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NTB IBM Ad 03/02.qxd
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company, product and service names may be trademarks or service marks of others. ©2002 IBM Corp. All rights reserved.
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NTB Cover 03/02
March 2002
02/21/2002
10:31 AM
Page 1
www.nasatech.com
Vol. 26 No. 3
A Changing Climate for CAD
Data Analysis Software Enables Real-Time
Diagnosis of Complex Systems
Photonics Tech Briefs
NTB Nat. Inst. Ad 08/01.qxd
02/18/2002
4:22 PM
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NTB VX Ad 11/01.qxd
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NTB Contents 03/02*
02/19/2002
4:41 PM
Page 6
March 2002 • Vol. 26 No. 3
FEATURES
22
Application Briefs
24
A Changing Climate for CAD
SOLUTIONS
32
Technology Focus: Data Acquisition
32
Parallel-Processing High-Rate Digital Demodulator ASIC
33
Reusable Software for Autonomous Diagnosis of
Complex Systems
35
TAXI Direct-to-Disk Interface Demultiplexes Proprietarily
Formatted Data
37
Program Improves Transfer of Data From CAD to
Machine Shops
38
Compensating for Motion Errors in UWB SAR Data
40
Software
40
Program for International-Temperature-Scale Calculations
40
Updated Global Atmospheric Reference Model Computer
Programs
42
Gyroscope Automated Testbed
43
Electronic Components and Systems
43
Nanoelectronic Devices With Precise Atomic-Scale
Structures
44
Mounting Flip Chips on Heat-Dissipating, Matched-CTE
Boards
46
Lightweight, Dimensionally Stable Printing-Wiring Boards
50
Materials
50
Protective Solid Electrolyte Films for Thin Li-Ion Cells
22
24
79
DEPARTMENTS
6
12
Commercial Technology Team
14
UpFront
16
Reader Forum
18
Who's Who at NASA
20
NASA Patents
30
Technologies of the Month
82
Advertisers Index
52
Mechanics
52
Study of Turbulent Boundary Layer on the F-15B Airplane
55
Improved Alignment Mechanism for Robotic Drilling
79
Products/Software
58
Measuring Volume of Incompressible Liquid in a Rigid Tank
80
Literature
59
Machinery/Automation
59
Vision-Based Maneuvering and Manipulation by a
Mobile Robot
NEW
FOR
SPECIAL
DESIGN
ENGINEERS
SUPPLEMENT
1a - 22a
Photonics Tech Briefs
61
Manufacturing
61
Photolithographic Fine Patterning of Difficult-to-Etch Metals
63
Software for Optimized Flattening From 3D to 2D
64
Electron-Beam Welding of Superalloys at High Temperatures
www.nasatech.com
Follows page 42 in selected editions only.
NASA Tech Briefs, March 2002
NTB Algor Ad 03/02.qxd
02/18/2002
3:39 PM
Page 1
application of
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National HDTV Conversion Effort Requires
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analog TV to high-definition television (HDTV) with its ROCKETSOCKET™ Dead-end for guy wires, which supports the transmission towers that will be taller, bigger and heavier to bear HDTV's
dramatically improved wide screen digital audio/video information. PLP's customer base includes most of the nation's power
utility providers and communication providers such as Verizon,
Bell South and Adelphia in addition to a variety of resellers.
To design the dead-end to support the
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PLP engineers chose ALGOR to analyze
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for increased strength and toughness,
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The geometry was modeled in
PRO/ENGINEER, captured directly in ALGOR and then an
impact analysis was performed with ALGOR Mechanical Event
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For Free Info Circle No. 513 or Enter No. 513 at www.nasatech.com/rs
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NTB Contents 03/02*
02/19/2002
4:42 PM
Page 8
Contents continued
65
Bio-Medical
65
Petri-Dish Spreaders Sterilized by Electrical Heating
66
Quantifying Microbial Diversity Through Dilution/Extinction
68
Physical Sciences
68
Electrochemical Systems Generate Ozone and
Ozonated Water
70
Solar Simulator for a Portable Solar-Absorptance Instrument
71
Portable Instrument Detects Very Dilute Airborne Organics
73
Books and Reports
73
Quantum Mechanics of Harmonic Oscillator in
External Fields
73
Algorithms for Collision-Avoidant Formation Flying
73
Integrated Colloid Thrusters for Microspacecraft
PRODUCT
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14
ON
THE
COVER
75
Improvements in a Piezoelectrically Actuated Microvalve
Created with Autodesk Inventor 3D design
software from Autodesk (San Rafael, CA), this
image details the right-side rear end of a race
car by PacWest Racing Group of Indianapolis,
IN. The 2D drawing and 3D solid modeling
aspects highlighted in this image illustrate the
migration of 2D to 3D that many CAD users
are faced with today. The feature beginning
on page 24 includes insights from CAD industry
leaders on this and other issues facing the
CAD market.
75
Low-Energy Transfer From Near-Earth to Near-Moon Orbit
(Image created by John Helfen, Autodesk)
74
PCI Bridge to Instruments and Telecommunication Systems
74
Effect of Gravitation on Noninteracting Trapped Fermions
This document was prepared under the sponsorship of the National Aeronautics and Space
Administration. Neither Associated Business Publications Co., Ltd. nor the United States Government nor any person acting on behalf of the United States Government assumes any liability resulting from the use of the information contained in this document, or warrants that
such use will be free from privately owned rights. The U.S. Government does not endorse any
commercial product, process, or activity identified in this publication.
Permissions: Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use, or the internal or
personal use of specific clients, is granted by Associated Business Publications, provided that
the flat fee of $3.00 per copy be paid directly to the Copyright Clearance Center (222 Rose
Wood Dr., Danvers, MA 01923). For those organizations that have been granted a photocopy
license by CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged. The fee code for users of the
Transactional Reporting Service is: ISSN 0145-319X194 $3.00+ .00
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© 2002 Arc Second, Inc. All rights reserved. All trademarks or registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
8
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NASA Tech Briefs, March 2002
I invent.
© 2002 MathSoft Engineering & Education, Inc. Mathcad is a registered trademark of MathSoft Engineering & Education, Inc.
NTB MathSoft Ad 02/02.qxd 1/11/02 11:09 PM Page 1
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NTB Masthead 03/02
2/15/02
1:16 PM
Page 10
NE/Nastran V8.1 adds one of the fastest iterative solvers
available today for linear and nonlinear solutions. The
PCGLSS solver is 10-20 times faster than typical sparse
direct solvers. It requires considerably less memory and can
handle models with over 2 million degrees of freedom using
any combination of element types.
• True surface to surface contact
• A new NE/Nastran editor
• A new job queuing system allows the
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Published by ........................................................Associated Business Publications
Publisher.................................................................................Joseph T. Pramberger
Editor/Associate Publisher.......................................................................Linda L. Bell
Editor, Market Focus Editions .................................................................Robert Clark
Associate Editor/Internet Editor ............................................................Laura Raduta
Production Manager ......................................................................Joanne Gaccione
Assistant Production Manager.............................................................John Iwanciw
Art Director ...........................................................................................Lois Erlacher
Senior Designer .....................................................................Christopher Coleman
Circulation Manager .......................................................................Hugh J. Dowling
BRIEFS & SUPPORTING LITERATURE: Written and produced for NASA by
Advanced Testing Technologies, Inc., Hauppauge, NY 11788
Technical/Managing Editor .....................................................................Ted Selinsky
Sr. Technical Analyst.................................................................Dr. Larry Grunberger
Art Manager .......................................................................................Eric Starstrom
Staff Writers/Editors...........................................Dr. Theron Cole, George Watson
Graphics ............................................................................................Robert Simons
Editorial & Production......................................Joan Schmiemann, Becky D. Bentley
NASA:
NASA Tech Briefs are provided by the National Aeronautics and Space
Administration, Technology Transfer Division, Washington, DC:
Administrator.......................................................................................Sean O’Keefe
Director, Commercial Technology..............................................Dr. Robert Norwood
Publications Director .....................................................................................Carl Ray
ASSOCIATED BUSINESS PUBLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL
317 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10017-5391
(212) 490-3999 FAX (212) 986-7864
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MIS Manager ......................................................................................Ted Morawski
Webmaster .........................................................................................Albert Sunseri
Director of Electronic Products..........................................................Luke Schnirring
eStrategy Director................................................................................Andrew Runk
Credit/Collection ..................................................................................Felecia Lahey
Now go DIRECT from
Pro/E® to NE/Nastran
using the new .OP2
interface.
FEMAP® users get a true 3D
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non-linear cable element interface.
Noran Engineering, Inc. announces the release of
NE/Nastran V8.1, the latest upgrade of it’s powerful,
affordable, and easy-to-use finite element analysis
(FEA) tool for engineers in practically all disciplines.
Noran Engineering, Inc.
www.NENastran.com
Toll-Free:1.877.NENastran
Phone: 562.799.9911
2001 NE, Noran Engineering, Inc. NE,NE/, and NEi logo are Registered Trademarks of Noran Engineering, Inc. NASTRAN is a
registered trademark of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Windows is a registered trademark of the Microsoft
Corporation. All other trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
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Human Resources Manager...........................................................Lourdes Del Valle
Accounting Manager................................................................................Sylvia Ruiz
Office Manager...............................................................................Alfredo Vasquez
NASA TECH BRIEFS ADVERTISING ACCOUNT EXECUTIVES
Headquarters..................................................................................... (212) 490-3999
CT, MA, NH, ME, VT, RI, Eastern Canada................................................Ed Marecki
....................................................................................at (401) 351-0274
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....................................................................................at (973) 983-2757
VA, MD, DC, NC, SC, GA, FL, AL, TN, MS, LA, AR, OK, TX ......Bill Manning
....................................................................................at (770) 971-0677
MN, ND, SD, WI, IL ...................................................................Bob Casey
....................................................................................at (847) 223-5225
IN, KY, MI, OH, MO, KS, IA, NE, Western PA & NY, Central Canada ........Chris Casey
....................................................................................at (847) 223-5225
N. Calif., CO ............................................................................Bill Hague
....................................................................................at (800) 830-4351
WA, OR, ID, MT, WY, UT, NV, Western Canada ........................David Chew
....................................................................................at (650) 726-2128
S. Calif., AZ, NM ......................................................................Tom Boris
....................................................................................at (949) 642-2785
Internet Advertising .........................................................Luke Schnirring
....................................................................................at (212) 490-3999
Postcard/Literature Advertising .............................................John Waddell
....................................................................................at (212) 490-3999
Reprints ...........................................................................Jeannie Martin
....................................................................................at (866) 879-9144
For a complete list of staff e-mail addresses,
visit www.abpi.net
NASA Tech Briefs, March 2002
NTB Synrad Ad 03/02.qxd
2/15/02
3:25 PM
Page 1
®
CO2 Laser Applications of the Month
An Excel Technology Company
Welding Copper-Nickel Foil with CO2 Lasers
A weld created using a Synrad CO2
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CO2 lasers are useful in a broad
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laser. The weld was made at a velocity
of 110” per minute with a 2.5" focal
length lens having a spot size of
0.004”. Argon gas, at 2 psi, was used
for shielding.
The key to achieving virtually no
heat deformation and a uniform weld
bead is in selecting proper pulsing
parameters for the laser. In this case, a
pulse frequency of 685 Hz and a pulse
length of 880 microseconds provided
the weld characteristics desired.
Changing the thickness or width of the
weld bead is simply a matter of
experimenting with variations in beam
velocity, pulse frequency, or pulse
length.
Laser Cutting Urethane Bushings
The 2.5”-thick urethane bushing
shown to the right was cut in nine
seconds while being rotated underneath
a 240 watt CO2 laser beam. Although a
slight discoloration is present, no charring of the urethane material occurs.
To cut the material, a 7.5” focal
length lens with a 0.5" depth of focus
and a 0.012" spot size was used. The
bushing was rotated at 140 rpm during
cutting, which took nine seconds (21
revolutions). Nitrogen assist gas at 20
psi was used while cutting.
This Urethane Bushing was cut with
a 240 watt Synrad laser.
Laser Marking Fast Bar Codes on Inked Paper
This 24 character Code 128 bar
code, including human-readable text,
was marked on inked paper in only one
second! The bar code, measuring 1.5"
long by 0.5" high, was marked by a
marking head and Synrad laser driven
by WinMark Pro™ laser marking
software. 20 watts of laser power were
used to achieve a velocity of 250" per
second.
Discover more CO2 laser applications!
Sign up for our monthly online
Applications Newsletter at
www.synrad.com/signup1
Using a Synrad 25 watt marking
system, these codes were
marked at 250" per second!
All applications on this page were
processed at Synrad’s Applications
Laboratory. Synrad, the world’s leading manufacturer of sealed CO2
lasers, offers free process evaluations
to companies with qualified applications. Call 1-800-SYNRAD1 for more
information.
Synrad, Inc. 4600 Campus Place Mukilteo, WA 98275 USA
tel 1.425.349.3500 ¥ toll-free 1.800.SYNRAD1 ¥ fax 1.425.349.3667 ¥ e-mail [email protected] ¥
For Free Info Circle No. 563 or Enter No. 563 at www.nasatech.com/rs
www.synrad.com
NTB TU 03/02
2/15/02
1:29 PM
NASA
Commercial
Technology
Team
Page 12
NASA’s R&D efforts produce a robust supply of promising technologies with applications in many
industries. A key mechanism in identifying commercial applications for this technology is NASA’s
national network of commercial technology organizations. The network includes ten NASA field centers, six Regional Technology Transfer Centers (RTTCs), the National Technology Transfer Center
(NTTC), business support organizations, and a full tie-in with the Federal Laboratory Consortium
(FLC) for Technology Transfer. Call (609) 667-7737 for the FLC coordinator in your area.
NASA’s Technology Sources
NASA Program Offices
If you need further information about new technologies presented in NASA Tech Briefs,
request the Technical Support Package (TSP) indicated at the end of the brief. If a TSP is
not available, the Commercial Technology Office at the NASA field center that sponsored
the research can provide you with additional information and, if applicable, refer you to the
innovator(s). These centers are the source of all NASA-developed technology.
At NASA Headquarters there are seven major
program offices that develop and oversee
technology projects of potential interest to
industry. The street address for these strategic
business units is: NASA Headquarters, 300 E
St. SW, Washington, DC 20546.
Ames Research
Center
Selected technological strengths:
Information
Technology;
Biotechnology;
Nanotechnology;
Aerospace
Operations
Systems;
Rotorcraft;
Thermal
Protection
Systems.
Carolina Blake
(650) 604-1754
[email protected]
arc.nasa.gov
Dryden Flight
Research Center
Selected technological strengths:
Aerodynamics;
Aeronautics Flight
Testing;
Aeropropulsion;
Flight Systems;
Thermal Testing;
Integrated
Systems Test and
Validation.
Jenny BaerRiedhart
(661) 276-3689
[email protected]
nasa.gov
Goddard Space
Flight Center
Selected technological strengths:
Earth and
Planetary Science
Missions; LIDAR;
Cryogenic
Systems;
Tracking;
Telemetry;
Remote Sensing;
Command.
George Alcorn
(301) 286-5810
[email protected]
nasa.gov
Jet Propulsion
Laboratory
Selected technological strengths:
Near/Deep-Space
Mission
Engineering;
Microspacecraft;
Space
Communications;
Information
Systems;
Remote Sensing;
Robotics.
Merle McKenzie
(818) 354-2577
merle.mckenzie@
jpl.nasa.gov
Johnson Space
Center
Selected technological strengths:
Artificial Intelligence and
Human Computer
Interface;
Life Sciences;
Human Space
Flight Operations;
Avionics;
Sensors;
Communications.
Charlene E. Gilbert
(281) 483-3809
commercialization@
jsc.nasa.gov
Kennedy Space
Center
Selected technological strengths:
Fluids and Fluid
Systems; Materials Evaluation;
Process Engineering; Command, Control
and Monitor
Systems; Range
Systems; Environmental Engineering and
Management.
Jim Aliberti
(321) 867-6224
Jim.Aliberti-1@
ksc.nasa.gov
Langley Research
Center
Selected technological strengths:
Aerodynamics;
Flight Systems;
Materials;
Structures;
Sensors;
Measurements;
Information
Sciences.
Sam Morello
(757) 864-6005
s.a.morello@
larc.nasa.gov
John H. Glenn
Research Center
at Lewis Field
Selected technological strengths:
Aeropropulsion;
Communications;
Energy
Technology;
High Temperature
Materials
Research.
Larry Viterna
(216) 433-3484
[email protected]
nasa.gov
Marshall Space
Flight Center
Selected technological strengths:
Materials;
Manufacturing;
Nondestructive
Evaluation;
Biotechnology;
Space Propulsion;
Controls and
Dynamics;
Structures;
Microgravity
Processing.
Vernotto McMillan
(256) 544-2615
vernotto.mcmillan
@msfc.nasa.gov
Stennis Space
Center
Selected technological strengths:
Propulsion
Systems;
Test/Monitoring;
Remote Sensing;
Nonintrusive
Instrumentation.
Kirk Sharp
(228) 688-1929
kirk.sharp@
ssc.nasa.gov
NASA-Sponsored Commercial Technology Organizations
These organizations were established to provide rapid access to NASA and other federal
R&D and foster collaboration between public and private sector organizations. They also
can direct you to the appropriate point of contact within the Federal Laboratory Consortium.
To reach the Regional Technology Transfer Center nearest you, call (800) 472-6785.
Joseph Allen
National Technology
Transfer Center
(800) 678-6882
Ken Dozier
Far-West Technology
Transfer Center
University of Southern
California
(213) 743-2353
James P. Dunn
Center for Technology
Commercialization
Westborough, MA
(508) 870-0042
Gary Sera
Mid-Continent Technology
Transfer Center
Texas A&M University
(409) 845-8762
B. David Bridges
Southeast Technology
Transfer Center
Georgia Institute of
Technology
(404) 894-6786
Charles Blankenship
Technology
Commercialization Center
Newport News, VA
(757) 269-0025
Pierrette Woodford
Great Lakes Industrial
Technology Transfer
Center
Battelle Memorial
Institute
(216) 898-6400
NASA ON-LINE:
Go to NASA’s Commercial Technology Network (CTN) on the World Wide Web at
http://nctn.hq.nasa.gov to search NASA technology resources, find commercialization opportunities,
and learn about NASA’s national network of programs, organizations, and services dedicated to technology transfer and commercialization.
Carl Ray
Small Business Innovation
Research Program (SBIR)
& Small Business
Technology Transfer
Program (STTR)
(202) 358-4652
[email protected]
Dr. Robert Norwood
Office of Commercial
Technology (Code RW)
(202) 358-2320
[email protected]
nasa.gov
John Mankins
Office of Space Flight
(Code MP)
(202) 358-4659
[email protected]
hq.nasa.gov
Terry Hertz
Office of Aero-Space
Technology (Code RS)
(202) 358-4636
[email protected]
Glen Mucklow
Office of Space Sciences
(Code SM)
(202) 358-2235
[email protected]
hq.nasa.gov
Roger Crouch
Office of Microgravity
Science Applications
(Code U)
(202) 358-0689
[email protected]
Granville Paules
Office of Mission to Planet
Earth (Code Y)
(202) 358-0706
[email protected]
NASA's Business Facilitators
NASA has established several organizations
whose objectives are to establish joint sponsored research agreements and incubate
small start-up companies with significant
business promise.
Wayne P. Zeman
Lewis Incubator for
Technology
Cleveland, OH
(216) 586-3888
Thomas G. Rainey
NASA KSC Business
Incubation Center
Titusville, FL
(407) 383-5200
B. Greg Hinkebein
Mississippi Enterprise for
Technology
Stennis Space
Center, MS
(800) 746-4699
Joanne W. Randolph
BizTech
Huntsville, AL
(256) 704-6000
Julie Holland
NASA Commercialization
Center
Pomona, CA
(909) 869-4477
Bridgette Smalley
UH-NASA Technology
Commercialization
Incubator
Houston, TX
(713) 743-9155
Joe Becker
Ames Technology
Commercialization Center
San Jose, CA
(408) 557-6700
Marty Kaszubowski
Hampton Roads
Technology Incubator
(Langley Research Center)
Hampton, VA
(757) 865-2140
John Fini
Goddard Space Flight
Center Incubator
Baltimore, MD
(410) 327-9150 x1034
If you are interested in information, applications, and services relating to satellite and aerial data for Earth resources, contact: Dr. Stan Morain, Earth Analysis
Center, (505) 277-3622.
12
www.nasatech.com
NASA Tech Briefs, March 2002
NTB Teac Ad 03/02.qxd
2/19/02
12:06 PM
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For Free Info Circle No. 506 or Enter No. 506 at www.nasatech.com/rs
NTB UpFront 03/02
2/15/02
1:13 PM
Page 14
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For Free Info Circle No. 715 or Enter No. 715
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NASA Welding Technology
Hits the Market
T
wo commercial companies — MTS Systems of Eden
Prairie, MN, and MCE Technologies of Seattle, WA —
have successfully commercialized a welding tool developed
at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Alabama.
Friction stir welding uses the high rotational speed of a tool
and the resulting frictional heat created from contact to “stir”
together and bond two metal alloys. The process, however,
relies on a single-piece pin tool, which can leave “keyholes”
when welding cylindrical objects. The Marshall team designed
an automatic retractable pin tool that uses a computercontrolled motor to automatically retract the pin into the
shoulder of the tool at the end of the weld, preventing keyholes.
MTS Systems used the pin tool technology in its recent
friction stir welding process system. Used by automotive,
shipbuilding, and other industries, the system has proven
cost-effective and efficient.
MCE Technologies (MCETEC) developed a line of
production stir welding equipment using Marshall’s pin
tool for welding high-performance aluminum alloys.
MCETEC’s use of the NASA technology has contributed to
production advantages such as reduced contamination and
greater joint strength.
For more information on this and other NASA Marshall technologies available for commercialization, visit www.nasasolutions.com .
Next Month in NTB
I
n the April issue, the winners of the 2001 Readers’
Choice Product of the Year Awards will be featured. We’ll
let you know which product you chose as the most significant
new introduction to the engineering community last year.
Also, look for our preview of the Sensors Expo, which will
highlight the hottest sensor products that will be on
display at the show in San Jose in May.
MCETEC’s friction stir welding equipment incorporates NASA
Marshall’s pin tool technology.
14
www.nasatech.com
NASA Tech Briefs, March 2002
NTB Reader Forum 03/02
02/26/2002
4:45 PM
Page 16
The solution
you’re
looking for
may be right at
Reader Forum
Reader Forum is dedicated to the thoughts, concerns, questions, and comments of our readers. If you have a comment, a
question regarding a technical problem, or an answer to a previously published question, post your letter to Reader Forum
on-line at www.nasatech.com, or send to: Editor, NASA Tech
Briefs, 317 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10017; Fax: 212-9867864. Please include your name, company (if applicable), address, and e-mail address or phone number.
I
your
fingertips.
am exciting a small PZT in shear mode, over the range of
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an amplitude control loop, I’d like to measure the motion envelope, which is on the order of 0 to 10 microns, with a very
small sensor (large laser interferometry is not possible). In
addition, I have multiple assemblies spaced horizontally over
an area of roughly 1/4" by 4". The units and the individual
sensors must be housed in an enclosure with vertical cross-section dimensions of about 18 mm by 4.5". Each PZT is vibrating
a cone-shaped element, about 0.2" in diameter at its base, and
0.5" tall. I must sense motion at the tip of the cone. What
about detecting a projected image on a semiconductor sensor? Any sensor sources that I can investigate? Thanks.
Inastomer
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We are currently working on developing a wireless video system to be used in a sports-related environment that demands
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Rudy Schneider
[email protected]
For Free Info Circle No. 410 or
Enter No. 410 at www.nasatech.com/rs
Michael Jones
[email protected]
I am a chartered physiotherapist interested in looking at hyperbaric medicine for the treatment of soft tissue injuries, including grade two ankle sprains. Has any research been done
using the lightweight chambers for such use, and how can I
find details on where to obtain one? Thank you.
Jo Shepherd
[email protected]
NASA Tech Briefs, March 2002
NTB Who's Who 03/02
02/19/2002
4:39 PM
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Page 18
Who’s Who at NASA
Dr. Jim Weiss, Chief Engineer and Technologist,
Earth and Space Sciences Division,
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
D
r. Jim Weiss is
the Program
Manager for Collaborative Neural Repair at NASA’s Jet
Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena,
CA. His team is
working to develop
a robotic device
that will aid patients with spinal cord injuries.
NASA Tech Briefs: What is the device,
and how will it work?
Dr. Jim Weiss: The original idea was
to develop something that could be
used for the rehabilitation of people
with spinal cord injuries and also the
training of astronauts. The device has
not been built yet. We’re currently
doing the design work and testing
some of the components. A patient will
be suspended on a treadmill by lines
connected to an overhead hoist. The
robotics will be attached to the patient’s legs and to the treadmill in the
form of a motor. The motor is going to
monitor and control the movement of
the person while they’re walking on
the moving treadmill. Basically, we’ll
put someone on the treadmill, start
the treadmill, and then use robotic
arms attached to their knees to help
them walk.
The device will help prepare astronauts for work in space. One of the
problems of being in a zero-gravity environment is that you don’t utilize your
legs, and your neurology forgets how to
function properly. So when you return
to Earth and you’ve not used your legs,
you’ve forgotten how to use them.
They’re weak and they’re atrophied.
There is a central pattern generator
in one’s spinal cord that controls the
motion of locomotion — all the fine
motor functions that control the muscles — and if that’s not refreshed on a
regular basis, it forgets and starts learning a new environment as part of being
adaptive. We would use this to train astronauts for different environments, so
when they return to Earth, they would
be able to walk normally.
www.nasatech.com
NTB: Do you see any other applications for this device?
Dr. Weiss: There are other things
that it could be used for, such as training football players to sprint faster, or
to help basketball players perform with
more power. So, you could actually
train the human body to operate better
at sports like volleyball, basketball,
football, or baseball.
Also, it would be applicable for controlled exercising. You could have controlled exercise, for instance, if a patient has a knee, ankle, or hip injury, or
they’ve had some serious surgery on
their leg and they’ve got to exercise to
regain strength. When you’ve got an injury, you favor the other limb. This system could be used to make sure a patient doesn’t favor the other limb so
they re-learn normal function, and
movement is complete. I’ve only spoken of the applications that are legdominant. You could do the same
things with arms and other parts of the
body. Motion is what we’re really focusing on.
NTB: Who are NASA’s partners in
the research and development?
Dr. Weiss: UCLA was our primary
partner in this. There’s more in the development; it’s now expanded to a collaboration with the University of California Irvine. There also has been a
company formed around this technology called Robomedica, and they’re
raising funds to start the development
of this technology.
NTB: When will it be available for
clinical trials or actual use?
Dr. Weiss: I hope it will be available
in three years; it depends on our ability
to raise funds. Robomedica had their
first round of funding and they’ve
raised enough to get started. So, I
think it’s going to be 18 months to two
years to get a product ready for testing.
A full transcript of this interview appears
on-line at www.nasatech.com/whoswho.
Dr. Weiss can be reached at james.r.weiss@
jpl.nasa.gov.
NASA Tech Briefs, March 2002
NTB Astromed Ad 11/01.qxd 12/20/01 11:29 PM Page 1
Web Site: www.astro-med.com/de13
For Free Info Circle No. 405 or Enter No. 405 at www.nasatech.com/rs
NTB Patents 03/02
2/15/02
1:27 PM
Page 20
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Christopher Scott Lovchik and
Myron A. Diftler, Johnson
Space Center.
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The present invention is intended to
give a robotic hand the anatomical
movement of the human hand yet to
make it lightweight, mobile, and capable of grasping both heavy and light
objects with precision. The robotic
hand includes highly reliable yet simple
components that enable the desired
movements of a plurality of flexible fingers attached to a palm housing, a
thumb, and a wrist member. Force is
mechanically transmitted from drive
components in a forearm portion
through the wrist section to operate fingers and thumb. The dexterous robotic
hand described herein generally consists of, in addition to a palm housing,
fingers, and a thumb, a forearm section
that houses the drive motors and electronics that enable the controlled
movement of the fingers and the
thumb. The device includes a twodegree-of-freedom wrist section and a
twelve-degree-of-freedom hand.
Piezoelectric Vibrational and
Acoustic Alert for a Personal
Communications Device
(U.S. Patent No. 6,259,188)
Inventors: Stanley E. Woodard,
Richard F. Heilbaum, Robert H.
Daugherty, Raymond C. Scholz,
Bruce D. Little, Robert L. Fox, Gerald
A. Denhart, SeGon Jang, and Rizza
Balcein, Langley Research Center.
A team at Langley Research Center
identified a need for a combination
vibrating and acoustical alarm mechanism that has a relatively uncomplicated
design, is relatively inexpensive to produce, that is substantially durable, and is
lightweight and small enough to be incorporated into a handheld communication
device (PCD). It should provide an alert
apparatus that includes a mechanically
prestressed piezoelectric wafer inside the
PCD and an alternating voltage input line
coupled at two points on the wafer where
polarity is recognized. The apparatus
would also have a variable frequency
device coupled to the voltage input line
so that the alternating voltage on the
input line would have a first frequency
and a second frequency. The first would
preferably be high enough to cause the
wafer to vibrate at a resulting frequency
that produces a sound perceptible by the
human ear, and the second would preferably be sufficiently low to cause the wafer
to vibrate at a frequency that would produce a vibration readily felt by the holder
of the PCD.
Stable Algorithm for
Estimating Airdata from
Flush Surface Pressure
Measurements
(U.S. Patent No. 6,253,166)
Inventors: Stephen A. Whitmore,
Brent R. Cobleigh, and Edward A.
Haering Jr., Dryden Flight Research
Center.
Airdata are those parameters, characteristics, properties, and quantities
derived from the air surrounding a
flight vehicle. Accurate airdata are
absolutely necessary for many purposes
and applications, and help to ensure
efficient and safe flights. But systems
developed to date have proven highly
inaccurate. There are several problems
with existing algorithms. One is that
the nonlinear regression method used
in the estimation algorithm tends to be
highly unstable. This unstable algorithm leads to the problem of complexity. The present invention is embodied
in an airdata estimation and evaluation
system and method for estimating and
evaluating airdata from nonintrusive
surface pressure measurements. It
includes a triples formulation module
for eliminating the pressure-related
states from the flow model equation, an
angle of attack module for computing
that angle, an angle of sideslip module
for computing that angle, and an airdata module for estimating and evaluating other airdata.
For more information on the inventions described here, contact the appropriate NASA Field
Center’s Commercial Technology Office. See page 12 for a list of office contacts.
www.nasatech.com
NASA Tech Briefs, March 2002
NTB EDS/Solid Edge Ad 03/02.qxd
2/15/02
1:25 PM
Page 1
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NTB ApplBriefs 03/02
02/18/2002
5:01 PM
Page 22
plication Briefs Application Briefs Applicat
Application Briefs Application Briefs Appli
Application Briefs
plication Briefs Application Briefs Applicat
Application
Briefs
Application Briefs Appli
Simulation Software
Helps Evaluate
Mission Converter
plication
Briefs Application Briefs Applicat
Maxwell 3D Field Simulator software
Ansoft Corp.
Application
Briefs Application Briefs Appli
Pittsburgh, PA
412-261-3200
www.ansoft.com
plication
Briefs Application Briefs Applicat
Application Briefs Application Briefs Appli
plication Briefs Application Briefs Applicat
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plication Briefs Application Briefs Applicat
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plication Briefs Application Briefs Applicat
Application Briefs Application Briefs Appli
plication Briefs Application Briefs Applicat
3D Measuring System Helps Build
Rocket Bodies
Application
Briefs Application Briefs Appli
Forged steel solid rocket
motor cases Application Briefs Applicat
plication
Briefs
Ladish Co.
Cudahy, WI
414-747-2611
Application
Briefs Application Briefs Appli
www.ladishco.com
plication Briefs Application Briefs Applicat
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plication Briefs Application Briefs Applicat
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A free-piston Stirling converter is being developed by the
Department of Energy, NASA’s Glenn Research Center in
Cleveland, OH, and Stirling Technology of Kennewick, WA.
The converter will be utilized on the Stirling Radioisotope
Generator (SRG), which is being constructed to provide electric power for unmanned Mars rovers and potential NASA
deep space missions of long duration. To evaluate various 3D
geometries, materials, and excitation levels on the converter,
NASA engineer Steven M. Geng used Maxwell 3D Field
Simulator to perform electromagnetic modeling.
“Glenn researchers are conducting a variety of in-house
tasks to provide data in developing the Stirling converter for
readiness for space qualification and mission implementation.
Our work helps determine if a design will perform and function properly with the capability of surviving in a deep space or
Mars surface environment,” said Geng.
The converter is also being designed to survive a high-radiation environment such as a potential mission to Europa, one
of Jupiter’s moons. So far, the converter has passed launch
environment random vibration testing at workmanship, flight
acceptance, and qualification test levels while operating at full
stroke and full power.
Geng said that the Maxwell software helped him and his colleagues investigate new methodologies to both improve
designs and analyze existing designs. NASA is evaluating the
magnets used in the converter’s linear alternator. “Using
Maxwell, we studied the magnets and the alternator to estimate the magnet’s margin to demagnetization,” said Geng.
For Free Info Circle No. 725 or
Enter No. 725 at www.nasatech.com/rs
Dual-opposed Stirling converter during test at NASA Glenn.
The two solid-rocket bodies of the Space Shuttle are able to
resist loads of launch because they are forged from D-6 tool
steel, and are nearly indestructible. Ladish forges all of the
cylinders and domes that form the solid rocket motor cases. To
assess the exact shape of each forging prior to machining,
technicians previously measured each newly forged dome with
a portage CMM to guide them in setting up the piece to be
machined. This technique usually took two weeks to finish,
and the 2D image generated was not always complete.
To generate a more detailed digital image of the roughforged dome, Ladish engineers began using a FaroArm, a
portable, 3D measuring system from Faro Technologies. The
arm is an articulating instrument that employs optical
encoders at the joints to provide X-Y-Z position and I-J-K orientation data to a computer. Dimensional tolerances are as
close as ± 0.001", and it can measure any point within its spherical reach.
Ladish uses the arm for conventional dimensional checking
by gathering a “digital cloud” of data consisting of up to 200,000
streaming points on each piece. After the data is collected in the
22
arm’s companion software, an accurate 3D reproduction of the
dome is created. According to Ed Pastorek, Ladish’s supervisor
of product assurance, quality, and technology, the technique
provides near-perfect parts. “This has given us a ‘no-mistake’
way to align and machine these parts,” said Pastorek. “Now we
know exactly what metal we have to take off.”
www.nasatech.com
For Free Info Circle No. 726 or
Enter No. 726 at www.nasatech.com/rs
NASA Tech Briefs, March 2002
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Page 24
Image courtesy SolidWorks and Automation Tooling Systems
NTB CAD Feature 03/02
hen we last visited the
state of the CAD industry in March of 2001, the
industry leaders we interviewed focused on the Internet, ease
of use, and consolidation of CAD vendors. For this year’s look at CAD, our
experts were outspoken on ease of use,
2D to 3D migration, and how the
changing economic climate has affected the CAD software market.
As a general rule, most of the vendors
we interviewed are not changing their
marketing strategy for new customers as
a result of the economic downturn. If
anything, many vendors are focusing
more on their current customers than
targeting new ones.
“We’re marketing to the people who
are already our customers,” said John
McEleney, CEO of SolidWorks. “As the
economy gets a little more challenging,
and some of our competitors try to
drive their price down in the market,
the one good thing about having a
large installed base is that you’re going
back to people you already have a relationship with, so your cost of sales
should be lower,” he explained.
“Our initial installed base provides a
very rich, fertile ground for continued
building of those relationships and a
nice business. There is a lot of opportunity for new business,” said Brian Shep-
W
24
herd, senior vice president of MCAD
technical marketing for PTC. “A lot of
companies feel they need to be ready
when the economy turns with a stable
full of great products. The way they cut
costs in the short term to weather the
storm usually starts in their manufacturing organization where they ramp
down production. They’re trying to
minimize physical inventory, but
they’re still very focused on creating intellectual inventory,” Shepherd added.
Some vendors such as VX Corporation, a CAD/CAM supplier, are actually
increasing their marketing efforts. “It’s
a real opportunity at this point,” said
Bob Fischer, vice president of sales and
marketing for VX. “Companies have to
do as much as before but with fewer
people. We’ve changed the amount of
face time, doing things like Web seminars. We need to go to the people —
they won’t come to us.”
While much attention has centered
around the economy since September
11, there were signs of a downturn at
least six months before that, according
to David Primrose, MCAD product marketing director for EDS PLM Solutions.
“The economy took a knock, but life
goes on, and people are purchasing
products that have to be manufactured.
In economic times like these, companies turn to tools that will increase their
www.nasatech.com
productivity and help recover costs as a
way of solving the problem. Those companies that are far-sighted will look
upon a CAD investment as one that will
give them a very high return, rather
than a cost they can’t afford,” Primrose
explained.
The Cost of CAD
The type of CAD system a company
can afford is more important now than
it was in the past. Cost-cutting and budget-watching have taken a front seat to
flashy features. According to Robert
Kross, vice president of Autodesk’s Manufacturing Division, “Companies look at
a lower-cost solution in economies like
this. There has been much more awareness of the engineers who hold the intellectual property of the company in their
heads. Everyone believes that this year,
we’re going to see the economy blossom
again. Companies are using the downtime to train more.”
Companies with low-cost CAD products are finding it much easier to sell
their software. Bob Mayer, executive
vice president of sales and marketing
for IMSI — which offers its TurboCAD
V8 Professional program for just under
$500 — believes that customers are getting the message that you don’t have to
spend a lot of money to get professional
(Continued on pg. 27)
NASA Tech Briefs, March 2002
Image courtesy SolidWorks and Automation Tooling Systems
NTB CAD Feature 03/02
2/15/02
1:23 PM
Page 27
functionality. “In the past, we had
chanical Desktop to keep using
only one product that sold for $99,
their products while they get
and the perception was that a $99
started with 3D by using Auproduct couldn’t have much functodesk Inventor.
tionality. Over time, we’ve raised
“Our customers get the adthe retail price by about $200 on
vantage of keeping what
that product, and most importhey’re using today, plus the
tantly, we put in the CAD functionnew capability of a much easier
ality that CAD professionals exto use product. Some cuspect,” Mayer said.
tomers will go gradually from
Relatively new companies with
2D to 3D, but I hope we make
new products face the challenge of
it so easy for them, that they
competing both in pricing and in
just say, ‘I’m going to do this,’”
functionality with established
said Kross.
“legacy” systems. “The economy, as
“We see companies moving
far as who we’re marketing to, hasfrom 2D to 3D every day,” said
LEWA Herbert Ott GmbH in Leonberg, Germany, used Solid Edge
n’t changed,” said Shaun Murphy, (an EDS PLM Solutions product) to design this pump and piping Rogers. “When you move to a
vice president of marketing for assembly.
3D environment, you can imIronCAD. “There has to be a
mediately do things in maybe
higher level of confidence before peoone step that used to take you five in a
customer today, but you want to do
ple will take their wallets out of their
2D environment, so you see immediate
business with a supplier who doesn’t
pockets. Since we’re a new company
benefits.” IBM offers the CATIA Comuse Pro/E, that customer had a fewand we just introduced our Innovationpanion, which allows companies to
thousand-dollar barrier to get over to
Suite last October, we didn’t need to
move into 3D without being intimibuy Pro/E. What if the person who
make any adjustments. We brought it
dated. Rogers explained that CATIA
doesn’t use Pro/E could download an
out value-priced and packaged for the
Companion sits on the same workstaapplication for free from PTC.com that
price-conscious. Right from the begintion as CATIA. “When there is a specific
read in the Pro/E data because it’s
ning, we targeted our packaging, our
topic on which you have a question
based on the same kernel?” The value
products, and our pricing to the
when working in CATIA, you can enter
proposition PTC is offering, said Shepsmall- to medium-sized business,” Murinto the Companion product, and it
herd, is that Pro/DESKTOP Express is
phy explained.
steps you through what you’re trying to
a full-featured CAD system. “It’s part of
For the leading mid-range and highdo in 3D.”
our game-changing strategy,” he added.
end CAD vendors, it’s more a question
According to Fischer, VX chose not
“In our industry, we’re looking to turn
of whether customers can afford not to
to support either 2D or 3D, but to offer
things upside down.”
invest, according to Geoff Rogers, marboth. “In some circumstances, creating
The Migration Continues
keting manager of the Americas for
a quick drawing in 2D is sufficient. You
One of the issues facing CAD compaIBM. “You have to look at the entire
can either work in the world of 3D or
nies today also was a primary focus a
cost of what you’re implementing. Look
do it quick and dirty and get it done
year ago. Will 2D to 3D
at the entire cost of what it’s going to
migration continue, and
take to implement that solution, and
does widespread adopthen look at the benefits you’ll receive
tion of 3D CAD tools
therein. In this economic environneed to happen? This
ment,” Rogers said, “I think the
issue divided our exquestion is not ‘how can I afford to
perts more than any
invest in product lifecycle manageother aspect of the CAD
ment,’ but, ‘how can I afford not to inmarket.
vest in a product lifecycle management
“In today’s world,
solution?’”
everybody already has a
McEleney believes that when saving
system. No one is startcosts, companies need to look at how
ing with a drafting
much they already have invested in a
board and pencil anyCAD system, and what they need to do
more,” said Kross. “We
with it. “In the large-scale enterprises,”
have a very large focus
McEleney said, “they’re not going to
on 3D with Autodesk Inswitch to a lower-cost alternative, beventor. Our objective is Pac West Racing used Autodesk software to design this chassis.
cause CAD costs are a small fraction of
to shift our entire inwhat the overall costs are.”
stalled base to 3D.” To that end, AuPTC now offers the lowest-cost alterwithout style,” he added. “Many 2D
todesk has announced the Autodesk Innative — free downloadable software.
users don’t ever have to use 3D. But if it
ventor Series, which incorporates both
Last month, the company introduced
needs to be part of an assembly, that
2D and 3D products — Autodesk MePro/DESKTOP Express, a parametric,
must be created in 3D and exist as a digchanical Desktop 6, based on Autoassociative solid modeling program
ital model.”
CAD, and Autodesk Inventor 5.3 3D debuilt on the same kernel as Pro/ENGIPrimrose agrees that 2D will never
sign software. The new combined
NEER. According to Shepherd, the reaentirely go away, but he sees 3D as the
product allows users of AutoCAD, Autosons for offering the free software were
best choice. “There will always be peoCAD Mechanical, and Autodesk Mesimple. “If you’re a Pro/ENGINEER
ple who refuse to move from 2D. They
NASA Tech Briefs, March 2002
www.nasatech.com
27
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Page 28
might be able to make a
drawing on the paper, but
they get no benefit out of having a simple paper drawing.
When it comes to changing designs, there is tremendous opportunity for errors if you don’t
have 3D.”
Primrose also sees ease of use
as a barrier to 3D that still exists. “Going forward, if you
ask people what the most
important attributes of a
CAD system are, I don’t
think we — ourselves or our competitors — have come up with a radical
change in usability. While we have lots
of people talking about clever, cool features, the next thing is to come up with
a whole new paradigm that will make
CAD systems a whole generation easier
to use.”
Until that happens, 3D won’t be the
dominant technology, according to
IronCAD’s Murphy. “It’s still probably a
2D design world,” he predicted. “Do I
believe 95 percent of people will be
using 3D in the near future? No, I
don’t. It doesn’t always make sense to
use 3D,” he added. “Many 2D users will
tell you that the value they would get
from moving to 3D is not worth the
pain. You have a toolbox, and you pull
out the right tool for the job. You
wouldn’t say, ‘In the future, all repairs
will be done with a hammer.’ Design
also has a bit of that, even though you
don’t have as many tools. There are certain tools you use because they are the
best for the job. You have to make the
call,” Murphy said.
IBM, Autodesk, and SolidWorks have
products designed specifically to help
users move “painlessly” to 3D, which
they feel will be the majority of the CAD
world very soon. “I think 98 to 100 percent of people will use 3D tools. I think
it needs to happen,” said Kross. “If you
Solo Golf used IBM’s Product Lifecycle
Management (PLM) solutions to
design its new putter.
make machines and you
use 2D, and you’re trying to compete with the machine
maker down the street who’s using 3D,
you can’t compete. He’ll make a better
machine he can understand better, and
even more importantly, he can use his
design data and product data in different ways — in his brochures, on his
Web site.”
SolidWorks’ McEleney agrees, but
adds that the migration will happen
more quickly than most think. “The fact
is it won’t happen this year, but it won’t
take ten years — I can tell you that. The
world will move to 3D for a number of
reasons, and the drivers behind it are
simple,” he said. “The average workforce is getting older, and as the older
workers retire, today’s graduates are the
ones who grew up playing video games.
They learned and work in a world based
on 3D. As the older generation with a
2D legacy retire, the resistance level to
3D will come down.”
Is a completely 3D world a better
one? McEleney has mixed feelings
about that. “The scary thing is as we
adopt these 3D tools, are we going to
lose any of the elegance and simplicity
of engineering? As a vendor, I’m hardpressed to fight that, because I think it’s
true. But it’s a change for the better,”
he said. “If you look at the products
manufactured today, they’re all better
because of 3D design tools.”
Get Connected to the Companies Featured in this Article:
Autodesk ..................................................................................www.autodesk.com
EDS PLM Solutions........................................................www.eds.com/products/plm
IBM ........................................................................................www.ibm.com/catia
IMSI ........................................................................................www.turbocad.com
IronCAD ......................................................................................www.ironcad.com
PTC ..................................................................................................www.ptc.com
SolidWorks ............................................................................www.solidworks.com
VX Corporation ..................................................................................www.vx.com
For Free Info Circle No. 411 or
Enter No. 411 at www.nasatech.com/rs
www.nasatech.com
NASA Tech Briefs, March 2002
NTB Tech Page 03/02
2/15/02
1:11 PM
Page 30
Technologies of the Month
Sponsored by
For more information on these and other new, licensable inventions,
visit www.nasatech.com/techsearch
Afterburning Ericsson Cycle Engine
Is Low-Cost Fuel Cell Alternative
Biodegradable Plastic from Renewable
Resources
Proe Power Systems
Dr. Johan-Fredrik Selin, Development Manager, New Technology
Business, Fortum
Ericsson Cycle hot air engines produce power by externally
heating one cylinder and cooling another. As the heated engine cylinder grows hotter, it requires more energy, which is
wasted in the burner exhaust, reducing the overall engineburner efficiency. Proe Power Systems’ Afterburning Ericsson
Cycle (AEC) engine recovers over 90% of the exhaust heat for
higher thermodynamic efficiency, and has virtually no burner
efficiency loss because there is no external burner. The AEC
engine provides continuous combustion, obtaining the full
heating value of any available fuel, including gasoline,
methane, and propane.
The AEC engine is suitable for combined heat and power
(CHP) and distributed power generation applications. It also
can be used as a heat engine in hybrid vehicles, as a clean replacement for marine diesel engines, and as an auxiliary
power source for the trucking industry to reduce noise and
pollution from idling trucks.
Get the complete report on this technology at:
www.nasatech.com/techsearch/tow/proe.html
e-mail: [email protected]; phone: 617-557-3837
Aluminothermic Process Reduces Cost,
Improves Yield for Chromium Metal
Manufacturing
Conventional plastics are made from petrochemicals,
which pose environmental disposal problems. A new
biodegradable plastic is created using polylactides, an organic
product formed by the fermentation of carbohydrates, which
produces lactic acid. The
lactic acid is transformed
into a polymer, which
breaks down into environmentally safe elements
that are then completely
metabolized by normal
soil micoflora in a short
period of time. Once exposed to light, humidity,
oxygen, and soil microorganisms, polylactide plastics convert
into humus, carbon dioxide, and water.
Manufacturers can use the same machinery currently used
for traditional plastics to convert to the new polylactide plastic, and can use less energy compared to traditional hydrocarbon plastics.
Get the complete report on this technology at:
www.nasatech.com/techsearch/tow/fortum.html
e-mail: [email protected]; phone: 617-557-3837
Hydrogen-Driven Actuators
Devdutt Mohanty
Sachiko Matsuyama, Sensor Control Group, Ltd.
Chromium is used extensively in the alloying of nonferrous
metals like copper and aluminum. By itself, chromium is brittle, but when alloyed with other metals, a wide range of
durable alloys can be produced. Using traditional methods
such as the electrolytic process,
chromium metals are expensive to
produce. A new chromium
manufacturing technology uses
a proprietary process in which
sodium dichromate is treated
with acid and heated until
sodium sulfate and chromic
acid are separated. The
chromic acid lumps that are left are
finely ground, mixed with carbon
black, fired, and converted to chromic oxide. This chromic
oxide is passed through a process to produce 98% to 99%
pure chromic oxide. This aluminothermic process does not
use electricity for extraction, thus reducing production costs.
Get the complete report on this technology at:
www.nasatech.com/techsearch/tow/mohanty.html
e-mail: [email protected]; phone: 617-557-3837
30
Actuators have a wide variety of applications including robotics, simulators, positioning systems, and opening devices.
A new actuator absorbs and desorbs 1,000 times its own volume in hydrogen, creating gas pressure to drive the actuator.
This actuator employs metal bellows lined with a metal-hydride (MH) alloy ranging in thickness from 3 to 10 mm. The
alloy is then heated, causing it to release hydrogen, increasing
gas pressure and extending the bellows. When the alloy is allowed to cool, hydrogen is absorbed, decreasing gas pressure
and causing the bellows to contract.
A flexible polymer film that is currently being designed into
an MH actuator for robotic applications might also be used to
create artificial muscles for humans. Other applications include stabilizing earthquake-damaged structures, and as a lifter
to move people and equipment in multi-story buildings.
Get the complete report on this technology at:
www.nasatech.com/techsearch/tow/sensor.html
e-mail: [email protected]; phone: 617-557-383
www.nasatech.com
NASA Tech Briefs, March 2002
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Page 32
Technology Focus: Data Acquisition
Parallel-Processing High-Rate Digital Demodulator ASIC
CMOS circuitry can be used instead of more expensive analog circuitry or GaAs-based kind.
NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California
An all-digital demodulator has been
developed for receiving radio signals
with multigigahertz carrier frequencies
phase-modulated with digital data signals
at bit rates of hundreds of millions of bits
per second. The phase modulation could
be either binary phase-shift keying
(BPSK) or quadrature phase-shift keying
(QPSK), including QPSK employing
bandwidth efficient pulse-shaping methods. The demodulator has been implemented in complementary metal oxide
semiconductor (CMOS) application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) configured to utilize algorithms that process
signal data in multiple parallel streams.
The advantages of all-digital processing over traditional analog processing include greatly increased flexibility and reliability with reduced reproduction costs.
Serial digital signal processing would entail processing rates so high as to necessitate the use of non-CMOS (e.g., GaAsbased) circuitry, which costs more and is
more power-hungry, relative to CMOS.
What makes it possible to implement the
present ASIC in CMOS is the parallelprocessing scheme, in which the number
of parallel data streams is made large
enough that the data rate in each stream
is low enough to be within the capability
of CMOS circuitry.
The present all-digital demodulator is
characterized by an advanced parallel receiver (APRX) architecture (see figure),
which replaces the receiver functions of
the parallel receiver (PRX) architecture
reported in “Parallel Digital Demodulators Using Multirate Filter Banks” (NPO19620), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 20, No. 10
(October 1996), page 65. The APRX architecture is essentially one of time-varying frequency-domain detection filtering
and symbol-timing correction.
Upstream of this demodulator, the received analog signal is converted to an
intermediate frequency (IF) suitable for
analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion,
band-pass filtered, then digitized at a rate
of 4 samples per symbol. The band-pass
filtering rejects some noise and prevents
the aliasing that would otherwise occur
after A/D conversion. The digital signal
is split into 32 parallel paths, decimated
32
by 16 on each path, and digitally mixed
on each path with a replica of the sampled IF carrier signal. The discrete
Fourier transform (DFT) of the resulting
32 data points is then taken, via a specialized fast Fourier transform (SFFT),
and multiplied by the one element of a
bank of frequency-domain-matched filters. The correct matched filter is chosen
by the closed-loop symbol timing recovery algorithm (see figure).
To suppress the double-frequency
terms generated in mixing to baseband,
low-pass filtering is performed, zeroing
out the middle 16 components (which
correspond to the high-frequency terms)
in the frequency domain. Then the inverse discrete Fourier transform (IDFT)
is computed, via the specialized inverse
fast Fourier transform (SIFFT), and the
Modulated
Sampled
Data Input
↓16
0
middle 16 parallel outputs (which are
unaliased and correspond to 4 symbol
periods) are used for detection, tracking,
and other purposes.
The foregoing process is repeated
once every 16 cycles of the A/D-converter clock. The 16 points in the SIFFT
output are 16 samples of a convolution
of the input sequence with the matchedfilter impulse-response function. Among
these 16 samples are 4 baseband symbols
that correspond to the peak signal-tonoise-ratio outputs of the matched filter.
Theoretical analysis, computational
simulations, laboratory tests, and live
satellite downlinks have shown that the
error-rate performance of the APRX demodulator can be expected to be equivalent, and in some cases superior, to that
of a conventional serial-processing digi-
H0
yI(n)
z –1
yI(n+1)
32-Point
SFFT
H7
32-Point
SIFFT
yI(n+2)
yI(n+3)
Baseband
Symbols,
I-Channel
z –1
↓16
31
Symbol Timing
Recovery
Algorithm
BPSK/QPSK/QAM
Carrier Phase
Estimation
Parallel Digital
NCO
↓16
0
H0
yQ(n)
z –1
yQ(n+1)
32-Point
SFFT
H7
32-Point
SIFFT
yQ(n+2)
yQ(n+3)
Baseband
Symbols,
Q-Channel
z –1
↓16
31
The APRX Architecture provides for most digital signal processing to be done in the frequency domain. Here, “z–1” denotes a digital sample delay, “↓16” signifies decimation by a factor of 16, and Hi
denotes a complex time-varying matched/detection filter bank that also performs the functions of
low-pass digital filter and symbol timing recovery.
www.nasatech.com
NASA Tech Briefs, March 2002
NTB 00TechFoc Data Acq 03/02
02/19/2002
tal receiver. In comparison with the PRX
architecture, the APRX architecture can
be implemented with significantly reduced complexity. In comparison with
traditional serial digital receivers, the
APRX demodulator ASIC can process
much higher data rates. The next gener-
4:48 PM
Page 33
ation implementation of the APRX ASIC
is currently being developed to process
higher order modulations and data rates
in excess of 2 billion bits per second.
This work was done by Parminder Ghuman, Scott Hoy, and Gerald Grebowsky of
Goddard Space Flight Center and Andrew
Gray and Meera Srinivasan of Caltech for
NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. For
further information, access the Technical
Support Package (TSP) free on-line at
www.nasatech.com/tsp under the Electronic
Components and Systems category.
NPO-21230
Reusable Software for Autonomous Diagnosis
of Complex Systems
Software incorporates advances in several data analysis disciplines to enable
autonomous self-monitoring.
NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California
A software system designed to provide
a purely signal-based diagnosis of virtually any time-varying system has been developed. This software is part of an overall concept called “Beacon-based
Exception Analysis for Multimissions,”
or BEAM. This concept provides for
real-time autonomous diagnostics and
prognostics of virtually any complex system (e.g., intelligent spacecraft or advanced aircraft) by use of software executed on an embedded computer.
5800 Series
BEAM provides for the onboard identification and isolation of anomalous
conditions, making it unnecessary to
telemeter large quantities of raw data for
analysis on the ground. BEAM thereby
reduces operator or pilot workload by
isolating all anomalies that could affect
safety, navigation, or performance.
BEAM was conceived as an incrementable autonomy technology, capable
of operating with no human intervention but also supplying condensed infor-
mation to aid human operating decisions. Thus, the system is useful at both
extremes, viz, total autonomy and complete operator control, and at every level
in between.
This particular component of BEAM,
called the System Invariant Estimator
(SIE), uses strictly signal-processing
methods and is therefore highly
reusable. Many approaches to the problem of self-diagnosis exist, such as
model-based and neural network solu-
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Torsion testing for materials and parts that withstand constant
twisting and wrenching such as fasteners, wire, electronic
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Contact Information
The difference is measurable
NASA Tech Briefs, March 2002
United States: +1 800 564 8378
Canada: +1 905 333 9123
E u ro p e : + 4 4 1 4 9 4 4 5 6 8 1 5
Email: [email protected]
For Free Info Circle No. 526 or Enter No. 526 at www.nasatech.com/rs
33
NTB 00TechFoc Data Acq 03/02
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1:05 PM
Page 34
Data Acquisition
tions. However, in many cases these approaches require significant investment
in modeling and training, perform
poorly beyond the model or training envelopes, and perform poorly in the presence of data uncertainty. Because of
BEAM’s underlying architectural differences from these approaches, a priori
modeling is useful but not necessary, the
training process is relatively simple and
is incrementable, and the system is capable of correctly isolating anomalies well
outside the training envelope.
The SIE provides a standard method
for real-time fusion and analysis of all
34
time-varying system observables, including sensor data as well as derived quantities and certain quantifiable software indications. These data sources can be
from similar sensors or from radically
varying types. The intermediate information products of the SIE retain considerable physical meaning, which allows complete traceability of the
diagnostic state and reconstruction of
the BEAM conclusions. The SIE provides detection capability, in both space
(signal localization) and time, for both
sudden and gradual changes in any system. The approach is readily scalable to
For Free Info Circle No. 504 or Enter No. 504 at www.nasatech.com/rs
systems of higher complexity and is resistant to the usual problem of combinatoric explosion as system size increases.
The SIE functions by considering the
cobehavior of time-varying quantities, in
particular their dynamics, as sensed
from an operating system. Suitable sensors are widely used and typically include so-called performance sensors,
i.e., temperatures, pressures, and the
like. Certain repeatable relationships between physical quantities, and, hence,
sensor values, exist in the system as dictated by the physics of its operation.
These relationships are repeatable and
relatively insensitive to changes in the
environment or normal fluctuations.
The SIE constructs a single quantitative object to capture this cobehavior
across the entire system or subsystem.
This object reflects both known relationships, such as voltage/current relationships that are easily modeled, and unknown relationships, such as thermal
transmission through system structure
that is not well understood. The object is
studied with respect to stability, for the
purpose of detecting instantaneous
changes or mode switches, and its longterm convergence, which reveals the
presence of incipient faults, degradations, or minor and local shifts away
from desired performance. This allows
us to consider the entire space of faults,
including those for which model information or even data is not available.
The SIE is a computationally efficient
calculation grounded entirely in signal
theory. It is trained using raw sensor
data during known nominal operation,
i.e., “supervised” training. This data
would ideally cover all nominal modes.
However, should this be impossible to
obtain, or if only approximate data is
available, the SIE can be executed in a
learning mode. This is possible because
the SIE is capable of capturing “novel”
data as part of its anomaly detection,
and should this data prove to be acceptable upon review, it can be incrementally added to the SIE training. The only
needed human effort is providence of
nominal data; all other training and detection is completely autonomous.
The SIE can accept time-correlated
input data from relatively large sources.
Its specific outputs are the presence of
off-nominal behavior or degradation,
the signals implicated in the fault, and a
predictive assessment of loss of functionality. It also identifies specific pair-wise
resonances contributing to the fault
(critical for assessing control-loop-induced failures), renormalization functions to quantify intramodal stability and
degradation, and capture of off-nominal
NASA Tech Briefs, March 2002
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NTB 00TechFoc Data Acq 03/02
2/15/02
flight data to allow adaptation to new
modes or specific hardware.
Unlike similar neural network approaches, each information product of
BEAM has an implicit physical meaning.
Where uncertainties about the diagnosis
exist, each step towards constructing the
ISE (information space estimate) and its
analysis can be performed individually.
This provides operators the maximum
utility in managing system information.
This property also allows BEAM to optimally summarize fault information for
downlink.
1:05 PM
Page 35
The present software has been applied to a broad variety of systems and
has demonstrated enormous potential
in improving system operability while reducing operator workload. Systems previously studied have spanned from 6 to
1,600 observables, and at various data
rates from 0.016 Hz to 10 kHz.
This work was done by Sandeep Gulati and
Ryan Mackey of Caltech for NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. For further information,
access the Technical Support Package (TSP)
free on-line at www.nasatech.com/tsp under the
Electronic Components and Systems category.
In accordance with Public Law 96-517,
the contractor has elected to retain title to this
invention. Inquiries concerning rights for its
commercial use should be addressed to
Intellectual Property group
JPL
Mail Stop 202-233
4800 Oak Grove Drive
Pasadena, CA 91109
(818) 354-2240
Refer to NPO-20803, volume and number
of this NASA Tech Briefs issue, and the
page number.
TAXI Direct-to-Disk Interface Demultiplexes Proprietarily
Formatted Data
Data can be stored in channel files in a PC in real time.
Stennis Space Center, Mississippi
The TAXI Direct-to-Disk interface is a
special-purpose interface circuit for demultiplexing of data from a Racal Storeplex (or equivalent) multichannel
recorder onto one or more hard disks
that reside in, and/or are controlled by,
a personal computer (PC). [The name
“TAXI” as used here is derived from the
acronym TAXI, which signifies transparent asynchronous transceiver interface.]
The TAXI Direct-to-Disk interface was
developed for original use in capturing
data from instrumentation on a test
stand in a NASA rocket-testing facility.
The control, data-recording, and datapostprocessing equipment of the facility
are located in a control room at a safe
distance from the test stand. Heretofore,
the transfer of data from the instrumentation to the postprocessing equipment
has entailed post-test downloading via
software, requiring many hours to days
of post-test reduction before the data
could be viewed in a channelized format. The installation of the TAXI Directto-Disk interface, in conjunction with
other modifications, causes the transfer
of data to take place in real time, so that
the data are immediately available for review during or after the test.
The instrumentation is connected to
the input terminals of the signal-processing unit of multichannel recorder by
standard coaxial cables. The coaxial output of the signal-processing unit is converted to fiber-optic output by means of
a commercial coaxial-cable/fiber-optic
converter (that is, a fiber-optic transceiver) designed specifically for this application. The fiber-optic link carries the
data signals to an identical fiber-optic
NASA Tech Briefs, March 2002
Remote Test Stand
Instrumentation
(Sensors) on
Test Stand
Signal-Processing Unit
Fiber-Optic
Tranceiver
Fiber-Optic Link (1 km long)
Fiber-Optic
Transceiver
Control-Room
Data Processing
Equipment
Tape-Transport Unit of
Multichannel Recorder
Parallel
TAXI
Tape Drive
TAXI
Direct-to-Disk
Subsystem
Control Room
The Data-Flow Architecture of the modified test-data-handling system of a rocket-testing facility includes the parallel TAXI Direct-to-Disk interface and the TAXI-100 Direct-to-Disk interface solution.
transceiver in the control room. On the
way to the TAXI Direct-to-Disk interface
that is the focus of this article, the data
signals are processed through a companion special-purpose circuit denoted
by the similar name “parallel TAXI interface” (see figure).
The TAXI Direct-to-Disk interface is
implemented by means of field-prowww.nasatech.com
grammable gate arrays (FPGAs), memory chips, and other integrated circuits
on a printed-circuit board that conforms
to the peripheral component interface
(PCI) standard and is denoted the
TAXI-100 card. The TAXI-100 card performs real-time demultiplexing of the
data signals from the parallel TAXI Direct-to-Disk interface to individual chan35
NTB 00TechFoc Data Acq 03/02
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Page 37
Data Acquisition
nel files within the host PC. The data are
provided in a layered interface that consists of the TAXI physical layer with the
Racal proprietary data format contained
in the application layer. The application
layer is stripped off by the parallel TAXI
Direct-to-Disk interface. Parallel clock
and data signals containing the Racal
proprietary data format are received by
the TAXI-100 card in the parallel format
and demultiplexed, according to formats extracted from within the data,
into channel buffers in the form of firstin/first-out (FIFO) memory chips.
Other proprietary programmable logic
chips provide for the management and
buffering of the channel blocks until
they are presented to the host PC across
a PCI bus interface. Real-time software
drivers running under the Microsoft NT
4.0 operating system provide for real-
time handling of interrupts and buffering onto small computer systems interface (SCSI) disks in individual channel
files. A host graphical user interface enables the user to select recorder channels.
This work was done by Bruce G. Newnan
of Integrated Systems Consultants and Steven
F. Ahlport of Pacific Custom Systems, Inc., for
Stennis Space Center.
In accordance with Public Law 96-517,
the contractor has elected to retain title to this
invention. Inquiries concerning rights for its
commercial use should be addressed to
Integrated Systems Consultants
1282 Shasta Ave.
Suite 1
San Jose, CA 95126
Refer to SSC-00141, volume and number
of this NASA Tech Briefs issue, and the
page number.
Program Improves Transfer of Data From
CAD to Machine Shops
Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas
The EMNet computer program has
been developed to overcome the difficulties and reduce the errors that, heretofore, have been encountered in transferring data from computer-aided design
(CAD) systems to computer numerically
controlled (CNC) machines. EMNet
could improve operations in almost any
industrial machine shop that uses CNC
equipment.
The difficulties and errors in question
arise because CNC output files (files of
numerical control data generated by CAD
postprocessing programs) have customarily been transferred either by use of floppy
disks or by manual entry of data into CNC
equipment. Sometimes these files are too
large to fit on floppy disks. Even when
floppy disks are used, data transfers often
fail. Moreover, although some programs
for transfer of data from CAD to CNC operations have been commercially available, those programs are expensive, are
usable only by persons who have advanced computer skills, and have caused
failures of computer networks.
EMNet was designed for use by machinists who have little or no computer
experience and are responsible for entering numerical control data into CNC machinery, as needed, to produce machined
parts. EMNet features an easy-to-use
“point and click” graphical user interface, and is available in versions for the
Windows 3.x, Windows 95, and Windows
NT operating systems. EMNet offers a full
NASA Tech Briefs, March 2002
complement of Windows-style help displays for both machinists and computerworkstation administrators.
A computer on which EMNet is executed communicates with CNC machines
via RS-232 serial interfaces connected according to specifications of the manufacturers of the machines. EMNet is easily
configurable, and can be executed on a
personal computer connected to two
CNC machines. Each CNC machine can
be assigned a name, a communication
port, a default directory for data files, and
options for whether to transmit carriage
returns, line feeds, or end-of-block characters to the machine. If two machines
are connected to a computer, the communication protocol for each port can be
configured for the corresponding machine, separately from the protocol for
the other port and its machine. Both the
machine options and the communication-port settings are protected by a password that can be changed by a computerworkstation administrator.
After EMNet has been configured, the
interaction required by the machinist is
minimal. To transmit numerical control
data to a CNC machine, the machinist
performs the following steps:
1. Choose the machine by use of frontpanel option buttons in an EMNet display. EMNet automatically switches to
the default directory for the machine
and opens the respective communication port.
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names listed are trademarks or trade names of their respective companies.
For Free Info Circle No. 412 or
Enter No. 412 at www.nasatech.com/rs
NTB 00TechFoc Data Acq 03/02
2/15/02
1:08 PM
Page 38
Data Acquisition
2. Click the “File” button on the EMNet
display and select the file to transfer.
3. Prepare the CNC machine to receive
the file.
4. Click the EMNet “Send” button.
To receive numerical control data from
a CNC machine by use of EMNet, the machinist performs the following steps:
1. Choose “Settings,” “Transfer,” “Receive” from the EMNet menu.
2. Click the “Receive” button.
3. Send the data from the control panel
of the CNC machine.
EMNet also offers the capability of performing a byte-by-byte comparison of two
numerical-control-data files. This capability was added to ensure that the data received by a CNC machine are intact; that
is, without errors or missing bytes. To initiate a byte-by-byte comparison, the machinist performs the following steps:
1. Choose “File,” “Compare” from the
EMNet menu.
2. Select the “known good” (original)
file.
3. Select the file to compare (typically, a
file transferred from a CNC machine
back to the computer).
4. Verify whether the CNC machine
includes a “program number” in the
downloaded data, and if so, the line
where the program number resides
(typically line 2).
EMNet then performs a byte-by-byte
comparison of the two files and displays
the results. If a data mismatch is encountered, the comparison is terminated and
the line and byte location of the mismatch is displayed.
This work was done by W. David Smith of
Rothe Joint Venture, L. P., for Johnson Space
Center. For further information, contact the
Johnson Technology Commercialization Office
at (281) 483-3309.
MSC-22986
Compensating for Motion Errors in UWB SAR Data
Processing is implemented in two stages by a computationally efficient algorithm.
NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California
A method of processing data acquired
by ultra-wide-band (UWB) syntheticaperture radar (SAR) provides for suppression of those errors that are caused
by the undesired relative motion of the
radar platform and the targets. This
method involves, among other things,
processing of data in the wave-number
or frequency domain and the application of motion compensation as a function of the positions of a target relative
to the radar platform.
The need for this method arises because of two sources of complication in
UWB SAR that are not present in narrow-band SAR. One source of complication is that the prior commonly used
SAR motion-compensation algorithm
depends upon the Doppler shift of a
well-defined radar-signal frequency, but
the signal frequency in UWB radar is not
well defined. The other complication is
that the prior motion-compensation algorithm depends on azimuthal narrowness of the radar beam, but in UWB
SAR, the requirement to make the range
and azimuth resolutions approximately
equal translates to a requirement that
the radar beam be azimuthally wide (typical width of the order of a radian).
In a wide-beam SAR system, the key
dilemma in properly compensating for
motion is that one needs to track the location of each target on an SAR strip
map, but the locations of the targets are
not known from the outset. The present
method addresses this dilemma. The
method involves two stages of processing
(see figure).
In the first stage, a strip parallel to the
flight track is processed and targets are
motion compensated, assuming that
38
Raw SAR Data
Range Compression
Two-Dimensional Fast Fourier Transforms
in Small Patches
Phase Shift and Range Interpolation With
First-Order Motion Compensation
Phase Shift and Data Interpolation With
Second-Order Motion Compensation
Frequency-Domain Processing
Inversion of Fourier Transforms From Small
Patches and Construction of Mosaic of
Resulting Patch Images
First Stage
Second Stage
Motion Compensation to first order is effected for a data strip, then refined to second order over
small overlapping constituent patches. A motion-compensated image of the large patch is then constructed as a mosaic of the images of the smaller patches.
they are located in the antenna fan
beam plane. Following the first-order
motion compensation, a frequency-domain SAR processing algorithm is applied. The motion compensation for targets in off-boresight directions is not
correct, but the motion compensation
for the target(s) in the nominal center
of the beam is correct. This stage of processing ensures that target impulse responses are located correctly geometrically, albeit insufficiently focused.
In the second stage of processing, the
data strip is divided into overlapping
small patches and it is pretended that
the target(s) in each small patch lie at
the center of the patch. The data
processed in stage 1 are reprocessed
within each small patch to refine the
motion compensation. This reprocessing includes second-order motion compensation that takes the form of frewww.nasatech.com
quency and phase shifts applied to the
partially motion-compensated UWB
SAR data. Inasmuch as the motion compensation is perfect only at the center of
each small patch, the smaller the
patches, the better the motion-compensation performance. For the sake of
computational efficiency, the two-stage
processing algorithm has been formulated such that the reprocessing in small
patches is much less computationally demanding than is the processing of the
wide area patch, such that it is computationally affordable to reprocess many
small patches.
This work was done by Soren Madsen of
Caltech for NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. For further information, access the
Technical Support Package (TSP) free on-line
at www.nasatech.com/tsp under the Information Sciences category.
NPO-21096
NASA Tech Briefs, March 2002
PTB Cover 03/02
2/14/02
10:33 AM
Page 1
March 2002
Readers’ Choice 2001 Product of the Year . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IIa
OPSLs: a New Generation of Semiconductor Lasers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2a
Technologies of the Month . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6a
Light Recycling and Color Scrolling for Brighter Displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8a
Software Automates Processing of SAR Image Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10a
Liquid-Crystal Phase-Shifting Shearing Interferometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12a
Multi-Screen-Image- and Catalog-Viewing Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12a
Phase-Retrieval Camera for Optical Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13a
Testing Grazing-Incidence Mirrors at Nearly Normal Incidence . . . . . . . . .14a
Making Digital Composite Images for Technical Illustration . . . . . . . . . . .16a
Fiber-Optic Phase-Locked Loop Sensitive to Local Strain Only . . . . . . . . .17a
Product Guide: Optical Time Domain Reflectometers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18a
New Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22a
Cover photo courtesy Point Source Inc.
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PTB Prod of the Year 03/02
2/14/02
12:11 PM
Page II
Photonics Tech Briefs
2001 Readers’ Choice
Product of the Year
E
ach issue of Photonics Tech Briefs in
the year 2001 carried a Product of
the Month, a photonics product the editors felt was of special interest and value
to readers who work with lasers, optics,
fiber optics, and video and imaging
equipment. The winners of the gold, silver, and bronze awards, described in detail below, were chosen by readers voting
for one of these products on Photonics
Tech Briefs’ web site earlier this year. The
2001 winners are:
★ Gold Winner and Product of the Year:
TNP Instruments (Carson, CA) Model
DUV-250 deep-UV microscope;
★ Silver Winner: Raytheon Commercial
Infrared (Dallas, TX) PalmIR digital
thermal imaging camera; and
★ Bronze Winner: Polytec PI (Tustin, CA)
F-130 nanoalignment system for photonics packaging.
TNP Instruments DUV-250
Deep-UV Microscope
TNP Instruments calls its DUV-250
deep-UV microscopic imaging system
the first ever to combine microscopic
resolution below one-quarter micron
with real-time
operation. The
DUV-250 takes
advantage of
TNP’s exclusive
advancements
in optics and
broadband
mercury arc
lamp illuminaTNP Instruments DUV-250 tion to achieve
Deep-UV Microscope
25,000× magnifi c a t i o n . A nother benefit, the company says, is significantly reduced cost: the DUV-250
typically operates at less than half the
cost of traditional laser systems. Designed to fill a gap between visible-light
and scanning electron microscopy, the
company says, it represents a major in-
IIa
novation for semiconductor premanufacturing and failure analysis, for medical research and testing, for photomask
inspection, and for mass storage component manufacturing.
Another advantage of the high magnification of this microscope is that even
submicron features can be checked without any sample preparation. It can produce useful images of features 0.1 micron and below.
www.tnpinstruments.com
Raytheon Commercial
Infrared PalmIR 250 Digital
Thermal Imaging Camera
Raytheon Commercial Infrared says
that its PalmIR 250 handheld digital
thermal imaging camera is the first with
zoom capacity. It produces detailed 320×-240-pixel uncooled ferroelectric thermal images, and offers users a choice between the standard 75-mm f/1.0 lens
package or other packages ranging from
25 to 150 mm. An electronic zoom (2×)
and expanded menu items, including
video peaking, are also standard. It
weighs only 2 . 6 p o u n d s , and is operational with only one hand.
The PalmIR 250 offers VCR-compatible video output through an RCA jack
in an NTSC format, and PAL format for
international customers. Raytheon
Commercial
Infrared expects the
camera to
find applications in public s a f e t y ,
search and
rescue, surRaytheon Commercial Infraveillance, in- red PalmIR Digital Thermal
dustry, and Imaging System
wildland and
exterior firefighting. With the zoom capacity, users can both see through
darkness up close and also spot a person or an object up to 2400 feet away.
With its sharp picture and portable design, the PalmIR 250 is effective for day
www.ptbmagazine.com
and night surveillance to monitor
perimeters, scan long distances, and
spot intruders. In industrial applications, the unit can be used for predictive maintenance to inspect machines,
electrical conduits, and pipelines for
excess heat, leaks, or potential failures.
www.raytheoninfrared.com
Polytec PI F-130
Nanoalignment System
for Photonics Packaging
Polytec PI Inc. is marketing the F-130
X-Y-Z nanopositioning system for photonics packaging, originating from its
German partner Physik Instrumente.
The F-130 combines a 15-×-15-×-15-mm
motor-driven t r a v e l r a n g e with what
the company calls ultra-precision
piezonanopositioning technology and
n a n ometricscale resolution. It also
has a 100-×100-×-100-micrometer
high-speed
piezoelectric
travel range
for fine alignment. Resolution of the Polytec PI NanoAlignment
motor is 0.1 System for Photonics
micrometer
and of the piezoelectric drive 1 nanometer. Other features are fast scanning
speed, quick settling, small dimensions,
and closed-loop option with either the
motor or piezoelectric drive.
Designed for fiber positioning and
photonics packaging applications, the F130 has a large selection of control electronics for easy adaptation. A 2D transverse profile of a single-mode fiber
coupling can be acquired in less than
four seconds.
Polytec sees typical applications in
fiber alignment, semiconductor technology, mass storage, optical instrumentation, and more.
www.polytecpi.com
Photonics Tech Briefs, March 2002
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PTB Feature 03/02
02/14/2002
12:29 PM
Page 2
OPSLs:
a New Generation
of Semiconductor
Lasers
Optically pumped semiconductor
lasers bring wavelength
flexibility to their class
of laser.
aser instrumentation and equipment designers have traditionally
been challenged by a combination of
wavelength and integration limitations.
While trying to develop compact, flexible instruments for contemporary enduser requirements, designers have
sought to leverage the power of diodepumped solid-state lasers in applications
that traditionally employed larger and
less efficient air-cooled argon ion lasers.
In existing diode-pumped lasers that
used neodymium-doped crystals, designers found the compact size and efficiency they needed but also found huge
gaps of “no-man’s land” in the wavelength scale, especially in the blue. Furthermore, the advent of violet laser
diodes still did not fill gaps in the bluegreen segments of the spectrum. A new
generation of semiconductor lasers,
namely optically pumped semiconductor lasers (OPSLs), addresses designer
and market wavelength issues while facilitating compact packaging and efficiency that opens new opportunities for
laser-based instruments.
L
2a
Optically pumped semiconductor
lasers are part of a class of devices called
vertical external-cavity surface-emitting
lasers (VECSELs). The OPSL implementation is based on a patented technology
from Coherent that uses this technology
in its sapphire laser product line. Most
VECSELs are driven by electrical current, as are standard diode lasers. In
contrast, the OPSL uses optical pumping to drive the laser emission. This provides an excellent spatial mode quality
that electrical pumping cannot offer.
The main building blocks for an
OPSL include a continuous-wave 808nm semiconductor pump laser, identical
to those used for pumping Nd:YAG or
Nd:YVO 4 diode-pumped solid-state
lasers; focusing optics; the optically
pumped semiconductor (OPS) chip that
acts as a gain medium and high reflector; and an output coupler. Figure 1 is a
schematic of this arrangement.
The enabling technology is the GaAs
OPS chip, grown using molecular beam
epitaxy (MBE), the process well known
for wafer manufacturing consistency
www.ptbmagazine.com
(see Figure 2). The lower section of the
OPS chip consists of several epitaxially
grown high- and low-index layers that
form a distributed Bragg reflector, which
serves as the OPSL’s rear cavity mirror.
Several planar quantum wells, designed
to emit at the desired wavelength, are
grown on top of the index layers.
Cladding layers separate the emission
quantum wells and absorb the pump
photons. The top layer of the OPS chip
is given an antireflection coating.
Leveraging extensive GaAs knowledge
accrued over time in the semiconductor
industry, the OPS chip is fabricated
using the same standard GaAs-based material and MBE wafer growth as DPSS
pump diodes. The technology also gives
the precise control over epitaxial growth
made possible by the MBE method. In
addition, the intracavity second harmonic generation (SHG) method, used
extensively in fabricating existing
Nd:YAG and Nd:YVO4 DPSS product
lines, is also used in OPSL fabrication.
OPSL fabrication uses the proprietar y Permalign ™ process, a highPhotonics Tech Briefs, March 2002
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Photonics Tech Briefs
Figure 1. Schematic of the OPSL.
volume clean-room manufacturing
method. This method uses robotics to
accurately align optical components
while permanently soldering or welding each into place. The laser cavity is
then hermetically sealed for environmental stability and long lifetime with
no user intervention.
The design significance of the OPSL
technology is that, for the first time,
wavelengths can be developed to the
specifications of an OEM application.
This is because OPSL wavelengths can be
engineered simply by varying the semiconductor growth, unlike DPSS lasers,
where the fundamental wavelength is defined by fixed atomic transitions. OPSLs
can also be easily designed with high intracavity powers, making them ideal for
intracavity frequency doubling.
Freeing the designer of wavelength
gaps and limitations, this technology fa-
Figure 2. The OPS chip.
4a
cilitates the flexibility for OPSL development at several wavelengths in the IR
and blue at powers ranging from tens of
milliwatts to multiple watts.
OEM Integration Advantages
signs consume 98 percent less power,
with 98 percent lower heat dissipation
requirements, which represents a muchneeded breakthrough in efficiency.
With the trend in laboratory and research management moving toward
populating laboratories with ever-increasing numbers of analytical instruments, product design efficiency and
compact packaging become critical.
Compact instrumentation based on
OPSL technology can be deployed in
clustered environments without the heat
dissipation or ambient cooling fan noise
problems that argon-ion-laser-equipped
instruments would generate. Thus energy is conserved and ergonomic issues
are minimized.
OPSLs are available today that produce 10 to 20 mW at 460 nm and 488 nm
with very low noise (less than 0.25 percent RMS) and TEM00 spatial characteristics with an M 2 of less than 1.1. These
factors improve signal-to-noise ratios,
sensitivities, and focus properties, which
are key for OEM designs to meet enduser application demands.
The solid-state foundation and
power efficiencies of the OPSL have
spawned new possibilities for OEM inWavelength Independence
strumentation integration and packagSpurs Growth
ing. The laser head itself measures less
Customization for wavelength requirethan three inches by five inches. This
ments is now the response to market and
compact form factor permits deep inteapplication pressures. Products at 488
gration in instrumentation, bringing
nm, 460 nm, and 980 nm have been comthe laser source nearer to samples or
mercialized. So far, the 488-nm laser
work surfaces. Supplanting bulky and
inefficient air-cooled argon ion
lasers, OPSL technology integration can shrink a large instrumentation package down to a simpler
and more cost-effective tabletop
format that requires no supplemental cooling for the
laser source. For some
applications, this represents a significant reduction in instrument
footprint.
The Coherent OPSL
technology can dramatically reduce a design’s
power and heat dissipation requirements. For
example, the 488-nm Figure 3. OPSL can extend the limits of laser-inlaser draws a maximum duced fluorescence.
of 60 W of electrical
serves the bioinstrumentation and inpower, up to 50 W of which
spection fields, while the blue device at
goes to the thermoelectric
460 nm serves graphic arts and display.
cooler to stabilize the resThe 980-nm product is driven by the
onator independently of the
growing demands of the telecommunicaenvironmental conditions.
tions industry The inherent flexibility of
The remaining 10 W is used
the OPSL design will permit additional
to generate blue output. By
wavelengths to be developed to meet
comparison, the earlier airother evolving market requirements.
cooled argon ion laser reThe potential wavelength span of
quires at least 1.5 kW of
OPSLs can initiate developments to expower. Typically the OPSL dewww.ptbmagazine.com
Photonics Tech Briefs, March 2002
PTB Feature 03/02
02/14/2002
12:50 PM
Page 5
Photonics Tech Briefs
lasers at 457 nm, a 460nm OPSL wavelength
matches the absorption of photo emulsions perfectly. OPSL’s
low-noise performance
could also translate
into a distortion-free
end result, even under
close scrutiny by the
very sensitive human
eye. And in the display
market, OPSLs could
finally bring the coveted high-power blue
component to drive
RGB applications.
At near-IR wavelengths, OPSLs offer
the highest single-mode
fiber-coupled 980-nm
o u t p u t power availFigure 4. The OPSL’s stability and TEM00 beam quality promise to
able, making them ideal
increase precision in applications such as silicon wafer and mask
for pumping erbiuminspection.
doped fiber amplifiers.
tend today’s laser-induced fluorescence
As the demand for dense wavelength divi(LIF) dye chemistry for cell sorting,
sion multiplexed systems and other highhematology, or DNA sequencing beyond
performance fiber optic communications
the limits currently set by argon ion and
uses grows, OPSLs will keep pace with
Nd:YAG wavelengths (Figure 3). With the
higher pump power.
availability of multiple and
new wavelengths, OEM
designers can increase the
diagnostic capability of a
single instrument, with
which 15 or 20 tests could
be run, not just a few.
For the inspection
market, OPSL stability
and TEM00 beam quality
promise to increase the
precision in applications
spanning from silicon
wafers to mask inspection
(Figure 4). Within these
applications, current
light-scattering techniques suffer from laser
noise masking the return
signal from the sample.
Since the OPSL is a low- Figure 5. OPSL technology may unseat traditional approaches to
noise laser or “quiet” ex- photofinishing.
citation source, OEMs
could design future instruments with a
Previous iterations of lasers have
much higher sensitivity. For inspection
eventually scaled in wavelength to meet
systems, this can mean the detection of
a range of OEM and customer needs.
much smaller sample flaws or the detecThe design flexibility in the new-genertion of even smaller dust particles on
ation OPSL technology should permit
surfaces.
even wider implementation, dictated
The graphic arts fields stand to beneby the needs of today’s and tomorrow’s
fit from the cost efficiency resulting
applications.
from reliable and efficient OPSL sources
For further information, please contact the
with tailored wavelengths and low-ampliauthor of this article, Matthias Schulze, prodtude noise properties (Figure 5). For exuct line manager at Coherent Laser Division.
ample, in digital photofinishing, where
He can be reached at +49-451-3000-303, or
traditional methods employ argon ion
by e-mail at [email protected]
Photonics Tech Briefs, March 2002
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© Copyright 2001 National Instruments Corporation. All rights reserved. Product and
company names listed are trademarks or trade names of their respective companies.
For Free Info Circle No. 436 or
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PTB Tech Page 03/02
02-19-2002
1:08 PM
Page 6
Technologies
of the Month
Sponsored by
For more information on these and other new,
licensable inventions, visit www.nasatech.com/techsearch
A Very Thin Flexible
Laminate of Transparent
Plastic and Glass
AGFA
A laminate of a thin borosilicate glass
layer and a plastic support layer is provided. The advantages of a glass layer,
e.g., dimensional stability, high density,
hardness, barrier properties against
moisture, solvents and oxygen, are
combined with the properties of a polymer layer, e.g. flexibility, by laminating
a glass layer together with a polymer
layer. One of the layers in the laminate
can be a functional layer for such
things as security cards, photomasks,
semiconductor or electroconductive
devices with, or functional layers for
use in, flat panel displays. Another application for the laminate is as packaging for electronic chips. The laminate
combines all the advantages of a glass
material (strong, undeformable, impermeable) with the advantages of a polymer (flexible, lightweight), while both
materials are transparent.
For more information go to:
www.nasatech.com/techsearch/
tow/agfa2.html
email: [email protected];
phone: 617-557-3837
Glass Substrate for a
Thin Film Solar Cell
Having a Curved Surface
This technology provides a glass substrate having a transparent electroconductive film suitable for a solar cell having a curved surface shape, which is
superior in weather-resistance and crackresistance to a solar cell using a plastic
film as a substrate, and it is thereby possible to produce solar cells of various
curved surface shapes. According to the
method for producing a glass substrate
of this technology, a curve-shape glass
substrate having a transparent electroconductive film with good quality can be
produced at a low cost by forming the
transparent electroconductive film on a
glass sheet and then subjecting the resulFor Free Info Circle No. 418 or
Enter No. 418 at www.nasatech.com/rs
tant glass substrate to a bending treatment without substantially deteriorating
the transparent electroconductive film.
The solar cell for a sunroof of this technology has the advantages of good aerodynamics, an automobile body efficiently
utilizing light incident on the sunroof,
and also having a good design.
For more information go to:
www.nasatech.com/techsearch/
tow/substrate.html
email: [email protected];
phone: 617-557-3837
New Device Corrects
Myopia
Pneumatic keratology is a new procedure that corrects refractive errors,
most notably myopia or nearsightedness, without the risks, complications,
and expense of laser keratectomy, laser
in situ keratomiulesis (LASIK), or other
invasive surgical procedures. Pneumatic keratology uses a simple device,
the EyeModel, which corrects by means
of a vacuum. The method and device is
a patented invention capable of modeling the shape of the cornea of the eye.
The basis of pneumatic keratology is
described in a U.S. patent, “Method of
Altering the Shape of the Cornea.”
Pneumatic keratology provides a revolutionary means to correct all refractive
errors, such as myopia, hyperopia, and
astigmatism with unprecedented simplicity. Unlike other methods, the
cornea is not cut, burnt, ablated, or
damaged. No tissue is removed and
nothing is implanted. The EyeModel
has elongated openings that are connected to a vacuum pump with a thin
tube. By placing the device on the surface of the cornea and then applying a
vacuum, a plastic deformation of the
area of the cornea below the openings
is achieved. The resulting effect is that
the curvature and the refractive power
of the cornea and the eye are changed.
For more information go to
www.nasatech.com/techsearch/tow/
myopia.html
email: [email protected];
phone 617-557-3837
Photonics Tech Briefs, March 2002
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PTB Briefs 03/02
2/14/02
10:47 AM
Page 8
Photonics Tech Briefs
Light Recycling and Color Scrolling for Brighter Displays
Two efficiency-enhancing techniques would be combined.
NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California
The efficiencies and thus the brightnesses of flat-panel projectors based on
liquid-crystal devices (LCDs) and digital
mirror devices (DMDs) would be increased by the combination of a colorscrolling technique and a light-recycling
technique, according to a proposal.
These techniques were originally proposed separately for the purpose of increasing the efficiencies of LCD-based
display devices.
The scrolling-color technique was reported previously in “Using Surface-Plasmon Filters To Generate Scrolling Colors” (NPO-20110), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol.
23, No. 2 (February 1999), page 14a. To
recapitulate: by use of prisms and surface-plasmon tunable filters, white light
from a lamp or other illumination source
would be converted into a pattern of
scrolling primary colors. The advantage
of this scheme is that both polarization
components and all colors would be utilized, whereas in prior schemes, most of
the light power is wasted through color
and/or polarization filtering.
The light-recycling technique was reported in “Low-Absorption Color Filters
for Flat-Panel Display Devices” (NPO20435), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 23, No. 12
(December 1999), page 34. In this technique, one would replace traditional dye
filters with surface-plasmon or interference filters, which are more reflective
than absorptive. In addition, the filter
and illumination optics would be
arranged so that much of the light in all
colors and both polarizations reflected
from the filters would be sent back
through the light-source optics to be
reused as illumination.
The present proposal calls for, among
other things, a white light source
equipped with a reflector and a color-recycling and -scrolling panel (CRSP), as
shown schematically in the upper part of
Figure 1. The CRSP would contain an
array of voltage-tunable or voltageswitchable filters, each of which would
transmit one primary color [red (R),
green (G), or blue (B), depending on
the applied voltage] and reflect the
other two primary colors. The reflected
light would be bounced back and forth
between the CRSP and the light-source
reflector until light of each color impinged on its proper color filter. Thus,
light in the three colors would be redistributed as needed and relatively little
would be lost.
8a
At the first phase of a three-phase operating cycle, the color-filter array
could be energized to a color pattern as
RGB . . . , for example. In the next
phase, the color pattern could be
changed to BRG . . . . In the third
phase, the color pattern could be
changed again to GBR . . . . The net result is that recycling and scrolling of colors would occur in combination. The
number of color filters need not match
the number of pixels in the display
panel to be illuminated panel pixels;
the only requirement on the number of
filters is that it be an integer multiple 3.
The voltage-tunable or voltage-switchable color filters could be surface-plas-
Lamp
mon tunable filters [see “Voltage-Tunable Surface-Plasmon Band-Pass Optical
Filters” (NPO-19988), NASA Tech Briefs,
Vol. 22, No. 8 (August 1998), page 18a].
Alternatively, they could be assemblies
of interference or thin-metal film filters,
high-index-of-refraction prisms, and
total-internal-reflection switches [see
“Digitally Tunable Color Filters and
Beam Scanners” (NPO-20240), NASA
Tech Briefs, Vol. 23, No. 9 (September
1999), page 65] that would include layers of an electro-optical material between
prisms, as shown in the lower part of Figure 1. In the absence of applied voltage,
the electro-optical layer in each switch
would have a low index of refraction, so
1
R
2
G
3
B
4
R
5
G
6
B
Output Sequence RGBRGB
1
B
2
R
3
G
4
B
5
R
6
G
Output Sequence BRGBRG
G
1
2
B
3
R
4
G
5
B
6
R
Output Sequence GBRGBR
RECYCLING OF LIGHT AND GENERATION OF SCROLLING COLORS
Light From Source
B
G
B
R
3
G
R
3
1
B
1
1
4
2
G
R
4
4
2
B
G
3
G
R
All Three Switched Off
2
R
R
B
Switches 1 and 3 On,
Switch 2 Off
B
G
Switches 1 and 2 On,
Switch 3 Off
EXAMPLE OF A FILTER ARRAY GENERATING THREE DIFFERENT COLOR PATTERNS
Figure 1. Scrolling Colors Would Be Generated, and light not used to generate scrolling colors on the
first pass would be recycled and so used on subsequent passes.
www.ptbmagazine.com
Photonics Tech Briefs, March 2002
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PTB Briefs 03/02
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Photonics Tech Briefs
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Figure 2. A Flat-Panel Projector based on an LCD would utilize the scrolling-color and light-recycling
techniques for maximum light-utilization efficiency.
that total internal reflection would
occur at the prism/switch interfaces.
The application of a sufficient voltage to
the switch would increase the index of
refraction of the electro-optical layer sufficiently to allow light to pass through.
By appropriate switching in this manner, one can cause light of the various
colors to travel along various paths in
the prisms to obtain various output
color patterns.
Figure 2 presents an example of an
LCD-based display system that would include a CRSP. The image of the CRSP
would be projected into a monocolor
LCD panel by a relay lens. A zoom lens
would project an image of the LCD
onto a screen. It would be necessary to
use an electronic driver that would synchronize the scrolling of colors and
the modulation of light by the LCD.
Similar geometry can be applied to DMDs.
This work was done by Yu Wang of Caltech
for NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
For further information, access the Technical
Support Package (TSP) free on-line at
www.nasatech.com/tsp under the Physical
Sciences category.
In accordance with Public Law 96-517,
the contractor has elected to retain title to this
invention. Inquiries concerning rights for its
commercial use should be addressed to
Intellectual Property group
JPL
Mail Stop 202-233
4800 Oak Grove Drive
Pasadena, CA 91109
(818) 354-2240
Refer to NPO-21052, volume and number of this NASA Tech Briefs issue, and the
page number.
Software Automates Processing of SAR
Image Data
NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California
w w w. z a b e r. c o m
The Automated SAR Image Processor (ASIP) computer program increases the efficiency of production of
scientifically useful imagery from raw
synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) image
data. In the absence of ASIP, the processing of SAR data is a labor-intensive
task, often involving supporting personnel, that requires expertise in the
use of a variety of image-data-processing programs, as well as expertise in
the scientific specialty of the end user.
ASIP captures the diverse components
of expertise to assist the scientific end
user in obtaining the scientific end
product without supporting personnel.
ASIP applies artificial-intelligence
planning techniques to reason about
the interactions and interfaces among
the many specialized programs needed
to process SAR data. The planning
component of ASIP then manages the
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only 1/10 the number of manual inputs and 30 percent less central-processing-unit time than would otherwise
be necessary.
This program was written by Steve Chien,
Forest Fisher, Ronald Greeley, and Edisanter Lo of Caltech for NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. For further information,
access the Technical Support Package (TSP)
free on-line at www.nasatech.com/tsp
under the Physical Sciences category.
This software is available for commercial
licensing. Please contact Don Hart of the
California Institute of Technology at (818)
393-3425. Refer to NPO-20509.
Photonics Tech Briefs, March 2002
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replace the diodes less often, and you’ll only have one diode to replace. We’ve also redesigned the power supply, which
now uses thermoelectric cooling for the pump diode. The result is an all solid state, rack-mountable power supply that
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Diode Lifetime
At Spectra-Physics we believe that cutting edge lasers are built on
1.2
superior components, which is why we build all the
critical elements of the Millennia in house—
1
from the long lifetime ProLite™ series
pump diodes to the optics and the
0.8
power supply. To find out more about
00
2
4
6
8
10 how Millennia can cut your overall
test time (thousands of hours)
costs, call 1-800-775-5273 today.
Call: 1-800-SPL-LASER (775-5273) Web: http://www.spectra-physics.com
E-mail: [email protected]
© 2002 Spectra-Physics Lasers
For Free Info Circle No. 511 or Enter No. 511 at www.nasatech.com/rs
PTB Briefs 03/02
2/14/02
11:06 AM
Page 12
Photonics Tech Briefs
Liquid-Crystal Phase-Shifting Shearing Interferometer
There is no need for critical alignment or focus adjustment.
John H. Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio
The liquid-crystal phase-shifting
shearing interferometer is a commonpath interferometer based partly on a
lateral-shear-plate interferometer. It
bears a partial similarity to the liquidcrystal point-diffraction interferometer
(LCPDI), which is also of the commonpath type. The phase-shifting nature of
this interferometer is expected to increase (relative to prior shearing interferometers) resolution by up to two orders of magnitude. The liquid-crystal
phase-shifting shearing interferometer
is expected to be useful for measuring
spatially varying optical density in a laboratory or manufacturing setting; examples of such densities include the index
of refraction of a liquid in a production
process, the density and/or temperature
of a gas in a combustion system, and the
temperature of a fluid in a boiler.
The proper functioning of the LCPDI
depends on focusing a laser beam onto a
transparent microsphere and, hence, depends on the critical adjustment of a focusing lens by a highly trained technician. Unlike the LCPDI and many other
interferometers, the liquid-crystal phaseshifting shearing interferometer can be
aligned easily, with no need for critical
adjustments by a highly trained technician. Moreover, elimination of the need
for focusing on a microsphere also eliminates phase noise associated with inhomogeneities in a focusing lens.
In the liquid-crystal phase-shifting
shearing interferometer, collimated
light from a laser is incident on a shear
plate oriented at an angle of 45° (see figure). Unlike a traditional shear plate,
this shear plate contains a liquid-crystal
layer that can be used to vary the phase
of the light reflected from its rear surface. The amount of shear depends on
the effective optical thickness of the
shear plate, which is comparable to the
combined optical thicknesses of its glass
layers. When a voltage is applied across
the liquid-crystal layer, the index of refraction of the layer changes, causing
the phase of the portion of the incident
light reflected from the rear surface to
be stepped relative to the phase of this
portion when the voltage is not present.
Calibration of the phase shift as a function of voltage can produce the phase
steps required to implement common
phases-stepping algorithms.
The amount of shear varies roughly
inversely with index of refraction and
thus with the phase. However, calculations for the case of a total shift of one
wavelength have shown that the total
shift in beam position can be safely neglected because it is more than an order
of magnitude below the size of a typical
pixel in a charge-coupled-device camera
that would be used in implementing a
practical version of this interferometer.
In a prototype of this liquid-crystal
phase-shifting shearing interferometer,
the shear plate is a commercial liquidcrystal phase retarder originally intended for use as an extended-range,
variable-retardance wave plate rather
than an interferometer component.
The manufacturer’s specification for reflectance at each surface is less than
half of one percent. The device would
perform optimally if its front surface
were coated with a partially reflective
film and its rear surface with a totally
reflecting film.
This work was done by DeVon W. Griffin of
Glenn Research Center. For further information, access the Technical Support Package
(TSP) free on-line at www.nasatech.com/tsp
under the Physical Sciences category.
Inquiries concerning rights for the commercial use of this invention should be addressed
to NASA Glenn Research Center, Commercial
Technology Office, Attn: Steve Fedor, Mail
Stop 4–8, 21000 Brookpark Road, Cleveland, Ohio 44135. Refer to LEW-17165.
Shear
Plate
Collimated
Laser Light
Liquid-Crystal Layer
Glass Layers
Region of Phase-Shifted
Interferogram
The Liquid-Crystal Layer in the Shear Plate is used to vary the phase of the light reflected from its
rear surface.
Multi-Screen-Image- and Catalog-Viewing Program
NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California
A computer program enables the single- or multi-screen display of multispectral, multiresolution images — especially
astronomical ones — stored as sets of
data that range upward in size from hundreds of gigabytes. In cases of multi12a
screen displays, the software synchronizes
the screens so that they act as a single ultrahigh-resolution display. It is possible to
pan and zoom smoothly to any part of the
data at any resolution. The software can
automatically generate composites of
www.ptbmagazine.com
multiple sets of data, making it possible,
for example, to overlay high-resolution
insets on background images or to display a separate source image for each
video channel (red, green, or blue). The
software includes special features to aid
Photonics Tech Briefs, March 2002

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