Importation of Commercial Samples What Every Member of the

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What Every Member of the
Trade Community Should Know About:
Importation of
Commercial
Samples
AN INFORMED COMPLIANCE PUBLICATION
REVISED OCTOBER 2003
Importation of Commercial Samples
October 2003
NOTICE:
This publication is intended to provide guidance and information to the trade community.
It reflects the position on or interpretation of the applicable laws or regulations by U.S.
Customs and Border Protection (CBP) as of the date of publication, which is shown on
the front cover. It does not in any way replace or supersede those laws or regulations.
Only the latest official version of the laws or regulations is authoritative.
Publication History
Revised: October 2003
First Published: May 2001
PRINTING NOTE:
This publication was designed for electronic distribution via the CBP website
(http://www.cbp.gov) and is being distributed in a variety of formats. It was originally set
up in Microsoft Word97®. Pagination and margins in downloaded versions may vary
depending upon which word processor or printer you use. If you wish to maintain the
original settings, you may wish to download the .pdf version, which can then be printed
using the freely available Adobe Acrobat Reader®.
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Importation of Commercial Samples
October 2003
PREFACE
On December 8, 1993, Title VI of the North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation
Act (Pub. L. 103-182, 107 Stat. 2057), also known as the Customs Modernization or “Mod” Act,
became effective. These provisions amended many sections of the Tariff Act of 1930 and
related laws.
Two new concepts that emerge from the Mod Act are “informed compliance” and “shared
responsibility,” which are premised on the idea that in order to maximize voluntary compliance
with laws and regulations of U.S. Customs and Border Protection, the trade community needs to
be clearly and completely informed of its legal obligations. Accordingly, the Mod Act imposes a
greater obligation on CBP to provide the public with improved information concerning the trade
community's rights and responsibilities under customs regulations and related laws. In addition,
both the trade and U.S. Customs and Border Protection share responsibility for carrying out
these requirements. For example, under Section 484 of the Tariff Act, as amended (19 U.S.C.
1484), the importer of record is responsible for using reasonable care to enter, classify and
determine the value of imported merchandise and to provide any other information necessary to
enable U.S. Customs and Border Protection to properly assess duties, collect accurate
statistics, and determine whether other applicable legal requirements, if any, have been met.
CBP is then responsible for fixing the final classification and value of the merchandise. An
importer of record’s failure to exercise reasonable care could delay release of the merchandise
and, in some cases, could result in the imposition of penalties.
The Office of Regulations and Rulings (ORR) has been given a major role in
informed compliance responsibilities of U.S. Customs and Border Protection.
provide information to the public, CBP has issued a series of informed compliance
and videos, on new or revised requirements, regulations or procedures, and
classification and valuation issues.
meeting the
In order to
publications,
a variety of
This publication, prepared by the Commercial Rulings Division, ORR, is ntended to explain the
classification of imported merchandise and advise the public of customs regulations and
procedures. This Informed Compliance Publication provides a brief guide for importing
commercial samples into the United States. We sincerely hope that this material, together with
seminars and increased access to rulings of U.S. Customs and Border Protection, will help the
trade community to improve voluntary compliance with customs laws and to understand the
relevant administrative processes.
The material in this publication is provided for general information purposes only. Because
many complicated factors can be involved in customs issues, an importer may wish to obtain a
ruling under Regulations of U.S. Customs and Border Protection, 19 C.F.R. Part 177, or to
obtain advice from an expert who specializes in customs matters, for example, a licensed
customs broker, attorney or consultant.
Comments and suggestions are welcomed and should be addressed to the Assistant
Commissioner at the Office of Regulations and Rulings, U.S. Customs and Border Protection,
1300 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C. 20229.
Michael T. Schmitz,
Assistant Commissioner
Office of Regulations and Rulings
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October 2003
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Importation of Commercial Samples
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INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................7
PURPOSE ..................................................................................................7
Special Duty Free Provisions ....................................................................................... 7
Option I: Duty Free Consumption Entries..................................................................... 8
Option II: Temporary Importation under Bond (TIB) ..................................................... 8
Intent of TIB Provision .................................................................................................. 9
Definition of “Sample” for TIB’s and Carnets ................................................................ 9
TIB Entry Requirements ............................................................................................. 10
Bond Requirements.................................................................................................... 10
Breach of Bond: Liquidated Damages........................................................................ 11
Extension of Time....................................................................................................... 11
Quota Considerations................................................................................................. 11
Special Rules for Travelers ........................................................................................ 12
Option III: Carnets ...................................................................................................... 13
A.T.A Carnet .............................................................................................................. 13
TECRO/AIT Carnet .................................................................................................... 14
Advantage of Using a Carnet ..................................................................................... 14
Quotas........................................................................................................................ 14
Validity & Extension of Time....................................................................................... 14
Breach & Damages .................................................................................................... 14
Option IV: Prototypes ................................................................................................ 15
Regular Entry ............................................................................................................. 15
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION..................................................................16
The Internet................................................................................................................ 16
Customs Regulations ................................................................................................. 17
Customs Bulletin ........................................................................................................ 17
Importing Into the United States ................................................................................. 17
Informed Compliance Publications............................................................................. 18
Value Publications...................................................................................................... 18
“Your Comments are Important”................................................................................. 19
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INTRODUCTION
When goods are imported into the customs territory of the United States (the fifty
states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico), they are subject to certain formalities
involving U.S. Customs and Border Protection. In almost all cases, the goods are
required to be “entered,” that is, declared to the CBP, and are subject to detention and
examination by CBP officers to insure compliance with all laws and regulations enforced
or administered by the CBP. As part of the entry process, goods must be “classified”
(determined where in the U.S. tariff schedule they fall) and their value must be
determined. Pursuant to the Customs Modernization Act, it is now the responsibility of
the importer of record to use “reasonable care” to “enter” and “value” the goods and
provide any other information necessary to enable the CBP to properly assess duties,
collect accurate statistics, and determine whether all other applicable legal requirements
are met.
Classifying goods is important not only for duty purposes, but also to determine
whether the gods are subject to quotas, restraints, anti-dumping or countervailing
duties, embargoes or other restrictions. The act of classifying goods is complex and
requires an importer to be familiar with the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United
States (HTSUS), its 99 chapters, rules of interpretation, and notes. A detailed
discussion of the HTSUS may be found in a companion publication entitled, What Every
Member of the Trade Community Should Know About: Tariff Classification. CBP
valuation requirements are separately discussed in a companion publication entitled,
What Every Member of the Trade Community Should Know About: Customs Value.
Both of these publications are available form the CBP World Wide Web pages on the
Internet (see the Additional Information section for information on accessing these
sources and obtaining additional CBP publications).
PURPOSE
This Informed Compliance Publication provides a brief guide for importing
commercial samples into the customs territory of the United States. It is intended to be
an aid for importers and other interested parties in determining the appropriate method
of importation.
Special Duty Free Provisions
There are several ways for samples, articles imported for the purpose of taking
orders for similar merchandise, to be imported duty-free to the Customs Territory of the
United States. This section explains the options in Chapter 98, HTSUS and the
provisions in Customs regulations relating to Carnets that specifically apply to
commercial samples.
·
Duty-free consumption entries under 9813.00.20, 9813.00.40 or 9813.00.60;
·
Temporary Importation under Bond (TIB) - Subheading 9813.00.20 of Chapter
98, Subchapter XIII of the HTSUS;
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Importation of Commercial Samples
October 2003
·
Carnets- 19 CFR Part 114; and
·
Prototypes- Subheading 9817.85.01 of Chapter 98, Subchapter XVII of HTSUS.
In addition, in some cases, importers may wish to enter goods under the
provisions of chapters 1-97 HTSUS.
This last option and its advantages or
disadvantages are explained in the section entitled: Regular Entry (below).
Option I: Duty Free Consumption Entries
Under Chapter 98 Subchapter XI, HTSUS, certain goods may enter the Customs
Territory under regular consumption entries but free of duty and quota requirements.
This is the case for very small quantities of three types of samples to be used in the
United States for soliciting orders by persons importing such merchandise in
commercial quantities. In the case of alcoholic beverages or tobacco products, the
quantity is limited to one sample of each beverage or tobacco product in a calendar
quarter for use of importers of the products in commercial quantities. The tariff
provisions are:
·
9811.00.20: Alcoholic beverages samples (each sample containing not more than
300 milliliters if a malt beverage, not more than 150 milliliters if a wine and not more
than 100 milliliters if any other alcoholic beverage).
·
9811.00.40: Samples of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes (each
sample consisting of not more than (a) 3 cigars, (b) 3 cigarettes, (c) 3.5 grams of
tobacco, (d) 25 cigarette papers, (e) 3 cigarette tubes, or (f) 25 cigarette papers).
·
9811.00.60: Any sample (except samples covered in 9811.00.20 or 9811.00.40),
valued not over $1 each, or marked, torn, perforated or otherwise treated so that it is
unsuitable for sale or for use other than as a sample. Under this provision:
Ø Merchandise must be marked “SAMPLE” in indelible ink or paint or cut or torn in
the manner prescribed in the Interim Update to Customs Directive 3500-07,
Textiles Samples Guidelines, dated January 4, 1989.
Ø Textile Samples can be given at no charge to a recycling company either to be
made into rags or to be baled and exported.
Ø Sample footwear must be marked “SAMPLE- NOT FOR RESALE” conspicuously
and in a location where the ink is not likely to wear off.
Unlike the TIB and Carnet provisions discussed below, when 9811.00.20 or 40
are used, the “samples” may be consumed in the course of solicitation of orders.
Option II: Temporary Importation under Bond (TIB)
Temporary importation under bond (TIB) is a procedure whereby under certain
conditions, merchandise may be entered temporarily into the Customs Territory free of
duty by posting a bond. In the bond the importer agrees to export or destroy the
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Importation of Commercial Samples
October 2003
merchandise within a specified time or pay liquidated damages, generally equal to twice
the normal duty.
There are fourteen categories of TIBs described in Chapter 98, Subchapter XIII
of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States Annotated (HTSUSA). The TIB
provisions are designated as subheadings 9813.00.05 through 9813.00.75. Subheading
9813.00.20 pertains to samples for use solely in taking orders for merchandise. U.S.
Note 1(a) governs all TIBs and has two important statements:
a. TIB goods are not to be for sale or sale on approval.
This means that one must have an intent at the time of importation to export or destroy
the articles produced from the merchandise.
b. There is a set time period for which TIB goods may remain in the U.S. before
being exported or destroyed.
Goods may be admitted under TIB for exportation within one year from the date of
importation. The one year period may be extended for one or more further periods
which, when added to the initial one year, shall not exceed a total of three years from
the date of importation.
Intent of TIB Provision
The intent in permitting duty free entry of samples is to promote international
trade. Therefore, the purpose of importing and using the sample must be to create a
demand for that product.
Definition of “Sample” for TIB’s and Carnets
For purposes of the TIB and Carnet provisions, CBP defines “sample” as “an
article which is imported for the bona fide purpose of taking orders for similar
merchandise.”
Interpretation of “sample”:
·
Goods cannot be on display for ordering and then used to fill an order. This
precludes the samples from eligibility under the TIB provision because all or some of
the merchandise was intended for sale.
·
The sample does not have to be an exact duplicate of the merchandise being sold.
·
The sample can be a different size or material than the good it is representing.
·
Miniature models and cutaway samples revealing the construction of the product are
eligible.
·
Cloth swatches and color cards that display the different colors of merchandise are
eligible.
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October 2003
·
Photographs are not eligible for entry as samples. However samples entered under
9813.00.20 can be shown on television, used in fashion shows, photographed for
publicity purposes, and displayed for advertising purposes so long as orders were to
be solicited in connection with their use.
·
Although the actual samples are eligible for entry under 9813.00.20, the display
panels, signs, backdrops and related exhibit materials may only be permitted entry
under 9813.00.50 as professional equipment or tools of trade.
·
Both an aircraft and those spare parts designated and used as samples are entitled
to entry. The parts that are imported for the express purpose of repairing the aircraft
are to be entered under subheading 9813.00.05 as articles to be repaired, altered, or
processed rather than as samples.
·
Although food samples (and other consumables) may be brought in as “commercial
samples” for display and solicitation of orders, they may not be distributed as
samples to be eaten or consumed. If they are to be eaten (or otherwise consumed
in a normal matter), regular entry and duty payment (if any) are required.
·
Samples that are marked, torn, perforated or otherwise treated so that they are
unsuitable for sale or for use other than as samples should be entered under the
provision for duty free consumption entry 9811.00.60 (see Option I, above)
TIB Entry Requirements
Unless the articles are covered by a carnet (see below), entry of commercial
samples is usually made on Customs Form 3461 or 7533, followed by an entry
summary on a Customs Form 7501 within 10 days. However the 7501 may be filed at
the time of entry in which case the other forms are not used. If the articles are brought
into the country as accompanying baggage, they may qualify for the simplified
procedures for travelers. If the aggregate value of the article is not over $250, informal
entries may be filed. If imported through the international postal system, mail entries
may be used, as appropriate.
Bond Requirements
For samples entered under subheading 9813.00.20, the Customs Regulations
(19 CFR 10.31(f)) provide that the TIB bond shall be in the amount equal to 110% of the
estimated duties and fees which would accrue if an ordinary consumption entry had
been filed.
Taxes and special duties, (i.e. internal revenue taxes, antidumping and
countervailing duties, marking duties, etc.), are taken into account in all bond amount
computations. A continuous entry bond may be used only if the dumping or subsidy
margin is five percent or less, otherwise, the entry must be secured by a single
transaction bond.
10
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October 2003
Commercial cargo, if loaded or unloaded at a port and from a commercial vessel,
is subject to a port use fee of a percentage of the cargo value. Harbor maintenance fees
however, are not included in any bond computations because they are paid at the time
of filing the entry summary package. For more information see 19 CFR 24.24.
Breach of Bond: Liquidated Damages
Section 10.39(d)(1), Customs Regulations (19 CFR 10.39(d)(1)) provides that if
any article entered under Chapter 98, Subchapter XIII (except if entered under a carnet)
has not been exported or destroyed in accordance with the regulations within the
appropriate period of time, there is a breach of the Customs bond, and CBP will
demand the payment of liquidated damages equal to double the estimated duties for
samples entered under the temporary importation provisions.
Extension of Time
An importer can file for an extension of time for exportation as provided in 19
CFR 10.37. Extensions can be granted in up to one year increments, the total not to
exceed three years from importation. The extension request must be filed with CBP
before the appropriate import period expires to not breach the bond. Extensions may be
granted at the port where the entry was filed provided:
·
The merchandise has not been exported or destroyed before application for
extension,
·
The extension request was filed with CBP before the expiration of the current
temporary importation bond, and
·
Liquidated damages have not been assessed before receipt of the application
for extension.
Upon the presentation of satisfactory evidence to the director of the port at which
samples were entered under subheading 9813.00.20, HTSUS, that such articles cannot
be exported for the reason that they have been seized (other than by seizure at the suit
of private persons), the requirement of exportation will be suspended for the duration of
the seizure. However, the articles must be exported promptly after release from
seizure.
Quota Considerations
TIBs are considered consumption entries for the purposes of administering
quotas. T.D. 54802 (53) and (54). TIB entries with any quota class merchandise must
be held to the appropriate provisions as set out in 19 CFR Part 132. For example,
merchandise that is subject to an absolute quota must come within the quota limitation
in order to be released by CBP. Merchandise that requires the presentation of a visa in
order to be released by CBP must be accompanied by the visa.
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Special Rules for Travelers
There are simplified rules for travelers bringing in commercial samples as
accompanied baggage. Samples accompanying a commercial traveler who presents
an adequate descriptive list, may be entered on the importer's baggage declaration in
lieu of formal entry and examination and may be passed under subheading 9813.00,20
at the place of arrival in the same manner as other passengers' baggage. The
examination may be made by an inspector who is qualified, in the opinion of the port
director, to determine the amount of the required bond. If the articles are a commercial
traveler's samples and exceed $500 in value, a special CBP invoice or a descriptive list
shall be furnished. Under these simplified procedures, normally a bond without surety
or cash deposit is required. However, the port director may require a bond with surety if
he believes it is necessary to protect the revenue or prevent the goods from entering the
commerce of the United States.
When a commercial traveler contemplates side trips to a contiguous country
within the period of time during which the merchandise is authorized to remain in the
Customs territory of the United States under bond, including any lawful extension, a
copy of his baggage declaration and a copy of the descriptive list or special CBP invoice
furnished by him may be certified by the examining officer and returned to the traveler
for use in registering the samples with CBP officers at the port of exit, and in clearing
them through CBP upon his return. Cancellation of the bond shall be effected by
permanent exportation in accordance with the provisions of 19 CFR 10.38 at the time
the samples are finally taken out of the United States before the expiration of the period
of time during which the merchandise may remain in the Customs territory of the United
States under bond, including any lawful extension.
Port directors may waive examination of the commercial travelers’ samples taken
abroad for temporary use at the time of exportation, except where the exportation
involves certification of a carnet
The privilege of clearance of commercial travelers' samples on a baggage
declaration under bond without surety or cash deposit will not be accorded to a
commercial traveler who, through fraud or culpable negligence, has failed to comply
with the provisions of a bond in connection with a prior arrival. Such a commercial
traveler will be required to file a formal entry under subheading 9813.00.20, HTSUS with
a bond supported by a surety or cash deposit in lieu of surety.
There are special procedures for raw cotton samples taken to and returned from
Canada and for samples taken to Great Britain and Ireland under a reciprocal
agreement. If these situations apply, please check with the CBP officers at the port of
exportation from the U.S. and refer to 19 CFR 10.68 or 10.69.
12
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Option III: Carnets
Samples are also eligible to be temporarily imported through the use of a carnet.
The U.S. recognizes two types of carnets under which a sample may be imported
temporarily into the U.S.: the A.T.A Carnet and the TECRO/AIT Carnet.
A carnet is a combination entry document and customs bond. 19 CFR Part 114
sets out the different types of carnets, the coverage of carnets, and states that
merchandise not entitled to enter under a TIB provision shall not be entered under a
carnet.
A carnet is acceptable for commercial samples to be temporarily entered, or
temporarily entered and transported, duty-free under the International Convention to
Facilitate the Importation of Commercial Samples and Advertising Materials
Carnets are issued by guaranteeing associations to a party in interest, “the
holder,” at the party’s request and upon payment of the association fee. Payment of
duty and other sums (taxes, liquidated damages, etc.) which accrue as a result of noncompliance with the terms and conditions of the carnet are guaranteed by the approved
guaranteeing association.
A.T.A Carnet
The A.T.A. Carnet (Admission Temporaire-Temporary Admission Carnet) is an
international Customs document, backed by an internationally valid guarantee, that may
be used for the entry of articles into a country in place of the customs documents
usually required.
The carnet guarantee is based on an international agreement whereby national
guaranteeing associations (the ATA Carnet guaranteeing chain), established in the
participating countries, are held jointly liable with the carnet holder for compliance with
CBP procedures applicable to the type of importation for which the carnet was issued,
and for payment of any sums due in the event of non-compliance with said procedures.
The United States Council for International Business (USCIB) has been
approved as the issuing and guaranteeing association for carnets used in the United
States pursuant to the Customs Convention on the A.T.A. Carnet for the Temporary
Importation of Goods.
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TECRO/AIT Carnet
“TECRO/AIT Carnet” is the document issued pursuant to the Bilateral Agreement
between the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office (TECRO) and the
American Institute in Taiwan (AIT) to cover the temporary admission of goods.
For more information on TECRO/AIT Carnet, see 19 CFR Part 114.22(d)- 114.34.
Advantage of Using a Carnet
Since carnets are purchased by the importer before leaving the importer’s
country, use of the carnet facilitates the importation of the sample into the US. The
carnet simplifies the CBP formalities involved in temporarily importing goods into
another country. Without a carnet it would be necessary to go through the customs
procedures established in each country for the temporary admission of goods. The
carnet allows the temporary traveler or businessperson to make customs arrangements
in advance and use a single document for certain categories of goods that will pass
through customs in several different countries.
Quotas
Merchandise entered under a carnet may be subject to quotas and should be
treated the same as a TIB for administering quota. If a sample is subject to an absolute
quantitative quota and the quota is closed, the merchandise is not admissible into the
US. Entry by a carnet does not change this requirement.
Validity & Extension of Time
19 CFR Part 114.23 sets out the maximum period of validity for carnets, to not
exceed one-year.
Carnets cannot be extended or re-filed. It is possible to substitute a TIB for a
Carnet provided that the 1-year period has not run. Because the TIB period cannot
exceed three years from the date of importation, after the carnet is timely converted into
a TIB entry, only one more TIB extension is allowed.
Breach & Damages
Part 10.39(d)(2), Customs Regulations provides that if articles entered under a
carnet have not been exported or destroyed within the carnet period, the port director
shall promptly, but in no case more than one year after the expiration of the period for
which the carnet was valid, make demand on the importer and guaranteeing association
for liquidated damages in the amount of 110 percent of the estimated duties on the
articles not exported or destroyed.
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Option IV: Prototypes
Section 1432 of the Tariff Suspension and Trade Act of 2000, which was enacted
on November 9, 2000 (Pub. Law 106-476), created a new subheading 9817.85.01
HTSUS for column 1 duty-free treatment of prototypes imported exclusively for
development, testing, product evaluation, or quality control purposes.
Under new U.S. note 6 to subchapter XVII, HTSUS, the term “prototypes” means
originals or models of articles that—
(i)
are either in the preproduction, production, or postproduction stage and
are to be used exclusively for development, testing, product evaluation, or
quality control purposes; and
(ii)
in the case of originals or models of articles that are either in the
production or postproduction stage, are associated with a design change
from current production (including a refinement, advancement,
improvement, development, or quality control in either the product itself or
the means for producing the product).
For purposes of clause (i), automobile racing for purse, prize, or commercial
competition shall not be considered to be “development, testing, product evaluation, or
quality control.”
Prototypes may be imported only in limited noncommercial quantities in
accordance with industry practice. Except as provided for by the Secretary of the
Treasury, prototypes or parts of prototypes may not be sold after importation into the
United States or be incorporated into other products that are sold. Articles subject to
quantitative restrictions, antidumping orders, or countervailing duty orders may not be
classified as prototypes under this note. Articles subject to licensing requirements, or
which must comply with laws, rules, or regulations administered by agencies other than
the CBP before being imported, may be classified as prototypes if they comply with all
applicable provisions of law and otherwise meet the definition of “prototypes.”
Previously, such prototypes were subject to duty upon their importation into the
United States unless the prototypes qualified for duty-free treatment under special trade
programs or unless the prototypes were entered under a temporary importation bond.
For more information see the regulations for this provision found at 19 CFR part
10, published at 67 Federal Register 10636 (March 8, 2002).
Regular Entry
In addition to the special provisions for commercial samples which are described
in the foregoing sections, the importer also has the option of making a regular formal or
informal entry (or in appropriate cases, using a baggage declaration for low value
shipments) and using the regular classification subheadings in Chapters 1-97 HTSUS.
Classification of merchandise under the HTSUS is in accordance with the
General Rules of Interpretation (GRI’s). GRI 1 provides that classification shall be
15
Importation of Commercial Samples
October 2003
determined according to the terms of the headings and any relative section or chapter
notes. Chapters 1-97, HTSUS are based on the international Harmonized Commodity
Description and Coding System (the “Harmonized System” or “HS”). However,
Chapters 98 and 99 of the HTSUS are unique to the U.S.
This option requires the importer to pay regular duties, if any, on the
merchandise, but it does have the advantage of allowing the importer to sell the goods
or keep them beyond the period covered by a TIB or Carnet, without the destruction or
exportation required under those options. This option requires compliance with all laws
and regulations (quota, permits or licenses required by other government agencies,
etc). This option may be especially appealing to an importer whose goods are MFN
duty free (such as children’s toys), duty free under special programs (such as
Generalized System of Preferences “GSP” or the Caribbean Basin Initiative “CBI,” etc.)
or are subject to very low rates of duty. If this option is used, the importer must use
reasonable care to properly classify and value the imported merchandise.
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
The Internet
The home page of U.S. Customs and Border Protection on the Internet’s World Wide
Web, provides the trade community with current, relevant information regarding CBP
operations and items of special interest. The site posts information -- which includes
proposed regulations, news releases, publications and notices, etc. -- that can be
searched, read on-line, printed or downloaded to your personal computer. The web site
was established as a trade-friendly mechanism to assist the importing and exporting
community. The web site also links to the home pages of many other agencies whose
importing or exporting regulations that U.S. Customs and Border Protection helps to
enforce. The web site also contains a wealth of information of interest to a broader
public than the trade community. For instance, on June 20, 2001, CBP launched the
“Know Before You Go” publication and traveler awareness campaign designed to help
educate international travelers.
The web address of U.S. Customs and Border Protection is http://www.cbp.gov
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Customs Regulations
The current edition of Customs Regulations of the United States is a loose-leaf,
subscription publication available from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S.
Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402; telephone (202) 512-1800. A
bound, 2003 edition of Title 19, Code of Federal Regulations, which incorporates all
changes to the Regulations as of April 1, 2003, is also available for sale from the same
address. All proposed and final regulations are published in the Federal Register, which
is published daily by the Office of the Federal Register, National Archives and Records
Administration, and distributed by the Superintendent of Documents. Information about
on-line access to the Federal Register may be obtained by calling (202) 512-1530
between 7 a.m. and 5 p.m. Eastern time. These notices are also published in the
weekly Customs Bulletin described below.
Customs Bulletin
The Customs Bulletin and Decisions (“Customs Bulletin”) is a weekly publication that
contains decisions, rulings, regulatory proposals, notices and other information of
interest to the trade community. It also contains decisions issued by the U.S. Court of
International Trade, as well as customs-related decisions of the U.S. Court of Appeals
for the Federal Circuit. Each year, the Government Printing Office publishes bound
volumes of the Customs Bulletin.
Subscriptions may be purchased from the
Superintendent of Documents at the address and phone number listed above.
Importing Into the United States
This publication provides an overview of the importing process and contains general
information about import requirements. The February 2002 edition of Importing Into the
United States contains much new and revised material brought about pursuant to the
Customs Modernization Act (“Mod Act”). The Mod Act has fundamentally altered the
relationship between importers and U.S. Customs and Border Protection by shifting to
the importer the legal responsibility for declaring the value, classification, and rate of
duty applicable to entered merchandise.
The February 2002 edition contains a section entitled "Informed Compliance." A key
component of informed compliance is the shared responsibility between U.S. Customs
and Border Protection and the import community, wherein CBP communicates its
requirements to the importer, and the importer, in turn, uses reasonable care to assure
that CBP is provided accurate and timely data pertaining to his or her importation.
Single copies may be obtained from local offices of U.S. Customs and Border
Protection, or from the Office of Public Affairs, U.S. Customs and Border Protection,
1300 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20229. An on-line version is
available at the CBP web site. Importing Into the United States is also available for
sale, in single copies or bulk orders, from the Superintendent of Documents by calling
17
Importation of Commercial Samples
October 2003
(202) 512-1800, or by mail from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing
Office, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7054.
Informed Compliance Publications
U.S. Customs and Border Protection has prepared a number of Informed Compliance
publications in the “What Every Member of the Trade Community Should Know
About:…” series. Check the Internet web site http://www.cbp.gov for current
publications.
Value Publications
Customs Valuation under the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 is a 96-page book
containing a detailed narrative description of the customs valuation system, the customs
valuation title of the Trade Agreements Act (§402 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended
by the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (19 U.S.C. §1401a)), the Statement of
Administrative Action which was sent to the U.S. Congress in conjunction with the TAA,
regulations (19 C.F.R. §§152.000-152.108) implementing the valuation system (a few
sections of the regulations have been amended subsequent to the publication of the
book) and questions and answers concerning the valuation system. A copy may be
obtained from U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Office of Regulations and Rulings,
Value Branch, 1300 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C. 20229.
Customs Valuation Encyclopedia (with updates) is comprised of relevant statutory
provisions, CBP Regulations implementing the statute, portions of the Customs
Valuation Code, judicial precedent, and administrative rulings involving application of
valuation law. A copy may be purchased for a nominal charge from the Superintendent
of Documents, Government Printing Office, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 152507054. This publication is also available on the Internet web site of U.S. Customs and
Border Protection.
The information provided in this publication is for general information
purposes only. Recognizing that many complicated factors may be
involved in customs issues, an importer may wish to obtain a ruling under
CBP Regulations, 19 C.F.R. Part 177, or obtain advice from an expert
(such as a licensed Customs Broker, attorney or consultant) who
specializes in customs matters.
Reliance solely on the general
information in this pamphlet may not be considered reasonable care.
Additional information may also be obtained from U.S. Customs and Border Protection
ports of entry. Please consult your telephone directory for an office near you. The
listing will be found under U.S. Government, Department of Homeland Security.
18
Importation of Commercial Samples
October 2003
“Your Comments are Important”
The Small Business and Regulatory Enforcement Ombudsman and 10 regional
Fairness Boards were established to receive comments from small businesses about
Federal agency enforcement activities and rate each agency’s responsiveness to small
business. If you wish to comment on the enforcement actions of U.S. Customs and
Border Protection, call 1-888-REG-FAIR (1-888-734-3247).
REPORT SMUGGLING 1-800-BE-ALERT OR 1-800-NO-DROGA
Visit our Internet web site: http://www.cbp.gov
19
1
Importing into the United States
A Guide for Commercial Importers
A Notice To Our Readers
On March 1, 2003, U.S. Customs and Border Protection, or CBP, was born as an
agency of the Department of Homeland Security, merging functions of the former
Customs Service, Immigration and Naturalization Service, Border Patrol, and Animal
and Plant Health Inspection Service. Many changes took place in preparation for this
merger and many have occurred since in order to safeguard U.S. borders against highrisk cargo, contraband, and unsafe imports. We encourage you to visit our Website
(www.cbp.gov) for the latest information on specific laws, regulations or procedures that
may affect your import transactions.
******
This edition of Importing Into the United States contains material pursuant to the
Trade Act of 2002 and the Customs Modernization Act (Title VI of the North American
Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act), commonly referred to as the Mod Act.
The Customs Modernization Act (Title VI of the North American Free Trade
Agreement Implementation Act [P.L. 103-182, 107 Stat. 2057]) became effective
December 8, 1993. Its provisions have fundamentally altered the relationship between
importers and CBP by shifting to the importer, the legal responsibility for declaring the
value, classification, and rate of duty applicable to entered merchandise.
A prominent feature of the Mod Act is a relationship between CBP and importers
that is characterized by informed compliance. (See Section Three of this book, which
starts on page 26, for details and definitions.) A key component of informed compliance
is the shared responsibility between CBP and the import community, wherein CBP
communicates its requirements to the importer, and the importer, in turn, uses reasonable
care to assure that CBP is provided with accurate and timely data pertaining to his or her
importations.
Importing Into the United States provides wide-ranging information about the
importing process and import requirements. We have made every effort to include
essential requirements, but it is not possible for a book this size to cover all import laws
and regulations. Also, this publication does not supersede or modify any provision of
those laws and regulations. Legislative and administrative changes are always under
consideration and can occur at any time. Quota limitations on commodities are also
subject to change. Therefore, reliance solely on the information in this book may not
meet the “reasonable care” standard required of importers.
We urge interested parties to contact their nearest CBP office for information on
2
specific issues or questions. CBP ports of entry, with their addresses and phone
numbers, can be found on our Website under “Ports.”
We cannot overemphasize that although the information in this book is provided
to promote understanding of, and compliance with, importing laws and regulations, the
information provided here is for general purposes only. Importers may also wish to
obtain guidance from private-sector experts who specialize in importing, for example,
licensed customs brokers, attorneys or consultants.
Federal agencies whose laws CBP helps to enforce are listed throughout this
book, as well as in the Appendix and on our Website.
3
CONTENTS
CHAPTER
U.S. Customs and Border Protection: Mission and Organization
1. Organization; CBP Attaches Abroad
Suggestions to the Exporter
Entry of Goods
2. Entry Process
3. Right To Make Entry
4. Examination of Goods and Entry Documents
5. Packing of Goods—Commingling
Informed Compliance
6. Definition
7. Reasonable Care Checklists
8. Compliance Assessment/Compliance Measurement
9. Notice to Small-Business Importers
Invoices
10. Commercial Invoices
11. Other Invoices
12. Frequent Errors in Invoicing
Assessment of Duty
13. Dutiable Status of Goods
14. Containers or Holders
15. Temporary Free Importations
16. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
17. Generalized System of Preferences (GSP)
18. Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) and the Caribbean Basin Economic
Recovery Act (CBERA)
19. Andean Trade Preference Act (ATPA)/Andean Trade Promotion and
Drug Eradication Act (ATPDEA)
20. U.S.-Israel Free Trade Area Agreement
21. U.S.- Jordan Free Trade Area Agreement
22. Compact of Free Association (FAS)
23. African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA)
24. U.S.-Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act (CBPTA)
25. U.S.-Chile Free Trade Agreement (US-CFTA)
26. U.S.– Singapore Free Trade Agreement
27. Antidumping and Countervailing Duties
28. Drawback—Refunds of Duties
4
Classification and Value
29. Classification—Liquidation
30. Conversion of Currency
31. Transaction Value
32. Transaction Value—Identical or Similar Merchandise
33. Other Bases: Deductive and Computed Value
34. Rules of Origin
Marking
35. Country of Origin Marking
36. Special Marking Requirements
37. Marking—False Impression
38. User Fees
Special Requirements
39. Prohibitions, Restrictions, and Other Agency Requirements
40. Alcoholic Beverages
41. Motor Vehicles and Boats
42. Import Quotas
43. Fraud
Foreign Trade Zones
44. Foreign Trade Zones
Appendix
Invoices; Additional Information; Customs Valuation;
Other Forms; Other Agencies
5
U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION: MISSION AND
ORGANIZATION
1. Organization
Mission
Before September 11, 2001, the major responsibility of the former U.S. Customs
Service was to administer the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended. When Customs
subsequently merged with other border enforcement agencies to become U.S. Customs
and Border Protection, CBP’s priority mission became homeland security: detecting,
deterring and preventing terrorists and their weapons from entering the United States.
This mission fits ideally with CBP’s long-established responsibilities for
protecting and facilitating international trade. CBP retains its traditional enterprise of
protecting the nation's revenue by assessing and collecting duties, taxes and fees incident
to international traffic and trade. Further, by providing procedural guidance to the import
community, CBP enhances and increases compliance with domestic and international
customs laws and regulations. CBP thus helps importers assure that their shipments are
free from terrorist or other malicious interference, tampering, or corruption of containers
or commodities.
Today, CBP is the nation’s premiere border enforcement agency, and it
accomplishes this new mandate in part by executing the responsibilities for
which it has always been known: controlling, regulating, and facilitating the
movement of carriers, people, and commodities between the United States and
other nations; protecting the American consumer and the environment against
the introduction of hazardous, toxic or noxious products into the United States;
protecting domestic industry and labor against unfair foreign competition; and
detecting, interdicting, and investigating smuggling and other illegal practices
aimed at illegally entering narcotics, drugs, contraband or other prohibited
articles into the United States.
CBP is also responsible for detecting, interdicting, and investigating
fraudulent activities intended to avoid the payment of duties, taxes and fees, or
activities meant to evade the legal requirements of international traffic and
trade; and for detecting, interdicting, and investigating illegal international
trafficking in arms, munitions, currency, and acts of terrorism at U.S. ports of
entry.
Organization
Field Operations Offices
CBP operates through a field-office structure that consists of 20 Field Operations
6
offices around the United States. These field offices provide managerial oversight and
operational assistance to 324 ports of entry around the nation and 14 preclearance offices
in Canada and the Caribbean.
Established according to geographic region, Field Operations offices are the
means by which CBP Headquarters distributes key policies and procedures to CBP
officers and importing staff around the country. Each field office supervises a certain
number of service or area ports, which are larger, full-service ports with staff
subdivisions designated to handle commercial transactions, as well as smaller ports of
entry that handle less traffic.
Field Operations offices provide guidance to the ports under their geographic
jurisdiction to ensure the dissemination and implementation of CBP guidelines, policies
and procedures. Import transactions are conducted at service ports, area ports, and ports
of entry, so these locations will be of primary interest to the trade community. CBP is
also responsible for administering the customs laws of the United States Virgin Islands.
Ports Of Entry
Ports of entry conduct the daily, port-specific operations like clearing cargo,
collecting duties and other monies associated with imports, and processing passengers
arriving from abroad. Port personnel are the face at the border for nearly all cargo carriers
and people entering the United States. Ports of entry are the level at which CBP enforces
import and export laws and regulations and implements immigration policies and
programs. Port officers also perform agricultural inspections to protect the USA from
potential carriers of animal and plant pests or diseases that could cause serious damage to
America's crops, livestock, pets, and the environment.
For a detailed listing of ports of entry, please refer to:
http://www.cbp.gov/xp/cgov/toolbox/ports/.
7
U.S. CBP OFFICERS IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES
•
•
Bold indicates the presence of a CBP Attaché, Representative, International
Operations Specialist and/or Technical Representative by 1 May, 2006.
* Indicates that a CBP Attaché, Representative and/or International Operations
Specialist is currently waiting to deploy.
Brussels, Belgium
CBP Attaché
U.S. Mission to the European Union
27 Blvd. Du Regent
1000 Brussels
011-32-2-508-2770
Ottawa, Canada
CBP Attaché
Embassy of the United States
P.O. Box 866 station B
Ottawa, Ontario K1P 5T1
Tel: 613-688-5496
*Hong Kong
CBP Representative
11/F., St. John’s Building
33 Garden Road, Central
Hong Kong
Tel: 011-852-2230-5100
Rome, Italy
CBP Representative
American Embassy
Via Veneto 119/A
00187 Rome
Tel: 011-39-06-4674-2475
Tokyo, Japan
CBP Representative
American Embassy
10-5, Akasaka 1-Chome
Minato-ku
Tokyo 107-8420 Japan
Tel: 011-813-3224-5433
8
Mexico City, Mexico
CBP Attaché
American Embassy
Paseo de la Reforma 305
Colonia Cuauhtemoc
Mexico City, D.F., Mexico
C.P. 06500
Tel: 011-52-55-5080-2000
New Delhi, India
CBP Representative
24 Kasturba Gandhi Marg.
New Delhi
110021 India
Tel: 011-91-11-2331-0080
* Panama City, Panama
CBP Representative
American Embassy
Calle 38 & Avenida Balboa
Panama City, Panama
Tel: 011-507-225-7562
Singapore
CBP Representative
American Embassy
27 Napier Road
Singapore 258508
Tel: 011-65-476-9020
Pretoria, South Africa
ICE Attaché
American Embassy
877 Pertorius
Arcadia, Pretoria 001
Tel: 011-27-12-342-8062
*Bangkok, Thailand
CBP Representative
Sindhorn Building
130-1332 Wireless Road
Tower 2, 12th Floor
Bangkok 10330
Tel: 011-66-2-205-5015
9
London, United Kingdom
CBP Representative
American Embassy
24/31 Grosvenor Square
London, W1A 1AE
Tel: 011-44-207-894-0070
10
SUGGESTIONS TO THE EXPORTER
FOR FASTER CLEARANCE OF YOUR MERCHANDISE:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Include all information required on your customs invoices.
Prepare your invoices carefully. Type them clearly. Allow sufficient space
between lines. Keep the data within each column.
Make sure that your invoices contain the information that would be shown on a
well-prepared packing list.
Mark and number each package so it can be identified with the corresponding
marks and numbers appearing on your invoice.
Show a detailed description on your invoice of each item of merchandise
contained in each individual package.
Mark your goods legibly and conspicuously with the country of origin unless they
are specifically exempted from country-of-origin marking requirements, and with
such other marking as is required by the marking laws of the United States.
Exemptions and general marking requirements are detailed in Chapters 29 and 30.
Comply with the provisions of any special laws of the United States that may
apply to your goods, such as laws relating to food, drugs, cosmetics, alcoholic
beverages, radioactive materials, and others. (See Chapters 33, 34 and 35.)
Observe the instructions closely with respect to invoicing, packaging, marking,
labeling, etc., sent to you by your customer in the United States. He or she has
probably made a careful check of the requirements that will have to be met when
your merchandise arrives.
Work with CBP to develop packing standards for your commodities.
Establish sound security procedures at your facility and while transporting your
goods for shipment. Do not give narcotics smugglers the opportunity to introduce
narcotics into your shipment.
Consider shipping on a carrier participating in the Automated Manifest System
(AMS).
If you use a licensed customs broker for your transaction, consider using a firm
that participates in the Automated Broker Interface (ABI).
11
ENTRY OF GOODS
2. Entry Process
When a shipment reaches the United States, the importer of record (i.e., the
owner, purchaser, or licensed customs broker designated by the owner, purchaser, or
consignee) will file entry documents for the goods with the port director at the goods'
port of entry. Imported goods are not legally entered until after the shipment has arrived
within the port of entry, delivery of the merchandise has been authorized by CBP, and
estimated duties have been paid. It is the importer of record's responsibility to arrange for
examination and release of the goods.
Pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 1484, the importer of record must use reasonable care in
making entry.
NOTE: In addition to contacting CBP, importers should contact other agencies when
questions arise about particular commodities. For example, questions about products
regulated by the Food and Drug Administration should be forwarded to the nearest FDA
district office (check local phone book under U.S. government listings) or to the Import
Division, FDA Headquarters, 301.443.6553. The same is true for alcohol, tobacco,
firearms, wildlife products (furs, skins, shells), motor vehicles, and other products and
merchandise regulated by the other federal agencies for which CBP enforces entry laws.
Appropriate agencies are identified on page 197.
Addresses and phone numbers for these agencies are listed in the appendix.
Goods may be entered for consumption, entered for warehouse at the port of
arrival, or they may be transported in-bond to another port of entry and entered there
under the same conditions as at the port of arrival. Arrangements for transporting the
merchandise in-bond to an in-land port may be made by the consignee or by a customs
broker or by any other person with an interest in the goods for that purpose. Unless your
merchandise arrives directly at the port where you wish to enter it, you may be charged
additional fees by the carrier for transportation to that port unless other arrangements
have been made. Under some circumstances, your goods may be released through your
local port of entry, even if they arrive at a different U.S. port from a foreign country.
Prior to the goods' arrival, arrangements for entry must be made at the CBP port of entry
where you intend to file your duties and documentation.
Goods to be placed in a foreign trade zone are not entered at the customhouse.
See Chapter 41 for more information on foreign trade zones.
Evidence Of Right To Make Entry
Goods may only be entered by their owner, purchaser, or a licensed customs
broker. When the goods are consigned “to order,” the bill of lading, properly endorsed by
12
the consignor, may serve as evidence of the right to make entry. An air waybill may be
used for merchandise arriving by air.
In most instances, entry is made by a person or firm certified by the carrier
bringing the goods to the port of entry. This entity (i.e., the person or firm certified) is
considered the “owner” of the goods for customs purposes.
The document issued by the carrier for this purpose is known as a “Carrier’s
Certificate.” An example of this certificate is shown in the Appendix. In certain
circumstances, entry may be made by means of a duplicate bill of lading or a shipping
receipt. When the goods are not imported by a common carrier, possession of the goods
by the importer at the time of arrival shall be deemed sufficient evidence of the right to
make entry.
Entry For Consumption
Entering merchandise is a two-part process consisting of: (1) filing the documents
necessary to determine whether merchandise may be released from CBP custody, and (2)
filing the documents that contain information for duty assessment and statistical
purposes. Both of these processes can be accomplished electronically via the Automated
Broker Interface (ABI) program of the Automated Commercial System (ACS).
Entry Documents
Within 15 calendar days of the date that a shipment arrives at a U.S. port of entry,
entry documents must be filed at a location specified by the port director. These
documents are:
•
•
•
•
•
Entry Manifest (CBP Form 7533) or Application and Special Permit for
Immediate Delivery (CBP Form 3461) or other form of merchandise
release required by the port director,
Evidence of right to make entry,
Commercial invoice or a pro forma invoice when the commercial invoice
cannot be produced,
Packing lists, if appropriate,
Other documents necessary to determine merchandise admissibility.
If the goods are to be released from CBP custody at the time of entry, an entry
summary for consumption must be filed and estimated duties deposited at the port of
entry within 10 working days of the goods' entry.
Surety
The entry must be accompanied by evidence that a bond has been posted with
CBP to cover any potential duties, taxes, and charges that may accrue. Bonds may be
secured through a resident U.S. surety company, but may be posted in the form of United
13
States currency or certain United States government obligations. In the event that a
customs broker is employed for the purpose of making entry, the broker may permit the
use of his bond to provide the required coverage.
Entry Summary Documentation
Following presentation of the entry, the shipment may be examined, or
examination may be waived. The shipment is then released if no legal or regulatory
violations have occurred. Entry summary documentation is filed and estimated duties are
deposited within 10 working days of the entry of the merchandise at a designated
customhouse. Entry summary documentation consists of:
•
•
•
Return of the entry package to the importer, broker, or his authorized
agent after merchandise is permitted release,
Entry summary (CBP Form 7501),
Other invoices and documents necessary to assess duties, collect statistics,
or determine that all import requirements have been satisfied. This paper
documentation can be reduced or eliminated by using features of the ABI.
Immediate Delivery
An alternate procedure that provides for immediate release of a shipment may be
used in some cases by applying for a special permit for immediate delivery on CBP Form
3461 prior to arrival of the merchandise. Carriers participating in the Automated
Manifest System can receive conditional release authorizations after leaving the foreign
country and up to five days before landing in the United States. If the application is
approved, the shipment will be released expeditiously after it arrives. An entry summary
must then be filed in proper form, either on paper or electronically, and estimated duties
deposited within 10 working days of release. Immediate-delivery release using Form
3461 is limited to the following types of merchandise:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Merchandise arriving from Canada or Mexico, if the port director
approves it and an appropriate bond is on file,
Fresh fruits and vegetables for human consumption arriving from Canada
or Mexico and removed from the area immediately contiguous to the
border and placed within the importer’s premises within the port of
importation,
Shipments consigned to or for the account of any agency or officer of the
U.S. government,
Articles for a trade fair,
Tariff-rate quota merchandise and, under certain circumstances,
merchandise subject to an absolute quota. Absolute-quota items require a
formal entry at all times,
In very limited circumstances, merchandise released from warehouse
followed within 10 working days by a warehouse withdrawal for
14
•
consumption,
Merchandise specifically authorized by CBP Headquarters to be entitled
to release for immediate delivery.
Entry For Warehouse
If one wishes to postpone release of the goods, they may be placed in a CBP
bonded warehouse under a warehouse entry. The goods may remain in the bonded
warehouse up to five years from the date of importation. At any time during that period,
warehoused goods may be re-exported without paying duty, or they may be withdrawn
for consumption upon paying duty at the duty rate in effect on the date of withdrawal. If
the goods are destroyed under CBP supervision, no duty is payable.
While the goods are in the bonded warehouse, they may, under CBP supervision,
be manipulated by cleaning, sorting, repacking, or otherwise changing their condition by
processes that do not amount to manufacturing. After manipulation, and within the
warehousing period, the goods may be exported without the payment of duty, or they
may be withdrawn for consumption upon payment of duty at the rate applicable to the
goods in their manipulated condition at the time of withdrawal. Perishable goods,
explosive substances, or prohibited importations may not be placed in a bonded
warehouse. Certain restricted articles, though not allowed release from custody, may be
warehoused.
Information regarding bonded manufacturing warehouses is contained in section
311 of the Tariff Act (19 U.S.C. 1311).
Unentered Goods
If no entry has been filed for the goods at the port of entry, or at the port of
destination for in-bond shipments, within 15 calendar days after their arrival, the goods
may be placed in a general-order warehouse at the importer’s risk and expense. If the
goods are not entered within six months from the date of importation, they can be sold at
public auction or destroyed. Perishable goods, however, and goods subject to
depreciation and explosive substances may be sold sooner.
Storage charges, expenses of sales, internal revenue or other taxes, duties, fees,
and amounts for the satisfaction of liens must be taken out of the money obtained from
the sale of the unentered goods. Claims for the surplus proceeds of sale may be filed with
the port director at whose instruction the merchandise was sent to sale. Any claim for
such proceeds must be filed within 10 days of sale and supported with an original bill of
lading. A photostatic copy or certified copy of the bill of lading may be used if only part
of a shipment is involved in the sale. Carriers, not port directors, are required to notify a
bonded warehouse of unentered merchandise. Once notified, the bonded warehouse
operator/manager shall arrange for the unentered merchandise to be transported to his or
her premises for storage at the consignee’s risk and expense. If the goods are subject to
internal revenue taxes, but will not bring enough to pay the taxes if sold at public auction,
15
they are subject to destruction.
Mail Entries
Importers have found that in some cases it is to their advantage to use the national
postal service—that is, a country's mail system, rather than courier services—to import
merchandise into the United States. Some benefits to be gained are:
•
Ease in clearing shipments through CBP. The duties on parcels valued at
$2,000 or less are collected by the letter carrier who delivers the parcel to the
addressee (see note on page 16),
•
Savings on shipping charges: smaller, low-valued packages can often be sent
less expensively through the mails,
•
No formal entry required on duty-free merchandise not exceeding $2,000 in
value,
•
No need to clear shipments personally if under $2,000 in value.
Joint CBP and postal regulations provide that all parcel post packages must have
a CBP declaration securely attached to the outer wrapping giving an accurate description
of the contents and their value. This declaration can be obtained at post offices
worldwide. Commercial shipments must also be accompanied by a commercial invoice
enclosed in the parcel bearing the declaration.
Each mail parcel containing an invoice or statement of value should be marked on
the outer wrapper, on the address side, “Invoice enclosed.” If the invoice or statement
cannot be conveniently enclosed within the sealed parcel, it may be securely attached to
the parcel. Failure to comply with any of these requirements will delay clearance of the
shipment through CBP.
Packages other than parcel post—for example, letter-class mail, commercial
papers, printed matter, or samples of merchandise—must bear on the address side a label,
Form C1, provided by the Universal Post Union, or the endorsement “May be opened for
customs purposes before delivery,” or similar words definitely waiving the privacy of the
seal and indicating that CBP officers may open the parcel without recourse to the
addressee. Parcels not labeled or endorsed in this manner and found to contain prohibited
merchandise, or containing merchandise that is subject to duty or tax, are subject to
forfeiture.
A CBP officer prepares the CBP entry (a form) for mail importations not
exceeding $2,000 in value, and the letter carrier at the destination delivers the parcel to
the addressee upon payment of duty. If the value of a mail importation exceeds $2,000,
the addressee is notified to prepare and file a formal CBP entry (also called a
16
consumption entry) for it at the CBP port nearest him. A commercial invoice is
required with the entry.
A CBP processing fee of $5.00 will be assessed on each item of dutiable mail for
which a CBP officer prepares documentation. The postal carrier will collect this nominal
fee on all dutiable or taxable mail along with the duty owed. There is also a postal fee (in
addition to prepaid postage) authorized by international postal conventions and
agreements as partial reimbursement to the Postal Service for its extra work in clearing
packages through CBP and delivering them.
NOTE: The following general exceptions apply to the $2,000 limit:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Articles classified in Subchapters III and IV, Chapter 99, Harmonized
Tariff Schedule,
Billfolds and other flat goods,
Feathers and feather products,
Flowers and foliage, artificial or preserved,
Footwear,
Fur, articles of,
Gloves,
Handbags,
Headwear and hat braids,
Leather, articles of,
Luggage,
Millinery ornaments,
Pillows and cushions,
Plastics, miscellaneous articles of,
Rawhides and skins,
Rubber, miscellaneous articles of,
Textile fibers and products,
Toys, games, and sports equipment, and
Trimmings.
The limit for these articles is $250, except for textiles (fibers and products).
Virtually all commercial shipments of textiles require formal entry, regardless of value.
Unaccompanied shipments of made-to-measure suits from Hong Kong, a category that
includes single suits for personal consumption, also require a formal entry regardless of
the suit’s value.
Transportation Of Merchandise In Bond
Not all merchandise imported into the United States and intended for domestic
commerce is entered at the port where it arrives. The importer may prefer to enter the
goods at a different location in the United States, in which case the merchandise will
17
have to be further transported to that location. In order to protect United States revenue
in these cases, the merchandise must travel in a bonded status from the port of arrival to
the intended port of entry. This process is referred to as traveling under Immediate
Transportation procedures and is accomplished by the execution of CBP Form 7512
(Transportation Entry and Manifest of Goods Subject to CBP Inspection and Permit).
The merchandise is then placed with a carrier who accepts it under its bond for
transportation to the intended destination, where the normal merchandise entry process
will occur.
3. Right To Make Entry
Entry By Importer
Merchandise arriving in the United States by commercial carrier must be entered
by the owner, purchaser, his or her authorized regular employee, or by the licensed
customs broker designated by the owner, purchaser, or consignee. U.S. CBP officers and
employees are not authorized to act as agents for importers or forwarders of imported
merchandise, although they may give all reasonable advice and assistance to
inexperienced importers.
Customs brokers are the only persons who are authorized by the tariff laws of the
United States to act as agents for importers in the transaction of their customs business.
Customs brokers are private individuals or firms licensed by CBP to prepare and file the
necessary customs entries, arrange for the payment of duties found due, take steps to
effect the release of the goods in CBP custody, and otherwise represent their principals in
customs matters. The fees charged for these services may vary according to the customs
broker and the extent of services performed.
Every entry must be supported by one of the forms of evidence of the right to
make entry outlined in this chapter. When a customs broker makes entry, a CBP power of
attorney is made in the name of the customs broker. This power of attorney is given by
the person or firm for whom the customs broker is acting as agent. Ordinarily, the
authority of an employee to make entry for his or her employer is established most
satisfactorily by a CBP power of attorney.
Entries Made By Others
Entry of goods may be made by a nonresident individual or partnership, or by a
foreign corporation through a U.S. agent or representative of the exporter, a member of
the partnership, or an officer of the corporation.
The surety on any CBP bond required from a nonresident individual or
organization must be incorporated in the United States. In addition, a foreign corporation
in whose name merchandise is entered must have a resident agent in the state where the
port of entry is located who is authorized to accept service of process on the foreign
corporation’s behalf.
18
A licensed customs broker named in a CBP power of attorney may make entry on
behalf of the exporter or his representative. The owner’s declaration made by a
nonresident individual or organization which the customs broker may request must be
supported by a surety bond providing for the payment of increased or additional duties
found due. Liability for duties is discussed in Chapter 13. An owner’s declaration
executed in a foreign country is acceptable, but it must be executed before a notary public
and bear the notary’s seal. Notaries public will be found in all American embassies
around the world and in most of the larger consulates.
Power Of Attorney
A nonresident individual, partnership, or foreign corporation may issue a power
of attorney to a regular employee, customs broker, partner, or corporation officer to act in
the United States for the nonresident employer. Any person named in a power of attorney
must be a resident of the United States who has been authorized to accept service of
process on behalf of the person or organization issuing the power of attorney. The power
of attorney to accept service of process becomes irrevocable with respect to customs
transactions duly undertaken. Either the applicable CBP form (see Appendix) or a
document using the same language as the form is acceptable. References to acts that the
issuer has not authorized the agent to perform may be deleted from the form or omitted
from the document. A power of attorney from a foreign corporation must be supported by
the following documents or their equivalent when foreign law or practice differs from
that in the United States:
•
•
•
A certificate from the proper public officer of the country showing the legal
existence of the corporation, unless the fact of incorporation is so generally
known as to be a matter of common knowledge.
A copy of that part of the charter or articles of incorporation which shows the
scope of the corporation’s business and its governing body.
A copy of the document or part thereof by which the person signing the power
of attorney derives his authority, such as a provision of the charter or articles
of incorporation, a copy of the resolution, minutes of the board of directors’
meeting, or other document by which the governing body conferred this
authority. In this case, a copy is required of the bylaws or other document
giving the governing board the authority to designate others to appoint agents
or attorney.
A nonresident individual or partnership or a foreign corporation may issue a
power of attorney to authorize the persons or firms named in the power of attorney to
issue like powers of attorney to other qualified residents of the United States and to
empower the residents to whom such powers of attorney are issued to accept service of
process on behalf of the nonresident individual or organizations.
A power of attorney issued by a partnership must be limited to a period not to
19
exceed two years from the date of execution and shall state the names of all members
of the partnership. One member of a partnership may execute a power of attorney for the
transaction of customs business of the partnership. When a new firm is formed by a
change of membership, the prior firm’s power of attorney is no longer effective for any
customs purpose. The new firm will be required to issue a new power of attorney for the
transaction of its customs business. All other powers of attorney may be granted for an
unlimited period.
CBP Form 5291, or a document using the same language as the form, is also used
to empower an agent other than an attorney-at-law or customs broker to file protests on
behalf of an importer under section 514 of the Tariff Act of 1930 as amended. (See 19
CFR 141.32.)
Foreign corporations may comply with CBP regulations by executing a power of
attorney on the corporation’s letterhead. A form of power of attorney used for this
purpose is given below. A nonresident individual or partner may use this same form.
The X Corporation, ______________________________________________________
(Address, city, and country)
organized under the laws of _______________________________ hereby authorizes
______________________________________________________________
(Name or names of employee or officer in United States)
______________________________________________________________
(and address or addresses)
to perform on behalf of the said corporation any and all acts specified in CBP Form 5291,
Power of Attorney; to accept service of process in the United States on behalf of the X
Corporation; to issue powers of attorney on CBP Form 5291 authorizing a qualified
resident or residents of the United States to perform on behalf of the X Corporation all
acts specified in CBP Form 5291; and to empower such resident or residents to accept
service of process in the United States on behalf of the said X Corporation.
Because the laws regarding incorporation, notation, and authentication of
documents vary from country to country, the agent to be named in the power of attorney
should consult the port director of CBP at the port of entry where proof of the
document’s existence may be required as to the proper form to be used and the
formalities to be met.
4. Examination Of Goods And Entry Documents
20
Examination of goods and documents is necessary to determine, among other
things:
•
•
•
•
•
•
The value of the goods for customs purposes and their dutiable status,
Whether the goods must be marked with their country of origin or require
special marking or labeling. If so, whether they are marked in the manner
required,
Whether the shipment contains prohibited articles,
Whether the goods are correctly invoiced,
Whether the goods are in excess of the invoiced quantities or a shortage
exists,
Whether the shipment contains illegal narcotics.
Prior to the goods’ release, the port director will designate representative
quantities for examination by CBP officers under conditions that will safeguard the
goods. Some kinds of goods must be examined to determine whether they meet special
requirements of the law. For example, food and beverages unfit for human consumption
would not meet the requirements of the Food and Drug Administration.
One of the primary methods of smuggling narcotics into the United States is in
cargo shipments. Drug smugglers will place narcotics inside a legitimate cargo shipment
or container to be retrieved upon arrival in the United States. Because smugglers use any
means possible to hide narcotics, all aspects of the shipment are examined, including
container, pallets, boxes, and product. Only through intensive inspection can narcotics be
discovered.
Textiles and textile products are considered trade-sensitive and as such may be
subject to a higher percentage of examinations than other commodities.
CBP officers will ascertain the quantity of goods imported, making allowances
for shortages under specified conditions and assessing duty on any excess. The invoice
may state the quantities in the weights and measures of the country from which the goods
are shipped or in the weights and measures of the United States, but the entry must state
the quantities in metric terms.
Excess Goods And Shortages
In order to facilitate duty allowances for goods that do not arrive and to determine
whether excess goods are contained in the shipment, the importer (or foreign exporter) is
advised to pack the goods in an orderly fashion; properly mark and number the packages
in which the goods are contained; list each package's contents on the invoice; and place
marks and numbers on the invoices that correspond to those packages.
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If the CBP officer finds any package that contains an article not specified on
the invoice, and there is reason to believe the article was omitted from the invoice by
fraud, gross negligence, negligence on the part of the seller, shipper, owner, or agent, a
monetary penalty may be imposed, or in some cases, the merchandise may be seized or
forfeited. (See e.g., 19 U.S.C. 1592.)
If, during the examination of any package that has been designated for
examination, the CBP officer finds a deficiency in quantity, weight or measure, he or she
will make a duty allowance for the deficiency. An allowance in duty may be made for
those packages not designated as long as the importer notifies the port director of the
shortage before liquidation of the entry becomes final and establishes to the port
director's satisfaction that the missing goods were not delivered.
Damage Or Deterioration
Goods that the CBP officer finds to be entirely without commercial value at the
time of arrival in the United States because of damage or deterioration are treated as a
“nonimportation.” No duties are assessed on these goods. When damage or deterioration
is present with respect to part of the shipment only, allowance in duties is not made
unless the importer segregates, under CBP supervision, the damaged or deteriorated part
from the remainder of the shipment. When the shipment consists of fruits, vegetables, or
other perishable merchandise, allowance in duties cannot be made unless the importer,
within 96 hours of unloading the merchandise and before it has been removed from the
pier, files an application for an allowance with the port director. Allowance or reduction
of duty for partial damage or loss as a result of rust or discoloration is precluded by law
on shipments consisting of any article partially or wholly manufactured of iron or steel,
or any manufacture of iron or steel.
Tare
In determining the quantity of goods dutiable on net weight, a deduction is made
from the gross weight for just and reasonable tare. Tare is the allowance for a deficiency
in the weight or quantity of the merchandise caused by the weight of the box, cask, bag,
or other receptacle that contains the merchandise and that is weighed with it. The
following schedule tares are provided for in the CBP Regulations:
Apple boxes. 3.6 kilograms (8 lb.) per box. This schedule tare includes the paper
wrappers, if any, on the apples.
China clay in so-called half-ton casks. 32.6 kilograms (72 lb.) per cask.
Figs in skeleton cases. Actual tare for outer containers plus 13 percent of the
gross weight of the inside wooden boxes and figs.
Fresh tomatoes. 113 grams (4 oz.) per 100 paper wrappings.
22
Lemons and oranges. 283 grams (10 oz.) per box and 142 grams (5 oz.) per
half-box for paper wrappings, and actual tare for outer containers.
Ocher, dry, in casks. Eight percent of the gross weight; in oil in casks, 12
percent of the gross weight.
Pimentos in tins, imported from Spain.
Size can
3 kilos
794 grams (28 oz.)
425 grams (15 oz.)
198 grams (7 oz.)
113 grams (4 oz.)
Drained weights
13.6 kilograms (30 lb.)—case of 6 tins
16.7 kilograms (36.7 lb.)—case of 24 tins
8.0 kilograms (17.72 lb.)—case of 24 tins
3.9 kilograms (8.62 lb.)—case of 24 tins
2.4 kilograms (5.33 lb.)—case of 24 tins
Tobacco, leaf not stemmed. 59 kilograms (13 lb.) per bale; Sumatra: actual tare
for outside coverings, plus 1.9 kilograms (4 lb.) for the inside matting and, if a
certificate is attached to the invoice certifying that the bales contain paper
wrappings and specifying whether light or heavy paper has been used, either 113
grams (4 oz.) or 227 grams (8 oz.) for the paper wrapping according to the
thickness of paper used.
For other goods dutiable on the net weight, an actual tare will be determined. An
accurate tare stated on the invoice is acceptable for CBP purposes in certain
circumstances.
If the importer of record files a timely application with the port director of CBP,
an allowance may be made in any case for excessive moisture and impurities not usually
found in or upon the particular kind of goods.
5. Packing Of Goods—Commingling
Packing
Information on how to pack goods for the purpose of transporting them may be
obtained from shipping manuals, carriers, forwarding agents, and other sources. This
chapter, therefore, deals with packing goods being exported in a way that will permit
CBP officers to examine, weigh, measure, and release them promptly.
Orderly packing and proper invoicing go hand in hand. You will speed up the
clearance of your goods through CBP if you:
•
•
Invoice your goods in a systematic manner,
Show the exact quantity of each item of goods in each box, bale, case, or
other package,
23
•
•
Put marks and numbers on each package,
Show those marks or numbers on your invoice opposite the itemization of
goods contained in the package that bears those marks and numbers.
When packages contain goods of one kind only, or when the goods are imported
in packages the contents and values of which are uniform, the designation of packages for
examination and the examination for CBP purposes are greatly facilitated. If the contents
and values differ from package to package, the possibility of delay and confusion is
increased. Sometimes, because of the kinds of goods or because of the unsystematic
manner in which they are packed, the entire shipment must be examined.
Pack and invoice your goods in a manner which makes a speedy examination
possible. Always bear in mind that it may not be possible to ascertain the contents of
your packages without full examination unless your invoice clearly shows the marks and
numbers on each package (whether box, case, or bale) and specifies the exact quantity of
each item of adequately described goods in each marked and numbered package.
Also, be aware that CBP examines cargo for narcotics that may, unbeknownst to
the shipper or the importer, be hidden inside. This can be time-consuming and expensive
for both the importer and for CBP. Narcotics inspections may require completely
stripping a container in order to physically examine a large portion of the cargo. This
labor-intensive handling of cargo, whether by CBP, labor organizations, or private
individuals, results in added costs, increased delays, and possible damage to the product.
Importers can expedite this inspection process by working with CBP to develop packing
standards that will permit effective CBP examinations with a minimum of delay, damage,
and cost.
A critical aspect in facilitating inspections is how the cargo is loaded.
“Palletizing” cargo—loading it onto pallets or other consolidated units—is an effective
way to expedite such examinations. Palletization allows for quick cargo removal in
minutes using a forklift compared to the hours it would take manually. Another example
is leaving enough space at the top of a container and an aisle down the center to allow
access by a narcotic-detector dog.
Your cooperation in this respect will help CBP officers decide which packages
must be opened and examined; how much weighing, counting, or measuring must be
done, and whether the goods are properly marked. It will simplify the ascertainment of
tare and reduce the number of samples to be taken for laboratory analysis or for other
customs purposes. It will facilitate verification of the packages and contents, as well as
the reporting by CBP officers of missing or excess goods. And it will minimize the
possibility that the importer may be asked to resubmit for examination packages that
were already released under the belief that the ones originally designated for examination
were sufficient for that purpose.
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Packing a combination of different types of goods makes it impracticable for
CBP officers to determine the quantity of each type of product in an importation. Such
packing can also lead to a variety of other complications in the entry process. No problem
will arise, however, from the orderly packing of several different kinds of properly
invoiced goods in a single package. It is indiscriminate packing that causes difficulty.
Commingling
Except as mentioned hereafter, whenever articles subject to different rates of duty
are so packed together or combined such that CBP officers cannot readily determine the
quantity or value of each class of articles without physically separating the shipment or
the contents of any package, the combined articles will be subject to the highest rate of
duty applicable to any part of the commingled lot, unless the consignee or his agent
separates the merchandise under CBP supervision.
The three methods of ready ascertainment specified by General Note 3(f) of the
Harmonized Tariff Schedule are:
(1) Sampling,
(2) Verification of packing lists or other documents filed at the time of entry,
or
(3) Evidence showing performance of commercial settlements tests generally
accepted in the trade and filed in the time and manner as prescribed in the
CBP Regulations.
Segregation of merchandise is at the risk and expense of the consignee. It must be
done within 30 days (unless a longer time is granted) after the date of personal delivery
or the date of mailing a notice to the consignee by the port director that the goods are
commingled. The compensation and expenses of the CBP officers supervising the
segregation must be borne by the consignee.
Assessing duty on the commingled lot at the highest applicable rate does not
apply to any part of a shipment if the consignee or his agent furnishes satisfactory proof
that:
1. Such part is commercially negligible, is not capable of segregation
without excessive cost, and will not be segregated prior to its use in a
manufacturing process or otherwise; and
2. The commingling was not intended to avoid the payment of lawful
duties.
Any article for which such proof is furnished shall be considered for all CBP
purposes as a part of the article, subject to the next lower rate of duty, with which it is
commingled.
25
In addition, the highest-rate rule does not apply to any part of a shipment if
satisfactory proof is furnished that:
1. The value of the commingled articles is less than the aggregate value
would be if the shipment were segregated;
2. The shipment is not capable of segregation without excessive cost and
will not be segregated prior to its use in a manufacturing process or
otherwise; and
3. The commingling was not intended to avoid the payment of lawful
duties.
Any merchandise for which such proof is furnished shall be considered for all
CBP purposes to be dutiable at the rate applicable to the material present in greater
quantity than any other material.
The above rules do not apply if the tariff schedules provide a particular tariff
treatment for commingled articles.
26
INFORMED COMPLIANCE
6. Definition
Informed compliance is a shared responsibility between CBP and the import
community wherein CBP effectively communicates its requirements to the trade, and the
people and businesses subject to those requirements conduct their regulated activities in
accordance with U.S. laws and regulations. A key component of informed compliance is
that the importer is expected to exercise reasonable care in his or her importing
operations.
Informed compliance benefits both parties: When voluntary compliance is
achieved, CBP resources need not be expended on redundant examinations or entry
reviews for the importer’s cargo found to be dependably compliant. From the trade
perspective, when voluntary compliance is attained, compliant importers are less likely to
have their shipments examined or their entries reviewed.
CBP publishes a wealth of information to assist the import community in
complying with CBP requirements. We issue rulings and informed compliance
publications on a variety of technical subjects and processes. Most of these materials can
be found on-line at www.cbp.gov.
We urge importers to make sure they are using the latest versions of any printed
materials.
7. Reasonable Care Checklists
Reasonable care is an explicit responsibility on the part of the importer. Despite
its seemingly simple connotation, the term reasonable care defies easy explanation
because the facts and circumstances surrounding every import transaction differ, from the
experience of the importer to the nature of the imported articles. Consequently, neither
CBP nor the importing community can develop a reasonable care checklist capable of
covering every import transaction.
CBP recommends that the import community examine the list of questions below.
These questions may suggest methods that importers may find useful in avoiding
compliance problems and in meeting the responsibilities of reasonable care.
These questions are intended to promote compliance with CBP laws and
regulations, but be aware that the list is advisory, not exhaustive. The checklist is
intended as a guide and has no legal, binding or precedential effect on CBP or the
importing community.
The questions apply whether the importer of record conducts the transactions(s)
27
him- or herself, or whether the importer hires others to do it.
General Questions for All Transactions:
1.
If you have not retained an expert (e.g., lawyer, customs broker, accountant, or
customs consultant) to assist you in complying with CBP requirements, do you
have access to the CBP Regulations (Title 19 of the Code of Federal Regulations),
the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (generally referred to as the
Harmonized Tariff Schedule), and CBPBulletin and Decisions? (All three are
available from the Superintendent of Documents, Tel. 202.512.1800.) Do you
have access to the CBP Website at www.cbp.gov, or other research service that
provides the information to help you establish reliable procedures and facilitate
compliance with CBP law and regulations?
2.
Has a responsible, knowledgeable individual within your organization reviewed
your CBP documentation to assure that it is full, complete and accurate? If the
documentation was prepared outside your organization, do you have a reliable
method to assure that you receive copies of the information submitted to CBP,
that it is reviewed for accuracy, and that CBP is apprised of needed corrections in
a timely fashion?
3.
If you use an expert to help you comply with CBP requirements, have you
discussed your importations in advance with that person, and have you provided
him or her with complete, accurate information about the import transaction(s)?
4.
Are identical transactions or merchandise handled differently at different ports or
CBP offices within the same port? If so, have you brought this fact to CBP
officials’ attention?
Questions by Topic: Merchandise Description & Tariff Classification
Basic Question: Do you know what you ordered, where it was made, and what it is made
of?
1.
Have you provided a complete, accurate description of your merchandise to CBP
in accordance with 19 U.S.C. 1481? (Also, see 19 CFR 141.87 and 19 CFR
141.89 for special merchandise description requirements.)
2.
Have you provided CBP with the correct tariff classification of your merchandise
in accordance with 19 U.S.C. 1484?
3.
Have you obtained a CBP ruling regarding the description of your merchandise or
its tariff classification (see 19 CFR Part 177)? If so, have you followed the ruling
and apprised appropriate CBP officials of those facts (i.e., of the ruling and your
28
compliance with it)?
4.
Where merchandise description or tariff classification information is not
immediately available, have you established a reliable procedure for obtaining it
and providing it to CBP?
5.
Have you participated in a CBP classification of your merchandise in order to get
it properly described and classified?
6.
Have you consulted the tariff schedules, CBP informed compliance publications,
court cases or CBP rulings to help you properly describe and classify the
merchandise?
7.
Have you consulted with an expert (e.g., lawyer, customs broker, accountant,
customs consultant) to assist in the description and/or classification of the
merchandise?
8.
If you are claiming a conditionally free or special tariff classification or provision
for your merchandise (e.g., GSP, HTS Item 9802, NAFTA), how have you
verified that the merchandise qualifies for such status? Do you have the
documentation necessary to support the claim? If making a NAFTA preference
claim, do you have a NAFTA certificate of origin in your possession?
9.
Is the nature of your merchandise such that a laboratory analysis or other
specialized procedure is advised for proper description and classification?
10.
Have you developed reliable procedures to maintain and produce the required
entry documentation and supporting information?
Valuation
Basic Questions: Do you know the “price actually paid or payable” for your
merchandise? Do you know the terms of sale? Whether there will be rebates, tie-ins,
indirect costs, additional payments? Whether “assists” were provided or commissions or
royalties paid ? Are amounts actual or estimated? Are you and the supplier “related
parties”?
1.
Have you provided CBP with a proper declared value for your merchandise in
accordance with 19 U.S.C. 1484 and 19 U.S.C. 1401a?
2.
Have you obtained a CBP ruling regarding valuation of the merchandise (see 19
CFR Part 177)? Can you establish that you followed the ruling reliably? Have you
brought those facts to the attention of CBP?
29
2.
Have you consulted the CBP valuation laws and regulations, CBP Valuation
Encyclopedia, CBP informed compliance publications, court cases and CBP
rulings to assist you in valuing merchandise?
4.
If you purchased the merchandise from a “related” seller, have you reported that
fact upon entry? Have you assured that the value reported to CBP meets one of
the “related party” tests?
5.
Have you assured that all legally required costs or payments associated with the
imported merchandise (assists, commissions, indirect payments or rebates,
royalties, etc.) have been reported to CBP?
6.
If you are declaring a value based upon a transaction in which you were/are not
the buyer, have you substantiated that the transaction is a bona fide “sale at arm’s
length” and that the merchandise was clearly destined to the United States at the
time of sale?
7.
If you are claiming a conditionally free or special tariff classification or provision
for your merchandise (GSP, HTS Item 9802, NAFTA), have you reported the
required value information and obtained the documentation necessary to support
the claim?
8.
Have you produced the required entry documentation and supporting
information?
Country of Origin/Marking/Quota
Basic Question: Have you ascertained the correct country of origin for the imported
merchandise?
1.
Have you reported the correct country of origin on CBP entry documents?
2.
Have you assured that the merchandise is properly marked upon entry with the
correct country of origin (if required) in accordance with 19 U.S.C. 1304 and any
other applicable special marking requirements (watches, gold, textile labeling,
etc)?
3.
Have you obtained a CBP ruling regarding the proper marking and country of
origin of the merchandise (see 19 CFR Part 177)? If so, have you followed the
ruling and brought that fact to the attention of CBP?
4.
Have you consulted with a customs expert regarding the correct country-oforigin/proper marking of your merchandise?
30
5.
Have you apprised your foreign supplier of CBP country-of-origin marking
requirements prior to importation of your merchandise?
6.
If you are claiming a change in the origin of the merchandise or claiming that the
goods are of U.S. origin, have you taken required measures to substantiate your
claim (e.g., do you have U.S. milling certificates or manufacturers’ affidavits
attesting to production in the United States)?
7.
If importing textiles or apparel, have you ascertained the correct country of origin
in accordance with 19 U.S.C. 3592 (Section 334, P.L. 103-465) and assured
yourself that no illegal transshipment or false or fraudulent practices were
involved?
8.
Do you know how your goods are made, from raw materials to finished goods, by
whom and where?
9.
Have you ensured that the quota category is correct?
10.
Have you checked the Status Report on Current Import Quotas (Restraint
Levels), issued by CBP, to determine if your goods are subject to a quota category
with “part” categories?
11.
Have you obtained correct visas for those goods subject to visa categories?
12.
For textile articles, have you prepared a proper country declaration for each entry,
i.e., a single country declaration (if wholly obtained/produced) or a multi-country
declaration (if raw materials from one country were transformed into goods in a
second)?
13.
Can you produce all entry documentation and supporting information, including
certificates of origin, if CBP requires you to do so?
Intellectual Property Rights
Basic Question: Have you determined whether your merchandise or its packaging use
any trademarks or copyrighted material or are patented? If so, can you establish that you
have a legal right to import those items into and/or use them in the United States?
1.
If you are importing goods or packaging bearing a trademark registered in the
United States, have you established that it is genuine and not restricted from
importation under the “gray-market” or parallel-import requirements of United
States law (see 198 CFR 133.21), or that you have permission from the trademark
holder to import the merchandise?
31
2.
If you are importing goods or packaging that contain registered copyrighted
material, have you established that this material is authorized and genuine? If you
are importing sound recordings of live performances, were the recordings
authorized?
3.
Is your merchandise subject to an International Trade Commission or
court-ordered exclusion order?
4.
Can you produce the required entry documentation and supporting information?
Miscellaneous
1.
Have you assured that your merchandise complies with other agencies’
requirements (e.g., FDA, EPA, DOT, CPSC, FTC, Agriculture, etc.) and obtained
licenses or permits, if required, from them?
2.
Are your goods subject to a Commerce Department dumping or
countervailing-duty investigation or determination? If so, have you complied with
CBP reporting requirements of this fact (e.g., 19 CFR 141.61)?
3.
Is your merchandise subject to quota/visa requirements? If so, have you provided
a correct visa for the goods upon entry?
4.
Have you assured that you have the right to make entry under the CBP
Regulations?
5.
Have you filed the correct type of CBP entry (e.g., TIB, T&E, consumption entry,
mail entry)?
Additional Questions for Textile and Apparel Importers
Section 333 of the Uruguay Round Implementation Act (19 U.S.C. 1592a)
authorizes the Secretary of the Treasury to publish a list of foreign producers,
manufacturers, suppliers, sellers, exporters, or other foreign persons found to have
violated 19 U.S.C. 1592 by using false, fraudulent or counterfeit documentation, labeling,
or prohibited transshipment practices in connection with textiles and apparel products.
Section 1592a also requires any importer of record who enters or otherwise attempts to
introduce into United States commerce textile or apparel products that were directly or
indirectly produced, manufactured, supplied, sold, exported, or transported by such
named person(s) to show, to the Secretary’s satisfaction, that the importer has exercised
reasonable care to ensure that the importations are accompanied by accurate
documentation, packaging and labeling regarding the products’ origin. Under section
1592a, reliance solely upon information from a person named on the list does not
constitute the exercise of reasonable care. Textile and apparel importers who have a
32
commercial relationship with any of the listed parties must exercise reasonable care in
ensuring that the documentation covering the imported merchandise, its packaging and its
labeling, accurately identify the importation’s country of origin. This demonstration of
reasonable care must rely upon more information than that supplied by the named party.
In order to meet the reasonable care standard when importing textile or apparel
products and when dealing with a party named on this list, an importer should consider
the following questions to ensure that the documentation, packaging and labeling are
accurate regarding country-of-origin considerations. This list is illustrative, not
exhaustive:
1.
Has the importer had a prior relationship with the named party?
2.
Has the importer had any seizures or detentions of textile or apparel products that
were directly or indirectly produced, supplied, or transported by the named party?
3.
Has the importer visited the company’s premises to ascertain that the company
actually has the capacity to produce the merchandise?
4.
Where a claim of an origin-conferring process is made in accordance with 19
CFR 102.21, has the importer ascertained that the named party actually performed
that process?
5.
Is the named party really operating from the country that he or she claims on the
documentation, packaging or labeling?
6.
Have quotas for the imported merchandise closed, or are they near closing, from
the main producer countries for this commodity?
7.
Does the country have a dubious or questionable history regarding this
commodity?
8.
Have you questioned your supplier about the product’s origin?
9.
If the importation is accompanied by a visa, permit or license, has the importer
verified with the supplier or manufacturer that the document is of valid, legitimate
origin? Has the importer examined that document for any irregularities that would
call its authenticity into question?
8. Compliance Assessment/Compliance Measurement
Of primary interest to the trade community is the compliance assessment, which
is the systematic evaluation of an importer’s systems supporting his or her CBP-related
operations. The assessment includes testing import and financial transactions, reviewing
33
the adequacy of the importer’s internal controls, and determining the importer’s
compliance levels in key areas. Compliance assessments are conducted in accordance
with 19 U.S.C. 1509.
The assessment is conducted by an interdisciplinary team composed of a CBP
auditor, import specialist, account manager, industry expert (highly knowledgeable of the
electronics or auto parts or surgical equipment industries, for example), and possibly
other CBP specialists (attorneys, inspectors, scientists). The compliance assessment
utilizes professionally accepted statistical sampling and auditing techniques to review
selected import transactions from the company’s previous fiscal year.
Compliance assessments will evaluate the company’s applicable customs
operations such as:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Record keeping,
Merchandise classification/trade statistics,
Merchandise quantities,
Antidumping/countervailing duty operations,
Quota conformity,
Merchandise value,
Warehouse or foreign trade zone operations,
Merchandise transshipment,
Special trade programs (GSP, CBI, others).
Companies found in compliance with CBP laws and regulations will get a report
stating that fact. Companies whose systems are determined to be noncompliant will also
get a report and will be asked to formulate, in cooperation with CBP advisors, a
compliance improvement plan specifying corrective actions the company will take to
increase compliance levels. Serious violations of law or regulation may result in CBP
referring the company for a formal investigation or other enforcement actions.
By law, CBP is required to provide the importer with advance notice of an
intended assessment and an estimate of its duration. Importers are entitled to an entry
conference, during which the assessment’s purpose will be explained and its duration
provided. Using information from CBP databases about the company or the importer’s
industry, the compliance assessment team may have prepared questionnaires seeking
specific information about the importer’s internal procedures. These questionnaires will
be distributed at the entry conference.
Upon completion of the assessment, CBP will schedule a closing conference, at
which its preliminary findings will be explained. A closing conference may not be
scheduled for companies found to have serious enforcement issues. If no enforcement
action is taken, CBP will provide the company with a written report of the assessment’s
34
results.
The Importer Audit/Compliance Assessment Team Kit (also called the CAT Kit),
which provides extensive details of the assessment procedure, can be found at CBP
Website, www.cbp.gov, or by calling the CBP Regulatory Audit Division office nearest
you.
Compliance Measurement is the primary tool CBP uses to assess the accuracy of
port-of-entry transactions and to determine the compliance rate for all commercial
importations. By using statistical sampling methods, a valid compliance level for all
commercial importations can be obtained. One of CBP’s goals is to assure that at least 99
percent of the import revenues legally owed the United States government are collected.
Cargo is sampled for compliance with international trade laws at the port of entry, at the
time of entry into the United States. Importers should be aware that misclassification of
merchandise, among other violations, will be detected through the compliance
measurement process.
9. A Notice To Small-Business Importers
The Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act was designed to create
a more cooperative regulatory environment between federal agencies and small
businesses.
Your comments are important. The Small Business and Regulatory Enforcement
Ombudsman and 10 regional Fairness Boards were established to receive comments from
small businesses about federal agency enforcement activities and to rate each agency’s
responsiveness to small business. If you wish to comment on the enforcement actions of
U.S. Customs and Border Protection, call 1.888.REG.FAIR (1.888.734.3247).
35
INVOICES
10. Commercial Invoice
A commercial invoice, signed by the seller or shipper, or his agent, is acceptable
for CBP purposes if it is prepared in accordance with Section 141.86 through 141.89 of
the CBP Regulations, and in the manner customary for a commercial transaction
involving goods of the kind covered by the invoice. Importers and brokers participating
in the Automated Broker Interface may elect to transmit invoice data via the Automated
Invoice Interface or EDIFACT and eliminate the paper document. The invoice must
provide the following information, as required by the Tariff Act:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The port of entry to which the merchandise is destined,
If merchandise is sold or agreed to be sold, the time, place, and names of buyer
and seller; if consigned, the time and origin of shipment, and names of shipper
and receiver,
A detailed description of the merchandise, including the name by which each item
is known, the grade or quality, and the marks, numbers, and symbols under which
it is sold by the seller or manufacturer to the trade in the country of exportation,
together with the marks and numbers of the packages in which the merchandise is
packed,
The quantities in weights and measures,
If sold or agreed to be sold, the purchase price of each item in the currency of the
sale,
If the merchandise is shipped for consignment, the value of each item in the
currency in which the transactions are usually made, or, in the absence of such
value, the price in such currency that the manufacturer, seller, shipper, or owner
would have received, or was willing to receive, for such merchandise if sold in
the ordinary course of trade and in the usual wholesale quantities in the country of
exportation,
The kind of currency,
All charges upon the merchandise, itemized by name and amount including
freight, insurance, commission, cases, containers, coverings, and cost of packing;
and, if not included above, all charges, costs, and expenses incurred in bringing
the merchandise from alongside the carrier at the port of exportation in the
country of exportation and placing it alongside the carrier at the first U.S. port of
entry. The cost of packing, cases, containers, and inland freight to the port of
exportation need not be itemized by amount if included in the invoice price and so
identified. Where the required information does not appear on the invoice as
originally prepared, it shall be shown on an attachment to the invoice,
All rebates, drawbacks, and bounties, separately itemized, allowed upon the
exportation of the merchandise,
The country of origin,
36
• All goods or services furnished for the production of the merchandise not
included in the invoice price.
If the merchandise on the documents is sold while in transit, the original invoice
reflecting this transaction and the resale invoice or a statement of sale showing the price
paid for each item by the purchaser shall be filed as part of the entry, entry summary, or
withdrawal documentation.
The invoice and all attachments must be in the English language, or shall be
accompanied by an accurate English translation.
Each invoice shall state in adequate detail what merchandise is contained in each
individual package.
If the invoice or entry does not disclose the weight, gauge, or measure of the
merchandise necessary to ascertain duties, the importer of record shall pay expenses
incurred to obtain this information prior to the release of the merchandise from CBP
custody.
Each invoice shall set forth in detail, for each class or kind of merchandise, every
discount from the list or other base price that has been or may be allowed in fixing each
purchase price or value.
When more than one invoice is included in the same entry, each invoice with its
attachments shall be numbered consecutively by the importer on the bottom of the face of
each page, beginning with number 1. If an invoice is more than two pages, begin with
number 1 for the first page of the first invoice and continue in a single series of numbers
through all the invoices and attachments included in one entry. If an entry covers one
invoice of one page and a second invoice of two pages, the numbering at the bottom of
the page shall be as follows: Inv. 1, p.1; Inv. 2, p.2; Inv. 2, p.3, etc.
Any information required on an invoice may be set forth either on the invoice or
on the attachment.
Specific Requirements
1. Separate Invoice Required for Each Shipment. Not more than one distinct shipment
from one consignor to one consignee by one commercial carrier shall be included on the
same invoice.
2. Assembled Shipments. Merchandise assembled for shipment to the same consignee
by one commercial carrier may be included in one invoice. The original bills or invoices
covering the merchandise, or extracts therefrom, showing the actual price paid or agreed
to be paid, should be attached to the invoice.
37
3. Installment Shipments. Installments of a shipment covered by a single order or
contract and shipped from one consignor to one consignee may be included in one
invoice if the installments arrive at the port of entry by any means of transportation
within a period not to exceed 10 consecutive days.
The invoice should be prepared in the same manner as invoices covering single
shipments and should include any additional information that may be required for the
particular class of goods concerned. If it is practical to do so, the invoice should show the
quantities, values, and other invoice data with respect to each installment, and the
identification of the importing conveyance in which each installment was shipped.
4. Production “Assist.” The invoice should indicate whether the production of
merchandise involved costs for “assists” (e.g., dies, molds, tooling, printing plates,
artwork, engineering work, design and development, financial assistance, etc.) that are
not included in the invoice price. If assists were involved, state their value, if known, and
by whom supplied. Were they supplied without cost, or on a rental basis, or were they
invoiced separately? If the latter, attach a copy of the invoice.
Whenever CBP requires information on the cost of production of goods for
customs valuation, the importer will be notified by the port director. Thereafter, invoices
covering shipments of such goods must contain a statement on the cost of production by
the manufacturer or producer.
5. Additional Information Required. Special information may be required on certain
goods or classes of goods in addition to the information normally required on the invoice.
Although the United States importer usually advises the exporter of these special
situations, section 141.89 of the CBP Regulations, which covers the requirements for
these goods, has been reproduced in the appendix.
6. Rates of Exchange. In general, no rate(s) of exchange may be used to convert foreign
currency for customs purposes other than the rate(s) proclaimed or certified in 31 U.S.C.
5151. For merchandise imported from a country having a currency for which two or more
rates of exchange have been certified by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, the
invoice will show the exchange rate or rates used in converting the United States dollars
received for the merchandise into the foreign currency and the percentage of each rate if
two or more rates are used. If a rate or combination of rates used to pay costs, charges, or
expenses is different from those used to pay for the merchandise, state that rate or
combination of rates separately. When dollars have not been converted at the time the
invoice is prepared, state that fact on the invoice, in which case the invoice shall also
state the rate or combination of rates at which the dollars will be converted, or that it is
not known what rate or rates will be used. Rates of exchange are not required for
merchandise unconditionally free of duty or subject only to a specific rate of duty not
depending on value.
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11. Other Invoices
Pro Forma Invoice
If the required commercial invoice is not filed at the time the merchandise is
entered, a statement in the form of an invoice (a pro forma invoice) must be filed by the
importer at the time of entry. A bond is given for production of the required invoice not
later than 120 days from the date of the entry summary, or entry if there is no entry
summary. If the invoice is needed for statistical purposes, it must generally be produced
within 50 days from the date on which the entry summary is required to be filed.
The exporter should bear in mind that unless he or she forwards the required
invoice in time, the American importer will incur a liability under his bond for failure to
file the invoice with the port director of CBP before the 120-day period expires.
Although a pro forma invoice is not prepared by the exporter, it is of interest to
exporters as it gives a general idea of the kind of information needed for entry purposes.
A pro forma invoice indicates what the importer may find necessary to furnish CBP
officers at the time a formal entry is filed for a commercial shipment, if a properly
prepared CBP or commercial invoice is not available at the time the goods are entered.
An acceptable format for a pro forma invoice is reproduced in the appendix.
Some of the additional information specified for the commodities under section
141.89 of the CBP Regulations may not be required when entry is made on a pro forma
invoice. However, the pro forma invoice must contain sufficient data for examination,
classification, and appraisement purposes.
Special Invoices
Special invoices are required for some merchandise. See 19 CFR 141.89.
12. Frequent Errors In Invoicing
Foreign sellers or shippers must exercise care in preparing invoices and other
documents used to enter goods into the commerce of the United States in order for their
importers to avoid difficulties, delays, or possibly even penal sanctions. Each document
must contain all information required by law or regulations, and every statement of fact
contained in the documents must be true and accurate. Any inaccurate or misleading
statement of fact in a document presented to a CBP officer in connection with an entry, or
the omission from the document of required information, may result in delays in
merchandise release, the detention of the goods, or a claim against the importer for
domestic value. Even though the inaccuracy or omission was unintentional, the importer
may be required to establish that he exercised due diligence and was not negligent, in
order to avoid sanctions with consequent delay in obtaining possession of goods and
closing the transaction. (See 19 U.S.C. 1592.)
39
It is particularly important that all statements relating to merchandise description,
price or value, and amounts of discounts, charges, and commissions be truthfully and
accurately set forth. It is also important that the invoices set forth the true name of the
actual seller and purchaser of the goods, in the case of purchased goods, or the true name
of the actual consignor and consignee when the goods are shipped otherwise than in
pursuance of a purchase. It is important, too, that the invoice otherwise reflect the real
nature of the transaction pursuant to which the goods were shipped to the United States.
The fundamental rule is that both the shipper and importer must furnish CBP
officers with all pertinent information with respect to each import transaction to assist
CBP officers in determining the tariff status of the goods. Examples of omissions and
inaccuracies to be avoided are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The shipper assumes that a commission, royalty, or other charge against
the goods is a so-called “nondutiable” item and omits it from the invoice.
A foreign shipper who purchases goods and sells them to a United States
importer at a delivered price shows on the invoice the cost of the goods to
him instead of the delivered price.
A foreign shipper manufactures goods partly with the use of materials
supplied by the United States importer, but invoices the goods at the
actual cost to the manufacturer without including the value of the
materials supplied by the importer.
The foreign manufacturer ships replacement goods to his customer in the
United States and invoices the goods at the net price without showing the
full price less the allowance for defective goods previously shipped and
returned.
A foreign shipper who sells goods at list price, less a discount, invoices
them at the net price, and fails to show the discount.
A foreign shipper sells goods at a delivered price but invoices them at a
price f.o.b. the place of shipment and omits the subsequent charges.
A foreign shipper indicates in the invoice that the importer is the
purchaser, whereas he is in fact either an agent who is receiving a
commission for selling the goods or a party who will receive part of the
proceeds of the sale of the goods sold for the joint account of the shipper
and consignee.
Invoice descriptions are vague, listing only parts of numbers, truncated or
coded descriptions, or lumping various articles together as one when
several distinct items are included.
40
ASSESSMENT OF DUTY
13. Dutiable Status Of Goods
Rates Of Duty
All goods imported into the United States are subject to duty or duty-free entry in
accordance with their classification under the applicable items in the Harmonized Tariff
Schedule of the United States. An annotated loose-leaf edition of the tariff schedule may
be purchased from the U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402. (See 19
U.S.C. 1202.)
When goods are dutiable, ad valorem, specific, or compound rates may be
assessed. An ad valorem rate, which is the type of rate most often applied, is a percentage
of the value of the merchandise, such as five percent ad valorem. A specific rate is a
specified amount per unit of weight or other quantity, such as 5.9 cents per dozen. A
compound rate is a combination of both an ad valorem rate and a specific rate, such as
0.7 cents per kilo plus 10 percent ad valorem.
Free of Duty or Dutiable
Rates of duty for imported merchandise may vary depending upon the country of
origin. Most merchandise is dutiable under the most-favored-nation—now referred to as
normal trade relations—rates in the General column under column 1 of the tariff
schedule. Merchandise from countries to which these rates have not been extended is
dutiable at the full or “statutory” rates in column 2 of the tariff schedule.
Free rates are provided for many subheadings in columns 1 and 2 of the tariff
schedule. Duty-free status is also available under various conditional exemptions which
are reflected in the Special column under column 1 of the tariff schedule. It is the
importer’s burden to show eligibility for a conditional exemption from duty.
One of the more frequently applied exemptions from duty occurs under the
Generalized System of Preferences (GSP). GSP-eligible merchandise qualifies for
duty-free entry when it is from a beneficiary developing country and meets other
requirements as discussed in Chapter 17. Other exemptions are found under the
subheadings in Chapter 98 of the tariff schedule. These subheadings include, among
other provisions, certain personal exemptions, exemptions for articles for scientific or
other institutional purposes, and exemptions for returned American goods.
Rulings On Imports
CBP makes its decision on the dutiable status of merchandise when the entry is
liquidated after the entry documents have been filed. When advance information is
needed, do not depend on a small “trial” or “test” shipment because there is no guarantee
that the next shipment will receive the same tariff treatment. Small importations may slip
by, particularly if they are processed under informal procedures that apply to small
shipments or in circumstances warranting application of a flat rate. An exporter,
41
importer, or other interested party may get advance information on any matter
affecting the dutiable status of merchandise by writing to the port director where the
merchandise will be entered or to:
Director, National Commodity Specialist Division
U.S. Customs and Border Protection
One Penn Plaza, 11th Floor
New York, New York 10119
or to:
U.S. Customs and Border Protection
Attention: Office of Regulations and Rulings
Washington, DC 20229
Detailed information on the procedures for the issuance of administrative rulings is given
in 19 CFR Part 177.
Binding Decisions
While you will find that, for many purposes, CBP ports are your best sources of
information, informal information obtained on tariff classifications is not binding. Under
19 CFR part 177, the importing public may obtain a binding ruling, which can be relied
upon for placing or accepting orders or for making other business determinations, under
Chapters 1 through 97 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule or by writing to:
National Commodity Specialist Division
U.S. Customs and Border Protection
One Penn Plaza, 11th Floor
New York, New York 10119
The ruling will be binding at all ports of entry unless revoked by the CBP Office
of Regulations and Rulings.
The following information is required in ruling requests:
•
•
•
•
The names, addresses and other identifying information of all interested
parties (if known) and the manufacturer ID code (if known),
The name(s) of the port(s) at which the merchandise will be entered (if
known),
A description of the transaction; for example, a prospective importation of
(merchandise) from (country),
A statement that there are, to the importer’s knowledge, no issues on the
commodity pending before CBP or any court, and
42
•
A statement as to whether classification advice has previously been
sought from a CBP officer, and if so, from whom, and what advice was
rendered, if any.
A request for a tariff classification should include the following information:
•
•
•
•
•
A complete description of the goods. Send samples, if practical, sketches,
diagrams, or other illustrative material that will be useful in
supplementing the written description,
Cost breakdowns of component materials and their respective quantities
shown in percentages, if possible,
A description of the principal use of the goods, as a class or kind of
merchandise, in the United States,
Information as to commercial, scientific or common designations, as may
be applicable, and
Any other information that may be pertinent or required for the purpose of
tariff classification.
To avoid delays, your request should be as complete as possible. If you send a
sample, do not rely on it to tell the whole story. Also, please note that samples may be
subjected to laboratory analysis, which is done free of charge. If a sample is destroyed
during laboratory analysis, however, it cannot be returned.
Information submitted and incorporated in response to a request for a CBP
decision may be disclosed or withheld in accordance with the provisions of the Freedom
of Information Act, as amended 5 U.S.C. 552, 19 CFR 177.8(a)(3).
Protests
The importer may disagree with the dutiable status after the entry has been
liquidated. A decision at this stage of the entry transaction is requested by filing a protest
and application for further review on CBP Form 19. For entries filed before December
18, 2006, the time limit is within 90 days after liquidation, but for entries filed after that
date, it is now 180 days (see CFR part 174; see 19 USC 1514(c)(3) as amended by
section 2103(2)(B), Pub. L.108-429. The same legislation also eliminated the 1 year to
file protests for clerical errors and mistakes of fact for entries after 12/18/04). If CBP
denies a protest, the adverse decision may be appealed to the U.S. Court of International
Trade.
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Liability For Duties
There is no provision under which U.S. duties or taxes may be prepaid in a
foreign country before exportation to the United States. This is true even for gifts sent by
mail.
In the usual case, liability for the payment of duty becomes fixed at the time an
entry for consumption or for warehouse is filed with CBP. The obligation for payment is
upon the person or firm in whose name the entry is filed. When goods have been entered
for warehouse, liability for paying duties may be transferred to any person who purchases
the goods and desires to withdraw them in his or her own name.
Paying a customs broker will not relieve the importer of his or her liability for
customs charges (duties, taxes, and other debts owed CBP) should those charges not be
paid by the broker. Therefore, if the importer pays the broker by check, he or she should
give the broker a separate check, made payable to “U.S. Customs and Border Protection”
for those customs charges, which the broker will then deliver to CBP.
If the entry is made in the name of a customs broker, the broker may obtain relief
from statutory liability for the payment of increased or additional duties found due if (1)
the actual owner of goods is named, and (2) the owner’s declaration whereby the owner
agrees to pay the additional duty and the owner’s bond are both filed by the broker with
the port director within 90 days of the date of entry.
14. Containers or Holders
CBP designates such items as lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, pallets and
certain articles used to ship goods internationally as instruments of international traffic.
So long as this designation applies, these articles are not subject to entry or duty when
they arrive, whether they are loaded or empty. Other classes of merchandise containers
may also be designated as instruments of international traffic upon application to the
Commissioner of CBP for such a designation. If any article so designated is diverted to
domestic use, however, it must be entered and duty paid, if applicable.
Containers specially shaped or fitted to contain a specific article or set of articles,
suitable for long term use and entered with the articles for which they are intended, are
classifiable with the accompanying articles if they are of a kind normally sold therewith.
Examples of such containers are: camera cases, musical instrument cases, gun cases,
drawing instrument cases, and necklace cases. This rule does not apply to containers that
give the importation as a whole its essential character.
Subject to the above rule, packing materials and packing containers entered with
goods packed in them are classified with these goods if they are of a kind normally used
44
for packing such goods. However, this does not apply to packing materials or
containers that are clearly suitable for repetitive use.
15. Temporary Free Importations
Temporary Importation Under Bond (TIB)
Goods of the types enumerated below, when not imported for sale or for sale on
approval, may be admitted into the United States under bond, without the payment of
duty, for exportation within one year from the date of importation. Generally, the amount
of the bond is double the estimated duties. The one-year period for exportation may, upon
application to the port director, be extended for one or more further periods which, when
added to the initial one year, shall not exceed a total of three years. There is an exception
in the case of articles covered in item 14: the period of the bond may not exceed six
months and may not be extended.
Merchandise entered under TIB must be exported or destroyed before expiration
of the bond period, or any extension, to avoid assessment of liquidated damages in the
amount of the bond.
All goods entered under TIB are subject to quota compliance.
Classes Of Goods
(1)
Merchandise to be repaired, altered, or processed (including processes which
result in an article being manufactured or produced in the United States),
provided that the following conditions are met:
The merchandise will not be processed into an article manufactured or produced
in the United States if the article is:
•
•
•
Alcohol, distilled spirits, wine, beer, or any dilution or mixture of these,
Perfume or other commodity containing ethyl alcohol, whether denatured
or not,
A product of wheat.
If merchandise is processed and results in an article being manufactured or
produced in the United States other than those described above:
•
•
A complete accounting will be made to CBP for all articles, wastes, and
irrecoverable losses resulting from the processing, and
All articles will be exported or destroyed under CBP supervision within
the bonded period. Valuable waste must also be exported or so destroyed
unless duty, if applicable, is paid.
45
(2)
Models of women’s wearing apparel imported by manufacturers for use solely
as models in their own establishments; these articles require quota compliance.
(3)
Articles imported by illustrators and photographers for use solely as models in
their own establishments to illustrate catalogs, pamphlets, or advertising matter.
(4)
Samples solely for use in taking orders for merchandise; these samples require
quota compliance.
46
(5)
Articles solely for examination with a view to reproduction or for examination and
reproduction (except photoengraved printing plates for examination and reproduction);
and motion-picture advertising films.
(6)
Articles intended solely for testing, experimental, or review purposes, including plans,
specifications, drawings, blueprints, photographs, and articles for use in connection with
experiments or for study. If articles under this category are destroyed in connection with
the experiment or study, proof of such destruction must be presented to satisfy the
obligation under the bond to export the articles.
(7)
Automobiles, motorcycles, bicycles, airplanes, airships, balloons, boats, racing shells,
and similar vehicles and craft, and the usual equipment of the foregoing, if brought
temporarily into the United States by nonresidents for the purpose of taking part in races
or other specific contests. Port directors may defer the exaction of a bond for a period not
to exceed 90 days after the date of importation for vehicles and craft to take part in races
or other specific contests for other than money purposes. If the vehicle or craft is not
exported or the bond is not given within the period of such deferment, the vehicle or craft
shall be subject to forfeiture.
(8)
Locomotives and other railroad equipment brought temporarily into the United States for
use in clearing obstructions, fighting fires, or making emergency repairs on railroads
within the United States or for use in transportation otherwise than in international traffic
when the Secretary of the Treasury finds that the temporary use of foreign railroad
equipment is necessary to meet an emergency. Importers can expedite approval of a
request for temporary importation to meet an emergency by including evidence of the
existence of the emergency, such as news reports.
(9)
Containers for compressed gases, filled or empty, and containers or other articles used for
covering or holding merchandise (including personal or household effects) during
transportation and suitable for reuse for that purpose.
(10)
Professional equipment, tools of trade, repair components for equipment or tools
admitted under this item, and camping equipment imported by or for nonresidents for the
nonresident’s use while sojourning temporarily in the United States.
(11)
Articles of special design for temporary use exclusively in connection with the
manufacture or production of articles for export.
(12)
Animals and poultry brought into the United States for the purpose of breeding,
exhibition, or competition for prizes, and the usual equipment therefor.
(13)
Works of free fine arts, drawings, engravings, photographic pictures, and philosophical
and scientific apparatus brought into the United States by professional artists, lecturers,
or scientists arriving from abroad for use by them for exhibition and in illustration,
47
promotion, and encouragement of art, science or industry in the United States.
(14)
Automobiles, automobile chassis, automobile bodies, cutaway portions of any of the
foregoing, and parts for any of the foregoing, finished, unfinished, or cutaway, when
intended solely for show purposes. These articles may be admitted only on condition that
the Secretary of the Treasury has found that the foreign country from which the articles
were imported allows or will allow substantially reciprocal privileges with respect to
similar exports to that country from the United States. If the Secretary finds that a foreign
country has discontinued or will discontinue the allowance of such privileges, the
privileges under this item shall not apply thereafter to imports from that country.
Relief From Liability
Relief from liability under bond may be obtained in any case in which the articles are
destroyed under CBP supervision, in lieu of exportation, within the original bond period.
However, in the case of articles entered under item 6, destruction need not be under CBP
supervision where articles are destroyed during the course of experiments or tests during the
bond period or any lawful extension, but satisfactory proof of destruction shall be furnished to
the port director with whom the customs entry is filed.
ATA Carnet
ATA stands for the combined French and English words “Admission Temporaire—
Temporary Admission.” ATA carnet is an international customs document that may be used for
the temporary duty-free importation of certain goods into a country in lieu of the usual customs
documents required. The carnet serves as a guarantee against the payment of customs duties that
may become due on goods temporarily imported and not reexported. Quota compliance is
required on merchandise subject to quota; for example, textiles are subject to quota and visa
requirements.
A carnet is valid for one year. The traveler or businessperson, however, may make as
many trips as desired during the period the carnet is valid provided he or she has sufficient pages
for each stop.
The United States currently allows ATA carnets to be used for the temporary admission
of professional equipment, commercial samples, and advertising material. Most other countries
allow the use of carnets for the temporary admission of these goods and, in some cases, other
uses of the ATA carnet are permitted.
Local carnet associations, as members of the International Bureau of the Paris-based
International Chamber of Commerce, issue carnets to their residents. These associations
guarantee the payment of duties to local customs authorities should goods imported under cover
of a foreign-issued carnet not be reexported. In the United States, CBP has designated the U.S.
Council of the International Chamber of Commerce, located at 1212 Avenue of the Americas,
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New York, NY 10036, Tel. 212.354.4480, as the United States issuing and guaranteeing
organization. The Council charges a fee for its service.
ATA carnets can be used in the following countries:
Ivory Coast
Algeria
Japan
Australia
Republic of South Korea
Austria
Lebanon
Belgium
Luxembourg
Bulgaria
Malaysia
Canada
Malta
Canary Islands
Mauritius
China
Netherlands
Croatia
New Zealand
Cyprus
Norway
Czech Republic
Poland
Denmark
Portugal
Estonia
Romania
Finland
Senegal
France
Singapore
French Polynesia
Slovakia
French West Indies
Slovenia
Germany
South Africa
Gibraltar
Spain
Greece
Sri Lanka
Hong Kong
Sweden
Hungary
Switzerland
Iceland
Thailand
India
Turkey
Ireland
United Kingdom
Israel
United States
Italy
Egypt and certain other countries have accepted the ATA convention, but have not
implemented the use of carnets. As countries are being continuously added to the carnet system,
please check with the U.S. Council if a country you wish to visit is not included in the above list.
16. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
The provisions of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) were adopted by
the United States with enactment of the North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation
Act of 1993 (107 Stat. 2057, P.L. 103-182). Nineteen Code of Federal Regulation (19 CFR)
Parts 10, 12, 123, 134, 162, 174, 177, and 178 were amended, and new parts 102 and 181 of the
CBP Regulations were developed to implement NAFTA’s duty provisions.
49
NAFTA phased out tariffs on almost all “originating” goods traded between Canada
and the United States by January 1, 2003, and provides for an additional 5-year phase-out period
on certain sensitive commodities traded between Mexico and the United States.
Article 401 of NAFTA eliminates both tariffs and the merchandise processing fees for
goods that “originate.” Transshipping goods through Mexico or Canada that were made in
another country, or performing only minor processing or packaging operations on them in North
America, will not invoke preferential NAFTA duty rates.
The term “originate” means those goods that meet the requirements of NAFTA Article
401. Article 401 defines “originate” in four ways:
1. Goods wholly obtained or produced entirely in the NAFTA region (these contain
no foreign inputs);
2. Goods produced entirely in the NAFTA region exclusively from originating
materials (these contain foreign materials that have been previously manufactured
into originating materials);
3. Goods meeting an Annex 401 specific rule of origin such as a prescribed change
in tariff classification, regional value content requirement; and in extremely
limited instances,
4. Unassembled goods and goods classified with their parts, which do not meet the
tariff-shift rule but contain 60 percent regional value content using the
transaction-value method, or 50 percent using the net-cost method.
Annex 401 of NAFTA is codified in General Note 12(t) of the Harmonized Tariff
Schedule of the United States and is available at www.cbp.gov/nafta/rulesorg.htm.
Entry Procedures
For NAFTA, as with other preferential trade programs, it is the importer’s responsibility
to claim the benefits. In the United States, a NAFTA claim is made as follows:
•
NON-COMMERCIAL (PERSONAL) IMPORTATIONS
For a non-commercial importation of NAFTA goods, a NAFTA claim may be
made in the United States without a certificate of origin or statement.
•
COMMERCIAL IMPORTATIONS, LOW-VALUE
In order to claim preferential tariff treatment on a commercial shipment of
NAFTA goods valued at US $2,500 or less, the entry packet must include the 19
CFR 181.22(d) statement certifying that the goods “originate”
(www.cbp.gov/nafta/docs/us/181sec1-1.html#181.21).
•
COMMERCIAL IMPORTATIONS, OTHER
The importer must have a valid NAFTA certificate of origin, signed by the
50
exporter or his agent, when claiming preferential tariff treatment on a
commercial shipment of NAFTA goods valued at more than US $2,500.
•
POST-IMPORTATION CLAIMS
Importers who may not have a valid NAFTA certificate of origin, or who are
unsure whether their goods “originate,” or who otherwise choose not to make a
NAFTA claim at the time of entry summary have up to one year from the date of
importation to make a post-importation claim.
Exporter’s Certificate Of Origin
NAFTA Article 502 requires that an importer’s NAFTA claim be based on the exporter’s
certificate of origin. This may be CBP Form 434, the Canadian B-232, or the Mexican
Certificado de Origen. When making a NAFTA claim in the United States, the importer must
have one of these three certificates of origin or a CBP-approved, privately printed or alternate
certificate of origin. For a single shipment, the certificate of origin shall be annotated with the
invoice number or other distinguishing marks. For multiple shipments of identical goods, the
certificate shall be annotated with a blanket period of up to 12 months.
NAFTA Certificates Of Origin And NAFTA Claims Are Optional
The exporter or producer is never obligated to provide a certificate of origin to a
customer. However, since the importer may not claim NAFTA preferential tariff treatment
without one, it is in the exporter or producer’s interest to provide it. By providing a certificate of
origin, the producer is attesting that:
1. The goods originate,
2. He has the substantiating production and accounting documentation, and
3. He will make it available to the customs authorities upon request.
Country of Origin for Marking and Duty Purposes
For goods processed in Canada, Mexico or the United States, NAFTA codified the
concept of “substantial transformation,” the process by which a good’s country of origin is
determined for marking and duty purposes. Even though a good may be sufficiently processed in
Canada, Mexico or the United States to be marked with that country of origin, it may not be
sufficiently manufactured to “originate” under the rules of origin for NAFTA tariff treatment
purposes (Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States, General Note 12(t)). With certain
limited exceptions, only originating goods benefit from NAFTA preferential treatment. For
additional marking information, please see NAFTA: A Guide to Customs Procedures, available at
www.cbp.gov/nafta/nafta_new.htm or 19 CFR 102 at www.gpoaccess.gov/cfr/index.html.
Special Provisions For Sensitive Sectors
The NAFTA Annex 401-origin criteria ensure that most textile- and apparel-related
production occur in North America. The basic rule of origin for textiles and apparel is commonly
referred to as “yarn forward.” This means that the yarn used to form the fabric must be spun in
the NAFTA territory, and all subsequent processing must take place in North America. Textiles
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and apparel of man-made filament fibers have an even more restrictive “fiber-forward” rule.
Some apparel goods must additionally meet a “visible-lining rule,” meaning that certain linings
must be woven or knit in North America.
Transshipment
Goods that are entitled to NAFTA preferential duty rates by virtue of their originating
status will lose that status if they leave customs control outside of North America or undergo any
operation outside of North America other than unloading, reloading, or any other operation
necessary to preserve them in good condition or to transport the goods to Canada, Mexico or the
United States.
Repair Or Alteration
Goods may be exported from one NAFTA country to another for repair or alteration and
returned free of duty regardless of the origin of the goods. This provision does not apply to
alterations that are part of a manufacturing process.
Territory
With respect to the United States, the customs territory includes the 50 states, the District
of Columbia, Puerto Rico and the foreign trade zones located therein.
Additional NAFTA information can be obtained in NAFTA: A Guide to Customs
Procedures, available on line at www.cbp.gov/nafta/nafta_new.htm or from the Code of Federal
Regulations at www.cbp.gov/nafta/resource.htm.
17. Generalized System Of Preferences (GSP)
The Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) is a preferential program that provides
duty-free treatment to products of beneficiary designated countries and territories. The program
was authorized by the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2461 et seq.) as a means of promoting
economic development in the developing countries and was instituted on January 1, 1976. The
GSP periodically expires and must be renewed by Congress to remain in effect. CBP provides
the trade community with notification of these expirations and renewals.
ELIGIBLE ITEMS
The GSP eligibility list contains a wide range of products classifiable under 3,400
different subheadings in the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (Tariff Schedule).
These items are identified by the symbols “A”, “A*”, or “A+” in the “Special” subcolumn under
column 1 of the tariff schedule. Merchandise classifiable under a subheading designated in this
manner may qualify for duty-free entry if imported into the United States directly from any of
the designated countries and territories. Items identified by an “A*” may be excluded from the
exemption if imported from certain designated countries.
The list of countries and exclusions, as well as the list of GSP-eligible articles, will
change from time to time. For example, countries immediately lose GSP eligibility upon joining
52
the European Union. Consult the Federal Register at www.ustr.gov for the most current
information regarding country and/or commodity eligibility. Click on the link to “Trade and
Development” and then the link for the “USTR Reference Programs.” A GSP guidebook is
available at
http://www.ustr.gov/assets/Trade_Development/Preference_Programs/GSP/asset_upload_file890
_8359.pdf.
Importers and other interested parties may obtain an advance ruling to determine whether
a particular product is eligible for GSP treatment, see Chapter 13 for details regarding the
issuance of administrative rulings.
Claims
For commercial shipments requiring a formal entry, a claim for duty-free status is made
under the GSP by declaring on the entry summary that the country of origin is a designated
beneficiary developing country and by placing the symbol “A” as a prefix to the subheading of
the tariff schedule for each article for which such treatment is claimed. Eligible merchandise will
be entitled to duty-free treatment provided the following conditions are met:
•
The merchandise must be the “product of” a beneficiary country. This
requirement is satisfied when:
(1) The goods are wholly the growth, product, or manufacture of a beneficiary
country, or
(2) When an article is produced from materials imported into the beneficiary
developing country and those imported materials are substantially transformed
into a new or different article of commerce in a beneficiary country. A
statement to that effect shall be included on the commercial invoice.
• The merchandise must be imported directly from any beneficiary country into the
customs territory of the United States.
• The cost or value of materials produced in the beneficiary developing country
and/or the direct cost of processing performed there must be at least 35 percent of
the appraised value of the goods.
The cost or value of materials imported into the beneficiary developing country may be
included in calculating the 35-percent value-content requirement of the GSP only if such
materials undergo a “double substantial transformation” in the beneficiary developing
country. That is, such materials must be substantially transformed in the beneficiary
developing country into a new and different intermediate article of commerce, which is then
transformed a second time in the production of the final good. The phrase “direct costs of
processing” refers to costs directly incurred in, or which can be reasonably allotted to, the
processing of the article. Such costs include, but are not limited to: all actual labor costs
involved with production of the good; dies, molds, tooling, and depreciation on machinery
and equipment; research and development; and costs of inspecting and testing the
merchandise. Profit and general expenses are not considered direct costs of processing.
General expenses are those that cannot be allocated to the good or costs that do not relate to
53
production of the good, such as administrative salaries, insurance, advertising, and salaries
for sales employees.
Sources Of Additional Information
CBP rules and regulations on the GSP are incorporated in sections 10.171-10.178 of the
CBP Regulations. Address any question you may have on the administrative or operational
aspects of the GSP to:
CBP Trade Agreements Branch
U.S. Customs and Border Protection
1300 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20229
Requests for information concerning additions to or deletions from the list of
merchandise eligible under the GSP, or changes to the list of beneficiary developing countries,
should be directed to:
Chairman, Trade Policy Staff Subcommittee
Office of U.S. Trade Representative
600 17th St., NW
Washington, DC 20506
GSP Independent Countries
[note: typesetter should have countries in two or three columns per page]
Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
Angola
Antigua and Barbuda
Argentina
Armenia
Bahrain
Bangladesh
Barbados 1
Belize1
Benin 2
Bhutan
Bolivia3
1 Member countries of the Caribbean Common Market—CARICOM (treated as one country).
2 Member countries of the West African Economic and Monetary Union—WAEMU (treated as one country).
3 Member countries of the Cartagena Agreement—Andean Group (treated as one country).
54
Bosnia and Hercegovina
Botswana 4
Brazil
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cambodia 5
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Colombia 3
Comoros
Congo (Brazzaville)
Congo (Kinshasa)
Costa Rica
Côte d’Ivoire
Croatia
Djibouti
Dominica 1
Dominican Republic
Ecuador 3
Egypt
El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Fiji
Gabon
Gambia, The
Georgia
Ghana
Grenada 1
Guatemala
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau 2
4 Member countries of the Southern Africa Development Community—SADC (treated as one country).
5 Association of South East Asian Nations—ASEAN (GSP-eligible countries only) treated as one country.
3 Member countries of the Cartagena Agreement—Andean Group (treated as one country).
1 Member countries of the Caribbean Common Market—CARICOM (treated as one country).
1 Member countries of the Caribbean Common Market—CARICOM (treated as one country).
2 Member countries of the West African Economic and Monetary Union—WAEMU (treated as one country).
55
Guyana 1
Haiti
Honduras
India
Indonesia 5
Iraq
Jamaica 1
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Kiribati
Kyrgyzstan
Lebanon
Lesotho
Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali 2
Mauritania
Mauritius 4
Moldova
Mongolia
Mozambique
Namibia
Nepal
Niger 4
Nigeria
Oman
Pakistan
Panama
Papua, New Guinea
Paraguay
Peru 3
Philippines 5
Romania
4 Member countries of the Southern Africa Development Community—SADC (treated as one country).
5 Association of South East Asian Nations—ASEAN (GSP-eligible countries only) treated as one country.
1 Member countries of the Caribbean Common Market—CARICOM (treated as one country).
4 Member countries of the Southern Africa Development Community—SADC (treated as one country).
3 Member countries of the Cartagena Agreement—Andean Group (treated as one country).
5 Association of South East Asian Nations—ASEAN (GSP-eligible countries only) treated as one country.
56
Russia
Rwanda
Saint Kitts and Nevis 1
Saint Lucia 1
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1
Samoa
Sao Tome and Principe
Senegal 2
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Solomon Islands
Somalia
South Africa
Sri Lanka
Suriname
Swaziland
Tanzania 4
Thailand 5
Togo 2
Tonga
Trinidad and Tobago 1
Tunisia
Turkey
Tuvalu
Uganda
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Vanuatu
Venezuela 3
Yemen, Republic of
Zambia
Zimbabwe
Non-Independent Countries and Territories
Anguilla
1
2 Member countries of the West African Economic and Monetary Union—WAEMU (treated as one country).
4 Member countries of the Southern Africa Development Community—SADC (treated as one country).
5 Association of South East Asian Nations—ASEAN (GSP-eligible countries only) treated as one country.
2 Member countries of the West African Economic and Monetary Union—WAEMU (treated as one country).
1 Member countries of the Caribbean Common Market—CARICOM (treated as one country).
3 Member countries of the Cartagena Agreement—Andean Group (treated as one country).
57
British Indian Ocean Territory
Christmas Island (Australia)
Cocos (Keeling) Island
Cook Islands
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
Gibraltar
Heard Island and McDonald Islands
Montserrat 1
Niue
Norfolk Island
Pitcairn Island
Saint Helena
Tokelau
Turks and Caicos Islands
Virgin Islands, British
Wallis and Funtuna
West Bank and Gaza Strip
Western Sahara
18. Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) and the Caribbean Basin Economic
Recovery Act (CBERA)
The Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) is a program that allows duty-free entry of certain
merchandise from designated beneficiary countries or territories. This program was enacted by
the United States as the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act, (CBERA) which became
effective January 1, 1984, and has no expiration date.
Beneficiary Countries
The following countries and territories have been designated as beneficiary countries for
purposes of the CBI: [printed in two columns]
Antigua and Barbuda
Aruba
Bahamas
Barbados
Belize
Costa Rica
Dominica
Dominican Republic
El Salvador
Grenada
Guatemala
58
Guyana
Haiti
Honduras
Jamaica
Montserrat
Netherlands Antilles
Nicaragua
Panama
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Trinidad and Tobago
Virgin Islands, British
Eligible Items
Most products from designated beneficiary countries may be eligible for CBI duty-free
treatment. These items are identified by either an “E” or “E*” in the Special column under
column 1 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule. Merchandise classifiable under a subheading
designated in this manner may qualify for duty-free entry if imported into the United States
directly from any of the designated countries and territories.
Merchandise from one or more of these countries, however, may be excluded from time
to time over the life of the program. Also, the list of beneficiary countries may change from time
to time as well. Therefore, importers should consult the latest edition of the Harmonized Tariff
Schedule of the United States for the most up-to-date information on eligible commodities.
General Note 7(a) in the latest edition of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule contains updated
information on the current list of beneficiary countries.
Claims
Merchandise will be eligible for CBI duty-free treatment only if the following conditions
are met:
•
•
•
The merchandise must have been produced in a beneficiary country. This
requirement is satisfied when:
1. The goods are wholly the growth, product, or manufacture of a beneficiary
country, or
2. The goods have been substantially transformed into a new or different article
of commerce in a beneficiary country.
The merchandise must be imported directly from any beneficiary country into the
customs territory of the United States.
For commercial shipments requiring a formal entry, a claim for preferential tariff
treatment under CBI is made by showing that the country of origin is a designated
beneficiary country and by inserting the letter “E” as a prefix to the applicable
tariff schedule number on CBP Form 7501.
59
•
At least 35 percent of the imported article’s appraised value must consist of the
cost or value of materials produced in one or more beneficiary countries and/or
the direct costs of processing operations performed in one or more beneficiary
countries. The Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands are
defined as beneficiary countries for purposes of this requirement; therefore, value
attributable to Puerto Rico or to the Virgin Islands may also be counted. The cost
or value of materials produced in the customs territory of the United States other
than Puerto Rico may also be counted toward the 35 percent value-added
requirement, but only to a maximum of 15 percent of the imported article’s
appraised value.
The cost or value of materials imported into a beneficiary country from a non-beneficiary
country may be included in calculating the 35 percent value-added requirement for an
eligible article if the materials are first substantially transformed into new or different articles
of commerce which are subsequently used as constituent materials in the production of the
eligible article. The phrase “direct costs of processing operations” includes costs directly
incurred or reasonably allocated to the production of the article; for example, the cost of
actual labor, dies, molds, tooling, depreciation of machinery, research and development,
inspection, and testing. Business overhead, administrative expenses and profit, and general
business expenses like casualty and liability insurance, advertising, and salespeople’s
salaries, are not considered direct costs of processing operations.
CBI II Sections 215 and 222
In addition to the origin rules enumerated above, the Customs and Trade Act of 1990
added new criteria for duty-free eligibility under the Caribbean Basin Initiative. First, articles
that are the growth, product or manufacture of Puerto Rico and that are subsequently processed
in a CBI beneficiary country may also receive duty-free treatment if the three following
conditions are met:
•
•
•
They are imported directly from a beneficiary country into the customs territory of
the United States.
They are advanced in value or improved in condition by any means in a beneficiary
country.
Any material added to the article in a beneficiary country must be a product of a
beneficiary country or the United States.
In addition, articles that are assembled or processed in whole from U.S. components or
ingredients (other than water) in a beneficiary country may be entered free of duty. Duty-free
treatment will apply if the components or ingredients are exported directly to the beneficiary
country, and the finished article is imported directly into the customs territory of the
United States.
Importers and other interested parties may obtain an advance ruling to determine whether
your commodity is eligible for CBI treatment, please see Chapter 13 for details regarding the
60
issuance of administrative rulings.
Sources Of Additional Information
CBP rules and regulations regarding CBI are incorporated in sections 10.191-10.198 of
the CBP Regulations. Address any questions you may have about CBI’s administrative or
operational aspects to the port director where the merchandise will be entered, or to:
Director, Trade Enforcement and Facilitation Division
U.S. Customs and Border Protection
1300 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20229
19. Andean Trade Preference Act (ATPA)/
Andean Trade Promotion and Drug Eradication Act (ATPDEA)
The Andean Trade Preference Act (ATPA) provides for the duty-free entry of certain
merchandise from designated beneficiary countries. The United States enacted ATPA into
law on December 4, 1991, and it expired on December 4, 2001. When the Trade Act of 2002
became law on December 4, 2001, it renewed ATPA through December 31, 2006, and
introduced the new Andean Trade Promotion and Drug Eradication Act (ATPDEA)
provision. ATPDEA expanded some trade benefits for textiles from ATPA beneficiary
countries.
Beneficiary Countries
The following countries have been designated as ATPA/ATPDEA beneficiary countries:
Bolivia
Colombia
Ecuador
Peru
Eligible Items
When ATPA was renewed, portions of the Act were expanded into ATPDEA, which
extends preferential treatment for merchandise previously excluded by ATPA. These include
certain leather materials, watches and watch parts, petroleum and petroleum derivatives, tuna
packaged in foil or other flexible packages, some footwear, and certain textile and apparel
articles.
However, many products remain excluded from receiving preferential treatment,
including certain textile and apparel items; rum and tafia; and above-quota imports of certain
agricultural products like tuna in cans, syrups, sugars, and sugar products, which are subject to
tariff-rate quotas.
Non-textile goods for which all ATPA countries are eligible for preferential treatment are
identified by a “J” in the “Special” subcolumn under Column 1 of the Harmonized Tariff
Schedule. Goods for which only some ATPA countries qualify for preferential treatment are
identified by a “J*.” Goods that qualify for preferential treatment in the expanded ATPDEA
provision are identified by “J+.”
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Certain textile and apparel goods may enter the United States free of duty or restrictions on
quantity if they meet certain requirements. The textile and apparel goods eligible for preferential
treatment are listed in Chapter 98, subchapter XXI of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule.
Rules Of Origin
Commercial shipments from designated beneficiary countries that require formal entry
may make a claim for preferential tariff treatment under ATPA/ATPDEA by entering the letter
“J” on CBP Form 7501 (the entry summary) as a prefix to the appropriate tariff schedule
number.
Non-textile merchandise will be eligible for ATPA/ATPDEA duty-free treatment only if
the following conditions are met:
•
•
•
The merchandise must have been produced in a beneficiary country. This
requirement is satisfied when:
(1) The goods are wholly the growth, product, or manufacture of a beneficiary
country, or
(2) The goods have been substantially transformed into a new or different article
of commerce in a beneficiary country.
The merchandise must be imported directly from any beneficiary country into the
customs territory of the United States.
At least 35 percent of the article’s appraised value must consist of the cost or
value of materials produced in one or more ATPA or CBI beneficiary countries
and/or the direct costs of processing operations performed in one or more ATPA
or CBI beneficiary countries. The Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the U.S.
Virgin Islands are defined as beneficiary countries for purposes of this
requirement. In addition, the cost or value of materials produced in the customs
territory of the United States (other than Puerto Rico) may be counted toward the
35 percent value-added requirement, but only to a maximum of 15 percent of the
appraised value of the imported article.
Certain textile and apparel goods may enter the United States free of duty or restrictions
on quantity if they meet certain requirements. The textile and apparel goods eligible for
preferential treatment are listed in Chapter 98, subchapter XXI of the Harmonized Tariff
Schedule.
The cost or value of materials imported into ATPA or CBI beneficiary countries from
non-beneficiary countries may be included when calculating the 35 percent value-added
requirement for an eligible article if the materials are first substantially transformed into new or
different articles of commerce and are then used as constituent materials in producing the
eligible article. The phrase “direct costs of processing operations” means costs directly incurred
or reasonably allocated to producing the article, including the cost of actual labor, dies, molds,
tooling, depreciation of machinery, research and development, inspection, and testing. Business
62
overhead, administrative expenses and profit, and other general business expenses like
casualty and liability insurance, advertising, and salespeople’s salaries, are not considered direct
costs of processing operations.
Further information can be found at:
cbp.gov/xp/cgov/import/international_agreements/atpa/
20. U.S.-Israel Free Trade Area Agreement (ILFTA)
The United States-Israel Free Trade Area agreement was originally enacted to provide for
duty-free treatment for merchandise produced in Israel to stimulate trade between the two
countries. This program was authorized by the United States in the Trade and Tariff Act of 1984,
became effective September 1, 1985, and has no termination date. The Harmonized Tariff
Schedule was amended to include General Note 8 implementing the U.S.-Israel Free Trade Area
Implementation Act.
The ILFTA Implementation Act was amended on October 2, 1996, authorizing the
president to implement certain changes affecting the duty status of goods from the West Bank,
Gaza Strip, and qualifying industrial zones (QIZs). Presidential Proclamation 6955 of November
13, 1996, created General Note 3(v) to implement the new program for these goods. Pursuant to
General Note 3(v), duty-free treatment is allowed for products of the West Bank, Gaza Strip, or a
QIZ, imported directly from the West Bank, Gaza Strip, a QIZ or Israel, provided certain
requirements are met. Presidential Proclamation 6955 also modified the eligibility requirements
for duty-free treatment of articles that are the product of Israel.
General Note 3(a)(v)(G) of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule defines a QIZ as any area
that:
1) Encompasses portions of the territory of Israel and Jordan or Israel and Egypt;
2) Has been designated by local authorities as an enclave where merchandise may
enter without payment of duty or excise taxes; and
3) Has been designated as a QIZ by the United States Trade Representative in a
notice published in the Federal Register.
Eligible Items
The ILFTA applies to a broad range of tariff items listed in the Harmonized Tariff
Schedule and identified by “IL” in the “Special” column.
Products Of Israel
An article imported into the customs territory of the United States is eligible for treatment
as a “product of Israel” only if:
•
The merchandise has been produced in Israel. This requirement is satisfied when
(1) The goods are wholly the growth, product, or manufacture of Israel, or
(2) The goods have been substantially transformed into a new or different article
of commerce in Israel;
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•
•
That article is imported directly from Israel, the West Bank, Gaza Strip, or a
QIZ into the customs territory of the United States;
The sum of:
(1) The cost or value of the materials produced in Israel, the West Bank, Gaza
Strip, or a QIZ, plus
(2) The direct costs of processing operations performed in Israel, the West Bank,
Gaza Strip, or a QIZ
is not less than 35 percent of the appraised value of such article at the time it is entered. If the
cost or value of materials produced in the customs territory of the United States is included with
respect to an eligible article, an amount not to exceed 15 percent of the appraised value of the
article at the time it is entered may be applied toward determining the 35 percent.
Products of The West Bank, Gaza Strip, or a Qualifying Industrial Zone
An article imported into the customs territory of the United States is eligible for treatment
as a product of the West Bank, Gaza Strip, or a QIZ only if:
•
•
•
The article is the growth, product, or manufacture of the West Bank, Gaza Strip or
a QIZ,
The article is imported directly from the West Bank, Gaza Strip, a QIZ or Israel
into the customs territory of the United States,
The sum of:
1. The cost or value of the materials produced in the West Bank, Gaza Strip, a
QIZ or Israel, plus
2. The direct costs of processing operations performed in the West Bank, Gaza
Strip, a QIZ or Israel
is not less than 35 percent of the appraised value of such article at the time it is entered. If the
cost or value of materials produced in the customs territory of the United States is included with
respect to an eligible article, an amount not to exceed 15 percent of the appraised value of the
article at the time it is entered may be applied toward the 35 percent.
No article may be considered to meet these requirements by virtue of having undergone:
•
•
Simple combining or packaging operations, or
Mere diluting with water or another substance that does not materially alter the
characteristics of the article.
The phrase “direct costs of processing operations” includes, but is not limited to:
•
All actual labor costs involved in the growth, production, manufacture or
assembly of the specific merchandise, including fringe benefits, on-the-job
training and the costs of engineering, supervisory, quality control and similar
64
•
personnel.
Dies, molds, tooling and depreciation on machinery and equipment that are
allocable to the specific merchandise.
Direct costs of processing operations do not include costs that are not directly attributable
to the merchandise concerned or are not costs of manufacturing the product, such as:
1. Profit,
2. General expenses of doing business that are either not allocable to the specific
merchandise or are not related to the growth, production, manufacture or
assembly of the merchandise, such as administrative salaries, casualty and
liability insurance, advertising and sales staff salaries, or commissions or
expenses.
Certificate of Origin Form A
The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Certificate of Origin Form A
is used as documentary evidence to support duty-free and reduced-rate claims for Israeli articles
covered by a formal entry. It does not have to be produced at the time of entry, however, unless
CBP requests it at that time.
Form A may be presented on an entry-by-entry basis or may be used as a blanket
declaration for a period of 12 months. Form A can be obtained from the Israeli authorizing
issuing authority or from:
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
Two U.N. Plaza
Room 1120
New York, NY 10017
Tel. 212.963.6895
Informal Entries
Form A is not required for commercial or non-commercial shipments covered by an
informal entry. However, the port director may require other evidence of the country of origin as
deemed necessary.
In order to avoid delays to passengers, the inspecting CBP officer will extend Israeli
duty-free or reduced-rate treatment to all eligible articles accompanying the traveler if the
available facts satisfy the officer that the merchandise concerned is a product of Israel. In such
cases, Form A is not required.
Sources of Additional Information
Questions about the administrative or operational aspects of the ILFTA should be
addressed to:
65
Executive Director, Trade Compliance and Facilitation Division
U.S. Customs and Border Protection
Washington, DC 20229
Requests for information about ILFTA policy issues should be directed to:
Chairman, Trade Policy Staff Subcommittee
Office of U.S. Trade Representative
600 17th St., NW
Washington, DC 20506.
21. U.S.-Jordan Free Trade Area Agreement (JFTA)
The United States-Jordan Free Trade Area agreement went into effect on December 17,
2001, and provides for the elimination of tariffs on almost all qualifying goods within 10 years.
Eligible Items
JFTA benefits apply to tariff items listed in the Harmonized Tariff Schedule and
identified by “JO” in the Special column.
Eligibility Requirements, General
An article imported into the customs territory of the United States is eligible for JFTA
preference if:
•
•
•
It was wholly obtained or produced entirely in Jordan with no foreign inputs; or
It is a “product of” Jordan, and the sum of (1) the cost of the materials produced
in Jordan, plus (2) the direct costs of processing performed in Jordan is not less
than 35 percent of the article’s appraised value at the time it enters the commerce
of the United States. Materials produced in the United States that do not to exceed
15 percent of the article’s appraised value may be applied toward the 35 percent
threshold; and
The article is imported directly into the United States.
Eligibility Requirements, Textiles And Apparel
Textile and apparel articles, with exceptions, are subject to the same “substantial
transformation plus 35 percent” value-content rule as non-textiles (see General Note 18(d)).
Qualified Industrial Zones
The JFTA does not affect merchandise entered from a Qualifying Industrial Zone (QIZ).
Because duty reductions for some products will be staged, importers may chose to continue
entering qualifying merchandise under the QIZ, rather than under the JFTA.
66
Certification
CBP does not require presentation of a certificate of origin. By making the preference
claim, the importer is deemed to certify that the goods meet the requirements of the agreement.
Documentation
The importer shall be prepared to submit to CBP a declaration setting forth the pertinent
information concerning the article’s production or manufacture and all supporting documentation
upon which the declaration is based. This information must be retained in the importer’s files for
five years. The importer’s failure to provide the declaration and/or sufficient evidentiary
documentation will result in the claim’s denial.
Merchandise Processing Fees
The JFTA provides no exemption from payment of the merchandise processing fee.
Sources Of Additional Information
Additional information is available on CBP’s Website at:
www.cbp.gov/xp/cgov/import/international_agreements/free_trade/usjfta.xml or
www.cbp.gov/xp/cgov/import/textiles_and_quotas/.
Information can also be found on the U.S. Trade Representative Website,
www.ustr.gov/Trade_Agreements/Bilateral/Jordan/Section_Index.html.
References
•
•
•
Presidential Proclamation 7512, December 7, 2001,
Public Law 107-43, September 28, 2001,
Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States, General Note 18.
22. Compact of Free Association (FAS)
FAS is a program providing for the duty-free entry of certain merchandise from
designated freely associated states. (U.S. Pub. Law 99-239, Compact of Free Assoc. Act of 1985,
48 USC 1681 note. 59 Stat. 1031 and amended Dec. 17, 2003 by House Jt. Res. 63; U.S. Pub.
Law 180-188)
The Compact of Free Association between the Federated States of Micronesia and the
United States was initialed by negotiators in 1980 and signed in 1982. The Compact was
approved by the citizens of the FSM in a plebiscite held in 1983. Legislation on the Compact
was adopted by the U.S. Congress in 1986, and signed into law on November 13, 1986.
Beneficiary Countries
The following freely associated states have been designated as beneficiary countries for
purposes of the FAS:
Marshall Islands
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Federated States of Micronesia
Republic of Palau
Eligible Items
The duty-free treatment is applied to most products from the designated beneficiaries. For
commercial shipments requiring formal entry, a claim for duty-free status is made by placing the
letter “Z” next to the eligible subheading. The following merchandise is excluded from the
duty-free exemption:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Textile and apparel articles that are subject to textile agreements.
Footwear, handbags, luggage, flat goods, work gloves, and leather wearing
apparel that were not eligible for GSP treatment, discussed in Chapter 17, on
April 1, 1984.
Watches, clocks, and timing apparatus of Chapter 91 of the Harmonized Tariff
Schedule (except such articles incorporating an opto-electronic display and no
other type of display).
Buttons of subheading 9606.21.40 or 9606.29.20 of the Harmonized Tariff
Schedule.
Tuna and skipjack, prepared or preserved, not in oil, in airtight containers
weighing with their contents not more than 7 kilograms each, “in excess” of the
consumption quota quantity allowed duty-free entry.
Any agricultural product of Chapters 2 through 52 inclusive, that is subject to a
tariff-rate quota, if entered in a quantity in excess of the in-quota quantity for such
products.
Rules Of Origin
Merchandise will be eligible for FAS duty-free treatment only if the following conditions
are met:
•
•
•
The merchandise must have been produced in the freely associated state. This
requirement is satisfied when (1) the goods are wholly the growth, product, or
manufacture of the freely associated state, or (2) the goods have been
substantially transformed into a new or different article of commerce in the freely
associated state.
The merchandise must be imported directly from the freely associated state into
the customs territory of the United States.
At least 35 percent of the appraised value of the article imported into the
United States must consist of the cost or value of materials produced in the
beneficiary country. In addition, the cost or value of materials produced in the
customs territory of the United States may be counted toward the 35 percent
value-added requirement, but only to a maximum of 15 percent of the appraised
value of the imported article. The cost or value of the materials imported into the
freely associated state from a non-beneficiary country may be included in
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calculating the 35 percent value-added requirement for an eligible article if the
materials are first substantially transformed into new or different articles of
commerce and are then used as constituent materials in the production of the
eligible product.
Sources Of Additional Information
Address any questions you may have about the administrative or operational aspects of the FAS
to the port director where the merchandise will be entered or to:
Director
Commercial Compliance Division
U.S. Customs and Border Protection
Washington, DC 20229.
23. AFRICAN GROWTH AND OPPORTUNITY ACT (AGOA)
The African Growth and Opportunity Act provides duty-free treatment under the
Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) for certain articles from sub-Saharan African countries
that would normally be excluded from GSP provisions. Enacted May 18, 2000, as Title I of the
Trade and Development Act of 2000 (P.L. 106-200, 114 Stat. 251), AGOA became effective on
October 1, 2000 and was amended by the Trade Act of 2002. The expanded GSP treatment
remains effective through September 30, 2008.
AGOA also provides for the duty-free, quantity-free entry of specific textile and apparel
articles provided that strict conditions are met. This preferential treatment for eligible textiles
and apparel is subject to certain limitations.
Non-textile, non-apparel AGOA claims are designated by inserting the symbol “D” in the
“Rates of Duty 1-Special" column of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule for subheadings covering
such articles. Textile and apparel claims are made by entering the appropriate Chapter 98 tariff
number, details of which may be found in subchapter XIX of Chapter 98 of the Harmonized
Tariff Schedule.
Beneficiary Countries
There are three types of beneficiary-country designations under AGOA:
•
•
•
Beneficiary sub-Saharan African countries;
Lesser-developed beneficiary sub-Saharan African countries; and
Beneficiary sub-Saharan African countries eligible for textile/apparel benefits.
The president will monitor and review annually the current or potential eligibility of subSaharan African countries to be designated as beneficiary countries. Thus, the list of such
countries may change over the life of the program. Importers should consult General Note 16 of
the latest edition of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States for the current
69
information on designated countries.
Countries designated as beneficiary sub-Saharan African countries for AGOA purposes
are listed in General Note 16 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule. Sub-Saharan African countries
designated as lesser-developed beneficiary countries for AGOA purposes are listed in Chapter
98, subchapter XIX, U.S. Note 2(d), of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule. Countries that have
established visa systems and can import textiles and apparel merchandise for purposes of AGOA
are listed in Chapter 98, subchapter XIX, U.S. Note 1, of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule.
Eligible Items
Expanded GSP Treatment
The Trade Act of 1974 authorizes the president to provide duty-free treatment under the
GSP to certain articles that would otherwise be excluded from such treatment. A variety of
products have been designated as eligible for duty-free treatment for beneficiary sub-Saharan
African countries, including:
•
•
•
•
•
Some watches and clocks,
Certain electronics,
Certain steel and metals,
Certain textiles and wearing apparel, and
Certain semi-manufactured and manufactured glass products.
A complete listing of products eligible for duty-free treatment under AGOA is available
on the Web at www.agoa.gov. The president may extend duty-free treatment to imports of
essentially all products except textiles and apparel, as long as the products:
•
•
•
•
Are the “growth, product or manufacture” of a beneficiary sub-Saharan African
country,
Are imported directly from a beneficiary sub-Saharan African country into the
customs territory of the U.S.,
Meet a value-added requirement, and
The president determines that the products are not import-sensitive in the context
of imports from beneficiary sub-Saharan African countries. Sub-Saharan African
beneficiary countries are also exempted from competitive-need limitations.
Sub-Saharan African beneficiary countries are also exempted from competitive-need
limitations.
Preferential Treatment for Certain Textile and Apparel Articles
In order for textile or apparel articles to be eligible for preferential treatment, the
beneficiary sub-Saharan African country must be designated as eligible for textile/apparel
benefits. This designation requires that the United States determine whether the country has
70
satisfied the requirements of AGOA regarding that country's procedures to protect against
unlawful transshipments (including an effective visa system) and the implementation of
procedures and requirements similar in all material respects to the relevant procedures and
requirements under Chapter 5 of the NAFTA. The United States Trade Representative will
publish a Federal Register notice when it designates a country as eligible for preferential
treatment. This information will be available on the Web at www.ustr.gov and at www.agoa.gov.
AGOA provides duty-free and quota-free benefits to imports of certain textile and
apparel articles produced in eligible sub-Saharan African countries. In most instances, these
benefits are available regardless of the total volume of apparel exported from eligible countries
to the United States. The six broad categories of textile and apparel articles that may receive
preferential treatment are listed in Chapter 98, subchapter XIX of the Harmonized Tariff
Schedule.
Additional sources of information
The entire text of the AGOA agreement is available on the Web at www.agoa.gov.
CBP rules and regulations about AGOA are incorporated in sections 10.211-10.217 of
the CBP Regulations. Additional regulations implementing the GSP provisions are incorporated
in section 10.178 of the CBP Regulations. CBP regulations pertaining to AGOA are also
available on the Web at www.agoa.gov.
For answers to specific questions or to request a ruling, send inquiries to:
Director
National Commodity Specialist Division
U.S. Customs and Border Protection
One Penn Plaza, 11th Floor
New York, NY 10119
Further information regarding importing procedures is also available on the CBP
Website, cbp.gov/xp/cgov/import/international_agreements/.
The Office of the United States Trade Representative has prepared an African Growth
and Opportunity Act Implementation Guide available at the AGOA Website, www.agoa.gov.
Questions about AGOA not covered in the guidebook may be directed to:
Office of African Affairs
Office of the United States Trade Representative
600 17th Street, NW
Washington, DC 20508
Tel. 202.395.9514
Fax: 202.395.4505
71
Additional information on the GSP program is available at the United States Trade
Representative Website, www.ustr.gov, and from the GSP Information Center, Office of the U.S.
Trade Representative, at the above address, tel. 202.395.6971, and in Chapter 17 of this book.
Information on apparel cap, fabric and yarn not available in commercial quantities, and
on hand-loomed, handmade and folklore articles is available from the Department of Commerce,
Office of Textile and Apparel at otexa.ita.doc.gov.
24. United States-Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act (CBTPA)
The United States-Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act expands the trade benefits
currently available to Caribbean and Central American countries under the Caribbean Basin
Economic Recovery Act (CBERA; see Chapter 18.)
The CBTPA allows specific textile and apparel articles to enter the United States free of
duty or restrictions on quantity, provided certain conditions are met. It also extends NAFTA
standards of duty to non-textile articles that were previously excluded from duty-free treatment
under the CBERA.
CBTPA’s trade benefits apply during the transition period that began October 1, 2000,
and ends either on September 30, 2008, or on the date on which a free-trade agreement enters
into force between the United States and CBTPA beneficiary countries, whichever comes first.
(See Title II of the Trade and Development Act of 2000 [P.L. 106-200, 114 Stat. 251], enacted
May 18, 2000, for details.)
On August 6, 2002, the president signed into law the Trade Act of 2002, which made a
number of changes to the textile and apparel provisions of paragraph (2)(A) of section 213(b) of
the CBERA.
Beneficiary Countries
The list of beneficiary countries may change over the life of the program. A current
listing of countries eligible for designation as beneficiary countries can be found in General Note
17 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule.
CBTPA’s enhanced trade benefits are available to countries designated as CBTPA
beneficiary countries. To receive these benefits, CBTPA countries must have satisfied the trade
pact's requirements that the eligible country has implemented procedures and requirements that
are similar in all material respects to the relevant procedures and requirements under Chapter
Five of NAFTA.
72
Eligible Items
Preferential Treatment for Certain Textile and Apparel Articles
Certain textile and apparel articles may enter the United States free of duty and
restrictions on quantity. The textile and apparel articles eligible for preferential treatment are
listed in Chapter 98 Sub Chapter XX of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule.
The CBP regulations that implement the CBTPA include specific documentary,
procedural, and other requirements that must be met in order to obtain CBTPA benefits. The
CBP regulations and General Note 17 of the HTS should be consulted before importing
merchandise in order to ensure all requirements have been met.
NAFTA Parity
Except for textile and apparel articles, the CBTPA allows NAFTA tariff treatment for
goods previously excluded from the CBI program. Thus, imported footwear, canned tuna,
petroleum and petroleum products, watches and watch parts, handbags, luggage, flat goods, work
gloves and leather wearing apparel, when qualifying as CBTPA originating goods, are eligible
for a reduction in duty equal to the rate given to Mexican products under the staged duty-rate
reductions set forth in NAFTA.
Claims
Articles that the president has designated as eligible for CBTPA treatment are those
whose duty rate in the “Special” subcolumn is followed by the symbol “R” in Chapters 1 through
97 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule. Whenever a rate of duty other than “free” appears in this
subcolumn for any heading or subheading followed by the symbol “E” or “E*,” and a lower rate
of duty followed by the symbol “R” also appears in the subcolumn, an eligible article will
receive the lower rate of duty.
Certain Beverages Made With Caribbean Rum
The CBTPA provides duty-free treatment to certain liqueurs and spirituous beverages
produced in the territory of Canada from rum that is the growth, product or manufacture of a
CBTPA beneficiary country or of the U.S. Virgin Islands.
Sources of Additional Information
CBP rules and regulations on the CBTPA are incorporated in Sections 10.221-10.228 and
10.231-10.237 of the CBP regulations. Additional information can be found on the CBP Website
at www.cbp.gov/xp/cgov/import/international_agreements/ or at
http://www.cbp.gov/xp/cgov/import/international_agreements/.
It is also necessary to consult General Note 17 of the Harmonized Tariff
Schedule for specific requirements of CBTPA.
For answers to specific questions or to request a ruling, send inquiries to:
73
Director, National Commodity Specialist Division
U.S. Customs and Border Protection
One Penn Plaza, 10th Floor
New York, NY 10019
Information on CBTPA may also be obtained from:
Office of the United States Trade Representative
Office of the Western Hemisphere
600 17th Street, NW
Washington, DC 20508
Tel: 202.395.5190
Fax: 202.395.9675
Additional information on quantity limitations; fabric and yarn not available in
commercial quantities; and hand-loomed, handmade, and folklore articles may be available at the
Department of Commerce Office of Textile and Apparel Website at otexa.ita.doc.gov. The
Department of Commerce also provides detailed information on the CBTPA at
www.mac.doc.gov/CBI/webmain/intro.htm.
25. The U.S.-Chile Free Trade Agreement (US-CFTA)
The U.S.-Chile Free Trade Agreement (US-CFTA) took effect January 1, 2004, with the
enactment of the US-CFTA Implementation Act (P. L.108-77; 117 Stat. 909). (Presidential
Proclamation 7746, the official announcement of US-CFTA, incorporates by reference
Publication 3652 of the U.S. International Trade Commission. Publication 3652 amends the
Harmonized Tariff Schedule by adding General Note 26, which implements the duty provisions
of the US-CFTA. Title 19, Code of Federal Regulations is being amended to implement the USCFTA.)
The US-CFTA eliminates duties on goods originating in Chile and the United States over
a maximum transition period of 12 years. Under the schedule to eliminate duties, 85 percent of
Chilean goods received immediate duty-free status. Duties on the remaining goods will phase out
in four-, eight-, 10- and 12-year stages, although Chile and the United States may later choose to
accelerate these phase-outs.
Eligible Items
According to the rules set forth in the Agreement and incorporated into our domestic
legislation as General Note 26 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule, merchandise that originates in
Chile or the United States will receive a reduced or free rate of duty. Goods that originate
elsewhere and are merely transshipped through Chile will not be entitled to these benefits.
Originating is a term used to describe goods that meet the requirements of Article 4.1 of
the Agreement. Article 4.1 defines originating as goods that meet one of the following
conditions:
74
•
•
•
The good is wholly obtained or produced entirely in the territory of Chile or the
United States,
The good is produced in the territory of Chile or the United States and meets the
rule specified in Annex 4.1, through either a tariff shift or tariff-shift-plusregional-value content rules, or
The good is produced entirely in the Chile or the United States exclusively from
originating materials.
Originating goods that subsequently undergo any operation outside of the territories of
Chile or the United States other than unloading, reloading, or other processes necessary to
preserve the condition of the good, will lose their originating status. Goods that have undergone
simple combining or packaging operations or mere dilution with water or other substances will
not be considered originating.
Entry Procedures
Importers may claim preferential duty treatment for commercial shipments requiring a
formal entry by prefixing “CL” to the tariff classification number on the CF 7501 (Entry
Summary).
Pursuant to Article 4.13(7) of the Agreement, the United States does not require a
certificate of origin when the value of the originating goods is US $2,500 or less.
Certification Of Origin
The US-CFTA requires the importer to substantiate the validity of a claim for preferential
treatment. At CBP’s request, an importer must submit a certification of origin or other
supporting documentation to demonstrate that the imported goods “originate,” as defined by the
Act.
A US-CFTA certification of origin is not an official form, as it is in other trade
agreements, and does not need to be in a prescribed format. The certification of origin may take
many forms, such as a statement on company letterhead, a statement on a commercial invoice or
supporting documentation. Whatever form or format is used, however, must contain the
following data elements to demonstrate that the goods are US-CFTA originating goods:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Name and address of the importer,
Name and address of the exporter,
Name and address of the producer,
Description of good,
Harmonized tariff classification number,
Preference criterion,
Commercial invoice number on single shipments,
75
•
•
•
Identify the blanket period in “mm/dd/yyyy to mm/dd/yyyy” format (12-month
maximum) for multiple shipments of identical goods,
Authorized signature, company, title, telephone, fax, e-mail and certification date,
Certification that the information is correct.
The certification of origin may cover a single entry or multiple entries in a period not to
exceed 12 months. The importer must retain the certificate of origin and supporting
documentation in the United States and must provide it to CBP upon request.
Sources Of Additional Information
CBP has drafted regulations that implement the provisions of the US-CFTA. These may
be found in sections 10.401 through 10.490, CBP regulations. Also, information has been posted
on the CBP Website at: www.cbp.gov/xp/cgov/import/international_agreements/
26. The U.S. – Singapore Free Trade Agreement (US-SFTA)
The provisions of the U.S.-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act (Public
Law 108-78; 117 Stat. 948; 19 USC 3805 note) took effect on January 1, 2004. Upon
implementation, the Harmonized Tariff Schedule was amended to include General Note 25,
which contains specific information regarding the U.S.-Singapore Free Trade Agreement. The
agreement provides for the immediate or staged elimination of duties and barriers to bilateral
trade in goods and services originating in the United States and Singapore over a period of ten
years. Customs regulations are being updated to implement the provisions of this agreement.
According to Section 202 of the US-SFTA Implementation Act, in general, non-textile
goods shall qualify for preferential tariff treatment as a “product of Singapore” if:
•
•
•
The good is wholly obtained or produced entirely in Singapore, the U.S. or both;
Each non-originating material used in the production of the good imported from
Singapore either:
1. Undergoes an applicable change in tariff classification (tariff shift)
specified in General Note 25(o) of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule as a
result of production occurring entirely in Singapore, the United States or
both or
2. The good otherwise satisfies the applicable regional value content or other
requirements specified in General Note 25(o).
The good, as imported, is enumerated in General Note 25(m) as imported from
Singapore, a provision known as the Integrated Sourcing Initiative.
A textile or apparel good must meet the terms of General Note 25 in order to receive the
preferential tariff treatment under the US-SFTA.
Integrated Sourcing Initiative (ISI)
76
Per Article 3.2(1) of the US-SFTA, certain information technology and medical
products listed in General Note 25(m) may be considered originating goods for purposes of the
Agreement when shipped between the United States and Singapore, regardless of whether they
satisfy the applicable rule of origin. Singapore must be the country of export in order for ISIeligible goods to receive benefits under the US-SFTA; however, the country of origin of the
good may be any country. An ISI product does not qualify as “originating” simply by being
imported into Singapore or the United States—shipment from one US-SFTA country to another
is required to obtain originating status.
The ISI provision eliminates the requirement that these products must meet specific rules
of origin under “tariff shift” or “regional value content” requirements. The only way an ISI
material, component, or product would affect a regional-value-content calculation is if an ISI
product is shipped from a non-FTA party (Malaysia, for example) to Singapore and then to the
United States (and is held there without undergoing any processing) and then shipped back to
Singapore where the ISI product is used as input for the manufacture of a non-ISI good.
Upon request, documents must be provided to CBP verifying that goods claiming
preferential treatment under this ISI provision were exported directly from the country of
Singapore. For purposes of ISI, the territory of Singapore is defined as its land territory, internal
waters and territorial sea plus certain maritime zones. The goods must still be marked with the
true country of origin—despite receiving originating status under US-SFTA.
Entry Procedures
For commercial shipments requiring a formal entry, a claim for preferential tariff
treatment may be filed at the time of entry summary by placing the symbol “SG” as a prefix to
the Harmonized Tariff Schedule subheading for each good or line item for which treatment is
being claimed. For non-originating apparel goods eligible for preferential treatment under a
tariff-preference level (TPL), please refer to General Note 25 and Subchapter X of Chapter 99 of
the Harmonized Tariff Schedule.
Customs Verification
If CBP requests, the importer must submit a statement or supporting documentation
containing informational data elements to demonstrate that the imported goods qualify for
preferential tariff treatment. There is no official CBP form or required format for certification,
and the statement may be submitted electronically.
Importers are required to maintain all records relating to the importation of US-SFTA
goods for five years after the date of importation. These include, but are not limited to, records
concerning the purchase of, cost of, value of and payment for the good, the purchase of, cost of,
value of and payment for all materials used in the production of the good, and the production of
the good in its exported form.
Further information on the U.S.-Singapore Free Trade Agreement is available at:
cbp.gov/xp/cgov/import/international_agreements/.
77
27. Antidumping And Countervailing Duties
Antidumping (AD) and countervailing (CVD) duties are additional duties that
may be assessed on imported goods intended for sale in the United States at
abnormally low prices. These low prices are the result of unfair foreign trade practices
that give some imports an unearned advantage over competing U.S. goods.
Dumping is the practice of trying to sell products in the United States at lower
prices than those same products would bring in the producer’s home market. Dumping
also includes trying to sell a product in the United States at a price lower than it cost to
manufacture that item. Subsidizing is the practice by some governments of providing
financial assistance to reduce manufacturers’ costs in producing, manufacturing or
exporting particular commodities. Countervailing duties may be assessed to “level the
playing field” between domestic and subsidized imported goods. However, to meet the
criteria for assessing antidumping or countervailing duties, the imported merchandise
must, in addition to being subsidized or sold at less than fair value, also injure a U.S.
industry. 2
The Department of Commerce, the International Trade Commission (ITC), and
U.S. Customs and Border Protection each have a role in administering and enforcing
antidumping and countervailing duty laws.
The Commerce Department is responsible for the general administration of these laws.
Commerce determines whether the merchandise is being sold at less than fair value,
whether it has been subsidized, and what percentage rate of duty will be assessed. The
ITC determines whether the product poses an injury3 to a particular U.S. industry.
CBP assesses the actual duties⎯the amount⎯based upon the rate set by the
Commerce Department once the ITC has determined that the import injures a
particular industry.
In general, the following processes must be completed before AD or CVD
duties are established.
Antidumping and countervailing duty investigations are usually initiated by the
Commerce Department through the petition process. A domestic industry or another
interested party such as a trade union or industry association petitions the department,
although occasionally the Commerce Department may also initiate an investigation. If
the party seeking the investigation also wants the ITC to test for injury, that party must
2 CVD cases apply only if the foreign country is a signatory to the World Trade Organization's Agreement on
Subsidies and Countervailing Measures.
3 . Section 771(7)(a) of the Tariff Act of 1930 defines material injury to a U.S. industry as “harm [that] is not
inconsequential, immaterial, or unimportant.”
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simultaneously⎯on the same day⎯file the petition with both the Commerce Department and
with the ITC.
If the petition contains the necessary elements, the Commerce Department and
the ITC will initiate separate investigations that will yield preliminary and final
determinations. If appropriate, the Department of Commerce will issue either an
antidumping or countervailing duty order and will assess whatever AD or CVD duties
the investigation determines are appropriate.
If a test is required for injury to a domestic industry, the ITC will make the
first, preliminary determination concerning the likelihood of injury. If that
determination is negative, there will be no further investigation or action by the ITC. If
it is affirmative, however, the Commerce Department will issue its preliminary
determination regarding sales (antidumping) or subsidy (countervailing duty) issues.
After additional review by the Commerce Department and analysis of public
comments received in the case, Commerce will issue its final duty determinations. If
either determination (AD or CVD) is affirmative, Commerce will direct CBP to
suspend liquidation of entries for the merchandise subject to the investigation and to
require cash deposits or bonds equal to the amount of the estimated dumping margin
(the differential between the fair market value and the U.S. price) or the net subsidy.
After this step, the ITC follows with its final injury determination. If this
determination is also affirmative, Commerce will issue an antidumping or
countervailing duty order. At that time, Commerce will also direct CBP to collect,
with a very limited exception for new shippers, cash deposits of estimated duties.
A negative final determination either by Commerce or the ITC would
terminate the investigations, and that termination would remain final for this particular
inquiry. Both agencies announce their determinations, including orders and the results
of the administration reviews (described below), in the Federal Register.
Each year during the anniversary month of the AD or CVD order, interested
parties may review the order with respect to the individual producers or resellers it
covers. This review generally looks at the 12 months preceding the anniversary month,
but the first review can also include any period for which the suspension of
liquidations was directed prior to the normal 12-month period.
If no annual review is requested, Commerce will direct CBP to continue
collecting deposits and assessing duties on the subject merchandise at the cash or bond
rate in effect on the date of entry, and to continue requiring deposits at that rate for
future entries of such merchandise. If a review is requested, Commerce will conduct a
review similar to its original investigation, issue revised rates for duty assessment and
deposits, and instruct CBP to collect duties and liquidate entries according to the
results of its latest review.
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28. Drawback—Refunds Of Duties
Drawback is a refund of monies⎯customs duties, certain internal revenue taxes and other
fees⎯that were lawfully collected at the time of importation. The Continental Congress
established drawback in 1789 to create jobs in the new United States and to encourage
manufacturing and exporting.
For drawback to be paid, the imported merchandise must be exported or destroyed under
CBP supervision after importation.
Types Of Drawback
Although Section 1313, Title 19, of the United States Code provides for several types of
drawback, there are three primary types of drawback of interest to most importers:
•
•
•
Manufacturing drawback,
Unused-merchandise drawback, or
Rejected-merchandise drawback.
Manufacturing drawback is a refund of duties paid on imported merchandise specifically
designated for use in manufacturing articles that are subsequently exported or destroyed. For
example: two-inch speakers are imported and are incorporated into a certain model clock radio.
The speakers themselves are not altered, just used in the production of a new and different
article.
Manufacturing operations to produce the new and different article must take place within
three years receipt by the manufacturer or producer of the merchandise. The drawback product
must be exported or destroyed within five years from the date of importation. Drawback can be
paid on merchandise used to manufacture or produce a different article if it was not the
merchandise imported but is commercially interchangeable, i.e., of the same kind and quality, or
if it falls under the same eight-digit Harmonized Tariff Schedule number as the merchandise to
which it is compared, and the party claiming drawback has had possession of it for three years.
This is called “substitution.”
Unused-merchandise drawback is a refund of any duty, tax, or eligible fees paid on
imported merchandise that is exported or destroyed without undergoing any manufacturing
operations and that is never used in the United States. The imported merchandise must be
exported within three years of the date it was imported.
Rejected-merchandise drawback is refund of duties on imported merchandise that is
exported or destroyed because it:
•
•
•
Did not conform to sample or specifications,
Was shipped without the consignee’s consent, or
Was defective at time of importation.
To qualify for rejected-merchandise drawback, the merchandise in question must be
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returned to CBP custody within three years of the date it was originally released from CBP
custody.
Guidelines for completing drawback claims are provided in Title 19, Code of Federal
Regulations, Part 191. Drawback claims can only be filed at one of the five CBP port offices that
have drawback centers:
•
•
•
•
•
Chicago, IL,
Houston, TX,
Los Angles, CA,
New York/Newark, N.J., and
San Francisco, CA.
Rejected merchandise drawback was amended in 2004 to permit limited substitution of imported
merchandise. The import merchandise on which drawback is claimed must be classified under
the same 8-digit HTSUS subheading and have the same specific product indicator (such as a part
number, product code or sku) as the merchandise that is exported or destroyed and must have
been imported within one year of the export or destruction.
Additional questions about drawback should be addressed to:
Chief, Entry and Drawback Management
Office of Field Operations
U.S. Customs and Border Protection
1300 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20229.
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CLASSIFICATION AND VALUE
29. Classification—Liquidation
Classification
Classification, and, when ad valorem rates of duty are applicable, appraisement, are the
two most important factors affecting dutiable status. Classification and valuation, whether or not
they are pertinent because an ad valorem rate of duty applies, must be provided by commercial
importers when an entry is filed. In addition, classifications under the statistical suffixes of the
tariff schedules must also be furnished even though this information is not pertinent to dutiable
status. Accordingly, classification is initially the responsibility of an importer, customs broker or
other person preparing the entry papers. Section 637 of the Customs Modernization Act imposes
the requirement that importers exercise reasonable care when classifying and appraising
merchandise.
Familiarity with the organization of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States
facilitates the classification process. (See Chapter 13 of this booklet relating to dutiable status.)
The tariff schedule is divided into various sections and chapters dealing separately with
merchandise in broad product categories. These categories cover animal products, vegetable
products, products of various basic materials such as wood, textiles, plastics, rubber, and steel
and other metal products in various stages of manufacture, for example. Other sections
encompass chemicals, machinery and electrical equipment, and other specified or
non-enumerated products. The last section, Section XXII, covers certain exceptions from duty
and special statutory provisions.
In Sections I through XXI, products are classifiable (1) under items or descriptions which
name them, known as an eo nomine provision; (2) under provisions of general description; (3)
under provisions which identify them by component material; or (4) under provisions which
encompass merchandise in accordance with its actual or principal use. When two or more
provisions seem to cover the same merchandise, the prevailing provision is determined in
accordance with the legal notes and the General Rules of Interpretation for the tariff schedule.
Also applicable are tariff classification principles contained in administrative precedents or in
the case law of the U.S. Court of International Trade (formerly the U.S. Customs Court) or the
U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit (formerly the U.S. Court of Customs and Patent
Appeals).
Liquidation
CBP officers at the port of entry or other officials acting on behalf of the port
director review selected classifications and valuations, as well as other required import
information, for correctness or as a proper basis for appraisement, as well as for
agreement of the submitted data with the merchandise actually imported. The entry
summary and documentation may be accepted as submitted without any changes. In this
situation, the entry is liquidated as entered. Liquidation is the point at which CBP’s
ascertainment of the rate and amount of duty becomes final for most purposes.
Liquidation is accomplished by posting a notice on a public bulletin board at the
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customhouse. However, an importer may receive an advance notice on CBP Form
4333A “Courtesy Notice” stating when and in what amount duty will be liquidated. This
form is not the liquidation, and protest rights do not accrue until the notice is posted.
Time limits for protesting do not start until the date of posting, and a protest cannot be
filed before liquidation is posted.
CBP may determine that an entry cannot be liquidated as entered for one reason
or another. For example, the tariff classification may not be correct or may not be
acceptable because it is not consistent with established and uniform classification
practice. If the change required by this determination results in a rate of duty more
favorable to an importer, the entry is liquidated accordingly and a refund is authorized for
the applicable amount of the deposited estimated duties. On the other hand, a change may
be necessary which imposes a higher rate of duty. For example, a claim for an exemption
from duty under a free-rate provision or under a conditional exemption may be found to
be insufficient for lack of the required supporting documentation. In this situation, the
importer will be given an advance notice of the proposed duty rate increase and an
opportunity to validate the claim for a free rate or more favorable rate of duty.
If the importer does not respond to the notice, or if the response is found to be
without merit, entry is liquidated in accordance with the entry as corrected, and the
importer is billed for the additional duty. The port may find that the importer’s response
raises issues of such complexity that resolution is warranted by a CBP Headquarters
decision through the internal advice procedure. Internal advice from CBP Headquarters
may be requested by local CBP officers on their own initiative or in response to a request
by the importer.
Protests
After liquidation, an importer may still pursue, on CBP Form 19 (19 CFR 174),
any claims for an adjustment or refund, for entries filed before 12-18-06, by filing a
protest within 90 days after liquidation. The protest period has been extended to 180 days
for entries filed on or after 12-18-06. In order to apply for a Headquarters ruling, a
request for further review must be filed with the protest. The same Form 19 can be used
for this purpose. If filed separately, application for further review must still be filed
within 90 days of liquidation. However, if a ruling on the question has previously been
issued in response to a request for a decision on a prospective transaction or a request for
internal advice, further review will ordinarily be denied. If a protest is denied, an
importer has the right to litigate the matter by filing a summons with the U.S. Court of
International Trade within 180 days after denial of the protest. The rules of the court and
other applicable statutes and precedents determine the course of customs litigation.
While CBP’s ascertainment of dutiable status is final for most purposes at the
time of liquidation, a liquidation is not final until any protest which has been filed against
it has been decided. Similarly, the administrative decision issued on a protest is not final
until any litigation filed against it has become final.
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Entries must be liquidated within one year of the date of entry unless the
liquidation needs to be extended for another one-year period not to exceed a total of four
years from the date of entry. CBP will suspend liquidation of an entry when required by
statute or court order. A suspension will remain in effect until the issue is resolved.
Notifications of extensions and suspensions are given to importers, surety companies,
and customs brokers who are parties to the transaction.
30. Conversion of Currency
The conversion of foreign currency for customs purposes must be made in
accordance with the provisions of 31 U.S.C. 5151. This section states that CBP is to use
rates of exchange determined and certified by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
These certified rates are based on the New York market buying rates for the foreign
currencies involved.
In the case of widely used currencies, rates of exchange are certified each day.
The rates certified on the first business day of each calendar quarter are used
throughout the quarter except on days when fluctuations of five percent or more occur, in
which case the actual certified rates for those days are used. For infrequently used
currencies, the Federal Reserve Bank of New York certifies rates of exchanges upon
request by CBP. The rates certified are only for the currencies and dates requested.
For CBP purposes, the date of exportation of the goods is the date used to
determine the applicable certified rate of exchange. This remains true even though a
different rate may have been used in payment of the goods. Information as to the
applicable rate of exchange in converting currency for customs purposes in the case of a
given shipment may be obtained from a CBP port director.
31. Transaction Value
The entry filer is responsible for using reasonable care to value imported
merchandise and provide any other information necessary to enable the CBP officer to
properly assess the duty and determine whether any other applicable legal requirement is
met. The CBP officer is then responsible for fixing the value of the imported
merchandise. The valuation provisions of the Tariff Act of 1930 are found in section 402,
as amended by the Trade Agreements Act of 1979. Pertinent portions are reproduced in
the appendix.
Generally, the customs value of all merchandise exported to the United States will
be the transaction value for the goods. If the transaction value cannot be used, then
certain secondary bases are considered. The secondary bases of value, listed in order of
precedence for use, are:
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•
•
•
•
Transaction value of identical merchandise,
Transaction value of similar merchandise,
Deductive value,
Computed value.
The order of precedence of the last two values can be reversed if the importer so
requests in writing at the time of filing the entry. These secondary bases are discussed in
the next two chapters.
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Transaction Value
The transaction value of imported merchandise is the price actually paid or
payable for the merchandise when sold for exportation to the United States, plus amounts
for the following items if they are not included in the price:
•
•
•
•
•
The packing costs incurred by the buyer,
Any selling commission incurred by the buyer,
The value of any assist,
Any royalty or license fee that the buyer is required to pay as a condition
of the sale,
The proceeds, accruing to the seller, of any subsequent resale, disposal, or
use of the imported merchandise.
The amounts for the above items are added only to the extent that each is not
included in the price actually paid or payable and information is available to establish the
accuracy of the amount. If sufficient information is not available, then the transaction
value cannot be determined and the next basis of value, in order of precedence, must be
considered for appraisement. A discussion of these added items follows:
Packing costs consist of the cost incurred by the buyer for all containers and
coverings of whatever nature and for the labor and materials used in packing the
imported merchandise so that it is ready for export.
Any selling commission incurred by the buyer with respect to the imported
merchandise constitutes part of the transaction value. Buying commissions do not. A
selling commission means any commission paid to the seller’s agent, who is related to or
controlled by, or works for or on behalf of, the manufacturer or the seller.
The apportioned value of any assist constitutes part of the transaction value of the
imported merchandise. First the value of the assist is determined; then the value is
prorated to the imported merchandise.
An assist is any of the items listed below that the buyer of imported merchandise
provides directly or indirectly, free of charge or at a reduced cost, for use in the
production or sale of merchandise for export to the United States.
•
•
•
•
Materials, components, parts, and similar items incorporated in the
imported merchandise,
Tools, dies, molds, and similar items used in producing the imported
merchandise,
Merchandise consumed in producing the imported merchandise,
Engineering, development, artwork, design work, and plans and sketches
that are undertaken outside the United States.
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“Engineering...,” will not be treated as an assist if the service or work is:
•
•
•
Performed by a person domiciled within the United States,
Performed while that person is acting as an employee or agent of the
buyer of the imported merchandise, and
Incidental to other engineering, development, artwork, design work, or
plans or sketches undertaken within the United States.
In determining the value of an assist, the following rules apply:
•
•
•
The value is either: (a) the cost of acquiring the assist, if acquired by the
importer from an unrelated seller, or (b) the cost of the assist, if produced
by the importer or a person related to the importer.
The value includes the cost of transporting the assist to the place of
production.
The value of assists used in producing the imported merchandise is
adjusted to reflect use, repairs, modifications, or other factors affecting the
value of the assists. Assists of this type include such items as tools, dies,
and molds.
For example, if the importer previously used the assist, regardless of whether he acquired
or produced it, the original cost of acquisition or of production must be decreased to
reflect the use. Alternatively, repairs and modifications may result in the value of the
assist having to be adjusted upward.
•
In case of engineering, development, artwork, design work, and plans and
sketches undertaken elsewhere than in the United States, the value is:
1. The cost of obtaining copies of the assist, if the assist is available in
the public domain,
2. The cost of the purchase or lease, if the assist was bought or leased by
the buyer from an unrelated person,
3. The value added outside the United States, if the assist was reproduced
in the United States and one or more foreign countries.
So far as possible, the buyer’s commercial record system will be used to
determine the value of an assist, especially such assists as engineering, development,
artwork, design work, and plans and sketches undertaken elsewhere than in the United
States.
Having determined the value of an assist, the next step is to prorate that value to
the imported merchandise. The apportionment is done in a reasonable manner appropriate
to the circumstances and in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. By
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the latter is meant any generally recognized consensus or substantial authoritative
support regarding the recording and measuring of assets and liabilities and changes, the
disclosing of information, and the preparing of financial statements.
Royalty or license fees that a buyer must pay directly or indirectly as a condition
of the sale of the imported merchandise for exportation to the United States will be
included in the transaction value. Ultimately, whether a royalty or license fee is dutiable
will depend on whether the buyer had to pay it as a condition of the sale and to whom and
under what circumstances it was paid. The dutiable status will have to be decided on a
case-by-case basis.
Charges for the right to reproduce the imported goods in the United States are not
dutiable. This right applies only to the following types of merchandise:
•
•
•
•
Originals or copies of artistic or scientific works,
Originals or copies of models and industrial drawings,
Model machines and prototypes,
Plant and animal species.
Any proceeds resulting from the subsequent resale, disposal, or use of the
imported merchandise that accrue, directly or indirectly, to the seller are dutiable. These
proceeds are added to the price actually paid or payable if not otherwise included.
The price actually paid or payable for the imported merchandise is the total
payment, excluding international freight, insurance, and other c.i.f. charges, that the
buyer makes to the seller. This payment may be direct or indirect. Some examples of an
indirect payment are when the buyer settles all or part of a debt owed by the seller, or
when the seller reduces the price on a current importation to settle a debt he owes the
buyer. Such indirect payments are part of the transaction value.
However, if a buyer performs an activity on his own account, other than those that
may be included in the transaction value, then the activity is not considered an indirect
payment to the seller and is not part of the transaction value. This applies even though the
buyer’s activity might be regarded as benefiting the seller; for example, advertising.
Exclusions
The amounts to be excluded from transaction value are as follows:
•
•
The cost, charges, or expenses incurred for transportation, insurance, and
related services incident to the international shipment of the goods from
the country of exportation to the place of importation in the United States.
Any reasonable cost or charges incurred for:
1. Constructing, erecting, assembling, maintaining, or providing
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•
technical assistance with respect to the goods after importation into
the United States, or
2. Transporting the goods after importation.
The customs duties and other federal taxes, including any federal excise
tax, for which sellers in the United States are ordinarily liable.
NOTE: Foreign inland freight and related charges in bullet 1 (see part 152, CBP
Regulations), as well as bullets 2 and 3 above, must be identified separately.
Limitations
The transaction value of imported merchandise is the appraised value of that
merchandise, provided certain limitations do not exist. If any of these limitations are
present, then transaction value cannot be used as the appraised value, and the next basis
of value will be considered. The limitations can be divided into four groups:
•
•
•
•
Restrictions on the disposition or use of the merchandise,
Conditions for which a value cannot be determined,
Proceeds of any subsequent resale, disposal or use of the merchandise,
accruing to the seller, for which an appropriate adjustment to transaction
value cannot be made,
Related-party transactions where the transaction value is not acceptable.
The term “acceptable” means that the relationship between the buyer and seller
did not influence the price actually paid or payable. Examining the circumstances of the
sale will help make this determination.
Alternatively, “acceptable” can also mean that the transaction value of the
imported merchandise closely approximates one of the following test values, provided
these values relate to merchandise exported to the United States at or about the same time
as the imported merchandise:
•
•
The transaction value of identical merchandise or of similar merchandise
in sales to unrelated buyers in the United States,
The deductive value or computed value for identical merchandise or
similar merchandise.
The test values are used for comparison only, they do not form a substitute
basis of valuation. In determining whether the transaction value is close to one of
the foregoing test values, an adjustment is made if the sales involved differ in:
•
•
•
Commercial levels,
Quantity levels,
The costs, commission, values, fees, and proceeds added to the transaction
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•
value (price paid) if not included in the price,
The costs incurred by the seller in sales in which he and the buyer are not
related that are not incurred by the seller in sales in which he and the
buyer are related.
As stated, the test values are alternatives to an examination of the circumstances
of the sale. If one of the test values is met, it is not necessary to examine the
circumstances of the sale to determine if the relationship influenced the price.
32. Transaction Value Of Identical Or Similar Merchandise
When the transaction value cannot be determined, then an attempt will be made to
appraise the imported goods under the transaction value of identical merchandise method.
If merchandise identical to the imported goods cannot be found or an acceptable
transaction value for such merchandise does not exist, then the next appraisement method
is the transaction value of similar merchandise. In either case the value used would be a
previously accepted customs value.
The identical or similar merchandise must have been exported to the United
States at or about the same time that the merchandise being appraised is exported to the
United States.
The transaction value of identical or similar merchandise must be based on sales
of identical or similar merchandise, as applicable, at the same commercial level and in
substantially the same quantity as the sale of the merchandise being appraised. If no such
sale exists, then sales at either a different commercial level or in different quantities, or
both, can be used but must be adjusted to take account of any such difference. Any
adjustment must be based on sufficient information, that is, information establishing the
reasonableness and accuracy of the adjustment.
The term “identical merchandise” means merchandise that is:
•
•
•
Identical in all respects to the merchandise being appraised,
Produced in the same country as the merchandise being appraised,
Produced by the same person as the merchandise being appraised.
If merchandise meeting all three criteria cannot be found, then identical
merchandise is merchandise satisfying the first two criteria but produced by a different
person than the producer of merchandise being appraised.
NOTE: Merchandise can be identical to the merchandise being appraised and still show
minor differences in appearance.
• Exclusion: Identical merchandise does not include merchandise that incorporates or
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reflects engineering, development, art work, design work, or plans and sketches
provided free or at reduced cost by the buyer and undertaken in the United States.
The term “similar merchandise” means merchandise that is:
•
•
•
Produced in the same country and by the same person as the merchandise
being appraised,
Like the merchandise being appraised in characteristics and component
materials,
Commercially interchangeable with the merchandise being appraised.
If merchandise meeting the foregoing criteria cannot be found, then similar
merchandise is merchandise having the same country of production, like characteristics
and component materials, and commercial interchangeability but produced by a different
person.
In determining whether goods are similar, some of the factors to be considered are
the quality of the goods, their reputation, and existence of a trademark.
• Exclusion: Similar merchandise does not include merchandise that incorporates or
reflects engineering, development, art work, design work, and plans and sketches
provided free or at reduced cost to the buyer and undertaken in the United States.
It is possible that two or more transaction values for identical or similar
merchandise, as applicable, will be determined. In such a case the lowest value will be
used as the appraised value of the imported merchandise.
33. Other Bases: Deductive And Computed Value
Deductive Value
If the transaction value of imported merchandise, of identical merchandise, or of
similar merchandise cannot be determined, then deductive value is the next basis of
appraisement. This method is used unless the importer designates computed value as the
preferred appraisement method. If computed value was chosen and subsequently
determined not to exist for customs valuation purposes, then the basis of appraisement
reverts to deductive value.
Basically, deductive value is the resale price in the United States after importation
of the goods, with deductions for certain items. In discussing deductive value, the term
“merchandise concerned” is used. The term means the merchandise being appraised,
identical merchandise, or similar merchandise. Generally, the deductive value is
calculated by starting with a unit price and making certain additions to and deductions
from that price.
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Unit Price. One of three prices constitutes the unit price in deductive value. The price
used depends on when and in what condition the merchandise concerned is sold in the
United States.
1.
Time and Condition: The merchandise is sold in the condition as imported at or
about the date of importation of the merchandise being appraised.
Price: The price used is the unit price at which the greatest aggregate quantity of
the merchandise concerned is sold at or about the date of importation.
2.
Time and Condition: The merchandise concerned is sold in the condition as
imported but not sold at or about the date of importation of the merchandise
being appraised.
Price: The price used is the unit price at which the greatest aggregate quantity of
the merchandise concerned is sold after the date of importation of the
merchandise being appraised but before the close of the 90th day after the date of
importation.
3.
Time and Condition: The merchandise concerned is not sold in the condition as
imported and not sold before the close of the 90th day after the date of
importation of the merchandise being appraised.
Price: The price used is the unit price at which the greatest aggregate quantity of
the merchandise being appraised, after further processing, is sold before the 180th
day after the date of importation.
This third price is also known as the “further processing price” or
“superdeductive.”
The importer has the option to ask that deductive value be based on the further
processing price.
Under the superdeductive method the merchandise concerned is not sold in the
condition as imported and not sold before the close of the 90th day after the date of
importation, but is sold before the 180th day after the date of importation.
Under this method, an amount equal to the value of the further processing must be
deducted from the unit price in determining deductive value. The amount so deducted
must be based on objective and quantifiable data concerning the cost of such work as
well as any spoilage, waste or scrap derived from that work. Items such as accepted
industry formulas, methods of construction, and industry practices could be used as a
basis for calculating the amount to be deducted.
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Generally, the superdeductive method cannot be used if the further processing
destroys the identity of the goods. Such situations will be decided on a case-by-case basis
for the following reasons:
•
•
Sometimes, even though the identity of the goods is lost, the value added
by the processing can be determined accurately without unreasonable
difficulty for importers or for CBP.
In some cases, the imported goods still keep their identity after processing
but form only a minor part of the goods sold in the United States. In such
cases, using the superdeductive method to value the imported goods will
not be justified.
The superdeductive method cannot be used if the merchandise concerned is sold
in the condition as imported before the close of the 90th day after the date of importation
of the merchandise being appraised.
Additions. Packing costs for the merchandise concerned are added to the price used for
deductive value, provided these costs have not otherwise been included. These costs are
added regardless of whether the importer or the buyer incurs the cost. “Packing costs”
means the cost of:
•
•
All containers and coverings of whatever nature, and
Packing, whether for labor or materials, used in placing the merchandise
in condition, packed ready for shipment to the United States.
Deductions. Certain items are not part of deductive value and must be deducted from the
unit price. These items are as follows:
•
•
•
Commissions or profit and general expenses. Any commission usually
paid or agreed to be paid, or the addition usually made for profit and
general expenses, applicable to sales in the United States of imported
merchandise that is of the same class or kind as the merchandise
concerned, regardless of the country of exportation.
Transportation/insurance costs.
(a) The actual and associated costs of transportation and insurance
incurred with respect to international shipments concerned from the
country of exportation to the United States, and
(b) The usual and associated costs of transportation and insurance
incurred with respect to shipments of such merchandise from the place
of importation to the place of delivery in the United States, provided
these costs are not included as a general expense under the preceding
item 1.
Customs duties/federal taxes. The customs duties and other federal taxes
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•
payable on the merchandise concerned because of its importation plus
any federal excise tax on, or measured by the value of, such merchandise
for which sellers in the United States are ordinarily liable.
Value of further processing. The value added by processing the
merchandise after importation, provided that sufficient information exists
concerning the cost of processing. The price determined for deductive
value is reduced by the value of further processing only if the third unit
price (the superdeductive) is used as deductive value.
For purposes of determining the deductive value of imported merchandise, any
sale to a person who supplies any assist for use in connection with the production or sale
for export of the merchandise shall be disregarded.
Computed Value
The next basis of appraisement is computed value. If customs valuation cannot be
based on any of the values previously discussed, then computed value is considered. This
value is also the one the importer can select to precede deductive value as a basis of
appraisement.
Computed value consists of the sum of the following items:
•
•
•
•
The cost or value of the materials, fabrication, and other processing used
in producing the imported merchandise,
Profit and general expenses,
Any assist, if not included in bullets 1 and 2,
Packing costs.
Materials, Fabrication, and Other Processing. The cost or value of the materials,
fabrication, and other processing of any kind used in producing the imported merchandise
is based on (a) information provided by or on behalf of the producer, and (b) the
commercial accounts of the producer if the accounts are consistent with generally
accepted accounting principles applied in the country of production of the goods.
NOTE: If the country of exportation imposes an internal tax on the materials or
their disposition and refunds the tax when merchandise produced from the materials is
exported, then the amount of the internal tax is not included as part of the cost or value of
the materials.
Profit and General Expenses
• The amount is determined by information supplied by the producer and is
based on his or her commercial accounts, provided such accounts are
consistent with generally accepted accounting principles in the country of
production.
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•
•
The producer’s profit and general expenses must be consistent with
those usually reflected in sales of goods of the same class or kind as the
imported merchandise that are made by producers in the country of
exportation for export to the United States. If they are not consistent, then
the amount for profit and general expenses is based on the usual profit and
general expenses of such producers.
The amount for profit and general expenses is taken as a whole.
Basically, a producer’s profit could be low and his or her general expenses high,
so that the total amount is consistent with that usually reflected in sales of goods of the
same class or kind. In such a situation, a producer’s actual profit figures, even if low, will
be used provided he or she has valid commercial reasons to justify them and the pricing
policy reflects usual pricing policies in the industry concerned.
Under computed value, “merchandise of the same class and kind” must be
imported from the same country as the merchandise being appraised and must be within a
group or range of goods produced by a particular industry or industry sector. Whether
certain merchandise is of the same class or kind as other merchandise will be determined
on a case-by-case basis.
In determining usual profit and general expenses, sales for export to the
United States of the narrowest group or range of merchandise that includes the
merchandise being appraised will be examined, providing the necessary information can
be obtained.
If the value of an assist used in producing the merchandise is not included as part
of the producer’s materials, fabrication, other processing, or general expenses, then the
prorated value of the assist will be included in computed value. It is important that the
value of the assist not be included elsewhere because no component of computed value
should be counted more than once in determining computed value.
NOTE: The value of any engineering, development, artwork, design work, and
plans and sketches undertaken in the United States is included in computed value only to
the extent that such value has been charged to the producer.
The cost of all containers and coverings of whatever nature, and of packing,
whether for labor or material, used in placing merchandise in condition and packed ready
for shipment to the United States is included in computed value.
Value If Other Values Cannot Be Determined
If none of the previous five values can be used to appraise the imported
merchandise, then the customs value must be based on a value derived from one of the
five previous methods, reasonably adjusted as necessary. The value so determined should
be based, to the greatest extent possible, on previously determined values. Some
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examples of how the other methods can be reasonably adjusted are:
Identical Merchandise (or Similar Merchandise):
1. The requirement that the identical merchandise (or similar merchandise) should
be exported at or about the same time as the merchandise being appraised could
be flexibly interpreted.
2. Identical imported merchandise (or similar imported merchandise) produced in a
country other than the country of exportation of the merchandise being appraised
could be the basis for customs valuation.
3. Customs values of identical imported merchandise (or similar imported
merchandise) already determined on the basis of deductive value and computed
value could be used.
Deductive Method: The 90-day requirement may be administered flexibly (19 CFR
152.107(c)).
34.
Rules of Origin
The origin of merchandise that is imported into the customs territory of the
United States can affect the rate of duty, entitlement for special programs, admissibility,
quota, anti-dumping or countervailing duties, procurement by government agencies and
marking requirements. In order to determine a product's country of origin, the importer
should consult the applicable rules of origin.
There are two basic types of rules of origin: non-preferential and preferential.
Non-preferential rules generally apply in the absence of bilateral or multilateral trade
agreements. Preferential rules are applied to merchandise to determine its eligibility for
special treatment under various trade agreements or special legislation such as the
Generalized System of Preferences (GSP), the North American Free Trade Agreement
(NAFTA), or the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA). There are also rules of
origin for textile and apparel articles; these are provided for by statute.
A more detailed discussion of these rules may be found in the publications What
Every Member of the Trade Community Should Know About: Rules of Origin and What
Every Member of the Trade Community Should Know About: Textile & Apparel Rules of
Origin, which are available on the CBP Electronic Bulletin Board and the CBP Website,
www.cbp.gov.
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MARKING
35. Country-Of-Origin Marking
U.S. customs laws require that each article produced abroad and imported into the
United States be marked with the English name of the country of origin to indicate to the
ultimate purchaser in the United States what country the article was manufactured or
produced in. These laws also require that marking be located in a conspicuous place as
legibly, indelibly and permanently as the nature of the article permits. Articles that are
otherwise specifically exempted from individual marking are also an exception to this
rule. These exceptions are discussed below.
Marking Required
If the article⎯or its container, when the container and not the article must be
marked⎯is not properly marked at the time of importation, a marking duty equal to 10
percent of the article’s customs value will be assessed unless the article is exported,
destroyed or properly marked under CBP supervision before the entry is liquidated.
Although it may not be possible to identify the ultimate purchaser in every
transaction, broadly stated, the “ultimate purchaser” may be defined as the last person in
the United States who will receive the article in the form in which it was imported.
Generally speaking, when an article is imported into and used in the United States to
manufacture another article with a different name, character or usage than the imported
article, the manufacturer is the ultimate purchaser. If an article is to be sold at retail in its
imported form, the retail customer is the ultimate purchaser. A person who subjects an
imported article to a process that results in the article’s substantial transformation is the
ultimate purchaser, but if that process is only minor and leaves the identity of the
imported article intact, the processor of the article will not be regarded as the ultimate
purchaser.
When an article or its container is required to be marked with the country of
origin, the marking is considered sufficiently permanent if it will remain on the article or
container until it reaches the ultimate purchaser.
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When an imported article is normally combined with another article after
importation but before delivery to the ultimate purchaser, and the imported article’s
country of origin is located so that it is visible after combining, the marking must include,
in addition to the country of origin, words or symbols clearly showing that the origin
indicated is that of the imported article, and not of any other article with which it has
been combined. For example, if marked bottles, drums, or other containers are imported
empty to be filled in the United States, they shall be marked with such words as “Bottle
(or drum or container) made in (name of country).” Labels and similar articles marked so
that the name of the article’s country of origin is visible after it is affixed to another
article in this country shall be marked with additional descriptive words such as “label
made (or printed) in (name of country)” or words of equivalent meaning.
In cases where the words “United States” or “American” or the letters “U.S.A.” or
any variation of such words or letters, or the name of any city or locality in the United
States, or the name of any foreign country or locality in which the article was not
manufactured or produced, appear on an imported article or container, and those words,
letters, or names may mislead or deceive the ultimate purchaser about the article’s actual
country of the origin, there shall also appear, legibly, permanently and in close proximity
to such words, letters or name, the name of the country of origin preceded by “made in,”
“product of,” or other words of similar meaning.
If marked articles are to be repacked in the United States after release from CBP
custody, importers must certify on entry that they will not obscure the marking on
properly marked articles if the article is repacked, or that they will mark the repacked
container. If an importer does not repack, but resells to a repacker, the importer must
notify the repacker about marking requirements. Failure to comply with these
certification requirements may subject importers to penalties and/or additional duties.
Marking Not Required
The following articles and classes or kinds of articles are not required to be
marked to indicate country of origin, i.e., the country in which they were grown,
manufactured, or produced. However, the outermost containers in which these articles
ordinarily reach the ultimate purchaser in the United States must be marked to indicate
the English name of the country of origin of the articles.
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Art, works of,
Articles classified subheads 9810.00.15, 9810.00.25, 9810.00.40, and 9810.00.45, HTSUS,
Articles entered in good faith as antiques and rejected as unauthentic,
Bagging, waste,
Bags, jute,
Bands, steel,
Beads, unstrung,
Bearings, ball, 5/8-inch or less in diameter,
Blanks, metal, to be plated,
Bodies, harvest hat,
Bolts, nuts, and washers,
Briarwood, in blocks,
Briquettes, coal or coke,
Buckles, one inch or less in greatest dimension,
Burlap,
Buttons,
Cards, playing,
Cellophane and celluloid in sheets, bands, or strips,
Chemicals, drugs, medicinals, and similar substances, when imported in capsules, pills,
tablets, lozenges, or troches,
Cigars and cigarettes,
Covers, straw bottle,
Dies, diamond wire, unmounted,
Dowels, wooden,
Effects, theatrical,
Eggs,
Feathers,
Firewood,
Flooring, not further manufactured than planed, tongued and grooved,
Flowers, artificial, except bunches,
Flowers, cut,
Glass, cut to shape and size for use in clocks, hand, pocket, and purse mirrors, and other
glass of similar shapes and size, not including lenses or watch crystals,
Glides, furniture, except glides with prongs,
Hairnets,
Hides, raw,
Hooks, fish (except snelled fish hooks),
Hoops (wood), barrel,
Laths,
Livestock,
Lumber, except finished,
Lumber, sawed,
Metal bars except concrete reinforcement bars, billets, blocks, blooms, ingots, pigs,
plates, sheets, except galvanized sheets, shafting, slabs, and metal in similar forms,
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Mica not further manufactured than cut or stamped to dimension, shape, or form,
Monuments,
Nails, spikes, and staples,
Natural products, such as vegetables, fruit, nuts, berries, and live or dead animals, fish
and birds; all the foregoing which are in their natural state or not advanced in any manner
further than is necessary for their safe transportation,
Nets, bottle wire,
Paper, newsprint,
Paper, stencil,
Paper, stock,
Parchment and vellum,
Parts, for machines imported from same country as parts,
Pickets (wood),
Pins, tuning,
Plants, shrubs, and other nursery stock,
Plugs, tie,
Poles, bamboo,
Posts (wood), fence,
Pulpwood,
Rags (including wiping rags),
Rails, joint bars, and tie plates of steel,
Ribbon,
Rivets,
Rope, including wire rope, cordage, cords, twines, threads, and yarns,
Scrap and waste,
Screws,
Shims, track,
Shingles (wood), bundles of, except bundles of red-cedar shingles,
Skins, fur, dressed or dyed,
Skins, raw fur,
Sponges,
Springs, watch,
Stamps, postage and revenue, and government-stamped envelopes and postal cards
bearing no printing other than the official imprint,
Staves (wood), barrel,
Steel, hoop,
Sugar, maple,
Ties (wood), railroad,
Tiles, not over one inch in greatest dimension,
Timbers, sawed,
Tips, penholder,
Trees, Christmas,
Weights, analytical and precision, in sets,
Wicking, candle,
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Wire, except barbed.
Unless an article being shipped to the United States is specifically named in the
foregoing list, it would be advisable for an exporter to obtain advice from CBP before
concluding that it is exempted from marking. If articles on the foregoing list are repacked
in the United States, the new packages must be labeled to indicate the country of origin
of the articles they contain. Importers must certify on entry that if they repackage, they
will properly mark the repackaged containers. If they do not package, but resell to
repackagers, they must notify repackagers about these marking requirements. Failure to
comply with these certification requirements may subject importers to penalties and
marking duties.
Other Exceptions
The following classes of articles are also exempt from country-of-origin marking.
(The usual container in which one of these articles is imported will also be exempt from
marking.)
• An article imported for use by the importer and not intended for sale in its
imported or any other form.
• An article to be processed in the United States by the importer or for his
account other than for the purpose of concealing the origin of the article
and in such manner that any mark of origin would necessarily be
obliterated, destroyed, or permanently concealed.
• An article that the ultimate purchaser in the United States, by reason of the
article’s character or the circumstances of its importation, must necessarily
know the country of origin even though the article is not marked to
indicate it. The clearest application of this exemption is when the contract
between the ultimate purchaser in the United States and the supplier
abroad insures that the order will be filled only with articles grown,
manufactured, or produced in a named country.
The following classes of articles are also exempt from marking to indicate
country of origin:
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•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Articles incapable of being marked,
Articles that cannot be marked prior to shipment to the United States
without injury,
Articles that cannot be marked prior to shipment to the United States
except at a cost economically prohibitive of their importation,
Articles for which marking of the containers will reasonably indicate their
country of origin,
Crude substances,
Articles produced more than 20 years prior to their importation into the
United States,
Articles entered or withdrawn from warehouse for immediate exportation
or for transportation and exportation.
Although the articles themselves are exempted from marking to indicate country
of origin, the outermost containers in which they ordinarily reach the ultimate purchaser
in the United States must be marked to show the articles’ country of origin.
When marking an article’s container will reasonably indicate its country of origin,
the article itself may be exempt from such marking. This exemption applies only when
the article reaches the ultimate purchaser in an unopened container. For example, articles
that reach the retail purchaser in sealed containers marked clearly to indicate the country
of origin fall within this exception. Materials to be used in building or manufacture by the
builder or manufacturer who will receive the materials in unopened cases also fall within
the exemption. The following articles, as well as their containers, are exempt from
country-of-origin marking:
•
•
•
•
Products of American fisheries that are free of duty,
Products of United States possessions,
Products of the United States that are exported and returned,
Articles valued at not more than $200 (or $100 for bona fide gifts) that are
passed without entry.
Goods processed in NAFTA countries are subject to special country-of-origin
marking rules that can be found in 19 CFR 102 at www.gpoaccess.gov/cfr/index.html.
An overview of these rules can be found in NAFTA: A Guide to Customs Procedures
available at http://www.cbp.gov/nafta/docs/us/guidproc.html
36. Special Marking Requirements
The country-of-origin marking requirements are separate and apart from any
special marking or labeling required on specific products by other agencies. It is
recommended that the specific agency be contacted for any special marking or labeling
requirements.
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Certain articles are subject to special country of origin marking requirements:
Iron and steel pipe and pipe fittings; manhole rings, frames, or covers; and compressed
gas cylinders must generally be marked by one of four methods: die-stamped,
cast-in-mold lettering, etching (acid or electrolytic) or engraving. In addition, none of the
exceptions from marking discussed above are applicable to iron and steel pipe and pipe
fittings.
The following articles and parts thereof shall be marked legibly and
conspicuously to indicate their origin by die-stamping, cast-in-the-mold lettering, etching
(acid or electrolytic), engraving, or by means of metal plates that bear the prescribed
marking and that are securely attached to the article in a conspicuous place by welding,
screws, or rivets:
Knives, clippers, shears, safety razors, surgical instruments, scientific and
laboratory instruments, pliers, pincers, and vacuum containers.
Watch movements are required to be marked on one or more of the bridges or top
plates to show:
1. The name of the country of manufacture,
2. The name of the manufacturer or purchaser, and
3. In words, the number of jewels, if any, serving a mechanical purpose as
frictional bearings.
Clock movements shall be marked on the most visible part of the front or back
plate to show:
1. The name of the country of manufacture,
2. The name of the manufacturer or purchaser, and
3. The number of jewels, if any.
Watch cases shall be marked on the inside or outside of the back cover to show
(1) the name of the country of manufacture, and (2) the name of the manufacturer or
purchaser.
Clock cases and other cases provided for in Chapter 91, HTSUS, are required to
be marked on the most visible part of the outside of the back to show the name of the
country of manufacture.
The terms “watch movement” and “clock movement” refer to devices regulated
by a balance wheel and hairspring, quartz crystal, or any other system capable of
determining intervals of time, with a display or system to which a mechanical display can
be incorporated. “Watch movements” include devices that do not exceed 12 mm in
thickness and 50 mm in width, length, or diameter; “clock movements” include devices
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that do not meet the watch movement dimensional specifications. The term “cases”
includes inner and outer cases, containers, and housings for movements, together with
parts or pieces, such as, but not limited to, rings, feet, posts, bases, and outer frames, and
any auxiliary or incidental features, which (with appropriate movements) serve to
complete the watches, clocks, time switches, and other apparatus provided for in Chapter
91, HTSUS.
Articles required to be marked in accordance with the special marking
requirements in Chapter 91 must be conspicuously and indelibly marked by cutting,
die-sinking, engraving, stamping, or mold marking. Articles required to be so marked
shall be denied entry unless marked in exact conformity with these requirements.
Movements with opto-electronic display only and cases designed for use
therewith, whether entered as separate articles or as components of assembled watches or
clocks, are not subject to the special marking requirements. These items need only be
marked with the marking requirements of 19 U.S.C. 1304.
Parts of any of the foregoing not including those above mentioned.
In addition to the special marking requirements set forth above, all watches of
foreign origin must comply with the usual country of origin marking requirements. CBP
considers the country of origin of watches to be the country of manufacture of the watch
movement. The name of this country should appear either on the outside back cover or on
the face of the dial.
Title IV of the Tariff Suspension and Trade Act of 2000 (P.L. 106-476), also
known as the Imported Cigarette Compliance Act of 2000, imposes special requirements
on the importation of cigarettes and other tobacco products. Importers of cigarettes or
other tobacco products are urged to contact the United States port of entry at which their
merchandise will arrive for information about the new requirements.
37. Marking—False Impression
Section 42 of the Trademark Act of 1946 (15 U.S.C. 1124) provides, among other
things, that no imported article of foreign origin which bears a name or mark calculated
to induce the public to believe that it was manufactured in the United States, or in any
foreign country or locality other than the country or locality in which it was actually
manufactured, shall be admitted to entry at any customhouse in the United States.
In many cases, the words “United States,” the letters “U.S.A.,” or the name of any
city or locality in the United States appearing on an imported article of foreign origin, or
on the containers thereof, are considered to be calculated to induce the public to believe
that the article was manufactured in the United States unless the name of the country of
origin appears in close proximity to the name which indicates a domestic origin.
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Merchandise discovered after conditional release to have been missing a
required country of origin marking may be ordered redelivered to CBP custody. If such
delivery is not promptly made, liquidated damages may be assessed against the CBP
bond. (See 19 CFR 141.113[a]; cf., 19 CFR Part 172 and CBP Form 4647.)
An imported article bearing a name or mark prohibited by Section 42 of the
Trademark Act is subject to seizure and forfeiture. However, upon the filing of a petition
by the importer prior to final disposition of the article, the CBP port director may release
it upon the condition that the prohibited marking be removed or obliterated or that the
article and containers be properly marked; or the port director may permit the article to
be exported or destroyed under CBP supervision and without expense to the government.
Section 43 of the Trademark Act of 1946 (15 U.S.C. 1125) prohibits the entry of
goods marked or labeled with a false designation of origin or with any false description
or representation, including words or other symbols tending to falsely describe or
represent the same. Deliberate removal, obliteration, covering, or altering of required
country-of-origin markings after release from CBP custody is also a crime punishable by
fines and imprisonment (19 U.S.C. 1304[l]).
38. User Fees
CBP user fees were established by the Consolidated Omnibus Budget
Reconciliation Act of 1985. This legislation was expanded in 1986 to include a
merchandise processing fee. Also in 1986, Congress enacted the Water Resources
Development Act, which authorized the CBP Service to collect a harbor maintenance fee
for the Army Corps of Engineers. Further legislation has extended the User Fee Program
until 2003.
The merchandise processing fee (MPF) is 0.21 percent ad valorem on
formally-entered imported merchandise (generally entries valued over $2,000), subject to
a minimum fee of $25 per entry and a maximum fee of $485 per entry. On informal
entries (those valued at less than $2,000), the MPFs are: $2 for automated entries, $6 for
manual entries not prepared by CBP, and $9 for manual entries that are prepared by CBP.
Effective January 1, 1994, goods imported directly from Canada that qualify
under NAFTA to be marked as goods originating in Canada are exempt from the MPF.
This applies to all MPF fees: formal, informal, manually prepared, or automated. Goods
that do not qualify under NAFTA are subject to all applicable MPFs.”
Similarly, effective June 30, 1999, goods imported directly from Mexico are
exempt from the MPF if the goods qualify under the NAFTA to be marked as goods
originating in Mexico.
The harbor maintenance fee is an ad valorem fee assessed on port use associated
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with imports, admissions into foreign trades zones, domestic shipments, and
passenger transportations. The fee is assessed only at ports that benefit from the
expenditure of funds by the Army Corps of Engineers for maintaining and improving the
port trade zones. The fee is 0.125 percent of the value of the cargo and is paid quarterly,
except for imports, which are paid at the time of entry. CBP deposits the harbor
maintenance fee collections into the Harbor Maintenance Trust Fund. The funds are made
available, subject to appropriation, to the Army Corps of Engineers for the improvement
and maintenance of United States ports and harbors.
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SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS
39. Prohibitions, Restrictions, Other Agency Requirements
The importation of certain classes of merchandise may be prohibited or restricted
to protect the economy and security of the United States, to safeguard consumer health
and well-being, and to preserve domestic plant and animal life. Some commodities are
also subject to an import quota or a restraint under bilateral trade agreements and
arrangements.
In addition to CBP requirements, many of these prohibitions and restrictions on
importations are subject to the laws and regulations administered by other United States
government agencies with which CBP cooperates in enforcement. These laws and
regulations may, for example, prohibit entry; limit entry to certain ports; restrict routing,
storage, or use; or require treatment, labeling, or processing as a condition of release.
CBP clearance is given only if these various additional requirements are met. This
applies to all types of importations, including those made by mail and those placed in
foreign trade zones.
The foreign exporter should make certain that the United States importer has been
provided with proper information so the importer can:
•
•
Submit the necessary information concerning packing, labeling, etc., and
Make necessary arrangements for entry of the merchandise into the United
States.
It is impractical to list each specific article; however, various classes of articles
are discussed in this chapter. Foreign exporters and U.S. importers should consult the
agency mentioned for detailed information and guidance, as well as for any changes to
the laws and regulations under which the commodities are controlled. Addresses, phone
numbers, and Websites for these agencies are listed in the appendix.
Agricultural Commodities
1. Cheese, Milk, and Dairy Products. Cheese and cheese products are subject to
requirements of the Food and Drug Administration and the Department of Agriculture
(USDA). Most importations of cheese require an import license and are subject to
quotas administered by the Department of Agriculture, Foreign Agricultural Service,
Washington, DC 20250 (see Chapter 40).
The importation of milk and cream is subject to requirements of the Food, Drug and
Cosmetic Act and the Import Milk Act. These products may be imported only by
holders of permits from:
Department of Health and Human Services
Food and Drug Administration
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Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition
Office of Food Labeling (HFS-156)
200 “C” Street, NW
Washington, DC 20204
and the Department of Agriculture.
2. Fruits, Vegetables, and Nuts. Certain agricultural commodities, including:
Fresh tomatoes
Cucumbers
Eggplants
Avocados
Dry onions
Mangoes
Processed dates
Limes
Prunes
Oranges
Walnuts and filberts
Grapefruit
Raisins, and
Green peppers
Olives in tins
Irish potatoes
must meet United States import requirements relating to grade, size, quality, and maturity
(7 U.S.C. 608[e]). These commodities are inspected; an inspection certificate must be
issued by USDA’s Food Safety and Inspection Service to indicate import compliance.
Inquiries on general requirements should be made to USDA’s Agricultural Marketing
Service, Washington, DC 20250. Additional restrictions may be imposed by the USDA’s
Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Washington, DC 20782, under the Plant
Quarantine Act, and by the Food and Drug Administration, Division of Import
Operations and Policy (HFC-170), 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20857, under the
Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act.
3. Insects. Insects in a live state that are injurious to cultivated crops (including
vegetables, field crops, bush fruit, and orchard, forest, or shade trees) and the eggs,
pupae, or larvae of such insects are prohibited from importation, except for scientific
purposes, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Agriculture.
All packages containing live insects or their eggs, pupae, or larvae that
are not injurious to crops or trees are permitted entry into the United States
only if:
•
•
They have a permit issued by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection
Service of the Department of Agriculture, and
They are not prohibited by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
4. Livestock and Animals. Inspection and quarantine requirements of the Animal and
Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) must be met for the importation of:
•
All cloven-hoofed animals (ruminants), such as cattle, sheep, deer,
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•
•
•
•
•
•
antelope, camels, giraffes;
Swine including the various varieties of wild hogs and the meat from such
animals;
Horses, asses, mules, and zebras;
All avian species including poultry and pet birds;
Animal by-products, such as untanned hides, wool, hair, bones, bone
meal, blood meal, animal casings, glands, organs, extracts, or secretions of
ruminants and swine (if animal by-products for food, drugs, or cosmetics,
they are also regulated by the Food and Drug Administration);
Animal germ-plasm, including embryos and semen; and
Hay and straw.
A permit for importation must be obtained from APHIS before shipping from the country
of origin.
In addition, a veterinary health certificate must accompany all animal imports.
Entry procedures for livestock and animals from Mexico and Canada (except for birds
from Mexico) are not as rigorous as those for animals from other countries. Entry of
animals is restricted to specific ports that have been designated as quarantine stations.
All nondomesticated animals must meet the requirements of the Fish and Wildlife
Service.
5. Meat, Poultry and Egg Products.
NOTE: The U.S. Department of Agriculture maintains a trade prohibition on the
importation of poultry and unprocessed poultry products from countries where the H5N1
High Pathogen Avian Influenza strain has been detected. This list can be found on the
Centers for Disease Control Website at
http://www.cdc.gov/flu/avian/outbreaks/embargo.htm.
All imported live birds must be quarantined for 30 days at a USDA quarantine
facility and tested for the avian influenza virus before entering the country. This
requirement also applies to returning U.S.-origin pet birds from H5N1 HPAI affected
countries.
Processed goods from H5N1 affected countries may enter the U.S. however; entry
requires an Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service’s (APHIS) Veterinary Services
permit and certification that specified risk mitigation measures to eliminate the disease
have been performed.
All commercial shipments of meat and meat food products (derived from cattle, sheep,
swine, goats, and horses) offered for entry into the United States are subject to USDA
regulations and must be inspected by the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of
that department and by CBP’s Agriculture Program and Liaison Office.
Meat products from other sources (including, but not limited to wild game) are
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subject to APHIS regulations; to the provisions of the Federal Food, Drug, and
Cosmetic Act, which is enforced by the Food and Drug Administration; and the U.S. Fish
and Wildlife Service. Poultry, live, dressed, or canned; eggs, including eggs for hatching;
and egg products are subject to the requirements and regulations of the Animal and Plant
Heath Inspection Service and the Food Safety and Inspection Service of the Department
of Agriculture. (See NOTE on page 106)
The term “poultry” is defined as any live or slaughtered domesticated bird, for
example:
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Chickens
Doves
Ducks
Ducks, non-migratory
Geese
Guinea fowl
Partridges
Pea fowl
Pigeons
Swans
Turkeys
Other birds, for example:
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•
Commercial, domestic, or pen-raised grouse
Pheasants
Quail
Migratory birds, and
Certain egg products
are also subject to USDA’s trade prohibitions. When those prohibitions are lifted, the
above birds are subject to APHIS regulations and to the provisions of the Federal Food,
Drug, and Cosmetic Act, which is enforced by the Food and Drug Administration.
Inquiry should also be made to the Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC 20240,
about their requirements, restrictions, and prohibitions.
Inspection certificates from the country of origin must accompany all imported
meat, poultry, and egg products. These certificates must indicate the:
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Product name,
Establishment number,
Country of origin,
Name and address of the manufacturer or distributor,
Quantity and weight of contents,
List of ingredients,
Species of animals from which the product was derived,
Identification marks.
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The certificate must also bear the official seal of the government agency
responsible for the inspection and the signature of an agency official. This certificate
must be in both English and the language of the originating country.
An FSIS inspector will reinspect all meat and poultry upon arrival at a U.S. port
of entry. Shipments that pass reinspection are then allowed to enter U.S. commerce and
are treated as domestic product. Shipments from all countries except Canada are stamped
with the official USDA mark of inspection. Canadian shipments carry the Canadian
mark of inspection and an export stamp. Meat and poultry shipments remain under bond
and subject to recall by CBP until the completion of a reinspection
6. Plants and Plant Products. The importation of plants and plant products is subject
to regulations of the Department of Agriculture and may be restricted or prohibited.
Plants and plant products include:
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Fruits,
Vegetables,
Plants,
Nursery stock,
Bulbs,
Roots,
Seeds,
Certain fibers including cotton and broomcorn,
Cut flowers,
Sugarcane,
Certain cereals,
Elm logs, and
Elm lumber with bark attached.
Import permits are required. Further information should be obtained from APHIS.
Also, certain endangered species of plants may be prohibited or require permits or
certificates. The Food and Drug Administration also regulates plant and plant products,
particularly fruits and vegetables.
7. Seeds. The provisions of the Federal Seed Act of 1939 and regulations of the
Agricultural Marketing Service, Department of Agriculture, govern the importation into
the United States of agricultural and vegetable seeds and screenings. Shipments are
detained pending the drawing and testing of samples.
8. Wood Packing Materials. On September 16, 2005, CBP began enforcing the U.S.
Department of Agriculture’s and Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service’s import
regulation for wood packaging material. The rule requires wood packing material such
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as:
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Pallets,
Crates,
Boxes, and
Dunnage used to support or brace cargo
to be treated and marked. In cases of noncompliance, the wood packing materials will be
subject to immediate export along with the accompanying cargo.
The approved treatments for wood packaging material are:
• Heat treatment to a minimum wood core temperature of 56’C for a
minimum of 30 minutes, or
• Fumigation with methyl bromide.
To certify treatment, the wood packing materials must be marked with the
following International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) logo. Paper
certificates of treatment will not be accepted.
For further information, please see the APHIS Website at www.aphis.usda.gov.
9.
Tobacco-Related Products. Importers of commercial quantities of
tobacco products must obtain an import permit from the Alcohol and
Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB) of the Department of the
Treasury. Chapter 52 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (26
U.S.C.) defines tobacco products as:
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Cigars,
Cigarettes,
Smokeless tobacco (snuff and chewing tobacco),
Pipe tobacco,
Roll-your-own tobacco.
Tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes imported into the United States
are subject to the payment of federal excise taxes under the Internal Revenue Code unless
they qualify for an exemption under the Harmonized Tariff Schedule. For example,
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tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes are exempt from tax when brought in
by returning residents within the quantity limitations set by the Harmonized Tariff
Schedule. Under Section 5704 of the Internal Revenue Code, imported tobacco products
and cigarette papers and tubes may be transferred in-bond to the bonded premises of a
manufacturer of tobacco products or to an export warehouse proprietor.
TTB regulations (27 CFR Part 41) require that tobacco products for sale or
delivery to the consumer be put in packages that securely hold the product and that bear
certain product description notices. These packages may also have to bear health-related
notices required by laws administered by the Federal Trade Commission, Washington,
DC 20580.
Tobacco products manufactured in the U.S. and only labeled for export may
only be imported into the U.S. in accord with 26 U.S.C. § 5754 and 26 U.S.C. §
5704.
Information regarding importation of tobacco products and cigarette papers and
tubes is available on the TTB Website, www.ttb.gov, or by telephone at 1.877.882.3277.
Arms, Ammunition, And Radioactive Materials
10.
Arms, Ammunition, Explosives, and Implements of War. These items are
prohibited importations except when a license is issued by the Bureau of Alcohol,
Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives of the Department of Justice, Washington, DC
20226, Tel. 202.927.8320, or the importation is in compliance with the
regulations of that department.
Imported firearms and ammunition are subject to the payment of an excise tax
imposed under Chapter 32 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (26 U.S.C. 4181). The
Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau of the Department of the Treasury
administers this excise tax. Information regarding the tax is available on the TTB
Website, www.ttb.gov, or by telephone at 1.877.882.3277.
The temporary importation, in-transit movement, and exportation of arms and
ammunition listed on the U.S. Munitions List in 22 CFR part 121, is prohibited
unless the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls, Department of State, Washington, DC
20520, issues a license, or unless a license exemption is available as set forth in 22 CFR
123.4 and other sections of 22 CFR. Questions about exporting shotguns should be
referred to:
U.S. Department of Commerce
Exporter Assistance Staff
Washington, DC 20230.
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11. Radioactive Materials and Nuclear Reactors. Many radioisotopes, all forms of
uranium, thorium, and plutonium, and all nuclear reactors imported into the United States
are subject to the regulations of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in addition to
import regulations imposed by any other agency of the United States government.
Authority to import these commodities or articles containing these commodities requires
a license from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555. (Refer to 10
CFR Part 110.)
Radioisotopes and radioactive sources intended for medical use are subject to the
import restrictions set forth in 19 U.S.C. §1618a and the provisions of the Federal
Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, enforced by the Food and Drug Administration.
In order to comply with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements, the
importer must be aware of the identity and amount of any NRC-controlled radioisotopes,
or uranium, thorium and plutonium, and of any nuclear reactor being imported into the
United States. The importer must demonstrate to CBP which Nuclear Regulatory
Commission authority the controlled commodity is being imported under. The authority
cited may be the number of a specific or general license, or the specific section of the
Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations that establishes a general license or grants
an exemption to the regulations. The foreign exporter may save time for the prospective
importer by furnishing the importer with complete information concerning the presence
of NRC-controlled commodities in U.S. importations.
Consumer Products—Energy Conservation
12. Household appliances. The Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended, calls
for energy standards for certain major household appliances, and for these appliances to
be labeled to indicate expected energy consumption or efficiency. The Department of
Energy, Office of Codes and Standards, Washington, DC 20585, is responsible for test
procedures and energy performance standards. The Federal Trade Commission, Division
of Enforcement, Washington, DC 20580, regulates the labeling of these appliances.
The Act covers the following household appliances:
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Refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers and freezers;
Room air-conditioners;
Central air-conditioners and central air-conditioning heat pumps;
Water heaters;
Furnaces;
Dishwashers;
Clothes washers;
Clothes dryers;
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•
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Direct heating equipment;
Kitchen ranges and ovens;
Pool heaters; and
Fluorescent lamp ballasts.
13. Commercial and industrial equipment. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT)
calls for energy performance standards for certain commercial and industrial equipment.
The Department of Energy, Office of Codes and Standards, Washington, DC 20585, is
responsible for test procedures and energy performance standards. The EPACT covers
the following equipment:
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Small and large commercial-package air-conditioning and heating
equipment;
Packaged terminal air-conditioners and heat pumps;
Warm-air furnaces;
Packaged boilers;
Storage water heaters;
Instantaneous water heaters;
Unfired hot-water storage tanks;
Large electric motors (one to 200 horsepower) whether shipped separately
or as a part of a larger assembly;
Four-foot medium bi-pin, two-foot U-shaped, eight-foot slimline, and
eight-foot high-output fluorescent lamps; and
Incandescent reflector lamps.
EPACT also calls for water conservation standards for the following plumbing
products:
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Lavatory faucets,
Lavatory replacement aerators,
Kitchen faucets,
Kitchen replacement faucets,
Metering faucets,
Gravity tank-type toilets,
Flushometer tank toilets,
Electromechanical hydraulic toilets,
Blowout toilets, and
Urinals.
Importation of these products must comply with the applicable Department of
Energy and Federal Trade Commission requirements. Importers should contact these
agencies for requirements in effect at the time of anticipated shipment. Be aware that not
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all appliances are covered by requirements of both agencies.
Consumer Products—Safety
Any consumer product offered for importation will be refused admission and/or
seized if the product fails to comply with an applicable product safety standard or
regulation, a specified labeling or certification requirement, or if it is determined to
present a substantial product hazard. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission
(CPSC), Washington, DC 20207, administers these requirements.
14. Toys and Children’s Articles. Toys and other children’s articles cannot be imported
into the United States unless they comply with applicable regulations issued under the
Federal Hazardous Substances Act. CPSC’s regulations also contain tests used to define
hazardous sharp edges and points on toys and other children’s articles.
Toys or other articles intended for children under the age of three cannot have
small parts that present choking hazards. The Child Safety Protection Act (an amendment
to the Federal Hazardous Substances Act) and its implementing regulations require
warning labeling on toys and games designed for children between the ages of three and
six, when these toys or games contain small parts that could present choking hazards.
Similar regulations exist for balloons, small balls (small balls for children under age three
are banned) and marbles. Electric toys, rattles, pacifiers, and cribs are subject to specific
safety regulations. Lawn darts are banned.
15. Lead In Paint. Paint and other similar surface coating materials intended for
consumer use are banned if they contain more than 0.06 percent lead by weight of the
dried plant film. This ban also applies to furniture with paint that exceeds 0.06 percent
lead and to toys or other articles intended for children if these toys/articles contain paint
that exceeds 0.06 percent lead.
Such products cannot be admitted into the United States. Although this ban
applies to “surface coatings,” CPSC can take action, under the Federal Hazardous
Substances Act, against other lead-containing products if the lead content results in a
substantial risk of injury or illness.
16. Bicycles and Bicycle Helmets. Bicycles cannot be admitted unless they meet
regulations issued under the Federal Hazardous Substances Act. The CPSC also has
mandatory safety standards for bicycle helmets; such helmets will not be admitted unless
they meet CPSC’s Safety Standard for Bicycle Helmets and are accompanied by a
Certificate of Compliance.
17. Fireworks. The fireworks regulations issued under the Federal Hazardous Substances
Act set labeling requirements and technical specifications for consumer fireworks.
Large fireworks like cherry bombs and M-80s are banned for consumer use.
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Large reloadable mortar shell fireworks are also banned. Large multiple-tube mine
and shell fireworks are subject to specific requirements to prevent tip-over. Fireworks not
meeting these requirements cannot be imported into the United States.
18. Flammable Fabrics. Any article of wearing apparel, fabric or interior furnishing
cannot be imported into the United States if it fails to conform to an applicable
flammability standard issued under the Flammable Fabrics Act. These flammability
standards cover:
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General wearing apparel,
Children’s sleepwear,
Mattresses,
Mattress pads, including futons;
Carpets and rugs.
Certain products can be imported into the United States, as provided in Section 11(c) of
the Act, in order to finish or process them to render these products less highly flammable
and thus less dangerous when worn by individuals. In such cases, the exporter must state
on the invoice or other paper relating to the shipment that the shipment is being made for
that purpose.
19. Art Materials. Art materials cannot be imported into the United States unless they
meet the Labeling of Hazardous Art Materials Act (LHAMA) of 1988. LHAMA requires
that a toxicologist review art materials for their potential to produce adverse heath
effects. Art materials must bear appropriate chronic-hazard warnings in addition to any
cautionary labeling required by the Federal Hazardous Substances Act.
The LHAMA mandated a voluntary standard, ASTM D-4236, with certain
modifications, as a mandatory rule under Section 3(b) of the Federal Hazardous
Substances Act. This standard also requires that an art material bear or be displayed with
a label indicating that it has been reviewed in accordance with the standard, whether or
not the product bears a chronic warning statement.
20. Cigarette Lighters. Disposable and novelty cigarette lighters cannot be admitted into
the United States unless they meet the child-resistant safety standard; this standard is
issued under the Consumer Product Safety Act. All nonrefillable lighters, and refillable
lighters whose value is less than $2.25 (subject to change in 2008) and that use gas as a
fuel, are considered to be “disposable lighters” and are covered by this standard.
Novelty lighters are lighters using any type of fuel that have entertaining audio or
visual effects or that depict articles commonly recognized as intended for use by children
less than five years of age. Manufacturers and importers must test lighters, keep records
and report the results to CPSC. A Certificate of Compliance must accompany each
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shipping unit of the product, or be furnished in another fashion to the distributor or
retailer to whom the manufacturer, private labeler or importer delivers the product.
21. Multi-purpose lighters. A multi-purpose lighter, also known as grill lighter,
fireplace lighter, utility lighter, micro-torch, or gas match, is a flame-producing product
that operates on fuel (less than 10 oz.), incorporates an ignition mechanism, and is used
by consumers to ignite items such as candles, fuel for fireplaces, charcoal or gas-fired
grills, camp fires, camp stoves, lanterns, fuel-PSC has fired appliances or devices, or pilot
lights, or for uses such as soldering or brazing.
Multi-purpose lighters cannot be admitted into the United States unless they meet
a child-resistant safety standard issued under the Consumer Product Safety Act. All
manufacturers and importers must test lighters, keep records and report the results to
CPSC. A Certificate of Compliance must accompany each shipping unit of the product,
or be furnished in another fashion to the distributor or retailer to whom the manufacturer,
private labeler or importer delivers the product.
22. Other Regulations and Standards. CPSC has issued a number of other safety
standards, regulations and bans. These have generally been of less interest to the
importing community because fewer of these items are imported. These include:
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Architectural glazing,
Matchbooks,
CB and TV antennas,
Walk-behind power lawn-mowers,
Swimming-pool slides,
Cellulose insulation,
Garage-door operators,
Unstable refuse bins,
Flammable contact adhesives,
Patching compounds with asbestos,
Emberizing materials with asbestos,
Household chemicals (hazardous household chemicals require labeling
under the Federal Hazardous Substances Act),
Refrigerator doors,
Poison Prevention Packaging Act (certain cosmetics, drugs and household
chemicals—the PPPA regulates 32 substances—require special
child-resistant packaging),
Bunk beds.
Electronic Products
23. Radiation- and Sonic Radiation-Producing Products. The following products are
subject to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, Chapter V, Subchapter C—
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Electronic Product Radiation (formerly called the Radiation Control Health and
Safety Act of 1968):
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Television products that incorporate a cathode-ray tube,
Cold-cathode gas-discharge tubes,
Microwave ovens,
Cabinet and diagnostic x-ray equipment,
Laser products,
Ultrasound physical therapy equipment,
Sunlamps,
CD–ROMs,
Cellular and cordless telephones,
Other electronic products for which there are radiation-performance
standards.
An electronic product: (a) for which there is a radiation performance standard,
and (b) that is imported for sale or use in the United States may only be imported if a
declaration (Form FDA 2877) is filed with each importer’s entry. Form FDA 2877 is
available from the Food and Drug Administration, Center for Devices and
Radiological Health, Rockville, MD 20850.
The declaration must describe the product’s compliance status. The importer must
affirm that the product was:
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Not subject to a standard (e.g., manufactured prior to the effective date of
the applicable federal standard); or
Complies with the standard and has a label affixed by the manufacturer
certifying compliance; or
Does not comply with the standard but is being imported only for
purposes of research, investigation, study, demonstration, or training; or
Does not now comply with the standard, but will be brought into
compliance.
The provisions of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, Chapter V,
Subchapter C—Electronic Product Radiation—apply to electronic products
manufactured in the United States as well as to imported products.
24. Radio Frequency Devices. The following are subject to radio emission standards of
the Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC 20554, under the
Communications Act of 1934, as amended:
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Radios,
Tape recorders,
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Stereos,
Televisions,
Citizens-band radios or
Combinations thereof
Other radio frequency devices.
Importations of such products may be accompanied by an FCC declaration (FCC
740) certifying that the imported model or device is in conformity with, will be brought
into conformity, or is exempt from, the Federal Communication Commission
requirements.
Foods, Drugs, Cosmetics, And Medical Devices
The Public Health Security and Bio-Terrorism Preparedness and
Response Act of 2002, or BTA, was implemented on December 12, 2003. All
food imported or offered for import into the United States, both for human and
animal consumption, is subject to the requirements of this Act.
The BTA’s purpose is to ensure the security of food for human and
animal consumption. “Food” is defined as:
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Articles used for food or drink for man or other animals,
Chewing gum,
Articles used for components or any such article.
The BTA’s key elements require that manufacturers and shippers register the
facilities from which they export food and food products to the U.S. with the Food and
Drug Administration. Manufacturers and shippers must also provide the FDA with prior
notification (PN) for any food shipment covered by BTA regulations. Failure to provide
the PN will result in refusal of the food importation, which could cause the shipment to
be:
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Held at the port of arrival,
Moved to secured storage pending compliance with PN requirements,
Exported, or
Destroyed.
For more information on the BTA and its requirements, please visit the FDA’s Website:
www.fda.gov.
25. Foods, Cosmetics, etc. The importation into the United States of food, drugs,
devices, and cosmetics is governed by provisions of the Federal Food, Drug, and
Cosmetic Act. The Food and Drug Administration of the Department of Health and
Human Services, Rockville, MD 20857, administer this Act.
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The Act prohibits the importation of articles that are adulterated or misbranded
and products that are defective, unsafe, filthy, or produced under unsanitary conditions.
The term misbranded includes statements, designs, or pictures in labeling that are false or
misleading or that fail to provide the information required in labeling. The Act also
prohibits the importation of pharmaceuticals that have not been approved by the FDA for
admission into the United States.
Imported products regulated by the FDA are subject to inspection at the time of
entry. Shipments found not to comply with its laws and regulations are subject to refusal;
these shipments must be brought into compliance, destroyed, or re-exported. At the
FDA’s discretion, an importer may be permitted to bring a nonconforming importation
into compliance if it is possible to do so. Any sorting, reprocessing, or relabeling must be
supervised by the FDA at the importer’s expense.
Some imported foods regulated by the FDA, such as confectionery, dairy
products, poultry, eggs and egg products, meats, fruits, nuts and vegetables, are also
subject to other agencies’ requirements, as discussed in this book and elsewhere in this
chapter. Certain aquatic species may also be subject to the requirements of the National
Marine Fisheries Service of the National Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration of the
Department of Commerce, 1335 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, MD 20910.
26. Biological Drugs. The manufacture and importation of biological products for human
consumption are regulated under the Public Health Service Act. Domestic as well as
foreign manufacturers of such products must obtain a U.S. license for both the
manufacturing establishment and for the product intended to be produced or imported.
Additional information may be obtained from the Food and Drug Administration,
Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, MD 20857, and from its Website:
www.fda.gov.
Biological drugs for animals are regulated under the Virus Serum Toxin Act,
which is administered by the Department of Agriculture. The importation of viruses,
serums, toxins and analogous products, and organisms and vectors for use in the
treatment of domestic animals, is prohibited unless the importer holds a permit from the
Department of Agriculture covering the specific product. These importations are also
subject to special labeling requirements.
27. Biological Materials and Vectors. The importation into the United States for sale,
trade or exchange of items such as the following, which are applicable to the prevention,
treatment or cure of human diseases or injuries, is prohibited unless they have been
propagated or prepared at an establishment with an unsuspended, unrevoked U.S. license
for such manufacturing issued by the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human
Services:
• Any virus,
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Therapeutic serum,
Toxin, antitoxin or analogous products,
Arsphenamine, its derivatives, or any other trivalent organic arsenic
compound.
(This prohibition does not extend to materials to be used in research experiments;
however, research materials are subject to other requirements.)
Samples of the U.S.-licensed product must accompany each importation so that
the CBP port director at the port of entry can forward them to:
Director
Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research
1401 Rockville Pike
Bethesda, MD 20852.
A permit from the U.S. Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, is required for shipments of any etiological agent; any
insect, animal or plant vector of human disease; or for any exotic living insect, animal, or
plant capable of being a vector of human disease.
28. Narcotic Drugs and Derivatives. The importation of controlled substances including
narcotics, marijuana and other dangerous drugs, is prohibited except when imported in
compliance with regulations of the Drug Enforcement Administration of the Department
of Justice, Arlington, VA 22202. Examples of some prohibited controlled substances are:
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Amphetamines,
Barbiturates,
Coca leaves and derivatives such as cocaine,
Hallucinogenic substances such as LSD, mescaline, peyote, marijuana and
other forms of cannabis,
Opiates, including methadone,
Opium, including opium derivatives such as morphine and heroin,
Synthetic substitutes for narcotic drugs, and
Anabolic steroids.
29. Drug Paraphernalia. Items of drug paraphernalia are prohibited from importation or
exportation under Section 863, Title 21 of the United States Code.
Under the Controlled Substances Act (Title II of Public Law 91-513), the term
drug paraphernalia means any equipment, product or material of any kind that is
primarily intended or designed for use in manufacturing, compounding, converting,
concealing, producing, processing, preparing, injecting, ingesting, inhaling or otherwise
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introducing into the human body a controlled substance whose possession is unlawful
under this Act.
Items of drug paraphernalia include, but are not limited to, the following:
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Metal, wooden, acrylic, glass, stone, plastic, or ceramic pipes, with or
without screens, permanent screens, hashish heads, or punctured metal
bowls;
Water pipes;
Carburetion tubes and devices;
Smoking and carburetion masks;
Roach clips, meaning objects used to hold burning material, such as a
marijuana cigarette, that has become too small or too short to be held in
the hand;
Miniature spoons with level capacities of one-tenth cubic centimeter or
less;
Chamber pipes;
Carburetor pipes;
Electric pipes;
Air-driven pipes;
Chillums;
Bongs;
Ice pipes or chillers;
Wired cigarette papers; or
Cocaine freebase kits.
CONFLICT DIAMONDS
30. Conflict Diamonds. On April 25, 2003, the president signed the Clean Diamond
Trade Act, H.R. 1584 (Pub L. 108-19), into law. This Act enables the United States to
implement procedures developed by more than 50 countries to exclude rough (uncut or
unpolished) conflict diamonds from international trade while promoting legitimate trade
in diamonds. Conflict diamonds are rough diamonds sold by rebel groups in Africa or
their allies for the specific purpose of financing uprisings against legitimate,
internationally recognized governments.
Rebel, military, and terrorist groups in parts of Africa have used conflict
diamonds to finance unlawful insurrections against legitimate governments. Conflict
diamonds so called because of the atrocities committed on civilian populations during
these insurrections. The United States played a key role in forging an international
consensus to curb this trade and has therefore strongly supported the Kimberley Process.
The Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) is an international initiative
aimed at breaking the link between the legitimate diamond trade and trade in conflict
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diamonds by documenting and tracking all rough diamonds that enter participating
KPCS countries and by shipping them in tamper-resistant containers.
The importation of rough diamonds into the United States requires a Kimberley
Process Certificate and must be sealed in a tamper resistant container.
Gold, Silver, Currency, Stamps
31. Gold and Silver. The provisions of the National Stamping Act, as amended (15
U.S.C. 291-300) are enforced inpart by CBP and by the FBI. Articles made of gold or
alloys thereof are prohibited importation into the United States if the gold content is onehalf carat divergence below the indicated fineness. In the case of articles made of gold or
gold alloy, including the solder and alloy of inferior fineness, a one-carat divergence
below the indicated fineness is permitted.
Articles marked “sterling” or “sterling silver” must assay at least 0.925 of pure
silver with a 0.004 divergence allowed. Other articles of silver or silver alloys must assay
not less than 0.004 part below their indicated fineness. Articles marked “coin” or “coin
silver” must contain at least 0.900 part pure silver, with an allowable divergence of 0.004
part below.
A person placing articles of gold or silver bearing a fineness or quality mark such
as 14K, sterling, etc., in the mail or in interstate commerce must place his name or
registered trademark next to the fineness mark in letters the same size as the fineness
mark. Because the trademark or name is not required at the time of importation, CBP has
no direct responsibility for enforcing this aspect of the law. Anyone seeking further
advice or interpretation of the law should consult the Department of Justice.
Articles bearing the words United States Assay are prohibited importations.
Articles made wholly or in part of inferior metal and plated or filled with gold,
silver or alloys thereof, and that are marked with the degree of fineness must also be
marked to indicate the plated or filled content. In such cases, the use of the words sterling
or coin is prohibited.
Restrictions on the purchase, holding, selling, or otherwise dealing in gold were
removed as of December 31, 1974, and gold may be imported subject to the usual CBP
entry requirements. Under the Hobby Protection Act, which is administered by the
Bureau of Consumer Protection of the Federal Trade Commission, any imitation
numismatic item must be plainly and permanently marked “copy”; items that do not
comply with this marking requirement are subject to seizure and forfeiture.
Unofficial gold coin restrikes must be marked with the country of origin. It is
advisable to obtain a copy of the legal proclamation under which the coins are issued, or,
if the proclamation is unavailable, an affidavit of government sanction of coins should be
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secured from a responsible banking official.
32. Counterfeit Articles. Articles bearing facsimiles or replicas of coins or securities of
the United States or of any foreign country cannot be imported. Counterfeits of coins in
circulation in the United States; counterfeited, forged, or altered obligations or other
securities of the United States or of any foreign government; plates, dies, or other
apparatus which may be used in making any of the foregoing, are prohibited
importations.
33. Monetary Instruments. Under the Currency and Foreign Transactions Reporting
Act, 31 U.S.C. 5311 et seq., if a person knowingly transports, is about to transport, or has
transported, more than $10,000 in monetary instruments at one time to, through or from
the United States, or if a person receives more than $10,000 at one time from or through a
place outside the United States, a report of the transportation (form FINCEN 105) must
be filed with CBP. Monetary instruments include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
U.S. or foreign coin,
Currency,
Traveler’s checks in any form,
Personal and other checks, either in bearer-negotiable form or endorsed
without restriction,
Money orders, either in bearer-negotiable form or endorsed without
restriction, and
Securities or stocks in bearer form.
A bank check or money order made payable to a named person but not endorsed,
or that bears a restrictive endorsement, is not considered to be a “monetary instrument.”
Department of the Treasury regulations governing the report of monetary instruments are
set forth at 31 CFR part 103.
Pesticides, Toxic, And Hazardous Substances
34. Pesticides. The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) as
amended, 1988, provides the statutory authority governing the importation of pesticides
and pesticide devices into the United States. Promulgated under Section 17(c) of this
authority, CBP regulations at 19 CFR Parts 12.112-117 describe the procedures
governing these importations. Among other requirements, these regulations require
importers to submit to CBP an EPA Notice of Arrival (EPA form 3540-1) that the EPA
has reviewed and approved before the importation arrives in the United States.
Pesticides not registered in accordance with FIFRA Section 3 will be refused
entry into the United States. Pesticide devices are not subject to product registration, but
the labels of both pesticides and devices must bear the EPA registration number of the
producing establishment.
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Pesticides and devices will be refused entry if they are identified as adulterated or
misbranded, if they violate FIFRA provisions in any other way, or if they are otherwise
injurious to health or the environment.
35. Toxic Substances. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), effective January 1,
1977, regulates the manufacturing, importation, processing, commercial distribution, use
or disposal of any chemical substances or mixtures broadly defined in Section 3 of
TSCA. Section 3 specifies that certain substances be excluded from the definition of
“chemical substance” based upon their use. These substances include, but are not limited
to:
•
•
•
•
Foods,
Drugs,
Cosmetics,
Active ingredients in pesticides.
Importations will not be released from CBP custody unless proper certification is
presented to presented to CBP indicating that the import “complies with” or “is not
subject to” TSCA requirements, or if it has already been identified as a food, drug, or
active pesticide ingredient.
For further information from EPA, call the TSCA Assistance Information Service,
Tel. 202.554.1404.
36. Hazardous Substances. The Hazardous Substance Act; the Caustic Poison Act; the
Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act; and the Consumer Product Safety Act all regulate the
importation into the United States of dangerous, caustic, corrosive and hazardous
substances. Among the requirements is that such substances be shipped to the
United States in packages suitable for household use 4.
The Office of Hazardous Materials Transportation of the U.S. Department of
Transportation, Washington, DC 20590, regulates the marking, labeling, packaging, and
transportation of hazardous materials, substances, wastes, and their containers.
Hazardous waste is a special sub-category of hazardous substances and is regulated by
the Resource Recovery and Conservation Act. Such waste requires a special EPA
manifest for both imports and exports.
CBP considers otherwise legitimate commodities that were produced with
radiation-contaminated materials to be hazardous and therefore subject to seizure.
4 The FDA defines a container suitable for household use as any retail parcel, package or container that
can be readily adapted for fast or convenient handling in places where people dwell. Please consult 21
CFR, Subchapter L, Part 1230, or visit the FDA’s Website at www.fda.gov.
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37. Refrigerants. The production, consumption and importation of refrigerants and other
ozone-depleting substances are regulated by the Title VI of the Clean Air Act as amended
in 1990. Please consult the appendix of this book for lists of the more common trade
names of Class I and Class II ozone-depleting substances.
Class I includes chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), methyl chloroform, carbon
tetrachloride, halons, and methyl bromide. Class II includes hydrofluorocarbons
(HCFCs). Both Class I and Class II substances are commonly used as refrigerants,
solvents, and fire-suppression agents. The EPA regulates the importation of all Class I
and Class II ozone-depleting substances.
Textile, Wool, and Fur Products
38. Textile Products. All textile fiber products imported into the United States must be
stamped, tagged, labeled, or otherwise marked with the following information, as
required by the Textile Fiber Products Identification Act, unless exempted from marking
under Section 12 of the Act:
•
•
•
•
The generic names and percentages by weight of the constituent fibers
present in the textile fiber product, exclusive of permissive ornamentation,
in amounts greater than five percent.
Constituent fibers must be listed in order of predominance by weight. Any
fiber or fibers present in amounts of five percent or less must be
designated as “other fiber” or “other fibers” and must appear last in this
list.
The name of the manufacturer, or the name or identification number
issued by the Federal Trade Commission of the person(s) marketing or
handling the textile fiber product. A word trademark, used as a house
mark, that is registered with the United States Patent Office may be used
on labels in lieu of the name otherwise required if the owner of such
trademark furnishes a copy of the Patent Office registration to the Federal
Trade Commission prior to use.
The name of the country where the product was processed or
manufactured.
A commercial invoice is required for each shipment of textile fiber products
worth more than $500. Commercial invoices for textile fiber products that are subject to
the Act’s labeling requirements must contain the information noted in Chapter 10
(“Commercial Invoices”), as well as the information normally required on invoices.
Regulations and pamphlets containing the text of the Textile Fiber Products Identification
Act may be obtained from the Federal Trade Commission, Washington, DC 20580.
Pursuant to Section 204 of the Agricultural Act of 1956, imported textiles and
textile products may, in addition to labeling requirements, also be subject to quota, visa,
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export-license or other entry requirements, including declarations that identify the
fabricated components.
39. Wool. The Wool Products Labeling Act of 1939 requires that any imported product
containing woolen fiber—with the exception of carpet, rugs, mats, upholsteries and
articles made more than 20 years prior to importation—be tagged, labeled, or otherwise
clearly marked with the following information:
•
•
•
The percentage of the wool product’s total fiber weight, exclusive of
ornamentation not exceeding five percent of the total fiber weight, of:
1. Wool,
2. Recycled wool,
3. Every fiber other than wool if the percent by weight of such fiber is at
least five percent, and
4. The aggregate of all other fibers.
The percent of the wool product’s total weight composed of any
nonfibrous loading, filling, or adulterating matter.
The name of the manufacturer or importer. If the importer has a registered
identification number issued by the Federal Trade Commission, that
number may be used instead of the individual’s name.
A commercial invoice is required for each shipment of wool products exceeding
$500 in value. Commercial invoices for wool products subject to the Act’s labeling
requirements must contain the information noted in Chapter 10 (“Commercial Invoices”).
The provisions of the Wool Products Labeling Act apply to products
manufactured in the United States as well as to imported products. Pamphlets containing
the text of the Wool Products Labeling Act and regulations may be obtained from the
Federal Trade Commission, Washington, DC 20580.
40. Fur. The Fur Products Labeling Act requires that any imported article of wearing
apparel made in whole or in part of fur or used fur, with the exception of articles made of
new fur whose cost or manufacturer’s selling price does not exceed $7, be tagged,
labeled, or otherwise clearly marked to show the following information:
•
•
•
The name of the manufacturer or importer. If the importer has a registered
identification number, that number may be used instead of the individual’s
name.
The name(s) of the animal or animals that produced the fur, as set forth in
the Fur Products Name Guide and as determined under the FTC’s? rules
and regulations.
That the fur product contains used or damaged fur when such is the fact.
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•
•
•
That the fur product is bleached, dyed, or otherwise artificially colored
when such is the fact.
That the fur product is composed in whole or in substantial part of paws,
tails, bellies, or waste fur when such is the fact.
The country of origin of any imported furs incorporated in the fur product.
A commercial invoice is required for each shipment of furs or fur products
exceeding $500 in value and must contain the information noted in Chapter 10
(“Commercial Invoices”).
Dog or cat fur. The importation, exportation, transportation, distribution or sale
of any product that consists or is composed in whole or in part of any dog fur, cat fur, or
both, is prohibited. Any such product that is imported, exported, transported, distributed
or sold will be seized and forfeited, and penalties may be imposed against any person
who violates this law. Anyone found to have violated this prohibition may be barred from
importing or exporting any fur product. This prohibition does not apply to the
importation, exportation or transportation, for noncommercial purposes, of personal pets
that are deceased, including pets preserved through taxidermy.
The provisions of the Fur Products Labeling Act apply to fur and fur products in
the United States as well as to imported furs and fur products. Regulations and pamphlets
containing the text of the Fur Products Labeling Act may be obtained from the Federal
Trade Commission, Washington, DC 20580.
Trademarks, Trade Names, and Copyrights
41. Trademarks and Trade Names. Articles bearing counterfeit trademarks are
subject to seizure and forfeiture. A counterfeit trademark is defined as a spurious
trademark that is identical with, or substantially indistinguishable from, a registered
trademark. Articles with marks that copy or simulate a registered trademark that has
been recorded with CBP are subject to detention and possible seizure and forfeiture.
CBP may asses a civil penalty when merchandise is seized and forfeited under 19 U.S.C.
§ 1526(e). (See 19 U.S.C. § 1526(f))
CBP may also determine that a registered and recorded trademark should be granted
protection against the importation of parallel, or gray-market, goods. These are goods
bearing a legitimate trademark but that were not intended for sale in the United States.
Should CBP determine that a registered and recorded trademark receive protection
against the importation of gray-market goods, any attempted importation of such goods
will subject them to detention and possible seizure and forfeiture.
A personal exemption for merchandise bearing an infringing mark is permitted for
articles that accompany any person arriving in the United States when such articles are
for his or her personal use and not for sale. Only one infringing item of each type
bearing a registered trademark is permitted. An individual may take advantage of this
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exemption only once within a 30-day period (19 U.S.C. 1526 (d); 19 CFR 148.55).
42. Copyrights. Articles imported into the United States that are pirated (bootleg,
counterfeit) copies of any registered copyright are subject to seizure and forfeiture.
Wildlife and Pets
43. Wildlife and Pets. The importation of live wildlife (i.e., game animals, birds, plants),
any part or product made from them, and of birds’ eggs, is subject to prohibitions,
restrictions, permits and quarantine requirements administered by several government
agencies.
Imports or exports of wildlife, their parts or products must be declared at
designated ports of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) unless an exception is
granted prior to the time of import or export. The Assistant Regional Director of Law
Enforcement for the FWS region in which the import or export will take place should be
contacted for additional information or to request an exception to designated-port-permit
requirement.
Any commercial importer or exporter (there are some exceptions for exporters)
planning to import or export wildlife must first obtain a license from the Fish and
Wildlife Service. Applications and further information may be obtained from the Fish
and Wildlife Service, Assistant Regional Director for Law Enforcement, for the region in
which the importer or exporter is located.
Endangered species of wildlife and certain species of animals and birds are
generally prohibited from entering the United States. Such species can only be imported
or exported under a permit granted by the Fish and Wildlife Service. Specific information
concerning permit requirements should be obtained from the Fish and Wildlife Service,
Office of Management Authority, 4401 North Fairfax Drive, Arlington, VA 22203; or by
calling 1.800.358.2104; or by visiting FWS’s Website, www.fws.gov.
Antique articles (articles that can be certified as being at least 100 years old) may
be exempt from certain requirements of the U.S. Endangered Species Act. The Fish and
Wildlife Service, Office of Management Authority, should be contacted for details.
Marine mammals. The taking and importation of marine mammals and their
products are subject to the requirements of the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA)
of 1972, as amended in 1994. The National Marine Fisheries Service and FWS both have
jurisdiction under the MMPA for certain species and import activities. Additional
requirements of the U.S. Endangered Species Act and the Convention on International
Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) may also apply. Prior to importing, both agencies
should be contacted to learn their exact import requirements. Other import requirements
administered by the National Marine Fisheries Service may also apply for certain species
covered by the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas, e.g.,
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Atlantic blue fin tuna. See the agency’s Website, www.nmfs.noaa.gov, for more
information.
Certain plants, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, fish, snails, clams, insects,
crustaceans, mollusks, and other invertebrates may be prohibited from entering the
United States unless the importer has a permit from either from the exporting nation’s
(i.e., the foreign) wildlife authority or from the Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of
Management Authority, before the importation takes place.
The importation into the United States of any wildlife, their parts or products is
prohibited if the wildlife was captured, taken, shipped, or possessed in any manner
violating the laws of the foreign country in which it, or they, was/were taken.
The importation of the feathers or skins of any bird, other than for scientific or
educational purposes, is prohibited except for the species noted in this paragraph. This
prohibition does not apply to fully manufactured artificial flies used for fishing or to
personally taken, noncommercial game birds. Feathers or skins of the following species
are permitted entry under certain conditions:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Chickens,
Turkeys,
Guinea fowl,
Geese, ducks,
Pigeons, ostriches,
Rheas,
English ring-necked pheasants,
Pea fowl not taken from the wild.
On October 23, 1992, the Wild Bird Conservation Act became effective. This act
focuses on the live species listed in the Appendices to the Convention on International
Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). If you import live birds, you must meet the
requirements of this law in addition to the requirements of CITES, the Endangered
Species Act, the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, and any other applicable regulations. Import
permits must be obtained in advance from the Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of
Management Authority.
Live birds, their parts and products that are protected under the Migratory Bird
Treaty Act may be imported into the United States for scientific purposes or certain
propagating purposes only under permits issued by the regional office of Fish and
Wildlife Service, Office of Migratory Birds, in the region where the importation will
occur or where the importer resides.
Imported birds (pets, migratory birds, falcons) are subject to the quarantine
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requirements of the USDA and Public Health Service. (Please see the NOTE on page
106 regarding The USDA’s trade prohibition on the importation of poultry and
unprocessed poultry products) Quarantine space must be reserved before importing.
Health certificates must be obtained from the birds’ country of origin prior to exportation.
Inquiries should be addressed to the appropriate agency.
On June 9, 1989, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service announced a ban on the
importation of most African elephant ivory and any products made from it. The ban
covers all commercial and noncommercial shipments, including personal baggage
accompanying a tourist. There are limited exceptions for antiques, trophies, and personal
household effects. For further information, contact the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service,
Office of Management Authority, 4401 N. Fairfax Drive, Arlington, VA 22203, Tel.
1.800.358.2104.
The importation of the following is subject to the requirements of the Quarantine
Division of the U.S. Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA
30333; the Veterinary Services of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service,
Department of Agriculture, Hyattsville, MD 20782; and of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife
Service:
•
•
•
•
•
Birds,
Cats,
Dogs,
Monkeys,
Turtles.
A current rabies certificate must accompany each live imported dog. Importers of
dogs without a rabies certificate must complete a copy of CDC Form 75.37, “Notice to
Owners & Importers of Dogs,” prior to obtaining the dog’s release from CBP custody.
The importer must send copies of this completed form to the local quarantine station of
the Public Health Service, a list of which can be found on the CDC’s Website,
www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dq/quarantine_stations.htm. If the local quarantine station is
unknown, importers may call 773.894.2960 (Chicago), 718.553.1685 (JFK-NY), or
310.215.2365 (LA) to learn the appropriate office for submitting this form.
The importation of live turtles, tortoises, and terrapins with a carapace length of
less than four inches, and the viable eggs of turtles, tortoises and terrapins, is allowed by
the U.S. Public Health Service only under strict requirements as to purpose and quantity.
The U.S. Public Heath Service does not allow the importation of live, non-human
primates, including monkeys, as pets.
Other Miscellaneous Prohibited or Restricted Merchandise
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44. Matches, fireworks, knives. The following are all prohibited importations:
•
•
•
•
White or yellow phosphorus matches,
Fireworks banned under federal or state restrictions,
Pepper shells,
Switchblade knives,
45. Foreign Assets Control Restrictions. The Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC)
of the U.S. Treasury Department administers regulations and executive orders that
impose a variety of sanctions, including import or export bans, on countries, companies,
and individuals. Restrictions imposed by the sanctions vary, and in some instances,
including bans, certain products may be permissible even when most others are
prohibited. Contact your local port of entry for complete information.
Full or partial trade embargoes are currently in place for:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Cuba,
Iran,
North Korea,
Sudan,
Syria, and
Burma.
Travelers should be aware that travel restrictions may also apply to these
countries. Because of strict enforcement of these prohibitions, anyone anticipating travel
to any of the countries listed above is advised to contact OFAC, 202.622.2500, well in
advance of planned travel, or to write to the Office of Foreign Assets Control,
Department of the Treasury, Washington, DC 20220.
OFAC also administers sanctions involving targeted persons in:
•
•
•
•
•
•
The Western Balkans,
Burma (Myanmar),
Iraq,
Liberia,
Libya,
Zimbabwe.
In addition, OFAC administers sanctions involving individuals or entities
generally identified as having been involved in:
•
•
Illegal diamond trading,
Terrorist activities,
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•
•
•
•
•
Narcotics trafficking,
Proliferation of weapons of mass destruction,
Acts of violence,
Threatening international stabilization efforts,
Crimes against humanity.
Import and export transactions involving these persons or entities are ordinarily
prohibited. Detailed information can be found at OFAC’s Website,
www.treas.gov/offices/enforcement/ofac/sanctions or by contacting OFAC’s Licensing
Division at 202.622.2480.
46. Obscene, Immoral or Seditious Matter and Lottery Tickets. Section 305, Tariff
Act of 1930, as amended, prohibits the importation of any book, writing, advertisement,
circular, or picture containing:
•
•
•
Any matter advocating or urging treason or insurrection against the United
States,
Any matter advocating or urging forcible resistance to any law of the
United States,
Any threat to take the life of or inflict bodily harm upon any person in the
United States.
It also prohibits the importation of:
•
•
•
•
Any obscene book, writing, advertisement, circular, picture or other
representation, figure, or image on or of paper or other material,
Any instrument or other article that is obscene or immoral,
Any drug or medicine for causing unlawful abortion that has not been
approved by FDA.
Any lottery ticket, unless printed in Canada for use in a U.S.—or in some
cases, other foreign—lottery.
47. Petroleum and Petroleum Products. Importations of petroleum and petroleum
products are subject to the requirements of the Department of Energy. An import license
is no longer required, but an import authorization may be needed. These importations
may be subject to an oil-import license fee, which is collected and administered by the
Department of Energy. Inquiries should be directed to the Department of Energy,
Washington, DC 20585.
48. Products of Convict or Forced Labor. Merchandise produced, mined, or
manufactured, wholly or in part by means of the use of convict labor, forced labor, or
indentured labor under penal sanctions is prohibited from importation, provided that a
finding has been published pursuant to section 12.42 of the CBP Regulations (19 CFR
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12.42) that certain classes of merchandise from a particular country, produced by
convict, forced, or indentured labor, either were being, or are likely to be, imported into
the United States in violation of section 307 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19
U.S.C. 1307).
49. Unfair Competition. Section 337 of the Tariff Act, as amended, prohibits the
importation of merchandise if the president finds that unfair methods of competition or
unfair acts exist. This section is most commonly invoked in the case of patent violations,
although a patent need not be at issue. The prohibition of entries of the merchandise in
question is generally for the term of the patent, although a different term may be
specified.
Following a Section 337 investigation, the International Trade Commission (ITC)
may find that unfair methods of competition or unfair acts exist regarding the importation
of particular merchandise. After the ITC has issued an order, the president is allowed 60
days to take action to communicate his approval or disapproval of the ITC’s
determination. Should the 60 days expire without presidential action, the order becomes
final. During the 60-day period, or until the president acts, importation of the
merchandise is allowed under a special bond. However, CBP must recall that
merchandise if doing so becomes appropriate under the order’s conditions once it
becomes final. If the president determines that entry of the merchandise in question does
not violate Section 337, the bond is canceled.
50. Artifacts/Cultural Property. A number of U.S. laws regulate the importation of
cultural artifacts such as archaeological and ethnologic objects. For example, U.S. law
prohibits the importation of pre-Columbian monumental and architectural sculpture and
murals from countries in Central and South America without first obtaining export
permits from the country of origin. CBP will not accept an export permit from a third
country. Importers should also be aware that a treaty exists between the United States and
Mexico regarding the recovery of cultural property.
Importations of certain archeological and ethnographic material from the
following countries are specifically restricted from entering the United States unless an
export certificate issued by the country of origin accompanies them:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Bolivia,
Cyprus,
Cambodia,
El Salvador,
Guatemala,
Honduras,
Italy,
Mali,
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•
•
Nicaragua,
Peru.
Additionally, cultural property from Iraq is prohibited from entering the
U.S. if it was illegally removed from Iraq after August 6, 1990.
All these restrictions are aimed at deterring the pillage of other countries’ cultural
heritage and at fostering opportunities for access to cultural objects for legitimate
scientific, cultural, and educational purposes. CBP has published import restrictions on
objects and artifacts of this nature in the Federal Register; these restrictions can also be
found at the Website of the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs,
www.exchanges.state.gov/culprop/, of the U.S. Department of State.
Federal law also prohibits the importation of any article of cultural property stolen
from museums or from religious or secular public monuments. Would-be buyers of such
property should be aware that purchases of cultural objects, unlike purchases of
customary tourist merchandise, do not confer ownership should the object be found to be
stolen. The U.S. National Stolen Property Act may be applicable in such cases,
particularly if the country of origin declares by law that it owns all cultural objects,
known or unknown, within its present-day political boundaries.
Purveyors of merchandise described in this section have been known to offer fake
export certificates. Prospective buyers should be aware that CBP officers are expert at
spotting fraudulent export certificates that accompany cultural property. CBP officers
will also examine import declaration forms to determine whether any false information
has been entered because this also constitutes a violation.
For current information about countries for which the United States has issued
specific import restrictions, contact the U.S. Department of State’s Bureau of Educational
and Cultural Affairs, Washington, DC 20547, or visit the agency’s Website:
www.exchanges.state.gov/culprop/index.html. For information about how these
restrictions are enforced, visit CBP’s Website, www.cbp.gov, and search on “cultural
property.”
52. United States Trade Representative Actions. As authorized by the Trade Act of
1974, the United States Trade Representative (USTR) administers Section 301
complaints against unfair foreign trade practices that harm U.S. exporters. USTR actions
that may directly affect U.S. importers include the suspension of concessions. For
example, the USTR may suspend the normal-trade-relations rate of duty and substitute a
substantially higher duty rate on designated products from a foreign country found to be
discriminating against U.S. products.
Importers and Internet shoppers should check the USTR Website, www.ustr.gov, on a
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regular basis to determine whether their products may become subject to a substituted
rate of duty. The USTR will normally propose a list of products and provide a comment
period for businesses that may be affected by a higher duty rate.
The International Trade Administration at the Department of Commerce has set
up a notification system that will advise importers of USTR actions that may affect
imported products. Importers who wish to receive such notification should sign up at the
following site: www.ita.doc.gov/td/industry/otea/301alert/form.html. Importers are
advised that once the USTR has taken a Section 301 action, CBP is responsible for
implementing that action as directed by USTR.
Information on USTR actions that CBP is currently implementing can be found
at: www.cbp.gov/xp/cgov/import/commercial_enforcement/.
40. Alcoholic Beverages
Any person or firm wishing to engage in the business of importing into the United
States distilled spirits, wines containing at least seven percent alcohol, or malt beverages
must first obtain an importer’s basic permit from the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade
Bureau (TTB) of the U.S. Treasury Department. TTB is responsible for administering the
Federal Alcohol Administration Act, 27 U.S.C. 201 et seq. and 27 CFR Subchapter A.
Under this act, TTB has the authority to:
•
•
•
Prevent consumer deception,
Require that labels on alcohol products provide consumers with “adequate
information” regarding the identity and quality of the products, and
Prohibit false or misleading statements.
Information on basic permits, labeling, and other importation issues is available
on the TTB Website, www.ttb.gov, or from TTB’s National Revenue Center,
1.877.882.3277.
Distilled spirits imported in bulk containers whose capacity is
more than one gallon can be only withdrawn from CBP custody by individuals
to whom it is lawful to sell, or otherwise dispose of, distilled spirits in bulk. A
copy of a bill of lading or other document such as an invoice, showing the
name of the consignee, the nature of the contents, and the quantity the
shipment contains must, at the time of importation, accompany each bulk or
bottled shipment of imported spirits or distilled or intoxicating liquors (18
U.S.C. 1263).
[Place in a text box]
CBP will not release to any state an alcoholic beverage(s) whose use would
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violate its laws. The importation of alcoholic beverages in the mails is prohibited.
The United States adopted the metric system of measurement with the
enactment of the Metric Conversion Act of 1975. In general, imported wine
must conform to metric standards of fill if bottled or packed on or after January
1, 1979. Imported distilled spirits, with some exceptions, must conform to
metric standards of fill if bottled or packed on or after January 1, 1980.
Distilled spirits or wines bottled or packed prior to the applicable date must be
accompanied by a statement confirming that fact and signed by an authorized
official of the appropriate foreign country. This statement may be a separate
document or may be shown on the invoice. Wine containing less than seven
percent alcohol by volume and malt beverages, including beer, are not subject
to metric standards of fill.
Under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, 26 U.S.C. Chapter 51, all
beverages containing at least 0.5 percent (one half of one percent) alcohol by
volume are subject to an excise tax. This tax applies to all alcoholic products
that are fit for beverage use even if they are imported for industrial use. The
excise tax also applies to imported denatured alcohol, including fuel alcohol,
unless it is transferred directly from CBP custody to the bonded premises of a
registered distilled spirits plant (or, in the case of fuel alcohol, to a registered
alcohol-fuel plant).
Distilled spirits (Section 5232 of the Internal Revenue Code), wine (Section
5364), and beer (Section 5418) imported in bulk may be transferred in-bond from CBP
custody to the bonded premises of a distilled spirits plant, winery, or brewery without
having to pay the excise tax (see 27 CFR Part 27).
Marking
Wines imported in bottles or other containers (except those containing less than
seven percent alcohol by volume) must be packaged, marked, branded, and labeled in
accordance with the regulations in 27 CFR Part 4. Wines with less than seven percent
alcohol by volume are not subject to 27 CFR Part 4, but they must be marked in
accordance with Food and Drug Administration rules. Imported malt beverages,
including alcohol-free and nonalcoholic malt beverages, must be labeled in conformance
with the regulations in 27 CFR Part 7. The labeling regulations governing imported
distilled spirits can be found in 27 CFR Part 5.
Each bottle, cask or other immediate container of imported distilled spirits, wines,
or malt beverages must be marked for CBP purposes to indicate the country of origin of
its contents unless the shipment comes within one of the exceptions outlined in Chapter
32 (“Rules of Origin”) of this book.
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Health Warning Statement
TTB regulations in 27 CFR Part 16 require the following health warning to
appear on the labels of containers of alcoholic beverages bottled on or after Nov. 18,
1989:
GOVERNMENT WARNING: (1) According to the Surgeon
General, women should not drink alcoholic beverages
during pregnancy because of the risk of birth defects. (2)
Consumption of alcoholic beverages impairs your ability to
drive a car or operate machinery and may cause health
problems.
Certificate of Label Approval
Labels affixed to bottles of imported distilled spirits, wine and malt beverages
must be covered by certificates of label approval issued by TTB to the importer.
Certificates of label approval or photostatic copies of these certificates must be filed with
CBP before the goods can be released for sale in the United States. These requirements
do not apply to wines containing less than seven percent alcohol, but they do apply to
fermented malt beverages if the state in which the malt beverage is withdrawn for
consumption imposes labeling requirements similar to federal requirements.
Foreign Documentation
Importers of wines and distilled spirits should consult TTB about certificates of
origin, identity, age, and proper cellar treatment. Certain wines or distilled spirits require
original certificates of origin as a condition of entry. Also, an importer of natural wine
must possess, at the time of importation, certification regarding proper cellar treatment,
as provided in 27 CFR 27.140.
Requirements of Other Agencies
The importation of alcoholic beverages is also subject to the specific requirements
of the Food and Drug Administration. Certain plant materials, when used in bottle jackets
for wine or other liquids, are subject to special restrictions under plant quarantine
regulations of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. All bottle jackets made of
dried or unmanufactured plant materials are subject to inspection upon arrival and are
referred to the Department of Agriculture.
41. Motor Vehicles And Boats
Automobiles, Vehicles And Vehicle Equipment
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Safety, Bumper, and Emission Requirements. As a general rule, all imported motor
vehicles less than 25 years old and items of motor vehicle equipment must comply with
all applicable Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) in effect when these
vehicles or items were manufactured. A CBP inspection at the time of entry will
determine such compliance, which is verified by the original manufacturer’s certification
permanently affixed to the vehicle or merchandise. An entry declaration form, HS-7,
must be filed when motor vehicles or items of motor vehicle equipment are entered. The
HS-7 can be obtained from customs brokers or ports of entry.
Certain temporary importations may be exempt from the requirements for
conformance if written approval is obtained in advance from both the U.S. Department of
Transportation and the Environmental Protection Agency. This includes vehicles brought
in for research, demonstrations, investigation, studies, testing or competitive events.
Also, EPA form 3520-1 and DOT form HS-7 must be submitted to CBP at the time entry
for such vehicles is made.
Vehicles imported for temporary use by certain nonresidents or by members of
foreign governments or foreign armed forces may not be required to comply with safety,
bumper, emission, or theft-prevention standards. Nonconforming vehicles imported by
nonresidents for personal use must be exported at the end of one year. Vehicles described
in this paragraph may also require EPA and DOT declarations (forms 3520-1 and HS-7,
respectively).
A DOT bond in the amount of 150 percent of the vehicle’s dutiable value must be
posted at the port of entry when a noncertified or nonconforming vehicle is imported for
permanent use. The importer must also sign a contract with a DOT-registered importer,
who will modify the vehicle to conform with all applicable safety and bumper standards
and who can certify the modification(s). A copy of this contract must be furnished to
CBP with the HS-7 at the port of entry. Furthermore, the vehicle model and model year
must be determined to be eligible for importation.
For additional information or details on these requirements, contact:
U.S. Department of Transportation
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
Director of the Office of Vehicle Safety Compliance (NEF-32)
400 Seventh Street, SW
Washington, DC 20590
Tel. 1.800.424.9393.
The Clean Air Act, as amended, prohibits the importation of any motor vehicle or motor
vehicle engine not in conformity with emission requirements prescribed by the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency. This restriction applies whether the motor vehicle or
motor-vehicle engine is new or used, and whether it was originally produced for sale and
use in a foreign country or originally produced (or later modified) to conform to EPA
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requirements for sale or use in the United States. In addition to passenger cars, all
trucks, multipurpose vehicles (e.g., all-terrain vehicles, campers), motorcycles, etc., that
are capable of being registered by a state for use on public roads or that the EPA has
deemed capable of being safely driven on public roads, are subject to these requirements.
The term “vehicle” is used below to include all EPA-regulated vehicles and engines.
Nonroad Engine Imports
In accordance with the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations, 40 CFR
Parts 89, 90 and 91, the Environmental Protection Agency began regulating certain
nonroad diesel and gasoline engines, requiring that they meet federal emission standards
beginning January 1, 1996.
Nonroad, also referred to as off-road or off-highway” is a term that covers a
diverse group of engines and equipment. The nonroad category includes lawn and garden
equipment, outdoor power equipment, recreational equipment, farm equipment,
construction equipment, marine engines, and locomotives.
Prior to importation into the United States, regulated nonroad engines must be
covered by an EPA-issued Certificate of Conformity. EPA issues the certificate to the
engine manufacturer; the certificate declares that the engine family named on the
certificate conforms with all applicable emissions standards and other requirements. It
also permits the manufacturer to sell, offer for sale, introduce into commerce, or import
into the United States, the named engine family. Certificates are issued for only one
model year at a time. A label confirming that the engine meets emission standards must
be affixed to the engine and readily visible.
Upon request, an importer must provide an EPA Form 3520-21 to CBP at the time
of entry into the United States. This form must contain the following information about
the engine:
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Model,
Model number,
Serial number,
Horsepower,
Build date, and
Manufacturer.
It must also include a description of the equipment or vehicle containing the engine,
including:
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The equipment manufacturer,
Equipment serial number,
Location of the EPA emissions label, and
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Engine serial number.
For additional information and specific guidelines regarding the importation
of nonroad engines subject to EPA emissions standards, please refer to the EPA’s
web page, “Importing Vehicles and Engines,” at www.epa.gov/otaq/imports/. To
obtain the EPA Form 3520-21, please refer to EPA's Website,
www.epa.gov/otaq/imports/forms/3520-21.pdf.
For technical assistance, please contact EPA’s Office of Civil Enforcement,
Air Enforcement Division, at 202.564.8673.
U.S.-Version Vehicles: Any person may import U.S.-version vehicles. All such 1971 and
later models are required to have a label in a readily visible position in the engine
compartment stating that the vehicle conforms to U.S. requirements. This label will read
“Vehicle Emission Control Information” and will have a statement by the manufacturer
that the vehicle meets EPA emission requirements at the time of manufacture. If this label
is not present, the importer should obtain a letter of conformity from the manufacturer’s
United States representative—not from a dealership—prior to importation.
Non-U.S.-Version Vehicles: Individuals are not permitted to import non-U.S.-version
vehicles (unless otherwise excluded or exempted; see next sections). These vehicles must
be imported (entered) by an Independent Commercial Importer (ICI) having a currently
valid qualifying certificate of conformity for each vehicle being imported. The ICI will
be responsible for performing all necessary modifications, testing and labeling, as well as
providing an emissions warranty identical to the emissions warranty required of new
vehicles sold in the U.S.
A list of approved ICIs is available from the EPA. Vehicles at least 21 years old
are exempt from these provisions and may be imported without modification.
Words of Caution:
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Not all nonconforming vehicles are eligible for importation, and ICIs are
not required to accept vehicles for which they have qualifying certificates
of conformity.
EPA certification of ICIs does not guarantee the actions or work of the
ICIs, nor does it regulate contractual agreements and working
relationships with vehicle owners.
EPA strongly recommends that prospective importers buy only
U.S.-version (labeled) vehicles, because of the expense and potential
difficulties involved with importing a non-U.S.-version vehicle.
EPA strongly recommends that current owners of non-U.S.-version
vehicles sell or otherwise dispose of them overseas rather than ship and
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import them into the U.S., because of the expense and potential
difficulties involved with importing a non-U.S.-version vehicle.
Before shipping a nonconforming vehicle for importation, EPA strongly
recommends that the importer either make final arrangements with an ICI
for modifications and testing or obtain EPA approval in writing for
importation. Storage fees at the ports are costly, and the vehicle may not
be eligible for importation.
The EPA policy that permitted importers a one-time exemption for
vehicles at least five years old has been eliminated.
EPA considers a U.S.-version vehicle that has had modifications to its
drive train or emission control system to be a non-U.S.-version vehicle,
even though it may be labeled a U.S.-version vehicle.
For Further Information:
Environmental Protection Agency
2000 Traverwood Drive
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105
Attn: Imports Division
Tel. 734.214.4100.
Final Word of Caution. Modifications necessary to bring a nonconforming vehicle into
conformity with safety, bumper, or emission standards may require extensive
engineering, be impractical or impossible, or the labor and materials may be unduly
expensive. It is highly recommended that these modifications be investigated before a
vehicle is purchased for importation.
Boat Safety Standards
Imported boats and associated equipment are subject to U.S. Coast Guard safety
regulations or standards under the Federal Boat Safety Act of 1971. Products subject to
standards must have a compliance certification label affixed to them. Certain hulls also
require a hull identification number to be affixed. A U.S. Coast Guard import declaration
is required to be filed with entries of nonconforming boats. Further information may be
obtained from the Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC 20593.
Dutiability
Vessels brought into the United States for use in trade or commerce are not
dutiable. Yachts or pleasure boats brought into the United States by nonresidents for their
own use in pleasure cruising are also not dutiable.
Yachts or pleasure boats owned by a resident or brought into the United States for
sale or charter to a resident are dutiable. Further information may be found in CBP’s
pamphlet Pleasure Boats.
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Restrictions on Use
Vessels that are foreign-built or of foreign registry may be used in the United
States for pleasure purposes and in the foreign trade of the United States. However,
federal law prohibits the use of such vessels in the coastwise trade, i.e., the transportation
of passengers or merchandise between points in the United States, including carrying
fishing parties for hire. Questions concerning the use of foreign-built or foreign-flag
vessels should be addressed to:
Chief, Cargo Security
Carriers and Immigration Branch
Office of Regulations and Rulings
U.S. Customs and Border Protection
1300 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Mint Annex
Washington, DC 20229
42. Import Quotas
An import quota is a quantity control on imported merchandise for a certain
period of time. Quotas are established by legislation, by directives, and by proclamations
issued under the authority contained in specific legislation. The majority of import quotas
are administered by CBP. The Commissioner of CBP controls the importation of quota
merchandise but has no authority to change or modify any quota.
United States import quotas may be divided into two types: absolute and
tariff-rate. Under the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), there are
tariff-preference levels, which are administered like tariff-rate quotas.
Tariff-rate quotas provide for the entry of a specified quantity of the quota
product at a reduced rate of duty during a given period. There is no limitation on the
amount of the product that may be entered during the quota period, but quantities entered
in excess of the quota for the period are subject to higher duty rates. In most cases,
products of Communist-controlled areas are not entitled to the benefits of tariff-rate
quotas.
Absolute quotas are quantitative, that is, no more than the amount specified may
be permitted entry during a quota period. Some absolute quotas are global, while others
are allocated to specified foreign countries. Imports in excess of a specified quota may be
held for the opening of the next quota period by placing it in a foreign trade zone or by
entering it for warehouse, or it may be exported or destroyed under CBP supervision.
The usual CBP procedures generally applicable to other imports apply with
respect to commodities subject to quota limitations.
The quota status of a commodity subject to a tariff-rate quota cannot be
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determined in advance of its entry. The quota rates of duty are ordinarily assessed on
such commodities entered from the beginning of the quota period until such time in the
period as it is determined that imports are nearing the quota level. CBP port directors are
then instructed to require the deposit of estimated duties at the over-quota duty rate and
to report the time of official presentation of each entry. A final determination is then
made of the date and time when a quota is filled, and all port directors are advised
accordingly.
Some of the absolute quotas are invariably filled at or shortly after the opening of
the quota period. Each of these quotas is therefore officially opened at noon Eastern
Standard Time, or the equivalent in other time zones, on the designated effective date.
When the total quantity for these entries filed at the opening of the quota period exceeds
the quota, the merchandise is released on a pro rata basis, the pro rata being the ratio
between the quota quantity and the total quantity offered for entry. This assures an
equitable distribution of the quota.
Merchandise is not regarded as presented for purposes of determining quota
priority until an entry summary or withdrawal from warehouse for consumption has been
submitted in proper form and the merchandise is located within the port limits.
Commodities Subject To Quotas Administered By CBP
As provided in the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States, the
commodities listed below are subject to quota limitations in effect as of the date of
publication of this book. Local CBP officers can be consulted about any changes.
Information may also be obtained by contacting:
Quota Staff
U.S. Customs and Border Protection
1300 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20229
Tel. 202.927.5850.
Tariff-Rate Quotas
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Anchovies,
Brooms,
Broom corn brooms,
Ethyl alcohol,
Lamb,
Line pipe,
Milk and cream,
Olives,
Satsumas (mandarins),
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Tuna,
Upland cotton, and
Wire rod.
NAFTA
Presidential Proclamation 6641 implemented the North American Free Trade
Agreement and established tariff-preference levels on the following qualifying imported
goods:
Imported from Mexico:
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Chapter 99, Subchapter VI, U.S. Note 4 (99 USN 4)—Milk and cream,
99 USN 5—Dried milk and dried cream,
99 USN 6—Dried milk and dried cream,
99 USN 7—Milk and cream (condensed and evaporated),
99 USN 8—Cheese,
99 USN 9—Tomatoes,
99 USN 10—Tomatoes,
99 USN 11—Onions and shallots,
99 USN 12—Eggplants,
99 USN 13—Chili peppers,
99 USN 14—Squash,
99 USN 15—Watermelons,
99 USN 16—Peanuts,
99 USN 18—Sugars derived from sugar cane or sugar beets,
99 USN 19—Blended syrups,
99 USN 20—Sugars derived from sugar cane or sugar beets,
99 USN 21—Orange juice,
99 USN 22—Orange juice,
99 USN 25—Cotton,
9906.96.01—Brooms,
Section XI Additional U.S. Notes—cotton or man-made fiber apparel,
wool apparel, cotton or man-made fiber fabrics and made-ups and cotton
or man-made fibers yarns.
Imported from Canada:
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Section XI Additional U.S. Notes—cotton or man-made fiber apparel,
wool apparel, cotton or man-made fiber fabrics and made-ups and cotton
or man-made fibers yarns.
Tariff-Rate Quotas—GATT:
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Presidential Proclamation 6763 implemented the GATT Uruguay Round
Agreements for the following tariff-rate commodities:
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Chapter 2, Additional U.S. Note 3 (2 AUSN 3)—Beef,
4 AUSN 5—Milk and cream,
4 AUSN 9—Dried milk and dried cream,
4 AUSN 10—Dairy products,
4 AUSN 11—Milk and cream (condensed or evaporated),
4 AUSN 12—Dried milk, dried cream, and dried whey (in excess of
224,981 kilograms),
4 AUSN 18—Canadian cheddar cheese,
12 AUSN 2—Peanuts,
17 AUSN 5—Sugar (including sugar cane),
17 AUSN 7—Articles containing more than 65 percent by dry weight of
sugar described in 17 AUSN 2,
17 AUSN 8—Articles containing more than 10 percent by dry weight of
sugar described in 17 AUSN 3,
17 AUSN 9—Blended syrups,
18 AUSN 1—Cocoa powder,
18 AUSN 2—Chocolate,
18 AUSN 3—Chocolate and low-fat chocolate crumb,
19 AUSN 2—Infant formula,
19 AUSN 3—Mixes and doughs,
20 AUSN 5—Peanut butter and paste,
21 AUSN 4—Mixed condiments and mixed seasonings,
21 AUSN 5—Ice cream,
23 AUSN 2—Animal feed,
24 ASUN 5—Tobacco,
52 AUSN 5—Cotton,
52 AUSN 6—Harsh or rough cotton,
52 AUSN 7—Cotton,
52 AUSN 8—Cotton,
52 AUSN 9—Card strips made from cotton,
52 AUSN 10—Fibers of cotton.
Tariff-Rate Quotas: U.S.-Israel Agreement on Trade in Agricultural Products
Presidential Proclamation 6962 implemented the U.S.-Israel agreement for the
following agricultural products:
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Chapter 99, Subchapter VIII, U.S. Note 3—Butter, fresh or sour cream,
Chapter 99, Subchapter VIII, U.S. Note 4—Dried milk,
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Chapter 99, Subchapter VIII, U.S. Note 5—Cheese and substitutes for
cheese,
Chapter 99, Subchapter VIII, U.S. Note 6—Peanuts,
Chapter 99, Subchapter VIII, U.S. Note 7—Ice cream.
Textile Articles
CBP administers import controls on certain cotton, wool, man-made fiber, silk
blend and other vegetable-fiber articles manufactured or produced in designated
countries. CBP administers the Special Access Program and the Andean Trade
Preference Act on certain products which are made of U.S.-formed-and-cut fabric. These
controls are imposed on the basis of directives issued to the Commissioner of CBP by the
Chairman of the Committee for the Implementation of Textile Agreements.
Information concerning specific import controls may be obtained from the
Commissioner of CBP. Other information concerning the textile program may be
obtained from:
Chairman
Committee for the Implementation of Textile Agreements
U.S. Department of Commerce
Washington, DC 20230.
Textile Visa and Export License Requirements
A textile visa is an endorsement in the form of a stamp on an invoice or export
control license that is executed by a foreign government. It is used to control the
exportation of textiles and textile products to the United States and to prohibit the
unauthorized entry of the merchandise into this country. A visa may cover either quota or
nonquota merchandise. Conversely, quota merchandise may or may not require a visa
depending upon the country of origin. A visa does not guarantee entry of the merchandise
into the United States. If the quota closes between the time the visa is issued in the
foreign country and the shipment’s arrival in the United States, the shipment will not be
released to the importer until the quota opens again.
Electronic Visa Information System (ELVIS)
ELVIS is the electronic transmission of visa information for textile merchandise
from a specific country to the U.S. CBP.
Quotas Or Licenses Administered By Other Government Agencies
Watches and Watch Movements. There are no licensing requirements or quotas
on watches and watch movements entering the United States unless the watches and
watch movements are produced in the insular possessions (U.S. Virgin Islands, American
Samoa, Guam). The Departments of Commerce and the Interior administer a program
that establishes an annual allocation for watches and watch movements assembled in the
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insular possessions to enter the United States free of duty under statistical notes
(91/5) to Chapter 91 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule. Licenses are issued only to
established insular producers. Further information on the insular watch program may be
obtained from:
Statutory Import Programs Staff
Import Administration
U.S. Department of Commerce
Washington, DC 20230
Dairy Products. Certain dairy products are subject to annual import quotas
administered by the Department of Agriculture and may be imported at the in-quota rate
only under import licenses issued by that department. Detailed information on the
licensing of these products, or the conditions under which limited quantities of the
products may be imported without licenses, may be obtained from:
Dairy Import Group
Foreign Agricultural Service
U.S. Department of Agriculture
Washington, DC 20250
Tel. 202.720.9439.
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Chapter 4, Additional U.S. Note 6 (4 AUSN 6)—Butter and fresh or sour
cream,
4 AUSN 7—Dried milk,
4 AUSN 8—Dried milk or dried cream,
4 AUSN 12—Dried milk, dried cream or dried whey (up to 224,981
kilograms),
4 AUSN 14—Butter substitutes,
4 AUSN 16—Cheeses and substitutes for cheese,
4 AUSN 17—Blue-molded cheese,
4 AUSN 18—Cheddar cheese (except Canadian cheddar),
4 AUSN 19—American-type cheese,
4 AUSN 20—Edam and Gouda cheese,
4 AUSN 21—Italian-type cheese,
4 AUSN 22—Swiss or Emmentaler cheese,
4 AUSN 23—Cheese and substitutes for cheese,
4 AUSN 25—Swiss or Emmentaler cheese.
The above products may be imported at the over-quota rate without an import
license.
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FRAUD
43. Civil and Criminal Enforcement Provisions
Section 592 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1592), generally
provides that persons shall be subject to a monetary penalty if they enter, introduce or
attempt to enter or introduce merchandise into the commerce of the United States by
fraud, gross negligence or negligence; by using material and false electronically
transmitted data; written or oral statement; or by document, act, or material omission. In
limited circumstances, the merchandise of such individuals may be seized to insure
payment of the penalty and forfeited if the penalty is not paid.
CBP has applied the civil fraud statute in cases where individuals and companies
in the United States and abroad have negligently, gross negligently, or intentionally
provided false information concerning importations into the United States. Individuals
presenting false information to CBP officers may also be liable for sanctions under a
criminal fraud statute. Title 18, United States Code, Section 542, provides a maximum of
two years’ imprisonment, a fine, or both, for each violation involving a fraudulent
importation or attempted importation. Although Congress initially enacted the civil and
criminal fraud statutes to discourage individuals from evading payment of lawful duties
owed to the United States, these laws apply today regardless of whether the United States
is deprived of lawful duties.
Under Section 596 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1595a(c)),
CBP is required to seize and forfeit all merchandise that is stolen, smuggled, or
clandestinely imported or introduced. CBP is also required to seize and forfeit controlled
substances, certain contraband articles, and plastic explosives that do not contain a
detection agent.
Merchandise may also be seized and forfeited if:
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Its importation is restricted or prohibited because of a law relating to
health, safety or conservation;
The merchandise is lacking a federal license required for the importation;
The merchandise or packaging is in violation of copyright, trademark,
trade name, or trade dress protections;
The merchandise is intentionally or repetitively marked in violation of
country of origin marking requirements; or
The imported merchandise is subject to quantitative restrictions requiring
a visa or similar document from a foreign government, and the document
presented with the entry is counterfeit.
Federal laws relating to criminal activities commonly known as money laundering
(e.g., 18 U.S.C. 1956) created criminal and civil provisions that, along with fines and
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imprisonment, enable the government to prosecute persons for, and seize and forfeit
property involved in or traceable to, such violations. Criminal penalties include fines of
not more than $500,000 or twice the value of the property, funds, or monetary
instruments involved in the violation, whichever is greater, or imprisonment for not more
than twenty years, or both. There is also a civil penalty of not more than $10,000 or the
value of the property, funds or monetary instruments involved in the violation, whichever
is greater.
Special agents from U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, who operate
throughout the United States and in the world’s major trading centers, enforce the
criminal fraud, civil fraud, and money laundering statutes. Suspected or known violations
of any laws that involve importing merchandise into the United States can be reported
toll-free and anonymously by calling 1-800-BE ALERT (1.800.232.5378). Rewards are
applicable in many instances of reporting fraud.
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FOREIGN-TRADE ZONES
44. Foreign-Trade Zones
Foreign-trade zones are secure areas legally outside the customs territory of the
United States. Their purpose is to attract and promote international trade and commerce.
Subzones are special-purpose facilities for companies that cannot operate effectively at
public zone sites.
Foreign-trade zones are usually located in or near CBP ports of entry, industrial
parks or terminal warehouse facilities. These zones must be within 60 miles or 90
minutes’ driving time from the port of entry limits, while subzones have no limit and are
located in the zone user’s private facility.
The Foreign-Trade Zones Board, which is under the Department of Commerce,
authorizes operations within these zones based upon demonstrating that the intended
operations are legal and not detrimental to the public interest. Created by the ForeignTrade Zones Act of 1934, the Board reviews and approves applications to establish,
operate and maintain foreign-trade zones.
CBP is responsible for activating foreign-trade zones, securing them, controlling
dutiable merchandise moving in and out of them, protecting and collecting the revenue,
assuring that there is no evasion or violation of U.S. laws and regulations governing
imported and exported merchandise, and assuring that the zones program is free from
terrorist activity. It is important to note that although foreign-trade zones are treated as
being outside the customs territory of the United States for tariff and entry purposes, all
other federal laws⎯the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, for example⎯are
applicable to products and establishments within these zones.
Foreign exporters planning to open or expand new American outlets may forward
their goods to a foreign-trade zone in the United States to be held for an unlimited period
while awaiting a favorable market in the United States or nearby countries. During this
time, their goods will not be subject to CBP entry requirements, payment of duty, tax or
bond.
Treatment of Goods
Merchandise lawfully brought into these zones may be stored, sold, exhibited,
broken up, repacked, assembled, distributed, sorted, tested, repaired, sampled, salvaged,
relabeled, destroyed, processed, graded, cleaned, mixed with foreign or domestic
merchandise, or otherwise manipulated or manufactured. Merchandise imported for use
in the zone, such as construction materials or production equipment, may be admitted
into the zone and assembled prior to entry for consumption. Payment of duty would be
deferred until such equipment goes into use as production equipment in a Boardauthorized activity.
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The Foreign-Trade Zones Board may at any time order any goods, process or
treatment to be excluded from the zone if, in its judgment, they would be detrimental to
the public interest, health or safety. Any resulting merchandise would thereafter have to
be exported.
When foreign goods are admitted to a zone in privileged foreign status, the
importer may choose to have the merchandise treated, for tariff purposes, in the same
condition as it was at the time of admission to the zone. By choosing this status, the
importer “freezes” the goods’ rate of duty and tariff classification in their condition at the
time of filing the application for privileged foreign status. The rate of duty in force when
privileged foreign status was chosen will apply regardless of when the merchandise is
entered into United States customs territory, even though its condition or form may have
been changed by processing in the zone. By selecting nonprivileged foreign status, the
importer chooses to have the merchandise treated, for tariff purposes, in its condition and
quantity as it is constructively transferred from the zone into United States customs
territory and entered for consumption.
In most instances the importer may choose the status of the merchandise when it
is admitted to the zone. The Foreign-Trade Zones Board may require that certain
commodities be placed in privileged foreign status because of certain trade requirements
such as antidumping and countervailing-duty considerations. Merchandise may be
considered exported, for customs or other purposes, upon its admission to a zone in
zone-restricted status; however, the merchandise taken into a zone under zone-restricted
status must be for the sole purpose of exportation, destruction (except destruction of
distilled spirits, wines, and fermented malt liquors) or storage.
An important feature of foreign-trade zones for foreign merchants entering the
American market is that the goods may be brought to the threshold of the market, making
immediate delivery certain and avoiding possible cancellation of orders due to shipping
delays.
Producing articles in zones through the combined use of domestic and foreign
materials makes it unnecessary to send domestic materials abroad for manufacture or to
pay duty or obtain a bond for foreign materials that have been imported for this purpose.
Duty on foreign goods involved in such processing or manufacture are calculated only on
the actual quantity of the foreign goods incorporated into the merchandise and transferred
from a zone for entry into the commerce of the United States. Allowances are made for
unrecoverable waste resulting from such manufacture or manipulation, thereby
eliminating payment of duty except on the articles that are actually entered. Recoverable
waste will be placed in privileged foreign status and will be dutiable according to the
condition it was in when it was admitted to the zone and according to the quantity entered
into the commerce of the United States.
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The Foreign-Trade Zones Act also allows exhibiting merchandise within a
zone. Zone facilities may be utilized for the full exhibition of foreign merchandise for an
unlimited length of time with no requirement for exportation or payment of duty.
Merchandise exhibited in a zone would be held under the operator’s bond. Thus, the
owner of goods in a zone may display the goods where they are stored, establish his or
her own showrooms, or join with other importers to display merchandise in a permanent
exhibition. The importer may also sell from stock in a zone wholesale quantities. Retail
trade is prohibited in zones.
Domestic merchandise may be taken into a zone and, providing its identity is
maintained in accordance with regulations, may be returned to customs territory free of
quotas, duty, or tax, even though while in the zone it may have been combined with or
made part of other articles. However, domestic distilled spirits, wine, and beer, and a
limited number of other kinds of merchandise generally may not be processed while in
the zone.
Advantages
Manipulation and manufacture in a zone may produce cost savings. For example,
many products shipped to a zone in bulk can be dried, sorted, graded, cleaned, bagged or
packed, resulting in savings of duties and taxes on moisture taken from content or dirt
removed and culls thrown out. Damaged packages or broken bottles can be removed from
shipments of packaged or bottled goods. If evaporation results during shipment or while
goods are stored in the zone, contents of barrels or other containers can be regauged and
savings obtained, as duty is not payable on the portions lost or removed. In other words,
the contents of barrels or other containers can be measured at the time of transfer to
customs territory to insure that duty is not charged on any portion lost to evaporation,
leakage, breakage, or otherwise. These operations may also be conducted in bonded
warehouses.
Savings in shipping charges, duty, and taxes may also result from such operations
as shipping unassembled or disassembled furniture, machinery, etc., to the zone and
assembling or reassembling it there.
Merchandise otherwise up to standard may be re-marked or relabeled in the zone
(or bonded warehouse) to conform to requirements for entry into the commerce of the
United States. Re-marking or relabeling that is misleading is not permitted in the zone.
Substandard foods and drugs may, in certain cases, be reconditioned to meet the
requirements of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.
There is no time limit on how long foreign merchandise may be stored in a zone
or when it must be entered into United States customs territory, re-exported, or destroyed.
Transfer of Goods in Bonded Warehouses
Foreign merchandise in CBP bonded warehouses may be transferred to foreign-
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trade zones at any time before their retention date in the bonded warehouse expires,
but such a transfer may only be made for the purpose of eventual exportation,
destruction, or permanent storage.
When foreign merchandise is transferred to a zone from a CBP bonded
warehouse, the bond is cancelled and all obligations regarding duty payment or when
merchandise must be re-exported are terminated. Similarly, the owner of domestic
merchandise stored in Internal Revenue bonded warehouses may transfer his or her goods
to a zone and obtain cancellation of bonds. In addition, domestic goods moved into a
zone under zone-restricted status are, upon entering the zone, considered exported for
purposes of excise and internal revenue tax rebates. A manufacturer operating in U.S.
customs territory using dutiable imported materials in his or her product may, upon
transferring the product to the zone for export and complying with appropriate
regulations, also obtain drawback of duties paid or cancellation of bond.
General information about United States foreign-trade zones and their locations
may be obtained from:
Foreign-Trade Zones Board
Department of Commerce
Washington, DC 20330
Questions about the legal aspects of CBP responsibilities in regard to foreign-trade zones
should be addressed to:
Chief, Cargo Control
U.S. Customs and Border Protection
Washington, DC 20229
Questions about the operational aspects of such responsibilities should be
addressed to the appropriate CBP port director. The Foreign-Trade Zones Manual may be
purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office,
Washington, DC 20402. When ordering, refer to CBP Publication No.0000-0559.
The Foreign-Trade Zones Manual may also be viewed at or downloaded from
CBP’s Website, www.cbp.gov.
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APPENDIX
Contents
Chapter
Page
1. INVOICES
Type of Invoice Required—Sec. 141.83, CBP Regulations
Pro Forma Invoice
A-X
A-X
2. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
Required for Certain Classes of Merchandise—Sec. 141.89,
CBP Regulations
A-X
3. CUSTOMS VALUATION
Tariff Act of 1930— Sec. 402 [19 U.S.C. 1401a]
A-X
4. OTHER FORMS
Carrier’s Certificate
CBP 5291— Power of Attorney
CBP 5297— Corporate Surety Power of Attorney
CBP 301— CBP Bond
CBP 7501— Entry Summary
A-X
A-X
A-X
A-X
A-X
5. EPA-REGULATED REFRIGERANTS
Class I refrigerants
Class II refrigerants
6.
A-X
A-X
OTHER AGENCIES
Addresses, Phone Numbers, and Websites
A-X
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1. INVOICES
§ 141.83 Type of invoice required.
(a)-(b) [Reserved]
(c) Commercial invoice. (1) A commercial invoice shall be filed for each shipment of
merchandise not exempted by paragraph (d) of this section. The commercial invoice shall
be prepared in the manner customary in the trade, contain the information required by
Secs. 141.86 through 141.89, and substantiate the statistical information required by Sec.
141.61(e) to be given on the entry, entry summary, or withdrawal documentation.
(2) The port director may accept a copy of a required commercial invoice in place of the
original. A copy, other than a photostatic or photographic copy, shall contain a
declaration by the foreign seller, the shipper, or the importer that it is a true copy.
(d) Commercial invoice not required. A commercial invoice shall not be required in
connection with the filing of the entry, entry summary, or withdrawal documentation for
merchandise listed in this paragraph. The importer, however, shall present any invoice,
memorandum invoice, or bill pertaining to the merchandise which may be in his
possession or available to him. If no invoice or bill is available, a pro forma (or
substitute) invoice, as provided for in Sec. 141.85, shall be filed, and shall contain
information adequate for the examination of merchandise and the determination of duties,
and information and documentation which verify the information required for statistical
purposes by Sec. 141.61(e). The merchandise subject to the foregoing requirements is as
follows:
(1) [Reserved]
(2) Merchandise not intended for sale or any commercial use in its imported condition or
any other form, and not brought in on commission for any person other than the
importer.
(3)-(4) [Reserved]
(5) Merchandise returned to the United States after having been exported for repairs or
alteration under subheadings 9802.00.40 and 9802.00.60, Harmonized Tariff
Schedule of the United States (19 U.S.C. 1202).
(6) Merchandise shipped abroad, not delivered to the consignee, and returned to the
United States.
(7) Merchandise exported from continuous CBP custody within 6 months after the date
of entry.
(8) Merchandise consigned to, or entered in the name of, any agency of the U.S.
Government.
(9) Merchandise for which an appraisement entry is accepted.
(10) Merchandise entered temporarily into the customs territory of the United States
under bond or for permanent exhibition under bond.
(11) Merchandise provided for in section 466, Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1466),
which pertain to certain equipment, repair parts, and supplies for vessels.
(12) Merchandise imported as supplies, stores, and equipment of the importing carrier
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and subsequently made subject to entry pursuant to section 446, Tariff Act of
1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1446).
(13) Ballast (not including cargo used for ballast) landed from a vessel and delivered for
consumption.
(14) Merchandise, whether privileged or nonprivileged, resulting from manipulation or
manufacture in a foreign trade zone.
(15) Screenings contained in bulk importations of grain or seeds.
[T.D. 73-175, 38 FR 17447, July 2, 1973, as amended by T.D. 78-53, 43 FR 6069, Feb.
13, 1978; T.D. 79-221, 44 FR 46820, Aug. 9, 1979; T.D. 82- 224, 47 FR 53728, Nov. 29,
1982; T.D. 84-213, 49 FR 41184, Oct. 19, 1984; T.D. 85-39, 50 FR 9612, Mar. 11, 1985;
T.D. 89-1, 53 FR 51256, Dec. 21, 1988; T.D. 93-66, 58 FR 44130, Aug. 19, 1993; T.D.
94-24, 59 FR 13200, Mar. 21, 1994; T.D. 97-82, 62 FR 51771, Oct. 3, 1997]
NOTE: The Customs Service waived the requirement for a special invoice on March 1,
1982. However, it may still be used. If a commercial invoice is used, it must be signed by
the seller and shipper or their agents.
(PRO FORMA INVOICE HERE)
2. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
§ 141.89 Additional Information for certain classes of merchandise.
(a) Invoices for the following classes of merchandise, classifiable under the Harmonized
Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTSUS), shall set forth the additional information
specified: [T.D. 75-42, 75-239, 78-53, 83-251, 84-149.]
Aluminum and alloys of aluminum classifiable under subheadings 7601.10.60,
7601.20.60, 7601.20.90, or 7602.00.00, HTSUS (T.D. 53092, 55977, 56143)—Statement
of the percentages by weight of any metallic element contained in the article.
Articles manufactured of textile materials, Coated or laminated with plastics or rubber,
classifiable in Chapter(s) 39, 40, and 42—Include a description indicating whether the
fabric is coated or laminated on both sides, on the exterior surface or on the interior
surface.
Bags manufactured of plastic sheeting and not of a reinforced or laminated
construction, classified in Chapter 39 or in heading 4202—Indicate the gauge of the
plastic sheeting.
Ball or roller bearings classifiable under subheading 8482.10.50 through 8482.80.00,
HTSUS (T.D. 68-306)—(1) Type of bearing (i.e. whether a ball or roller bearing); (2) If a
roller bearing, whether a spherical, tapered, cylindrical, needled or other type; (3)
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Whether a combination bearing (i.e., a bearing containing both ball and roller
bearings, etc.); and (4) If a ball bearing (not including ball bearing with integral shafts or
parts of ball bearings), whether or not radial, the following: (a) outside diameter of each
bearing; and (b) whether or not a radial bearing (the definition of radial bearing is, for
customs purposes, an antifriction bearing primarily designed to support a load
perpendicular to shaft axis).
Beads (T.D. 50088, 55977)—(1) The length of the string, if strung; (2) The size of the
beads expressed in millimeters; (3) The material of which the beads are composed, i.e.
ivory, glass, imitation pearl, etc.
Bed Linen and Bedspreads—Statement as to whether or not the article contains any
embroidery, lace, braid, edging, trimming, piping or applique work.
Chemicals—Furnish the use and Chemical Abstracts Service number of chemical
compounds classified in Chapters 27, 28 and 29, HTSUS.
Colors, dyes, stains and related products provided for under heading 3204, HTSUS—
The following information is required: (1) Invoice name of product; (2) Trade name of
product; (3) Identity and percent by weight of each component; (4) Color Index number
(if none, so state); (5) Color Index generic name (if none so state); (6) Chemical
Abstracts Service number of the active ingredient; (7) Class of merchandise (state
whether acid type dye, basic dye, disperse dye, fluorescent brightener, soluble dye, vat
dye, toner or other (describe); (8) Material to which applied (name the
material for
which the color, dye, or toner is primarily designed).
Copper (T.D. 45878, 50158, 55977) articles classifiable under the provisions of Chapter
74, HTSUS—A statement of the weight of articles of copper, and a statement of
percentage of copper content and all other elements—by weight—of articles classifiable
according to copper content.
Copper ores and concentrates (T.D. 45878, 50158, 55977) classifiable in heading 2603,
and subheadings 2620.19.60, 2620.20.00, 2620.30.00, and heading 7401—Statement of
the percentage by weight of the copper content and any other metallic elements.
Cotton fabrics classifiable under the following HTSUS headings: 5208, 5209, 5210,
5211, and 5212—(1) Marks on shipping packages; (2) Numbers on shipping packages;
(3) Customer’s call number, if any; (4) Exact width of the merchandise; (5) Detailed
description of the merchandise; trade name, if any; whether bleached, unbleached,
printed, composed of yarns of different color, or dyed; if composed of cotton and other
materials, state the percentage of each component material by weight; (6) Number of
single threads per square centimeter (All ply yarns must be counted in accordance with
the number of single threads contained in the yarn; to illustrate: a cloth containing 100
two-ply yarns in one square centimeter must be reported as 200 single thread); (7) Exact
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weight per square meter in grams; (8) Average yarn number use this formula:
100 x (total single yarns per square centimeter)
——————————————————————————
(number of grams per square meter)
(9) Yarn size or sizes in the warp; (10) Yarn size or sizes in the filling; (11)
Specify whether the yarns are combed or carded; (12) Number of colors or kinds
(different yarn sizes or materials) in the filling; (13) Specify whether the fabric is napped
or not napped; and (14) Specify the type of weave, for example, plan, twill, sateen,
oxford, etc., and (15) Specify the type of machine on which woven: if with Jacquard
(Jacq), if with Swivel (Swiv), if with Lappet (Lpt.), if with Dobby (Dobby).
Cotton raw See § 151.82 of this chapter for additional information required on invoices.
Cotton waste (T.D. 50044)—(1) The name by which the cotton waste is known, such as
“cotton card strips”; “cotton comber waste”; “cotton fly waste”; etc.; (2) Whether the
length of the cotton staple forming any cotton card strips covered by the invoice is less
than 3.016 centimeters (1 3/16 inches) or is 3.016 centimeters (1 3/16 inches) or more.
Earthenware or crockeryware composed of a nonvitrified absorbent body (including
white granite and semiporcelain earthenware and cream-colored ware, stoneware, and
terra cotta, but not including common brown, gray, red, or yellow earthenware),
embossed or plain; common salt-glazed stoneware; stoneware or earthenware crucibles;
Rockingham earthenware; china, porcelain, or other vitrified wares, composed of a
vitrified nonabsorbent body which, when broken, shows a vitrified, vitreous,
semi-vitrified, or semivitreous fracture; and bisque or Parian ware (T.D. 53236)—(1) If
in sets, the kinds of articles in each set in the shipment and the quantity of each kind of
article in each set in the shipment; (2) The exact maximum diameter, expressed in
centimeters, of each size of all plates in the shipment; (3) The unit value for each style
and size of plate, cup, saucer, or other separate piece in the shipment.
Fish or fish livers (T.D. 50724, 49640, 55977) imported in airtight containers
classifiable under Chapter 3, HTSUS—(1) Statement whether the articles contain an oil,
fat, or grease, (2) The name and quantity of any such oil, fat, or grease.
Footwear, classifiable in headings 6401 through 6405 of the HTSUS—
1.
Manufacturer’s style number.
2.
Importer’s style and/or stock number.
3.
Percent by area of external surface area of upper (excluding
reinforcements and accessories) which is:
Leather
a. ————%
Composition leather
b.————%
Rubber and/or plastics
c. ————%
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Textile materials
d. ————%
Other
(give separate
e. ————%
percent for each
f. ————%
type of material)
4.
Percent by area of external surface area of outersole (excluding
reinforcements and accessories) which is:
Leather
a. ————%
Composition leather
b. ————%
Rubber and/or plastics
c. ————%
Textile materials
d. ————%
Other
(give separate
e. ————%
percent for each
f. ————%
type of material)
You may skip this section if you choose to answer all questions A through Z below:
I.
If 3(a) is larger than any other percent in 3 and if 4(a) is larger than any other
percent in 4, answer questions F, G, L, M, O, R, S, and X.
II.
If 3(a) is larger than any other percent in 3 and if 4(c) is larger than any other
percent in 4, answer questions F, G, L, M, O, R, S, and X.
III.
If 3(a) plus 3(b) is larger than any single percent in 3 and 4(d), 4(e) or 4(f) is
larger than any other percent in 4, stop.
IV.
If 3(c) is larger than any other percent in 3 and if 4(a) or 4(b) is larger than any
other percent in 4, stop.
V.
If 3(c) is larger than any other percent in 3 and if 4(c) is larger than any other
percent in 4, answer questions B, E, F, G, H, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, T and W.
VI.
If 3(d) is larger than any other percent in 3 and if 4(a) plus 4(b) is greater than any
single percent in 4, answer questions C and D.
VII. If 3(d) is larger than any other percent in 3 and if 4(c) is larger than any single
percent in 4, answer questions A, C, J, K, M, N, P and T.
VIII. If 3(d) is larger than any other percent in 3 and if 4(d) is larger than any other
percent in 4, answer questions U, Y and Z.
IX.
If the article is made of paper, answer questions V and Z.
If the article does not meet any of the conditions I through IX above, answer all
questions A through Z, below:
A.
Percent of external surface area of upper (including leather reinforcements and
accessories).
Which is leather
————%
B.
Percent by area of external surface area of upper (including all reinforcements and
accessories).
Which is rubber
————%
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C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
K.
L.
M.
N.
O.
P.
Q.
R.
S.
T.
U.
V.
W.
X.
Y.
Z.
and/or plastics
Percent by weight of rubber and/or plastics is
————%
————%
Percent by weight of textile materials plus rubber and/or plastics is
————%
Is it waterproof?
Does it have a protective metal toe cap?
Will it cover the wearer’s ankle bone?
Will it cover the wearer’s knee cap?
[Reserved.]
Is it designed to be a protection against water, oil, grease, or chemicals or cold or
inclement weather?
Is it a slip-on?
Is it a downhill or cross-country ski boot?
Is it serious sports footwear other than ski boots? (Chapter 64 subheading note
defines sports footwear.)
Is it a tennis, basketball, gym, or training shoe or the like?
Is it made on a base or platform of wood?
Does it have open toes or open heels?
Is it made by the (lipped insole) welt construction?
Is it made by the turned construction?
Is it worn exclusively by men, boys or youths?
Is it made by an exclusively adhesive construction?
Are the fibers of the upper, by weight, predominately vegetable fibers?
Is it disposable, i.e., intended for one-time use?
Is it a “Zori”?
Is the leather in the upper pigskin?
Are the sole and supper made of wool felt?
Is there a line of demarcation between the outer sole and upper?
The information requested above may be furnished on CBPF 5523 or other
appropriate format by the exporter, manufacturer or shipper.
Also, the following information must be furnished by the importer or his
authorized agent if classification is claimed under one of the subheadings below, as
follows:
If subheading 6401.99.80, 6402.19.10, 6402.30.30, 6402.91.40, 6402.99.15,
6402.99.30, 6404.11.40, 6404.11.60, 6404.19.35, 6404.19.40, or 6404.19.60 is claimed:
Does the shoe have a foxing or foxing-like band? If so, state its material(s).
Does the sole overlap the upper other than just at the front of the toe and/or at the
back of the heel?
Definitions for some of the terms used in Question A to Z above: For the purpose of this
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section, the following terms have the approximate definitions below. If either a more
complete definition or a decision as to its application to a particular article is needed, the
marker or importer of record (or the agent of either) should contact CBP prior to entry of
the article.
a.
In an exclusively adhesive construction, all of the pieces of the bottom
would separate from the upper or from each other if all adhesives, cements, and
glues were dissolved. It includes shoes in which the pieces of the upper are
stitched to each other, but not to any part of the bottom. Examples include:
1.
Vulcanized construction footwear;
2.
Simultaneous molded construction footwear;
3.
Molded footwear in which the upper and the bottom is one piece of
molded rubber or plastic, and
4.
Footwear in which staples, rivets, stitching, or any of the methods
above are either primary or even just extra or auxiliary, even
though adhesive is a major part of the reason the bottom will not
separate from the upper.
b.
Composition leather is made by binding together leather fibers or small
pieces of natural leather. It does not include imitation leathers not based
on natural leather.
c.
Leather is the tanned skin of any animal from which the fur or hair has
been removed. Tanned skins coated or laminated with rubber and/or
plastics are “leather” only if leather gives the material its essential
character.
d.
A Line of Demarcation exists if one can indicate where the sole ends and
the upper begins. For example, knit booties do not normally have a line of
demarcation.
e.
Men’s, boy’s and youth’s sizes cover footwear of American youths size 11
and larger for males, and does not include footwear commonly worn by
both sexes. If more than 4% of the shoes sold in a given size will be worn
by females, that size is “commonly worn by both sexes.”
f.
Footwear is designed to protect against water, oil or cold or inclement
weather only if it is substantially more of a protection against those items
than the usual shoes of that type. For example, a leather oxford will
clearly keep your feet warmer and drier than going barefoot, but they are
not a protection in this sense. On the other hand, the snow-jogger is the
protective version of the nonprotective jogging shoe.
g.
Rubber and/or plastics includes any textile material visibly coated (or
covered) externally with one or both of those materials.
h.
Slip-on includes:
1.
A boot which must be pulled on.
2.
Footwear with elastic cores which must be stretched to get it on,
but not a separate piece of elasticized fabric which forms a full
circle around the foot or ankle.
i.
Sports footwear includes only:
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1.
j.
k.
l.
m.
n.
o.
p.
Footwear which is designed for a sporting activity and has, or
has provision for, the attachment of spikes, sprigs, cleats, stops,
clips, bars or the like;
2.
Skating boots (without skates attached), ski boots and crosscountry ski footwear, wrestling boots, boxing boots and cycling
shoes.
Tennis shoes, basketball shoes, gym shoes, training shoes and the like
cover athletic footwear other than sports footwear, whether or not
principally used for such athletic games or purposes.
Textile materials are made from cotton, other vegetable fibers, wool, hair,
silk or man-made fibers. Note: Cork, wood, cardboard and leather are not
textile materials.
In turned construction, the upper is stitched to the leather sole wrong side
out and the shoe is then turned right side out.
Vegetable fibers include cotton, flax and ramie, but does not include either
rayon or plaiting materials such as rattan or wood strips.
Waterproof footwear includes footwear designed to protect against
penetration by water or other liquids, whether or not such footwear is
primarily designed for such purposes.
Welt footwear means footwear construction with a welt, which extends
around the edge of the outer sole, and in which the welt and shoe upper
are sewed to a lip on the surface of the insole, and the outer sole of which
is sewed or cemented to the welt.
A zori has an upper consisting only of straps or thongs of molded rubber
or plastic. This upper is assembled to a formed rubber or plastic sole by
means of plugs.
Fur products and furs (T.D. 53064)—(1) Name or names (as set forth in the Fur
Products Name Guide (16 CFR 301.0) of the animal or animals that produced the fur, and
such qualifying statements as may be required pursuant to § 7(c) of the Fur Products
Labeling Act (15 U.S.C. 69e(c)); (2) A statement that the fur product contains or is
composed of used fur, when such is the fact; (3) A statement that the fur product contains
or is composed of bleached, dyed, or otherwise artificially colored fur, when such is the
fact; (4) A statement that the fur product is composed in whole or in substantial part of
paws, tails, bellies, or waste fur, when such is the fact; (5) Name and address of the
manufacturer of the fur product; (6) Name of the country of origin of the furs or those
contained in the fur product.
Glassware and other glass products (T.D. 53079, 55977)—Classifiable under Chapter
70, HTSUS—Statement of the separate value of each component article in the set.
Gloves—classifiable in subheadings 6116.10.20 and 6216.00.20—Statement as to
whether or not the article has been covered with plastics on both sides. Grain or grain and
screenings (T.D. 51284)—Statement on CBP invoices for cultivated grain or grain and
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screenings that no screenings are
included with the grain, or, if there are
screenings included, the percentage of the shipment which consists of screenings
commingled with the principal grain.
Handkerchiefs—(1) State the exact dimensions (length and width) of the merchandise;
(2) If of cotton indicate whether the handkerchief is hemmed and whether it contains lace
or embroidery.
Hats or headgear—(1) If classifiable under subheading 6502.00.40 or 6502.00.60,
HTSUS—Statement as to whether or not the article has been bleached or colored; (2) If
classifiable under subheading 6502.00.20 through 6502.00.60 or 6504.00.30 through
6504.00.90, HTSUS—Statement as to whether or not the article is sewed or not sewed,
exclusive of any ornamentation or trimming.
Hosiery—(1) Indicate whether a single yarn measures less than 67 decitex. (2) Indicate
whether the hosiery is full length, knee length, or less than knee length. (3) Indicate
whether it contains lace or net.
Iron or Steel classifiable in Chapter 72 or headings 7301 to 7307, HTSUS (T.D. 53092,
55977)—Statement of the percentages by weight of carbon and any metallic elements
contained in the articles, in the form of a mill analysis or mill test certificate.
Iron oxide (T.D. 49989, 50107)—For iron oxide to which a reduced rate of duty is
applicable, a statement of the method of preparation of the oxide, together with the patent
number, if any.
Machines, equipment and apparatus—Chapters 84 and 85, HTSUS—A statement as to
the use or method of operation of each type of machine.
Machine parts (T.D. 51616)—Statement specifying the kind of machine for which the
parts are intended, or if this is not known to the shipper, the kinds of machines for which
the parts are suitable.
Machine tools: (1) Heading 8456 through 8462—machine tools covered by these
headings equipped with a CNC (Computer Numerical Control) or the facings (electrical
interface) for a CNC must state so; (2) heading 8458 through 8463—machine tools
covered by these headings if used or rebuilt must state so; (3) subheading 8456.30.10—
EDM: (Electrical Discharge Machines) if a Traveling Wire (Wire Cut) type must state so.
Wire EDM’s use a copper or brass wire for the electrode; (4) subheading 457.10.0010
through 8457.10.0050—Machining Centers. Must state whether or not they have an ATC
(Automatic Tool Changer). Vertical spindle machine centers with an ATC must also
indicate the Y-travel; (5) subheadings 8458.11.0030 through 8458.11.00.90—horizontal
lathes: numerically controlled. Must indicate the rated HP (or KW rating) of the main
spindle motor. Use the continuous rather than 30-minute rating.
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Madeira embroideries (T.D. 49988)—(1) With respect to the materials used, furnish:
(a) country of production; (b) width of the material in the piece; (c) name of the
manufacturer; (d) kind of material, indicating manufacturer’s quality number; (e) landed
cost of the material used in each item; (f) date of the order; (g) date of the invoice; (h)
invoice unit value in the currency of the purchase; (i) discount from purchase price
allowed, if any, (2) with respect to the finished embroidered articles, furnish: (a)
manufacturer’s name, design number, and quality number; (b) importer’s design number,
if any; (c) finished size; (d) number of embroidery points per unit of quantity; (e) total for
overhead and profit added in arriving at the price of value of the merchandise covered by
the invoice.
Motion-picture films—(1) Statement of footage, title, and subject matter of each film;
(2) declaration of shipper, cameraman, or other person with knowledge of the acts
identifying the films with the invoice and stating that the basic films were to the best of
his knowledge and belief exposed abroad and returned for use as newsreel; (3)
declaration of importer that he believes the films entered by him are the ones covered by
the preceding declaration and that the films are intended for use as newsreel.
Paper classifiable in Chapter 48—Invoices covering paper shall contain the following
information, or will be accompanied by specification sheets containing such information:
(1) weight of paper in grams per square meter; (2) thickness, in micrometers (microns);
(3) if imported in rectangular sheets, length and width sheets, in cm; (4) if imported in
strips, or rolls, the width, in cm. In the case of rolls, the diameter of rolls in cm; (5)
whether the paper is coated or impregnated, and with what materials; (6) weight of
coating, in grams per square meter; (7) percentage by weight of the total fiber content
consisting of wood fibers contained by a mechanical process, chemical sulfate or soda
process, chemical sulfite process, or semi-chemical process, as appropriate; (8)
commercial designation, as “writing,” “cover,” “drawing,” “Bristol,” “newsprint,” etc.;
(9) ash content; (10) color; (11) glaze, or finish; (12) Mullen bursting strength, and
Mullen index; (13) stretch factor, in machine direction and in cross direction; (14) tear
and tensile readings; in machine direction, in cross direction, and in machine direction
plus cross direction; (15) identification of fibers as “hardwood” where appropriate; (16)
crush resistance; (17) brightness; (18) smoothness; (19) if bleached, whether bleached
uniformly throughout the mass; (20) whether embossed, perforated, creped or crinkled.
Plastic plates, sheets, film, foil and strip of headings 3920 and 3921—(1) Statement as
to whether the plastic is cellular or noncellular; (2) specification of the type of plastic; (3)
indication of whether or not flexible and whether combined with textile or other material.
Printed matter classifiable in Chapter 49—Printed matter entered in the following
headings shall have, on or with the invoices covering such matter, the following
information: (1) Heading 4901—(a) whether the books are: dictionaries, encyclopedias,
textbooks, bound newspapers or journals or periodicals, directories, bibles or other prayer
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books, technical, scientific or professional books, art or pictorial books, or “other”
books; (b) if “other” books, whether hardbound or paperbound; (c) if “other” books,
paperbound, other than “rack size”: number of pages (excluding covers). (2) Heading
4902—(a) whether the journal or periodical appears at least four times a week. If the
journal or periodical appears other than at least four times a week, whether it is a
newspaper supplement printed by a gravure process, is a newspaper, business or
professional journal or periodical, or other than these; (3) Heading 4904—whether the
printed or manuscript music is sheet music, not bound (except by stapling or folding); (4)
Heading 4905—(a) whether globes, or not; (b) if not globes, whether in book form, or
not; (c) in any case, whether or not in relief; (5) cards, greeting cards, or other; (7)
Heading 4910—(a) whether or not printed on paper by a lithographic process; (b) if
printed on paper by a lithographic process, the thickness of the paper, in mum; (8)
Subheading not printed over 20 years at time of importation, whether suitable for use in
the production of articles of heading 4902; (c) if not printed over 20 years at time of
importation, and not suitable for use in the production of articles of heading 4901,
whether the merchandise is lithographs on paper or paperboard; (d) if lithographs on
paper or paperboard, under the terms of the immediately preceding description, thickness
of the paper or paperboard, and whether or not posters; (e) in any case, whether or not
posters; (f) in any case, whether or not photographic negatives or positives on transparent
bases; (b) Subheading 4911.99—If not carnets, or parts thereof, in English or French,
whether or not printed on paper in whole or in part by a lithographic process.
Pulp classifiable in Chapter 47—(1) Invoices covering chemical woodpulp, dissolving
trades, in Heading 4702 shall state the insoluble fraction (as percentage) after one hour in
a caustic soda solution containing 18 percent sodium hydroxide (NaOH) at 20º C; (2)
Subheading 4702.00.0020—Pulp entered under this subheading shall in addition contain
on or with the invoice the ash content as a percentage by weight.
Refrigeration equipment (1) Refrigerator-freezers classifiable under subheading
8418.10.00 and (2) refrigerators classifiable under 8418.21.00—(a) statement as to
whether they are compression or absorption type; (b) statement of other refrigerated
volume in liters; (3) freezers classifiable under subheading 8418.30.00 and 8418.40.00—
statement as to whether they are chest or upright type; (4) liquid chilling refrigerating
unless classifiable under subheading 8418.69.0045 through 8418.69.0060—statement as
to whether they are centrifugal open-type, centrifugal hermetic-type, absorption-type or
reciprocating type.
Rolling mills—Subheading 8455.30.0005 through 8455.30.0085. Rolls for rolling mills:
Indicate the composition of the roll—gray iron, cast steel or other—and the weight of
each roll.
Rubber Products of Chapter 40—(1) Statement as to whether combined with textile or
other material; (2) statement whether the rubber is cellular or noncellular, unvulcanized
or vulcanized, and if vulcanized, whether hard rubber or other than hard rubber.
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Screenings or scalpings of grains or seeds (T.D. 51096)—(1) Whether the commodity
is the product of a screening process; (2) if so, whether any cultivated grains have been
added to such commodity; (3) If any such grains have been added, the kind and
percentage of each.
Textile fiber products (T.D. 55095—(1) The constituent fiber or combination of fibers
in the textile fiber product, designating with equal prominence each natural or
manufactured fiber in the textile fiber product by its generic name in the order of
predominance by the weight thereof if the weight of such fiber is 5 percent or more of the
total fiber weight of the product; (2) percentage of each fiber present, by weight, in the
total fiber content of the textile fiber product; (3) the name, or other identification issued
and registered by the Federal Trade Commission, of the manufacturer of the product or
one or more persons subject to § 3 of the Textile Fiber Products Identification Act (15
U.S.C. 70a) with respect to such product; (4) the name of the country where processed or
manufactured. See also “Wearing Apparel” below.
Tires and Tubes for tires, of rubber or plastics—(1) Specify the kind of vehicle for
which the tire is intended, i.e. airplane, bicycle, passenger car, on-the-highway light or
heavy truck or bus, motorcycle; (2) if designed for tractors provided for in subheading
8701.90.10, or for agricultural or horticultural machinery or implements provided for in
Chapter 84 or in subheading 8716.80.10, designate whether the tire is new, recapped, or
used; pneumatic or solid; (3) indicate whether the tube is designed for tires provided for
in subheading 4011.91.10, 4011.99.10, 4012.10.20, or 4012.20.20.
Tobacco (including tobacco in its natural state) (T.D. 44854, 45871)—(1) Specify in
detail the character of the tobacco in each bale by giving (a) country and province of
origin, (b) year of production, (c) grade or grades in each bale, (d) number of carrots or
pounds of each grade if more than one grade is packed in a bale, (e) the time when, place
where, and person from whom purchased, (f) price paid or to be paid for each bale or
package, or price for the vega or lot is purchased in bulk, or if obtained otherwise than by
purchase, state the actual market value per bale; (2) if an invoice covers or includes bales
of tobacco which are part of a vega or lot purchased in bulk, the invoice must contain or
be accompanied by a full description of the vega or lot purchased; or if such description
has been furnished with a previous importation, the date and identity of such shipment;
(3) packages or bales containing only filler leaf shall be invoiced as filler; when
containing filler and wrapper but not more than 35 percent of wrapper, they shall be
invoiced as mixed; and when containing more than 35 percent of wrapper, they shall be
invoiced as wrapper.
Watches and watch movements classifiable under Chapter 91 of the HTSUS—For all
commercial shipments of such articles, there shall be required to be shown on the
invoice, or on a separate sheet attached to and constituting a part of the invoice, such
information as will reflect with respect to each group, type, or model, the following:
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(A)
(B)
(C)
For watches, a thorough description of the composition of the watch
cases, the bracelets, bands or straps, the commercial description (ebauche
caliber number, ligne size and number of jewels) of the movements
contained in the watches, and the type of battery (manufacturer’s name
and reference number), if the watch is battery operated.
For watch movements, the commercial description (ebauche caliber
number, ligne size and number of jewels). If battery-operated, the type of
battery (manufacturer’s name and reference number).
The name of the manufacturer of the exported watch movements and the
name of the country in which the movements were manufactured.
Wearing apparel—(a) All invoices for textile wearing apparel should indicate a
component material breakdown in percentages by weight for all component fibers present
in the entire garment, as well as separate breakdowns of the fibers in the (outer) shell
(exclusive of linings, cuffs, waistbands, collars and other trimmings) and in the lining; (2)
for garments which are constructed of more than one component or material
(combination of knits and not knit fabric or combinations of knit and/or not knit fabric
with leather, fur, plastic including vinyl, etc.), the invoice must show a fiber breakdown
in percentages by weight for each separate textile material in the garment and a
breakdown in percentages by weight for each nontextile material for the entire garment;
(3) for woven garments, indicate whether the fabric is yarn dyed and whether there are
“two or more colors in the warp and/or filling’’; (4) for all-white T-shirts and singlets
indicate whether or not the garment contains pockets, trim, or embroidery; (5) for
mufflers-state the exact dimensions (length and width) of the merchandise.
Wood products—(1) Wood sawed or chipped lengthwise, sliced or peeled, whether or
not planed, sanded, or finger-jointed, of a thickness exceeding 6 mm (lumber),
classifiable under Chapter 44 heading 4407, HTSUS, and wood continuously shaped
along any of its edges or faces, whether or not planed, sanded or finger-jointed;
coniferous: Subheading 4409.10.90 and nonconiferous: Subheading 4409.20.90, HTSUS,
and dutiable on the basis of cubic meters—Quantity in cubic meter (m) before dressing;
(2) fiberboard of wood or other ligneous materials whether or not bonded with resins or
other organic substances, under Chapter 44, Heading 4411, HTSUS, and classifiable
according to its density-density in grams per cubic centimeter (cm); (3) plywood
consisting solely of sheets of wood, classifiable under Chapter 44, Subheading
4412.11,4412.12, and 4412.19, HTSUS, and classifiable according to the thickness of the
wood sheets-thickness of each ply in millimeter (mm);
Wool and hair—See 151.62 of this chapter for additional information required on
invoices.
Wool products, except carpets, rugs, mats, and upholsteries, and wool products made
more than 20 years before importation (T.D. 50388, 51019) (1) The percentage of the
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total fiber weight of the wool product, exclusive of ornamentation not exceeding 5
per cent of said total fiber weight, of (a) wool; (b) reprocessed wool; (c) reused wool; (d)
each fiber other than wool if said percentage by weight of such fiber is 5 per cent or
more; and (e) the aggregate of all fibers; (2) the maximum percentage of the total weight
of the wool product, of any nonfibrous loading, filling, or adulterating matter; and (3) the
name of the manufacturer of the wool product, except when such product consists of
mixed wastes, residues, and similar merchandise obtained from several suppliers or
unknown sources.
Woven fabric of man-made fibers in headings 5407, 5408, 5512, 5513, 5514, 5515,
5516—
(1)
State the exact width of the fabric.
(2)
Provide a detailed description of the merchandise, (trade name, if any).
(3)
Indicate whether bleached, unbleached, dyed, or yarns of different colors
and/or printed.
(4)
If composed of more than one material, list percentage by weight in each.
(5)
Identify the man-made fibers as artificial or synthetic, filament or staple,
and state whether the yarns are high tenacity. Specify the number of turns
per meter in each yarn.
(6)
Specify yarn sizes in warp and filling.
(7)
Specify how the fabric is woven (plain weave, twill, sateen, dobby,
jacquard, swivel, lappet, etc.)
(8)
Indicate the number of single threads per square centimeter in both warp
and filling.
(9)
Supply the weight per square meter in grams.
(10) Provide the average yarn number using this formula:
100 x number of single threads per square centimeter
(number of grams per square meter)
(11) For spun yarns, specify whether textured or not textured.
(12) For filament yarns, specify whether textured or not textured.
Yarns—(1) All yarn invoices should show: (a) fiber content by weight; (b) whether
single or plied; (c) whether or not put up for retail sale (See Section Xl, Note 4, HTSUS);
(d) whether or not intended for use as sewing thread.
(2)
If chief weight of silk, show whether spun or filament.
(3)
If chief weight of cotton, show:
(a)
whether combed or uncombed
(b)
metric number (mn)
(c)
whether bleached and/or mercerized.
(4)
If chief weight of man-made fiber, show:
(a)
whether filament, or spun, or a combination of
filament and spun
(b)
If a combination of filament and spun-give percent
age of filament and spun by weight.
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(5)
If chief weight of filament man-made fiber, show:
(a)
whether high tenacity (See Section Xl, note 6
HTSUS)
(b)
whether monofilament, multifilament or strip
(c)
whether texturized
(d)
yarn number in decitex
(e)
number of turns per meter
(f)
for monofilaments-show cross-sectional dimension in
millimeters
(g)
for strips, show the width of the strip in millimeters
(measure in folded or twisted condition if so imported)
Items or classes of goods may be added to or removed from the list from time to
time.
3. CUSTOMS VALUATION
93 STAT. 194 PUBLIC LAW 96-39—JULY 26, 1979
TARIFF ACT OF 1930
“SEC. 402, VALUE. [19 U.S.C. 1401a]
“(a) IN GENERAL—(1) Except as otherwise specifically provided for in this Act,
imported merchandise shall be appraised, for the purposes of this Act, on the basis of the
following:
“(A) The transaction value provided for under subsection (b).
“(B) The transaction value of identical merchandise provided for under
subsection (c), if the value referred to in subparagraph (A) cannot be determined, or can
be determined but cannot be used by reason of subsection (b)(2).
“(C) The transaction value of similar merchandise provided or under
subsection (c), if the value referred to in subparagraph (B) cannot be determined.
“(D) The deductive value provided for under subsection (d), if the value
referred to in subparagraph (C) cannot be determined and if the importer does not request
alternative valuation under Paragraph (2).
“(E) The computed value provided for under subsection (e), if the value
referred to in subparagraph (D) cannot be determined.
“(F) The value provided for under subsection (f), if the value referred to in
subparagraph (E) cannot be determined.
“(2) If the value referred to in paragraph (1)(C) cannot be determined with respect
to imported merchandise, the merchandise shall be appraised on the basis of the
computed value provided for under paragraph (1)(E), rather than the deductive value
provided for under paragraph (1)(D), if the importer makes a request to that effect to the
CBP officer concerned within such time as the Secretary shall prescribe. If the computed
value of the merchandise cannot subsequently be determined, the merchandise may not
be appraised on the basis of the value referred to in paragraph (1)(F) unless the deductive
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value of the merchandise cannot be determined under paragraph (1)(D).
“(3) Upon written request therefor by the importer of merchandise, and subject to
provisions of law regarding the disclosure of information, the CBP officer concerned
shall provide the importer with a written explanation of how the value of that
merchandise was determined under this section.
“(b) TRANSACTION VALUE OF IMPORTED MERCHANDISE.--(1) The
transaction value of imported merchandise is the price actually paid or payable for the
merchandise when sold for exportation to the United States, plus amounts equal to—
“(A) The packing costs incurred by the buyer with respect to the imported
merchandise;
“(B) Any selling commission incurred by the buyer with respect to the
imported merchandise;
“(C) The value, apportioned as appropriate, of any assist;
“(D) Any royalty or license fee related to the imported merchandise that
the buyer is required to pay directly or indirectly, as a condition of the sale of the
imported merchandise for exportation to the United States; and
“(E) The proceeds of any subsequent resale, disposal, or use of the
imported merchandise that accrue, directly or indirectly, to the seller.
The price actually paid or payable for imported merchandise shall be increased by
the amounts attributable to the items (and no others) described in subparagraphs (A)
through (E) only to the extent that each such amount (i) is not otherwise included within
the price actually paid or payable; and (ii) is based on sufficient information. If sufficient
information is not available, for any reason, with respect to any amount referred to in the
preceding sentence, the transaction value of the imported merchandise concerned shall be
treated, for purposes of this section, as one that cannot be determined.
“(2)(A) The transaction value of imported merchandise determined under
paragraph (1) shall be the appraised value of that merchandise for the purposes of this
Act only if—
“(i) there are no restrictions on the disposition or use of the imported merchandise
by the buyer other than restrictions that—
“(I) are imposed or required by law,
“(lI) limit the geographical area in which the merchandise may be resold,
or
“(III) do not substantially affect the value of the merchandise;
“(ii) the sale of, or the price actually paid or payable for, the imported
merchandise is not subject to any condition or consideration for which a value cannot be
determined with respect to the imported merchandise;
“(iii) no part of the proceeds of any subsequent resale, disposal, or use of the
imported merchandise by the buyer will accrue directly or indirectly to the seller, unless
an appropriate adjustment therefor can be made under paragraph (1)(E); and
“(iv) the buyer and seller are not related, or the buyer and seller are related but the
transaction value is acceptable, for purposes of this subsection, under subparagraph (B).
“(B) The transaction value between a related buyer and seller is acceptable for the
purposes of this subsection if an examination of the circumstances of the sale of the
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imported merchandise indicates that the relationship between such buyer and seller
did not influence the price actually paid or payable; or if the transaction value of the
imported merchandise closely approximates—Amended by.P.L. 96—490, effective
1/1/81:
“(i) the transaction value of identical merchandise, or of similar merchandise in
sales to unrelated buyers in the United States; or
“(ii) the deductive value or computed value for identical merchandise or similar
merchandise; but, only if each value referred to in clause (i) or (ii) that is used for
comparison relates to merchandise that was exported to the United States at or about the
same time as the imported merchandise
“(C) In applying the values used for comparison purposes under subparagraph
(B), there shall be taken into account differences with respect to the sales involved (if
such differences are based on sufficient information whether supplied by the buyer or
otherwise available to the CBP officer concerned) in—
“(i) commercial levels;
“(ii) quantity levels;
“(iii) the costs commissions, values, fees, and proceeds described in
paragraph (1); and
“(iv) the costs incurred by the seller in sales in which he and the buyer are
not related that are not incurred by the seller in sales in which he and the buyer are
related.
“(3) The transaction value of imported merchandise does not include any of the
following, if identified separately from the price actually paid or payable and from any
cost or other item referred to in paragraph (1):
‘‘(A) Any reasonable cost or charge that is incurred for—
“(i) the construction, erection, assembly, or maintenance of, or the
technical assistance provided with respect to, the merchandise after its importation into
the United States; or
“(ii) the transportation of the merchandise after such importation.
“(B) The customs duties and other Federal taxes currently payable on the
imported merchandise by reason of its importation, and any Federal excise tax on, or
measured by the value of, such merchandise for which vendors in the United States are
ordinarily liable.
“(4) For purposes of this subsection—
Price Actually Paid or Payable:
“(A) The term ‘price actually paid or payable’ means the total payment (whether
direct or indirect, and exclusive of any costs, charges, or expenses incurred for
transportation, insurance, and related services incident to the international shipment of
the merchandise from the country of exportation to the place of importation in the United
States) made, or to be made, for imported merchandise by the buyer to, or for the benefit
of, the seller.
“(B) Any rebate of, or other decrease in, the price actually paid or payable that is
made or otherwise effected between the buyer and seller after the date of the importation
of the merchandise into the United States shall be disregarded in determining the
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transaction value under paragraph (1).
“(C), transaction value of identical merchandise and similar merchandise—(1)
The transaction value of identical merchandise, or of similar merchandise, is the
transaction value (acceptable as the appraised value for purposes of this Act under
subsection (b) but adjusted under paragraph (2) of this subsection) of imported
merchandise that is—
“(A) with respect to the merchandise being appraised, either identical
merchandise or similar merchandise, as the case may be; and
“(B) exported to the United States at or about the time that the merchandise being
appraised is exported to the United States.
“(2) Transaction values determined under this subsection shall be based on sales
of identical merchandise or similar merchandise, as the case may be, at the same
commercial level and in substantially the same quantity as the sales of the merchandise
being appraised. If no such sale is found, sales of identical merchandise or similar
merchandise at either a different commercial level or in different quantities, or both, shall
be used, but adjusted to take account of any such difference. Any adjustment made under
this paragraph shall be based on sufficient information. If in applying this paragraph with
respect to any imported merchandise, two or more transaction values for identical
merchandise, or for similar merchandise, are determined, such imported merchandise
shall be appraised on the basis of the lower or lowest of such values.
Merchandise concerned:
“(d) DEDUCTIVE VALUE—(1) For purposes of this subsection, the term
‘merchandise concerned’ means the merchandise being appraised, identical merchandise,
or similar merchandise.
“(2)(A) The deductive value of the merchandise being appraised is whichever of
the following prices (as adjusted under paragraph (3)) is appropriate depending upon
when and in what condition the merchandise concerned is sold in the United States:
“(i) if the merchandise concerned is sold in the condition as imported at or
about the date of importation of the merchandise being appraised, the price is the unit
price at which the merchandise concerned is sold in the greatest aggregate quantity at or
about such date.
“(ii) If the merchandise concerned is sold in the condition as imported but
not sold at or about the date of importation of the merchandise being appraised, the price
is the unit price at which the merchandise concerned is sold in the greatest aggregate
quantity after the date of importation of the merchandise being appraised but before the
close of the 90th day after the date of such importation.
“(iii) If the merchandise concerned was not sold in the condition as
imported and not sold before the close of the 90th day after the date of importation of the
merchandise being appraised, the price is the unit price at which the merchandise being
appraised, after further processing, is sold in the greatest aggregate quantity before the 1
80th day after the date of such importation. This clause shall apply to appraisement of
merchandise only if the importer so elects and notifies the CBP officer concerned of that
election within such time as shall be prescribed by the Secretary.
Unit Price:
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“(B) For purposes of subparagraph (A), the unit price at which merchandise is
sold in the greatest aggregate quantity is the unit price at which such merchandise is sold
to unrelated persons, at the first commercial level after importation (in cases to which
subparagraph (A)(iii) applies) at which such sales take place, in a total volume that is (i)
greater than the total volume sold at any other unit price, and (ii) sufficient to establish
the unit price.
“(3)(A) The vice determined under paragraph (2) shall be reduced by an amount
equal to—
“(i) any commission usually paid or agreed to be paid, or the addition
usually made for profit and general expenses, in connection with sales in the United
States of imported merchandise that is of the same class or kind, regardless of the country
of exportation as the merchandise concerned;
“(ii) the actual costs and associated costs of transportation and insurance
incurred with respect to international shipments of the merchandise concerned from the
country of exportation to the United States;
“(iii) the usual costs and associated costs of transportation and insurance
incurred with respect to shipments of such merchandise from the place of importation to
the place of delivery in the United States, if such costs are not included as a general
expense under clause (i);
“(iv) the customs duties and other Federal taxes currently payable on the
merchandise concerned by reason of its importation, and any Federal excise tax on, or
measured by the value of, such merchandise for which vendors in the United States are
ordinarily liable: and
“(v) (but only in the case of a price determined under paragraph
(2)(A)(iii)) the value added by the processing of the merchandise after importation to the
extent that the value is based on sufficient information relating to cost of such processing.
“(B) For purposes of applying paragraph (A)—
“(i) the deduction made for profits and general expenses shall be based
upon the importer’s profits and general expenses, unless such profits and general
expenses are inconsistent with those reflected in sales in the United States of imported
merchandise of the same class or kind, in which case the deduction shall be based on the
usual profit and general expenses reflected in such sales, as determined from sufficient
information; and
“(ii) any State or local tax imposed on the importer with respect to the sale
of imported merchandise shall be treated as a general expense.
“(C) The price determined under paragraph (2) shall be increased (but only to the
extent that such costs are not otherwise included) by an amount equal to the packing
costs incurred by the importer or the buyer, as the case may be, with respect to the
merchandise concerned.
“(D) For purposes of determining the deductive value of imported merchandise,
any sale to a person who supplies any assist for use in connection with the production or
sale for export of the merchandise concerned shall be disregarded.
“(e) computed value.—(1) The computed value of imported merchandise is the
sum of—
174
175
“(A) the cost or value of the materials and the fabrication and other processing
of any kind employed in the production of the imported merchandise
“(B) an amount for profit and general expenses equal to that usually reflected in
sales of merchandise of the same class or kind as the imported merchandise that are made
by the producers in the country of exportation for export to the United States;
“(C) any assist, if its value is not included under subparagraph (A) or (B); and
‘‘(D) the packing costs.
‘‘(2) For purposes of paragraph (1 )—
“(A) the cost or value of materials under paragraph (1)(A) shall not include the
amount of any internal tax imposed by the country of exportation that is directly
applicable to the materials or their disposition if the tax is remitted or refunded upon the
exportation of the merchandise in the production of which the materials were used; and
“(B) the amount for profit and general expenses under paragraph (1)(B) shall be
used upon the producer’s profits and expenses, unless the producer’s profits and expenses
are inconsistent with those usually reflected in sales of merchandise of the same class or
kind as the imported merchandise that are made by producers in the country of
exportation for export to the United States, in which case the amount under paragraph
(1)(B) shall be used on the usual profit and general expenses of such producers in such
sales, as determined from sufficient information.
“(f) value if other values cannot be determined or used.—(1) If the value of
imported merchandise cannot be determined, or otherwise used for the purposes of this
Act, under subsections (b) through (e), the merchandise shall be appraised for the
purposes of this Act on the basis of a value that is derived from the methods set forth in
such subsections, with such methods being reasonably adjusted to the extent necessary to
arrive at a value.
Imported Merchandise Appraisal:
“(2) Imported merchandise may not be appraised, for the purposes of this Act, on
the basis of—
“(A) the selling price in the United States of merchandise produced in the United
States;
“(B) a system that provides for the appraisement of imported merchandise at the
higher of two alternative values
“(C) the price of merchandise in the domestic market of the country of
exportation
“(D) a cost of production, other than a value determined under subsection (c) for
merchandise that is identical merchandise or similar merchandise to the merchandise
being appraised;
“(E) the price of merchandise for export to a country other than the United States;
‘‘(F) minimum values for appraisement; or
‘‘(G) arbitrary or fictitious values.
This paragraph shall not apply with respect to the ascertainment, determination,
or estimation of foreign market value or United States price under title VII.
Ante, p. 150:
“(g) special rules—(1) for purposes of this section, the persons specified in any of
175
176
the following subparagraphs shall be treated as persons who are related:
“(A) Members of the same family, including brothers and sisters (whether by
whole or half blood), spouse, ancestors, and lineal descendants.
“(B) Any officer or director of an organization and such organization.
“(C) Any officer or director of an organization and an officer or director of
another organization, if each such individual is also an officer or director in the other
organization.
‘‘(D) Partners.
‘‘(E) Employer and employee.
“(F) Any person directly or indirectly owning, controlling, or holding with power
to vote, 5 percent or more of the outstanding voting stock or shares of any organization
and such organization.
“(G) Two or more persons directly or indirectly controlling, controlled by, or
under common control with, any person.
“(2) For purposes of this section, merchandise (including, but not limited to,
identical merchandise and similar merchandise) shall be treated as being of the same
class or kind as other merchandise if it is within a group or range of merchandise
produced by a particular industry or industry sector.
Generally Accepted Accounting Principles:
“(3) For purposes of this section, information that is submitted by an importer,
buyer, or producer in regard to the appraisement of merchandise may not be rejected by
the CBP officer concerned on the basis of the accounting method by which that
information was prepared, if the preparation was in accordance with generally accepted
accounting principles. The term generally accepted accounting principles’ refers to any
generally recognized consensus or substantial authoritative support regarding—
“(A) which economic resources and obligations should be recorded as assets and
liabilities;
“(B) which changes in assets and liabilities should be recorded;
“(C) how the assets and liabilities and changes in them should be measured;
“(D) what information should be disclosed and how it should be disclosed; and
‘‘(E) which financial statements should be prepared.
The applicability of a particular set of generally accepted accounting principles
will depend upon the basis on which the value of the merchandise is sought to be
established.
“(h) definitions.—As used in this section—
“(1)(A) The term ‘assist’ means any of the following if supplied directly or
indirectly, and free of charge or at reduced cost, by the buyer of imported merchandise
for use in connection with the production or the sale for export to the United States of the
merchandise:
“(i) Materials, components, parts and similar items incorporated in the
imported merchandise.
“(ii) Tools, dies, molds, and similar items used in the production of the
imported merchandise.
“(iii) Merchandise consumed in the production of the imported
176
177
merchandise.
“(iv) Engineering, development, artwork, design work, and plans and
sketches that are undertaken elsewhere than in the United States and are necessary for the
production of the imported merchandise.
“(B) No service or work to which subparagraph (A)(iv) applies shall be treated as
an assist for purposes of this section if such service or work—
“(i) is performed by an individual who is domiciled with the United
States;
“(ii) is performed by that individual while he is acting as an employee or
agent of the buyer of the imported merchandise; and
“(iii) is incidental to other engineering, development, artwork, design
work, or plans or sketches that are undertaken within the United States.
“(C) For purposes of this section, the following apply in determining the value of
assists described in subparagraph (A)(iv):
“(i) The value of an assist that is available in the public domain is the cost
of obtaining copies of the assist,
“(ii) If the production of an assist occurred in the United States and one or
more foreign countries, the value of the assist is the value thereof that is added outside
the United States.
“(2) The term ‘identical merchandise’ means—
“(A) merchandise that is identical in all respects to, and was produced in
the same country and by the same person as, the merchandise being appraised; or
“(B) if merchandise meeting the requirements under subparagraph (A)
cannot be found (or for purposes of applying subsection (b)(2)(B)(i), regardless of
whether merchandise meeting such requirements can be found), merchandise that is
identical in all respect to, and was produced in the same country as, but not produced by
the same person as, the merchandise being appraised.
Such term does not include merchandise that incorporates or reflect any engineering,
development, artwork, design work, or plan or sketch that—
“(I) was supplied free or at reduced cost by the buyer or the merchandise for use
in connection with the production or the sale for export to the United States of the
merchandise; and
“(II) is not an assist because undertaken with the United States.
“(3) The term ‘packing costs’ means the cost of all containers and coverings of
whether nature and of packing, whether for labor or materials, used in placing
merchandise in condition, packed ready for shipment to the United States.
“(4) The term ‘similar merchandise’ means—
“(A) merchandise that—
“(i) was produced in the same country and by the same person as the
merchandise being appraised,
“(ii) is like the merchandise being appraised in characteristics and
component material, and
“(iii) is commercially interchangeable with the merchandise being
appraised; or
177
178
“(B) if merchandise meeting the requirements under subparagraph (A) cannot
be found (or for purposes of applying subsection (b)(2)(B)(i), regardless of whether
merchandise meeting such requirements can be found), merchandise that—
‘‘(i) was produced in the same country as, but not produced by the same
person as, the merchandise being appraised, and
“(ii) meets the requirement set forth in subparagraph (A)(ii) and (iii).
Such term does not include merchandise that incorporates or reflects any engineering,
development, artwork, design work, or plan or sketch that—
‘‘(I) was supplied free or at reduced cost by the buyer of the merchandise
for use in connection with the production or the sale for export to the United States of the
merchandise; and
“(II) is not an assist because undertaken within the United States.
“(5) The term ‘sufficient information’, when required under this section for
determining—
‘‘(A) any amount—
“(i) added under subsection (b)(1) to the price actually paid or payable,
“(ii) deducted under subsection (d)(3) as profit or general expense or value
from further processing, or
“(iii) added under subsection (e)(2) as profit or general expense;
“(B) any difference taken into account for purposes of subsection
(b)(2)(C); or
“(C) any adjustment made under subsection (c)(2); means information that
establishes the accuracy of such amount, difference, or adjustment.”
178
179
5. EPA-REGULATED REFRIGERANTS
Class I
CAS
Number
Chemical Name
CFC-11 (CCl3F)
Trichlorofluoromethane
CFC-12 (CCl2F2)
Dichlorodifluoromethane
Algofrene 11 - Ausimont SPA
Arcton 11 - INEOS Fluor
Asahifron R-11 - Asahi Glass Co. Ltd.
CFC-11 - Firefreeze International
CFC-11 - Chemicals and Plastics India Ltd.
CFC-11 - Gujarat Fluorochemicals Ltd.
CFC-11 - Hankook Shin Hwa
CFC-11 - Navin Fluorine Industries
CFC-11 - Roche Chemicals Inc.
CFC-11 - Spolek
CFC-11 - Changshu 3F Refrigerant Plant
CFC-11 - Jiangsu Meilan Electric Chemical Plant
CFC-11 - Suzhou Xinye Chemical Co. Ltd.
CFC-11 - Zhejiang Linhai Limin Chemical Plant
CFC-11 - Zhejiang Juhua Fluorchemical Co. Ltd.
CFC-11 - Chemical Industries of Northern Greece SA
Daiflon 11 - Daikin Industries Ltd.
Dional 11 - Solvay Fluor GMBH
75-69-4
Electro-CF 11 - Unknown
Eskimon 11 - Unknown
FCC-11 - Akzo Chemicals International B.V.
Flon Showa 11 - Showa Denko K.K.
Floron 11 - SRF Limited
Forane 11 - ARKEMA SA
Freon-11 - DuPont Fluoroproducts
Frigen 11 - Solvay Fluor GMBH
Genetron 11 - Honeywell (formerly Allied-Signal Inc.)
Genetron 11 - Quimobasicos s.a. de c.v.
ISCEON 11 - Rhodia
Isotron 11 - Unknown
Khaladon 11 - Unknown
Korfron 11 - Ulsan Chemical Co., Ltd.
Ledon 11 - Unknown
Mafron 11 - Navin Fluorine Industries
R11 - Protocol Resource Management Inc.
Algofrene 12 - Ausimont SPA
Algofrene 12 - Montefluos S.P.A.
Arcton 12 - INEOS Fluor
179
75-71-8
180
Asahifron R-12 - Asahi Glass Co. Ltd.
Asahifron R-500 - Asahi Glass Co. Ltd.
CFC-12 - Zhejiang Juhua Fluorchemical Co. Ltd.
CFC-12 - Chemicals and Plastics India Ltd.
CFC-12 - Firefreeze International
CFC-12 - Gujarat Fluorochemicals Ltd.
CFC-12 - Hankook Shin Hwa
CFC-12 - Navin Fluorine Industries
CFC-12 - Roche Chemicals Inc.
CFC-12 - SRF Limited
CFC-12 - Changshu 3F Refrigerant Plant
CFC-12 - Zhejiang Dongyang Chemical Plant
CFC-12 - Jiangsu Meilan Electric Chemical Plant
CFC-12 - Fujian Shaowu Fluorchemical Plant
CFC-12 - Guangdong Zengcheng Xiangsheng
Chemical Co. Ltd.
CFC-12 - Spolek
Daiflon 12 - Daikin Industries Ltd.
Daiflon 500 - Daikin Industries Ltd.
Electro-CF 12 - Unknown
Eskimon 12 - Unknown
FCC-12 - Akzo Chemicals International B.V.
Flon Showa 12 - Showa Denko K.K.
Flon Showa 500 - Showa Denko K.K.
Floron 12 - SRF Limited
Forane 12 - ARKEMA SA
Forane 500 - ARKEMA SA
Freon-12 - DuPont Fluoroproducts
Frigen 12 - Solvay Fluor GMBH
Frigen 500 - Solvay Fluor GMBH
Friogas 12 - Galco
G12 - AlliedSignal Fluorochemicals Europe BV
Genetron 12 - Quimobasicos s.a. de c.v.
Genetron 500 - Quimobasicos s.a. de c.v.
Genetron 500 - Honeywell (formerly Allied-Signal
Inc.)
ISCEON 12 - Rhodia
ISCEON 500 - Rhodia
Isotron 12 - Unknown
Korfron 12 - Ulsan Chemical Co., Ltd.
Ledon 12 - Unknown
Mafron 12 - Navin Fluorine Industries
Oxyfume 12 - Honeywell (formerly Allied-Signal Inc.)
180
181
R12 - Protocol Resource Management Inc.
R-500
R-501
R-505
Taisoton 12 - Formosa Plastics
CFC-113 (C2F3Cl3)
1,1,2-Trichlorotrifluoroethane
AF-113 - Asahi Glass Co. Ltd.
Algofrene 113 - Ausimont SPA
Arklone AM - INEOS Fluor
Arklone AMD - INEOS Fluor
Arklone AS - INEOS Fluor
Arklone EXT - INEOS Fluor
Arklone K - INEOS Fluor
Arklone L - INEOS Fluor
Arklone P - INEOS Fluor
Arklone PSM - INEOS Fluor
Arklone W - INEOS Fluor
Asahifron R-113 - Asahi Glass Co. Ltd.
CFC-113 - Jiangsu Changshu Yudong Chemical Plant
CFC-113 - Changshu 3F Refrigerant Plant
CG Triflon - Central Glass Co. Ltd.
CG Triflon A - Central Glass Co. Ltd.
CG Triflon C1 - Central Glass Co. Ltd.
CG Triflon CP - Central Glass Co. Ltd.
CG Triflon D3 - Central Glass Co. Ltd.
76-13-1
CG Triflon Dl - Central Glass Co. Ltd.
CG Triflon E - Central Glass Co. Ltd.
CG Triflon EC - Central Glass Co. Ltd.
CG Triflon EE - Central Glass Co. Ltd.
CG Triflon ES - Central Glass Co. Ltd.
CG Triflon FD - Central Glass Co. Ltd.
CG Triflon M - Central Glass Co. Ltd.
CG Triflon MES - Central Glass Co. Ltd.
CG Triflon P - Central Glass Co. Ltd.
CG Triflon Wl - Central Glass Co. Ltd.
Daiflon S3 - Daikin Industries Ltd.
Daiflon S3-A - Daikin Industries Ltd.
Daiflon S3-E - Daikin Industries Ltd.
Daiflon S3-EN - Daikin Industries Ltd.
Daiflon S3-ES - Daikin Industries Ltd.
Daiflon S3-HN - Daikin Industries Ltd.
Daiflon S3-MC - Daikin Industries Ltd.
Daiflon S3-P35 - Daikin Industries Ltd.
Daiflon S3-W6 - Daikin Industries Ltd.
181
182
Delifrene 113 - Ausimont SPA
Diflon S-3 - Unknown
Dional 113 - Solvay Fluor GMBH
F-113 - Tosoh
Flon Showa FS-3 - Showa Denko K.K.
Flon Showa FS-3A - Showa Denko K.K.
Flon Showa FS-3D - Showa Denko K.K.
Flon Showa FS-3E - Showa Denko K.K.
Flon Showa FS-3ES - Showa Denko K.K.
Flon Showa FS-3M - Showa Denko K.K.
Flon Showa FS-3MS - Showa Denko K.K.
Flon Showa FS-3P - Showa Denko K.K.
Flon Showa FS-3W - Showa Denko K.K.
Fluorisol - Rhodia
Fluorisol - ISC Chemicals
Forane 113 - ARKEMA SA
Freon MCA - DuPont Fluoroproducts
Freon MCA - DuPont-Mitsui Fluorochemicals Co. Ltd
Freon PCA - DuPont Fluoroproducts
Freon SMT - DuPont-Mitsui Fluorochemicals Co. Ltd
Freon SMT - DuPont Fluoroproducts
Freon TA - DuPont Fluoroproducts
Freon TA - DuPont-Mitsui Fluorochemicals Co. Ltd
Freon T-B1 - DuPont-Mitsui Fluorochemicals Co. Ltd
Freon T-DA35 - DuPont-Mitsui Fluorochemicals Co.
Ltd
Freon T-DA35X - DuPont-Mitsui Fluorochemicals Co.
Ltd
Freon T-DEC - DuPont-Mitsui Fluorochemicals Co.
Ltd
Freon T-DECR - DuPont-Mitsui Fluorochemicals Co.
Ltd
Freon TDF - DuPont Fluoroproducts
Freon T-DFC - DuPont-Mitsui Fluorochemicals Co.
Ltd
Freon T-DFCX - DuPont-Mitsui Fluorochemicals Co.
Ltd
Freon TE - DuPont-Mitsui Fluorochemicals Co. Ltd
Freon T-E35 - DuPont-Mitsui Fluorochemicals Co.
Ltd
Freon T-E6 - DuPont-Mitsui Fluorochemicals Co. Ltd
Freon TES - DuPont-Mitsui Fluorochemicals Co. Ltd
Freon TES - DuPont Fluoroproducts
182
183
Freon TF - DuPont-Mitsui Fluorochemicals Co. Ltd
Freon TF - DuPont Fluoroproducts
Freon TMC - DuPont-Mitsui Fluorochemicals Co. Ltd
Freon TMC - DuPont Fluoroproducts
Freon TMS - DuPont-Mitsui Fluorochemicals Co. Ltd
Freon TMS solvents - DuPont Fluoroproducts
Freon TP35 - DuPont Fluoroproducts
Freon T-P35 - DuPont-Mitsui Fluorochemicals Co.
Ltd
Freon TWD 602 - DuPont Fluoroproducts
Freon T-WD602 - DuPont-Mitsui Fluorochemicals Co.
Ltd
Freon-113 - DuPont Fluoroproducts
Frigen 113 - Solvay Fluor GMBH
Frigen TR 113 - Solvay Fluor GMBH
Fronsolve - Asahi Glass Co. Ltd.
Fronsolve AD-17 - Asahi Glass Co. Ltd.
Fronsolve AD-7 - Asahi Glass Co. Ltd.
Fronsolve AD-9 - Asahi Glass Co. Ltd.
Fronsolve AD-l9 - Asahi Glass Co. Ltd.
Fronsolve AE - Asahi Glass Co. Ltd.
Fronsolve AES - Asahi Glass Co. Ltd.
Fronsolve AM - Asahi Glass Co. Ltd.
Fronsolve AMS - Asahi Glass Co. Ltd.
Fronsolve AP - Asahi Glass Co. Ltd.
Fronsolve R 113 - Nagase & Co.
G Triflon E35 - Central Glass Co. Ltd.
Genesolv D - Honeywell (formerly Allied-Signal Inc.)
Genetron 113 - Honeywell (formerly Allied-Signal
Inc.)
ISCEON 113 - Rhodia
Kaltron - Kali-Chemie AG
Magicdry MD 201 - Daikin Industries Ltd.
Magicdry MD 202 - Daikin Industries Ltd.
Magicdry MD 203 - Daikin Industries Ltd.
Magicdry MD-E35 - Daikin Industries Ltd.
Magicdry MD-E6 - Daikin Industries Ltd.
SonicSolve - London Chemical Co. (Lonco)
TCTFE - Solvay Fluor GMBH
CFC-114 (C2F4Cl2)
Dichlorotetrafluoroethane
Algofrene 114 - Ausimont SPA
Arcton 114 - INEOS Fluor
Asahifron R-114 - Asahi Glass Co. Ltd.
Daiflon 114 - Daikin Industries Ltd.
183
76-14-2
184
Flon Showa 114 - Showa Denko K.K.
Forane 114 - ARKEMA SA
Freon-114 - DuPont Fluoroproducts
Frigen 114 - Solvay Fluor GMBH
Genetron 114 - Quimobasicos s.a. de c.v.
Genetron 114 - Honeywell (formerly Allied-Signal
Inc.)
ISCEON 114 - Rhodia
R114 - Protocol Resource Management Inc.
R-506
CFC-115 (C2F5Cl)
Monochloropentafluoroethane
Halon 1211 (CF2ClBr)
Bromochlorodifluoromethane
Algofrene 115 - Ausimont SPA
Algofrene 502 - Ausimont SPA
Arcton 115 - INEOS Fluor
Arcton 502 - INEOS Fluor
Asahifron R-115 - Asahi Glass Co. Ltd.
Asahifron R-502 - Asahi Glass Co. Ltd.
CFC-115 - Zhejiang Chemical Research Institute
CFC-115 - Changshu 3F Refrigerant Plant
Daiflon 115 - Daikin Industries Ltd.
Daiflon 502 - Daikin Industries Ltd.
Flon Showa 502 - Showa Denko K.K.
Forane 115 - ARKEMA SA
Forane 502 - ARKEMA SA
Freon-115 - DuPont Fluoroproducts
Freon-502 - DuPont Fluoroproducts
Frigen 115 - Solvay Fluor GMBH
Genetron 115 - Honeywell (formerly Allied-Signal
Inc.)
Genetron 502 - Quimobasicos s.a. de c.v.
Genetron 502 - Honeywell (formerly Allied-Signal
Inc.)
ISCEON 115 - Rhodia
ISCEON 502 - Rhodia
R502 - Protocol Resource Management Inc.
R-504
76-15-3
Halon 1211 - Hanju Chemical Co. Ltd.
Halon-1211 - Jiangsu Wuxian Chemical Plant
Halon-1211 - Zhejiang Chemical Research Institute
Halon-1211 - Foshan Electral-Chemical General Plant
353-59-3
Halon-1211 - Shandong Shouguang Plant
Halon-1211 - Zhejiang Dongyang Chemical Plant
Halon-1211 - Navin Fluorine Industries
Halon-1211 - Dalian Fire Extinguishing Agent Plant
184
185
Halon 1301 (CF3Br)
Bromotrifluoromethane
Freon FE 1301 - Ansul Fire Protection
Freon FE 1301 - DuPont Fluoroproducts
Halon 1301 - Hanju Chemical Co. Ltd.
Halon-1301 - Zhejiang Chemical Industry Research
Institute
Halon 2402 (C2F4Br2)
Dibromotetrafluoroethane
CFC-13 (CF3Cl)
Chlorotrifluoromethane
75-63-8
124-73-2
Arcton 13 - INEOS Fluor
Asahifron R-13 - Asahi Glass Co. Ltd.
Daiflon 13 - Daikin Industries Ltd.
FCC-13 - Akzo Chemicals International B.V.
Flon Showa 13 - Showa Denko K.K.
Forane 13 - ARKEMA SA
Freon-13 - DuPont Fluoroproducts
Frigen 13 - Solvay Fluor GMBH
75-72-9
Genetron 13 - Quimobasicos s.a. de c.v.
Genetron 13 - Honeywell (formerly Allied-Signal Inc.)
Genetron 503 - Quimobasicos s.a. de c.v.
Genetron 503 - Honeywell (formerly Allied-Signal
Inc.)
ISCEON 13 – Rhodia
R-503
CFC-111 (C2FCl5)
Pentachlorofluoroethane
R-111
CFC-112 (C2F2Cl4)
Tetrachlorodifluoroethane
R-112
354-56-3
76-12-0
CFC-211 (C3FCl7)
Heptachlorofluoropropane
422-78-6
CFC-212 (C3F2Cl6)
Hexachlorodifluoropropane
3182-26-1
CFC-213 (C3F3Cl5)
Pentachlorotrifluoropropane
2354-06-5
CFC-214 (C3F4Cl4)
Tetrachlorotetrafluoropropane
29255-31-0
CFC-215 (C3F5Cl3)
Trichloropentafluoropropane
4259-43-2
CFC-216 (C3F6Cl2)
Dichlorohexafluoropropane
661-97-2
CFC-217 (C3F7Cl)
Chloroheptafluoropropane
422-86-6
185
186
CCI4
Carbon tetrachloride
Methyl Chloroform (C2H3Cl3)
1,1,1-trichloroethane
Carbon tetrachloride - Riedelde Haen AG.
Carbon Tetrachloride - Mitsui Toatsu Chemicals Inc.
Carbon Tetrachloride - Kureha Chemical Industry Co.,
Ltd.
Dowfume 75 - Dow AgroSciences LLC
Freon 10 - DuPont Fluoroproducts
Necatorina - Unknown
Necatorine - Unknown
56-23-5
Sienkatanso - Kanto Denka Kogyo Co.
SIENKATANSO - Kanto Denka Kogyo Co.
Tetrafinol - Unknown
Tetraform - Unknown
Tetrasol - Unknown
Univerm - Unknown
Vermoestricid - Unknown
Volcan Formula 72 - Unknown
1,1,1-tri - Vulcan Chemicals
111 Tri - Vulcan Chemicals
A D Delco Fabric - Chem-Tek America
Aerolex - National Chemsearch
Aerothene (R) TA Solvent - Dow Chemical Co.
Aerothene (R) TT Solvent (Aerosol Grade) - Dow
Chemical Co.
Alpha 1220 - Alpha Metals
Aquadry 50 - Asahi Chemical Industry Co. Ltd.
Ardrox - Chemetall Asia Pte. Ltd. (formerly Brent
Asia)
Ardrox D495A Developer - Chemetall Asia Pte. Ltd.
(formerly Brent Asia)
Ardrox K410C Remover - Chemetall Asia Pte. Ltd.
(formerly Brent Asia)
Arrow C190 LEC - Arrow Chemicals
Asahitriethane ALS - Asahi Glass Co. Ltd.
Asahitriethane BS - Asahi Glass Co. Ltd.
Asahitriethane EC Grade - Asahi Glass Co. Ltd.
Asahitriethane LS - Asahi Glass Co. Ltd.
Asahitriethane UT - Asahi Glass Co. Ltd.
Asahitriethane V5 - Asahi Glass Co. Ltd.
Baltane - ARKEMA SA
B-Lube - National Chemsearch
C-60 - Sprayway, Inc.
CG Triethane F - Central Glass Co. Ltd.
CG Triethane N - Central Glass Co. Ltd.
186
71-55-6
187
CG Triethane NN - Central Glass Co. Ltd.
CG Triethane NNA - Central Glass Co. Ltd.
Chemlok 252 - Lord Corp.
Chem-Slich - National Chemsearch
Chem-Slick - National Chemsearch
Chlorothene (R) - Dow Chemical Co.
Chlorothene (R) NU - Dow Chemical Co.
Chlorothene (R) SL - Dow Chemical Co.
Chlorothene (R) SM - Dow Chemical Co.
Chlorothene (R) VG - Dow Chemical Co.
Chlorothene (R) XL - Dow Chemical Co.
CRC226 - CRC Industries Australia Pty Ltd.
Dowclene (R) EC - Dow Chemical Co.
Dowclene (R) EC-CS - Dow Chemical Co.
Dowclene (R) LS - Dow Chemical Co.
Electrosolv - Unitor Ships Service
Ethana AL - Asahi Chemical Industry Co. Ltd.
Ethana FXN - Asahi Chemical Industry Co. Ltd.
Ethana HT - Asahi Chemical Industry Co. Ltd.
Ethana IRN - Asahi Chemical Industry Co. Ltd.
Ethana NU - Asahi Chemical Industry Co. Ltd.
Ethana RD - Asahi Chemical Industry Co. Ltd.
Ethana RS - Asahi Chemical Industry Co. Ltd.
Ethana SL - Asahi Chemical Industry Co. Ltd.
Ethana TS - Asahi Chemical Industry Co. Ltd.
Ethana VG - Asahi Chemical Industry Co. Ltd.
Film Cleaning Grade methyl chloroform - Dow
Chemical Co.
Genklene A - INEOS Fluor
Genklene LV - INEOS Fluor
Genklene LVJ - INEOS Fluor
Genklene LVS - INEOS Fluor
Genklene LVX - INEOS Fluor
Genklene N - INEOS Fluor
Genklene P - INEOS Fluor
Genklene PT - INEOS Fluor
Gex - National Chemsearch
GEX - National Chemsearch
JS-536B - Chiland Enterprise Co. Ltd.
Kanden Triethane E - Kanto Denka Kogyo Co.
Kanden Triethane EL - Kanto Denka Kogyo Co.
Kanden Triethane ELV - Kanto Denka Kogyo Co.
Kanden Triethane EP - Kanto Denka Kogyo Co.
187
188
Kanden Triethane H - Kanto Denka Kogyo Co.
Kanden Triethane HA - Kanto Denka Kogyo Co.
Kanden Triethane HAK - Kanto Denka Kogyo Co.
Kanden Triethane HB - Kanto Denka Kogyo Co.
Kanden Triethane HC - Kanto Denka Kogyo Co.
Kanden Triethane HF - Kanto Denka Kogyo Co.
Kanden Triethane HG - Kanto Denka Kogyo Co.
Kanden Triethane HS - Kanto Denka Kogyo Co.
Kanden Triethane HT - Kanto Denka Kogyo Co.
Kanden Triethane N - Kanto Denka Kogyo Co.
Kanden Triethane ND - Kanto Denka Kogyo Co.
Kanden Triethane R - Kanto Denka Kogyo Co.
Kanden Triethane SR - Kanto Denka Kogyo Co.
Kanden Triethane SRA - Kanto Denka Kogyo Co.
Krylon Dulling Spray - Sherwin Williams Co.
Lectra Clean - CRC Industries Australia Pty Ltd.
Methyl Chloroform Low Stabilized - Dow Chemical
Co.
Methyl Chloroform Low Stabilized - PW - Dow
Chemical Co.
Methyl Chloroform Technical - Dow Chemical Co.
Molybkombin UMFT4 - Klueber Lubrification
Molybkombin UMFT4 Spray - Klueber Lubrification
MS-136N - Miller Stephenson Chemical Company
Inc.
MS-136N/CO2 - Miller Stephenson Chemical
Company Inc.
MV3 - Rocol Ltd.
NC-123 - National Chemsearch
New Dine T - Yokohama Polymer Co., Ltd.
Nicrobraz Cement 500RTS - Wall Colmonoy
Nicrobraz Cement xxx - Wall Colmonoy
Nilos Solution TLT70 - Nilos Hans Ziller-KG
Norchem ACC 572 - Goldcrest International
PC81x - Multicore Solders Inc.
Prelete® - Dow Chemical Co.
Proact ® - Dow Chemical Co.
Propaklone - INEOS Fluor
Rust Inhibitor B007 - Crown Industrial Products
S.E.M.I. Grade - Dow Chemical Co.
Safety Solvent 8060 - Crown Industrial Products
Shine Pearl - Toagosei Co.
Solvent Cleaner/Degreas. C60 - Sprayway, Inc.
188
189
Solvethane - Solvay Fluor GMBH
SonicSolve xxx - London Chemical Co. (Lonco)
SS-25 - National Chemsearch
Sunlovely - National Chemsearch
Sunlovely - Asahi Glass Co. Ltd.
Super solution - Pang Rubber Co.
Swish - National Chemsearch
Tafclen - Asahi Chemical Industry Co. Ltd.
Tempilaq - Tempil, Inc.
Three Bond 1802 - Three Bond Tec(s) Pte. Ltd.
Three Bond xxx - Three Bond Tec(s) Pte. Ltd.
Three one - Toagosei Co.
Three One-A - Toagosei Co.
Three One-AH - Toagosei Co.
Three One-EX - Toagosei Co.
Three One-F - Toagosei Co.
Three One-HS - Toagosei Co.
Three One-R - Toagosei Co.
Three One-S - Toagosei Co.
Three One-S(M) - Toagosei Co.
Three One-T - Toagosei Co.
Three One-TH - Toagosei Co.
Tipp-Ex - Toagosei Co.
Toyoclean - Tosoh
Toyoclean AL - Tosoh
Toyoclean ALS - Tosoh
Toyoclean EE - Tosoh
Toyoclean EM - Tosoh
Toyoclean HS - Tosoh
Toyoclean IC - Tosoh
Toyoclean NH - Tosoh
Toyoclean O - Tosoh
Toyoclean SE - Tosoh
Toyoclean T - Tosoh
Triethane PPG - Tosoh
Methyl Bromide (CH3Br)
50-50 Preplant Soil Fumigant - AmeriBrom, Inc.
(subsidiary of Dead Sea Bromine Group)
57-43 Preplant Soil Fumigant - AmeriBrom, Inc.
(subsidiary of Dead Sea Bromine Group)
67-33 - Great Lakes Chemical Corporation
67-33 Preplant Soil Fumigation - AmeriBrom, Inc.
(subsidiary of Dead Sea Bromine Group)
70-30 Preplant Soil Fumigation - AmeriBrom, Inc.
189
74-83-9
190
(subsidiary of Dead Sea Bromine Group)
75-25 Preplant Soil Fumigation - AmeriBrom, Inc.
(subsidiary of Dead Sea Bromine Group)
80-20 Preplant Soil Fumigation - AmeriBrom, Inc.
(subsidiary of Dead Sea Bromine Group)
98-2 - Great Lakes Chemical Corporation
98-2 - AmeriBrom, Inc. (subsidiary of Dead Sea
Bromine Group)
Agrobromo 50 - Agroquímicos de Levante S.A.
Agrobromo 98 - Agroquímicos de Levante S.A.
Agro-O-Gas 50 - Cerexagri SA
Ameribrom Methyl Bromide - Grain Fumigant AmeriBrom, Inc. (subsidiary of Dead Sea Bromine
Group)
Bercema - Unknown
BROM 70/30 - Soil Chemicals Corporation
Brom O Gas - Cerexagri SA
BROM-76 - Soil Chemicals Corporation
BRO-MEAN C-2R - Reddick Fumigants Inc.
BRO-MEAN C-33 - Reddick Fumigants Inc.
BRO-MEAN C-O - Reddick Fumigants Inc.
Bromocoop (with methyl bromide) - Vinexport S.A.
Bromofifty - Bromine Compounds Ltd. (a subsidiary
of Dead Sea Bromine Company, Ltd.
Brom-O-Gas - Great Lakes Chemical Corporation
Brom-O-Gas 0.25% - Great Lakes Chemical
Corporation
Brom-O-Gas 0.5% - Great Lakes Chemical
Corporation
Brom-O-Gas 2% - Great Lakes Chemical Corporation
Brom-O-Gas R - Great Lakes Chemical Corporation
Bromopic - Bromine Compounds Ltd. (a subsidiary of
Dead Sea Bromine Company, Ltd.
Brom-O-Sol - Great Lakes Chemical Corporation
Brom-O-Sol 90 - Great Lakes Chemical Corporation
Brozone Preplant Soil Fumigant - Dow AgroSciences
LLC
Celfume - Unknown
Curafume - Unknown
Dowfume MC-2 soil fumigant - Unknown
Dowfume MC-33 soil fumigant - Albemarle
Corporation
EDCO - Unknown
190
191
Embafume - Unknown
Halon 1001 - Unknown
Haltox - Unknown
Iscabrome - Unknown
Iscobrome - Unknown
Kayafume - Unknown
MB 98-2 Penetrating Fumigant - Asgrow Florida Co.
MBC Soil Fumigant - Hendrix and Dail, Inc.
MBC Soil Fumigant Concentrate - Hendrix and Dail,
Inc.
MBC-33 Soil Fumigant - Hendrix and Dail, Inc.
M-B-R 2 Pentrating Fumigating - Albemarle
Corporation
M-B-R 75 - Albemarle Corporation
Mebrom 100 - Mebrom N.V.
Mebrom 50/50 - Mebrom N.V.
Mebrom 67/33 - Mebrom N.V.
Mebrom 75/25 - Mebrom N.V.
Mebrom 98 - Mebrom N.V.
Mebrom AA - Mebrom N.V.
Metabrom - Bromine Compounds Ltd. (a subsidiary of
Dead Sea Bromine Company, Ltd.
Metabrom 100 - AmeriBrom, Inc. (subsidiary of Dead
Sea Bromine Group)
Metabrom 98 - AmeriBrom, Inc. (subsidiary of Dead
Sea Bromine Group)
Metabrom 99 - AmeriBrom, Inc. (subsidiary of Dead
Sea Bromine Group)
Metabrom Q - AmeriBrom, Inc. (subsidiary of Dead
Sea Bromine Group)
Metafume - Unknown
Meth-O-Gas 100 - Great Lakes Chemical Corporation
Meth-O-Gas Q - Great Lakes Chemical Corporation
Methyl bromide - ARKEMA SA
Methyl bromide - Ethyl Corporation
Methyl bromide - Nippoh Chemical Co., Ltd.
Methyl bromide - Sanko Chemical Industry Co. Ltd.
Methyl bromide - Dohkai Chemical Industry Co., Ltd.
Methyl bromide - SC Sinteza SA
Methyl bromide - Ichikawa Gohsei Chemical Co., Ltd.
Methyl bromide - Chemicrea Co. Ltd.
Methyl bromide - Lianyungang Seawater Chemical
First Plant (Linanyung Dead Sea Bromine)
191
192
Methyl bromide - Zhejiang Linhai Limin Chemical
Plant
Methyl bromide - M/S Tata Chemicals Ltd.
Methyl bromide - Saki Chemical Plant
Methyl Bromide - Great Lakes Chemical Corporation
Methyl bromide - Teijin Chemicals Ltd.
Methyl bromide - Asahi Glass Co. Ltd.
Methyl Bromide 100 - AmeriBrom, Inc. (subsidiary of
Dead Sea Bromine Group)
Methyl Bromide 100 - Soil Chemicals Corporation
Methyl Bromide 100% - Dead Sea Bromine Co., Ltd.
Methyl Bromide 50% - Dead Sea Bromine Co., Ltd.
Methyl Bromide 50kg cylinder - Taizhou Xingye
Chemical Factory
Methyl Bromide 67% - Dead Sea Bromine Co., Ltd.
Methyl Bromide 681g/Tin, 24Tin/box - Taizhou
Xingye Chemical Factory
Methyl Bromide 89.5% - Trical
Methyl bromide 98 (M-B-R 98) - Albemarle
Corporation
Methyl Bromide 98% - Dead Sea Bromine Co., Ltd.
Methyl Bromide 98% - Soil Chemicals Corporation
Methyl Bromide 99.5 - Great Lakes Chemical
Corporation
Methyl Bromide 99.5% - Shadow Mountain Products
Corporation
Methyl Bromide 99.5% - Soil Chemicals Corporation
Methyl Bromide 99.75% - Soil Chemicals Corporation
Methyl Bromide Quarantine Fumigant - Soil
Chemicals Corporation
Methyl Bromide Technical (M-B-R 98 Technical) Albemarle Corporation
Methyl Bromide, 100% - Penglai Chemical, Inc.
Methyl Bromide, 98%+2% Chloropicrin - Penglai
Chemical, Inc.
Pestmaster - Michigan Chemical Corp.
PIC BROM 25 - Soil Chemicals Corporation
PIC BROM 33 - Soil Chemicals Corporation
PIC BROM 43 - Soil Chemicals Corporation
PIC BROM 50 - Soil Chemicals Corporation
PIC BROM 55 - Soil Chemicals Corporation
PIC BROM 67 - Soil Chemicals Corporation
Rootect Oil (with DCIP) - Unknown
192
193
Rotox - Unknown
Sanibrom S Biocide Technical - Great Lakes Chemical
Corporation
SCL Methyl Bromide 98 - Soil Chemicals Corporation
Terabol - Unknown
Terr-O-Cide II - Great Lakes Chemical Corporation
Terr-O-Gas - Cerexagri SA
Terr-O-Gas 33 Prelant soil fumigant - Great Lakes
Chemical Corporation
Terr-O-Gas 33 preplant soil fumigant - Great Lakes
Chemical Corporation
Terr-O-Gas 45 preplant soil fumigant - Great Lakes
Chemical Corporation
Terr-O-Gas 50 preplant soil fumigant - Great Lakes
Chemical Corporation
Terr-O-Gas 57 preplant soil fumigant - Great Lakes
Chemical Corporation
Terr-O-Gas 67 preplant soil fumigant - Great Lakes
Chemical Corporation
Terr-O-Gas 70 preplant soil fumigant - Great Lakes
Chemical Corporation
Terr-O-Gas 75 preplant soil fumigant - Great Lakes
Chemical Corporation
Terr-O-Gas 80 preplant soil fumigant - Great Lakes
Chemical Corporation
Terr-O-Gas 98 preplant soil fumigant - Great Lakes
Chemical Corporation
Terrogel 67 - Great Lakes Chemical Corporation
TRI-BROM - TriCal
TRI-CON 45/55 - TriCal
TRI-CON 50/50 Preplant Soil Fumigant - TriCal
TRI-CON 57/43 Preplant Soil Fumigant - TriCal
TRI-CON 67/33 Preplant Soil Fumigant - TriCal
TRI-CON 75/25 Preplant Soil Fumigant - TriCal
TRI-CON 76/24 Preplant Soil Fumigant - TriCal
TRI-CON 80/20 Preplant Soil Fumigant - TriCal
Zytox - Unknown
CHFBr2
Dibromofluoromethane
1868-53-7
HBFC-12B1 (CHF2Br)
Bromodifluoromethane
1511-62-2
CH2FBr
373-52-4
193
194
Bromofluoromethane
C2HFBr4
C2HF2Br3
C2HF3Br2
1,2-Dibromo-1,1,2-trifluoroethane
FC-123B2
C2HF4Br
1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoro-2-bromoethane
1-Bromo-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane
354-04-1
124-72-1
354-07-4
C2H2FBr3
C2H2F2Br2
1,1-Dibromo-2,2-difluoroethane
1,2-Dibromo-1,1-difluoroethane
359-19-3
75-82-1
C2H2F3Br
C2H3FBr2
1,2-Dibromo-1-fluoroethane; 1,2Dibromofluoroethane
358-97-4
C2H3F2Br
2-Bromo-1,1-difluoroethane
1-Bromo-1,1-difluoroethane
359-07-9
420-47-3
C2H4FBr
1-Bromo-2-fluoroethane; 2Fluoroethyl bromide
FC-151B1
762-49-2
C3HFBr6
C3HF2Br5
C3HF3Br4
C3HF4Br3
C3HF5Br2
C3HF6Br
1-Bromo-1,1,2,3,3,3hexafluoropropane
2252-78-0
C3H2FBr5
C3H2F2Br4
C3H2F3Br3
1,2,2-Tribromo-3,3,3trifluoropropane
C3H2F4Br2
1,3-Dibromo-1,1,3,3-
194
195
tetrafluoropropane
C3H2F5Br
C3H3FBr4
C3H3F2Br3
1,2,3-Tribromo-3,3-difluoropropane
C3H3F3Br2
1,2-Dibromo-3,3,3-trifluoropropane;
2,3-Dibromo-1,1,1-trifluoropropane
431-21-0
C3H3F4Br
C3H4FBr3
C3H4F2Br2
1,3-Dibromo-1,1-difluoropropane
460-25-3
C3H4F3Br
3-Bromo-1,1,1-trifluoropropane
460-32-2
C3H5FBr2
C3H5F2Br
C3H6FBr
Propane, 1-bromo-2-fluoro1-Bromo-3-fluoropropane
1871-72-3
352-91-0
CH2BrCl
Chlorobromomethane
74-97-5
Restricted blends
Free Zone
Freeze 12
FRIGC
FR-12
FX-10
FX-56
GHG-HP
GHG-X4
GHG-X5
G2018C
Hotshot
HP-80
HP-81
Isceon 69-L
MP-39
MP-52
MP-66
NARM-502
195
196
R-176
R-401A
R-401B
R-401C
R-402A
R-402B
R-403B
R-406A
R-408A
R-409A
R-411A
R-411B
R-414A
R-414B
196
197
Class II
Trade Names
Chemical Name
HCFC-21 (CHFCl2)
Dichlorofluoromethane
HCFC-22 (CHF2Cl)
Monochlorodifluoromethane
CAS
Number
Khladon Fluorocarbon R21
Fluorodichloromethane - JSC "Halogen" Russia 75-43-4
Algofrene 22 - Montefluos S.P.A.
Algofrene 22 - Ausimont SPA
Algofrene 502 - Ausimont SPA
Arcton 22 - INEOS Fluor
Arcton 402A - INEOS Fluor
Arcton 402B - INEOS Fluor
Arcton 408A - INEOS Fluor
Arcton 409A - INEOS Fluor
Arcton 412A - INEOS Fluor
Arcton 502 - INEOS Fluor
Arcton 509 - INEOS Fluor
Arcton TP5R - INEOS Fluor
Arcton TP5R2 - INEOS Fluor
Asahifron R-22 - Asahi Glass Co. Ltd.
Asahifron R-502 - Asahi Glass Co. Ltd.
Daiflon 22 - Daikin Industries Ltd.
Daiflon 502 - Daikin Industries Ltd.
Di 36 - Ausimont SPA
75-45-6
Di 44 - Ausimont SPA
Dymel 22 - DuPont-Mitsui Fluorochemicals Co.
Ltd
Flon Showa 22 - Showa Denko K.K.
Flon Showa 502 - Showa Denko K.K.
Floron 22 - SRF Limited
Flugene 22 - Continental Industries
Flugene 22 - Sicno Chemical Industries of
Northern Greece
Forane 22 - ARKEMA SA
Forane 502 - ARKEMA SA
Forane FX 10 - ARKEMA SA
Forane FX 20 - ARKEMA SA
Forane FX 55 - ARKEMA SA
Forane FX 56 - ARKEMA SA
Forane FX 57 - ARKEMA SA
Formacel S - DuPont-Mitsui Fluorochemicals
Co. Ltd
197
198
Freon 22 - DuPont Fluoroproducts
Freon-22 - DuPont Fluoroproducts
Freon-502 - DuPont Fluoroproducts
Frigen 22 - Solvay Fluor GMBH
FX-56 - ARKEMA SA
G2015 - Greencool
G2018A - Greencool
G2018B - Greencool
G2018C - Greencool
Genetron 22 - Quimobasicos s.a. de c.v.
Genetron 22 - Honeywell (formerly AlliedSignal Inc.)
Genetron 408A - Honeywell (formerly AlliedSignal Inc.)
Genetron 409A - Honeywell (formerly AlliedSignal Inc.)
Genetron 502 - Honeywell (formerly AlliedSignal Inc.)
Genetron 502 - Quimobasicos s.a. de c.v.
Genetron HP80 - Honeywell (formerly AlliedSignal Inc.)
Genetron HP81 - Honeywell (formerly AlliedSignal Inc.)
Genetron MP39 - Honeywell (formerly AlliedSignal Inc.)
Genetron MP66 - Honeywell (formerly AlliedSignal Inc.)
GHG - Monroe Air Tech
GHG12 - ICOR International (formerly
Indianapolis Refrigeration Co. Inc.)
GHG-HP - People's Welding Supply
GHG-X4 - People's Welding Supply
GHG-X5 - People's Welding Supply
HCFC-22 - Chemical Industries of Northern
Greece SA
HCFC-22 - Chemicals and Plastics India Ltd.
HCFC-22 - Firefreeze International
HCFC-22 - Gujarat Fluorochemicals Ltd.
HCFC-22 - Hankook Shin Hwa
HCFC-22 - SRF Limited
HCFC-22 - Daikin Industries Ltd.
Hot Shot - ICOR International (formerly
Indianapolis Refrigeration Co. Inc.)
198
199
ISCEON 22 - Rhodia
ISCEON 502 - Rhodia
ISCEON 69-L - Rhodia
ISCEON 69S - Rhodia
Khladon Fluorocarbon R22
Difluorochloromethane - JSC "Halogen" Russia
Korfron 22 - Ulsan Chemical Co., Ltd.
Mc Cool R-12 - McMullen Oil Products Inc.
NAF P-III - North American Fire Guardian
NAF S III - Safety Hi-Tech srl
NAF S-III - North American Fire Guardian
NARM-502 - Moncton Refrigerants
Oxyfume 2002 - Honeywell (formerly AlliedSignal Inc.)
R22 - Protocol Resource Management Inc.
R502 - Protocol Resource Management Inc.
Solkane 22 - Solvay Fluor GMBH
Solkane 22/142b blends - Solvay Fluor GMBH
Solkane 406A - Solvay Fluor GMBH
Solkane 409A - Solvay Fluor GMBH
Suva HP80 - DuPont Fluoroproducts
Suva HP81 - DuPont Fluoroproducts
Suva MP39 - DuPont Fluoroproducts
Suva MP52 - DuPont Fluoroproducts
Suva MP66 - DuPont Fluoroproducts
Taisoton 22 - Formosa Plastics
HCFC-31 (CH2FCl)
Monochlorofluoromethane
593-70-4
HCFC-121 (C2HFCl4)
Tetrachlorofluoroethane
354-14-3
HCFC-122 (C2HF2Cl3)
Trichlorodifluoroethane
354-21-2
HCFC-123 (C2HF3Cl2)
Dichlorotrifluoroethane
Asahiklin AK-123 - Asahi Glass Co. Ltd.
Blitz III - North American Fire Guardian
FE-232 - DuPont Fluoroproducts
Forane 123 - ARKEMA SA
Genesolv 2123 - Honeywell (formerly AlliedSignal Inc.)
Genesolv 2127 - Honeywell (formerly AlliedSignal Inc.)
Genetron 123 - Honeywell (formerly AlliedSignal Inc.)
199
306-83-2
200
Halotron 1 - North American Fire Guardian
Halotron I - American Pacific
Corporation/Halotron, Inc.
HCFC-123 - Especial Gas Inc.
HCFC-123 Generic - Kanto Denka Kogyo Co.
Meforex 123 - Ausimont SPA
NAF P III - Safety Hi-Tech srl
NAF P IV - Safety Hi-Tech srl
NAF P-III - North American Fire Guardian
NAF S III - Safety Hi-Tech srl
NAF S-III - North American Fire Guardian
R123 - Protocol Resource Management Inc.
R-123 - Foosung Tech Corporation
Solkane 123 - Solvay Fluor GMBH
Suva 123 - DuPont Fluoroproducts
Vertrel 423 - DuPont-Mitsui Fluorochemicals
Co. Ltd
HCFC-124 (C2HF4Cl)
Monochlorotetrafluoroethane
Arcton 409A - INEOS Fluor
Asahiklin AK-124 - Asahi Glass Co. Ltd.
Di 24 - Ausimont SPA
Di 36 - Ausimont SPA
FE-241 - DuPont Fluoroproducts
Forane FX 56 - ARKEMA SA
Forane FX 57 - ARKEMA SA
FRIGC - IGC Intermagnetics General
FRIGC FR-12 - Intermagnetics General
FRIGC FR-12 - CFC Refimax, LLC
FX-56 - ARKEMA SA
Genetron 124 - Honeywell (formerly Allied2837-89Signal Inc.)
Genetron 409A - Honeywell (formerly Allied- 0
Signal Inc.)
Genetron MP39 - Honeywell (formerly AlliedSignal Inc.)
Genetron MP66 - Honeywell (formerly AlliedSignal Inc.)
GHG-X4 - People's Welding Supply
HCFC-124 - InterCool Energy Corporation
Hot Shot - ICOR International (formerly
Indianapolis Refrigeration Co. Inc.)
Meforex 124 - Ausimont SPA
NAF P III - Safety Hi-Tech srl
NAF P-III - North American Fire Guardian
200
201
NAF S III - Safety Hi-Tech srl
NAF S-III - North American Fire Guardian
Oxyfume 2000 - Honeywell (formerly AlliedSignal Inc.)
Oxyfume 2002 - Honeywell (formerly AlliedSignal Inc.)
Solkane 409A - Solvay Fluor GMBH
Suva 124 - DuPont Fluoroproducts
Suva MP39 - DuPont Fluoroproducts
Suva MP52 - DuPont Fluoroproducts
Suva MP66 - DuPont Fluoroproducts
HCFC-131 (C2H2FCl3)
Trichlorofluoroethane
359-28-4
HCFC-132b (C2H2F2Cl2)
Dichlorodifluoroethane
1649-087
HCFC-133a (C2H2F3Cl)
Monochlorotrifluoroethane
75-88-7
HCFC-141b (C2H3FCl2)
Dichlorofluoroethane
HCFC-142b (C2H3F2Cl)
Monochlorodifluoroethane
Asahiklin AK-141b - Asahi Glass Co. Ltd.
Forane 141b - ARKEMA SA
Friogas 141b - Galco
Genesolv 2000 - Honeywell (formerly AlliedSignal Inc.)
Genesolv 2004 - Honeywell (formerly AlliedSignal Inc.)
Genetron 141b - Honeywell (formerly AlliedSignal Inc.)
HCFC-141b - Roche Chemicals Inc.
1717-00HCFC-141b - Central Glass Co. Ltd.
6
HCFC-141b - Daikin Industries Ltd.
HCFC-141b MS - Daikin Industries Ltd.
HyperClean Circuit Cleaner - Micro Care Corp
Korfron 141b - Ulsan Chemical Co., Ltd.
Meforex 141b - Ausimont SPA
Polioi Poliuretano ICI - INEOS Fluor
Solkane 141b - Solvay Fluor GMBH
Solkane 141b CN - Solvay Fluor GMBH
Solkane 141b DH - Solvay Fluor GMBH
Solkane 141b MA - Solvay Fluor GMBH
Solkane 141b WE - Solvay Fluor GMBH
Arcton 409A - INEOS Fluor
Arcton 412A - INEOS Fluor
Arcton TP5R - INEOS Fluor
201
75-68-3
202
Asahiklin AK-142b - Asahi Glass Co. Ltd.
Daiflon 142b - Daikin Industries Ltd.
Dymel 142b - DuPont-Mitsui Fluorochemicals
Co. Ltd
Forane 142b - ARKEMA SA
Forane FX 55 - ARKEMA SA
Forane FX 56 - ARKEMA SA
Forane FX 57 - ARKEMA SA
Free Zone RB-276 - Refrigerant Gases
Freeze 12 - Technical Chemical Co.
Freezone - Freezone Inc. (formerly Patriot
Consumer Products Inc.)
FX-56 - ARKEMA SA
G2015 - Greencool
Genetron 142b - Honeywell (formerly AlliedSignal Inc.)
Genetron 409A - Honeywell (formerly AlliedSignal Inc.)
GHG - Monroe Air Tech
GHG12 - ICOR International (formerly
Indianapolis Refrigeration Co. Inc.)
GHG-HP - People's Welding Supply
GHG-X4 - People's Welding Supply
GHG-X5 - People's Welding Supply
HCFC-142b - Daikin Industries Ltd.
HCFC-142b - Central Glass CO. Ltd.
HCFC-142b - Roche Chemicals Inc.
Hot Shot - ICOR International (formerly
Indianapolis Refrigeration Co. Inc.)
Korfron 142b - Ulsan Chemical Co., Ltd.
Mc Cool R-12 - McMullen Oil Products Inc.
Meforex 142b - Ausimont SPA
Solkane 142b - Solvay Fluor GMBH
Solkane 22/142b blends - Solvay Fluor GMBH
Solkane 406A - Solvay Fluor GMBH
Solkane 409A - Solvay Fluor GMBH
HCFC-221 (C3HFCl6)
Hexachlorofluoropropane
422-26-4
HCFC-222 (C3HF2Cl5)
Pentachlorodifluoropropane
422-49-1
HCFC-223 (C3HF3Cl4)
Tetrachlorotrifluoropropane
422-52-6
202
203
HCFC-224 (C3HF4Cl3)
Trichlorotetrafluoropropane
422-54-8
HCFC-225ca (C3HF5Cl2)
Dichloropentafluoropropane
422-56-0
HCFC-225cb (C3HF5Cl2)
Dichloropentafluoropropane
507-55-1
HCFC-226 (C3HF6Cl)
Monochlorohexafluoropropane
431-87-8
HCFC-231 (C3H2FCl5)
Pentachlorofluoropropane
421-94-3
HCFC-232 (C3H2F2Cl4)
Tetrachlorodifluoropropane
460-89-9
HCFC-233 (C3H2F3Cl3)
Trichlorotrifluoropropane
7125-840
HCFC-234 (C3H2F4Cl2)
Dichlorotetrafluoropropane
425-94-5
HCFC-235 (C3H2F5Cl)
Monochloropentafluoropropane
460-92-4
HCFC-241 (C3H3FCl4)
Tetrachlorofluoropropane
666-27-3
HCFC-242 (C3H3F2Cl3)
Trichlorodifluoropropane
460-63-9
HCFC-243 (C3H3F3Cl2)
Dichlorotrifluoropropane
460-69-5
HCFC-244 (C3H3F4Cl)
Monochlorotetrafluoropropane
679-856
HCFC-251 (C3H4FCl3)
Trichlorofluoropropane
421-41-0
HCFC-252 (C3H4F2Cl2)
Dichlorodifluoropropane
819-00-1
HCFC-253 (C3H4F3Cl)
Monochlorotrifluoropropane
460-35-5
HCFC-261 (C3H5FCl2)
Dichlorofluoropropane
420-97-3
HCFC-262 (C3H5F2Cl)
Monochlorodifluoropropane
421-0203
HCFC-271 (C3H6FCl)
430-55-7
203
204
Monochlorofluoropropane
204
205
6. GOVERNMENT CONTACTS (CHAPTERS 36, 37, 38)
U.S. Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Marketing Service
Washington, DC 20250
Tel. 202.720.8998
www.ams.usda.gov
Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)
Animals:
USDA-APHIS-VS
Riverdale, MD 20737–1231
Tel. 301.734.7885
Plants:
USDA-APHIS-PPQ
Riverdale, MD 20737–1231
Tel. 301.734.8896
www.aphis.usda.gov
Food Safety and Inspection Service
Import Inspection Division
Landmark Center
1299 Farnam, Suite 300
Omaha, NE 68102
Tel. 402.221.7400
Foreign Agricultural Service
Room 5531-S
Washington, D.C. 20250-1000
Tel. 202.720.2916
Fax 202.720.8076
www.usda.gov
U.S. Department of Commerce
Exporter Counseling Division
14th Street & Pennsylvania Ave., N.W.
Washington, DC 20230
Tel. 202.482.4811
www.bxa.doc.gov
National Marine Fisheries Service Headquarters
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
205
206
1315 East-West Highway
Silver Spring, MD 20910
Tel. 301.713.2289
NMFS Southwest Region
Protected Species Management Division
501 West Ocean Blvd.
Long Beach, CA 90802-4213
Tel. 562.980.4019
www.kingfish.ssp.nms.gov
Federal Communications Commission
Laboratory Division
7435 Oakland Mills Road
Columbia, MD 21046
Tel. 301.362.3000
www.fcc.gov
U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission
Office of Compliance
4330 East West Highway
Bethesda, MD 20814
Tel. 301.504.0608
Fax 301.504.0359
www.cpsc.gov
Environmental Protection Agency
Hazardous Materials Hotline
1.800.424.9346
TSCA Assistance Information Service
Tel. 202.554.1404
Motor Vehicles Investigation/lmports Section
2000 Traverwood Drive
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
Attn: Imports Division
Tel. 734.214.4100
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Food and Drug Administration
Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research
1401 Rockville Pike
Suite 200 North
206
207
Rockville, MD 20852
Tel. 301.827.6201
www.fda.gov/cber
Center for Drug Evaluation and Research
7520 Standish Place
Rockville, MD 20855
Tel. 301.594.3150
www.fda.gov/cber
Center for Devices and Radiological Health
Rockville, MD 20850
Tel. 301.594.4692
www.fda.gov/cber
Division of Import Operations and Policy (HFC–170)
5600 Fishers Lane
Rockville, MD 20857
Tel. 301.443.6553
Fax 301.594.0413
www.fda.gov/ora/import
Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition
Office of Food Labeling (HFS–156)
200 “C” St., NW
Washington, DC 20204
Tel. 202.205.4606
http//vm.cfsan.fda.gov
Office of Seafood
Washington, DC 20005
Tel. 202.418.3150
U.S. Public Health Service
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Office of Health and Safety
1600 Clifton Road
Atlanta, Georgia 30333
Tel. 404.639.3235
www.cdc.gov
U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Codes and Standards
207
208
Washington, DC 20585
Tel. 202.586.9127
www.eren.doe.gov
U.S. Department of Homeland Security
U.S. Coast Guard
Office of Boating Safety
2100 Second Street, SW
Washington, DC 20593-0001
Tel. 202.267.1077
National Vessel Documentation Center
792 T.J. Jackson Drive
Falling Waters, W.Va. 25419-9502
Tel. 304.271.2400
Fax 304.271.2405
U.S. Customs and Border Protection
Office of Regulations and Rulings
1300 Pennsylvania Avenue NW
Washington, DC 20229
Tel. 202.572-8700
National Commodity Specialist Division
One Penn Plaza
11th Floor
New York, NY 10119
Tel. 201.443.0367
Fax 201.443.0595
Office of Field Operations
Trade Programs Division
1300 Pennsylvania Ave. NW
Washington, DC 20229
Tel. 202.344.0300
U.S. Department of the Interior
Fish and Wildlife Service
Office of Management Authority
4401 N. Fairfax Drive
Arlington, VA 22203
Tel. 703.358.2093
www.fws.gov
208
209
U.S. Department of Justice
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives
650 Massachusetts Avenue NW
Washington, DC 20226
Tel. 1.866.662.2750 (arms, ammunition, and explosives import licenses)
Drug Enforcement Administration
700 Army-Navy Drive
Arlington VA 22202
Tel. 202.307.7977
www.usdoj.gov/dea
Nuclear Regulatory Commission
Office of International Programs
One White Flint North
11555 Rockville Pike
Rockville, MD 20852
Tel. 301.415.7000
Federal Trade Commission
Bureau of Consumer Protection
Washington, DC 20580
Tel. 202.326.2996
Division of Enforcement
Washington, DC 20580
Tel. 202.326.2996
www.ftc.gov
International Trade Commission
500 “E” Street, SW
Washington, DC 20436
Tel. 202.205.2000
www.usitc.gov
U.S. Department of State
Office of Defense Trade Controls
Bureau of Political/Military Affairs
2401 "E" Street, NW
Washington, DC 20037
Tel. 202.663.2700
www.pmdtc.org
U.S. Department of Transportation
209
210
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
Office of Vehicle Safety Compliance (NEF-32)
400 7th Street SW
Washington, DC 20590
Tel. 1-800-424-9393
Fax 202.366.1024
www.nhtsa.dot.gov
Office of Hazardous Materials
400 7th Street SW
Washington, DC 20590-0001
Tel. 202.366.4488
U.S. Department of the Treasury
Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau
Washington, DC 20220
Tel. 1.877.882.3277
Email: [email protected] (alcohol importer’s basic permit, alcohol excise
taxes)
[email protected] (alcohol labeling, advertising, and formulation)
[email protected] (tobacco products)
[email protected] (firearms and ammunition excise tax)
Main Website: www.ttb.gov
Office of Foreign Assets Control
1500 Pennsylvania Avenue NW
Washington, DC 20220
Tel. 202.622.2500
Fax 202.622.1657
www.treas.gov/offices/enforcement/ofac/index.shtml
210
211
U.S. Customs and Border Protection
Washington, D.C. 20229
Report Suspicious Behavior
1-800-BE ALERT
CBP Publication No. 0000-0504
Revised November 2006
211

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