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How
WRITE
TO
RULES
EXER""$]"S
AND
ENGLISH
CLEARLY.
COMPOSITION.
BY
REV.
HEAD
THE
EDWIN
MASTER
THE
A.
OF
AUTHOR'S
ABBOTT,
CIT^'OF
THE
LONDON
COPYRIGHT
BOSTON:
ROBERTS
BROTHERS.
1876.
M.A.,
SCHOOL.
EDITION.
MOSES
BERNARD
Cambridge
:
Press
of
John
Wilson
and
Son.
PREFACE.
ALMOST
so
English
every
far
least
at
of words.
boy
clearness
as
Force,
difficult
to
teach,
writing
can
be
writing
clearly
depends
and
elegance,
and
far
the
the
of
variety
rules.
to
main
of
clearly,
arrangement
style
learn
to
are
more
but
;
teach
the
these
Rules
To
object
write
to
upon
difficult
more
reduced
is
taught
be
can
clear
of
art
and
Exercises.
Ambiguity
but
also
from
other
from
and
words,
arise,
may
removable
by
not
neglected,
are
obscurity
dozen
of
art
clearly.
writing
almost
acquisition
forcible
But
mere
manipulation
of
implies
more.
much
forcibly
valuable
as
"
a
Parliament,
all,
above
lutions
reso-
of
instances
abundant
of
neglect
monotonous
tinually
con-
some
rules.
simple
The
the
from
arising
this
suggest
to
in
Speeches
furnish
though
few
and
articles, and,
and
are
in
some
ambiguity,
case.
public meetings,
at
out
single
causes
considered
point
to
of
each
in
narratives
newspaper
is
of
therefore,
prominently
causes
remedies
These
and
rules,
rather
recurring
definite
definite
arrangement,
misuse
the
from
"
bad
from
thought.
not
object
My
causes
confused
not
book.
only
not
781074
is
;
it is
of
a
not,
of
art
and
higher
writing
clear
like
mechanism
much
valuable
a
course,
the
as
expression
question
words
is, of
of
power,
pression,
ex-
the
and
6
Preface.
Writing clearly
man
think
may
himself,but
will)
be
able
clearly
is
a
reason
may
(though
and
be
clearlyexpressed
writing is
the
other
(to
must
Jews
"
by Titus.
implies knowledge,
and
it
have
must
well
implies
to
eyes
words
as
writing, and
of
forcible
who
often
a
vivid
a
the
vivid
sentence
help
knowledge
writing ;
in
the
The
Latin
and
forcible
far less
to
the
Greek
them
a
of
stand
in
long
a
ThucydMes
idiom
our
rules.
write
to
periods
that
as
exercises, clear
devoted
links
writer
hence, though
and
the
into
It
of knowledge,
Hence
space
The
?
everything,
sees.
easily rendered
of
great deal
of
terminated
ex-
imply
writing also, is
enable
to
clearly.
not
are
the
of
this
side
he
tasteful
is clear
"almost
as
imagination.
what
studying
of
English
Cicero
most
are
need
some
very
writing is exemplified
especial
and
does
see
than
writing occupies
Boys
what
and
captured,"
but
But
also
course
"
as
subdued"
describe
to
of rules
matter
and
write
forcibly,
describe
illustration)
salt,"not
"
being
as
the
it.
is to
man
a
with
sown
not
if
of
it reveals
when
beneath
can
medium
transparent
well-known
"
is concerned
illogicalthought
or
the
meaning
a
Writing
that.
repeated according
beneficial
hand,
use
Jerusalem as
the
indeed,
of the
illogicalnature
he
and
obscure
least
not
he
that
adverbs, conjunctions, prepositions,
Even
;
probable
all
for
Dogberry
as
of words
auxiliaryverbs, placed
definite rules.1
On
clearly
of
to
clear
it is not
arrangement
as
matter
mere
obscurely
as
write
to
A
imply thinking clearly.
not
and
far
so
"
"
he
does
connect
without
English
an
sentence.
There
is
logical,than
as
1
Punctuation
referred
slovenly fault
better
scarcely any
is
to
of
in
the
task
fullydiscussed
this book
trustingtoo
only
much
of
training,rhetorical
to
far
English Grammars,
as
is necessary
punctuation, and
to
too
and
point
little to
well
into
construing Thucydides
in most
so
as
is therefore
out
the
ment.
arrange-
Preface.
genuine English
English
and
in
for
the
and
examinations
our
language.
should
pupils
our
By
Greek
construing good
and
Latin
pupils systematically unlearn
pick
to
I must
Bain's
treatise
to
his
been
able
to
agree
taste
; but
I find
the
be
"
of
use
better
known.1
between
for
instance,
latelyin
are
a
pedants
and
Rhetoric,"
Bain
and
matters
of
admiration
for
to
as
express
my
"
Bain's
; it is
the
rule
8) deserves
(see Rule
of
his
of
suggestiveness
which
forms
always
not
ambiguity produced by
Radical
many
the
fusion
con-
is not
Relative
a
Take,
practicallyserious.
is "and
they, i.e. all
"there
that
admitting
Therefore,
have
a
whether
say
members
his useful
to
to
stress
point
House
who
Christian."
a
the
in the
members
meaning
House,"
of
the
Bain, apparently
rule,amends
to me
seems
laying due
the
being
Professor
that
endeavoured
for
Radical
many
"c."?
manner
while
is to
the Radical
exceptions
no
in
Minister
who
good
a
cannot
in
sentences
hence,
are
members
Prime
years
rule, I
Shakespeare.
following sentence, which
appeared
ablest
of our
There
weekly periodicals:
forgive the
House
from
the
Twenty
or
"
and
two
been
"
one
good
cannot
"
have
our
may
particular,Professor
In
The
these
fiction of
mere
that
English,
I have
Professor
it difficult to
Composition.
on
bad
they
English Grammar.
with
college for
and
Composition
systematic thoroughness
book
to
and
native
their
large obligations to Professor
very
"English
on
also
on
what
Milton
acknowledge
and
the
from
up
into
current
pass
over
school
at
rated
tole-
increasing the
of
possess
marks
getting
to
instead
Greek-
is often
that
is allowed
diminishes
English,
that
allowed
long-winded
flat,vague,
Latin-English imposture
genuine
power
; but
7
on
out
many
intolerablyharsh.
the
utilityof
the
and
explain
the
exceptions.
1
Before
between
meeting
the
with
Professor
Relatives
"Shakespearian Grammar,"
is
Bain's
generally
paragraph
259.
rule, I had
observed
shown
that
the
by Shakespeare.
ence
differSee
Preface.
8
rules
The
intended
stated
are
not
the
while
is
of
given
given, are
exercises
The
viva
with
the
made.
unclassified
his
; but
for the
own
common
is the fault in each
what
Besides
each
references
sentence,
to
difficulty
any
that
be
how
tioned
ques-
they
require
not
any
non-arrangement
mixed
together
anything
show
industry, to
exercises
first been
for
alterations
it is
rules, notes
the
used
relyingupon
him
be amended.
to
attached
are
ought
painstaking boy
a
has
he
provided
the
to
so
and
revised,
may
purposely
and
case,
be
will
rather
or
been
sense
also
several
prevent the pupil from
to
and
them,
teachers
have
rules.
the
out
are
being shut, the pupils,
before
arrangement
They
may
by
that
examples
written
they
rules
illustrate
to
books
The
reasons
of the exercises.
be
to
exercises
the
few
but
prove,
Experienced
explanation of
The
ference
re-
exercises.
the
prove
are
for
as
the
at
to
attempt
intended
written
to
as
but
to
usually are
their
have
not
instruction.
voce
working
examples.
are
exercises
as
is
no
themselves
by
use
pupil
Consequently, there
accumulations
for
much
so
possible,and
brieflyas
as
not
of twelve
to
present
thirteen,
or
fairlytrained
to
in
English
grammar.
The
"
Continuous
and
those
for whom
modernize,
to
of
the
and
and
Clarendon,
and
intended
are
authors,
but
to
show
intended.
speak,
to
improve
how
upon
their
modern
by teacher
is
1
from
Sir Archibald
this
author
pupil,there
Alison
are
stands
intended
on
to
a
exhibit
the
older
than
My
ambitious,
different
dangers
object has,
style of
might
The
loss is
these
be
recognized
footing.
pressed
ex-
of the
charm
in my
of
attempt
style of Burnet,
the
nothing,
very
culty,
diffi-
appear
English.
if the
more
The
meaning
style is necessarilylost,but
and
the
explanation.
some
to
somewhat
Butler,1 may
Bishop
clearlyin
more
boys
are
clarify,so
been
not
for
rather
present
Exercises
perhaps requires
course,
"
Extracts
both
opinion, to
The
extracts
verbosity and
geration.
exag-
Preface.
counterbalance
Bain
speaks
exercise, the
of
method
better
it
expression.
imperfectly
respects
laws
the
to
writers
and
the
be
might
exclusively, drawn
not
be
other
or
prescribe passages
some
older
Our
proprieties of style.
though
in
English
an
way
to
according
amended
be
to
some
than
but
containing good matter,
worded,
For
:
pupil disciplinedin giving
the
no
in
"
l
effect
same
should
matter
supplied, and
I know
the
to
fessor
Pro-
exercises.
utilityof such
obvious
the
9
tensively,
ex-
for
upon
this
purpose."
To
of the
some
I
indebted
am
desire
I
to
and
of
Fellow
St.
the
of London
; also
to
School,
particular the
in
already
English People,"
these
revising
pages.
the
to
of
several
R.
for
School,
Rev.
J.
I must
Fellow
Vardy,
and
copious
colleagues
my
whom
among
A.
Rev.
been
John's College, Cambridge,
of St. Paul's
Master
suggestions
in
for
especial obligations
valuable
City
help
has
help
Lessons
further
express
Second
whose
English
for
Lupton, late
H.
"
in
acknowledged
friends
at
mention
of
Trinity
College,Cambridge.
Before
I wish
book
of
electrotypingthe
to
has
Rules
say
one
been
for
word
used
reference
construing, from
36, 37,
about
Metaphor
and
correcting faults
I have
middle
may
of
be
classes
*
"
their
Thucydides
5, 30, 34,
of
of
and
in
our
to
of
great
have
their
the
a
collection
Latin
in
have
been
and
rules
Greek
well
schools.
Rhetoric,"
found
useful
this way,
as
In
The
use.
also
highest
English Composition and
this
construing lessons.
hopes that, used
service
Edition^
in which
manner
especially, I
400,
Climax
taste
the
Revised
highest class,as
my
in
Rules
book
to
as
by
and
Fourth
p. viL
positions.
com-
this
as
in
to
little
the
CONTENTS.
PAGE
INDEX
OF
RULES
11"13
RULES
14
40
"
SHORT
63
EXERCISES
41
"
CONTINUOUS
EXERCISES
64
CLARENDON
70
"
"
BURNET
"
70"73
"
BUTLER
74"75
"
SIR
"
"
ARCHIBALD
ALISON
76"78
INDEX
RULES.
OF
I.
CLEARNESS
AND
FORCE.
WORDS.
USE
1.
words
in
their
2.
exaggerations.
3.
Avoid
useless
4.
Be
careful
circumlocution
in
the
.
.
.
careful
in the
careful
the
5.
Be
6.
Report a speech
ambiguity.
avoid
Use
a.
speaker
6 b.
7.
you
cases
Do
9.
or
First
where
Person,
where
"
the
he
"that,"
"
words
exact
use
of
the
"
"
it,"
and
or
if
use
allows.
euphony
"
"
for
"while,"
what
"
"
or
is
which,"
or
he"
"for
Person.
"
who
"
Pronoun,
which
and
to
necessary
in
Relative
and
"
use
not
"it,"
be
to
that
the
using
meaning is
other
"he,"
the
in
words, e.g. " certain."
"'they," "these," "c.
given.
a
speech in the Third
use
a
Participle implying "when,"
show
"that,"
clearly by the context
When
if the
In
.
ambiguous
Person
"
of
Omission
When
of
use
intended
not
are
of
use
Third
the
"though,"
implied.
8.
in
writing."
"not
or," "that."
"not
Be
a.
6
of
use
"fine
and
.
"only,"
4
sense.
proper
Avoid
for
it."
Exceptions.
which."
:
(a] Participle or Adjective ;
Equivalents for the Relative
"c. ; (d) "Ifaman-"
"whereto,"
(b] Infinitive ; (":)"Whereby,"
"And
"c.
of
he," "and
this,"
(e)
(g) omission
; (/) "what;"
10.
Relative.
10
non-repetition
Use
11.
1 1
the
Repeat
a.
causes
particular
Avoid
a.
Verbal
12.
Use
particular
13.
Use
metaphor
14.
Do
confuse
not
14
a.
Do
14
b.
Do
any
for
mix
not
not
use
persons
instead
Avoid
Verbs
where
instead
of
of
literal
a
the
38.
See
ambiguity.
general terms.
Nouns
Relative, where
the
before
Antecedent
Nouns.
abstract
be
can
used.
class.
statement.
metaphor.
metaphor with literal
to
poetic metaphor
statement.
illustrate
a
prosaic
subject.
ORDER
Emphatic
15.
the
most
15
end.
a-
part,
OF
words
at
the
Unemphatic
Exceptions.
WORDS
must
IN
stand
beginning
words
or
must,
SENTENCE.
A
in
the
as
emphatic positions ; i.e.,for
end
a
of
rule,
the
be
sentence.
kept
from
the
Index
r.2
15 "
1
An
6.
of Rules.
gives emphasis.
interrogationsometimes
if
ferred
Subject, unusually emphatic, should often be transthe beginning of the sentence.
for
Object is sometimes
placed before the Verb
The
from
17. The
emphasis.
1
the
8.
Where
several
words
emphatic, make
are
emphatic. Emphasis can
word.
epithet,or an intensifying
most
an
Words
19.
which
should
be
as
sometimes
possible
as
near
grammatically connected.
Adverbs
should
be placed next
20.
intended
to qualify.
21.
Only" ; the strict rule is that
they
to
is
given by adding
the
with
words
are
"
before
it clear which
be
the word
to
"
the
words
"
should
only
they
be
are
placed
it affects.
also," see that each is
only" precedes "but
of
same
speech.
by
part
and other adverbial adjuncts,someAt
times
least,"
always,"
23.
produce ambiguity.
the Nouns
that they define.
should
be placed near
24. Nouns
the Nouns
should
follow
to which
they refer,
25. Pronouns
When
22.
followed
"not
the
"
"
without
the intervention
26.
as
Clauses
close
27.
be
must
28.
distinct from
Where
29.
the
on
that
there
are
word
same
antecedent
or
be
are
those
infinitives,
that
distinct
from
be
must
see
55.
"if-clauses"
should
preceded by
independent.
several
kept
kept
clauses.
the consequent
"that"
clauses
those
the
sentences,
distinct from
Dependent
Noun.
are
conditional
kept
other
should
grammatically connected
parentheses. But
possible. Avoid
that
together as
In
of any
be
are
kept
dent
depen-
those
that
not.
are
principleof Suspense.
duce
It is a violation
of the principle of suspense
to intro30 a.
short and
unexpectedly at the end of a long sentence, some
unemphatic clause beginning with (a) not," (b) which."
be excessive.
not
31. Suspense must
In
with
sentence
a
"if,"
when,"
though," "c., put the
32.
30.
The
"
"
"
"
"if-clause,"antecedent, or protasis,first.
or
33. Suspense is gained by placing a Participle
that
the
qualifies
34.
the one
Subject, before
Suspensive Conjunctions,
hand," "c.,
add
the
e.g.
clearness.
Adjective,
vSubject.
"either,"
"not
only," "on
its omission
would
cause
Repeat the Subject, where
obscurityor ambiguity.
36. Repeat a Preposition after an
intervening Conjunction,
if
especially a Verb and an Object also intervene.
Pronominal
37. Repeat Conjunctions, Auxiliary Verbs, and
Adjectives.
after the Conjunctions "than," "as," "c.
37 a. Repeat Verbs
35.
Index
the
38. Repeat
Subject, or
of what
summary
is difficult
Clearness
39.
the
prepares
the whole
other
some
increased, when
is
for
forming
13
emphatic word, or
so
long that
been
the
way
Rules.
is
said, if the sentence
of meaning unbroken.
thread
has
keep
to
of
the
middle,
kind
a
the
of
the sentence
beginning of
and
the middle
This
ascent.
a
it
for the
end,
is called
ascent
"climax."
the
When
40.
feebleness,and
of
A
a.
Epigram.
43.
each
Avoid
The
as
descends,
The
descent
introduced
pectedly.
unex-
clearness.
only
and
one,
principalsubject
sentences.
different
be
must
sentences
of
Conjunctions,
by means
beginning of the sentence.
between
two
long sentences
short
intervening sentence
kept
other
some
the
at
requires
thought.
a
or
paragraphs
showing the
of
transition
BREVITY.
II.
46. Metaphor
General
47.
be
or
connection
sometimes
one,
between
used
connecting words
45.
but
the result.
not
often
heterogeneous
connection
The
and
have
sentence
Adverbs
by
up
force
adds
Let
thought.
should
construction
new
42.
44.
ascend,
to
confusion, is
sometimes
Antithesis
41.
expected
"bathos."
is called
40
is
thought
is briefer
terms
literal statement.
than
less
briefer,though
are
forcible,than
ticular
par-
terms.
A
be expressed by a word.
phrase may sometimes
often be used
brief (though sometimes
48. Participles
as
may
ambiguous) equivalents of phrases containing Conjunctions and
47
a.
Verbs.
Participles,
Adjectives,ParticipialAdjectives,and Nouns
be used as equivalentsfor phrases containing the Relative.
may
be brieflyimplied instead of
sometimes
50. A statement
may
being expressed at length.
be omitted.
Adverbs, e.g. "very,"
51. Conjunctions may
"so." Exaggerated epithets,
"incalculable,
''"unprecedented."
t?.^.
49.
51
a.
may
if "c."
"
be used for
may
be used, so as
to
imperative
Apposition
52.
into
The
convert
two
sentences
one.
53.
common
several
Condensation
Subject of
Verbs
or
Prepositions.
Repeating
54.
Tautology.
55.
Parenthesis
56.
Brevity often
firstconsideration.
be effected
by not repeating (i) the
may
several
Verbs
Object of
; (2) the common
maybe
used
clashes
what
with
with
be
implied.
advantage to brevity. See
may
clearness.
Let
clearness
be
26.
the
CLEARNESS
FORCE.
AND
Numbers
brackets
in
refer
Rules*
the
to
WORDS.
1. Use
words
Write,
not
"His
him,"
but
"occur,"
"
"his
and
This
rule
power
"power"
is used
for
also
forbids
rule
This
this,
Avoid
"The
"
Here
often
are
Avoid
"
Her
See
"c.
of
in
use
of
different
senses.
since
Here
I
the
have
second
"nice,"
"awfully,"
(2).
Majesty
of"
"Partook
here
heart
that
of
the
with
the
circumlocution
implies
"
The
follows.
pendous
"stu-
and
"fine
is
writing,"
'
Write
and
sharing,
for
way.
and
of lunch.
partook
sufficed
"very,"
loose
same
almost
what
"incalculable,"
in
furnished
empire
have
would
is inconsistent
used
useless
the
corn,
"
inexhaustible
"
3.
slovenly
the
"unprecedented,"
words
it,"
together.
and
request,
do
and
verse,"
"con-
"authority."
plains
supplies
population."
the
twice
in
and
exaggerations.
boundless
inexhaustible
owning
dis-
"
and
confused
word
your
in
transpire
"reverse"
same
lawfully
may
"
often
are
the
refuse
"glorious,"
"delicious,"
2.
I
"event,"
of
use
to
power
my
do
to
the
"supernatural,"
and
friends
"Conscious"
guilt."
"elicit,"
and
forbids
in
is
"
his
guilt justified
evident
circumstance
"eliminate"
sense.
proper
apparent
"unnatural"
"aware,"
"It
their
in
'
"
lunched.
incorrect
as
well
as
lengthy.
So,
do
not
"individual
4.
.
.
1
while
Be
.
the
for
careful
and,"
For,
use
"
at
"apex"
for
"man,"
"assist"
how
"any,"
the
reader
.
beginning:
is finding
use
you
"only,"
of
out
a
sentence,
whether
"species"
"top,"
for
the
"help,"
following
.
sometimes
it is
used
"kind,"
"c.
words
:
"not
or," "that."1
"not
.
for
.
causes
as
a
temporary
conjunction
doubt,
or
position.
pre-
Words.
And.
below, "Or."
See
Any.
"I
"
send."
15
this
Does
bound
not
am
mean
receive
to
or
every,
that you
messenger
single? Use "every"
or
a
any
single."
-a
Not.
enemy
(i) "I do
"c." ought to
reason
for not
intend
not
"
(2),
mean
you, because
you
I intend not to help you,
help
to
"
are
helping you is,because
you
used
intend
"I
to
mean
(3),
wrongly
it is often
are
my
and
my
But
enemy."
help you,
my
to
not
because
(but because you are poor, blind, "c.
you are my enemy
the latter case,
not
ought to be separated from intend.
the influence of not
distinctly
marking the limits to which
)."
In
the
Only
is often
to
me
ambiguity
to
sentences
But
21.
see
Or.
used
like
"
be
"You
butter
butter
don't
;
I, on
this
"
honey
or
is
there
The
"
:
me
so
much
a.
Be
4
different
much
so
Write
The
uses
.
.
used
"
same
that
careful
form
in
alone."
of
use
"
not
.
.
honey
you
"
butter
.
want
want
honey
or
I
and
that
"
of
I
that"
use
of
"
not
for "I
I don't
neither
want
of
slightestdanger
I
see
see
"
I do
neither
them
produce
not
see
reply
past
"so"
of
I
"
see
ambiguity,
that
what
read
Thomas
both
much
this statement
desirous
am
scarcelyknow
in the
"
that
rare,
.
for
I do
surprised by
statement
jay
in the
"you
and."
not
resigning,that I scarcelyknow
has
impossibleto tell,till one
the first "that"
depends upon
whether
and
is the
it is
Here
but
nor.
"
of
butter
meaning is so
regularlyused
"
am
for
strict
contrary, do not
"
e.g. "I
used
The
both
want
the
honey." But where
ambiguity, it is desirable to use
The same
ambiguity attends
Thomas
and John
is commonly
but
it
nor
John ;
might mean,
only one of them."
"
helping;"
:
nor
That.
This
both."
them
butter
is often
of
help
rest
wait."
to
me
instead
The
"
however,
Practically,
want
advise
"nor."
like
nor
you
honey
or
I want
"
"
alone.
is
follows
as
say
for
preceded by a negative,as "I do not
honey," "or"
ought not, strictly
speaking, to be
and,"
would
or
"or"
or
"
only"
"you
When
"
butter
want
ambiguously
myself; you only
"you only advise,
mean,
similar
removed.
used
revenge
ought
be
may
By
tends,
ex-
"
I
to
sirous
de-
am
make."
resigning,"
"statement"
or
resigningsurprises
"c."
ambiguous
words,
e.g. "certain."
L
sound, but different
in
meaning.
Even
where
there
is
6
1
Clearness
obscurity,the juxtapositionof
no
inelegant,
"
(Bain),
e.g.
He
and
Force.
the
same
word
to
the
left and
turned
twice
used
lejt the
in two
is
senses
room."
I have known
the followingslovenly sentence
misunderstood
: "Our
object
is that, with the aid of practice, we
sometime
arrive
the
where
at
point
may
"
think eloquence in its most
we
To lie " has been
praiseworthy form to lie"
"
deceive."
to
supposed to mean
careful
5. Be
the
* *
He
hour
of
use
his
told
he
thought
ambiguity is
different
to
that
if he
did
also caused
by
"God,
certain
The
ambiguity arising
is well known.
persons
feel better in half an
not
better return."
this sort, "c.
foreseeingthe disorders
in this way,
us
friend
8.)
see
applying
he had
Much
as
he
"it," "they,"
"he,"
use
you
(For "which"
"these," "C.
from
how
(6) for remedy.
See
excessive
of such
use
phrases
of
passions
and
affections
disorders.
objects are, these
compassion."
Repeat the noun
Of
human
which
has
nature,
arise
this sort
these
"Among
:
of
from,
given
whose
or
fear, resentment,
are
affections
passionsand
are
fear"c."
Two
distinct
of
it may
be
noted.
when
//,
referringto
be
something
precedes, may
"retrospective;" but
when
that
to
follows,
something
"prospective." In "Avoid
indiscriminate
it
is retrospective.1
In
charity: it is a crime,"
"// is a crime to give indiscriminately,"
"it"
is prospective.
The
prospective it,"if productive of ambiguity, can often be
omitted
criminately
by using the infinitive as a subject: "To
give indisuses
that
called
"
"
"
is
speech in the First,not the Third Person,
to avoid
ambiguity. Speeches in the
necessary
Report
6.
where
third
crime."
a
a
afford
person
particular,though
a
the
generalambiguity
his
friend
to his
6
friend,
*
If/
Sometimes,
a.
words,
and
if he
that
where
or
mentioned
did
the
uninteresting-,
Essex
is asking
Sir
not
don't
(QIC
you]
where
the exact
in
feel
the
(5).
Cecil
feel better
writer
that
Person
"
is
some
It
had
place which
deserved
1
require condensation,
and
the
Bacon
Thus,
may
is in Lord
becomes
then
be
where
appointed
Macanlay's
tedious
it drops
exact
lengthy
or
preferable.
it
said
"
know
always
told
"He
unimportant,
Francis
He
of
and
interesting
un-
into the Third
:
Sir Robert
the
to
to
as
case,
"
write
"c.'
cannot
Attorney-General, the dialogue is (as it almost
writings) in the First Person, except where
so
"c.,"
better
words
are
Third
Person
Robert
very common
Instead
of
such
should
Noun
a
nothing to
he hoped
mark
refer
superior
of
say
but
that
he
thought
his
own
that his father's
obtain, and
gratitude from the Queen."
to
abilities equal
long services
(i)either to the Noun
immediately preceding, or (2)to
in emphasis.
all intervening Nouns
to
See (25).
Words.
17
in a speech reported in the Third
of "that"
6b. Omission
third person,
that
need
when
Even
Person.
a speech is reported in the
Thus, instead of "He
not
always be inserted before the dependent verb.
write,
not
said that he took it ill that his promises were
believed," we
may
This gives a little more
life,and sometimes
He
took it ill,'
he said, that "c.'"
"
"
"
"
'
'
7. When
is
what
walking," implying
that,"make it clear by
"
implied.
the first
Republics,in
"
as
Participle,
a
"while," "though,"
context
"
use
you
"when,"
the
also.
clearness
more
instance, are
desired
never
for their
they will finallybe desired at all,
unaccompanied'by courtlygraces and good breeding."
since they
the meaning is
Here
there is a littledoubt whether
are, or, //"theyare, unaccompanied."
sakes.
own
I do
think
not
"
That
when.
or
walk)
on
is better
It
they
instead
(1) " While
(2) "Because
relative
is meant,
to
walk,"
that
"men
use
when
"men
mean
participle.
he
)
was
he
r-...
\
was
WalkmS
on
on
road, )
h(
ice, \
\ (i) the
,
j (2) the
"
f
"
precedes the subject,it generallyimplies
participle
Otherwise
it generallyhas its
: "Seeing this, he retired."
He
retired,keeping his face
meaning, e.g.
participial
us."
at
If there is any ambiguity,write "on seeing,"
time, or while, keeping.
When
a
walking"
men
use
If the
of the
they
when
or
fall."
"
to
walk."
walking (that walk,
"Men
"
ice sometimes
the
cause
"
proper
towards
"
"
"
the
same
8. When
and
"which"
"for
the
using
the
where
he, it,"c."
Relative
nevertheless stood
he
((3)
will
Pronoun,
meaning
In other
/(i)he
retreat."
use
"who"
he, it,"c.,"
"that," if euphony
is "and
use
cases
soon
allows.
"
the
I heard
guard
"
Fetch
that travelled
(all)the
me
pamphlets, which
An
adherence
Thus
"There
:
door
a
was
the train.
that
this rule
to
a
"
great nuisance
a
with
books
lie
;"
this (i.e. the
public-housethat
much
door,
would
ambiguity.
which
fact of its
the
(i.e.
B
the floor."
on
remove
that
whereas
table, and also the
the
will find
public-housenext
and
it from
"
on
would
heard
(and he)
who
inspector,
(and these) you
was
nuisance," means
was
the
this from
was
being
have
meant
public-house)
a
was
great
door)
next
"
Next
a
great
1
and
Clearness
8
nuisance."
about
whereas
antecedent,
"
introduce
"
be, maintained
cannot
It is not, and
in Elizabethan
(Probably a general impression
authors.
has assisted "who"
to refer to persons
of
relative.) But the convenience
used
as
a
that
English, is observed
observed
this
by
in
the
the
modern
is
be
cannot
supplanting
rule
with
in
best
"that"
that
with
rule, though
our
that"
*'
great that
so
adhere
advantage
composition may
who
of
where
the
The
cases
followingare some
mostly used, contrary to the rule, instead of that.
beginners
thing
some-
travelled
is
to
fact
new
or
incomplete
defined.
unabove, "inspector" is
a
new
fact about him;
incomplete, and requires "that
complete the meaning.
"guard"
a
introduces
is
Thus, in the first example
introduces
complete in itself,and "who"
train
"
that
antecedent
the
which
without
"c.
"which,"
"Who,"
the
Force.
the rule.
to
which
and
are
Exceptions
:"
antecedent
the
When
(a)
English
who
uses
"
to
His
say
is defined, e.g. by a
It is rare,
of that.
English friends that had
those
English friends, or
(3)
That
ill when
sounds
possessive
not
him"
seen
English friends, that had
of his
separated
from
its verb
from
and
modern
case,
it would
though
instead
not
be
ful,1
use-
for
"the
him."
seen
its antecedents,
and
are
that, though
emphasized by isolation : "There
many
persons
and
good-tempered,
that, if not
strongly
commonly
unscrupulous, are
Incited by self-interest,are
ready for the most
part to think of the interest
ivho after that
when
of their neighbours."
Shakespeare frequently uses
the relative is repeated. See " Shakespearian
Grammar,"
par. 260.
be that.
is qualifiedby that, the relative must
not
(c) If the antecedent
is
the
Addison
other
Besides
disagreeable.
considerations,
repetition
"
that
I made
That
remark
ridicules such language
as
yesterday is not
I had
made."
I said that
I regretted that
that that
hence
the
throws
be preceded by a preposition, and
cannot
(d) That
is
to"
This
is the
I adhere
"This
rule that
prepositionto the end.
avoided.
sometimes
unnecessarily
But,
though
English,
perfectlygood
is harsh and objectionable,e.g.
with some
prepositions,the construction
Such
the prejudices
that I jumped
This
is the mark
were
beyond"
of these
is that some
The
above."
that
he
reason
rose
disyllabic
prepositionsare used as adverbs, and, when separated from their nouns,
give one the impression that they are used as adverbs.
modern
Engl'sh
(e) After pronominal adjectivesused for personal pronouns,
"
"
"
who.
prefers
There
are
others, several, those, -who
many,
can
testify"c."
(f )
a
used
that
After
as
relative.
9. Do
not
as
a
conjunction there
is sometimes
redundant
use
"and"
book
I gave him
a very
interesting
five
shillings."
me
"
cost
In short
a
dislike to
use
that
(c).
See
it is less evident, and
a
very
"which."2
present, and
absurdityis evident, but
the
sentences
before
for
in
which
long sentences
common.
presented for rescindingthat portion of the
petition
to support
bye-laws which permits applicationof public money
"A
1
here
3
was
So
useful
and
Of
in several
course
consideration, I am
disposed
of the following exceptionalcases.
that, on
"and
mature
which
"
may
be used
where
"
which
M
to
adopt
precedes.
"that
"
Clearness
20
after
which
I confess
had
"I
"
Write,
expected."
important
rule.
the
nor
truth),
that
he
would
not
the
Here
would,"
refusal,or,
(38).
or
not
is
sometimes
of
"I
have
a
a
danger
in this
The
use.
be,
not, hear
confess
I had
I
This
neither
procuring them,"
of bread, nor
crust
me,
may
would
favour, that
a
hear
even
meaning
he
"that
of
means
There
"
but
he
expected."
Instead
I have
CAUTION.
that
Force.
particularfor general terms."
of
"
said
a
See
11. Use
He
had
I
expected
me."
life
"
negative :
a
and
is
a
most
necessaries
the
(if you can with
to buy one."
penny
write
a
is
meaning
imperfect.
vividly expressed
of bread may
exaggeration ; on the other
hand, if the speaker is destitute not
only of bread, but also of shelter and clothing,then crust of 'bread is an
be
be
may
exaggerated
philosophy and
inclusive
be
to
be
Crust
an
imperfect expression of
In
or
the
meaning.
science, where
and
the
language ought very
particularterms
brief,general and
not
often
must
used.
11
Avoid
a.
Nouns
where
Verbs
be
can
used
The
instead.
that, unless
sometimes
are
Verbal
is this,
Nouns
disadvantage of the use of Verbal
they are immediately preceded by prepositions,they
liable to be confounded
with
participles. The
following is an instance of an excessive use of Verbal Nouns
:
The
confession
of
the
collusion
pretended
only
secretary was
of the king's favouring popery,
to lay the jealousies
still
which
hung upon him, notwithstanding his writing on the Revelation,
and
all occasions
to enter
into controversy, asserting
on
affecting
in particular
that the Pope was
Antichrist."
Write
that
he
and affected "c."
wrote
"notwithstanding
"
12. Use
"
the
particular Person
a
What
is the
beauty
of
the
beauty
Under
this
head
may
An
This
of
a
"
daisy ?
the
come
forcible
of Noun
use
for
of
itself."
fortress is weakness
this
use
is
and
"
shadow
of
13.
Use
African
mimosas,
Metaphor
"The
the
class.
lengthy
pedanticallybombastic,
following paraphrase for "in every British colony:"
Indian
palm-groves, amid Australian
gum-trees, in the
excess
e.g., the
"under
a
"
a
with
Adjective :
of
compared with
splendour of the greatest monarch
What
is the splendour of Solomon
flower?"
compared
"
instead
ship ploughs
sea," and shorter
cleaves the land."
the
than
and
instead
sea"
"the
beneath
pines."
Canadian
of literal statement.
is clearer
ship
than
cleaves
the
"the
sea
ship cleaves
a plough
as
Words.
Of
be
not
there
course
used.
14. Do
"
In
See
was
them, deluging their
upon
invaders."
with
country
the thunderbolt
moment
a
should
Metaphor
Metaphor.
confuse
not
and
(14 a]
which
subjects for
(14 b}.
some
are
21
The
Mr. Speaker,
:
followingis attributed to Sir Boyle Roche
I smell a rat, I see him
brewing in the air ; but, mark me, I shall
him
in
the
bud.
yet nip
"
"
Some
words, once
good writers
many
metaphorical, have
"
under
say
these
ceased
to
be
circumstances"
so
Hence
regarded.
instead
of
"in
these
circumstances."
excessive
of pedantry : disregard
regard for disused metaphor savours
unparalleled complications," but
inelegant. Write, not,
unprecedented
An
is
"
^
and
complications;"
"
he
threw
light
obscurities," instead
on
"
of
he
ravelled
un-
obscurities."
14
Do
a.
after
literal statement
introduce
not
immediately
Metaphor.
"He
father
the
was
and
of Chemistry,
brother
to
the
Earl
of
Cork."
"
He
was
And
was
not
Do
14 b.
a
of war,
very thunderbolt
lieutenant
of Mar."
to the Earl
poetic metaphor
use
Thus,
prosaic Subject.
we
poet soars"
"a
say
may
to illustrate
or
even,
but you could not
to greatness,"
soars
though rarely, a
"
Even
soared to 944-"
Consols
commonplace subjectsmay
nation
"
illustrated
by metaphor
to
commonplace
commonplace.
say
OF
Emphatic
of the
end
rule, should
a
left the room
metaphor,
Q\
illustrated
IN
part,
A
say
be
and
objectionable,
quite unBut
jumped
944."
by metaphor that is
to
SENTENCE.
stand
must
This
sentence.
rules
common
most
a
mounted,
WORDS
words
i.e. for the
it is
be
subjects must
ORDER
15.
for
:
Consols
"
a
at the
in
emphatic
beginning
or
tions;
posiat the
rule
occasionallysupersedes the
about
position. Thus, the place for an adverb, as
be between
the subjectand
verb :
He
quickly
"
"
;
but
if
quickly is to
end, as in "I
be
emphatic,
it
must
come
told ,him to leave the room
beginning or
left
he
but
quickly."
slowly,
"if"
and
Adjectives,in clauses beginning with
"though,"
for
often come
the
at
beginning
emphasis : "Insolent though he
at
was.
the
he
was
silenced
at
last. "
Clearness
22
15
words
Unemphatic
a,
from
the
end
of the
break
this
rule
by placing
the end
at
"
To
the
"is
short
A
abrupt
useful,"
"
want
useful, "c."
kind
words
no
emphasis
and
must
Latin
"
A
"
of"
witness
Bear
with
is
; e.g.
I loved
to
phatic
em-
He
does
him"
writing,
become
to
or.
in bad
"
letter-
spear,
common
attached
how
It is
the
"ground,"
the
writhing to
chippy" ending
pronouns
from
the end
moved
avoided.
be
fell
styles, especially in
be so frequent as
not
all
final
a
obtrusive
monotonous.
15 b. An
"
"
ending,
be
not
I hear
In
.N.B.
is to
soldier, transfixed
The
Prepositions and
need
that
few
a
his inferiors he is."
to
though emphatic,
"
longer
a
"
but
invariably been."
has
in the agonies of death."
construing from Virgil.
harm
nothing
It is
writhed
Exceptions.
to
unemphatic predicate
how
he
"chippy" ending, even
unrhythmical, e.g.
We
fault
common
a
at the
end,
auxiliaryverb comes
the position,e.g.
justifies
emphatic adverb
and
-writhed"
is
and
if it be
even
"
proves
an
very
rule, be kept
a
adjective or
an
of
addition
above,
"
evidence
where
Often,
it
short
a
as
sentence.
Latin,
some
must,
sentence,
useful." Write,
the
"
long
a
know
roots, is
So
of
Force.
and
No
one
doubt
can
guilty,would
emphatic
as
have
"Who
one
removed
ever
than
worth
Went
names
harsh
the
been
remorse,"
signs
it possibleto doubt,
who
Wentworth,"
those
he
of
majesty
so
?"
"c.
ing
think-
without
him
names
ever
features, ennobled
dark
really
is not
of
some
"But
thinking of
expressioninto more
prisoner,had
the
doubt, Is
can
without
be
that
shown
"No
Contrast
of "c."
with
16. The
gives emphasis.
interrogation sometimes
by
their
antique Jupiter?
an
subject, if unusually emphatic, should
from
the beginning of the sentence.
"
often
The
is an emphatic position,though mostly
beginning of the sentence
the
not
end.
Therefore
so
the principal subject of
as
emphatic
a
sentence,
early in the
being emphatic, and being wanted
sentence
at
we
to
us
what
the
the
near
want
to
from
Thomas"
or
Thus,
mere
is due
emphasize
to
the
"
It
the
was
emphasis
place for
unusually, we
usual
"
Thomas
beginning:
Thomas
on
"This
conqueror
ought
benefactors
not
a
rule,
house
the
subject,if
must
was
remove
built
by
that built this house."
"conqueror"
the great
as
comes
built this house."
"
"
is about,
sentence
Thomas
beginning :
since
the beginning is the
Hence,
or
"Thomas"
"A
tell
to
obtain
of
is not
from
mankind,"
us
quite so strong
the
as
in
reverence
"We
in
that
ought
Order
not
to
the
bestow
mankind, upon a
emphasis and greater
"
thus
Sentence.
a
is due
23
the great benefactors
to
conqueror"
mere
Considerable,
(19) \villbeobtained
smoothness
We
:
in
that
reverence
of
the sentence
Words
of
ought
not
bestow
to
but
less
by writing
a
upon
mere
queror
con-
"c."
Where
the
subject
same
rises in
and
first in several
stands
consecutive
it
sentences,
emphasis,
beginning, even
though
unusual
emphasis be required :
"The
soul of the expedition. He
the life and
first pointed
captain was
the possibility
of advancing ; he warned
them
out
of the approaching scarcity
of provisions; he showed
how
stock "c."
they might replenishtheir exhausted
need
be removed
not
from
the
placed before the verb
object is sometimes
is
in antithesis.
This
for emphasis.
most
common
"Jesus
17. The
I
and
know,
Paul
I
know
;
who
but
he put to death."
there is no
antithesis
'*
ye?"
are
Some
he
imprisoned, others
where
Even
the
inversion
is not
common
un-
:
"
Military courage, the boast of the sottish German, of the
and prating Frenchman,
of the romantic
and
arrogant
Spaniard, he neither possesses nor values."
frivolous
This
inversion
sometimes
father
slew," and
Sometimes
the
and
Take
as
who
gentlemen
the
on
king
son
the
appropriate by some,
interpretationsof the
morning the nobles and
different
to
in
the
assembled
in
the
dreadful
here they began to talk of what
a
; and
could scarcelyunderstand
before.
But Macbeth
castle
The
be considered
"Early
example,
an
attended
"
e.g.
in prose.
used
positionof a word
may
inappropriate by others, according
sentence.
in poetry,
ambiguity
creates
sparingly
be
must
storm
hall of the
great
it had been the
what
they said, for he
has been amended
last sentence
by
Professor
could
Bain into " What
they said, Macbeth
scarcely understand."
But
between
antithesis
the guiltless
nobles who
there appears
to be
an
can
think about
who
the weather, and the guiltyMacbeth
cannot.
Hence, " what
night
was
thinking of something
they
said
"
ought
"Macbeth
not,
and
worse."
"
The
"
Macbeth
ought,
to
be
emphasized
:
and
fore
there-
"
ought to be retained at the beginning of the sentence.
The
author
alters, The
praise of judgment Virgil has justly contested
same
with
him, but his invention remains
Virgil has
yet unrivalled," into
justly contested with him the praise of judgment, but no one has yet rivalled
"
"
his invention"
the antithesis
"
an
alteration
between
what
which
had
does
been
'
not
to
seem
contested,' on
emphasize sufficiently
one
hand, and what
the
remained
the other.
as
on
yet 'unrivalled'
More
Bain alters," He
judiciously Professor
how
task
he
undertakes
a
must
great
; for he
maintain
more
to
one," into " for, to maintain
more," putting the emphatic
words
in their
several words
18. Where
are
Which
is the most
emphatic.
made,
their
under
the
contention
pretence
to
each
whether
pleasantlydoubtful
be
to
emphatic.
parties
of
of
that
tells
be
forced
one,
he
a
lie is not
invent
sensible
invent
twenty
to
must
emphatic place,at
the end.
emphatic, make
Thus,
serving
in
"The
it, in realitythe
it clear
state
was
prize of
opposite parties,"it
the writer
means
(i) state
these
twenty
is
or
un"
(2)
and
Clearness
24
If
for
(i), "As
the
Force.
parties,under the pretence
servingit,converted it into a prizefor their contention.'1
If (2),write,"Though
served in profession,
the state was
in reality
converted
into a prize for their contention
by these two parties"
In (l) partiesis subordinated, in (2) state.
Sometimes
the addition
of some
to
serves
intensifyingword
instead
of
To
all
effect this they used
emphasize. Thus,
write "To
effect this they used
able
conceivdevices," we
can
every
device"
want
to
So, if we
emphasize fidelityin "The
business
will task your
skill and
write
"Not
we
can
fidelity,"
times
only your skill but also your fidelity." This, however, somestate, Jhese
two
of
"
leads
Sometimes
this,but
the
antithesis
emphasis
"will make
antithesis
You
do not
know
be
cannot
expressed by turning
sentence,
it," or by some
addition, as "You
should
which
they
to
20
intended
be
used,
I
"
as
For
should
to
as
near
exceptionssee
be
placed
affect.
When
between
the
between
the parts of the compound
has quickly left the
"He
subject and
possibleto
as
shall
the words
grammatically connected.
are
29.
20. Adverbs
are
"
it."
19. Words
Paragraphs
it." Where
in
as
the
know
you
hereafterknow
with
be
must
(2).
gives emphasis,
shall know
you
See
exaggerations.
to
the
See
30.
next
to the words
unemphatic,
adverbs
they
come
is
if the tense
compound,
tense
:
quickly left the
;"
room
room
;" but, when
emphatic,
after the verb:
"He
quickly"*
left,or has left,the room
When
such a sentence
the
latter is followed
as
by a present
there
arises ambiguity.
told him
"I
to go slowly,
participle,
but he left the room
the
the floor."
on
quickly, dropping
purse
Does
quickly here modify leftor dropping ? The remedy2 is, to
give the adverb its unemphatic place,"He
quickly left the room,
"He
the
else
avoid
to
dropping "c.," or
participle,thus:
He
and left the room," or
quickly dropped the purse
dropped
verb,
or,
"He
"
the purse
21.
and
affected
"only"
Sometimes
Of
course
should
be
use.
placed
strict3 rule
the word
before
The
by it.
transposition of
2
the room."
requires careful
"Only"
is, that
1
quickly left
the
an
emphatic Adverh
Auxiliary Verb,
punctuation
oneself clearly,as
express
3 Professor
Bam.
will
far
as
comes
"
Gladly
at
do
the
beginning, and
causes
the
I consent."
it is better
the ambiguity ; but
remove
possible,independently of punctuation.
to
Words
of
Order
followingis ambiguous
The
"The
heavens
The
and
the faithful
to
open
* '
placing
using only
avoid
to
Sentence.
a
25
:
rule is to avoid
best
words,
not
are
in
only
"
"
"
only at intervals."
two
emphatic
between
where
alone
"
"
used
be
can
instead.
In strictness
the
perhaps
followingsentences
three
only beat three,
He
beat only three,
(2)
(3) He beat three only,
ought to be explained, severally,thus :
than beat, did
(1) He did no more
(2) He
beat
He
(3)
no
beat
the
ought
he
of the
to
mean
.till he
but
was
die
not
all he did.
(Here only modifies
depreciatesthe action.)
was
and
"
He
word.
only lived "
"
but
He
sacrifice
;"
only
great
any
"
lived
He
8.
means
only till
v.
40)
or
(Macbeth,
also, Who^w/j'
man
a
"
Compare
Only at the beginning of a statement
you'llforgive me."
only I know
you,
favour
asked
letters.
Very often, only
at
came,"
bring
a
friends
few
Before
This
the
beginning of a
Caesar
approved."
"Only
ambiguity of only is illustrated
ten
of
yours
to
hath
but.
=
listen to me."
"Only
:
on
an
use
immortality."
I don't like to importune
the
imperative it diminishes
to
of only is mostly confined
"
is used
sentence
by such
shoot
the
the
transpose
make
"
was
man."
a
that
sometimes
did
he
kill,three.
not
three.
sentence
authors
best
"
lived
than
more
three, and
whole
But
:
He
(1)
for alone
"
:
Only
The
is less ambiguous.
"
hesitate
Don't
to
sentence
as,
five
time.
at
Only
estate
any
A lone
a
my
"I
don't mind
afeiv; only
might mean,
yesterday," which
Don't
hesitate
to
else
bring a few
or
as
fifteen
;
many
than five came
yesterday." In conversation, ambiguity is
no
more
more;
fortunate
unprevented by emphasis ; but in a letter,only thus used might cause
"no
Write
mean
mistakes.
Yesterday only five came," if you
(fifteen)came
don't
bring
"
"
so
"
than
more
five."
22. When
"not
is followed
each
"He
Write
only
not
"He
ether
"
hand,
gave
He
that
only" precedes "but also," see
part of speech.
by the same
gave
me,
not
me
not
but
advice
only advice,
only
gave
Take
an
also
but
help" is
help."
also
wrong.
On
the
but also lent me
grammar,
"
He
instance.
spoke not only
me
a
dictionary,"is right.
(adverbs),and this too, not only before
forciblybut also tastefully
small
a
audience, but also in (prepositions)a large public
not
only successful,but also
meeting, and his speeches were
(adjective)
worthy of success."
a
23.
I think
"
as
not
least," "always," and other
sometimes
produce ambiguity.
"At
cousin's.
my
perhaps
good, yet,
Latin
"My
"I
you
think
at all
at
"
my
all
will find my
this
Does
Latin
mean
adverbial
exercise, at all events, as good
(I ) " my Latin exercise, though
exercises;" or (2), Though
Write
events, as good as my cousin's"?
other
juncts,
ad-
"
not
for
very
(i),
exercise, at all events, you will find "c." and for (2),
cousin's,
find my Latin exercise as good as my
you will
events."
is to avoid
The
remedy
emphatic words.
As
"
and
Clearness
26
example of
an
From
City
that the funds
and
the
of
is often
adverb
practice,an
used
the sentence:
emphatic
guide
the
to
that
mean
"breaking
out
the
word, where
remote
is very
position
declared
the
in
Exchange,
the
on
This
word.
adjunct,take
ought
qualifya
to
emphatic than any nearer
Adjunct is placed in an
this very
"On
spot our
two
reports, but
out
not
(as is intended) that
place in the City.
"hearing,"
the panic,"took
latter is more
the Adverbial
broken
panic
fast falling." This
a
between
adverbial
an
favourable
most
had
were
and
In
misplacing of
the
that
heard
all events"
placing "at
received
he
abroad
he
Force.
beginning of
the
at
that
when
common
had
Oaverhouse
fallen."
24.
Nouns
they
define.
In
of
announced
the
should
Mr.
"
obliged
begin
to
"c."
works
to
regret
of
the
an
refer without
referred
however,
to
by the
:
son
author
an
the
of,
we
be
whose
by writing
"
We
of Mr.
death
"At
Smith,
money
of two
one
the
more
pronoun,
this
even
:
he
moment
is
nouns
be
may
the
they
noun.
this
gave me
Avoid
also
Avoid,
book,"
"
John
off."
well
very
decidedly superior
presumed
came
to
inferior
of
noun
colonel
the
who
of who.
(John) was
preceding
emphatic
though
to which
nouns
of another
is the antecedent
with
emphasis,
Thus
was
removed
follow the
of Thomas
Smith
supplied Thomas
in
a
informed
are
should
the
Thomas
When,
we
the intervention
"John Smith,
other
difficulty
"c.,"
works
feeling that, if
announced," we shall
He
be
is
death
author, "c."
25. Pronouns
unless
sentence,
or,
is
"
can
announce,
John Smith,
Smith
John
new
a
But
Mr.
"The
whose
author
from
that
nouns
sentence
John Smith, an
probably made
death
The
the
near
common
very
transpositionis
write
the
the
placed
be
up,
and
be
to
the
emphasis
the
noun
venes.
inter-
the place of
naturally refer
took
he would
general. He gave orders to halt." Here
that a
intervenes.
A conjunction will often show
to colonel, though general
the subject of the preceding sentence,
and
another
to
refers to
not
pronoun
"The
sentinel at once
took aim at the approaching soldier,
intervening noun.
and
fired. He
then retreated
to
give the alarm."
be called
It is better to adhere, in most
Rule
to
cases,
25, which
may
instance
Rule
of Emphasis, of which
an
(Bain) the Rule of Proximity. The
sometimes
A
distinction
in
the
last
is
was
paragraph,
misleading.
given
might be drawn
by punctuating thus :
"
slew Goliath."
"David
the father of Solomon, who
David, the father of
wounded
Solomon
each
is
of
mercy
26.
be
who
case
built the Temple."
questionable, and
But
the
it is better
propriety of omitting a
to
write
so
as
not
to
in
comma
be
at
the
commas.
Clauses
kept
as
that
close
are
grammatically connected
together
as
possible. (But
see
should
55.) The
produced
parentheses violatingthis rule often
The
result of these
serious ambiguity. Thus, in the following:
to be in oppositionto the view now
observations appears
generally
introduction
of
"
and
Clearness
28
repliedthat
"He
(3)
Force.
wished
he
.
(2), though theoreticallyfree from
ambiguous, owing
unnecessarily.
to
loose
a
It would
be better
,
ambiguity,
habit
of
intended," "c.,
or
there
Where
any
there
When
dependent
are
said
"He
the
that
capitaland
meaning is
the
on
those
from
to
of
danger
(2).
is
preferenceto (i) or
29.
replied,"c.
"He
Thus
several
the
same
that
he
indeed
(3)
(4)
or
in
that
those
infinitives,
tinct
word
be kept dismust
his friend
to take
medicine."
study
and
intended, "c."
He
not.
are
wished
he
subject
:
help them,
ambiguity, use
are
the
conjunctionalword
a
a
practically
is
repeating
insert
to
full stop between
the two
statements.
"
He
to
repliedthat he wished
(4)
or
that he intended."
and
.
.
with
him
whether
it is doubtful
Here
visit
to
"
"
said that he
He
wished
take
to
his friend
(1) and also to visit the
(2) "that his friend might visit
study medicine," or
visit to the capital,
and
a
(3) "on
with
him,
study medicine,"
capitaland
the
capitaland
or
might
that he also wished
also
study
to
medicine."
the three
From
ambiguity
be
must
it will be
versions
different
(a] by using
met
perceived that
"that"
for
"
this
"to," which
in (2)],and
auxiliaryverb \e.g."might
(b] by insertingconjunctions. As to insertions of conjunctions,
allows
repeat
an
(37).
see
"In
that
"
to
us
to," and "for
(wherever there is
expresses
a
purpose of," can
the
order
be
ambiguity) between
any
and
used
an
to
tinguish
dis-
infinitive
infinitive that does
an
not, e.g.
his
order
call
to
to
friend,
to) give
(in
upon
till he
about
the trains,and
not
to leave him
purpose,
told his servant
He
him
information
started."
30. The
"such
may
principleOf
a
that, until
way
feel the sentence
he has
to
Write
Suspense.
be
the
to
come
incomplete.
your
sentence
in
full stop, the reader
other words, keep
In
(i) by placing the
"if-clause" firsthand not
sentence
; (2) by
words
before
the
they qualify; (3) by using
placing participles
suspensive conjunctions, e.g. not only, either ; partly', on the one
hand, in the firstplace, "c.
reader
your
The
sense
"
in
in suspense.
followingis
draggles,and
Mr.
Pym
was
an
example
of
it is difficult to
looked
upon
he had
parliaments,| where
of business, | being
a, man
Suspense
last,in a
an
is caused
conditional
unsuspended sentence.
an
keep
up
one's
The
attention.
of greatest experience
served very long, | and was
always
officer in the Exchequer, | and of a
as
the
man
Order
Sentence.
a
reputation generally,j though known
good
the
in
Words
of
Puritan
Eng.
party
leading men
who
yet
;
of
not
those
furiously resolved) against the
so
had
were,
of
nothing
| and wholly devoted
that spirit."
be
to
furious
29
inclined
resolutions
Church
to the
Earl
of
(Mod.
the
as
to
other
Bedford,
"
of the
might have ended at any one
foregoing sentence
marked
above.
When
:
eightpoints
suspended it becomes
"Mr.
in the
Pym, owing to his long service in Parliament
above
all others for his Parliamentary
Exchequer, was esteemed
for
his
and
He
had
also a
knowledge of business.
experience
good reputation generally; for, though openly favouring the
Puritan
closelydevoted to the Earl of Bedford, and,
party, he was
like the Earl, had none
of the fanatical spirit
manifested
against
the Church
by the other leading men."
The
"
30
a.
It is
violation of the
a
principleof Suspense
introduce
unexpectedly, at the end
short and unemphatic clause
some
not"
"...
(a)
"
reform
This
of
classes
Write
"not,
"After
was
as
persuaded,
am
industry, self-
wastefulness, but
say,
journey, the
tedious
and
little
dangerous owing
safelyat York, which
a
arrived
I
all
wastefulness"
say,
some
long
a
will,
to
frugality."
and
dependence,
(b)
some
as
(a)
industry,self-dependence,and frugality,
us
among
encourage
and
not,
and
countrymen,
our
beginning with
highly beneficial
been
already
has
long sentence,
a
which."
"...
(b)
or
of
to
last
part
of which
the
roads, we
of
to
the
is
fine old town."
a
state
When
the short final clause is intended
to be
Exception.
with
it
in
comes
thing
someappropriately,
unexpectedly unemphatic,
of the sting of an epigram.. See (42). Thus
:
have been
old miser
said that he should
The
delighted to
the
fellow
b
ut
most
a shilling,
give
unfortunatelyhe had
poor
"
"
left his parse
has
are
we
been
home
pointed
is
"
a
habit
of
waiting, i.e.
out
the
on
that
above
objectionable,
his."
increased
naturally throws
Suspense
for which
at
a
emphasis
end
of the
especially
letter
words
the
sentence.
of
monotony
in
on
final
writing
It
phasis
em-
and
conversation.
Excess
31. Suspense must
not be excessive.
mon
of suspense is a com"
from
fault in boys translating
Latin.
Themistocles, having secured
fleet being now
he had
the safety of Greece, the Persian
destroyed, when
the bridge
down
to break
unsuccessfully attempted to persuade the Greeks
in full flight,and
the Hellespont, hearing that Xerxes
was
thinking
across
that
it
might
be
profitableto
secure
the
friendship of
the
king,
wrote
as
and
Clearness
30
follows
him."
to
The
Greece
the
idiom
English
more
safety of
unsuccessful
secured
Force.
is:
Themistocles
"When
destruction
by the
of
Persian
the
had
fleet, he
the
the Greeks
break
down
to
made
to persuade
an
attempt
Soon
the Hellespont.
afterwards, hearing "c."
bridge across
introbe intolerable
is tolerable in the duction
in prose
A
that would
long suspense
Paradise
Lost
of
the
interval
the
See
at
to
beginning
a
long
poem.
pare
Comfirst disobedience"
and
"Of
man's
between
Sing, heavenly Muse."
"
also the
beginning
"
High
on
with
the
where
opening
wealth
the
Showers
on
Satan
throne
a
Outshone
Or
of Paradise
II.
:
of royal state, tvhich far
and
of Ormuz
of Indy
hand
East
with
richest
the gorgeous
her kings barbaric
pearl and
gold
"
"
exalted
of
Book
Lost*
sat.
Keats'
Hyperion
:
shady sadness
of a vale,
the healthy breath
from
oj mom,
and
Far
eve's one
star"
from the fiery noon
Sat grey-haired Saturn, quiet as a stone."
"Deep
Far
In
in
the
sunken
sentence
long conditional
clause,"antecedent, or protasis,first.
32.
Every
with
that
If thou
didst
O, God
Revenge
Ghost.
forces
"
ever
thy father's most
him," as compared
Revenge
love
of
expression
an
I should
"
thy dear father
from
agony
love
!
his foul and
most
almost
complicated,and
clause."
didst
ever
effect is sometimes
long and
flatness of
"if-
the
"
Hamlet.
The
the
if thou
suspense
in
Ghost.
"
see
murder,
the
Hamlet
will
one
unnatural
put
a
ludicrous
when
it
murder."
unnatural
when
the
consequent
precedes the antecedent
or
is
"if-
be
delighted to introduce you to my friends,
the objects of interest in our
show
and
to
city, and the
you
beautiful
the
if
here."
in
were
neighbourhood,
scenery
you
Where
if-clause
the
comes
last,it ought to be very emphatic :
"
"
"if you were
only here."
of
The
introduction
of
middle
a
clause with
"if"
though in the
ambiguity, especiallywhen
often cause
may
of
the
sentence
a great part
depends on " that
answered
that, for the sake of preservingthe
would
sentence
keep
cowardice
would
they
See
a
was
quiet
the
put
for
motive
off the
the
present, though
of
the
trial
delay, and
to
a
"
"
or
more
"
:
"
His
enemies
public peace,
he
that
declared
for
convenient
this
they
that
reason
season."
(27).
Suspense l is gained by placing a Participleor
before the Subject.
the Subject,
Adjective that qualifies
33.
1
See
(30).
Order
Deserted
"
those
if
and
had
that
deserted
Of
He
forced
was
But
stated
be
this cannot
if
write, "He,
unduly emphasized ;
to his enemies,
recourse
have
we
effect is very flat.
"He
deserted
was
where
done
to
recourse
he is
friends,"the
by
write
might sometimes
we
"c."
to
31
have
to
Here,
"c.,"
his
deserted
been
course
forced
"
forced
was
forced
Sentence.
a
enemies."
his
been
write,
in
friends, he
his friends, was
by
we
having
his
by
Words
of
the
and
"desertion"
is
but
implied.
participlequalifyingthe subject is introduced
late in the sentence, it causes
With
this
positiveambiguity :
small force the general determined
the foe,flushed with
to attack
recent
victoryand rendered negligentby success."
be
to
not
when
Often,
a
"
An
excessive
of the suspensive participle is French
and objectionable:
use
with
business
of
think
to
by nature, and too much
engaged
fabulous
a
spoiled by a long-established liberty and
morrow,
perity,
prosof war,
allow
generations forgotten the scourge
we
having for many
"
e.g.
the
Careless
ourselves
remedy
"
a
to
is
to
Because
verb
"c.,
drift
we
the
therefore
the
only,"
"
nature
the
"oil
following sentence:
in which
course,
"You
"
the
else
ruinous, or
Here, the
as
uncertain,
convert
We
take
must
is
success
to
are
this
and
The
conjunction
a
:
the
participleinto
by nature
careless,
is liable
extremely perilous
failure
liberty of
meaning
on
e.g. "either," "not
Take
the
clearness."
hand," add
one
the times."
signs of
depending
Suspensive Conjunctions,
34.
well
of
verb
or
careless, "c. ;
with the principalverb, e.g. "
allow
we
ourselves, "c."
by
are
co-ordinate
and
taking heed
participleinto a
without
on
convert
your
be
to
disgraceful,as
country
is
dangered."
en-
misunderstood,
"Either
has gone half through the sentence.
Write
from
the
and
the
reader
is,
first,
"c.,
prepared for an
tillthe reader
you must,"
alternative.
Other
for our
part
though ; on
35.
Cause
in
one
hand.
Repeat the Subject when
ambiguity or Obscurity
"
likelyto
"
;
the
suspensiveconjunctionsor phrases are partly,
the firstplace; it is true ; doubtless ; of course
;
obscurityafter
cause
a
the
The
Relative
omission
omission
is
"
professesto be helping the nation, which
sufferingfrom his flattery,and (he ? or it ?) will not
The
give
Relative
several
Verbs.
gentle
and
shades
should
"
All
obedience
of life,and
be
liberal, which
which, by a bland
are
to
be
dissolved
repeated when
pleasing illusions
the
the sentiments
politics
"
realityis
permit anyone
in
it advice."
into
reason.
particularly
standing as Subject :
He
else to
would
by
that
this
new
it is the
which
harmonized
Subject
made
the
of
power
different
assimilation,incorporated
beautifyand soften privatesociety,
conquering empire
of
lightand
and
Clearness
32
Force.
Repeat a Preposition after
Conjunction, especiallyif a Verb and
36.
intervening
Object also
an
an
intervene.
"
he
forgetsthe gratitudethat
He
he
when
all his
companions
poor
(to) John Smith in particular." Here, omit
be "that
helped all his companions,
may
"companions,"
and
from
to, and
and
and
which
on
meaning
the
John
in
Smith
"
object,"helped
ambiguity.
several Verbs
are
Conjunction
a
this
causes
there
When
37.
of the verb
intervention
particular."The
helped
uninfluential,and
and
was
that
those
to
owes
at
distance
some
they depend, repeat the
Conjunction.1
"
When
made
have
look
we
in the
the havoc
upon
national
of our
back
ranks
that two
hundred
authors-
refer their
to
the
did
not
years
all,
-and, above
quick succession
rapid disappearance
cannot
help being dismayed at the
competitors we
of the present day."
that
writers
lies before the
prospect
substitute a parenthetical
omit
Here
"when," and we at once
clause.
for what
is reallya subordinate
statement
be
In reportinga speech or opinion, that" must
continually
of
what
the
avoid
the
writer says
to
confusing
danger
repeated,
(when)
of
we
new
"
"
with
others
what
"We
might
Christians
;
rightly or
say.
evidence
only
37
in secret
frankincense
throw
but
on
of the
Repeat Verbs
a.
the
Caesars
(that) they only punished men
wrongly, with
burning Rome,
foulest abominations
to
that
say
assemblies
the altar
of
crime."
who
committing
and
(that) the
; and
Jupiterwas
But
after
persecute the
were
charged,
the
the
not
the
refusal
crime,
(6 b).
see
conjunctions "than,"
"as," "c.
"
I think
like
me,"
"
the
he
or
better
me
likes
you."
Richelieu
hated
"he
Cardinal
Spaniard Olivares."
38.
If the
keep the
subject,or
what
The
conducive
some
and
populous
nation.
thread
"
"
you
;
i.e. either
"did,"
is
so
and
as
you
long that
"
than
you
sincerelyas did
cause
ambiguity.
it is difficult to
of
unbroken,
meaning
other emphatic word, or a
repeat
the
of
summary
said.
cotton,
cities
than
Buckingham
Omit
sentence
been
has
"Gold
1
likes
these
banks
are
not
and
railways, crowded
the elements
ports, and
that constitute
a
great
Adjectives
is also
"
repetitionof Auxiliary
to
clearness.
Verbs
and
Pronominal
Order
Words
of
in
Sentence.
a
33
This
repetition(though useful and, when used in moderation,
with
not
common
speakers than with
unpleasant) is more
writers,and with slovenlyspeakers than with good speakers.
"The
country
fair
some
is in such
and
I say, if we
that
condition, that
if
much
adopt
if
more,
unwise
so
more
whatsoever
is in such
policy,the country
a
the
satisfy
all reform
refuse
we
delay longer
we
of reform, sufficient at least to
measure
moderate,
a
"
"
a
dition
con-
a revolution."
precipitate
is either
implied (in a participle)or
often be repeated also.
In the
must
repeated,the antecedent
have
the
not
sentence
we
following
only in
Subject icpeated
we
Where
may
relative
the
the final summary,
"
if there
But
church
regarded
to
its
also
but
the
as
antecedent
:
"
were,
part of the world, a national
any
heretical
as
mitted
by four-fifths of the nation com-
care
in
church
; a
established
and
producing twice as many riots
which, though possessing great wealth
though long backed
by persecuting laws, had,
sword;
church
a
as
church
found
generations, been
many
and
barely able
maintain
unable
to
by the
conversions; a
maintained
and
in
the
of
course
its doctrines,
odious that
propagate
its
and
power,
church
ground ;
against its clear rightsof property,
fair
church
whose
were
generally regarded as
play ; a
ministers
were
preaching to desolate walls, and with difficulty
obtaining their lawful subsistence
by the help of bayonets,
fraud
to
violence, when
and
a
so
used
"
such
Churchyon
a
could
principles,
our
not,
must
we
own,
be defended."
39. It is
a
help
clearness,when
to
for the
prepares the way
for the end, in a kind of ascent,
the sentence
middle
"
called
following there
terms
"To
first
middle
part of
and
the
This ascent is
climax."
the
In
three
the
:
are
of which
climaxes, each
two
has
"
gossip(a)
is
fault (b) ; to
a
crime
libel(ti\a
(b');
to
slander (a"),a sin(b")."
the
In
they
following,
contribute
"Man,
declare
there
climaxes, and
several
are
to the clearness
of
a
long
sentence
:
note
how
"
contrived '(a) the Atlantic
Cable, but I
far more
think
that it astonishes $"} me
to
ft"\.forhismere
working,
amusement
created^}
has
(c), that
to
Othello'
and
*
entertain
'
a
Lear,' and
mere
I
am
idle
hour(d),
more
than
he
has
astonished, I
make
of his nature
inexplicable elasticity
of
from
turning away ("}
calamity
him,
instead
of
to
("'}them,
or
merely
defying
actually
(e),
grief
draw
his
and
from
amusement
to
them the material of
(ft),
the
"wildest
am
which
and
awe-
struck
enables
($\
at
that
instead
agoniesof
a
'(e')
spirit
pleasure which
the human
C
is
and
Clearness
34
only not crue^f), but
ennobling({'}."
is in
not
The
flow
neglect of climax
produces an
Thus, if Pope,
thought.
of
Force.
the
highest degree pure
abruptness
in his
that interferes
ironical
address
with
the
mankind,
to
and
even
had
written"
"
where
science
mount
Go, wondrous
creature,
guides
the
tides ;
Go, measure
earth, weigh air, and
state
Wisdom
how
rule"
to
Go, teach Eternal
;
"
the
ascent
"nd
from
would
have
been
investigating
"
the
Instruct
Correct
Go,
the
the
40. When
with
first
The
thought
the
to
is
from earth to heaven,
by the intervening climax
"
orbs
to
run
the
;
Sun
th' empyreal
perfect,and
:
sphere,
first fair."
expected to
sometimes
and
ascend
and
confusion
yet
is the
is called "bathos."
the
describe
can
pen
agonies, the
transition
regulate
first
good,
descent
"What
and
Plato
descends, feebleness
result.
The
is prepared
planets in what
Time,
old
soar
To
rapid.
too
governing,
to
animated
the
tears,
lamentations,
the
of
remonstrances
unfortunate
prisoners?"
She
of
accomplishments and virtues,
winning in her address, a kind friend,
movements,
affectionate
faithful and
mother, and she
a
loving wife, a most
played beautifullyon the pianoforte
"
was
a
woman
many
gracefulin her
"
INTENTIONAL
sometimes
For
humorous
incongruity and abruptness that
climax
ending with the line"
is
after the
Wisdom
Eternal
how
to
rule,"
adds"
"Then
40
a
example,
teach
"Go,
Pope
has
BATHOS
forcible.
a.
Without
A
drop into thyself,and
construction
new
should
a.
fool."
not
be
introduced
apparentlyunnecessary
change of
construction
awkwardness
and roughness at least,and somecauses
times
breaks
the flow of the sentence
so
seriouslyas to cause
plexity.
pervirtuous and accomplished," or "of
Thus, write
many
virtues and accomplishments," not
"of many
virtues and accomplished
;" "riding or walking" or "on foot or horseback," not
foot or riding." In the same
"on
do not
put adjectives
way,
and
active
and
forms
of
participles,
verbs, in too close
passive
the following:
such
sentences
as
juxtaposition. Avoid
cause.
"
A sudden
be
and
"
"
"
He
had
good reason
(accidental) but
to beliez"e that
the
not
an
delay was
(to
premeditated,
for supposing
else, for believing,above) that the fort,though strong
or
suppose,
both
be forced
by art and naturally (nature), would
by the
and
the indolent
treachery of the governor
(indolence of the)
accident
general to capitulatewithin
and
a
week."
36
Clearness
The
"
of
of
name
An
educated
epigram
sometimes
may
should
man
and
know
Force.
he
something
antithesis ; e.g.
given to a mere
of everything, and
everything
something."
43. Let each
have
sentence
one, and
only one, principal
subject of thought.
"This
eldest, heir
the
George,
principal estates
property
the
to
the
on
of many
memory
three
were
Cumberland,
shortly afterwards
September,
actions,
of them,
one
;
his father's virtues, as
well
of
most
situate, and
was
of
noble
sons
where
in
I7th
elected
to
(2) "George," (3)
man,"
considered
father's
for
member
should
county," disputingwhich
if not
three
principalsubject. Two,
the
have
sentence
level.
The
be
must
kept
Of each
up
some
of their
Pitt
His
in
was
biographer
the
of the
one
it will
be
meaning
:
.
.
had
.
so
the
seen
for
army
had
a
in
to
ever
this sort
scarcely ever
praise as
of
not
was
with
every
the main
of
scene
action.
The
which
is
a
publiclife of
lived
Pitt.
complete
Pitt
(,on
this
lence.
excela
person
He
was
and
wellof
or
criticised
in
and
esse
Hampden
be
viewed
be
to
if
have
(Buf)
merely a great poet in
example of moral
(Btif]his
man.
would
lived.
finished
is,that] there
little claim
of peace.
confessing, that,
service, he
that
not
a
on
our
the
commanders
( The truth
in time
months
few
remained
ablest
as
public life of
proportioned greatness. The
resembles
drama
which
Somers
a regular
can
and
sentences
necting
conjunctionsand other conthat the following sentences
insists
(accordingly!]
(undoubtedly] a great
whole,
one
"
Pitt (,//seems,)was
general in posse, but
great
subjects on
different
used
out
all.
is not
who
between
Leave
"
the
cornet
young
been
long
a
Conjunctions, or by
at the beginning
other connecting words
words, and
"
different
many
Adverbs
by
Sentence.
lose much
is to be
sentences
Carefully avoid
one.
family
good
heterogeneous.
connection
of
means
of
made, instead
this, treatingof
It is called
44.
"the
been
like
his
to
as
his
had for several generations returned
this
county, which
in Parliament."
Here
serve
we
have^(i) the "great and
the
a
died
man
him
family,of whom
numerous
a
good
behind
1683, leaving
and
and
great
as
a
connection
the other
hand,)
is," "c.
following
The
adverbs,
or
are
of
some
connecting phrases
similarity,repetition,
or
the
:
most
(i) expressing
resumption
of
therefore,then, naturally, so that, thus,
more,
to
resume,
to
continue,
to
sum
connecting
common
up,
a
in
in
consequence,
subject accordingly,
"
this way,
fact, upon
once
again,
this ; (2) expressing
however,
opposition nevertheless,in spiteof this,yet, still,
the contrary, on the other hand
; (3) expressingsuspension
"
but) on
"
Order
but ; indeed
undoubtedly
the other ; partly
.
.
.
.
a
conjunctionat all
no
"Blake
made
and
with
war
45.
The
hand
one
.
.
on
.
others.
.
.
which
Bishop Burnet,
"and"
with
happened
; and
gether
stringsto-
"so,"
or
; and
did."
who
at those
be
to
with
or
"
two
he
ashore,
went
only paid
Write
before
Malaga,
seamen
not
between
requires
at
of his
some
about
connection
sometimes
the
; on
37
:
carried
it,but laughed
to
yet
.
.
sentences
Spain
upon
the Host
met
.
Sentence.
a
some
y
of
that
fleet
the
.
partly
.
.
a
style like
of
number
Avoid
in
Words
of
no
respect
"c."
When
Blake
long
sentences
intervening sentence,
thought.
short
a
of
showing the transition
ness
the fierceopposition,it (chivalry)subdued
of pride and
to the
; it obliged sovereignsto submit
power
x
of social esteem,
soft collar
compelled stern authorityto submit
dued
to elegance,and
gave a dominating vanquisher of laws to be subBut now
(allis to be changed:} all the pleasing
by manners.
made
illusions which
monized
gentleand obedience liberal,which harpower
"Without
force
or
the different shades
of
empire
reason."
light and
transition
would
which, by
a
bland
lation,
assimi-
that beautifyand
incorporatedinto politicsthe sentiments
dissolved
be
this
to
new
privatesociety,are
by
conquering
soften
the
of life,and
would
be
If the words
abrupt
too
:
italicized
the
omitted,
were
conjunction but
alone
insufficient.
be
BREVITY.
briefer
is
46.
Metaphor
(13).
than
literal
statement.
See
"The
crown,"
where
effect of
47.
than
matter
poems
a
of a sovereign often
responsibilities
and
cares
sleep,"is not
so
brief
the
heavy
General
"Uneasy
as
effect of
crown
care
pressingon
terms
Thus:
or
kind," is
histories,no matter
what
1
This
metaphor
the mind
head
shorter
is not
what,
disturb
that
his
wears
is assimilated
to
a
the
the head.
briefer, though
are
particular terms.
of
on
lies the
"He.
than,
he
recommended
less
devours
"
Novels
devours
forcible,
literature, no
or
them
for imitation.
sermons,
all."
Brevity.
38
47
A
a.
phrase
expressed by
be
may
word.
a
be forgotten,i.e. are indelible"
never
impressions can
be
is of such a nature
The
that it cannot
style of this book
i.e.
unintelligible."
understood,
"These
"
The
"of
words
inserted.
See
such
the
that"
nature
a
Sir Archibald
from
extract
often
are
unnecessarily
Alison.
brief (though
often be used
as
Participlescan
sometimes
taining
ambiguous) equivalents of phrases conConjunctions and Verbs.
48.
instances.
more
this
Sometimes
"though
49.
used
he
retired."
the
doors,
our
"
contain
done]
was
So
that
"phrases
See (7) for
heard) this, he advanced."
"phrases containing conjunctions" means
This, done, (for, when
conjunctions."
he
(when
"Hearing
participle"being" is omitted.
no
sees
danger nigh," for "France
he
"France
being"
Participles and participialadjectives may
like Adjectives, as equivalents for phrases
"The
50. A
instead
could
write
not
statement
of
taining
con-
clamouring ocean," "the
licence of inventingparticipial
"the
instances.
drenching rain," are
adjectivesby adding -ing to
poetry.
be
Relative.
nQver-ceasingwind,"
You
or
is."
France
the
at
"
The
a
the
noun,
is almost
crannying
sometimes
may
being expressed
at
be
length.
restricted
"
wind
to
in prose.
brieflyimplied
Thus,
of
instead
was
spiritof Christianity
humanizing, and therefore "c.,"
or
"Christianity, since it was
(or being) of a humanizing spirit,
write
more
briefly and
can
discouraged "c.," we
effectively,
"Gladiatorial
shows
first discouraged, and
finally put
were
down, by the humanizing spiritof Christianity" So instead of
"The
of youth is thoughtless and sanguine,and therefore
nature
"c.," we can write, "The
depreciated
danger of the voyage was
the
of
the island exaggerated by
and the beauty
natttre
thoughtless
of youth"
"
The
Sometimes
was
in vain
a
preferredby
they were
by
mere
that
the
hardy
mountaineers
all honest
name
or
he offered
men,
epithet implies a
the Swiss
terms
mountaineers"
and
but
hardy.
the
i.e.
"
Government
' *
The
:
"
statement.
war
by
"It
deliberately
was
the Swiss, because
deed
affected
was
to
applauded
treat
it
as
Brevity.
39
head
set
a
the
of
(him whom
they called)
the assassin"
The conqueror
of Ansterlitz might be expected to
hold different language from the prisoner of St. Helena"
i.e. Napoleon
elated by the victoryof Austerhtz,"and "Napoleon
when
when
depressed by his imprisonment at St. Helena."
and
murder,
price upon
"
"
CAUTION.
Different
"
must
names
be
not
for the
used
same
unless
person
from its context.
derives
an
Thus, if we
appropriateness
Charles
be in very
bad
are
taste
writing about
II., it would
to avoid
third
repeating " he" by using such periphrasesas the following : "The
each
of them
of the
Stewarts
fourth
year
forcible
certain
the
business,"
age," "c.
Conjunctions may
51.
a
hated
of his
Monarch
Merry
be omitted.
abruptness,e.g.
"You
died
The
this
say
in the
omission
:
I
(on
fifty
gives
the other
hand) deny it."
When
be
may
short, as
Macaulay's writings,conjunctions
advantageouslyomitted.
sentences
are
is intended, the
Where
a contrast
for the second
of the two
contrasted
talks truthfully and
51
The
a,
conjunction but usually
"
the way
prepares
is good but dull."
of bid, the incongruity savours
of epigram : " He
"
false."
He is always amusing and
prosily."
instead
is used
and
in
terms
He
:
Imperative Mood
for "if."
be used
may
Where
always
strip]Virtue of the awful authority she
of mankind, and you rob her
general reverence
majesty."
"Strip (for,if you
derives
from
of half
her
the
Apposition may
52.
into
sentences
called
"We
of
"
than,
of
(1) the
a
person
and, what
This
"He
subject of
resided
of
esteem
to, and
came
He
came
Such
no
here
this
unemphatic words,
"This
often
a
is
such
Tautology.
is
good friend
as
to
briefer
and
clear as,
by
several
verbs
for many
city,-and
condensation
several times
a
letters
not
repeating
verbs,
(2) the
prepositions.
or
years,
the
obscurity,there
54.
had
we
and, after he had won
So, (2) "He
citizens,(he) died," "c.
induced
to reside in, this city,"is shorter than
all
was
to
is more,
is
effected
be
may
object of several
(i)
two
musician, "c."
common
common
the
was
to convert
as
to whom
a
of music,"
Condensation
53.
is
the house
students
He
so
one.
introduction,a musician,
all young
"
at
used
be
"
a
as
The
was
causes
certain
induced
reside
and,
obscurity,
harshness
to, in, "c.,
fault
to
of
as
in
in it."
even
where
pausing
on
there
light,
in the first example.
repeating the
same
unnecessarilyis called tautology
', e.g. :
circumstance
it
is
circumstance
a
painful
;
word
that I
Brevity.
40
much
the
But
fault
the
mean
is
thing,
that
such
that
is
a
"
the
of
instances
are
is
judgment
unnecessary
the
Alison,
thirst for
conquests
ardent
an
universal
of
is
"
of
end
teristic
charac-
a
"c."
Other
men;"
all
deceived
never
the
at
that
passion
opinion
it is
words
See, for
word.
same
Archibald
Sir
that
infallible
so
the
arrange
no
a
greatly
slightlydifferent
in
repetitionof
It is
"The
"
will
is to
be
may
meaning
burning
this nation.
there
event;
also
to
it is
stance
painful circumstance, a circumwill cause
him, deep regret."
from
"A
he
words
a
same
the
extract
Thus
book.
the
the
than
fault
is
and
me,
painful
a
remedy
true
that
different
by using
is
regret, and
The
This
repetitionof
examples,
as,
"This
manner
:
causes
worse
avoided
circumstance"
regret the
much
be
much
I
a
repetition,thus
The
will
occurrence"
the
in
words
to
not
same
circumstance
lament
also
he
regret, and
"His
"c.
\
Parenthesis
55.
with
used
be
may
to
advantage
brevity.
"We
have
we
a
Extreme
the
of
a
long
at
the
forcible
more
would
been
ment
treat-
the
than
appended
?"
be offended
not
that
taken
be
let clearness
parenthesismay
a
sentence.
be the first consideration.
at
beginners, not to aim so much
Horace
forcible, as at being perfectly clear.
fall
into
I
take pains to be brief,
obscurity,"and
fere
of the rules for brevity interthat several
seen
for
all events
It is best, at
being brief,
however,
meaning
and
indeed,
Who,
:
offended
be?)
parenthesishad
if the
"
Caution:
56.
not
is shorter
been
must,
care
obscure
not
have
sentence
separate
would
(and who
received,"
would
sentence
in
all
are
or
While
I
says,
be
it may
easily
with
the rules
"
for
clearness.
of
style springs from (i) vividness and (2) exactness
and
ness
(2) exactthought, and from a corresponding (i) vividness
Forcible
in the
When
(1)
and
describe
who
was
cut
of
use
words.
as
run
you
the
If you
before you,
it.
see
are
writing
man
writing about the capture of a city,was
surrendered, starved out, or demolished
surprised,
Was
routed,crushed,
repelled,defeated,
an
army
you
are
in the
(2) Exactness
of
their
cannot
meanings
be
discussed
1
See
and
differences.
here.
English
of words
use
is
a
about
a
it
man
executed,
If
hanged?
the city stormed,
?
beforesurrender
or
annihilated
exact
1
Lessons
see
?
knowledge
and
study by itself,
requiresan
This
to
he
and
ask, was
through the body, butchered, shot, or
killed,see
d"nvn,
endeavour
describing anything,
are
you
it
for English People,
pp.
1-53.
EXERCISES
For
cises
intended
are
A
of the
explanation
an
number
used,
be
to
(43), (40 d}, refers
e.g.
Letters
explanations
(iotf)
N.B.
"
(10 a')
"
Rule
(36)
(37
estranged
"
had
(a)
2.
This
(a)
soon
the
(a)
purpose,
friend,"
of
the
naturally
which
(a) (40
(wrongly)
the
give
to
"
Begin
to
attempt
he
(a)
"
"
with
that
(/")(10
by
by
(8) which
he
or
Carelessness
Nature
to
particularly
(2)
"a
in
failure
the
that
needs
the
to
be
once
good
no
being
leisure"
restless"
could
be
not
.
naturally,
are
the
at
the
failure
of
the
Government
certainly
to
either
and
not
bold
at
be
regretted."
(i)
"an
attempt
the
that
"c."
Admiralty
weaken
had
."
"which,"
for
"
Also
"
nature
of
is
which
a')
friend,"
beautiful
to
use
why
elated
supporters
(b) Write,
unjustifiably."
"c.,"
4.
two
his
that
could
Government
the
had
nature"
reason
Restless
justification,
return
election,
recent
of
opponents
without
a)
than
becama
in
"purpose."
at
stops
than
even
retirement
restless
(15)
"
(2)
or
solitude
of
leisure
being
(30)
sentence
The
him
companions
two
.
"
for
friend."
his
tired
pleasures
employed.
3.
(10)
of Rule
attractions
the
than
grew
(36)
seems
his
for
attractions
and
for,
pined
than
more
He
(36)
scenery,
"
(i)
"
sentence.
(10).
more
and
th"
to
a} gradually"
(15
Write
(a)
had
friend,
letter ",
a
($}, refer
e.g.
section
first
Rule
excitement
his
#)
the
to
by
followed
each
to
following
and
Pleasure
1.
(a)
the
to
appended
refers
Exer^
Preface.
brackets,
in
hints
or
these
Rules.
the
to
themselves
by
the
see
by itself, or
brackets
in
which
in
manner
departments
moral
thought
power
of
efficient
has
a
in
co-operated
Government
(a)
(5)
this
j
Exercises.
42
respect,(b) (29)
desire
(c}(47 a)
(a) Write
general distrust of its
please everybodyin Foreign Affairs."
to
a
"the
Navy." (b} Instead
distinguish the different
to
as
"
counterbalance
to
(a) He
cessive
ex-
of "to"
write
"in
order
to," so
infinitives,
(c) "obsequiousness."
sometimes
supported by Austria, who, oddly
have
been
to
enough, appears
more
friendly
to Italy than
(37 a) France, (30) in this line of action."
5.
was
under
with
(a] Begin
"In
"There
(a) (4)
one
had
Beust
line of action."
so
of
discoveries
nez"erbeen
yet (47 a) attained
not
*'
(b) Write
than
was
in (a) (5) this assertion,
startling
to be
were
previous investigators
though they Jiad
as
Why?
was."
France
something
was
(b) (47 a) treated
who
than
or
the
that
this
"
France"
6.
Count
the
made,
(4) that
manhood
of
age
and
had
for centuries
superseded
grey-headed philosophers(8) who\\z"
patiently sought after the truth, (4) that (a) (5) it naturally
the
derision."
provoked
"
it," cause
(a) "This," "that," and
that the
startling assertion
youth," "a mere
(c) "a mere
"
7.
of the recommendations
One
depended)
province should
each
of
oversight
council
a
Write
either
"
8.
that
(i)
its
in
"
(on which
"
"The
ignored."
(a) (26) (47, a)
very
that
was
council
a
in
councils, each to have the
(b) (37) report to a central
(c}(5) it."
smaller
of Education
in
"
Derive
recommendations."
cardinal."
should, report,"or (2) "and
and
(b)
stripling."
district, and
"cardinal
."
.
.
Commission
establish
small
the state
on
(a)
to
(b) Write,
report." (c)Write
"district."
province," or
(a) (i) period an (b] (il) event (f)(i)transpired
The
last hopes of peace.
king fell from his
destroyed
"
At
this
the
horse
and
died
by
from
his return
(a) What
is
a
"
thus:
king
fall
the
(d) (30), which
mole-hill,while he was
"period
"
(c) What
While
fell and
done
that his honour
the
"c."
?
(") Express
is the
king
The
(c}on
with
(c) "to
the
meaning
on
was
cause
particularkind
transpired
"
of
should
of event
"
his return
.
.
?
on
("
dent
acci-
(d) Transpose
his horse
.
precede
sellingall
.
.
.
;
the
the effect
his estates,
and,
as
soon
(40 a), to (c} qtiitthe country, (a) (33) believing
demanded
this sacrifice and
his creditors.
satisfying
(a) Begin
was
"
determined
9. "He
this was
hope
after
stumbling on a
reviewing hi 's soldiers.
").
of
hours
two
his horse's
occasioned
as
the
of
much
little perplexity. Write
a
discoveries.
Believing that "c." (b)
sell" or "on
quitting."
"
(40) (40 a)
in
(b) the
"
"
hoping thereby to satisfy"c."
Exercises.
44
1
"
6.
bribes
(a)
poor
elections
Write
"
than
(i) "Than
think
they
17.
think! themselves
The
at
We
the rich
the rich
with
themselves
disgraced," or (2)
think
"
Than
disgraced."
Mahmoud,
by his perpetual
had
filled
his dominions
(a)
tyranny, (a) (41)
(b](l) misfortuneand (c)(n) calamity,and greatly (d) (n)
the
diminished
had
Sultan
he
that he
had
language
his
population
was
a
humorist
learned
of
or
from
that
birds, so
that
of
the
its mouth,
Persian
This great
Empire.
We are
not
(/) (55) (15) informed
enthusiast,(g)but he pretended (h)
Vizier.
(e)(50) a
whether
bird
by offeringthem."
told that the Sultan
are
(41) and
wars,
(a)(37
disgracedby taking
more
no
a) the rich
an
how
to understand
one
(i)(1 1 ) some
what
he (j) (5) knew
said by
was
One
he
with
was
(k) (44)
evening
the
any
the
opened
Sultan, returning from
a
hunting. They saw
couple of owls
which
(10 g) were
an
sittingupon a tree (/)(8) which grew near
old wall out of a heap of rubbish.
Sultan
The
said (6)he should
like to know
owls were
what
the two
saying to one another, and
asked
the
Vizier to
of it.
account
the
to
Sultan
but
(m)
and
him
give
Vizier, (n) (31) pretending to be
very
an
tive
atten-
He
to the
owls, approached the tree.
(0) returned
heard
their
said that (6) he had
of
conversation,
part
what
it was.
wish to tell him
(/) (5)He, not (q] (31)
and
did
The
listen to their discourse
not
being satisfied with
this answer,
forced
him
repeat everythingthe
to
(20) exactly, (r} (44) (5) (6) He told (5) him that
the owls were
arranginga treaty of marriage between their children,
and that one
of them, after agreeingto settle five hundred
villages
female
the
God
would
had
that
(6)
owl,
prayed
upon
grant a
life
Sultan
he
to
because
as
long
Mahmoud,
reigned over
long as
owls
them
had
said
they would
(s)thai (/) (5) Aewas
he (a) (39) from that
that
people,and
had
been
(a)
he
ruined
want
never
touched
time
with
forward
rebuilt
the
villages.
the
story
says
fable, (30) and
(s) that
the
(15)
good of his
villages(v] which
consulted
and
towns
The
destroyed."
"abroad
at
...
home."
(e) "The
is emphatic,
we
therefore
of
(d] "half
(c) "desolation."
"c."
(/)
"
We
are
peopled."
un-
informed
not
"
he was,
be inverted, "whether
when
(g) " but he "will be omitted
"
"the
Vizier"
tended"
Preis made
the subject of
(k}
"pretended."
meant
once
"claimed,"
"professed." Write "professed."
(z) a certain dervish."
(/ ) Introduce
a new
subject that youmay
bird could
substitute "Vizier
its
"for "he, "thus
that nota
so
:
open
mouth, but the Vizier knew "c." (/")"As he was, one
evening, "c."
This
(/) Note that the tree is represented as growing out of niins.
"c.,
and
(b) "ruin."
Vizier
should
informed."
not
are
"
"
is in accordance
(m)
Omit
with
this.
Mahmoud
the story of the mischief
of
"is
out
place
(") "Suspense
had
in
done.
simple
owls."
("?)
a
ends with "
like this ; the sentence
therefore
Sultan"
"The
return."
be
not
"Upon
(g] "would
(/)
know
satisfied."
must
(s] Omit.
then, "c."
(/) "so
(r) "You
here uses
that."
touched
(u) end with "people." (v) Addison
narrative,
his
.
.
.
Exercises.
"which,"
because
probably
between
the
of
sound
45
"Which"
implies that
the
destroyed, whereas
choose
been
the villages in the country
had
been
had
only (see above) "half
country
to
all
1
8.
"
this great king never
the duties of state, which
with
and
himself
kept
or
amusement
in
the
the
to
chase, of
considered
to be
importance,
that he
allowed
yet he
and
no
terfere
in-
superior
(a)(37)
pursuit
one
took
(54)great pleasure
(b} (2) excessively
(54)fona \ and for
created several large parks of considerable
excess,
any
he
of which
purposes
control
to
run
which
he
of paramount
far under
so
unpeopled."
permitted any pastime to
Though
(54) all other claims
to
"
preceding
clearness.
and
was
he
(54) magnitude."
(a) Either
"though,"
repeat
begin
a
sentence
new
between
leave their country, with
and
their
(a) (n)
the
"excess."
"excessively"
inundate
""To
19.
strikeout
else
or
after
first
(3) Point
what
though
the
out
"
and
diction
contra-
precedes.
land, to
all its miracles
"
their
man
of art
and
ships,to
industry,its
cities,its villas,and its (b} (ll) pastures buried under the waves
their (d ) (1 1 ) faith and
(c} (1 1 ) ; to bear to a distant climate
their old (e)(n) liberties;to establish,with
auspices that (10 a)
the
be
constitution
new
might perhaps
(/) (n)
happier,
of their
commonwealth, in a (g) (n) foreignand strange (//)(n) land, in
the Spice Islands
of the Eastern
the plans which
Seas, (38) were
they had
the
(a) Introduce
"
(/;) Introduce
dykes."
something
"canals,"
"tulip gardens."
(c)
e.g.
Dutch,
Ocean."
old
to
(d) The Dutch
Batavia," so
times
"
what
the
Calvinists.
were
"
denote
(f)
"
form.
spiritto
"
that
Dutch
(e)The
"
Batavian
inherited
had
Stadthaus," the German
peculiar
"of
would
from
for "town-hall."
the
to
country
be a fit
their
the
German
was
in
epithet
forefathers.
(g) "other
stars."
(h) "strange vegetation."
"During
20.
(a) which
the wealth
its branches
higher
on
become
(a) Omit.
been
had
the
no
for
better
great author,
deliver decisions
shot
funds
attained
ever
(14 a) up and extended
had (14 a] soared
to a
before,(b) (15) speculation
a
sentence
new
(a) (16) a mere
name) had been
and
:
"This,
or
Prosperity,had
increased
speculation."
that time
"At
deserves
unexampled prosperity,during
general."
(") Begin
the taste
a
side, and
every
had
than
point
had
21.
years of
of the nation
twenty
as
which
productions of
literary
the
could
the
narrow-minded
set
day.
"
by
the
alone
(b} critic,
supreme
never
up
pedant (forhe
world
literary
as
be
(b}reversed
qualified to
(15 a) tht
upon
Exercises.
46
"
with
(a) End
.
a
"
.
.
"
reversed
intending also
him,
to
he
himself
clear
to
ascertain
to
could
"
else
or
;
how
were.'*
suit had
"The
23.
numerous
forward
the
as
of the earth
plenty,when
(a) Mention
"
24.
sudden
He
(11}
the
"
I
the
out
saw
Point
26.
out
old
at
Street
and
"He
and
the
remove
that
they
had
"and
(a)
27.
neither
"
The
did
were
in the
were
sometimes,
Commons
they
of
his
own
should
war
be
of Palestine.
asked
it to
his
it
remove
the
for his
reason
refusal
annul
to
the
great displeasureto
by (8)or (10 a'}.
again by
first
accident
mere
when
Exhibition, (19) walking
in at the
while
House
(52) was
a
"
shops.
at
a
.his
he
would
yet condemn
debate
used
not
to
say,
was
indeed
taken
him,
he used
good as a comedy.
(17) sudden turn in
as
more
own
speech
practice with
mind, and
sometimes
seen
his
common
his sated
this memorable
as
of
shade
(n)
was
of the
never
that which
the
ambiguity.
Majesty
certainly
comedy of intrigue,either
than
phets,
probe as
products (a) (1 1 )
abundant
an
(54)
create
(10 a')gave
looking
; which
debates amused
(a] (6 b}
say
he
and
the time
remained
the
"
trees
schoolfellow
into consideration
because
should
"
owed
he
ambiguity,
my
Regent
as
their
"
classes.
in London
was
down
"
"products,"
or
the
when
to
instruments
treaty, (a) (8) which
poorer
its descendants
beneath
rest
of peace.
uses
testimony
latter "c.,"
teaching of
the
when
should
unpopularity,that
25.
time
increased
when
.
.
very
"c."
replied (32),when
(a) Point
I
a
so
man
some
commercial
the
be
each
to the
converted
to
.
the prosecutor,
"The
sentence,
new
heavenly (1 1 ) bodies ', and
should
trees, and
(a] (n)
(b) Begin a
been
begun
Jewish nation, relyingon
looked
be
supreme
this
(40 a) far
corroborated, and (a) (40 a] the motives of
(b} (43) who had begun the suit last Christmas."
"The
the
name
never
personification: "a
a
was
(a) "what
better
no
his promise, and
(40 a)
fulfilling
from
the suspicion that attached
intention of
determined
deserves
(b) "Which
be
the
With
he
for
"
into
condensed
may
criticism."
of contemporary
Minos
"
was
pedant."
expressed in one word
be
can
reversed"
22.
who
one
.
narrow-minded
mere
to
His
any
play-house or the Duke's,
produced."
as
approve
good
the
"c."
war
(20)expressly;
(a) (18)the
it (20)expressly
; and
Exercises.
king might
with
of
Declaration
Write
"
*'
Indulgence
was
a
supply
for
continuinghostilitie?
of (I)}
redressinggrievancesconnected
which
the
of affairsat home, among
a
important (d} (15 a)
very
one."
the
even
(3) Use
ready to grant the king "c."
all this into one
ing
subject. (T)Condense
adjective,mean"that
which
takes
place at home,"
(d} End with a noun,
importance," or "foremost
place."
verb
28.
obtained
them, on
(f) administration
the
(a)
have
even
condition
(19) from
47
they
with
"Next
were
a
thinking clearly,(a] (5) it is useful to speak
hereafter
be it
positionin life may
your
be such
be
cannot
not
to
as
(54)
improved by this, (b] so that
while
it is worth
making almost any effort to acquire (c} it, if
/'/ is not
natural
a
gift:(d) it being an undoubted
(d] fact that
the effort to acquire it must
be successful, to some
extent
at
if
it
be
least, (d)
moderately persevered in."
to
clearly,and
"
(a)
whatever
in
Next
utility
speaking clearly
comes
....
be of assistance
to
(b)
clearlyby nature, you "c."
(c)
"for undoubtedly, with moderate
"
a
"
"c."
you
"
power
that
"
If,therefore, you cannot
this power."
(d} Omit
must
speak
"
fact ; "
"c."
perseverance
//
(a) (38)appears to me (15) a greater victorythan Aginand
grander triumph of wisdom
faith and courage than
the English constitution
even
or
(b}liturgy,to have beaten back,
and
stemmed
in ever
or
even
small a degree,
fought against
so
those
basenesses that (c) (10 a] beset human
nature, which
are
29.
court,
held
now
as
a
invincible
so
the fundamental
(a) Begin with
"To
for
that
axioms
have
beaten
clearness
basenesses
"
30.
The
and
of "c."
"c.," and
emphasis,
us
forciblyof
the
effrontery(c}(which (26) he
of the
of them
science.
end
"the
Member
for
are
assumed
"
"
with
liturgy." (b)
English." (c) "The
(a) (2) unprecedented impudence
reminds
remarkable
the influences
of economic
of
our
unblushing
almost
peat
Resetting
be-
presentative
youthful re-
and
succeeds
(54) (40)
in
ling)
equal-
St.
Alban's, whom
our
(b] (i) neophyte
(b] (i) alluded to, in the last speech with which he favoured those
whom
(47 a) he represents, (19) as his pattern and example."
(a)
Show
' '
"
is inconsistent with what
follows,
unprecedented
(b)
What
is the meaning of "neophyte," "alluded
to"?
(c) Begin a
"Our
new
adventurer
sentence,
Sic.,"and end with "and
young
he almost
in equalling his master."
succeeds
31. "The
is the more
because
that
of
(a)(i ) veracity
reason
for
in his remarks
this
story is questionable,and there
doubting the (a) (i) truth of the narrator,
the (i) observation
of the Sabbath
on
he
Exercises.
48
(a) (i)alludes
distinctly
to
that
custom
a
shown
be
can
to
never
existed."
have
"
between
(a) Distinguish
Show
"observance."
veracity" and "truth," "observation"
"allude"
the inconsistency between
and
and
"distinctly."
Mr.
(a) (5) is
"It
32.
dwelt
has
Tucker
pleasuresin which
active.
assent
upon
are
we
justdistribution,(loa) which the late
so
(b] largelyin his works, between
passive,and pleasuresin which we are
observer
every attentive
that however
to (c]this position,
I believe
And
in which
occasionallybe
may
most
a
we
of human
life will
(d] grateful the sensations
passive,it is
are
not
these, but
satisfaction,
pleasures,(8)which constitutes
of moderate
laneous
and miscelregularstream
(e) (38)which supply
happiness,as distinguished
enjoyments in (ior) which
from
voluptuousness,consists."
latter class of
the
our
that
"
(a)
often
Not
"The
33.
in this
used
now
those
mean
"c."
justice in
is great
There
(5) Omit "so."
(e) Repeat
sense,
(c)" admit."
(d"
antecedent, 1
"
the
"c."
(pleasures)
seemed
prince
before
have
to
him
limitless
a
(b]
prosperity,carefully(33) trained
the throne, and stimulated
by the (a)pattern of
last
breathed
his
(3)
suddenly at the age
(43)
of
tasks
who
of the
two, just after the conclusion
(a)
Find
appropriate words,
more
overjoyed
workmen
intelligent
(5) was
to
a
and
told
the
(a)
If
of
sixty-
(d] him
to
old
friend (a] (25) who
for
sent
He
(b)
of his most
one
consider
himself" (e)his
(f}himi" he (g)wished
take
not
sentence.
new
journey northward.
(c} he
service, (30) as he himselfcould
about
his
a
an
and
him,
see
of
son
on
his
war."
(b) Begin
"
On his way, he visited
34.
him
had asked him
to call upon
(54)
(a)
father,
for the
prospect of unbounded
city."
you
mean
friend's
him,"
son
write
that
the
who
;" if you
"
"son"
had
He
iourney northward,
his way."
(b) Use,
had
mean
been
asked
his
"asked
that
by
him,"
the
an
write
"friend"
old
"An
had
friend
to
old
"asked
call,on
his
Accordingly he visited him on
instead of he, some
who
name
one
meaning
entertains
others."
(e) "the
(c}Use participle, (d) "The man."
have wished
could
stranger's." (/) "his guest." (g) Write
upon
son.
"
"
to
it clear
make
35. "Tillotson
both
by King
Dr.
Tennison,
36.
that
was
"
died
William
Bishop
that
"
he
"
"
means
in this year.
He
was
and by Queen Mary
of
Lincoln,
was
(a)The entertainment
stupendous
(l")perfectly
to
succeed
exceedinglybeloved
(43), who
(c)most
nominated
him."
arranged with
and
"
the host."
a
magnificence
unprecedented\
and
Exercises.
49
quite kept up his Lordship's unrivalled reputation for
and, thanks to the unequalledenergy of
unparalleledhospitality,
is rapidly becoming one
Mr.
effective
of the most
Smith, who
with
the
toasts
in the kingdom,
a spirit
were
toast-masters
given
indeed
of
this
and
occasions
nature
were
we
on
;
quiteunexampled
which
forciblyreminded
three
of
Point out the contradictions
epithets,or soften them down.
"
remarkable
it stands,
in the sentence
a
as
(b] Write
magnificence that quite "c.," thus dispensing with the following
is superfluous.
"and."
that "most"
(c] Show
Omit
(a)
the
human
(15) knowledge of
the
in
Shakespeare with the other dramatic
compare
his wonderful superiorityto
Elizabethan
era,
we
of
authors
them
of the
most
"If
37.
entertainment
of the inimitable
respect
(2)."
ago
years
this
in
is
nature
what
(15 a)
strikes us"
principally
The prince found himself at
38.
provide himself with the commonest
"
to
accustomed
they
by quoting the example
himself
and
the
to
(d)(44)
(a)
country
William
"
English poetry,
"
of you
I
as
delighted to
excuse
at
of
a
and
because
(b) (13)
they
selves
them-
who
one
of the
prejudices of "c."
had
he
at
native
once."
the
Shakespeare was
and
itself to the succeeding
they were
nothing worthy
(37) done
to
40.
saries
neces-
(c] (34) had controlled
the Conservatives, (37) commended
large by his unfailing good-humour,
the timidityand
behind."
(c)" while
"
41.
were
humoured
and
Liberals
even
coast, being (33)
timid
(a)(50),both because
prejudiced,and
the
or
desolate
policyrecommended
make-shift
ministers
were
this
on
perplexityhow
sore
comforts
luxury."
to
39. "This
of
he landed
life,when
of
in
once
of
of statesman."
name
"
(Z")
(d) had
"
yet done."
the lesser
sun
among
Stratford -on-
shelter themselves
A
von
lights
(14 a)."
(15 b] I think, gentlemen, you must confess that any one
have done
the same
would
(32),if you had been tempted
wasteful
ragged among
to acts of dishonesty
luxury and comfort, deliberatelyinstigated
had
been
from
I
infancyto love, (a)
taught
by those whom
when
I failed to
mocked
I
when
or
stole,
punished
praised
then, placed starving and
was
(i$ a) do (b)so."
(a)
Insert
another
infinitive
(b) Repeat
42.
refused
"
So
to
far from
beside
the verb
"love."
instead
"Love"
being the first(54)aggressor,
prosecute
his
old
friend
D
when
a
produces
dience."
"obe-
so."
of "do
he not
favourable
(22)only
oppor-
Exercises.
50
tunity presented itself for revenging
also his friend's adviser,
but
suspected,if he
events
had
given
"
"
43.
and
them
.
Having
spectacle of the
the
the
to
sentence
may
have
words
be
must
been,
altered.
all
at
events
qualify "suspected,"
apex of the
sun-rise, I found
Righi
to
enjoy the
incommoded
myself
so
by a
emerged from the hotel
I determined
to quit them
at the
therefore, without
stopping to
who
had
that
(a)(i)similar purpose,
earliest practicable period ; and
partake of breakfast,I wended
my
for
the
that he
of illiterate individuals
number
If
.
.
climbed
"
coming danger, and
paid 5^. per day to English navvies,
navvies."
preferenceto 2s. 6d. to French
6s., (19) in
44.
(a) at
"suspected."
after
It is quitetrue
even
."
suspected
place
him,
all (23)
upon
Smith
the
of
his friend
innocent
however
Smith
know
qualifies"Smith,"
all events"
Yet,
Smith.
John
not
thus
of it."
information
no
If "at
(a)
did
himself
a
back
way
with
possible
all
celerity."
(3)
"
{a}
"
45.
same."
the
that miracles
admit
You
and
is wrong,
is unnatural
unnatural, it follows
are
alliance
the
(a) Indian
(a)
is the
"Who
46.
Insert
of
defence
of
or
other
are
dared
the
disputed
our
antithetical
some
has
Now
whatever
cles
admission, mirawrong." (i)
own
your
miracles
that
inhabitant
(a) (41)
the
since, by
that
man
natural.
not
are
call into
to
woods,
to
civilized
delegate to the
rights?
epithets.
of those who
(a) very (n) small proportion indeed
47. "A
have attempted to solve this problem (b)(19) have succeeded
in
a plausiblesolution."
obtaining even
(a) State
what
in
one
48.
"
proportion succeeded, or, if you like,what
hundred."
all those that
(b) Begin, "Of
suddenly (a) (47 a) brought
which
(8)
forces
submit
into
failed
:
"
not
"c."
contact
with
a
wholesale
imposture,
naturally repels (a)
being (40 a) barbarously ill-treated^
system
and
be
To
a
to
one
to
to
(15 a) one."
"
causes
a
(a) Write, either (i) Collision
one
(2) "When
brought into contact.
is emphatic), (3) "One
(if"ill-treatment"
or
"c."
collision
with
by
natural
....
.
49.
"
We
a
annex
to the
Editor
letter
which
the
editor
has
.
recentlyaddressed
of the
appeared
undertaken
repulsion," ot
is naturally repelled,"
is naturally repelled
by
Mr.
's direction
in contradiction
,
equally untrue,
which
.
in
to
that
of statements,
periodical,and (a] (9)
insert
in the
next
number.
Exercises.
52
54. "A
life,and,
the
(a) (10 d}
man
immersed
in
neglected the ordinary duties
who
himself
study,devoted
grand plans
to
of
for
(b) (44) and refused to provide for the
of those dependent on him, and suffered his aged relatives to
wants
because
he would
become
not
help them, (c)would, in my
paupers
benefit
mankind,
of
opinion, (34) be
bad
a
and
man,
altogether(d) (40 a)
not
without
hypocrisy."
"
(a)
If
"
55.
"or
who
are
(d)
believe
have
may
been
he."
"
I cannot
whatever
has
(b) " if he refused,"
man."
a
man
a
shown
"
to
in the
while
extent
a
he
(c) " such
refused."
hypocrite."
guilt of (a)
said to the
been
"
or
some
(b} (10 e) who,
be shown, and
one
contrary,
can
testimony proceeding from those
examined
the facts, in spite(23)of
carefully
by competent
said to have
res'sted
all attempts
consult his own
have
many
to
obstacles,
leave
his situation,("r)
(29) to
of his own."
a business
(29) induce
to
interests
him
and
to
(29)
to
establish
(a)
"
his
"c
(b) (i) " for, whatever
that, in spite of "c., he resisted."
guilt;"
"c.
.
obstacles"
spite.
"
write
"
We
.
between
"have"
of
purpose
and
consult
to
seek
must
consulting
his
for the
own
.
interests
originof
can
be
shown
by
(2) insert "in
"carefully." (c) (i)
Or
establishing."
by establishing"c."
and
.
.
it
and
.
the
"for
56.
.
.
(2)
Or
freedom, (a)(37)prosperity,
only (b}that x portionof our
our
(a) (37)glory,in that and
The
annals, (30) though it (c]is sterile and obscure.
lish
great Eng(d) then formed ; the national (e)disposition
people was
began
which
it has
since (e)
ever
(d) then to exhibit those peculiarities
and our
fathers (d) then became
possessed;
emphaticallyislanders,
and
and (a) manners,
(f) in their politics,
(30 a) not
(a) feelings,
and
merely in
their
(a) Repeat
geographicalposition."
the Pronominal
the
thus
sentence
:
by beginning
"c."
(^) "It was
(c)Omit.
marked
words
implying something more
more
forcible than "possessed;" in the
(/) Repeat "islanders."
annals
our
57. "(0) He
knew him, and
the universal
was
cemented
the
Adjective. (b) Express
that"
many
"
"
emphatic
only
portion of
It is in that
then
than
that "c."
"
(e)Use
"
disposition,and
latter case,
"retained."
(54)favouriteof'(54)all (8)who
friendshipsat this period,(a) (33)
highest circle of society,and, as he (b} (50) had
(moving
ture),
a (4 a) certain property, being independent of the
profitsof literain the
and
which
at
soon
the
foundations
completely extinguished the
outset
of his
x
his
career
had
threatened
of slander
to
sap
the
reputation."
in
"c."
Show
that
Rule
That
-which
(a) Begin "Moving
"c."
of
breath
treats
(") "rendered
(14)is violated
independent of
by the metaphors.
of the thirteenth
.
century.
.
.
.by
.Exercises.
"
58.
the
The
brief
reached
outward
and
period which
material
been
of that
form
citywhich, during
(10 a) is comprised in
the
highest pitch
of this (a) (15) nature.
was
53
present book,
our
and
military,artistic,
of
The
of
progress
literary
glory,
(b) (5)first has
the
already traced."
with
(a) Begin the sentence
"military glory."
"
59.
The
detachment
"Such
only
not
of their numbers
and
capture the small
after some
was,
force
was."
"
(b) By
the
failed to take the
the weakness
of the
that
was
encamped
sharp fighting,driven back
first" is meant
fort,(30) spite
also to
but
garrison,
outside the town, and
with
inconsiderable
loss."
Point
the
out
"the
60.
ambiguity.
it
Remedy
by inserting either
"
which,"
or
assailants."
"(a) (b} Believing that these reforms can
only (c] (21) be
for
and
that (5)this will
is
as publicopinion
them,
prepared
effected
be
more
or
less advanced
in different
localities,the Bill of the
a
(3) considerable period
vSession of Parliament,
next
in regard to the points above-
has
Association, (a) (31)
in draft, and will be introduced
in the
provides for placing (d} (3) the control
in the (3) hands
mentioned
0/~the ratepayers
which
power
be
to
been
for
locality
; the
exercised
to be
through representativeLicensing Boards
elected
periodically
by them."
{a)
Place
the
parenthesisfirst,as
of the Association
has
of each
independent
an
been
sentence
"
:
The
Bill
"
Parliament
is
noun
(b) What
("r)"effected
qualifiedby "believing?" Write " In the belief."
in accordance
with public opinion,which
only so* far as they are
"c."
shall
(d) "it,or, the Bill provides that the ratepayers
.
.
.
.
receive
control
and
.
61.
"I
.
shall exercise
.
.
this control."
.
think
they are very (i) nice persons, for they kept me
a
long (a) (ll) time togetheryesterday by their (i)
nice,stories all about what
they(b}have experiencedin Japan, where
had
been
for
they
(a) ever so long, and (c] (43) where
they said
that the natives ripped up their (d) (5) stomachs."
amused
for
(a) Mention
other
62.
"
To
with
that which
(a) A
63.
of
some
"
"
"
or
(3) experiences
things,they told us "c." ("")"their
for
contend
a
dislike
increases,(30) however
of
"
time.
some
one
compound
has
(c)"
among
own."
garded
advantageous monopolies, which are rewhich
and
a
daily (10 a)
suspicion (a)
natural
once
Upon enteringthe
my
it may
be
to be
possessed,(15 a)
adjective can
refreshment,
adventures."
be
rustic
nerves
annoyed
at
the loss
is useless."
used, including "daily."
place of
were
entertainment
horrified
partake
by lightingon a
to
Exercises.
54
species
singing some
simultaneouslyimbibing that cup which, if
individuals
of boisterous
number
of harvest
song, and
also
inebriates
cheers,
who
were
from their societyby
when, banished
of the fragrant weed, I wended
to the apartthe fumes
ment
way
my
had
the
in
which
I
which
one
adjoined
hoped to rest my
of the fairer sex,
found
I
assortment
an
limbs,
interesting
weary
who
were
holding a separate confabulation
apart from the revels
it
of
their
"
rougher
spouses.
"village inn," "next
See (3).
Write
"
64.
; and
room," "c.,
absurd
these
for
cutions.
circumlo-
born, in 1782, Napoleon
Burgoyne was
boys (il)."
When
lington
Wel-
and
both
were
Mention
Brienne, Wellington at Eton.
this, and,
"
WelArthur
imply the boyhoody call Wellington
studied
Napoleon
in
order
at
to
lesley."
65.
near
me
I
whom
(38) to
"
gratefulhomage
most
forgotten :
virtues,and (52) can
"
(a) Though
of the
yet
"transitory,"
for
"To
neat
and
in the
"
for hour,
(b)
and
clean
"
this
artisan
the British
see
"
for
"
of
ephemeral"
"
time, and
for day.
told "c."
the
on
children
the open
under
has
his wife
and
their
cheerful,with
themselves
(a) (19) disporting
moment
gentleman
most
is (52) the first of
short
a
the
of vice."
cause
for
day"
use
be
to
and
mute
are
recognized expression
a
to
live
prudence
longer, is objectionable. Write
a
future
66.
is
day"
us
that
used
be
never
will
but
all of
that
us
or
not
(a) hour when
(b)(38) has told you
of
admiration
occasion,
merely to the
upon
entrusted
(a) day,
the
the
this
abilities
are
ones,
any
subject,(36) feelings of
this
on
of
perishable eloquence
on
can
is now,
I believe,
without
refer
occasion
who
mine,
(38) whose
;
former
some
upon
of
never
respect, and,
feelings of
as
friend
honourable
"An
by
canopy
write
Sabbath,
their
of
hour"
Else
sides,
heaven,
is
(l$)pleasant."
(a)
There
is
whether
"
or
reasonable
no
he
ground
it clear
makes
context
;
for
but since
mistaking
the
sense
Shaftesbury
Lord
was
here, as the
questioned
'*
disporting to qualify artisan and his wife
"
porting
disand, by their sides,their children
"
meant
write
children,"
"c."
67.
"Even
if
such
it is the
the
of
all the
(a)
called
more
intention
Omit
"
(a)
it
"
that
it were."
author
deserve
of
was
seem
in
one
(c)
word,
"
that (c] it
was
perpetrating(e)it,to
possible,upon
"
stances,
extenuating circumreprobation,(b} and
severe
crime, in
the
(") " which."
of the crime
with
it would
for because
author
misery
attended
were
would
conduct
to
his victim."
have
been."
("?)Use
the
See
the
flict
in-
($).
(*/)Express
noun.
Exercises.
68.
been
"The
of the heavenly bodies
have
must
(a) (i) observance
with great difficulties,
before
the
(b)(30)
telescope
attended
(a) (i)discovered, and
was
55
of astronomers
it is not
to
be wondered
gations
at if the investi-
often
and
failed to
unsatisfactory,
under
these
produce complete (a) (i) persuasion, (30) (15, a)
disadvantages."
(a) What
is the
were
difference
"discover"
"
(") Begin
between
"observance"
"invent,"
and
Before
"persuasion"
"
in
reaching a
help, and (a) (35) was
for
Sir
became
John Burgoyne himself, face
of the difference
(a)(i) conscious
Sebastian
of San
weak
very
woman
poor
at last hauled
with
(30)not content
he
and dangerous struggle,
that was
crying piteously
safelyto shore."
more,
put and remedy the ambiguity by inserting
writing." who," according to the meaning.
"
with
compared
is the exact
(a) What
repeating the
to
Metz
meaning
or
by
Todleben,
the fortifications
between
(10 e) was
(c)(12)
Paris."
or
the relative,
(b) Avoid
by
weakness
itself."
(c)
conjunction,
of conscious
?
"
with
name,
"he"
face with
Sebastopol, (b} which
of
and
observation,"
"conviction"?
Point
(a)
70.
and
"
"c."
He
69.
plunged into the sea once
his previous exertions.
After a long
succeeded
and
a
Upon Richard's leavingthe (c)stage, the Commonwealth
which
Cromwell
had
was
(a)
again set up ; and the Parliament
broken
was
brought together; but the army and they fell into new
again (a) broken by the army : and upon
disputes: so they were
like to fall into (b) (n) great convulsions."
that the nation was
"
71.
Eng., "broken
question whether
Modern
(a)
a
is that
that
regarded
as
the
"
with
.
retired
What
(a) (n)
and
weapons,
way.
"
See
(18)and
unnecessary
ended
with
the
Commonwealth
a
dispute
"c.
with
"c.,
it
(43).
in the
militaryprofession!
He
began
(b) (li) inefficient
formality, and
(c}(b) (n) greatly improved fire-arms
"
pipe-clay." (6) "Six-pounders and flint-locks" are
loaders."
compared with "twenty-four-pounders and breechantithetical
to (a),perhaps
(c) Something is wanted
drill"
"
or
open
order."
fear death in the same
fear to go in the dark. Men
is increased
fear of children
by tales. So is the fear
Children
The
when
but, fallinginto
inefficient
"loose
73.
"
....
revolution
(a) "pig-tailand
now
and
....
.
a
the Parliament
Commonwealth,
are
on
a
stage." But this is extremely
the principal subject : " When
the
puppets
Parliament
....
was
."
.
many
Make
Parliament
was
72.
Richard,
so
doubtful.
Richard
"
Richard
asserted
up." (b) "violently convulsed."
(c) It is
The
metaphor is in good taste.
ing
meanfrom
It might be
retired
public life."
this
56
of
Exercises.
death.
and
contemplation of death,
passage
a tribute
tions
due
death
on
the
as
world, is holy and
another
to
it, as
-
The
religious.The
In
nature, is weak.
mixture
is sometimes
unto
there
of
'wages
sin,'
fear of
religious meditavanity and of
of
superstition."
Insert connecting adverbs
"I
have
often
or
heard
him
(44).
See
conjunctions.
reiterate
(54) repeatedlythat he
never
to him,
path was
again, if a safe(54) and secure
open
prefer the perilous (54) road of danger, however
alluring (54)and
74.
would
attractive
"
75-
might be."
the latter
I
whether
thought
I did
not
in my
observe
dream
remarked
bold
atom
take
that if any
from
friend
my
in the
me
of the
of the birds
one
of
heap
asked
in the conduct
curious
anything
pigeons, I (a) (4 a)
to
that when
was
so
midst
ot
grain
them, (31) (which (b) a detachment
guarded, and which, being
increased
and
continually
never
useless),all the
eaten, seemed
rest turned
againsthim and pecked him to death for the (c)(50)
as
an
a
action."
(a) Point
the
out
and
(") This
ambiguity.
"
parenthesis.
of them, guarded by
not
as
.
useless
"
come
noticed
Being
.
.
yet." (c)
:
earlier in the sentence,
a
heap of grain in the midst
to all appearcontinually
ance,
,
should
I
a
.
.
.
theft."
"
76. If this low view of the royal office becomes
generally
adopted, then sovereigns who
(8) have
manded
always hitherto comthe
will
of
fall
into
Englishmen
by degrees
respect
disrespect.''
Point
out
the
ambiguity.
Show
it
how
might
be
removed
(a) by punctuation,
(") by altering "who."
"
77.
I struck
magistrate.
to
the
such
would
rightto
do
78.
(44).
"He
perseverance
believe
not
Insert
a
explainedthis
Witnesses
me.
prison.
exercised
is.ararely
me
right that
were
to
to
the
called
He
in
I remonstrated."
adverbs.
conjunctions or connecting
attained
and
It is
I
committed
He
this.
circumstances.
See
in self-defence.
man
statements.
support my
had
the
He
a
common
distinguishedpositionby
very
sense,
which
mere
(15)
(52) (10 a] qualitiesare
perhaps mostly underrated, (30) though
and not remarkable
for general ability.
he
was
deficient
in tact
"
"
79.
may
crime
be
which
VindictivenesS)
defined
but
as
anger
(a) (50) is a fault, (b) and
(10 a) which is caused not by sin
by personal injury,ought
to
be
which
nor
by
carefullydistinguished
Exercises.
from
which
resentment,
(49) which
is natural
unjust,because
"The
(a)
it is
fault
is anger
and which
(a) (50) is a virtue,(!"}
(c) right caused by an act (d) which is
it is inconvenient."
unjust,(300) not because
and
;"
yindictiveness
of
"
(c) *' Right
Omit,
(ft)"an
can.
57
virtue
of resentment."
"
adjective,but
an
as
(b)
righteous''
injustice."
of
act
"the
be used
cannot
"
80.
(a)He told his friend that (a)his brother was surprisedthat
(a] ^hadlgiven so small a contribution,for (a] he was
(b) (12) a
rich
in
of
his
and
losses
bad state
the
recent
(a)
spite
man,
very
of trade, (19) (30) compared with himself."
81.
"
citizen
him
What
See
(b)
citadel
it be
must
.
universal
had
been
daylightby
a
been
This
address
the citizens
been
captured in
the
and
enemy,
admitted
by
"
the
As
into
two
citadel
.
.
.
had
of
end
:
.
The
citadel
"The
"The
.
."
been
provided
un-
postern gate,
a
;" or,
Else, if one
captured "c."
.
broad
those
sentence.
a
sentences
therefore
Naturally
captured
.
been
the
at
come
that the
was
tence
sen-
had
opinion.
be
sentence
surpassed all those who were living(a) at the
in which
he could
him in the forcible(b} manner
appeal to the popular sympathy, and in the ease
towards
could
draw
(a) himself the hearts of his
author
with
(c]an
which
with
.
.
for it had
used, write
must
converted
be
captured
...
of
number
"
"betrayed
case
time
(54)opinion of all
small
may
same
.
scaling ladders, and
wearied
by a long march."
much
any
"
?"
.
(15) betrayed,(30) having
very
with
and
83.
proverbial for wealth?
was
(40).
"The
In
king
to (a) crucifyz. Roman
(a) (15 b] It must be indeed wrong
if to (b} (32) slay one
is almost
parricide,to (") scourge
and
him is an outrage.
bind
monstrous
to
a
crime,
(b}
"
(a]
(15 a)
Asian
"
is
82.
(6). (b) What
Use
(a)
he
readers."
(a) Express
84.
a
the
the
great
statesman
quicksands
safe harbour
of
world.
It would
(a)
be
well
Trade
to
literal statement
"
The
; and
lawless
even
(15)
literalize
must
ministers
(43) (51) because
were
He
of Protection
Free
of commerce,
and
pillar
guided or impelled the people
and false political
to
economy
indeed
was
(c) Omit.
with."
"force
a
(a)(14 a]
saved
the
country
millions."
several
85.
(b)
word,
one
in the financial
star
from
This
"
in
be
preceding metaphors.
changed
were
most
the
boldest
and
the
into
unwillingto
of
them
desperate]had
Else
the
metaphor.
a
meet
(though
too
much
the
Houses, (a)
their counsels
value
for
his
Exercises.
58
unlawful
the
resorting to
had
that
of extortion
modes
of
think
(b) (li) personal safety to
familiar
been
to
(r) (12)
the
ceding
pre-
age."
(a) Begin
Lawless
and
desperate though their
of these
(c) Insert some
(b) "neck."
modes, "benevolences, ship-money, and the other "c."
had
counsels
unlawful
86.
"
We
may
his poetry. "
of the
command.
(a)
writer
and
That
"
We
will
"
87.
guess" and
emphatic, (b) "Marah."
pretend
be
to
captain asked
(15 a)
scorn,
completely at
intended
are
fiftymen,
a
his
dry."
never
was
despair"
allowed
be
to
"
in
eloquence of
(a) (15) despair (15 a]
fountain (b} (12) of bitterness
to
The
Byron,
grandchildren
our
exhibited
as
the whole
had
ever
what
so
not
author
Lord
of
character
No
misanthropy,
"c."
been
(a) (15)pretend'toguess
will not
think
"
with
sentence
new
a
by
the
supply of
hundred
and
food, and
(44) The
one
fifty breech-loaders.
have
general repliedcoldly that he could not let his subordinate
forced
The
he
that
wanted.
(a) (4) anything
(44)
captain was
to
out
set
(34) with an insufficient force, spite of the superabundance
of soldiers doing nothing in the camp
(34),and with
by a general who from the first
put in his way
every obstacle
had
resolved
not
to give him
even
ordinary assistance, (b} (10 a')
which
the
(a)
captain had
Point
and
out
which
and
"
I
have
.
attractions
no
difference
"
"
or
(b)Write, according
".
.
.
.
a
resolution
to
the
that."
a
is not
(a) What
.
that
practicalman, and disbelieve in everything (8)
amuse
philosophers
practical; theories (a) which
am
pedants
ambiguity,
the
assistance
.
anticipated."
time
some
remove
".
meaning,
88.
for
"
that
in
for the
the
for me,
would
meaning
"
second
(30)for
which"
be
this reason"
caused
by
the
use
of
?
discovery drew no other seventy but the
and the (n a) passing a sentence
(li a) turning (a) him out of office,
(b) condemning him to die for it (31) (which was
presently
and
he
restored
to his
after
short
confinement
pardoned,
was
a
all men
believed that the king knew
of the letter,(c)(43)
liberty),
and that (6 b} the pretended confession
of the secretary was
only
collusion to lay the jealousiesof the king's (d] (n a] favouring
him, (30) notwithstanding
(e)(43) which still hung upon
popery,
his (e} writing on
the Revelation, and his (e) affecting
to enter
all occasions
into controversy, (e)asserting in particularthat
on
89.* "Yet,
the
Pope
when
Antichrist."
was
(a) "expulsion
that
from."
was
Begin
it
that
was
a
soon
new
"
(b)
sentence
said, 'was
pretended
a
manifested
"
:
"c.'"
by
'The
sentence
his pardon
to
death
and
a
pretence
liberation."
(c)
"
secretary's pretended confession,'
'*
the
the suspicion that
king
(d)
Exercises.
60
94.
regret that I have
"I
which
(a) (3) intelligence
some
which
and
(ioa)fs
tell you
I must
at once,
of a most ($}painful nature,
it
should
of your
I
like
to
account
(40
on
(c)
a]
defer
though (b]
had
because
(c} (40 a] you have
already
ill-health,and
many
the
natural
dislike
which
and
to
(8) a
troubles,
(40 a] owing
is unpleasant.
friend must
always feel to say that (10 f) which
Many old friends in this district have turned against you : I
faithful to
: only (21) I remain
scarcely like to write the words
sure
you will believe
you, and I am
interests."
which
is best for your
"
(a)
(3) In
news."
if
a
a
is
period
letter these
and
"because
because
of
...
remain
of your
."
come
they
is
(iof)
that
doing
am
(30)
must
....
I
should
words
desired, they
(c) Write
troubles
that
;
are
last, after
ill-health
but
"
pleasant."
un-
and
the
....
back
word
that the enemy
had
sent
general at once
other
the
side
of
the
river,and [(35)or (37)]
suddenly appeared on
have shown
// would
then (a) retreated,
(b} //was
that(/;)
thought
95.
"The
his (3) part if he had
attacked
the
(c) (i) fortitude on
tenable
than
which
for
week
not
were
a
more
(d}
fortifications,
the (54) universal
Such
at all events.
was
opinion, at (23) least,
of (54) all the soldiers."
more
Point
(a)
the
have
shown
(b )"It was
thought he would
ambiguity,
and
fortitude
(c) Distinguish between
(d)
"bravery."
be
if " that "
for
would
the
substituted
were
meaning
out
"c."
"
What
"which"?
"
"
96.
since
A
It will
Who
so
morose
are
"
has
this
attained"
powerful that, unless
who
less
are
liable
Ministry
Write
?
it is
"
of
"which,"
these
go
"and
on,
that
this notion
has
(a)
it
become
."
.
.
.
habituallysilent (a) (3) by dispositionand
to
the
fault
are
habitually (a) (3) fond
(3) a pleasant disposition"
Each
is to
dispersed
who
(a)
for
has
what
"Those
97.
substitute
to
sprung
up that the Premier, though he can
has
and
attained
influence
which
an
govern,
notion
or
better
perhaps
they. "
legislate,cannot
it imperative, if
renders
should
be dispersed."
(a)
be
"
periphrases
must
of
exaggerating than those
of talking, and (40 a] of (a)
be
condensed
into
a
jective.
single ad-
author, (a)(31) though he is not (b}altogether(^guiltless
of
which
to be
of
are
(c)faults
exaggeration,
in those
found
in his latest works
he (d)
which
as
as
plentifully
his
when
he was
career
as
an
author, yet,
published
beginning
all
who
those
these
were
surpassed
(e)defects,
notwithstanding
living
98.
This
(b} occasional
61
Exercises.
at the
he
(/)
could,
it were,
as
in the
and
see
power
which
he drew
with
"who
the
could
not
that
power
a
(g) manner
clear
into the feelingsof
indeed
toward
(/)
perused his works"
(f)
(a)
"
in the
him
with
time
same
the
himself
(54).
See
in which
people
be (f)
large,
at
resisted
sympathy
"
"
of those
(") One of these
parenthesisinto a separate sentence.
dense
One
of these is unnecessary,
(if)Con(":)
words
these
as
(e) Omit
unnecessary.
word,
(g) clearness with."
{f) Express all this in one
the
Convert
is unnecessary.
earliest."
"his
:
words
"
"
the North
Among
99.
heard
of the
rushed
from
perpetrationof similar
the
room
his tale half told,
Make
(a)
it evident
American
whether
Indians,
his
use
his
regiment, out
inspiredevery one
"
Begin,
Out
he
"
101.
right
of
who
were
"
that"
repetitionof
be replaced by some
is
can
"
102.
in the
It
happened
House
being
who
Point
out
the
day before, (19)
Though
wounded
had
shown
then
officer
his
(a) that
"c
and
.
must
there
"
have
(10 b] will
forgive the
fill."
to
suit what
were
."
.
.
intelligence(b) (18)
objectionable. Use
other conjunction to
not
been
officer left in
only
considerations
that at this time
(8) could
had
Prime
"
(b} "and
precedes.
few
a
be
and
Radicals
Minister
for
"
Christian.
a
he
(41) other
as
and
the
the
"
"c
are
selectingan
weight when we
that
will task
in
a
placed
position
his fidelity"
(a) The
alive
and
in the recent
charge
time
the
was
bravery
The
last
the
at
and
arm,
"
well
as
the
stood,
lived
the North
among
is " horror-stricken."
who
painful operation
wounded
officers
twenty
headed."
Moral
heading
he
his crime"
at
once
show
this
admiration.
of
had
in
twenty
with
speaker
under
"His(i)
bravery
(I )fortitudehe had shown
action, (30) though he was
to
the
not, and
or
indeed
I had
where
wretch
(30) horror-stricken
100.
unable
Indians
atrocities ; but it seemed
tolerabl
inin a civilized land : and I
things should occur
at once,
leaving the
that such
with
(a) (23) American
difference
of
meaning, according
as
we
read
"who"
or
"that."
103.
of
and
were
"//
cannot
would
men
be doubted
be
left poor
and
indisposition,
taken
out
imaginations as
(a) The
one
minds
(a) would,
(which
original)is
meaning
in the
"
to
vain
and
the
minds
of
things,full
shrunken
unpleasing
of men's
the
'(15b] that
themselves,
of
if
false
opinions,
(15 a) like"
a
vast
melancholy
(32) there
valuations,
cannot
easily be
castles
in the air/' "pleasant fancies."
more
ber
num-
tersely expressed
than
62
Exercises.
"
104.
His
God
ordinaryworks
mind
atheism
to
religion. (44)
to
scattered, it
the chain
in
men's
While
may
acknowledge
the mind
confederate
atheism
of
to
(44)
That
school
which
clearly demonstrates
most
back
second
causes
upon
when
it beholds
; (44)
together,it must needs
them
linked
and
minds
looks
man
in
rest
Providence.
a
of
a
philosophy brings
sometimes
of them
accused
refute it. (a) A
depth
:
miracle
refute atheism, because
little philosophy inclines man's
wrought
never
the
is most
truth
of
"
religion.
(a)
Insert
"
suspensive conjunction.
a
See
(34).
The
spiritof Liberty and the spiritof Nationalitywere
for all dead
for a time
once
a
pious duty,
; (a) (5) it might be
but
it could
continue
not
always expedient or
(c) (15) "(18)
to (b}(13) mourn
profitable
(c)(15 a) for their loss. Yet this is
the (b}(13)feelingof the age of Trajan."
105.
(a)
Omit.
(b)
Notice
by
"
"
by
the
this
force
(a)
of
with
most
in
(a)
"
a
it to have
find
for
dead
.
.
one,
To
or
the
a
"
sentence:
new
the
ball ; to
It
occasion,
was
a
force
"c."
description
amused
himself
of
inferior
authors
as
a
an
the
"
have
(d) What
done"
is the word
with
"
a
the
for "that
central
some
passed (a)(3) in
write
and
by writing
sentence
"like
some
authors."
instead
poet
which
of
....
happens
around
object?"
manner
self-satisfied
own
through
course
againstthe
; to
tide
the sole title to
English ministers a peculiarart of (d} sporting
of a nation's destiny
heavy, the awful responsibility
jaunty grace of a juggler (I l) (e)playing with his golden
have
joked and intrigued,and bribed and (/) deceived^
distinction
with
(b)
generations
many
their
of office,letting things take
years
never
have
sagacity,
(b} sailed with consummate
of popular (c]judgment ; to have left on record as
the
been
tempest."
in connection
have
twenty
with
of the force
nature
Longinus highlyrecommends
because
(a) (5)(c]he has not
poet." (3) Omit
has."
"
the
was
almost
(b) Begin
upon
(c) Suspend
108.
"to
than
mentions,
he
The
.
therefore, by
emphatic
more
effected, (a) we
was
words,
raging of
the
it evident
are
(b} (15 a) have done, (30) but (c)
has
gathered together those (a1)(I ) events which are
apt to terrifythe imagination,and (35) reallyhappen
whom
he
because
the
these
little fancies
genius,
words
(15 b) what
seemed
by Homer,
storm
a
had
I remember
"
Make
sentence.
these
(c)
shown
theology."
Omit
107.
next
ask
we
change
that
of
"(38)
"
or
"c."
(a) If
which
the
by their grave;" "attitude."
profitable are emphatic, as is
weeping
expedient
position,that
mourn
"
sit
"
in
yet
their
106.
"To
that
among
Exercises.
having done nothing (g\ (h) either for the
indeed
he
did
worse
religion(for (/')which
result of
the
with
for
(h} or
nothing), (h}
for
or
basis
miserable
on
for the honour
science, (h} or
prosperityof
which
the
the
poor,
than
or
cord
con-
nation, (38) is surely
reputationof
man
great (15) states-
a
(15 a] founded"
be (k)
can
and
art
the financial
even
or
a
63
implies will and effort: use a word
(") "Sail"
(a) "complacently."
to
as
a
to
contrast
helpless ship, so
peculiar
paradoxically
with
sagacity." (c) Use a word
implying less thought and
is too
often
write
deliberation.
ing"
"bearrepeated;
(rf) With
introduce
the illustration
as
to
so
abruptly, (e) "tossing."
word
of
a
implying a particular kind
deceit," not
(/) Use
the
but
to
next
(g) Insert the word
"lying."
"lying,"
thing
with
a
preceding and intensifying adverb, "absolutely nothing."
either," "or," repeat
(/") Instead of
nothing." (i) The parenthesis
breaks
the
Write
than
rhythm.
"nothing, or
worse
nothing." (k) to found."
"
"
"
"
"
(i)conscious that
glance at the clock will make
you
in the
I therefore
ask
it is nearly three
morning, and
you,
of
this
instead
to
time,
wasting more
gentlemen,
question
put
to yourselves, Are
or
are
we
not, here, for the purpose
we,
truth
?
of (l) eliminatingthe
"
109.
A
'
' "
member, so far
speech of the Right Honourable
from
unravelling (14) the obscurities of this knotty question, is
eminently calculated to mislead his supporters (a) (Sa) who have
be (b)(23) almost asserted
It may
made
not
a specialstudy of it.
he
has made
that the very
of every
statement
(8) which
(i)
"The
no.
is the fact."
converse
(a)
meaning
The
to
appears
be,
"
who
:
supporters
is so grrat
that
that"
his
"
111.
provisions of
of the
Parliament
Point
out
"
the
Mrs.
vote
in the
(a) Substitute
113. "The
cloud of evil
his
"all
supporters," but
of writing "his
convenience
I should
be
the
of Canada
disposed
to
use
await
and
"these
of
supporters
"that."
(6)
juxtapositionof
"
almost."
(8) require the
treaty which
meaning conveyed by which,
its
assembling."
by
that.
(26),in opposition to the
been a reaction
of the press, that (a) there had
suffrage,that there had reallybeen a gain of
Smith
demonstrated
House
of
general dictum
against woman's
one
not
not
asserted,"requires the
"The
consent
112.
Every,"
"
the
"
instead
Commons."
of," and
erase
the
second
"
practiceof smoking hangs like
the country."
over
that."
a
gigantic(14 a)
EXERCISES.
CONTINUOUS
CLEARNESS.
THE
exercises
following
Butler,
and
other
and
lost.
this, and
the
the
is
It
The
the
that
necessary
in mind
bear
altered
in
that
of
the
student
sole
to
will
style,
author's
the
old-fashioned
the
view
a
version
unity
of
Burnet,
with
modernized
charm
of
pleasant ring
highly
should
and
ambiguity.
the
to
original
respects.
from
extracts
The
obscurity and
necessarily be inferior
some
of
modernized
Clarendon,
remove
in
consist
and
duality,
indivi-
English,
should
is
object
are
recognize
show
to
how
been
clearly expressed.
more
might have
have
been
not
altered,
being in
as
Occasionally expressions
themselves
obscure
or
objectionable, but as indicating a habit of
in
the
which
For
beware.
extract
beginners should
example,
from
is
often
in
the
he
because,
altered, not
Burnet,
particular
because
the
but
Burnet'
obscurity,
s
context,
presents
pronoun
any
habit
of repeating
he is faulty.
in
These
exercises
used
The
be
two
can
pupil may
ways.
either
be
have
his book
and
the
for
on
questioned
reasons
open
each
have
versions, he may
alteration, or, after studying the two
the original version
dictated
and
he
then
to
him,
reproduce
may
the parallel version, or
like
it,
on
something
paper.
in each
meaning
case
LORD
The
principal
(43),
use
(5),
pronouns
faults
in
CLARENDON.
this
for
phrases
of
excessive
style
words
separation
long heterogeneous
are,
(47 a), ambiguous
of
words
tences
sen-
of
use
grammatically
nected
con-
together (19).
ORIGINAL
It
(44)
tinent
(50)
The
be
not
place
to
the
constitution
original metaphor
the
it is better
is
metaphor
to
avoid
the
in
now,
plain,
this
VERSION.
far
as
as
prodigious
an
present
take
place
in
of both
and
how
the*
to
uses
so
And
imper-
discourse,
this
and
temper
PARALLEL
unnatural
present
in
Though
will
nor
down
1
VERSION.
common
appearance
set
the
crown
as
as
scarcely
of
confusion.
a
which
prop,
to
be
order
to
ex-
possible, how
alteration
so
short
a
royal
seems
regarded
as
so
could
time,
power
a
confusion.
a
metaphor,
Clearness.
Parliament, and (34)
court
itself,
(30) that (5)
of
the
to
it may
be the less wondered
at,
that so prodigiousan alteration
should
(37) the
time, and
itself
appear
were
fallen
neither
follows
the
only
of
of
the
to
or
and
of Church
or
were
set
the
the
on
all
foot
to
the
all that
We
sometimes
.overeign," "the
a
for
the
for
the
to
intention
no
Church
was
to
State.
or
from
the
very
to
necessary
conceivable
every
sort
re-
device
of perverting
purpose
honest
bellion.
majority into re-
With
They were
dangers
that
and
the
some,
addressed
not
that
the
this
appeal was
their
to
patriotism.
warned
that
the
"of
[all
threatened
precious in]the liberty
of the
property
subject,
was
if the
laws
subservient
to
government
deed,
In-
country.
be doubted
in
outset, it
if
feel
to
great affection
constitutional
Consequently,
for
court,
loyal respect
and
alteration
their
say, brieflybut
then temper," "c.
the
the peace
of the kingdom
make
considerable
any
to
or
ous
preci-
of wisdom
whose
majorityhad
break
(43)
Commons
men
many
ancient
the
front the
subject(19) in
were
most
tions
inven-
was
of
it cannot
to
Lords.)
House
of
liberty and their property, by
tering
overthrowing (47 a) or overmasthe law, and
jecting
(47 a) subit to an
arbitrary (47 a)
and
by countenancing
power,
Popery to the subversion of the
Protestant
religion,"and then,
1
court
judgment
high
posed
position and great wealth disdifference
them, in spiteof their in-
the
ment
govern:
the
king,
(15) beginning to work
upon
(5) them, and (n) corrupt (5)
them, (43) (45) by suggestions
"of
the
dangers (8) which
threatened
the
and
a
dom,
king-
State
(18)
of Parliament,
of
of
to
able
consider-
any
alteration
therefore
mind
no
in
Houses
also
House
there
plentiful
of
peace
make
of both
In
(7) being possessed
had
who
men
the1
present
composition, not
and
the
Commons
unfortunes,though they were
the
devoted
to
court,
enough
(19)had all imaginable duty for
affection to the
the king, and
established (47 a)
government
by law or ancient custom
; (43)
and
without
the
doubt,
major
consisted
that
body
(54)
part of
break
of
but
descriptionof
and
great
nity,
dig-
itself.
of wisdom
persons
gravity,who
able
un-
naturally,
most
account
(47 a)
a
of
House
support
temper
port
sup-
to be
as
itself,its
it comes
some
majesty,
own
many
and
will be
where
a
low
so
its faithful servants, it
of use to set down
here,
or
faithfulto it.
(Here
In
so
would
who
those
nor
its
nor
short
crown
that it could
low,
so
in
made
be
fall
could
of
Houses
Popery
the
to
was
to
were
be
made
despotism,
to be
subversion
and
encouraged
of
the
testant
Pro-
religion.'*
perhaps idiomatically, the
"
then
66
Continuous
Exercises.
by infusing terrible apprehensions
into some,
and
their fears,
upon
ing
work-
so
(6b) "of
in
called
( 1 1 a] being
question
for somewhat
had
done,"
they
stand
by which (5) they would
in need of (5) their protection ;
and
(43) (45) raisingthe hopes
of others,
that, by concurwith
a)
(5) them
ring (47
(5)
"
they should
be
offices
honours
and
of
there
were
too
misled
and
temptations
than
fierceness
barbarityof their
and
(19)
no
had
they
court
and
;
government
vested,nor
(47 a) was
had
who
would
then
done,
stand
in
of
those who
help
them
this
giving
In others,
timely warning."
and
were
hopes
excited,
offices,
were
now
and
out
preferments
the
as
were
of adhesion.
reward
many
there
that
malice
against
the
had
tracted
con-
the Church
the
and
leaders
of
not
conspiracywere
many.
flock was
missive,
large and subbut
the
shepherds
The
the
their
barbarity
they
But
court.
the
needed
than
temptation
by
tions,
tempta-
some
fierceness and
the
of
indeed
the
and
of these
were
very
few.
were
lead,
to
multitude
a
were
disposed
was
other
led away
were
many
other
or
the absolute
authority (13)
(13)
were
had
they
of the
innate
and
the
though
need
no
the
against
ber
(43) yet the numgreat of those in
not
was
rest
they
and
contracted
againstthe Church
there
and
one
other
from
natures,
own
malice
whom
something
others
needed
the
for
Too
corrupted
many
these
several
by
temptations,
(40 a) who
(47 a)
others
"There
appealed to.
was
"that
danger," so1 it was
said,
they might be called to account
held
any
of
preferment." Though
kind
and
and
fears
honours,
obtain
to
sure
The
to
follow.
(44)(30) Mr. Pym
of greatest experience
in parliaments,where
the
as
upon
Of
looked
was
man
long,
(50)
very
of
always (50) a man
officer
in
business,(7) being an
of a
the Exchequer, (43) and
good reputation generally,(30)
inclined
to be
though known
and
of
Puritan
against the
leading
wholly
The
party
furious
those
1
in
rest
he
was
the
to
was
Pym
superior to all the
parliamentary experience.
To
this
advantage
thought
served
had
he
these, Mr.
Church
men
devoted
were,
to
;
to
and
the
inclined
other
he
of
personalityof the tempters
kept in the background.
be
set
(44)
Earl
of
his
business
continuous
in the
party, yet he
the other
the
from
He
Exchequer.
had
also a
good
reputation
generally ; for, though known
resolutions
as
habits
acquired
service
not
yet
added
and
to
was
the
not
against the
so
Puritan
cally
fanati-
Church
as
leaders.
In
this
spect
re-
resembled
the
Earl
of
organizers of the conspiracy is
posely
pur-
68
Continuous
founa in Parliament, (30) (43)
it was
(44) when
covered
quickly dishe
the
that,as
ling
darwas
of his father, so
(5) he
like to make
was
soever
good whathad
he
for many
years
Exercises.
Parliament.
Then,
indeed, it
that
quickly
likely to fulfil even
fond
hopes of his father
the
high promise of
discovered
was
he
was
the
and
years.
many
promised.
The
(5)
was
a
other, Sir
of
man
H.
Vane,
great natural
*
(45) and of very profound
dissimulation,of a quick
conception,and of very ready,
parts
and
sharp,
weighty
Fiennes'
coadjutor, Sir
Vane,
was
natural
ability.1
Quick
a
and
H.
great
in understanding
impenetrable
dissembling,he
with
of
man
could
also
in
speak
aspect, which, though it might
point, and
weight. His singular appearance,
though it might naturally
naturally proceed
proceed
He
father
had
and
which
an
life made
and
very
in Oxford,
the
great exactness,
after
his
care
not
(43)
he
a
not
full
reverence,
that he had
the
form
the
turgy,
Li-
generally
who
where
Oxford,
at
Magdalen
In
much
to
sentence
he
studied
spite
supervision of
very
by
tutor,
Soon
after
spent
and
a
a
severe
leaving
in
of
an
the
by
Church,
not,
were
is
a
which
he
After
he
ceived
con-
hatred
not
many,
was
also
but
Liturgy,which was
and general reverence.
or
by his
displeasureof
at
was
the
in France,
Geneva.
intense
at
worthy
morality.
Oxford
littletime
some
more
the
not
was
characterized, in
please,
dis-
able,
highly conformexceedingly sharp
This
by
behaviour
College,
of
disliked
against the
held in great
cur,
seeming to ingiddiness, the
his father, who
that time, beside strictly
forming
conto the Church
himself,
very
bitter
stillappeared
against those
confirmed
was
of his life. His
whole
Incurring
(30) (43) his father, who
who
thing
some-
extraordinary,an impression
that
even
were
other.
giddiness,which
displeased,or seemed
and
in him
the
only against the government
then
his
belief
beauty,
with
men
prejudice
(15 a)
many
for their
impressed
yet
who
parents,
returning to England,
and
was
his
(43)
England,
against
of those
friends to (5) the
with
spent
and,
;
of the government
(43) which
great
very
with
againstthe
both
Church,
a
lived
bitterness
and
of
into
retuni
(38) contracted
in
College
(43) though
Geneva
in
more
his
in France, and
little time
some
time
from
where,
tutor, he
worthy
tion.
imagina-
from
noted
not
were
traordinary
ex-
Magdalen
under
promptness,
whole
short
returned
in
was
that
a
of
(52) his
good
he
persons,
think there
in him
Within
he
of
neither
men
:
after
his
beautiful
somewhat
studies
from
mother,
were
yet (19) made
was
expression.
(50) unusual
left his home
This
preliminary summary
against
conformists,
Non-
Vane
the young
for New
England.
colony had
of what
been
follows.
planted
Clearness.
transportedhimself into
New
England, (43) a colony
within few years before planted
of all religions,1
by a mixture
which
disposed the professors
(5)
he
dislike
to
the
the
who
to
choose
government
and
charter
under
that
choosing
man
to
hence,
nor
years
the
them
of
scruple amongst
complying with those
so
:
from
far
men
tions
obligain
were,
He
(45)
there,
landed
made
was
no
sooner
his
but
parts
him
quickly taken notice
of, (26) and very probably his
quality,being the eldest son of
a
Privy-councillor,
might give
him
advantage
some
season
of
for
came
their
the
was
their governor:
(30)(45)
(43) in which place he had so ill
(26)(his working
unquiet fancy raising and
a
and
fusing
in-
scruples of
conscience, which
not
nor
1
(5) they had
with
brought over
them,
heard of before) (19) that he
"
If
which"
their differences
that
but
2
I have
The
between
were
found
is used
"
;
of
here
if it is used
a
nature
difference
following words
the infancy and
also
with
the
arrival
this
was
had
he
landed
to
notice
:
he
was
of
changed.
than
all
Vane
No
sooner
his
ability,
his
extent
perhaps to some
eldest
of
son
a
position, as
recommended
Privy-councillor,
and
him
election
and
at
the
chosen
new
next
vernor.
Go-
post, his restless
and
unquiet imagination found
opportunity for creating and
tious
consciendiffusinga thousand
scruplesthat had not been
or
ever
brought over,
even
heard
of, by the colonists.
His
proved
government
failure
:
governor
and,
mutually
(45) governed
Vane
parted.
a
satisfied,
disand
re-
according to Rule (8),the meaning is,(a) "and
for
gions
that,"the meaning will be, (b) all reliI believe (a) is the meaning
to
dispose "c."
;
"
"
of opinion on the question.
to be emphatic, bringing out
appear
the
supremacy."
been
had
slightest scruple.
Indeed,
lawfuloaths
scruples against
"2
unknown
in the infancy
were
of the English schism.
But
In his
election
magistrates,he
thousand
oaths
the
for many
years
the
afterwards,without exciting
next
chosen
fortune
take
allegianceand
much
inso-
;
the
(51) that, when
should
not
but
infancy (i$}of their schism,
refusing to take lawful
oaths.
own
nal
only by all the origion
planters, receiving their
charter, before
leaving England,
was
after
least
the
of
taken,
selves
they transported themfrom
it
their
These
"
in many
of the
government
happened
privilege(accorded
king's charter) of
man
every
oaths
the
premacy
suallegiance and
which
(30) (43) (5)
;
all the first planters did, when
their
charter,
they received
there
religions,
J
disposed them
ment
governject
subwas
governors
this obligation,"that
of
before
of
men
and
own
take
by
and
Now,
their
the
by
governors,
should
sorts
Church.
obligation, "that
the
every
oaths
their
of
to dislike the
king's
the
before
years
their differences
(30) (43)
by
qualified
(44) were
few
all
of
government
Church;
a
development
of schism.
the difference
Continuous
unsatisfied with
with
him,
himself
and
retransported
England ; (30)(43)
into
(44) having
sowed
such
there,as
prosperously,and
divided
into several
they
he
of dissension
too
them
Exercises.
turned
to
till he
had
England, but not
accomplished his
mischievous
seed
had
task,
the
sown
miserable
grew up
ably
miser-
seeds
of
those
dissensions
afterwards
the
till he
not
which
only
grew
too
perously,
pros-
till
colony
poor
sions
factions,and divi-
they split the
wretched
colony into distinct,
and
hostile,
mutually persecuting
and
persecutions of each
(15 a] other (30) (43) which
still continue
to the great (54)
prejudice of that plantation:
insomuch
of (5) them,
as
some
the
of
their first
ground
upon
expedition, liberty of conscience,
factions.
His
work
handi-
,
have
withdrawn
from
and
from
the
it is
-remains, and
owing to (15) him that some
of the colonists,on the pretext
of
liberty of conscience, the
of their emigration,
originalcause
selves
them-
their
(5)
obtained
still
from
tion,
jurisdic-
other
fresh
of
men
government, they have enlarged
their plantations,within
new
limits
to
adjacent
(5) (15 a)
forms
of
the other.
borders
colonial
have
obtained
from
charters
These
(30) (43)
forms
other
selves
them-
old
the
and
jurisdiction
ters
char-
king, by which,
in
withdrawn
have
the
king.
established
have
government,
new
unduly
their boundaries, and
the
rival settlements
on
enlarged
set
up
of the
originalcolony.
BURNET.
The
principalfaults
(see 43)
sentences
styleare
in Burnet's
(b]
;
(a) the
of heterogeneous
use
of suspense
want
(see
the
omission
(d]
(see 5) ;
the
of pronouns
30)
;
of
(c) the ambiguous use
and an excessive use of and
connecting adverbs and conjunctions,
one
topic to
abruptness in passing from
(see 44) ; and (e) an
faults necessarily
correction of these
another
(see 45). The
lengthens the
honour
his
maintaining
the
of
foreign countries
(l)vanity which
nation
of which
he
was
carefulthat, though
a
head,
crowned
had
ambassadors
paid them
which
ambassadors
ever
all
in
is very natural
so
(30) (43)
(15) (17 a)
;
he
was
He
the
gratifiedthe
(50) to Englishmen
not
yet his (40 a)
(15)kings'
had
(6 b) the dignity of
:
the
he said
crown
lish
gratifiedthe Engby
feeling of self-respect
also
nation
So
foreign countries.
in all
jealous
he
was
crowned
head, he
paid
been
had
not
was
yet secured
all the respect
for his ambassadors
that
this
on
he
point that, though
a
of the
the honour
maintaining
all the respects
our
VERSION.
PARALLEL
VERSION.
ORIGINAL
And
version.
altered
of
ambassadors
The
king, he said, received
simply
as
our
the
to
kings.
the
spect
re-
nation's
Clearness.
was
the
upon
of the
account
nation, of
king was
(50)only the representative
head;
which
the
so, the nation
being the same,
he would
have
the same
gards
re-
paid to (41) his
Another2
pleased
with
of
(5) this
much.
Blake
the fleet happened^}
to be
Malaga before he made
upon Spain : (44) and some
at
his
seamen
went
met
the Host
carried
and
war
of
ashore, and
about; (44)
only paid
respect
it,but laughed at those who
of
did; (43) (30) (51) so one
the priests
put the people upon
not
this
resenting
indignity; and
and
they fell upon
(5) them
beat
them
severely. When
returned
to their ship (5)
they
they complained of (5) this
and
usage;
upon
to demand
the
the
chief
over
the
not
The
the
not
were
viceroy
he
was
in that
swered
viceroy anno
authority
the
to
of
following instance
jealousyfor the national honour
When
much.
pleased him
Blake
his
at Malaga with
was
with
before his war
fleet,
Spain,
of his
It happened that some
sailors
but
prieststo resent
the people fell
beat
their
a
kind
the
instigator of the outrage.
The
that he
viceroy answered
could not touch him, as he had
the priests.
no
authority over
their
of the
2
No
that,
complaint
(5)it,(5)he would
of antithesis
instance
has
sent
burn
sent
a
is
this ill-
within
answered
meaning
of
Blake
to the viceroy to
messenger
demand
the priest who
was
To
this Blake
"
his, and
between
yet been
"
have
and
mentioned.
and
would
people
towns-
condition
at
once
his
of
the
But
sailors.
plied
reEnglish (50) Admiral
that a complaint should
been
then
punished
the
he
The
fended
arrival,he dehimself, alleging the
insolence
"
hours,
town.
On
sent.
therefore
the nation
three
the
being in no
the priestwas
resist,
seamen.
The
On
shipthe
a
the
x
scoffers
burn
but
petulant behaviour
of
the
whereupon
usage,
the
severely.
to
complained
seamen
who
indignity,
the
on
it,
to
of
one
the
them
return
Host,
those
at
Incited
and
ing
meet-
respect
no
laughed
by
even
did.
and
processionof the
only paid
not
the
(5)Aim
ashore
within
him,
(43) and
to
going
the
if he
to
power
condition
(44) Blake
(5) he had
paid
three
word
inquirewho
not
would
if
be
nation's ministers.
The
to
;
no
1
the
same,
respect should
same
(5) they,being
to resist him,
the priest to him, (43)
sent
who
himself upon
(44)
justified
town
in
was
since
send
him
sent
the
replied,that he
intend
did
to
not
inquire to
whom
the authoritybelonged,
if
the
sent
not
but,
priestwere
sent
(i)
so
Blake
disposeofhim.
priest to
hours,
the
(15) priests, and
that
upon
that he would
the
Blake
priestwho
had
he
could
that
(l) instrument
ill-usage.
had
to
trumpet
a
nation
no
to
sent
the
ministers.
instance
him
head, and,
representative
forwarded
he
them
would
the
nation's
him,
have
severely, for
nation's, ministers."
"
to
There
ministers."
is
Continuous
have
them
punished
since
his
(5)
to
men
not
affront
the
set
on
Spaniards
for he would
it ;
only
was
so
mercy.
Cromwell
much
of
name
as
that of
ever
had
been.
were
(5) him
that
him
a
in such
dread
took
they
of
give
(43) (44) and
the
his brothers
to
king
or
Royal,
(23) within
after,(5) they
deputation to
States
give
them
that
no
tavus
Algernon
not
was
speak
1
The
:
"
of
a
that
me
the
was
spected
rename
countries
of
Cromwell
the
in such
were
that
they
to
care
free
on
not
these
; and
only
with
of Sweden
favourite
under
Charles
whom
he
confidential terms,
most
also
kingdom
Cromwell's
Gustavus,
or
was
of
name
much
as
ever
with
said, "I
the
dread
ally;
mended
com-
ally
ing
Read-
in council
other
was
under
Christina.
was
but
Both
tions
sovereigns had just nopublicliberty; at least,
of
is implied, and
favourite
conduct.
letters
Holland
The
who
think
kings,
(5) to
thought
Cromwell's
to
delighted
of
(44) CarolusGus-
well
him
this
two
should
Sydney, (io#)
back.
give him no sort of
ever
umbrage. Accordingly, whenhis brothers
the king or
Princess
the
to see
came
Royal
their sister, they were
always
warned
in a day or two
by a
Cromwell
had
that
deputation
required of the States to give
them no harbourage.
he lived in great conjunction
of counsels.
Even
(44)
inclined
him
much
was
Blake's
with
offender
entertained
sent
States
alliance
favourite
\vasSweden.1
Cromwell
took
harbour.
Cromwell's
and
;
know
(5) they
(50)
Blake
and
civilly
Among
required of
had
at his mercy,
of
send
to
them
let
Cromwell
that
the
used
having
as
came
or
only to
man."
English-
of Roman."
Princess
day
a
is
satisfied
the
hope
an
Englishman
anytime
at
sister the
their
see
when
my
all the
I shall make
to
care
trymen
counyour
work
; for I
world
know
he
great satisfaction,
of
umbrage
sort
no
on
Then,
(15 a)
States
set
do
had
the
great
The
it ill that
take
Englishman
punished by an
with
the
as
"I
an
be
with
make
Roman
(44)
Holland
to
lighted
de-
said he
; and
should
English man
an
place
"But,"
should
him
and
(5) this, (43)
great satisfaction
(6) hoped
any
will have
at his
him
the letters in council
he
lished
estab-
;
was
with
the
religion of
added,
that
be
affront
to
(5)
all the
should
they touched.
you
Englishman
punished by
satisfied that he had
read
he
the
him
sent
he
(43) (44) and
priestcivilly,
back
(30), being
he treated
and
; but
an
to be
Englishman
an
where
do
to
have
that
to know
world
place
ill,that
his sailors
allowed
lished
estab-
any
touched
it
of
none
suffer
of
religion
which
at
(5) he
(5) (6) he took
the
severely,
would
he
Exercises.
should
a
be
expressed, by
free country.".
the
words, is
Clearness.
said he
(5)had justnotions of
public liberty; (44) (43) and
added,
that
seemed
to
But
at
have
(44) she
from
us
Queen
them
a
true
the
from
All
and
was
up
the
and
over
for (5) it.
executed
our
than
Nor
offend
the
whose
keeping
up
character
of
land,1
Holof
name
him
durst
the
great (50)
fleet scoured
and
Mediterranean;
gave
up Hyde,
even
tion.
na-
dreaded
died.
Protector
then
factious
the
at
and
Cromwell,
(23)(43),
king
brought
less
Italy,no
trembled
ambassador
there
the
kept
for she
;
complained of the
unruly spiritof
till he
; and the Turks
Turks
offend him
livered
; but de-
up Hyde,
the character of an
Rome
at
Mediterranean
who
was
also held
and
(A^ a] of our princes.
at the
(44) All Italy trembled
of
seemed
and
name
Cromwell,
under
a
(i)panic as long as he
lived ; (43) his fleet scoured
the
not
He
same
her
on
commands
durst
this
me
of Gustavus.
tainly
cer-
favour
opinion of Queen
Christina
; but, if so, she was
much
I waited
changed when
her
on
royalty,assured
the
changed
with
readily comply
not
likewise.
; for she complained of
factious nation, that did
Rome
as
of
I waited
that,when
Algernon Sydney, a man
not
prejudicedin
Christina
much
was
73
in
they
for
who,
Turkey
ambassador
the
from
the
king, was
brought
England and executed.
(44) (ii a) The
brother of the
ambassador
putting the
king of Portugal's
for
death
to
very
in the strictness
nations, it
is
own
exempted
of the
only the
(4) any
(47 a)
sends him, yet
the
to him.
his
foreigners
is
of
the
brother
of
law
the
to
ambassador's
Successful
(41) (44)Cromwell
good (n) under-
was
in
than
no
nations
alone, yet
exemption
has
of
the
the
whole
suite.
abroad, Cromwell
less successful
selectingable
for
for
tion
foreignjurisdic-
practicethe
extended
practice has
of
carried
the ambassador
that
verity
se-
the
justice
For, though in
far.
from
exempts
rity
authoin
of
"
Cromwell
"
very
strictness
in favour
of all that the
gone
ambassador
owned
long
(47 a} to beshowed
towards
murder
sador's
ambas-
but his masters
instance
Portuguese ambassador
the
of
law
that
person
from
another
execution
der,
mur-
(n a) carrying justice
far ; (43)since,though
was
In
to
at
and
home
worthy
ally
public duties, especi-
nothing
of law.
for the courts
In
capable and
seeking2 out
for all employmore
nothing did he show
ments,
worthy men
his
natural
but
most
insight,
particularly clearly great
standing
\\\
more
men
in
1
The
remarks
about
Christina
are
a
digression,and
Burnet
is
now
ing
return-
by foreign nations.
"find"
is not neces2
He
not
only sought, but sought successfully. That
the
word
of
the
in the
out"
"seek
use
proved
by.
seems
irilyimplied by
out very
and
ii. 17 : "He
Ai.uthorized Version, 2 Tim.
diligently,
sought me
found me.
to
the respect
in which
Cromwell
was
held
Continuous
74
of law, (43)
for the courts
which
(lOtf)
Exercises.
(30^7)
general
a
gave
nothing contributed
popularity,
and
more
his
to
satisfaction.
BISHOP
The
in this
principalfaults
sometimes
(5), and
would
be
BUTLER.
(b) the
Some
certain that
been
(5)one
But
revelation
no
a
a
as
(15 b]
in
man
the
had
the
ness
serious-
the
simplicitycan possibly
considers
(5)so, who
of
state
religion in the
it
heathen
world
and
in
tion,
revela-
borrowed
of
(12) greatest men
thingsof the utmost
well
as
natural
It is
have
reasoned
system
have
and
which
been
(15 a)
rance
igno-
1
"To
2
It has
even
4
as
style,but
revealed
mark
tention
inatof the
even
by
doubtful
a
vital
Socrates
subject
a
of
immortality
soul ; and
then
and
lightof
the
in seriousness
sincerity
the
that
can
he
tain
main-
Nature
is
whole
It is of
deny
genuine
supersti-
in
that
impossibleto
course
some
second
4
totle
Aris-
might have reasoned
out,
its genuine simplicityand
incredible,"
inconceivable."
Wanting"
This
its
of
the
ceived
re-
sufficient ?
to
call natural
we
yet
ignorance
so
the
those
of
also
language held
on
that
in
not
"to put forward," "maintain."
pretend" once
meant
been
suggested, however, that by "in its very notion
"
is meant
able
that
out
religion, (30) in
simplicity,clear
4
the
as
and
natural
the
but
masses,
in general.
of mankind
(34) impossibleto say (12)
would
"
the
vailed
preworld
all,let him
merely
let
(41)
once
have
and
concerning
(1 1 ) importance,
inattention
who
3
of
some
But
heathen
light
to
or
spiritual
prevails
that
; above
not
as
would
the
revelation,
the
no
sense
needless
given.
the
still
truth
light from
(5) it; particularly(19) the
doubtfulness
been
in
(41)
been
revelation
no
that
regions
(5) present state
(n) places (8) which
assuredly,
a
consider
before
is in
Nature
revelation
its
those
have
before
And
in such
any man
darkness
ground
Nature
light of
have
tially
essensarily
neces-
the
lightof
itself sufficient.
ever
useless.
wanting,or
and
fictitious,
on
that
2
as
incredible
useless,
render
to
avowedly
persons
revelation
rejectall
and
think
word
a
VERSION.
Some
render
the
sufficient
been
sense
3
not
no
phrase, where
sufficient
would
had
given, (32)
Nature
such
of pronouns
use
vague
a
PARALLEL
(15) upon
sufficiency
of
pretence
the light of Nature, avowedly
reject all revelation
as, in its
(47 a) very notion, incredible,
and
what
(47 a) mtist be fictitious.
indeed
And
(32) it is
in
use
VERSION.
persons,
of the
l
light of
of
enough (47 a).
ORIGINAL
have
(a)
style are
use
is used
of the
it adds
for modern
"wanted."
particular for the general would
clearness.
be
out
of
place in
Butler's
Continuous
and
boundless
is
a
great and
affairs.
has
is
make
to
lastingimpression
human
on
that it
resources,
obviously destined
been
Its
(50) progress
(5)it"1
slow, but
that account
the
only on
be
durable.
to
likely
(5)
has
not
suddenly risen to
more
It
greatness, like the
in ancient
Alexander
that of
or
force
the
of individual
the accidents
genius, or
(54) casual fortune, but has
slowly advanced, and (40 a)
been
firmly consolidated
(15)
of ages,
during a succession
of
the
from
and
the
is, Russia
contains
marine
leagues,
million
two
square
about
one
or
the
times
and
hundred
one
Great
thousand.
below)
(40 a)
north
as
productive
a
Russian
Empire
empires of
the
and
Great
the
raised
been
poleon,
Na-
sudden
to
greatness by the genius of
fortune,
enlarged
or
the
accidents
but
has
been
and
dividuals
in-
of
slowly
firmly
dated
consoli-
tion
by well-guided ambiand
persevering energy,2
of
during a long succession
ages.
of
fertility
leled
territoryfurnish unparal-
The
her
and
extent
facilities for the increase
population
of her
the
to
one
thousand
geographical miles,
square
Ireland.
and
Britain
or
Great
of
surface
the
times
ten
the
contains
hundred
two
is,
of
west
Mountains,
Ural
power.
that
Russia,
European
Russia
and
face
sur-
twentypart, no
with
territoryis covered
forests, or
J
like
of
to
of
lies
be
food
This
by
far to
so
almost
;
mountains
Apparently "it" means,
Not
"energy," but "a
but
unno
arid
or
not
arid
no
much
territoryis
vast
(54, see
doubt, of this immense
ranges
has
land,
contain, including Ire-
which
the
The
more
Islands,
British
the
of
durability
probable.
not,
Alexander
only
progress
miles,
geographical
being
her
The
thousand
hundred
ten
fifty
hundred
four
thousand
square
of
her
million
"
and
hundred
a
ward
west-
Mountains
Ural
of the
two
Russia
the
to
the
in
(47 a)
enjoys.European
that
"
nation
strength
of
elements
no
"world
slowness
crease
facilities of in-
to furnish
and
suck
territoryare
Russian
"which
history a great
influence.
lasting
renders
of
fertility
and
extent
(54) as
course
and
on
skilfullydirected
(15^) perseveringly
energy
The
of
influence
combined
ambition
of
the
of
empire
(19)(31),
to exercise
viouslydestined
in modern,
Napoleon
from
times,
Exercises.
mountain
no
of it is rendered
unproductive of
food
though
almost
either
by
of forests,or by
northern
the
the denseness
severity of
the
"progress,"
long succession
ranges,
and
deserts;
sected
inter-
of
but
the
"
Russian
ages," needs
to
be
empire."
emphasized.
Brevity.
the
intersect
deserts
almost
above) extent, and
see
the
Arctic
the
of
capable
for the
yieldingsomething
of
use
The
man.
south
present (54) inexhaustible fields
of pasturage, and give birth to
those
and
numerous
the
empire,1as
(15^)
states,
The
of
their
(30) which
Dnieper, the
Volga,
tributary streams,
form so many
(54)
outlets into
natural
which
stretch
shivering plains
towards
Archangel
shores
the
the
of
forests of
at
fir and
ample
of
for
many
supersede
searchingin
of (54) warmth
is from
Russ.a
of
its
1
If
bowels
is
and
of
parable
incom-
form
the
the
empire.
rich arable lands
interior
to
in the
produce grain enough
support four
times
population of
yet leave
the
surplus to be
Dnieper, the
vast
a
the present
empire, and
the
transportedby
Volga, and their
into the Euxine
tributaries,
other
or
seas.
the
Sea, and
for
materials
and
supplies
for
of
and
fir,
ing
shipbuild-
of fuel
that
generations
necessity of
many
the
supersede
searching for
the
with
covered
forests of oak
furnish
will
plains
Archangel
the shores
towards
immense
These
bleak
Lastly,the cold
stretchingtowards
White
generations
the necessity
or
the
coal
(14 a)
"nothing
facture.
manu-
power
the vast
territory,and
There
Oriental
2
as
turage
pastribes
for the purposes
of the earth
Formidable
south
nomad
numerous
The
and
ing
furnish-
(54)
will
bowels
those
chief defence
Sea
immense
oak,
fuel.
stores
of
whose
the
inexhaustible
an
to
and
shipbuildingand
for
supplies
present
(54)2 inexhaustible
once
materials
White
with
(48) covered
are
of
steppes
Euxine
the
orotherseas; (44)while the cold
and
man.
The
the
in
affordpresent inhabitants,but ing
a vast
surplus for exportation
by
use
found.
be
lands
of the (54)empire produce
an
(2) incalculable
quantity
of grain,capable not
only of
maintaining four times (5) its
and
for the
all Oriental
heart
the
of
of
defence
is to
arable
rich
the
capable
horsemen
incomparable
the chief
horsemen
snows,
tribes, in whose
nomad
touches
is
yieldingsomething
of
(3)(54)
steppes of the
boundless
all,except
which
part
Arctic
is
snows,
almost
winter, yet
that
exceptingthat which
whole,
touches
(54,
vast
the
in the
Much
of
extent
great
context
Russia
we
as
of her
for the vastness
territory and
that
dread
may
requires
the
of
her
words,
rapidly
"as
of
all
states."
they
of
were
really"inexhaustible," the "necessity of searching
but
be "superseded," not
for "many,"
would
the earth"
generations.
in the
for
all
Continuous
and
rapidly increasing
Exercises.
number
(54) subjects, (5) it is still
the military
more
(5) so from
and
docile
disposition by
spirit
guished.
which
(54) * distinthey are
The
prevailing (54)
of
its
passion of the nation
and
love of conquest,
burns
the
in
free
Europe,
of
accumulated
violence
over
states.
The
all
as
how
grievances,
for
foreign aggrandizement.
In
the
people hope
to
and
of
evils
find
a
more
a
as
great
as
how
great
hope
(15)
and
in
the
domestic
the
evils,
the
a
than
in
ances.
griev-
internal
find
more
ritory,
ter-
itself
soever,
to
which
national
wastes
all
For
sians
Rus-
tion,
compensaa
conquest
sation,
compen-
of
the
world.
pensation,
com-
the
(15 a) for
all
interior
adminis"
their
Russians
energy,
the
rarely
disputes about
sation,
compen-
than
the
national
thirst
of the world
conquest
is
soever,
in the
retains
ceasingly
discipline,unimpels their united
against all adjoining
Domestic
great
of
states
strictest
The
the
territory
rarely wasted
(54) overlooked
are
of
tion
ambi-
free
states.
the
they inhabit, are
in internal
disputes.
it
the
adjoining
energies
people, great
the
forces
ceaseless
in
the
quest
con-
passion
a
Europe. This passion
unseen
spring2 which,
while
their
docility
democratic
as
standard
the
3
Western
in
the
for
prevalent
as
Russia
is
is
in
the
thirst
burning
in
missive
sub-
impels
forces
in
spring2
the
(54) under
chief and
their
fear
people.
is
does
them
cause
her
A
Western
unseen
retains
both
which
of
states
is the
of
them
ambition
democratic
for
military spirit and
(54)
(54)
(54)
this
(54) desire, which
as
(54) fiercely in
ardent
as
is the
greater
there
numbers,
increasing
tration.
The
1
words
can
be
implied,
besides
and
they
are
in the
expressed
following
sentence.
a
3
; and
spring" in
at
"
be
metaphor
The
2
retain
The
is
all
meaning
great."
is questionable
"spring,
a
; for
ought not
passion
a
besides,
the
qua
"
"
"
to
"spring,
burn
"
in
one
does
not
line, and
next.
appears
not
to
be, "great
THE
END.
as"
(is),i.e. "though
the
tory
terri-
LESSONS
ENGLISH
FOR
PEOPLE.
ENGLISH
BT
EDWIN
REV.
THE
OP
MASTER
HEAD
J. R.
'*
I look
and
for
It is not
a
fine
MODERN
OF
PROFESSOR
so
upon
much
this
speaker."
"
a
A.
THE
13
knowledge
ADAPTED
to know
as
M.A.,
English
for
as
it is
an
CICERO.
FROM
BOSTON:
ROBERTS
BROTHERS.
1876.
OF
UNIVERSITY
THE
essential
M.A.,
SCHOOL;
LONDON
SEELEY,
HISTORY
merit
OF
CITY
ABBOTT,
a
shame
Englishman,
CAMBRIDGE.
not
and
to
know
not
it;
merely
CAMBRIDGE
PRESS
OF
JOHN
:
WILSON
AND
SON.
TO
G.
REV.
MORTIMER,
W.
F.
Paul's
of St.
Prebendary
THE
late
Cathedral,
DOCTOR
MORTIMER,
We
other
have
which
who
pupils
City
the
to
for
Looking
under
study
back
the
We
pupils
of
to
the
there
those
the
of
work
City of
old
your
did
at
dedicate
us
Lessons
English
"
tude
grati-
you
let
to
you
entitled
none
by
which
to
the
that
enjoyed
we
important
more
Shakspeare,
feel
both
we
which
advantages
stimulated
were
life,
school
was
of
works
than
the
and
we
special prizes
our
of
the
Endowment.
owe
to
you
rightly,
a
debt
teachers.
their
engrossing
use
asking
have
educational
care,
school-fellows
Beaufoy
we
the
and
respect
all
by
you
for
our
upon
many
your
of
which
of
People."
English
among
the
appreciating
School,
London
little book
a
you
for
of
capable
are
of
felt
Master
beside
motives,
be
must
Head
School.
London
DEAR
D.D.,
activity
or
to
of
gratitude
Many
without
appreciate
who
having
the
not
always
have
passed
been
right
into
by
a
life
at
school
of, their
native
taught
use
owed
DEDICATION.
iv
tongue, feelingthemselves
foreignersamid
their
with
turn
country, may
the
teachers
reproach
Than
Or
unstringed viol
an
like
Or, being open,
That
touch
knows
Doubly
portcullis'dwith
encouragingus
native
our
Our
pupils,lead
as
advantages
The
on
me.
nurse,
the
the
thank
you
instrument"
of
contrary,
"cunning
to
years ; many
will
The
seems
be
that
at
number
once
of
the
educational
our
to
as
this
from
recognized,not
great
so
small
a
when
become
of
time
the
English
as
an
course,
constitute
nothing
for
English
benefit.
to
be
subjecthas
schools
study was
than
regular part
a
derived
we
the
that
anticipatethat
national
present
instruction.
to
which
more
literature
and
a
affect
did not
us
optional but
of
lips,
ignorance
on
benefits
recollection
our
and
optional,
short
the
of
study,and
the
and
tongue,
tongue.
sense
language
harmony;
teeth
a
study
to
tip,
pupil now.
a
pleasant duty,
our
more
engaoled my
my
upon
to be
far in years
the
attend
to
old to fawn
too
am
gaoler
my
cased
have
you
no
"
his hands
dull,unfeeling, barren
Too
It is
mouth
me
their
harp,
a
to tune
my
Is made
for
no
Within
I
or
cunning instrument
a
put into
And
Bolingbroke:
is to
tongue's use
My
language of
point against
some
of banished
the
have
a
critical
excited
moment
much
already taken
attention of late
it up ; others
are
Roberts
Messrs.
ENGLISH
LESSONS
E.
A.
Part
I.
Rev.
By
M.
Brothers'
A.
III.
ABBOTT,
IV.
Part
Front
object of this book
by
use
large circle of
a
i6mo.
the London
readers
; and
use
a
of
are
Selection
Price
$1.50.
is
a
right place," .is
rare
and
one,
be
of the lessons whJfch
One
which
one
of
many
the Southern
the
no
hints
can
Every time it is looked
be exhausted.
never
culture, some
its relations to the
;
Review*
phaso
new
mind
;
into view.
starts
its history; its laws
by
at
origin
The
its development
;
;
thing
every
"
it is full of interest.
about
is
Here
a
delightfulbook, by
School,
of London
Master
of Cambridge,
the
selection
and
All this in less than
be
cannot
treated
about
which
is worth
said in
saying,
very
teacher
almost
exhaustively;
Within
pages.
and
no
possibly more.
But
about
The
on
each
to
this
and
that
or
we
which
all
topic some
are
here
is
so
so
of composition;
on
Logic.
subjects
many
Metre,
except
may
hensive
compre-
vocabulary
sort
Appendix
an
this space
head
University
of the
treats
said
be
to
best things
given
more
; and
to
that
seems
of the
will desire to study
student
pleasant openings
will be thankful
book
The
It
is,unless
one
devoted, and
stimulatingway.
such
Homo.*'
appropriate
in the
History
miscellaneous.
as
hundred
are
of Modern
Ecce
the
"
of topics; Metre,
arguments
the subject into which
*'
recognized authority,
of
men
of
; Diction
three
eightypages
"
a
author
that it seems
the English Language
two
the Professor
and
notable
in its scope
to
rangemen
Ar-
for ordinary
its struggles; its triumphs ; its devices ; its puzzles ; its ethics,
of
Part
and
It is intended
years.
in the
accomplishment
The
of real abilityand
Language
on
SEELEY,
trulyadmirable.
study of Language
man
advanced
more
Front
The
Diction.
"
R.
though designed principallyfor boys, may
the right word
despise.
II.
is evidently a practicalone.
it professes to teach, "to
should
J.
Athetueum.
of
here given
PEOPLE.
Prof.
Part
Hints
"
read with advantage by many
one
and
M.A.,
Appendix.
The
ENGLISH
Vocabulary.
"
Metre.
"
FOR
Publications.
are
thoroughly
the
best
pared
pre-
for the number
of strikingillustrations gathered up
of the
the volume
his hand.
The
abundance
and
reading, without
Sold
by
all
freshness
reference
to
booksellers.
ROBERTS
quotationsmakes
very
tive
attrac-
its didactic value.
Mailed,
postpaid,
BROTHERS,
by
the
lishers,
Pub-
BOSTON.
PREFACE.
THIS
Grammar,
It
foreigners,
but
English,
of
Some
not
to
difficulties
most
help
not
it with
write
to
is
merely
to
that
lessons
in
the
the
beyond
passed
strictest
teach
sense,
;
much
Our
perhaps
may
reader
so
lessons.
to
ness.
exact-
the
possesses
but
interest,
"
have
he
profiting from
of
in
to
edge
knowl-
and
taste
presumed
that
presume
itself
familiar
a
of
and
address
not
already
knowledge
not
who
at
practical utility,the
which,
in
speak
the
in
the
and
common
when
difficulties, even
an
need
English
an
Grammar
of
does
of
as
object
write
to
;
esting
inter-
prove
routine
of
school
adapted
for
school
'
Aiming
of
having
still lessons,
classes.
and
who,
essays,
some
life,but
be
those
incapable
is, if possible,
lessons,
and
do
we
him
render
readers,
of
place
knowledge
a
its
degree
nevertheless
to
to
the
supply
to
presupposes
in
idiom
English
intended
is not
book
of
way
correctly.
insufficient
of
course
most
teaching,
serious.
For
grammatical
persons
First, there
is
;
not
the
merely
with
only
we
have
there
are
a
loose
to
many
been
attempting
cramping
those
found
has
accuracy
English
vocabulary
deals
book
to
tained,
at-
write
restriction
and
inexact
viii
PREFACE.
of
apprehension
a
of
ignorance
them
all; and
at
which
expression of
the
very
common
studied
these
last are,
thought
any
ordinary
most
but
accurately,
and
words,
as
for
that
the
deals
with
all similar.
at
are
Latin, and
words
to
his
trusts
too
knowledge
of
There
and
is also
differences
for his
their
words
very
something more
Lastly, where
much
the
a
between
has
pupil
of
knowledge
Latin
a
use
comprehension
notions.
concrete
also
to
inability
an
rule, the
a
to appreciate the
inability
that
words
other
used, and
commonly
are
them
many
absolutelynecessary
are
than
that
in using
difficulty
consequent
total
words
many
lish
Engis the
roots, there
of misderivingand misunderstanding a word, owing
possibility
ignorance of
to
of derivation
the
changes
and,
;
a
result of all this
The
another.
to
reading
very
hard
there
of
thinking it
of
and
every
"
the
on
others
are
There
of words.
words
danger
to
necessary
"
ire
teacher,who
difficulties
attendingthe
is the
horse,"
of
correctly
which
meaning
guage
lan-
one
non-understanding
a
habit
of
slovenly
acquired is
once
off.
shake
to
Then, following
words,
when
slovenly writing,which
and
is
words
of
slovenlyhalf-understanding
or
of
changes
danger
always experiences in passing from
almost
word
the
in the process
is the
misusing
pedantically
ignorance of
an
there
hand,
the other
on
misunderstanding and
derived,from
of letters introduced
"
write
instead
has
of
had
attending
choice
and
the
of
use
arrangement
fallinginto "poetic prose,"
"
of
much
steed
"
"
or
"
charger
anger," and
experience
the
in
"
stead
in-
like
;
looking
PREFACE.
examination
over
which
papers,
beginners are
in the
twice
same
and
page,
"tautology,"gives
liable.
dread
rise
often
of
to
this
Again,
there
from
circumlocutions,
humorous
objectionableand
most
avoided
the
the
by
without
extreme
to
to
tion
tempta-
is called
of
up
all
at
scraps
would-be
stylesperhaps
be
may
the
and
known
Writing. Lastly,there
fault
owing
care,
styleof
Fine
of
name
what
of
periphrases,and
offensive,which
obscurity,a
of
danger
a
"
is the
made
patchwork
poetic quotations,unmeaning
of
danger
a
using a plainword
and
simplicity,
a
is
using a plain word
fear from
senseless
a
unmanly
This
all.
with
shrink
to
that
admit
will
very
ix
which
uninflected
the
avoided
be
cannot
is
of
nature
our
language.
All
difficulties
these
much
require as
and
attention,and
teaching
in
which,
present, receive
at
of
some
text-books.
place is an
the
Grammars,
the
bull is
To
the
To
accomplishment
of
that
perhaps
truth
and
as
an
excessive
the
rightword
less valuable
not
(carefullyrecorded
often
plural of
use
subjectsfor practical
much
as
inflicted
cherub
is
as
a
task
real, and
quite as
are
fit
are
schools, quite
our
our
dangers
upon
cherubim,
and
attention
in the
than
in
points
many
right
the knowledge
English
most
pupils)
younger
the
in
feminine
of
cow.
smooth
object of
connected
is
the
reader's
the first three
with
Vocabulary
introduced, almost
through
way
Parts
are
at
of
these
this
book.
considered
once,
to
difficulties is
first.
Difficulties
The
Synonyms.
He
dent
stu-
is
PREFACE.
x
taught
how
definea word,
to
He
synonyms.
is
is laid
scheme
or
are
which
is to
the
he
reader
which
A
pursue.
enlarge
may
easilyand
naturallywith
which
often
are
often
is also
at
the
he
that, because
the
reader
time
same
knows
throughout this
without,
or
of
nature
been
selected
the
to
class
case
word, he
itself.
Exercises
which
be
can
more
with
their
against supposing
a
random
at
The
require.
may
many
;
of
practicaltest
Second
with
who
1
Part
still
necessarily
spersed
inter-
are
worked
with,
out
of
exercises
have
them
experience,and
been
have
the
have
not
subjected
been
used
in
teaching.
The
also
of
roots
terms
information
words
him
himself
abstract
Some
connect
which
as
English Etymological Dictionary,1
an
the
to
of the word
meaning
furnish
and
method
given by
or
all.
at
of
system
a
the
misused, and
caution
to
the
general
used
not
the
given to help
roots, and
knows
and
is also
and
word
a
processes
illustrate
to
vocabulary,and
those
of its
exactly follow;
can
out
misunderstood
understood
not
he
system
his
aid
from
The
meaning.
subjoined,worked
examples
the
carefullyexplained:
are
down
without
eliminate
to
its
to
Elimination
Definitionand
and
how
essential
is riot
whatever
shown
with
An
deals
detail the
beginning to
are
"
some
Part
between
the
with
distinction
write
Diction
Chambers's
or
It
often
"
English,and
of
Etymological Dictionary
First Part.
Diction.
attempts
trate
illus-
to
ignored by
sometimes
by
those
others
Prose, and that of Poetry.
is necessary
Ogilvie'swill
answer
for
pupils studying
the
purpose.
It
the
PREFACE.
endeavors
dissipatethat
to
excessive
tautology which, together
rise
pleasantry,gives
It
gives
with
the
to
in
written
venture
we
the
difference
Both
for
English, and
for
rules
think, with
to
above.
sentence
prose.
into
of
misplaced
long
a
it also examines
foreign languages
and,
teaching,
dread
style described
writing originalEnglish composition,these
used
for
writing
slang, conversation, and
translatingfrom
vulgar
fondness
a
for
clearlyand impressively
; and
between
and
vicious
practicalrules
some
xi
have
been
encouraging
results.
A
We
of Diction.
a
in
more
reading
classical
our
how
not
understand
see
writing,and
from
in
and
too, vanish
the
the
the
applied.
thought
it.
All
that he does
More
not
this
by
expand
teachers
to
inability
The
explanation
to
"
fusion.
con-
expand
heads,
the
and
of
key
important still,
perhaps, is
introduced
cannot
of
reallyastonishing
when
once
works
of this
how
it is
still
Metaphor.
a
perplex young
at
subject
teaching,that
dissipatemuch
to
Simile;"
that, if he
knows
pupil to
ones
of
exactness
pupil
arises
difficulties that
is
"expansion"
the
found
the
understand
meaning conveyed
its
many
old
sometimes
and
speaking
attempting to
been
into
Metaphor
see
in
of
course
youngest pupils readilylearn
The
to
found, in the
of Proportion to
principle
the
has
Metaphor
concludes
Metaphor
English authors,
applicationof
a
and
literal
the
express
have
and
of confusion
great deal
of
Simile
Chapter on
will
understand
a
method.
The
metaphor, he
admit
any
that
to
thing is
does
force
a
a
great
xii
PREFACE.
stride of progress.
a
which
process
himself
It is difficult
makes
it
into the belief
to
impossible for
that he
the value
exaggerate
pupil
a
understands
delude
to
he
when
of
does
not
understand.
Metre
Part
is the
subjectof
(asalso, in
great
a
read
To
the
metre
teach
the
on
the metrical
easy
in
a
task
this
Part
been
of
the
the
into detail.
that in all
We
little is
this
subject.
of the
of
may
been
in
that
suffers the
to
customs
commonest
English poets
receive
"
a
to
verting
con-
so
English
as
rather
length.
much
too
explanation,
an
will
At
schools.
rapidly
present,
perhaps known,
about
editioa of the works
inpugned
because
is in
the
of
master
(for it
fore
there-
considerable
urge
the metrical
custom
hand
and varieties
of metre
consummate
versification is
to mark
as
of the rules stated
to enter
some
elaborate
recent
ciation.
appre-
illustrations have
generally taught, and
a
pupil
in teaching
utility
practical
explainedat
to
seem
so
tioned
men-
is not
doggerel,
Many
and
desire,however,
In
the
the other
on
the different kinds
have
verse
monotonous
of
Rules
mean.
skill of
epigrammatic
lines he
found
importance
very
the
a
a
the study of English metre
probability
more
Pope,
to read
supposed.
been
metre
Chapter
assume
be
given,and
same
This
have
hit
pupils to
line into
might
as
enable
is to
hand, without
one
Chapter just
the
Part)
how
one
any
of
this
objectof
and
interest,
intelligence,
with
English Poetry
The
Part.
measure,
Second
the
belonging to
to
the Third
accent.
no
sense
sanctioned
by
in
art
of
of his
one
When
a
of
one
license)
Shakspeare,
PREFACE.
xiv
The
hints
are
possiblydelude
are
elementary,and
so
the
youngest reader
than
thing more
any
hints.
few, that they
so
into
They
study the subjectthoroughly in
when
he
has
will
leave
whatever
leisure
school
hoc.
propter
schools, forces
not
are
to
end
of
test
his
home
rather
to
1
be
accelerated
the
of
Our
Some
committed
kindly assisted
of the
to
memory
and
etc.
in
which
are
in this
quoted
180, 181, 212, 237, 238,
the
higher
such
been
this ;
forms
lessons
used
to
and
to
also
in
at
student
serve
as
classes.1
of
experience,that
possible,has
as
misprintsand
other
the
followingpages,
has
been
due
allowed
to several
task, and
illustrate
as
added
the
soon
as
found
thanks
passages
than
that
teachers
time
us
experience in
our
enabling
publication. Some
the short
correctingthem.
have
of
contents,
some
possiblybe
may
of
necessary.
published
be
life,
post hoc,
error,
paragraphs have
of the
of
meaning
pupilsmore
prepared by pupik
should
lessons
in consequence
who
as
boy
a
case,
any
the
conviction
for the purpose
book,
knowledge
inaccuracies
for
different
desire, expressed by
these
the
us
upon
the
the
lessons
A
far
stimulates
interestingthan
more
Questions on
the
knows
against the
lesson,so
after
here-
for the work
in
experience of debating societies,
our
of
be
No
interests and
teachinggoes,
and
cautioned
him
complete treatise,
a
prepared
be, if he
may
has been
induce
opportunity; but, in
all the better
that work
induction,and
ergo
and
imaginingthat they
may
to
cannot
who
style
are
friends
have
intended
repetition-lessons. See
"
us
also
to
pp.
PREFACE.
aided
with
us
labors
conclusion,
In
use
in
regarded
of
the
of
one
Abbott,
Mr.
Howard
School;
Assistant
the
of
Edwin
Mr.
Phil-
one
Uppingham
the
who
some
have
English
exhaustive
an
It
foreigners.
a
hope
have
ventured
People.
that
repeat
we
as
present
entertain
we
Quick,
and
School;
of
Master
G.
T.
and
Masters
of
School.
Harrow
be
H.
R.
Rev.
;
Philological
Mathematical
Candler,
Mr.
;
Oxford,
School
Rugby
the
of
Master
Head
the
of
Masters
Assistant
whose
Payne,
Joseph
known
College,
New
of
Fellow
late
well
are
suggestions.
practical
Mr.
mention
to
French
Norman
on
potts,
desire
we
and
valuable
many
these
Among
xv
is
passed
to
it
intended
give
it
the
of
boyhood
title
for
English
be
of
found
;
book
our
for
adapted
as
or
of
possibly
age
wish
not
primarily
state
may
the
do
treatise,
unsatisfactory
that
we
boys,
education,
not
and
English
in
unfit
this
Lessons
to
the
but,
we
for
hope
for
ROBERTS
BROTHERS*
PUBLICATIONS.
THE
INTELLECTUAL
BY
LIFE.
PHILIP
GILBERT
HAMERTON,
AUTHOR
Painter's
"A
Camp,"
"Thoughts
River,"
From
"
In many
respects this is
singularlywell
a
balanced
a
lifted above the anxieties of a
is steeped in that sweetness
which
not
eloquently preaches.
Intellectual
Compared
on
Art,"
"The
known
Un-
Animals."
cloth, gilt. Price $2.00.
the Christian
and
About
"Chapters
Square I2mo,
of
OF
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remarkable
the last and
book,
mind.
No
finelycultured
man
best production
whose
lifewas
bread-winning life could have written this work ;
and light,the virtues of which Mr. Arnold
so
with
Mr.
Hamerton's
former writings, *Th"
"
is incomparably his
Life*
best production
But
above
all,
and specially
with the largeimpartiality
charmed
of the writer.
are
as
critics,
we
Mr. Hamerton
is one
of those peculiarly
fortunate
who
have
the inclination
men
and means
his youth he has lived in an
ideal life. From
to live an
atmosphere
of culture
and
circle of thought.
light,moving with clippedwings in a charmed
Possessing a peculiarlyrefined and delicate nature, a passionate love of beauty,
and purity and
art ; and
to
gratifyhis tastes, Mr. Hamerton
having the means
has held himself
aloof from the commonplace
routine
of life; and by constant
his fellow men,
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and
has so purifiedhis intellect and
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study of books
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even
than
been
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have
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laborious
Hence
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sions,
rare
impartiality
the catholicity
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To read Mr.
lectual
Hamerton's
writings is an intelmore
able
men
the necessities of
a
ble
forciluxury. They are not boisterouslystrong, or exciting,or even
very
they are instinct with the finest feeling,the broadest sympathies, and a
of the hardphilosophic calm that acts like an opiate on the unstrung
nerves
Intellectual
wrought literaryreader.
Calm, equable, and beautiful, 'The
Life,'
when
with
contrasted
the sensational
and half digested clap-trap that forms so
of the old picture of the
literature,reminds
large a portion of contemporary
one
moving about, calm and self-possessed,
through the fightingand blaspheming
nuns,
crowds
that thronged the beleagured city."
"This
is written
book
with
to
perfect singleness of purpose
help others
towards
intellectual life,"says the Boston Daily Advertiser.
an
and
It is eminently a book
of counsel
instruction," says the Boston Post.
"
A
it seems
will take a permanent
to
book, which
us
place in literature,
York
Bays the New
Daily Mail.
;
but
"
Sold
by
all
Booksellers.
Mailed,
postpaid, by
the
Ushers,
ROBERTS
BROTHERS,
BOSTON.
Pub
Brothers*
Roberts
Messrs.
LAOCOON.
An
Essay
upon
Publications.
Limits
the
of
Painting
illustrative of various
points
Poetry. With remarks
Art.
EPHRAIM
in the History of Ancient
By GOTTHOLD
Translated
FROTHINGHAM.
i6mo.
LESSING.
by ELLEN
and
Price
$1.50.
In reference
to
by quoting
than
this work,
the
words
of
*Laocoon*
was
object of this celebrated
work
author
from
of the
each
can
from
is to show
from
who
made
enforced
boldt, were
with
of taste, and
correctness
that their
views, in which
These
beauty,
and
also from
of poetry, but in which
ami
the
:
times.
aim
common
The
The
several fine
is proved to be
arts
is the
tinct
entirelydis-
rich and
Lessing differed widely
Wieland, who
considered
he agreed with Aristotle,
by Goethe, Schiller,and
great argumentative power,
with
ago
years
of philosophy ; being limited,strictly
speaking,
in their aesthetical theories
closelyfollowed
was
moral
truth, as the great
and
"
many
that the isolation of
peculiarprovince of poetry
that of morality and
Klopstock,
better proof of its merit
no
perhaps the greatest critic of modern
of ideal actions.
and
readers
English critic uttered
an
to the exhibition
nature
give our
other is essential to their perfection,and
productionof beauty. The
both
we
Hum-
extraordinary purity and
pertinentillustrations
from
the
art
and
literature of Greece."
From
the Boston
Transcript.
for real congratulationthat Messrs.
Brothers have given
Roberts
of Lessing in a form accessible to readers ignorant of German.
of translation
of love.
labor
Miss Frothingham has evidently done her work
as
a
achievement
Her
rendering is at once
accurate, and in pure, flowing English ; an
where
the whole
of two
grammatical structure
languages
very difficult to accomplish
the general usefulness
differs so widely. It is also a feature of great value toward
of the many
from Latin
that she has appended translations
of the book
passages
authors
Greek
and
Lessing illustrates his argument.
through which
The
growing interest in our country in questions of art and criticism ought to
It is
"
the
us
a
matter
Laocoon"
class of readers.
No
for this work
a wide
thoughtful person
ever
forgets
secure
its first reading awakened
in him.
Even
said
Goethe
the outburst of enthusiasm
heavens
of it that in the confused
period of his own
youth it cleared up the whole
As an offset to such books
those
his path plain before him.
and made
as
to him
of Ruskin, marvellously rich and suggestive,but full of subjectivecaprice and dogmatism,
it teaches invaluable lessons of method.
a
Lessing was
legislatorin the
His
domain
of criticism.
so
insightwas
nearly unerring, and his knowledge so
Marshall
in
that his verdicts stand like those of a Mansfield
and accurate,
or
vast
the
courts
of law.
It created an epoch in art criticism
book
be read and re-read.
must
On
it first appeared, and its lessons are as fresh and weighty to-day as ever.
which help one
to an
ever
deeper appreciation
eysry page great principlesare developed
in art and literature.
of the works
of the great masters
.
.
The
.
when
.Sold
everywhere
by all booksellers.
Mailed,
postpaid, by
the Publishers*
ROBERTS
BROTHERS,
BOSTON.
Messrs.
Roberts
Brothers'
Publications.
GOETHE'S
HERMANN
TRANSLATED
BY
FROM
ELLEN
Frothingham's translation is something
"Miss
it presents
perusal,and
to
It is
original.
...
not
a
lipsof
poem
of
a
The
he
and
a
sweet
becomes
volume
measured
and
more
Of
the
cadences
for
argument
an
subjection,indeed, from
her
it has
but
an
its
when
age
comfort
beauty and
the
grew
of the
metre
agreeable pictureof
an
in
the
'
Longfellow's
as
reader
with
onward
a
descriptivewooing
in this
friends."
intelligent
select circle of
a
metre
same
carry
absorbed
more
aloud
read
to
the
in
and
Monthly.
itself is bewitching.
poem
in
poem
fatallyconvincing ;
so
which
around
Atlantic
"
it teaches
least for
at
serve
glad of: it lends itself
be
to
$2.00.
$1.00.
profitablyused
be
always
are
creature
a
was
woman
its sweet
geline,'
as
will
nevertheless, and
:
Price
Price
charming
could
woman
beautiful girl,which
securityof home."
"
Goethe's
which
the enlargement of the sphere
the ideal
boards.
cheaper edition,i6mo, cloth.
A
charm,
GERMAN
ILLUSTRATIONS.
Sv0, cloth,gilt,bevelled
Thin
the
THE
FROTHINGHAM.
WITH
kindly
DOROTHEA.
AND
real
Evan-
ure
pleasIt is
song.
Providence
"
Press.
"
idyl,which
this famous
modern
times.'
is
worthy
of the
familiar with
country
which
of Goethe's
Sold
can
the
breathe
works.""
the
surpass
well
the
same
German.
*
mere
which
charming
Boston
everywJiere.
Christian
always
English
can
it has
always
been
pictures
it
of
one
domestic
and
tone
of the
ardent
most
Her
scarcely
read
postpaid) by
BROTHERS,
the
by
life,the
love of
admired
Register.
Mailed,
ROBERTS
make
of the
grace
reader
the purity of
characterization,
through it,must
and
Frothingham's version.
Miss
the
of
faultless poems
most
simplicity,
tenderness,
delightwith
Its
it well, in translating
done
of the
one
preserved in
praise,and
highest
with
good service,and
a
justlycalled
been
delicacyof its
strength and
done
been
have
fail to read the poem
those
has
Nothing
these
original,and
success
has
Frothingham
Miss
Publishers,
BOSTON

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