity, mental
sluggishness, or some other quality of temperament, are from necessity slaves to a
manuscript. Possibly every man could eventually become an extemporaneous speaker, if he
set deliberately and persistently about it, but unfortunately the written page serves as an easy
escape from the more laborious method.
Extemporaneous address is the ideal form of delivery. Popular opinion has declared itself
against the reading of a speech. A manuscript in the hands of a speaker acts as a wet
blanket, an obstacle, or a prejudice between him and his hearers. In extempore speech a
man is more real, spontaneous, and energetic. He looks at his audience and they look at him.
A bond of sympathy and mutual interest is established. They take pleasure in watching the
operation of the speaker's mind, while he, in turn, has the opportunity to observe the effect of
his words upon them. Lightning-like changes must often be made while the speech is in
progress. When the speaker sees that a thought of his is not quite clear, or lacking in
impressiveness, he may at once express it again in a new phrase, or with more telling
emphasis. Possibly a man at the back of the hall, with his hand behind his ear serves as a
warning to the speaker that he is not being distinctly heard. An inattentive auditor suggests
the possibility that the speaker fails to make himself interesting. The snapping of a watch may
be a polite hint that the speaker is speaking too long. For these and many other reasons an
extempore speaker has a decided advantage over one who must, for the most part, keep his
eyes glued to a manuscript. Moreover, an extempore speaker, being unhampered by notes,
can give adequate force and precision to his voice and gesture. He can pause as often and
as long as he thinks necessary to enforce his thought. It is not merely the memory that
speaks, but his entire personality.
It can net too often be repeated that the speaker should write much. Skill and thrill of pen
quickly communicate themselves to the voice. We have the authority of Cicero on this
important subject. He says:
The chief point of all is to write as much as possible. Writing is said to be the best and most
excellent modeler and teacher of oratory: and not without reason: for if what is meditated and
considered easily surpasses sudden and extemporary speech, a constant and diligent habit of
writing will surely be of more effect than meditation and consideration itself; since all the
arguments relating to the subject on which we write, whether they are suggested by art, or by
a certain power of genius and understanding, will present themselves, and occur to us, while
we examine and contemplate it in the full light of our intellect; and all thoughts and words,
which are the most expressive of their kind, must of necessity come under and submit to the
keenness of our judgment while writing; and a fair arrangement and collocation of the words
is effected by writing in a certain rhythm and measure, not poetical, but oratorical.
Cicero goes on to say that by means of practise in writing, the language of a man, when
required to speak on the spur of the moment, will resemble the accuracy and precision of his
written style. In this practise of writing, however, the student should summon his audience
before him in imagination, and frequently test what he has written by standing up and
rendering it aloud. It is the business of the speech-maker not only to fit words to his thoughts,
but to fit words to his mouth.
The chief danger of the extempore style is the tendency to be diffuse. A speaker should
realize that there is a distinct advantage in leaving some things unsaid. The Lacedaemonians,
w e are told, knew the positive uses of the negation of speech, and by repression gained
strength and intensity. Their public assemblies were short, and the audience invariably
remained standing. An extempore speaker should know precisely what he intends to say, not
the exact words, perhaps, but certainly the nature and order of ideas.
The chief objection to the use of manuscript is that the speaker usually reads his words,
instead of speaking them. He reads too rapidly, in a uniform style, and often with no special
regard for the immediate impression he is making.
He loses, toe, in directness, in fire and enthusiasm, and in personal magnetism. "The vitality
of thought," observes Bautain, "is singularly stimulated by the necessity of instantaneous
production, by this actual necessity of self-expression, and of communication to other minds.''
A great American orator was welcomed to London some months ago, where he was invited to
address an influential society of that city. He was heralded as one of the most gifted speakers
of the day, and a distinguished audience greeted him with unusual marks of enthusiasm. But
as he stood before them, he took from his pocket a large manuscript, and proceeded to read
his speech. Enthusiasm suddenly changed to disappointment, and when the speaker at last
had finished, the unanimous feeling was that he had seriously blundered. Oratory can not
reach the heart through the printed page. If a man reads his speech, the members of the
audience conclude that they might themselves read it quite as well in the quiet of their own
homes.
An extempore speaker should have a ready vocabulary. It matters not so much by what
method he gets it, so long as it is large and varied. He may take words deliberately from his
general reading, ascertain their meaning and proper usage, and incorporate them at once into
his daily conversation. He may closely scrutinize the language of recognized speakers, or he
may copy down in his own hand- writing parts of masterpieces of eloquence, giving special
attention to the use of words, phrases, idioms, and figures of speech.
One of the best exercises for the student of extempore speech is to accustom himself daily to
make short speeches aloud, while he is alone, and put his ability to frequent test while gaining
articulate flexibility. He may stand in his own room, arrange some chairs as an audience, and
speak upon a current topic selected from his daily newspaper. His aim here should be to
secure fluency rather than perfection. There is no better way than this for acquiring the ability
of "thinking on one's feet." In many men this is the one thing lacking. They can speak well at
home or in business, but if suddenly called upon the stand on their feet and address a
number of persons, their thoughts as suddenly leave them. This art. let it be remembered, can
be acquired only through the most diligent practise.
There must, of course, be something more than fluency in order to produce a satisfactory
speaker. Fluency alone may run to garrulousness, and an abundance of words may easily
obscure instead of enlighten a subject. Behind the spoken word there must be the man, and it
is his thought and personality which after all impart value to his language. One might know all
the words of an unabridged dictionary, yet be slow of speech. It is not a "profuse and
interminable flow of words" that is so much needed as a ready and precise knowledge of their
proper application.
When Gladstone was unexpectedly called upon to close a debate, or to answer an
antagonist, he would sometimes speak for some minutes without really saying anything worth
while, in order to take time to formulate his thought. "All at once," said an observer of the
great orator, "the cloud cleared away with a sudden gesture, and you heard the words, 'Mr.
Speaker.' The orator then had made up his mind as to the scope of his reply, and then
followed a stream of sentences direct, compact, and pungent—crisp as the curling wave,
definite as the bullet." This is a splendid illustration of thinking on one's feet, of thinking ahead
while in the very act of speaking.
The public speaker should be like a skilful captain, able to shift his course to meet unexpected
conditions. A man who is tied down to set phraseology, whether of memory or manuscript, is
not unlike a schoolboy with his memorized recitation. If he forgets his lines, he must begin all
over again, or retire covered with confusion. Extempore speaking does not mean lack of
preparation, since all who speak well must prepare for it, but it implies that at the moment of
delivery the speaker has perfect freedom and facility in his choice of language, and the ability
to amplify or abridge his premeditated thought at will.
The student of public speaking is recommended to hear the best pulpit preachers and closely
to study their method of delivery. Many clergymen depend in their early efforts upon the use of
manuscript, but in most cases the paper is discarded after a few months or years for the freer
and more effective extempore style. Dr. Storrs, in his inspiring book "Preaching Without
Notes," discloses one of his own secrets about effective speaking: "I have learned,'' he says,
"that the recollective forces of the mind, which are in their nature subordinate and auxiliary,
are to be kept strictly in abeyance--not to be called on for any service--so that the
spontaneous, suggestive, creative powers may have continual and unhindered play. Nothing,
if possible, should be left to be recalled at the time of speaking, by a distinct act of the
memory. The more you try to recollect, the less effective you will be." He insists that it is
aggressive productive energy that most moves an audience, and, we may add, it is this that
best insures a natural and sincere style of delivery.
The story is familiar of how the Athenians proposed to give a golden crown to Demosthenes
in recognition of his valued services to his country, and how the proposal was opposed by
AEchines. When the latter was in banishment, he one day repeated the speech he had made
against Demosthenes, whereupon his hearers requested him also to read Demosthenes'
reply; which he did with reluctance. After the applause had subsided, AEschines exclaimed,
"How much more would your admiration have been raised had you heard Demosthenes
speak it!"
The mind should be stored with the choicest passages of great speakers and writers, not only
for training in English style, but for use as quotations when required. A business man who has
distinguished himself as a public speaker, ascribes much of his readiness and power to the
fact that for years he has committed gems of poetry to memory, and these constantly furnish
him with valuable material for illustration and amplification. A short poem memorized each day
for a year would revolutionize a man's entire thinking habits, and at the same time provide
him with a vocabulary and style to satisfy all ordinary requirements. Our own great Webster
shows in many of his speeches that he was a profound student of the Bible and the poets.
Most of the great speakers of the world have acknowledged their indebtedness to
inspirational writers. Lord Brougham was an indefatigable student and worker. While he was
composing the peroration of one of his most important speeches, he made it a point to read
Demosthenes for several weeks, during which time he rewrote his own speech twenty times.
Something should be said here about mannerisms in speaking, which not infrequently are
most manifest in extempore delivery. Without a manuscript to engage the speaker's hands he
is often at a loss to know what to do with these unruly members. The answer is simple: do
nothing with them unless they are specifically needed for the more complete expression of a
thought. Let them remain at the sides in their natural relaxed position, where they will be
ready for instant use. To press the fist in the hollow of the back in order to support the
speaker, to clutch the lapels of the coat, to slap the hands audibly together, to place the hands
on the hips in the attitude of "vulgar ease," to put the hands into the pockets, to wring the
hands as if washing them with invisible soap," or violently to strike the table or desk, these are
all objectionable mannerisms and should be studiously avoided.
At the beginning of a speech it will give the appearance of ease to place the hands behind the
back, but this position lacks force, and should not be long sustained. Leaning or lounging of
every kind, bending at the knees, evidence of weakness or weariness, drawling and dawdling,
should be avoided. Hocking the body to and fro, rising on the toes to emphasize, crouching,
stamping the foot, springing from side to side, overacting and impersonating, and, in- deed,
violence and extravagance of every description, are not in keeping with dignified public
speaking.
Gestures that are too frequent and alike soon lose their significance. If they are attempted at
all, they should be varied and complete, suggesting freedom and spontaneity. When only half
made they call attention to the discrepancy, and may easily retard the thought they are
designed to help. The continuous use of gesture is displeasing to the eye. giving an
impression of lack of poise.
The student should not imitate the style of other speakers. He may hear them, and note their
virtues and faults, but his constant aim should be to develop his own power and individuality.
What is perfectly natural te one man may be ridiculous in another. Cardinal New-man spoke
with unusual deliberateness, enunciating every syllable with care and precision, while Phillips
Brooks sent forth an avalanche of words at the rate of two hundred or more to the minute.
These two examples would certainly be dangerous precedents for the average man to follow.
The extempore speaker should take advantage of his great opportunity to be thoroughly alive.
One man speaks from his head, another from his heart, and another from his imagination, but
a real orator speaks from his entire personality. Some men appear uniformly tired, and in the
effort to address an audience assume a half-hearted tone. This lifelessness of voice and
manner soon communicates itself to the audience, and enthusiasm or success are rendered
impossible. The well-equipped speaker is one who has a superior culture of voice and body.
All the instruments of expression must be made his obedient servants, that at his bidding they
may perform their work naturally and spontaneously. He must be able, while speaking, to
abandon himself wholly to his subject, confident that as a result of previous and conscientious
training his de- livery can safely be left to take care of itself.
Another undesirable mannerism of the voice is that of giving a rising inflection at the close of
successive sentences that are obviously complete. The speaker's thought is left suspended in
the air, the hearer feels a sense of doubt or disappointment, and possibly the entire meaning
is perverted. Thoughts delivered in this manner, unless they distinctly demand a rising
inflection, lack emphasis, force, and persuasion.
Artificiality, affectation, pomposity, mouthing, vehemence, monotony, and everything that
detracts in the slightest degree from the simplicity and genuine fervor of a speaker's style
should be carefully avoided. Too much emphasis may drive a thought beyond the mark, and a
conscious determination to make "a great speech" may easily keep the speaker in a state of
anxiety throughout its entire delivery.
A clear and correct enunciation is essential, but it should never be pedantic nor attract
attention to itself. Exaggerated opening of the mouth, audible smacking of the lips, holding
tenaciously to final consonants, prolonged hissing of sibilants, are faults to be condemned.
Hesitation, stumbling over difficult combinations, obscuring final syllables, coalescing the last
sound of one word with the first sound of the following word, are inexcusable in a trained
speaker.
When the same modulation of the voice is repeated too often, it becomes a mannerism, a
kind of monotony of variety. To the frequent question whether a musical ear is an aid to the
speaker, the answer must be in the affirmative. The man who can discriminate between one
key of the voice and another, between the light and shade of the voice as manifest in force,
and knows what is rapid and what is slow in the movement of his utterance, has a marked
advantage over one with ear untrained.
It may be fitting here to present two or three short specimens of unpremeditated speech. The
first is by Sir Aemilius Irving, of Toronto, Canada, in a farewell address to the Hon.
Featherston Osier:
I beg, on behalf of the bar, that you will allow me to address a few words to the court, and, to
some extent, to himself. The attorney-general would properly and with gratification to himself
be present to take part in this function, but he is unable to travel the long distance he would
have to come, since learning that this was to take place. He is prostrated, as it were, and has
been advised that for him to come would be impracticable. But he has been good enough to
refer to me to speak in some measure for him.
The occasion on which we are now assembled is to do honor to an illustrious member of the
bench who is about to retire from it. The importance of the occasion and the depth of feeling
that has been evoked are the best proof, and I do not wish a higher testimonial than the
number present to testify their loyalty and affection to the friend--if I may be permitted to use
that affectionate term--to the friend with whom they will not be in contact as in the past.
That representation is, of course, largely by the Law Society and the Benchers, but two other
associations are taking part, and have indicated to me their desire to be named, the York
County Law Association, and the Ontario Bar Association, so that it may be fairly said that we
who are now before you are as large a representation of the bar of Ontario as could be
gathered together here, considering all the circumstances.
This tribute, for such it is, is not only one of personal respect, but it is the discharging by the
bar of a bounden duty toward itself to lose no opportunity of expressing its sense of the value
to the profession, the public, and to the country, of the service which must necessarily come
to an end.
I shall not bestow terms of encomium on Mr. Justice Osier. They would be out of place at this
tribunal. The purity and learning of the bench concerns the public and lies near the foundation
of public liberty. To this august body these are the motives that prompt us. Before this august
body there should be no comparisons. We esteem all the judges, the great body I am
addressing:, and the High Court as well, but we go no further in reference to the individual.
This is not a sad occasion; we are not losing a very principal man from our social circle; we
are not weeping over his grave; we are, on the other hand, congratulating him on the
triumphant result of his long life. He has good health, he is surrounded with joys--he has
abound him honor, love, obedience the affection of his children and troops of friends He has
the right to look forward, as we hope and expect, to the long enjoyment -which his satisfactory
health gives him every expectation to realize
I am directed by the Corporation of the Law Society and the Benchers in congregation to
communicate that they hail with gratification the prospect of his taking his place as of light in
their governing body, and that his accession to that will be a great gratification to the province
generally and to the profession.
It will be observed that this speech is in easy, simple style The judicial mind of the speaker is,
of course, evident, but long habit of instantly turning his thought into appropriate phrase
stands him to good purpose
Sir Charles Moss, the Chief Justice of Ontario, speaking on the same occasion, followed the
last speaker, with these words.
On behalf of my colleagues and myself, I express the desire
that he should be associated in the most emphatic manner with all the remarks which you
have so feelingly and appropriately exprest concerning our brother Osier. It almost goes
without saying that no words could adequately express our own sense of loss alike to the
bench, the bar, and the public, occasioned by his retirement, and also our sense of personal
loss. If any- thing can be added to what you have so just said, we wish it to be understood as
having been said in the most ample manner.
There is no sign of premeditation in this short speech but it has the unmistakable marks of
sincerity, dignity, and deep feeling Finally, let us examine the reply of the Hon Featherston
Osier himself, who, we are told, spoke on this occasion with visible emotion:
Those of you who know me will, I am sure, know how difficult it is for me at this moment to
express in any adequate way my sense of the honor -which has been conferred upon me. I
may say, in the words of the German poet, that I am now enjoying the highest moment of my
life. After filling such an office over thirty-one years, and to be allowed to leave it with the
enjoyment of the approval of a most critical body like the Ontario bar, is indeed gratifying.
I have, during my connection with the bench, striven to live up to the high standard I set for
myself on accepting a position on it. I feel it a high honor to be allowed to quit it, not in cold
silence of the most critical profession in the world, but with their approval as you have exprest
it.
As for the failures I have been guilty of, some were capable of correction and some were not,
but I have the happiness of knowing that the court which, while it has the right to pardon, has
also the prerogative to condemn, has extended its pardon to me Let me wish you all
happiness and prosperity, and through you to the several associations for their kindness in
joining in this expression. And let me now bid you my judicial farewell.
This is both felicitous and touching. These three speeches are somewhat alike in their quality
of tender simplicity and directness, and as examples of easy extempore speaking are worthy
of close study and analysis.
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GESTURE AND ACTION
The use of gesture must often be determined by the taste and judgment of the speaker. There
are simple speeches and informal occasions when much bodily action would be entirely
inappropriate, and there are others where an absence of movement would give the
impression of weakness and inadequacy. Too little gesture is better than too much, and there
are times when a powerful effect is conveyed by speaking with great intensity while standing
motionless.
It is said that deep concentrated feeling is never loud, and it may be added that action and
gesture of a great speaker are never violent. The purpose of gesture is to emphasize,
illustrate, or in some degree add clearness or force to a speaker's thought. If it fails to
accomplish one of these objects, it will hinder rather than help the speaker.
The whole art of gesture may be summed up in three words: simplicity, appropriateness, and
variety.
Simplicity means that a gesture arises from the natural animation of a speaker, and is so
inextricably bound up with the thought that it does not attract attention to itself. The arms and
hands, if properly trained, move in curves, the straight line movements being reserved for
special emphasis. Simplicity means, too, that nothing is overdone. Many men, because of
their sedentary lives, are awkward and self-conscious in the attempt to gesticulate while
speaking in public, and determined not to appear tame or untutored, indulge in all kinds of
grotesque and unseemly movements. Simplicity will guard a speaker from many undesirable
faults which sometimes go by the plausible name of individuality and mannerism.
Appropriateness implies that a gesture is the one best suited to interpret or enforce a
particular thought. There is no valid objection to a student standing before a looking- glass in
order to observe his use of gesture and consciously to study those movements most
appropriate to the expression of his thought. If he has the fundamental qualities for great
speaking, there will be no danger of such practise making him foppish or unduly selfconceited.
Variety of gesture is necessary to the proper expression of varied thought. The speaker does
not present merely one phase of his subject, nor does he speak in a monotone. The manysidedness of his theme demands constant changes of voice and feeling, hence if he uses
gesture and action they must be in harmony with his utterance.
The statement that if a man be really in earnest he will gesticulate properly does not hold
good in fact. One who is awkward in ordinary conversation will merely exaggerate his
awkwardness when he attempts to speak on a larger occasion. The proper study of gesture
does not necessarily make a speaker artificial and self-conscious any more than the practise
of five-finger exercises makes the pianist mechanical, or the study of dancing renders a man
ungainly. All great art must be preceded by a conscious analysis of the right and the wrong
thing to do, and the art of expression is no exception to this rule. This deliberate study is
intended so to influence and train the student's visible expression that ultimately it will perform
its work naturally and involuntarily.
The tendency to gesticulate exclusively with the right hand should be avoided. It gives a onesided, unvaried effect to gesture, and when long continued, may easily become wearisome to
an audience. Neither should gestures be alternated too regularly, as in the well-known
expression "on the one hand," and "on the other hand." Variety is the spice of gesture, as it is
of life, and the discriminating speaker will give it most careful consideration. Double arm
gestures are valuable aids in expressing intensity and breadth of thought, but should be used
sparingly since too much action of the kind often suggests bewilderment and lack of poise.
The correct standing position is to place one foot in advance of the other, with the toes slightly
turned out. The width of the base must be determined by a man's height, as the taller the man
the wider his feet should be apart. The position of the feet should be changed occasionally,
not by consciously looking down at them, but preferably during the act of speaking. Too much
shifting about is likely to convey an impression of restlessness, and lack of dignity. The legs
should be straight, the head erect, and the arms when not in action dropt naturally at the
sides.
The importance of what has been urged here regarding the cultivation of gesture is referred to
by Addison, when he says:
It is certain that proper gestures and vehement exertions of the voice can not be too much
studied by a public orator. They are a kind of comment upon what he utters, and enforce
everything he says, with weak hearers, far better than the strongest argument he can make
use of. They keep the audience awake, and fix their attention to what is delivered to them; at
the same time they show that the speaker is in earnest, and himself affected with what he so
passionately recommends to others. Violent gesture and vociferation naturally shake the
hearts of the ignorant, and fill them with a kind of religious horror.
Nothing is more frequent than to see women weep and tremble at the sight of a moving
preacher, tho he is placed quite out of hearing; as we very frequently see people lulled to
sleep with solid and elaborate discourses of piety, who would be warmed and transported out
of themselves by the bellowings and distortions of enthusiasm. If nonsense, when
accompanied with such an emotion of voice and body, has such an influence on men's minds,
what might we not expect from many of those admirable discourses which are printed in our
tongue, were they delivered with a becoming fervor and with the most agreeable graces of
voice and gesture.
No better advice upon the subject has ever been given than that of Hamlet's instruction to the
Players to "suit the action to the word; the word to the action.'' It is reasonable to think that a
man facing an audience will be so animated and inspired as to feel the necessity of using
gesture and action in his speaking. Yet how often do we hear men expressing their ideas
upon momentous questions with apparently no personal interest in what they are saying.
Again, how ridiculous it is to listen to a man who has nothing worthwhile to say, but who vainly
tries to enforce it with wild gesticulation and violent agitation of body.
Gesture should be fast or slow, large or small, as determined by the thought. It is usually
made on the word or words to which it particularly refers, and is sustained as long as the
thought demands it. The hand should not be jerked back to its place, but be allowed to drop
gently and unobtrusively to its natural position. Gestures that are slowly made, and allowed to
glide easily one into the other, are most effective and graceful. It is never permissible to point
across the body. If a gesture is to be made to the left, use the left hand, and if to the right, use
the right hand, always remembering that the arm should move in curves, not in straight lines,
and that the movement should be made whenever possible from the shoulder.
The natural desire for gesture and action in public speaking is one of the best arguments for
the extempore style. To see the speaker greatly enhances the pleasure of the auditor, and to
observe animation in his face, arms, and body is one of the strongest evidences of his
earnestness and reality. Whether one should attempt to use gesture while reading from a
manuscript can not be settled by an arbitrary rule, since much must depend upon the
temperament and skill of the man, and the form of his manuscript. Halcombe says:
Appropriate gesture in speaking arises from the mind either anticipating some forcible
expression, or finding -words on the spur of the moment inadequate fully to convey its
meaning. This at once accounts for the fact of so few persons, when reading from the pages
of a written composition, having the power of enforcing their words by this apparently simple
and natural expedient. For in reading, the mind is generally keeping pace pretty evenly with
the written matter, oftener lagging behind than outstripping it while the words spoken
invariably precede the mental conception. Thus the gesture of readers is often governed by
the very reverse of the rule of nature. When they are unexcited and treating of a
comparatively unimportant part of their subject they use action; but when sufficiently imprest
with it to forget themselves they are perfectly motionless, showing at once what is natural to
them under such circumstances. The reader may, however, by practise acquire the habit of
occasionally enforcing or helping out his words by his action, tho to do this without effort will
require him to be able to merge the reader in the speaker to an extent which is attainable by
very few.
The speaker can not be too frequently warned against indulgence in objectionable
mannerisms. Constant shaking of the head in order to emphasize what one is saying, soon
loses its significance. Pacing the platform may easily give the impression of unpreparedness.
Rocking back and forth on the toes is suggestive of the familiar and commonplace. The
clenched fist may be appropriate on rare occasions, but the audible slapping of the hands
together belongs rather to the cart-tail spellbinder than to the pomshed orator.
A speaker upon rising to his feet is not expected to plunge headlong into his subject, but after
quietly surveying his audience should begin to speak in an easy and deliberate manner.
There will be little action, if any, until he has made considerable progress with his address, but
as his thought and feeling become intensified, his gesture, facial expression, and bodily
movement will increase in due proportion. Earnest and passionate utterance will demand
larger effects than ordinary conversational style, and it is in these sudden outbursts that the
speaker should be particularly trained to avoid all awkward and angular movements of the
hands and arms. It is when he lets himself go that his faults are most likely to disclose
themselves.
Some observations upon this subject, by "William Russell, are reprinted here for their
suggestive value. He is ad- dressing himself to the clergyman, but what he says is equally
applicable to all classes of public speakers, when he says:
Our conventional modes of life, -which quench or suppress expression by withholding
corporeal action, which is the natural accompaniment of speech, are as faulty in point of true
taste as they are false to nature. The very condition of eloquence in address is that we
become sufficiently exalted by thought and emotion to rise above such habits and to give
sentiment an expression and a character to the eye as well as to the ear. Undisciplined habit
may, it is true, cam this, as any other mode of expression, to excess. But the theory which
founds on this fact a sweeping objection to the we of action in speaking, is not at all more
rational than would be that which should enjoin abstinence from aliment, on the ground of the
tendency of ungoverned appetite to excess in eating and drinking. Genuine culture would
prescribe in this, as in other departments of expression, a strict guard against faults of
excess, no less anxiously than it would solicit and cherish the power and the beauty of
appropriate and proportioned action. «
Another current error on this subject of gesture is that it is a thing not capable of being
reduced to study or systematic practice; that it is a pure result of unconscious impulse, and
beyond the reach of the understanding. So was musical sound thought to be, till man had the
patience to observe it attentively and trace its relations and its principles. Faithful observation
of phenomena and effects was the condition on which the beautiful, the profound science of
music was constructed, and in consequence of which it became a definite and intelligible art,
involving processes of systematic execution.
All expressive arts have a common groundwork of principles Patient application discovers and
defines these, and embodies them in rules. Study and practise follow, in due order, and the
result is a recognized form of beauty or of power. Depth, breadth, force, truth, and grace, are
each the same thing, in whatever art, be it architecture, sculpture, painting, music, poetry or
oratory. The mind which submits to the requisite conditions of patient and skilful investigation,
will succeed in finding and naming and exemplifying them.
The great impediment to effective speaking, so far as depends on action, lies in the defective
character of early education. The child is originally a model and a study for the sculptor and
the painter, in the spontaneous perfection of attitude and gesture. Education as generally
conducted does nothing to secure this natural excellence, but. on the contrary, allows it to die
out of use, and even displaces it by a defective routine of mechanical habit. The
awkwardness of the schoolboy and the stiffness of the student are proverbial. The minister in
the pulpit naturally--we might almost say necessarily—exhibits the habitual faults of the
student to their fullest extent. His modes of life, if not counteracted by express care and due
self-cultivation, lead him to a cold, reserved, ineffective, inexpressive style of action. So much
so that nothing is more frequently or more generally a subject of popular remark than the
coldness and the lifelessness of the stile of speaking usually exemplified in the pulpit. In too
many cases the saered precincts seem to be occupied by an automaton or a statue endowed
with nothing beyond the power of a mechanical articulation.
Some practical hints may here be offered to the student which he will do well to follow in this
branch of his study:
1. A speaker should cultivate manly grace of movement at all times.
2. The hands when not in use should be dropt at the sides.
3. The student may practise at home, but never before an audience.
4. The knees should be kept straight.
5. It is objectionable to slap the hands audibly together.
6. Gestures, if too frequent, lose force.
7. The hands should not be rested on the hips, nor placed in the pockets.
8. To rise on the toes is likely to have a ludicrous effect.
9. The proper gesture and action are largely determined by the subject and occasion.
10. All stiffness should be avoided.
11. When the arms move in curves they give the impression of ease and grace.
12. The feet must be kept firmly on the floor.
13. It is well not to use the index hand too much—this is, the hand with forefinger extended.
Audiences do not like to be admonished. 14. The head and body should be moved together.
15. When the chest is held high and full, it gives manliness to the speaker's attitude.
16. The walk to the platform should be reasonably slow and dignified.
17. It is not necessary to bow, except to acknowledge unusual recognition from the audience.
18. If the chin is elevated it may give an unfavorable impression of pride or arrogance.
19. When two gestures are made in quick succession, one should, if possible, glide into the
other.
20. Both arms are used for intensity, breadth, appeal, or unusual energy.
21. A change of standing position should not be made during a pause, but while speaking.
22. The manner of the speaker will best recommend itself to an audience by being modest
and natural.
23. A speaker should never lean or lounge while on the platform.
24. Looking down suggests lapse of memory or shyness.
25. If a bow is used, it should be a slight bending from the waist, not from the head.
ANALYSIS OF WEBSTER'S REPLY TO HAYNE
Daniel Webster, the greatest of American orators, has been described as a handsome man,
of dark complexion, with large head, deeply sunken black eyes, and a stern but agreeable
countenance. He was at once lawyer, advocate, debater, and orator. Carlyle called him a
"Parliamentary Hercules," a great "logical fencer." His magnificence of style and
argumentative force, combined with unusual dignity of manner, made him an irresistible
opponent in speech or debate.
In his Reply to Hayne he had only a single night for his immediate preparation, but he
afterward acknowledged that the notes for his speech had been made months before, and
that Hayne could not better have fitted his address to these notes had he purposely tried.
Webster subsequently said of this occasion: "I felt as if everything I had ever seen or read or
heard was floating before me in one grand panorama, and I had little else to do than to reach
up and cull a thunderbolt and hurl it at him."
As already suggested in this book, the student will find it profitable to study some of the great
masterpieces of oratory, and we have selected for analysis the Reply to Hayne because it is
regarded as Webster's most notable speech, and the greatest in American history. The
speech was made on January 26, 1830, and the occasion for its delivery was somewhat
unexpected:
'" A resolution had been introduced by Senator Samuel Augustus Foot, of Connecticut, merely
ordering an inquiry into the expediency of throwing restrictions around future sales of public
lands of the United States. Into the discussion of this resolution, which lasted five months,
was brought a large number of partizan pleas, tariff arguments, local jealousies, and
questions of the right and wrong of slavery, and of the respective powers of the State and
national governments. Recriminations, and even personalities were not infrequent; and some
of the Southern speakers did_ not refrain, in defense of the new '"nullification'1 doctrine, from
criticism of New England Federalism as having been essentially selfish, derisive, and
unpatriotic. Senator Robert Hayne "(1791-1840), of South Carolina, who had been a member
of the Senate since 1823. was conspicuous, in this debate, for his advocacy of the idea that a
State might suspend Federal laws at its discretion; and his assertions to that effect, combined
with sharp criticisms of Massachusetts, led Mr. Webster to make his famous reply. Mr. Hayne
was subsequently Governor of South Carolina, at the time of the almost armed collision
between that State and President Jackson, in 1832, over the nullification of tariff laws. At one
time Governor Hayne actually issued a proclamation of resistance to the authority of the
general government; but subsequently Congress modified the objectionable tariff provisions
and the State repealed its nullification ordinance, which President Jackson's firmness had
certainly made "null, void, and no law."
Everett tells of having seen Webster the night before apparently free in spirit and
unconcerned, but "the next morning he was like some mighty admiral, dark and terrible ;
casting the long line of his frowning tiers far over the sea that seemed to sink beneath him,"
and "bearing down like a tempest upon his antagonist, with all his canvas strained to the
wind, and all his thunders roaring from his broadsides." Webster had a voice like a deeptoned bell, and he began in his calm, deliberate, self-possest style:
Mr. President: When the mariner has been tossed for many days in thick weather, and on an
unknown sea, he naturally avails himself of the first pause in the storm, the earliest glance of
the sun, to take his latitude, and ascertain how far the elements have driven him from his true
course. Let us imitate this prudence, and, before we float farther on the waves of this debate,
refer to the point from which we departed, that we may at least be able to conjecture where
we now are. I ask for the reading of the resolution before the Senate.
The Secretary read the resolution as follows:
"Resolved, That the Committee on Public Lands be instructed to inquire and report the
quantity of public lands remaining unsold within each State and territory, and whether it be
expedient to limit for a certain period the sales of the public lands to such lands only as have
heretofore been offered for sale, and are now subject to entry at the minimum price. And,
also, whether the office of Surveyor-General, and some of the land offices, may not be
abolished without detriment to the public interest; or whether it be expedient to adopt
measures to hasten the sales and extend more rapidly the surveys of the public lands."
We have thus heard, sir, what the resolution is which is actually before us for consideration;
and it will readily occur to every one, that it is almost the only subject about which something
has not been said in the speech, running through two days, by which the Senate has been
entertained by the gentleman from South Carolina. Every topic in the side range of our public
affairs, whether past or present--everything, general or local, whether belonging to national
politics or party politics--seems to have attracted more or less of the honorable member's
attention, save only the resolution before the Senate. He has spoken of everything but the
public lands; they have escaped his notice. To that subject, in all his excursions, he has not
paid even the cold respect of a passing glance.
When this debate, sir, was to be resumed, on Thursday morning, it so happened that it would
have been convenient for me to be elsewhere. The honorable member, however, did not
incline to put off the discussion to another day. He had a shot, he said, to return, and he
wished to discharge it. That shot, sir, which he thus kindly informed us was coming, that we
might stand out of the way, or prepare ourselves to fall by it and die with decency, has now
been received. Under all advantages, and with expectation awakened by the tone which
preceded it, it has been discharged, and has spent its force. It may become me to say no
more of its effect than that, if nobody is found, after all, either killed or wounded it is not the
first time, in the history of human affairs, that the vigor and success of the war have not quite
come up to the lofty and sounding phrase of the manifesto.
The gentleman, sir, in declining to postpone the debate, told the Senate, with the emphasis of
his hand upon his heart, that there was something rankling here, which he wished to relieve.
(Mr. Hayne rose, and disclaimed having used the word rankling.) It would not. Mr. President,
be safe for the honorable member to appeal to those around him, upon the question whether
he did in fact make use of that word. But he may have been unconscious of it. At any rate, it is
enough that he disclaims it. But still, with or without the use of that particular word, he had yet
something here, he said, of which he wished to rid himself by an immediate reply. In this
respect, sir, I have a great advantage over the honorable gentleman. There is nothing here,
sir, which gives me the slightest uneasiness: neither fear, nor anger, nor that which is
sometimes more troublesome than either, the consciousness of having been in the wrong.
There is nothing, either originating here, or now received here by the gentleman's shot.
Nothing originating here, for I had not the slightest feeling of unkindness toward the honorable
member. Some passages, it is true, had occurred since our acquaintance in this body, which I
could have wished might have been otherwise; but I had used philosophy and forgotten them.
I paid the honorable member the attention of listening with respect to his first speech, and
when he sat down, tho surprized, and I must even say astonished, at some of his opinions,
nothing was farther from my intention than to commence any personal warfare. Through the
whole of the few remarks I made in answer. I avoided, studiously and carefully, everything
which I thought possible to be construed into dis- respect. And, sir. while there is thus nothing
originating here which I have wished at any time, or now wish, to discharge, I must repeat,
also, that nothing has been received here which rankles, or in any way gives me annoyance. I
will not accuse the honorable member of violating the rules of civilized war; I will not say that
he poisoned his arrows. But whether his shafts were or were not dipt in that which would have
caused rankling if they had reached their destination, there was not, as it happened, quite
strength enough in the bow to bring them to their mark. If he wishes now to gather up those
shafts, he must look for them elsewhere; they will not be found fixt and quivering in the object
at which they were aimed.
The honorable member complained that I had slept on this speech. I must have slept on it, or
not slept at all. The moment the honorable member sat down, his friend from Missouri rose,
and, with much honeyed commendation of the speech, suggested that the impressions which
it had produced were too charming and delightful to be disturbed by other sentiments or other
sounds, and proposed that the Senate should adjourn. Would it have been quite amiable in
me, sir, to interrupt this excellent good feeling? Must I not have been absolutely malicious, if I
could have thrust myself forward, to destroy sensations thus pleasing? Was it not much better
and kinder, both to sleep upon them myself, and to allow others also the pleasure of sleeping
upon them? But if it be meant, by sleeping upon his speech, that I took time to prepare a reply
to it, it is quite a mistake. Owing to other engagements, I could not employ even the interval
between the adjournment of the Senate and its meeting next morning, in attention to the
subject of this debate. Nevertheless, sir, the mere matter of fact is undoubtedly true. I did
sleep on the gentleman's speech, and slept soundly. And I slept equally well on his speech of
yesterday, to which I am now replying. It is quite possible that in this respect, also, I possess
some advantage over the honorable member, attributable, doubtless, to a cooler
temperament on my part; for, in truth, I slept upon his speeches remarkably well.
The irony here, a dangerous weapon in the hands of some men, is used with consummate
skill. Webster then points out that he was led to reply simply because of hearing the
gentleman's speech, and with a first manifestation of feeling takes exception to the
extraordinary language and extraordinary tone of his opponent. He proceeds:
Matches and overmatches! Those terms are more applicable elsewhere than here, and fitter
for other assemblies than this. Sir, the gentleman seems to forget where and what we are.
This is a Senate, a Senate of equals, of men of individual honor and personal character, and
of absolute independence. We know no masters, we acknowledge no dictators. This is a hall
for mutual consultation and discussion; not an arena for the exhibition of champions. I offer
myself, sir, as a match for no man; I throw the challenge of debate at no man's feet. But then,
sir, since the honorable member has put the question in a manner that calls for an answer, I
will give him an answer; and I tell him, that, holding myself to be the humblest of the members
here, I yet know nothing in the arm of his friend from Missouri, either alone or when aided by
the arm of his friend from South Carolina, that need deter even me from espousing whatever
opinions I may choose to espouse, from debating whatever I may choose to debate, or from
speaking whatever I may see fit to say, on the floor of the Senate. Sir. when uttered as matter
of commendation or compliment, I should dissent from nothing which the honorable member
might say of his friend. Still less do I put forth any pretensions of my own. But when put to me
as matter of taunt, I throw it back, and say to the gentleman that he could possibly say
nothing less likely than such a comparison to wound my pride of personal character. The
anger of its tone rescued the remark from intentional irony, which otherwise, probably, would
have been its general acceptation. But, sir, if it be imagined that, by this mutual quotation and
commendation; if it be supposed that, by casting the characters of the drama, assigning to
each his part--to one the attack, to another the cry of onset; or if it be thought that, by a loud
and empty vaunt of anticipated victory, any laurels are to be won here; if it be imagined,
especially, that any or all these things will shake any purpose of mine, I can tell the honorable
member, once for all, that he is greatly mistaken, and that he is dealing with one of whose
temper and character he has yet much to learn. Sir, I shall not allow myself, on this occasion,
I hope on no occasion, to be betrayed into any loss of temper; but if provoked, as I trust I
never shall be, into crimination and recrimination, the honorable member may perhaps find,
that, in that contest, there will be blows to take as well as blows to give; that others can state
comparisons as significant, at least, as his own; and that his impunity may possibly demand
of him whatever powers of taunt and sarcasm he may possess. I commend him to a prudent
husbandry of his resources.
"Webster had an extreme hatred for diffuseness and bombast, and despite his power of retort,
disliked invective and personalities. Very rarely did scorn or sarcasm fall from his lips, but as
one has said of him, "If it was a personal insult that roused the slumbering lion, his roar or
rage was appalling, and the spring and death-blow that followed, were like lightning in their
suddenness.'' The speaker next refers to the charge of a coalition, or an alleged compact
between John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay, by which one to be President and the other
Secretary of State. Hayne had asked in his speech Whether "the ghost of the murdered
Coalition had come back, like the ghost of Banquo?" and
Webster swiftly turns it to his opponent's disadvantage:
But, sir, the Coalition! The Coalition! Ay, "the murdered Coalition!'' The gentleman asks if I
were led or frighted into this debate by the specter of the Coalition. "Was it the ghost of the
murdered Coalition," he exclaims, "whieh haunted the member from Massachusetts; and
which, like the ghost of Banquo, would never turn down?" " The murdered Coalition!'' Sir, this
charge of a coalition, in reference to the late administration, is not original with the honorable
member. It did not spring up in the Senate. Whether as a fact, as an argument, or as an
embellishment, it is all borrowed. He adopts it, indeed, from a very low origin, and a still lower
present condition. It is one of the thousand calumnies with which the press teemed, during an
excited political canvass. It was a charge, of which there was not only no proof or probability,
but which was in itself wholly impossible to be true. No man of common information ever
believed a syllable of it. Yet it was of that class of falsehoods which, by continued repetition,
through all the organs of detraction and abuse, are capable of misleading those who are
already far misled, and of further fanning passion already kindling into flame. Doubt- less it
served in its day, and in greater or less degree, the end designed by it. Having done that, it
has sunk into the general mass of the stale and loathed calumnies. It is the very cast-off
slough of a polluted and shameless press. Incapable of further mischief, it lies in the sewer,
lifeless and despised. It is not now, sir, in the power of the honorable member to give it dignity
or decency, by attempting to elevate it, and to introduce it into the Senate. He can not change
it from what it is, an object of general disgust and scorn. On the contrary, the contact, if he
choose to touch it, is more likely to drag him down, down, to the place where it lies itself.
But, sir, the honorable member was not, for other reasons, entirely happy in his allusion to the
story of Banquo's murder and Banquo's ghost. It was not, I think, the friends, but the enemies
of the murdered Banquo, it whose bidding his spirit would not down. The honorable
gentleman is fresh in his reading of the English classics, and can put me right if I am wrong;
but, according to my poor recollection, it was at those who had begun with caresses and
ended with foul and treacherous murder that the gory locks were shaken. The ghost of
Banquo, like that of Hamlet, was an honest ghost.' It disturbed no innocent man. It knew
where its appearance would strike terror, and who would cry out, A ghost! It made itself visible
in the right quarter, and compelled the guilty and the conscience-smitten, and none others, to
start, with,
"Prithee, see there! behold! look! lo!
If I stand here, I saw him!"
Their eyeballs were seared (was it not so, sir?) who had thought to shield themselves by
concealing their own hand, and laying the imputation of the crime on a low and hireling
agency in wickedness; who had vainly attempted to stifle the workings of their own coward
consciences by ejaculating through white lips and chattering teeth, "Thou canst not say I did
it!" I have misread the great poet if those who had no way partaken in the deed of the death,
either found that they were, or feared that they should be, pushed from their stools by the
ghost of the slain, or exclaimed to a specter created by their own fears and their own
remorse, "Avaunt! and quit our sight!"
There is another particular, sir, in which the honorable member's quick perception of
resemblances might, I should think, have seen something in the story of Banquo, making it
not altogether a subject of the most pleasant contemplation. Those who murdered Banquo,
what did they win by it? Substantial good? Permanent power? Or disappointment, rather, and
sore mortification--dust and ashes, the common fate of vaulting ambition overleaping itself?
Did not even-handed justice erelong commend the poisoned chalice to their own lips? Did
they not soon find that for another they had "filed their mind"? that their ambition, tho
apparently for the moment successful, had but put a barren scepter in their grasp? Ay, sir, "a
barren scepter in their gripe, Thence to be wrenched with an unlineal hand, No son of theirs
succeeding."
Sir, I need pursue the allnsion no farther. I leave the honorable gentleman to run it out at his
leisure, and to derive from it all the gratification it is calculated to administer. If he finds himself
pleased with the associations, and prepared to be quite satisfied, tho the parallel should be
entirely completed, I had almost said, I am satisfied also; but that I shall think of. Yes, sir, I will
think of that.
Webster could be mercilessly severe if occasion demanded, and as a consummate master of
English style had not the slightest difficulty in diverting the words of an antagonist to his own
use.
He proceeds next to the Ordinance of 1787, which prohibited slavery from the Northwest
Territory, thus:'' There shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in the said territory,
otherwise than in the punishment of crimes whereof the party shall have been duly
convicted." Webster regarded the measure as one "of great wisdom and foresight," and
expresses his surprize that any words of his should have led his adversary to make a labored
defense of slavery. Then he states succinctly the grounds upon which he voted for grants of
land:
We approach, at length, sir, to a more important part of the honorable gentleman's
observations. Since it does not accord with my views of justice and policy to give away the
public lands altogether, as a mere matter of gratuity, I am asked by the honorable gentleman
on what ground it is that I consent to vote them away in particular instances. How, he inquires,
do I reconcile with these profest sentiments, my support of measures appropriating portions of
the lands to particular roads, particular canals, particular rivers, and particular institutions of
education in the West? This leads, sir, to the real and wide difference in political opinion
between the honorable gentleman and myself. On my part, I look upon all these objects as
connected with the common good, fairly embraced in its object and its terms; he, on the
contrary, deems them all, if good at all, only local good. This is our difference. The
interrogatory which he proceeded to put at once explains the difference. "What interest."' asks
he, "has South Carolina in a canal in Ohio?" Sir, this very question is full of significance. It
develops the gentleman's whole political system; and its answer expounds mine. Here we
differ. I look upon a road over the Alleghanies, a canal round the falls of the Ohio, or a canal
or railway from the Atlantic to the Western waters, as being an object large and extensive
enough to be fairly said to be for the common benefit. The gentleman thinks otherwise, and
this is the key to his construction of the powers of the government. He may well ask what
interest has South Carolina in a canal in Ohio. On his system, Ohio and Carolina are different
governments, and different countries; connected here, it is true, by some slight and ill-defined
bond of union, but in all main respects separate and diverse. On that system, Carolina has no
more interest in a canal in Ohio than in Mexico. The gentle- man, therefore, only follows out
his own principles; he does no more than arrhe at the natural conclusions of his own
doctrines; he only announces the true results of that creed which he has adopted himself, and
would persuade others to adopt, when he thus declares that South Carolina has no interest in
a public work in Ohio.
Sir, we narrow-minded people of New England do not reason thus. Our notion of things is
entirely different. We look upon the States, not as separated, but as united. We love to dwell
on that union, and on the mutual happiness which it has so much promoted, and the common
renown which it has so greatly contributed to acquire. In our contemplation, Carolina and Ohio
are parts of the same country; States, united under the same general government, having
interests common, associated, intermingled. In whatever is within the proper sphere of the
constitutional power of this government, we look upon the States as one. We do not impose
geographical limits to our patriotic feeling or regard; we do not follow rivers and mountains,
and lines of latitude, to find boundaries, beyond which public improvements do not benefit us.
We who come here, as agents and representatives of these narrow-minded and selfish men
of New England, consider ourselves as bound to regard with an equal eye the good of the
whole, in whatever is within our powers of legislation. Sir, if a railroad or canal, beginning in
South Carolina and ending in South Carolina, appeared to me to be of national importance
and national magnitude, believing, as I do, that the power of government extends to the
encouragement of works of that description, if I were to stand up here and ask, What interest
has Massachusetts ill a railroad in South Carolina f I should not be willing to face my
constituents. These same narrow-minded men would tell me that they had sent me to act for
the whole country, and that one who possest too little comprehension, either of intellect or
feeling, one who was not large enough, both in mind and in heart, to embrace the whole, was
not fit to be intrusted with the interest of any part.
Sir, I do not desire to enlarge the powers of the government by unjustifiable construction, nor
to exercise any not within a fair interpretation. But when it is believed that a power does exist,
then it is, in my judgment, to be exercised for the general benefit of the whole. So far as
respects the exercise of such a power, the States are one. It was the very object of the
Constitution to create unity of interests to the extent of the powers of the general government.
In war and peace we are one; in commerce, one; because the authority of the general
government reaches to war and peace, and to the regulation of commerce. I have never seen
any more difficulty in erecting light- houses on the lakes than on the ocean; in improving the
harbors of inland seas, than if they were within the ebb and flow of the tide; or in removing
obstructions in the fast streams of the West, more than in any work to facilitate commerce on
the Atlantic coast. If there be any power for one, there is power also for the other; and they
are all and equally for the common good of the country.
There are other objects, apparently more local, or the benefit of which is less general, toward
which, nevertheless, I have concurred with others to give aid by donations of land. It is
proposed to construct a road, in or through one of the new States, in which this government
possesses large quantities of land. Have the United States no right, or, as a great and
untaxed proprietor, are they under no obligation to contribute to an object thus calculated to
promote the common good of all the proprietors, themselves included? And even with respect
to education, which is the extreme case, let the question be considered. In the first place, as
we have seen, it was made matter of compact with these States, that they should do their part
to promote education. In the next place, our whole system of land laws proceeds on the idea
that education is for the common good; because in every division a certain portion is uniformly
reserved and appropriated for the use of schools. And finally, have not these new States
singularly strong claims, founded on the ground already stated, that the government is a great
untaxed proprietor, in the ownership of the soil? It is a consideration of great importance, that
probably there is in no part of the country, or of the world, so great call for the means of
education, as in these new States, owing to the vast numbers of persons within those ages in
which education and instruction are usually received, if received at all. This is the natural
consequence of recency of settlement and rapid increase. The census of these States shows
how great a proportion of the whole population occupies the classes between infancy and
manhood. These are the wide fields, and here is the deep and quick soil for the seeds of
knowledge and virtue; and this is the favored season; the very springtime for sowing them.
Let them be disseminated without stint. Let them be scattered with a bountiful hand,
broadcast. Whatever the government can fairly do toward these objects, in my opinion, ought
to be done.
All this is oratory of the highest type, suggesting the majesty of self-control. The speaker
knows his own powers, and speaks on deliberately and impressively. He uses few gestures,
but his gift of clear statement makes action almost unnecessary. Already he has the hearers
in his iron grasp, and he proceeds confidently. In answer to his opponent's questions and
insinuations, the orator disavows any intention to retort, but says he will answer with facts.
The tone is very positive throughout, as he continues:
I will tell the gentleman when, and how, and why New England has supported measures
favorable to the West. I have already referred to the early history of the government, to the
first acquisition of the lands, to the original laws for disposing of them, and for governing the
territories where they lie; and have shown the influence of New England men and New
England principles in all these leading measures. I should not be pardoned were I to go over
that ground again. Coming to more recent times, and to measures of a less general character,
I have endeavored to prove that everything of this kind, designed for Western improvement,
has depended on the votes of New England; all this is true beyond the power of contradiction.
And now, sir, there are two measures to which I will refer, not so ancient as to belong to the
early history of the public lands, and not so recent as to be on this side of the period when the
gentleman charitably imagines a new direction may have been given to New England feeling
and New England votes. These measures, and the New England votes in support of them,
may be taken as samples and specimens of all the rest.
In 1S20 (observe, Mr. President, in 1820), the people of the West besought Congress for a
reduction in the price of lands. In favor of that reduction, New England, with a delegation of
forty members in the other house, gave thirty-three votes, and one only against it. The four
Southern States, with more than! fifty members, gave thirty-two votes for it, and seven against
it. Again, in 1821 (observe again, sir, the time), the law passed for the relief of the purchasers
of the public lands. This was a measure of vital importance to the West, and more especially
to the Southwest. It authorized the relinquishment of contracts for lands which had been
entered into at high prices, and a reduction in other cases of not less than thirty-seven and a
half per cent, on the purchase money. Many millions of dollars, six or seven, I believe,
probably much more, were relinquished by this law. On this bill, New England, with her forty
members, gave more affirmative votes than the four Southern States, with their fifty-two or
fifty-three members. These two are far the most important general measures respecting the
public lands which have been adopted within the last twenty years. They took place in 1820
and 1821. That is the time when.
As to the manner how, the gentleman already sees that it was by voting in solid column for
the required relief; and. lastly, as to the cause why, I tell the gentleman it was because' the
members from New England thought the measures just and salutary; because they
entertained toward the West neither envy, hatred, nor malice; because they deemed it
becoming them, as just and enlightened public men, to meet the exigency which had arisen in
the West with the appropriate measure of relief; because they felt it due to their own
characters, and the characters of their New England predecessors in this government, to act
toward the new States in the spirit of a liberal, patronizing, magnanimous policy. So much, sir,
for the cause why; and I hope that by this time, sir, the honorable gentleman is satisfied; if not,
I do not know when, or how, or why he ever will be.
Here we are again reminded of the speaker's skilful use of words. He invests them with an
import suited to his own immediate purposes. Webster not only adapted his style to his
audience, but he could make the most intractable words obedient to his will. He was no empty
'' word-hunter"; it was the thought back of the symbol that concerned him most. Then follows
a passage in answer to Hayne's attack on New England, punctuated with dramatic
exclamation and rhetorical interrogation. The student should carefully note these effects. The
orator thunders forth:
Professing to be provoked by what he chose to consider a charge made by me against South
Carolina, the honorable member, Mr. President, has taken up a new crusade against New
England. Leaving altogether the subject of the public lands, in which his success, perhaps,
had been neither distinguished nor satisfactory, and letting go, also, of the topic of the tariff,
he sallied forth in a general assault on the opinions politics, and parties of New England, as
they have been exhibited in the last thirty years. This is natural. The "narrow policy" of the
public lands had proved a legal settlement in South Carolina, and was not to be removed. The
"accurst policy" of the tariff, also, had established the fact of its birth and parentage in the
same State. No wonder, therefore, the gentleman wished to carry the war, as he exprest it,
into the enemy's country. Prudently willing to quit these subjects, he was, doubtless, desirous
of fastening on others, which could not be transferred south of Mason and Dixon's line. The
politics of New England became his theme; and it was in this part of his speech, I think, that
he menaced me with such sore discomfiture. Discomfiture! Why, sir, when he attacks anything which I maintain, and overthrows it, when he turns the right or left of any position which I
take up, when he drives me from any ground I choose to occupy, he may then talk of
discomfiture, but not till that distant day. What has he done? Has he maintained his own
charges? Has he proved what he alleged? Has he sustained himself in his attack on the
government, and on the history of the North, in the matter of the public lands? Has he
disproved a fact, refuted a proposition, weakened an argument, maintained by me?" Has he
come within beat of drum of any position of mine? Oh, no; but he has "carried the war into the
enemy's country!" Carried the war into the enemy's country! Yes, sir, and what sort of a war
has he made of it? Why, sir, he has stretched a drag net over the whole surface of perished
pamphlets, indiscreet sermons, frothy paragraphs, and fuming popular addresses—over
whatever the pulpit in its moments of alarm, the press in its heats, and parties in their
extravagance, have severally thrown off in times of general excitement and violence. He has
thus swept together a mass of such things as, but that they are now old and cold, the public
health would have required him rather to leave in their state of dispersion. For a good, long
hour or two we had the unbroken pleasure of listening to the honorable member while he
recited with his usual grace and spirit, and with evident high gusto, speeches, pamphlets,
addresses, and all the et ceteras of the political press, such as warm heads produce in warm
times; and such as it would be '' discomfiture indeed for any one, whose taste did not delight
in that sort of reading, to be obliged to peruse. This is his war. This it is to carry war into the
enemy's country. It is in an invasion of this sort that he flatters himself with the expection of
gaining laurels fit to adorn a Senator's brow!
This is passionate persuasive oratory, a prodigal pouring forth of vitality and emotion. It is a
rapid and continuous stream of feeling that carries everything irresistibly along with it.
Webster goes on to treat of party contest under the Constitution, the political attacks upon
Washington, and then gives utterance to one of the most eloquent and enduring passages of
his entire oration, his tribute to South Carolina and defense of Massachusetts. One can
picture the speaker drawing himself up to his full height, and in his rich and sonorous voice
exclaiming:
The eulogium pronounced by the honorable gentleman on the character of the State of South
Carolina, for her revolutionary and other merits, meets my hearty concurrence. I shall not
acknowledge that the honorable member goes before me in regard for whatever of
distinguished talent, or distinguished character, South Carolina has produced. I claim part of
the honor, I partake in the pride, of her great names. I claim them for countrymen, one and all,
the Laurenses, the Rut- ledges, the Pinckneys, the Sumters, the Marions, Americans all,
whose fame is no more to be hemmed in by State lines, than their talents and patriotism were
capable of being circumscribed within the same narrow limits. In their day and generation they
served and honored the country, and the whole country; and their renown is of the treasures
of the whole country. Him whose honored name the gentleman himself bears --does he
esteem me less capable of gratitude for his patriotism, or sympathy for his sufferings, than if
his eyes had first opened upon the light of Massachusetts, instead of South Carolina? Sir.
does he suppose it in his power to exhibit a Carolina name so bright as to produce envy in my
bosom? No, sir, increased gratification and delight, rather. I thank God that, if I am gifted with
little of the spirit which is able to raise mortals to The skies, I have yet none, as I trust, of that
other spirit, which would drag angels down. When I shall be found, sir, in my place here in the
Senate, or elsewhere, to sneer at public merit, because it happens to spring up beyond the
little limits of my own State or neighborhood; when I refuse, for any such cause or for any
cause, the homage due to American talent, to elevated patriotism, to sincere devotion to
liberty and the country; or, if I see an uncommon endowment of Heaven, if I see extraordinary
capacity and virtue, in any son of the South, and if, moved by local prejudice or gangrened by
State jealousy, I get up here to abate the tithe of a hair from his just character and just fame,
may my tongue cleave to the roof of my mouth!
Sir, let me recur to pleasing recollections; let me indulge in refreshing remembrance of the
past; let me remind you that, in early times, no States cherished greater harmony, both of
principle and feeling, than Massachusetts and South Carolina. Would to God that harmony
might again return! Shoulder to shoulder they went through the Revolution, hand in hand they
stood round the administration of Washington, and felt his own great arm lean on them for
support. Unkind feeling, if it exist, alienation, and distrust are the growth, unnatural to such
soils, of false principles since sown. They are weeds, the seeds of which that same great arm
never scattered.
Mr. President. I shall enter on no encomium upon Massachusetts; she needs none. There she
is. Behold her. and judge for yourselves. There is her history; the world knows it by heart. The
past, at least, is secure. There is Boston, and Con- cord, and Lexington, and Bunker Hill: and
there they will remain forever. The bones of her sons, falling in the great struggle for
independence, now He mingled with the soil of every State from New Hampshire to Georgia;
and there they will lie forever. And. sir, where American Liberty raised its first voice, and where
its youth was nurtured and sustained, there it still lives, in the strength of its manhood and full
of its original spirit. If discord and disunion shall wound it, if party strife and blind ambition
shall hawk at and tear it, if folly and madness, if uneasiness under salutary and necessary
restraint, shall succeed in separating it from that Union by which alone its existence is made
sure, it will stand, in the end, by the side of the cradle in which its infancy was rocked; it will
stretch forth its arm with whatever of vigor it may still retain over the friends who gather round
it; and it will fall at last, if fall it must, amid the proudest monuments of its own glory, and on
the very spot of its origin.
This famous passage is doubtless one of those which Webster is said to have prepared
months before. It is onward and ascending in thought, purpose, and feeling, and as a study in
climactic effect is unsurpassed. If the friends of "Webster had any trepidation about his ability
to reply to Hayne's fierce attack of the day before, it was now wholly dissipated. The speaker
afterward said that having subdued himself by a strong effort, all that he had ever read or
thought seemed to be unrolled before him so that it was easy when he wanted a thunderbolt
"to reach out and take it as it went smoking by." The orator then takes up the subject of the
Constitution. His use of rhetorical repetition in the phrase '' I understand" should be carefully
noted.
There yet remains to be performed, Mr. President, by far the most grave and important duty
which I feel to be devolved on me by this occasion. It is to state, and to defend, what I
conceive to be the true principles of the Constitution under which we are here assembled. I
might well have desired that so weighty a task should have fallen into other and abler hands. I
could have wished that it should have been executed by those whose character and
experience give weight and influence to their opinions, such as can not possibly belong to
mine. But, sir. I have met the occasion, not sought it: and I shall proceed to state my own
sentiments, without challenging for them any particular regard; with studied plainness, and as
much precision as possible.
I understand the honorable gentleman from South Carolina to maintain that it is a right of the
State legislatures to interfere whenever, in their judgment, this government transcends its
constitutional limits, and to arrest the operation of its laws.
I understand him to maintain this right, as a right existing under the Constitution, not as a right
to overthrow it on the ground of extreme necessity, such as would justify violent revolution.
I understand him to maintain an authority, on the part of the States, thus to interfere, for the
purpose of correcting the exercise of power by the general government, of checking it, and of
compelling it to conform to their opinion of the extent of its powers.
I understand him to maintain, that the ultimate power of judging of the constitutional extent of
its own authority is not lodged exclusively in the general government, or any branch of it; but
that, on the contrary, the States may lawfully decide for themselves, and each State for itself,
whether, in a given case, the act of the general government transcends its power.
I understand him to insist that if the exigency of the case, in the opinion o£ any State
government, require it, such State government may, by its own sovereign authority, annul an
act of the general government which it deems plainly and palpably unconstitutional.
The speaker does not deny the inherent right in the people to reform the government, but
claims that the main debate brings on the great question, "Whose prerogative it is to decide
on the constitutionality or unconstitutionality of the laws? He does not see how there can be a
middle course between revolution and submission to constitutional laws. He avows it is the
people's government, and that to be the supreme law. He inquires into the source of the
government power, whether it be the agent of the state government or that of the people. " It
is,'' he affirms, '' the people's Constitution, the people's government, made for the people,
made by the people, and answerable to the people." The general government and the State
government derived their authority from the people. Nullification would make uniformity of law
impossible, and the whole Union would become a rope of sand. The speaker touches upon
the questions of embargo and the tariff, and declaring it his duty to support the constitutional
power of the people, to assert their rights, declines to admit the competency of South
Carolina, to prescribe his constitutional duty for him. Nullification would lead to disunion, but
the constitution can be altered only by the people, who have become attached to it through
both happiness and prosperity.
The close of "Webster's speech is a magnificent word picture on the preservation of the
Union. It is remarkable for its clearness, force, tenderness, and patriotism. The student of
oratory will find it profitable to commit the entire passage to memory.
Mr. President, I have thus stated the reasons of my dissent to the doctrines which have been
advanced and maintained. I am conscious of having detained you and the Senate much too
long. I was drawn into the debate with no previous de- liberation, such as is suited to the
discussion of so grave and important a subject. But it is a subject of which my heart is full,
and I have not been willing to suppress the utterance of its spontaneous sentiments. I can
not, even now, persuade myself to relinquish it, without expressing once more my deep
conviction, that, since it respects nothing less than the union of the States, it is of most vital
and essential importance to the public happiness. I profess, sir, in my career hitherto, to have
kept steadily in view the prosperity and honor of the whole country, and the preservation of
our Federal Union. It is to that Union we owe our safety at home, and our consideration and
dignity abroad. It is to that Union that we are chiefly indebted for whatever makes us most
proud of our country. That Union we reached only by the discipline of our virtues in the severe
school of adversity. It had its origin in the necessities of disordered finance, prostrate
commerce, and ruined credit. Under its benign influences, these great interests immediately
awoke, as from the dead, and sprang forth with newness of life. Every year of its duration has
teemed with fresh proofs of its utility and its blessings; and altho our territory has stretched
out wider and wider, and our population spread farther and farther, they have not outrun its
protection or its benefits. It has been to us all a copious fountain of national, social, and
personal happiness.
I have not allowed myself, sir, to look beyond the Union, to see what might lie hidden in the
dark recess behind. I have not coolly weighed the chances of preserving liberty when the
bonds that unite us together shall be broken asunder. I have not accustomed myself to hang
over the precipice of dis- union, to see whether, with my short sight, I can fathom the depth of
the abyss below; nor could I regard him as a safe counselor in the affairs of this government,
whose thoughts should be mainly bent on considering, not how the Union may be best
preserved, but how tolerable might be the condition of the people when it should be broken up
and destroyed. While the Union lasts, we have high, exciting, gratifying prospects spread out
before us, for us and our children. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil. God grant that,
in my day, at least, that curtain may not rise! God grant that on my vision never may be
opened what lies behind! When my eyes shall be turned to behold for the last time the sun in
heaven, may I not see him shining on the broken and dishonored fragments of a once
glorious Union; on States dissevered, discordant, belligerent; on a land rent with civil feuds, or
drenched, it may be. in fraternal blood! Let their last feeble and lingering glance rather behold
the gorgeous ensign of the Republic, now known and honored throughout the earth, still full
high advanced, its arms and trophies streaming in their original luster, not a stripe erased or
polluted, nor a single star obscured, bearing for its motto no such miserable interrogatory as
"What is all this worth?" nor those other words of delusion and folly, "Liberty first and Union
afterward"; but everywhere, spread all over in characters of living light, blazing on all its ample
folds, as they float over the sea and over the land, and in every wind under the whole
heavens, that other sentiment, dear to every true American heart--Liberty and Union, now and
forever, one and inseparable!
TYPES OF SPEAKING
The history of oratory is replete with names of men who have distinguished themselves as
thinkers, rhetoricians, re- formers, and leaders. It is not the intention here to trace the history
of oratory, since that has already been well done by "William Mathews, nor to discuss the
question whether oratory is a lost art. It is confidently believed there is soon to be a revival of
all that is best in oratory as applied to modern requirements of effective public speaking. It will
be profitable, therefore, for the student to familiarize himself with some of the world's greatest
orators and their masterpieces.
The following notes and extracts are intended to stimulate the student's interest in this
subject. It is fitting to begin with Demosthenes, the greatest of Grecian orators, and by many
considered the greatest orator of all time. Next Cicero is quoted as representing the Golden
Age of Roman eloquence The names of Chatham, Burke, Brougham, and Gladstone, are
representative of British orators, while those of Patrick Henry, Webster, Everett, and Wendell
Phillips should be sufficient to awaken interest in the study of American oratory.
DEMOSTHENES. 384 B.C.--322 B.C.
The oratory of Demosthenes remains the most illustrious example of defects overcome by
patient and persevering effort. Afflicted by stammering and other physical short- comings that
would have discouraged the average man, he trained himself so methodically and persistently
that he ultimately became the greatest orator the world has known.
His most famous speech, '"On the Crown," was the outcome of a proposal of Ctesiphon that
Demosthenes should receive a crown of gold in recognition of his services to his country. This
was strongly opposed by AEschines upon the ground that it was illegal. The occasion has
been de- scribed as the greatest combat of eloquence that the world ever witnessed. The
following extract from this speech is of suggestive value:
Certain am I that you are all acquainted with my opponent's character, and believe these
charges to be more applicable to him than to me. And of this I am sure, that my oratory-- let it
be so: tho indeed I find that the speaker's power depends for the most part on the hearers; for
according to your reception and favor it is that the wisdom of a speaker is esteemed --if I,
however, possess any ability of this sort, you will find it has been exhibited always in public
business on your behalf, never against you. or on personal matters; whereas that of
AEschines has been displayed not only in speaking for the enemy, but against all persons
who ever offended or quarreled with him. It is not for justice or the good of the commonwealth that he employs it. A citizen of 'worth and honor should not call upon judges impaneled
in the public service to gratify his anger or hatred, or anything of that kind; nor should he
come before you upon such grounds. The best thing is not to have these feelings; but, if it can
sot be helped, they should be mitigated and restrained.
On what occasions ought an orator and statesman to be vehement? Where any of the
commonwealth's main interests are in jeopardy, and he is opposed to the adversaries of the
people. Those are the occasions for a generous and brave citizen. But for a person who
never sought to punish me for any offense, either public or private, on the State's behalf or on
his own, to have got up an accusation because I am crowned and honored, and to have
expended such a multitude of words --this is a proof of personal enmity and spite and
meanness, not of anything good. And then, his leaving the controversy with me, and attacking
the defendant, comprizes everything that is base.
I should conclude, AEschines, that you undertook this cause to exhibit your eloquence and
strength of lungs, not to obtain satisfaction for any wrong. But it is not the language of an
orator, AEschines, that has any value, nor yet the tone of his voice, but his adopting the same
views with the people, and his hating and loving the same persons that his country does. He
that is thus minded will say everything with loyal intention: he that courts persons from whom
the commonwealth apprehends danger to herself, rides not on the same anchorage with the
people, and therefore has not the same expectation of safety. But--do you see?--I have: for
my objects are the same with those of my countrymen; I have no interest separate or distinct.
Is that so with you? How can it be--when immediately after the battle you went as
ambassador to Philip, who was at that period the author of your country's calamities,
notwithstanding that you had before persisted in refusing that office, as all men know?
And who is it that deceives the State? Surely, the man who speaks not what he thinks. On
whom does the crier pronounce a curse? Surely, on such a man. What greater crime can an
orator be charged with than that his opinions and his language are not the same? Such is
found to be your character. And yet you open your mouth, and dare to look these men in the
faces! Do you think they don't know you? --or are sunk all in such slumber and oblivion as not
to remember the speeches which you delivered in the assembly cursing and swearing that
you had nothing to do with Philip, and that I brought that charge against you out of personal
enmity, without foundation? No sooner came the news of the battle than you forgot all that;
you acknowledged and avowed that between Philip and yourself there subsisted a relation of
hospitality and friendship--new names, these, for your contract of hire. For upon what plea of
equality or justice could AEschines, son of Glaucothea, the timbrel-player, be the friend or
acquaintance of Philip? I can not see. No! You were hired to ruin the interests of your
countrymen: and yet, tho you have been caught yourself in open treason, and informed
against yourself after the fact, you revile and reproach me for things which you will find any
man is chargeable with sooner than I.
CICERO. 106 B.C.--43 B.C.
The great Roman orator has told us in his own words that: "I declare that when I think of the
moment when I shall have to rise and speak in defense of a client, I am not only disturbed in
mind, but tremble in every limb of my body." He, too, overcame a naturally weak and nervous
constitution, by prudent living and exercise. The style of Cicero is worthy of painstaking study.
His method is clear and convincing, his sentences invariably round and sonorous, and all his
speeches are marked by pomp and beauty. From this prince of orators we quote one passage
of his speech wherein he announces Catiline's departure This is a striking use of invective,
when he says:
Happy country, could it be drained of the impurities of this city! To me the absence of Catiline
alone seems to have given it fresh bloom and beauty. Where is the villainy, where is the guilt,
that can enter into the heart and thoughts of man that did not enter into his? In all Italy, what
prisoner, what gladiator, what robber, what cut-throat, what parasite, what forger, what rascal,
what ruffian, what debaucher, is there found among the corrupted, among the abandoned of
our country, that did not own an intimate familiarity with Catiline? Would his companions but
follow him, would his desperate, his profligate band depart from Rome, well might I pronounce
ourselves happy, our country fortunate, and my consulate glorious. For men have now
attained to an extravagance in guilt: their crimes appear not now the crimes of men; as they
are inhuman, so are they intolerable. Murders, burnings, and rapine, now engross their
thoughts. Their patrimonies they have squandered; their fortunes they have gormandized;
long have they been without money, and now they begin to be without credit, while they retain
the rage of desire without the means of enjoyment. Did they, in their revels and gambling, aim
only at the delights of the bowl, their case were indeed desperate; still, it might be borne with,
but who can suffer that the coward should betray the brave, the witless the wise, the sottish
the sober, the indolent the industrious; that lolling at their revels, crowned with garlands,
besmeared with ointments, weakened with debauchery, they should belch out in what manner
the virtuous are to fall under their swords, and this city to sink in flames ?
LORD CHATHAM. 1708--1778
William Pitt, the first Earl of Chatham, was the most distinguished orator of his time. He made
Demosthenes his model, and it is said that he translated into English many of the speeches of
that great orator, in order to acquire an expressive and powerful style. He had splendid
natural endowments in voice and figure, but, nevertheless, devoted himself to assiduous
practise in elocution and public speaking. He has been described as of lofty bearing,
generous in sentiment, with a full-toned, musical voice, and an indescribable power of facial
expression and gesture. Equally qualified to conciliate and subdue, his eloquence has never
been surpassed for boldness and disastrous effects upon an antagonist. One of his best
known speeches is the Reply to Walpole, from which this extract is taken:
The atrocious crime of being a young man, which the honorable gentleman has, with such
spirit and decency, charged upon me, I shall neither attempt to palliate nor deny, but content
myself with wishing that I may be one of those whose follies may cease with their youth, and
not of that number who are ignorant in spite of experience. Whether youth can be imputed to
any man as a reproach, I will not, sir, assume the province of determining; but surely, age
may become justly contemptible if the opportunities which it brings have passed away without
improvement, and vice appears to prevail when the passions have subsided. The wretch who,
after having seen the consequences of a thousand errors, continues still to blunder, and
whose age has only added obstinacy to stupidity, is surely the object 'of either abhorrence or
contempt, and deserves not that his gray hairs should secure him from insult. Much more, sir,
is he to be abhorred who, as he has advanced in age, has receded from virtue and becomes
more wicked with less temptation ; who prostitutes himself for money which he can not enjoy,
and spends the remains of his life in the ruin of his country. But youth, sir. is not my only
crime; I have been accused of acting a theatrical part. A theatrical part may either imply some
peculiarities of gesture, or a dissimulation of my real sentiments and an adoption of the
opinions and language of another man.
In the first sense, sir. the charge is too trifling to be confuted, and deserves only to be
mentioned to be despised. I am at liberty, like every other man, to use my own language; and
tho, perhaps, I may have some ambition to please this gentle- man, I shall not lay myself
under any restraint, nor very solicitously copy his diction or his mien, however matured by age
or modeled by experience. If any man shall, by charging me with theatrical behavior, imply
that I utter any sentiments but my own, I shall treat him as a calumniator and a villain; nor
shall any protection shelter him from the treatment he deserves. I shall, on such an occasion,
without scruple, trample upon all those forms with which wealth and dignity entrench
themselves, nor shall anything but age restrain my resentment-age, which always brings one
privilege, that of being insolent and supercilious without punishment. But, with regard, sir, to
those whom I have offended, I am of opinion that if I had acted a borrowed part I should have
avoided their censure. The heat that offended them is the ardor of conviction, and that zeal for
the service of my country which neither hope nor fear shall influence me to suppress. I will not
sit unconcerned while my liberty is invaded, nor look in silence upon public robbery. I will exert
my endeavors, at whatever hazard, to repel the aggressor and drag the thief to justice,
whoever may protect them in their villainy, and whoever may partake of their plunder.
BURKE. 1730--1797
This eminent Irish orator is best known for his masterly speeches on "Conciliation with
America" and "The Impeachment of Warren Hastings." His delivery, we are told, was marked
by vehemence, passionate earnestness, and impressive power. He excelled in debate where
"in the space of a few moments, he would be pathetic and humorous, acrimonious and
conciliating, now giving vent to his indignant feelings in lofty declamation, and again, almost in
the same breath, convulsing his audience by the most laughable exhibitions of ridicule or
burlesque." Burke was distinguished for his intellectual independence, amplitude of mind, and
prodigious grasp of his subject. The following is one of his many passages of brilliant
eloquence:
All this, I know well enough, will sound wild and chimerical to the profane herd of those vulgar
and mechanical politicians, who have no place among us; a sort of people who think that
nothing exists but what is gross and material, and who, therefore, far from being qualified to
be directors of the great movement of empire, are not fit to turn a wheel in the machine. But to
men truly initiated and rightly taught, these ruling and master principles, which, in the opinion
of such men as I have mentioned, have no substantial existence, are, in truth, everything and
all in all. Magnanimity in politics is not seldom the truest wisdom; and a great empire and little
minds go ill together. If we are conscious of our situation, and glow with zeal to fill our place
as becomes our station and ourselves, we ought to auspicate all our public proceeding on
America with the old warning of the Church, sursum corda! We ought to elevate our minds to
the greatness of that trust to which the order of Providence has called us. By adverting to the
dignity of this high calling, our ancestors have turned a savage wilderness into a glorious
empire, and have made the most extensive and the only honorable conquests, not by
destroying, but by promoting the wealth, the number, the happiness of the human race. Let us
get an American revenue as we have, got an American empire. English privileges have made
it all that it is; English privileges alone will make it all it can be.
PATRICK HENRY. 1736--1799
In this orator we have a conspicuous example of one who gave little promise in youth, yet
rose to great public distinction by force of spirit and character. His victories as an orator were
won slowly at first, but ultimately Patrick Henry became the idol of the people. He was tall,
slight, and dark in appearance, and once upon his feet to speak ho held his head high, while
the entire man seemed to undergo a wonderful transformation. Altho modest and even
hesitating at times, he was one of the most self-possest speakers in the presence of a crisis.
In his famous speech against the Stamp Act in the Virginia House of Burgesses, when there
came from every part of the House the cry of "Treason!" he defiantly exclaimed, "If this be
treason, make the most of it!" His voice was clear and flexible, and his gesture and action
were invariably marked by spirit and animation. When thoroughly aroused, he rose to heights
of grace and mayesty, carrying his audience completely with him by the power of his
passionate and persuasive utterance. The following extract is from his well- known speech
"We, the People, or We, the States?" delivered in the Virginia Convention, June 4, 1788, on
the preamble and the first two sections of the first article of the Federal Constitution:
I repeat it again, and I beg gentlemen to consider, that a wrong step made now, will plunge us
into misery, and our Republic will be lost. It will be necessary for this convention to have a
faithful historical detail of the facts that preceded the session of the Federal Convention, and
the reasons that actuated its members in proposing an entire alteration of government--and to
demonstrate the dangers that awaited us. If they were of such awful magnitude as to warrant
a proposal so extremely perilous as this, I must assert that this convention has an absolute
right to a thorough discovery of every circumstance relative to this great event. And here I
would make this inquiry of those worthy characters who composed a part of the late Federal
Convention. I am sure they were fully imprest with the necessity of forming a great
consolidated government, instead of a confederation. That this is a consolidated government
is demonstrably clear, and the danger of such a government is. to my mind, very striking. I
have the highest veneration for those gentlemen; but, sir. give me leave to demand what right
had they to say, "We, the People?" My political curiosity, exclusive of my anxious solicitude for
the public welfare, leads me to ask who authorized them to speak the language of "We, the
People," instead of "We, the States"? States are the characteristics and the soul of a
confederation. If the States be not the agents of this compact, it must be one great
consolidated national government of the people of all the States. I have the highest respect
for those gentlemen who formed the convention; and were some of them not here, I would
express some testimonial of esteem for them. America had, on a former occasion, put the
utmost confidence in them --a confidence which was well placed; and I am sure, sir, I would
give up anything to them; I would cheerfully confide in them as my representatives. But, sir,
on this great occasion, I would demand the cause of their conduct. Even from that illustrious
man, who saved us by his valor, I would have a reason for his conduct; that liberty which he
has given us by his valor tells me to ask this reason, and sure I am, were he here, he would
give us that reason: but there are other gentlemen here who can give us this information. The
people gave them no power to use their name. That they exceeded their power is perfectly
clear. It is not mere curiosity that actuates me; I wish to hear the real, actual, existing danger,
which should lead us to take those steps so dangerous in my conception. Disorders have
arisen in other parts of America, but here, sir, no dangers, no insurrection or tumult, has
happened; everything has been calm and tranquil. But notwithstanding this, we are wandering
on the great ocean of human affairs. I see no landmark to guide us. We are running, we know
not whither. Difference in opinion has gone to a degree of inflammatory resentment in
different parts of the country, which has been occasioned by this perilous innovation. The
Federal Convention ought to have amended the old system; for this purpose they were solely
delegated: the object of their mission extended to no other consideration. You must, therefore,
forgive the solicitation of one unworthy member to know what danger could have arisen under
the present confederation, and what are the causes of this proposal to change our
government.
BROUGHAM. 1778--1868
The style of Lord Brougham was impetuous, fresh, and energetic. His voice is described as
having been unmusical and often harsh, but his strong individuality and remarkable looks and
gestures enabled him to drive home his thoughts with overwhelming force. When he spoke it
was to strike and strike hard. His robust constitution, natural energy of feeling, and
inexhaustible supply of language, made him a formidable opponent. The close of his
argument for Queen Caroline is in his characteristic style:
Such, my lords, is the ease now before you! Such is the evidence in support of this measure-evidence inadequate to prove a debt; impotent to deprive of a civil right; ridiculous to convict
of the lowest offense; scandalous if brought forward to support a charge of the highest nature
which the law knows; monstrous to ruin the honor, to blast the name of an English Queen!
What shall I say, then, if this is the proof by which an act of judicial legislation, a parliamentary
sentence, an expost facto law, is sought to be passed against this defenseless woman ? My
lords, I pray you to pause. I do earnestly beseech you to take heed! You are standing on the
brink of a precipice --then beware! It will go forth as your judgment, if sentence shall go
against the Queen. But it will be the only judgment you ever pronounced, which, instead of
reaching its object, will return and bound back upon those who give it. Save the country, my
lords, from the horrors of this catastrophe; save yourselves from this peril; rescue that
country, of which you are the ornaments, but in which you can flourish no longer, when
severed from the people, than the blossom when cut off from the roots and the stem of the
tree. Save that country, that you may continue to adorn it; save the crown, which is in
jeopardy; the aristocracy, which is shaken; save the altar, which must stagger with the blow
that rends its kindred throne! You have said, my lords, you have willed--the Church and the
King have willed--that the Queen should be deprived of its solemn service! She has, instead
of that solemnity, the heart- felt prayers of the people. She wants no prayers of mine . But I do
here pour forth my humble supplications at the throne of mercy, that that mercy may be
poured down upon the people, in a larger measure than the merits of its rulers may deserve,
and that your hearts may be turned to justice!
WEBSTER. 1782--1852
The oratorical style of Daniel Webster was deep, massive, and dignified. "Nature had set her
seal of greatness visibly upon him," says a commentator. He was absolutely free from
rhetorical trickery, depending for his power upon rugged common sense. His addresses were
prepared with conscientious care, and were interspersed with felicitous quotations. Tho he
read much, he confined himself to a few books, particularly the Bible, Shakespeare, Milton,
and Burke. He was of commanding appearance, with deep, penetrating eyes, and a voice like
a cathedral organ. He seemed a man of inexhaustible resources, and mingled argument,
logic, wit, and pathos, with masterly effect. One of his most eloquent passages is that in
which, in his commemoration address on the lives and services of John Adams and Thomas
Jefferson, in Faneuil Hall, Boston, August 2, 1826, he describes the oratory of Adams:
The eloquence of Mr. Adams resembled his general character, and formed, indeed, a part of
it. It was bold, manly, and energetic; and such the crisis required. When public bodies are to
be addrest on momentous occasions, when great interests are at stake, and strong passions
excited, nothing is valuable in. speech further than as it is connected with high intellectual and
moral- endowments. Clearness, force, and earnestness are the qualities which produce
conviction. True eloquence, indeed does not consist in speech. It can not be brought from far.
Labor and learning may toil for it, but they will toil in vain. "Words and phrases may be
marshaled in every way, but they can not compass it. It must exist in the man, in the subject,
and in the occasion. Affected passion, intense expression, the pomp of declamation, all may
aspire to it; they can not reach it. It comes, if it come at all, like the outbreaking of a fountain
from the earth, or the bursting forth of volcanic fires, with spontaneous, original, native force.
The graces taught in the schools, the costly ornaments and studied contrivances of speech,
shock and disgust men, when their own lives, and the fate of their wives, their children, and
their country, hang on the decision of the hour. Then words have lost their power, rhetoric is
vain, and all elaborate oratory contemptible. Even genius itself then feels rebuked and
subdued, as in the presence of higher qualities. Then patriotism is eloquent; then selfdevotion is eloquent. The clear conception, outrunning the deductions of logic, the high
purpose, the firm resolve, the dauntless spirit, speaking on the tongue, beaming from the eye,
informing every feature, and urging the whole man onward, right onward to his object--this,
this is eloquence; or rather, it is something greater and higher than all eloquence--it is action,
noble, sublime, godlike action.
EDWARD EVERETT. 1794--1865
In the field of occasional address Edward Everett must be awarded a foremost place. He was
a scholar of unusual attainments, and all his culture was brought to bear upon a speaking
style remarkable for its literary finish and polished precision. Some commentators have
criticized his method of delivery as artificial, but altho he was the studied rhetorician, his
sense of fitness saved him from serious faults of speech or manner. He blended many graces
in one, and his speeches are worthy to be studied as models of oratorical style. The following
extract is from one of his most polished efforts, an address at Amherst College, delivered in
1835, on "Education Favorable to Liberty, Morals and Knowledge":
What is human knowledge? It is the cultivation and improvement of the spiritual principle in
man. We are composed of two elements; the one, a little dust caught up from the earth, to
which we shall soon return: the other, a spark of that divine intelligence, in which and through
which we bear the image of the great Creator. By knowledge, the wings of the intellect are
spread; by ignorance, they are closed and palsied, and the physical passions are left to gain
the ascendency. Knowledge opens all the senses to the wonders of creation; ignorance seals
them up, and leaves the animal propensities unbalanced by reflection, enthusiasm and taste.
To the ignorant man, the glorious pomp of day, the sparkling mysteries of night, the mayestic
ocean, the rushing storm, the plenty-bearing river, the salubrious breeze, the fertile field, the
docile animal tribes, the broad, the various, the unexhausted domain of nature, are a mere
outward pageant, poorly understood in their character and harmony, and prized only so far as
they minister to the supply of sensual wants. How different the scene to the man whose mind
is stored with knowledge! For him the mystery is unfolded, the veils lifted up, as one after
another he turns the leaves of the great volume of Creation, which is filled in every page with
the characters of wisdom, power and love; with lessons of truth the most exalted; with images
of unspeakable loveliness and wonder; arguments of Providence; food for meditation; themes
of praise. One noble science sends him to the barren hills, and teaches him to survey their
broken precipices. Where ignorance beholds nothing but a rough, inorganic mass, instruction
discerns the intelligible record of the primal convulsions of the world; the secrets of ages
before man was; the landmarks of the elemental struggles and throes of what is now the
terraqueous globe. Buried monsters, of which the races are now extinct, are dragged out of
deep strata, dug out of eternal rocks, and brought almost to life, to bear witness to the power
that created them. Before the admiring student of Nature has realized all the wonders of the
elder world, thus, as it were, recreated by science, another delightful instructress, with her
microscope in her hand, bids him sit down and learn at last to know the universe in which he
lives, and contemplate the limbs, the motions, the circulations of races of animals, disporting
in their tempestuous ocean--a drop of water. Then, while his whole soul is penetrated with
admiration of the power which has filled with life, and motion and sense these all but nonresistant atoms--Oh, then, let the divinest of the Muses, let Astronomy approach, and take
him by the hand; let her lead him to the mount of vision; let her turn her heaven-piercing tube
to the sparking vault; through that let him observe the serene star of evening, and see it
transformed into a cloud-encompassed orb, a world of rugged mountains and stormy deeps;
or behold the pale beams of Saturn, lost to the untaught observer amid myriads of brighter
stars, and see them expand into the broad disk of a noble planet--the seven attendant worlds
—the wondrous rings--a mighty system in itself, borne at the rate of twenty-two thousand
miles an hour on its broad pathways through the heavens; and then let him reflect that Saturn
and his stupendous retinue is but a small part, fills, itself, in the general structure of the
universe, but the space of one fist star; and that the power which filled the drop of water with
millions of living beings, is present and active throughout this illimitable creation! Yes, yes, "An
undevout astronomer is mad!"
GLADSTONE. 1809--1898
William Ewart Gladstone has been described as the greatest orator of his time. His voice was
remarkable for its clearness, melody, and carrying power. To a manner always considerately
courteous, he had the rare gift of finding the fitting word and of delivering it with the force of
will rather than that of passion. His fertility of thought enabled him to "think on his feet," so
that he readily gained distinction as an extemporaneous and impromptu speaker. He was
peculiarly free from indulgence in personalities and invective. His sentences, "crisp as the
curling wave, definite as the bullet," were usually delivered with quiet, dignified force, and all
his utterances seemed prompted by a profound sense of duty. The following is the close of his
speech on Home Rule, in the House of Commons, June 7, 1886:
There has been no great day of hope for Ireland, no day when you might hope completely
and definitely to end the controversy, till now--more than ninety years. The long periodic time
has at last run out, and the star has again mounted into the heavens. What Ireland was doing
for herself in 1795 we at length have done. The Roman Catholics have been emancipated-emancipated after a woful disregard of solemn promises through twenty nine years,
emancipated slowly, sullenly, not from good will, but from abject terror, with all the fruits and
consequences which will always follow that method of legislation. The second problem has
been also solved, and the representation of Ireland has been thoroughly reformed; and I am
thankful to say that the franchise was given to Ireland on the readjustment of last year with a
free heart, with an open hand, and the gift of that franchise was the last act required to make
the success of Ireland in her final effort absolutely sure. We have given Ireland a voice; we
must all listen for a moment to what she says. We must all listen, both sides, both parties--I
mean as they are divided on this question--divided, I am afraid, by an almost immeasurable
gap. We do not undervalue or despise the forces opposed to us. I have described them as the
forces of class and its dependants; and that as a general description--as a slight and rude
outline of a description--is, I believe, perfectly true. I do not deny that many are against us
whom we should have expected to be for us. I do not deny that some whom we see against
us have caused us by their conscientious action the bitterest disappointment. You have
power, you have wealth, you have rank, you have station, you have organization. What have
we? We think that we have the people's heart; we believe and we know we have the promise
of the harvest of the future. As to the people's heart, you may dispute it, and dispute it with
perfect sincerity. Let that matter make its own proof. As to the harvest of the future, I doubt if
you have so much confidence, and I believe that there is in the breast of many a man who
means to vote against us to-night a profound misgiving, approaching even to a deep
conviction, that the end will be as we foresee, and not as you do--that the ebbing tide is with
you, and the flowing tide is with us.
Ireland stands at your bar, expectant, hopeful, almost suppliant. Her words are the words of
truth and soberness. She asks a blest oblivion of the past, and in that oblivion our interest is
deeper than even hers. My right honorable friend, the member for East Edinburgh, asks us tonight to abide by the traditions of which we are the heirs. What traditions? By the Irish
traditions? Go into the length and breadth of the world, ransack the literature of all countries,
find, if you can, a single voice, a single book--find, I would almost say, as much as a single
newspaper article, unless the product of the day, in which the conduct of England toward
Ireland is anywhere treated exeept with profound and bitter condemnation. Are these the
traditions by which we are exhorted to stand? No; they are a sad exception to the glory of our
country. They are a broad and black blot upon the pages of its history; and what we want to
do is to stand by the traditions of which we are the heirs in all matters except our relations
with Ireland, and to make our relations with Ireland to conform to the other traditions of our
country. So we treat our traditions--so we hail the demand of Ireland for which I call a blest
oblivion of the past. She asks also a boon for the future; and that boon for the future, unless
we are much mistaken, will be a boon to us in respect of honor, no less than a boon to her in
respect of happiness, prosperity and peace. Such, sir, is her prayer. Think, I beseech you,
think well, think wisely, think, not for the moment, but for the years that are to come, before
you reject this bill.
WENDELL PHILLIPS. 1811--1884
This great orator is best known for his unparalleled speeches in behalf of the anti-slavery
cause. He is a splendid example of a speaker achieving the greatest effects by the simplest
means. His style was distinguished for its naturalness and conversational simplicity. What
most imprest the hearer was the undoubted earnestness and nobility of character of this
eminent patriot. Wendell Phillips will ever be known as one "with a soul as firm and as true as
was ever consecrated to unselfish duty.'' From his Eulogy of William Lloyd Garrison, delivered
at the funeral of Garrison, May 28, 1879, we quote this eloquent conclusion:
And he never grew old. The tabernacle of flesh grew feebler, and the step was less elastic.
But the ability to work, the serene faith and unflagging hope, suffered no change. To the day
of his death he was as ready as in his boyhood to confront and defy a mad majority. The keen
insight and clear judgment never failed him. His tenacity of purpose never weakened. He
showed nothing either of the intellectual sluggishness or the timidity of age. The bugle call
which last year woke the nation to its peril and duty on the Southern question showed all the
old fitness to lead and mold a people's course. Younger men might be confused or dazed by
plausible pretensions, and half the North was befooled; but the old pioneer detected the false
ring as quickly as in his youth. The words his dying hand traced, welcoming the Southern
exodus and foretelling its result, had all the defiant courage and prophetic solemnity of his
youngest and boldest days.
Serene, fearless, marvelous man! Mortal, with so few shortcomings !
Farewell, for a very little while, noblest of Christian men! Leader, brave, tireless, unselfish!
When the ear heard thee, then it blest thee; the eye that saw thee gave witness to thee. More
truly than it could ever heretofore be said since the great patriarch wrote it, "The blessing of
Him that was ready to perish" was thine eternal great reward.
Tho the clouds rest for a moment to-day on the great work that you set your heart to
accomplish, you knew, God in His love let you see, that your work was done; that one thing,
by his blessing on your efforts, is fixt beyond the possibility of change. While that ear could
listen, God gave what He has so rarely given to man, the plaudits and prayers of four millions
of victims, thanking you for emancipation; and through the clouds of to-day your heart, as it
ceased to beat, felt certain, that, whether one flag or two shall rule this continent in time to
come, one thing is settled--it never henceforth can be trodden by a slave!
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AFTER-DINNER SPEECHES WOMAN
BY CHAUNCEY M. DEPEW
Mr. President:--I know of no act of my life which justifies your assertion that I am an expert on
this question. I can very well understand why it is that the toast to '' Woman'' should follow the
toast to '' the Press.'' [Laughter.] I am called upon to respond to the best, the most suggestive,
and the most important sentiment which has been delivered this evening, at this midnight
hour, when the varied and ceaseless flow of eloquence has exhausted subjects and
audience, when the chairs are mainly vacant, the bottles empty, and the oldest veteran and
most valiant Roman of us all scarce dares meet the doom he knows awaits him at home.
[Laughter.] Bishop Berkeley, when he wrote his beautiful verses upon our Western World, and
penned the line, "Time's noblest offspring is the last," described not so nearly our prophetic
future as the last and best creation of the Almighty--woman-- whom we both love and worship.
[Applause.] We have here the President of the United States and the General of our armies;
around these tables is gathered a galaxy of intellect, genius and achievement seldom
presented on any occasion, but none of them would merit the applause we so enthusiastically
bestow, or have won their high honors, had they not been guided or inspired by the woman
they revered or loved.
I have noticed one peculiarity about the toasts this evening very remarkable in the New
England Society: every one of them is a quotation from Shakespeare. If Elder Brewster and
Carver and Cotton Mather, the early divines of Massachusetts, and the whole colony of
Plymouth could have been collected together in general assembly, and have seen with
prophetic vision the flower of their descendants celebrating the virtues of this ancestry in
sentiments every one of which was couched in the language of a playwright, what would they
have said? [Laughter.] This imagination can not compass the emotions and the utterances of
the occasion. But I can understand why this has been done. It is because the most versatile
and distinguished actor upon our municipal stage is the president of the New England
Society. [Laughter and applause.] We live in an age when from the highest offices of our city
the incumbent seeks the stage to achieve his greatest honors. [Laughter.] I see now our
worthy president, Mr. Bailey, industriously thumbing his Shakespeare to select these toasts.
He admires the airy grace and flitting beauty of Titania; he weeps over the misfortunes of
Desdemona and Ophelia. Each individual hair stands on end as he contemplates the
character of Lady Macbeth; but as he spends his night with Juliet, he softly murmurs, "Parting
is such sweet sorrow." [Loud laughter.]
You know that it is a physiological fact that boys take after their mothers, and reproduce the
characteristics and intellectual qualities of the maternal, and not the paternal, side. Standing
here in the presence of the most worthy representatives of Plymouth, and knowing, as I do,
your moral and mental worth, the places you fill, and the commercial, financial, humane, and
catholic impetus you give to our metropolitan life, how can I do otherwise than on bended
knee reverence the New England mothers who gave you birth! [Applause.] Your president, in
his speech to- night, spoke of himself as a descendant of John Alden. In my judgment,
Priscilla uttered the sentiment which gave the Yankee the key-note of success, and
condensed the primal elements of his character, when she said to John Alden, "Prythee, why
don't you speak for yourself, John?" [Laughter.] That motto has been the spear in the rear and
the star in the van of the New Englander's progress.
It has made him the most audacious, self-reliant, and irrepressible member of the human
family; and for illustration we need look no farther than the present descendant of Priscilla and
John Alden. [Laughter and applause.]
The only way I can reciprocate your call at this late hour is to keep you here as long as I can. I
think I see now the descendant of a Mayflower immortal who has been listening here to the
glories of his ancestry, and learning that he is "the heir of all the ages," as puffed and swollen
with pride of race and history, he stands solitary and alone upon his doorstep, reflects on his
broken promise of an early return, and remembers that within "there is a divinity which shapes
his end." [Applause and laughter.]
In all ages woman has been the source of all that is pure, unselfish, and heroic in the spirit
and life of man. It was for love that Antony lost a world. It was for love that Jacob worked
seven long years, and for seven more; and I have often wondered what must have been his
emotions when on the morning of the eighth year he awoke and found the homely, scrawny,
bony Leah in- stead of the lovely and beautiful presence of his beloved Eachel. [Laughter.] A
distinguished French philosopher answered the narrative of every event with the question,
"Who was she?" Helen conquered Troy, plunged all the nations of antiquity into war, and gave
that earliest, as it is still the grandest, epic which has come down through all time. Poetry and
fiction are based upon woman's love, and the movements of history are mainly due to the
sentiments or ambitions she has inspired. Semiramis, Zenobia, Queen Elizabeth, claim a cold
and distant admiration; they do not touch the heart. But when Florence Nightingale, or Grace
Darling, or Ida Lewis, unselfish and unheralded, peril all to succor and to save, the
profoundest and holiest emotions of our nature render them tribute and homage. [Applause.]
Mr. President, there is no aspiration which any man here to-night entertains, no achievement
he seeks to accomplish, no great and honorable ambition he desires to gratify, which is not
directly related to either or both a mother or a wife. [Applause.] From the hearth-stone around
which linger the recollections of our mother, from the fireside where our wife awaits us, come
all the purity, all the hope, and all the courage with which we fight the battle of life. [Applause.]
The man who is not thus inspired, who labors not so much to secure the applause of the
world as the solid and more precious approval of his home, accomplishes little of good for
others or of honor for himself. I close with the hope that each of us may always have near us,
'' A perfect woman, nobly planned, To warn, to comfort, and command, And yet a spirit still,
and bright With something of an angel light.''
AFTER-DINNER SPEECH
BY SIR HENRY LYTTON BULWER
Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, if it be true, that I have been so fortunate as to contribute in any
way to the friendly relations which at present exist between the two countries, it is simply
because I have taken a plain, downright course for effecting this subject. The fact of it is,
gentlemen, that, according to old customs, when any causes for difference, however slight,
existed between our two governments, down sat Her mayesty's representative at his desk,
and down sat the United States Secretary of State, and each penned to the other very pith
and pertinent dispatches, showing the great motives for grievance there on both sides, and
then those dispatches were carefuly circulated throughout both countries, but when there
were only causes for mutual good- will and satisfaction, no one thought it worth while to take
notice of so simple a fact, nor to state to the English and American public what strong
reasons, both in sentiment and interest, there existed, for their maintaining the closest and
most friendly relations with each other. This was the old school of diplomacy, gentlemen; but I
am of the new school--and my theory and practise are just the reverse of what I have been
describing. I am for keeping as quiet as possible all those small differences which must
occasionally take place between any two great States, having vast and complicated interests;
but which differences are always easy of adjustment when they are not aggravated by
unfriendly and untimely discussion. And I am for making as public as possible, on all
occasions, those great points of union that must connect two nations, which not only, as my
honorable friend Mr. Lawrence has said, have one origin, and speak one language, but which
also transact their greatest amount of business with each other. Why, gentlemen, in what
possible manner can difficulties of serious character arise between two nations thus situated,
except through mutual prejudices, which, having been suffered to grow up, will be apt, until
eradicated, to create a wrong impression as to the real policy and feelings of the one and the
other ? My endeavors, then, gentlemen, have been to remove all such prejudices; ay, and to
replace them by sympathies. For this purpose, as my friend Mr. "Walker justly said, I have
addrest myself not merely to the American mind, but to the American heart. For this purpose, I
have thought it essential, not merely to correspond formally with your State Department, but
also to have frank and free communication with your noble and intelligent people. For this
purpose I have mixed with your public men, studied your institutions, taken an interest in your
affairs, par- taken of your festivities, conformed to your habits, and always been willing, not
only to eat a good dinner with you, but to make a bad speech after one. Gentlemen, I should
be quite satisfied to take, as my reward for these efforts, the eloquent and far more than
deserved ecomium which has been passed upon me by the distinguished gentle- man who
proposed the toast I am responding to. But my mission had also another reward--another
result--which, if I am not wearying you, I will state as being not only interesting to our two
communities, but to the world at large; I mean a treaty by which Great Britain and the United
States, without infringing on the rights of the humblest individual or the smallest State, have
agreed, on one condition, to protect the construction and guarantee the security when
constructed, of any canal or railway which may open a passage across Central America,
between the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean. And what was that one condition on which our two
governments thus insisted? Why, that they should not, either separately or conjointly, possess
one single privilege or advantage, with respect to such canal or railway, which should not be
offered, on equal terms, to every other nation on the face of the globe. Gentlemen, I do
confess that I am proud that such a treaty as this should have been entered into by the United
States and Great Britain; and I will also add that I have an humble pride in stating that one of
the signatures attached to that convention is the name of the individual who has now the
honor of addressing you. Gentlemen, I lay a great stress upon this fact, because I felt when I
signed that instrument to which I am referring, that I laid the foundation stone of a great and
equitable alliance between our two countries--an alliance which should not have for its object
the wronging or despoiling, but the benefiting and protecting the rest of mankind; and surely,
gentlemen, if such a union were ever required, it is at this moment--for at this moment the
world is, as it were, violently vibrating between two extremes, and appears of necessity to
demand some regulating influence, to moderate and steady its oscillations--and where,
gentlemen, can such an influence be better found than in the cordial union of Great Britain
and the United States? It is true that you live under a republic, and we under a monarchy; but
what of that? The foundations of both societies are law and religion. The purpose of both
governments is liberty and order. The more you love your Republic, gentlemen, the more you
detest those principles of confusion and division which would destroy it. The more we love our
Monarchy, the more we cherish and cling to those principles of equity and freedom which
preserve it. In this, indeed, lies the great moral strength of our close connection. Hand in
hand, we can stand together, alike opposed to the anarchist, who calls himself the friend of
the people, and to the absolutist, who calls himself the friend of the throne. Long, then,
gentlemen, let us thus stand together, the champions of peace between nations, of
conciliation between opinions --and if notwithstanding our example and our efforts, the
trumpet of war should sound, and that war to which it calls us should be a war of opinion, why,
still let us stand together. Our friends, in that day of conflict, shall be chosen from the most
wise, the most moderate, and the most just; nor, while we plant the red cross of England by
the side of the stars and stripes of America, do I for one instant doubt that we shall leave
recollections to our posterity worthy of those which we have inherited from our ancestors.
THE QUALITIES THAT WIN
BY CHARLES SUMNER
Mr. President and Brothers op New England:--For the first time in my life I have the good
fortune to enjoy this famous anniversary festival. Tho often honored by your most tempting
invitation, and longing to celebrate the day in this goodly company of which all have heard so
much, I could never excuse myself from duties in another place. If now I yield to well-known
attractions, and journey from Washington for my first holiday during a protracted public
service, it is because all was enhanced by the appeal of your excellent president, to whom I
am bound by the friendship of many years in Boston, in New York, and in a foreign land.
[Applause.] It is much to be a brother of New England, but it is more to be a friend [applause],
and this tie I have pleasure in confessing to-night.
It is with much doubt and humility that I venture to answer for the Senate of the United States,
and I believe the least I say on this head will be most prudent. [Laughter.] But I shall be
entirely safe in expressing my doubt if there is a single Senator who would not be glad of a
seat at this generous banquet. What is the Senate? It is a component part of the National
Government. But we celebrate to-day more than any component part of any government. We
celebrate an epoch in the history of mankind--not only never to be forgotten, but to grow in
grandeur as the world appreciates the elements of true greatness. Of mankind I say--for the
landing on Plymouth Rock, on December 22, 1620, marks the origin of a new order of ages,
by which the whole human family will be elevated. Then and there was the great beginning.
Throughout all time, from the dawn of history, men have swarmed to found new homes in
distant lands. The Tyrians. skirting Northern Africa, stopt at Carthage; Carthaginians dotted
Spain, and even the distant coasts of Britain and Ireland; Greeks gemmed Italy and Sicily with
art-loving settlements; Rome carried multitudinous colonies with her conquering eagles.
Saxons, Danes and Normans violently mingled with the original Britons. And in more modern
times, Venice. Genoa, Portugal, Spain, Prance, and England, all sent forth emigrants to
people foreign shores. But in these various expeditions, trade or war was the impelling
motive. Too often commerce and conquest moved hand in hand, and the colony was
incarnadined with blood.
On the day we celebrate, the sun for the first time in his course looked down upon a different
scene, begun and continued under a different inspiration. A few conscientious Englishmen, in
obedience to the monitor within, and that they might be free to worship God according to their
own sense of duty, set sail for the unknown wilds of the North American continent. After a
voyage of sixty-four days in the ship Mayflower, with Liberty at the prow and Conscience at
the helm [applause], they sighted the white sandbanks of Cape Cod, and soon thereafter in
the small cabin framed that brief compact, forever memorable, which is the first written
constitution of government in human history, and the very corner-stone of the American
Republic; and then these Pilgrims landed.
This compact was only foremost in time, it was also august in character, and worthy of
perpetual example. Never before had the object of the "civil body public" been announced as
"to enact, constitute, and frame such just and equal laws and ordinances, acts, constitutions,
and offices from time to time as shall be thought most meet and convenient for the general
good of the colony." How lofty! how true! Undoubtedly, these were the grandest words of
government with the largest promise of any at that time uttered.
If more were needed to illustrate the new epoch, it would be found in the parting words of the
venerable pastor, John Robinson, addrest to the Pilgrims, as they were about to sail from
Delfshaven--words often quoted, yet never enough. How sweetly and beautifully he says:
"And if God should reveal anything to you by any other instrument of his, be as ready to
receive it as ever you were to receive any truth by my ministry; but I am confident that the
Lord hath more light and truth yet to break forth out of his holy word." And then how justly the
good preacher rebukes those who close their souls to truth! "The Lutherans, for example, can
not be drawn to go beyond what Luther saw, and whatever part of God's will he hath further
imparted to Calvin, they will rather die than embrace, and so the Calvinists stick where he left
them. This is a misery much to be lamented, for tho they were precious, shining lights in their
times, God hath not revealed his whole will to them." Beyond the merited rebuke, here is a
plain recognition of the law of human progress little discerned at the time, which teaches the
sure advance of the human family, and opens the vista of the ever-broadening, never-ending
future on earth.
Our Pilgrims were few and poor. The whole outfit of this historic voyage, including £1.700 of
trading stock, was only £2,400, and how little was required for their succor appears in the
experience of the soldier, Captain Miles Standish, who. being sent to England for assistance
—not military, but financial--(God save the mark!), succeeded in borrowing--how much do you
suppose?--£150 sterling. [Laughter.] Something in the way of help; and the historian adds,
"tho at fifty per cent, interest." So much for a valiant soldier on a financial expedition.
[Laughter, in which General Sherman and the company joined. J A later agent, Allerton, was
able to borrow for the colony £200 at a reduced interest of thirty per cent. Plainly, the moneysharks of our day may trace an undoubted pedigree to these London merchants. [Laughter.]
But I know not if any son of New England, opprest by exorbitant interest, will be consoled by
the thought that the Pilgrims paid the same.
And yet this small people--so obscure and outcast in condition--so slender in numbers and in
means--so entirely unknown to the proud and great--so absolutely without name in
contemporary records--whose departure from the Old World took little more than the breath of
their bodies --are now illustrious beyond the lot of men; and the May- flower is immortal
beyond the Grecian Argo, or the stately ship of any victorious admiral. Tho this was little
foreseen in their day, it is plain now how it has come to pass. The highest greatness surviving
time and storm is that which proceeds from the soul of man. [Applause.] Monarchs and
cabinets, generals and admirals, with the pomp of courts and the circumstance of war, in the
gradual lapse of time disappear from sight; but the pioneers of truth, tho poor and lowly,
especially those whose example elevates human nature and teaches the rights of man, so
that government of the people, by the people, and for the people shall not perish from the
earth [great applause], such harbingers can never be forgotten, and their renown spreads
coextensive with the cause they served.
I know not if any whom I now have the honor of addressing have thought to recall the great in
rank and power filling the gaze of the world as the Mayflower, with her company, fared forth
on their adventurous voyage. The foolish James was yet on the English throne, glorying that
he had "peppered the Puritans." The morose Louis XIII, through whom Richelieu ruled, was
King of France. The imbecile Philip III swayed Spain and the Indies. The persecuting
Ferdinand the Second, tormentor of Protestants, was Emperor of Germany. Paul V, of the
House of Borghese, was Pope of Rome. In the same princely company, and all
contemporaries, were Christian IV, King of Den- mark, and his son Christian, Prince of
Norway; Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden; Sigismund the Third, King of Poland;
Frederick, King of Bohemia, with his wife, the unhappy Elizabeth of England, progenitor of the
House of Hanover; George William, Margrave of Brandenburg, and the ancestor of the
Prussian house that has given an emperor to Germany; Maximilian, Duke of Bavaria;
Maurice, Landgrave of Hesse: Christian. Duke of Brunswick and Lunenburg; John Frederick,
Duke of Wiirtemberg and Teck; John, Count of Nassau; Henry, Duke of Lorraine: Isabella,
Infanta of Spain and ruler of the Low Countries; Maurice, fourth Prince of Orange; Charles
Emanuel, Duke of Savoy and ancestor of the King of United Italy; Cosmo de Medici, third
Grand Duke of Florence; Antonio Priuli, ninety-third Doge of Venice, just after the terrible
tragedy commemorated on the English stage as "Venice Pre- served"; Bethlehem Gabor,
Prince of Unitarian Transylvania, and elected King of Hungary, with the countenance of an
African; and the Sultan Mustapha, of Constantinople, twentieth ruler of the Turks.
Such at that time were the crowned sovereigns of Europe, whose names were mentioned
always with awe, and whose countenances are handed down by art, so that at this day they
are visible to the curious as if they walked these streets. Mark now the contrast. There was no
artist for our forefathers, .nor are their countenances now known to men; but more than any
powerful contemporaries at whose tread the earth trembled is their memory sacred.
[Applause.] Pope, emperor, king, sultan, grand-duke, duke, doge, margrave, landgrave,
count--what are they all by the side of the humble company that landed on Plymouth Rock?
Theirs, indeed, were the ensigns of worldly power,
but our Pilgrims had in themselves that inborn virtue which was more than all else besides,
and their landing was an epoch.
Who in the imposing troop of worldly grandeur is now remembered with indifference or
contempt? If I except Gustavus Adolphus, it is because he revealed a superior character.
Confront the Mayflower and the Pilgrims with the potentates who occupied such space in the
world. The former are ascending into the firmament, there to shine forever, while the latter
have been long dropping into the darkness of oblivion, to be brought forth only to point a
moral or illustrate the fame of contemporaries whom they regarded not. [Applause.] Do I err in
supposing this an illustration of the supremacy which belongs to the triumphs of the moral
nature ? At first impeded or postponed, they at last prevail. Theirs is a brightness which,
breaking through all clouds, will shine forth with ever- increasing splendor.
I have often thought that if I were a preacher, if I had the honor to occupy the pulpit so grandly
filled by my friend near me [gracefully inclining toward Mr. Beecher], one of my sermons
should be from the text, "A little leaven shall leaven the whole lump." Nor do I know a better
illustration of these words than the influence exerted by our Pilgrims. That small band, with
the lesson of self- sacrifice, of just and equal laws, of the government of a majority of
unshrinking loyalty to principle, is now leavening this whole continent, and in the fulness of
time will leaven the world. [Great applause.] By their example, republican institutions have
been commended, and in proportion as we imitate them will these institutions be assured.
[Applause.]
Liberty, which we so much covet, is not a solitary plant. Always by its side is Justice.
[Applause.] But Justice is nothing but right applied to human affairs. Do not forget, I entreat
you, that with the highest morality is the highest liberty. A great poet, in one of his inspired
sonnets, speaking of this priceless possession, has said, "But who loves that must first be
wise and good.'' Therefore do the Pilgrims in their beautiful example teach liberty, teach
republican institutions, as at an earlier day Socrates and Plato, in their lessons of wisdom,
taught liberty and helped the idea of the republic. If republican government has thus far failed
in any experiment, as, perhaps, some- where in Spanish America, it is because these lessons
have been wanting. There have been no Pilgrims to teach the moral law.
Mr. President, with these thoughts, which I imperfectly express, I confess my obligations to
the forefathers of New England, and offer to them the homage of a grateful heart. But not in
thanksgiving only would I celebrate their memory. I would if I could make their example a
universal lesson, and stamp it upon the land. [ Applause. ] The conscience which directed
them should be the guide for our public councils. The just and equal laws which they required
should be ordained by us. and the hospitality to truth which was their rule should be ours. Nor
would I forget their courage and stedfastness. Had they turned back or wavered, I know not
what would have been the record of this continent, but I see clearly that a great example
would have been lost. [Applause.] Had Columbus yielded to his mutinous crew and returned
to Spain without his great discovery; had Washington shrunk away disheartened by British
power and the snows of New Jersey, these great instances would have been wanting for the
encouragement of men. But our Pilgrims belong to the same heroic company, and their
example is not less precious. [Applause.]
Only a short time after the landing on Plymouth Rock, the great republican poet, John Milton,
wrote his "Cosmus," so wonderful for beauty and truth. His nature was more refined than that
of the Pilgrims, and yet it requires little effort of imagination to catch from one of them, or at
least from their beloved pastor, the exquisite, almost angelic words at the close—
"Mortals, who would follow me, Love Virtue; she alone is free; She can teach ye how to climb
Higher than the sphery chime. Or if Virtue feeble were. Heaven itself would stoop to her."
BEHOLD THE AMERICAN
BY THOMAS DE WITT TALMAGE
Mr. President, and All You Good New Englanders :-- If we leave to the evolutionists to guess
where we came from and to the theologians to prophesy where we are going to, we still have
left for consideration the fact that we are here; and we are here at an interesting time. Of all
the centuries this is the best century, and of all the decades of the century this is the best
decade, and of all the years of the decade this is the best year, and of all the months of the
year this is the best month, and of all the nights of the month this is the best night. [Applause
and laughter. ] Many of these advantages we trace straight back to Forefathers' Day, about
which 1 am to speak.
But I must not introduce a new habit into these New England dinners and confine myself to
the one theme. For eighty-one years your speakers have been accustomed to make the toast
announced the point from which they start, but to which they never return. [Laughter.] So I
shall not stick to my text, but only be particular to have all I say my own, and not make the
mistake of a minister whose sermon was a patchwork from a variety of authors, to whom he
gave no credit. There was an intoxicated wag in the audience who had read about everything,
and he announced the authors as the minister went on. The clergyman gave an extract
without any credit to the author, and the man in the audience cried out: "That's Jeremy
Taylor." The speaker went on and gave an extract from another author without credit for it,
and the man in the audience said: " That is John "Wesley." The minister gave an extract from
another author without credit for it, and the man in the audience said: "That is George White
field." When the minister lost his patience and cried out, '' Shut up, you old fool!'' the man in
the audience replied: "That is your own." [Laughter.]
Well, what about this Forefathers' Day? In Brooklyn they say the Landing of the Pilgrims was
December the 21st; in New York you say it was December 22d. You are both right. Not
through the specious and artful reasoning you have sometimes indulged in, but by a little
historical incident that seems to have escaped your attention. You see, the Forefathers landed
in the morning of December the 21st, but about noon that day a pack of hungry wolves swept
down the bleak American beach looking for a New England dinner [laughter], and a band of
savages out for a tomahawk picnic hove in sight, and the Pilgrim Fathers thought it best for
safety and warmth to go on board the Mayflower and pass the night. [Renewed laughter.] And
during the night there came up a strong wind blowing off shore that swept the Mayflower from
its moorings clear out to sea, and there was a prospect that our Forefathers, having escaped
oppression in foreign lands, would yet go down under an oceanic tempest. But the next day
they fortunately got control of their ship and steered her in, and the second time the
Forefathers stept ashore.
Brooklyn celebrated the first landing; New York the second landing. So I say, Hail! Hail! to
both celebrations, for one day, anyhow, could not do justice to such a subject; and I only wish
I could have kissed the blarney stone of America, which is Plymouth Rock, so that I might
have done justice to this subject. [Laughter and applause.] Ah, gentlemen, that Mayflower
was the ark that floated the deluge of oppression, and Plymouth Rock was the Ararat on
which it landed.
But let me say that these Forefathers were of no more importance than the Foremothers.
[Applause.] As I understand it, there were eight of them--that is, four fathers and four
mothers--from whom all these illustrious New Englanders descended. Now, I was not born in
New England, tho far back my ancestors lived in Connecticut. and then crossed over to Long
Island and there joined the Dutch, and that mixture of Yankee and Duteh makes royal blood.
[Applause.] Neither is perfect without the other,
the Yankee in a man's nature saying. "Go ahead!" the
Dutch in his blood saying, "Be prudent while you do go ahead!'' Some people do not
understand why Long Island was stretched along parallel with all of the Connecticut coast. I
have no doubt that it was so placed that the Dutch might watch the Yankees. [Laughter.]
But tho not born in New England, in my boyhood I had a New England schoolmaster, whom I
shall never forget. He taught us our A, B, C 's. " What is that ?" " I don't know, sir." "That's A"
[with a slap]. "What is that?" "I don't know, sir." [With a slap]. "That is B." [Laughter.] I tell you,
a boy that learned his letters in that way never forgot them; and if the boy was particularly
dull, then this New England schoolmaster would take him over the knee, and then the boy got
his information from both directions. [Renewed laughter.]
But all these things aside, no one sitting at these tables has higher admiration for the Pilgrim
Fathers than I have --the men who believed in two great doctrines, which are the foundation
of every religion that is worth anything: namely, the fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of
man--these men of backbone and endowed with that great and magnificent attribute of stickto-it-iveness. Macaulay said that no one ever sneered at the Puritans who had met them in
halls of debate, or crossed swords with them on the field of battle. [Applause.] They are
sometimes defamed for their rigorous Sabbaths, but our danger is in the opposite direction of
no Sabbaths at all. It is said that they destroyed witches. I wish that they had cleared them all
out, for the world is full of witches yet, and if at all these tables there is a man who has not
sometimes been bewitched, let him hold up his glass of ice-water. [Laughter.] It is said that
these Forefathers carried religion into everything, and before a man kissed his wife he asked
a blessing, and afterward said: "Having received another favor from the Lord, let us return
thanks." [Laughter.] But our great need now is more religion in every-day life.
I think their plain diet had much to do with their ruggedness of nature. They had not as many
good things to eat as we have, and they had better digestion. Now, all the evening some of
our best men sit with an awfully bad feeling at the pits of their stomachs, and the food taken
fails to assimilate, and in the agitated digestive organs the lamb and the cow lie down
together and get up just as they have a mind to. [Laughter.] After dinner I sat down with my
friend to talk. He had for many years been troubled with indigestion. I felt guilty when I
insisted on his taking that last piece of lemon pie. I knew that pastry always made him crusty.
I said to him: "I never felt better in all my life; how do you feel?" And putting one hand over
one piece of lemon pie and the other hand over the other piece of lemon pie, he said: "I feel
miserable." Smaller varieties of food had the old Fathers, but it did them more good.
Still, take it all in all, I think the descendants of the Pilgrim Fathers are as good as their
ancestors, and in many ways better. Children are apt to be an echo of their ancestors. We are
apt to put a halo around the Forefathers, but I expect that at our age they were very much like
ourselves. People are not wise when they long for the good old days. They say: "Just think of
the pride of people at this day! Just look at the ladies' hats!" [Laughter.] Why, there is nothing
in the ladies' hats of to-day equal to the coal-scuttle hats a hundred years ago. They say:
"Just look at the way people dress their hair!" Why, the extremest style of today will not equal
the top-knots which our great-grandmothers wore, put up with high combs that we should
think would have made our great-grandfathers die with laughter. The hair was lifted into a
pyramid a foot high. On the top of that tower lay a white rose. Shoes of bespangled white kid,
and heels two or three inches high. Grandfather went out to meet her on the floor with a coat
of sky-blue silk, and vest of white satin, embroidered with gold lace, lace ruffles around his
wrist, and his hair flung in a queue. The great George Washington had his horse's hoofs
blackened when about to appear on a parade, and writes to Europe, ordering sent for the use
of himself and family, one silver-lace hat, one pair of silver shoe-buckles, a coat made of
fashionable silk, one pair of gold sleeve-buttons, six pairs of kid gloves, one dozen most
fashionable cambric pocket-handkerchiefs, besides ruffles and tucker. That was George.
[Laughter.]
Talk about dissipations, ye who have ever seen the old-fashioned sideboard! Did I not have
an old relative who always, when visitors came, used to go upstairs and take a drink, through
economical habits, not offering anything to his visitors? [Laughter.] On the old-fashioned
training days the most sober men were apt to take a day to themselves. Many of the familiar
drinks of today were unknown to them, but their hard eider, mint julep, metheglin, hot toddj-,
and lemonade in which the lemon was not at all prominent, sometimes made lively work for
the broad- brimmed hats and silver knee-buckles. Talk of dissipating parties of to-day and
keeping of late hours! Why, did they not have their "bees" and sausage-stuffings and teaparties and dances, that for heartiness and uproar utterly eclipsed all the waltzes, lanciers,
redowas, and breakdowns of the nineteenth century, and they never went home till morning.
As to the old-time courtships, oh, my! Washington Irving describes them. [Laughter.]
But tho your Forefathers may not have been much, if any, better than yourselves, let us extol
them for the fact that they started this country in the right direction. They laid the foundation
for American manhood. The foundation must be more solid and firm and unyielding than any
other part of the structure. On that Puritanic foundation we can safely build all nationalities.
[Applause.] Let us remember that the coming American is to be an admixture of all foreign
bloods. In about twenty-five or fifty years the model American will step forth. He will have the
strong brain of the German, the polished manners of the French, the artistic taste of the
Italian, the stanch heart of the English, the steadiest piety of the Scotch, the lightning wit of
the Irish, and when he steps forth, bone, muscle, nerve, brain entwined with the fibers of all
nationalities, the nations will break out in the cry: "Behold the American!" [Applause.]
Columbus discovered only the shell of this country. Agassiz came and discovered fossiliferous
America. Silliman came and discovered geological America. Audubon came and discovered
bird America. Longfellow came and discovered poetic America; and there are a half-dozen
other Americas yet to be discovered.
I never realized what this country was and is, as on the day when I first saw some of these
"gentlemen of the army and navy. It was when, at the close of the war, our armies came back
and marched in review before the President's stand at Washington. I do not care whether a
man was a Republican or a Democrat, a Northern man or a Southern man, if he had any
emotion of nature, he could not look upon it without weeping. God knew that the day was
stupendous, and He declared the heaven of cloud and mist and chill, and sprung the blue sky
as the triumphal arch for the returning warriors to pass under. From Arlington Heights the
spring foliage shook out its welcome, as the hosts came over the hills, and the sparkling
waters of the Potomac tossed their gold to the feet of the battalions as they came to the Long
Bridge, and in almost interminable line passed over. The Capitol never seemed so mayestic
as that morning: snowy white, looking down upon the tides of men that came surging down,
billow after billow. Passing in silence, yet I heard in every step the thunder of conflicts through
which they had waded, and seemed to see dripping from their smoke-blackened flags the
blood of our country's martyrs. For the best part of two days we stood and watched the filing
on of what seemed endless battalions, brigade after brigade, division after division, host after
host, rank beyond rank; ever moving, ever passing ; marching, marching; tramp, tramp, tramp
—thousands after thousands, battery front, arms shouldered, columns solid, shoulder to
shoulder, wheel to wheel, charger to charger, nostril to nostril.
Commanders on horses with their manes entwined with roses, and necks enchained with
garlands, fractious at the shouts that ran along the line, increasing from the clapping of
children clothed in white, standing on the steps of the Capitol, to the tumultuous vociferation
of hundreds of thousands of enraptured multitudes, crying "Huzza! Huzza!" Gleaming
muskets, thundering parks of artillery, rumbling pontoon wagons, ambulances from whose
wheels seemed to sound out the groans of the crusht and the dying that they had carried.
These men came from balmy Minnesota, those from Illinois prairies. These were often
hummed to sleep by the pines of Oregon, those were New England lumbermen. Those came
out of the coal- shafts of Pennsylvania. Side by side in one great cause, consecrated through
fire and storm and darkness, brothers in peril, on their way home from Chancellorsville and
Kenesaw Mountain and Frederieksburg, in lines that seemed infinite they passed on.
We gazed and wept and wondered, lifting up our heads to see if the end had come, but no!
Looking from one end of that long avenue to the other, we saw them yet in solid column,
battery front, host beyond host, wheel to wheel, charger to charger, nostril to nostril, coming
as it were from under the Capitol. Forward! Forward! Their bayonets, caught in the sun,
glimmered and flashed and blazed, till they seemed like one long river of silver, ever and anon
changed into a river of fire. No end to the procession, no rest for the eye. We turned our
heads from the scene, unable longer to look. We felt disposed to stop our ears, but still we
heard it, marching, marching; tramp, tramp, tramp. But hush--uncover every head! Here they
pass, the remnant of ten men of a full regiment. Silence! Widowhood and orphanage look on
and wring their hands. But wheel into line, all ye people! North, South, East, West--all
decades, all centuries, all millenniums! Forward, the whole line! Huzza! Huzza! [Great
applause.]
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COMMEMORATIVE SPEECHES
WASHINGTON'S INAUGURATION
BY CHAUNCEY M. DEPEW
We celebrate today the centenary of our nationality. One hundred years ago the United States
began their existence. The powers of the government were assumed by the people of the
Republic, and they began to be the sole source of authority. The solemn ceremonial of the
first inauguration, the reverent oath of Washington, the acclaim of the multitude greeting their
President, marked the most unique event of modern times in the development of free
institutions.
No man ever stood for so much to his country and to mankind as George Washington.
Hamilton, Jefferson, and Adams, Madison, and Jay, each represented some of the elements
which formed the Union. Washington embodied them all. They fell at times under popular
disapproval, were burned in effigy, were stoned; but he, with unerring judgment, was always
the leader of the people. Milton said of Cromwell, that "war made him great, peace greater."
The superiority of Washington's character and genius was more conspicuous in the formation
of our government and in putting it on indestructible foundations, than in leading armies to
victory and conquering the independence of his country. He inspired the movement for the
Republic, was the President and dominant spirit of the convention which framed its
Constitution, and its President for eight years, and guided its course until satisfied that moving
safely along the broad highway of time, it would be surely ascending toward the first place
among the nations of the world, the asylum of the opprest, the home of the free.
We stand to-day upon the dividing line between the first and second century of constitutional
government. There are no clouds overhead, and no convulsions under our feet. We reverently
return thanks to the Almighty God for the past, and with confident and with hopeful promise
march upon sure ground toward the future. The simple facts of these hundred years paralyze
the imagination, and we con- template the vast accumulations of the century with awe and
pride. Our population has grown from four to sixty-five millions. Its center moving westward
five hundred miles since 1789, is eloquent with the founding of cities and the birth of States.
New settlements, clearing the forests and subduing the prairies, and adding four millions to
the few thousands of farms which were the support of Washington's Republic, create one of
the great granaries of the world, and open exhaustless reservoirs of national wealth.
The infant industries, which the first act of our administration sought to encourage, now give
remunerative employment to more people than inhabited the Republic at the beginning of
Washington's presidency. The grand total of their annual output of seven thousand millions of
dollars in value places the United States first among the manufacturing countries of the earth.
One-half of all the railroads, and one-quarter of all the telegraph lines of the world within our
borders, testify to the volume, variety, and value of an internal commerce which makes these
States, if need be, independent and self-supporting. These hundred years of development
under favorable political conditions, have brought the sum of our national wealth to a figure
which is past the results of a thousand years for the mother land, herself otherwise the richest
of modern empires.
During this generation a civil war of unequaled magnitude caused the expenditure and loss of
eight thousand millions of dollars, and killed six hundred thousand and permanently disabled
over a million young men; and yet the impetuous progress of the North, and the marvelous
industrial development of the new and free South, have obliterated the evidences of
destruction and made the war a memory, and have stimulated production until our annual
surplus nearly equals that of England, France, and Ger- many, combined. The teeming
millions of Asia till the patient soil and work the shuttle and loom as their fathers have done for
ages; modern Europe has felt the influence and received the benefit of the incalculable
multiplication of force by inventive genius since the Napoleonic wars; and yet, only two
hundred and 'sixty-nine years after the little band of Pilgrims landed on Plymouth Rock, our
people, numbering less than one-fifteenth of the inhabitants of the globe, do one-third of its
mining, one-fourth of its manufacturing, one-fifth of its agriculture, and own one-sixth of its
wealth.
No crisis has been too perilous for its powers, no evolution too rapid for its adaptation, and no
expansion beyond its easy grasp and administration. It has assimilated diverse nationalities
with warring traditions, customs, conditions and languages imbued them with its spirit and
won their passionate loyalty and love.
The flower of the youth of the nations of Continental Europe are conscripted from productive
industries and drilling in camps. Vast armies stand in battle array along the frontiers, and a
Kaiser's whim or a minister's mistake may precipitate the most destructive war of modern
times.
But for us no army exhausts our resources nor consumes our youth. Our navy must needs
increase in order that the protecting flag may follow the expanding commerce which is to
successfully compete in all the markets of the world. The sun of our destiny is still rising, and
its rays illumine vast territories as yet unoccupied and undeveloped, and which are to be the
happy homes of millions of people.
The spirit of Washington fills the executive office. Presidents may not rise to the full measure
of his greatness, but they must not fall below his standard of public duty and obligation. His
life and character, conscientiously studied and thoroughly understood by coming generations,
will be for them a liberal education for private life and public station, for citizenship and
patriotism, for love and devotion to Union and liberty. With their inspiring past and splendid
present, the people of these United States, heirs of a hundred years, marvelously rich in all
which adds to the glory and greatness of a nation, with an abiding trust in the stability and
elasticity of their Constitution, and an abounding faith in themselves, hail the coming century
with hope and joy.
THE UNVEILING OF THE STATUE OF RUFUS CHOATE
BY JOSEPH H. CHOATE
I deem it a very great honor to have been invited by the Suffolk Bar Association to take part
on this occasion in honor of him who still stands as one of the most brilliant ornaments of the
American Bar in its annals of two centuries. Bearing his name and lineage, and owing to him,
as I do, more than to any other man or men--to his example and inspiration, to his sympathy
and helping hand--what- ever success has attended my own professional efforts, I could not
refuse the invitation to come here today to the dedication of this statue, which shall stand for
centuries to come, and convey to the generations who knew him not some idea of the figure
and the features of Rufus Choate. Neither bronze nor marble can do him justice. Not
Rembrandt himself could reproduce the man as we knew and loved him--for until he lay upon
his death-bed he was all action, the "noble, divine, godlike action" of the orator-- and the still
life of art could never represent him as he was. It is forty years since he strode these ancient
streets with his mayestic step--forty years since the marvelous music of his voice was heard
by the living ear--and those of us who, as students and youthful disciples, followed his
footsteps, and listened to his eloquence, and almost worshiped his presence, whose ideal
and idol he was, are already many years older than he lived to be; but there must be a few
still living, and present here to-day, who were in the admiring crowds that hung with rapture
on his lips--in the courts of justice, in the densely packed assembly, in the Senate, in the
Constitutional Convention, or in Faneuil Hall, consecrated to Freedom--and who can still
recall, among life's most cherished memories, the tones of that matchless voice, that pallid
face illuminated with rare intelligence, the flashing glance of his dark eye, and the light of his
bewitching smile. But, in a decade or two more, these lingering witnesses of his glory and his
triumphs will have passed on, and to the next generation he will be but a name and a statue,
enshrined in fame's temple with Cicero and Burke, with Otis and Hamilton and Webster, with
Pinkney and Wirt, whose words and thoughts he loved to study and to master.
Many a noted orator, many a great lawyer, has been lost in oblivion in forty years after the
grave closed over him, but I venture to believe that the Bar of Suffolk, ay, the whole Bar of
America, and the people of Massachusetts, have kept the memory of no other man alive and
green so long, so vividly and so lovingly, as that of Rufus Choate. Many of his characteristic
utterances have be- come proverbial, and the flashes of his wit, the play of his fancy, and the
gorgeous pictures of his imagination are the constant themes of reminiscence, wherever
American lawyers assemble for social converse.
How it was that such an exotic nature, so ardent and tropical in all its manifestations, so truly
southern and Italian in its impulses, and at the same time so robust and sturdy in its strength,
could have been produced upon the bleak and barren soil of our northern cape, and nurtured
under the chilling blasts of its east winds, is a mystery insoluble. Truly, "this is the Lord's
doing, and it is marvelous in our eyes." In one of his speeches in the Senate, he draws the
distinction between "the cool and slow New England men, and the mercurial children of the
sun, who sat down side by side in the presence of Washington, to form our more perfect
union." If ever there was a merciful child of the sun, it was himself, most happily described. I
am one of those who believe that the stuff that a man is made of has more to do with his
career than any education or environment. The greatness that is achieved, or is thrust upon
some men, dwindles before that of him who is born great. His horoscope was propitious. The
stars in their courses fought for him. The birthmark of genius, distinct and ineffaceable, was
on his brow. He came of a long line of pious and devout ancestors, whose living was as plain
as their thinking was high. It was from father and mother that he derived the flame of intellect,
the glow of spirit, and the beauty of temperament that were so unique.
His splendid and blazing intellect, fed and enriched by constant study of the best thoughts of
the great minds of the race, his all-persuasive eloquence, his teeming and radiant
imagination, whirling his hearers along with it, and sometimes overpowering himself, his
brilliant and sportive fancy, lighting up the most arid subjects with the glow of sunrise, his
prodigious and never-failing memory, and his playful wit, always bursting forth with irresistible
impulse, have been the subject of scores of essays and criticisms, all struggling with the vain
effort to describe and crystallize the fascinating and magical charm of his speech and his
influence.
But the occasion and the place remind me that here today we have chiefly to do with him as a
lawyer and an advocate, and all that I shall presume very briefly to suggest is what this statue
will mean to the coming generations of lawyers and citizens.
And first, and far above his splendid talents and his triumphant eloquence, I would place the
character of the man--pure, honest, delivered absolutely from all the temptations of sordid and
mercenary things, aspiring daily to what was higher and better, loathing all that was vulgar
and of low repute, simple as a child, and tender and sympathetic as a woman. Emerson most
truly says that character is far above intellect, and this man's character surpassed even his
exalted intellect, and, controlling all his great endowments, made the consummate beauty of
his life. I know of no greater tribute ever paid to a successful lawyer than that which he
received from Chief Justice Shaw--himself an august and serene personality, absolutely
familiar with his daily walk and conversation--in his account of the effort that was made to
induce Mr. Choate to give up his active and exhausting practise, and to take the place of
professor in the Harvard Law School, made vacant by the death of Mr. Justice Story--an effort
of which the Chief Justice, as a member of the corporation of Harvard, was the principal
promoter. After referring to him then, in 1847, as "the leader of the Bar in every department of
forensic eloquence," and dwelling upon the great advantages which would accrue to the
school from the profound legal learning which he possest, he said: "In the case of Mr. Choate,
it was considered quite indispensable that he should reside in Cambridge, on account of the
influence which his genial manners, his habitual presence, and the force of his character,
would be likely to exert over the young men, drawn from every part of the United States to
listen to his instructions."
What richer tribute could there be to personal and professional worth than such words from
such lips? He was the fit man to mold the characters of the youth, not of the city or the State
only, but of the whole nation. So let the statue stand as notice to all who seek to enter here,
that the first requisite of true renown in our noble profession--renown not for a day or a life
only, but for generations--is Character.
MEMORIAL DAY
BY JOHN D. LONG.
I gratefully acknowledge your courtesy, veterans and members of the Suffolk posts of the
Grand Army, in inviting me, a civilian, to speak for you this day. I should shrink from the task,
however, did I not know that, in this. your purpose is to honor again the commonwealth, of
which I am the official representative. By recent enactment she has made the day you
celebrate one of her holy days—a day sacred to the memory of her patriot dead and to the
inspiration of patriotism in her living. Henceforward, she emblazons it upon the calendar of the
year with the consecrated days that have come down from the Pilgrim and the Puritan, with
Christmas day and with the birthdays of Washington and American independence. Memorial
day will hereafter gather around it not only the love and tears and pride of the generations of
the people, but more and more, in its inner circle of tenderness, the linking memories of every
comrade, so long as one survives. As the dawn ushers it in, tinged already with the exquisite
flush of hastening June, and sweet with the bursting fragrance of her roses, the wheels of
time will each year roll back lo and lo! John Andrew is at the State house, inspiring
Massachusetts with the throbbing of his own great heart; Abraham Lincoln, wise and patient,
and honest and tender and true, is at the nation's helm; the North is one broad blaze: the
boys in blue are marching to the front; the life and drum are on every breeze; the very air is
patriotism: Phil Sheridan, forty miles away, dashes back to turn defeat to victory; Fraught. lash
to the mast-head, is steaming into Mobile Harbor; Hooker is above the clouds; Sherman
marches through Georgia to the sea; Grant has throttled Lee with the grip that never lets go;
Richmond falls; the armies of the Republic pass in that last great review at Washington:
Ouster's plume is there, but Kearney's saddle is empty; and, now again, our veterans come
marching home to receive the welcome of a grateful people, and to stack at Doric Hall the
tattered flag which Massachusetts forever hence shall wear above her heart.
In memory of the dead, in honor of the living, for inspiration to our children, we gather today to
deck the graves of our patriots with flowers, to pledge commonwealth and town and citizens
to fresh recognition of the surviving soldier, and to picture yet again the romance, the reality,
the glory, the sacrifice of his service. As if it were but yesterday, you recall him. He had but
turned twenty. The exquisite tint of youthful health was in his cheek. His pure heart shone
from frank, outspeaking eyes. His fair hair clustered from beneath his cap. He had pulled a
stout oar in the college race, or walked the most graceful athlete on the village green. He had
just entered on the vocation of his life. The doorway of his home at this season of the year
was brilliant in the dewy morn with the clambering vine and fragrant flower, as in and out he
went, the beloved of mother and sisters, and the ideal of a New England youth:
"In face and shoulders like a god he was;
For o'er him had the goddess breathed the charm
Of youthful locks, the ruddy glow of youth.
A generous gladness in his eyes: such grace
As carvers hand to ivory gives, or when
Silver or Parian stone in yellow gold
Is set."
And when the drum beat, when the first martyr's blood sprinkled the stones of Baltimore, he
took his place in the ranks and went forward. You remember his ingenious and glowing letters
to his mother, written as if his pen were dipt in his very heart. How novel seemed to him the
routine of service, the life of camp and march! How eager the wish to meet the enemy and
strike his first blow for the good cause! What pride at the promotion that came and put its
chevron on his arm or its strap upon his shoulders!
They took him prisoner. He wasted in Libby and grew gaunt and haggard with the horror of his
sufferings, and with pity for the greater horror of the sufferings of his comrades who fainted
and died at his side. He tunneled the earth and escaped. Hungry and weak, in terror of
recapture, he followed by night the pathway of the rail- road. He slept in thickets and sank in
swamps. He saw the glitter of horsemen who pursued him. He knew the bloodhound was on
his track. He reached the line; and, with his hand grasping at freedom, they caught and took
him back to his captivity. He was exchanged at last; and. you remember, when he came home
on a short furlough, how manly and war-worn he had grown. But he soon returned to the
ranks, and to the welcome of his comrades. They recall him now alike with tears and pride. In
the rifle-pits around Petersburg you heard his steady voice and firm command. Some one
who saw him then fancied that he seemed that day like one who forefeet the end. But there
was no flinching as he charged. He had just turned to give a cheer when the fatal ball struck
him. There was a convulsion of the upward hand. His eyes, pleading and loyal, turned their
last glance to the flag. His lips parted. He fell dead, and at nightfall lay with his face to the
stars. Home they brought him, fairer than Adonis over whom the goddess of beauty wept.
They buried him in the village churchyard, under the green turf. Year by year his comrades
and his kin, nearer than comrades, scattered his grave with flowers. Do you ask who he was?
He was in every regiment and every company. He went out from every Massachusetts village.
He sleeps in every Massachusetts burying-ground. Recall romance, recite the names of
heroes of legend and song, but there is none that is his peer.
THE LANDING AT PLYMOUTH
BY DANIEL WEBSTER
Sir, I must say a word in connection with that event which we have assembled to
commemorate. It has seemed fit to dwellers in New York, New Englanders by birth or
descent, to form this society. They have formed it for the relief of the poor and distrest, and for
the purpose of commemorating annually the great event of the settlement of the country from
which they spring. It would be great presumption in me to go back to the scene of that
settlement, or to attempt to exhibit it in any colors, after the exhibition made to-day; yet it is an
event that, in all time since, and in all time to come, and more in time to come than in times
past, must stand out in great and striking characteristics to the admiration of the world. The
sun's return to his winter solstice, in 1620, is the epoch from which he dates his first
acquaintance with the small people, now one of the happiest, and destined to be one of the
greatest, that his rays fall upon; and his annual visitation, from that day to this, to our frozen
region, has enabled him to see that progress, progress, was the characteristic of that small
people. He has seen them from a handful, that one of his beams coming through a key-hole
might illuminate, spread over a hemisphere which he can not enlighten under the slightest
eclipse. Nor, tho this globe should revolve round him for tens of hundreds of thou- sands of
years, will he see such another incipient colonization upon any part of this attendant upon his
mighty orb. What else he may see in those other planets which revolve around him we can
not tell; at least until we have tried the fifty-foot telescope which Lord Rosse is preparing for
that purpose.
There is not, gentlemen, and we may as well admit it, in any history of the past, another
epoch from which so many events have taken a turn; events which, while important to us, are
equally important to the country from whence we came. The settlement of Plymouth-concurring, I always wish to be understood, with that of Virginia—was the settlement of New
England by colonies of Old England. Now, gentlemen, take these two ideas and run out the
thoughts suggested by both. What has been, and what is to be, Old England? What has
been, what is, and what may be, in the providence of God, New England, with her neighbors
and associates? I would not dwell, gentlemen, with any particular emphasis upon the
sentiment, which I nevertheless entertain, with respect to the great diversity in the races of
men. I do not know how far in that respect I might not encroach on those mysteries of
Providence which, while I adore, I may not comprehend; but it does seem to me to be very
remarkable, that we may go back to the time when New England, or those who founded it,
were subtracted from Old England; and both Old England and New England went on.
nevertheless, in their might}' career of progress and power.
Let me begin with New England for a moment. What has resulted--embracing, as I say, the
nearly contemporaneous settlement of Virginia--what has resulted from the planting upon this
continent of two or three slender colonies from the mother country? Gentlemen, the great
epitaph commemorative of the character and the worth, the discoveries and glory, of
Columbus, was that he had given a new ivorid to the crowns of Castile and Aragon.
Gentlemen, this is a great mistake. It does not come up at all to the great merits of Columbus.
He gave the territory of the southern hemisphere to the crowns of Castile and Aragon, but as
a place for the plantafioii of colonies, as a place for the habitation of men, as a place to which
laws and religion and manners and science were to be transferred, as a place in which the
creatures of God should multiply and fill the earth, under friendly skies and with religious
hearts, he gave it to the whole world, he gave if to universal man.' From this seminal principle,
and from a handful, a hundred saints, blest of God and ever honored of men, landed on the
shores of Plymouth and elsewhere along the coast, united, as I have said already more than
once, in the process of time, with the settlement at Jamestown, has this great people of which
we are a portion.
I do not reckon myself among quite the oldest of the land, and yet it so happens that very
recently I recurred to an exulting speech or oration of my own, in which I spoke of my country
as consisting of nine millions of people. I could hardly persuade myself that within the short
time which had elapsed since that epoch, our population has doubled; and that at the present
moment there does exist most unquestionably as great a probability of its continued progress,
in the same ratio, as has ever existed in any previous time. I do not know whose imagination
is fertile enough, I do not know whose conjectures, I may almost say, are wild enough to tell
what may be the progress of wealth and population in the United States in half a century to
come. All we know is, here is a people of from seventeen to twenty millions, intelligent,
educated, free- holders, freemen, republicans, possest of all the means of modern
improvement, modern science, arts, literature, with the world before them! There is nothing to
check them till they touch the shores of the Pacific, and then, they are so much accustomed
to water, that that's a facility, and no obstruction!
So much, gentlemen, for this branch of the English race; but what has happened, meanwhile,
to England herself since the period of the departure of the Puritans from the coast of
Lincolnshire, from the English Boston? Gentlemen, in speaking of the progress of English
power, of English dominion and authority, from that period to the present, I shall be
understood, of course, as neither entering into any defense or any accusation of the policy
which has conducted her to her present state. As to the justice of her wars, the necessity of
her conquests, the propriety of those acts by which she has taken possession of so great a
portion of the globe, it is not the business of the present occasion to inquire. Neque teneo,
neque refello. But I speak of them, or intend to speak of them, as facts of the most
extraordinary character, unequaled in the history of any nation on the globe, and the
consequences of which may and must reach through a thousand generations. The Puritans
left England in the reign of James the First. England herself had then become somewhat
settled and established in the Protestant faith, and in the quiet enjoyment of property, by the
previous energetic, long, and prosperous reign of Elizabeth. Her successor was James the
Sixth of Scotland, now become James the First of England; and here was a union of the
crowns, but not of the kingdoms--a very important distinction. Ireland was held by a military
power, and one can not but see that at that day, whatever may be true or untrue in more
recent periods of her history, Ireland was held by England by the two great potencies, the
power of the sword and the power of confiscation. In other respects, England was nothing like
the England we now behold. Her foreign possessions were quite inconsiderable. She had
some hold on the West India Islands; she had Acadia, or Nova Scotia,' which King James
granted, by wholesale, for the endowment of the knights whom he created by hundreds. And
what has been her progress? Did she then possess Gibraltar, the key to the Mediterranean?
Was Malta hers? Were the Ionian Islands hers? Was the southern extremity of Africa, was the
Cape of Good Hope hers? Were the whole of her vast possessions in India hers? Was the
great Australian empire hers? While that branch of her population which followed the western
star, and under its guidance committed itself to the duty of settling, fertilizing, and peopling an
unknown wilderness in the West, were pursuing their destinies, other causes, providential
doubtless, were leading English power eastward and southward, in consequence and by
means of her naval prowess, and the extent of her commerce, until in our day we have seen
that within the Mediterranean, on the western coast, and at the southern extremity of Africa, in
Arabia, in hither India and farther India she has a population ten ago. And recently, as we
have witnessed--I will not say with how much truth and justice, policy or impolicy, I do not
speak at all of the morality of the action, I only speak of the fact--she has found admission into
China, and has carried the Christian religion and the Protestant faith to the doors of three
hundred millions of people.
It has been said that whosoever would see the Eastern world before it turns into a Western
world must make his visit soon, because steamboats and omnibuses, commerce, and all the
arts of Europe, are extending themselves from Egypt to Suez, from Suez to the Indian seas,
and from the Indian seas all over the explored regions of the still farther East.
Now, gentlemen, I do not know what practical views or what practical results may take place
from this great expansion of the power of the two branches of Old England. It is not for me to
say. I only can see that on this continent all is to be Anglo-American from Plymouth Rock to
the Pacific seas, from the North Pole to California. That is certain; and in the Eastern world, I
only see that you can hardly place a finger on a map of the world, and be an inch from an
English settlement.
Gentlemen, if there be anything in the supremacy of races, the experiment now in progress
will develop it. If there be any truth in the idea that those who issued from
the great Caucasian fountain, and spread over Europe, are to react on India and on Asia, and
to act on the whole Western world, it may not be for us, nor our children, nor our
grandchildren, to see it, but it will be for our descendants of some generation to see the extent
of that progress and dominion of the favored races.
For myself, I believe there is no limit fit to be assigned to it by the human mind, because I find
at work everywhere, on both sides of the Atlantic, under various forms and degrees of
restriction on the one hand, and under various degrees of motive and stimulus on the other
hand, in these branches of a common race, the great principle of the freedom of human
thought, and the respectability of individual character. I find everywhere an elevation of the
character of man as man, an elevation of the individual as a component part of society. I find
everywhere a rebuke of the idea that the many are made for the few or that government is
anything but an agency for mankind And I care not beneath what zone, frozen, temperate or
torrid; I care not of what complexion, white or brown; care not under what circumstances of
climate or cultivation--if I can find a race of men on an inhabitable spot of earth whose general
sentiment it is, and whose general feeling it is that government is made for man-man, as a
religious, moral and social being-and not man for government, there I know that I shall find
prosperity and happiness
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DIDACTIC SPEECHES
WORK AND HABITS
BY ALBERT J. BEVERIDGE
Every man's problem is how to be effective. Consciously or unconsciously, the question you
are asking yourself is, "How shall I make my strength count for most in this world of effort?"'
And this is the question which every one of us ought to ask himself. But not for the purpose of
mere selfish gain: not to get money for the sake of money, or fame for the sake of fame, but
for the sake of usefulness in the world; for the sake of helpfulness to those we love and of all
humanity. Selfishness poisons all it touches, and make all achievement dead-sea fruit which
turns to ashes on the lips.
So the great question, "How shall I make the most of myself," which every worker in the world
is asking, must be nobly asked, and therefore unselfishly asked if you would have it wisely
answered. There are two words that solve this query of your destiny, and those two words are
work and habits.
I know that I am addressing men who toil; and I have reached an age where I consider no one
but workers worth while. But by those who toil, I do not mean only those who work with their
hands. I mean those who work with their brain, as well. I mean the engineer who drives a
locomotive, but also the inventor, who created it; the mason and mechanic who erects a
building, and also the thoughtful man who conceived it, and the energetic man who made it
possible; the printer who puts upon the page the words of useful books, but also the poet who
dreams the dreams that printer reproduces, the novelist who enchants our weary hours, the
economist who instructs us in the facts of life and the duties of citizenship, and all of that
glorious company of brain workers who uplift, make pure, and glorify humanity. I mean the
farmer who sows and reaps, but also the miller who, with his earned capital grinds the
farmer's products into food for the feeding of the people. I mean the banker as much as the
drayman; the physician as much as the street-car motorman; the statesman who honestly and
faithfully labors to make this nation better, as much as the section hand. In short, I mean
every man who with mind or muscle toils at the tasks which our mutual needs bring to each
one of us.
The first thing necessary to the doing of good work is that the man who does it shall love his
work. Lasting work means loving work. The greatest cathedral on earth is that at Chartres, in
France. No man knows its architect or its builders. It was erected according to plans devised
by holy men who cared nothing for their own glory, but cared everything for the glory of Him
whose servants they were. It was built by thousands of artizans, who came from all over
France and gave their services without price, and even without record, as a matter of worship.
The materials were furnished by tens of thousands of peasants, and each stone they
contributed was consecrated by prayer and swung to position with the power of a divine
affection. And so the cathedral at Chartres stands, and will forever stand, as the highest type
of sacred architecture the world has ever known. Such devotion to our daily tasks is not
possible to any of us in the hurried and harried civilization of to-day. We must have bread; we
must fill our home with the necessities and comforts of life; our first business is to make our
loved ones happy. Wages, profits, and all kinds of money reward for all we do is absolutely
necessary. Yet those wages and profits will be higher if we are in love with the work which
brings them to us. They will not only be greater, but every cent of them will add to our lives a
sweetness and fragrance which the pay that is earned by an unwilling worker never brings.
The man who is in love with his work, his reward goes further in its purchasing power than the
man who hates the task that brings him his livelihood. The well-earned dollar is a wise dollar;
the badly-gotten dollar is a foolish dollar.
Pall in love with your work--that is the first rule for doing your work well. It is also the golden
rule of happiness. Fall in love with your work, and your labor will bring you joy as well as
money.
All the happiness this life affords is found in three things; first, a true relation to God; second,
the care of other people; third, the doing with all your might work which you love to do. There
is no true and lasting happiness possible from any other source. Neglect God, care nothing
for other people, despise your work; and wealth will buy you nothing but misery--power will
bring you nothing but heartache. Build your life upon these three foundations and you build
your house upon a rock. Build your life on disbelief in God, on selfishness to others, on hatred
of your own work--and you build your house upon the sand.
Every man can be in love with his work if he will al- ways think of how well he can do that
work, and not how easily he can do it. Let every one of us, as we go about our daily tasks,
keep saying to himself every moment: "I am going to do my work so well to-day that to-night I
will congratulate myself upon it." That is the way to get others to congratulate you upon it.
"Win your own intelligent approval in the doing of your work and you will also win the honest
approval of your fellow men. And when a man intelligently approves of himself, and his fellow
men approve of him, he has made his daily toil yield not only money, hut also the sweetest
fruit of life.
Never say to yourself that your work is too hard; say to yourself instead, "I will do it so well
that the very doing of it will make it easy," and never forget that the only real way to do your
work easily is to do it well. Never pity yourself. Self-pity begins a sickness of the soul from
which few recover. Never undervalue yourself. Believe in yourself. Believe that you can do
your work well, and then make good. Never doubt yourself. Faith in one's self unlocks those
hidden powers that all of us have, but so few of us use. Every man and woman has
undeveloped strength undreamed of until emergencies call it forth. Every one of us has been
surprized at how much we can do, and how well we can do it, when we have to do it.
Never wait for these emergencies to call out the might within you. Realize your assets every
day. God has made an investment in every one of us; shall we go to Him when our life is
done, giving Him a return upon that investment? When He invested in you He meant that you
should pay Him dividends in the betterment of the world, and helpfulness to your fellow men.
You can do this only by your best work. And your best work is possible only by faith in yourself
and by love of your work.
The second practical rule for doing good work yourself is to appreciate and praise the good
work of others. Never envy anybody. Jealousy in the man who spends his strength envying
the good work of another man will have little strength left to do good work himself. Get the
habit of happiness over other people's success. Practise praising the work of others. It will
make your fellow man happy, but it will make you happier than it makes him. It will encourage
him, but it will encourage you more.
In public life, when a man, whether friend or enemy, makes a good fight for a good law or
against a bad one, or takes a stand for righteousness, or delivers an effective speech for a
noble cause, I make it a point to praise that man, not only to the world and to himself, but to
praise him in the secret councils of my own soul. I do this as a matter, first, of justice, and,
second, of my own spiritual and moral strengthening. When in my own conscience as well as
to other people, I praise that man's achievement, I have made my mind and soul stronger for
doing my own work; I have fortified my spirit for making my own fights.
But if in my heart I hate him for having done this thing well, I have weakened myself for the
doing of my own tasks. I have lessened my own courage for the battles
I must wage. The man who secretly envies the good work of a fellow man, secretly despises
himself. Jealousy of a fellow workman means paralysis of your own powers. I said that I
praise good work, whether done by friend or enemy; but if any man is my enemy, he must do
all the hating--for I am too busy to be anybody's enemy. I have no time for hatred.
On the other hand, every one of us should fearlessly condemn bad work and rebuke the bad
workman. The man who slights his work; the contractor who uses bad materials when he is
paid for good; the public man who neglects to study and master the questions the people
have commissioned him to solve; the banker who gambles with other people's money instead
of faithfully guarding it; the lawyer who takes a client's fee and does not painstakingly prepare
his case: the editor who deceives the people in the interest of the owner of his paper--in short,
every man and woman who accepts wages, profits, salary, or any reward for doing work, and
then does that work as cheaply or as falsely as possible instead of as thoroughly and as well
as possible, should be denounced by all good workmen. Such people are frauds; and frauds
are the evil weeds of human effort. They should be exterminated as the farmer exterminates
the cockle-burs growing among his corn, and taking from the earth that nourishment which
should go into the golden ear.
Jesus had no unkind word for any human being except for such people as this. You will find in
all His teachings nothing but love for every man and woman, except only hypocrites. These
he scourges with words of wrath.
Rules for good work fail without good habits. Habit is the most powerful influence in human
life. Shakespeare makes Hamlet say that "Habit is a second nature." Look to your habits as
you would look to your life, or your honor; for habits hold both life and honor. More men fail in
their adventures; more neglect of public duty results; more bad work of every kind is produced
by bad habits than by any other cause.
Good habits are the physical basis of good work, just as the love of the work is its soul.
Buskin says that no immortal work has been done in the world since tobacco was discovered.
Of course, this is not true, but the meaning behind it is true. No man can be at his best whose
brain is inflamed by drink, or whose nerves are shaken by narcotics. And you must be at your
best. More and more other men are determining to be at their best. If every man is not at his
best, it is his own fault. Never blame other people for your misfortunes. There is such a thing
as luck, and sometimes men seem pursued by evil fortune; but generally speaking, we are
the architects of our own failures.
In one of Maeterlinck's wonderful stories he tells of a powerful man of the middle ages who
conceived great plans and executed them, but always with difficulty. Frequently he almost
failed, and succeeded only by super- human effort. Finally he found that a secret enemy was
always working against his most careful plans, neutralizing his most strenuous exertions. As
the years passed, he determined to find and destroy this enemy. Life was not worth living with
this hidden foe forever encircling him with difficulties. One evening he went for a walk. He saw
another man approaching him. By that strange instinct which warns us of danger, he knew
that this man was his lifelong enemy. He resolved to kill him. As he approached, he observed
that this man wore a mask. But conscious that this was the antagonist of his life, he said, as
they met: "You are the man who from my youth till now has been pursuing me, thwarting me,
almost defeating me. I mean to kill you, but I will give you a chance for your life. Draw and
defend yourself." The stranger said, as he drew his sword, "I am at your service, but first see
who it is that you would fight." He removed his mask, and the man stood before himself.
This fable is true of every one of us. More--as his own enemy a man multiplies himself. Where
you think an enemy has injured you, look closely, and nine times out of ten you will find
yourself in some evil guise. But oftenest you will find yourself in the form of your habits.
If there is any evil in us, bad habits will develop it. And there is evil in all of us. Put your
strength to the test, but never your weakness. Dare to try the apparently impossible tasks if
they are tasks for good; never fear failure--all the world loves a good loser; and when you fall
in the right, your defeat is only the beginning of final victory. But fly from the easier thing that
is wrong; no man knows how far he can withstand it. And remember that we never get so old
that the seeds of wickedness will not sprout and grow, and bear the fruit of ruin, if watered
and nourished by bad habits.
Day by day civilization is demanding more of each one of us--more that is pure and strong.
Twentieth-century society tolerates no weakness, no taint in individual workers. Today every
man must be above suspicion. Each one of us must be proof against calumny. Everybody is
lied about--sometimes by envy, sometimes by ignorance. Never resent a falsehood about
yourself--after all, it is a test of reputation. Let your life, not your words be your rebuke of
slander. No man with bad habits can do good work. Every man's work speaks for him or
against him. Be superior to slander by doing well your work day in and day out, and
remember that perfect habits are necessary to perfect work.
No man with bad habits can do much work of any kind, or any work of a good kind. Look at a
man's work if you would know his habits. A man's habits are known by the work he does. The
surest way, but one, of keeping your habits clean is to carefully watch the beginnings of bad
habits. For a bad habit has a velvet foot. It steals upon one softly, unawares. First it charms,
next masters, then destroys you. In the moral philosophy which I studied in college, this
illustration was given: "Neglect your con- science for only two weeks, and it begins to
disappear; obey its faintest whisper for two weeks, and it becomes as delicate as a woman's
blush."
The supreme enemy of bad habits is religion. I do not mean this is necessary. I have known
good men who were not religious, and bad men who pretended to be religious.
But the man who in his heart of hearts as well as in his daily walk believes and practises the
Christian faith, is helped by a power outside of himself and above himself. His whole moral
being is vitalized. I do not pretend to say this, so much from experience--I wish I might—but I
do say it with all my might from observation. The wisdom of Aurelius, Epictetus, Confucius, is
a tonic to the soul; but the words of Jesus are life itself. As a mere matter of practical success
in life; as a mere method of making the most out of himself, I would rather have a son,
brother, or friend become a thorough-going Christian than to have any other single good
fortune come to him.
I do not mean that a man shall be religious with his intellect only. It is not enough that he shall
be a Christian in his mind alone.. Get your Christianity into your blood. Such a Christian can
not do poor work or dishonest work--to such a Christian such work would not only be a fraud
upon his employer, but a betrayal of his God. The man who has his Christianity in his blood
can not have bad habits--to such a Christian bad habits would be not only an injustice to
himself and a wrong to wife and children, but they would be an insult to the Master.
"What," said Victor Hugo, "is the grandest thing in the world" The midst of the ocean on a
cloudless night. And what is grander than that? The starry heavens. What is grander than the
starry heavens? The soul of man.'' And it is this soul of man, the noblest thing in all the
universe, to which the Christian religion speaks. It is to lift ever upward the soul of man that all
the world's saints, statesmen, and heroes have prayed, and thought, and perished. It is to
make free and give wings to the soul of man that this Christian civilization exists. That men
and women shall be better, nobler, every day, that happiness shall be greater; that our country
and the world shall steadily become a lovelier place to live in: that righteousness shall prevail
is, after all, the purpose of all progress.
No agent for human upliftment is more vigorous than the Young Men's Christian Association.
It links arms with each one of us and gives us the human touch of clean- banded, highminded, pure-hearted men: and therefore the divine touch itself. Its work is personified in that
natural leader of men and devoted servant of our Master, the secretary of the Indianapolis
Association. Arthur H. Godard. With men like him to help us, let us go calmly, steadily forward,
making the American people a nation whose God is the Lord--a nation which shall be the first
power for righteousness.
FIRST INAUGURAL ADDRESS
Delivered in New York, April 30, 1789
BY GEORGE WASHINGTON
Fellow Citizens of the Senate and of the House of Representatives:
Among the vicissitudes incident to life, no event could have filled me with greater anxieties
than that of which the notification was transmitted by your order, and received on the fourth
day of the present month. On the one hand, I was summoned by my country, whose voice I
can never hear but with veneration and love, from a retreat which I had chosen with the
fondest predilection, and, in my flattering hopes, with an immutable decision as the asylum of
my declining years; a retreat which was rendered every day more necessary as well as more
dear to me, by the addition of habit to inclination, and of frequent interruptions in my health to
the gradual waste committed on it by time; on the other hand, the magnitude and difficulty of
the trust to which the voice of my country called me being sufficient to awaken, a distrustful
scrutiny into his qualifications, could not but overwhelm with despondence one who, inheriting
inferior endowments from nature, and unpractised in the duties of civil administration, ought to
be peculiarly conscious of his own deficiencies. In this conflict of emotions, all I dare aver is
that it has been my faithful study to collect my duty from a just appreciation of every
circumstance by which it might be affected. All I dare hope is, that if, in executing this task, I
have been too much swayed by a grateful remembrance of former instances, or by an
affectionate sensibility to this transcendent proof of the confidence of my fellow citizens, and
have thence too little consulted my incapacity as well as disinclination for the weighty and
untried cares before me, my error will be palliated by the motives which misled me, and its
consequences be judged by my country, with some share of the partiality in which they
originated.
Such being the impression under which I have, in obedience to the public summons, repaired
to the present station, it would be peculiarly improper to omit, in this first official act, my
fervent supplications to that Almighty Being, who rules over the universe, who presides in the
councils of nations, and whose providential aids can supply every human defect, that his
benediction may consecrate to the liberties and happiness of the people of the United States
a government instituted by themselves for these essential purposes, and may enable every
instrument employed in its administration to execute, with success, the functions allotted to
his charge. In tendering this homage to the great Author of every public and private good, I
assure myself that it expresses your sentiments not less than my own; nor those of my fellow
citizens at large less than either. No people can be bound to acknowledge and adore the
Invisible Hand which conducts the affairs of men, more than the people of the United States.
Every step by which they have advanced to the character of an independent nation seems to
have been distinguished by some token of providential agency. And, in the important
revolution just accomplished, in the system of their united government, the tranquil
deliberations and voluntary consent of so many distinct communities, from which the event
has resulted, can not be compared with the means by which most governments have been
established, without some return of pious gratitude, along with an humble anticipation of the
future blessings which the past seems to presage. These reflections, arising out of the
present crisis, have forced themselves too strongly on my mind to be supprest. You will join
with me, I trust, in thinking that there are none under the influence of which the proceedings of
a new and free government can more auspiciously commence.
By the article establishing the Executive Department, it is made the duty of the President "to
recommend to your consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and
expedient." The circumstances under which I now meet you will acquit me from entering into
that subject further than to refer you to the great constitutional charter under which we are
assembled; and which, in defining your powers, designates the objects to which your attention
is to be given. It will be more consistent with those circumstances, and far more congenial
with the feelings which actuate me, to substitute, in place of a recommendation of particular
measures, the tribute that is due to the talents, the rectitude, and the patriotism which adorn
the characters selected to devise and adopt them. In these honorable qualifications, I behold
the surest pledges, that as, on one side, no local prejudices or attachments, no separate
views nor party animosities, will misdirect the comprehensive and equal eye which ought to
watch over this great assemblage of communities and interests--so, on another, that the
foundations of our national policy will be laid in the pure and immutable principles of private
morality; and the preeminence of a free government be exemplified by all the attributes which
can win the affections of its citizens and command the respect of the world.
I dwell on this prospect with every satisfaction which an ardent love for my country can
inspire; since there is no truth more thoroughly established than that there exists, in the
economy and course of nature, an indissoluble union between virtue and happiness--between
duty and advantage--between the genuine maxims of an honest and magnanimous policy and
the solid rewards of public prosperity and felicity--since we ought to be no less persuaded that
the propitious smiles of heaven can never be expected on a nation that disregards the eternal
rules of order and right which heaven itself has ordained—and since the preservation of the
sacred fire of liberty, and the destiny of the republican model of government, are justly
considered as deeply, perhaps as finally staked, on the experiment intrusted to the hands of
the American people.
Besides the ordinary objects submitted to your care, it will remain with your judgment to
decide how far an exercise of the occasional power delegated by the fifth article of the
Constitution is rendered expedient, at the present juncture, by the nature of objections which
have been urged against the system, or by the degree of in- quietude which has given birth to
them. Instead of under- taking particular recommendations on this subject, in which I could be
guided by no lights derived from official opportunities, I shall again give way to my entire
confidence in your discernment and pursuit of the public good. For I assure myself that, while
you carefully avoided every alteration which might endanger the benefits of a united and
effective government, or which ought to await the future lessons of experience, a reverence
for the characteristic rights of freemen and a regard for the public harmony will sufficiently
influence your deliberations on the question how far the former can be more impregnably
fortified, or the latter be safely and more advantageously promoted.
To the preceding observations I have one to add, which will be most properly addrest to the
House of Representatives. It concerns myself, and will, therefore, be as brief as possible.
When I was first honored with a call into the service of my country, then on the eve of an
arduous struggle for its liberties, the light in which I contemplated my duty required that I
should renounce every pecuniary compensation. From this resolution I have in no instance
departed. And being still under the impressions which produced it, I must decline, as
inapplicable to myself, any share in the personal emoluments which may be indispensably
included in a permanent provision for the Executive
Department; and must accordingly pray that the pecuniary estimates for the station in which I
am placed may, during my continuation in it, be limited to such actual expenditures as the
public good may be thought to require. Having thus imparted to you my sentiments, as they
have been awakened by the occasion which brings us together, I shall take my present leave,
but not without resorting once more to the benign Parent of the human race, in humble
supplication, that, since He has been pleased to favor the American people with opportunities
for deliberating in perfect tranquillity, and dispositions for deciding with unparalleled unanimity,
on a form of government for the security of their union and the advancement of their
happiness, so His divine blessing may be equally conspicuous in the enlarged views, the
temperate consultations, and the wise measures on which the success of this government
must depend.
A TALK TO GRADUATES
One of the greatest figures of mythology, you remember, was Prometheus, who brought fire
from heaven that men of skill and industry might begin their long journey toward truth and
power. He was the fire-bringer. Every great or useful man and woman since his time has been
a light-bearer; and the rank of a man depends on the clarity and power of light which shines
from him on his fellows and his time. As we look back over the long course of history, we are
able to see the way by which we have come, because so many men and women have lighted
the darkness of ignorance. As you approach a great city, there is first a faint glow on the
horizon, then a kindling brightness; then long lines of fire rise into view, and presently the
splendor of the city is before you. Looking back from the brightness of today, we can trace the
waxing light to its far beginnings, as the long lines recede and grow fainter against the
darkness. We can see the lamps lighted in the valley of the Euphrates thousands of years
ago; the kindling of the lights in the valley of the Nile; the glory of the Light of the World as it
revealed itself in Judea; the splendor that streamed from Athens across half the globe, across
our time, shining to the very end of the ages; the powerful ray that fell from Rome; the flaming
of the torches of Florence and Venice; the lighting of the lamps at the earliest universities, at
Salamanca, Salerno, Bologna, Paris, Oxford, Cambridge. The first intimation of the Sew
World to its discoverer was a faint point of light on its shore; now, from Cambridge, on the
Atlantic, to the University of California, at the Golden Gate, the torch of knowledge has
passed until there is a line of fire across the continent.
These lights have been kindled with infinite toil and self-denial ; they have been fed with
sacrifice, aspiration, heroic work, with beautiful and unfailing courage. Many torches have
been kindled by them, and in turn have augmented their splendor. This it is which gives the
famous schools their hold on the imagination of the world, and makes lesser schools dear to
our hearts--they are all homes of light. Every school is a torch from which other torches are to
be fired. Generation after generation dips its torches in the fire and goes its way down to the
future to make the highway brighter for those who come after.
Today there are lamps in all our hands; but some are faint and intermittent, like the
glowworms on a summer night, and others shine like the stars. The great and beautiful spirits
have very radiant spirits. Dante was "a spiritual splendor;" and there are many over whose
ashes might well be written that greatest of epitaphs which marks the grave of Fichte, in the
cemetery at Berlin: "The wise shall shine as the brightness of the firmament, and they that
turn many to righteousness, as the stars, for ever and ever." The prophets, saints, martyrs,
poets, and teachers, heroes of science, makers of states, men of genius and character in
affairs, helpers of their kind--these are the torch-bearers of the past. You have been lighting
and feeding your lamps. Shall they flicker faintly in the wind of destiny, or shall they shine with
a steady glow, fanned into a clearer flame by the adverse winds of the world? These lamps in
your hands are not to be filled with knowledge alone; they are to be fed by the most precious
things of life; and each age pours in its own oil, beaten out of its innermost life as the oil is
beaten out of the olive.
Soft and clear shines the lamp of childhood, fed by obedience and joy, the one distilled from
the other; for it is out of obedience that joy comes, not, as so many people think to their tragic
loss, from doing as one chooses and having one's way. Every joy has its source in obedience.
The greatest torch-bearer in the world of the last century was, perhaps, Charles Darwin; the
light which he held aloft shone farther and brought more new fields of knowledge into view
than any other light held by any other man. Charles Darwin was obedient to his task; a half-
invalid, self-denyingly, with the utmost concentration, treading that lonely path of observation,
meditation, and study which enabled him at last, feeding his torch with the very substance of
his life, to hold it aloft until it became one of the splendid flames of the world. So Father
Damien, one of the great company of priests who at the ends of the world are laying down
their lives with gladness and joy, feeding the light with sacrifice, gave himself to the service of
lepers, to become a leper himself; to whom fame came, as it always comes most beautifully
to those who do not seek it. There is not an artist, a statesman, a preacher, or a prophet of
our time who has not trod the pathway of obedience.
The lamp of obedience burns low to-day, and especially in this country'. The noble movement
toward freedom of the last century which has liberated half the world from political oppression,
and is fast liberating the other half, has delivered us from slavery to unreal and superstitious
ideas of God and nature, and has lifted from the race the shadow of that distorted image of
the Infinite Father which rested like a cloud over so many generations, like every great
movement, has been carried so far that some of us have come to think that our will is the only
law, and have forgotten that noble text of Tennyson's, "Our wills are ours to make them thine."
The old path of obedience and submission for the sake of the higher and finer things is the
only pathway to joy. The lawbreakers who put their impulses in place of the will of the Infinite
always make ready for some tragedy. Bead the modern novel or the drama of the last twenty
years, and you will see how the pursuit of happiness without regard to the higher law or to the
rights of others always bears its fruits in tragedy! The other day a distinguished and venerable
painter, in answer to the question whether he waited for the happy mood, said: "Never. I
always keep at work, and when the impulse comes, it finds me ready and obedient." Beady
and obedient! How many times it happens that a young man starting out in some profession
feels that for the present he will give himself freedom from hard work, but that when the
critical moment comes and his hand is on the door of opportunity, then he will make himself
ready! A man's hand is never on the door of opportunity unless it is a hand already made
strong to push back that door, and enter and take possession. Opportunity is never used save
by the man who is ready and obedient. This is the secret of joy: Keep your wills in subjection
to the higher will; subject yourselves to the law of self-sacrifice and self-control in order that
out of that apprenticeship which we are all serving in this world there may be born that
mastery the prophecy of which is on every faculty of man's nature. So far as genius brings out
fully its wonderful treasures, it is always by obedience to the laws of health and life. So far as
sweetness and strength flower in human character, it is always out of the soil of obedience.
THE TRAINING OF INTELLECT
BY WOODROW WILSON
Mr. Toastmaster, Mr. President, and Gentlemen:--I must confess to you that I came here with
very serious thoughts this evening; because I have been laboring under the conviction for a
long time that the object of a university is to educate, and because I am disturbed by the fact
that I have not seen the universities of this country achieving any remarkable or disconcerting
success in that direction. I have found everywhere the note which, I must say, I have heard
sounded again once or twice to- night--a note of apology for the intellectual side of the
university. You hear it at all universities. Learning is on the defensive, is actually on the
defensive, among college men; and they are being asked by way of concession to bring that
also within the circle of their interests.
Is it not time we stopt asking indulgence for learning and proclaimed its sovereignty? Is it not
time we reminded the college men of this country that they have no right to any distinctive
place in any community, unless they can show that they have earned a right to take it by
intellectual achievement ? that if a university is a place for distinction at all, it must be
distinguished by the conquests of the mind? I, for my part, tell you plainly that that is my
motto, and I have entered the field to fight for that thesis, and that for that thesis only do I care
to fight.
The toastmaster of the evening said, and said truly, that this is the season when, for me, it
was most difficult to break away from the regular engagements in which I am necessarily
involved at home. But when I was invited to a Phi Beta Kappa banquet, it had an unusual
sound. I felt that that was the particular kind of invitation which it was my duty and privilege to
accept. One of the problems of the American university now is how, among a great many
other competing interests, to give a position of distinction to men who win distinction in the
class-room. Why don't we give the first scholars of the college the varsity Y here and the P at
Princeton? Because, after all, you have done the particular thing which should distinguish
Yale er Princeton. Not that other things are not worth doing, but they may be done anywhere.
They may be done in athletic clubs, where there is no study; but this thing can be done only
here. This is the distinctive mark of the place.
A good many years ago, just two weeks before the mid- year examinations, the faculty of
Princeton was foolish enough to permit a very unwise evangelist to come to the place and to
upset the town. And while an undergraduate enthusiast was going from room to room to get
the men out to the meetings, he found one door securely fastened, and upon it this notice: "I
am a Christian, and studying for examinations." Now, I want to say that that was exactly what
a Christian undergraduate ought to have been doing at that time of the year. He ought not to
have been attending religious meetings, no matter how beneficial that would be to him. He
ought to have been studying for examinations, not merely for the purpose of passing them,
but from a sense of bounden duty.
We get a good many men at Princeton from certain secondary schools, which say a great
deal about their earnest desire to cultivate character among their students, and I hear a great
deal about character being the object of education. I take leave to believe that a man who
cultivates his character consciously will cultivate nothing except what will make him
intolerable to his fellow men. If your object in life is to make a fine fellow of yourself, you will
not succeed, and you will not be acceptable to really fine fellows. Character, gentlemen, is a
by-product. It comes, whether you will or not, as a consequence of a life devoted to the
nearest duty, and the place in which character is successfully cultivated, if it be a place of
study, is a place where study is the object and character the result.
Not long ago a gentleman approached me in great excitement, just after the entrance
examinations. He said we had made a great mistake in not taking in so and so from a certain
school which he named. "But," I said, "he did not pass the entrance examinations." He went
over the boy's moral excellences again. "Pardon me," I
said, "you do not understand. He did not pass the en- trance examinations. I beg you to
understand that if the Angel Gabriel applied for admission to Princeton University and could
not pass the entrance examinations, he would not be admitted. He would be wasting his
time.'' It seemed a new idea to him. The boy he spoke of had come from a school which
cultivated character, and he was a fine, lovable fellow, with a presentable character. Therefore
he ought to be admitted to any university? I fail to see it from that point of view, for a university
is an institution of purpose. We have in some previous years had pity for young gentlemen
who were not sufficiently acquainted with the elements of a preparatory course. They have
been dropt at the mid-year examinations, and I have always felt that we had been guilty of an
offense against good sense--that we have made their parents spend money to no avail and
the youngsters themselves spend their time to no avail.
And so I think that all university men ought to rouse themselves now and understand what is
the object of a university. The object of a university is intellectual training ; as a university its
only object is intellectual training. Among a body of young men there ought to be other things
also; there ought to be diversions to release them from the constant strain of effort, there
ought to be things that gladden the heart and many happy moments of leisure; but as a
university, our only object is intellect.
The reason why I chose the subject that I am permitted to speak upon to-night--the function of
scholarship—was that I wanted to point out the function of scholarship not merely in the
university, but in the nation. In a country constituted as ours is, the relation in which education
stands to the general life of the people is a very important one. Our whole theory of
government has been based upon an enlightened citizenship, and therefore the function of
scholarship must be for the nation as well as for the university itself. I mean the function of
such scholarship as undergraduates get. That is not a violent amount in any case. You can
not make a scholar of a man, except by some largess of Providence in his make-up, by the
time he is twenty-one or twenty-two years of age. There have been gentlemen who have
made a reputation by twenty-one or twenty-two, but it is generally in some little province of
knowledge, so small that a small effort can conquer it. You do not make scholars by that time;
you do not often make scholars by seventy that are worth boasting of. The process of
scholarship, so far as the real scholar is concerned, is an unending process, and knowledge
is pushed forward only a very little by his best efforts. It is evident, of course, that the most
you can contribute to a man in his undergraduate years is not the complete equipment in
exact knowledge which is characteristic of the scholar, but the inspiration of the spirit of
scholarship. The most that you can give a youngster is the spirit of the scholar.
Now, the spirit of the scholar in a country like ours must be a spirit related to the national life.
It can not, therefore, be a spirit of pedantry. I suppose that it is a sufficient working conception
of pedantry to say that it is knowledge divorced from life. It is knowledge so closeted, so
desiccated, so stript of the significances of life, that it is a thing apart and not connected with
the vital processes in the world about us. There is a great place in every nation for the spirit of
scholarship, and it seems to me that there never was a time when the spirit of scholarship
was more needed in affairs than it is in this country at this time. But there is no place for
pedantry.
We are thinking just now with our emotions and not with our minds; we are moved by impulse,
and not by judgment. We are drawing away from things with blind antipathy. The spirit of
knowledge is this, that you must base your conclusions on adequate grounds. Make sure that
you are going to the real sources of knowledge, discovering what the real facts are before you
move forward to the next process, which is the process of clear thinking. By clear thinking I do
not mean logical thinking. I do not mean that life is based upon any logical system whatever.
Life is essentially illogical. The world is governed by a tumultuous house of commons made
up of the passions, and we should pray God that the good passions should outvote the bad
passions. But the movement of impulse, of motive, is the stuff of passion, and therefore clear
thinking about life is not logical, symmetrical thinking; it is interpretative thinking, thinking that
sees the secret motive of things, thinking that penetrates to the deep places where are the
pulses of life. Scholarship ought to lay these impulses bare, just as the physician can lay bare
the seat of life in our bodies. That is not scholarship which goes to work upon the mere formal
pedantry of logical reasoning, but that is scholarship which searches for the heart of a man.
The spirit of scholarship gives us also catholicity of thinking, the readiness to understand that
there will constantly swing into our ken new items not dreamed of in our philosophy; the
readiness not simply to draw our conclusion from the data that we have, but also to
understand that all this is under constant mutation, and that therefore new phases of life will
come upon us and a new adjustment of our conclusions will be necessary. Our thinking must
be detached and disinterested thinking.
The particular objection that I have to the undergraduate's forming his course of study on his
future profession is this--that from start to finish, from the time he enters the university until he
finishes his career, his thought will be centered upon particular interests. He will be immersed
in the things that touch his profit and loss, and a man is not free to think inside that territory. If
his bread and butter are going to be affected, if he is always thinking in the terms of his own
profession, he is not thinking for the nation. He is thinking of himself: and, whether he be
conscious of it or not, he can never throw these trammels off. He will only think as a doctor, or
as a lawyer, or as a banker. He will not be free in the world of knowledge and in the vast circle
of interests which make up the great citizenship of the country. It is necessary that the spirit of
scholarship should be a detached, disinterested spirit, not immersed in a particular interest.
That is the function of scholarship in a country like ours, to supply. not heat but light, to
suffuse things with the calm radiance of reason, to see to it that men do not act hastily, but
that they act considerately, that they obey the truth.
The fault of our age is the fault of hasty action, of premature judgments, of a preference for illconsidered action over no action at all. Men who insist upon standing still and doing a little
thinking before they do any acting are called reactionaries. They want, in fact, merely to react
to a state in which they can be allowed to think. They want for a little while to withdraw from
the turmoil of party controversy and see where they stand before they commit themselves and
their country to action from which it may not be possible to withdraw.
The whole fault of the modern age is that it applies to everything a false standard of efficiency.
Efficiency with us is accomplishment, whether the accomplishment be by just and wellconsidered means or not; and this standard of achievement it is that is debasing the morals of
our age, the intellectual morals of our age. We do not stop to do things thoroughly; we do not
stop to know why we do things. We see an error and we hastily correct it by a greater error;
and then go on to cry that the age is corrupt.
And so it is, gentlemen, that I try in my thought to join the function of the university with the
great function of the national life. The life of this country is going to be revolutionized and
purified only when the universities of this country wake up to the fact that their only reason for
existing is intellectual, that the objects that I have set forth, so far as undergraduate life is
concerned, are the only legitimate objects. And every man should crave for his university
primacy in these things, primacy in other things also if they may be brought in without enmity
to it, but the sacrifice of everything that stands in the way of these.
For my part, I do not believe that it is athleticism which stands in the way. Athletics have been
associated with the achievements of the mind in many a successful civilization. There is no
difficulty in uniting vigor of body with achievement of mind, but there is a good deal of difficulty
in uniting the achievement of the mind with a thousand distracting social influences, which
take up all our ambitions, which absorb all our thoughts, which lead to all our arrangements of
life, and leave the university authorities the residuum of our attention, after we are through
with the things that we are really interested in. "We absolutely changed the whole course of
study at Princeton and revolutionized the methods of instruction without rousing a ripple on
the surface of the body of the alumni. They said that those things were intellectual, were our
business. But just so soon as we thought to touch the social part of the university, there was
not only a ripple, but the whole body was torn to its depths and had touched the real things.
These lay in triumphal competition with the province of the mind, and men's attention was so
absolutely absorbed in them that it was impossible for us to get their interest enlisted on the
real undertakings of the university itself.
That is true of every university I know anything about in this country; and if the faculties in this
country want to recapture the ground they have lost, they must begin pretty soon, and they
must go into the battle with their bridges burned behind them, so that it will be of no avail to
retreat. If I had a voice to which all the university men of this country would listen, that is the
endeavor to which my ambition would lead me to call.
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EULOGISTIC SPEECHES
ABRAHAM LINCOLN
BY BOOKER T. WASHINGTON
You ask that which he found a piece of property and turned into a free American citizen to
speak to you tonight on Abraham Lincoln. I am not fitted by ancestry or training to be your
teacher to-night, for, as I have stated, I was born a slave.
My first knowledge of Abraham Lincoln came in this way: I was awakened early one morning
before the dawn of day, as I lay wrapt in a bundle of rags on the dirt floor of our slave cabin,
by the prayers of my mother, just before leaving for her day's work, as she was kneeling over
my body, earnestly praying that Abraham Lincoln might succeed, and that one day she and
her boy might be free. You give me the opportunity here this evening to celebrate with you
and the nation the answer to that prayer.
Says the Great Book somewhere, "Tho a man die, yet shall he live." If this is true of the
ordinary man, how much more true is it of the hero of the hour and the hero of the century-Abraham Lincoln! One hundred years of the life and influence of Lincoln is the story of the
struggles, the trials, ambitions, and triumphs of the people of our complex American
civilization. Interwoven into the warp and woof of this human complexity is the moving story of
men and women of nearly every race and color in their progress from slavery to freedom,
from poverty to wealth, from weakness to power, from ignorance to intelligence. Knit into the
life of Abraham Lincoln is the story and success of the nation in the blending of all tongues,
religions, colors, races, into one composite nation, leaving each group and race free to live its
own separate social life, and yet all a part of the great whole.
If a man die, shall he live? Answering this question as applied to our martyred President,
perhaps you expect me to confine my words of appreciation to the great boon which, through
him, was conferred upon my race. My undying gratitude and that of ten millions of my race for
this and yet more! To have been the instrument used by Providence through which four
millions of slaves, now grown into ten millions of free citizens, were made free, would bring
eternal fame within itself, but this is not the only claim that Lincoln has upon our sense of
gratitude and appreciation.
By the side of Armstrong and Garrison, Lincoln lives today. In the very highest sense he lives
in the present more potently than fifty years ago, for that which is seen is temporal, that which
is unseen is eternal. He lives in the 32,000 young men and women of the negro race learning
trades and successful occupations; in the 200.000 farms acquired by those he freed; in the
more than 400,000 homes built; in the forty-six banks established and 10,000 stores owned;
in the $550,000,000 worth of taxable property in hand; in the 28,000 public schools existing
with 30,000 teachers; in the 170 industrial schools and colleges; in the 23,000 ministers and
26,000 churches. But, above all this, he lives in the steady and unalterable determination of
ten millions of black citizens to continue to climb year by year the ladder of the highest
usefulness and to perfect themselves in strong, robust character. For making all this possible
Lincoln lives.
But, again, for a higher reason he lives to-night in every corner of the Republic. To set the
physical man free is much. To set the spiritual man free is more. So often the keeper is on the
inside of the prison bars and the prisoner on the outside.
As an individual, grateful as I am to Lincoln for freedom of body, my gratitude is still greater
for freedom of soul--the liberty which permits one to live up in that atmosphere where he
refuses to permit sectional or racial hatred to drag down, to warp and narrow his soul.
The signing of the Emancipation Proclamation was a great event, and yet it was but the
symbol of another, still greater, and more momentous. We who celebrate this anniversary
should not forget that that same pen which gave freedom to four millions of African slaves, at
the same time struck the shackles from the souls of twenty- seven millions of Americans of
another color.
In any country, regardless of what its laws say, wherever people act upon the idea that the
disadvantage of one man is the good of another, there slavery exists. Wherever in any
country the whole people feel that the happiness of ill is dependent upon the happiness of the
weakest, there freedom exists.
In abolishing slavery, Lincoln proclaimed the principle that, even in the case of the humblest
and weakest of man- kind, the welfare of each is still the good of all. In re- establishing in this
country the principle that, at bot- tom, the interests of humanity and of the individual are one,
he freed men's souls from spiritual bondage; he freed them to mutual helpfulness. Henceforth
no man of any race, either in the North or in the South, need feel constrained to fear or hate
his brother.
By the same token that Lincoln made America free, he pushed back the boundaries of
freedom, and fair play will never cease to spread and grow in power till throughout the world
all men shall know the truth, and the truth shall make them free.
Lincoln in his day was wise enough to recognize that which is true in the present, and for all
time: that in a state of slavery and ignorance man renders the lowest and most costly form of
service to his fellows. In a state of freedom and enlightenment he renders the highest and
most helpful form of service.
The world is fast learning that of all forms of slavery there is none that is so hurtful and
degrading as that form of slavery which tempts one human being to hate another by reason of
his race or color. One man can not hold another man down in the ditch without remaining
down in the ditch with him. One who goes through life with his eyes closed against all that is
good in another race is weakened and circumscribed, as one who fights in a battle with one
hand tied behind him. Lincoln was in the truest sense great because he unfettered himself.
He climbed up out of the valley, where his vision was narrowed and weakened by the fog and
miasma, onto the mountain top, where in a pure and unclouded atmosphere he could see the
truth which enabled him to rate all men at their true worth. Growing out of this anniversary
season and atmosphere, may there crystallize a resolve throughout the nation that on such a
mountain the American people will strive to live.
We owe, then, to Lincoln physical freedom, moral freedom, and yet this is not all. There is a
debt of gratitude which we, as individuals, no matter of what race or nation, must recognize as
due Abraham Lincoln--not for what he did as Chief Executive of the nation, but for what he did
as a man. In this rise from the most abject poverty and ignorance to a position of high
usefulness and power, he taught the world one of the greatest of all lessons. In fighting his
own battle up from obscurity and squalor, he fought the battle of every other individual and
race that is down, and so helped to pull up every human being who was down. People so
often forget that by every inch that the lowest man crawls up, he makes it easier for every
other man to get up. To-day, throughout the world, be- cause Lincoln lived, struggled, and
triumphed, every boy who is ignorant, is in poverty, is despised or discouraged, holds his
head a little higher. His heart beats a little faster, his ambition to do something and be
something is a little stronger, because Lincoln blazed the way.
To my race, the life of Abraham Lincoln has its special lesson at this point in our career. In so
far as his life emphasizes dogged determination and courage; courage to avoid the
superficial, courage to persistently seek the substance instead of the shadow, it points the
road for people to travel.
As a race we are learning, I believe, in an increasing degree, that the best way for us to honor
the memory of our emancipation is by seeking to imitate him. Like Lincoln, the negro race
should seek to be simple without bigotry, and without ostentation. There is great power in
simplicity. We, as a race, should, like Lincoln, have moral courage to be what we are, and not
pretend to be what we are not. We should keep in mind that no one can degrade us except
ourselves; that if we are worthy, no influence can defeat us. Like other races, the negro will
often meet obstacles, often be sorely tried and tempted; but we must keep in mind that
freedom, in the broadest and highest sense, has never been a bequest; it has been a
conquest.
In the final test, the success of our race will be in pro- portion to the service that it renders to
the world. In the long run, the badge of service is the badge of sovereignty.
With all his other elements of strength, Abraham Lincoln possest in the highest degree
patience and, as I have said, courage. The highest form of courage is not always that
exhibited on the battle-field in the midst of the blare of trumpets and the waving of banners.
The highest courage is of the Lincoln kind. It is the same kind of courage, made possible by
the new life and the new possibilities furnished by Lincoln's Proclamation, displayed by
thousands of men and women of my race every year who are going out from Tuskegee and
other negro institutions in the South to lift up their fellows. When they go, often into lonely and
secluded districts, with little thought of salary, with little thought of personal welfare, no drums
beat, no banners fly, no friends stand by to cheer them on; but these brave young souls who
are prolonging school terms, teaching the people to buy homes, build houses, and live decent
lives, are fighting the battles of this country just as truly and bravely as any persons who go
forth to fight battles against a foreign foe.
In paying my tribute of respect to the Great Emancipator of my race, I desire to say a word
here and now in behalf of an element of brave and true white men of the South, who, tho they
saw in Lincoln's policy the ruin of all they believe in and hope for. have loyally accepted the
results of the Civil War, and are to-day working with a courage few people in the North can
understand, to free the negro in the South and complete the emancipation the Lincoln began.
And, finally, gathering inspiration and encouragement from this hour and Lincoln's life, I
pledge to you and to the nation that my race, in so far as I can speak for it, which in the past,
whether in ignorance or intelligence, whether in slavery or in freedom, has always been true
to the Stars and Stripes and to the highest and best interests of this country, will strive to so
deport itself that it shall reflect nothing tut the highest credit upon the whole people in the
North and in the South.
EULOGY OF WENDELL PHILLIPS
BY GEORGE WILLIAM CURTIS
Delivered before the Municipal Authorities of Boston, April 18, 1884
Massachusetts is always rich in fitting voices to commemorate the virtues and services of her
illustrious citizens, and in every strain of affectionate admiration and thoughtful discrimination,
the legislature, the pul- pit, and the press--his old associates, who saw the glory of his prime-the younger generation which cherishes the tradition of his devoted life--have spoken the
praise of "Wendell Phillips. But his native city has justly thought that the great work of his life
was not local or limited; that it was as large as liberty and as broad as humanity, and that his
name, therefore, is not the treasure of a State only, but a national possession. An orator
whose consecrated eloquence, like the music of Amphion rising above the wall of Thebes,
was a chief force in giving to the American Union the impregnable defense of freedom, is a
common benefactor ; the West may well answer to the East, the South to the
North, and Carolina and California, Minnesota and New York, mingle their sorrow with that of
New England, and own in his death a common bereavement.
At other times, with every mournful ceremony of respect, the commonwealth and its chief city
have lamented their dead sons, conspicuous party leaders, who, in high official place, and
with the formal commission of the State, have worthily maintained the ancient renown and the
lofty faith of Massachusetts. But it is a private citizen whom we commemorate to-day, yet a
public leader; a man always foremost in political controversy, but who held no office, and
belonged to no political party; who swayed votes, but who seldom voted, and never for a
mere party purpose; and who, for the larger part of his life, spurned the Constitution as a bond
of iniquity, and the Union as a yoke of oppression. Yet, the official authority which decrees this
commemoration --this great assembly which honors his memory-- the press, which from sea
to sea has celebrated his name--and I, who at your summons stand here to speak his eulogy,
are all loyal to party, all revere the Constitution and maintain the Union, all hold the ballot to
be the most sacred trust, and voting to be the highest duty of the citizen.
As we recall the story of that life, the spectacle of today is one of the most significant in our
history. This memorial rite is not a tribute to official service, to literary genius, to scientific
distinction; it is homage to personal character. It is the solemn public declaration that a life of
transcendent purity of purpose, blended with commanding powers, devoted with absolute
unselfishness, and with amazing results, to the welfare of the country and of humanity, is, in
the American republic, an example so inspiring, a patriotism so lofty, and a public service so
beneficent, that, in contemplating them, discordant opinions, differing judgments, and the
sharp sting of controversial speech, vanish like frost in a flood of sunshine.
It is not the Samuel Adams who was impatient of Washington, and who doubted the
Constitution, but the Samuel Adams of Faneuil Hall, of the Committee of Correspondence, of
Concord and Lexington--Samuel Adams, the father of the Revolution, whom Massachusetts
and America remember and revere.
The Revolutionary tradition was the native air of Wendell Phillips. When he was born in this
eighty, seventy- three years ago last November, some of the chief Revolutionary figures still
lingered. John Adams was living at Quincy, and Thomas Jefferson at Monticello; Elbridge
Gerry was Governor of the State, James Madison was President, and the second war with
England was at hand. Phillips was nine years old when, in 1820, the most important debate
after the adoption of the Constitution, the debate of whose tumultuous culmination and
triumphant close he was to be the great orator, began, and the second heroic epoch of our
history, in which he was a master figure, opened in the long and threatening contest over the
admission of Missouri. Unheeding the transactions which were shaking the land and settling
the scene of his career, the young boy, of the best New England lineage and prospects,
played upon Beacon Hill, and at the age of sixteen entered Harvard College. His classmates
recall his manly pride and reserve, with the charming manner, the delightful conversation, and
the affluence of kindly humor, which were never lost. He sauntered and gently studied; not a
devoted student, not in the bent of his mind, nor in the special direction of sympathy,
forecasting the re- former, but already the orator and the easy master of the college platform;
and still, in the memory of his old companions, he walks those college paths in unfading
youth, a figure of patrician port, of sovereign grace--a prince coming to his kingdom.
The tranquil years at the university ended, and he graduated in 1831, the year of Nat.
Turner's insurrection in Virginia; the year, also, in which Mr. Garrison issued The Liberator,
and, for unequivocally proclaiming the principle of the Declaration of Independence, was
denounced as a public enemy. Like other gently nurtured Boston boys, Phillips began the
study of law, and, as it proceeded, doubtless the sirens sang to him, as to the noble youth of
every country and time.
If, musing over Coke and Blaekstone, in the full consciousness of ample powers and of
fortunate opportunities, he sometimes forecast the future, he doubtless saw himself
succeeding Fisher Ames, and Harrison Gray Otis, and Daniel Webster, rising from the bar to
the legislature, from the legislature to the Senate, from the Senate--who knew whither?--the
idol of society, the applauded orator, the brilliant champion of the elegant repose and the
cultivated conservatism of Massachusetts.
The delight of social ease, the refined enjoyment of taste in letters and art, opulent leisure,
professional distinction, gratified ambition--all these came and whispered to the young
student. And it is the force that can tranquilly put aside such blandishments with a smile, and
accept alienation, outlawry, ignominy, and apparent defeat, if need be, no less than the
courage which grapples with poverty and outward hardship, and climbs over them to wordly
prosperity, which is the test of the finest manhood. Only he who fully knows the worth of what
he renounces gains the true blessing of renunciation.
The time durinar which Phillips was studying law was the hour of the profoundest moral
apathy in the history of this country. The fever of revolutionary feeling was long since spent,
and that of the final anti-slavery contest was but just kindled. The question of slavery, indeed,
had never been quite forgotten. There was always an anti- slavery sentiment in the country,
but there was also a slavery interest, and the invention of the cotton-gin in 1789 gave slavery
the most powerful and insidious impulse that it had ever received. At once commercial greed
was allied with political advantage and social power, and the active anti-slavery sentiment
rapidly declined.
Ten years after the invention of the cotton-gin, the General Convention of the Abolition
Societies deplored the decay of public interest in emancipation. Forty years later, in 1833,
while Phillips was still studying law, the veteran Pennsylvania Society lamented that since
1794 it had seen one after another of those societies disband, until it was left almost alone to
mourn the universal apathy.
When Wendell Phillips was admitted to the bar in 1834. the slave interest in the United
States, entrenched in the constitution, in trade, in the church, in society, in historic tradition,
and in the prejudice of race, had already become, altho unconsciously to the country, one of
the most powerful forces in the world. The English throne in 1625, the
old French monarchy in 1780, the English aristocracy at the beginning of the century, were
not so strong as slavery in this country fifty years ago. The grasp of England upon the
American colonies before the Revolution was not so sure, and was never so menacing to
liberty upon this continent, as the grasp of slavery upon the Union in the pleasant days when
the young lawyer sat in his office careless of the anti-slavery agitation, and jesting with his old
college comrades over the clients who did not come.
But on an October afternoon in 1835, while he was still sitting expectant in his office, the longawaited client came, but in what an amazing form! The young lawyer was especially a Boston
boy. He loved his native city with that lofty pride and intensity of local affection which are
peculiar to her citizens. "I was born in Boston," he said long afterward, "and the good name of
the old town is hound up with every fiber of my heart." In the mild afternoon his windows were
open and the sound of unusual disturbance drew him from his office. He hastened along the
street, and suddenly, a stone's throw from the scene of the Boston ilassacre, in the very
shadow of the old State House, he beheld in Boston a spectacle which Boston can not now
conceive. He saw American women insulted for befriending their innocent sisters, whose
children were sold from their arms. He saw an American citizen assailed by a furious mob in
the city of James Otis for saying with James Otis that a man's right to liberty is inherent and
inalienable.
Himself a citizen-soldier, he looked to see the mayesty of the people maintaining the authority
of law; but, to his own startled surprize, he saw that the rightful defenders of law against the
mob were themselves the mob. The city whose dauntless free speech had taught a country
how to be independent he saw raising a parricidal hand against its parent--Liberty.
It was enough. As the jail doors closed upon Garrison to save his life, Garrison and his cause
had won their most powerful and renowned ally. With the setting of that October sun,
vanished forever the career of prosperous ease, he gratification of ordinary ambition, which
the genius and he accomplishment of Wendell Phillips had seemed to fore- oil. Yes, the longawaited client had come at last, scarred, scorned, and forsaken, that cowering and friendless
client was wronged and degraded humanity. The great soul saw and understood.
"So nigh is grandeur to our dust, So near is God to man, When duty whispers low, Thou must,
The youth replies, I can."
Already the Boston boy felt what he had afterward said: '' I love inexpressibly these streets of
Boston over which my mother led my baby feet, and if God grants me time enough. I will
make them too pure for the footsteps of a slave."
And we, fellow citizens, who recall the life and the man, the untiring sacrifice, the complete
surrender, do we not hear in the soft air of that long-vanished October day, far above the riot
of the stormy street, the benediction that he could not hear, but whose influence breathed
always from the ineffable sweetness of his smile and the gracious courtesy of his manner: ''
Inasmuch as thou hast done it to the least of these my brethren, thou hast done it unto me.''
The scene of that day is an illustration of the time. As we look back upon it it is incredible. But
it was not until Lovejoy fell, while defending his press at Alton, in November, 1837, that an
American citizen was killed by a racing mob for declaring in a free State the right of innocent
men and women to their personal liberty. This tragedy, like the deadly blow at Charles
Summer in the Senate chamber, twenty years afterward, awed the whole country. with a
sense of vast and momentous peril.
The country has just been startled by the terrible riot at Cincinnati, which sprang from the
public consciousness that by crafty legal quibbling crime had become secure. But the
outbreak was at once and universally condemned because, in this country, whatever the
wrong may be, reform by riot is always worse than the wrong. The Alton riot, however, had no
redeeming impulse. It was the very frenzy of lawlessness, a sudden and ghastly glimpse of
the unquenchable fires of passion that were burning under the seeming peace and prosperity
of the Union. How fierce and far-reaching those passions were, was seen not only in the riot
itself, but in the refusal of Faneuil Hall for a public meeting to denounee the appalling wrong
to American liberty which had been done in Illinois, lest the patriotic protest of the meeting
should be interpreted by the country as the voice of Boston.
But the refusal was considered, and never since the people of Boston thronged Faneuil Hall
on the day after the massacre in State Street had that ancient hall seen a more solemn and
dignified assembly. It was the more solemn, the more significant, because the excited
multitude was no longer, as in the Revolutionary day, inspired by one unanimous and
overwhelming purpose to assert and maintain liberty of speech as the bulwark of all other
liberty. It was an unwonted and foreboding scene. An evil spirit was in the air.
When the seemly protest against the monstrous crime had been spoken, and the proper duty
of the day was done, a voice was heard, the voice of the high officer solemnly sworn to
prosecute in the name of Massachusetts every violation of law, declaring, in Faneuil Hall, sixty
years after the battle of Bunker Hill, and amid a howling storm of applause, that an American
citizen who was put to death by a mad crowd of his fellow citizens for defending his right of
free speech died as the fool dieth.
Boston has seen dark days, but never a moment so dark as that. Seven years before
Webster had said, in the famous words that Massachusetts binds as frontlets between her
eyes, "There are Boston and Concord, and Lexington and Bunker Hill, and there they will
remain forever." Had they already vanished ? "Was the spirit of the Revolu- tion quite extinct?
In the very cradle of liberty did no son survive to awake its slumbering echoes 1 By the grace
of God such a son there was. He had come with the multitude, and he had heard with
sympathy and approval the speeches that condemned the wrong; but when the cruel voice
justified the murderers of Lovejoy, the heart of the young man burned within him. This speech,
he said to him- self, must be answered. As the malign strain proceeded, the Boston boy, all on
fire, with Concord and Lexington tugging at his heart, unconsciously murmured, '"Such a
speech in Faneuil Hall must be answered in Faneuil Hall."
"Why not answer it yourself?" whispered a neighbor who overheard him. "Help me to the
platform and I will"; and pushing and struggling through the dense and threatening crowd the
young man reached the platform, was lifted upon it, and, advancing to speak, was greeted
with a roar of hostile cries. But riding the whirlwind. undismayed, as for many a year afterward
he directed the same wild storm, he stood upon the platform in all the beauty and grace of
imperial youth--the Greeks would have said a god descended--and in words that touched the
mind and heart and conscience of that vast multitude, as with fire from heaven, recalling
Boston to herself, he saved his native city and her cradle of liberty from the damning disgrace
of stoning the first martyr in the great struggle for personal freedom.
"Mr. Chairman," he said, "when I heard the gentleman lay down principles which placed the
rioters, incendiaries, and murderers of Alton side by side with Otis and Hancock, and Quincy
and Adams, I thought those pictured lips would have broken into a voice to rebuke the
recreant American--the slanderer of the dead.''
And even as he spoke the vision was fulfilled. Once more its native music rang through
Faneuil Hall. In the orator's own burning words those pictured lips did break into immortal
rebuke. In Wendell Phillips, glowing with holy indignation at the insult to America and to man,
John Adams and James Otis, Josiah Quincy and Samuel Adams, tho dead, yet spake.
In the annals of American speech there had been no such scene since Patrick Henry's
electrical warning to George III. It was that greatest of oratorical triumphs when a supreme
emotion, a sentiment which is to mold a people anew, lifted the orator to adequate
expression.
Three such scenes are illustrious in our history. That of the speech of Patrick Henry at
Williamsburg, of Wendell Phillips in Faneuil Hall, of Abraham Lincoln in Gettysburg--three,
and there is no fourth. They transmit, unextinguished, the torch of an eloquence which has
aroused nations and changed the course of history, and which Webster called "noble,
sublime, God-like action." The tremendous controversy, indeed, inspired universal eloquence.
As the cause passed from the moral appeal of the Abolitionists to the political action of the
Liberty party, of the Conscience Whigs and Free-soil Democrats, and finally of the Republican
party, the sound of speech, which in its variety and excellence had never been heard upon
the continent, filled the air.
But supreme over it all was the eloquence of Phillips, as over the harmonious tumult of a
good orchestra: one clear voice, like a lark high-poised in heaven, steadily carried the melody.
As Demosthenes was the orator of Greece against Philip, and Cicero of Rome against
Catiline, and John Pym of England against the Stuart despotism. Wendell Phillips was
distinctively the orator, as others were the statesmen, of the anti-slavery cause.
When he first spoke at Faneuil Hall, some of the most renowned American orators were still in
their prime. Webster and Clay were in the Senate, Choate at the bar, Edward Everett upon
the academic platform. From all these orators Phillips differed more than they differed from
each other. Behind Webster and Everett and Clay there was always a great organized party or an entrenched conservatism of feeling and opinion.
They spoke accepted views. They moved with masses of men, and were sure of the applause
of party spirit, of politico tradition, and of established institutions. Phillips stood alone. He was
not a "Whig, nor a Democrat, nor the graceful panegyrist of an undisputed situation. Both
parties denounced him. He must recruit a new party. Public opinion condemned him. He must
win public opinion to achieve his purpose. The tone, the method, of the new orator announced
a new spirit. It was not a heroic story of the last century, nor the contention of contemporary
politics; it was the unsuspected heroism of a mightier controversy that breathed and burned in
his words. With no party behind him, and denouncing established order and acknowledged
tradition, his speech was necessarily a popular appeal for a strange and unwelcome cause,
and the condition of its success was that it should both charm and rouse the hearer, while,
under cover of the fascination, the orator unfolded his argument and urged his plea. This
condition the genius of the orator instinctively perceived, and it determined the character of
his discourse.
He faced his audience with a tranquil mien and a beaming aspect that was never dimmed. He
spoke, and in the measured cadence of his quiet voice there was intense feeling, but no
declamation, no passionate appeal, no superficial and feigned emotion. It was simple
colloquy--a gentleman conversing. Unconsciously and surely the ear and heart were
charmed. How was it done? --Ah! how did Mozart do it, how Raffaels
The secret of the rose's sweetness, of the bird's ecstacy, of the sunset's glory--that is the
secret of genius and of eloquence. "What was heard, what was seen, was the form of noble
manhood, the courteous and self-possest tone, the flow of modulated speech, sparkling with
matchless richness of illustration, with apt allusion and happy anecdote and historic parallel,
with wit and pitiless invective, with melodious pathos, with stinging satire, with crackling
epigram and limpid humor, the bright ripples that play around the- sure and steady prow of the
resistless ship. Like an illuminated vase of odors, he glowed with concentrated and perfumed
fire. The divine energy of his conviction utterly possest him, and his.
"Pure and eloquent blood
Spoke in his cheek, and so distinctly wrought, That one might almost say his body thought.''
Was it Pericles swaying the Athenian multitude? Was it Apollo breathing the music of the
morning from his lips ?--No, no! It was an American patriot, a modern son of liberty, with a
soul as firm and as true as was ever consecrated to unselfish duty, pleading with the
American con- science for the chained and speechless victims of American infiumanity.
How terribly earnest was the anti-slavery contest this generation little knows. But to
understand Phillips, we must recall the situation of the country. When he joined the
Abolitionists, and for more than twenty years after- ward, slavery sat supreme in the White
House and made laws in the capital. Courts of justice were its ministers and legislatures its
lackeys.
It silenced the preacher in the pulpit, it muzzled the editor at his desk, and the professor in his
lecture-room. It set a price upon the head of the peaceful citizens, robbed the mails, and
denounced the vital principle of the Declaration of Independence as treason. In States whose
laws did not tolerate slavery, slavery ruled the club and the drawing-room, the factory and the
office, swaggered at the dinner table, and scourged with scorn a cowardly society.
It tore the golden rule from the school-books, and from the prayer-book the pictured benignity
of Christ. It prohibited in the free States schools for the hated race, and hunted women who
taught children to read. It forbade a free people to communicate with their representatives,
seized territory to extend its area and confirm its sovereignty, and plotted to steal more to
make its empire impregnable and the free Republic of the United States impossible. Scholars,
divines, men and women in every church, in every party, raised individual voices in earnest
protest. They sighed against a hurricane. There had been such protest in the country for two
centuries--colonial provisions and restrictions--the fiery voice of Whitfield in the South--the
calm persuasion of Woolman in the middle colonies-the heroism of Hopkins in Rhode Island
—the eloquence of Rush in Pennsylvania. There had been emancipation societies at the
North and at the South, arguments and appeals and threats in the- congress of the
confederation, in the constitutional convention, in the Congress of the Union; there had been
the words and the will of "Washington, the warning of Jefferson, the consenting testimony of
the revered fathers of the government; always the national conscience somewhere silently
pleading, always the finger of the world steadily pointing in scorn.
But here, after all the protest and the rebuke and the endeavor, was the malign power, which,
when the Constitution was formed, had been but the shrinking Afrite bound in the casket, now
towering and resistless. He had kicked his casket into the sea, and, haughtily defying the conscience of the country and the moral sentiment of mankind, demanded absolute control of the
Republic as the price of union--the Republic, anxious only to submit and to call submission
statesmanship.
If. then, the work of the Revolution was to be saved, and independent America was to
become free America, the first and paramount necessity was to arouse the country. Agitation
was the duty of the hour. Garrison was certainly not the first Abolitionist; no, nor was Luther
the first Protestant. But Luther brought all the wandering and separate rays of protest to a
focus, and kindled the contest for religious freedom. So, when Garrison flung full in the face of
slavery the defiance, of immediate and complete abolition, slavery, instinctively foreseeing its
doom, sprang to its feet and joined with the heroism of despair in the death-grapple with
liberty, from which, after a generation, liberty arose unbruised and victorious.
It is hard for the survivors of a generation to which Abolitionist was a word suggesting the
most odious fanaticism--a curious declamation at once nonsensical and dangerous, a
grotesque and sanctimonious playing with fire in a powder magazine--to believe that the
names of the representative Abolitionists will be written with a sunbeam, as Phillips says of
Toussaint, high over many an honored name. But history, looking before and after, readjusts
contemporary judgments of men and events. In all the essential qualities of heroic action
Luther, nailing his challenge to the church upon the church's own door, when the church was
supreme in Europe, William Tell, in the romantic legend, serenely scorning to bow to the cap
of Gessler, when Gessler's troops held all the market-place, are not nobler figures than
Garrison and Phillips, in the hour of the complete possession of the country by the power of
slavery, demanding immediate and unconditional emancipation.
A tone of apology, of deprecation or regret, no more becomes an American in speaking of the
Abolitionists than in speaking of the Sons of Liberty in the Revolution, and every tribute of
honor and respect which we gladly pay to the illustrious fathers of American independence is
paid as worthily to their sons, the pioneers of American freedom.
That freedom was secured, indeed, by the union of many forces. The abolition movement was
moral agitation It was a voice crying in the wilderness. As an American movement it was
reproached for holding aloof from the American political method. But in the order of time the
moral awakening precedes political action Polities are founded in compromise and
expediency, and had the abolition leaders paused to parley with prejudice and interest and
personal ambition, in order to smooth and conciliate and persuade, their duty world have
been undone. When the alarm-bell at night has brought the aroused citizens to the street they
will organize their action.
But the ringer of the bell betrays his trust when he ceases to startle. To vote was to
acknowledge the Constitution. To acknowledge the Constitution was to offer a premium upon
slavery by granting more political power for every slave. It was to own an obligation to return
innocent men to unspeakable degradation and to shoot them down if, with a thousandfold
greater reason than our fathers, they resisted oppression. Could Americans do this? Could
honest men do this? Could a great country do this and not learn, sooner or later, by ghastly
experience, the truth which George Mason proclaimed—that Providence punishes national
sins by national calamities? The Union, said "Wendell Phillips, with a calmness that
enchanted while it appalled-- but has not idolatry of the Union been the chief bulwark of
slavery, and in the words and deeds and spirit of the most vehement "Union saviors" who
denounce agitation, can any hope of emancipation be described?
If, then, under the sacred charter of the Union, slavery has grown to this stupendous height,
throwing the shadow of death over the land, is not the Union as it exists, the foe of liberty, and
can we honestly affirm that it is the sole surviving hope of freedom in the world? Long ago the
great leaders of our parties hushed their voices and whispered that even to speak of slavery
was to endanger the Union. Is not this enough? Sons of Otis and Adams, of Franklin and of
Jay, are we ready for union upon the ruins of freedom? Delenda Carthago! Delenda
Carthago! Even while he spoke there sprang up around him the marshaled host of an
organized political party which, raising the Constitution as a banner of freedom, marched to
the polls to make the Union the citadel of liberty. lie, indeed, had rejected the Constitution and
the Union as the bulwark of slavery. But he and the political host, widely differing, had yet a
common purpose, and were confounded in a common condemnation. And who shall count
the voters in that political army, and who the generous heroes of the actual war, in whose
young hearts his relentless denunciation of the Union had bred the high resolve that under the
protection of the Constitution and by its own lawful power, the slave Union which he
denounced should be dissolved in the fervid glory of a new Union of freedom?
His plea, indeed, did not persuade his friends, and was furiously spurned by his foes. '' Hang
Phillips and Yancey together, hang the Abolitionist and the fire-eater and we shall have
peace," cried mingled wrath and terror as the absorbing debate deepened toward civil war.
But still, through the startling flash and over the thunder-peal with which the tempest burst,
that cry rang out undismayed, Delenda Carthago! The awful storm has rolled away. The
warning voice is stilled forever. But the slave Union whose destruction he sought to dissolve,
and the glorious Union of freedom and equal rights which his soul desired, is the blest Union
of to-day
When the war ended, and the specific purpose of his relentless agitation was accomplished,
Phillips was still in the prime of his life. Had his mind recurred to the dreams of earlier years,
had he desired, in the fullness of his fame and the maturity of his powers, to turn to the
political career which the hopes of the friends of his south had forecast, I do not doubt that the
Massachusetts of Sumner and of Andrew, proud of his genius and owning his immense
service to the triumphant cause, altho a service beyond the party line, and often apparently
directed against the party itself, would have gladly summoned him to duty. It would, indeed,
have been a kind of peerage for this great Commoner. But not to repose and peaceful honor
did this earnest soul incline. '' Now that the field is won,'' he said gaily to a friend, "do you sit
by the camp-fire, but I will put out into the underbrush." The slave, indeed, was free, but
emancipation did not free the agitator from his task. The client that suddenly appeared before
him on that memorable October day was not an opprest race alone: it was wronged humanity;
it was the victim of unjust systems and unequal laws; it was the poor man, the weak man, the
unfortunate man, whoever and whatever he might be. This was the cause that he would still
plead in the forum of public opinion. "Let it not be said," he wrote to a meeting of his old
Abolition friends, two months before his death, "that the old Abolitionist stopt with the negro,
and was never able to see that the same principles claimed his utmost effort to protect all
labor, white and black, and to further the discussion of every claim of humanity "
"Was this the habit of mere agitation, the restless discontent that followed great achievement?
There were those who thought so. But they were critics of a temperament which did not note
that with Phillips agitation was a principle and a deliberately chosen method to definite ends.
There were still vast questions springing from the same root of selfishness and injustice as
the question of slavery. They must force a hearing in the same way. He would not adopt in
middle life the career of politics, which he had renounced in youth, however seductive that
career might be, whatever its opportunities and rewards, because the purpose had grown with
his growth and strengthened with his strength, to form public opinion rather than to represent
it, in making or in executing the laws. To form public opinion upon vital public questions by
public discussion, but by public discussion absolutely fearless and sincere, and conducted
with honest faith in the people to whom the argument was addrest--this was the service which
he had long performed, and this he would still perform, and in the familiar way.
His comprehensive philanthropy had made him, even during the anti-slavery contest, the
untiring advocate of other great reforms. His powerful presentation of the justice and reason
of the political equality of women, at Worcester, in 1857, more than any other single impulse,
launched that question upon the sea of popular controversy. In the general statement of
principle, nothing has been added to that discourse. In vivid and effective eloquence of
advocacy it has never been surpassed. All the arguments for independence echoed John
Adams in the Continental Congress: all the pleas for applying the American principle of
representation to the wives and mothers of American citizens echo the eloquence of Wendell
Phillips at "Worcester. His, also, was the voice that summoned the temperance voters of the
commonwealth to stand up and be counted; the voice which resolutely and definitely exposed
the crime to which the busy American mind and conscience are at last turning--the American
crime against the Indians. Through him the sorrow of Crete, the tragedy of Ireland, pleaded
with America. In the terrible experience of the early anti-slavery debate, when the church and
refined society seemed to be the rampart of slavery, he had learned profound distrust of that
conservatism of prosperity which chills human sympathy and narrows the conscience. So the
vast combinations of capital, in these later days, with their immense monopolies and imperial
power, seemed to him sure to corrupt the Government and to obstruct and threaten the real
welfare of the people. He felt, therefore, that what is called the respectable class is often
really, but unconsciously and with a generous purpose, not justly estimating its own tendency,
the dangerous class. He was not a party politician; he cared little for party or party leaders.
But any political party which in his judgment represented the dangerous tendency was a party
to be defeated in the interest of the peace and progress of all the people.
But his judgment, always profoundly sincere, was it not sometimes profoundly mistaken? No
nobler friend of freedom and of man than Wendell Phillips ever breathed upon this continent,
and no man's service to freedom surpasses his. But before the war he demanded peaceful
disunion--yet it was the Union in arms that saved liberty. During the war he would have
superseded Lincoln--but it was Lincoln who freed the slaves. He pleaded for Ireland, tortured
by centuries of misrule, and while every generous heart followed with sympathy the pathos
and the power of his appeal, the just mind recoiled from the sharp arraignment of the truest
friends in England that Ireland ever had. I know it all, but I know also, and history "will remember, that the slave Union which he denounced is dissolved ; that it was the heart and
conscience of the nation, exalted by his moral appeal of agitation, as well as by the
enthusiasm of patriotic war, which held up the hands of Lincoln, and upon which Lincoln
leaned in emancipating the slaves, and that only by indignant and aggressive appeals like his,
has the heart of England ever opened to
Irish wrong.
No man, I say, can take a preeminent and effective part in contentions that shake nations, or
in the discussion of national politics, of foreign relations, of domestic economy and finance,
without keen reproach and fierce misconception. "But death." says Bacon, "bringeth good
fame." Then, if formal integrity remain unsoiled, the purpose pure, blameless the life, and
patriotism as shining as the sun, conflicting views and differing counsels disappear, and,
firmly fixt upon character and actual achievement, good fame rests secure. Eighty years ago,
in this city, how unsparing was the denunciation of John Adams for betraying and ruining his
party, for his dogmatism, his vanity, and ambition, for his exasperating impracticability --he,
the Colossus of the Revolution! And Thomas Jefferson ? I may truly say what the historian
says of the Saracen mothers and Richard Coeur de Lion, that the mothers of Boston hushed
their children with fear of the political devil incarnate of Virginia. But, when the drapery of
mourning shrouded the columns and overhung the arches of Faneuil Hall, Daniel "Webster
did not remember that sometimes John Adams was imprudent, and Thomas Jefferson
sometimes unwise. He remembered only that John Adams and Thomas Jefferson were two of
the greatest American patriots--and their fellow citizens of every party bowed their heads and
said, Amen. I am not here to declare that the judgment of Wendell Phillips was always sound,
nor his estimate of men always just, nor his policy always approved by the event. He would
have scorned such praise. I am not here to eulogize the mortal, but the immortal. He. too, was
a great American patriot; and no American life--no, not one--offers to future generations of his
countrymen a more priceless example of inflexible fidelity to conscience and to public duty;
and no American more truly than he purged the nation name of its shame, and made the
American flag the flag of hope for mankind. Among her noblest children his native city will
cherish him. and gratefully recall the unbending Puritan soul that dwelt in a form so gracious
and urbane. The plain house in which he lived--severely plain, because the welfare of the
suffering and the slave were preferred to books and pictures, and every fair device of art; the
house to which the North Star led the trembling fugitive, and which, the unfortunate and the
friendless knew; the radiant figure passing swiftly through these streets, plain as the house
from which it came, regal with a royalty of kings: the ceaseless charity untold; the strong
sustaining heart of private friendship; the sacred domestic affections that must not here be
named; the eloquence which, like the song of Orpheus, will fade from living memory into a
doubtful tale, that great scene of his youth in Faneuil Hall; the surrender of ambition; the
mighty agitation and the mighty triumph with which his name is forever blended; the
consecration of life hidden with God in sympathy with man--these, all these, will live among
your immortal traditions, heroic even in your heroic story. But not yours alone! As years go by,
and only the large outlines of lofty American characters and careers remain, the wide
Republic will confess the benediction of a life like this, and gladly own that if with perfect faith
and hope assured, America "would still stand and "bid the distant generations hail," the
inspiration of her national life must be the sublime moral courage, the all-embracing humanity,
the spotless integrity, the absolutely unselfish devotion of great powers to great public ends,
which were the glory of Wendell Phillips.
ON THE DEATH OF DANIEL WEBSTER
BY RUFUS CHOATE
May It Please Your Honors:--I have been requested by the members of the Bar of this Court
to add a few words to the resolutions just read, in which they have em- bodied, as they were
able, their sorrow for the death of their beloved and illustrious member and countryman, Mr.
Webster; their estimation of his character, life, and genius; their sense of the bereavement--to
the country as to his friends--incapable of repair; the pride, the fondness—the filial and the
patriotic pride and fondness--with which they cherish, and would consign to history to cherish,
the memory of a great and good man.
And yet I could earnestly have desired to be excused from this duty. He must have known Mr.
"Webster less, and loved him less, than your honors, or than I have known and loved him,
who can quite yet--quite yet--before we can comprehend that we have lost him forever-before the first paleness with which the news of his death overspread our cheeks has passed
away--before we have been down to lay him in the Pilgrim soil he loved so well, till the
heavens be no more--he must have known and loved him less than we have done, who can
come here quite yet, to recount the series of his services, to display with psychological
exactness the traits of his nature and mind, to ponder and speculate on the secrets--on the
marvelous secrets-and source of that vast power, which we shall see no more in action, nor
aught in any degree resembling it, among men. These first moments should be given to grief.
It may employ, it may promote a calmer mood, to construct a more elaborate and less
unworthy memorial!
For the purposes of this moment and place, indeed, no more is needed. What is there for this
Court or for this Bar to learn from me, here and now, of him? The year and the day of his
birth; that birthplace on the frontier, yet bleak and waste; the well, of which his childhood
drank, dug by that father of whom he has said, '' That through the fire and blood of seven
years of Revolutionary War he shrank from no danger, no toil, no sacrifice, to serve his
country; and to raise his children to a condition better than his own;" the elm-tree that father
planted, fallen now, as father and son have fallen; that training of the giant infancy on
catechism and Bible, and Watts' version of the Psalms, and the traditions of Plymouth, and
Fort William Henry, and the Revolution, and the age of Washington and Franklin, on the
banks of the Merrimac, flowing sometimes in flood and anger, from its secret springs in the
crystal hills; the two district schoolmasters. Chase and Tappan; the village library; the dawning
of the love and ambition of letters; the few months at Exeter and Boscawen; the life of college,
the probationary season of school-teaching; the clerkship in the Fryeburg Registry of Deeds;
his admission to the Bar presided over by judges like Smith, illustrated by practisers such as
Mason, where, by the studies in the contentions of nine years, he laid the foundation of the
professional mind; his irresistible attraction to public life; the oration on commerce; the
Roekingham resolutions; his first term of four years' service in Congress, when, by one
bound, he sprang to his place by the side of the fore- most of the rising American statesmen;
his removal to this State; and then the double and parallel current in which his life, studies,
thoughts, cares, have since flowed, bearing him to the leadership of the Bar by universal
acclaim, bearing him to the leadership of public life--last of that surpassing triumvirate, shall
we say the greatest, the most widely known and admired?--all these things, to their
minutest details, are known and rehearsed familiarly. Happier than the younger Pliny, happier
than Cicero, he has found his historian, unsolicited, in his lifetime, and his countrymen have
him all by heart!
There is, then, nothing to tell you, nothing to bring to mind. And then, if I may borrow the
language of one of his historians and friends--one of those through whose beautiful pathos
the common sorrow uttered itself yesterday, in Faneuil Hall--''I dare not come here and
dismiss in a few summary paragraphs the character of one who has filled such a space in the
history, one who holds such a place in the heart, of his country. It would be a disrespectful
familiarity to a man of his lofty spirit, his great soul, his rich endowments, his long and
honorable life, to endeavor thus to weigh and estimate them"--a half-hour of words, a handful
of earth, for fifty years of great deeds on high places!
But, altho the time does not require anything elaborated and adequate--forbids it, rather-some broken sentences of veneration and love may be indulged to the sorrow which
oppresses us.
There presents itself, on the first and to any observation of Mr. Webster's life and character, a
twofold eminence--eminence of the very highest rank--in a twofold field of intellectual and
public display--the profession of the law and the profession of statesmanship--of which it
would not be easy to recall any parallel in the biography of illustrious men.
Without seeking for parallels, and without asserting that they do not exist, consider that he
was, by universal designation, the leader of the general American Bar; and that he was. also,
by an equally universal designation, foremost of her statesmen living at his death; inferior to
not one who has lived and acted since the opening of his own public life. Look at these
aspects of his greatness separately, and from opposite sides of the surpassing elevation.
Consider that his single career at the Bar may seem to have been enough to employ the
largest faculties, without repose, for a lifetime; and that, if then and thus the "infinitus
forensium rorum labor" should have conducted him to a mere professional reward--a bench of
chancery or law, the crown of the first of advocates, jurisperitorum cloquentissimus-- to the
pure and mere honors of a great magistrate—that that would be as much as is allotted to the
ablest in the distribution of fame. Even that half, if I may say so, of his illustrious reputation-how long the labor to win it. how worthy of all that labor! He was bred first in the severest
school of the common law, in which its doctrines were ex- pounded by Smith, and its
administration shaped and directed by Mason, and its foundation principles, its historical
sources and illustrations, its connection with the parallel series of statutory enactments, its
modes of reasoning, and the evidence of its truths, he grasped easily and completely; and I
have myself heard him say, that for many years while still at the bar, he tried more causes,
and argued more questions of fact to the jury than perhaps any other member of the
profession anywhere. I have heard from others how, even then, he exemplified the same
direct, clear, and forcible exhibition of proofs, and the reasonings appropriate to proofs, as
well as the same marvelous power of discerning instantly what we call the decisive points of
the cause in law and fact, by which he was later more widely celebrated. This was the first
epoch in his professional training.
With the commencement of his public life, or with his later removal to this State, began the
second epoch of his professional training, conducting him through the gradation of the
national tribunals to the study and practise of the more flexible, elegant, and scientific
jurisprudence of commerce and of chancery, and to the grander and less fettered
investigations of international, prize, and constitutional law, and giving him to breathe the air
of a more famous forum, in a more public presence, with more variety of competition, altho he
never met abler men. as I have heard him say, than some of those who initiated him in the
rugged discipline of the courts of New Hampshire; and thus, at length, by these studies, these
labors, this contention, continued without repose, he came, now many years ago, to stand
omnium assensu at the summit of the American Bar.
It is common and it is easy in the case of all in such position, to point out other lawyers, here
and there, as possessing some special qualification or attainment more remarkable, perhaps,
because more exclusively--to say of one that he has more eases in his recollection at any
given moment, or that he was earlier grounded in equity, or has gathered more black letter or
civil law, or knowledge of Spanish or of Western titles--and these comparisons were
sometimes made with him. But when you sought a counsel of the first rate for the great
cause, who would most surely discern and most powerfully expound the exact law, required
by the controversy, in season for use; who would most skilfully encounter the opposing law;
under whose powers of analysis, persuasion, and display the asserted right would assume
the most probable aspect before the intelligence of the judge; who, if the inquiry became
blended with or resolved into facts, could most completely develop and most irresistibly
expose them; one "the law's whole thunder born to wield "--when you sought such a counsel,
and could have the choice, I think the universal profession would have turned to him. And this
would be so in nearly every description of cause, in any department. Some able men wield
civil inquiries with a peculiar ability; some criminal. How lucidly and how deeply he elucidated
a question of property, you all know. But, then, with what address, feeling, pathos, and
prudence he defended, with what dignity and crushing power, accusatorio spiritual, he
prosecuted the accused of crime, whom he believed to have been guilty, few have seen; but
none who have seen can ever forget it.
Some scenes there are. some Alpine eminences rising above the high table-land of such a
professional life, to which, in the briefest tribute, we should love to follow him. We recall that
day, for instance, when he first announced, with decisive display, what manner of man he
was, to the Supreme Court of the nation. It was in 1818, and it was the argument of the case
of Dartmouth College. William Pinkney was recruiting his great faculties, and replenishing that
reservoir of professional and elegant acquisition, in Europe. Samuel Dexter, '' the honorable
man, and the counselor, and the eloquent orator," was in his grave. The boundless old-school
learning of Luther Martin; the silver voice and infinite analytical ingenuity and resources of
Jones; the fervid genius of Emmett pouring itself along immense oro; the ripe and beautiful
culture of Wirt and Hopkinson--the steel point, unseen, not unfelt, beneath the foliage; Harper
himself, statesman as well as lawyer- these, and such as these, were left of that noble Bar.
That day Mr. Webster opened the cause of Dartmouth College to a tribunal unsurpassed on
earth in all that gives illustration to a bench of law, not one of whom any longer survives.
One would love to linger on the scene, when, after a masterly argument of the law, carrying,
as we may now know, conviction to the general mind of the court, and vindicating and settling
for his lifetime his place in that forum, he paused to enter, with an altered feeling, tone, and
manner, with these words on his peroration: "I have brought my Alma Mater to this presence,
that, if she must fall, she may fall in her robes, and with dignity"; and then broke forth in that
strain of sublime and pathetic eloquence, of which we know not much more than that, in its
progress, Marshall--the intellectual, the self-controlled, the unemotional--announced, visibly,
the presence of the unaccustomed enchantment.
Other forensic triumphs crowd on us, in other competition, with other issues. But I must
commit them to the historian of constitutional jurisprudence.
And now, if this transcendent professional reputation were all of Mr. "Webster, it might be
practicable, tho not easy, to find its parallel elsewhere, in our own, or in European or classical
biography.
But, when you consider that, side by side with this, there was growing up that other
reputation--that of the first American statesman; that, for thirty-three years, and those
embracing his most Herculean works at the Bar, he was engaged as a member of either
House, or in the highest of the executive departments, in the conduct of the largest national
affairs, in the treatment of the largest national questions, in debate with the highest abilities of
American public life, conducting diplomatic intercourse in delicate relations with all manner of
foreign powers, investigating whole classes of truths, totally unlike the truths of the law, and
resting on principles totally distinct--and that here, too, he was wise, safe, controlling, trusted,
the fore- most man; that Europe had come to see in his life a guaranty for justice, for peace,
for the best hopes of civilisation, and America to feel surer of her glory and her safety as his
great arm enfolded her--you see how rare, how solitary, almost, was the actual greatness!
Who, anywhere, has won, as he had, the double fame, and worn the double wreath of Murray
and Chatham, of Dunning and Fox, of Erskine and Pitt, of "William Pinkney and Rufus King, in
one blended and transcendent superiority?
I can not attempt to grasp and sum up the aggregate of the service of his public life at such a
moment as this; and it is needless. That life comprized a term of more than thirty-three years
It produced a body of performance, of which, I may say, generally, it was all which the first
abilities of the country and time, employed with unexampled toil, stimulated by the noblest
patriotism, in the highest places of the State, in the fear of God, in the presence of nations,
could possibly compass.
He came into Congress atter the War of 1812 had begun, and tho probably deeming it
unnecessary, according to the highest standards of public necessity, in his private character,
and objecting, in his public character, to some of the details of the policy by which it was
prosecuted, and standing by party ties in general opposition to the administration, he never
breathed a sentiment calculated to depress the tone of the public mind, to aid or comfort the
enemy, to check or chill the stirrings of that new, passionate, unquenchable spirit of
nationality, which then was leveled, or kindled to burn till we go down to the tombs of States.
With the peace of 1815 his more cherished public labors began; and thenceforward he
devoted himself--the ardor of his civil youth, the energies of his maturest manhood, the
autumnal wisdom of the ripened year--to the offices of legislation and diplomacy; of
preserving the peace, keeping the honor, establishing the boundaries, and vindicating the
neutral rights of his country; restoring a sound currency, and laying its foundation sure and
deep; in upholding public credit; in promoting foreign commerce and domestic industry; in
developing our uncounted material re- sources--giving the lake and the river to trade--and
vindicating and interpreting the constitution and the law. On all these subjects--on all
measures practically in any degree affecting them--he has inscribed opinions and left the
traces of his hand. Everywhere the philosophical and patriot statesman and thinker will find
that he has been before him, lighting the way, sounding the abyss. His weighty language, his
sagacious warnings, his great maxims of empire, will be raised to view, and live to be
deciphered when the final catastrophe shall lift the granite foundation in fragments from its
bed.
In this connection I can not but remark to how extraordinary an extent had Mr. "Webster by his
acts. words thoughts, or the events of his life, associated himself forever in the memory of all
of us with every historical incident, or, at least, with every historical epoch, with every policy,
with every glory, with every great name and fundamental institution, and grand or beautiful
image, which are peculiarly and properly American. Look backward to the planting of
Plymouth and Jamestown; to the various scenes of colonial life in peace and war; to the
opening and march and close of the Revolutionary drama; to the age of the Constitution; to
Washington and Franklin and Adams and Jefferson; to the whole train of causes, from the
Reformation downward, which prepared us to be republicans; to that other train of causes
which led us to be unionists--look around on field, workshop, and deck, and hear the music of
labor rewarded, fed, and protected; look on the bright sisterhood of the States, each singing
as a seraph in her motion, yet blending in a common harmony --and there is nothing which
does not bring him by some tie to the memory of America. We seem to see his form and hear
his deep, grave speech everywhere. By some felicity of his personal life; by some wise, deep,
or beautiful word, spoken or written; by some service of his own, or some commemoration of
the services of others; it has come to pass that "our granite hills, our inland seas, and prairies,
and fresh, unbounded, magnificent wilderness," our encircling ocean, the Rock of the
Pilgrims, our new-born sister of the Pacific, our popular assemblies, our free schools, all our
cherished doctrines of education, and of the influence of religion, and material policy, and the
law, and the Constitution, give us back his name. What American landscape will you look on,
what subject of American interest will you study, what source of hope or of anxiety, as an
American, will you acknowledge, that does not recall him!
I shall not venture, in this rapid and general recollection of Mr. Webster, to attempt to analyze
that intellectual power which all admit to have been so extraordinary, or to compare or
contrast it with the mental greatness of others, in variety or degree, of the living or the dead;
or even to attempt to appreciate exactly and in reference to canors of art, his single attribute
of eloquence. Consider, however, the remarkable phenomenon of excellence in three
unkindred, one might have thought, incompatible forms of public speech--that of the forum,
with its double audience of bench and jury, of the halls of legislation, and of the most thronged
and tumultuous assemblies of the people.
Consider further, that this multiform eloquence, exactly as his words fell, became at once so
much accession to permanent literature, in the strictest sense, solid, attractive and rich, and
ask how often in the history of public life such a thing has been exemplified. Recall what
pervaded all these forms of display, and every effort in every form-- that union of naked
intellect, in its largest measure, which penetrates to the exact truth of the matter in hand, by
intuition or by inference, and discerns everything which may make it intelligible, probable, or
credible to another, with an emotional and moral nature profound, passionate, and ready to
kindle, and with an imagination enough to supply a hundredfold more of to accept; that union
of greatness of soul with depth of heart which made his speaking almost more an exhibition of
character than of mere genius; the style, not merely pure, clear Saxon, but so constructed, so
numerous as far as becomes prose, so forcible, so abounding in unlabored felicities; the
words so choice; the epithet so pictured; the matter absolute truth, or the most exact and
specious resemblance the human wit can devise; the treatment of the subject, if you have
regard to the kind of truth
he had to handle--political, ethical, legal--as deep, as complete as Paley's, or Locke's, or
Butler's, or Alexander Hamilton's, of their subjects; yet that depth and that completeness of
sense made transparent as through crystal waters, all embodied in harmonious or wellcomposed periods, raised on winged language, vivified, fused, and poured along in a tide of
emotion, fervid, and incapable to be withstood; recall the form, the eye, the brow, the tone of
voice, the presence of the intellectual king of men, --recall him thus, and, in the language of
Mr. Justice Story, commemorating Samuel Dexter, we may well "rejoice that we have lived in
the same age, that we have listened to his eloquence, and been instructed by his wisdom.''
I can not leave the subject of his eloquence without returning to a thought I have advanced
already. All that he has left, or the larger portion of all, is the record of spoken words. His
works, as already collected, extend to many volumes--a library of reason and eloquence, as
Gibbon has said of Cicero's--but they are volumes of speeches only, or mainly: and yet who
does not rank him as a great American author? an author as truly expounding, and as
characteristically exemplifying, in a pure, genuine, and harmonious English style, the mind,
thought, point of view of objects, and essential nationality of his country as any other of our
authors, professedly so denominated ? Against the maxim of Mr. Fox, his speeches read well,
and yet were good speeches--great speeches--in the deliver}'. For so grave were they, so
thoughtful and true, so much the eloquence of reason at last, so strikingly always they
contrived to link the immediate topic with other and broader principles, ascending easily to
widest generalizations, so happy was the reconciliation of the qualities which engage the
attention of hearers, yet reward the perusal of students, so critically did they keep the right
side of the line which parts eloquence from rhetoric, and so far do they rise above the penury
of mere debate, that the general reason of the country has enshrined them at once and
forever among our classics.
It is a common belief that Mr. Webster was a various reader; and I think it is true, even to a
greater degree than has been believed. In his profession of politics, nothing, I think, worthy of
attention had escaped him; nothing of the ancient or modern prudence: nothing which Greek
or Roman or European speculation in that walk had explored, or Greek or Roman or
European or universal history or public biography exemplified. I shall not soon forget with
what admiration he spoke, at an interview to which he admitted me, while in the Law School
at Cambridge, of the polities and ethics of Aristotle, and of the mighty mind which, as he said,
seemed to have "thought through" so many of the great problems which form the discipline of
social man. American history and American political literature he had by heart--the long series
of influences which trained us for representative and free government; that other series of
influences which molded us into a united government; the Colonial era; the age of controversy
before the Revolution; every scene and every person in that great tragic action; every
question which has successively engaged our politics, and every name which has figured in
them--the whole stream of our time was open, clear, and present ever to his eye.
Beyond his profession of politics, so to call it, he had been a diligent and choice reader, as his
extraordinary style in part reveals; and I think the love of reading would have gone with him to
a later and riper age if to such an age it had been the will of God to preserve him. This is no
place or time to appreciate this branch of his acquisitions; but there is an interest
inexpressible in knowing who were any of the chosen from among the great dead in the
library of such a man. Others may correct me, but I should say of that interior and narrower
circle were Cicero. Vergil, Shakespeare--whom he knew as familiarly as the Constitution-Bacon, Milton, Burke, Johnson--to whom I hope it is not pedantic nor fanciful to say, I often
thought his nature presented some resemblance; the same abundance of the general
propositions required for explaining a difficulty and refuting a sophism copiously and promptly
occurring to him; the same kindness of heart and wealth of sensibility, under a manner, of
course, more courteous and gracious, yet more sovereign; the same sufficient, yet not
predominant, imagination, stooping ever to truth, and giving affluence, vivacity, and attraction
to a powerful, correct, and weighty style of prose.
I can not leave this life and character without selecting and dwelling a moment on one or two
of his traits, or virtues, or felicities, a little longer. There is a collective impression made by the
whole of an eminent person's life, beyond, and other than, and apart from, that which the
mere general biographer would afford the means of explaining.
There is an influence of a great man derived from things indescribable, almost, or incapable
of enumeration, or singly insufficient to account for it, but through which his spirit transpires,
and his individuality goes forth on the contemporary generation. And thus, I should say, one
grand tendency of his life and character was to elevate the whole tone of the public mind. He
did this, indeed, not merely by example. He did it by dealing, as he thought, truly and in manly
fashion with that public mind. He evinced his love of the people, not so much by honeyed
phrases as by good counsels and useful senice, vera pro gratis. He showed how he
appreciated them by submitting sound arguments to their understandings, and right motives
to their free will. He came before them, less with flattery than with instruction; less with a
vocabulary larded with the words humanity and philanthropy, and progress and brotherhood,
than with a scheme of politics, an educational, social and governmental system, which would
have made them prosperous, happy and great.
What was the greatest of the Greek historians said of Pericles, we all feel might be said of
him: ''He did not so much follow as lead the people, because he framed not his words to
please them, like one who is gaining power by unworthy means, but was able and dared, on
the strength of his character, even to brave their anger by contradicting their will."
I should indicate it as another influence of his life, acts, and opinions, that it was, in an
extraordinary degree, uniformly and liberally conservative. He saw with vision as of a prophet,
that if our system of united government can be maintained till a nationality shall be generated,
of due intensity and due comprehension, a glory indeed millennial, a progress without end, a
triumph of humanity hitherto unseen, were ours; and, therefore, he addrest himself to
maintain that united government.
Standing on the Rock of Plymouth, he bade distant generations hail, and saw them rising,
"demanding life, impatient for the skies," from what then were "fresh, unbounded, magnificent
wildernesses''; from the shore of the great, tranquil sea, not yet become ours. But observe to
what he welcomes them; by what he would bless them. '' It is to good government." It is to ''
treasures of science and delights of learning." It is to the "sweets of domestic life, the
immeasurable good of rational existence, the immortal hopes of Christianity, the light of
everlasting truth.''
It will be happy if the wisdom and temper of his administration of our foreign affairs shall
preside in the time which is at hand. Sobered, instructed by the examples
and warnings of all the past, he yet gathered from the study and comparison of all the eras
that there is a silent progress of the race--without pause, without haste, without return--to
which the counselings of history are to be accommodated by a wise philosophy. More than, or
as much as, that of any of our public characters, his statesman- ship was one which
recognized a Europe, an old world, but yet grasped the capital idea of the American position,
and deduced from it the whole fashion and color of its policy; which discerned that we are to
play a high part in human affairs, but discerned, also, what part it is--peculiar, distant, distinct,
and grand as our hemisphere; au influence, not a contact--the stage, the drama, the
catastrophe, all but the audience, all our own--and if ever he felt himself at a loss, he
consulted, reverently, the genius of Washington.
In bringing these memories to a conclusion--for I omit many things because I dare not trust
myself to speak them--I shall not be misunderstood, or give offense, if I hope that one other
trait in his public character, one doctrine, rather, of his political creed, may be remembered
and be appreciated. It is one of the two fundamental precepts in which Plato, as expounded
by the great master of Latin eloquence and reason and morals, comprehends the duty of
those who share in the conduct of the State--that they comprize in their care the whole body
of the Republic, nor keep one part and desert another.'' He gives the reason-- one reason--of
the precept: "The patriotism which em- braces less than the whole induces sedition and
discord, the last evil of the State."
How profoundly he had comprehended this truth; with what persistency, with what passion,
from the first hour he became a public man to the last beat of the great heart, he cherished it;
how little he accounted the good, the praise, the blame of this locality or that, in comparison of
the larger good and the general and thoughtful approval of his own, and our, whole America-she this day feels and announces. Wheresoever a drop of her blood flows in the veins of men,
this trait is felt and appreciated. The hunter beyond Superior; the fisherman on the deck of the
nigh night-foundered skiff; the sailor on the uttermost sea-- will feel, as he hears these tidings,
that the protection of a sleepless, all-embracing, parental care is withdrawn from him for a
space, and that his pathway henceforward is more solitary and less safe than before.
But I can not pursue these thoughts. Among the eulogists who have just uttered the eloquent
sorrow of England at the death of the great Duke, one has employed an image and an idea
which I venture to modify and appropriate. "The Northmen's image of death is finer than that
of other climes; no skeleton, but a gigantic figure that envelops men within the massive folds
of his dark garment. '' Webster seems so unshrouded from us, as the last of the mighty three,
themselves following a mighty series-- the greatest closing procession. The robe draws round
him, and the era is past.
Yet how much there is which that all-ample fold shall not hide, the recorded wisdom, the great
example, the assured immortality. They speak of monuments!
"Nothing can cover his high fame but heaven; No pyramids set off his memories But the
eternal substance of his greatness; To which I leave him."
LAFAYETTE
BY SARGEANT S. PRENTISS
Death, who knocks with equal hand at the door of the cottage and the palace gate, has been
busy at his appointed work. Mourning prevails throughout the land, and the countenances of
all are shrouded in the mantle of regret. Far across the wild Atlantic, amid the pleasant
vineyards in the sunny land of France, there, too, is mourning; and the weeds of sorrow are
alike worn by prince and peasant. Against whom has the monarch of "the tomb turned his
remorseless dart that such widespread sorrow prevails? Hark, and the agonized voice of
Freedom, weeping for her favorite son, will tell you in strains sadder than those with which
she "shrieked when Kosciusko fell" that Lafayette--the gallant and the good--has ceased to
live.
The friend and companion of Washington is no more. He who taught the eagle of our country,
while yet unfledged, to plume his young wing and mate his talons with the lion's strength, has
taken his flight far beyond the stars, beneath whose influence he fought so well. Lafayette is
dead! The gallant ship, whose pennon has so often bravely streamed above the roar of battle
and the tempest's rage, has at length gone slowly down in the still and quiet waters. Well
mightest thou, O, Death, now recline beneath the laurels thou hast won; for never since, as
the grim messenger of Almighty Vengeance, thou earnest into the world, did a more generous
heart cease to heave beneath thy chilling touch, and never will thy insatiate dart be hurled
against a nobler breast! Who does not feel at the mournful intelligence, as if he had lost
something cheering from his own path through life; as if some bright star, at which he had
been accustomed frequently and fondly to gaze, had been suddenly extinguished in the
firmament?
History's page abounds with those who have struggled forth from the nameless crowd, and.
standing forward in the front ranks, challenged the notice of their fellow men; but when, in
obedience to their bold demands, we examine their claims to our admiration, how seldom do
we find aught that excites our respect or commands our veneration. With what pleasure do
we turn from the contemplation of the Caesars and Napoleons of the human race to meditate
upon the character of Lafayette! We feel proud that we belong to the same species; we feel
proud that we live in the same age; and we feel still more proud that our country drew forth
and nurtured those generous virtues which went to form a character that for love of liberty,
romantic chivalry, unbounded generosity and unwavering devotion, has never had a parallel.
The history of this wonderful man is engraved upon the memory of every American, and I
shall only advert to such portions of it as will best tend to illustrate his character. In 1777 our
fathers were engaged in rescuing from the fangs of the British lion the rights which their sons
are now enjoying. It was the gloomiest period of the Revolutionary struggle. Our army was
feeble; an insolent and victorious enemy was pressing hard upon it; despondency had spread
through its ranks. It seemed as if the last hope of Freedom was gone. Deep gloom had settled
over the whole country; and men looked with a despairing aspect upon the future of a contest
which their best wishes could not flatter them was doubtful. It was at this critical period that
their hopes were renovated and their spirits roused by the cheering intelligence that at
Charleston, in the State of South Carolina, there had just arrived a gallant French nobleman
of high rank and immense wealth, eager to em- bark his person and his fortunes in the sacred
cause of
Liberty! New impulse was given to the energies of our dispirited troops. As the first ray of
morning breaks upon the benighted and tempest-tossed mariner, so did this timely assistance
cheer the hearts of the war-worn and almost despairing soldiers of Freedom. The enthusiastic
French- man, tho but a beardless youth, was immediately taken into the affections and the
confidence of Washington. Soon, too. did he flash his maiden sword upon his hereditary foes
and proved, upon the field of Brandywine, that his blood flowed as freely as his treasure in the
cause he had espoused. That blood was the blood of the young Lafayette. But nineteen
summers had passed over his brow, when he was thus found fighting side by side with the
veteran warriors of Bunker Hill.
How came he here? Born to a high name and a rich inheritance; educated at a dissipated and
voluptuous court; married to a young and beautiful woman--how came he to break through
the blandishments of love and the temptations of pleasure and thus be found fighting the
battle of strangers, far away in the wilds of America? It was because, from his infancy, there
had grown up in his bosom a passion more potent than all others: the love of liberty. Upon his
heart a spark from the very altar of Freedom had fallen and he watched and cherished it with
more than vestal vigilance. This passionate love of liberty; this fire which was thenceforth to
glow unquenched and undimmed, impelled him to break asunder the ties both of pleasure
and of affection. He had heard that a gallant people had raised the standard of revolt against
oppression, and he hastened to join them. It was to him the Crusade of Liberty; and, like a
Knight of the Holy Cross, he had en- listed in the ranks of those who had sworn to rescue her
altars from the profane touch of the tyrant.
More congenial to him by far were the hardships, the dangers, and the freedom of the
American wilds than the ease, the luxury, and the slavery of his native court. He had
exchanged the voice of love for the savage yell and the hostile shout; the gentle strains of the
harp and lute for the trumpet and drum and the still more terrible music of clashing arms. Nor
did he come alone or empty-handed. The people in whose cause he was about to peril his life
and his fortune were too poor to afford him even the means of conveyance, and his own court
threw every obstacle in the way of the accomplishment of his wishes. Did this dampen his
ardor? Did this chill his generous aspiration? No; it added new vigor to each. "I will fit out a
vessel myself," exclaimed the enthusiastic youth; and in spite of the sneers of the young and
the cautions of the old, the gallant boy redeemed his pledge. Soon a proud ship was seen
flying fast and falcon- like across the wide Atlantic. She landed on our shores like a bird of
promise; and by her present aid and hopes of future succor infused new vigor into our almost
palsied arms.
Such was the commencement of a career destined to be more brilliant than any of which we
read in tale or history, realizing the wildest wishes of youthful enthusiasm, and showing how
the romance of real life often exceeds the strangest fictions of the imagination. From the
moment of joining our ranks the young hero became the pride and the boast of the army. He
won the affections of the stern-browed and iron-souled warriors of New England, and was
received with open arms by the warm-hearted and chivalrous sons of the South. Tho the
down of manhood had scarcely begun to spring upon his cheek, yet were his counsels
eagerly listened to by the hoary leaders and the scarred veterans of the war. On the field of
Little he was impetuous and brave; in the council the wisdom of Nestor flowed from his lips.
But it is not my intention to go into a detailed account of the services rendered by Lafayette to
the country of his adoption. Suffice it to say that, throughout the Revolutionary struggle, with
unchanged fidelity and undeviating devotion, he continued to pour forth his blood and his
treasure in the sacred cause he had espoused; and when at length, full of honors, without one
single stain upon his bright escutcheon, he returned to his native land, the voices of millions
of freemen were united in invoking the blessing of heaven upon his head. Thence- forth a
halo of glory surrounded him. and he was hailed by all the world as the Apostle of Liberty! Full
well did he deserve the title! For not more truly does the needle point to the pole than did all
his feelings point to the great principles of civil freedom.
During the sanguinary scenes of the French Revolution, when the people had quaffed so
deeply at the fountain of liberty that they became drunk and frenzied with the unusual drafts,
Lafayette alone lost not his equanimity.
He alone dared to oppose the wild excesses of the Jacobins; and tho he was unable entirely
to stem the maddened torrent, which seemed let loose from hell itself, yet many are the
thanks due to his unwearied exertions to restrain it within the banks of law and order.
Throughout those troublesome times he was found at his post, by the side of the Constitution
and the laws; and when at length the whole foundations of society were broken up and the
wild current of licentiousness and crime swept him an exile into a foreign land, still did he hold
fast his integrity of soul. In the gloomy dungeons of Olmutz, the flame of patriotism glowed as
brightly and as warmly in his breast as ever it did when fanned by the free breezes of the
mountains. The dungeons of Olmutz! What associations are connected with the name! They
form a part of the romance of history. For five long years was the Friend of Liberty immured in
the prison of the tyrant. In vain did the civilized world demand his release. But what nations
could not effect, came near being accomplished by the devoted exertions of two chivalric
young men; and one of them was a South Carolinian whose father had extended the
hospitality of his house to Lafayette, when on his first visit to America he landed in the city of
Charleston. Strange, that, after the lapse of so many years, the little child who had then
climbed upon his knee should now be periling his life for his rescue! There is nothing in
history to compare with this romantic episode of real life, unless, perhaps, the story of the
minstrel friend of the lion-hearted Richard, wandering through those very dominions tuning his
harp beneath every fortress, till at length his strains were answered and the prison of the royal
Crusader discovered. But the doors of the Austrian were at length thrown open and Lafayette
returned to France. Great changes, however, had taken place in his absence. The flood of the
Revolution had subsided. The tempest of popular commotion had blown over, leaving many
and fearful evidences of its fury; and the star of the Child of Destiny had now become lord of
the ascendant. Small was the sympathy between the selfish and ambitious Napoleon and
Lafayette, tho patriot and philanthropist. They could no more mingle than the pure lights of
heaven and the unholy fires of hell. Lafavette refused with scorn the dignities proffered by the
First Consul. Filled with virtuous indignation at his country's fate, he retired from the capital;
and, devoting himself awhile to the pursuits of private life, awaited the return of better times.
Here we can not but pause to contemplate these two wonderful men, belonging to the same
age and to the same nation: Napoleon and Lafayette. Their names exeite no kindred
emotions; their fates no kindred sympathies. Napoleon--the Child of Destiny--the thunderbolt
of war-- the victor in a hundred battles--the dispenser of thrones and dominions; he who
sealed the Alps and reclined beneath the pyramids, whose word was fate and whose wish
was law. Lafayette--the volunteer of Freedom--the advocate of human rights--the defender of
civil liberty—the patriot and the philanthropist--the beloved of the good and the free.
Napoleon--the vanquished warrior, ignobly flying from the field of Waterloo, the wild beast,
ravaging all Europe in his wrath, hunted down by the banded and affrighted nations and
caged far away upon an ocean- girded rock. Lafayette, a watchword by which men excite
each other to deeds of worth and noble daring; whose home had become the Mecca of
freedom, toward which the pilgrims of Liberty turn their eyes from every quarter of the globe.
Napoleon was the red and fiery comet, shooting wildly through the realms of space and
scattering pestilence and terror among the nations. Lafayette was the pure and brilliant
planet, beneath whose grateful beams the mariner directs his bark and the shepherd tends
his flocks --Napoleon died and a few old warriors--the scattered relies of Marengo and of
Austerlitz--bewailed their chief. Lafayette is dead and the tears of a civilized world attest how
deep is the mourning for his loss. Such is, and al- ways will be, the difference of feeling
toward a benefactor and a conqueror of the Iranian race.
In 1824. on Sunday, a single ship furled her snowy sails in the harbor of New York. Scarcely
had her prow touched the shore, when a murmur was heard among the multitudes which
gradually deepened into a mighty shout of joy. Again and again were the heavens rent with
the inspiring sound. Nor did it cease; for the loud strain was carried from city to city and from
State to State, till not a tongue was silent throughout this wild Republic from the lisping infant
to the tremulous old man. All were united in one wild shout of gratulation. The voices of more
than ten million freemen gushed up toward the sky and broke the stillness of its depths. But
one note and one tone went to form this acclamation. Up in those pure regions clearly and
sweetly did it sound: '' Honor to Lafayette!" " Welcome to the Nation's Guest!" It was
Lafayette, the war- worn veteran, whose arrival on our shores had caused this widespread,
this universal joy. He came among us to be- hold the independence and the freedom which
his young arm had so well assisted in achieving; and never before did eye behold or heart of
man conceive, such homage paid to virtue. Every day's march was an ovation. The United
States became for months one great festive hall. People forgot the usual occupations of life
and crowded to behold the benefactor of mankind. The iron-hearted, gray-haired veterans of
the Revolution thronged around him to touch his hand, to behold his face, and to call down
heaven's benisons upon their old companion-in-arms. Lisping infancy and garrulous old age,
beauty, talents, wealth, and power, all, for a while forsook their usual pursuits and united to
pay a tribute of gratitude and welcome to the nation's guest. The name of Lafayette was upon
every lip, and wherever his name was, there, too, was an invocation for blessings upon his
head. What were the triumphs of the classic ages, compared with this unbought love and
homage of a mighty people ? Take them in Rome's best days, when the invincible generals of
the Eternal City returned from their foreign conquests, with captive kings bound to their
chariot wheels and the spoils of nations in their train; followed by their stern and bearded
warriors and surrounded by the endless multitudes of the seven-hilled city, shouting a fierce
welcome home; what was such a triumph compared with Lafayette's! Not a single city, but a
whole nation riding as one man and greeting him with an affectionate embrace! One single
day of such spontaneous homage were worth whole years of courtly adulation; one hour
might well reward a man for a whole life of danger and of toil. Then, too, the joy with which he
must have viewed the prosperity of the people for whom he had so heroically struggled! To
behold the nation, which he left a little child, now grown up in the full proportions of lusty
manhood! To see the tender sapling, which he had left with hardly shade enough to cover its
own roots, now waxing into the sturdy and unwedgable oak. beneath whose grateful umbrage
the opprest of all nations find shelter and protection! That oak still grows on its majestic
strength, and wider and wider still extend its mighty branches. But the hand that watered it
and nourished it while yet a tender plant is now cold; the heart that watched with strong
affection its early growth has ceased to beat.
Virtue forms no shield to ward off the arrows of death. Could it have availed even when joined
with the prayers of a whole civilized world, then, indeed, this mournful occasion would never
have occurred, and the life of Lafayette would have been as immortal as his fame. Yet, tho he
has passed from among us; tho that countenance will no more be seen that used to lighten
upon the van of Freedom's battles as he led her eaglets to their feast; still has he left behind
his better part: the legacy of his bright example, the memory of his deeds. The lisping infant
will learn to speak his venerated name. The youth of every country will be taught to look upon
his career and to follow in its footsteps. When, hereafter, a gallant people are fighting for
freedom against the oppressor, and their cause begins to wane before the mercenary bands
of tyranny, then will the name of Lafayette become a watchword that will strike with terror on
the tyrant's ear and nerve with redoubled vigor the freeman's arm. At that name many a heart
before unmoved will wake in the glorious cause; and many a sword, rustling ingloriously in its
scabbard, will leap forth to battle. But even amid the mourning with which our souls are
shrouded, is there not some room for gratulation? Our departed friend and benefactor has
gone down to the grave peacefully and quietly at a good, old age. He had performed his
appointed work. His virtues were ripe. He had done nothing to sully his fair fame. No blot or
soil of envy or calumny can now affect him. His character will stand upon the pages of history,
pure and unsullied as the lilied emblem on his country's banner. He has departed from among
us; but he has become again the companion of Washington. He has but left the friends of his
old age to associate with the friends of his youth. Peace be to his ashes! Calm and quiet may
they rest upon some vine-clad hill of his own beloved land! And it shall be called the Mount
Vernon of France. And let no cunning sculpture, no monumental marble, deface with its mock
dignity the patriot's grave; but rather let the unpruned vine, the wild flower and the free song
of the uncaged bird, all that speaks of freedom and of peace be gathered round it. Lafayette
needs no mausoleum. His fame is mingled with the nation's history. His epitaph is engraved
upon the hearts of men.
ADAMS AND JEFFERSON
BY EDWARD EVERETT
Friends and Fellow Citizens :--We are assembled beneath the canopy of the weeping
heavens, under the influence of feelings in which the whole family of Americans unites with
us. We meet to pay a tribute of respect to the revered memory of those to whom the whole
country looks up as to its benefactors; to whom it ascribes the merit of unnumbered public
services, and especially of the inestimable service of having led in the councils of the
Revolution.
It is natural that these feelings, which pervade the whole American people, should rise into
peculiar strength and earnestness in your hearts. In meditating upon these great men your
minds are unavoidably carried back to those scenes" of their arduous and honored career,
this town and its citizens were so deeply plunged. You can not but re- member that your
fathers offered their bosoms to the sword, and their dwellings to the flames, from the same
spirit which animated the venerable patriarchs whom we now deplore. The cause they
espoused was the same which strewed your streets with ashes, and drenched your hilltops
with blood. And while Providence, in the astonishing circumstances of their departure, seems
to have appointed that the Revolutionary age of America should be closed up by a scene as
illustriously affecting as its commencement was disastrous and terrific, you have justly felt it
your duty--it has been the prompt dictate of your feelings--to pay, within these hallowed
precincts, a well-deserved tribute to the great and good men to whose counsels, under God, it
is in no small degree owing that your dwellings have risen from their ashes, and that the
sacred dusts of those who fell rests in the bosom of a free and happy land.
It was the custom of the primitive Romans to preserve in the halls of their houses the images
of all the illustrious men whom their families had produced. These images are supposed to
have consisted of a mask exactly representing the countenance of each deceased individual,
accompanied with habiliments of like fashion with those worn in his time, and with the armor,
badges, and insignia of his offices and exploits ; all so disposed around the sides of the hall
as to pre- sent, in the attitude of living men, the long succession of the departed; and thus to
set before the Roman citizen, whenever he entered or left his house, the venerable array of
his ancestors revised in this imposing similitude. Whenever, by a death in the family, another
distinguished member of it was gathered to his fathers, a strange and awful procession was
formed. The ancestral masks, including that of the newly deceased, were fitted upon the
servants of the family, selected of the size and appearance of those whom they were intended
to represent, and drawn up in solemn array to follow the funeral train of the living mourners,
first to the market-place, where the public eulogium was pronounced, and then to the tomb.
As he thus moved along, with all the great fathers of his name quickening, as it were, from
their urns, to enkindle his emulation, the virtuous Roman renewed his vows of respect to their
memory, and his resolution to imitate their fortitude, frugality, and patriotism.
Fellow citizens, the great heads of the American family are fast passing away; of the last, of
the most honored, two are now no more. We are assembled, not to gaze with awe on the
artificial and theatric images of their features, but to contemplate their venerated characters,
to call to mind their invaluable services, and to lay up the image of their virtues in our hearts.
The two men who stood in a relation in which no others now stand to the whole Union, have
fallen. The men whom Providence marked out among the first of the favored instruments to
lead this chosen people into the holy land of liberty, have discharged their high office, and are
no more. The men whose ardent minds prompted them to take up their country's cause, when
there was nothing else to prompt and everything to deter them', the men who afterward, when
the ranks were filled with the brave and resolute, were yet in the front of those brave and
resolute ranks; the men who were called to the helm when the wisest and most sagacious
were needed to steer the newly-launched vessel through the broken waves of the unknown
sea; the men, who in their country's happier days, were found most worthy to preside over the
Union they had so powerfully contributed to rear into greatness--these men are now no more.
They have not left us singly and in the sad but accustomed succession appointed by the order
of nature; but having lived, acted, and counseled, and risked all, and triumphed and enjoyed
together, they have gone together to their great reward. In the morning of life--without
previous concert, but with a kindred spirit--they plunged together into a conflict which put to
hazard all which makes life precious. "When the storm of war and revolution raged, they stood
side by side, on such perilous ground that, had the American cause failed, tho all else had
been for- given, they were of the few whom an incensed empire's vengeance would have
pursued to the ends of the earth. "When they had served through their long career of duty,
forgetting the little that had divided them, and cherishing the great communion of service, and
peril, and success, which had united them, they walked in honorable friendship along the
declining pathway of age; and now they have sunk down together in peace. Time, and their
country's service, a like fortune and a like reward, united them, and the last great scene
confirmed the union. They were useful, honored, prosperous, and lovely in their lives, and in
their deaths they were not divided.
Happiest at the last, they were permitted almost to choose the hour of their departure; to die
on that day on which those who loved them best could have wished they might die. It is
related as a singular happiness of Plato that he died in a good old age at a banquet amid
flowers and perfumes and festal songs, upon his birthday. Our Adams and Jefferson died on
the birthday of the nation; the day which their own deed had immortalized, which their own
prophetic spirit had marked out as the great festival of the land; amid the triumphal anthems
of a whole grateful people, throughout a country that hailed them as among the first and
boldest of her champions in the times that tried men's souls.
Our jubilee, like that of old, is turned into sorrow. Among the ruins of Rome there is a
shattered arch, erected by the Emperor Vespasian, when his son Titus returned from the
destruction of Jerusalem. On its broken panels and falling frieze are still to be seen,
represented as borne aloft in the triumphal procession of Titus, the well-known spoils of the
second temple--the sacred vessels of the holy place, the candlestick with seven branches,
and in front of all, the silver trumpets of the jubilee, in the hands of captive priests, proclaiming
not now the liberty, but the humiliation and the sorrows of Judah. From this mournful
spectacle, it is said, the pious and heart-stricken Hebrew, even to the present day, turns aside
in sorrow. He will not enter Rome through the gate of the arch of Titus, but winds his way
through the by-paths of the Palatine, over the broken columns of the palace of the Caesars,
that he may not behold these sad memorials.
The jubilee of America is turned into mourning. Its joy is mingled with sadness; its silver
trumpet breathes a mingled strain. Henceforward, while America exists among the nations of
the earth, the first emotion on the Fourth of July will be of joy and triumph in the great event
which immortalizes the day; the second will be one of chastened and tender recollection of
the venerable men who departed on the morning of the jubilee. This mingled emotion of
triumph and sadness has sealed the beauty and sublimity of our great anniversary. In the
simple commemoration of a victorious political achievement there seems not enough to
occupy our purest and best feelings. The Fourth of July was before a day of triumph,
exultation, and national pride; but the angel of death has mingled in the glorious pageant to
teach us we are men. Had our venerated fathers left us on any other day, it would have been
henceforward a day of mournful recollection. But now the whole nation feels as with one
heart, that since it must sooner or later have been bereaved of its revered fathers, it could not
have wished that any other had been the day of their decease. Our anniversary festival was
before triumphant; it is now triumphant and sacred. It before called out the young and ardent
to join in the republic rejoicing; it now also speaks in a touching voice, to the retired, to the
gray-headed, to the mild and peaceful spirits, to the whole family of sober freemen. It is
henceforward, what the dying Adams pronounced it, "a great and a good day." It is full of
greatness and full of goodness. It is absolute and complete. The death of the men who
declared our independence-- their death on the day of the jubilee--was all that was wanting to
the Fourth of July. To die on that day, and to die together, was all that was wanting to
Jefferson and Adams. Think not, fellow citizens, that, in the mere formal discharge of my duty
this day, I would overrate the melancholy interest of the great occasion; I do anything but
intentionally overrate it. I labor only for words to do justice to your feelings and mine. I can say
nothing which does not sound as cold and inadequate to myself as to you. The theme is too
great and too surprizing, the men are too great and good, to be spoken of in this cursory
manner. There is too much in the contemplation of their united characters, their services, the
day and coincidence of their death, to be properly described, or to be fully felt at once. I dare
not come here and dismiss, in a few summary paragraphs, the characters of men who have
filled such a space in the history of their age. It would be a disrespectful familiarity with men of
their lofty spirits, their rich endowments, their long and honorable lives, to endeavor thus to
weigh and estimate them. I leave that arduous task to the genius of kindred elevation by
whom to-morrow it will be discharged. [Daniel Webster, whose eulogy on Adams and
Jefferson was delivered on the following day in Faneuil Hall, Boston.] I feel the mournful
contrast in the fortunes even of the first and best of men, that, after a life in the highest walks
of usefulness; after conferring benefits, not merely on a neighborhood, a city, or even a State,
but on a whole continent, and a posterity of kindred men; after having stood in the first
estimation for talents, services, and influence, among millions of fellow citizens--a day must
come, which closes all up; pronounces a brief blessing on their memory; gives an hour to the
actions of a crowded life; describes in a sentence what it took years to bring to pass, and
what is destined for years and ages to operate on posterity; passes forgetfully over many
traits of character, many counsels and measures, which it cost, perhaps, years of discipline
and effort to mature; utters a funeral prayer; chants a mournful anthem; and then dismisses
all into the dark chambers of death and forgetfulness.
But no. fellow citizens, we dismiss them not to the chambers of forgetfulness and death. What
we admired, and prized, and venerated in them, can never be forgotten. I had almost said that
they are now beginning to live; to live that life of unimpaired influence, of unclouded fame, of
unmingled happiness, for which their talents and services were destined. They were of the
select few, the least portion of whose life dwells in their physical existence; whose hearts
have watched, while their senses have slept; whose souls have grown up into a higher being;
whose pleasure is to be useful; whose wealth is an unblemished reputation ; who respire the
breath of honorable fame; who have deliberately and consciously put what is called life to
hazard, that they may live in the hearts of those who come after. Such men do not, can not
die. To be cold and breathless; to feel and speak not; this is not the end of existence to the
men who have breathed their spirits into the institutions of their country, who have stamped
their characters on the pillars of the age, who have poured their hearts' blood into the
channels of the public prosperity. Tell me, ye who tread the sods of yon sacred height, is
Warren dead? Can you not still see him, not pale and prostrate, the blood of his gallant heart
pouring out of his ghastly wound, but moving resplendent over the field of honor, with the rose
of heaven upon his cheek, and the fire of liberty in his eye? Tell me, ye who make your pious
pilgrimage to the shades of Yernon, is Washington indeed shut up in that cold and narrow
house? That which made these men, and men like these, can not die. The hand that traced
the charter of independence, is, indeed, motionless; the eloquent lips that sustained it are
hushed; but the lofty spirits that conceived, resolved and maintained it, and which alone, to
such men, "make it life to live," these can not expire:
"These shall resist the empire of decay, "When time is o'er, and worlds have passed away;
Cold in the dust the perished heart may lie. But that which warmed in once can never die."
This is their life, and this their eulogy. In these our feeble services of commemoration, we set
forth not their worth, but our own gratitude. The eulogy of those who declared our
independence is written in the whole history of independent America. I do not mean that they
alone achieved our liberties; nor should we bring a grateful offering to their tombs, in
sacrificing at them the merits of their contemporaries. But in one, surely, who considers the
history of the times, the state of opinions, and the obstacles that actually stood in the way of
success, can doubt that if John Adams and Thomas Jefferson had thrown their talents and
influence into the scale of submission, the effect would have been felt to the cost of America,
for ages. No, it is not too much to say that ages on ages may pass, and the population of the
United States may overflow the uttermost regions of this continent, but never can there be an
American citizen who will not bear in his condition and in his welfare some trace of what was
counseled, and said, and done by these great men.
This is their undying praise; a praise which knows no limits but those of America, and which is
uttered not merely in these our eulogies, but in the thousand inarticulate voices of art and
nature. It sounds from the woodsman’s ax, in the distant forests of the west; for what was it
that unbarred to him the gates of the mountains?
The busy water-wheel echoes back the strain; for what was it that released the industry of the
country from the fetters of colonial restriction? Their praise is borne on the swelling canvas of
America to distant oceans, where the rumor of acts of trade never came, for what was it that
sent our canvas there? And it glistens at home, in the eyes of a prosperous and grateful
people. Yes. the people, the people rise up and call them blest. They invoke eternal blessings
on the men who could be good as well as great; whose ambition was their country's welfare;
who did not ask to be rewarded by being al- lowed to oppress the country which they
redeemed from oppression.
I shall not, fellow citizens, on this occasion, attempt a detailed narrative of the lives of these
distinguished men. To relate their history at length would be to relate that of the country, from
their first entrance on public life to their final retirement. Even to dwell minutely on the more
conspicuous incidents of their career would cause me to trespass too far on the proper limits
of the occasion. Let us only enumerate those few leading points in their lives and characters
which will best guide us to the reflections we ought to make, while we stand at the tombs of
these excellent and honored men.
Mr. Adams was born on the 30th of October, 1735, and Mr. Jefferson on the 13th of April,
1743. One of them rose from the undistinguished mass of the community, while the other,
born in higher circumstances, voluntarily descended to its level. Altho, happily, in this country
it can not be said of any one, that he owes much to birth or family, yet it sometimes happens,
even under the equality which prevails among us, that a certain degree of deference follows
in the train of family connections, apart from all personal merit. Mr. Adams was the son of a
New England farmer, and in this alone the frugality and moderation of his bringing up are
sufficiently related. Mr. Jefferson owed more to birth. He inherited a good estate from his
respectable father; but instead of associating himself with the opulent interest in Virginia--at
that time, in consequence of the mode in which their estates were held and transmitted, an
exclusive and powerful class, and of which he might have become a powerful leader--he
threw himself into the ranks of the people.
It was a propitious coincidence, that of these two eminent statesmen, one was from the North,
and the other from the South; as if, in the happy effects of their joint action, to give us the first
lesson of union. The enemies of our in- dependence, at home and abroad, relied on the
difficulty of uniting the colonies in one harmonious system. They knew the difference in our
local origin; they exaggerated the points of dissimilarity in our sectional character! It was
therefore most auspicious that, in the outset of the Revolution, while the North and the South
had each its great rallying point in Virginia and Massachusetts, the wise and good men,
whose influence was most felt in each, moved forward in brotherhood and concert. Mr.
Quincy, in a visit to the
Southern colonies, had entered into an extensive correspondence with the friends of liberty in
that part of the country. Richard Henry Lee and his brother Arthur maintained a constant
intercourse with Samuel Adams. Dr. Franklin, tho a citizen of Pennsylvania, was a native of
Boston; and from the first moment of their meeting at Philadelphia, Jefferson and Adams
began to cooperate cordially in the great work of independence. "While theoretical politicians,
at home and abroad, were speculating on our local peculiarities, and the British ministry were
building their hopes upon the maxim, Divide and conquer, they might well have been
astonished to see the Declaration of In- dependence reported into Congress, by the joint labor
of the son of a Virginia planter and of a New England yeoman.
Adams and Jefferson received their academical education at the colleges of their native
states, the former at Cam- bridge, the latter at William and Mary. At these institutions, they
severally laid the foundation of very distinguished attainments as scholars, and formed a taste
for letters which was fresh and craving to the last. They were both familiar with the ancient
languages and their literature. Their range in the various branches of general reading was
perhaps equally wide, and was uncommonly extensive; and it is, I believe, doing no injustice
to any other honored name, to say that, in this respect, they stood at the head of the great
men of the Revolution.
Their first writings were devoted to the cause of their country. Mr. Adams, in 1765, published
his essay on the Canon and Feudal Law, which two years afterward was republished in
London, and was then pronounced one of the ablest performances which had crossed the
Atlantic. It expresses the boldest and most elevated sentiments in the most vigorous
language; and might have taught in its tone what it taught in its doctrine, that America must be
unopprest, or must become independent. Among Mr. Jefferson's first productions was, in like
manner, a political essay, entitled, "A Summary "View of the Rights of British America." It
contains a near approach to the ideas and language of the Declaration of Independence; and
its bold spirit, and polished, but at the same time, powerful execution, are known to have had
their effect in causing its author to be designated for the high trusts confided to him in the
Continental Congress. At a later period of life, Mr. Jefferson became the author of ''Notes on
Virginia." a work equally admired in Europe and America; and Mr. Adams, of the "Defense of
the American Constitution," a performance that would do honor to the political literature of any
country. But in enumerating their literary productions, it must be remembered that they were
both employed, the greater part of their lives, in the active duties of public service, and that
the fruits of their intellect is not to be sought in the systematic volumes of learned leisure, but
in the archives of state, and in a most extensive public and private correspondence.
The professional education of these distinguished states- men had been in the law, and was
therefore such as peculiarly fitted them for the contest in which they were to act as leaders.
The law of England, then the law of America, is closely connected with the history of the
liberty of England. Many of the questions at issue between
the Parliament of Great Britain and the colonies were questions of constitutional, if not of
common law. For the discussion of these questions, the legal profession, of course, furnished
the best preparation. In general, the contest was, happily for the colonies, at first forensic; a
contest of discussion and debate; affording time and opportunity to diffuse throughout the
people, and stamp deeply on their minds, the great principles which, having first been
triumphantly sustained in the argument, were then to be con- firmed in the field. This required
the training of the patriot lawyer, and this was the office which, in that capacity, was eminently
discharged by Jefferson and Adams, to the doubtful liberties of their country. The cause in
which they were engaged abundantly repaid the service and the hazard. It gave them
precisely that breadth of view and elevation of feeling which the technical routine of the
profession is too apt to destroy. Their practise of the law soon passed from the narrow
litigation of the courts to the great forum of contending empires. It was not nice legal notions
they were there employed to balance, but sober realities of indescribable weight. The life and
death of their country was the all-important issue. Nor did the service of their country
afterward afford them leisure for the ordinary practise of their profession. Mr. Jefferson,
indeed, in 1776 and 1777, was employed with Wythe and Pendleton, in an entire revision of
the code of Virginia; and Mr. Adams was offered, about the same time, the first seat on the
bench of the Superior Court of his native State. But each was shortly afterward called to a
foreign mission, and spent the rest of the active years of his life, with scarcely an interval, in
the political service of his country.
Such was the education and quality of these men, when the Revolutionary contest came on.
In 1774, and on June 7th--a day destined to be in every way illustrious--Mr. Adams was
elected a member of the Continental Congress, of which body he was from the first a
distinguished leader. In the month of June in the following year, when a commander-in-chief
was to be chosen for the American armies, and when that appointment seemed in course to
belong to the commanding general of the army from Massachusetts and the neighboring
States which had rushed to the field, Mr. Adams recommended George Washington to that
all- important post, and was thus far the means of securing his guidance to the American
armies. In August, 1775, Mr. Jefferson took his seat in the Continental Congress, pre- ceded
by the fame of being one of the most accomplished and powerful champions of the cause, tho
among the youngest members of that body. It was the wish of Mr. Adams, and probably of Mr.
Jefferson, that independence should be declared in the fall of 1775; but the country seemed
not then ripe for the measure.
At length the accepted time arrived. In May, 1776, the colonies, on the proposition of Mr.
Adams, were invited by the General Congress to establish their several State governments.
On June 7th the resolution of independence was moved by Richard Henry Lee. On the 11th, a
committee of five was chosen to announce this resolution to the world, and Thomas Jefferson
and John Adams stood at the head of this committee. From their designation by ballot to this
most honorable duty, their prominent standing in the Congress might alone be inferred. In
their amicable contention and deference each to the other of the great trust of composing the
all-important document, we witness their patriotic disinterestedness and their mutual respect.
This trust devolved on Jefferson, and with it rests on him the imperishable renown of having
penned the Declaration of Independence. To have been the instrument of expressing, in one
brief, decisive act, the concentrated will and resolution of a whole family of States; of
unfolding, in one all- important manifesto, the causes, the motives, and the justification of this
great movement in human affairs; to have been permitted to give the impress and peculiarity
of his own mind to a character of public right, destined, or rather, let me say already elevated,
to an importance, in the estimation of men. equal to anything human ever borne on
parchment or exprest in the visible signs of thought—this is the glory of Thomas Jefferson. To
have been among the first of those who foresaw and broke the way for this great
consummation; to have been the mover of numerous decisive acts, its undoubted precursors;
to have been among many able and generous spirits united in this perilous adventure, by
acknowledgment unsurpassed in zeal, and unequaled in ability; to have been exclusively
associated with the author of the Declaration; and then, with a fervid and overwhelming
eloquence, to have taken the lead in inspiring the Congress to adopt and proclaim it--this is
the glory of John Adams.
Nor was it among common and inferior minds that these men were preeminent. In the body
that elected Mr. Jefferson to draft the Declaration of Independence, there were other men of
great ability. Franklin was a member of it, a statesman of the highest reputation in Europe and
America, and especially master of a most pure, effective English style of writing. And Mr.
Adams was pronounced by Mr. Jefferson himself the ablest advocate on independence in a
Congress which could boast among its members such men as Patrick Henry, Richard Henry
Lee, and our own Samuel Adams. They were great and among great men; mightiest among
the mighty; and enjoyed their lofty standing in a body of which half the members might with
honor have presided over the deliberative councils of a nation.
Glorious as their standing in this council of sages has proved, they beheld the glory only in
distant vision, while the prospect before them was shrouded in darkness and terror. "I am not
transported with enthusiasm," is the language of Mr. Adams, the day after the resolution was
adopted. "I am well aware of the toil, the treasure, and the blood it will cost, to maintain this
declaration, to support and defend these States. Yet, through all the gloom, I can see a ray of
light and glory. I can see that the end is worth more than all the means." Nor was it the rash
adventure of uneasy spirits, who had everything to gain, and nothing to risk, by their
enterprise. They left all for their country's sake. Who does not see that Adams and Jefferson
might have risen to any station in the British empire open to natives of a colony? They might
have stood within the shadow of the throne which they shook to its base. It was in the full
understanding of their all but desperate choice that they chose for their country. Many were
the inducements which called them to another choice. The voice of authority; the array of an
empire's power, the pleadings of friendship; the yearning of their hearts toward the land of
their father's sepulchers—the land which the great champions of constitutional liberty still
made venerable; the ghastly vision of the gibbet, if they failed--all the feelings which grew
from these sources were to be stifled and kept down, for a dearer treasure was at stake. They
were anything but adventurers, anything but malcontents. They loved peace, order, and law;
they loved a manly obedience to constitutional authority; but they loved freedom and their
country more.
How shall I attempt to follow them through the succession of great events which a rare and
kind Providence crowded into their lives ? How shall I attempt to enumerate the posts they
filled and the trusts they discharged, both in the councils of their native States and of the
confederation, both before and after the adoption of the federal Constitution; the codes of law
and systems of government they aided in organizing; the foreign embassies they sustained ;
the alliances with powerful states they contracted, when America was weak; the loans and
subsidies they procured from foreign powers, when America was poor; the treaties of peace
and commerce which they negotiated; their participation in the Federal Government on its
organization, Mr. Adams as the first Vice-President, Mr. Jefferson as the first Secretary of
State; their mutual possession of the confidence of the only man to whom his country
accorded a higher place; and their successive administration of the government, after his
retirement? These are all laid up in the annals of the country; her archives are filled with the
productions of their fertile and cultivated minds; the pages of her history are bright with their
achievements; and the welfare and happiness of America pronounce, in one general eulogy,
the just encomium of their services.
Nor need we fear to speak of their political dissensions. If they who opposed each other and
arrayed the nation, in their arduous contention, were able in the bosom of private life to forget
their former struggles; we surely may contemplate them, even in this relation, with calmness.
Of the counsels adopted, and the measures pursued, in the storm of political welfare. I
presume not to speak. I knew these great men, not as opponents, but as friends to each
other, not in the keen prosecution of a political controversy, but in the cultivation of a friendly
correspondence. As they respected and honored each other, I respect and honor both. Time,
too, has removed the foundation of their dissensions. The principles on which they contended
are settled, some in favor of one, and some in favor of the other. The great foreign interests
which lent ardor to the struggle have happily lost their hold on the American people; and the
politics of the country now turn on questions not agitated in their days. Meantime, I know not
whether, if we had in our power to choose between the recollection of these reverend men as
they were, and what they would have been without their great struggle, we could wish them to
have been different, even in this respect. Twenty years of friendship succeeding ten of rivalry
appear to me a more amiable, and certainly a more instructive, spectacle, even than a life of
unbroken concert. As a friend to both their respected memories, I would not willingly spare the
attestation which they took pleasure in rendering to each other's characters. We are taught, in
the valedictory lessons of Washington, that "the spirit of party is the worst enemy of a popular
government." Shall we not rejoice that we are taught in the lives of Adams and Jefferson that
the most embittered contentions which as yet have divided us furnished no ground for lasting
disunion ?
The declining period of their lives presents their characters in the most delightful aspect, and
furnishes the happiest illustration of the perfection of our political system. We behold a new
spectacle of a moral sublimity; the peaceful old age of the retired chiefs of the Republic; an
evening of learned, useful, and honored leisure, following upon a youth and manhood of
hazard and service, and a whole life of alternate trial and success. We behold them, indeed,
active and untiring, even to the last. At the advanced age of eighty-five years, our venerable
fellow citizen and neighbor was still competent to take a part in the convention for revising the
State constitution, to whose original formation, forty years before, he so essentially
contributed; and Mr. Jefferson, at the same protracted age, was able to project, and carry on
to their completion, the extensive establishments of the University of Virginia.
But it is the great and closing scene which appears to crown their long and exalted career
with a consummation almost miraculous. Having done so much and so happily for
themselves, so much and so beneficially for their country, at that last moment, when man can
no more do anything for his country or for himself, it pleased a kind Providence to do that for
both of them which, to the end of time, will cause them to be deemed not more happy in the
renown of their lives than in the opportunity of their death.
I could give neither force nor interest to the account of these sublime and touching scenes by
anything beyond the simple recital of the facts already familiar to the public. Their deaths
were nearly simultaneous. For several weeks the strength of Mr. Jefferson had been gradually
failing, tho the vigor of his mind remained unimpaired. As he drew nearer to the last, and no
expectation remained that his term could be much prolonged, he exprest no other wish than
that he might live to breathe the air of the fiftieth anniversary of independence. This he was
graciously permitted to do. But it was evident, on the morning of the fourth, that Providence
intended that this day, consecrated by his deed, should be solemnized by his death. On some
momentary revival of his wasting strength, the friends around would have soothed him with
the hope of continuing; but he answered their encouragements only by saying he did not fear
to die. Once, as he drew nearer to his close, he lifted up his head, and murmured with a
smile, "It is the fourth of July"; while his repeated exclamation on the last great day was,
"Nunc dimittis, Domine"--"Lord, now lettest thou thy servant depart in peace." He departed in
peace, a little before one o'clock of this memorable day; unconscious that his compatriot, who
fifty years before had shared its efforts and perils, was now the partner of its glory.
Mr. Adams's mind had also wandered back, over the long line of great things with which his
life was filled, and found rest on the thought of independence. When the discharges of the
artillery proclaimed the triumphant anniversary, he pronounced it "a great and a good day."
The thrilling word of independence, which, fifty years before, in the ardor of his manly
strength, he had sounded out to the nations from the hall of the Revolutionary Congress, was
now among the last that dwelt on his lips! and when, toward the hour of noon, he felt his noble
heart growing cold within him, the last emotion
which warmed it was, that'' Jefferson still survives!'' But
he survives not; he is gone. They are gone together!
Friends, fellow citizens, free, prosperous, happy Americans! The men who did so much to
make you so are no more. The men who gave nothing to pleasure in youth, nothing to repose
in age, but all to that country whose beloved name filled their hearts, as it does ours, with joy,
can now do no more for us; nor we for them. But their memory remains, we will cherish it;
their bright example remains, we will strive to imitate it; the fruit of their wise counsels and
noble acts remains, we will gratefully enjoy it.
They have gone to the companions of their cares, of their dangers, and their toils. It is well
with them. The treasures of America are now in heaven. How long the list of our good, and
wise, and brave, assembled there! How few re- main with us! There is our Washington; and
those who followed him in their country's confidence are now met together with him, and all
that illustrious company.
The faithful marble may preserve their image: the en- graven brass may proclaim their worth;
but the humblest sod of independent America, with nothing but the dew-drops of the morning
to gild it, is a prouder mausoleum than kings or conquerors can boast. The country is their
monument. Its independence is their epitaph. But not to their country is their praise limited.
The whole earth is the monument of illustrious men. Whenever an agonizing people shall
perish, in a generous convulsion, for want of a valiant arm and a fearless heart, they will cry,
in the last accents of despair, 0, for a Washington, an Adams, a Jefferson! Wherever a
regenerated nation, starting up in its might, shall burst the links of steel that enchain it, the
praise of our venerated fathers shall be remembered in their triumphal song!
The contemporary and successive generations of men will despair, and in the long lapse of
ages, the races of America, like those of Greece and Rome, may pass away. The fabric of
American freedom, like all things human, however firm and fair, may crumble into dust. But
the cause in which these, our fathers, shone, is immortal. They did that to which no age, no
people of civilized men, can be indifferent. Their eulogy will be uttered in other languages
when these we speak, like us who speak them, shall be all forgotten. And when the great
account of humanity shall be closed, in the bright list of those who have best adorned and
served it, shall be found the names of our Adams and our Jefferson.
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INAUGURAL SPEECHES
INAUGURAL ADDRESS
BY A. LAWRENCE LOWELL
Among his other wise sayings, Aristotle remarked that man is by nature a social animal; and it
is in order to develop his powers as a social being that American colleges exist. The object of
the undergraduate department is not to produce hermits, each imprisoned in the cell of his
own intellectual pursuits, but men fitted to take their places in the community and live in
contact with their fellow men.
The college of the old type possest a solidarity which enabled it to fulfil that purpose well
enough in its time, altho on a narrow scale and a lower plane than we aspire to at the present
day. It was so small that the students were all well acquainted with one another, or at least
with their classmates. They were constantly thrown together, in chapel, in the classroom, in
the dining hall, in the college dormitories, in their simple forms of recreation; and they were
constantly measuring themselves by one standard in their common occupations. The
curriculum, consisting mainly of the classics, with a little mathematics, philosophy, and history,
was the same for them all; designed, as it was, not only as a preparation for the professions
of the ministry and the law, but also as the universal foundation of liberal education.
In the course of time these simple methods were out- grown. President Eliot pointed out, with
unanswerable force, that the field of human knowledge had long been too vast for any man to
compass; and that now subjects must be admitted to the scheme of instruction, which became thereby so large that no student could follow it all. Before the end of the nineteenth
century this was generally recognized, and election in some form was introduced into all our
colleges. But the new methods brought a divergence in the courses of study pursued by
individual students, an intellectual isolation, which broke down the old solidarity. In the larger
institutions the process has been hastened by the great increase in numbers, and in many
cases by an abandonment of the policy of housing the bulk of the students in college
dormitories; with the result that college life has shown a marked tendency to disintegrate, both
intellectually and socially. To that disintegration the overshadowing interest in athletic games
appears to be partly due. I believe strongly in the physical and moral value of athletic sports,
and of intercollegiate contests conducted in a spirit of generous rivalry; and I do not believe
that their exaggerated prominence at the present day is to be attributed to a conviction on the
part of the undergraduates, or of the public, that physical is more valuable than mental force.
It is due rather to the fact that such contests offer to students the one common interest, the
only striking occasion for a display of college solidarity.
If the changes wrought in the college have weakened the old solidarity and unity of aim, they
have let in light and air. They have given us a freedom of movement needed for further
progress. May we not say of the extreme elective system what Edmond Sherer said of
Democracy: that it is but one stage in an irresistible march toward an un- known goal.
Progress means change, and every kind of growth is a transitional era; but in a peculiar
degree the present state of the American college bears the marks of a period of transition.
This is seen in the comparatively small estimation in which high proficiency in college studies
is held, both by undergraduates and by the public at large; for if college education were now
closely adapted to the needs of the community, excellence of achievement therein ought to be
generally recognized as of great value. The transitional nature of existing conditions is seen
again in the absence, among instructors as well as students, of fixt principles by which the
choice of courses of study ought to be guided. It is seen, more markedly still, in lack of any
accepted view of the ultimate object of a college education.
On this last subject the ears of the college world have of late been assailed by many
discordant voices, all of them earnest, most of them well-informed, and speaking in every
case with a tone of confidence in the possession of the true solution. One theory, often
broached under different forms, and more or less logically held, is that the main object of the
college should be to prepare for the study of a definite profession, or the practise of a distinct
occupation; and that the subjects pursued should, for the most part, be such as will furnish
the knowledge immediately for that end. But if so, would it not be better to transfer all
instruction of this kind to the professional schools, reducing the age of entrance thereto, and
leaving the general studies for a college course of diminished length, or perhaps surrendering
them altogether to the secondary schools ? If we accept the professional object of college
education, there is much to be said for a readjustment of that nature, because we all know the
comparative disadvantage under which technical instruction is given in college, and we are
not less aware of the great difficulty of teaching cultural and vocational subjects at the same
time.
The logical result would be the policy of Germany, where the university is in effect a collection
of professional schools, and the underlying general education is given in the gymnasium.
Such a course has, indeed, been suggested; for it has been proposed to transfer, so far as
possible, to the secondary schools the first two years of college instruction, and to make the
essential work of the university professional in character. But that requires a far higher and
better type of secondary school than we possess, or are likely to possess for many years.
Moreover, excellent as the German system is for Germany, it is not wholly suited to our Republic, which can not, in my opinion, afford to lose the substantial, if intangible, benefits the
nation has derived from its colleges. Surely, the colleges can give a freedom of thought, a
breadth of outlook, a training for citizenship, which neither the secondary nor the professional
school in this country can equal.
Even persons who do not share this view of a professional aim have often urged that, in order
to save college education in the conditions that confront us, we must reduce its length. May
we not feel that the most vital measure for saving the college is not to shorten its duration, but
to ensure that it shall be worth saving? Institutions are rarely murdered; they meet their end
by suicide. They are not strangled by their natural environment while vigorous; they die
because they have outlived their usefulness, or fail to do the work that the world wants done;
and we are justified in believing that the college of the future has a great work to do for the
American people.
If, then, the college is passing through a transitional period, and is not to be absorbed
between the secondary school on the one side, and the professional school on the other, we
must construct a new solidarity to replace that which is gone. The task before us is to frame a
system which, without sacrificing individual variation too much, or neglecting the pursuit of
different scholarly interests, shall produce an intellectual and social cohesion, at least among
large groups of students, and points of contact among them all. This task is not confined to
any one college, altho more urgent in the case of those that have grown the largest, and have
been moving most rapidly. A number of colleges are feeling their way toward a more definite
structure; and since the problem before them is in many cases essentially the same, it is
fortunate that they are assisting one another by approaching it from somewhat different
directions. What I have to say upon the subject here is, therefore, intended mainly for the
conditions we are called upon to face at Harvard.
It is worth our while to consider the nature of an ideal college as an integral part of our
university; ideal, in the sense not of something to be exactly reproduced, but of a type to
which we should conform as closely as circumstances will permit. It would contemplate the
highest development of the individual student--which involves the best equipment of the
graduate. It would contemplate also the proper connection of the college with the professional
schools; and it would adjust the relation of the students to one an other. Let me take up these
matters briefly in their order. The individual student ought clearly to be developed, so far as
possible, both in his strong and in his weak points, for the college ought to produce, not
defective specialists, but men intellectually well-rounded, of wide sympathies and unfettered
judgment. At the same time they ought to be trained to hard and accurate thought, and this
will not come merely by surveying the elementary principles of many subjects. It requires a
mastery of something, acquired by continuous application. Every student ought to know in
some subject what the ultimate sources of opinion are, and how they are handled by those
who profess it. Only in this way is he likely to gain the solidity of thought that begets sound
thinking. In short, he ought so far as in him lies, to be both broad and profound.
In speaking of the training of the student, or the equipment of the graduate, we are prone to
think of the knowledge acquired; but are we not inclined to lay too much stress upon
knowledge alone. Taken by itself, it is a part, and not the most vital part, of education, surely
the essence of a liberal education consists in an attitude of mind, a familiarity with methods of
thought, an ability to use information; rather than in a memory stocked with facts, however
valuable such a storehouse may be. In his fare- well address to the alumni of Dartmouth,
President Tucker remarked that "the college is in the educational system to represent the
spirit of amateur scholarship. College students are amateurs, not professionals." Or, as
President Hadley is fond of putting it, '' The ideal college education seems to me to be one
where a student learns things that he is not going to use in after life, by methods that he is
going to use. The former element gives the breadth, the latter element gives the training.''
But if this be true, no method of ascertaining truth, and therefore no department of human
thought, ought to be wholly a sealed book to an educated man. It has been truly said that few
men are capable of learning a new subject after the period of youth has passed, and hence
the graduate ought to be so equipped that he can grasp effectively any problem with which
his duties or his interest may impel him to deal. An undergraduate, addicted mainly to the
classics, recently spoke to his adviser in an apologetic , tone of having elected a course in
natural science, which he feared was narrowing. Such a state of mind is certainly deplorable,
for in the present age some knowledge of the laws of nature is an essential part of the mental
outfit which no cultivated man should lack. He need not know much, but he ought to know
enough to learn more. To him the forces of nature ought not to be an occult mystery, but a
chain of causes and effects with which, if not wholly familiar, he can at least claim
acquaintance; and the same principle applies to every other leading branch of knowledge.
I speak of the equipment, rather than the education, of a college graduate, because, as we
are often reminded, his education ought to cease only with his life, and hence his equipment
ought to lay a strong foundation for that education. It ought to teach him what it means to
master a subject, and it ought to enable him to seize and retain in- formation of every kind
from that unending stream that flows past every man who has the eyes to see it. Moreover, it
ought to be such that he will be capable of turning his mind effectively to direct preparation for
his life-work, whatever the profession or occupation he may select.
This brings us to the relation of the college to the professional school. If every college
graduate ought to be equipped to enter any professional school, as the abiturient of a German
gymnasium is qualified to study under any of the faculties of the university, then it would seem
that the professional schools ought to be so ordered that they are adapted to receive him. But
let us not be dogmatic in this matter, for it is one on which great divergence of opinion exists.
The instructors in the various professional schools are by no means of one mind in regard to
it, and their views are, of course, based largely upon experience. Our law school lays great
stress upon native ability and scholarly aptitude, and comparatively little upon the particular
branches of learning a student has pursued in college. Any young man who has brains, and
has learned to use them, can master the law, whatever his intellectual interests may have
been; and the same thing is true of the curriculum in the divinity school. Many professors of
medicine, on the other hand, feel strongly that a student should enter their school with at least
a rudimentary knowledge of those sciences, like chemistry, biology, and physiology, which are
interwoven with "medical studies; and they appear to attach greater weight to this than to his
natural capacity or general attainments. Now that we have established graduate schools of
engineering and business administration, we must examine this question carefully in the
immediate future. If the college courses are strictly untechnical, the requirement of a small
number of electives in certain subjects, as a condition for entering a graduate professional
school, is not inconsistent with a liberal education. But I will acknowledge a prejudice that, for
a man who is destined to reach the top of his profession, a broad education, and a firm grasp
of some subject lying outside of his vocation, is a vast advantage; and we must not forget that
in substantially confining the professional schools at Harvard to college graduates, we are
aiming at a higher strata in the professions.
The last of the aspects under which I proposed to consider the college is that of the relation of
undergraduates to one another; and first on the intellectual side. We have heard much of the
benefit obtained merely by breathing the college atmosphere, or rubbing against the college
walls. I fear the walls about us have little of the virtue of Aladdin's lamp when rubbed. "What
we mean is that daily association with other young men whose minds are alert is in itself a
large part of a liberal education. But to what extent do undergraduates talk over things
intellectual, and especially matters brought before them by their courses of study? It is the
ambition of every earnest teacher so to stimulate his pupils that they will discuss outside the
classroom the problems he has presented to them. The students in the law school talk law
interminably. They take a fierce pleasure in debating legal points in season and out. This is
not wholly with a prospect of bread and butter in the years to come, nor because law is
intrinsically more interesting than other things Much must, no doubt, be ascribed to the skill of
the faculty of the law school in awakening a keen competitive delight in solving legal
problems; but there is also the vital fact that all these young men are tilling the same field.
They have their stock of knowledge in common. Seeds cast by one of them fall into a
congenial soil, and like dragon's teeth, engender in immediate combat.
Now, no sensible man would propose today to set up a fixt curriculum in order that all
undergraduates might be joint tenants of the same scholastic property; but the intellectual
estrangement need not be so wide as it is. There is no greater pleasure in mature life than
hearing a specialist talk, if one has knowledge enough of the subject to understand him, and
that is one of the things an educated man ought so far as possible to possess. Might there not
be more points of intellectual contact among the undergraduates, and might not considerable
numbers of them have much in common'
A discussion of the ideal college training from these three different aspects--the highest
development of the individual student, the proper relation of the college to the professional
school, and the relation of the students to one another--would appear to lead, in each case, to
the same conclusion; that the best type of liberal education in our complex modern world aims
at producing men who know a little of everything and something well Nor, if this be taken in a
rational, rather than extreme, sense, is it impossible to achieve within the limits of college life?
That a student of ability can learn one subject well is shown by the experience of Oxford and
Cambridge. The educational problems arising from the extension of human knowledge are
not confined to this country; and our institutions of higher learning were not the first to seek a
solution for them in some form of election on the part of the student. It is almost exactly a
hundred years ago that the English universities began to award honors upon examination in
special subjects; for altho the mathematical tripos at Cambridge was instituted sixty years
earlier, the modern system of honor schools, which has stimulated a vast amount of
competitive activity among undergraduates, may be said to date from the establishment of the
examinations in Literis Humanioribus, and in mathematics and physics at Oxford in 1807. The
most popular of the subjects in which honors are awarded are not technical, that is, they are
not intended primarily as part of a professional training; nor are they narrow in their scope; but
they are in general confined to one field. In short, they are designed to insure that the
candidate knows something well: that he has worked hard and intelligently on one subject
until he has a substantial grounding in it.
For us this alone would not be enough, because our preparatory schools do not give the
same training as the English, and because the whole structure of English society is very
different from ours. American college students ought also to study a little of everything; for if
not, there is no certainty that they will be broadly cultivated, especially in view of the
omnipresent impulse in the community driving them to devote their chief attention to the
subjects bearing upon their future career. The wise policy for them would appear to be that of
devoting a considerable portion of their time to some one subject, and taking hi addition a
number of general courses in wholly unrelated fields. But instruction that imparts a little
knowledge of everything is more difficult to provide well than any other. To furnish it there
ought to be in every considerable field a general course designed to give to men who do not
intend to pursue the subject further a comprehension of its under- lying principles or methods
of thought, and this is by no means the same thing as an introductory course, altho the two
can often be effectively combined. A serious obstacle lies in the fact that many professors
who have reaped fame, prefer to teach advanced courses, and recoil from elementary--an
aversion inherited from the time when scholars of international reputation were called upon to
waste their powers on the drudgery of drilling beginners.
But while nothing can ever take the place of the great teacher, it is nevertheless true that
almost any man possest of the requisite knowledge can at least impart it to students who
have already made notable progress in the subject; whereas effective instruction in
fundamental principles requires the forest over the tops of the trees. It demands unusual
clearness of thought, force of statement, and enthusiasm of expression. These qualities have
no necessary connection with creative imagination, but they are more common among men
who have achieved some measure of success: and, what is not less to the point, the students
ascribe them more readily to a man whose position is recognized than to a young instructor
who has not yet won his spurs. Wherever possible, therefore, the general course ought to be
under the charge of one of the leading men in the department, and his teaching ought to be
supplemented by instruction, discussion, and constant examination in smaller groups,
conducted by younger men well equipped for their work. Such a policy brings the student, at
the gateway of a subject, into contact with strong and ripe minds, while it saves the professor
from needless drudgery. It has been pursued at Harvard for a number of years, but it can be
carried out even more completely.
We have considered the intellectual relation of the students to one another, and its bearing on
the curriculum, but that is not the only side of college life. The social relations of the
undergraduates among themselves are quite as important; and here again we may observe
forces at work which tend to break up the old college solidarity. The boy comes here,
sometimes from a large school, with many friends, sometimes from a great distance, and
almost alone. He is plunged at once into a life wholly strange to him, amid a crowd so large
that he can not claim acquaintance with its members. Unless endowed with an uncommon
temperament, he is liable to fall into a clique of associates with antecedents and
characteristics similar to his own; or perhaps, if shy and unknown, he fails to make friends at
all; and in either case he misses the bordering influence of contact with a great variety of
other young men. Under such conditions the college itself comes short of its national mission
of throwing together youths of promise of every kind, from every part of the country. It will, no
doubt, be argued that a university must reflect the state of the world about it; and that the
tendency of the times is toward specialization of functions, and social segregation on the
basis of wealth. But this is not wholly true, because there is, happily, in the country a tendency
also toward social solidarity and social service. A still more conclusive answer is, that one
object of a university is to counteract, rather than copy, the defects in civilization of the day.
Would a prevalence of spoils, favoritism, or corruption, in the politics of the country, be a
reason for their adoption by universities?
A large college ought to give its students a wide horizon, and it fails therein unless it mixes
them together so thoroughly that the friendships they form are based on natural affinities,
rather on similarity of origin. Now, these ties are formed most rapidly at the threshold of
college life, and the set in which a man shall move is mainly determined in his freshman year.
It is obviously desirable, therefore, that the freshmen should be thrown together more than
they are now.
Moreover, the change from the life of school to that of college is too abrupt at the present day.
Taken gradually, liberty is a powerful stimulant, but taken suddenly, in large doses, it is liable
to act as an intoxicant or an opiate.
No doubt, every boy ought to learn to paddle his own canoe; but we do not begin the process
by tossing him into a canoe, and setting him adrift in deep water, with a caution that he would
do well to look for the paddle. Many a well-intentioned youth comes to college, enjoys
innocently enough the pleasures of freedom for a season; but, released from the discipline to
which he has been accustomed, and looking on the examinations as remote, falls into
indolent habits. Presently he finds himself on probation for neglect of his studies. He has
become submerged, and has a hard, perhaps unsuccessful, struggle to get his head above
water. Of late years we have improved the diligence of freshmen by frequent tests; but this
alone is not enough. In his luminous Phi Beta Kappa oration, delivered here three months
ago, President Wilson dwelt upon the chasm that has opened between college studies and
college life. The instructors believe that the object of the college is study, many students fancy
that it is mainly enjoyment, and the confusion of aims breed irretrievable waste of opportunity.
The undergraduate should be led to feel, from the moment of his arrival, that college life is a
serious and many-sided thing, whereof mental discipline is a vital part.
It would seem that all these difficulties could be much lessened if the freshmen were brought
together in a group of dormitories and dining-halls, under the comradeship of older men, who
appreciated the possibilities of a college life, and took a keen interest in their work and their
pleasures. Such a plan would enable us also to recruit our students younger, for the present
age of entrance here appears to be due less to the difficulty of preparing for the examination
earlier, than to the nature of the life the freshman leads. Complaints of the age of graduation
cause a pressure to reduce the length of the college course, and with it the standard of the
college degree. There would seem to be no intrinsic reason that our schoolboys should be
more backward than those of other civilized countries, any more than that our undergraduates
should esteem excellence in scholarship less highly than do the men in English universities.
The last point is one that requires a word of comment, because it touches the most painful
defect in the American college at the present time President Prichett has declared that "it is a
serious indictment of the standards of any organization when the conditions within it are such
that success in the things for which the organization stands no longer appeal effectively to the
imaginations of those in it." We may add that even in these days, indictment is sometimes
followed by sentence of execution. No one will deny that in our colleges high scholarship is
little admired now, either by the undergraduates or by the public. We do not make our
students enjoy the sense of power that flows from mastery of a difficult subject and on a
higher plane we do not make them feel the romance of scholarly discovery. Every one follows
the travels of a Columbus or a Livingston with a keen delight which researches in chemistry or
biology rarely stir. The mass of mankind can, no doubt, comprehend more readily
geographical than scientific discovery; but for the explorer himself it would be pitiful if the joy
of the search depended on the number of spectators, rather than on zeal in his quest.
America has not yet contributed her share to scholarly creation; and the fault lies in part at the
doors of our universities. They do not strive enough in the impressionable years of early
manhood to stimulate intellectual appetite and ambition; nor do they foster productive
scholarship enough among those members of their staffs who are capable thereof. Too often
a professor of original power explains to docile pupils the process of mining intellectual gold,
without seeking nuggets himself, or, when found, showing them to mankind. Productive
scholarship is the shyest of all flowers. It cometh not with observation, and may not bloom
even under the most careful nurture. Ameri- can universities must do their utmost to cultivate
it, by planting the best seed, letting the sun shine upon it, and taking care that, in our land of
rank growth, it is not choked by the thorns of administrative routine.
If I have dwelt upon only a small part of the problems of the university, if I have said nothing of
the professional and graduate schools, of the library, the observatory, the laboratories, the
museums, the gardens, and the various forms of extension work, it is not because they are of
less importance, but because the time is too short to take up more than two or three pressing
questions of general interest. The university touches the community at many points, and as
time goes on it ought to serve the public through ever- increasing channels. But all its
activities are more or less connected with, and most of them are based upon, the college. It is
there that character ought to be shaped, that aspirations ought to be formed, that citizens
ought to be trained, and scholarly tastes implanted. If the mass of undergraduates could be
brought to respect, nay, to admire, intellectual achievement on the part of their comrades, in
at all the measure that they do athletic victory; if those among them of natural ability could be
led to put forth their strength on the objects which the college is supposed to represent, the
professional schools would find their tasks lightened, and their success enhanced. A greater
solidarity in college, more earnestness of purpose and intellectual enthusiasm, would mean
much for our nation. It is said that if the temperature of the ocean were raised, the water
would expand until the floods covered the dry land; and if we can increase the intellectual
ambition of college students, the whole face of our country will be changed. When the young
men shall see visions, the dreams of old men will come true.
INAUGURAL DISCOURSE
BY LORD BROUGHAM
It now becomes me to return my very sincere and respectable thanks for the kindness which
has placed me in a chair filled at former times by so many great men, whose names might
well make any comparison formidable to a far more worthy successor.
While I wish you to accept this unexaggerated expression of gratitude, I am anxious to
address you rather in the form which I now adopt, than in the more usual one of an
unpremeditated discourse. I shall thus at least prove that the remarks which I deem it my duty
to make are the fruit of mature reflections, and that I am unwilling to discharge an important
office in a perfunctory manner. I feel very sensibly that if I shall now urge you by general
exhortations to be instant in the pursuit of the learning which, in all its branches, flourishes
under the kindly shelter of these roofs. I may weary you with the unprofitable repetition of a
thrice-told tale; and if I presume to offer my advice touching the conduct of your studies, I may
seem to trespass upon the province of those venerable persons under whose care you have
the singular happiness to be placed. But I would, nevertheless, expose myself to either
charge, for the sake of joining my voice with theirs in anxiously entreating you to believe how
incomparably the present season is, verily and indeed, the most precious of your whole lives.
It is not the less true, because it has been oftentimes said, that the period of youth is by far
the best fitted for the improvement of the mind, and the retirement of a college almost
exclusively adapted to much study. At your enviable age everything has the lively interest of
novelty and freshness; attention is perpetually sharpened by curiosity; and the memory is
tenacious of the deep impressions it thus receives, to a degree unknown in after life; while the
distracting cares of the world, or its beguiling pleasures, cross not the threshold of these calm
retreats; its distant noise and bustle are faintly heard, making the shelter you enjoy more
grateful; and the struggles of anxious mortals embarked upon that troublous sea are viewed
from an eminence, the security of which is rendered more sweet by the prospect of the scene
below. Yet a little while, and you, too, will be plunged into those waters of bitterness; and will
cast an eye of regret, as now I do, upon the peaceful regions you have quitted forever. 3uch is
your lot as members of society ; but it will be your own fault if you look back on this place with
repentance or with shame; and be well assured that, whatever time--ay, every hour--you
squander here on unprofitable idling, will then rise up against you, and be paid for by years of
bitter, but unavailing, regrets. Study, then, I beseech you, so to store your minds with the
exquisite learning of former ages, that you may always possess within yourself sources of
rational and refined enjoyment, which will enable you to set at naught the grosser pleasures
of sense whereof other men are slaves; and so imbue yourselves with the sound philosophy
of later days, forming yourselves to the virtuous habits which are its legitimate offspring, that
you may walk unhurt through the trials which await you, and may look down upon the
ignorance and error that surround you, not with lofty and supercilious contempt, as the sages
of old times, but with the vehement desire of enlightening those who wander in darkness, and
who are by so much the more endeared to us by how much they want our assistance.
Assuming the improvement of his own mind, and of the lot of his fellow creatures to be the
great end of every man's existence, who is removed above the care of providing for his
sustenance, and to be the indispensable duty of every man, as far as his own immediate
wants leave him any portion of time unemployed, our attention is naturally directed to the
means by which so great and urgent a work may best be performed; and as in the limited time
allotted to this discourse, I can not hope to occupy more than a small portion of so wide a
field, I shall confine myself to two subjects, or rather to a few observations upon two subjects,
both of them appropriate to this place, but either of them affording ample materials for an
entire course of lectures!--the study of the rhetorical art, by which useful truths are
promulgated with effect, and the purposes to which a proficiency in this art should be made
subservient.
It is an extremely common error among young persons, impatient of academical discipline, to
turn from the painful study of ancient and particularly of Attic composition,
and solace themselves with work rendered easy by the familiarity of their own tongue. They
plausibly contend, that as powerful or captivating dictation in a pure English style is, after all,
the attainment they are in search of, the study of the best English models afford the shortest
point to this point: and even admitting the ancient examples to have been the great fountains
from which all eloquence is drawn, they would rather profit, as it were, by the classical labors
of their English predecessors, than toil over the same path themselves. In a word, they would
treat the perishable results of those labors as the standard, and give themselves no care
about the immortal originals. This argument, the thin covering which indolence weaves for
herself, would speedily sink all the fine arts into barrenness and insignificance. "Why,
according to such reasoners, should a sculptor or painter encounter the toil of a journey to
Athens or to Rome? Far better work at home, and profit by the labor of those who have
resorted to the Vatican and the Parthenon, and founded an English school adapted to the
taste of our own country. Be you assured that the works of the English chisel fall not more
short of the wonders of the Acropolis, than the best productions of modern pens fall short of
the chaste, finished, nervous, and overwhelming compositions of them that "resistless
fulmined over Greece.'' Be equally sure that, with hardly any exception, the great things of
poetry and of eloquence have been done by men who cultivated the mighty exemplars of
Athenian genius with daily and with nightly devotion. Among poets there is hardly an
exception to this rule, unless Shakespeare, an exception to all rules, may be so deemed; and
Dante, familiar as a contemporary with the works of Roman art, composed in his mother
tongue, having taken not so much for his guide as for his '' master,'' Vergil, himself almost a
translator from the Greeks, But among orators I know of none among the Romans, and
scarcely any of our own times. Cicero honored the Greek masters with such singular
observance, that he not only repaired to Athens for the sake of finishing his rhetorical
education, but afterward continued to practise the art of declaiming in Greek; and altho he
afterward fell into a less pure manner through the corrupt blandishments of the Asian taste,
yet do we find him ever prone to extol the noble perfections of his first masters, as something
placed beyond the reach of all imitation. Nay, at a mature period of his life, he occupied
himself in translating the greater orations of the Greeks which composed almost exclusively
his treatise "De optimo genere Oratoris"; as if to write a discourse on oratorical perfection
were merely to present the reader with the two immortal speeches upon the crown.
Sometimes we find him imitating, even to a literal version, the beauties of those divine
originals--as the beautiful passage of AEschines, in the Timarchus, upon the torments of the
guilty, which the Roman orator has twice made use of, almost word for word; once in the
oration for Sextus Roscius, the earliest he delivered, and again in a more mature effort of his
genius, the oration against L. Piso.
I have dwelt the rather upon the authority of M. Tullius. because it enables us at once to
answer the question, whether a study of the Roman orators be not sufficient for refining the
taste 1 If the Greeks were the models of an excellence which the first of Roman orators never
attained, altho ever aspiring after it--nay, if so far from being satisfied with his own success,
he even in his masters found something which his ears desiderated--he either fell short while
copying them, or he failed by diverting his worship to the false gods of the Asian school. In the
one case, were we to rest satisfied with studying the Roman, we should only be imitating the
imperfect copy, instead of the pure original--like him who should endeavor to catch a glimpse
of some beauty by her reflection in a glass, that weakened her tints, if it did not distort her
features. In the other case, we should not be imitating the same, but some less perfect
original, and looking at the wrong beauty; not her whose chaste and simple attractions
commanded the adoration of all Greece, but some garish damsel from Rhodes or Chios, just
brilliant and languishing enough to captivate the less pure taste of half-civilized Rome. But
there are other reasons too weighty to be passed over, which justify the same decided
preference. Not to mention the incomparable beauty and power of the Greek language, the
study of which alone affords the means of enriching our own, the compositions of Cicero,
exquisite as they are for beauty of diction, often remarkable for ingenious argument and
brilliant wit, not seldom excelling in deep pathos, are nevertheless so extremely rhetorical,
fashioned by an art so little concealed, and sacrificing the subject to a display of the speaker's
powers, admirable as those are, that nothing can be less adapted to the genius of modern
elocution, which requires a constant and almost exclusive attention to the business in hand. In
all his orations which were spoken (for, singular as it may seem, the remark applies less to
those which were only written, as all the Verrine, except the first, all the Philippics, except the
first and ninth, and the Pro Milone), hardly two pages can be found which a modern assembly
would bear. Some admirable arguments on evidence, and the credit of witnesses, might be
urged to a jury; several passages, given by him on the merits of the case, and in defense
against the charge, might be spoken in mitigation of punishment after a conviction or
confession of guilt; but, whether we regard the political or forensic orations, the style, both in
respect of the reasoning and the ornaments, is wholly unfit for the more severe and less
trifling nature of modern affairs in the Senate or at the bar. Now it is altogether otherwise with
the Greek masters. Changing a few phrases, which the differences of religion and of manners
might render objectionable--moderating, in some degree, the virulence of invective, especially
against private character, to suit the chivalrous courtesy of modern hostility--there is hardly
one of the political or forensic orations of the Greeks that might not be delivered in similar
circumstances before our Senate or tribunals; while their funeral and other panegyrical
discourses are much less inflated and unsubstantial than those of the most approved masters
of the epideictic style, the French preachers and academicians. Whence the difference
between the masterpieces of Greek" and Ro- man eloquence ? Whence but from the rigid
steadiness with which the Greek orator keeps the object of all the eloquence perpetually in
view, never speaking for mere speaking's sake; while the Latin rhetorician, "too fond of his
own ingenuity," and. as tho he deemed his occupation a trial of skill or display of
accomplishments, seems ever and anon to lose sight of the subject matter in the attempt to
illustrate and adorn it; and pours forth passages sweet indeed, but unprofitable--fitted to tickle
the ear, without reaching the heart. "Where, in all the orations of Cicero, or of him who almost
equals him, Livy, "admirable for his command of language." shall we find anything like those
thick successions of short questions in which Demosthenes often-times forges, as it were,
with a few rapidly following strokes, the whole massive chain of his argument; as in the
Chersonese, "Let this force be once destroyed or scattered, and what are we to do if Philip
marches on the Chersonese? Put Diopeithes on his trail? But how will that better our
condition? And how shall we send them succor if prevented by the winds? But, by Jupiter, he
will not march! And who is our surety for that," or, comprizing all of a long narrative that suits
his argument in a single sentence, presenting a lengthened series of events at a single
glance; as, " There were only five days in which this man AEschines, who had been sent as
an ambassador), brought back those lies--you believed--the Phocians listened--gave
themselves up--perished."
But tho the more business-like manner of modern debate approaches much nearer the style
of the Greek than the Latin compositions, it must be admitted that it falls short of the great
originals in the closeness, and, as it were, density, of the argument; in the habitual sacrifice of
all ornament to use, or rather in the constant union of the two; so that, while a modern orator
too frequently has his speech parceled out into compartments, one devoted to argument,
another to declamation, a third to mere ornament, as if he should say, "Now your reason shall
be convinced ; now I am going to rouse your passions; and now you shall see how I can
amuse your fancy," the more vigorous ancient argued in declaiming, and made his very
boldest figures subservient to, or rather an integral part of, his reasoning. The most figurative
and highly wrought passage in all antiquity is the famous oath of Demosthenes; yet, in the
most pathetic part of it, and when he seems to have left the furthest behind him the immediate
subject of his speech, led away by the prodigious interest of the recollections he has excited;
when he is naming the very tombs where the heroes of Marathon lie buried, he instantly, not
abruptly, but by a most felicitous and easy transition, returns into the midst of the main
argument of his whole defense--that the merits of public servants, not the success of their
councils, should be the measure of the public gratitude toward them--a position that runs
through the whole speech, and to which he makes the funeral honors bestowed alike on all
the heroes, serve as a striking and appropriate support. With the same ease does Vergil
manage his celebrated transition in the Georgics; where, in the midst of the Thracian war, and
where at an immeasurable distance from agricultural topics, the magician strikes the ground
on the field of battle, where helmets are buried, and suddenly raises before us the lonely
husbandman, in a remote age, peacefully tilling its soil, and driving his plow among the rusty
armor and moldering remains of the warrior.
But if a further reason is required for giving the preference to the Greek orators, we may find it
in the greater diversity and importance of the subjects upon which their speeches were
delivered. Besides the number of admirable orations and of written arguments upon causes
merely forensic, we have every subject of public policy, all the great affairs of state,
successfully forming the topics of the discussion. Compare them with Cicero in this particular,
and the contrast is striking. His finest oration for matter and diction together is in defense of
an individual, charged with murder, and there is nothing in the case to give it public interest,
except that the parties were of oppo- site factions in the state, and the deceased a personal
as well as political adversary of the speaker. His most exquisite performance in point of
diction, perhaps the most perfect prose composition in the language, was adrest to one man,
in palliation of another's having borne arms against him in a war with a personal rival. Even
the Catilinarians, his most splendid declamations, are principally denunciations of a single
conspirator; the Philippics, his most brilliant invectives, abuse of a profligate leader; and the
Verrine orations, charges against an individual governor. Many, indeed almost all the subjects
of his speeches, rise to the rank of what the French term Causes celebres; but they seldom
rise higher. Of Demosthenes, on the other hand, we have not only many arguments upon
cases strictly private, and relating to pecuniary matters, and many upon interesting subjects,
more nearly approaching public questions; as the speech against Midias, which relates to an
assault on the speaker, but excels in spirit and vehemence, perhaps, all his other efforts; and
some which, tho personal, involve high considerations of public policy, as that most beautiful
and energetic speech against Aristocrates; but we have all his immortal orations upon the
state affairs of Greece--embracing the history of a twenty years' administration during the
most critical period of Grecian story; and the Philippics, discussing every question of foreign
policy, and of the stand to be made by the civilized world against the encroachments of the
barbarians. Those speeches were delivered upon subjects the most important and affecting
that could be conceived to the whole community; the topics handled in them were of universal
application, and of perpetual interest. To introduce a general observation, the Latin orator
must quit the immediate course of his argument; he must for a moment lose sight of the
object in view. But the Athenian can hardly hold too lofty a tone, or carry his view too
extensively over the map of human affairs, for the vast range of his subject-- the fates of the
whole commonwealth of Greece, and the stand to be made by free and polished nations
against barbaric tyrants.
After forming and chastening the taste by a diligent study of those perfect models, it is
necessary to acquire correct habits of composition in our own language, first by studying the
best writers, and next by translating copiously into it from the Greek. This is by far the best
exercise that I am acquainted with for at once attaining a pure English diction, and avoiding
the tameness and regularity of modern composition. But the English writers who really unlock
the rich sources of the language are those who flourished from the end of Elizabeth's to the
end of Queen Anne's reign; who used a good Saxon dialect with ease, but correctness and
perspicuity—learned in the ancient classics, but only enriching their mother tongue when the
Attic could supply its defects--not overlaying it with a profuse pedantic coinage of foreign
words--well practised in the old rules of composition, or rather collocation which unite natural
ease and variety with absolute harmony, and give the author's ideas to develop themselves
with the more truth and simplicity when clothed in the ample folds of inversion, or run from the
exuberant to the elliptical without ever being either redunant or obscure. Those great wits had
no foreknowledge of such times as succeeded their brilliant age, when styles should arise,
and for a season prevail over both purity, and nature, and antique recollections--now
meretriciously ornamented, more than half French in the phrase, and to mere figures
fantastically sacrificing the sense--now heavily and regularly fashioned as if by the plumb and
rule, and by the eye rather than the ear, with a needless profusion of ancient words and
flexions, to displace those of our own Saxon, instead of temperately supplying its defects.
Least of all could those lights of English eloquence have imagined that men should appear
among us professing to each composition, and ignorant of the whole of its rules, and
incapable of relishing the beauties, or indeed apprehending the very genius of the language,
should treat its peculiar terms of expression and flexion as so many inaccuracies, and
practise their pupils in correcting the faulty English of Addison, and training down to the
mechanical rhythm of Johnson the lively and inimitable measures of Bolingbroke.
But in exhorting you deeply to meditate on the beauties of our old English authors, the poets,
the moralists, and perhaps more than all these, the preachers of the Augustan age of English
letters, do not imagine that I would pass over their great defects when compared with the
renowned standards of severe taste in ancient times. Addison may have been pure and
elegant; Dry den, airy and nervous; Taylor, witty and fanciful: Hooker, weighty and various; but
none of them united force with beauty--the perfection of matter with the most refined and
chastened style; and to one charge, all, even the most faultless, are exposed-- the offense
unknown in ancient times, but the besetting sin of later days--they always overdid--never
knowing or feeling when they had done enough. In nothing, not even in beauty of collocation
and harmony of rhythm, is the vast superiority of the chaste, vigorous, manly style of the
Greek orators and writers more conspicuous than in the abstinent use of their prodigious
faculties of expression. A single phrase--sometimes a word--and the work is done--the desired
impression is made, as it were, with one stroke, there being nothing superfluous interposed to
weaken the blow or break its fall. The commanding idea is singled out; it is made to stand
forward; all auxiliaries are rejected; as the Emperor Napoleon selected one point in the heart
of his adversary's strength, and brought all his power to bear upon that, careless of the other
points, which he was sure to carry if he won the center, as sure to have carried in vain if he
left the center unsubdued. Far otherwise do modern writers make their onset; they resemble,
rather, those campaigners, who fit out twenty little expeditions at a time to be a laughing-stock
if they fail, and useless if they succeed; or if they do attack in the right place, so divide their
forces, from the dread of leaving any one point un- assailed, that they can make no sensible
impression where alone it avails them to be felt. It seems the principle of such authors never
to leave anything unsaid that can be said on any one topic; to run down every idea they start;
to let nothing pass; and leave nothing to the reader, but harass him with anticipating
everything that could possibly strike his mind. Compare with this effeminate laxity of speech
the manly severity of ancient eloquence, or of him who approached it, by the happy union of
natural genius with learned meditation; or of him who so marvelously approached still nearer
with only the familiar knowledge of its least perfect ensamples. Mark, I do beseech you, the
severe simplicity, the subdued tone of the diction, in the most touching parts of the "old man
Eloquent's loftiest passages. In the oath, when he comes to the burial place where they
repose by whom he is swearing, if ever a grand epithet were allowable, it is here. When he
would compare the effects of The ban treaty in dispelling the dangers that compassed the
state round about to the swift passing away of a stormy cloud, he satisfies himself with two
words, the theme of just admiration to succeeding ages; and when he would paint the sudden
approach of over- whelming peril to beset the state, he does it by a stroke, the picturesque
effect of which has not, perhaps, been enough noted--likening it to a whirlwind or a winter
torrent, it is worthy of remark, that in by far the finest of all Mr. Burke's orations, the passage
which is, I believe, universally allowed to be the most striking, owes its effect to a figure twice
introduced in close resemblance to these two great expressions, altho certainly not in
imitation of either; for the original is to be found in Livy's description of Fabius's appearance to
Hannibal. Hyder's vengeance is likened to ''a black cloud, that hung for a while on the
declivities of the mountains," and the people who suffered under its devastations are
described as "enveloped in a whirlwind of cavalry." Whoever reads the whole passage will, I
think, admit that the effect is almost entirely produced by those two strokes; that the
amplifications which accompany them, as the "blackening of the horizon"--the "menacing
meteor"--the "storm of unusual fire," rather disarm than augment the terrors of the original
black cloud; and that the "goading spears of the drivers," and "the trampling of pursuing
horses," some- what abate the fury of the whirlwind of cavalry. They are slaves--lashed and
racked, says the Grecian master, to describe the wretched lot of those who had yielded to the
wiles of the conqueror, in the vain hope of securing their liberties in safety. Compare this with
the choicest of Mr. Burke's invectives of derision and pity upon the same subject--the
sufferings of those who made peace with regicide France--and acknowledge the mighty effect
of relying upon a single stroke to produce a great effect--if you had the master-hand to give it.
"The King of Prussia has hypothecated in trust to the regicides his rich and fertile territories on
the Rhine, as a pledge of his zeal and affection to the cause of liberty and equality. He has
been robbed with unbounded liberty, and with the most leveling quality. The woods are
wasted; the country is ravaged; property is confiscated; and the people are put to bear a
double yoke, in the exactions of a tyrannical government, and in the contributions of a hostile
conscription." "The Grand Duke of Tuscany, for his early sincerity, for his love of peace, and
for his entire confidence in the amity of the assassins of his family, has been complimented
with the name of the 'wisest sovereign in Europe.' This pacific Solomon, or his philosophic
cudgeled ministry, cudgeled by English and by French, whose wisdom and philosophy
between them have placed Leghorn in the hands of the enemy of the Austrian family, and
driven the only profitable commerce of Tuscany from its only port." Turn now for refreshment
to the Athenian artist--"Much, forsooth, did the Oreitoe gain when they yielded to the friends of
Philip, and thrust out Euphraeus; and much the people of Eretria, when they drove off your
ambassadors, and gave themselves up to Kleitarchus! They are now slaves--lashed and
racked."--Phil.
Upon some very rare occasions, indeed, the orator, not content with a single blow, pours
himself forth in a single torrent of invective, and then we recognize the man who was said of
old to eat shields and steel. But, still, the effect is produced without repetition or diffuseness. I
am not aware of any such expanded passage as the invective against those who had
betrayed the various states of Greece to Philip. It is, indeed, a noble passage; one of the most
brilliant, perhaps the most highly colored, of any in Demosthenes; but it is as condensed and
rapid as it is rich and varied: "Base and fawning creatures, wretches who have mutilated the
glory each of his own native land --toasting away their liberties to the health first of Philip, then
of Alexander; measuring their happiness by their gluttony and debauchery, but utterly
overthrowing those rights of freemen, and that independence of any master, which the Greeks
of former days regarded as the test and the summit of all felicity." This requires no contrast to
make its merit shine forth; but compare it with any of Cicero's invectives--that, for instance, in
the third Catilinarian, against the conspirators, where he attacks them regularly under six
different heads and in above twenty times as many words; and ends with the known and very
moderate jest of their commander keeping "Scortorum cohortem Praetoriam."
The great poet of modern Italy, Dante, approached nearest to the ancients in the quality of
which I have been speaking. In his finest passages you rarely find an epithet ; hardly ever
more than one; and never two efforts to embody one idea. "A guisa di Leon quando si posa."
(Like the lion when he lays himself down), is the single trait by which he compares the
dignified air of a stern personage to the expression of the lion slowly laying himself down. It is
remarkable that Tasso copies the verse entire, but he destroys its whole effect by filling up the
majestic idea, adding this line, "Girando gli occhi e non movendo il passo" (Casting around
his eyes, but not hastening his pace). A better illustration could not easily be found of the
difference between the ancient and the modern style. Another is furnished by a later imitator
of the same great master. I know no passage of the Divina Commedia more excursive than
the description of evening in the Purgatorio; yet the poet is content with somewhat enlarging
on a single thought--the tender recollections which that hour of meditation gives the traveler,
at the fall of the first night he is to pass away from home, when he hears the distant knell of
the expiring day. Gray adopts the idea of the knell in nearly the words of the original, and
adds eight other circumstances to it, presenting a kind of ground plan, or at least a catalog, an
accurate enumeration (like a natural historian's), of every one particular belonging to nightfall,
so as wholly to exhaust the subject, and leave nothing to the imagination of the reader.
Dante's six verses, too, have but one epithet, dolci, applied to amici. Gray has thirteen or
fourteen; some of them mere repetitions of the same idea which the verb or the substantive
conveys!--as drowsy tinkling lulls--the moping owl com- plains--the plowman plods his weary
way. Surely, when we contrast the simple and commanding majesty of the ancient writers with
the superabundance and diffusion of the exhaustive method, we may be tempted to feel that
there lurks some alloy of bitterness in the excess of sweets. This was so fully recognized by
the wise ancients, that it became a proverb among them, as we learn from an epigram still
preserved.
All excess is inappropriate; hence the proverb, Too much even of honey turns to gall.
In forming the taste by much contemplation of those antique models, and acquiring the habits
of easy and chaste composition, it must not be imagined that all the labor of the orator is
ended, or that he may then, dauntless and fluent, enter upon his office in the public assembly.
Much preparation is still required before each exertion, if rhetorical excellence is aimed at. I
should lay down as a rule, admitting of no exception, that a man will speak well in proportion
as he has written much; and that with equal talents, he will be the finest extempore speaker,
when no time for preparing is allowed, who has prepared himself the most sedulously when
he had an opportunity of delivering a premeditated speech. All the exceptions which I have
ever heard cited to this principle are apparent ones only; proving nothing more than that some
few men of rare genius have become great speakers without preparation; in no wise showing
that with preparation they would not have reached a much higher pitch of excellence. The
admitted superiority of the ancients in all oratorical accomplishments is the best proof of my
position; for their careful preparation is undeniable; nay, in Demosthenes (of whom Quintilian
says that his style indicates more premeditation--plus curae--than Cicero's), we can trace by
the recurrence of the same passage, with progressive improvements in different speeches,
how nicely he polished the more exquisite parts of his compositions. I could point out favorite
passages, occurring as often as three several times with variations, and manifest
amendment.
I am now requiring not merely great preparation while the speaker is learning his art, but after
he has accomplished his education. The most splendid effort of the most mature orator will be
always finer for being previously elaborated with much care. There is, no doubt, a charm in
extemporaneous elocution, derived from the appearance of artless, unpremeditated effusion,
called forth by the occasion, and so adapting itself to its exigencies, which may compensate
the manifold defects incident to this kind of composition: that which is inspired by the
unforeseen circumstances of the moment, will be of necessity suited to those circumstances
in the choice of the topics, and pitched in the tone of the execution, to the feelings upon which
it is to operate. These are great virtues: it is another to avoid the besetting vice of modern
oratory--the overdoing everything--the exhaustive method--which an off-hand speaker has no
time to fall into, and he accordingly will take only the grand and effective view; nevertheless,
in oratorical merit, such effusions must needs be very inferior; much of the pleasure they
produce depends upon the hearer's surprize that in such circumstances anything can be
delivered, at all, rather than upon his deliberate judgment, that he has heard anything very
excellent in itself. We may rest assured that the highest reaches of the art, and without any
necessary sacrifice of natural effect, can only be attained by him who well considers, and
maturely prepares, and oftentimes sedulously corrects and refines his oration. Such
preparation is quite consistent with the introduction of passages prompted by the occasion,
nor will the transition from the one to the other be perceptible in the execution of a practised
master. I have known attentive and skilful hearers completely deceived in this matter, and
taking for extemporaneous, passages which previously existed in manuscript, and were
pronounced with- out the variation of a particle or pause. Thus, too, we are told by Cicero, in
one of his epistles, that having to make, in Pompey's presence, a speech, after Crassus had
very unexpectedly taken a particular line of argument, he exerted himself, and it appears
successfully, in a marvelous manner, mightily assisted in what he said extempore by his habit
of rhetorical preparation, and introducing skilfully, as the inspiration of the moment, all his
favorite common-places, with some of which, as we gather from a good-humored joke at his
own expense, Crassus had interfered.
If, from contemplating the means of acquiring eloquence, we turn to the noble purposes to
which it may be made subservient, we at once perceive its prodigious importance to the best
interests of mankind. The greatest masters of the art have concurred, and upon the greatest
occasion of its display, in pronouncing that its estimation depends on the virtuous and rational
use made of it. Let their sentiments be engraved on your memory in their own pure and
appropriate diction. AEschines says: "It is well that the intellect should choose the best
objects, and that the education and eloquence of the orator should obtain the assent of his
hearers; but if not, that sound judgment should be preferred to mere speech.'' Says his
illustrious antagonist: "It is not the language of the orator, or the modulation of his voice that
deserves your praise, but his seeking the same interests and objects with the body of the
people."
It is but reciting the ordinary praises of the art of persuasion, to remind you how sacred truths
may be most ardently promulgated at the altar--the cause of opprest innocence be most
powerfully defended--the march of wicked rulers be most triumphantly resisted--defiance, the
most terrible be hurled at the oppressor's head. In great convulsions of public affairs, or in
bringing about salutary changes, every one confesses how important an ally eloquence must
be. But in peaceful times, when the progress of events is slow and even, as the silent and
unheeded pace of time, and the jars of a mighty tumult in the foreign and domestic concerns
can no longer be heard, then, too, she flourishes--protectress of liberty--patroness of
improvement--guardian of all the blessings that can be showered upon the mass of human
kind; nor is her form ever seen but on ground consecrated to free institutions. '' Eloquence is
the companion of peace and the associate of leisure: it is trained up under the auspices of a
well- established republic." To me, calmly revolving these things, such pursuits seem far more
noble objects of ambition than any upon which the vulgar herd of busy men lavish prodigal
their restless exertions. To diffuse useful information--to further intellectual refinement, sure
fore- runner of moral improvement--to hasten the coming of the bright day when the dawn of
general knowledge shall chase away the lazy, lingering mists, even from the base of the great
social pyramid--this indeed is a high calling, in which the most splendid talents and
consummate virtue may well press onward, eager to bear a part. I know that I speak in a
place consecrated by the pious wisdom of ancient times to the instruction of but a select
portion of the community. Yet from this classic ground have gone forth those whose genius,
not their ancestry, ennobled them, whose incredible merits have opened to all ranks the
temple of science; whose illustrious example has made the humblest emulous to climb steps
no longer inaccessible, and enter the unfolded gates, burning in the sun. I speak in that city
where Black having once taught, and Watt learned, the grand experiment was afterward
made in our day, and with entire success; to demonstrate that the highest intellectual
cultivation is perfectly compatible with the daily cares and toils of workingmen ; to show by
thousands of living examples that a keen relish for the most sublime truths of science belongs
alike to every class of mankind.
To promote this, of all objects the most important, men of talents and of influence I rejoice to
behold pressing forward in every part of the empire; but I wait with impatient anxiety to see
the same course pursued by men of high station in society, and by men of rank in the world of
letters. It should seem as if these felt some little lurking jealousy, and those were somewhat
scared by feelings of alarm--the one and the other surely alike groundless. No man of science
needs fear to see the day when scientific excellence shall be too vulgar a commodity to bear
a high price. The more widely knowledge is spread, the more will they be prized whose happy
lot it is to extend its bounds by discovering new truths, or multiply its uses by inventing new
modes of applying it in practise. Their numbers will need be increased, and among them more
Watts and more Franklins will be enrolled among the lights of the world, in proportion as more
thousands of the working classes, to which Franklin and Watt belonged, have their thoughts
turned toward philosophy; but the order of discoverers and inventors will still be a select few,
and the only material variation in their proportion to the bulk of mankind will be, that the mass
of the ignorant multitude being progressively diminished, the body of those will be incalculably
increased who are worthy to admire genius, and able to bestow upon its possessors an
immortal fame. To those, too, who feel alarmed as statesmen, and friends of existing
establishments, I would address a few words of comfort. Real knowledge never promoted
either turbulence or unbelief; but its progress is the forerunner of liberality and enlightened
toleration. Whoso dreads these, let him tremble; for he may be well assured that their day is
at length come, and must put to sudden flight the evil spirits of tyranny and prosecution which
haunted the long night now gone down the sky. As men will no longer suffer themselves to be
led blindfolded in ignorance, so will they no more yield to the vile principle of judging and
treating their fellow creatures, not according to the intrinsic merit of their actions, but
according to the accidental and involuntary- coincidence of their opinions. The great truth has
finally gone forth to all the ends of the earth, that man shall no more render account to man
for his belief, over which he has himself no control. Henceforward, nothing shall prevail upon
us to praise or to blame any one for that which he can no more change than he can the hue of
his skin or the height of his stature. Henceforward, treating with entire respect those who
conscientiously differ from ourselves, the only practical effect of the difference will be, to make
us enlighten the ignorance on one side or the other from which it springs, by instructing them,
if it be theirs; ourselves if it be our own, to the end that the only kind of unanimity may be
produced which is desirable among rational beings--the agreement proceeding from full
conviction after the freest discussion Par then, very far, from the universal spread of
knowledge being the object of just apprehension to those who watch over the peace of the
country, or have a deep interest in the permanence of her institutions, its sure effect will be
the removal of the only dangers that threaten the public tranquillity, and the addition of all that
is wanting to confirm her internal strength.
Let me, therefore, indulge in the hope that among the illustrious youths whom this ancient
kingdom, famed alike for its nobility and its learning, has produced, to continue its fame
through after ages, possibly among those I now address, there may be found some one--I ask
no more--willing to give a bright example to other nations in a path yet untrodden, by taking
the lead of his fellow citizens, not in frivolous amusements, nor in the degrading pursuits of
the ambitious vulgar, but in the truly noble task of enlightening the mass of his countrymen,
and leaving his own name no longer encircled, as heretofore, with barbaric splendor, or
attached to courtly gewgaws, but illustrated by the honors most worthy of our national nature
—coupled with the diffusion of knowledge--and gratefully pronounced through all ages by
millions whom his wise beneficence has rescued from ignorance and vice. To him I will say,
"In nothing do men approach more nearly to the divinity than in ministering to the safety of
their fellow men; so that fortune can not give you anything greater than the ability, or nature
anything better Than the desire, to extend relief to the greatest possible number." This is the
true mark for the aim of all who either prize the enjoyment of pure happiness, or set a right
value upon a high and unsullied renown. And if the benefactors of mankind, when they rest
from their pious labors, shall be permitted to enjoy hereafter, as an appropriate reward of their
virtue, the privilege of looking down upon the blessings with which their toils and sufferings
have clothed the scene of their former existence, do not vainly imagine that, in a state of
exhalted purity and wisdom, the founders of mighty dynasties, the conquerors of new
empires, or the more vulgar crowd of evil-doers, who have sacrificed to their own
aggrandizement the good of their fellow creatures, will be gratified by contemplating the
monuments of their inglorious fame--theirs will be the delight--theirs the triumph who can
trace the remote effects of their enlightened benevolence in the improved condition of their
species, and exult in the reflection that the prodigious change they now survey, with eyes that
age and sorrow can make dim no more--of knowledge become power--virtue sharing in the
dominion--superstition trampled under foot—tyranny driven from the world--are the fruits,
precious, tho costly, and tho late reaped, yet long-enduring, of all the hardships and all the
hazards they encountered here below!
INAUGURAL ADDRESS
BY THOMAS JEFFERSON
Delivered March 4, 1801, on assuming the Presidency of the United States
Friends and Fellow Citizens:--Called upon to undertake the duties of the first executive office
of our country, I avail myself of the presence of that portion of my fellow citizens which is here
assembled, to express my grateful thanks for the favor with which they have been pleased to
look toward me, to declare a sincere consciousness, that the task is above my talents, and
that I approach it with those anxious and awful presentiments which the greatness of the
charge, and the weakness of my powers, so justly inspire. A rising nation, spread over a wide
and fruitful land, traversing all the seas with the rich productions of their industry, engaged in
commerce with nations who feel power and for- get right, advancing rapidly to destinies
beyond the reach of mortal eye; when I contemplate these transcendent objects, and see the
honor, the happiness, and the hopes of this beloved country committed to the issue and the
auspices of this day, I shrink from the contemplation, and humble myself before the
magnitude of the undertaking. Utterly, indeed, should I despair, did not the presence of many
whom I see here, remind me, in the other high authorities provided by our constitution, I shall
find resources of wisdom, of virtue, and of zeal, on which to rely under all difficulties. To you,
then, gentlemen, who are charged with the sovereign functions of legislation, and to those
associated with you, I look with encouragement for that guidance and support which may
enable us to steer with safety the vessel in which we are all embarked, amid the conflicting
elements of a troubled world.
During the contest of opinion through which we have passed, the animation of discussions
and of exertions has sometimes worn an aspect which might impose on strangers unused to
think freely, and to speak and to write what they think; but this being now decided by the voice
of the nation, announced according to the rules of the constitution, all will, of course, arrange
themselves under the will of the law, and unite in common efforts for the common good. And,
too, will bear in mind this sacred principle, that tho the will of the majority is in all cases to
prevail, that will, to be rightful, must be reasonable; that the minority possess their equal
rights, which equal laws must protect, and to violate which would be oppression. Let us, then,
fellow citizens, unite with one heart and one mind, let us restore to social intercourse that
harmony and affection without which liberty and even life itself are but dreary things.
And let us reflect, that having banished from our land that religious intolerance under which
mankind so long bled and suffered, we have yet gained little, if we countenance a political
intolerance, as despotic, as wicked, and as capable of as bitter and bloody persecutions.
During the throes and convulsions of the ancient world, during the agonizing spasms of
infuriated man, seeking through blood and slaughter his long-lost liberty, it was not wonderful
that the agitation of the billows should reach even this distant and peaceful shore; that this
should be more felt and feared by some, and less by others, and should divide opinions as to
measures of safety; but every difference of opinion is not a difference of principle. We have
called by different names brethren of the same principle. We are all Republicans; we are all
Federalists. If there be any among us who wish to dissolve this Union, or to change its
republican form, let them stand undisturbed as monuments of the safety with which error of
opinion may be tolerated, where reason is left free to combat it. I know, indeed, that some
honest men fear that a republican government can not be strong; that this government is not
strong enough. But would the honest patriot, in the full tide of successful experiment, abandon
a government which has so far kept us free and firm, on the theoretic and visionary fear that
this government, the world's best hope, may, by possibility, want energy to preserve itself? I
trust not. I believe this, on the contrary, the strongest government on earth. I believe it the
only one where every man, at the call of the law, would fly to the standard of the law, and
would meet invasions of the public order as his own personal concern. Sometimes it is said
that man can not be trusted with the government of himself. Can he then be trusted with the
government of others? Or, have we found angels in the form of kings, to govern him? Let
history answer this question.
Let us, then, with courage and confidence, pursue our own federal and republican principles;
our attachment to union and representative government. Kindly separated by nature and a
wide ocean from the exterminating havoc of one-quarter of the globe; too high-minded to
endure the degradation of the others, possessing a chosen country, with room enough for our
descendants to the thousandth and thousandth generation, entertaining a due sense of our
equal right to the use of our own faculties, to the acquisition of our own industry, to honor and
confidence from our fellow citizens, resulting not from birth, but from our actions and their
sense of them, enlightened by a benign religion, profest indeed and practised in various
forms, yet all of them inculcating honesty, truth, temperance, gratitude, and the love of man,
acknowledging and adoring an overruling Providence, which, by all its dispensations, proves
that it delights in the happiness of man here, and his greater happiness hereafter; with all
these blessings, what more is necessary to make us a happy and prosperous people? Still
one thing more, fellow citizens, a wise and frugal government, which shall restrain men from
injuring one another, shall leave them otherwise free to regulate their own pursuits of industry
and improvement, and shall not take from the mouth of labor the bread it has earned. This is
the sum of good government; and this is necessary to close the circle of our felicities.
About to enter, fellow citizens, upon the exercise of duties which comprehend everything dear
and valuable to you, it is proper you should understand what I deem the essential principles of
our government, and consequently, those which ought to shape its administration. I will
compress them within the narrowest compass they will bear, stating the general principle, but
not all its limitations. Equal and exact justice to all men, of whatever state or persuasion,
religious or political; peace, commerce, and honest friendship with all nations, entangling
alliances with none; the support of the State governments in all their rights, as the most
competent administrations for our domestic concerns, and the surest bulwarks against antirepublican tendencies; the preservation of the general government in its whole constitutional
vigor, as the sheet-anchor of our peace at home and safety abroad; a jealous care of the right
of election by the people, a mild and safe corrective of abuses which are lopped by the sword
of revolution where peaceable remedies are unprovided; absolute acquiescence in the
decisions of the majority, the vital principle of republics, from which there is no appeal but to
force, the vital principle and immediate parent of despotism; a well-disciplined militia, our best
reliance in peace, and for the first moments of war, till regulars may relieve them; the
supremacy of the civil over the military authority; economy in the public expense, that labor
may be lightly burdened; the honest payment of our debts, and sacred preservation of the
public faith; encouragement of agriculture, and of commerce as its handmaid; the diffusion of
information, and arraignment of all abuses at the bar of the public reason; freedom of religion,
freedom of the press, and freedom of person, under the protection of the habeas corpus, and
trial by juries impartially selected. These principles form the bright constellation which has
gone before us and guided our steps through an age of revolution and reformation. The
wisdom of our sages, and blood of our heroes, have been devoted to their attainment; they
should be the creed of our political faith, the text of civic instruction, the touchstone by which
to try the services of those we trust; and should we wander from them in moments of error or
of alarm, let us hasten to retrace our steps, and to regain the road which alone leads to
peace, liberty, and safety.
I repair, then, fellow citizens, to the post you have as- signed me. With experience enough in
subordinate offices to have seen the difficulties of this, the greatest of all, I have learned to
expect that it will rarely fall to the lot of imperfect man, to retire from this station with the
reputation and the favor which bring him into it. Without pre- tensions to that high confidence
you reposed in our first and greatest revolutionary character, whose preeminent services had
entitled him to the first place in his country's love, and destined for him the fairest page in the
volume of faithful history, I ask so much confidence only as may give firmness and effect to
the legal administration of your affairs. I shall often go wrong through defect of judgment.
When right, I shall often be thought wrong by those whose positions will not command a view
of the whole ground. I ask your indulgence for my own errors, which will never be intentional;
and your support against the errors of others, who may condemn what they would not, if seen
in all its parts. The approbation implied by your suffrage, is a great consolation to me for the
past; and my future solicitude will be to retain the good opinion of those who have bestowed it
in advance, to conciliate that of others, by doing them all the good in my power, and to be
instrumental to the happiness and freedom of all.
Relying, then, on the patronage of your good-will, I advance with obedience to the work,
ready to retire from it whenever you become sensible how much better choices it is in your
power to make. And may that infinite power which rules the destinies of the universe, lead our
councils to what is best, and give them a favorable issue for your peace and prosperity.
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