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DECEMBER 2013 VOL 12.4
The risks and
dangers are real
How to protect yourself
and your firm
• LAWPRO cybercrime coverage and other insurance options
• How to make your passwords strong and secure
• Recognize and avoid phishing scams
…making a difference for the legal profession
LAWPRO Key Dates for 2014
Make a note of the key dates for 2014 and mark your calendars accordingly.
January 31, 2014:
On or about October 1, 2014:
Real estate and civil litigation transaction levies and forms are due
for the quarter ending December 31, 2013.
Last date to qualify for a $50 early payment discount on the 2014
policy premium (see page 13 of the 2014 Program Guide for details).
LAWPRO online filing of Professional Liability Insurance renewal
applications for 2015 is expected to begin. If you wish to file a paper
application instead, please note that paper renewal applications will
not be automatically mailed out, but it is expected that you will be
able to download a 2015 pre-populated paper renewal application
from our website on or about October 1, 2014.
April 30, 2014:
October 31, 2014:
Real estate and civil litigation transaction levies and forms are due
for the quarter ending March 31, 2014.
Real estate and civil litigation transaction levies and forms are due
for the quarter ending September 30, 2014.
April 30, 2014:
November 3, 2014:
Annual exemption forms from lawyers not practising civil litigation
or real estate in 2014 and wanting to exempt themselves from
quarterly filings are due.
E-filing discount deadline: Renewal applications filed online on or
before November 1, 2014 qualify for the e-filing discount to be applied
to the 2015 insurance premium.
July 31, 2014:
November 10, 2014:
Real estate and civil litigation transaction levies and forms are due
for the quarter ending June 30, 2014.
Renewal application filing deadline: 2015 LAWPRO insurance
applications filed/received after this date will be subject to a
surcharge equal to 30 per cent of the base premium.
February 5, 2014:
September 15, 2014:
File your LAWPRO Risk Management Credit (for Continuing
Professional Development) Declaration by this date to qualify for
the $50 premium discount on your 2015 insurance premium for each
LAWPRO-approved program (to a maximum of $100) completed by
this date.
LAWPRO customer service department can be reached at:
416-598-5899 or 1-800-410-1013, by fax at 416-599-8341
or 1-800-286-7639; or by email at [email protected]
Higher deductible for certain administrative dismissal claims
Is it true that the deductible that I will have to pay for certain
administrative dismissal claims will now be $10,000 more
than (i.e., on top of) my usual deductible amount?
In order to control claims costs related to often-preventable
administrative dismissal claims, LAWPRO has introduced a $10,000
deductible increase that will be imposed in addition to (i.e., on top
of) the insured’s existing deductible amount for claims that result
where an administrative dismissal is not set aside through steps taken
by or under the direction of LAWPRO.
More information
For more details, please see “$10,000 increase in deductible
for certain administrative dismissal claims” on page 2 of the
October issue of LAWPRO Magazine.
As well, for such claims, the deductible will be deemed to apply to
claim expenses, as well as indemnity payments and/or costs of repairs,
regardless of the deductible option selected by the lawyer.
Volume 12
Issue 4
December 2013
2 In the news
4 Editorial
34 TitlePLUS announcement!
37 Social
L PRO has a LinkedIn page, does your firm?
Social media profile: Kathleen Waters
and law firms
6 Cybercrime
The risks and dangers are real
In practice:
30 Tech
Keeping your passwords strong and secure
Protecting yourself from cybercrime dangers
Could this happen to you?
The LAWPRO $250,00 cybercrime coverage
Practice Tip
Other cyber risk insurance options
Book Review
Be ready with an Incident Response Plan
The steps you need to take
What it covers and why
Do you have the coverage you need?
Would you take the bait on a phishing scam?
Draw clients a roadmap to avoid communication claims
Publications Mail Agreement No. 40026252
Return undeliverable Canadian addresses to:
250 Yonge Street
Suite 3101, P.O. Box 3
Toronto, ON M5B 2L7
LAWPRO® (Lawyers’ Professional Indemnity Company)
® LAWPRO, TitlePLUS and practicePRO are registered trademarks of Lawyers’ Professional Indemnity Company; other marks are registered trademarks of the respective owner.
© 2013 Lawyers’ Professional Indemnity Company, except certain portions which are copyright in favour of external authors.
IN THE news
New hire in the LAWPRO finance department
LAWPRO is pleased to welcome Steve Onona to our finance department as the new director of actuarial services. Before joining LAWPRO
Mr. Onona worked at Northbridge Financial Corporation in the actuarial department. Mr. Onona attended the University College of London
where he graduated with his BSc (Hons) statistics, computing, operational research and economics.
We’re hiring:Two claims counsel positions and practicePRO counsel
We are currently seeking two claims counsel to join the LAWPRO claims team. Both are permanent full-time positions in LAWPRO’s primary
professional liability claims department. The successful candidates will have the opportunity to handle interesting cases in a variety of areas
of law. LAWPRO claims counsel interact with insured lawyers in investigating, evaluating, and resolving errors and omissions claims against them.
They manage these claims in-house or direct external legal counsel and professionals in resolving them.
LAWPRO is also looking for a dynamic and resourceful team player for our practicePRO program, our internationally recognized risk management
and claims prevention initiative. As practicePRO counsel you will develop, implement and support all aspects of practicePRO operations.
Think you would be a perfect fit, or know a colleague or friend that would? Please visit lawpro.ca/Career/default.asp for information about
how to apply.
LAWPRO external counsel recognized for their achievements,
briefed on trends and procedures
In October of this year, LAWPRO held its biennial seminar for its outside counsel. At this meeting,
several LAWPRO claims professionals and executives delivered presentations detailing emerging
claims trends, provided information about changes to procedures for working on LAWPRO
matters, and answered questions about recently-introduced improvements to the technology
we use to connect with external counsel. As always, this meeting also provided an important
opportunity to recognize the efforts and successes of our outside counsel for their important
work on behalf of Ontario lawyers.
LAWPRO employees put their charity day to good use
As part of LAWPRO’s corporate social responsibility initiative, the company grants employees
one charity day every year to use in lieu of working at the office. As an example of how our
employees have used that charity day, the group pictured at right spent a day in October
preparing over 300 sandwiches to be served through the Lawyers Feed the Hungry program
operated by the Law Society of Upper Canada.
For more information on our charity efforts please visit: lawpro.ca/AboutLawpro/lscsr.asp
LAWPRO Magazine
| Volume 12 Issue 4
IN THE news
Below is a summary of electronic communications you should have received from LAWPRO this fall. The full content of these newsletters
is available at practicepro.ca/enews.
To ensure that you receive timely information from LAWPRO about deadlines, news and other insurance program developments, please
make sure you have whitelisted [email protected]
Renew your LAWPRO exemption status for 2014:
File online now
practicePRO 15th anniversary edition of LAWPRO Magazine
September 26, October 9
A reminder and instructions for renewing your exemption status
before November 8, 2013.
September 30
LAWPRO’s practicePRO program, created to support lawyers in
building thriving practices while managing risks, was launched 15 years
ago! This webzine includes links to specific articles of the magazine.
2014 LAWPRO policy responds to changes in the
profession and related risks
October 17
In late September, Convocation of the Law Society of Upper Canada
approved LAWPRO’s program of insurance for 2014. This webzine
includes links to our October Insurance Issue of the LAWPRO Magazine,
along with links to job postings.
Insurance News
2nd REMINDER: Apply for your LAWPRO Risk Management
Credit by September 15
September 11
Reminder for lawyers to apply for the LAWPRO Risk Management
Credit by September 15th to save $100.
2013 Second quarter transaction levy filings overdue
Convocation approves LAWPRO’s insurance program
for 2014
September 27
For the fourth consecutive year, LAWPRO will hold the base premium
for the mandatory insurance program steady at $3,350. This webzine
includes additional details on the insurance program for 2014, along
with the media release and report to Convocation.
Renew your professional liability insurance for 2014
starting October 1
October 1, 15, 25; November 4, 18
A message to lawyers to E-file your 2014 insurance application by
November 1 to save $25.
Renew your firm’s professional liability insurance for
2014 now
October 2, 16, 28; November 5, 18
A message to all firms to E-file their 2014 insurance application by
November 1 to save $25.
September 18
A reminder to lawyers that we have not yet received their transaction
levy filings for the second quarter of 2013.
President & CEO: Kathleen A. Waters
LAWPRO Magazine is published by Lawyers’ Professional Indemnity Company (LAWPRO) to
update practitioners about LAWPRO’s activities and insurance programs, and to provide practical
advice on ways lawyers can minimize their exposure to potential claims.
Tel: 416-598-5800 or 1-800-410-1013 Fax: 416-599-8341 or 1-800-286-7639
Dan Pinnington
Nora Rock
[email protected]
[email protected]
Design & Production: Freeman Communications [email protected]
Rick Chard
[email protected]
This publication includes techniques which are designed to minimize the likelihood of being
sued for professional liability. The material presented does not establish, report, or create the
standard of care for lawyers. The material is not a complete analysis of any of the topics covered,
and readers should conduct their own appropriate legal research.
Interesting times
(and cybercrimes)
call for active risk reduction efforts,
not just insurance coverage
Legal systems and
their participants
have a reputation
– perhaps no longer
just – for being slow
to embrace technological change. But
while good lawyers
know that technology tools are not (at least
not yet!) a full replacement for the exercise of
professional judgment and the application
of legal knowledge, they also know that a
head-in-the-sand approach to the hurtling
evolution of computer technology is a recipe
for being trampled.
The stampede, in this analogy, involves two
different herds: the first is comprised of
honest competitors who, using technology
to their own and their clients’ advantage, will
claim an ever-increasing share of the legal
services market. The second herd is more
sinister: tech-savvy criminals increasingly
use the Internet to exploit both human and
technological vulnerabilities in their quest
to steal money and valuable information.
In the previous issue of LAWPRO Magazine
we explored the future of legal services,
LAWPRO Magazine
| Volume 12 Issue 4
and in doing so, touched on some of the
technologies driving that evolution. In this
issue, we turn our attention to the “black hats”
of the high tech world: the perpetrators
of cybercrime.
Cyber criminals have lawyers and law firms
in their sights. For one thing, lawyers’
computer systems often harbour valuable
information – not just clients’ personal
information, but also information about
pending commercial deals, trade secrets,
and intellectual property: information that
is worth money. Lawyers’ computers also,
in many cases, provide access to actual
funds, in the form of trust account monies
accessible via electronic banking.
Not only do law office computers contain
valuable information, but they can also be
fairly vulnerable from a security perspective.
Smaller firms may not have staff with the
knowledge needed to build state-of-the-art
security systems, and generally do not have
in-house computing professionals available
to monitor and respond to immediate threats.
While good-quality security products are
available at a cost that is affordable for most
small firms, the extent to which firms have
actually invested in and implemented these
protections varies widely. Cyber criminals
prey on the most vulnerable firms. When a
firm’s security system is weak, the firm can
easily become a target.
We know that law firms are targeted by
cybercriminals, because these attacks are
often in the news, and even directly reported to us via the practicePRO program’s
AvoidAClaim blog or in the form of claims.
We reviewed the issue of cyber risk in 2013,
and have introduced a $250,000 sublimit of
coverage for eligible cybercrime claims in our
2014 policy. See “The LAWPRO $250,000
cybercrime coverage: What it covers and
why” at page 25 for more information on
this coverage.
While “coverage” can be a comforting word,
lawyers would be making a big mistake in
feeling comfortably complacent about
cybercrime. The potential for losses from
cybercrime for any firm is equal to or greater
than the balance in the firm’s trust accounts
plus the value of the confidential information
contained in its computer systems. Why
greater? Because cybercrime can lead to
reputational, equipment, and business
interruption losses, too. These losses are
not covered by your LAWPRO policy.
In the article “Other cyber risk insurance
options: Do you have the coverage you need?”
on page 26, we discuss types of cybercrime
insurance coverage, other than professional
indemnity coverage, that you may want to
consider. But this information – and those
types of coverage – come with a very
important caveat: no form of insurance
coverage should be seen as a complete
answer to cybercrime.
In fact, to the extent that overly rich insurance
coverage for cyber losses creates a disincentive
to law firms to invest in appropriate security
protections, such coverage actually encourages
cyber attacks. In introducing modest sublimit
coverage, we hope to provide a small safety
net, without inspiring dangerous complacency
on the part of lawyers and exploitative
behaviour on the part of criminals.
An insurance “band-aid” is not enough.
Preventing cybercrime requires an active,
vigilant, and multi-faceted approach. It is
the responsibility of each of us to reduce
our vulnerability to cybercrime, both in
our professional and in our personal lives.
Cyber security is a complex discipline that
requires not only technical protections
(such as antivirus and anti-malware
programs), but also the learning, adoption,
and consistent application of protective
behaviours like using strong passwords
and changing them regularly.
The first step in improving your firm’s cyber
security is to educate yourself about the
nature of the risks and the approaches
available for dealing with them. In this issue,
we introduce some of the most important
cyber risks in “Cybercrime and law firms:
The risks and dangers are real” at page 6.
In “Protecting yourself from cybercrime
dangers: The steps you need to take” at
page 10, we review some of the best strategies
that firms can use to reduce their exposure
to those threats.
awareness is growing, and my behaviours are
evolving. These days, when I encounter a site
that does not allow (or require) me to choose
a “strong” password (don’t know what that
means? See the “Tech Tip: Keeping your
passwords strong and secure” on page 30!),
I find myself wondering about other aspects
of the site’s security, and about what risks I
might be incurring by doing business there.
I know that I’m gradually developing the
cyber safety instincts that will reduce my risk
of becoming a victim of cybercrime. I hope
that the articles in this issue will help other
lawyers do the same. Relying on insurance
coverage to prevent or “solve” cybercrime is
tantamount to shutting the stable door after
the horse has bolted. Only active risk
reduction will give us a fighting chance
against those who would threaten our funds,
our privacy, and our professional reputations.
Kathleen A. Waters
President & CEO
But lawyers must not stop there. Each of us
must come to embrace cyber security as an
important aspect of life-long learning. While
I don’t count myself an expert quite yet,
I’ve had my share of learning experiences.
For example, when I needed to have a
new wireless network established
for my home computer, I watched
with interest as the technician
stepped outside to see if he
could gain unauthorized
access to my system.
He couldn’t, but I was
shocked to discover the
number of unprotected
networks in my own
neighbourhood. More recently, I
learned about the differences between an
antivirus program and an anti-malware
program – the biggest take-away being,
it’s not a question of choosing one or
the other – you need both! But while
there are doubtless many other
aspects of cyber security that I will
need to investigate further, my
LAWPRO Magazine
| Volume 12 Issue 4
Cybercrime and law firms:
The risks and
dangers are real
Historians may well look back and call 2013 “The year of the hacker.” There have been numerous high-profile
data breaches involving major corporations and online services: Facebook, Apple, Twitter, Adobe, NASDAQ,
The New York Times and LexisNexis, to name just a few. Everyone reading this article likely has information
stored by at least one, if not several, of these companies.
And it doesn’t stop there. Millions of other business entities and
individuals have experienced data breaches this year, either directly
on their own computers or systems, or indirectly where there was a
data breach involving information about them that was stored with
a third party. Countless others will have lost money after being duped
in various online scams.
Law firms and lawyers take notice: cyber criminals are specifically
targeting you because they want your data or the money in your trust
account. Law firms are actually very appealing and sought-after
targets for cyber criminals for three reasons. Firstly, law firms have
large amounts of sensitive and confidential information that can be
very valuable. Secondly, law firms tend to have very large sums of
money in their bank accounts. Lastly, and not the least, relative to their
clients and based on anecdotal information, law firms tend to have
weaker security protection in place on their networks and systems.
Cybercrime has hit very close to home. In 2011, several major Bay
Street firms were targeted by hackers traced to China who appeared
LAWPRO Magazine
| Volume 12 Issue 4
to be seeking information on a multi-billion-dollar commercial transaction. In late 2012, LAWPRO handled a claim involving a significant
theft from a firm trust account by a Trojan banker virus (see sidebar
on facing page). There have likely been thousands of attempts to
breach Ontario law firm systems this year, and probably some actual
breaches as well. But we will likely never hear about them because
firms that experience breaches usually try to keep their names out
of the news.
Information on cybercrime tools and techniques is widely available
online, making it easy for even non-technical people to undertake
malicious cyber activities. But make no mistake, while rank amateurs
may launch attacks on law firms, industrial espionage on high value
targets can involve the most skilled hackers in the world including,
potentially, foreign governments.
Cyber criminals will use every tool at their disposal to attack law
firms. They will send spam and phishing messages. They will try to
install malware and create backdoors into your firm’s computers.
LAWPRO claim involving significant theft
from firm trust account by Trojan banker virus
In December, 2012, an Ontario law firm provided notice of a claim
involving the infection of one of its computers by a Trojan banker
virus. This was a very sophisticated fraud in which the firm’s
bookkeeper was induced, by a fraudster posing over the phone
as a bank representative, to key in account and password
information on her infected computer. Through the virus, the
fraudsters were able to capture this information which they then
used to access the firm’s bank account. Over the course of
several days, fraudsters wired several hundred thousand
dollars from the firm’s trust account to offshore accounts.
A more detailed review of how this fraud happened will help
you appreciate how sophisticated these frauds can be. It
appears the bookkeeper’s computer was infected when she
clicked on a link on a popular news website. Despite being the
most current version with all updates, the antivirus software
running on her computer did not recognize or stop the infection.
After being infected, the bookkeeper’s computer appeared to have
difficulties accessing the bank’s website. She got a “This site is
down for maintenance” message. This was actually not a page from
the bank’s website; rather, it was a fake or “spoofed” page pretending
to be the bank’s website. On another screen that appeared on her
computer – which also looked like it was the bank’s real website – she
was asked to enter her name and phone number. This appears to have
given the fraudsters her contact information, as later that day the
bookkeeper received a telephone call from someone, allegedly from
the firm’s bank. That caller said she was aware of the login attempts
They will look for weaknesses in security configurations and exploit
them in order to access firm networks. In very devious ways, they
will try to trick you or your staff into helping them. It is quite possible
they would target you individually, including attacking your home
computer to hack into your office systems.
The bottom line: cybercrime is a real and present danger for law
firms. All firms should work to understand the cybercrime risks they
are exposed to and take steps to reduce the likelihood they will
experience a data breach at the hands of cyber criminals.
and stated that the site had been down for maintenance. The caller said the
site had been fixed and asked the bookkeeper to try logging in again. The
bookkeeper did so, entering the primary and secondary login passwords for
the account on screens that appeared on her computer – the passwords were
not given to the person on the phone. The second password came from a
key fob password generator. This appears to have given the hacker both
passwords and access to the firm’s trust account.
On each of the following two days there were similar phone calls to the
bookkeeper from the woman who allegedly worked for the bank to “follow up
on the website access problems.” On each occasion, the bookkeeper tried
to log in again and entered the primary and secondary passwords on screens
that appeared on her computer.
The fraudsters went into the account during or immediately after each of the
three phone calls and wired funds overseas. An amount less than the balance
in the account was wired out each time. This was an infrequently used trust
account and the firm had never done wire transfers from the account. The
bank did not detect these frauds or stop the wires. The people behind this
fraud appear to have had intimate knowledge of how to send wires from a
bank account. By the terms of the banking agreements the firm had signed
with the bank, the firm was responsible for replacing the funds that were
taken out of the firm’s bank account.
Lawyers should not underestimate the sophistication of frauds targeting
trust accounts. To better protect yourself from one of these frauds, see
“Increasing your online banking safety” on page 14.
• How would your firm respond if one of its servers was hacked?
• Is your anti-malware software the most current version and is
it updated?
• Could you tell if your computer had malware on it?
• Are your computer’s security settings adequate?
• Is there a backdoor into your network?
• What would happen if a firm laptop or smartphone were lost
or stolen?
• How would you deal with a major data theft by an ex-employee?
How prepared are you?
• Is your home computer safe?
To assess your cybercrime preparedness, see if you can answer the
following questions:
• Are your passwords secure enough?
• Would you or your staff be duped by a phishing message?
The remainder of this article, and the next one, will start you on the
journey to help you understand and answer these questions. Tread
carefully and thoughtfully as the health and the future of your
practice could well rely on how well you address cybercrime risks.
LAWPRO Magazine
| Volume 12 Issue 4
The menace of malware
• Triggering a download by clicking on a link on a website.
Malicious software (“malware”) is one of the most common ways law
firm computers and networks are infiltrated and compromised by
cyber criminals. The malicious intent behind malware usually involves
gaining unauthorized access to computers or networks to steal money,
passwords or valuable information, or to cause disruptions or destroy
data. Malware can affect individual computers, firm networks and
even the operation of the Internet. In many cases, people will not
know their computer is infected with malware (see “How to recognize
if your computer is infected with malware” on page 16). Worse
yet, removing malware from a computer is often very difficult.
• Triggering a download by clicking on a link in an email, instant
message or social media post.
There are many types of malware and they usually do one or more
of the following tasks or damaging things:
• Record your keystrokes to capture usernames, passwords, credit
card numbers and other personal information you enter while
making purchases or doing online banking. This information is
then sent to cyber criminals who will use it to hack your online
accounts or systems.
• Create a “backdoor” that allows hackers to access your computer
or network without your knowledge by bypassing normal
authentication and security mechanisms.
• Disable your security settings and anti-malware software so the
malware won’t be detected.
• Use your computer to hack into other computers on your
firm’s network.
• Plugging an infected USB stick or external hard drive into your
• Downloading a program to your computer, or an app for your
tablet or smartphone.
• Installing a toolbar or other add-on to your browser.
Documents created on an infected computer can be silently infected,
and if those documents are sent as an email attachment, anyone
opening them can be infected. USB sticks or external hard drives
that are plugged into an infected computer can become infected, and
they in turn can infect other computers they are then plugged into.
Once malware gets into a firm network, it will often spread to other
computers on the same network. As they often have mixes of people
from many different firms or online communities, deal rooms and
document sharing sites can be a breeding ground for malware.
In some cases the computer user doesn’t have to do anything – some
types of malware (e.g., worms) can spread on their own without
any user actions.
While viruses and worms are the most common types of malware,
there are many other types which are described in more detail in the
adjacent “Common types of malware” sidebar.
• Take control of individual programs and even an entire computer.
• Use your computer to send email messages to the people in your
address book, who will in turn become infected if they click on
links or open attachments in these messages.
• Use your computer to send spam to thousands of people, usually
with the intent of infecting them.
• Steal the data on your computer.
• Alter or delete your files and data.
• Display unwanted pop-up windows or advertisements.
• Slow down your computer or network or prevent access to your
firm website.
• Allow someone to secretly watch you through your webcam.
Malware employs varying mechanisms to self-replicate and infect
other computers. Malware often requires some kind of deliberate
action by a user to infect a computer or hijack an online account.
For example, you can become infected with malware by doing the
following things – most of them are common tasks that occur many
times a day in every law firm:
• Opening an infected email attachment.
LAWPRO Magazine
| Volume 12 Issue 4
Many people assume, incorrectly, that the biggest cyber dangers
come from outside a law office. Statistics actually show that the
majority of incidents involving the destruction or loss of data are
perpetrated by current, soon-to-be dismissed or recently dismissed
employees. Few, if any, know more about your firm’s systems than
your employees; and few, if any, are in a better position to cause
major damage. In particular, your IT staff, employees with advanced
technology knowledge, and outside technology support people are
potentially the greatest threat. They have the greatest knowledge about
your system configurations, the technical know-how to be very
destructive, and they are often savvy enough to cover their
tracks – erasing evidence of their presence and activities. Your
cybercrime prevention efforts should address these internal
dangers as well.
Now that you are familiar with basic cybercrime dangers, review
the next article to gain an understanding of the steps you need to
take to reduce your exposures to the cybercrime dangers that
occur in law firms. ■
Dan Pinnington is vice president, claims prevention and stakeholder relations
• Just visiting a website (no need to click on a link).
Cybercrime dangers can originate inside your
firm too
Common types of malware
Malware is classified by how it propagates itself or what it does. The names and a brief
description of the common types of malware appear below:
Viruses are one of the most common types of malware
and will do one or more of the tasks and damaging things
listed in the adjacent text. Like their biological namesakes, computer
viruses propagate by making copies of themselves. When an infected
program runs, the virus will attempt to replicate itself by copying itself
into other programs, usually while completing the malicious actions
it is designed to do. Viruses often arrive in infected email attachments
or via a download triggered by a click on a link in an email or on a
website. Even just visiting a website can start an automatic download
of a virus. Some viruses will send themselves to everyone in your
contact list; others will use your computer to infect strangers as they
come with their own address lists.
After viruses, worms are one of the next most common
types of malware. Unlike a virus, a worm goes to work
on its own without attaching itself to programs or files. Worms live in
a computer’s memory and can propagate by sending themselves to
other computers in a network or across the Internet itself. As they
spread on their own, they can very quickly infect large numbers of
computers and may cause a firm’s network – or even parts of the
Internet – to be overwhelmed with traffic and slow down or stop
working all together.
Trojans are named after the wooden horse the Greeks
used to infiltrate Troy. A Trojan is a malicious program
that is disguised as, or embedded within, otherwise
legitimate-looking software. Computer users often unwittingly infect
themselves with Trojans when they download games, screensavers,
utilities, rogue security software or other enticing and usually “free”
software from the Internet. Once installed on a computer, Trojans will
automatically run in the background. Trojans are used for a variety
of purposes, but most frequently they will open a backdoor to a
computer or capture keystrokes so that sensitive information can be
collected and sent to cyber criminals. See the sidebar on page 7
for details of a large fraud involving a Trojan infection.
Like Trojans, spyware also often comes in the form
of a “free” download, but can also be installed
automatically when you click on a link or open an
attachment. Spyware will do many different things, but usually it will
collect keystrokes or other information about you that will be shared
with third parties without your consent. This can include usernames,
passwords and surfing habits.
Adware works like spyware, but will focus on your
surfing habits and will slow down or stop your browsing by taking
you to unwanted sites and/or inundating you with uncontrollable
pop-up ads while you are browsing the web.
A botnet is a collection of software robots
(“bots”) that together create an army of infected
computers (known as “zombies”) that are remotely controlled by the
originator. Your computer may be part of a botnet and you may not
even know it. On an individual level, bots will do most of the typical
malware tasks and damaging activities. When working together, botnets
are used to execute denial-of-service attacks (DoS attack) or distributed
denial-of-service attacks (DDoS attack). A DoS attack is accomplished
when thousands of computers are told to visit a particular website or
server at the same time, thereby crashing it and/or making it impossible
for regular users to access it.
Once malware is installed on a system, it is helpful if it
stays concealed to avoid detection. Rootkits accomplish
this by hiding inside the host computer’s operating system. They can
be very hard to detect and will do most of the typical malware tasks
and damaging activities.
Scareware is plain devious. While visiting a website, a
pop-up advertisement will appear with a “Your computer may be infected
with harmful spyware programs. Immediate removal may be required.
To scan, click ‘Yes’ below.” If you click “yes,” you download malware
onto your computer.
Ransomware infections are becoming much more common
recently and are usually spread by infected email attachments or
website links that trigger a download. The most common type,
Cryptolocker, will scramble all the data files on your computer with
virtually unbreakable encryption. You learn you are infected when a
pop-up window tells you that your data has been scrambled and will be
deleted unless you pay a ransom within a very short period of time,
typically 48 hours or so. The ransom is typically in the range of $100
to $300 and payable only in Bitcoins, a type of virtual currency that
makes payments untraceable. It is a relatively low amount so you have
an incentive to pay it as a nuisance; but as you are dealing with criminals,
paying it does not guarantee that you will get your data back.
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Protecting yourself from
cybercrime dangers:
The steps you
need to take
Cybercrime dangers are many, complex and ever-changing. Hardly a day goes by without another news report
of a data breach or other cyber-related scam or theft. Cyber criminals have considerable resources and expertise,
and can cause significant damage to their targets. Cyber criminals specifically target law firms as law firms
regularly have funds in their trust accounts and client data that is often very valuable. LAWPRO encourages
all law firms to make dedicated and ongoing efforts to identify and understand their potential cybercrime
vulnerabilities, and to take steps to reduce their exposure to cyber-related dangers. This article reviews the
specific cybercrime dangers law firms need to be concerned about, and how they can mitigate their risks.
It starts with support from senior management
Any effort to tackle cybercrime must start at the top. Senior partners
and firm management must be advocates of cyber security, support
the implementation of appropriate practices and policies, and allocate
sufficient resources to address cybercrime exposures. While there
are some quick fixes that can help make your office and systems more
secure (to find them see "quick fixes" opposite), most firms will
need to spend some time and money to better protect themselves
from cybercrime. This may include upgrading or installing new
technology, training staff, and changing how some tasks are done.
Firms should also put some thought into how a cyber breach – the
loss of client data or hacking of a firm server – would be handled.
Firms should have a formal incident response plan so they can avoid
making bad decisions on an ad hoc basis in the middle of a crisis.
See page 28 for an article on incident response plans.
Beyond the very practical issue of wanting to avoid being the victim
of cybercrime, remember that when using technology, lawyers and
paralegals must meet their professional obligations as outlined by the
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It is unlikely that sole practitioners and smaller firms will have
someone on staff who has the technical expertise to properly address
all relevant cyber security issues. With their larger and more complex
technology infrastructures, even medium and larger firms may also
need to seek outside help. One of the biggest dangers here is that
people just don’t realize what they don’t know when it comes to
cybercrime dangers and how to prevent them. LAWPRO encourages
firms to seek appropriate help from knowledgeable experts when
required. To identify vulnerabilities, firms may want to consider
engaging an outside expert to do a formal security assessment.
Staff education and technology use policies
You likely need expert help
lawyers’ Rules of Professional Conduct and the Paralegal Rules of
Conduct. These rules provide that you should have a reasonable
understanding of the technology used in your practice, or access to
someone who has such an understanding [Rule 2.01 of the lawyers’
Rules, Rule 3.01 of the Paralegal Rules].
As you will learn in this article, despite being technology-based, many
cybercrime dangers involve a human element. Cyber criminals create
situations in which law firm staff and lawyers will unintentionally
and unknowingly facilitate cybercrimes as they go about their
Immediately increase your
security with these “quick fixes”
3. Avoid infections with antivirus and/or anti-malware software
While some of the work that must be done to protect
a firm from cybercrime will take time and effort to
implement, there are a number of things you can do
that are fast and easy and that can be done at little or
no cost. These “quick fixes” are highlighted throughout
this issue with this quick fix logo.
5. Address security vulnerabilities by installing operating system
and program updates
4. Lock things up by using passwords properly
6. Keep the bad guys out with a firewall on your Internet connection
7. Stump hackers by changing key default settings
8. Lock down and protect your data wherever it is
common daily tasks. Educating staff to help them understand,
recognize and avoid cybercrime dangers is a critical part of reducing
cybercrime risk.
Written policies that clearly establish guidelines and requirements
governing the acceptable use of all firm technology resources can also
help reduce cyber exposures. Through technology use policies, law
firm staff should be given clear direction on what they are permitted
and not permitted to do with law firm technology resources. These
policies should use simple and non-technical language that all
employees can understand. They should be reviewed with new
employees at the commencement of employment, and on an annual
basis with all staff. It is also essential that these policies be consistently
and strictly enforced.
Every technology use policy should cover some basics. They should
clearly state that technology resources provided by the firm, including
Internet and email access, are to be used for legitimate firm activities.
Staff should understand that they have an obligation to use resources
properly and appropriately. Technology use policies should also direct
firm staff to ensure that the confidentiality of firm and client
information is protected at all times, that there is compliance with
network system security mechanisms, and that resources are not used
in a manner that would negatively affect others on the system.
Technology use policies should also indicate that the firm retains the
right to monitor any and all electronic communications and use of the
Internet to ensure the integrity of the firm’s systems and compliance
with the firm’s technology use policy. As well, the policy should
indicate that there may be sanctions for failure to comply.
You can find some sample technology use policies you can use and
adapt for your firm on practicePRO.ca.
The cybercrime dangers you need to address
The cybercrime dangers firms need to address are many and varied.
This article reviews these dangers in more detail and will help you
start on the work that is necessary to address them so you can reduce
the likelihood that cyber criminals will breach your law firm’s systems.
These topics covered in the sections to follow are:
1. Avoid the dangers of email
9. Scrub confidential client information on discarded equipment
10. Be safe when using remote access and public computers
11. Secure your mobile devices to protect the data on them
12. Harden your wireless and Bluetooth connections and use public
Wi-Fi with extreme caution
13. Be careful about putting your firm’s data in the cloud
14. Inside people can be the most dangerous
15. Be careful of the dangers of BYOD and family computers
16. A backup could save your practice after a cybercrime incident
As they can be used as a point of access to your firm’s systems, it is
critical to address the above issues on your personal smartphones
and tablets, as well as your home computers and networks.
You must address all the dangers
Don’t be tempted to ignore any of the dangers listed above, or to skip
or skimp on the steps suggested to deal with them. Remember, your
data and systems are only as safe as the weakest link in your security
plan. When you leave on vacation, you lock every door and window
in your house. Leaving just one door or window open gives a thief easy
and instant access. To protect yourself from cybercrime, it is critical
that you fully and properly address all cybercrime dangers. Cyber
criminals will look for and exploit holes in your security plan.
Note that some of the configuration changes suggested in this article
will require you to have “administrator” access to your device or
systems. Operating your computer or device with the administrator
account (or an account that has administrator status) will allow you
to freely change your configuration or settings. A regular “user”
account will not have the ability to change many device or software
settings. To prevent regular staff from changing their settings and
intentionally or unintentionally causing damage to your systems,
everyone in your office should be using a “user” account, not an
administrator account or accounts with administrator status. Doing
your day-to-day work while logged into a “user” account can also
reduce the damage that a malware infection will cause. Without
administrator access, the malware will be restricted in its abilities
to change settings on your computer.
2. Lock down your browser and avoid surfing dangers
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As a final note, you may find yourself unable to change your configuration if your firm centrally administers and controls the settings for
computers and other devices. Speak to your technology support
person if you have questions or concerns.
known to send spam, etc. Anti-spam products also use “blacklists”
that intercept messages from recognized spammers, and “whitelists”
that let messages through only if they come from your personal list
of recognized email addresses or domains (the domain is the main part
of an email address or website, for example, lawpro.ca or gmail.com).
Avoid the dangers of email
If your email program includes a spam or junk mail feature, you
should turn it on. For additional protection, consider installing a
third party spam filter. They are often included in anti-malware suites.
See page 14-15 for more information on anti-malware software.
Email has become a primary communications tool for
the legal profession. It allows virtually instant sharing
of information and documents between lawyers and
their clients. Email is also one of the most dangerous
tools in a modern law office. Infected attachments,
spam and phishing attacks delivered by email make it easy for cyber
criminals to deliver malware and breach law firm security protections.
It is essential that you educate your lawyers and staff about these
dangers and the steps they should take to use email safely.
Be wary of attachments
While email attachments are frequently used to share documents
between lawyers, law firm staff, and clients, they are also one of the
most common delivery mechanisms for malware. While most
messages that have infected attachments will be stopped if your
anti-malware software and/or spam filter are working properly and
updated, some will make it through. For this reason, everyone at a
law firm should follow these two simple rules:
1. No matter how interesting or enticing they appear to be (e.g.,
jokes, celebrity gossip or pictures), never open attachments
from strangers.
2. No matter how interesting or enticing they appear to be, never
open attachments unexpectedly sent to you by people you know.
The reason for Rule #1 should be obvious – enticing attachments from
strangers usually have a malware payload. The reason for Rule #2
might be less obvious: to trick you into feeling comfortable about
opening an attachment, some types of malware will send an email
with an infected attachment to all the address book contacts it finds
on a computer that it has just successfully infected. This is done
intentionally with hope that people getting such a message will be
comfortable opening the attachment as it came from someone they
know – and bingo – the person opening the attachment will become
infected and all their contacts will get a similar message.
Use spam filters to avoid annoying and dangerous spam
On a daily basis you undoubtedly receive unsolicited commercial
junk email, advertising or other offensive messages commonly known
as spam. Spam is not only annoying – it is also very dangerous as it
is commonly used to deliver malware (if you click on a link in the
message) and phishing scams (see the next heading).
To combat spam, many firms use spam filters that are intended to
detect unsolicited and unwanted email and prevent those messages
from getting into a user’s inbox. Spam filters use various criteria to
identify spam messages, including watching for particular words or
suspicious word patterns, messages that come from websites that are
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While spam filters can significantly reduce the amount of spam you
receive, they are not perfect. They will sometimes let spam messages
through. Advise firm staff not to open or respond to spam messages,
and to flag them as spam so that the spam filter can learn to recognize
and prevent a similar message from getting through in the future.
Links in spam messages will often cause malware to be downloaded
to your computer. For this reason, everyone at a law firm should
be told to never click on links in spam messages, no matter how
interesting or enticing they appear to be.
Don’t be fooled by phishing
Did you know that emails appearing to come from companies you
trust may actually be from criminals trying to steal your money or
identity? Because they are so successful at duping people, “phishing”
emails have quickly become one of the most common and devastating
scams on the Internet.
Phishing scams use spoofed (meaning faked or hoax) emails and
websites to trick you into revealing your personal and financial
information. By using the trusted brands and logos of online
retailers, banks, or credit card companies, phishing scammers trick
surprisingly large numbers of people. The phishing email directs
users to visit a website where they are asked to confirm or update
personal information such as: passwords; and credit card, social
insurance and bank account numbers. In doing so, people are tricked
into giving this information directly to cyber criminals, who, in
turn, use it for identity theft, financial theft or other cybercrimes.
Legitimate companies will never ask you to update your personal
information via an email message. Don’t get tricked by phishing
scams. See the “Could it happen to you” column on page 32 to
learn how to recognize and avoid phishing scams.
Lock down your browser
and avoid surfing dangers
After email, your Internet browser is probably the second
most dangerous technology tool in your office. Even
casual surfing on the web can expose you to malware
and other cyber security issues. You and your staff need
to know how to safely surf the web and configure your browsers
so that surfing is less dangerous.
Safely surf the web
Teaching your staff the following surfing “don’ts” will help you
reduce cyber-related surfing risks, and reduce the likelihood of a
malware infection:
• Don’t complete online transactions involving account information,
passwords, credit card numbers or other personal information,
unless you are on a secure connection as indicated by an “https”
in the website address (see sidebar on page 14).
• Don’t visit unknown websites, and especially music, video, or
pornography sites because they are often loaded with malware.
• Don’t use file sharing sites, or services unless you are familiar
with them and know the people you are sharing files with.
• Don’t download software, unless it’s from a reputable and
trusted site.
• Don’t download new apps (wait until downloads hit the thousands
and it is likely any malware in the app has been detected).
• Don’t download browser add-ons, plug-ins or toolbars, especially
from unknown or untrusted sites.
• Don’t click on “OK,” “Yes” or anything else in browser “pop-ups”
(the small windows that sometimes open within a browser). These
are sometimes made to look like “dialog boxes” (the windows
you change settings or options in) to make you think you are
clicking on options or settings you normally deal with. Quickly
closing all browser windows and tabs can help, especially if you
are being flooded with multiple pop-ups. On Windows-based
browsers use Ctrl+W or Alt+F4 to repeatedly close the top-most
tab or browser window. In Safari, ⌘+Shift+w will close all tabs
in the current window and ⌘+q will close all Safari windows
and tabs.
Run an antivirus or anti-malware program that runs in the background and scans for dangers (see below for more information
on anti-malware software).
If you are doing online banking for your firm trust or general
accounts, it is critical that you ensure all security risks are addressed.
See the “Increasing your online banking safety” sidebar on page 14
for the extra steps you need to take.
Beware the dangers of social media
Many people are comfortable sharing a great deal of personal information on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and other similar social
media tools. While family and friends may enjoy this information,
people should keep in mind that cyber criminals could use the same
information to assist them in personal identity theft or the hacking
of online accounts. Be cautious about the amount and type of
information you share on social media. Posting vacation pictures
while you are away or using apps that broadcast your location (e.g.
Foursquare) tells the world you are away from your home and office.
Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn and some other sites can be configured
to only let you login on a secure connection (see the adjacent sidebar
on https connections). This can prevent your account from being
hacked since your login credentials and connection are encrypted,
making it harder for someone to intercept them.
Lock down your browser
Malware programs can automatically and secretly install themselves
while you are browsing. These are called “drive-by downloads.” This
occurs when websites run scripts (small bodies of code designed to
perform a specific action) or ActiveX controls (a module of code
that adds extended functionality to the browser).
All browsers allow you to change individual configuration settings,
many of which can deal with these and other security issues. Some
browsers let you easily change multiple security or privacy settings
by choosing from different levels of security (Medium-high or high
are best). While changing browser settings can provide greater
protection, it may also prevent some websites from running properly.
While the options and terminology will change slightly between the
various browsers, these are some of the settings you should change
to lock down your browser:
• prevent pop-ups from loading (or prompt you before loading
a pop-up).
• disable JavaScript.
• don’t accept third party cookies.
• delete cookies on exit.
• clear history at close.
• disable ActiveX controls (or prompt to run ActiveX controls).
• enable automatic updates.
See the “Browser Security Settings for Chrome, Firefox and Internet
Explorer: Cybersecurity 101” webpage for detailed instruction on how
to lock down these three browsers. “iOS: Safari web settings” on the
Apple Support site has information on Safari security settings.
There are also various browser plug-ins and add-ons that can increase
browser security and warn you about suspicious activity. Widely used
WOT (Web of Trust) will warn you about untrustworthy sites
(available for all browsers).
“Pharming” is another common trick used to perpetrate scams.
Pharming takes you to a malicious and illegitimate website by
redirecting a legitimate website address. Even if the website address
is entered correctly, it can still be redirected to a fake website. The
fake site is intended to convince you that it is real and legitimate by
spoofing or looking almost identical to the actual site. When you
complete a transaction on the fake site, thinking you are on the
legitimate site, you unknowingly give your personal information
to someone with malicious intent.
You can avoid pharming sites by carefully inspecting the website
address in the address bar. Make sure you are on the site you intended
to visit and look for “https” (see sidebar on next page) before you
enter any personal information, passwords, credit card numbers, etc.
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Avoid infections with antivirus
and/or anti-malware software
The S in https means
you are on a safe and
secure connection
When logging in on any website, you should always check for a
secure connection by checking to see if the web address begins with https://..., as opposed to http://... Look for the “s”
which signals that your connection to the website is encrypted
and more resistant to snooping or tampering.
Good behaviour alone will not protect you from viruses
or other malware infections. You must run software
that will prevent and/or detect infections on your
computers, and you may want to consider it for your
tablets and smartphones too.
But what is the difference between antivirus and anti-malware
software? As explained in the “Common types of malware” sidebar
on page 9, viruses are a specific type of malware. Malware is a
Increasing your online banking safety
Many law firms manage their trust and regular bank accounts on the Internet, and some firms have the ability
to initiate various banking transactions online, including account transfers and wiring funds. While the
convenience and efficiency of online banking are huge benefits, the downside is that online banking
exposes you to security risks. The steps outlined below will help law firms to understand, address and
reduce online banking risks – for both your firm and personal accounts.
Know and understand the terms of your banking agreements: As a starting point, carefully read your bank account
and electronic banking services agreements. Make sure you
understand the obligations these agreements place on you with
respect to using the account. In particular, make sure you are
familiar with the notice requirements for unauthorized transactions,
and who is responsible for unauthorized transactions. In most
circumstances it will be you, unless in specified and usually narrow
circumstances you give prompt notice to the bank.
Remove account features you won’t use: If hackers ever
managed to get into your account, the ability to access multiple
accounts or to initiate transfers or send wires could allow them
to easily remove funds from your account. If you don’t intend to
use your online banking facility for these types of transactions,
have this functionality removed from your account.
Only do online banking from a secure firm computer: The
computer used for online firm banking should be a firm computer
that has all software updates installed, is running updated antimalware software, and is behind a firewall. To reduce the potential
for other cyber risks, consider restricting the activities that occur
on the computer used for online banking.
Have real-time protection running and run regular malware
scans on your banking computer: This should hopefully help
detect an infection as it is happening, or detect one that occurred
without triggering the real-time protection warnings. See "Avoid
infections with antivirus and/or anti-malware software" on page 14.
Never use public computers to do banking for the firm: If
doing so, passwords or account data may be accidentally stored
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on the computer or captured by malware making it accessible
to others.
Never conduct financial transactions over an unsecured
public Wi-Fi network: Communications on an unsecured Wi-Fi
connection can easily be intercepted. See additional comments
on Wi-Fi at page 20-22.
Use a secure and unique password that is changed
regularly: Your online bank account should not have the same
password as any other account. It should be a strong password
(see the Tech Tip on page 30 to learn how to create a strong
password). Online banking passwords should never be stored on
a mobile device or anywhere else that could make them easily
accessible by another person.
Check your online bank account every day: By monitoring
your daily account activity, you’ll be able to promptly identify any
unauthorized transactions or other indications that your account
has been hacked. Check the last login time and make sure it is
consistent with the last time someone from your office accessed
the account. Immediately report suspicious or unexplained activity
to your bank.
Configure email or text message activity alerts: Most
banking websites allow users to sign up for notifications. You
will then receive an email or a text message whenever a specified
amount of money is withdrawn or deposited to your account,
or if there is unusual activity such as international transactions.
Some banks will also phone a firm for confirmation that a
transaction that was initiated online is to go through.
broad term used to describe many different types of malicious code,
including viruses, but also Trojans, worms, spyware, and other threats.
Does this mean antivirus software will only protect you from viruses
and anti-malware software will protect you from all kinds of malware,
including viruses? The answer is, unfortunately, it depends. While
most of the more popular tools will scan for many types of malware,
you need to look at the specific functionality of each product to know
for sure what it will protect you from. From this point forward this
article will refer to the broader category of anti-malware software.
The options
Windows computers are prone to infections so you must run
anti-malware software on them. Microsoft Security Essentials is a
free product you can download to help protect computers running
Windows XP, Windows Vista, and Windows 7. Windows 8 includes
Windows Defender, also free. Both offer good real-time anti-malware
There are a number of widely used commercial anti-malware programs, some that come in suites that include other functionality like
anti-spam, firewalls, remote access, device location and scrubbing.
The two most widely used antivirus programs are Norton™ AntiVirus
(symantec.com) and VirusScan (mcafee.com). Expect to pay $40-$60
per computer to buy the software, plus an additional annual fee for
virus signature file updates (see opposite). Buying antivirus software
that is bundled with other products, such as firewall and anti-spam
software, will save you money.
Until recently, it was generally felt it was not necessary to run antimalware software on Apple computers as the Mac OS architecture
prevented infections and there were no real malware threats targeting
Macs. There are now potential malware threats, and consider
ClamXav, an effective and free antivirus program for Mac OS X
computers. Note: If you run a Windows emulator on a Mac computer
you open yourself to the full gamut of Windows malware risks and
you must use a Windows anti-malware tool.
Tablets and smartphones are, in general, much less likely to get
malware infections, but you may want to run anti-malware apps
on them for greater protection.
As no one tool will catch everything, you may want to consider using
more than one anti-malware tool. To better protect yourself, install
one security tool that scans for as much as possible and that runs all
the time in the background with an on-access scanning engine. This
will protect you from threats as you surf the web, install applications,
open files and complete your other daily activities. Then, install
another anti-malware tool that you can occasionally use on demand
to make sure nothing got through or was overlooked. Scan your entire hard disk(s) at least weekly, either manually or automatically
(automatic is better as you don’t have to remember to do it).
Bitdefender QuickScan is a free online scan that is handy if you need
a second opinion on a Windows computer.
But note, it is important to make sure you do not run two antivirus
applications simultaneously. Anti-malware programs do not usually
play well together, and running two at the same time can often
lead to one identifying the other as a virus, or in some cases, file
corruption. Running two at the same time will likely also slow your
computer down.
Malware can be extremely difficult to remove from a computer, so
it is best to prevent infections. However, if you do get an infection,
Malwarebytes Anti-Malware is a good free tool for removing malware
from a Windows computer.
Installing anti-malware software updates is a must
Installing anti-malware software is only the start. You also need
to regularly update your virus definition or signature files. Antimalware programs use the information in these files to recognize
virus infections when they are occurring. As there are new viruses
being created every day, you need to have the most recently released
virus signature file to be protected against all known infections. These
updates are available on your anti-malware vendor’s website. Expect
to pay about $30-$40 per year for these updates.
Most anti-malware programs can be configured to download these
updates automatically, without user intervention. Make sure the
automatic update feature is enabled as this helps ensure that your
protection is always up-to-date.
Staff can help you spot malware infections
Sometimes anti-malware software will not detect that an infection
has occurred. While malware can be on a computer and never give
any hint of its presence, in many cases there are clues that a computer
is infected with malware. See the “How to recognize your computer
is infected with malware” sidebar for a list of these symptoms.
Teaching your staff to recognize these symptoms could aid in
the earlier detection of an infection.
Lock things up by using
passwords properly
Like the keys that start your car or open the front door
of your home or office, computer passwords are the keys
that “unlock” your computer, your mobile devices and
access to all the data on your network systems. We all
have more passwords than we can remember. This tends to make
us a bit lazy. We use obvious and easy to remember passwords –
even the word “password” itself. Or worse: We don’t use them at all.
Cyber criminals know and exploit bad password habits as they are
often one of the weakest links in data security schemes. For this
reason, it is critical that all lawyers and staff in a law office use
passwords properly. The Tech Tip in this issue, “Keeping your
passwords strong and secure” (see page 30), reviews the steps you
can take to properly use and protect the confidentiality of your
passwords, and how you can create passwords that are harder to
guess or determine.
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Address security vulnerabilities
by installing operating system
and program updates
There are millions of lines of computer code in the
operating systems and programs that run on your
computers, tablets and smartphones. These operating
systems and programs will have hundreds or even thousands of
settings and features. These settings and features are intended to
allow you to do all the things you want to on these different devices.
How to recognize
your computer is
infected with malware
Ideally you have one or more types of properly updated anti-malware
software running on your computers and networks. And hopefully
that software detects and prevents any malware infections from
occurring. However, because anti-malware software may not detect
an infection, watch for the symptoms that can indicate a computer
is infected with malware. These include:
It takes longer than usual for your computer to start up, it
restarts on its own or doesn’t start up at all;
It takes a long time for one or more programs to launch;
Your computer and/or programs frequently lock up or crash;
Programs are starting and running by themselves;
Your hard drive runs continuously, even when you aren’t
working on the computer;
Your files or data have disappeared;
You find files with new or unfamiliar filenames;
Space on your hard drive(s) is disappearing;
The homepage on your web browser has changed;
Your browser starts launching multiple tabs;
Web pages are slow to load;
There is a lot of network or web traffic, even when you are
not browsing the web or using the computer; and/or
Parts, or all, of your computer screen look distorted.
If one or more of the above things are happening, make sure your
security software is up to date and run it to check for an infection.
If the first scan finds nothing, try running a scan with a second
product. If the odd behaviours continue or there are other problems,
seek technical help.
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Amongst all these settings and features, cyber criminals look for
“exploits.” An exploit is a particular setting, feature or sequence of
commands that will cause an unintended or unanticipated behaviour
to occur on a computer or other device. Exploits create security
vulnerabilities because cyber criminals can use them to open a backdoor to your network, allow malware to run, or do other damaging
things. New exploits are discovered on a weekly or even daily basis.
When an exploit is discovered, software companies quickly rewrite
their code and release updates or patches to stop the exploit from
working. To protect against newly discovered exploits, devices must
be updated with the latest versions of operating systems and programs.
To keep your computers and other devices safe, you should be
checking for and installing updates regularly, ideally on a weekly
basis. This is particularly the case for Microsoft products, which are
prone to security vulnerabilities. While not as prone to vulnerabilities
as Microsoft products, Apple products should be updated regularly
as well. Don’t forget to update the other non-Microsoft or non-Apple
software running on your devices. Sometimes direct links to an
updates webpage can be found on the Help menu. Otherwise, you
should be able to find the software product’s site with a search
on Google.
If you are using Windows XP or Office 2003, note that Microsoft will
no longer be supporting these products as of April 8, 2014. Using these
products after this date will expose you to greater security dangers.
See the “Stop using Windows XP and Office 2003 on or before
April 8, 2014” sidebar if this applies to you or your firm.
Automatic updates
Enabling automatic updates can help keep your computers and
other devices up-to-date. Both Windows and Apple operating
systems have an “automatic update” feature that automatically
notifies you when updates are available for your devices. Once
activated, the device will periodically check for updates. Available
updates will be downloaded, and depending how you configure
things, installed with or without your knowledge. Some people prefer
to set the automatic updates feature to ask for permission to install
updates to avoid problems that might arise due to an update
installation. Others prefer to have updates installed without
intervention from the computer user (this can help make sure
updates get installed).
The Ninite.com site can help Windows computer users check for
and install updates (for free). Note, in some firms individual users
will have no control over updates as the installation of updates will
be centrally controlled and managed. The paid version of Ninite
can be used for this purpose for Windows computers.
Back up before you install updates
It is very important to remember that installing updates can
unintentionally interfere with the way your computer/device or
individual programs/apps operate. It is possible that a program/app
may not operate properly or at all, that data could be lost, or
that a device will fail to restart after an update is installed. Creating
a restore point (a temporary backup of your configuration and
data) and/or making a proper backup of all the programs and data
on a device before you install updates can help you recover if there
are unanticipated problems. See page 24 for more information
on backups.
Keep the bad guys out with a firewall
on your Internet connection
When you are connected to the Internet, the Internet
is connected to you. For computers to transmit data
back and forth over the Internet, lines of communication
must be established. These communications work
through “ports” that are opened on each computer. The problem is
that all the computers on the Internet can see one another, and
these ports can allow unauthorized people to access the data on a
computer and even take control of it.
Regardless of how your office connects to the Internet, your computer
systems must be protected by a firewall – a type of electronic gatekeeper that ensures all incoming and outgoing communications
are legitimate. A firewall watches these ports and will warn you
about or prevent unauthorized communications.
Firewalls come in two varieties: software and hardware. Software
firewalls are easier to set up, usually protect a single computer, and
are adequate for personal or small firm use. Hardware firewalls are
usually used to protect an entire network of computers. The more
recent versions of both the Windows and Mac operating systems
have a built-in firewall that you should enable. High-speed modems
generally include a basic firewall. If you are using remote access
software, you should consider using a hardware firewall to better
protect the ports that must be opened for the remote access software
to work.
Stump hackers by changing key
default settings
Changing the default settings for the hardware and
software used in your office is another critical step in
safeguarding the security of your data and protecting
yourself from cybercrime. This is probably the most
technical of the steps outlined in this article and you may need
expert help.
Every computer operating system, program, and app, and every
piece of hardware has certain preset or default settings. These are
necessary to make them operate out of the box in a consistent
manner that the vendor and user will expect.
However, these default settings are common knowledge (and if you
don’t know them, you can find them with Google in about five
seconds), and hackers can use them to compromise a network,
computer or other device. For example, if the administrator account
on a computer is named “Administrator” (it frequently is), a cyber
criminal only has to work on figuring out the password to hack into
a system or device. If you change the name of the Administrator
account to something different, your computer is much safer as
the hacker has to work much harder to figure out both the name
of the administrator account and its password.
You can make your systems much safer by changing the following
key default settings:
• administrator account names
• server names
• network or workgroup names
• ports (change to non-standard ports and close standard ports
that you don’t use)
• standard share names
Stop using Windows XP
and Office 2003 on or
before April 8, 2014
Window XP
Office 2003
Microsoft will no longer be supporting Windows XP SP3 (Service
Pack 3) and Office 2003 (SP3) as of April 8, 2014. After this date,
there will be no new security updates, non-security hotfixes, support
or online technical content updates from Microsoft for these
products. Your computer will still operate, but if you continue to
use Windows XP or Office 2003, you will become more vulnerable
to security risks and malware infections. Undoubtedly, cyber
criminals will target computers that are still using these programs.
For this reason, you should immediately start planning to migrate
to more current versions of Windows and Office on all law firm and
home computers running Windows XP or Office 2003. Note that
most current versions of these products are Windows XP SP3 and
Office 2003 SP3. If you are using SP2 or earlier versions of these
products, you already have greater security vulnerabilities; as a
short-term fix, you should update to SP3 if you don’t already have
plans to move off Windows XP or Office 2003.
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Lock down and protect your data
wherever it is
Long gone are the days when you had to worry about
a single file folder that held all the documents for a
particular matter, which you could easily secure by
keeping it locked in a file cabinet. Today, client data
can exist in electronic form in many different places inside and
outside your office. You need to know where that data exists, who
can access it, and what steps should be taken to secure and protect
it from cyber criminals.
Physical access to servers, routers and phone switches
Protecting your server(s) and other key telecommunications
equipment such as phone switches and routers starts with physical
security. Intruders who have physical access to a server can get direct
access to files and data on the server’s hard drives, enabling them to
extract the usernames and passwords of every user on the system,
destroy data, or give themselves a backdoor for accessing the server
remotely. Even curious employees who want to change settings can
unintentionally cause serious problems. Put your servers and other
key telecommunications equipment in a locked room to protect them
from unauthorized access. Be cautious about any wall jacks for your
network in unsecured areas of your office.
Access to devices on startup
To protect the information on them, and the information on any
network they connect to, every computer, tablet and smartphone
should be configured to require a password at startup. Devices
without a startup password allow free and unfettered access to
anyone that turns them on.
Better yet, in addition to a startup password, consider encrypting
the data on devices. Passwords will prevent the average person from
accessing your device, but can be bypassed by people with greater
expertise. Encryption will make information on devices far more
secure. The operating systems on some devices have built-in
encryption capabilities or you can install third party encryption
programs or apps.
Put a password on your screensaver
Activating a password-protected screensaver is a simple and very
effective way to prevent an unauthorized person from rifling through
the data on a computer or other device that’s been inadvertently left
on. All versions of Windows and Apple operating systems allow
you to add a password to a screensaver. Remember to log out of
any applications containing sensitive data and lock your screen when
you leave your desk, or set a fairly short wait time on your screensaver
so that it locks automatically if you step away. BlackBerry, Android,
iOS and Windows mobile devices also have an automatic screenlocking feature.
Access across a network
Almost every law office has a computer network with one or more
central servers. Client and firm information can be stored on these
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servers, making it accessible to everyone in the office. To better protect
information from unauthorized access, take time to understand what
information is stored on your network servers, and who has access
to that information.
“Network shares” make folders available and visible across a network.
“Permissions” control what people can do with the data in a folder.
Someone with “full access” can create, change or delete a file, whereas
someone with “read only” access can open and copy a file, but not
delete it. Segment your data and set appropriate access levels (e.g.,
public, sensitive, very private) so that access to sensitive information
is limited or prevented. Remember that privacy legislation requires
that you limit access to some types of personal information (e.g.,
financial and health-related data) on a need-to-know basis.
Restricting access to more sensitive data can help protect it in the
event your network is hacked or an unhappy employee with bad
intentions goes looking for data.
Your desktop or laptop computer can act like a server in some cases,
and content on your hard drive could be shared and accessible to
someone across a network or through the Internet. To prevent this
from happening, you need to make sure that file and printer sharing
is turned off on your computer.
Scrub confidential client information
on discarded equipment
Many of the technology devices used today are
essentially disposable. When they get old or break
down, they are simply discarded as it is too expensive
to upgrade or repair them. As a result, law offices will
frequently find themselves discarding older computers and other
devices. This is problematic as these devices often have confidential
client information on them.
There are risks in donating your old computers to charity or a local
school where a classroom of technology-savvy students will be itching
to recover your data. Be sure to remove the hard drive from any
computer you donate, or make sure the data on the drive has been
thoroughly removed (see below).
Third party access to confidential client or firm information can also
be an issue if you are sending your electronic equipment outside
the office for repair or maintenance.
Client information can be in unexpected places. Most modern
photocopiers and printers actually have hard drives on board that
store copies of the images that go through them. This data can easily
be found on, or recovered from, the hard drives on these devices.
Deleted doesn’t mean deleted
It’s a common misconception that deleted files are gone for good.
In fact, the deleted files on most devices (e.g., computers, tablets,
smartphones, etc.) are easy to recover
using widely available forensic
recovery tools. Even reformatting or
repartitioning a hard drive will not
completely destroy all the data on it.
• Review firewall and other server logs to monitor remote access
and watch for unusual activity.
Keep in mind that forensic technology can also be used to restore
deleted files on portable media (e.g., CDs, DVDs, USB sticks, SD
cards), so you should always use new media when sending data outside your firm.
• Restrict access to the minimum services and functions necessary
for staff to carry out their roles.
Physically destroying a hard drive or other device with a hammer is
the free and low-tech option. You can also use specialized software
that will “scrub” all data from a hard drive so that it is not recoverable.
Widely used free tools for this task include CCleaner, Darik's Boot
And Nuke (DBAN), and File Shredder.
• Change remote access passwords regularly.
Being safer when using remote
access and public computers
Being able to access your work network while
you are out of the office can provide increased
productivity and flexibility. However, opening
your systems to remote access creates a number
of security risks as external network connections are a ripe target
for cyber criminals. And you should think twice about using public
computers for firm work.
Setting up safe remote access
There are many tools that allow you to easily set up remote access
(e.g., PCAnywhere, GoToMyPC, LogMeIn, TeamViewer, SplashTop).
If properly configured, these are suitable for a smaller law office or
home setting. Virtual private networks or VPNs may make remote
access more secure. A VPN is a network connection constructed by
connecting computers together over the Internet on an encrypted
communications channel. VPNs are secure and fast, but may be
expensive and harder to configure.
Securing remote access may require a degree of technical knowledge
and advice from a computer expert. To make your remote access
safe, you must secure your network and your remote access devices.
Do the following to secure your network:
• Ensure installation of remote access clients is done properly.
• Ensure that all staff use strong passwords on devices accessing
your network remotely (see page 30).
• Make sure that staff do not set their devices to login automatically
and that they never store their passwords on them.
• Have a formal remote access policy that clearly describes what
staff are to do or not do with remote access.
• Delete staff remote access privileges if they are no longer needed,
and immediately when a person leaves or is terminated (see
“Inside people can be the most dangerous” at page 23).
The extreme dangers of using public computers
Public computers in libraries, Internet cafes, airports, and copy shops
are an extreme security risk. While you can take steps to reduce these
risks, it is still very dangerous to access sensitive client information on
them. Start with the assumption that most public computers will
have malware on them and let this govern your activities accordingly.
The following steps can reduce some of the risks associated with
public computers:
• Try to turn on the “private browsing” feature.
• Watch for over-the-shoulder thieves who may be peeking as
you enter sensitive passwords to collect your information.
• Uncheck or disable the “remember me” or “log in automatically
next time” option.
• Always log out of websites clicking "log out" on the site. It's
not enough to simply close the browser window or type in
another address.
• Never leave the computer unattended with sensitive information
on the screen, even for a moment.
• Only give remote access to people who really need it.
• In order to protect sensitive information, restrict the type of
data that can be accessed remotely.
• Make sure all computers connecting to your network, including
personal home computers, have up-to-date security software
• Use strong authentication that requires both a password and
token-based authentication.
• Delete your temporary Internet files, cookies and your history.
• Use a firewall and security software to keep out
unwanted connections.
Do the following to secure remote access:
• Never save documents on a public computer.
These measures will provide some protection against a casual hacker
who searches a public computer you have used for any information
that may remain on it. But keep in mind, a more sophisticated hacker
may have installed a keylogger to capture passwords and other
personal information entered on a public computer. In this scenario
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the above steps won’t prevent your information from falling into
the hands of the hacker. This is why it is not a good idea to access
sensitive client information or enter credit card numbers or other
banking information on a public computer.
One other option to consider: if you allow remote access, have
people travel with a device that has no client data or other sensitive
information on it. They can use it to access client data in the office
via remote access and if the device is lost or stolen there is no lost
information to be concerned about.
Secure your mobile devices to
protect the data on them
You may want to keep in mind that current case law provides that
law enforcement does not need the permission of a device owner
to access information on a device that is not password protected.
Lost or stolen laptops, smartphones and USB
sticks are frequently involved in major data
breaches. This is because they often contain
large amounts of confidential or sensitive
information (e.g., client data, firm and personal information,
usernames and passwords, etc.) and they are also easily lost or
stolen as they are small and very portable. You can significantly
reduce your exposure to breach involving a mobile device by
doing the following things:
• Take steps to prevent mobile device theft or loss;
• Make it harder to access information on the device; and
• Configure remote “find and wipe.”
Preventing theft or loss
Here are some very easy ways to prevent the loss or theft of your
mobile devices:
• Never leave your portable devices unattended in a public place.
In particular, don’t leave them in your vehicle – even locked in
the trunk is not safe;
• To be a less obvious target, use a briefcase or bag that does not
look like a standard laptop bag;
• Inexpensive cable locks from Targus (targus.com) and others can
help deter a casual thief, but are no obstacle for a determined
thief with cable cutters; and
• If you are staying at a hotel, put the device in a safe in your
room or at the front desk.
Making it harder to access data on the device
If a device is lost or stolen, you want to make it as difficult as possible
for someone to access the information on it. This is very easy to do.
As a first line of defence, you can enable the startup password. After
enabling this feature, anyone turning the device on will be challenged
for a password and they won’t be able to see any information on the
device. Most laptops and smartphones have this feature. However,
while this should protect the data on the device from the average thief
or person that might find a lost device, someone with specialized
knowledge can bypass these built-in password-protection features.
For an extra level of security you can use encryption, which scrambles
the data on a device making it very difficult for someone to access it.
Some devices have an encryption feature in the device operating
system, and, if not, you can use a third party encryption program
or app. Truecrypt is a widely used encryption tool that works on
many different platforms.
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Device locators and remote wipe
To prepare for the eventuality that of one of your smartphones,
tablets or laptops gets lost or stolen, you should enable or install
device locator and remote wipe functionalities. These features are
built in on some devices, and there are many third party programs
and apps that do the same things. Using GPS technology or the
tracing of IP addresses, you can potentially view the location of
your device on a web-based map, sometimes along with where and
when it was last used. Just in case the device is lost in your residence,
you can also trigger a high volume ring to help you locate it, even
if the device is on silent or vibrate. If the worst has happened and
it appears that the device is permanently lost or was stolen, you can
usually lock the device so no one can use it or access the data, and
you can also remotely tell the device to do a factory reset, which
will delete all data on it.
Beware of data theft with USB sticks
Tiny, high-capacity USB sticks are commonly used for moving data
around. A combination of three things makes them a major security
concern: (1) they are very easy to use, (2) they are compact, lightweight and ultra-portable, and (3) they can store huge amounts
of information. They are, in other words, the perfect tool for a
disgruntled or soon-to-be ex-employee who plans to easily and
quickly steal firm data.
How do you protect yourself? Make sure you have appropriate security
and access rights to confidential client and firm information on
your firm’s computers and servers. Auditing file access may help you
spot someone who is accessing information they should not. Consider
disabling USB ports on firm computers used by people that have
no reason to use USB sticks. Lastly, take extra care with employees
who may be leaving the firm (see page 23).
Harden your wireless and
Bluetooth connections and use
public Wi-Fi with extreme caution
At home, coffee shops, restaurants, hotels,
conference centers, airport terminals and
many other locations, many of us use wireless
and Bluetooth for our smartphones, tablets and even our computers
without a second thought. While very convenient, anyone using
wireless and Bluetooth should know that they are fraught with serious
security issues. Unless you lock down your wireless network and
devices, someone sitting in a car across from your office or home
could easily find and connect to them. Hackers known as “wardrivers”
actually cruise around looking for networks they can hack into. There
are even websites that list “open” networks by street address.
Hardening your wireless networks
Use wireless with caution, and only after you enable all possible
security features on your wireless routers and devices. The hub of
your wireless network is a router. It connects to your Internet service
provider through a telephone line or other wired connection. Anyone
connecting to your wireless network through your router can
likely connect to the web and quite possibly access other devices
on your network.
Completing these steps will make it much harder for strangers to
connect to your wireless network:
• use WPA or WPA2 (WPA2 is better) or 802.1x wireless encryption.
WEP encryption is found on older devices and it is recommended
that you not use it as it can easily be cracked;
• turn off SSID broadcasting;
• disable guest networks;
• turn on MAC filtering;
• change default router name and password; and
• disable remote administration.
More detailed directions for completing these steps can be found
on the practicePRO website in the “How to enable the security
settings on a wireless router” checklist.
Bluetooth vulnerabilities
Bluetooth technology makes it easy for keyboards, headsets and
other peripherals to connect to smartphones, tablets and computers
wirelessly. Although security is available for Bluetooth, many vendors
ship Bluetooth devices in Mode 1 (discovery/visible-to-all mode)
to make it much easier for people using the devices to connect to
them. In this mode they will respond to all connection requests.
This introduces a number of vulnerabilities, including making
information on the device more accessible to hackers and making
the device more vulnerable to malware installation.
How do I get LaWPRO insurance coverage, now that I’ve been called to the bar?
I have just been called to the Ontario bar, and will begin work for a law firm in a few weeks. I know I need insurance from
LaWPRO – but that’s all I know! How do I get started?
The LAWPRO program of professional indemnity insurance is approved each year by the Law Society of Upper Canada, and
coverage under the program is mandatory for lawyers in private practice. When new lawyers are called to the Ontario bar, the
Law Society provides LAWPRO with their contact information, and LAWPRO sends each new call a package of materials that includes
information about the LAWPRO program and how to apply for coverage or, in certain cases, exemption from the coverage requirement.
Please note that you will not be automatically signed up for LaWPRO insurance coverage simply by virtue of being called to the
bar. LAWPRO and the Law Society of Upper Canada operate independently of each other, and you must contact each entity separately if
you need to report a change in contact information or a change in practice status.
Applications for coverage or for exemption can be made online via a secure portal at lawpro.ca.
If you are a new call and you have NOT received a package (for example, because you have recently moved), please contact LAWPRO’s
customer service department to request a package.
More information
For more information about insurance requirements, exemption eligibility, run-off coverage, and other insurance issues, please
visit the FAQ section of the LAWPRO website at lawpro.ca/faqs
If you have any questions regarding your coverage or practice status, please contact LAWPRO’s customer service department by
email at [email protected], or by phone at 416-598-5899 or 1-800-410-1013.
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| Volume 12 Issue 4
To make your Bluetooth devices more secure, you should do
the following:
• Enable the firewall and run updated antivirus software on
your device.
• Configure devices so that the user has to approve any
connection request;
• Turn file, printer and other device sharing off.
• Turn off Bluetooth when not in use;
• Disable auto-connecting so network connections always happen
with your express permission.
• Do not operate Bluetooth devices in Mode 1 and ensure discovery
mode is enabled only when necessary to pair trusted devices;
• Confirm the network name in your location before you connect
(i.e., avoid the Starbucks imposter).
• Pair trusted devices in safe environments out of the reach of
potentially malicious people;
• Use sites that have “https” in the address bar as they will encrypt
data traffic (See “The S in https means you are on a safe and secure
connection” on page 14).
• Minimize the range of devices to the shortest reasonable
• Educate your staff about how to safely use Bluetooth devices; and
• Consider installing antivirus and personal firewall software on
each Bluetooth device.
Be extremely cautious with public Wi-Fi
Public Wi-Fi has become ubiquitous and a lot of people use it
without a second thought. Unfortunately, there are major security
issues with it. If you connect to a Wi-Fi network without giving a
password, you are on an unsecured and unencrypted connection. On
an unencrypted or “open” wireless network, anyone in your proximity
can intercept your data and see where you are surfing (except if you
are on an https website). Using an unencrypted connection to check
the news or a flight status might be acceptable, but keep in mind
that performing other activities is akin to using your speakerphone
in the middle of a crowd.
Even worse, hackers will create fake Wi-Fi hotspots in public places
to trick unwitting Wi-Fi users. “Free Starbucks Wi-Fi” may not be
the legitimate Starbucks network. Connecting to a fake network
puts your data in the hands of a hacker.
And don’t equate subscription (paid-for) Wi-Fi Internet with secure
browsing. It may be no more secure than open Wi-Fi.
To be avoid these dangers, it is best avoid using public Wi-Fi hotspots
altogether. Get a device that has mobile cellular capability, tether
to your smartphone, or use a mobile Wi-Fi hotspot. This is a small
Wi-Fi router you carry around that has mobile cellular functionality.
It gives you a personal and private Wi-Fi cloud you can configure
to securely connect your other devices to.
If you are going to use public Wi-Fi, here are some steps you can
take to connect your device as securely as possible:
• If your firm has a Virtual Private Network or VPN, use it. This
will encrypt your data and make it harder for it to be intercepted.
• Never connect without using a password (this means you are on
an unencrypted network) and avoid using Wi-Fi that uses WEP
encryption as it can easily be cracked. Use networks that have WPA,
WPA2 (WPA2 is better) or 802.1x wireless encryption.
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• “http” sites transfer data in plain text and should be avoided as a
hacker can easily read the data transmissions. You could use
browser extensions or plugins to create https connections on
http sites.
• Follow the best practices for safe and secure passwords (see
page 30).
By taking these steps you can reduce your Wi-Fi risks, but you should
save sensitive tasks like online banking for when you are on a network
you know is safe and secure.
Be careful about putting your
firm data in the cloud
Almost everyone has data in the cloud,
although many people may not realize it.
If you are using Gmail or another free email
service, iTunes, Facebook, LinkedIn or other
social media tools, Dropbox, or doing online banking, your data is
in the cloud. The “cloud” is the very large number of computers that
are all connected and sharing information with each other across
the Internet. If you create or post information that ends up outside
your office, you are most likely in the cloud.
Cloud computing offers many benefits to lawyers. There is a vast
selection of services, software and applications that can assist with
just about every task in a modern law office, in many cases allowing
those tasks to be accomplished more efficiently and quickly. Many
of these services permit remote access, thereby allowing lawyers and
staff to work from anywhere with full access to all documents and
information for a matter. Using these services is usually economical
as they can significantly reduce hardware and software maintenance
costs and capital outlays. Storing data with suitable cloud service
providers will likely mean that it is more secure and better backed
up than it might be in a typical law office.
However, placing your client or firm data in the hands of third parties
raises issues of security, privacy, regulatory compliance, and risk
management, among others. Firms should have a process in place
to ensure due diligence is performed and all risks and benefits are
considered before any firm data is moved to the cloud. The evolving
standard from U.S. ethics rules and opinions seems to be that lawyers
must make reasonable efforts to ensure any data they place in the
cloud is reasonably secure. Contracts with any third party that is
in possession of confidential client information should deal with
relevant security and ethical issues, including having specific provisions that require all information is properly stored and secured to
prevent inappropriate access.
If you have given vendors, IT consultants, contract or temp staff access
to your systems or networks, remember to change system passwords
and revoke access rights when they have finished their work.
The Law Society of British Columbia has a “Cloud Computing
Checklist” that will assist firms in identifying the issues that should
be considered when performing the due diligence on a cloud provider.
When considering your options, keep in mind that a cloud product
or service designed for lawyers may have been developed with the
professional, ethical and privacy requirements of lawyers in mind.
In many firms, it is common for lawyers to
use personal smartphones or tablets for work
purposes. This is often referred to as “Bring
Your Own Device” or “BYOD.” Lawyers or staff
may also work at home and even access the office network from a
personal home computer. Both of these practices raise significant
cyber risks.
Inside people can be the
most dangerous
Permitting staff to use their own smartphones or tablets makes great
practical sense. They already own and are comfortable with the
devices so the firm does not have to incur the cost of buying them
or paying for wireless plans. However, if these devices connect to
the office Wi-Fi or network, or if they are used to create documents
that will be sent to the office, they can potentially deliver a malware
infection to the office network.
People inside your office have the greatest
knowledge of your systems and where the
important data is located. Many of the largest
and most damaging cyber breaches have been
caused by rogue or soon-to-be-departing
employees. You should take steps to reduce the likelihood that a
cyber breach will be caused by someone inside your office.
When hiring a new employee, make sure you are diligent. Carefully
check their background and speak to references. Look for any red
flags on an application letter or résumé, and watch for issues during
the interview process. Watch for someone who is withholding relevant
information, or who has falsified information on the application.
Assess the overall integrity and trustworthiness of the candidate.
Consider doing police and credit checks (after obtaining consent)
as persons in financial difficulty may be under pressure and become
tempted to steal your firm’s financial or information resources. Doing
all these things can help you avoid hiring an employee who could
be a problem.
When any employee leaves your firm, regardless of whether they are
leaving of their own accord or are being terminated, ensure that your
systems are protected. Keep a log of any mobile devices held by your
staff (e.g., laptops, smartphones, USB drives, etc.) and ensure that
they are recovered immediately upon termination. Immediately close
all points of access to your office and computer systems, including
keys and access cards, login accounts and passwords, email accounts,
and − in particular − remote access facilities. If you discharge an
employee who has access to critical company data, let them go without warning (you may have to give them a payment in lieu of notice),
and don’t allow them any access to a computer after termination.
There are literally dozens of steps you should complete systematically
to make sure all points of access for departed employees are closed
down. See the practicePRO website for a detailed “Employee
departure checklist”.
Be careful of the dangers of
BYOD and family computers
Family computers
Young people have a very high exposure to malware as they are
more likely to engage in many of the most dangerous online activities,
including using social media, downloading programs, and file sharing.
As a result, it is far more likely that any device children or teenagers
are using is infected with malware. This is a concern because using
a compromised computer for remote access to your office can bypass
the firewall and other security mechanisms, potentially delivering
a malware infection to the heart of your network.
To be absolutely safe, avoid using a home computer or other device
for work purposes if it is used by others. Where a home computer
is being used for work purposes, the steps outlined in this article
must be followed to protect the office network and systems from cyber
risks. Creating separate user accounts will make things more secure,
but a better alternative is to have two partitions on your home
computer. This essentially means there are two complete sets of
software on the computer: one that only you would use, and one
that others in the house would use.
Where a home computer or other BYOD device is being used for
work purposes, the steps outlined in this article must be followed
to protect the office network and systems from cyber risks. Staff
education is key for reducing the risks associated with the use of
personal equipment. Technology use policies should be in place to
ensure all necessary steps are taken to address relevant cyber risks.
See the practicePRO Technology Use Policies Resource page for
sample BYOD and remote access policies.
LAWPRO Magazine
| Volume 12 Issue 4
A backup could save
your practice after a
cybercrime incident
Every law firm has huge amounts of
irreplaceable data on its servers, desktop
computers, laptops, tablets and smartphones.
A cybercrime incident such as a malware infection or the hacking
of firm systems could result in the destruction or loss of firm data.
Having a current and full backup of all firm data will be essential for
recovering from such an incident with the least possible interruption
to a firm’s operations. And beyond any concern about a cybercrime
incident, every law firm should have a current full backup of firm
data as part of its disaster recovery plan.
When keeping past copies of backups, consider that firm systems
could have an undetected malware infection for a considerable period.
If you have an undetected infection, you may have to go back in time
to get a backup that is clean or has uncorrupted data. For this reason,
you may want to keep a series of past backups (e.g., daily for last
week, end of week for last month, end of month for last 3 months,
quarterly, etc.) so that you can do a complete and clean restoration
of your data.
There are many options for doing data backups, including using a
dedicated backup system, external hard drives or other portable
media, or the cloud. Apple users can easily set up an automatic
backup with Time Machine.
Our “Data backup options and best practices” article, available on the
practicePRO website, can help ensure you have a current and full
backup of all the data in your office.
Cybercrime is a real and present danger to you and your firm.
LAWPRO strongly encourages Ontario lawyers to take this danger
seriously and to take appropriate steps to reduce exposures to all
relevant cyber risks. The “quick fixes” highlighted in the feature
articles in this issue of LAWPRO Magazine will get you off to a good
start with minimal cost and effort. At many firms, further time and
work will be necessary. This extra effort is worth the investment as,
at the very least, a cybercrime incident will be a costly and significant
interruption to your firm’s business. And in a worst-case scenario,
the financial and business interruption associated with a cyber
breach could destroy your firm. ■
Dan Pinnington is vice president, claims prevention and stakeholder relations
Thanks to David Reid, CIO at LAWPRO, and Mike Seto, of Mike Seto Professional
Corporation for their invaluable assistance.
Cyber security resources
Get Cyber Safe Guide for Small and Medium Businesses from
Government of Canada: Practical information and guidance for firms
on cyber security risks and how to avoid them. There are other helpful
resources and checklists on the GetCyberSafe.gc.ca website.
PCThreat.com: Comprehensive list of malware threats, tips on how
to spot them and commentary on how to clean up if you are infected.
Snopes.com – The Urban Legends page: A website that lists common
email scams and hoaxes.
Cyber Security Self-Assessment Guidance Checklist: A self-assessment
template of cyber-security practices from OSFI that would be suitable
for larger firms.
ICSPA Canada Cyber Crime Study: Statistics and background
information about cybercrime.
Cyber Security Resources for Teachers page on Media Smarts
website: Various information and tips sheets for consumer and
personal cyber-safety.
Managing Cyber Security as a Business Risk: Cyber Insurance in the
Digital Age Report: A report by the Ponemon Institute that contains
an overview of cyber dangers.
StaySafeOnline.org: Good general information and resources for staying
safe while online.
Security Resources page on SANS.org: Extensive security information
and resources on the site of this research and education organization.
Microsoft Safety and Security Center page: General information
on cyber-security.
Note: Live Links for these resources are available in the
electronic version of this issue.
General technology resources
Technology page on practicePRO website: Large collection of
article on the use of technology in the practice of law.
technology topics. Many of these books are available in the
practicePRO Lending Library (practicepro.ca/library).
Technology books published by American Bar Association’s
Law Practice Division: Large collection of books on many
Law Society of Upper Canada’s Technology Practice Management
Guideline: General guide on use of technology in a law practice.
LAWPRO Magazine
| Volume 12 Issue 4
CYBERCRIME means an incursion, intrusion, penetration, impairment,
use or attack of a COMPUTER SYSTEM(S) by electronic means by a
third party, other than the INSURED or the INSURED’S LAW FIRM.
What it covers and why
As of the 2014 policy year, the LAWPRO mandatory insurance program
will include express coverage in the amount of $250,000 for losses
related to cybercrime, as defined in the policy. This sublimit (or cap)
of coverage provides a modest “safety net” for lawyers in the area of
cybercrime exposure. We say modest because like the fraud risks the
profession has faced over the years, there is no way to predict the total
possible exposure, and prevention is a far better tool to deal with this
societal risk than insurance.
In the specialized world of Canadian lawyers’ professional indemnity
insurance, the most common approach so far has been to expressly
exclude coverage for cybercrime losses. In considering what LAWPRO
program protection should be made available to Ontario lawyers in
2014 regarding claims involving cybercrime, and what steps should
be taken to better ensure that lawyers and law firms are aware of this
growing exposure and what they might do to better protect their
clients and themselves, consideration has been given to:
• The threat that cybercrime represents to clients and the viability
of law practices in Ontario;
• The limited technology resources adopted to date by many members
of the bar to comprehensively address cybercrime risks;
• The increasing availability of commercial business insurance to
address the broader aspects of cyber risks;
• The growing and evolving nature of cyber risks and related need
for increased awareness and active risk management by lawyers
and law firms;
• The choices and options available to lawyers and law firms to
reduce their vulnerability to cybercrime through adopting
technology and security best practices;
• The potential impact of a systemic or catastrophic loss on the
LAWPRO program and premiums charged to lawyers, especially
if a group of law firms experiences a loss; and
• The need for LAWPRO to continue operating in a commercially
reasonable manner and ensuring that risk-rating is maintained.
COMPUTER SYSTEM means any electronic device, component,
network or system, or any protocol, portal, storage device, media, or
electronic document, or any computer software, firmware or microcode,
or any associated technology which receives, processes, stores,
transmits or retrieves data either locally or remotely, or any part
thereof, whether stand-alone, interconnected or operating as part
of an integrated system or process, for use by or on behalf of the
In late 2012, LAWPRO learned of a high-value cyber attack on an
Ontario firm. The attack was highly sophisticated and complex, and
was designed to permit the fraudster to gain direct access to a firm’s
trust account using online banking privileges. This attack, and media
reports of many others, have served to demonstrate the potential
exposure of the insurance program to losses arising out of cybercrime.
After careful consideration of the potential risk, including the potential
for clusters of such claims across law firms, it became clear to us that
a two-pronged response was warranted. For the 2014 policy year, we
have opted to 1) explicitly address cybercrime risk in the mandatory
insurance program policy, and 2) take steps to educate the bar about
cyber risks and to recommend that all lawyers take active steps to
prevent cybercrime before it happens.
Thus, as of the 2014 policy year, the LAWPRO mandatory insurance
program will include a sublimit of coverage in the amount of $250,000
for losses related to cybercrime as defined in the policy. See the
sidebar for the definition of cybercrime, and the related definition
of a computer system.
The LAWPRO insurance coverage for cybercrime claims is only one
of several aspects of a fulsome and responsible response to a complex
problem. We urge you to carefully reflect on the extent to which,
despite the coverage available under our policy, you remain vulnerable
to the potentially serious consequences of a cyber attack.
Remember that any losses from cybercrime that are not connected
with the provision of professional legal services will not be covered
under the LAWPRO policy. These losses could include damage to
equipment or software, business interruption, and reputational harm.
See “Other cyber risk insurance options: Do you have the coverage
you need?” on page 26 for a basic overview of other types of
insurance that firms may wish to consider to cover those risks
or loss amounts that fall outside the LAWPRO policy.
However, even where a firm chooses to obtain other coverage,
insurance against cyber losses should be viewed as a worst-case
remedy, and not a regime of prevention. If businesses insure themselves without taking active steps to secure their computers and
networks, cyber criminals will continue their efforts undeterred.
Law firms and individual staff members and lawyers who work in
them must educate themselves about cyber risks and take all reasonable steps to ensure that data and funds are securely protected. We
hope that the content in this issue will serve as a useful resource in
that regard. ■
LAWPRO Magazine
| Volume 12 Issue 4
Other cyber
risk insurance
Do you have the
coverage you need?
The prevalence of cyber-related crime has been steadily
increasing for a number of years. Many businesses
invest heavily in the necessary IT infrastructure to
protect their data, but despite best efforts and
intentions, the frequent news stories in the press
should serve as confirmation that breaches do occur.
The cost implications of having personal or financial information
stolen are significant, especially for law firms, because the information
they hold can be confidential and even privileged, and is often very
sensitive. When you consider all the potential first- and third-party
liabilities a major breach could place on a law firm, the extreme
cost could put a financial burden on a firm that could destroy it.
Thus, from an insurance standpoint, it is paramount to consider
whether your coverage is adequate. Keep in mind that the coverage
afforded under the LAWPRO policy is subject to eligibility criteria
and to a modest sublimit of coverage.
The evolution of the cyber insurance policy has made significant
strides in recent years. The most common element of coverage found
within cyber and privacy liability policies is for claims brought
against you arising as a result of a breach. This would include legal
defence costs and indemnity payments, and is provided on an “all
risks basis.” Some current extensions of coverage include protection
against the spread of computer viruses, or in the event that your
systems are used to hack a third party. Many policies have been
LAWPRO Magazine
| Volume 12 Issue 4
extended to include first-party costs to comply with breach notification
laws in different jurisdictions. Finally, cover can also be included
for voluntary security breach notification which will help mitigate
an impact upon the company’s brand or reputation.
Coverage has also evolved to take into consideration the outsourcing
of data storage to third-party cloud providers. While this endorsed
coverage is still in its infancy, there are some insurers that are able
to consider this type of risk.
Canadian Underwriter Magazine recently reported on a 2011 research
study from NetDiligence, which found that the average cost of a data
breach was $3.7M. The study found that the largest component of
the costs related to the legal damages, with the average defence costs
being $582,000, and the average cost of settlement being $2.1M.
The implications of not handling a breach properly, measured by
way of reputational harm to your organization, are costly. If that
client trust is lost, it will certainly impact the gross revenue of your
firm in terms of lost clients. With client acquisition being far more
costly than client retention, having a plan in place to mitigate that
reputational risk is very important.
Cyber and network liability policies have built in a solution for these
types of situations. Many policies commonly offer limits of coverage
for crisis management. The costs associated with hiring public relations
consultants and costs to conduct advertising or PR activities are all
things that can be built into a cyber policy.
Traditional insurance policies may offer a limited amount of coverage
for cyber-related exposures, but it is important to understand the
implications of relying on coverage that is not necessarily designed
for a specific exposure. Property policies may not cover the loss of
“data” because it may not be considered real or personal property.
General liability policies are intended to cover bodily injury and
property damage scenarios, and would not extend to cover network
implications. Finally, in addressing these exposures, you should take
into consideration liabilities that will fall outside the coverage offered
by LAWPRO’s cybercrime sublimit.
While there are variations from provider to provider,
insurance companies that offer cyber risk policies
may include coverage for:
Lawsuits or claims relating to
• inadvertent disclosure of confidential information
• intellectual property and/or business secrets
• damage to reputation
As legislation changes and the breach notification requirements in
Canada evolve, so too will the costs associated with damage from
hackers, breaches, cyber extortion, and other cyber-related crimes.
Don’t underestimate the costs your firm might incur in the event
of a data breach. Reinforce the long-term security of your firm
by ensuring it has taken adequate precautionary measures, has
contingency plans in the event that something does occur, and has
appropriate insurance in place to transfer and avoid the financial
risks of a data breach. ■
Greg Markell, FCIP, CRM is an account executive with Jones Brown Inc.
([email protected])
• liability related to damage to third party systems
• impairment to access to systems or information
And/or costs related to
• privacy notifications, if required
• crisis management activities
• online and/or electronic business interruptions
• electronic theft, communication, threats and/
or vandalism
Reporting changes to information and changes in status to LaWPRO and to the
Law Society of Upper Canada (LSUC)
as of last month, I have left private practice to become a law professor. I advised the Law Society of this change, and have been
advised that I will be eligible to pay the non-practising lawyer membership fee. However, I continue to receive emails from
LaWPRO reminding me to renew my professional indemnity insurance. I thought that as an educator, I was exempt from the insurance
requirement. What’s going on?
It appears that you have not notified LAWPRO of your change in practice status. If you’re changing firms, contact information, or
changing your status (going into or out of private practice), you should be sure to notify both LAWPRO and the Law Society separately
of these changes. LAWPRO and LSUC maintain completely separate information databases and, in keeping with their respective mandates,
generally do not share information that lawyers may consider confidential or proprietary. If you meet the exemption criteria, you
should amend your status by completing an Application for Exemption, and forward it to LAWPRO for processing.
More information
For more information about insurance requirements, exemption eligibility, run-off coverage, and other insurance issues, please
visit the FAQ section of the LAWPRO website at lawpro.ca/faqs
If you have any questions regarding your coverage or practice status, please contact LAWPRO’s customer service department by
email at [email protected], or by phone at 416-598-5899 or 1-800-410-1013.
LAWPRO Magazine
| Volume 12 Issue 4
Be ready
with an Incident Response Plan
Because a cybercrime attack can cause irreparable harm, law firms should be prepared to take action
immediately. Being able to do this requires an Incident Response Plan, or IRP.
An effective IRP can put a firm in a position to effectively and efficiently manage a breach by protecting sensitive
data, systems, and networks, and to quickly investigate the extent and source of the breach so that operations
can be maintained or promptly restored. Many firms design IRPs so that they address inadvertent breaches
as well – for example, a lost USB key, or a misdirected email. An IRP can help avoid many of the pitfalls of an
ad hoc response, such as slow containment (leading to more widespread impacts and damage), lost productivity,
bad press, client frustration, and even malpractice claims or discipline complaints.
A complete IRP addresses the detection, containment, and eradication of a cyber breach, recovery of normal
operations, and follow-up analysis. When creating your plan, we encourage you to address the following issues:
Build an IRP team.
Establish priorities.
The size and composition of the team will
vary depending on the size of your firm, but
teams of all sizes should have a leader. If the
firm employs IT staff, they will be key
members of the team. There should also
be representation from senior management,
from the firm’s main practice groups, and from the communications
and human resources departments, if these exist. Roles and
responsibilities for all team members should be documented in
the firm’s plan. Where necessary, team members should be trained
in the procedures required under the plan.
In the event of a cyber attack, what should the
firm’s first priorities be? Presuming no staff are
in physical danger, a firm’s first priority is often
protecting the confidentiality of client information.
Identify and rank your priorities (be sure to
include the need to notify LAWPRO and/or your
cyber risk insurer), and design your response
accordingly. For example, the IRP may specify the order in which
servers and services will be restored. Ensure that business objectives
and priorities are met while negative effects on users are minimized.
LAWPRO Magazine
| Volume 12 Issue 4
Be ready to investigate.
• log and audit processes;
To be able to respond appropriately, you will
need to understand the nature and extent of
the cyber attack or breach. If you have an IT
department, there may be individuals on your
staff with sufficient knowledge of forensic
investigation to isolate the problem. Firms
without an IT department should identify, in
advance, the provider that would be contacted
to investigate a breach, and record this contact
information in the IRP.
• use automated intrusion detection systems and a secure firewall; and
• use secure mechanisms for communication.
Have a containment plan.
Remember – non-IT staff may be the first to discover a cyber incident.
Encourage your staff to report indications of trouble. See “How to
recognize your computer is infected with malware” on page 16. In
the event that a third party (for example, a client) detects a problem –
for example, by receiving a phishing email – you should ensure that
it’s easy for third parties to identify the appropriate contact person
to whom to report the issue.
As soon as a problem is identified, be prepared to
make decisions about how to contain damage. IRP
team members should have authority to lock down
accounts and change passwords, to determine
whether and which systems need to be shut down
or isolated, and how to decide when it’s safe to
restore operation. It is useful for IRP members to
document events and responses as they unfold –
this record will be invaluable for the analysis of the attack once it’s
Effectively eradicate threats.
Have a communication plan.
Prompt and effective internal communication
is essential to an effective incident response.
The IRP should have a “call tree” with current
contact information that will govern communication between staff should an incident occur
when many are out of the office. Contact
information for outside IT and other service
providers should be documented in the plan and kept up to date.
It is useful, where the firm is trying not to immediately tip off the
intruder, to avoid email communications – in these cases, phone, text,
BlackBerry Messenger, or fax communication should be preferred.
It is useful to have a list ready in advance of outside parties who
should be notified, along with current contact information. These
parties may include the police, clients, insurers, credit card companies,
a public relations firm, and your Internet service provider (be sure
you have a current contact list saved outside your usual system).
Be technically prepared. While the details of breach prevention
protocol are beyond the scope of this article, some of the basic
protective steps firms can take are:
• create an inventory of computing resources;
Once the damage is contained, the firm will
need to be prepared to resolve the incident by
identifying and correcting all breach points,
and eradicating all intruder leavings (malware,
etc.). This is a complex and sometimes tedious
process that may require external help.
Analyze the incident and the effectiveness of
your response to help prepare
for the next event.
Once the threat has been contained and
then eradicated, the incident should be
thoroughly analyzed. How did the intruder
get in? What was he/she looking for? What
did he/she accomplish?
You should also review the effectiveness of
the firm’s response. If there were any areas
of confusion or parts of the plan that didn’t
work well, consider how those aspects of
the IRP might be improved, so you’ll be
better prepared for the next attack when
it happens.
• back up systems and data daily;
• create an offsite record, updated regularly, of client and
service provider contact details;
• create a software archive and a resource kit of tools and
hardware devices;
• create redundancy capacity for key systems;
Nora Rock is corporate writer and policy analyst at LAWPRO
• prepare a checklist of response steps;
While it takes some time and effort to create an IRP, being ready to
respond to an incident in a coordinated and effective way can reduce
damage to records and systems and minimize the impact of a cyber
attack on your firm’s productivity. Because the panic associated with
a crisis can lead to errors and missed steps, it is much better to have
thought these issues through calmly beforehand. ■
LAWPRO Magazine
| Volume 12 Issue 4
Keeping your passwords
strong and secure
Computer passwords are the keys that “unlock” our computer and
network systems. We all have more passwords than we can remember.
This tends to make us a bit lazy. We use obvious and easy-to-remember
passwords – even the word “password” itself. Or worse: we don’t use
them at all. Bad password habits are often one of the weakest links in
data security schemes. Cyber criminals know and exploit this fact.
For this reason it is critical that all lawyers and staff in a law office
use passwords, and use them properly. This article reviews the steps
you need to take to protect the confidentiality of your passwords, and
how you can create passwords that are harder to guess or determine.
Many of the password best practices mentioned in this article are
very easy to implement – review them with your lawyers and staff.
Can you keep a secret?
Passwords don’t work if they aren’t secret. Unfortunately, people get
careless and don’t always keep their passwords confidential. These
are the things you can do to keep your passwords secret.
Never ever tell anyone your passwords: This includes your IS support
person (they can force a reset if they really need to access your
account). And, make sure no one is looking over your shoulder
when you are typing a password. If more than one person knows
about a password, it isn’t a secret anymore.
Never write down your passwords, especially on your monitor:
Is this not the same as leaving the keys for your car in the ignition?
Take a walk around your office and see how many passwords you can
find on little notes taped to monitors or keyboards. If you absolutely
have to write down some of your passwords to remember them, don’t
write them out exactly. Write without an obvious reference to the
account they apply to, and so they have to be translated in some way.
Add or delete a character, transpose letters, or vary them some other
consistent way which only you can figure out.
LAWPRO Magazine
| Volume 12 Issue 4
Don’t save passwords on your computer hard drive: It is not
uncommon for people to create a document with all their passwords
in it on their computer. This file can be located in seconds with a hard
drive search, especially if it is called password.doc or if it contains
the word “password” or other related terms like “username.”
Use a password manager: If you must store passwords on your
computer or smartphone, use a password manager. These handy
programs remember and enter passwords for you and they are stored
in an encrypted form so that they can’t easily be accessed. Widely
used password managers include 1Password, LastPass, and RoboForm. Some password managers let you sync and use your passwords
on multiple platforms and devices across the web. Very convenient,
but depending on your personal preference and the work you do, you
may want to be cautious about putting your passwords in the cloud.
Make your password manager password extra complex! (And make
sure you don’t forget it.)
Use biometric scanners: Some laptops and the most recent iPhone
have built-in biometric scanners that give you access to a device or
other logins with a swipe of your finger or by facial recognition.
These scanners help you avoid the need to remember passwords.
Don’t use the same password for everything: This is very tempting,
but is also very dangerous as anyone that figures out your password
can get easy and instant access to all your other accounts. Use a
unique password for each program, especially for very sensitive
things like your network logon, remote access to networks or bank
account logons. You also shouldn’t use the same passwords for home
and work purposes or on the administrator and user profiles on
the same computer.
Change passwords on important accounts on a regular basis: For
critical things like your computer and bank account, you should
change your password every 60 to 90 days. This will foil a lurking
hacker that has your password unbeknownst to you.
tech tip
Change any compromised password immediately: Do this even if
you only suspect a password has been compromised. Again, this is
to foil a lurking hacker.
of letter, numbers and other characters. Given enough time, the
automated method can crack any password. The computers we have
today are much more powerful so passwords that used to take
months to crack can now be cracked in days or hours.
Don’t use the “remember password” feature: Be wary of dialog
boxes that present you with an option to save or remember your
password. These can appear in your web browser and for remote
access. By selecting this option you give unchallenged access to
accounts to anyone sitting down at your computer.
So, your challenge is picking a password that is hard to break because
it isn’t short, obvious or a common word. This is called a “strong”
password. For a password to be strong it should:
Use two-step authentication
• Not be a word associated with you (e.g., your spouse or child’s
name, street name, etc.)
Using two-step authentication on sites that offer it will help to increase
the security of your online information. Two-step authentication
is a process involving two stages to verify the identity of someone
trying to access online services.
You are already using two-step authentication if you withdraw money
from an ATM. To access an ATM, you need two things: the ATM
card and a personal identification number or PIN. If you lose your
ATM card, your money is still safe; anyone who finds the card
cannot withdraw money if they do not know your PIN. The same is
true if someone knows your PIN and does not have the card. This
second layer of security is what makes two-step authentication
more secure.
More and more websites are offering two-step authentication,
including Google, Facebook, Apple, Dropbox, Twitter, Microsoft,
Amazon, Evernote, WordPress and Yahoo! Mail. You should enable
two-step authentication if you are using one of these services.
Many of these sites have also added a feature that notifies you by
email or text message if your configuration has been changed. In
some cases you have to confirm the change for it to remain in effect.
This protects you in the event a hacker gets into your account. If
the hacker changes your password or other settings on the account,
you get an email or text message notifying you of the change and
you have the ability to prevent it from happening. Enabling this
feature on any of your accounts that have it will help prevent those
accounts from being taken over by a hacker.
Creating “strong” passwords
When you pick a password, you can’t just use any password. It
shouldn’t be anything obvious and easy to guess, either by a human
or a computer. Password-cracking tools continue to improve and
they use one of three approaches: intelligent guessing, dictionary
attacks and automation.
Intelligent guessing involves using words, phrases and key combinations that people commonly use as passwords. Intelligent guessing
works reasonably well because most people use simple and obvious
passwords (e.g., password, 12345, qwert, etc.). Dictionary attacks
cycle through a complete list of words from one or more languages.
Automated (or “brute force”) attacks try every possible combination
• Not contain your name or your computer user name;
• Not be a common word, name or phrase;
• Be significantly different from any passwords you have used
• Be at least 12 characters long, and longer is even better;
• Have at least one symbol character in a position other than the
first and last;
• Contain at least one character from each of the following four
a. uppercase letters A, B, C, ...
b. lowercase letters a, b, c, ...
c. numerals 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
d. symbols (all characters not defined as letters or numerals,
including: ` ~ ! @ # $ % ^ & * ( ) _ + - = { } | [ ] \ : “ ; ‘ < > ? , . /
The best practice is to create a unique, complex and random password
for every service you use. There are online tools that will create passwords with totally random characters. While these will be stronger,
you will likely have to use a password manager to remember them.
Passphrases can help you remember complex passwords
If you follow the advice in the previous section, your password will
be an unreadable mix of letters, numbers and characters. While
good for security, they will be hard to remember. Consider using
a “passphrase” to remember complex passwords. A passphrase is a
mix of letters, numbers and characters that has a translation that
makes it easier for you to remember the correct sequence. Here
are some sample passphrases:
• !am@#1DJ!nuSSr “I’m a number one DJ in Russia”
• [email protected] “Our major is crazy”
• [email protected]!sgr8! “LAWPRO is great!”
Using strong passwords can help you better protect the confidentiality
of client and firm data and systems. Encourage everyone at your
firm to make sure all their passwords are strong and secure. ■
Dan Pinnington is vice president, claims prevention and stakeholder relations
LAWPRO Magazine
| Volume 12 Issue 4
Could this happen to you?
Would you take the bait
on a phishing scam?
“Phishing” is one of the most common scams
that cyber criminals use because it can
produce spectacular results with very little
effort or expense on the part of the hacker.
Phishing involves the use of an email, text
message or phone call that appears to come
from a trusted source or institution, vendor
or company, but is actually from a third-party
impostor. Phishing messages are intended to
trick you into giving cyber criminals your
information by asking you to update or
confirm personal or online account information. Personal information and identity
theft and/or payment scams are the motives
behind most phishing scams. Thousands are
phished – criminals only need one or two
dupes to make it pay off.
supposedly from someone you know (see the
“stuck in London” example on the next page).
Cyber criminals do their best to make
phishing messages look official and legitimate.
They will mimic real communications from
the company or entity they are supposedly
from by using the same layout, fonts, wording,
message footers and copyright notices, etc.
as official messages. They will often include
corporate logos and even one or more links
to the alleged sender’s real website.
Could it happen to you? Would you fall for
a phishing scam?
To make it more likely you will fall for the
scam, phishing messages commonly involve
urgent scenarios. They may suggest that you
must reset your password because your
account has been compromised by hackers
or they may request that you login to your
account to review an invoice or deal with an
outstanding payment. Another common
phishing scam is a call from someone claiming to be from Microsoft who will tell you
your computer is infected and that you must
go to a special website to download an update
that will fix the problem. Phishing scams can
also be a request to complete a survey or to
give information to collect a prize you have
won. They can also be requests for money
Many phishing messages will include a link or
attachment that you are asked to click so you
can update your information. After doing so,
the webpage or attachment you will see
(which will also have text and logos to make
it look official) will prompt you to enter your
name, account number, password and other
personal information – thereby giving it to
cyber criminals.
To make matters worse, clicking on links or
attachments in phishing messages often
causes malware to be downloaded to your
computer as well.
As you consider these questions, see the next
page for some sample phishing messages.
How to spot phishing messages
Phishing scams work because some people
are gullible. If you get a phishing message
from a bank and you don’t have an account
there, you aren’t likely to fall for the scam.
However, if you have an account at that bank,
the message may look legitimate to you and
you are more likely to fall for the scam. Here
are some clues that can help you recognize
a phishing message:
• The link you are asked to visit is different
from the company’s usual website URL
(see the next paragraph).
• The main part of the sender’s email
address is not the same as the company’s
usual email address.
• Bad spelling and poor grammar.
• The promise of receiving money or
another big prize.
• Anyone asking for money – even if you
know them (see the “stuck in London”
message on the next page).
Checking the link you are asked to go to is
one of the best ways to confirm that a message is a phishing scam. Place your mouse
over the link you are asked to go to (but
don’t click on it!) and look at the taskbar in
your browser window (usually at the lower
left). It will show you the URL of the link.
It should start with the proper characters
in the proper website (e.g., lawpro.ca) and
not a URL that appears unrelated (e.g.,
http:://12.67.876/aed/1234/bnklogin). An
unrelated URL virtually guarantees it is a
phishing scam. Watch for small differences:
“lawpro.com.tv” seems close, but is different!
Never respond to “phishing” requests for
personal information in the mail, over the
phone or online. Most importantly – this
is probably the most common way that
personal information is stolen – never
ever reply to unsolicited or suspicious
emails, instant messages or web pages
asking for your personal information (e.g.,
usernames, passwords, SIN number, bank
account numbers, PINs, credit card numbers, mother’s birth name or birthday),
even if they appear to be from a known or
trusted person or business. Legitimate
businesses should never send you an email
message asking to send your username,
password or other information to them in
an email message. If in doubt, call the
company yourself using a phone number
from a trusted source. Don’t use the number in the email – it could be fake too! ■
Dan Pinnington is vice president, claims prevention
and stakeholder relations at LAWPRO.
• Nonsensical or rambling content.
LAWPRO Magazine
| Volume 12 Issue 4
Sample phishing
scam messages
LAWPRO Magazine
| Volume 12 Issue 4
Draw clients a roadmap to
avoid communication claims
Our readers should now be well aware that
problems with lawyer-client communication
are the number one cause of malpractice
claims. Managing communication takes
patience and effort: at one extreme of the
spectrum, responding to calls and messages
from clients who want constant contact can
be frustrating; while at the other end, trying
to get absentee clients to update instructions
or produce necessary documents can be
time-consuming. How can you get the lawyerclient exchange off on the right foot from the
beginning of a retainer, so that you don’t feel
either bombarded or ignored?
It helps to remember that the reason clients
may communicate too much – or too little –
can be that you’ve left them in the dark about
how their matter is likely to proceed.
As lawyers, we sometimes forget that many
clients have no frame of reference – other
than movies or television – for what will
happen in a typical legal matter. They may
not know what the steps are, how long it will
take, or how much it will cost. Common
assumptions that lawyers make based on
experience – for example, that the chance
of an action going to trial is less than 20
per cent (or whatever it might be, in your
practice area) – are not common knowledge
to many clients. It’s not surprising that, when
the progress of a matter turns out to be
slower, different, or more complicated than
the client had expected, the phone starts to
ring or the inbox to bulge.
You can improve your communication with
clients and at the same time avoid malpractice
claims by making the effort, at the beginning
of each retainer, to provide the client with an
overview or “roadmap” of how the matter
can be expected to proceed. A good overview
includes the following information:
• The typical steps and stages involved in the
particular type of matter. Remember that
a client may have had occasion to obtain
legal services before, for a completely
different type of matter, and may be
assuming that this one will work the same
way. You may find yourself explaining that
a labour grievance is as similar to estate
litigation as a goat is to a gorilla… they’re
both mammals, but beyond that…;
• An explanation of with whom the client
will work at each stage. For example, if
your legal assistant typically assists in
the data-and-document-gathering stage
of matters, let the client know that she
will be hearing from the assistant; or if
you handle family law agreements but
refer away cases headed for trial, make
sure the client knows this;
• A description of the assistance and
participation you will need from the client
(will she need to obtain documents from
her employer? Undergo a medical examination? Attend at discoveries?);
• How long on average it takes to complete
each stage in the particular kind of
matter – as well as what the short and
long ends of the range might be − and
whether there are delays the client should
know about (for example, clients may not
know that a court can reserve a decision
at the end of a trial, and may be shocked
that they won’t know the outcome until
weeks or months later);
• Information about the impact of certain
strategic decisions on the complexity,
duration, and cost of a matter. Make sure
that a client understands that time is
money, and he should take into account
the costs savings associated with early
settlement when assessing the adequacy
of settlement offers;
• The difference between fees and disbursements, and the general range for the
expected overall costs (but be careful
– many clients may hear and remember
what you say about the lower end of the
range more clearly than they remember
the high end!); and
• The fact that, in a litigation matter, an
unsuccessful party may be required to
pay part of the successful party’s costs.
This is just a suggested list, and deciding
what belongs in the roadmap you draw will
necessarily vary depending on what kind of
legal work you do. For clues about what you
need to include, pay attention to what kinds
of questions you find yourself answering over
and over in your communications. If you do
legal work that follows a fairly predictable
pattern (for example, residential real estate),
you may even want to commit portions of this
roadmap discussion to writing, in the form
of a client handout – as long as you realize
that handouts can never replace personal
communication. A handout eliminates some
opportunities for clients to raise important
questions, and skimping on personal
communication may make a client feel
ignored – a recipe for trouble. For an example
of a client handout precedent, see Hon. Carole
Curtis’ (former family lawyer, now a Justice
of the Ontario Court) “Administrative
Information for New Clients,” available
at practicepro.ca.
Finally, regardless of the content of your
overview, you can improve the quality of
your communication with clients by remembering to communicate just two pieces of
information at the conclusion of every
communication. No matter the reason for
the call, visit, or email, always be sure that
by the end of the contact, the client knows
the answer to these two questions: ‘what
happens next?’ and ‘when will I hear from
you?’ Even if the answer is merely ‘now, we
wait; you’ll hear from me when the other
party makes a move’, knowing where things
are going reduces uncertainty, leaves the
impression that a strategy is unfolding, and
reaffirms that the lawyer will be in touch. ■
Nora Rock is corporate writer and policy analyst
LAWPRO Magazine
| Volume 12 Issue 4
e aBa Cybersecurity Handbook: a Resource for attorneys, Law Firms, and
Business Professionals
Jill D. Rhodes and Vincent I. Polley
“There are two types of firms: those that
know they’ve been (cyber) attacked and
those that don’t,” says Jill Rhodes, co-author
along with Vincent Polley of the The ABA
Cybersecurity Handbook. The book is an
initiative of the ABA Cybersecurity Legal
Task Force that was created in 2012 to bring
together the legal community and private sector to help secure law
firm computer systems.
As described throughout this issue of LAWPRO Magazine, law firms
(as well as government and in-house lawyers) are tempting targets
because of the wealth of confidential information they have about
their clients, such as strategic business data, proposed mergers and
acquisitions, intellectual property and information obtained through
e-discovery in the course of litigation. And it isn’t just hackers that can
cause these breaches: it could be disgruntled or duped employees, lost
mobile phones with lax passwords, or accidental damage (e.g. a flood)
to computer hardware resulting in a malfunction of security systems.
This book was written as a resource for lawyers in all practice settings
to help them develop a cybersecurity strategy. There is no single
solution for every firm, and developing measures to increase security
and respond to breaches requires balancing legal requirements, firm
resources, staff training, investments in technology and client needs.
The authors first look at why firms are vulnerable and what steps they
should be taking to increase their cybersecurity. The underlying
problem is that lawyers are experts on law, not technology, and often
don’t have the kind of security arrangements big businesses or
governments do. Data that was created in a secure environment can
become exposed when it moves into the hands of a law firm with
inferior security systems. Firms are under pressure to find efficiencies
such as outsourcing, cloud storage and mobile devices, and each of
these ways of dispersing client data adds another potential breach
point. Lawyers and staff may also resist new security arrangements
and the inconveniences these can bring.
At the same time, the authors point out that lawyers fundamentally
understand the importance of client confidentiality, and that’s a good
starting point to make them embrace the importance of improved
cybersecurity. Also, clients will increasingly press firms to have
security systems as strong as their own.
The book describes how firms should do a risk assessment and
develop plans to not only prevent security breaches, but also deal with
them when they happen (and firms should make the assumption that
breaches will happen). This assessment would cover all of a firm’s data
usage policies and the ways in which staff use and access confidential
data. How to have a conversation with clients about data security (in
terms of potential added costs and what to do in the event of a breach)
would also be considered.
The next section of the book is an in-depth look at the legal and
ethical obligations lawyers have to protect clients’ data. As the
book was written for a U.S. audience, the rules and laws described
apply to American lawyers. However the basic principles would
apply to Ontario lawyers, who will want to consider the Law Society
Rules of Professional Conduct and bylaws as well.
The remainder of the book looks at how firms of various sizes can
implement cybersecurity strategies. Small firms will have the flexibility
to adopt new technologies and practices quickly, but may struggle with
the costs, while large firms would have the opposite challenge. The
authors also address how government and in-house lawyers can
improve their levels of security.
For many firms, issues of cyber and data security have crept up on
them in recent years, but recent high profile breaches of client
information have added a sense of urgency. This book is a good
resource for firms wanting to start a discussion with staff, clients and
technical support providers about their own state of preparedness
for a cyber attack or data breach. ■
Tim Lemieux is practicePRO coordinator at LAWPRO.
about the practicePRO Lending Library
The practicePRO Lending Library has more than 100 books on a wide variety of law practice management topics. Ontario lawyers can borrow books in person or
via e-mail. A full catalogue of books is available online (practicepro.ca/library). Books can be borrowed for three weeks. LAWPRO ships loaned books to you at our
expense, and you return books to us at your expense.
We have books on these topics:
• Billing & financial management
• Law firm management & administration
• Marketing & client relations
• Law office technology
• Career issues
• Wellness & balance issues
• Solo & small firm issues
For full descriptions of these titles, including downloadable tables of contents, go to practicepro.ca/library.
LAWPRO Magazine
| Volume 12 Issue 4
LAWPRO has a
corporate LinkedIn
page, does your firm?
Social media profile:
Kathleen Waters
Kathleen Waters
President and CEO
LAWPRO has had a corporate LinkedIn page for almost two years now.
We find it a useful tool to connect with lawyers and other legal
profession stakeholders. It allows us to easily share LAWPRO-related
information with LinkedIn users.
As well as giving us a corporate presence and the ability to post
updates, we have customized the “Products and Services” tab. On
this tab we list seven items including: E&O insurance for Ontario
lawyers, our practicePRO risk management program, TitlePLUS title
insurance, excess insurance, LAWPRO Magazine, our corporate social
responsibility program, and the AvoidAClaim blog. Each item has a
brief description; together they give a good overview of our mandatory
and optional insurance program options and our risk management
materials and resources.
If you don’t have a firm page on LinkedIn you should consider creating
one. LinkedIn highlights and shares information about the staff and
lawyers from your firm that are on LinkedIn – and those that have
left, as well – so it is a good idea to have a page for your firm. Did you
know that if any one of your employees has a LinkedIn account and
has added your company as an employer, LinkedIn will automatically
create a generic business page? With over 225 million users on LinkedIn,
there’s no better time to claim that page and customize it to start
promoting your firm, the lawyers and staff who work there, and the
services you offer. LinkedIn can also be a helpful recruiting tool.
Don’t forget!
Connect with LAWPRO:
Victoria Caruso is communications coordinator at LAWPRO.
When asked how Kathleen has seen social media shape the industry
she works in, she responds:
Social media allows us to be closer to our
insureds and other influencers, and what
could be better than that? We can see what
they are interested in and they can see
what we value as reflected in our posts.
I receive more direct feedback from
insureds about my social media efforts than
any other aspect of my work at LAWPRO.
Time at LAWPRO: 16 years
Kathleen has been active on Twitter and LinkedIn for the past
two years.
Target audience:
• lawyers and paralegals
• real estate industry
• political stakeholders
• insurance regulators
Topics of interest:
• professional liability insurance for lawyers, including risk
management and global insights
• LAWPRO updates, primary, excess and TitlePLUS programs
• real estate issues in Canada and the U.S.
• insurance industry updates
• lawyer and paralegal education
• charity initiatives of interest to lawyers
• occasional updates of interest to feminists
LAWPRO Magazine
| Volume 12 Issue 4
Risk management
Additional professional
liability insurance
Title insurance
LAWPRO insurance
TitlePLUS Home Buying
Guide – Canada
Return undeliverable Canadian addresses to:
LAWPRO • 250 Yonge Street • Suite 3101, P.O. Box 3 • Toronto, Ontario M5B 2L7

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