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A BEST MANUFACTURING PRACTICES PROGRAM PUBLICATION
NAVSO P-3680
BLACK
ENVIRONMENTAL
GUIDELINE DOCUMENT
OLD
DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY
NEW
OCTOBER 1997
OCTOBER 1997
HOW TO BE GREEN
AND STAY IN THE
BLACK
ENVIRONMENTAL
GUIDELINE DOCUMENT
Preface
Do you have an environmental problem and no solution? Wouldn’t it be great
to know how others solved their environmental problems? Would you like a
source for finding answers to your environmental problems? Do you need help on
what to do with hazardous materials? What about recycling solid waste,
waste minimization, solvent recovery systems, groundwater and soil
cleanup, chemical recycling, and chemical management programs? Are
you looking for a way to be environmentally sound and save money? This
document contains examples of environmental best practices from industry,
government, and academic institutions—and might have the solution to your environmental problem.
For more than a decade, the Navy’s Best Manufacturing Practices (BMP) program’s survey process
has been a primary avenue for industry and government to present individual and distinctive success
stories in the manufacturing disciplines. In February 1994, industry and government representatives
met and discussed the idea of broadening the BMP program scope to incorporate environmental best
practices. The idea resulted in the formation of the Environmental Best Manufacturing Practices
(EBMP) program. Several meetings were held to define issues and goals:
Where would EBMP fit in the environmental community?
What environmental problems exist?
Which problems needed to be addressed immediately?
How could the EBMP program be a bridge to solving these problems?
The program’s goal was to help industry find efficient, cost-effective ways to do business without reinventing the wheel, and assume a constructive leadership role in the environmental area. Knowing
that answers to many environmental questions already existed in the U.S. industrial base, the need
to find these answers and publish them in a simple, useful, instructional document was the overall
goal of the program. To achieve its goal, the EBMP program formed a working group. This document
is the result of that group effort, and will be distributed in hard copy and electronically to thousands
of representatives in government, industry, and academia throughout the U.S. and Canada. The
document is available at no cost to any business, whether small, medium or large, needing help with
environmental solutions. Information contained in this document can also be accessed via BMP's
World Wide Web Home Page located on the Internet at http://www.bmpcoe.org.
We do not have all the answers, by far. However, this guideline document contains examples of
good, solid environmental processes, systems, and management techniques that could make a
difference in your business. The EBMP program supports effective voluntary partnerships and
technology transfer. One of our program’s goals is to make a difference — environmentally — in what
is produced and how it is produced. We believe this document is a giant step toward that goal.
Ernie Renner
Director, Best Manufacturing Practices
Contents
Environmental Guideline Document
1. Introduction
Overview ................................................................................................................. 1
Committee Members .............................................................................................. 2
Summary ................................................................................................................ 2
2. Pollution Prevention
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 3
Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. - Ft. Worth, TX
V-22 and Pollution Prevention ............................................................................... 3
City of Chattanooga - Chattanooga, TN
Chattanooga Manufacturers Association .............................................................. 4
Greenways ............................................................................................................... 4
Parks and Recreation Alliances with Non-Profit Groups and
Private Industry ................................................................................................. 5
Stormwater Community Education Program ....................................................... 5
Environmental Court ............................................................................................. 6
Hamilton County Air Pollution Control Bureau ................................................... 7
Economy Surplus Power for Wastewater Treatment ............................................ 7
Dover Air Force Base - Dover, DE
Hazardous Materials Pharmacy ............................................................................ 7
ITT Defense and Electronics - McLean, VA
Development and Implementation of Multifunctional/Multiunit
Chemical Use Reduction Teams ......................................................................... 8
Mason & Hanger Corporation - Pantex Plant - Amarillo, TX
Energy Conservation .............................................................................................. 9
Treatment of High Explosive Contaminated Groundwater ................................. 9
Pantex Pollution Prevention ................................................................................ 10
McDonnell Douglas Aerospace - St. Louis, MO
FlashjetTM Coating Removal Process ................................................................... 10
i
C o n t e n t s (Continued)
Environmental Guideline Document
Millar Western Pulp (Meadow Lake) Ltd. - Saskatchewan, Canada
Pollution Prevention ............................................................................................. 11
Process Waste Minimization ................................................................................ 11
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - Richland, WA
Reduction of Radioisotope Use for Molecular-Biological Analyses ..................... 11
Rubbercycle ........................................................................................................... 12
Polaroid Corporation - Waltham, MA
Product Safety Emission Testing ......................................................................... 12
Activity-Based Risk Management Performance System .................................... 13
Emergency Planning Program ............................................................................. 13
Engineering Controls............................................................................................ 14
Pressure Nutsche .................................................................................................. 14
Volatile Organic Compound Abatement System ................................................. 16
Beyond Environmental Compliance .................................................................... 17
Indoor Air Quality Management .......................................................................... 18
Rockwell Avionics & Communications - Cedar Rapids, IA
On Line PWB Manual .......................................................................................... 18
Sandia National Laboratories - Albuquerque, NM
DOE/DOD Environmental Data Bank ................................................................ 18
Environment, Safety, & Health Regulation Compliance Support for Suppliers .... 19
Texas Instruments, DS&EG - Dallas, TX
Environmental Database System Timeline......................................................... 20
U.S. Army Combat Systems Test Activity (Aberdeen Test Center) Aberdeen, MD
Environmental Noise Management Program ..................................................... 21
3. Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing
Introduction ........................................................................................................ 23
Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. - Fort Worth, TX
Paint and Paint Gun Improvements .................................................................... 23
ii
C o n t e n t s (Continued)
Environmental Guideline Document
City of Chattanooga - Chattanooga, TN
CARTA/Electric Buses .......................................................................................... 23
Sustainable Development..................................................................................... 24
Dayton Parts, Inc. - Harrisburg, PA
Spring Coating Environmental Requirements.................................................... 25
Defense Contract Management Command - Ft Belvoir, VA
Eliminating Hazardous Materials from DOD Contracts and Weapons Systems .. 25
Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Operations - Oak Ridge, TN
Recycling Chemicals Used in Electroless Plating ............................................... 27
Digital Equipment Corporation - Westfield, MA
Painting/EPA and State Regulations ................................................................... 27
Dover Air Force Base - Dover, DE
Volatile Organic Compounds Release Reduction ................................................ 28
Hamilton Standard Electronic Manufacturing Center - Farmington, CT
Environmental Program....................................................................................... 28
Work Environment ............................................................................................... 29
Kurt Manufacturing Company - Minneapolis, MN
Coolant Reclamation System ............................................................................... 30
Lockheed Martin Electronics and Missiles - Orlando, FL
Environmental Practices ...................................................................................... 30
Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems - Fort Worth, TX
Hazardous Material Management ....................................................................... 31
Elimination of Ozone-Depleting Compounds in F-16 Technical Orders ............ 31
Low Vapor Pressure Cleaning Solvent................................................................. 32
Use and Verification of Aqueous Alkaline Cleaners ............................................ 33
Mason & Hanger Corporation - Pantex Plant - Amarillo, TX
Groundwater Monitoring Program ...................................................................... 33
Sitewide Environmental Impact Statement........................................................ 34
iii
C o n t e n t s (Continued)
Environmental Guideline Document
McDonnell Douglas Aerospace - St. Louis, MO
Environmental Improvement Initiatives ............................................................ 35
Project Deployment: Technology Transition to Production ................................ 35
Millar Western Pulp (Meadow Lake) Ltd. - Saskatchewan, Canada
Chemical Recycling ............................................................................................... 36
Air Pollution .......................................................................................................... 36
Recycle of Recovery Boiler Smelt ......................................................................... 36
Nascote Industries, Inc. - Nashville, IL
Paint Fumes Management ................................................................................... 36
Naval Aviation Depot - Jacksonville, FL
Closed Loop Recycle Systems for Waste Minimization ....................................... 37
Environmental Control Center ............................................................................ 37
Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane Division - Crane, IN
Digital Photo Processing ...................................................................................... 38
Powder Coating ..................................................................................................... 38
Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head Division - Indian Head, MD
Reengineering Propellant Extrusion Process ...................................................... 39
Reduced Diameter Extrusion Dies ....................................................................... 39
Upgraded Press Control and Hydraulic Power Systems .................................... 39
New Flying Press Cutters .................................................................................... 39
Carpet Roll Weight Control .................................................................................. 39
Annealing Oven Control System .......................................................................... 39
Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division - Keyport, WA
HAZMIN Working Group ..................................................................................... 39
Norden Systems, Inc. (Northrop Grumman Norden Systems) - Norwalk, CT
Environmental Initiatives .................................................................................... 40
Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN
Numerical Modeling of Environmental Problems .............................................. 41
iv
C o n t e n t s (Continued)
Environmental Guideline Document
OxyChem - Ashtabula, OH
Pollution Reduction Project - OxyChem’s Ashtabula, Ohio Plant Toluene Emissions and Releases Reduction .................................................... 44
OxyChem’s Niagara, New York Plant .................................................................. 44
OxyChem’s Durez Ft. Erie, Canada Receives Environmental Awards for
Environmental Efforts...................................................................................... 45
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - Richland, WA
Electronic Signatures and Newsletters ............................................................... 46
Quantitative Extraction of Organic Chemicals ................................................... 46
Polaroid Corporation - Waltham, MA
Chemical Labeling ................................................................................................ 47
Drum Handling ..................................................................................................... 47
Early Suppression Fast Response Fire Protection .............................................. 48
Environmental Scorecard ..................................................................................... 49
Ergonomic Program .............................................................................................. 49
Local Emergency Planning Committee Membership ......................................... 50
Process Safety Management ................................................................................ 50
Product Delivery Process...................................................................................... 52
Reinforcing Safety Values at Polaroid Program .................................................. 53
Safety Ambassador ............................................................................................... 54
Safety Values Process ........................................................................................... 54
Toxicity Bulletin ................................................................................................... 55
Free Cooling with Evaporative Fill Media Pads ................................................. 55
Moving Crates ....................................................................................................... 56
Power Factor Correction for Energy Conservation ............................................. 57
Preheated Boiler Make-up Water ......................................................................... 57
Ultraviolet Light Treatment ................................................................................ 58
Variable Air Volume Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning System ......... 58
Community Outreach ........................................................................................... 59
Environmental Reporting..................................................................................... 59
Ethics and Compliance Awareness Training ....................................................... 60
Occupational Medical Program ............................................................................ 60
Polaroid Exposure Guidelines .............................................................................. 61
v
C o n t e n t s (Continued)
Environmental Guideline Document
Polaroid Foundation ............................................................................................. 61
Proactive Roles with Public Groups, Boards, and Committees .......................... 62
Product Safety Management Guidelines ............................................................. 62
Professional Development Committee ................................................................. 63
Project Bridge ....................................................................................................... 64
Regulatory Training Requirements ..................................................................... 64
Raytheon Missile Systems Division - Andover, MA
ODC Reduction ..................................................................................................... 65
Rockwell Autonetics Electronics Systems - Anaheim, CA
Approach to Achieving 100 Parts Per Million Program ...................................... 65
Rockwell Collins Avionics & Communications Division - Cedar Rapids, IA
Automated Conformal Coating Application Process ........................................... 66
Freon Replacement and Hazmat Program .......................................................... 66
Solid Waste Environmental Leadership and Learning Team ............................. 67
Ozone Depleting Substance Alternatives Implementation Team ...................... 68
Printed Circuit Wiring Board Etch Reuse ........................................................... 68
Paperless Work Flow for Electronic Maintenance Work Requests ..................... 68
Sullivan Graphics - Marengo, IA
Strategic Scheduling ............................................................................................. 69
Texas Instruments, DS&EG - Dallas, TX
Laser Cutting System ........................................................................................... 70
Design for the Environment Initiative ................................................................ 70
Tinker Air Force Base - Oklahoma City, OK
Cadmium Strip Rejuvenation Process ................................................................. 72
Carbon Dioxide Blast Booth ................................................................................. 72
High Velocity Oxy-Fuel Flame Spray .................................................................. 73
Pressure Spray Washers ....................................................................................... 73
Solvent Recycling System..................................................................................... 73
Arc Spray ............................................................................................................... 74
Zinc-Nickel Alloy Plating ..................................................................................... 74
Water Jet Knife ..................................................................................................... 74
vi
C o n t e n t s (Continued)
Environmental Guideline Document
4. Waste Handling/Recycling/Reuse
Introduction ........................................................................................................ 77
Air Force Plant #44, Hughes Missile Systems Company - Tucson, AZ
Chemical Waste Minimization and Process Water Recycling ............................. 77
City of Chattanooga - Chattanooga, TN
Curbside Recycling Collection Program .............................................................. 78
Warner Park Recycling Program.......................................................................... 78
Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Operations - Oak Ridge, TN
Improved Handling of Recycled Materials .......................................................... 79
In Situ Vitrification Method for Waste Disposal ................................................. 80
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closures ............................................ 80
Spill Control System ............................................................................................. 81
Sensor Development for Environmentally Relevant Species ............................. 81
Technology Logic Diagram ................................................................................... 81
Dover Air Force Base - Dover, DE
Dover Air Force Base as a National Test Site Groundwater and
Soil Cleanup Testing ......................................................................................... 82
Mason & Hanger Corporation - Middletown, IA
Barcode System for Hazardous Waste Management .......................................... 83
Closed Loop Pink Water Treatment Facility ....................................................... 83
Millar Western Pulp (Meadow Lake) Ltd. - Saskatchewan, Canada
Elimination of Liquid Effluent ............................................................................. 84
NASA Marshall Space Flight Center - Huntsville, AL
Environmental Control and Life Support Systems ............................................. 84
Nascote Industries, Inc. - Nashville, IL
Paint Sludge Recycling ......................................................................................... 84
Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head Division - Indian Head, MD
Solid Waste Recycling ........................................................................................... 85
Photographic/X-ray Fixer Recycling .................................................................... 86
Trichloroethane Recycling .................................................................................... 86
vii
C o n t e n t s (Continued)
Environmental Guideline Document
Carbon Adsorption ................................................................................................ 86
Ultraviolet Treatment of Contaminated Wastewater ......................................... 86
Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division - Keyport, WA
OTTO Fuel Reclamation ...................................................................................... 87
OxyChem - Niagara, NY
OxyChem’s Niagara Plant Receives Beneficial Use Determination from
New York State Department of Environmental Conservation ....................... 88
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - Richland, WA
Recycling of Non-Hazardous Materials ............................................................... 88
Recycling of Hazardous Materials and Operations Upgrades ............................ 89
In-line Solvent Recovery Systems ........................................................................ 89
Polaroid Corporation - Waltham, MA
Asbestos Management Council ............................................................................ 90
Electrostatic Discharge Machining Oil Removal ................................................ 90
Establishment of Chemical Categories................................................................ 91
Hazardous Waste Disposal Audit Procedure ....................................................... 91
Landfill Avoidance ................................................................................................ 92
Cooling Tower Make-up Water Metering ............................................................. 92
Watershed Protection ........................................................................................... 93
Rockwell Collins Avionics & Communications Division - Cedar Rapids, IA
Pay from Receipt ................................................................................................... 94
United Defense, L.P., Ground Systems Division - Santa Clara, CA
Environmental Remediation - Remedial Cost Estimating ................................. 94
Environmental Remediation - In-Situ Soil Treatment ....................................... 94
Environmental Remediation Analysis, Computer Modeling, and Visualization .... 95
Emergency Response Team .................................................................................. 95
APPENDIX A - Table of Acronyms ......................................................................... A-1
APPENDIX B - Where to Find Help ........................................................................ B-1
APPENDIX C - Point of Contact Directory ........................................................... C-1
APPENDIX D - Index ................................................................................................ D-1
viii
Figures & Tables
Environmental Guideline Document
Figures
2-1
Test Chamber Configuration of Helios Medical Imaging System ....................... 12
2-2
1996 Risk Reduction Metric .................................................................................. 13
2-3
F360 Pressure Nutsche System............................................................................. 16
2-4
REECO Incinerator ................................................................................................ 16
2-5
Carbon Dioxide and Total Volatile Organic Compound Concentrations ............. 18
3-1
New Paint Line Schematic .................................................................................... 27
3-2
Work Environment ................................................................................................. 29
3-3
Schematic Illustration of SESOIL Structure and Operation ............................... 41
3-4
Typical Results from SESOIL/PRISM Showing (3-4a) TCE Mass-flux
Probability Distributions and (3-4b) Calculated TCE Concentration
(95th percentile) in Groundwater as a Function of Soil Initial TCE
Concentration .................................................................................................... 42
3-5
The Product Delivery Process Team...................................................................... 52
3-6
The Total Quality of Life Model ............................................................................ 54
3-7
Our Personal Well Being ........................................................................................ 55
3-8
Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning Systems ........................................... 56
3-9
Laser Cutting System ............................................................................................ 70
4-1
Tote Pan .................................................................................................................. 79
4-2
Engineered Caps .................................................................................................... 80
4-3
Technology Logic Diagram .................................................................................... 82
4-4
Asbestos Management Council.............................................................................. 90
4-5
TSD Landfill Request ............................................................................................ 92
4-6
Example of Environmental Computer Modeling .................................................. 96
Tables
2-1
Chemicals Manufacturing Plant ........................................................................... 15
3-1
Pollution Prevention Results Through 1994 ......................................................... 31
3-2
The Workplace Risk Factors, Causes, and Actual Solutions ................................ 51
3-3
Wave Soldering Process Qualification Test Result Summary .............................. 67
3-4
Ozone Depleting Chemicals (Cedar Rapids) ......................................................... 67
3-5
Ozone Depleting Chemicals (Coralville) ............................................................... 68
ix
Section 1
Introduction
Overview
In today’s world, producing a good, reliable, environmentally safe product is crucial. To accomplish
this task, government and industry must take into
account environmental regulations, socioeconomic
costs, and global competitive pressure. In the past,
American industry focused mainly on compliance,
cost avoidance, and remediation. We cannot continue to take this approach, and must become more
proactive in balancing efficiency and cost with
evolving environmental factors. By consciously
designing for the environment, manufacturers promote pollution prevention; waste minimization;
and product reuse and recycling. These practices
not only improve the design and efficiency of new
products, but also contribute to saving the renewable
and non-renewable resources in our ecosystem.
The impact of environmental regulations is causing wholesale change in the Department of Defense
and its contractor corps. Environmental issues are
a critical part of the acquisition system process for
the Department of Defense and U. S. companies
that want to remain globally competitive. As one
burdensome environmental law is stacked atop
another, the challenge becomes even more arduous. Despite size, companies must keep current
with the latest developments in environmental
areas. In today’s marketplace, everything sold aspires to be environmentally friendly — from missiles
to paper cups — and it isn’t easy being green. In
the complicated environmental realm, going on instinct alone can cause more harm than good.
Recently the regulated community, and the regulators themselves, have recognized that programs
designed to protect the environment can result in
greater operational efficiencies and increase an
organization’s competitive advantage. By focusing
on strategic environmental management, leaders
can measure and optimize their return on investment. By treating environmental initiatives as a
business investment, leaders can identify baseline
costs and liabilities, and calculate the rate of return
based on cost and liability reduction or competitive
enhancement. Businesses are starting to recognize
that environmental, health, and safety issues are
not the enemy. The market for environmentally
sound products and services is growing.
This document contains many solutions to environmental challenges facing industry, businesses,
and programs today. Following are just two of
many success stories:
• A company initiated a program to eliminate
chemicals from its manufacturing process. They
exceeded initial expectations to the extent that
more than one million pounds of chemicals,
including 600,000 pounds of CFCs, were
eliminated years before regulatory
deadlines.
• Another company estimated cost savings from
its wipe solvent implementation program
resulting in an $8.2 million savings over a
five year period.
By using these guidelines, programs working
toward ISO 14000 certification can be impacted;
compliance with federal, state, and local environmental regulations can be achieved; and development of engineering curricula at colleges and universities can be realized. The estimated economic
value to the U.S. industrial base can be substantial
by using information that already exists and helping
businesses and programs realize cost benefits through
the avoidance of non-compliance related costs.
The environmental area has gained due recognition in recent years. As such, it is still a growing
field, and related data and documents require constant evaluation and revisions. Therefore, this is a
living document and will undergo change and
refinement as technologies advance in the environmental field. The document provides basic information and successful applications of environmental
best practices for incorporation by any company,
government installation, or academic institution.
As a living document, updates will be conducted
periodically. This is an opportunity to look at your
activity, relate your success stories, and be part of
the next guideline document. To assist in the update process, the Environmental Best Manufacturing Practices (EBMP) questionnaire is available on
the Best Manufacturing Practices Center of Excellence Home Page at http://www.bmpcoe.org, or by
calling 800-789-4267. All information submitted
will be reviewed and compiled by the EBMP Executive Steering Committee Members. We encourage
your participation.
1
Committee Members
The Environmental Best Manufacturing Practices (EBMP) guideline working group is comprised
of voluntary representatives from industry and
government. Their contribution to this document is
greatly appreciated. We thank them for their participation, comments, and expert guidance.
Pamela Beilke
Hughes Missile Systems Company
Darrel Brothersen
Rockwell Avionics &
Communications
Larry M. Fry
Air Force Systems Command
Elaine Geisler
Naval Warfare Assessment
Division
Mark Hancock
Naval Surface Warfare Center,
Indian Head Division
Theresa Hoagland
Environmental Protection Agency
Kip Hoffer
Naval Surface Warfare Center,
Crane Division
Yvonne Lach
BMP Center of Excellence
Caryl Lummis
BMP Center of Excellence
Becky McKelvey
Texas Instruments
Terry Payne
Oak Ridge National Laboratories
Joe Phillips
Tennessee Valley Authority
Ernie Renner
BMP Center of Excellence
Lisa Rogers
BMP Center of Excellence
Amy Scanlan
BMP Center of Excellence
Anne Marie SuPrise
BMP Center of Excellence
David Ufford
Texas Instruments
2
We extend special thanks and recognition to
Darrel Brothersen, Rockwell Avionics & Communications, for his contribution to the Waste Handling/Reuse/Recycle section; Joe Phillips, Tennessee Valley Authority, for his contribution to the
Pollution Prevention section; and Terry Payne,
Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation,
for his contribution to the Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing section.
Summary
Environment, health, and safety management, if
considered a part of the manufacturing process,
can become an efficient, cost effective factor that
will reap rewards beyond expectations. This document was designed to compile as many environmental success stories as possible and provide the
information to programs, companies, and institutions concerned about the future. Let’s all ensure
that future generations will enjoy an environmentally safe and sound world.
Section 2
Pollution Prevention
Introduction
Pollution prevention should be an integral part of
every manufacturing facility. Are you installing
new equipment? Changing a process? Purchasing
new chemicals? Think pollution prevention. If you
are starting a pollution prevention program, here
are some rules you might want to consider:
• Obtain management support — very critical to
a successful program
• Consider each step of the manufacturing process
• Identify raw materials used
• Identify waste streams
• Consider risk to employees
• Determine emissions/releases
Manufacturing practices that eliminate waste
before it is created are the most efficient and cost
effective of all environmental best practices. Eliminating pollution at the source is preferred. Reducing or eliminating materials, processes, or products
is preferable to recycling, treating, and then disposing of waste by-products. Research shows that
frequently, the true cost of waste in manufacturing
can equal or exceed the payroll. The cost savings
associated with waste reduction often recoup the
cost of implementation in months. So, when considering pollution prevention in your company/facility
consider the following:
• Source Reduction
• Recycling/Reuse
• Treatment
• Disposal
Documented in the following pages, are pollution
prevention and waste reduction practices that have
been found effective in specific industries. These
companies have agreed to be identified in the hope
that their experiences will help others solve similar
problems. You are encouraged to investigate these
practices and adapt or modify those that fit your
situation.
Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. Ft. Worth, TX
V-22 and Pollution Prevention
Background
Elimination or substitution of hazardous materials during the products’ life cycle is described,
together with steps in partnering and jointly working pollution prevention (P2) issues.
The Pollution Prevention Program (PPP) Plan
defines the Bell-Boeing V-22 Engineering Manufacturing Development (EMD) PPP. Specifically
prohibited was the use of asbestos, ozone depleting
substances, and surface coatings containing lead.
Volatile organic compounds content in primers and
topcoats may not exceed regulatory requirements.
• Identifying a hazardous materials listing was
crucial and time-consuming. Families of
chemicals were selected to avoid a long list. The
plan addresses responsibilities of all functional
groups in relation to P2 and implementation.
Coordination and communication between
functional groups, Boeing, and the customer
are essential.
• Included was training of design engineers and
all those involved in carrying out the plan.
• The logistics role is critical to the success of the
P2 effort, especially as far as the customer is
concerned.
Description
When selecting materials and processes, contract
language requires the environmental impacts to be
minimized during the life cycle (systems definition,
design, engineering development, manufacture,
operation, maintenance and repair) of the weapon
system. The environmental impact is considered
equally with other design criterion.
Results
Ultimately, the hazardous materials are identified, prioritized, and trade studies recommended.
This plan requires justification of use of specific
hazardous materials if they cannot be eliminated.
A database conveying this information is given to
the customer. Hazardous materials are prioritized
3
based on five factors weighed equally: (a) amount of
material used on V-22; (b) toxicity of material to
human health; (c) the environment; (d) disposal,
handling, and storage method associated with waste
products; and (e) legislation associated with use
and disposal of the material.
Bell Helicopter used P2 framework previously
established through prior manufacturing programs
to achieve the V-22 P2 requirements.
Bell Helicopter has pursued and accomplished an
effective measurement of P2 efforts. The measurement system must be credible, verifiable, and normalized. Bell is currently implementing a computerized Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) and
chemical inventory database to allow more accessible information for P2 activities. Environmental
considerations during life cycle and documentation
of successes or difficulties is important to success.
City of Chattanooga Chattanooga, TN
Chattanooga Manufacturers
Association
Background
The Chattanooga Manufacturers Association
(CMA) is a proactive organization that addresses
issues affecting the economic development and
stability of the Chattanooga manufacturing industry. With a membership of 240 representing 175
manufacturers, CMA represents the needs of its
membership through a collective and united voice.
A broad range of companies belong to the CMA,
from large companies with 3,000 employees to
small companies with five employees.
Chattanooga manufacturing is not as large of an
industrial community as it was in the early to mid
1900s. However, manufacturing represents an important 23% of the Chattanooga economic base, and
is an essential element of any plan for economic
growth. The manufacturing culture has shifted,
and the CMA recognizes that the future of manufacturing must address issues of environmental
controls and equipment, computerization, robotics,
mechanization, global competition, work teams,
zoning regulations, product reliability, job requirements, waste reduction, Total Quality Management, Just-in-Time, and OSHA.
Description
The CMA introduced "The Six Ps"—property,
permission, processes, people, products, and prof-
4
its—as core areas effecting change. For example,
permission is no longer exclusively a legal issue.
Today the manufacturer must consider more stringent air, water, and solid waste regulations; bureaucratic difficulty in obtaining required installation and operating permits; increased numbers of
government mandates; complicated zoning and site
regulations; environmental equity, and other social issues. Processes are also no longer centered
solely around previously strong foundry operations, food and food production, chemicals, machinery and metal fabrication, textile fibers and apparel
production. The manufacturer must now account
for process improvements that minimize waste at
the source, pollution abatement equipment installation, mechanization and material handling practices, energy conservation practices, and introduction of alternatives for problem materials.
Results
In cooperation with its members, its committees,
community and industrial leaders, and the Chattanooga Chamber of Commerce, the CMA has effectively examined and developed courses of action to
address issues identified from the "Six P" core areas
that impact manufacturers. Typical issues addressed include challenging perceived unfair utility rates imposed on manufacturers, developing
acceptable compliance with EPA's clean-air act,
awareness of environmental regulations, and identifying manufacturer's resource requirements to
the academic community. The organization addresses issues that are justified while opposing
practices that are bureaucratic excess. This association focuses energy on an issue, and objectively
reaches a resolution. The CMA has repeatedly exercised more influence as a whole than manufacturers
could individually.
Greenways
Background
During the late 1980s, Chattanoogans began to
evaluate the assets that had been abandoned by
factories and foundries along the Tennessee River.
A citizen's task group realized that the whole
riverfront should be considered and include Moccasin Bend, a former location of the Cherokee Indian
tribe encampments, as well as the downtown area.
Consequently, partnerships with the Tennessee
Valley Authority, private groups, and the local
government created the first section of the Tennessee River Park.
Description
A citizen's task force—the Greenway Board—
was subsequently developed, and advocated a high
quality greenway path along the riverfront, creeks,
and scenic corridors that connected housing, parks,
businesses, and tourist attractions. To assist in the
planning and implementation, the City contracted
with the Trust for Public Land, a nonprofit organization, to provide technical assistance, coordination, and land purchases, and land protection for
the greenways. Land for the greenways and most of
the easements have been donated.
Chattanooga is networking these greenways into
a linear park reserved for environmental and recreational use. One greenway that follows the North
Chickamauga Creek for more than four miles (of its
proposed 15-mile route) connects to the Greenway
Farm, a 180-acre facility used as a park and which
features a renovated mansion used as a conference
center. On the south side of the Tennessee River,
the 22-mile greenway is 40% complete and will
eventually link the Chickamauga Dam with the
Tennessee Aquarium.
Results
Four other greenways will link the Tennessee
Aquarium, parks, and neighborhoods while providing protected trails for people to ride bikes, jog, and
walk. With the completed greenways and another
75-100 miles of greenway planned for the future,
the community has generated pride and enthusiasm that is considered a benchmark for other
communities.
Parks and Recreation Alliances
with Non-Profit Groups and
Private Industry
Background
Chattanooga's campaign for the quality of life for
its citizens is reflected in the expansion of the Parks
and Recreation Department. The department previously offered only basic, traditional programs
because of limited resources, and clientele was
normally limited to the poor inner-city. However,
through Vision 2000, where the community reaffirmed that its recreational department was a quality of life ingredient, and because of changes in the
local government, Chattanooga set out with objectives to use its recreational resources as much as
possible and not duplicate services. Consequently,
discussions with related private concerns were
initiated where there was an interest in building a
partnership. Over 50 non-profit and private organizations have been used since 1994 to expand and
improve services.
Description
An example of these alliances is provided by a
partnership established between the department
and the Trust for Public Land to support the
Greenway initiative. The relationship has saved
the City over $60K annually and provided resources not locally available. The Trust for Public
Land purchased the Greenway Farm, a 180-acre
tract along the river slated for condominium development. With this purchase, the Greenway was
extended, development for condominiums was
halted, and a mansion on the property was converted into a Greenway Farm conference center for
environmental education programs. A similar relationship was established with The Nature Center
to provide oversight of the conference center and
provide the environmental education programs. As
a part of the lease, the City can bring inner-city
children to the environmental education programs
free of charge.
Results
As a result of a community interests survey, the
City wanted to develop a climbing wall to educate
citizens and help them develop climbing skills. A
local outdoor supply company also wanted to provide a training facility for rock climbing. The City
consequently leased a pier of the walking bridge to
this company to develop the facility. The company
provided the initial capital investment and the
annual operating funds. A clause in the lease
stipulates that the company provides over 400
hours of free instructional time to recreation participants from the inner city.
The success of the involvement of the nonprofit
and private companies can be attributed to the
quality-of-life issues Chattanooga is espousing, as
well as the City actively seeking out partners,
publicity from the two local newspapers, and the
grassroots efforts to involve the community.
Stormwater Community
Education Program
Background
Chattanooga uses an innovative and successful
program to educate its general public on the importance of preventing the introduction of pollutants
5
into the natural waterways that run through the
City. Operating on a small budget, the program
uses several approaches to inform citizens of the
consequences of improper disposal of various materials that may empty into the waterways.
Description
This public education effort started in 1992 with
the distribution of a periodic newsletter, The Clear
Choice. The newsletter focused on topics relating to
stormwater management such as land-disturbing
regulations, the federally-mandated National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System requirements,
stormwater discharge permitting requirements,
offers of Erosion Control classes, notification of awards
won by the City for clean water activities, and other
opportunities for personal involvement underway.
A particular, targeted concern addressed by this
newsletter and other educational efforts was the
typical "out of sight, out of mind" attitude that often
accompanied the improper disposal of some materials such as:
• dumping car radiator antifreeze or engine oil
down storm drains,
• performing car maintenance on city streets
where leaking/drained fluids can end up in the
storm drains,
• rinsing fuel spills from auto/truck accidents
into storm drains,
• improper storage of discarded greases or cooking
oils from restaurants, and
• uncontrolled erosion from construction sites.
Results
Chattanooga also created a water quality mascot
called Clear Choice (CC) Otter to use as an informative and concerned tutor in pamphlets and other
simple instructional materials. In addition to the
informative material, items such as drink bottles
and visors have been created to keep CC Otter—
and what he symbolizes—in the public eye. A
highly-popular, costumed version of CC Otter participates in many civic functions such as Earth Day
celebrations, local festivals, and scouting events to
continue educational efforts.
Other important educational aspects of water
quality are presented in kits available to the public
such as a "Dump No Waste—Drains to Rivers"
stencil for storm drain grills. Doorknob tags describing the problems with pollutants being dumped
6
into storm drains are also available for distribution,
and are used when a pollutant is regularly entering
the storm drains from a particular neighborhood.
All public relations efforts are paid for by
stormwater permitting fees, and amounts to approximately 5% of the total Stormwater Management Department budget. Estimates placed at
60,000 local people have been directly reached
since 1993 through the education and outreach
programs, with a significant number being reached
through the indirect programs. As a result,
Chattanooga's residents continue to become more
environmentally conscious and protective of their
natural resources.
Environmental Court
Background
The Environmental Court Docket was established in 1991 to address compliance to environmental ordinances and create a better living environment within the City. Prior to this time, Chattanooga had little ability to enforce compliance
with housing, zoning, and building ordinances.
Although cited in court, cases were not given the
same consideration by judges as other cases, thereby
making enforcement difficult and leaving inspectors disillusioned and helpless. The docket was
crowded with more serious criminal or traffic offenses that required the court's attention. The
condition continued to deteriorate and the number
of violators increased.
Description
One afternoon each week was set aside to hear
only these environmental cases, allowing the court
to send a clear message that Chattanooga was
going to clean itself up. In addition to hearing the
cases in the courtroom, the judge has held on-site
hearings (as necessary) to better understand the
alleged ordinance violations and ensure fair and
equitable treatment to all parties.
Results
Since the Environmental Court Docket was established, the City has seen the compliance rate
increase from 38% to 87%, City inspectors have
renewed conviction in their jobs, and communities in
Chattanooga are being restored. Safer and cleaner
houses are made available to citizens, and the number of illegal dump sites has been greatly reduced.
Hamilton County Air Pollution
Control Bureau
Economy Surplus Power for
Wastewater Treatment
Background
Following Chattanooga’s designation in 1969 as
one of the worst air polluters in the country, the
City sought and received State approval to develop
local air pollution control regulations. This was a
significant effort as Chattanooga was eighth in the
nation in manufacturing jobs per capita. It was also
a transportation hub and home to many foundries,
and locally available soft coal was the fuel of choice.
The community acknowledged that success would
require significant support of companies affected,
and that local regulations must also comply with
state and federal standards.
Description
The Hamilton County Air Pollution Control Bureau was established to develop needed regulations. In an effort to obtain input from local manufacturers, draft regulations were shared with industry, of which the major stakeholder was the
Chattanooga Manufacturers’ Association (CMA).
Significant effort was made to resolve issues with
this highly respected and proactive group. Today,
the Bureau is governed by ten directors appointed
by the Mayor and the County Executive. It maintains a staff of 20 personnel, mostly engineers, with
an annual budget of $1.2M.
When reasonable consensus is reached, proposed
regulations are recommended for approval by the
11 legislative bodies within the City and county.
The Bureau has been highly successful because the
legislative bodies and local industry understand
and trust the consensus-building efforts which
precede the recommendations. Although the Bureau is responsible for enforcement, it uses seminars, workshops, and information sharing with the
community to facilitate compliance. Pollution prevention opportunities and best practices are shared
with citizens and regulated industries.
Results
A central philosophy of the Bureau is that companies will reduce emissions if a competent, credible
professional staff can demonstrate that cost savings will result from doing so.
Background
The Moccasin Bend Wastewater Treatment Plant
in Chattanooga is a major user of electricity, and
actively strives to cut costs and still maintain high
levels of service to City residents and the immediate area.
Description
In 1989, the City entered into an agreement with
the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) to purchase
Economy Surplus Power (ESP) from the TVA that
would save the City tax dollars and still meet the
power requirements for operation of the Wastewater Treatment Plant. Under this agreement, the
City agreed to a baseline of 3000 KW at regular
rates and 3000 KW of ESP at greatly reduced rates.
Any use by the City over the accepted total usage
would carry significant penalties. In addition, the
City agreed that TVA could interrupt (discontinue)
the ESP at any time, requiring the treatment plant
to cut back to a maximum of 3000KW within five
minutes. The City has experienced only two interruptions since 1994, and both interruptions were
caused by unexpectedly high demands for electricity,
thereby eliminating the surplus available to the City.
The ESP agreement has prompted the wastewater treatment plant personnel to become more
cognizant of power usage and install safeguards to
adjust processes and monitor use. The plant has
also installed two, 35-million gallon equalization
basins to handle sewage for treatment during peak
requirements.
Results
The savings realized in the first year amounted to
$357K to the City, and for 1995 equaled $395K. As
further improvements in monitoring and control
systems are made at the treatment plant, outyear
savings are expected to be even greater.
Dover Air Force Base - Dover, DE
Hazardous Materials Pharmacy
Background
The Hazardous Materials (HazMat) pharmacy
was conceived by the Air Force to control and track
hazardous materials usage on bases. With this goal
in mind, Dover Air Force Base (DAFB) was tasked
to implement the HazMat pharmacy concept to
7
work out the implementation problems. DAFB,
along with all other Air Force bases, have also been
tasked to reduce hazardous waste by 50% by the
year 1999 when compared to the baseline year of
1992. The best way to reduce hazardous waste is to
not bring hazardous materials onto the base. With
this in mind, DAFB has added HazMat/hazardous
waste reduction as a goal to the HazMat process.
Description
All materials used on the base, which were classified as hazardous by the criteria as toxic, corrosive, reactive, or flammable, had to be obtained
through the pharmacy. Outdated or excess stock
were eliminated from base stores and shop storage
as hazardous waste if it could not be recycled. This
resulted in an immediate increase of hazardous
waste disposal. Some materials became more difficult to obtain for base personnel, which delayed
some base operations. This bottle neck has caused
a review of criteria as to what constitutes hazardous material. The pharmacy is also to find nonhazardous substitutes which can be used in the various
industrial operations on base in place of hazardous
materials currently used.
Results
The implementation of the pharmacy is helping
to bring about the goal of reducing hazardous
waste. Based on the first two quarters of 1996, the
projected hazardous waste disposal for this year
was 46% lower than the 1992 figure of 128 tons.
Part of the goal was to reduce the usage of EPA 17
chemicals, or ozone depleting chemicals (ODCs). The
baseline year of 1992 usage was 46,154 pounds. The
usage for the first half of 1996 was 2,909 pounds.
Has the implementation of the HazMat Pharmacy achieved its goal? Not entirely, but it is well
on its way and has contributed greatly to a better
environment.
ITT Defense and Electronics McLean, VA
Development and Implementation of
Multifunctional/Multiunit Chemical Use
Reduction Teams
Background
In 1989 ITT Defense (later ITT Defense and
Electronics (ITTD&E)) was very interested in expanding the use of Multifunctional and Multiunit
teams to address issues of general interest across
8
the Company. While most of the Company’s locations had developed local process improvement
teams, these efforts rarely extended beyond the
individual Units. In areas of shared need, these
independent efforts inevitably led to unnecessary
duplication of effort. Chemical source reduction
was selected as an example project which could
demonstrate the benefits of interunit cooperation.
Most manufacturing organizations historically
selected chemicals and manufacturing procedures
based principally on ease of use and effects on
product quality. Alternative chemicals were rarely
considered once an effective chemical was selected.
This program was designed to change the basic
processes for selection and use of chemicals.
Description
ITTD&E established a company-wide Chemical
Source Reduction Team (CSR) to lead efforts to
reduce use of chemicals. Team members were selected by Unit management and led by each
location’s Operations or Engineering organization.
This leadership structure was required to ensure
that those who control the use of chemicals would
evaluate replacements and implement any process
modifications that might be required. This was a
change from the traditional belief that a local EHS
Coordinator was responsible for all such matters.
Each Unit’s team first reviewed all operations
where chemicals were used and prepared a Process
Modification/Chemical Elimination Potential Report. From this report annual Source Reduction
Implementation Plans (SRIPs) were developed.
Each of these documents is reviewed with Unit and
company senior management, and its progress is
evaluated through monthly metrics and quarterly
company-wide team video conferences. On an annual basis, each location provides a summary of
progress and develops a new SRIP.
Results
The program exceeded initial expectations to the
extent that over 1 million pounds of chemicals,
including approximately 600,000 pounds of CFCs,
were eliminated from ITTD&E manufacturing processes, years in advance of any regulatory deadlines. Annual chemical usage has been reduced by
over one million pounds. In 1994 alone, almost
500,000 pounds of chemicals were addressed for an
additional annual savings of almost $600,000. This
success reduces the potential for future damaging
and costly leaks or spills which can plague older
manufacturing locations. It also brings the total
program to date an annual savings of over $3 million
in avoided purchase, handling, and disposal costs.
An additional benefit from this effort has been
the ability to anticipate customer requirements,
and beat any chemical restriction deadlines they
might impose. The success of this project at ITTD&E
has also ensured continued support for its chemical
source reduction program. The participation of
employees from many different parts of the organization in this effort has led to a greater understanding of its EHS goals. The Company has instilled in
its engineering and manufacturing process designers a new awareness of their responsibility to
evaluate the hazards and potential life cycle costs of
a new chemical before they introduce it into a
process. They are also more attentive to the consequences of their process management decisions.
Mason & Hanger Corporation Pantex Plant - Amarillo, TX
Energy Conservation
Background
A Presidential Executive Order issued in March
1994 instructed federal agencies to reduce overall
energy use in federal buildings by 30% by the year
2005 from 1985 energy use levels; increase overall
energy efficiency in industrial federal facilities by
20% by 2005 using 1990 as the baseline year; and
minimize use of petroleum products at federal
facilities by switching to less-polluting alternative
energy sources. It also directed agencies to design
and construct new facilities to minimize life-cycle
costs through energy efficiency and water conservation technologies and use passive solar design
and active solar technologies wherever cost effective.
Prior to this event, the Iowa Army Ammunition
Plant (IAAP) had already undertaken an energy
conservation program that met or exceeded the
goals called for in the Executive Order.
Description
In 1985, Mason & Hanger (M&H) formed the
IAAP Energy Council, chaired by the Facilities
Engineering Energy Manager, with a main goal to
reduce energy use throughout the facility and
eliminate unnecessary overhead or operating costs.
Members of the council included the engineering
division manager, mechanical division manager,
operations division manager, transportation and
services manager, a representative from the comp-
troller, and bargaining unit representatives. The
Council met quarterly to review past accomplishments and develop new initiatives which would
meet their charter.
This program has accomplished many milestones
including the establishment of a energy monitor
program through which volunteer employee monitors identify targets of opportunity to reduce energy usage. The facility also converted to gasohol
use in M&H's fleet of vehicles for an annual savings
of over 10,000 gallons of gasoline per year. Building
consolidation studies are ongoing, as well as an
active review of all new construction and renovation at the facility with emphasis toward energy
efficiency. The establishment of a dynamic energy
resource management plan has been established,
and the work week of the employees was modified
from an eight-hour, five-day to 10-hour, four-day
work week.
Results
Through the efforts of the employees at M&H,
the IAAP documented energy cost avoidance of
over $1.32M during the period of FY85 through
FY93. IAAP has adopted the policy of reducing the
demand for energy as being immediately more
effective than increasing the supply.
Treatment of High Explosive
Contaminated Groundwater
Background
Results from drilling test wells showed that past
practices of flushing contaminates into drainage
ditches at the facility had contaminated only perched
aquifers and underlying flats and not the main
drinking water aquifers used by many states in the
southwest. This prompted the need for a study on
groundwater treatment.
The treatability study was tasked to:
1. demonstrate that the groundwater level could
be lowered sufficiently to expose the capillary
fringe zone for volatile contaminant removal
by vacuum;
2. assess the ability of the system as designed to
expose the capillary fringe zone and remove
volatiles by directing air from passive vent
wells through the groundwater extraction
wells;
3. determine optimum well spacing and the
radius of influence for additional or future
groundwater and or vapor extraction wells;
9
4. assess the ability of the dual phase
groundwater/vapor extraction to be operated
over an extended period of time in which to
obtain reliable design parameters and other
performance data for refinements to the
existing system or a full scale treatment system;
5. assess the effectiveness of the carbon
absorption system for removing HE
components from the groundwater; and
develop field-proven design criteria and
equipment specifications for future remedial
activities at Pantex.
Description
The study showed that HE contaminations of
groundwater could be removed and remediated by
dual phase extraction of unsaturated and saturated
zones. The modified design calls for the same drilling
of dual-phase wells along with the strategic location
and drilling of injection wells to reuse the decontaminated water. Geological survey data and computer
modeling provides needed information to maximize
the treatability area and optimize well placement.
Results
Test wells were drilled to locate and define the
flume of contamination. From the test well data,
Pantex engineers determined where to drill the
required dual-phase wells to begin decontamination. After installing the system, data and analysis
revealed that the treated groundwater was of sufficient purity to allow its reuse, thereby avoiding
pumping it to the wastewater treatment facility for
further treatment and disposal. These findings allowed Pantex engineers to modify the process design.
By successfully applying the results from the
treatability study on high explosive (HE) contaminated soil and groundwater, Battelle - Pantex has
been able to treat the soil without the risk of lowering
the water table in treated or downstream areas.
Pantex Pollution Prevention
Background
With increasing requirement for the management and assessment of pollution problems, Pantex developed a program to evaluate and address
pollution issues.
Description
Pantex’s successful Pollution Prevention (P2)
Program relies heavily on an initial Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) that emphasizes implementing preferred options to pollution prevention. The eight steps to the Battelle10
Pantex assessment include selecting a waste stream
and defining boundaries; establishing a PPOA team
and appointing a team leader from the P2 group;
performing a material balance of materials crossing the system boundaries; developing options;
analyzing options; selecting the preferred option;
implementing the preferred option; and validating
the impact of implementing the preferred option.
The Pantex P2 Program does not close out a project
until after the preferred option is implemented.
This effort includes evaluating the performance of
the members of the P2 group by assessing the
number of implemented P2 projects.
Projects are selected for the P2 program based on
consideration of the Pantex Plant Top 150 Waste
Stream List, employee suggestions (including a
program where employees can share in dollar savings realized by implementing suggestions), and
material evaluation forms.
Results
Employee attitude has been affected positively by
training, by the P2 group realization that they are
a service organization, by working to keep the
customer happy, and by validating the results to
ensure that the customer remains happy. This has
resulted in a 756% return on investment of annualized savings associated with FY95 P2 projects.
McDonnell Douglas Aerospace St. Louis, MO
FlashjetTM Coating Removal
Process
Background
MDA (St. Louis) recently obtained a patent for an
automated robotic technology identified as the
FLASHJETTM Coating Removal process. This
FLASHJETTM process uses a powerful pulse (1523J/sqcm) of high intensity light to destroy the
molecular structure of surface coatings. Simultaneously, a low pressure stream of dry ice particles
cools the surface and sweeps away the ablated
coating residue. This process allows removal of any
coating from any surface with extraordinary precision, leaving no damage to substrates, no media
intrusion, no corrosion potential, and an absolute
minimum waste stream.
Description
The system contains a color sensor subsystem
which controls lamp power during stripping to
prevent substrate damage. This allows the system
to strip multiple layers of paint from the substrate
while leaving the primer intact, ready to be repainted immediately. Additionally, FLASHJETTM
was designed to address environmental impacts
and worker safety/health issues. It filters hazardous solids from the waste stream, releasing an exhaust with only 10 ppm light hydrocarbons. Any
removed waste is captured in disposable filter bags so
operators are not exposed to dangerous by-products.
Results
Other benefits include worker acceptance, improved productivity, reduction of hazardous waste,
environmental compliance, and reduced operating
costs. For example, the cost of paint removal with
the FLASHJETTM is approximately $3.74 per square
foot, depending on geographic location. With chemicals the cost is $33.61 per square foot and with
plastic media blast it is $15.40 per square foot.
MDA (St. Louis) has the first production model of
this machine and is currently going through a
series of mechanical validation tests for many different material types and manufacturing processes. There is no limit to the number of times the
FLASHJETTM process can be applied to aircraft
surfaces. The system has been fully qualified by the
FAA for paint stripping applications on all of
McDonnell Douglas aircraft structures and all Air
Force F-15E program parts. MDA (St. Louis) is
working on approval of this process for Airbus Industries, Boeing Aircraft, and Navy and Army products.
Future plans include the design and manufacture of a second generation FLASHJETTM System
for marketing by MDA (St. Louis). There is significant interest in this product from both U.S. repair
facilities and foreign governments.
Millar Western Pulp (Meadow Lake)
Ltd. - Saskatchewan, Canada
Pollution Prevention
Background
Millar Western Pulp is actively pursuing reduction and elimination of air emissions, both particulate and gaseous. Particulate emission sources are
being identified and testing is on-going to determine
particulate characteristics and mass loadings.
Results
This information will be used to develop the best
plan for dealing with the emissions. A similar
approach is being used to deal with malodorous
volatile organic compound emissions.
Process Waste Minimization
Background
Loss of fibre through debarking of logs and rejection fibre during cleaning leads to a significant loss
of feedstock that must be treated through incineration. Work is being done on recovering as much of
this fibre as possible in order to maximize fibre
usage.
Results
The environmental benefits would be the need to
harvest less trees to meet customer needs and
incineration of less material with a concomitant
decrease in CO2 emissions. Economically, decreased
production costs would be realized through better
utilization of feedstock material.
Pacific Northwest National
Laboratory - Richland, WA
Reduction of Radioisotope Use for
Molecular-Biological Analyses
Background
A number of routine molecular-biological analyses,
such as quantifying the levels of gene expression in
cells, were based on the use of 32P-labeled DNA. As
a consequence, a substantial amount of time was
required for radiological control technicians for the
performance of relatively routine experimental
work. Advances in biotechnology have led to the
development of fluorochrome-based DNA labeling
reagents that can be substituted for radioisotopes
in the majority of molecular-biological analyses.
Description
As part of an overall effort to cut operating costs
by reducing the use of radioisotopes, the Molecular
Biosciences Department invested in a Molecular
Dynamics FluorImager SI. The device is capable of
detecting a variety of fluorescent labels in DNA
samples, and its availability led to an almost complete elimination of the use of radioisotopes for a
number of routine analyses. In fiscal year 1995, the
time of approximately one full-time equivalent radiological control technician was required for all
departmental operations.
Results
As a consequence of the efforts to minimize the
use of radioisotopes, including the purchase of the
FluorImager, the projected need for radiological
11
control technician coverage for fiscal year 1997 is 0.1
full-time equivalent, yielding about $100,000 in savings annually, as well as waste disposal savings. This
waste-minimization activity will avoid using ~20
mCi of 32P and avoid 100 L per year of liquid waste.
Rubbercycle
Background
Nationwide, one to two billion used tires are
stockpiled awaiting disposal, and 250 million more
are added to that number annually.
Description
Recycling waste-tire rubber into new tires has
not been successful in the past because waste
rubber does not bond reliably with virgin rubber.
Pacific Northwest developed a new bioprocess to
change the surface chemistry of waste-tire rubber
to enable it to bond with virgin rubber, making it
possible to mix 20 percent recycled rubber with 80
percent virgin rubber to make new tires.
Results
Taxpayers will save $200-400 million annually
when this technology is implemented on a full
scale. Approximately 65 million tires could be recycled annually. This represents recycling about 26
percent of the annual waste stream, more than
double what is currently recycled.
Polaroid Corporation -Waltham, MA
Description
Polaroid’s test method was adopted from the
ASTM D 5116-90 procedure entitled Small Scale
Environmental Chamber Determinations of Organic Emissions from Indoor Materials and Products and modified to allow on-location testing of
large manufacturing unit operations. The test chamber was constructed of wood and plastic sheets.
Prior to product testing, background measurements
were recorded on an empty test chamber, without
equipment or materials present, so that VOC emissions present from the chamber’s construction
materials and ambient air could be quantified and
subtracted from the product test results. Since the
chamber was not airtight, the ventilation rates also
had to be measured and adjusted in the test results.
Measurements were performed via two techniques:
Summa evacuated air canisters and Carbotrap solid
adsorbent tubes. Both techniques produced measurements in good agreement with one another.
Results
Examples of products tested include the Helios
Medical Imaging System, an identification card
production system, and Polaroid film packages.
Figure 2-1 shows the test chamber configuration
for the Helios Medical Imaging System. Results
confirmed that all products tested well below the
problematic levels or concentrations of VOC emissions. Polaroid has evaluated all products to determine the requirements for testing and the potential
for VOC emissions.
Product Safety Emission
Testing
Background
The Polaroid Corporation regularly conducts product safety emission testing to determine how its
products are impacting the operational environment. Ongoing research continues to establish limits and guidelines for indoor air quality in occupational settings and for volatile organic compound
(VOC) emissions from various sources such as
furniture, carpets, and office equipment. Many
indoor air quality problems associated with VOC
emissions have been documented. Polaroid conducts tests to characterize and quantify VOC emissions generated and emitted during the operation
or use of its products.
Figure 2-1. Test Chamber Configuration of
Helios Medical Imaging System
12
Activity-Based Risk Management
Performance System
Background
In 1994, Polaroid began implementing an Activity-Based Risk Management Performance system
to improve the safety record of its Components
Division plants. To recognize, encourage, and reward employee participation, the system used safety
metrics which focused on the positive aspects of
injury prevention. The positive metrics also helped
in identifying and correcting underlying factors
that could lead to injuries.
Description
Polaroid solicited 50 high risk situations (HRSs)
from its five Components Division plants. These
solicited targets represented chronic-type issues
that had a high potential for serious injury and
could not easily be resolved. For each target, Polaroid
developed a risk matrix which plotted the likelihood of an incident versus the degree of consequence. Safety professionals then reviewed the risk
matrices pertaining to their division.
Results
In December 1996, Polaroid exceeded its twoyear success criteria goal of 65 targets by reducing
the risk of 73 targets (Figure 2-2). The goal for 1997
is to reduce the risk of 25 targets (out of 50 identified). As of March, Polaroid reduced the risk of two
targets. One situation involved refinishing a warehouse floor so forklift operators could drive on a
smoother surface. The original surface contained
several cracks that had the potential of snagging
equipment, tipping over forklifts, and severely in-
juring operators. As a serious/critical risk, this
situation provided a one-in-a-hundred (quite possible) likelihood of an incident occurring. By resurfacing the floor with an epoxy finish, Polaroid
protected its building in the event of a hazardous
waste spill, provided a non-cracked surface for its
forklift operators, and reduced the situation to a
minor/marginal risk with only a one-in-a-million
likelihood of an incident occurring. The second
situation involved the potential for fire, vapor exposure, and back injury to an operator when centrifuging a chemical compound. Assessed as a potential serious risk, the situation had an incident
potential of occurring once every five years. By
moving the chemical compound preparation to a
pressure nutsche, Polaroid reduced the situation to
a minor risk with an incident potential of occurring
once during the plant’s lifespan. In addition, exposure, drum handling, and flammable vapors in the
plant were minimized.
Monthly tracking of the risk reduction metrics
began in June 1994 and continues as an ongoing
process. Polaroid revises its target list annually to
ensure the top 50 HRSs are represented. The success rate of the project has exceeded original expectations, and may be attributed to the positive focus
of the safety metrics and the involvement of the
Components Division’s managers.
Emergency Planning Program
Background
Designing and establishing an emergency program for any business is a challenging but necessary task. The philosophy behind Polaroid’s Emer-
Figure 2-2. 1996 Risk Reduction Metric
13
gency Planning program is prevention and preparedness as equal partners in any emergency
situation. Polaroid mandates that all divisions have
preparedness plans which are integrated with the
building, site, and community plans. Polaroid audits and updates its preparedness plans at least
yearly. In addition, an emergency procedure manual
addresses preparedness, prevention, response, and
recovery. These manuals cover in detail the aspects
of how to handle an unexpected crisis in a controlled, effective manner. In effect for more than 20
years, Polaroid’s Emergency Planning program
relies on the site’s fire administrators, 40 volunteer
emergency personnel, and outside contractor support as needed.
Description
Each year, the Emergency Planning program
trains 100 to 150 people in the technical handling of
emergency equipment and the use of procedures.
This approach ensures the minimization of personal harm, property loss, and business interruptions. Other features include working with the
surrounding neighborhoods and the local, regional,
state, and federal agencies to establish emergency
response procedures. Low level emergencies could
occur each week. By using appropriate safety measures (e.g., emergency control stations, in-house
emergency numbers, walkie-talkies, three to five
minute response time), damage can be minimized
and overall goals can be met. High level emergencies require critical decisions concerning resources
and activities to be made under tremendous stress.
Through the Emergency Planning program, planning and organization ensure the emergency will
be handled in an efficient and effective manner that
lessens personal harm and property loss.
Results
Through its Emergency Planning program,
Polaroid is guarding its livelihood by protecting its
personnel, processes, chemicals, machinery, and
equipment. Designed as an emergency control program to meet all eventualities that can be reasonably anticipated, the company strives for excellent
control, not perfection.
Engineering Controls
Background
Polaroid’s philosophy emphasizes minimal exposure of chemical hazards to its employees through
engineering controls. Engineering controls are employed to reduce worker exposure limits to well
14
below regulatory limits. However, in those cases
where employees cannot be completely protected
through engineering control methods, personal
protection equipment is then used.
Description
Polaroid developed state-of-the-art engineering
controls to reduce chemical hazard exposure of its
employees. Dust and fumes are vented out of the
working area, and solvent emissions are sent to
either a vapor recovery system or a thermal destruction pollution control device.
Results
These practices reduced worker exposure in the
chemical facilities by 98%. In addition, the facility’s
layout places the tank farm and hazardous waste
storage at a remote distance from the process and
administration areas. Table 2-1 describes the engineering control features used in the Chemicals
Manufacturing Plant.
Polaroid has a proactive approach to employee
protection. This approach provides a better working environment for the employees and produces
an overall high rating in employee satisfaction.
Pressure Nutsche
Background
Since 1988, Polaroid has been implementing a
multimillion dollar program to replace the traditional centrifuges and dryers at its Chemical Operations Division with pressure nutsche technology.
This change has been improving the company’s Toxic
Use and Waste Reduction performance and will
reduce the Division’s air emissions by 80% in 1999.
Previously, products were isolated; washed on
filter presses or in centrifuges; and dried in vacuum
tray dryers. These dryers produced high VOC emissions, required labor intensive material handling,
and had long cycle times. The process also exposed
employees to VOC emissions, solvents, and fire
risks. Pressure nutsches work as self-contained
vessels to filter, dry, and separate chemical mixtures while removing vapors and emissions. Polaroid
introduced pressure nutsches as a means to improve safety for employees, prevent pollution, and
provide increased operational performance. The
nutsches have also been accepted by environmental agencies as complying with the Clean Air Act
requirements. To offset the high cost of pressure
nutsches ($2 million each), Polaroid has been upgrading its facilities gradually.
Table 2-1.
Chemicals Manufacturing Plant
15
releasing more than
2,500 tons of VOC emissions into the air annually. Emissions were
generated from the drying ovens associated
with film coating equipment. Direct-fired, continuous-burn incineration was a possible solution, but its associated
high-energy consumption cost was a drawback. Polaroid needed a
way to eliminate VOCs
at a reduced energy cost.
In response, Polaroid designed the specifications
of the VOC Abatement
system. The system’s
(Figure 2-4) cost was $5
million and went on-line
in January 1985.
Figure 2-3. F360 Pressure Nutsche System
Description
Polaroid modified the pressure nutsches to facilitate its material handling and cleaning operations.
Figure 2-3 shows a schematic of a typical pressure
nutsche installation. Benefits gained by Polaroid
over the past five years include a decrease in baseline
VOC emissions from 180 to 40 tons per year; a 95%
reduction in VOC emissions from filtration and drying operations over traditional processes; and an
estimated 20% to 30% increase in solvent collection
for on-site reuse or off-site fuel burning.
Results
Pressure nutsche technology has also improved
employee safety by reducing solvent exposure, minimizing drum handling; and decreasing fire hazards
from flammable solvents. Employees are no longer
handling solvent-wet cakes. Operational benefits
include improved efficiency, reduced cycle times,
increased product yields by 2% to 5%, and reduced
labor hours.
Volatile Organic Compound
Abatement System
Background
To meet air pollution standards levied in 1984,
Polaroid had to either revise its air emissions or
face a shutdown. At the time, Polaroid had been
16
Figure 2-4.
REECO Incinerator
Description
Built by Regenerative Environmental Equipment
Company (REECO), the VOC Abatement system
was a high-efficiency regenerative cycling incineration system which abated the hydrocarbons
contained in solvent laden process exhaust. Contaminated fumes enter the system through an
upper ring-shaped manifold where inlet flow control valves direct the air from the manifold to the
energy recovery stoneware beds. Fumes, progressively heated as they pass through the hot stoneware bed, move toward the incineration chamber.
Upon leaving the stoneware beds, the fumes are
very close to the incineration temperature. Oxidation is completed in the gas-fired central chamber
which is maintained at 1500°F. VOCs, present in
the fumes, autoignite while still in the stoneware
beds which reduces auxiliary fuel requirements.
When the incoming air contains enough VOCs, the
energy released will provide enough heat to support the inner chamber ignition, allowing the burner
to switch automatically to pilot mode. The purified
air is then pulled from the central chamber through
the stoneware beds and exits through the outlet
control valves. The stoneware beds absorb the heat.
The cooled air then exits to the exhaust fan at a
temperature only slightly higher than that of the
incoming air. Subsequently, the direction of flow
reverses, the energy stored in the stoneware now
preheats the incoming batch of air, and the inlet
stoneware bed becomes the outlet stoneware bed.
Results
The VOC Abatement system’s action is continuous cycling by taking advantage of the use and
reuse of the heat energy stored in ceramic stoneware beds. With its high surface area for heat
transfer and mass for energy retention, the stoneware beds’ size and shape assure excellent air flow
around, over, and under every element.
Polaroid’s VOC Abatement system is virtually
indestructible and has required minimal upkeep
maintenance since its installation (only the valves
have been redesigned). The system can receive
more than 75,000 standard cubic feet of process
exhaust streams per minute; destroy 2,800 tons of
VOCs per year; produce a destruction efficiency
greater than 98%; achieve a thermal efficiency
greater than 95%; and operate in temperatures up
to 1800°F. The 1996 annual operating cost of the
VOC Abatement system was $500,000, including
$45,000 for natural gas.
Beyond Environmental
Compliance
Background
The environmentally-volatile era of the 1980s
challenged Polaroid to comply with the numerous
federal, state, and local regulatory requirements.
Polaroid implemented compliance programs to reduce the potential liability associated with environmental non-compliance, while the company’s drive
for excellence in environmental stewardship led to
the development of an internal pollution prevention program, the Toxic Use and Waste Reduction
(TUWR) program, which went beyond compliance
requirements.
In support of the TUWR program, a centralized
measuring system called Environmental Accounting and Reporting System (EARS) was developed in
1987, using 1988 as the baseline, to integrate data
collection throughout the corporate structure. EARS
monitors and reports the rates of toxic use and
waste generation for chemical materials (Categories I through V — refer to abstract on Establishment of Chemical Categories). In addition, EARS
measures waste reduction per unit of production
which is also the basis for the Massachusetts Toxic
Use Reduction Act (MATURA), enacted in 1989.
This calculation method normalizes the performance measurement and is relatively unaffected
by changes in production volume. Environmental
credits can be obtained through waste reduction
efforts in all material categories and by reducing
the use of Category I and II materials. These
environmental credits are awarded to corporate
divisions for achieving or exceeding TUWR goals.
Description
Data collected in 1988 was used to establish the
baseline under EARS for all categories in measuring toxic use and waste reduction per unit production. The 1988 totals were defined as 100% of the
baseline amount (i.e., 1.00). A target goal of 10%
reduction per year per unit of product was then set
using the baseline measurement. Within the first
five years, Polaroid achieved a corporate-wide reduction of greater than two million pounds per year
of usage/waste which translates to an overall reduction of nearly 25%.
Results
In 1994, TUWR/EARS were expanded to include,
among other aspects, energy reduction and water
conservation. The systems’ natural progression has
also resulted in another expansion which provides
data collections and reporting for the Superfund
Amendment and Reauthorization Act via the Toxic
Release Inventory’s Form Rs and MATURA.
17
Indoor Air Quality
Management
Rockwell Avionics &
Communications - Cedar Rapids, IA
Background
Polaroid started its Indoor Air Quality (IAQ)
program in 1987 and is taking an increasingly
proactive approach to IAQ. Over the years, Polaroid
has performed more than 29 separate investigations and studies at 17 different locations.
Description
Since 1996, Polaroid has conducted 10 proactive
IAQ investigations and studies. These studies involve sampling and testing the air inside buildings
for volatile organic compounds, carbon dioxide levels, dust, bacteria count, relative humidity, and
temperature. Polaroid performed the sampling over
a four-hour period during the middle of a normal
workday. Figure 2-5 shows the results from various
facilities. Sampling methods include carbontrap
activated charcoal tubes for volatile organic compounds; AQ502 for carbon dioxide, temperature,
and relative humidity; and DATARAM for particulate matter (dust). All results of the studies were
within the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE)
Guidelines. Polaroid plans to continue proactive
routine IAQ studies throughout the corporation.
Results
By using a proactive approach for its IAQ program, Polaroid has improved the working environment for its employees. Employee satisfaction and
trust have also improved making the workplace
more enjoyable, increasing production, and improving product quality.
On Line PWB Manual
Background
The Advanced Engineering and Core Design
Process (AE&CDP) Group at CACD has developed
a paperless design tool to help engineers transition
designs into hardware. Historically, PWB design,
layout, and process information was maintained in
hard-copy manuals, data books, or the process
owner's memory. No single engineer had copies of
all the manuals or information needed and if so, the
data was most likely obsolete.
Description
The AE&CDP took advantage of a commercialoff-the-shelf software package to compose an easily
distributable, paperless manual. It provides information and guidance on PWB processes, materials
and properties, device footprints, workstation library data, design and layout guidelines and rules,
and lessons learned.
Results
Developing this on-line PWB manual ensures
that all designers and engineers use the same
technology, design rules and that any added features or changes can have instant distribution. The
manual is a living document accessible from PCs
and workstations.
Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, NM
DOE/DOD
Environmental
Data Bank
Figure 2-5.
18
Carbon Dioxide and Total Volatile Organic
Compound Concentrations
Background
As the responsible agent for the
nation's nuclear weapon stockpile,
Sandia National Laboratories' (SNL)
Environments Engineering Group
maintains the Department of Energy
(DOE)/Department of Defense (DOD)
Environmental Data Bank. This data
bank contains information on identification and quantification of environments the weapons are expected to
withstand.
Description
The data bank contains information on specific
environments encountered during normal conditions such as transportation, handling, and storage; abnormal conditions such as fire, lightning
and impact; and environmental conditions such as
chemical, humidity and pressure. The bulk of this
information is stored on physical media such as
paper and microfiche and is susceptible to deterioration. Computer storage has only recently become
an economical option for data to be placed, stored,
and maintained electronically through a program
called SPEEDI II. When the data is available online, it allows for improved alternatives such as test
selection. Actual test data and test reports can also
be included.
Other related efforts maintained by the Environments Engineering Group include the LUGSAN II.
LUGSAN II is an aircraft compatibility environments analysis package which can perform lug and
sway brace analysis calculations for the designer.
The designer may input various aircraft, rack designs, maneuvers and hardware, and the system
will perform rigid-body analysis to determine the
loads to which the weapon will be subjected.
Results
SNL estimates that the program alone has reduced turnaround time on this type of analysis
from two weeks to one day. SNL anticipates making this program available to the aircraft manufacturing industry someday.
In addition, the Aging Aircraft Specimen Library
Database will be a database to allow a user to point
and click on a particular aircraft section for information on all inspection results, Federal Aviation
Administration (FAA) regulations pertaining to
that part, and any problems associated with that
area. SNL maintains that the structure of this
database could be directly applicable to other industries such as medicine.
Environment, Safety, &
Health Regulation Compliance
Support for Suppliers
Background
Prior to initiating the present process, there
existed no mechanism in place to address potential
liability resulting from Environment, Safety, &
Health (ES&H) regulatory compliance deficiencies
of suppliers. Other companies used audits to manage this problem, but Sandia wanted to find an
alternative to the adversarial nature of audits and
manage exposure to liability in a positive and
productive way. The process was also developed as
a way to manage the risk of cost or schedule
overruns due to regulatory compliance issues.
Description
Sandia has developed a database/knowledgebased system to perform environment, safety, and
health regulatory compliance assessments of manufacturing processes. It is part of Sandia's aggressive, proactive approach to managing the exposure
to risk and liability resulting from supplier ES&H
regulatory compliance deficiencies, particularly in
hazardous waste management and disposal. The
process investigates, identifies, and communicates
all known or suspected hazards related to contracted
activities. It also identifies ES&H technical assistance or other intervention strategies that result in
win-win solutions for Sandia and its suppliers.
First, a process assessment methodology was
developed, applied to contract specifications, and
made available to suppliers. A database was established to link manufacturing processes and materials with regulatory issues. The database was enhanced to incorporate solutions to compliance issues including compliance program templates, environmentally conscious manufacturing technologies, pollution prevention and waste minimization,
and federal, state, and local resources. The database
was called Interactive Technology Distribution System (ITDS). A front end smart questionnaire called
Materials and Process Characterization (MPC) questionnaire was developed and interfaced with the
database using a commercially available software
package called Exsys®. The result was an expert
database/knowledge-based system called ITDS/MPC.
ITDS/MPC, which differs from commercially available regulatory databases in several ways, is ideal
for aiding small businesses. It is designed for users
not familiar with ES&H regulatory compliance
issues. Users need not have any knowledge of
regulations because regulatory issues are linked to
materials and processes. Hazard determinations
are made for the user based on regulatory criteria.
Going from materials and processes to regulatory
compliance issues frequently requires some professional judgement and interpretation. This expertise is contained in the knowledge-base of the MPC.
ITDS/MPC teaches the user about regulatory compliance issues. MPC may also be used to model
changes in regulatory compliance issues with changes
or additions of new materials and processes.
19
Results
ITDS/MPC is a tool to assist the user in determining compliance requirements, prioritizing those
issues, and solving compliance problems. It is also
a training tool that is most useful to organizations
without access to EH&S professionals.
The ITDS is built on a commercially available
database platform (Paradox® for Windows) which
operates in a DOS/Windows environment and may
be networked. The MPC is built on a commercially
available expert system shell (Exsys®) supporting
both DOS/Windows and Macintosh operating systems. Minimum hardware requirements are IBM PC
(or compatible), 4 MB RAM, 80 MB hard disk space.
Application of this process and automated tools
have helped Sandia improve relationships with its
suppliers, especially the small industrial manufacturers. The system identifies potential regulatory
issues early, particularly those which vary from
state to state, and avoids liability risks. It identifies
cost effective solutions to regulatory problems and
uses technology transfer to solve potential compliance problems.
Texas Instruments, DS&EG Dallas, TX
Environmental Database
System Timeline
Background
Texas Instruments (TI) DS&EG implemented
their environmental database system (TIESYS) in
1990 in response to expanding government requirements in documentation on chemicals used by
the company. TIESYS is an integrated database
system that collects, tracks, and controls a variety
of environmental data for supporting multidisciplinary record keeping requirements. It also
provides manufacturing and support management
with timely and accurate data for operations analysis. Prior to 1985, the record keeping requirements
of chemicals used by industry were limited to the
control of all chemicals imported and exported as
required by the Toxic Substance Control Act of
1977. Since 1985, environmental laws have placed
an additional burden on the record keeping functions of industry such as:
20
• Knowledge of all chemicals in the plant (OSHA,
1985)
• Volumes and locations of chemical use
(Superfund Amendment Reauthorization Act
311/312/313/, 1986)
• Mass balance/chemicals at process versus fate
(Superfund Amendment Reauthorization Act
313, 1986)
• Document process throughput and improvements (Pollution Prevention Act, 1990)
• Know chemicals and quantities in emissions
and stacks (Clean Air Act Amendment, 1990).
Description
In 1990, TI DS&EG analyzed the condition of
their environmental database system and concluded
that they were no longer effectively managing the
necessary operational tasks to meet the dynamic
regulatory climate, increasing customer requirements, and quality issues. Therefore they initiated
the TIESYS Project in March 1990.
The first phase of the project included forming a
committee, generating requirements specifications,
conducting a market analysis, interviews and plant
visits, and purchasing Flow Gemini software from
General Resource Corporation, Santa Barbara, CA.
The second phase started in January 1991 with
implementation of a pilot project at TI DS&EG's
Lewisville, TX site. The Flow Gemini's System
Interface was assembled and the Chemtrak package was developed in-house. The Inventory and
Chemical Information Systems were available off
the shelf.
Results
TI DS&EG has realized a number of achievements including the ability to track chemical use
down to the process level; ability to store data on
products and ingredients; ability to compile data on
all products; ability to establish on-site quantities;
and the ability to compile and produce reports such
as SARA 311/312. Although these achievements of
the DS&EG database system are common among
chemical manufacturing industries, it is unique
among the chemical user industries and has generated a considerable interest from other industries.
With the success demonstrated on the pilot project,
the next phases of the project will include migrating the system to a mainframe in January 1992 and
fan out to other sites throughout 1992 and 1993.
U.S. Army Combat Systems Test
Activity (Aberdeen Test Center) Aberdeen, MD
Environmental Noise
Management Program
Background
Since 1984, Combat Systems Test Activity (CSTA)
has instituted several operational initiatives to
reduce environmental noise impact to surrounding
communities and to better balance CSTA's mission
with community concerns. Before that time, predicting or assessing noise propagation was not
conducted because of the tedious mathematical
computations required and the lack of adequate
weather data. A primitive warning system with a
limited number of sensors around the Proving
Ground proved inadequate.
Description
A computerized modeling program, developed to
predict noise propagation in 1988 by the University
of Dayton and the Atmospheric Sciences Laboratory, was installed at CSTA. The program accounted for meteorological factors that affected
noise propagation such as air density, temperature
inversions, and wind speed and direction. The
meteorological measurements needed to predict
noise propagation included surface wind and temperature, and wind and temperature aloft which
CSTA has the capability to measure with sensitive
ground and airborne sensors. The Noise Model
used this meteorological data with the charge weight
and firing site to produce a decibel (dB) contour
level map for the noise distribution prediction.
Results
CSTA has also installed an updated noise monitoring system. The original system consisted of four
monitors developed in 1984 by Construction Engineering Research Laboratory. The upgrade—started
in 1991—has added 14 Larson Davis Laboratories
monitors with plans to order additional units as
funding becomes available. The monitors, stationed
around CSTA, automatically call in to the base
station computer. The data collected is used to verify
and update the noise prediction model, respond to
noise complaints, and investigate damage claims.
CSTA conducts a daily noise assessment each
morning large caliber firings are scheduled. Weather
data is collected and used to generate a predicted
noise contour plot for the surrounding area. To
validate the model for that particular day, a threepound charge is detonated and the noise levels in
the surrounding communities are measured. Based
on these confirmed predicted/monitored levels, appropriate restrictions are implemented. If the predicted noise level is above 130 dB, the firing is
postponed, to be resumed by command decision. In
the range of 125 dB to 130 dB, the firing is evaluated on a case-by-case basis with approval by the
Executive Officer or his designee.
No firings or detonations of any type are conducted weekdays before 6:00 AM and after 10:00
PM; Saturdays before 7:30 AM and after 3:30 PM;
and Sundays and holidays. No large caliber firings
and no static detonations of five pounds or more are
conducted weekdays before 8:30 AM and after
10:00 PM, and Saturdays before 8:30 AM and after
3:30 PM. The CSTA commander must approve all
other firings.
21
Section 3
Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing
Introduction
Environmentally conscious manufacturing is defined as the use of the most efficient processes and
practices possible to transform process inputs, such
as energy, materials, etc., into a product that meets
all germane specification, with a minimum of waste
or waste by-products. Environmentally conscious
manufacturing operations use a minimum of raw
material and energy to manufacture products.
Does your company need help in evaluating its
manufacturing processes and practices? The key
phrase is environmental efficiency — a ranking of
key factors in manufacturing that accomplishes
the same purpose and achieves the desired objective with minimal impact on the environment.
As a minimum, the following factors must be
considered when determining your company’s relative environmental efficiency:
• Quantity of raw materials required per unit for
a final product
• Energy required to produce a product
• Hazards from any waste generated during the
manufacturing process
• Work materials sacrificed by the process
The ultimate goal of environmentally conscious
manufacturing is sustainable development. We
must look to the future and start developing new
ways to manufacture products that meet our present
needs without compromising future generations’
ability to meet their own needs. To achieve this
goal, companies must change their present methods of doing business and look for solutions that will
lead them toward the goal of sustainable development. The following section contains quality examples of environmentally conscious manufacturing practices.
Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. Fort Worth, TX
Paint and Paint Gun Improvements
Background
The challenge was to comply with air regulations
in the State of Texas in a non-attainment area. In
order to comply, an Alternate Reasonably Available Control Technology (ARACT) was developed.
Description
This committed Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc.
(BHTI) to using High Volume Low Pressure (HVLP)
paint guns. Additionally, paint improvements were
completed in 1995 when Bell changed from high
solvent paint to a high solid formula that required
less solvent.
Results
As a result of the paint gun installation and the
new high solids paint, Bell reduced paint consumption by 15%. The cost of implementation is far
outweighed by the compliance factor and reduced
paint usage, thus air emissions.
Another waste reduction effort was to install
plural component paint mixing systems. This system is used with multi-part paint. The objective is
to mix the paint to the proper consistency just prior
to spraying. After the paint gun is used, the nozzle is
purged with solvent to clean the gun before the paint
dries. This system has helped BHTI to reduce solvent
usage and paint waste. Less material usage and
lower waste disposal cost are the savings realized.
City of Chattanooga Chattanooga, TN
CARTA/Electric Buses
Background
When the City of Chattanooga realized that traffic and parking would pose major problems with the
revitalization of the downtown area and the opening of the Tennessee Aquarium, it decided to investigate the feasibility of electric buses. Although the
City had considered trolley cars, diesel powered
buses, and other alternatives, it wanted to support
environmental efforts and avoid drawbacks associated with the other options.
Chattanooga enlisted a local retired manufacturing executive to perform the feasibility study, and
he examined systems in California, England, and
Switzerland. Santa Barbara, California was using
electric buses; however, they would not perform
well in Chattanooga because of significant differences in terrain. England and Switzerland were
23
investigated because of the technologies being used
to develop electric buses. Although the technology
was available, no one could develop buses with the
proper characteristics for use in Chattanooga.
Description
Two buses developed using a new technology
were made by a company in California. After initial
operation, several changes were necessary, and the
retired executive developed a new design incorporating an inventive, lightweight frame design and
other weight saving features. The buses were built
in Chattanooga.
The City contracts for two buses at a time, and the
City participates with the manufacturer, Advanced
Vehicle Systems, on the design team. New features
and designs have been incorporated to enhance the
operation with each contract; for example, changes
have been made from DC motors to AC motors to
provide more horsepower with the same range.
Other changes under investigation include changing to a low voltage motor and incorporating a high
efficiency air conditioning system.
Results
The City is a test bed for the new designs where
changes can be proven under actual operation, and
there is a Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) test
track nearby. The buses have been incorporated
into 15 different cities, and by late 1996, Chattanooga will have 20 buses in operation. At the height
of tourist season, up to 7,000 passengers per day
ride the nine buses currently in use. Because the
City constructed parking garages for patrons to
leave cars, there is no fee to ride the buses. The
operating funds for the buses come from the parking garage charges.
Sustainable Development
Background
An evolutionary initiative begun in the late 1960s
helped guide Chattanooga from a city addressing
specific problems to one with an infusive vision of
sustainable development and growth. Responding
to a U.S. Health, Education and Welfare designation as the worst polluted city in the country in
1969, Chattanooga made a commitment to transform the City’s reputation by first confronting
independent issues. In time, those issues became
interdependent and subsequently evolved into a
collection of community projects that improved
Chattanooga’s quality of life. Specific issues of
address included industrial pollution, fair and bet-
24
ter housing, downtown transportation enhancement, clean-up of the river, business development,
cultural facilities, and disabled adult workers. Chattanooga maintains that sustainable development
has best been defined as a way to implement
economic development while saving natural resources and respecting environmental concerns.
Description
One example of this commitment was the
reconnection to the Tennessee River that runs
through the City and that has long been considered
its lifeblood. To that end, the Tennessee Aquarium
was constructed — providing an unanticipated
appeal for students, researchers and visitors and
attracting more than one million visitors in its first
six months of operation. It generated $133M in
documented economic activity from an initial, private investment of $45M. The condemned Walnut
Street Bridge was also restored and developed into a
park-like pedestrian bridge spanning the river with
aesthetically landscaped walkways and parks along
the riverbanks. This bridge provided easy access to
downtown businesses, shops, restaurants and museums.
Community leaders also emphasized inner-city
issues related to housing and neighborhood improvements as well as development of new business
incubation facilities. Projects were planned with
input from the community through town meetings
and were implemented with cooperation from City,
county, federal, civic, and industrial organizations.
The catalyst for initiating many project activities
came from foundation grants, donated facilities,
benchmarking community problems against other
communities having similar problems, and creative problem solving.
Results
The City keeps initiatives energized by combining clusters of problems and taking advantage of
federal grants, private donations, and revenues
from tax referendums that are considered community investments. Sustainable development and
growth is an ongoing, work-in-process effort that is
gaining support from the local manufacturing industry which constitutes 23% of Chattanooga’s
economic activity. It also continues through many
community activities and projects including the
Millennium III planning process. Millennium III is
a community participation, goal-setting process that
focuses on Chattanooga’s social and economic needs
and helps establish final goals and projects for the
21st century.
Dayton Parts, Inc. - Harrisburg, PA
Spring Coating Environmental
Requirements
Background
As the result of the Pennsylvania Department of
Environmental Regulations (PaDER) provisions of
the Federal Clean Air Act Standards, Dayton Parts,
Inc. (DPI) determined that two different coatings
used on assembled springs were non-compliant.
The coatings—one a black, tar-based coating for
multi-leaf springs and the other, a zinc-based coating for tapered springs—contained excessive Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) for meeting the
new PaDER requirements. Faced with the expensive options of either purchasing equipment to
capture VOCs or incurring progressive fines, DPI
took steps to identify, test, and utilize new coating
materials that would fully meet the new environmental standards. This requirement for identifying new coating materials with acceptable levels of
VOCs was complicated by additional needs to meet
salt spray tests, application-ease requirements,
and simple part preparation, in addition to presenting a satisfactory finished appearance. The time
available to find a solution was also limited by the
regulating agency.
Description
To meet these requirements, DPI formed a Project
Task Team with representation from the plant's
production, manufacturing engineering, maintenance, purchasing and product engineering elements. The team developed solution parameters
which included the range of environmental concerns (PaDER regulations, employee exposure, and
waste disposal issues), quality issues, process capacity, and projected costs in addition to the time
deadlines. Discussions were held with numerous
paint manufacturers regarding the coating needs
and revealed a concurrent requirement that thorough pre-application cleaning was a specification
included with many of the suggested materials.
After investigating cleaning methods, the team
determined it should avoid coatings with pre-cleaning requirements if possible because of potentially
high added costs and the environmental/safety
problem associated with many cleaning methods.
A number of sample products were obtained from
paint manufacturers and all were submitted to salt
spray testing durations compatible with the quality
requirements of DPI. Paints passing the first salt
spray tests were subjected to additional similar tests
as well as ASTM-specified tests (hardness, chip resistance, and adhesion) where applicable. The results of
these tests—together with application methodologies and costs considerations—prompted the team to
recommend a water soluble alkyd-based paint as a
replacement for the black coating and a water-based,
high performance vinyl coating as a replacement for
the zinc-based coating. Neither required a pre-application cleaning of spring assemblies.
Results
DPI, through successful team investigation, has
found replacement coatings for both product lines
that exceed environmental VOC requirements and
require no pre-application cleaning. Implementation
is ahead of the PaDER required timetable. Tests
prove that both replacement coatings may be applied
using the cost-effective method of dipping, and then
air drying. This application method will eliminate
over 90% of the labor required for the replaced zincbased coating. Implementing the replacement coatings saved over $500K compared to adding environmental control equipment to original processes.
Defense Contract Management
Command - Ft Belvoir, VA
Eliminating Hazardous Materials from
DOD Contracts and Weapons Systems
The Challenge
Eliminating hazardous materials from DOD contracts and weapons systems by promoting partnerships among the Services and their Contractors.
Historically, recommendations by contractors for
using alternatives to hazardous materials on government contracts resulted in repeated testing by
individual defense and contractor program managers, so all parties could gain their own confidence in
the performance of the alternatives being considered. More often than not, alternatives were never
accepted or agreed upon by the parties involved
using this approach. As a result, DOD and the
industrial base duplicated efforts and paid multiple
times for qualification of the same alternatives for
commonly shared processes, with little or no success to show for it. Then in early 1994, defense
industry contractors, weapons systems program
mangers, and various DOD/Industry conference
attendees (CEOs and Corporate Presidents) expressed a need for “jointness” to address common
25
pollution prevention issues. Toward that end, a
Secretary of Defense Memorandum, dated August
11, 1994, set requirements for cooperation of the
Military Departments, Defense Agencies, and industry to work in unison to reduce duplication of
effort in addressing pollution prevention opportunities. All were facing the same pressure for change.
Despite this history, impediments have remained
to overcoming duplication of efforts in qualifying
alternatives to hazardous material processes, changing military specifications/standards, budgeting
enough money, qualifying tests for alternatives,
and prioritizing approaches. To overcome these
impediments the JG-APP was established by the
Joint Logistics Commanders (JLC), on September
15, 1994 to focus on pollution prevention at sources
(e.g., contractor plants). The joint group, consisting
of representatives from each of the services, plus
Defense Logistics Agency (Defense Contract Management Command), has focused on single contractor sites where they have found: (1) opportunities to
minimize efforts in the identification of shared
processes across multiple service programs; (2)
opportunities for modification of designs, to influence future plans; and (3) chances to implement
technically acceptable alternatives. Execution of
the JG-APP’s methodology entails identification of
shared processes and applications, establishment
of common test protocols, and joint coordination of
alternative acceptance and implementation. The
JG-APP methodology is complemented by the Single
Process (Block Change) Initiative to facilitate quick,
economical changes to contracts for qualified alternatives/processes. The JG-APP initiative also bridges
manufacturing and sustaining (e.g., depots, et al
maintenance facilities) logistics pollution prevention
efforts with the Joint Depot Environmental Panel,
another JLC group, established to focus on the needs
of the depot community. This ensures a two-way
communication of successes and lessons learned
between contractor manufacturing activities and
defense maintenance communities. Successes are
also shared throughout private industry.
Methods
The JG-APP began methodology validation with
selection of seven pilot sites having multi-service,
multi-program manufacturing processes. Participating in the initiatives are McDonnell Douglas,
Lockheed Martin, Pratt & Whitney, Texas Instruments-Defense Group, Hughes Missile Systems,
Boeing Defense Systems, and General Electric Aircraft Engines. The methodology consists of 16 steps:
identify players, list potential contractors, deter26
mine interest in the program, develop teaming
agreements, identify target chemical/processes,
identify alternatives, down-select alternatives, define Joint Test Protocol, implement JTP elements,
formulate contractor implementation plan, conduct pilot tasks and estimate funding requirements, develop a business strategy, conduct and
pay for validation testing, analyze data and implement, report on validation process, use report to
create a Concept Paper for SPI (Acquisition Reform
initiatives), and assure continuous process improvement. Products developed using JG-APP methodology are made available for use by government and
industry. The tenant of the joint service partnership with industry is quite simple: there are no
proprietary interests with respect to pollution prevention opportunities once an agreement is reached
regarding the qualifications of alternatives. Technology transfer throughout Government and industry, even among competitors, is accomplished
in this manner (also see http://www.jgapp.com).
Results (Current Status and Benefits)
JG-APP has seen big successes in 1996. Using the
JG-APP methodology, Texas Instruments (TI) was
the first pilot site to achieve a Block Change (April)
through the SPI phase. This success at TI reduces
annual VOC emissions by 40-80%, or 2,880 fewer
pounds of VOCs, 3,000 fewer pounds of waste
solvent and paint, and 300 fewer gallons of paint
thinner; and at McDonnell Douglas, a cost avoidance of $6.25M from the reduction in the duplication of alternative qualification testing has been
realized. As of April 1996, the initiative has documented a total of $12M in cost avoidance in qualification testing and alternative implementation. At
the other pilot sites, JG-APP is seeing alternative
testing to substitute various hazardous materials
used in various systems. At Boeing, the emphasis is
on replacing chrome, nickel, and cadmium. Unlike
the other pilot sites, Boeing is focusing on pollution
prevention across its entire industrial base and not
just the immediate contractor site (Seattle in this
case). At General Electric, where they have facilitated the Propulsion Environmental Working Group
(includes Pratt & Whitney, Allison, Williams, Allied Signal, et al power plant manufacturers), the
use of lead as a dry-film lubricant for jet engines is
being explored. At Pratt & Whitney, chromated
primer replacements were chosen for study. At
Lockheed Martin, three pollution prevention opportunities were selected: replacement of zinc chromate primers; reduction of high VOC topcoats; and
elimination of ink stenciling. The first two are
being leveraged at two other pilot sites, TI and
Hughes. At Hughes, the tests focus on eliminating
chromium as used in conversion coating. At TI, low/
no VOC primers and topcoats to replace high VOC
counterparts is the emphasis. McDonnell Douglas
is testing chromate primers used on the aircraft
exterior surfaces. The testing at McDonnell Douglas will extend over two years, to include lab and
field phases. In contrast, when field testing is not
required, the total test period may be concluded in
as few as four months.
Overall Costs
The JG-APP Advisory Board (JPPAB) has invested approximately 3.4 man years into the pilot
phase of the initiative during 1995 and 1996, plus
$1.885 million for engineering and technical support
provided by the National Defense Center for Environmental Excellence, and approximately $200,000
over two years for temporary duty assignment expenses (travel, per diem, etc.). The service and contractor participants, together, spent an average $275300,000 per site to test the various alternatives.
JG-APP Organization
Representatives from each of the services plus
Defense Contract Management Command (DCMC).
JG-APP principal/JPPAB counterpart (below).
USAF:
BG Clyde M. Bolton Jr, Chairman JG-APP
Robert Hill, Chairman JPPAB
USA:
MG Roy E. Beauchamp
Luis Garcia-Baco
USN:
RADM L.F. Schriefer
David Asiello
USMC: MG Williams
George Georgeadis
DCMC: MG Robert W. Drewes
A. Ken Siler
Department of Energy, Oak Ridge
Operations - Oak Ridge, TN
Description
Technology known as ENVIRO-CP has been developed which eliminates these problems. By simple
and cost efficient technology, plating solutions from
electroless nickel baths are not only treated to result
in environmentally benign chemicals, but the nickel
waste itself is rejuvenated and recycled. Because of
the obvious advantages of the Electroless Plating
Recycling System, Oak Ridge has licensed the process and is in the process of commercializing it.
Results
An additional benefit of this process is that it may
be extended to other plating solutions with equal
effectiveness. Use of this ENVIRO-CP has the
potential of saving the plating industry billions of
dollars in energy and disposal costs.
Digital Equipment Corporation Westfield, MA
Painting/EPA and State
Regulations
Background
Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) Enclosures
improved its paint and waste operation in the
production shop by installing an automated painting
system. The previous four-booth, three-shift operation evolved to an eight-booth, one-shift operation
while meeting EPA and state regulations. DEC reduced the volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions while increasing production line capacity.
Description
Using the new system, the enamel painting (high
solid paint) is conducted in the booths presented in
Figure 3-1: (1-2 bell system), (3-4 electrostatic), (56 manual touch-up), and (7-8 robotic texturing).
High quality parts are produced while cutting
Recycling Chemicals Used in
Electroless Plating
Background
Because nickel coating improves corrosion resistance, surface luster, reflectivity, hardness, and
wear resistance, many consumer and industrial
products are protected by a layer of nickel. Unfortunately, the process of nickel plating generates
large amounts of waste which is both hazardous
and expensive to handle.
Figure 3-1. New Paint Line Schematic
27
paint consumption to a minimum. The process
requires two hours for a complete cycle of the
overhead conveyor, and employees are not required
to wear painting masks.
Results
Paint sludge is dewatered using centrifuges. This
process is the most effective means of monitoring
and controlling the paint solid waste. The EPA and
state regulations allow DEC 100 tons of VOC emissions per year. Since the new paint system has been
installed, VOC emissions have been reduced from 77
tons to 14 tons per year. The sludge is then biologically treated by Laidlaw Environmental and safely
disposed of, reducing disposal cost by $400 per drum.
The DEC waste water treatment system is monitored by the Automated Industrial Monitoring (AIM)
security system which monitors the pH in waste
water. The AIM system layers over the Allen Bradley Paint Line control system to interface DECdeveloped software to distribute alarms to various
stations and through E-Mail to key personnel. The
system also automatically dispenses acid or base to
balance waste water pH within the acceptable
range. Alarm distribution is tailored to the needs of
individual monitoring stations. The DEC facility is
audited twice a year to ensure that the environmental standards are met.
Dover Air Force Base - Dover, DE
Volatile Organic Compounds Release
Reduction
Background
Dover Air Force Base (DAFB) is in a severe NonAttainment Area for ozone. The primary air pollutants of concern are volatile organic compounds
(VOC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Refueling activities of C-5 Galaxy aircraft resulted in sizable releases of VOCs. The old central heating plant was
a prime culprit for releases of NOx and other air
pollutants. The replacement of the burners to low
NOx burners was required under the new regulations. The base has three vehicle refueling stations.
One had a monthly volume of 10,000 gallons or
more of fuel, and installation of vapor recovery
equipment was required.
Description
The first effort to meet the new standards for air
emissions was to change the fuel used in the C-5s.
The aircraft were formerly fueled with JP-4 fuel,
which is like a mixture of kerosene and aircraft
gasoline. The use of this fuel results in substantial
28
quantities of VOCs, including benzene, toluene,
ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX). The new fuel,
JP-8, has virtually no BTEX and results in low
levels of VOC releases during refueling. This reduced VOC emissions by 145 tons per year.
The next effort was to convert the central heating
plant to burn natural gas rather than No. 6 fuel oil
and base housing from No.2 fuel oil to natural gas.
This reduced air pollutant releases from the central
heating plant by over 312 tons per year, plus a small
increment of VOCs. The conversion of base housing
is also expected to reduce VOC emissions by about
one ton per year and other emissions by over 90%.
The installation of vapor recovery equipment at the
three base vehicle refueling stations reduced VOC
emissions by 15 tons per year.
Results
The conversion from JP-4 aircraft fuel to JP-8,
the switch from No. 6 fuel oil to natural gas at the
central base heating plant, and the installation of
vapor recovery equipment at the base vehicle refueling stations are fully implemented. The conversion to natural gas from No.2 fuel oil in base
housing is underway. The changes have reduced
costs by over $100,000 per year.
Hamilton Standard Electronic
Manufacturing Center Farmington, CT
Environmental Program
Background
The Hamilton Standard Electronic Manufacturing Center (HSEMC) was faced with the need to
maintain competitiveness in the increasing environmentally conscious marketplace. Keeping up
with changing government regulations and promoting proper use and optimizing hazardous materials for the benefit of the community became
increasingly important.
Description
An Environmental program was designed to address these issues and will be operated by the environmental department. The Farmington facility has
its own environmental department (that is supported by a central department at the Windsor Locks
facility) to address the environmental needs of the
site. The department, consisting of four associates, is
responsible for reviewing and approving environmental plans, policies, and programs for the facility,
and it must approve the necessary human and financial resources to administer these programs. The
department provides direction to the environmental
teams and creates and sustains interest and communication in environmental awareness throughout
the building. The department must also check the
progress and ensure the appropriate procedures and
activities are in place to achieve and maintain compliance with current environmental regulations.
The department associates also provide guidance
to the Environmental, Health, and Safety Team
which consists of up to twelve members who are
representative of the facility's population. There
are also sub-teams that handle special tasks within
the facility. These teams help to make associates
conscious of environmental concerns.
The environmental department has established
certain goals that extend beyond the necessary
levels to achieve environmental compliance. For
example, it is taking steps to reduce and prevent
pollution including elimination, substitution, or
optimization of hazardous materials. It is also a
voluntary member of the Environmental Protection Agency program to reduce 17 hazardous chemicals by 33% from 1988 levels by 1992 and by 50% by
1995. The department is attempting to eliminate
all ozone-depleting substances from the facility but
has been hindered by old specifications which require the use of Freon. Freon usage has dropped from
116,000 pounds in 1990 to 50,900 in 1992 at HSEMC,
and remained low in 1993, particularly after the
installation of an alcohol-based, semi-aqueous cleaner.
Results
HSEMC's team approach has made environmental compliance every associate's responsibility. Associates are able to suggest design changes that
eliminate or reduce hazardous materials, and the
designers are able to use manufacturing inputs
early in the design process.
Hamilton Standard has carefully considered the
increasing need for environmentally conscious
manufacturing. It has developed a program that
reaches from upper management to every associate. This program considers the future and what is
best for the company and the community.
Work Environment
Background
With knowledge that 75% of the required
workforce in the year 2000 is already in place,
HSEMC is developing an environment for associates to develop their capabilities. Thus a key factor
in reducing cost to the customer.
Description
In the 1990s, the Hamilton Standard Electronic
Manufacturing Center focuses on people, values,
and their continued development as the most important force in the company. HSEMC’s drive to
enhance the culture and value system encompasses
10 major focal points (Figure 3-2). These principles
include customer satisfaction (everyone is a shareholder); environmental (more can always be done);
training to continually upgrade associate skills;
diversity (every person is valued); career development to provide incentive, assistance, and support
to facilitate individual development; ethics (winning with integrity intact); health and safety (the
well being of the associates enhance the well-being
of the business); open and participative communication; empowerment (responsibility and authority
to determine how a task is to be done is delegated
to the associates performing the task); and community involvement (each associate is a viable, contributing member of society).
Figure 3-2. Work Environment
Results
This is a system of processes. Hamilton Standard
realizes that communicating change is difficult —
implementing change is more difficult — and that
all walls must come down. Supportive management and ethics application are also critical factors.
They cultivate change agents, and assume a solid
and fundamental consistency of purpose. The company understands that to survive in the value-driven
market of the 1990s, change is essential.
29
Kurt Manufacturing Company Minneapolis, MN
Coolant Reclamation System
Background
Kurt adopted the use of a single water-based
machining and grinding coolant throughout the
company during 1990. This was implemented to
pre-empt forth coming Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) regulations and to capitalize on cost
savings through recycling. At that time, 13 different coolants were in use. To determine the coolant
to use, a committee including supervisors, engineers, and the safety manager was formed and a
design of experiments undertaken using the three
most commonly used coolants. Kurt was searching
for a coolant that would be: safe for operators to
handle; compatible with all Kurt machining operations; repeatedly recyclable; and able to last three
to four months without breaking down.
Description
After four months of testing and collecting data,
it was determined that the coolant used did not
matter — what mattered was the speed and feed of
the machining and tools being used. W.R Grace
Coolant Daracool 706LF (a synthetic) was selected as
it was the least harmful to personnel in daily operations. The changeover to Daracool was challenging
but by involving operators and supervisors in the
process, the job was accomplished as a team effort.
Kurt also developed a method of reclaiming and
recycling the coolant. The key element of the recycling system is the Sanborn Donaldson Patriot
Recycler with its 500-gallon dirty tank and 500gallon clean tank. This system was adapted and
modified to meet the company's needs. A 500-gallon
standby clean tank and 500-gallon standby dirty
tank were added to the recycler. Attached to the
standby dirty tank is a Spenser vacuum system
connected throughout the main plant with twoinch PVC piping. To recover coolant, a reclaim
operator connects a hose between the sump of a
machine and the vacuum system piping. Fluid is
pulled into the standby dirty tank. It is recycled
through the Sanborn in 500-gallon baths. As the
coolant is processed, it can be directed to any
machining station in the plant through a 3/4-inch
return line, and discharged into a clean holding
tank for storage until required. Recycled and dirty
coolant is transported to and from other plants in
portable Tuff Tanks manufactured by Chemical
Handling Equipment, Inc. of Waldbridge, Ohio.
30
The recycler has also been modified to automatically
monitor and control bacteria and pH of the coolant.
Results
The coolant change and recycle efforts have eliminated changing coolant every two to four weeks.
Kurt has sustained enhanced machining results
and has used the same coolant continuously for
over one year to date. The additional prime benefit
is the reduction of health hazards to employees.
Lockheed Martin Electronics and
Missiles - Orlando, FL
Environmental Practices
Background
Lockheed Martin Electronics and Missiles designed the Pollution Prevention and Environmental Practices program to reduce pollution control
costs and to comply with increasing pollution regulations. Lockheed Martin's Pollution Prevention
and Environmental Practices constitute a strong
environmental effort.
Description
The corporate philosophy of 100% compliance
100% of the time, and commitment of top management and employees have a significant impact on
pollution prevention and control. As a part of the
pollution prevention strategy, Lockheed implemented corporate-mandated programs, incorporated customer-specified programs, adapted existing cultural practices to requirements, re-engineered chemical inventory management, and created employee awareness. Lockheed also successfully participated in the following EPA voluntary
programs:
• Green light relamping over a million square feet
which yielded cost savings of over $25K per year;
• Energy conservation projects such as computer
control of air conditioning and improved chiller
cleaning and maintenance;
• 33/50 toxics reduction.
Results
Lockheed Martin has recently completed the
design of the Chemical Inventory Management
Program with procedures that require environmental, safety, and health approval and tracking
numbers prior to order; re-engineer order/receiving and distribution systems; interface existing
business software to an environmental information
database; and create a state-of-the-art, cradle-tograve tracking system.
Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft
Systems - Fort Worth, TX
Hazardous Material
Management
Background
In 1984, Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems (LMTAS) adopted a corporate goal of zero
discharge of hazardous waste. This effort was motivated by the high cost of compliance and liabilities
with environmental regulations.
Description
A proactive formal emissions remediation management program was established using a team
approach to achieve the zero discharge goal. Initial
baselines were established and plans were developed for hazardous waste elimination and elimination of underground tanks. By 1987, goals and
baselines were expanded to include a multimedia
approach to pollution prevention. By 1988, an aggressive plan to reduce hazardous waste by 90%
was well underway with 11 completed projects and
11 ongoing projects. The Air Force partnered with
the company on facilities and research and development projects. In 1991, a formal Hazardous Material Management Program Office was established
which adopted a goal-oriented approach to pollution prevention.
Metrics indicate progress in every major environmental area, and monthly and quarterly measurements are conducted with annual updates. The
planning focus is on projects since projects can be
tied to very specific goals.
Results
To date, more than 50 successful zero discharge
projects have been completed. Examples of these
projects include:
• Waterborne Primer (1985)
• High Energy Value Waste Segregation (1987)
• Ultrafiltration of Non-recyclable Coolant (1988)
• Mechanical Sealant Removal Process (1989)
• Non-halogenated Substitutes for “Safety
Solvent” (1990)
• 47 Closed Systems for Paint GunCleaning (1991)
• Aqueous Degreaser (T-529 and T-530) (1992)
• Low Vapor Pressure Cleanup Solvents (1992)
• Reuse Hazardous Waste Drums (1993)
• Spent Lead-Acid Battery Recycling (1994)
Pollution prevention initiatives have saved more
than $25 million on hazardous waste disposal alone
(Table 3-1). LMTAS was selected from a field of 70
large technology companies to receive the Clean
Texas 2000 1995 Governor's Award for Environmental Excellence.
Table 3-1.
Pollution Prevention Results
Through 1994
Result
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Base Year
100% Reduction in PCB Devices
98% Reduction in TRI Transfers
98% Reduction in ODC Use
96% Reduction in “EPA 17” Compounds
96% Reduction in Effluent Heavy Metal Discharges
100% Removal/Replacement of U/G Tanks
85% Reduction in Hazardous & Manifested Waste
85% Reduction in Reported Air Emissions
60% Recycle of Nonhazardous Industrial Solid Waste
• 42% Reduction in NISW Disposal
1984
1987
1987
1988
1987
1984
1984
1987
N/A
1991
Savings of more than $25M on Hazardous waste
disposal and $8M on wipe solvent alone!
LMTAS continues to meet the environmental
challenge by working with government and industry groups to help develop national environmental
standards such as National Aerospace Standard
411, the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, and Control Technology Guidelines. The company is also working with the DOD
Joint Group for Acquisition Pollution Prevention.
There are eight current projects and more than a
dozen new projects planned. A decade of progress has
produced major positive results and a strong team is
in place and actively addressing remaining issues.
Elimination of Ozone-Depleting
Compounds in F-16 Technical Orders
Background:
Technical Orders (T.O.s) are maintenance and
repair instruction books for military weapon systems. They reference the use of products containing hazardous chemicals, many of which are ozonedepleting compounds (ODCs). Due to the 1996
phaseout of Class I ODCs, it became necessary to
identify replacement products for those T.O. materials containing Class I ODCs. The study involved
a review of each T.O. to identify all chemicals or
chemical products, analysis of each product to find
31
the ones containing Class I ODCs, testing of candidates replacements, and incorporation of the verified replacements in the appropriate T.O.s.
Description:
Over two thousand Lockheed Martin-managed
F-16 T.O.s were reviewed, leading to approximately
900 referenced chemicals. Of these products, 66
were found to contain one or more Class I ODCs.
This encompassed a wide range of products, including release agents, adhesion promoters, antiseize
compounds, circuit refrigerants, retaining compound primers, greases, corrosion preventive compounds, coatings, and cleaning solvents. Replacement candidates were identified on an applicationby-application basis. In some cases, lab testing was
performed. Others required only shop trials for
verification, or were simply incorporated after a
thorough engineering study of issues such as functionality, material compatibility, economics, and
health/safety.
Results:
The replacements were incorporated into the
T.O.s during 1996, and procurement data was
provided to the inventory managers at applicable
field units. The program was considered extremely
successful, providing ODC-free maintenance and
repair instructions for the 3,600-plus F-16s currently active in domestic bases as well as bases
around the world.
Low Vapor Pressure Cleaning Solvent
Background
LMTAS has successfully implemented low vapor
pressure solvent blends and a waste cloth management and disposal system in order to eliminate
ozone depleting compound emissions in its wipe
cleaning operations and still maintain low Volatile
Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from its solvent cleaning operations.
Description
In September 1992, LMTAS replaced an 85%
chlorofluorocarbon-113 (CFC-113), 15% VOC blend
for wipe operations with a new low vapor pressure
solvent and waste cloth management system, eliminating 200+ tons-per-year of CFC-113 emissions.
Also, this implementation decreased VOC emissions; 1996 VOC emissions from cleaning solvents
were only 1.9 tons-per-year. The same operations
emitted ~45 tons-per-year of VOC and ~250 tonsper-year CFC-113 in the late 1980s.
32
Results
The low pressure solvent blends were selected
after full-scale laboratory corrosion tests and cleaning performance tests. The solvents have been
licensed to Dynamold Solvents and are sold to
several aerospace and non-aerospace firms. Cost
savings plus cost avoidance have been documented
for $0.95 million for 1993 and $1.3 million for 1994.
LMTAS management recently estimated the cost
savings from the wipe solvent implementation to be
$8.2 million for the five-year period of 1992 to 1997.
Five United States of America (USA) patents and
three Taiwanese patents have been issued to LMTAS
on the DS series solvent formulations and the
waste cloth management system. More patent applications (USA and international) are either pending or are being reviewed by the Patent Office.
This technology represents the design of solvent
blends that are less toxic than many of the alternatives previously being used, such as MEK (methyl
ethyl ketone), TCA (1,1,1-trichloroethane), and various blends of toxic solvents. The reduced solvent
usage and waste cloth management system makes
the cleaning solvent “inherently safer with regard
to accident potential.” EPA has recognized this technology as having environmental benefits via several
EPA Stratospheric Ozone Protection Awards in 1993
and a Certificate of Recognition for “Significant Reduction in Hazardous Air Pollutants,” in 1994. EPA
has additionally recognized that the “technology is
applicable to industry and society” via the incentives/
requirements to use this technology in the Aerospace
National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (August 1995) and the draft Aerospace Control Technology Guide (July 1996).
Use and Verification of Aqueous Alkaline
Cleaners
Background
LMTAS was the first aerospace company to implement innovative aqueous cleaning technology for
cleaning tubing and honeycomb core. Tubing is
used in the aerospace industry for transferring
pressurized oxygen within an aerospace vehicle.
Honeycomb core is used in the aerospace industry
for producing bonded structural parts. Both applications require that the parts meet stringent cleanliness requirements. These requirements were previously met by using cold cleaning and/or vapor
degreasing with chlorinated solvents. These solvents included 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) and
trichloroethylene (TCE). These chlorinated solvents
are toxic, and TCA is an ozone depleting compound.
Description
The use of chlorinated solvents posed a threat to
the environment because they were commonly released into the air during cleaning operations and
because the likelihood of a spill during their use
was significant.
Results
These solvents were successfully replaced with
aqueous cleaning technology. Implementation of
aqueous cleaning technology at LMTAS has eliminated approximately 360 tons of air emissions per
year and has resulted in a cost savings of $490K per
year. In addition to replacing chlorinated solvents
with innovative aqueous cleaning technology,
LMTAS has also explored the use of environmentally safe methods for quantifying surface contaminants on parts cleaned by various cleaning technologies. Traditionally, extraction with CFC-113
followed by gravimetric or FTIR analysis has been
used for quantifying surface contaminants. The
use of CFC-113 is undesirable due to its ozone
depleting potential. LMTAS has demonstrated the
usefulness of carbon dioxide coulometry for determining the amount of residue remaining on a
surface after cleaning and has used this technique
for comparing the cleaning effectiveness of various
cleaning technologies.
Lockheed Martin Corporation received an EPA
Stratospheric Ozone Protection Award for the adoption of aqueous cleaning technology for cleaning
tubing.
In summary, replacements of chlorinated solvent
cleaning operations with aqueous cleaning operations offer the following benefits:
1. A reduction in the toxicity of the cleaning
compounds used.
2. A reduction in the real and potential threat
to the environment.
3. A significant cost savings due to the lower
disposal costs associated with aqueous
cleaning agents.
4. The required cleanliness levels can be easily
achieved with aqueous cleaning (as verified
by chemical analysis and mechanical testing).
Novel analytical methods for cleanliness were
demonstrated that use no hazardous solvents.
5. The aqueous cleaning technology can be (and
has been) readily transferred to other facilities
and industry sectors.
Mason & Hanger Corporation Pantex Plant - Amarillo, TX
Groundwater Monitoring
Program
Background
Mason & Hanger Corporation (M&H) found that
rapid purging of the well caused changes in the pH
of the groundwater samples such that they were no
longer representative of the actual groundwater
values. M&H similarly found that the groundwater
sample bottle must be filled in a particular manner
in order to obtain repeatable data—seemingly insignificant items such as rapidly pouring the water
sample into the bottle or wiping off the threads of
the bottle can have a major impact on the quality of
the groundwater sample and resulting data. For
example, a 1991 set of total organic carbon data
from a well (consisting of 4 data points) could be
interpreted that the "correct" value was either 3
ppm or 15 ppm. A similar set of 1993 data following
the improvement of the sampling process shows
more consistency, with all values ranging between
1.0 ppm and 1.6 ppm.
As a result of the review of groundwater sampling
practices, M&H has found that scrupulous care is
required in all groundwater sampling actions, and
that consistency in work patterns is critical.
Description
A M&H groundwater monitoring review resulted
in M&H examining its processes for establishing
33
well locations, acquiring groundwater samples,
and evaluating data from more than 30 wells located at Iowa Army Ammunition Plant (IAAP). As
a result of the review, M&H corrected water table
elevation data on several wells and installed additional wells where needed to monitor a landfill site.
A critical benefit from the 1992 review of the
groundwater monitoring program is the identification of improved processes for obtaining groundwater samples. Because the composition of the water
in a well changes as it stands for months, the well
must be purged and allowed to re-fill just prior to
taking the groundwater sample.
Results
Detailed groundwater sample acquisition plans
have been developed and are carefully followed to
ensure high quality data that can then be used with
confidence for monitoring and remediation purposes. M&H also realized a spillover benefit as a
result of the groundwater sampling process improvements, as a better understanding of the importance of careful and repeatable techniques has
also resulted in the improvement of other laboratory processes.
Sitewide Environmental
Impact Statement
Background
Mason & Hanger - Pantex has taken a proactive
approach to fulfilling its Sitewide Environmental
Impact Statement (EIS) responsibilities by making
information available to the public that is understandable, timely, and accurate. With a “They’re
Not Going to Come to You” attitude, Pantex has
combined electronic and print media, public information sessions, speaker bureau activities, employee public speaking and media training, and
media seminars to form a comprehensive program
delivering the Pantex EIS message.
Description
Pantex began this effort by preparing and implementing a Stakeholder Involvement Plan. The EIS
stakeholders were identified as government (federal, state and local entities), the media, adversary
groups, community leaders, the educational community (students and teachers), and the general
public. The Stakeholder Involvement Plan represented the initial step in activities designed to
maximize public involvement in EIS. Pantex contacted landowners, interest groups, and state and
34
local officials to apprise them of the EIS process and
to publish a schedule of planned activities. Activities included establishing a 24-hour EIS information hotline to handle information and speaker
requests. This step was followed by distributing
brochures and a quarterly EIS newsletter. Pantex
EIS team members appeared on radio and television talk shows, and they produced a video used at
public meetings and speaker bureau events. This
video was made available to Pantex employees and
interested stakeholders.
An Information Fair was held in anticipation of
the May 1995 DOE public (Scoping) meeting. The
Fair provided exhibits and presentations on EIS
topics such as radiation safety, groundwater and
overflight issues, as well as opportunities for citizens to talk with Pantex technical staff about their
EIS concerns and questions. Pantex found the Fair
to be so successful and well received that it was
repeated the following year and is now slated to be
an annual event.
Following the Scoping meeting, Pantex continued its outreach and awareness activities through
additional activities including:
1. a Cultural Resources Program to foster
involvement of interested Native American
tribes,
2. a downtown Pantex Information Office to
provide information to city residents,
3. a children’s video, coupled with Pantex EIS
team presentations to public, private, and
home school audiences,
4. an essay contest for students to write about
“What I Learned at the Pantex Information
Fair,” (winners received a monetary prize
and special plant tour),
5. a multimedia, touch screen kiosk information
center about Pantex and EIS available to the
public in high schools, malls, post offices and
libraries, and a Pantex EIS Internet
HomePage.
Results
All of these Pantex EIS activities demonstrate
the aggressive and encompassing approach to meeting the company’s National Environmental Protection Act responsibilities. Positive indicators of Pantex EIS success include its nomination in 1995 to
receive the Secretary’s Award, and an invitation to
discuss the entire National Environmental Protection Act process at the Spectrum ’96 International
Meeting in which the program will be featured as
a seminar.
McDonnell Douglas Aerospace St. Louis, MO
Environmental Improvement
Initiatives
Background
McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (MDA) (St.Louis)
established the Environmental Assurance division
to perform technical and business analyses for
selecting the most cost-effective and lowest-risk
compliance methods to meet environmental directives projected for the next seven years.
Description
The company is reducing its environmental impact
by altering operations, some of which involve specific
modifications to a single process or piece of manufacturing equipment, while others are broad, sweeping
modifications to the daily corporate operations.
Results
To ensure that all perspectives are reflected,
multidiscipline teams have been formed to perform
an analysis on each environmental issue requiring
action. These teams are chartered with specific
boundaries and tasks assignments within the Environmental Assurance division.
The Directives Review Committee is a standing
committee comprised of OSHA and environmental
representatives who use a disciplined process to
review and prioritize requirements. It reviews and
maintains all environmental requirements (federal, state, and local environmental regulations,
contractual stipulations, and corporate policies) in
a corporate database. It then identifies required
improvement initiatives and prioritizes the improvement initiatives.
The Technical Review Committee then performs
business case analyses (options evaluations, risk
assessments, and cost estimations) on the prioritized initiatives, selects a preferred option, develops
an action plan for each initiative, incorporates the
action plan into an Environmental Assurance strategic plan and forwards recommendations to the Executive Review Committee for further action.
The Executive Review Committee analyzes the
Technical Review Committee recommendations,
discusses alternatives, risks, and other topics; provides enlightenment on future corporate direction,
initiatives and policies; and approves/disapproves
the recommendations. At this point, corporate commitment for funding of the initiative is made.
Through this disciplined approach, MDA (St.
Louis) has been able to implement the majority of
environmental initiative projects at the lowest cost
option. By doing so, it has been more proactive in
the environmental compliance arena, and can maintain the affordability of its products.
Project Deployment: Technology
Transition to Production
Background
Because current and future environmental regulations have an impact on manufacturing, MDA
(St. Louis) devised a way to change production
processes to comply with the regulations with the
least amount of risk to the production programs.
Description
This was accomplished by using a multidiscipline
team approach to generate solutions and determine their workability. These multidisciplined
teams include all personnel affected by the new
regulations. Customer concerns (internal and external) are taken into account, and all aspects of the
current manufacturing method that would be affected are noted. Requirements for the replacement process are obtained using Quality Function
Deployment (QFD), and the potential replacement
processes are ranked using the QFD matrix.
When the leading candidates are identified, the
team attempts to lower the risks of these methods
even further by performing trials on non-production parts, running laboratory tests, or performing
Taguchi testing. When the team agrees that the
process is ready for production and meets the QFD
requirements, shop trials begin on production parts.
Shop trials are always required, even if the process
is proven at other facilities, because each facility is
unique.
Each affected process is tested, and each trial is
supported by the team across all shifts. The process
is monitored and corrective action taken until it
meets all requirements and is production-ready. The
team, or a third party, monitors the process performance to ensure project objectives have been met.
Results
This method has been used successfully on several programs, including ozone-depleting substance
elimination and compliant coatings. Not only did
the new processes not have an adverse impact on
manufacturing, in some cases they produced im-
35
provements and cost savings. These improvements
are highlighted by the following examples.
1. Low Vapor Pressure Solvents. MDA (St. Louis)
began replacing trichloroethane (TCA) by
establishing a natural work group comprised
of people involved in operations that used
TCA. This group selected several low vapor
pressure solvents as replacements. Several
were needed as no single solvent could be
determined to duplicate all TCA's capabilities.
However, these replacement solvents could
be used at lower vapor pressures; they had
slower evaporation rates resulting in a
significant reduction in the required material;
and approximately 70% less material was
required as compared to TCA. These resulted
in a cost impact of a 40% material cost saving
or $14 per gallon.
2. Non-destructive Testing. The non-destructive
testing penetrant developer used to detect
cracks was changed in 1995 from an ODS to
a non-ODS dry powder material. The annual
cost of the ODS was $7.6K, and the estimated
yearly cost of the dry powder was $1.4K,
resulting in a year cost saving of approximately $6.2K.
Millar Western Pulp (Meadow Lake)
Ltd. - Saskatchewan, Canada
Description
Incineration of bark and waste fibre and wind
action on electrostatic precipitator ash lead to particulate emissions, and anaerobic activity in its
waste water holding pond results in the generation
of malodorous compounds such as reduced sulphur
species.
Results
Resolving these concerns will result in an environmental benefit of decreasing particulate and gaseous
emissions, as well as enable the company to maintain
harmonious relations with its neighbors.
Recycle of Recovery Boiler Smelt
Background
Millar Western is currently running a pilot plant
to determine the feasibility of recycling the smelt
from the Recovery Boiler for use as an alkali source
in the pulp mill.
Results
Work to date has demonstrated the potential of
replacing some of the purchased alkali (caustic)
with recycled smelt.
Nascote Industries, Inc. Nashville, IL
Paint Fumes Management
Chemical Recycling
Background
Smelt (predominantly sodium carbonate) from
Recovery Boiler is being landfilled. Opportunity
exists, and is being actively explored, to convert the
smelt to an alkali source for pulping/bleaching of
woodfibre.
Results
Besides the environmental benefit of decreasing
the amount of material being landfilled, recovery of
the alkali would lead to reductions in the cost of
manufacturing pulp as purchased caustic needs
would decrease.
Air Pollution
Background
Although Millar Western meets all governmental regulations for air emissions, both gaseous and
particulate, the company is striving to decrease
emissions of both types of materials.
36
Background
When the company began operations, it received
certification from the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) to operate its paint lines
under the “small plant” classification that stipulated
emissions of less than 249 tons per year of volatile
organic compounds (VOCs) per coating line. Although extensions of operating certification were
obtained that permitted the plant to operate through
1989, Nascote determined that installation of an
abatement system would be necessary to meet IEPA
requirements and to satisfy the EPA requirement to
demonstrate best available control technology.
Description
Nascote installed a regenerative thermal oxidation system from the Salem Corporation to control
VOC emissions from its paint lines due to escalating production levels.
The plant was designed to come up to full production in three stages, each stage to include additional pollution control equipment to comply with
the IEPA standards. Stage one consisted of thermal
incineration of all bake oven air, and the following
two stages included the abatement of spray booth
exhaust as production levels increased. Production
levels, however, increased more rapidly than expected, and Nascote began exceeding the VOC
emission limits in early 1988, prematurely entering into stages two and three.
The regenerative thermal oxidation system from
Salem Corporation is a regenerative system that
reuses assets such as heat, energy, and pressure,
which would otherwise be wasted. Regenerative
thermal incineration destroys fume emissions and
odors by effectively reusing the heat of combustion.
This particular Salem Corporation system is a
multi-chamber configuration that operates in an
alternating inlet/outlet mode while the off-line
chamber is purged of trapped contaminants. This
feature ensures that all contaminants trapped in
the matrix beds and retention areas are purged
with clean air after each inlet cycle. Through this
purging process and the high thermal efficiency
(96%), up to 99% of all volatile organic compounds
are destroyed.
Results
At Nascote, a $10 million investment in this
system allowed the company to greatly exceed
IEPA and EPA requirements, thereby avoiding
potential bottlenecks in the future as production
capacity increased, and ensuring environmentally
responsible operations.
Naval Aviation Depot Jacksonville, FL
Closed Loop Recycle Systems
for Waste Minimization
Background
Naval Aviation Depot (NAVDEP)-Jacksonville,
FL has integrated closed-loop water recycle systems into the electroplating and paint stripping
operations, and has provisions for another at the
aircraft painting and metal finishing operation.
These systems, consisting of standard wastewater
treatment unit operations, provide a unique system resulting in significant reduction in hazardous
waste and water use while ensuring long term
environmental compliance.
Description
The former existing wastewater treatment system included both an industrial wastewater treat-
ment plant (IWTP) and domestic wastewater treatment plant (DWTP) in series. Effluent from the
IWTP was reprocessed in the DWTP before discharge into the St. John's River. Sludge from both
the IWTP and DWTP were characterized as hazardous waste.
Results
NADEP-Jacksonville, through an environmental initiative, developed and implemented plans for
eliminating the wastewater discharge from the
hazardous waste producing operations of electroplating, metal treatment and aircraft painting, and
aircraft stripping and metal finishing. Closed loop
recycle systems that process the rinse waters and
return them to the operation were installed.
Currently the system for the electroplating shop
is in operation. The system for the aircraft stripping and metal finishing is in trial, while the
system for aircraft painting and metal treatment is
in redesign. Implementing a closed loop recycle system attached to a specific operation allows the system
to be tailored and discourages waste mixing.
Environmental Control Center
Background
NADEP-Jacksonville had problems handling
hazardous material, hazardous waste, waste oil,
and recyclables. A system existed in which individual material users were responsible for managing hazardous materials and hazardous waste including labeling, manifesting, and disposition. Some
of these activities are regulatory requirements involving liability and potential penalties, which institutes JIT principles and a user-friendly system.
Description
The Environmental Control Center (ECC) is a
centralized receiving and issue area for hazardous
materials for the NADEP-Jacksonville shops. ECC
personnel coordinate the procurement of hazardous materials in conjunction with the process users
based on historical usage. The ECC receives hazardous material and delivers the material to the
process site in the appropriate containers and controls the quantity of hazardous materials procured
through facility-wide centralized screening of requisitions. This effort eliminated the autonomous
purchase of hazardous materials by individual shops
that frequently resulted in over-procurement due
to numerous minimum quantity purchases being
larger than the requirement. The ECC inspects
37
received materials for damage, expiration, and
proper labeling.
The ECC is also the centralized pickup and
dispositioner for hazardous waste for the shops.
ECC personnel pick up hazardous waste in conjunction with the hazardous materials delivery
service and manages the hazardous waste by consolidating like-wastes, inspecting for container
damage, applying appropriate labeling, and manifesting and coordinating disposal.
Prior to the establishment of the ECC, individual
material users were responsible for managing hazardous materials and hazardous wastes including
labeling, manifesting, and disposition. Some of
these activities are regulatory requirements involving liability and potential penalties. The ECC
provides expertise to complete these steps, significantly reducing these issues. A user only has to call
the ECC and request delivery or pick up of material. The ECC is also responsible for recyclable
material pickup and disposition, and Material Safety
Data Sheet’s (MSDS) management.
As a centralized activity for both hazardous material and waste, the ECC has leveraged resources
to more efficiently perform related activities. For
example, the ECC hazardous materials inventory
and hazardous waste tracking databases provide
valuable information for reutilization of excess
materials, improved procurement strategies, shelflife determination and reporting, and monitoring
satellite accumulation storage. In addition, a dedicated staff for the ECC can be effectively trained in
accordance with regulations, thereby developing
expertise in hazardous material and hazardous
waste management.
Results
The ECC provides this service which has resulted
in significant reduction in generated hazardous
waste and hazardous materials inventory.
As a result of instituting the ECC, NADEPJacksonville has reduced the hazardous material
procurement from $7 million in FY90 to $5.1 million in FY92, reduced hazardous material inventory on the shop floor from eight months to two
weeks, and reduced municipal waste by 35%.
Unquantifiable benefits include improved tracking
of materials, improved security of materials, and
leveraging of resources. The ECC annual recurring
costs of operation are more than offset considering
the easily quantified benefits alone.
38
Naval Surface Warfare Center,
Crane Division - Crane, IN
Digital Photo Processing
Background
The Crane Naval Surface Warfare Center Photo
lab introduced digital photo processing in 1996.
Description
This process eliminated five chemical processors
and the use of 28 hazardous products associated
with them. It is three times faster than the traditional method and will allow instantaneous electronic transmission of the photo images.
Results
A special digital still camera is used to take the
shots and retain them on a memory card. Special
software used in conjunction with a scanner, PC,
enhanced video monitor and printer is used for
image processing. This equipment costs about $190K
and is expected to save $210K per year in labor and
material acquisition and disposal costs. The new
process eliminated the use of 88,000 lbs of chemicals and 500,000 gallons of water per year.
Powder Coating
Background
In 1996, Crane Naval Surface Warfare Center
installed a powder coating system in its Small Arms
Maintenance and Rework Facility to replace an
existing spray painting operation. The process is
being implemented at this current time.
Description
The coating operation involves the application of
a dry resin powder to a clean metal object. Upon
heating, the powder melts and imparts a very
durable, highly protective coating to the metal.
Results
It enhances the quality and maintainability of
the product while eliminating the generation of
volatile organic compounds and hazardous waste
during processing. The cost of the equipment and
associated installation was about $400K. Approximately $190K per year payback is estimated from
labor and energy savings associated with reduced
maintainability requirements, and reduced environmental compliance costs.
Naval Surface Warfare Center,
Indian Head Division Indian Head, MD
Reengineering Propellant Extrusion
Process
Indian Head Division (IHDIV) investigated several options for recycling double-based propellant
scrap from the production of extruded propellants
grains. The objective was to find alternative uses
for scrap double-based propellant to avoid disposal
of the propellant as a hazardous waste (HW). Additionally, the Navy had set a goal for 50% reduction
of its generation of HW. Double-based propellant
scrap was the top contributor of HWs generated on
a yearly basis. Source reduction efforts initiated by
the production division are reducing the waste
from this process.
The following are projects initiated and implemented as a result of equipment upgrades in the
Extrusion Plant to reduce the amount of propellant
scrap by approximately 68%. These upgrades will
also provide state-of-the-art ram extrusion and
annealing capability for Indian Head Division’s
Ordnance Department.
New Flying Press Cutters
A new generation of automatic press propellant
strand cutters will more precisely “rough cut” the
propellant strand from the press into equally-sized
billets automatically. Features of the new cutters
will include a device to help center and guide the
newly formed propellant strand away from the die,
and an electronic encoder which will accurately
measure each billet length, a clamping mechanism
to help produce straighter cuts, and the ability to
recognize, cut, and sort “pressneck” rejects.
Carpet Roll Weight Control
Control of the weight and diameter of carpet rolls
received from the supplier will ensure exact propellant charge weight of “pressneck” rejects that can
be accurately predicted and minimized.
Annealing Oven Control System
New dies with smaller diameters and more efficient cooling jacket will allow a smaller grain to be
extruded under given extrusion parameters. The
new die design has been implemented with encouraging results.
This system replaces individual analog reorder/
controllers for each oven with a single, centralized
PLC/operator interface type control system. The
new system will allow an operator to start and
monitor all ovens from a single control panel. The
system will be connected to the office in the same
way as the press control upgrades so any measurement can be recorded, analyzed, and achieved as
well as cross-referenced with any other available
measurement. Alarms connected to the telephone
autodialer will notify foremen and engineers of any
problems 24-hours per day.
Upgraded Press Control and Hydraulic
Power Systems
Naval Undersea Warfare Center
Division - Keyport, WA
The press control upgrades consist of removing
the present relay control circuitry and fixed flow
control valves and replacing them with a programmable logic controller (PLC), a computerized operator interface, proportional pressure and throttle
control valves, and a communications connection
via fiber optic cable to the extrusion office’s computers. These upgrades and improvements will allow
the extrusion of propellant billets that require less
machining to meet size requirements with less
propellant scrap at the press operation.
HAZMIN Working Group
Reduced Diameter Extrusion Dies
Background
Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC) Division Keyport instituted a HAZMIN working group to
provide facility-wide coordination of environmental programs. Past management and coordination
of hazardous waste minimization efforts were numerous, simultaneous, and autonomous prior to
1993. Although successful in many project areas,
this approach lacked the infrastructure necessary
to reach the program goals and objectives from a
facility management perspective.
39
Problems identified with the previous approach
demonstrated the loss of shared information on
individual project efforts, including the identification of solutions and opportunities applicable to
other areas of the facility, as well as the potential
for redundant project efforts to occur simultaneously
at different areas of the base. During the critical
period of downsizing, Keyport recognized this area
of weakness within the program and formed a
facility-wide coordinated HAZMIN Working Group,
led by a full-time program manager.
Description
An initial task included developing a consolidated strategic plan to outline the charter, short
term, and long term program objectives. A facilitywide listing of ongoing and planned project efforts
were consolidated into a facility plan. Waste stream
generator ownership was assigned for waste stream
life-cycle management. Environmental assessment
and analysis data presented to the working group
suggested 20% of the identified waste streams
constituted 80% of the generated waste. These
became the top priority and central focus of the
pollution prevention program.
Results
A system to monitor and control the effectiveness
of these changes was also necessary. Baseline data
on waste stream volumes was used to benchmark
the program's effectiveness, and a situational analysis was performed to determine the program's
success. This cross-functional team approach has
generated 700,000 pounds of waste reduction and
over $3M in savings.
Lessons learned throughout the process indicate
a vital need for top and mid-level management
support, a stable membership commitment to the
working group, and a technical support infrastructure such as chemists, metallurgists, and industrial hygienists, to call upon as needed to develop
problem solutions. When developing a baseline
assessment, a correlation should be maintained
between waste stream generation and workload to
assure data accuracy and project performance.
40
Norden Systems, Inc. (Northrop
Grumman Norden Systems) Norwalk, CT
Environmental Initiatives
Background
Achieving excellence in employee health and
safety protection as well as the surrounding community and the environment is considered a continuous improvement process at Norden Systems.
The company has implemented aggressive and
comprehensive measures to protect the environment, and these policies have received strong commitment and support from top management at Norden
and corporate management at United Technologies.
Description
Environmental efforts were initiated several years
ago with a comprehensive baseline study to identify existing and potential sources of hazardous
waste and emissions. A senior management steering committee and subordinate committees were
formed. These committees continue to meet regularly and report to Norden and United Technologies senior management.
In addition to developing procedures, assessing
compliance, and addressing environmental issues,
Norden places strong emphasis on education and
awareness training. Ongoing awareness training
is provided in-house and through a commercial training program presented by DuPont. Periodic measurements are made and internal and external audits are regularly conducted to assess improvement.
Results
Since 1987, the company has reduced hazardous
waste by nearly 50% and eliminated nearly 75% of
its air emissions. Recent accomplishments have
included reduction of DFX use, elimination of some
chemicals, 60% reduction in solvent usage, removal
of vapor degreaser exhaust systems, elimination of
Freon 12 for cold test analysis, and asbestos abatement of 148,000 square feet of ceiling and floor tile.
Norden and United Technologies have eliminated the use of chlorofluorocarbons at the Norwalk,
CT plant by implementing a No-Clean wave solder
system for thru-hole technology and a semi-aqueous system for Surface Mount Technology. Norden
is committed to going beyond basic compliance with
environmental regulations by achieving the lowest
levels of waste and emissions possible.
Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, TN
Numerical Modeling of Environmental
Problems
Background
Numerical modeling of environmental systems
provides project managers with unique information that is simply not available from other sources.
With its ability to quantify all aspects of problem
physics, modeling allows one to rapidly accumulate the physical insight needed to solve a problem
in a systematic and focused manner. This increased
understanding acquired early in the planning stages
of a project permits managers to make decisions that
are typically more thorough, cost effective, and defensible to regulatory agencies and the public.
The Computational Physics and Engineering Division (CPED) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides numerical problem-solving
and consulting services to the Department of Energy (DOE) and approved organizations in support
of a broad range of scientific, technical and engineering problems. CPED staff have extensive experience applying their technical expertise to environmental problems. Their combined modeling experience includes: transport of contaminants in air,
water, and/or soil; plume and puff models; atmospheric radiation measurement data acquisition;
hydrologic transport; sediment transport in rivers
and estuaries; multimedia models; diffusion of contaminants through containment structures; groundwater flow through soils and fractured media;
design of pollution measuring instrumentation;
oceanic carbon cycle; indoor air circulation; evaluation of releases from nuclear, chemical, and biological facilities; thermal analysis of constructed
wetlands; nuclear criticality at low-level waste
sites; microflow in sapwood; and environmental
monitoring and assessment using geographic information systems (GIS) technology. The following
two examples briefly summarize the economic and
administrative benefits of environmental modeling
for site remediation and hazardous waste studies.
Example Application 1:
Site Remediation Studies at the
Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant
To support the Correctives-Measures and
Cleanup-Alternatives Studies (CMS/CAS) at the
Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), a
general-purpose soil-leaching computer model was
developed to provide guidance in establishing
cleanup goals for deep-soil contamination. PGDP,
like many other industrial sites, has high soil
concentrations of several different pollutants and
over time these compounds leach from the soil and
contaminate the groundwater. This studyfirst developed the analysis capability needed to estimate
soil pollutant concentrations which would not cause
groundwater contamination in excess of EPA guidelines, and then executed the code for several different compounds known to be in the PGDP soil.
Three aspects of soil-leaching physics were considered in the design of the model: the large number of soil, chemical, and weather variables that
can affect groundwater pollution; the inherent
uncertainty in these data; and the actuality that
not all variables are significant for all pollutants at
all geographic locations. To meet these criteria it
was necessary to develop a probabilistic model and
multi-step execution sequence. Two existing computer programs were merged to construct the model:
SESOIL and PRISM. SESOIL is a one-dimensional chemical fate and transport code originally
developed by Arthur D. Little, Inc. but significantly
enhanced by CPED staff. For a given pollutant and
set of input data, it will calculate a resulting groundwater concentration. The operation of the SESOIL
code is shown schematically in Figure 3-3. PRISM
Figure 3-3. Schematic Illustration of SESOIL
Structure and Operation
41
is a Monte Carlo-based probabilistic driver which
utilizes a Latin hypercube sampling technique.
The SESOIL/PRISM code was constructed to
perform two separate calculations: a sensitivity
study to identify those variables which have a
significant effect on calculated groundwater pollutant concentrations, and an uncertainty analysis to
calculate a pollutant groundwater concentration
probability distribution. An analysis begins by defining normal distributions for all soil, chemical,
and weather variables. PRISM then randomly
defines 200 equal-probability input data sets and
passes each set to SESOIL. PRISM then statistically evaluates all 200 results to identify variables
which have a significant effect on calculated groundwater concentration. In the second phase of an
analysis, actual site-specific probability distributions are defined for the significant variables along
with a deterministic value for the soil initial pollutant concentration. SESOIL/PRISM uses this information to calculate a probability distribution of
the resulting groundwater pollutant concentration. Multiple SESOIL/PRISM runs are conducted for a range of initial soil concentrations to
find that value which will not cause groundwater to
be contaminated in excess of EPA guidelines. That
value then becomes the preliminary cleanup goal for
site remediation activities.
Once constructed and validated, the SESOIL/
PRISM code was executed for 60 pollutants known
to be in the PGDP soil. These contaminants consisted of 40 organic and 20 inorganic compounds.
Typical results of the study are shown in Figure 34 for trichloroethene (TCE). Figure 3-4a shows a
typical TCE mass-flux distribution generated by
SESOIL/PRISM. Figure 3-4b shows results from
the successive submissions of SESOIL/PRISM.
Each data point in Figure 3-4b represents the
final result of a single SESOIL/PRISM submission. Specifically it shows the 95th percentile value;
that is, the groundwater concentration of TCE that
will only be exceeded 5% of the time. Since the 50th
percentile (50% probability) is generally considered
the most likely value, using the 95th percentile
insures a conservative answer. As Figure 3-4b
shows, progressively lower initial soil concentrations were evaluated until the 95th percentile value
equaled the EPA upper limit.
Numerical modeling benefitted PGDP managers
by permitting them to define cleanup goals as a
function of site-specific soil-leaching physics rather
than generic EPA guidelines. Using a probabilistic
execution sequence, where a range of model inputs
42
(3-4a)
(3-4b)
Figure 3-4. Typical Results from SESOIL/
PRISM Showing (3-4a) TCE
Mass-flux Probability Distributions and (3-4b) Calculated TCE
Concentration (95th percentile)
in Groundwater as a Function
of Soil Initial TCE Concentration
were defined from sampling data and consensus
opinion rather than from an analyst’s single-best
guess, allowed program managers to better defend
the cleanup goals. The conservative nature of the
goals was firmly established by using only 95th
percentile results. Again, the use of mathematical
justifications rather than verbal arguments reinforced the managers ability to defend the cleanup
goals.
Example Application 2: Integrated
Hazardous Waste Studies Using Geographic Information Systems Technology
To clean up the legacy of environmental contamination and to comply with environmental regulations, U.S. government facilities must locate, characterize, remove or treat, and properly dispose of
hazardous waste. The integration of geographic
information systems (GIS) with other technologies
provides an important resource to support hazard-
ous-waste assessment and management,
remediation, and policy formulation for environmental cleanup of these facilities.
GIS technology can assist with both cleanup and
regulatory-compliance tasks. This includes investigation of the types and characteristics of contaminants; the location of possible pollutant sources;
previous waste disposal techniques; the spatial
extent of contamination; relationships among
nearby waste sites; current and past environmental conditions including surface, subsurface, and
groundwater characteristics; possible pollutant
transport mechanisms; efficient methods for analyzing and managing the information; effective
cleanup strategies; and mechanisms for long-term
monitoring to verify compliance.
Three programs that involve significant GIS
activities in support of Environmental Restoration
(ER) in the Oak Ridge area include the Oak Ridge
Environmental Information System (OREIS), the
Remote Sensing and Special Surveys (RSSS) Program, and the GeoSpatial Support (GSS) Program.
• OREIS is designed to meet environmental data
management, analysis, storage, and
dissemination needs in compliance with federal
and state regulatory agreements for all five
DOE facilities operated by Lockheed Martin.
The primary focus of this effort has been to
develop a consolidated data base, an
environmental information system, and data
management procedures that will ensure the
integrity and legal defensibility of
environmental and geographic data throughout
the facilities.
• RSSS supports ER site characterization,
problem identification, and remediation efforts
through the collection and analysis of data from
aircraft and other remote sensors. One example
has been helicopter radiometric surveys to
determine gamma radiation levels across
mapped areas of DOE facilities.
• GSS promotes the development, maintenance,
and application of GIS technology, data bases,
and standards throughout the ER Program.
The largest current activity is the development
of base map data, digital orthophotos, and
elevation models for all Energy Systems facilities
using advanced stereo photogrammetric
techniques based on real-time airborne GPS.
When completed, these terrain data will be the
most comprehensive GIS and orthoimage
coverages of any DOE reservation.
One project that demonstrates the potential cost
savings and/or cost avoidances possible by the use
of remote-sensing capabilities is the Waste Area
Grouping 4 (WAG4) Study. Within WAG4, the
Solid Waste Storage Area 4 (SWSA4) covers approximately 23 acres. From 1951 until 1959, SWSA4
received a variety of low- and higher-activity-level
radioactive materials, including transuranic wastes,
all buried in trenches or auger holes. Surface-water
sampling indicated that a substantial quantity of
90
Sr contamination was being released from the
SWSA4. burial trenches. It was estimated that
these trenches contributed 25% of the 90Sr release
observed at White Oak Dam during the period of
1987 – 1994 and about 14% of the total ORNL offsite risk via the drinking-water pathway. Because
of these releases, WAG4 was on the fast track for an
interim remedial-action decision. However, because
a fire had destroyed most of the WAG4 burialactivity records, an exact inventory of trench location and contents could not be defined.
To begin the process of developing a site-restoration plan and to determine the benefits of national
remote-sensing technologies for environmental-restoration applications, remote-sensing imagery was
used to produce a trench map of the WAG4 site. The
map was based on historical and current remotesensing as well as aerial-survey information. The
trench map was then used by the WAG4 technical
manager to define ground-based characterizations
to further delineate the trenches. These subsequent investigations identified six individual seep
areas, and suggested that two of them contributed
over 90% of the 90Sr being released from the SWSA4
area. Using this insight, a focused restoration plan
was developed to deal with these individual sources
rather than the entire WAG4 area.
The trench map was the key factor in defining a
precise sampling study to pinpoint the localized
sources feeding the major seeps. Without this map, it
would have been necessary to collect and treat surface water from the entire site. It was estimated that
this indiscriminate alternative would have cost approximately $5 million more than the focused plan.
Remote-sensing technology was directly responsible
for a significant cost avoidance at the WAG4 site.
43
OxyChem - Ashtabula, OH
Pollution Reduction Project - OxyChem’s
Ashtabula, Ohio Plant - Toluene
Emissions and Releases Reduction
Background
Occidental Chemical (OxyChem) manufactures
a paint additive at its plant in Ashtabula, Ohio.
Toluene is used as a reaction solvent during the
manufacturing cycle. The toluene is later separated from the additive and eventually disposed as
a hazardous waste.
Production personnel identified the toluene byproduct as a potential opportunity for waste reduction in 1991. In order to ensure end-product quality, OxyChem partnered with its customer to reduce waste generation, toluene emissions, and raw
material usage, and to share in the economic benefits to be gained from the waste reduction effort.
An implementation team was formed consisting
of the plant manager, production manager, process
engineer, a chemist, lab manager, and the production foreman. The team wanted to recycle the
toluene but found one major obstacle. Prior recycling attempts in 1988 recovered toluene that was
not pure enough to be reused in manufacturing.
The real challenge focused on recovering high-quality toluene that was within a specification that would
be of value to future production of the additive.
Description
In laying out their new plan of attack, the implementation team identified key barriers to this project
listing the customer concerns about the integrity of
any new process, market risk, raw material/processing problems, and general resistance to change
as major roadblocks to a successful result. By
sharing information on the positive environmental
44
impact and sharing any cost savings with its customer, the customer became a true stakeholder in
the process. Adequate testing and certifications
assured that the marketing and processing problems were not a factor in the change.
Through brain storming and suggestions from
plant personnel, the implementation team hit on a
different approach. Instead of stripping the toluene, as was done in the past, plant personnel
suggested the use of existing idle equipment to
distill the toluene from the additive. The distillation process effectively removed impurities from
the toluene so that it could be recycled back to the
manufacturing process. After the new process provided high quality toluene, and a favorable economic analysis was assured, the customer tested
the paint additive.
Results
Successful lab tests and subsequent production
trials finalized the approval process and resulted in
a drop from 478,100 pounds off-site disposal waste
toluene in 1992 (includes energy recovery) to 2,260
pounds in 1994. The project cost is less than $50,000
to implement and saves the company about $80,000
per year in disposal costs, a savings which OxyChem
shares with its customer. In addition, the success of
the project assured that the Ashtabula plant would
maintain its status as a minor source under the
Clean Air Act.
Overall, the implementation team felt that management commitment, plant personnel involvement, a commitment to pollution prevention by
OxyChem and its customer, and the assured technical feasibility of the project were keys to the
success of this pollution reduction effort.
OxyChem’s Niagara, New York Plant
Background
OxyChem formally established Environmental
Principles to guide management decision making
and was among the first to embrace and implement
the chemical industry’s Responsible Care Codes®
of Management Practice. OxyChem’s chlor-alkali
plant in Niagara Falls, New York was among
company leaders in implementing a corporate wide
pollution prevention program called OxyMin. All of
OxyChem’s domestic facilities committed to
OxyMin’s corporate goals of achieving a 10% annual reduction in air emissions, reducing water
discharges by 20% from 1987 to 1993, and reducing
hazardous and non-hazardous waste generation by
5% per year.
In addition to OxyMin, OxyChem and its employees recommitted to the Pollution Prevention Code®
of Responsible Care, a voluntary industry-wide
effort designed to improve the performance of participating companies in the areas of health, safety
and environmental quality.
This commitment to environmental quality and
efficient operation is exemplified by pollution prevention and emission reduction projects completed
at the Niagara Falls, New York plant.
Located on a 100+ acre tract bordering the Niagara
River about two miles upriver from Niagara Falls,
the OxyChem plant employs 700 workers in the
production of some two dozen products. The two
largest volume materials, chlorine and caustic soda,
find a wide range of uses such as water purification,
plastics, detergents, and pharmaceuticals. The facility also produces hydrogen for the electronics
industry, chlorinated toluene for computers, agricultural products, potassium sulfite for photographic
chemicals, sodium hypophosphite for metal plating
applications, and Dechlorane Plus®, a flame retardant used in computers and TV components. A
promising new addition to this product mix is
OXSOL®, a non-ozone depleting solvent.
Just about everything OxyChem does or makes
at its Niagara facility is on a massive scale. In just
one day 900 tons of chlorine are produced. The
challenge that OxyChem and its workers face every
working day is to operate a facility with operational
and production capabilities of such large scale in an
environmentally acceptable and safe manner.
One significant product, parachlorobenzotrifluorice (PCBTF), is used in the manufacture of
herbicides for soybean and cotton farming, pharmaceuticals, and as a major component of OXSOL®.
Residual untreated raw materials from the manufacture of PCBTF resulted in the following:
• A wastewater discharge to the Niagara;
• River containing significant suspended solids;
• 1,000 tons per year of solid waste sent to landfill;
• Neutralization and disposal of 9,200 tons per
year of contaminated by-product muriatic acid.
Description
After review of various options, OxyChem decided to modify the PCBTF process to improve
efficiency and product yield, such that unreacted
raw materials were virtually eliminated. An additional reactor and facilities to recover and store the
by-product muriatic acid were constructed.
Results
This project resulted in the following:
• Elimination of the 1,000 tons per year of solid
waste previously sent to landfill;
• a 90% reduction in process wastewater
generation;
• recovery and sale of 9,200 tons per year of byproduct muriatic acid;
• elimination of the consumption of neutralizing
agents for the muriatic acid.
The PCBTF process improvement project is but
one example of the actions taken at the Niagara
plant to reduce impact on the environment and
improve manufacturing efficiency. Overall emissions have been cut by more than 80% since 1987.
In 1993 alone, the Niagara plant achieved a 24%
reduction in total emissions to air, land, and water
over the previous year.
The role that incineration plays in how the plant
safely handles large volumes of liquid waste material also is a continuing key in the sites’s overall
waste management/reduction story. OxyChem has
operated a liquid waste incinerator at Niagara
Falls since 1961. The incinerator has successfully
incinerated more than 3,000,000 drums of liquid
chemical wastes in a safe and environmentally
sound manner.
Last year, OxyChem invested an additional $10
million in improvements, including a “state-of-theart” scrubber system designed to meet and exceed
contemplated new regulatory limits.
Continuous improvement of incineration technology, coupled with the continuing success of the
OxyMin pollution prevention program, are tangible evidence that Responsible Care® is not only a
goal, but a way of everyday life at OxyChem’s
Niagara plant.
OxyChem’s Durez Ft. Erie, Canada
Receives Environmental Awards for
Environmental Efforts
Background
On December 8, 1995, OxyChem’s Durez Canada
was awarded the Certificate of Pollution Prevention Achievement by the Honorable Brenda Elliot,
Minister of Environmental and Energy. The award
was presented in recognition of efforts to reduce
emissions and discharges to the environment. Now
that the facility has achieved this level in the
45
Pollution Prevention Program, the Ministry has
granted the use of special Ministry sticker and
logos to advertise the facility’s achievement.
Description
OxyChem Durez Canada produces resins and
moulding compounds for various automotive, electrical and appliance markets. One of the main raw
materials required in the manufacturing process is
phenol. For years phenol presence in the sewer
discharges was problematic, resulting in extensive
testing and permitting requirements.
Results
This changed in 1992 when the facility closed
looped the once through cooling system. The total
cost for the installation was approximately $71,000
(US), with cost recovery within the first year.
Consider the following benefits and associated cost
savings from the project:
• Decreased Water Consumption
Water consumption for the once-through cooling
system was 80-90,000 gallons per day. The
recirculating system reduced this demand to
10,000 gallons per day. This preserved a valuable
resource and provided a cost savings in water
and sewer charges of $60,000 (US) per year.
Further decreases in city water usage are
achieved by redirecting story run-off into the
cooling system (this also diverts loadings from
storm run-off).
• Decreased Phenol Loadings
The recirculating system eliminated the direct
discharge of phenol contaminated process cooling
waters to the story system. This reduced phenol
loadings to the Niagara River. This also removed
the facility from the list of Direct Discharges To
Storm Sewers, decreasing the amount of
mandatory testing and reporting, a cost savings
of approximately $35,000 (US) per year.
• Improved Production
The system improved production during flaking.
The new system utilized tempered recirculated
water which eliminated the sticking and
lumping of product on the flaker belt. This
decreased the number of man hours and downtime involved in chiseling product from the
belt, and concomitantly extended belt life.
Savings are estimated at $15,000 (US) per year.
46
Pacific Northwest National
Laboratory - Richland, WA
Electronic Signatures and Newsletters
Background
In 1995 the need to reduce operating costs and
the desire to conserve resources caused Pacific
Northwest to develop and implement an electronic
signatures process and a policy regarding electronic publications. The electronic signatures process has been implemented for time cards and
purchase requisitions, and eventually will be applied to travel requests, expense reports, and other
forms requiring signature approval.
Description
An electronic communications team was established to publish newsletters and documents on the
Internet, accessible to Pacific Northwest staff. In
addition to publishing electronically, the existing
newsletters were reviewed for content and several
were eliminated, consolidated, and/or distribution
times were lengthened. Almost all of Pacific
Northwest’s newsletters, guidance documents, user
manuals, and many other documents are now published electronically, significantly reducing paper
and printing costs, as well as future updating and
distribution costs.
Results
These waste-minimization activities save money
through decreased data-entry and printing costs,
decreased paper purchases, and reduced disposal
costs. The estimated paper-waste reduction is 5,000
kg per year. The initial implementation cost for
these activities was $590,000 in 1995; no additional
implementation costs have been incurred. The estimated cost savings for these waste-minimization
activities was $440,000 in 1995, and is estimated at
$730,000 per year for 1996 and beyond.
Quantitative Extraction of Organic
Chemicals
Background
A Microscale Chemistry Pilot Implementation
Project was initiated in fiscal year 1995. Through
that pilot program, ten research projects received
microscale chemistry equipment to reduce the quantity of waste their laboratories generated. The
return on investment for these projects ranged
from 62 to 200 percent. Nondestructive testing
methods and other instrumentation/automation
technologies that are being developed can replace
traditional wet chemistry and so eliminate wastes.
These technologies are being pursued for implementation in many Pacific Northwest laboratories.
Description
Currently, Quantitative Extraction of Organic
Chemicals is being used to replace the Soxhlet
Extraction process for the characterization of organic chemicals in solid matrices. The Soxhlet
process for extraction generated large volumes of
hazardous waste in the form of used solvents by
using 200-500 milliliters of solvent per sample and
requiring extraction thimbles. The Quantitative
Extraction process uses 10 milliliters per sample
and does not require the use of extraction thimbles.
Results
The estimated waste reduction is 145 kg of hazardous waste per year. The initial implementation
cost for these activities was $22,500; no additional
implementation costs have been incurred. The estimated cost savings for these waste-minimization
activities is $290,000 per year.
Polaroid Corporation -Waltham, MA
Chemical Labeling
Background
Polaroid makes chemical reagents for various
coatings and developers. In the past, operators
would weigh out the chemicals, place the amount
into a plastic bag, and record the chemical name
and weight on the plastic bag’s label. This process
depended solely on the operator to ensure that each
chemical was correctly labeled and weighed for
each batch. Implemented in 1992 and improved in
1996, Polaroid established a new labeling system
which makes the process almost foolproof by bar
coding the information required for each chemical.
The operator scans the bar code into the computer
that displays the weight amount needed and then
produces a bar code containing information for the
next stage in the process.
Description
Polaroid’s chemical labeling process runs on a
customized computer software package. Personnel
connected with the process worked with a programmer to design each specific module for the process.
The computer system can track a chemical from the
time it enters the building as raw material until it
leaves the building as a final product. In addition, the
system includes all hazard communication
(HAZCOM) information as part of the bar code label.
Upon receiving a product from the chemical manufacturing division, the operator scans the bar code.
The computer system creates a new bar code, with
all the HAZCOM information and directions for
using the product, and places it over the original
bar code. The new bar code remains on the chemical’s
package until the raw product is completely used.
In cases where the package is large enough (e.g.,
drum), a safety HAZCOM sticker will also be produced and placed on the container next to the new
bar code.
Once the new bar code is placed on its package,
the chemical goes to the next operator who scans
the bar code and receives information on the amount
needed for a batch. If the bar code displays an
incorrect lot number or chemical, the computer will
alert the operator not to use this product. After
weighing out the proper amount, the operator
places the measured chemical into a plastic bag and
attaches a bar code which describes the contents.
Measured ingredients for a designated batch are
placed on a cart and sent to the mixing vats. The
operator then scans each measured ingredient’s
bar code before placing it into the vat. Upon completion of the final product, the operator places a new
bar code on the vessel that holds the product. This
bar code contains encoded lot numbers which identify the source and batch of each chemical used.
After a final product is used up, its bar code is
removed and its vessel is cleaned for reuse.
Results
By using bar codes, Polaroid’s chemical labeling
process improves the tracking of chemicals at each
stage of its use and reduces operator error on
weighing amounts. The computer system stores all
pertinent information which can be accessed by
authorized personnel (e.g., process engineers, operators, safety personnel), allowing for a more
accurate chemical inventory. Major cost savings
have resulted by virtually eliminating substandard
batches, which in turn reduced scrap rates.
Drum Handling
Background
In 1994, the Chemical Operations Division began
focusing on improvements that minimized or
avoided injuries and hazards during material handling. Employee options for reducing drum handling risks included wearing back supports, using
47
mechanical aids such as forklifts, and increasing
the number of personnel needed to move drums. In
addition, the Division initiated the use of totes;
pressure nutsches; eduction wands; and air-operated drum lifters/movers to further minimize or
avoid injuries and hazards.
Description
Totes reduce the number of containers needed,
eliminate manual labor as an option, and provide a
safer mode of transportation for chemical substances. Typically, drums have a 55-gallon capacity
while totes can hold between 300 and 400 gallons.
The heavier totes reduce the risk of back injuries
because they must be moved by a forklift. Discharging chemicals into totes for shipping helps reduce
the hazard risks for shipping and receiving facilities. In one case, 48 batches of cyan dye required
240 drums per year. Polaroid replaced these drums
with 48 totes. In a case involving sheet fluid,
Polaroid replaced 280 drums per year with 40 totes.
Pressure nutsches reduce the number of drums
needed for processing chemicals by filtering, washing, and drying chemicals in a single piece of
equipment. Nutsches also minimize the risk of
employee injury by using an internally-mounted
blade to mix the chemicals and scrape material off
the sides of the drum. For its opacification dye
intermediate process, Polaroid reduced 192 drums
to 40 which resulted in a 79% reduction in drum
handling and provided operational/cycle-time, environmental, and safety benefits. Not all chemical
processing can use the pressure nutsches because
some chemicals may not filter well. In addition,
these expensive machines cost $2.3 million apiece
because special construction materials are needed
to avoid reactions with certain chemicals.
Results
An eduction wand eliminates the need to lift or
move a drum by vacuuming the solids out of the
drum. By using eduction wands, Polaroid achieved
an avoidance benefit of 1,200 drums per year. Airoperated lifters/movers allow an operator to remotely control the dumping of drums by mechanical means. Polaroid has installed two air-operated
drum lifters/movers next to fixed mixing vessels
which have the greatest drum use. The apparatus
was originally designed by engineers and modified
by operators to meet their requirements; thus, the
handling risk for these operators has been lessened
by 744 drums per year.
Through these various material handling options, the Chemical Operations Division has suc-
48
cessfully minimized or avoided employee injuries
and hazards. In addition, these improvements have
produced operational/cycle-time, environmental,
and safety benefits.
Early Suppression Fast
Response Fire Protection
Background
Fire suppression is a critical need in warehouse
settings. Traditional water sprinkler systems use
small-size orifices to create a mist for controlling a
fire but lack strong suppression capabilities. Three
years ago, Polaroid began retrofitting its facilities
with Early Suppression Fast Response (ESFR) fire
protection sprinkler systems.
The ESFR system possesses several characteristics which distinguish it from a traditional water
sprinkler system. The major difference is that
ESFR systems rely on fire suppression rather than
fire control. By using larger-sized orifices, the system creates bigger droplets of water which penetrate and extinguish the fire before a severe fire
plume develops. In addition, the system uses a thin
thermal link that generates an extremely quick
response time.
Description
Early suppression can be achieved with ESFR
systems if controlling factors such as actual delivered density (ADD) and required delivered density
(RDD) are properly addressed. ADD, the rate at
which sprinklers dispense water, will decrease
over time. RDD, the density required to achieve fire
suppression, will increase over time and is affected
by the fire’s size at the time of application. ESFR
systems work most effectively with an initiallyhigh ADD and a low RDD.
Results
Polaroid’s implementation of ESFR fire protection sprinkler systems is one of the company’s
primary defenses against the threat of fire. By
using a phased retrofitting process for installing
the ESFR systems, Polaroid alleviated its insurance company’s concern that high risk materials
needed to be more effectively protected. Areas are
being retrofitted as problems arise, and all traditional water sprinkler systems will eventually be
replaced. All new buildings will be equipped with
ESFR systems, where appropriate. ESFR systems
cost approximately $1.50 per square foot.
Environmental Scorecard
Ergonomic Program
Background
In the early 1990s, Polaroid recognized that its
proactive approach to environmental regulatory
requirements was very successful but lacked comprehensive metrics for tracking corporate environmental compliance performance. As a result,
Polaroid developed the Environmental Scorecard
in 1993, for use by top level managers, to measure
and report emission excursions and official notifications of non-compliance.
Designed as a spreadsheet, the Environmental
Scorecard tracks written violation documents; specific violations within the document; and excursions that extend beyond the allowed regulatory
limits (currently not cited in documents). In addition, Polaroid established a three-level reporting
and tracking system to provide insight into those
areas which may become problematic but are not
official violations. The three summary levels provide specific details on the Massachusetts Contingency Plan (sewer, air, and hazardous waste) and
the Toxic Substances Control Act items for either the
overall corporation or an individual facility. Accompanying data sheets to each scorecard detail the
number of inspections and violations at a site, and
also the specifics and penalties for each violation.
Description
Using the summarized data from the scorecards,
Polaroid prepares monthly reports for the Vice
President of the Global Supply Chain which document new items (e.g., excursions, notifications) and
year-to-year comparisons of corporate environmental performance. The scorecard data also provides
information for Polaroid’s annual environmental
report and identifies the operating results of plant
managers and Environmental Operating Committee members.
Results
Polaroid’s Environmental Scorecard provides a
quick and efficient way for high-level managers to
familiarize themselves with environmental compliance issues. In addition, the scorecard has been
instrumental in allowing upper management to develop and discuss detailed corporate goals for achieving zero environmental regulatory excursions.
Background
In 1992, Polaroid Corporation developed an ergonomic program and supporting guidelines to promote continuous health and safety performance
improvements while maintaining product quality
and sustaining profitability. Polaroid tests the effectiveness of its ergonomic improvements by incorporating a mission; policies; guidelines; job analysis evaluations; redesign methodology; in-house
expertise training; and pilot programs.
To gain employee confidence in the ergonomic
concept, Polaroid began its program on a volunteer
basis. In addition, Polaroid built management commitment by establishing a clear set of expectations,
potential results, and benefits. However, acceptance of the program did not go unchallenged for
various reasons: expected increases in injury and
illness statistics due to increased reporting; costs
versus benefits concerns; and ergonomics being
portrayed as more than mere common sense. Eventually, the program evolved from a volunteer concept through six phases into an auditable requirement in 1997. The program’s next challenge involved educating the employees about their risks
for work-related cumulative trauma disorders, encouraging them to report these illnesses, and identifying ways to reduce or prevent risk factors in the
workplace. To successfully implement its program,
guidelines, and methods, Polaroid relied on total
quality ownership as a key tool to modify its employees’ attitude and thinking toward ergonomics.
Description
Training, such as task analysis and evaluation,
was a significant factor in the success of Polaroid’s
ergonomic program and allowed the program to be
applicable at the corporate level. To date, employee-owners from several professional disciplines
have been trained and are conducting analysis and
evaluation training themselves, as well as training
additional instructors. This approach enables a
wider dissemination of required skills for conducting task evaluation and redesign, thereby improving the health, safety, and quality of the workplace.
Another important feature of the ergonomic program has been Polaroid’s method of investigating
and categorizing occupational injuries and illnesses
by type and cause. These categories serve as a
framework which are applied to all accidents. The
reframing of the Occupational Safety and Health
Administration (OSHA) statistics helps Polaroid
49
understand and address the underlying causes and
consequences of workplace accidents. In addition,
management receives the information needed to
take preventive measures in the areas of greatest
or immediate need.
Results
Polaroid’s study, “Ergonomic Evaluation and
Analysis of a Film Processing Task,” demonstrated
the task evaluation analysis and redesign methodology aspect of the ergonomic program. This study
employed quantitative analyses on the film processing task by using frame-by-frame, detailed
analysis of the task’s steps, and then evaluated the
results against established criteria to design, implement, and validate cost-effective solutions. Through
this study, Polaroid demonstrated how its ergonomic analysis would significantly reduce or eliminate almost all of the extreme body positions and
potentially-damaging wrist motions associated with
the film processing task. These improvements were,
in fact, confirmed by film processing operators.
Table 3-2 identifies the risk factors, associated
causes, and actual solutions which resulted from
this study.
Another successful implementation of ergonomics occurred at Polaroid’s Vale Camera Division in
Scotland. A team of employees in the Medical
Management program worked together to develop
a procedure for identifying and reporting cumulative trauma disorder (CTD)/repetitive strain injury
(RSI) at work. After pilot-testing and adjusting the
process, Polaroid implemented the procedure. Although Polaroid does not claim to have solved all of
the problems associated with CTD/RSI, the procedure did demonstrate how to understand, address,
and identify solutions for avoiding or mitigating
CTD/RSI disorders.
Polaroid uses its ergonomic program to improve
the way employees relate physically and mentally to
the workplace. By describing processes, implementing procedures, and examining statistics, Polaroid
has achieved positive results from its program.
Local Emergency Planning
Committee Membership
Background
Polaroid works closely with local community officials to keep them informed on the risk factors,
hazardous materials used at manufacturing sites,
and precautions taken to ensure the safety of
employees and the public. Polaroid employees serve
50
as members on community-based Local Emergency
Planning Committees (LEPCs) to ensure an effective, ready response in the event of a hazardous
material accident from any source in the community. LEPC participation also includes representatives from other manufacturing companies who
work in partnership with the communities to ensure public safety. Polaroid contributes funding,
equipment, and its expertise on environmental and
safety issues.
Description
In 1995, Polaroid purchased computer hardware
and modeling software (CAMEO) for the Waltham,
Massachusetts LEPC. Local safety officials use the
computer system to model and simulate various
scenarios depicting the release of air emissions,
maintain information on the chemicals used at
local industrial sites, and store detailed maps of the
area which pinpoint the locations of sensitive facilities such as schools and hospitals. The user can
generate templates and map overlays that show
the predicted spill footprints and air dispersion
patterns under various conditions. The system can
create detailed information on the effects of the
material and appropriate responses for each environmental emergency scenario. Polaroid also provides computer training on this system for local
officials and LEPC members.
Results
The success of LEPCs is largely a result of
Polaroid’s commitment to the community and strong
emphasis on openness. The company provides regular reports, an environmental newsletter, plant
tours for interested community members, and annual community meetings at its manufacturing
sites. In addition, local emergency responders have
access to the material safety data sheets for all
chemicals used at Polaroid.
Process Safety Management
Background
As a large-batch chemical manufacturer, Polaroid
produces various types of chemicals (e.g., flammables, carcinogens, mutants) at its film-producing facilities in Waltham and Freetown, Massachusetts. Operations typically run 24 hours a day,
seven days a week, and produce 500,000 to one
million kilograms of chemicals per year. Approximately 60 chemical processes which run at Polaroid
fall under the volume or flammability criteria of the
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Table 3-2.
The Workplace Risk Factors, Causes, and Actual Solutions
51
(OSHA) requirements. In May 1992, Polaroid began complying with OSHA’s Process Safety Draft
Document by establishing safety teams and committees at each chemical manufacturing site to
interpret OSHA requirements, write policy manuals, and implement the procedures.
Description
New processes must undergo a hazards and operability study. Process analyses follow a safety information checklist to ensure all process factors are
considered while process hazard analyses use a
what-if format. To improve the ease of using its
Process Safety Management procedures, Polaroid
computerized OSHA’s Process Hazard Analysis
(PHA). PHA requires the involvement of all process
personnel (e.g., operator, engineer, supervisor,
building engineer, process engineer, chemist, electrical engineer, environmental representative). The
procedures involve developing a process block diagram, analyzing the process’ chemistry, and reviewing all material safety data sheets related to
the process. Next, a draft report is generated and
reviewed by all process personnel. The process
engineer then prepares the final report on the
process. Polaroid uses an Action Tracking System to
sort and track action items by building or employee.
Results
Polaroid uses PHAs on all of its processes regardless of whether they fall under OSHA requirements. Any modifications to the process chemicals,
Figure 3-5. The Product Delivery Process Team
52
technology, equipment, or procedures must be identified and reviewed before implementing the change.
For personnel changes, Polaroid reviews the
employee’s training and skills to ensure an appropriate expertise level is maintained.
Polaroid’s Chemical Operations Division has
shared the procedures of its process safety management throughout the corporation. These procedures have improved the safety environment of
chemical processes by effectively reducing the severity and risk of potential accidents.
Product Delivery Process
Background
Polaroid typically develops dozens of new products each year. To guide the development of products, Polaroid formalized a structured process in
the late 1980s called the Product Delivery Process
(PDP). PDP’s purpose was to reduce the break-even
cost and time; determine a programmatic development approach; and more clearly identify the individual responsibilities for new products.
The process focuses on seven steps: idea exploration; concept; feasibility; product development; design pilot; manufacturing pilot; and commercialization. A PDP team (Figure 3-5), led by a program
manager, combines personnel from market research, product design, manufacturing, marketing, sales, customer service, and distribution. In
1992, Polaroid modified PDP by integrating the
process with Design for the Environment (DfE)
elements and manufacturability efforts. To ensure
a successful DfE integration, Polaroid secured support from senior management and held process
personnel responsible for their contribution. For
example, Polaroid allowed program managers to
control their own program budgets, but held them
accountable for the program’s performance.
Description
Specific DfE element changes to PDP were included in the concept and feasibility steps. Additions to the concept step included assessing environmental issues; examining environmental impact by the development program; identifying potential chemical, hardware, and packaging issues;
and assuring that the product and its production
comply with Polaroid’s environmental goals. For
example, Polaroid eliminated ozone depleting substances by removing the Teflon coatings on the
friction points in its Captiva™ camera.
Results
Through its efforts to reduce the amount of silver
needed for film processing, Polaroid developed a
medical imaging product which was completely
silver free. Additions to the feasibility step included
specifically looking for opportunities to eliminate
environmental problems; identifying substitutes
for targeted chemicals to be eliminated (e.g., polyvinyl chlorides, chlorofluorocarbons); and examining the product for maximum usage of post-consumer
waste (and reduction of the generation of consumer
waste). For example, Polaroid was able to use
approximately 63% of post-consumer waste content in its corrugated product packaging.
Polaroid continues to look for ways to improve its
PDP. Current modifications underway include addressing additional environmental issues in the
concept step and developing improved training
methods for personnel who regularly use PDP in
the workplace.
Reinforcing Safety Values at
Polaroid Program
Background
Prior to 1989, Polaroid had an OSHA recordable
incident rate of 2.4 while the average national
manufacturers’ incident rate was 8 to 9. In 1989,
Polaroid established the Reinforcing Safety Values
at Polaroid (RSVP) program. As a management
tool, the RSVP program was designed and devel-
oped to reduce Polaroid’s serious injury rate by 50%
and to reinforce safety values. Polaroid’s goal is to
minimize accidents and eliminate hazards in the
workplace and to enhance its leadership role in
safety issues.
Description
Initially used as a tool for safety audit team
members, the RSVP program has expanded
throughout Polaroid’s divisions. The RSVP program is also used as the basis for auditing six
important aspects of its management system, and
for performing in-depth root causal analysis of
accidents and illnesses. The program’s effectiveness relies on the following six critical factors for
safety performance:
• Knowledge, which identifies and communicates
safety responsibilities, workplace hazards, and
required precautions.
• Ability, which ensures employees have the
necessary capabilities and skills to do their jobs
and tasks safely.
• Motivation, which confronts deviations from
and generally reinforces safety values, rules,
and expectations.
• Design, which applies engineering design safety
standards and performs hazards analyses.
• Maintenance, which establishes and
implements equipment and facility safety
inspections and maintenance.
• Actions of Others, which instruct employees
who impact the workplace, inside or outside the
organization, and ensure their actions do not
create unsafe conditions.
Results
As the governing components and foundation of
the RSVP Accident Triangle, the six critical factors
illustrate the relationship between accidents, injuries, injury causation, and injury prevention. These
factors also show the underlying influences on
individual behaviors and workplace conditions of
safety performance. In addition, the six critical
factors are part of the Evaluator, a tool to investigate and analyze accidents, and of the Preventor, a
tool used for accident prevention. All these tools
comprise the RSVP Pocketguide which employees
receive as part of their safety training, along with
the pocket-sized RSVP Polaroid Safety Guidebook
and an in-house produced video. Risk Matrix is
another part of the RSVP Program. This tool assesses hazard levels, establishes safety criteria,
prioritizes opportunities for safety performance
53
improvement, determines acceptable and unacceptable risks, and justifies expenditures for corrective action.
Safety management programs are successful only
if a company establishes safety and employee wellbeing as one of its core operating values. Polaroid’s
safety and health policy is firmly committed to this
principle. Through its RSVP program, Polaroid has
established a proven track record for plant safety.
In 1996, Polaroid had an OSHA recordable incident
rate of 1.4.
Safety Ambassador
Background
In October 1985, Polaroid decided to enhance the
plant safety program at its Battery Division because of a rise in accident rates. As a result,
Polaroid established the Safety Ambassador program. The program enabled Polaroid to improve
the Division’s safety record by making each employee a contributing element of the process and
incorporating safety with other aspects of production. When implemented, the program provided
meaningful measure and safety performance display metrics.
Description
For the program to be successful, Polaroid’s first
step was to involve its employees. Initially, only
salaried employees became safety ambassadors;
however, the program eventually expanded to include all salaried and hourly employees within the
Battery Division. Employees were not trained as
law enforcers but rather as ambassadors for continual safety improvement. Ambassador routes were
developed to find known problem areas, potential
hazards, and possible risk areas. In addition, formal
check-off lists were maintained to record compliant
and problem areas. Those areas requiring attention
were noted and received corrective measures.
Results
Through its program, Polaroid reduced the Battery Division’s injury rates by 50% and increased
all employees’ awareness on recognizing risk and
problem areas (e.g., blocking exits, neglecting safety
guards on equipment) which can affect safety within
the plant. In addition, Polaroid operates the program as a recognition and reward system. Incentives for ambassadors include special designated
parking spaces and “safety nickels” which allow
employees to purchase film, cameras, and other
company products.
54
Polaroid’s Safety Ambassador program empowers employees to initiate improvement; recognize
risk areas; and create and manage safety measures
in their workplace. Polaroid’s goal for its program
is a zero-accident rate.
Safety Values Process
Background
Polaroid’s Safety Values process works as a behavioral intervention program which reinforces
the idea that health, safety, and well-being are
every employee’s personal responsibility. Begun in
the early 1990s, the Safety Values process offered
Polaroid a way to positively influence its employees’ behavior by focusing on the motivations of an
individual’s action. The process’ purpose was to
reduce quantity and severity of personal injuries,
as well as the associated pain and suffering.
Figure 3-6. The Total Quality of Life Model
Description
Using the Total Quality of Life Model (Figure 3-6)
as a starting point, the Safety Values process teaches
employees to recognize and comprehend their behavioral motivation, identify the consequences from
their actions, and take personal responsibility for
their behavior. In addition, Polaroid uses a fourhour Safety Values Process Workshop as a first step
to help its employees see their personal well being
as an interrelated set of beliefs and values; behaviors; and consequences which extend beyond the
workplace (Figure 3-7). The workshop seeks to
drive these beliefs and behaviors in the “safe”
direction, and focuses on situations that threaten
the quality of life and the ability to perform. As a
companion to the workshop, a course book furnishes specific, personalized, thought-provoking
facts, models, and exercises which encourage employees to modify their behavior through understanding, willingness, and commitment. In addition, the course book provides a straightforward,
logical progression through complicated concepts
that are expressed in simple, amusing, and userfriendly examples.
Figure 3-7. Our Personal Well Being
Results
After completing the workshop, groups of volunteers establish safety values teams to examine
those behaviors requiring change or improvement.
The group determines how the behaviors should be
altered, gets support from other team members,
and periodically measures and demonstrates the
success rate of the team’s new behavior. Safety
values team members receive specific, additional
training (e.g., conflict resolution, risk assessment,
incident investigative techniques) as issues arise.
Polaroid’s Safety Values process uses a forwardthinking approach which goes beyond the traditional guidelines, instructions, and handbooks. Instead, the process strives to understand and alter
the behavioral causes of accidents and injuries;
uses a continuous improvement technique; addresses each employee’s well being holistically; and
achieves significant practical safety improvements.
Currently, 900 employees have completed the Safety
Values training. As a result, Polaroid has reduced
its accident rate by 50%.
Toxicity Bulletin
Background
In 1965, Polaroid published its first Toxicity
Bulletin as part of its Consumer Product Safety
program. The bulletin provides general information on the toxicity of Polaroid products and answers potential health and toxicity questions raised
by customers.
Description
Polaroid’s Customer Care Center representatives
rely on the Toxicity Bulletin to answer customers’
questions. The bulletin describes each Polaroid
product, lists its hazardous ingredients, and specifies its toxicity. Recommendations are provided for
appropriate treatment depending on the type of
contact (e.g., eye, skin, oral) and for proper disposal. The bulletin also lists emergency contacts
with office and home telephone numbers for those
cases when more information is needed. These
contacts are available to answer questions on a 24hour basis. In addition, Polaroid distributes the
Toxicity Bulletin to its security guards, telephone
operators, and U.S. Poison Control Centers.
Results
Polaroid’s Toxicity Bulletin provides effective
and timely responses to customers’ concerns. In
addition, Polaroid identifies trends and recurring
problems by documenting and reviewing all customer inquiries.
Free Cooling with Evaporative
Fill Media Pads
Background
Approximately 15 years ago, Polaroid’s facilities
engineers began retrofitting and installing new
process, manufacturing, and office space heating,
ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems
using evaporative fill media pads. As a result,
Polaroid achieved virtually free humidification and
cooling year round while maintaining a 52°F dew
point discharge temperature. Concurrently, the air
handling units were redesigned and retrofitted to
incorporate the advantages of a positive pressure,
blow-through system. This modification reduced
the possibility of chilled water coils freezing in the
winter due to air stratification; eliminated the need
for a preheater coil; and extended the life expectancy of equipment by housing the fan, motor, and
drive in a dry, contaminant-free environment.
55
eliminated the original design problems and provided virtually free cooling to the conditioned space. In the
new blow-through design, the fan
was placed before a high-efficiency
filter, the chilled water coil, and the
evaporative fill media. This design
allows the stratified air to mix properly within the fan before reaching
the coils which eliminates preheat
coils and potential freezing hazards.
By using evaporative fill media pads,
the design allows the unit to be constantly saturated with recirculated
and filtered water and provides the
required cooling and humidity conditions to satisfy the controlling dew
point of 52°F.
Figure 3-8. Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning
Systems
Description
Results
Before the retrofit, Polaroid’s HVAC systems
Benefits of Polaroid’s new design are multiple
were installed with a draw-through design (Figure
and varied. Energy is saved through evaporative
3-8) in which the outside air and the return air were
cooling by using the evaporative fill and a two-stage
drawn into a plenum where the prefilter, preheat
filtration, and eliminating the preheat coil. Other
coil, chilled water coil, and steam humidifier were
benefits include eliminating cost humidification;
before the fan. This design allowed air to return
reducing the potential of the chilled water coil
from the conditioned space and mix with the minifreezing in winter by allowing the stratified air to
mum-required outside air make-up. As a result,
mix properly in the plenum housing; eliminating
portions of the chilled water coils became suscepcontamination into the unit via air leakage by
tible to freezing damage caused by the improper
placing the air under a positive pressure after the
mixing of the cold outside air, warm return air, and
final filters; and housing the fan, motor, and drive in
warm air from the preheat coils (installed primaa dry environment by eliminating the direct steam
rily to preheat the air and protect the chilled water
injection into the air stream for humidification.
coil). As the cold air and the warm air in the plenum
stratified, pockets of cold air would pass over the
Moving Crates
surface of the chilled water coil, freeze on contact,
and rupture the copper lines in the coil. This event
Background
not only shut down the air conditioning system for
To accommodate the dynamics of its business
comfort cooling, but in most cases, shut down the
structure, Polaroid has a constant movement of
process cooling and the production line in that area.
office employees. In the past, relocating employees
The design is also inherently inefficient. On cold
required 15 corrugated moving boxes per employee
days, the air in the plenum is often preheated, and
for packing their office contents at a cost of $11.75
then cooled to a temperature required to condition
per box. Employee relocation over a 12-month
the space, typically 55°F to 60°F. In addition, humidperiod typically averaged 4,600 boxes. Polaroid
ity requirements were satisfied by a steam humidirecognized that the practice of purchasing corrufier located before the fan, motor, and drive which
gated moving boxes, recollecting them after a move,
subjected internal parts to moisture and encouraged
and then recycling the used boxes was a waste of
rust, dirt, bacteria formation, and long-term destrucnatural resources and an unnecessary budget comtion of the fiberglass insulation in the plenum housmitment. To rectify the situation, Polaroid puring.
chased 100 plastic stackable moving totes with
By retrofitting the units and incorporating the
hinged lids at $20.00 each. These totes are loaned
use of a 16-inch evaporative fill media pad, Polaroid
to employees and returned after each move.
56
Description
Although it has been using the plastic totes for
only six months, Polaroid has already paid for its
original investment, and the concept has been well
received by the employees. In addition to the cost
savings, these commercial-off-the-shelf totes have
also created a labor savings. Previously, when an
employee finished unpacking, the empty corrugated
moving boxes were often tossed in piles for custodial
collection which created an unsightly nuisance.
Results
In addition, the recycling process of the corrugated boxes required an employee to collect, transport, and bale the boxes in another section of the
facility to prepare them for the recycler. With the
reusable plastic totes, employees can insert and
neatly stack the totes for custodial collection and
reuse. The savings from this environmentallyfriendly method continues to accumulate and will
fund the purchase of another 100 plastic totes to
support Polaroid for the future.
Power Factor Correction for
Energy Conservation
Background
In 1975, engineers at Polaroid’s Norwood Plant
initiated a project to add capacitance to its inductive electrical load to increase the total power factor
on its electrical grid. Typically, electric utility companies penalize commercial and industrial customers with a kilovolt ampere demand charge for poor
power factor performance. Although the defining
point of poor performance varies depending on the
utility, poor power factor performance generally is
defined within a range of less than 80% to 95%
efficiency. The local electric utility company charges
a demand penalty for power factor readings of less
than 80% efficiency. Additional negative impacts of
a continued poor power factor might include panel
and circuit overloading or reaching practical kilovolt ampere limits of a substation.
Description
The easiest way to correct power factors usually
involves installing some type of capacitor bank at
the main substation used by the electric utility
company to determine the kilowatt hour usage and
demand charges. Effectively, poor power factor
performance within the plant is then transparent
to the electric utility company for billing purposes.
However, this is not the best method.
On its own initiative, Polaroid’s Norwood Plant
raised its power factor and corrected any inefficiencies by installing capacitors on all motors greater
than 25 hp at the motor, and capacitor banks in the
motor control centers for all motors less than 25 hp.
Capacitors were also added on all 15 kilovolt feeders within the plant.
Results
Polaroid increased its power factor to more than
95% by installing capacitors on its inductive loads.
In addition, this method efficiently uses Polaroid’s
purchased electrical energy, directly conserves electrical energy, and reduces reactive power problems
for the surrounding electrical grid.
Preheated Boiler Make-up
Water
Background
Approximately five years ago, Polaroid purchased
two new air compressors for its production operations at the Integral Coatings Division and integrated the water lines for the aftercoolers on these
compressors with the make-up water lines for the
high-pressure steam boilers. Typically, industrialapplication air compressors are installed with chilled
water lines or once-through municipal water lines
attached to the aftercoolers. This setup keeps the
compressor, oil, and bearings at a safe operating
temperature by dissipating the resulting heat that
was generated through friction and motor energy
in the compressing process. The result creates the
situation that one source of energy is consumed to
generate another source of energy. For example, if
chilled water is used in the aftercoolers, then the
discharged water would eventually be returned to
the chiller where mechanical and electrical energy
would be consumed to re-chill the water and begin
the cycle again. For once-through municipal water,
the discharged water would be directed to the
sanitary sewer (and probably not reused) as the
heat from the compressor is removed by the water
in the aftercooler.
Description
In Polaroid’s situation, the proximity of the air
compressors to the high-pressure steam boilers
allowed the discharge water to be directed to the
boiler as boiler make-up water to generate steam.
Typically, boiler make-up water from a municipal
source is approximately 50°F to 60°F. However, the
boiler must consume more fuel than normal to
57
counter the effects of the cooler water re-entering
the system. To solve this problem, Polaroid preheated the make-up water entering the boiler to 95
F by consuming the heat energy dissipated via the
air compressors.
Results
Polaroid gained many benefits from its energy
conservation technique: destructive heat is removed from the air compressor which allows the
compressor to operate efficiently and reliably; additional mechanical and electrical energies are not
sacrificed by using a chiller to generate another
source of energy; preheated water from the compressor aftercoolers provides an excellent source of
make-up water which does not compromise the
efficiency of the high-pressure boiler; and expended
water is not discharged into the sanitary sewer.
Savings for the 750 hp air compressor system is
$66,000 per year for preheating the make-up water
to the boilers. Eliminating the use of chilled water
to cool the compressors resulted in an annual
savings of $94,000 in electric energy.
Ultraviolet Light Treatment
Background
Approximately eight years ago, Polaroid’s Core
Engineering Department began installing ultraviolet light water jackets for the humidifiers located in its air handling systems. These air handling systems service the comfort and health needs
of the employee as well as the stringent production
requirements for making instant print films. Treatment of the water used for humidification purposes
is necessary to reduce the amounts of bacteria which
would otherwise thrive in this constantly wet environment. Failure to condition the water would lead
to poor indoor air quality, higher maintenance costs,
and shorter life expectancy of equipment.
Description
Conventional methods of water treatment rely on
chemicals that are costly, require high maintenance, evaporate in the air stream, and typically
need subcontractor support. The chemical delivery
system to the humidifier also uses pumps or maintenance personnel which may result in spiking
when the chemicals are first introduced at their
highest concentrations.
Results
Polaroid’s ultraviolet systems have reduced the
typical inlet condition from 200 to 10 colonies of
bacterial growth per cubic meter. This improve58
ment was accomplished by using a single pass
through the ultraviolet water jacket before the
water is introduced in the humidifier. In addition,
Polaroid has reduced its humidifier maintenance
by 75% since installing the ultraviolet systems.
Variable Air Volume Heating,
Ventilating, and
Air Conditioning System
Background
Approximately seven years ago, Polaroid began
retrofitting the heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) distribution systems at its Integral
Coatings Division and installed energy-efficient,
integrated, self-contained, thermally-activated diffusers on the variable air volume (VAV) distribution system for its comfort cooling applications. The
modifications eliminated the need for zone thermostats and provided an energy-efficient way to maintain consistent, comfortable cooling.
Typically, VAV distribution systems are installed
such that the air discharged from the HVAC unit is
kept at a constant dew point temperature of 52°F;
the static pressure in the duct is kept constant
between 0.2 and 0.25 inches of water; and the
volume of the air delivered through the diffuser is
varied by a damper located in the respective branch
distribution duct and controlled by a space thermostat. The result is an energy-efficient delivery system which requires no additional heat sources and
makes optimal use of the sensible heat energy from
the lights, equipment, and people in the conditioned space. The constant dew point temperature,
cooled air is simply delivered variably. When the
air is too hot, additional cool air is delivered to the
space while conversely, when the air is too cold, less
cool air is delivered. The drawback, however, is the
higher capital costs and maintenance of the VAV
boxes, and the need to install space air thermostats.
Description
For Polaroid’s needs, engineers installed integrated, self-contained, thermally-activated diffusers directly connected to the distribution branches
which eliminated the need for mixing boxes and
thermostats. The diffusers are designed with a hydraulic mechanism which drives the diffuser blades
open or closed, depending on the ambient space air
temperature. The mechanism contains a cylinder
with a heat-sensitive wax material that reactively
contracts or expands, thereby increasing or decreasing the pressure in the cylinder proportionally. The
result is an even, consistent, energy-efficient delivery of cool air without using thermostats that require
constant calibration and adjustment.
Results
Polaroid gained many benefits through its VAV
HVAC system. By eliminating space air thermostats, Polaroid lowered its capital and recurring
maintenance costs, and the need for constant calibration to ensure energy efficiency and comfort
cooling. Other benefits include the elimination of
higher capital costs associated with installing VAV
boxes; increased diffusing performance which exceeds standard diffusers at equal cost; and greater
energy savings associated with a maintenance-free
VAV distribution system compared to standard
VAV systems.
Community Outreach
Background
Although a very successful film-producing company in the early 1980s, Polaroid had not fully
appreciated the surrounding community’s increasing environmental concerns nor recognized the
value of educating these neighbors on the company’s
business practices. In the middle 1980s, public
interest groups, perhaps confused about the actual
environmental practices embedded in Polaroid’s
manufacturing process, made public accusations
against the company. Although these negative
claims were often voiced without proper research,
the public typically accepted the accusations.
Polaroid’s environmental leadership then realized
they had very few avenues to disseminate correct
data since the company had no formal method of
educating the community. Recognizing the significant role which the local community had over industry through local environmental agencies, Polaroid
responded to the situation with an open and honest
effort by partnering with the local community.
Description
Polaroid opened its doors to the public through
facility tours, community meetings, communication links, a community newsletter, and an environmental report which listed specific environmental information about the company. Besides
community education, Polaroid also began creating
internal educational programs for its employees to
inform them about environmental issues and processes within the company.
Results
Polaroid now promotes community involvement
and open communications within its facilities.
Through community surveys and open meetings,
Polaroid works with the community and recognizes
that the residents’ viewpoints and concerns may
differ from those of the company. Polaroid receives
several calls each year seeking its environmental
leadership’s assistance in interpreting environmental issues and recommendations. The trust
created between Polaroid, its communities, and
environmental groups has now become an asset to
all involved.
Environmental Reporting
Background
Polaroid’s corporate philosophy maintains that
its business will be operated in an environmentally
responsible and sustainable manner. One aspect of
this responsibility entails keeping the company’s
stakeholders, including the local communities, informed on Polaroid’s environmental efforts and
performance. Polaroid has recently published its
eighth annual report on the environment, the second
of which follows the guidelines of the Coalition for
Environmentally Responsible Economies (CERES).
Description
In 1987, Polaroid decided to publicly report its
environmental data and reorientate the company’s
environmental programs toward pollution prevention. As a result, Polaroid developed the Environmental Accounting and Reporting System (EARS)
and the Toxic Use and Waste Reduction (TUWR)
program in 1988. The TUWR/EARS program’s first
year results were used to create Polaroid’s first
environmental report in 1989. This document, the
first modern, data-rich, corporate-environmental
progress report in the United States, targeted an
audience of pollution prevention leaders; environmental groups and committees; and Polaroid’s employees and shareholders. The intended audience for
these environmental reports was expanded between
1990 and 1992 to include the government, other
companies, and investors who were interested in
socially and environmentally responsible companies.
In 1992 and 1993, Polaroid was one of just ten
U.S. companies that worked together to develop a
set of guidelines which could be used by companies
to publish corporate environmental reports. These
guidelines, published in 1994 as the Public Environmental Reporting Initiative, were designed as a tool
59
to assist organizations that voluntarily produce a
balanced reporting perspective on their environmental policies, practices, and performances.
Results
Continuing its environmental leadership role in
1994, Polaroid endorsed the CERES principles which
encouraged companies to conduct business in a manner that protects the Earth and applies environmentally responsible practices throughout the world.
These guidelines marked Polaroid’s expanded commitment to actively collaborate with environmental
leaders and investors on operating its business in an
environmentally responsible and sustainable manner. Polaroid’s seventh and eighth reports on the
environment are patterned directly after the CERES
principles, including a clear cross-reference between
the CERES report questions and applicable portions
of Polaroid’s annual report.
Fortune and Tomorrow magazines have recognized Polaroid for its leadership in corporate environmental reporting. Polaroid’s internal efforts
and external association with CERES and other
U.S. premier environmental groups have enabled
Polaroid to evolve its environmental program to a
higher level.
Ethics and Compliance
Awareness Training
Background
Polaroid’s training directors recognized that a
successful environmental training program required employee support not only from a compliance perspective, but also from an ethical awareness perspective. As a result, Polaroid has developed
a unique training program which successfully instills personal ethical responsibility and stewardship
concerning environmental compliance and behavior.
Like most corporations, Polaroid had established
regulation-specific training modules which offered
compliance awareness as required by the Resource
Conservation and Recovery Act, the Department of
Transportation, HAZCOM, and other local regulations. This training focused on the technical aspects
of environmental issues but failed to inform the
employee on the ethical aspects. Drawing on Polaroid’s
success from its business conduct module on ethics,
the developers of the environmental awareness program established the training as a co-sponsorship
between Corporate Health, Safety, and Environment and the Office of Ethics and Compliance under
an umbrella of corporate ethical behavior.
60
Description
The Ethics and Compliance Awareness Training
successfully changed employees’ way of thinking
(e.g., question whether the environmental procedure was valid; influence the way decisions were
made; determine the environmental impact). The
training featured two hours of business significance and legal aspects of environmental compliance, which was customized for the local divisions.
Polaroid used local environmental managers as the
program trainers. These managers were able to
have their employees share ownership and responsibility for their particular local work area.
Support for Polaroid’s unique approach was built
by enlisting the endorsement of top managers
throughout the company. A total of 29 trainers
were trained to implement the program and were
then allowed to develop specific guidelines unique
to their areas. Polaroid initiated the Ethics and
Compliance Awareness Training in September 1996
and has already trained more than 95% of its
employees. Evaluation data indicates that 89% of
the employees have a greater awareness of their
own and the company’s environmental responsibility; 86% have a better understanding of how the
laws and regulations relate to their workplace; 82%
will participate in identifying and correcting environmental problems; and 92% commended the program trainer on a well-informed session.
Results
Polaroid’s Ethics and Compliance Awareness
Training has instilled its employees with a better
awareness and greater sense of responsibility. The
employees are more willing to impact environmental performance directly; identify risk areas that
may have gone unnoticed; and contribute toward
improving the company’s environmental performance each year.
Occupational Medical Program
Background
Dr. Edwin Land, the founder of Polaroid, envisioned complete healthcare for all employees and
their families. Polaroid’s Occupational Health Department began as a family practice health clinic
for its employees and evolved into an occupational
health clinic. Polaroid promotes and supports
healthy work environments and healthy lifestyles
for its employees.
Description
Using an employee-oriented approach, the Occupational Health Department takes a major role in
preventive medicine for Polaroid employees. The
Department maintains three full-time doctors and
13 nurses for its five medical facilities throughout
the company. Specialty services (e.g., orthopedics,
psychology, and dermatology) are also provided by
the Department once a week. Each medical facility
is equipped with state-of-the-art medical equipment and laboratories. Polaroid’s preventive medicine practice includes free complete physicals every
three years for employees over the age of 40; gynecological exams and prostate exams for employees;
and unlimited consulting for alcohol/drug abuse
and stress. In addition, the Occupational Health
Department offers wellness programs; informs employees of options such as living wills; and operates
support groups for diabetic employees. Through
their experience and understanding of Polaroid
and its culture, the clinic doctors provide employees with quality medical services.
Results
Polaroid’s Occupational Health Department provides various benefits through its employee-oriented approach. Besides quality medical service,
employees receive a sense of well being through an
experienced and caring medical staff. In addition,
Polaroid management supports the medical program as a top priority benefit for its employees.
Overall, Polaroid increases employee moral and
creates a better working environment.
Description
In the late 1970s, Polaroid developed Polaroid
Exposure Guidelines (PEGs) for materials handled
in significant quantities based on current literature and toxicity test results from Polaroid-sponsored studies and existing established limits. PEGs
are usually set at one-half of the lowest limit of an
existing PEL or ACGIH, or less if the Polaroid
review team deems it to be prudent. Although
PEGs are self-imposed guidelines rather than federally-imposed limits, Polaroid strives to maintain
that worker exposure is less than these guidelines.
Polaroid’s existing site evaluation and monitoring
programs verify their compliance with PEGs. If
exposures deviate beyond PEG limits, then Polaroid
takes prompt corrective action.
Results
If official or unofficial guidelines do not exist,
then the PEG is based upon known and suspected
toxic effects, governed by a rating system designed
for this purpose. Among other advantages, conservative PEGs are used to anticipate downward shifts
in the OSHA PELs. Goal setting is straightforward
since only one source exists for the guidelines, and
no one needs to struggle to meet a more stringent
requirement. Polaroid can quickly respond to new
test data on exposure hazards as the company has
an existing mechanism to incorporate that information with its company policy. This guideline
program has existed for more than 15 years and has
proven to be a satisfactory mechanism for practicing workers’ health protection.
Polaroid Exposure Guidelines
Polaroid Foundation
Background
In 1968, OSHA regulated permissible exposure
limits (PELs) for almost 800 chemicals. These PELs,
based on an earlier concept established by the
American Conference of Governmental and Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), identify safe worker exposure limits to air contaminants. However, detailed procedure requirements make regulation
difficult to modify as new information becomes
available. The National Institute for Occupational
Safety and Health (NIOSH) proposes its own limits
for chemicals known as Recommended Exposure
Limits (RETs). These multiple exposure limits for a
given chemical, combined with the trend of tightening environmental regulations, motivated Polaroid
to establish its own, very conservative approach for
identifying exposure limits.
Background
Twenty-five years ago, the Polaroid Foundation
was established with a mission to support nonprofit organizations that provide services to those
less advantaged. Beginning in 1997, Polaroid refocused that mission to include services which promote life skills development to those less
advantaged. Geographically, the Polaroid Foundation concentrates its grants in Massachusetts, especially in those communities where Polaroid has
its facilities. To evaluate submitted proposals, the
Polaroid Foundation set up committees for culture,
education, community, environment, and the New
Bedford area. After the 1997 mission revision, the
Polaroid Foundation regrouped its committees to
include one for Greater Boston.
61
The Polaroid Foundation operates on an annual
budget of approximately $2 million which is provided by Polaroid. After an initial screening by the
Polaroid Foundation for proper grant application
requirements, the proposals are distributed to the
appropriate committees. These committees of selfinvested employee-owners decide which proposals
should be funded.
Description
In 1993, the Polaroid Foundation established an
Environmental Committee because of Polaroid’s
values and potential impact on the environment.
This would assure that environmentally-related
proposals would receive priority when evaluated
against criteria developed for this purpose. The
Environmental Committee develops its own evaluation criteria based on outreach, education, organization stability, and program characteristics.
Results
The Polaroid Foundation is one of many ways in
which Polaroid demonstrates its involvement in
the surrounding communities. The philanthropic
activity promotes the well-being of the local area
and its citizens; reinforces the support of the community; and allows Polaroid employees to select
which community activities to support. Environmental grants totaling more than $130,000 have
been awarded over the last four years, ranging in
amounts from $1,000 to $7,950.
Proactive Roles with Public
Groups, Boards, and
Committees
Background
Polaroid recognized that environmental-policy
development by agencies benefits from full understanding of the nature of business and industry. In
response, Polaroid’s Environmental Leadership
Group is actively involved in external environmental activities in addition to its complex reporting,
planning, and maintenance duties on environmental compliance issues. The Group’s members donate their time to participate proactively with
public groups, boards, and committees which help
influence public policy and environmental statutes
and regulations.
Description
Polaroid believes these regulatory actions are
necessary for the long-term health of our planet.
Through its participation, Polaroid offers its environmental and business expertise to these regula62
tory agencies to assist them in understanding the
applicability and interpretations of regulations as
they are being developed. Polaroid’s commitment is
evident throughout the corporation by offering
business perspectives at the national, regional,
state, and local levels. The opportunity to work
closely within the surrounding communities of
Polaroid’s facilities has helped the company build
trust and understanding with the communities,
residents, and environmental groups.
Results
Polaroid’s proactive environmental leadership
with public boards and committees has yielded
many benefits between the company and the communities. Among them include more livable regulations and better interpretations of laws and regulations by agencies so industry and communities
can obtain common goals.
Product Safety Management
Guidelines
Background
Polaroid has always ensured customer safety by
conforming with consumer protection laws. However, the Product Safety Committee, set forth by
company policies and procedures in the 1970s,
typically used a reactive approach and was subject
to frequent membership turnovers. In addition,
this reactionary and inconsistent approach to product safety made accountability difficult to track. No
employee or manager felt personally responsible
for the safety issues. In 1993, Polaroid began to
transform its Product Safety Committee from one
that primarily reviewed information into a more
proactive, comprehensive product safety program.
Description
Polaroid established co-directors to lead the company in ensuring that all existing and new products
meet Polaroid’s product safety standards. To supplement the existing safety policy, the co-directors
developed the Product Safety Management Guideline which is based on the elements of International
Standards Organization (ISO) 9000 and 14000,
although currently not audited. The Product Safety
Management Guideline emphasizes that safety
planning must address all stages of the product
from concept, design, and development through
customer use and disposal. The guideline targets
safety strategies for employees who build the product, installers of the product, operators, maintenance personnel, and even bystanders. In addition,
the guideline addresses product recall procedures;
product testing for applicable national and international standards; establishment of responsibilities
for managers, directors, and review committees;
and annual reviews of management practices.
All managers are trained on Polaroid’s philosophy. A risk assessment evaluation is required for
each new or existing product, and a methodology
for assessing risk is discussed. Critical definitions
are explained to provide universal understanding
of terms (e.g., substantial product hazard, safety,
danger) which may have connotations other than
those in the guideline. Employees have easy accessibility to the co-directors in case safety questions
or issues arise after formal training. The frequent
contacts indicate that Polaroid has a sound communication network in place.
Results
In November 1996, Polaroid published its final
version of the Safety Management Guideline which
is auditable per ISO requirements. The practices
set forth in the guideline save time and money
because safety concerns are discovered and averted
in the early stages of product design and development. Since implementing this guideline, Polaroid
has not encountered any issues beyond the prototype development stage. In addition, company
awareness has increased, and employees know a
safety answer is only a telephone call away.
Professional Development
Committee
Background
Polaroid has a tradition of helping employees
improve their work-related knowledge and skills.
To provide additional focus in the areas of health,
safety, and environment, Polaroid established the
Professional Development Committee (PDC) in 1994
which assists company HSE employees in their
continued skill development.
Polaroid recognized that their HSE employees
need a high level of technical competence, business
insight, and personnel leadership. In addition, these
employees face a continual learning challenge due
to the day-to-day demands of their jobs and
ever-changing regulatory requirements. As a result,
their longer-term professional development tended
to be neglected. To resolve this situation, Polaroid
uses its PDC to update and educate HSE personnel
on the skill requirements for promotion; standardize
the HSE job family and job titles; offer ongoing
professional training; and build a community of
shared learnings on an HSE Intranet home page.
Description
In 1994, Polaroid identified skills development as
a top priority area within its corporate and matrix
organizations which needed improvement, especially in the technical and leadership/management
areas. Employee learning method preferences included coursework, on-the-job-training, and specific project assignments. Therefore as part the
PDC’s focus on professional training, Polaroid developed a PDC Development Planning Kit. Based
on the objective of helping HSE personnel, the
Development Planning Kit clarifies their vision of
career and/or personal achievement goals; develops a plan to reach those goals; identifies specific
skills improvement activities with a timeline for
accomplishing them; and enhances the supervisor’s
understanding of the PDC work and support for
skill improvement. In addition, the Development
Planning Kit provides details to the employees on
how to conduct their own goal-setting effort. These
goals are then reviewed with the employee’s supervisor, and a skills assessment of the employee is
conducted by a professional and the employee’s
supervisor. A portion of the skills assessment tool is
the Checklist for Individual Development Planning which addresses knowledge areas such as
environmental health; safety; leadership skills;
communication skills; business environment; administration skills; community and professional
engagement; and personal effectiveness skills. These
efforts support employees in their pursuit of knowledge and skills through learning plans and management commitments.
Results
Polaroid’s PDC focus on HSE established a framework and guide for employees and supervisors to
maintain and ensure skills development through
educational support, relevant monitoring, and successful progression. Employees who used Polaroid’s
PDC Development Planning Kit have benefited
from self-assessment and achieved positive results
from their learning plans. In addition, supervisors
have gained a better understanding of HSE job
responsibilities through the Development Planning Kit and regard it as a useful tool for supporting
employee development.
63
Project Bridge
Background
Polaroid’s Project Bridge began 15 years ago as a
unique community human resource program with
the local school board. Teachers take a one-year
sabbatical from their academic responsibilities and
work in a Polaroid facility. The experience allows the
teachers to gain valuable life experiences which they
take back to the classroom and enhance the educational teachings of the community’s young people. In
addition, Project Bridge has successfully helped teachers understand the relationship between their academic subjects and industry applications.
Description
During the sabbatical, teachers continue to receive their school’s employee benefits package, and
the school system receives a reimbursement from
Polaroid for the teachers’ salaries. Project Bridge
also complements Polaroid’s intern program, another highly successful community outreach.
Polaroid supplements its permanent workforce with
students who work for the company while attending colleges and universities. The company pool of
prospective applicants is derived from universities,
environmental career organizations, minority programs, and resumes. Internships at Polaroid benefit the student’s understanding of industrial and
business processes, and identify real-world applications of academia requirements.
Project Bridge, the internships, and other human resource community sharing programs demonstrate Polaroid’s interest and continued commitment to the surrounding communities. In return,
Polaroid gains insight from experienced people
who are eager to share their knowledge, and from
students who bring an academic perspective on
business.
Results
Teachers and students benefit from exposure to
real-world business experiences and problems,
which they can then apply to their classroom setting. These programs also offer a savings for Polaroid
compared to the outsourcing of work to local subcontractors; improve its image by having community members involved in daily operations; and add
to the relationship between Polaroid and the local
communities by openly sharing information.
64
Regulatory Training
Requirements
Background
Several regulatory agencies require companies
to provide environmental training for every employee. Although regulatory agencies may have
similar training requirements, each agency involves specific topics to be addressed for compliancy. In the past, Polaroid would conduct separate
classes for each compliancy which required employees to spend several hours per year away from
their workplace. Since the regulatory requirements
overlapped from class to class, employees often sat
through redundant lectures. This technique also
proved costly for the company as well. To remedy
the situation, Polaroid developed a consolidated
approach to its safety and environmental training.
Description
Polaroid’s consolidated approach streamlined its
training effort by grouping similar requirements
into a package which met the criteria of several
regulatory agencies at the same time. For example,
one of the consolidated training packages groups
the requirements for the Hazard Communication
(HAZCOM) standard; the Occupational Safety and
Health Administration (OSHA); the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA); and the Department of Transportation (DOT). The HAZCOM,
OSHA, RCRA, and DOT training package covers
all necessary requirements at one time, creates a
consistency in the level of understanding for the
employees, and reduces the opportunity for noncompliance issues.
Results
By consolidating regulatory training requirements, Polaroid decreased the number of training
classes, reduced its employees’ downtime from the
workplace, and increased its employees’ comprehension level. Polaroid’s training program was
developed on Microsoft PowerPoint, is readily available for use at various sites, and can be easily
modified for specific site needs.
Raytheon Missile Systems Division Andover, MA
Rockwell Autonetics Electronics
Systems - Anaheim, CA
ODC Reduction
Approach to Achieving
100 Parts Per Million Program
Background
In 1990, the Raytheon Corporation chartered the
Office of Manufacturing and Environmental Quality to eliminate ozone depleting solvents by the end
of 1992. This is a company-wide initiative with 36
representatives from 17 Raytheon facilities. The
objective is to eliminate ozone depleting solvents
used for cleaning CCAs throughout all phases of
the manufacturing process. Raytheon maintains
that once that objective is accomplished, acceptable
alternatives can be easily used in other solvent
applications.
Description
To accomplish this effort, Raytheon MSD has
employed a two-phase approach. Phase I identified
those possible candidates for both chemistry and
machine suitability for the Raytheon CCA cleaning
needs. Phase II established a pilot facility at
Raytheon MSD Andover and evaluated those candidates which pass Phase I testing.
Phase I testing involved the design and manufacturing of test boards, vendor visits, development of
a detailed test plan that paralleled IPC, Environmental Protection Agency, and DOD testing, and
the performance of cleanliness testing through
visual inspection, surface insulation resistance,
ionic resistively and liquid chromatography. Phase
II involved the establishment of a pilot facility at
Andover; development of standard cleaning processes; further evaluation of alternate cleaning
solvents from Phase I in a manufacturing environment; evaluation of closed-loop rinsewater systems; and performing product qualification.
The Raytheon Corporation conducted an extensive investigation into the elimination of ozone
depleting solvents.
Results
Their effort is corporate-wide with total participation. It again demonstrates the ability of the
Raytheon Corporation to achieve integration and
solve problems at a corporate level.
Background
Rockwell Autonetics Electronics Systems’ (AES’)
current method of electronic components screening
includes component environmental stressing including source-inspection surveillance of environmental stressing performed at the vendor. Receiving and inspection is also performed at Rockwell
AES for those components which are not sourceinspected. Rockwell AES additionally performs incircuit and printed wiring board functional testing,
environmental stressing and assembly functional
testing, and system burn-in and test.
Even with this screening, Rockwell AES was
concerned with the quality of parts and cost impact
of rework on higher level assemblies, including the
system level. A component yield reporting and
corrective action program was therefore initiated.
The program approach is to collect component yield
data by collecting data on which components fail
during board, assembly, and system level testing.
Component defect reports are issued on a monthly
basis. The first report was issued in April 1989.
Description
Rockwell AES collected the following data for a
particular program. From April through September
1989, over 450,000 components were tested during
the board, assembly, and system level testing.
There were 50 components which failed and had to
be replaced. The distribution was integrated circuits (ICs) - 54%, resistors - 20%, transistors - 18%,
capacitors and diodes - 4% each. These figures
related to the following parts per million (PPM):
ICs - 375 PPM, resistors - 50 PPM, transistors -385
PPM, capacitors - 20 PPM, and diodes - 100 PPM.
Within the 450,000 components, there were 646
different part types of which 30 part types were
responsible for the 50 component failures. Further
data analysis showed that one transistor part number was involved in 56% of the replacements.
Results
Rockwell AES currently analyzes the data to
determine which component vendor is responsible
for which failures. This data is then used to develop
a software process improvement. This index is
combined with the vendor's quoted price to determine the total projected cost, thereby determining
which vendor will be awarded the contract.
65
Long-range plans for the program include the
development of vendor/Rockwell AES component
teams to evaluate performance data, indicate corrective actions, identify components requiring additional screening or tests, and evaluate corrective
actions. Rockwell AES, together with the vendor,
will develop the acceptance criteria for those parts
which meet and those which exceed the 100 PPM
criteria. Rockwell AES will continue to award contracts based on the real cost of components, not just
the quoted cost.
Rockwell Collins Avionics &
Communications Division Cedar Rapids, IA
Automated Conformal Coating
Application Process
Background
Rockwell Collins Avionis and Communications
Division (CACD), Coralville uses an alternate conformal coating process that satisfies environmental
requirements while realizing many other advantages. Since 1993, Rockwell CACD has used a
customized, automated conformal coating system
from the Nordson Corporation to eliminate problems associated with the traditional spraying application method such as required masking, increased
solvent release to the atmosphere, and substantial
labor efforts.
Description
Rockwell worked with Nordson to customize the
system to Rockwell requirements. The Nordson
Select Coat is an in-line workcell comprised of a
coating workstation, workcell system controller,
and in-line ovens for pre- and post-coating processes. The coating workstation includes a five-axis
gantry robot that moves in the x, y, and z directions,
as well as 30-degree tilt and a 90-degree incremental rotation. Operations such as coating gun movement, actuation of pneumatic valves, conveyor speed,
temperature control, time duration, and overall operations are controlled by the workcell controller.
Results
The system uses laminar flow as the application
method. Although similar to spraying, the application method virtually eliminates overspray by using lower pressure (10 psi versus 30 psi). Lower
application pressure removes the atomization experienced at higher pressure levels. Because of the
ability to control overspray, masking is not re-
66
quired and cleanup is simplified. Labor and cycle
time savings are achieved by eliminating two production steps—masking and unmasking. Because
the system has a heater, higher viscosity materials
can be used with the advantage of being more environmentally friendly since less solvent is required.
The application head is also positioned closer to the
product (< 0.5-inch) using laminar flow.
This system, which also has an oven preheat and
an infrared and convection curing oven, is a complete workcell and has proven to be a good investment for Rockwell CACD production while remaining environmentally friendly.
Freon Replacement and
Hazmat Program
Background
From 1991 to 1992, Rockwell CACD surpassed
EPA requirements for reduction of hazardous material consumption with a reduction of 1,471,650
pounds of all toxic chemical consumption, and an
885,702 pound reduction of freon and
trichloroethane alone. This effort was in response
to the EPA voluntary program to reduce emissions
of 17 toxic substances. The EPA program called for
a 33% emissions reduction by 1992 from the 1988
base level, followed later by a 50% reduction from
the 1988 base level.
Description
In continuing support of the Montreal Protocol,
CACD has formulated short-term and long-term
plans to eliminate ozone depleting substances. The
short-term plan includes converting cleaning equipment to alcohol-based cleaning, with a specific
focus to convert manufacturing defluxing processes
to alternate materials by 1 July 1994. This goal has
been met by using a Kyzen SSA cyclic alcohol and
DI-water rinse for the in-line and stencil cleaning
equipment, a Kyzen HC or Kyzen FC-R cyclic
alcohol and DI-water rinse for batch cleaning equipment, and a water soluble flux (Alpha WS360 or
Alpha 630) for tinning of parts.
The long-term plan centers on developing a
method to clean PWAs using water only. CACD
must investigate water soluble fluxes and water
washable, no-clean fluxes. The time frame on this
plan is to convert both facilities in Iowa to water
washable materials and processes by 31 December
1996. A main obstacle is customer acceptance of
this process. CACD's Inert Atmosphere Wave Soldering process qualification also established goals
costs. The team has spread its charter of developing, implementing, and championing recycling and
reuse of solid waste. This effort includes recycling
19 items, reclaiming 15 others, and returning still
others to the originating vendor. The results of the
team's efforts can be shown in the solid waste
reduction from 1992 to 1994 of 213,277 pounds.
Description
Paper products that cannot be recycled are
chopped, mixed with coal,
Table 3-3. Wave Soldering Process Qualification Test Result Summary
and burned at the power
plant as fuel cubes. This
Test
Process Requirement
Kester 951 Result
process also reduces the
8
9
SIR
5x10 ohms minimum
Vendor B24: 5x10 ohms
emissions of burning high
10
IPC B24:
1x10 ohms
sulfur content coal. CACD
CACD B24: 1x1012 ohms
contracts with Goodwill
CACD B36: 1x109 ohms
Industries to sort trash,
Corrosion
None allowed
QPL qualified flux
and sort and return
Halide content
None allowed
QPL qualified flux
recyclables.
Ionic cleanliness
10 µg/in2 maximum
IPC:
8.0 µg/in2
Results
CACD: 1.33 µg/in2
An Environmental ReVisual inspection
No electromigration allowed
None observed
cycling Cost Analysis of
Design of experiments
Minimum number of defects
Optimum flux per design of
the Coralville operations
investigation
experiments
highlights an annual exThermogravimetric
Minimum loss in Preheat
Optimum flux
pense of $63K with a benAnalysis
Minimum loss at Wave
Optimum flux
efit of over $104K, repreHumidity
Individual component specification
No failures
senting a net gain of more
than $41K annual cost
Electrical
Individual component specification
No failures
avoidance. Similarly,
Ion chromatography
Equivalent to RMA flux
Acceptable
there is a reduction of
Thermal cycling
Individual component specification
In progress (no failures to date) ozone depleting chemiWetting balance
Equivalent to RMA flux
Acceptable
cals such as those in
Tables 3-4 and 3-5.
TSD Division data
Military production build
6 months of production with
to identify a low residue flux with fluxing performance equal to RMA flux, and to change from a
CFC system to an aqueous cleaning system for
removing residues with equal to or better than RMA
soldered assemblies' cleanliness levels. The test methodology to be used was to meet MIL-STD-2000A,
follow the Navy memorandum that adds additional
tests, and to meet internal CACD requirements. Test
results are shown in Table 3-3.
no reliability problems
Results
The test results met MIL-STD-2000A, Appendix
A requirements as well as all other requirements;
therefore, the wave soldering process was qualified. A total of 40 MIL-STD-2000A and 500 nonMIL-STD-2000A processes have been converted.
Solid Waste Environmental
Leadership and Learning Team
Background
The Solid Waste Environmental Leadership and
Learning Team at CACD has shown that being
environmentally conscious does not result in expenses, but rather decreases costs by avoiding
unneeded purchase of items, and reducing landfill
Table 3-4.
Ozone Depleting Chemicals
(Cedar Rapids)
1991 1992 1993 1994 1995
Total
CFC-113
Pounds Used (K)
Reduction 91-95
55
46
16%
42
24%
24
57%
0
167
Methyl Chloroform
(1,1,1-TRI)
Pounds Used (K)
Reduction 91-95
*for 3 months
35
19
45%
27
22%
24
32%
5*
86%
110
90
65
27%
69
23%
48
47%
5
95%
277
Combined
Reduction, 91-95
67
Table 3-5.
Ozone Depleting Chemicals
(Coralville)
Methyl Chloroform
(1,1,1-TRI)
Pounds Used (K)
Reduction, 89-93
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
32.2
23
29%
18
62%
16.7
67%
13.9
80%
Ozone Depleting Substance Alternatives
Implementation Team
Background
An excellent example of how to make a team
environment work to produce outstanding results
is exemplified in this team’s success. Their challenge was to eliminate ozone depleting substances
from production processes and implement alternative materials and methods without impacting product quality or customer delivery performance.
Description
Working together efficiently and effectively enabled the team to overcome obstacles and solve
problems. The results have been many. Products
manufactured for our customers are in compliance
with EPA regulations, and their has been a substantial reduction in chemical supply and disposal
costs. Documents have been updated, audits conducted, and process conversions were completed by
the federally mandated date, with zero production
downtime.
Results
This cross-functional team, working closely with
many material and equipment suppliers, accomplished major factory and production process conversions. This commitment to the environment
continues for the future. The outcomes have benefited and will continue to benefit the customer, the
company, and the environment.
Printed Circuit Wiring Board Etch Reuse
Background
Rockwell Collins, Inc. purchases 50,000 gallons
of printed circuit board etchant material annually
for use in the manufacturing of printed circuit
boards. This material removes copper from circuit
board laminates and places the copper in solution.
The supplier of the etch has sub-contracted its
recycle for many years through pricing contracts
for the purchase of new/recycled materials. The
68
etch is broken down into copper oxide (which is sold
as a feed stock to smelters) and the remaining
product is re-blended to create new/recycled etch
for reuse in the facility. The only other alternative
to this type of treatment has been to deep well inject
the waste due to the ammonia content. This alternative is not within the waste hierarchy established by the EPA and Rockwell.
Description
Prior to May 1995, Rockwell Collins, Inc. recycled
its printed circuit board etchant, but because of the
way it was handled at the recycler it was still
considered hazardous waste. The material was
delivered to a recycler who transformed the spent
etchant as described above which then sold the etch
as a commercial product. In May 1995, a market
was found that utilized printed circuit board
etchants as a raw product in the manufacture of
atacamite (an insoluble naturally occurring copper
salt). This copper salt is an interesting replacement
for animal feed nutrient supplements because of
the insolubility it possesses in aqueous environments. The copper salt will not degrade over time
resulting in lower dosing of feed blends and ultimately reducing the cost of the feed to the end user.
In acidic solution (in the stomach of an animal), the
copper salt is completely soluble and is readily
absorbed by the animal resulting in superior performance over copper sulfate. The process has been
approved under the use/reuse exemption requirements specified at Title 40 CFR Part 261. With this
exemption, the etchant is no longer managed as
hazardous waste and does not require a hazardous
waste manifest to ship the product.
Results
By redefining the way the material is handled
and no longer managing the material as hazardous
waste, Rockwell, on an initial investment of less
than $1,500, has reduced the generation of hazardous waste by over 450,000 pounds annually.
Paperless Work Flow for Electronic
Maintenance Work Requests
Background
Rockwell CACD has developed a paperless work
flow for electronic Maintenance Work Requests
(MWRs). MWRs are used at CACD for tasks such as
fixing lighting systems in conference rooms or
moving office furniture. There are currently over
3700 MWRs per year at Rockwell, and more than
half of these require attachments which are in-
structions or maps. Ninety to ninety-five percent of
the MWRs require minimal documentation, and
MWRs are not used for tracking cost, or time spent
on the job.
Description
The manual MWR process, requiring a three to
four day cycle time, involved completing four-page
carbon forms, obtaining authorization, and hand
carrying or delivering the request using the internal
mail system. Therefore, CACD changed the manual
process to a paperless electronic one in response to
employee input, to reduce entry errors, promote
clarity, reduce delays, and use available tools.
The paperless electronic process for MWRs uses
a desk top computer to create and view MWRs, and
the authorizing signature for these MWRs has
been eliminated. Only front-end edits are allowed,
and after the MWR has been sent for processing by
the requester, it cannot be edited.
Results
There are many benefits to the electronic MWR.
There is less paperwork, as the four-page carbon
has been replaced by a single green sheet. There is
also reduced paper handling and filing. CACD has
eliminated replacing lost MWRs. The electronic
MWR is a quicker system, resulting in a more responsive, satisfied customer. The status and history of
any electronic MWR can be viewed on-line. The cycle
time of an electronic MWR is one day less than that
of a manual MWR. Finally, five to ten minutes per
request is saved using the electronic MWR.
Sullivan Graphics - Marengo, IA
Strategic Scheduling
Background
In 1994 Sullivan Graphics - Marengo, Iowa was
faced with serious capacity problems due to the
seasonality of the newspaper insert printing market. Typically, every fall the insert market swells
over capacity with the holiday sale ads that fill
everyone’s Sunday paper. As a result, customer/
vendor relationships are often taxed to the limit by
late deliveries, increased costs, and worker stress.
After a particularly difficult fall the previous
year, Marengo was faced with losing several key
accounts if its delivery performance did not improve. To improve deliveries, Marengo implemented an aggressive customer relation concept
called “Strategic Scheduling.” The initial step was
to categorize customer accounts by their print
frequency, ease of production, and profitability.
The foundation of the job mix was the 63% of work
that was produced on a weekly basis. These jobs
were fit into fixed time slots along with bi-weekly
preventative maintenance on each printing press.
The remaining open time in the schedule was filled
with national and regional work based primarily on
profitability. In some cases, to fit jobs into the
schedule required concessions on both Marengo’s
part and the customers. Since the impact of the
resulting schedule affected other plants, the concept was proposed to the corporate management
along with a list of accounts Marengo wanted to
move, grow, shrink, and/or eliminate, to make it
work.
Description
The aggressive handling of the customer base was
done primarily to increase production and reduce
late deliveries. However, during the preparation of
the “sale” to the corporate office, Marengo began to
realize the real opportunities for waste reduction
that the proposed schedule changes would allow.
Increased
Reduced
Increased
Reduced
Reduced
Reduced
Reduced
Reduced
Reduced
Capacity
Job changeovers
Run speeds
White Paper Waste
Printed Paper Waste
Press Wash Solvents
Waste Ink
Aluminum Printing Plate
Fountain Solution Mix
21.6%
45.0%
14.0%
8.4%
5.0%
4.6%
63,450 # a year
10,872 # a year
9,060 gals a yr.
These improvements were realized without any
capital improvements being made to the plant.
Results
Since the successful introduction of “Strategic
Scheduling” in 1995, the Marengo plant has added
an additional press line increasing its capacity by
22%. With this addition Marengo is facing open
time in its schedule which does not allow the
opportunity to fit work into its schedule as was
done in 1995. As a result, Marengo has seen 50% of
the gains from its original efforts reversed. Marengo
anticipates that it will take almost a year to fill the
plant to the previous capacity levels. At that time,
Marengo will again apply “Strategic Scheduling”
concepts, and anticipates that it will realize similar
improvements. As customers and their needs
change, this concept will have to be reapplied on a
periodic basis.
69
Texas Instruments, DS&EG Dallas, TX
Laser Cutting System
Background
Texas Instruments (TI) adapted a Laserdyne
laser cutting system (Figure 3-9) to fabricate .020 to
.050 inch aluminum thermal planes at Lemmon
Avenue. These planes were previously cut by a
chemical etching process, which had a number of
disadvantages, including chemical waste, inconsistent quality, slow production rates, and relatively
high cost.
Description
The Laserdyne system has a cutting velocity of
up to 600 ipm using an 1800 watt peak power
Coherent EFA-51 laser with an eddy current height
sensor. The process has excellent repeatability, is
comparatively inexpensive, and requires no unique
hard tooling.
Results
Using this process, TI has achieved a 4 to 1
productivity improvement over the etch process.
The current system produces over 40 thousand
parts per year.
Figure 3-9. Laser Cutting System
Design for the Environment Initiative
Design for the Environment Initiative
A cornerstone element of DS&EG’s strategy for
the elimination and minimization of Hazardous
Materials (HazMat) is its Design for the Environment (DFE) initiative, which was formally established in 1992. Because it was strongly felt that the
design function needed to own the responsibility
for the environmental attributed of a product and
its associated life cycle processes, a strategic deci-
70
sion was made to initiative the DFE initiative from
within the DS&EG.
To accomplish this, a DFE Champion has been
designated to facilitate the development and integration of environmentally-conscious guidelines
and practices on product and process development
programs, and within engineering design and development processes. The DFE Champion serves as
a liaison between the engineering design functions,
DS&EG programs, and the environmental specialists. The DFE Champion has the advantage of
understanding the design and product development processes, particularly to environmental attribute decisions. These decisions include, but are
not limited to, process and material selections,
design feature and configuration decisions and
technology choices. This approach also benefits
from an insider’s understanding of the types and
formats of information needed to accomplish environmentally-conscious design on a real-time basis
in a concurrent engineering environment. Thus,
DS&EG’s Engineering Division owns and drives
the DFE initiative.
DFE Guidelines Development
An important step in the DFE initiative was the
formation of a cross-functional DS&EG DFE
Rulebase Team. The core members of this team
represent several engineering disciplines, as well
as manufacturing and quality functions. Selection
criteria for team members emphasized strong experience in the design process, as well as a good
familiarity with manufacturing and other product
life cycle processes. In developing the DS&EG DFE
guidelines, the DFE Rulebase Team began by reviewing industry environmentally-conscious design standards compiled through a media search by
the DFE champion. Using their own experience
from previous product and process design efforts,
the team identified the critical information and
analysis needs for the effective and timely incorporation of Design for the Environment practices into
the design process. For areas where information or
recommendations gaps were identified, guidelines
were expanded or revised to provide the design
functions with needed guidance. The DS&EG DFE
Rulebase now contains sections on Material and
Process Selection, Design for Disassembly, Design
for Recycling, Product Maintenance and Transport
Considerations, and Energy Conservation.
DFE Trade Studies
The DFE Rulebase Team also recognized that the
design function needed a standardized and documented methodology for evaluating the relative
environmental desirability of several potential design options. To fill this need, the team began work
on a DFE Trade Study Process, and defined a
hierarchical set of evaluation criteria and design
questions for minimizing product and process life
cycle environmental effects, while making necessary design tradeoffs against performance, costs,
quality and speciality considerations. A trade study
format has also been developed, which includes a
tailorable trade study matrix worksheet, which can
be modified to allow for differing decision making
criteria and weighting values from application to
application. Several specific trade study application worksheets for common design applications
have been completed, and others are in work.
DFE Communication and Deployment
Both the DFE guidelines and the trade study
process and tools have been made available to all
design functions company-wide via an on-line electronic computer menu, as well as on an Intranet
Web site. These resources contain a short tutorial
on DFE drivers and principles, listings of contacts
for additional information or questions.
Additionally, the DFE Rulebase Team has
authored a series of awareness and communication
articles which have appeared in several site newspapers, and in discipline and strategy specific newsletters throughout DS&EG. Further, briefings have
also been issued to all program, project and design
discipline managers on requirements and techniques to reduce Hazmat and eliminate ODS use.
The DFE Rulebase Team has also been able to
incorporate the DFE guidelines and principles that
it has developed into existing design training classes,
further helping to reinforce the practice of simultaneously optimizing environmental considerations
with other design parameters. Some of these same
materials have also been integrated into the “Winning Designs” briefing developed and deployed to
all TI designers worldwide. “Winning Designs” is
an awareness briefing on environmental, safety
and health concerns that may be related to design
decisions. Also, DFE guidelines have integrated
into several existing design guides.
DFE Design Process Integration
Another fundamental effort in the TI-DS&EG
environmental stewardship initiative was the development and incorporation of product and process environmental assessment tasks into its established concurrent engineering methodology, the
Integrated Product Development Process, or IPDP.
The IPDP provides DS&EG programs with a timephased roadmap of required tasks for product and
process development and all later life cycle phases.
The requirements for the execution of each task,
including inputs, outputs, and metrics, risks, information resources, etc. are listed and communicated
in order to ensure process completeness and quality, as well as to maximize effort synergy. The IPDP
is executed by cross-functional Integrated Product
Teams (IPTs) whose responsibility it is to simultaneously optimize the product and process designs
for performance/functionally, coast, quality, schedule, safety and speciality requirements.
IPTs own, manage and report on all of their
design performance requirements, generating and
evaluating trade studies as required to guide them
in material, process, technology and design feature
selection. System or product level performance requirements include environmental considerations
and are flowed down to sub-assembly or component
level design efforts to be managed by the relevant
IPT.
Execution of the IPDP covers all phases of a
product’s life; from its conceptualization through
its design and production, and into its operations,
support and disposition. TI-DS&EG recognizes that
the decisions made during the execution of the
IPDP for product and process development will
ultimately determine life cycle material needs,
process requirements, technology selection, energy
usage and waste streams. As such, the IPDP becomes the ideal vehicle for the institutionalization
of assessment and optimization of life cycle product
and process environmental effects during the design and product management process.
To perform the integration of DFE and environmental related tasks into the IPDP, a multi-discipline team was created to review the existing
design methodology and to compare it with the
environmental assessment requirements from applicable of critical environmental evaluation tasks,
deliverables and decision points was developed
from the customer specifications and standards,
accompanied by existing contract examples and
known industry practices. The IPDP was then
reviewed to determine the optimum placement in
the product and process development methodology
for these tasks.
Assessment tasks in the early phases of product
development were strategically defined so as to
provide needed information for later tasks, thus
becoming building blocks. In this way, the specific
environmental evaluation and decision-making
information needed at the progressive phases of the
product’s design and later life cycle was proactively
71
and systematically identified and pulled forward to
become the output of earlier analysis tasks, thus
ensuring its availability when required.
As required, new task descriptions and process
flowcharts were created or the existing descriptions and flowcharts were modified in order to
achieve a comprehensive coverage of the environmental concerns over the entire product life cycle.
This effort resulted in the generation and/or the
modification of more than 35 product and process
development tasks, along with associated flowcharts and deliverable descriptions in the IPDP.
Product and process environmental decision-making tasks that were targeted for application of DFE
practices include, but are not limited to, design
reviews, parts and process selection, field testing,
supplier management plans and requirements
flowdown, packing/shipping, Hazmat management
plans and demilitarization/disposition.
Additionally, environmental evaluation tasks,
responsibilities and metrics have been incorporated into the discipline-specific design sub-process
of the IPDP. This subprocess integration further
enhances the active consideration of environmental requirements during the lower-level, detail engineering tasks.
Tinker Air Force Base Oklahoma City, OK
Cadmium Strip Rejuvenation Process
Background
Although cadmium plating has been eliminated in
the Oklahoma City-Air Logistics Center (OC-ALC)
plating shop, there are still a great number of parts
that must have old cadmium coatings removed.
This process results in large amounts of cadmium
contaminated strip solutions. To reduce this waste
stream, a system was developed to rejuvenate the
stripping solutions for reuse by selectively removing cadmium.
Description
The cadmium strip rejuvenation process uses an
ion exchange column to selectively remove cadmium from contaminated strip solutions. A specially designed resin was developed that removes
cadmium from the solution. When the resin can no
longer remove cadmium, it can be rejuvenated with
ammonia. The cadmium is then electrowinned
(plated) from the ammonia solution. This pure
cadmium can then be sold.
72
Results
This process allows the plating shop to reuse the
stripping solution several times before disposal.
When disposal is finally necessary, the solution will
contain only trace amounts of cadmium making it
less expensive to dispose. Finally by plating the
cadmium out of the ammonia regeneration solution, the cadmium can be sold as a pure metal
instead of disposed of as hazardous waste.
Carbon Dioxide Blast Booth
Background
CO2 blasting is used to remove carbon, corrosion,
and paint from jet engine components. In the past,
these operations were accomplished by using solvents, acids, and caustics to chemically remove the
material. This process required large vats of chemicals where parts would be soaked for several minutes to several hours.
Another use of CO2 blasting is to replace traditional grit blasting. When grit blasting parts with
internal cavities, it is necessary to mask the part to
avoid grit entrapment. CO2 blasting eliminates the
need for masking, since the solid CO2 sublimes to a
gas upon impact.
Description
CO2 blasting was installed in 1988, and is used
primarily as a cleaning supplement. In this process, an operator works in an enclosed booth using
a full face respirator by manually directing the CO2
gun at the part. The gun propels CO2 pellets at a
high flow rate (8 pounds per minute). The cleaning
is accomplished by the force of the impact which
causes the solid CO2 to sublime to a gas. The
removed soils can then be collected. Smaller particles are removed from the air by a filtration
system. Larger particles such as paint chips and
carbon deposits are swept from the blast booth floor.
This process is used primarily for two purposes.
The first is for spot or touch up cleaning. When a
part is not completely cleaned in the chemical
cleaning line, the CO2 blast unit is used to clean the
soiled area. This results in reduced chemical usage.
It also allows the part to be processed faster, since
it does not have to be reprocessed through the
chemical cleaning line.
CO2 blasting is also used in place of grit blasting
on parts with internal cavities. Internal cavities
must be masked before grit blasting to prevent grit
entrapment which could cause damage to the engine. Since CO2 sublimes from solid to gas, cleaning
can be accomplished without grit entrapment and
without masking. This results in reduced hazardous
waste from masking and quicker processing times.
Results
This process has resulted in reduced chemical
usage and quicker processing times. CO2 blasting
has eliminated a total of 1,700 gallons of chemicals
per year. These chemicals include methylene chloride, orthodichlorobenzene, cresylic acid, and caustic solutions. The hazardous waste disposal associated with these chemicals has also been eliminated.
High Velocity Oxy-Fuel Flame Spray
Background
High Velocity Oxy-Fuel Flame Spray (HVOF) is
the newest generation high energy thermal spraying process. HVOF is currently approved for the
application of wear/erosion coatings on exhaust
nozzles, combustion chambers, and compressor
blades. HVOF is currently being prototyped as a
chrome replacement on a series of parts.
Description
The main advantage of HVOF over other thermal
spray processes is the high impact speed that is
obtained by the molten droplets of metal. This high
impact speed produces very dense, hard coatings.
Many of the properties of HVOF coatings are similar to that of chrome plate. In addition, HVOF
coatings can be applied in approximately 45 minutes compared to over 48 hours for the same thickness of chrome. Waste water is virtually eliminated
because there are no rinse waters involved. Finally,
HVOF is very flexible because one machine is
capable of applying over 23 different coatings. The
properties of HVOF are being compared to the
requirements of different parts to determine prototype candidates. These prototype parts will then be
coated and tested in an engine to validate the new
coating.
Results
This process allows the plating shop to reduce the
amount of chrome plating that is done. It is hoped
that HVOF will eliminate approximately 30% of the
chrome plating work load. This reduction in chrome
plating will also reduce waste water treatment and
hazardous waste disposal.
Pressure Spray Washers
Background
Pressure spray washers are used for general
parts cleaning and degreasing. The spray washers
have been used to eliminate both perchloroethylene and Freon degreasers, PD-680 solvent cleaning, and some hand cleaning processes.
Description
Six pressure spray washers are currently in use.
The washers are essentially very large “dishwashers” in which parts are loaded, the door is closed,
and the switch is set to a preprogrammed cycle. The
spray washers offer several advantages over conventional degreasing.
First, spray washers remove both grease and
soils whereas a degreaser will only remove the oils.
Second, the detergent is biodegradable and produces no organic vapors. The spent solution can be
discharged to a waste water treatment facility
instead of being disposed of as hazardous waste.
Third, the spray washers eliminate worker exposure to solvent vapors making the workplace safer
and more enjoyable. Finally, the spray washer
technology is sustainable, because the biodegradable detergents will not compromise the environment for future generations.
The spray washers have successfully replaced
perchloroethylene and Freon degreasing. It has
also replaced some PD-680 solvent cleaning and
hand solvent cleaning operations. In addition to
meeting all the cleaning requirements of the previous processes, the pressure spray washers have
also decreased process times and increased worker
safety.
Results
The pressure spray washers have eliminated the
use of 25,000 pounds per year of CFC-113, 220,000
pounds of perchloroethylene, and 8,000 pounds of
PD-680. They have also resulted in quicker processing times and increased worker safety. Continued use of the pressure spray washers will identify
additional uses which will result in less hazardous
material usage and exposure.
Solvent Recycling System
Background
The Solvent Recycling System is used to distill
solvent for reuse. The system allows the paint shop
to use the solvent several times before final dis-
73
posal. The solvent, acetone, is used to clean the
paint spray guns. In the past, the solvent was used
until its cleaning ability was diminished. At that
point, it was transferred to a barrel for disposal.
Description
One Solvent Recycling System is currently in
operation. The system boils the solvent (acetone)
under vacuum. The solvent vapor is then condensed resulting in a pure solvent that is suitable
for reuse in the cleaning operation. The paint solids
and sludge are then disposed of in barrels.
New solvent is added to maintain the solvent
level. When the solvent is no longer adequately
cleaned, the entire solvent bath is replaced.
Results
The Solvent Recycling System allows the solvent
to be reused for over one month. Before implementation, the solvent was replaced on a weekly basis.
This system allows the Paint Shop to use less
chemicals and dispose of less hazardous waste.
Arc Spray
Background
Arc spray is used to deposit metal on jet engine
parts and aircraft components. In the past, this
operation was done by using nickel electroplating
to deposit a layer of metal on the part. The new
process decreases the processing time and provides
a coating that has equivalent properties.
Description
Arc spray has allowed OC-ALC to eliminate half
of the nickel plating work load from 1989 levels and
its associated wastes. This process change was
accomplished by challenging past practices. The
Arc spray coating and nickel plate are not exactly
the same, but the flame spray met all of the performance requirements for the application.
In addition to meeting performance requirements,
the flame spray process produced less waste and
required less time. A part can be coated with Arc
spray in less than one hour, while plating normally
takes several days. The only waste produced by the
process is the water and metal sludge from the
water fall duct collector. This is much less than the
millions of gallons of nickel contaminated waste
water that is generated from nickel plating.
Results
This process has resulted in reduced chemical
usage, reduced waste generation, and quicker processing times. Arc spray has reduced the purchase
74
of nickel by 11,400 lbs. The hazardous waste disposal associated with nickel plating has also been
substantially reduced. Finally, the new process
allows parts to be processed quicker reducing the
cost and time of repairs.
Zinc-Nickel Alloy Plating
Background
Zinc-Nickel Plating is an environmentally acceptable alternative to cadmium. Cadmium was
used in the past to provide sacrificial corrosion
protection to steel and high strength steel. Cadmium is the most toxic chemical used in the plating
shop and was therefore targeted for substitution.
Cadmium tank plating has been eliminated through
the use of zinc-nickel alloy plating, Ion Vapor
Deposition of Aluminum (IVDAl), and cadmium
brush plating.
Description
Zinc-Nickel Alloy Plating is currently in use as a
replacement for cadmium plating. It offers three
times the corrosion protection of cadmium and is
more erosion resistant. Zinc-nickel plating has
been used extensively in the automotive industry
for many years, and recently this technology has
been accepted by the aerospace industry as a replacement for cadmium and nickel cadmium coatings.
OC-ALC has been using zinc-nickel plating since
1991 resulting in a 25% reduction in cadmium
plating. This process complements IVDAl, because
it can be applied to all geometries including inside
diameters.
Results
Technology transfer from the automotive industry
identified zinc-nickel as an alternative process to
cadmium. This process has resulted in a 25% reduction in cadmium plating and is a key process in the
elimination of cadmium tank plating at OC-ALC.
The elimination of cadmium tank plating also eliminated the cyanide associated with cadmium plating.
Water Jet Knife
Background
The Water Jet is used primarily to remove rubberized coatings from engine casings. It is also capable
of stripping abradable thermal spray coatings, fiberglass, paint, sealants, adhesives, and aluminum vane
wraps. Modifications to the system would allow it to
strip virtually all thermal spray coatings.
In the past, rubberized coatings were removed
from engine cases in a two-step process. First, the
case was soaked in methylene chloride for several
days. The case was then removed from the solvent,
and the rubber was scraped away using a putty
knife. Currently, thermal spray coatings are removed in a chemical process.
Description
Two Water Jets are currently in operation. The
first is a small unit with a maximum part diameter
of 36 inches. It was installed in 1987, and is operated by securing the part onto a turntable and
manually directing the nozzle at the area to be
stripped. The lid is then closed and the cycle is
started. The machine delivers 10 gallons of water
per minute at a pressure of 10,000 PSI. This unit is
used to strip rubberized coating from engine cases
and to remove aluminum vane wraps from the
TF30 Inlet Guide Vanes.
The second machine, installed in 1993, is larger
and uses robotics for nozzle placement. This machine operates at 20,000 PSI with a flow rate of 20
gallons per minute. The increased pressure allows
a wider range of materials to be stripped, including
abradable thermal spray coatings. Modifications to
the system to allow operation between 30,000 and
50,000 PSI would add the ability to strip most
thermal spray coatings. In this machine, the operator again secures the part to a turntable; however,
the nozzle placement is computer controlled. The
nozzle movements for each part can be programmed
and saved for future use.
In both systems, the stripped materials are filtered from the waste stream. The water is then
discharged to the Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant. The Water Jet technology is patented by
Mike Patry and Herb Barringer, OC-ALC engineers.
The equipment is manufactured by Automaker.
Results
The Water Jets have eliminated the use of 2,360
gallons per year of methylene chloride. They have
also resulted in quicker processing times and increased worker safety. The modification to allow
higher operating pressure would further reduce
hazardous chemical usage.
75
Section 4
Waste Handling/Recycling/Reuse
Introduction
This section contains proven practices designed
to reduce both hazardous and non-hazardous waste
during the manufacturing process. Although nonhazardous waste is somewhat easier to identify and
deal with, it no less presents serious challenges in
terms of variety and magnitude. Hazardous waste,
on the other hand, carries with it formidable and
far reaching Federal, state, and local regulatory
handling requirements. As stated in the Iowa Waste
Reduction Center’s pollution prevention guide,
Congress defined the term “hazardous waste” in
the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act as a
solid waste, or combination of solid wastes which,
because of its quantity, concentration, or physical,
chemical, or infectious characteristics may:
• Cause or significantly contribute to an increase
in mortality or an increase in serious
irreversible, or incapacitating reversible illness;
• Pose a substantial present or potential hazard
to human health or the environment when
improperly treated, stored, transported,
disposed of, or otherwise managed.
Much of our industrial evolution can be tied to
events in which the immediate need for a product
allowed for short cuts or, in some cases, complete
ignorance of the environmental impact. Over the
past few years, more stringent environmental regulations, combined with a deep sense of respect for
limited resources, have prompted overwhelming
changes in waste handling practices in businesses,
government agencies, and the academic communities. Not long ago, this waste was considered a
necessary evil of the production process and was
simply overlooked. Through education, reductions,
reuse, reprocessing, redesign, rethinking, and substitutions, several very successful solutions are
available in waste handling, recycling, and reuse
practices.
If further information is needed, please feel free
to contact the companies listed. These companies
have dedicated a vast amount of time and resources
to perfect these processes. If their dedication toward a healthier environment can assist in your
efforts, then their goal of a cleaner legacy for future
generations will be achieved.
Air Force Plant #44
Hughes Missile Systems Company Tucson, AZ
Chemical Waste Minimization and
Process Water Recycling
Background
As the result of the mandated closing of all
surface impoundments at Air Force Plant #44
(AFP44) associated with process waste and waste
water treatment, the need to minimize plating and
surface finishing wastes and to conserve process
rinse waters in general became critically important. A number of water recycling and waste minimization strategies have been implemented to date.
Description
Process rinse waters have been recycled at AFP44
for many years through the use of clarification,
ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis technologies.
Recent equipment upgrades and use of statistical
process control has resulted in a consistently improved reclaimed water quality being sent back to
the plantsite. One immediate benefit has been a
decreased demand for the more costly deionized
water in the process shops. In addition, the reclaim
water now feeds the ion exchange units in the
deionization area as it contains approximately 80%
less total dissolved solids (TDS) than contained in
city water. This has resulted in a less frequent
requirement to regenerate the ion exchange resins
with hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide which,
in turn, has reduced even more chemical waste.
Additional water recycling has occurred in the
General Plating Shop through the installation of
ion exchange systems for all chrome and nickel
plating rinse waters. Twenty gallons per minute of
chromium and nickel ion loaded rinse waters are
passed through separate cation and anion resin
columns for complete removal of metal as well as
deionization. The result has been less water entering the plantsite waste water stream and, more
importantly, minimal chrome and nickel to treat by
more costly methods downstream. The success of
this effort has resulted in a second project to similarly remove copper, tin and lead ions from printed
77
wiring board process rinse waters at their source.
Approximately thirty gallons per minute of
redeionized water will be recycled back to the
original processes.
In the area of chemical waste minimization, electroless copper plating which contains a very difficult to waste treat chelating agent EDTA has been
eliminated. A new process utilizing a suspended
graphite colloid to accomplish the metallization step
has resulted in ease of chemical waste treatment and
dramatically reduced rinse water requirements.
Acid recycling units are also being installed.
Using a resin based technology, metals ions (copper, nickel, tin, lead, iron) will be removed from
what are otherwise active acids resulting in near
indefinite use of these process solutions.
Results
Reduction of chemical wastes being generated;
reduction in overall water usage; lower operating
costs; continued and, in some cases, improved product quality.
City of Chattanooga Chattanooga, TN
Curbside Recycling Collection
Program
Background
In support of its environmental and quality-oflife efforts, Chattanooga initiated a Curbside Recycling Collection Program in 1992 to provide residents with a curbside, pick-up recycling collection
service. Collected materials are sorted, processed,
and sold through a Materials Recovery Facility
operated by Orange Grove Center, a sheltered
workshop for the physically and mentally-challenged. This Material Recovery Facility was constructed using federal, state, and corporate contributions, and the Orange Grove Center will share
the revenue with the City, which will also pay
Orange Grove $3.00 per household per year.
Description
The program uses Dual Blue Bags as the primary
containers for recyclable materials. One bag is used
for co-mingled waste paper (newspaper, mixed paper, and cardboard). The second one is used for comingled waste containers (plastic bottles and jugs,
glasses, bottles and jars, and metal cans). To accomplish the recyclable material pick-up, the City
changed its policy from two garbage pick-ups each
week to one garbage pick-up and one Dual Blue Bag
78
recyclable pick-up. Residents acquire their own
blue bags which are available free from certain area
merchants, or purchased for two to ten cents each.
Results
The Curbside Recycling Collection Program averages 20% to 25% use per week, with some weeks
peaking at 40%. As a result of this program, a 14%
reduction in landfill is estimated to have resulted,
and the Orange Grove Center can provide jobs for
up to 100 mentally and physically-challenged clients; these jobs become part of their skill development program. The Orange Grove Connection helps
motivate residents to participate in the recycling
program, and provides continued educational opportunities and public awareness of the City's environmental agenda.
Warner Park Recycling
Program
Background
The Warner Park Recycle Center is a city owned
and operated facility that provides a full service,
drop-off recycle facility conveniently accessible to
Chattanooga residents and businesses. There was
need for the center to develop a dynamic Outreach
Program to encourage waste reduction, as well as
a recycling and a Recycle Express Program to
bridge the collection gap.
Description
Started in 1991, the Recycle Center at Warner
Park accepts Type I and II plastics, aluminum can,
lumber, recyclable paper, and glass and is manned
and open six days a week. The facility collected
1,600 tons of recyclable material in 1995 which
amounted to $100K in revenues from sale of the
materials.
Besides providing a collection site for residents
and businesses, the Center designed an Outreach
Program to encourage and educate its citizens in
waste reduction and recycling. This service includes providing speakers at various public and
private functions, performing audits, and participating in school programs. Another program created by the Warner Park Recycle Center is the
Recycle Express Program which the City provides
as a special collection service for residents and
businesses that lack the resources to deliver their
materials to the drop-off facility. One major barrier
to recycling is material collection, especially for
businesses, non-profit agencies, and government
activities. Many want to recycle but lack the re-
sources to deliver their materials to the drop-off
facility. The Recycle Express Program was developed to bridge this collection gap. The City serves
over 175 clients through this program including
free material collection, a waste audit, program
start-up assistance, and employee education. Clients provide their own collection containers and
the City schedules pick-up to accommodate the
individual client.
Results
The Warner Park Recycle Center’s recycling activities are in compliance with the Tennessee Solid
Waste Act of 1991. The Center has provided effective waste management services to its residents,
reduced waste going to landfills, provided recycling
opportunities to its residents, and developed and
facilitated markets for its recyclable materials.
Description
The solution to these handling problems came by
expanding the use of tote pans for all depleted
uranium storage and handling. The tote pan (Figure
4-1) is a low, rectangular, heavy duty container
with built-in forklift and stacking features and
through further design enhancements also includes
locking rings for the pan. Some pans were also
made deeper. By using these tote pans, there has
been minimized personal injury and fire hazards;
the pans are easier to transport with a fork lift; are
more efficient to stack and store; a greater visibility
of contents which facilitates efficient packing and
inventory ease; and the pans are more durable and
totally reusable, thereby eliminating additional
drum disposal.
Department of Energy, Oak Ridge
Operations - Oak Ridge, TN
Improved Handling of Recycled
Materials
Background
The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is tasked to provide
nuclear weapon dismantlement. This program has
expanded substantially over the last two years,
generating tremendous quantities of material for
recycling. Existing recycle systems were initially
inadequate and inefficient when the flow of returned materials increased by orders of magnitude.
In the recycled depleted uranium stream, this
large flow of metal created new problems and
exacerbated existing problems concerning employee
health and safety, adequate storage of material,
and disposal of waste products. Handling this material consisted of disassembly, placing the material into 55 gallon drums sent to the scrap processing area, then sending it to the warehouse for
storage, and on to the foundry to cast into billets.
Finally, the material was sent back to the warehouse for storage. Most of the drums proved inadequate and were crushed, scratched, or dropped
during the awkward handling of the drums. The
drums were then contaminated and had to be
treated before disposal, adding another problem. In
addition, a fire hazard associated with dumping
uranium out of drums needed to be eliminated.
Figure 4-1. Tote Pan
An improved structured process flow was also
implemented, routing all recycled depleted uranium to the scrap processing area where the proper
storing and staging functions are performed. The
filled totes are sent directly to the foundry, then on
to the warehouse. This process flow eliminated an
additional trip to the warehouse, thus decreasing
the number of handling steps with resulting employee safety.
Results
Expanding the use of tote pans and the changes
in the recycle process flow have corrected many
problems in personal health and safety, reduced
storage requirements for materials returned to the
Y-12 Plant from weapon dismantlements, minimized a waste stream for contaminated 55 gallon
drums, and resulted in more efficient recycling
operations of depleted uranium.
79
In Situ Vitrification Method
for Waste Disposal
Resource Conservation and
Recovery Act Closures
Background
An extensive environmental restoration effort is
underway at the DOE Oak Ridge Facilities. The
objective of this effort is to develop and apply
technologies that can provide data or remediate a
site in situ, thereby averting the need to excavate,
creating problems and expense related to worker
exposure, environmental releases, and waste disposal issues.
Description
In Situ Vitrification (ISV) involves melting a
disposal trench in place to produce a solid, relatively impermeable mass of glass and crystalline
material encapsulating the wastes. This ISV process is achieved by placing a metal dome with four
graphite electrodes into the trench and heating the
trench to 1,500 degrees C, creating a man-made
magna chamber melting the trench and the waste
within the trench. The metal dome is placed over
the melt to collect gases and particulates released
from the melt. The collected off-gas is cooled,
scrubbed, and filtered to remove any released materials before discharge. Once cooled, the matter
vitrifies into a glass-like substance which can not
be penetrated by ground water.
Results
This method is a cost effective means of removing
small isolated areas of contamination/waste. There
is low worker exposure to the waste and considerable monitoring of events in the chamber. This
method has been conducted on a pilot scale at Oak
Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and will be
conducted on a real trench at ORNL in 1996. There
are several characteristics of the ISV technology
that offer attractive benefits to government and
private applications including:
• Offering an advantage for radioactive sites
since the airborne release pathway associated
with excavation can be eliminated/minimized;
• Offering significant cost advantages for some
sites compared to alternatives involving complex
treatment trains made up of several technologies
because of the ability of ISV to simultaneously
process mixtures of radioactive and hazardous
chemical-contaminated soil;
• Providing superior physical and chemical
leaching properties of the glassy residual ISV
product that is important for the safe, permanent
immobilization of radioactive materials.
Background
Due to the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), certain landfill
and hazardous waste areas at the DOE-Oak Ridge
Facilities had to be contained. Leaching was occurring from the buried wastes into the groundwater
system through the numerous faulted rock layers,
and therefore the means of preventing the surface
water from penetrating the filled areas needed to
be developed.
Description
The Oak Ridge Facilities personnel applied their
extensive expertise in RCRA permits, containment,
closure plans, and dealing with all of the regulatory
requirements.
Areas as large as 90 acres had to be capped, and
the solution that was developed was to contour the
top surface into a berm shape. Two feet of clay was
highly compacted to a permeability of 1x10-7 cm/sec.
The clay was then covered with 30 mil poly
vinylchloride (PVC) welded into one piece. A drain
net with a filter on top was then placed on top of the
PVC to allow the water to drain as much as possible
before reaching the PVC in lieu of the normal one
foot of sand. Two feet of earth was placed on top to
provide for green cover growth (Figure 4-2).
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Figure 4-2. Engineered Caps
Results
This method has proven effective at stopping the
leaching and could have wide application to many
industrial and municipal landfill operations. Over
600 wells are in use at Oak Ridge for monitoring the
leaching.
Spill Control System
Background
The Y-12 Plant at Oak Ridge employs a unique
system to control any hazardous waste spill that
may occur into the nearby East Fork Poplar Creek.
The East Fork Poplar Creek runs through the Y-12
Plant, the Y-12 constructed "New Reality" pond,
and eventually flows into the Clinch River.
Description
Actually a tertiary level of spill protection, this
system operates only after the first and second
levels of containment have failed. If necessary, the
tertiary system uses a combination of creek surface
skimming, spill containment, and creek diversion
to prevent spilled materials from contaminating
surface water systems.
As the first element of the tertiary control system, an oil skimmer has been installed immediately
downstream from Y-12. The skimmer will remove
spilled material floating on the creek surface.
Unremoved surface contaminants and submerged
contaminants not picked up by the skimmer flow
into the New Reality Pond. In the event of a spill,
the pond outflow can be shut off so that contaminated creek water can be contained. When the
contaminated portion of the creek has been captured in the pond, creek entry to the pond is
terminated, and the creek is diverted around the
pond. The contained water can then be treated in
the pond.
Results
The unique capability to divert the natural flow of
East Fork Poplar Creek allows Y-12 to protect against
surface water contamination which has previously
been traced as far as Chattanooga. The diversion
concept may be applicable to other large government
and private industry sites, and the expertise of the
system creators could benefit a variety of facilities
with similar spill control challenges.
Sensor Development for
Environmentally Relevant
Species
Background
The ORNL needed a low cost, effective, and
portable sensor apparatus to detect polychlorinated
biphenyls (PCBs) in support of gasket and duct
removal projects.
Description
ORNL and Michigan State University teamed
and directed their collective resources to design,
develop and build a modified surface acoustic wave
(SAW) device whose frequency is selectively depressed by the absorption of PCBs. This technology
provides an extremely sensitive technique to quantitatively measure PCB levels. The SAW device is
manufactured in-house and has been applied in
analysis of PCBs found in oil, sludge, water, and
cement. Sample preparation and analysis is accomplished in seven minutes at a cost of $5 to $10 per
test. Current price tests are $40 per test and produce potentially hazardous waste.
Results
As a result of this effort, additional benefits in the
areas of non-selective polymers, functional polymers, polymer oxide glasses, and siliconization
reagents were realized. This sensing device can
also detect several other organic chemicals of interest in environment monitoring. A reduction of up to
75% of the extensive laboratory analysis can be
eliminated by using the portable sensor apparatus.
Techniques are continually being developed for
concrete and rubber samples and to further increase the detection limit for PCBs.
Technology Logic Diagram
Background
The Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) integrates
and cross references information about a site's
environmental and waste management problems
with analyses of technologies which can potentially
be applied to solve the problems.
Description
The Oak Ridge TLD (available in hard copy and
as a database) is expected to be a prototype for the
development of TLDs for other DOE facilities. The
TLD will provide a planning tool to assist in the
selection of cost effective technology options.
For each environmental management (EM) activity, the logic path (Figure 4-3) flows through
DOE goals, specific site problems and legal requirements to potentially applicable technologies. The
status of each technology is described along with
the scientific development needed to mature the
technology, implementation needs, and cost. Each
technology option is described in separate supporting volumes to the TLD. The diagram references
points of contact who can provide detailed information on each technology. The TLD technique iden81
selection of technologies that will meet committed
schedules and milestones.
Dover Air Force Base - Dover, DE
Dover Air Force Base as a National
Test Site Groundwater and
Soil Cleanup Testing
Figure 4-3. Technology Logic Diagram
tifies the research necessary to develop each technology to a state that allows for technology transfer
and application to each EM activity.
Results
Use of this TLD provides several benefits to the
DOE community, universities, and private industry. It identifies a host of technologies that can be
used to solve environmental management problems. It acts as a vehicle to identify the deficiencies
in technologies which otherwise would hold promise to speed remediation, allow safer project activities, and result in better, lower cost remediation
efforts. Utilizing the TLD, improvements to existing technologies, demonstration of promising technologies, development of immature technologies,
and support for fundamental technology investigations become options which can be explored to
deploy the suite of technologies necessary for successful environmental management.
The TLD will aid in strategic planning, improved
prioritization, and enhanced focus and leveraging
of RDT&E efforts. Finally, the filtering aspects of
the diagram that include regulatory drivers, technology costs and implementation needs allow the
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Background
The main challenges faced at Dover Air Force
Base (DAFB) were a major environmental cleanup
effort, reduced funds to accomplish the job, and
resistance to using new technologies. Use of cleanup
technology demonstrations, at the expense of the
technology vendors, could resolve the first two
problems but would run head on into the last
challenge. This challenge could only be overcome
by educating those opposed to using new technologies. This was not a one time effort. It required
repeating the same message over and over until it
began to sink through the shield of “It won’t work
at Dover.” Another tactic to gain acceptance of new
technologies was the implementation of small demonstrations that were out of the way, out of sight,
and caused no long term impact.
Description
Three major demonstrations are fully implemented
and a forth is nearing implementation. Five smaller
demonstrations have been completed. The National
Test Site has been approved with the first test cell in
place and the first permitted controlled release complete. The test to cleanup the first release of JP-4 jet
fuel and trichloroethene (TCE) solvent is underway.
Other test cells are being planned with associated
controlled releases. The second is planned to start the
last of September 1996.
The cleanup of the largest groundwater solvent
plume was estimated to cost $90 to $100 million
using the best available, accepted technology. The
current estimate for the cleanup of the plume after
the demonstrations are complete is $5 million—to
cleanup what the demonstrations do not finish off
(using a less expensive technology proven by the
demonstrations). The net savings is in excess of $85
million. Additional demonstrations are planned for
the remaining contaminant plumes on base, which
will increase savings.
Results
Benefits to DAFB include reduced cleanup costs
due to better technologies, and reduced cleanup
quantity necessary after the demonstrations.
Mason & Hanger Corporation Middletown, IA
Barcode System for Hazardous Waste
Management
Background
Mason & Hanger Corporation (M&H) procured a
PC-based hardware and software system which
provides automated control over the tracking of
hazardous waste. The system utilizes bar coding for
quick and accurate data entry. The system is able
to track each hazardous waste container from the
date of issuance to the date of shipment for disposal.
Each inspection is recorded as well as the movement from generation to accumulation area to
permitted storage area. It features an automatic
tickler system for the 90 day and the one year
storage areas. Various reports and analyses are
available to the user. A complete history of each
hazardous waste container is available to either a
screen or printer. The manifest can be generated by
the system at the time of shipment.
The facility is classed as a large quantity generator of hazardous waste. It has 6 permitted storage
areas, 6 treatment areas, 14 accumulation areas,
and 57 generation areas. All of these are spread
throughout the 19,000 acre facility. Keeping track
of each hazardous waste container was a monumental task. The paperwork was burdensome, and
the chance for error or omission was very high.
Description
In an effort to relieve the situation, it was decided
to explore the potential of a bar code system for
resolving the issue. Finally a supplier was found with
what appeared to be the answer to the problem. The
basic system was sound and it could be easily fine
tuned to M&H’s particular method of operation.
Results
The system is now approaching full implementation. It has been modified a total of three times and
now fully addresses the Company’s needs. Since
using the bar code tracking system, no container
has exceeded its storage limits and no container has
ever failed to be inspected on time. During a recent
EPA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
(RCRA) compliance audit, a question concerning
an inspection date was resolved with the historical
information in the system.
The cost to implement such a system is in the
$25,000 to $30,000 range and operating expenses
are a minor cost factor.
Closed Loop Pink Water Treatment
Facility
Background
Mason & Hanger Corporation performs high
explosive melt loading operations for conventional
ammunition items. As a result of these operations,
explosive contaminated wastewater (pink water) is
generated. In order to comply with the National
Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)
permit limits for effluent discharge, the pink water
is routed through a series of carbon filter columns
prior to discharge into an on-site creek.
Description
This process requires close monitoring and analytical testing to assure that the permit discharge
limits are not exceeded. To eliminate any chance of
exceeding the discharge limits, Mason & Hanger
Engineering designed a closed-loop system that
utilizes the carbon treated wastewater as recycled
process water.
This closed-loop system is fully operational at one
site and will be implemented at two other sites in
the facility within the next year.
Results
The immediate benefit of this system is that the
discharge of treated explosive contaminated wastewater has been eliminated from this one outfall,
thereby precluding the possibility of a NPDES
permit violation. The environmental benefit is an
annual reduction of 214,000 gallons of treated
wastewater being released into the environment.
This figure represents 37% of the installation’s
total for treated wastewater. This recycling process
for pink water has also contributed to M&H receiving the 1995 Environmental Quality Award from
the Department of the Army and the Honorable
Mention Award for the Secretary of Defense’s Environmental Security Award for 1995.
The cost to convert a pink water discharge system
to a closed-loop system is a major expenditure. The
operating expenses are less than a discharge system and there is a savings from the reduced usage
of water. In this era of ever-tightening NPDES
discharge limits, the closed-loop system is worth
the expenditure in both peace of mind and environmental stewardship.
83
Millar Western Pulp (Meadow Lake)
Ltd. - Saskatchewan, Canada
Elimination of Liquid Effluent
Background
One of the major challenges facing the pulp and
paper industry is reducing the negative effects of
liquid effluents on natural waterways. In the
company’s greenfield installation, which commenced
operations in 1992, the problem of effluent discharge
to waterways was decisively dealt with by construction of a zero liquid effluent discharge facility.
Description
There is no pipeline from the mill to any waterway - all of the process waste water is treated and
80% is recycled as distilled water for reuse in the
process. The remaining 20% of the water is lost in the
drying of the final pulp product, and by evaporation
from effluent and treated water holding ponds.
Results
The effluent treatment sytem uses conventional
evaporation, concentration and incineration unit
operations to effect this significant accomplishment.
NASA Marshall Space Flight
Center - Huntsville, AL
Environmental Control and
Life Support Systems
Background
The Manned Habitat Environmental Control and
Life Support Systems Test Facility supports
Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)’s mission to
develop and refine necessary processes and systems for environmental control and life support
(ECLS) technologies. NASA relies on its Life Support Systems contractors — such as Boeing and
United Technologies/Hamilton Standard — to provide the necessary environmental control systems.
However, new and improved designs, and concepts
and process theories continually evolve to refine,
modify, and improve existing technologies.
Description
Originally formed to directly support the Space
Station Freedom program, this 20,000-square foot
highbay facility provides a hands-on testbed environment for ECLS technology development. A variety of full-scale working habitat simulators and
contractor-supplied control systems provides the
84
facility with a diverse range of ECLS systems
capabilities.
Included within the ECLS facility are working
simulation modules for wastewater collection and
purification, atmospheric control and air recovery
systems which control the oxygen pressures and
levels, carbon dioxide removal/reduction systems,
and smoke/fire detection systems. Individual ECLS
subsystems have been integrated into a full scale
habitat simulator measuring 15 feet in diameter
and 40 feet long that is capable of operating at
ambient and reduced pressures. This habitat simulator provides a self-enclosed ecosystem for testing
and evaluation of the numerous environmental
control systems required for life support.
The unique partnering agreements between
MSFC and its Life Support Subsystem contractors
has facilitated one of the most advanced systems
development and integration laboratories in the world.
Experienced on-site contractors, working with
MSFC personnel, provide an environment that
facilitates personnel involvement through teamwork instead of working in a more traditional
government/contractor relationship. This relationship provides the advantages of shared or free
flowing information between parties while improving morale. Systems engineers and designers have
used the facility to gain first hand, working knowledge of processes and integration issues. This effort
allows them to return to the designing environment
with enhanced knowledge of system requirements.
Results
This unique partnering has allowed MSFC personnel to gain invaluable knowledge into ECLS
technologies and integration issues leading to advanced shipboard ECLS systems in a short time,
and this knowledge will then be applied to the
procurement process. Consequently, MSFC can ensure the procurement of what is needed with no time
or money lost by reordering needed ECLS systems.
Nascote Industries, Inc. Nashville, IL
Paint Sludge Recycling
Background
Nascote's paint lines included an overspray capture system which generated paint sludge, a material classified as hazardous waste by the EPA. Prior
to 1993, paint sludge was collected and shipped in
55-gallon drums to a fuel blending facility and
burned, a process that still resulted in pollutants
being released into the atmosphere. As costs increased with this process, Nascote began investigating alternative disposal methods to improve the
environment and reduce costs.
Description
Nascote contracted with Environmental Purification Industries (EPI) of Toledo, Ohio to send paint
sludge through EPI's paint waste recycling process.
EPI accepts paint waste under a highly-controlled procedure and processes it into a granular,
inert powder which can be used as a filler or
pigment for products used by the roofing, rubber,
paint, plastics, and sealer/caulking industries. The
new process reduces the chance of spills through
bulk handling and shipping of the paint sludge.
Strict record keeping and tracking procedures are
followed by EPI who issues a recycling certificate
verifying the waste has been completely recycled.
This certification process complies with the Resource,
Conservation, and Recovery Act for conserving energy and raw materials by recycling waste.
Results
Since 1993, over 5,000,000 pounds of paint sludge
shipped to EPI from Nascote's paint overspray
capture system has been recycled. In addition to
eliminating 100% of the waste formerly discharged
into the environment, Nascote's system reflected
an annual disposal cost savings of approximately
$100 thousand.
Naval Surface Warfare Center,
Indian Head Division Indian Head, MD
Solid Waste Recycling
Background
Source reduction is the Navy’s top priority for
solid waste diversion from landfills. It includes
elimination, reuse, substitution, and minimization
of products to reduce quantity of waste produced.
The Navy’s second priority in diverting waste from
a landfill is recycling. Although recycling is not new
to the management of solid waste, it is gaining
wider acceptance as a viable approach to the solid
management and disposal problems. If present
refuse generation rates continue, the costs for
disposal of solid waste will jump dramatically by
the year 2000. State mandated recycling goals and
increased public awareness are resulting in an
increased amount of material being recovered for
recycling. Although costs associated with recycling
are increasing, recycling is considered to be a
worthwhile solid waste management tool even at a
net loss in order to conserve landfill space.
Navy policy requires all naval activities to develop and implement Solid Waste Management
Plans. It is the essential tool for developing and
maintaining a solid waste program that is in compliance with all Federal, State, and local regulations, and DOD/Navy instructions. The Indian
Head Division’s (IHDIV) Solid Waste Management
Plan addresses the management of solid waste
including a detailed description of its Recycling
Program.
Description
The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act,
Subtitle D, encourages solid waste management
practices that promote environmentally sound disposal methods, maximize the reuse of recoverable
resources, and foster resource conservation. The
Maryland Recycling Act of 1988 establishes a requirement for Maryland counties to plan and implement a recycling system. Charles County has mandated a reduction of the county’s solid waste stream
by 15%.
Results
As a resident and also one of the largest businesses operating in Charles County, IHDIV is
committed to an effective recycling program. In
FY95, IHDIV recycled 30% of its solid waste, saving
approximately $50,000 in disposal costs. Although
IHDIV’s recycling program is not a profitable one,
it reduces solid waste going to the landfills, and
saves money in disposal costs. The following materials are collected for recycling purposes at IHDIV:
Aluminum Cans
Glass
Cardboard
Office Waste/Junk Mail
Newspapers
Fluorescent Bulbs
Used Oil
Lead-acid Batteries
Plastic
High-grade White Paper
Telephone Books
Magazines
Tires
Laser Printer Cartridges
Antifreeze
Scrap Metal
A challenge for IHDIV continues to be education
and awareness. To overcome this challenge, information on recycling is disseminated through articles and base-wide e-mail messages. Additionally,
Departments are provided with the appropriate
material necessary for recycling, such as white paper, office waste recycling boxes; desk-top convenience boxes; and beverage can recycling containers.
85
Photographic/X-ray Fixer Recycling
Background
Disposal of spent photographic and X-ray processing and printing solutions is expensive. The
waste generated by these processes typically contains elevated concentrations of heavy metals, organic compounds, and other toxic constituents,
unacceptable for direct discharge to a sewer system. There are, however, various technologies that
can be applied to treat certain solutions prior to
disposal and/or recover constituents of the waste
streams which have value (e.g. silver recovery from
specific photographic process wastes).
Description
The most concentrated silver-containing waste
in film and image processing is spent or excess fixer
bath solution. In a typical film developing operation, fixer solution is continuously added to maintain solution strength. As a result, there is generally an overflow of fixer from the bath. The concentration of silver in the overflow may vary greatly
depending on type and amount of film processed.
Because of this high silver concentration, silver
recovery from the fixer solution is cost effective.
Additionally, if this highly concentrated silver solution is disposed of, it would be a hazardous waste.
Results
The IHDIV has implemented an Electrolytic Silver Recovery System (ESRS) to recover silver from
its photographic process wastes. The present ESRS
is centrally located and requires transportation of
spent fixer from the generation points. The fixer is
processed until the recovery.
Trichloroethane Recycling
Background
Recycling is a viable alternative to single use/
disposal of toxic solvents. It is environmentally
benign, and reduces the amount of solvent purchased and disposed. Although capital, operating,
and training costs are not negligible, most solvent
recycling systems are less expensive to operate
than the purchase of virgin solvent and disposal of
spent solvent.
Description
In 1993, IHDIV purchased a solvent recovery
distillation unit, or still. The still was not universal
and could only distill low flammable solvents.
86
Results
The purchase of the still paid for itself almost
immediately—a cost of $12,665 compared to the
cost of one 55-gal drum of virgin Trichloroethane
(Trich) at $1,992. Another savings for IHDIV is in
disposal costs, which in the early 1990s was paying
$0.22/pound. Currently, the only waste disposal
cost is for the still bags contaminated with sludge
after the Trich distillation is complete (Trich is
used for degreasing metal parts).
Carbon Adsorption
Background
Wastewater discharge from energetics manufacture often leaves residual levels of nitrate esters in
the effluent. To meet the regulatory effluent limit,
IHDIV engaged in a vigorous project to construct
seven facilities housing carbon adsorption treatment trains. The outstanding efforts of the engineers resulted in rapid transition through lab-scale
testing to two subsequent pilot scale efforts of 4-inch
and 10-inch columns, and then full scale testing of
the actual carbon adsorption canisters. Within a
short period, IHDIV had installed and commissioned
carbon adsorption treatment trains which remove
nitrate esters from wastewater from explosive and
propellant production and processing plants.
Description
The current process successfully treats all wastewater from two nitrate production facilities which
produce up to six different nitrate esters including
nitroglycerin, propylene glycol dinitrate (PGDN),
and others, and a propellant extrusion/machining
operation which contains nitroglycerin. The carbon trains reduce nitrate concentrations as high as
6,000 ppm to nondetectable levels and treat up to 3
million gallons of wastewater annually.
Results
The most dangerous and persistent problem encountered in this process is the off-gassing of the
contaminated carbon when fully loaded. This problem has been reduced by decreasing the loading on
the carbon.
Ultraviolet Treatment of Contaminated
Wastewater
Background
Traditional methods for treating industrial wastewater discharges from energetics manufacture leave
residual levels of nitrate esters and volatile organic
compounds (VOCs) in the effluent. IHDIV studied
the feasibility of using high intensity ultraviolet
(UV) light, hydrogen peroxide, and ozone for the
destruction of nitrate esters in wastewater. The
goal of this study was to determine if the UV/
oxidation process is capable of decomposing each of
the nitrate esters such that the residual level in the
wastewater streams would be less than 1 ppm.
Data indicated that in all wastewater streams the
parent nitrate ester decomposed more effectively
by UV hydrogen peroxide than by UV alone, reducing the nitrate ester concentration in wastewaters
from 1,500 ppm to below 1ppm.
Description
IHDIV engineers and scientists designed and
installed a full scale photo-oxidation process for
removing nitrate esters: NG (nitroglycerin), PGDN
(propylene glycol dinitrate), TEGDN (triethylene
glycol dinitrate), and TMETN (trimethylolethane
trinitrate), and other contaminants from process
waste waters. The system uses UV light and hydrogen peroxide to destroy organic materials in the
wastewater, and attains a destruction efficiency
greater than 99.9%. The UV/oxidation wastewater
treatment process for nitrate ester contaminated
water provides an attractive alternative to other
treatment methods for several reasons. It uses
high-intensity UV light and a choice of oxidants,
such as hydrogen peroxide or ozone, to decompose
organic contaminants rather than removing and
concentrating them on another medium which
then must be treated.
The process consists of an automated, Programmable Logic Controlled (PLC) batch treatment system with four reactors. The reactors emit highintensity (30 kw) UV light, and are used in combination with a hydrogen peroxide supply system,
wastewater cooling tower, and automatic pH control to treat the process wastewater.
Results
Hydrogen peroxide in combination with UV light
was the most cost effective system for most wastewater streams. For composite wastewater and wash
water streams, the carbonates and bicarbonates had
to be removed to receive the added benefit of hydrogen peroxide. UV/oxidation is potentially effective for
treatment of nitrate esters wastewater streams, especially those where little or no salts are present.
Cost Comparison Summary
UV/Oxidation treatment is a less costly treatment than the Carbon Absorption:
Carbon: $246.48 per 1000 gal
UV/OX: $46.46 per 1000 gal
Naval Undersea Warfare Center
Division - Keyport, WA
OTTO Fuel Reclamation
Background
With the rising cost of fuel and the increasing
amount required for Torpedo launch and other
uses, the Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC)
embarked on determining possible savings means
keeping environmental and cost limits in mind.
Description
NUWC Division - Keyport has developed an OTTO
fuel reclamation process that resulted in substantial savings for the facility. OTTO fuel, used in the
external combustion cycle of the Mk 48 torpedo
engine, is comprised of an energetic compound
(Propylene Glycol Dinitrate), a desensitizer (Butyl
Sebacate), and a stabilizer (2-Nitro DI
Phenylamine). An OTTO fuel and seawater mixture is created during torpedo test firings by the
addition of seawater into the fuel tank module.
During a torpedo run, seawater is allowed to enter
the fuel tank to pressurize the fuel, thus pushing it
into the combustion chamber. OTTO fuel, which is
heavier than water and with a different polarity,
settles out at the bottom of the fuel tank. This
chemical property of the mixture is used to aid in
separating the mixture in a semiautomatic process.
The separation process begins by transferring
the OTTO fuel and seawater mixture from the Mk
48 torpedoes to a separation tank equipped with
low and high level fuel sensors. A quantity of the
mixture is pumped into the separation tank and
allowed to settle. After the mixture settles, a water
overflow line is opened to transfer the seawater to
a separate holding tank. Additional quantities of
the mixture are transferred into the separation
tank and the seawater is drained until the OTTO
fuel level reaches the high level sensor. The high
level sensor is located just below the seawater
overflow so a minimum of seawater will remain on
top of the OTTO fuel at this point. When the high
level fuel sensor is reached, actuators shut off the
influent mixture flow, shut off the seawater overflow, open the OTTO fuel drain valve, and introduce air into the separation tank to purge the fuel
to a Grade B holding tank. The fuel level in the
separation tank drops until the low fuel level sensors stop the purging operation and return the
system valves to their original configuration. The
location of the low fuel level sensor ensures that
87
only OTTO fuel is purged and a small quantity of
fuel and the seawater above remain in the separation tank. The Grade B OTTO fuel is used to refuel
torpedoes used for exercise drills only. Following
the separation process, the seawater is treated by
an activated carbon system and the Keyport Industrial Waste Treatment Facility before being discharged to the sewer.
Recent improvements to the process include the
addition of an air dryer tank to further purify the
Grade B OTTO fuel by sparging with air. After
sparging and filtration, the Grade B OTTO fuel
becomes Grade A and is used to fuel torpedoes for
combat.
Results
The improved reclamation process has the capacity to process OTTO fuel and seawater mixtures
from naval submarines in San Diego and Pearl
Harbor that are shipped to Keyport in tanks. The
process is also used to reclaim OTTO fuel from Mk
46 torpedoes.
A volume of 350,000 pounds of OTTO fuel, at a
value of over $1M is being reclaimed at Keyport per
year. Factoring in the costs to operate the process
and the avoidance of waste disposal costs, the
reclamation process results in a net savings of
approximately $960K per year.
OxyChem - Niagara, NY
dry gypsum filter cake to a beneficial use. Avoiding
the need to landfill this waste would translate into
a savings of over $500,000/year. The team discovered early on that Niagara’s gypsum was virtually
identical to commercial gypsum, thus leading to a
potential agricultural use for the waste material.
Results
Testing over two years was conducted with the
assistance of an agronomist (soil and crop specialist) on hay, ornamental shrubs, alfalfa, evergreen
trees, and blueberries. The gypsum binds clay
particles in soils, making it more porous and allowing water to permeate more freely. The material
also proved effective in controlling ammonia odors
from animal manure.
As part of the approval process with the state, a
field visit to the test sites was conducted with
representatives of NYSDEC, Cornell Cooperative
Extension, NYS Department of Agriculture and
Markets, the agronomist, and the Niagara Gypsum
Team. State officials viewed first-hand the obvious
benefits of gypsum addition to the soils and in dairy
barn manure handling systems. The visit, combined with test reports, resulted in the BUD being
issued within a week after the tour.
Pacific Northwest National
Laboratory - Richland, WA
Recycling of Non-Hazardous Materials
OxyChem’s Niagara Plant Receives
Beneficial Use Determination from
New York State Department of
Environmental Conservation
Background
Occidental Chemical’s (OxyChem) Niagara Plant
received a Beneficial Use Determination (BUD)
from the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) for gypsum (calcium sulfate) produced in its chlor-alkali brine
treatment operations. The BUD allows the plant to
distribute this material as product for agricultural
purposes in New York state.
Description
The success story began in 1992 when a multidisciplinary team was formed using personnel from
Operations, Technical, Environmental, Purchasing, T&D, and Engineering with assistance from
Corporate Environmental, and Grand Island R&D.
The team sought to convert the 15,000 tons/year of
88
Background
In 1994 and 1995, interest in reducing sanitary
waste, demonstrating staff commitment to the environment, and practicing affirmative procurement
led Pacific Northwest to initiate several recycling
programs, including office products, used software,
and toner cartridges.
In 1994, the office products recycling program
only addressed white paper and aluminum. Small
white paper recycling containers were placed in all
offices and janitorial staff emptied them one day
each week in lieu of emptying the trash. Aluminum
cans were and are collected in central areas and
considered part of the janitorial staff’s property. In
1995 and 1996, the recycling program was expanded to include office paper, corrugated cardboard, mixed paper, newsprint, magazines, glass,
plastic, tin, and aluminum. Due to a recent reduction in janitorial services, staff now empty their
own recycling containers into the centrally located
recycling bins. Staff are also encouraged to pur-
chase recycled products, especially white paper.
Revenues received from the sale of office paper and
cardboard are used to sustain the program.
Description
The used software recycling program returns
obsolete software packages to Greendisk, Inc.
Greendisk, Inc. recycles the paper from the manuals and the plastic, whenever possible, and degausses, reformats, and relabels the disks for resale. The blank disks are purchased by the staff to
complete the recycling loop. The toner cartridge
recycling program involves an exchange with toner
cartridge vendors of used toner cartridges for a
rebate on new cartridges. Pacific Northwest discovered that the quality of the new/rebuilt cartridges
would determine whether or not staff would participate in this recycling program. An electronic buyer’s
guide for staff, the GreenGuide, instructs staff on the
preferred vendors for recycled-content products.
Results
These waste-minimization activities save money
through reduced disposal costs, staff time, and
product costs. The estimated waste reduction is
95,250 kg per year. The initial implementation cost
for these activities was $29,500 in 1995; no additional implementation costs have been incurred.
The estimated cost savings for these waste-minimization activities was $198,000 in 1995 and is estimated at $223,000 per year for 1996 and beyond.
company from which the drums of chemicals were
initially purchased.
Description
Previously, Pacific Northwest disposed of these
drums as hazardous waste. The liquid ring vacuum
pumps in one of Pacific Northwest’s facilities created a continuous waste stream of 17 liters of
wastewater per minute to the process sewer. Upgrading these vacuum pumps eliminated the need
to discharge water to the process sewer, protecting
it from potential contaminants in the laboratory
vacuum-pump system. Another facility modified its
cooling system critical compressors to allow recycled
cooling rather than once-through. The compressors
no longer require external water sources and instead
use a chilled-water, closed-loop system.
Results
These waste minimization activities save money
by reducing new-product purchases, disposal costs,
waste management costs, and generation of mixed
and hazardous waste, as well as the elimination of
vacuum-pump wastewater discharge. The estimated
waste reduction is 8.9 million kg per year of wastewater and 6,450 kg per year of hazardous waste.
The initial implementation cost for these activities
was $106,000; no additional implementation costs
are expected. The estimated cost savings for these
waste minimization activities is estimated at
$146,850 per year.
Recycling of Hazardous Materials and
Operations Upgrades
In-line Solvent Recovery Systems
Background
To decrease the quantity of waste disposal and its
associated costs, maintenance and operations staff
at Pacific Northwest implemented recycling programs for spent solvent, used oil, gel-cell batteries,
lead-acid batteries, and toxic waste drums. Operations upgrades of vacuum pumps and a cooling
system modification reduced the volume of wastewater disposal. The spent solvent recycling/reuse
program, used by maintenance services painting
operations, eliminated completely their solvent
waste stream and their need to purchase new
solvent. The used oil and battery recycling programs involve outside vendors picking up these
items at no charge to Pacific Northwest. The toxic
waste drums recycling program is actually a return
of the used drums, once again at no charge to
Pacific Northwest, to an affiliate of the chemical
Background
Pacific Northwest has five in-line solvent recovery systems in operation in its research laboratories. They are used to recover and reuse solvent
from laboratory analysis work.
Description
This waste minimization activity reduced the
generation of hazardous and mixed low-level radioactive waste, decreased need to purchase solvents,
and decreased waste management and waste disposal costs. The estimated waste reduction is 20 kg
per year of hazardous waste and 7 kg per year of
mixed low-level radioactive waste.
Results
The initial implementation cost was $21,600; no
additional implementation costs have been incurred.
The estimated cost savings for this waste-minimization activity is $18,000 per year.
89
Polaroid Corporation -Waltham, MA
Asbestos Management Council
Background
Many of Polaroid’s buildings were built between
1962 and 1985, and those pre-dating 1975 were
constructed with a variety of asbestos-containing
materials. The Corporate Health, Safety, and Environmental (HSE) Office provided general guidance
for managing asbestos-containing materials while
each building’s management was responsible for its
own proper asbestos maintenance. In 1995, Polaroid
established the Asbestos Management program to
increase employee awareness and improve asbestos management at all its facilities.
Description
Polaroid also created the Asbestos Management
Council (AMC) to provide more guidance and establish ownership for proper, cost-effective asbestos
management. AMC (Figure 4-4) includes participants from Corporate HSE, Purchasing, and Waste
Disposal as well as Division representatives from
all buildings containing asbestos materials. All
AMC members have been trained (with several of
them licensed) in proper asbestos management.
Results
Division representatives maintain all asbestos
records associated with their buildings including
Figure 4-4. Asbestos Management Council
90
asbestos management and building asbestos maintenance plans; building asbestos surveys; project
monitoring reports; and remediation project and
disposal records. AMC representatives also develop annual reports for their assigned location
including asbestos removal projects summaries;
sampling activities and results; building inspections; training activities; future asbestos-related
activities plans; and customer satisfaction for asbestos abatement contractors. In addition, AMC
has established a common process by developing
various tools such as a list of required records, an
asbestos awareness program, and a work notification form. These tools are available at Polaroid
through AMC’s Intranet website.
AMC meets quarterly to discuss issues and concerns, and to review the status on training and
asbestos projects. Polaroid’s Asbestos Management
program has successfully established a common
process throughout the company by providing guidance and creating ownership for proper, cost-effective asbestos management.
Electrostatic Discharge
Machining Oil Removal
Background
Polaroid has developed a two-step carbon and
clay filter system which removes oil and detergent
from Electrostatic Discharge Machining operation wastewater.
The system’s initial objective was
to maintain or reduce operating
costs, and meet the sewer permit requirements set by the Massachusetts Water Resource Authority (MWRA). Acceptable
wastewater standards call for
less than 15 parts per million of
total petroleum hydrocarbons.
Description
During the initial development
phases of the project, Polaroid
encountered some unique obstacles. Trial system #1 used a
coalescing tank and carbon filtration media. However, the carbon media quickly clogged and
required frequent and expensive
changes. By adding clay to the
filtration process, trial system
#2 significantly improved the life
of the media. However, the wastewater discharge
still continued the consumption of water during the
process and represented a 5% chance of placing
Polaroid in jeopardy for MWRA violations. Trial
system #3 addressed the unforeseen benefit of
using a closed loop method to run the discharge
water back into the rinse tank. This system lowered
capital costs, eliminated the possibility of MWRA
violations, reduced water consumption by 2,300
gallons per day, and had the added benefit of
eliminating wastewater sampling costs.
Results
Benefits from Polaroid’s two-step carbon and clay
filter system included decreasing water usage, reducing maintenance, and lowering the amounts of
non-hazardous materials. Although it met the discharge standards with trial system #2, Polaroid
chose to continue modifying and improving the
filter system to the point of totally isolating the
MWRA process regulations and eliminating the
associated environmental liability.
Establishment of Chemical
Categories
Background
Polaroid’s Toxic Use and Waste Reduction (TUWR)
program was voluntarily developed to reduce toxin
use and waste sources as a means of preventing
pollution. A critical element of the TUWR program
was to assign environmental impact categories to
the chemicals that Polaroid uses in its production
lines. After evaluating each material based on toxic
characteristics, physical attributes, and chemical
properties, Polaroid assigns it to one of the following categories:
• I - known human carcinogens, teratogens, and
toxic reproductive agents; highly acutely toxic;
or a great environmental threat
• II - known animal carcinogens, teratogens, and
toxic reproductive agents; chronic toxicity; or
an environmental threat
• III - suspected animal carcinogens, moderatelytoxic chemicals, or corrosive materials
• IV - chemicals that cannot be classified in I, II,
or III
• V - other materials such as plastic, paper, and
cardboard
Description
Based on this classification, Polaroid targets
chemicals for either reduction (I and II) or recycling
(III, IV, and V). As new chemical information
becomes available, Polaroid evaluates and reclassifies its chemicals as appropriate. New chemicals
are assessed before they can be introduced into
production lines.
Results
Polaroid uses incentive plans to encourage the
reduction of category I and II materials and the
recycling of category III and IV materials in production lines. In addition, reduction and recycling
goals are factored into each program manager’s
performance evaluations.
Although various regulations have established
chemical lists, none meet the requirements of
Polaroid. By comprehensively addressing and grouping chemicals specifically for its activities, Polaroid
ensures that all its materials are included. Managers have a reliable and comprehensive source for
identifying which chemicals should be eliminated
and which can be managed through recycling.
Hazardous Waste Disposal
Audit Procedure
Background
Polaroid recognized that various factors such as
new technology, process changes, cost advantage,
and vendor replacement can warrant a need for
altering a waste stream’s disposal method. To standardize the procedure, Polaroid developed an auditing process for determining the proper means of
disposing hazardous waste and selecting vendors
and proper treatment options. The auditing process includes a matrix that outlines the appropriate
disposal methods for on-site recovery, fuel blend
disposal, recycling sales, or disposal via a Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facility (TSDF).
Description
The approval process begins with a meeting between Corporate Purchasing and HSE representatives to discuss financial, insurance, health, and
safety issues. Next, an audit team consisting of
Polaroid purchasing and environmental managers
conducts a site visit at the TSDF to review labor
relations, permits, site history, and other concerns.
The audit team also inspects the site’s operations
and processes; reviews community relations; and
interviews local regulatory agencies. After completing the site visit, Corporate Purchasing prepares a report which summarizes the audit findings
and outlines the business reasons for approving the
TSDF. Then an environmental team reviews the
91
report and makes a recommendation for approval or
denial to the division that generates the waste.
Results
Corporate Purchasing monitors the business and
environmental status of approved vendors by conducting follow-up audits within two years. Polaroid’s
Code of Conduct governs its procurement operations and states that “excellent health, safety, environmental, social, ethical, and legal standards must
be met or exceeded in all sourcing activities by both
the company and suppliers.” These principles are
also applied to all TSDF vendors and suppliers.
Through its unique auditing process, Polaroid
has created a partnership between Corporate HSE,
Corporate Purchasing, the divisions that generate
the waste, vendors, and suppliers. This partnership ensures the continued protection of the environment and reduces the liability for Polaroid.
Landfill Avoidance
Background
In 1987, Polaroid’s CEO, Mac Booth, made a
commitment that his company would avoid sending chemical waste to landfills unless it truly was
the best alternative. This decision was made prior
to regulatory landfill-ban requirements. Additionally, the decision reflected concerns about the long
term integrity of landfill storage and the potential Figure 4-5. TSD Landfill Request
for long term liability.
Description
Cooling Tower Make-up
To implement the CEO’s initiative, Polaroid deWater Metering
veloped a landfill avoidance procedure. All hazardous waste disposal contracts must be reviewed by
the Purchasing Environmental Manager at the
Background
corporate level. Spent hazardous waste which canTypically, sewer charges for industrial sites are
not be recycled, reclaimed, or reused in another
based on the percentage of cubic feet of water
process is sent to a chemical waste disposal facility
metered to a company’s site regardless of its usage
as determined by the Purchasing Environmental
(e.g., drinking, cleaning, cooling). Water consumpManager. If the manager identifies a waste product
tion charges are based on meter readings placed at
that cannot be cost-effectively handled by one of
an entry point to the site. Allowing for a small
these alternatives, then an exception form is repercentage for lawn watering, the Water Departquired (Figure 4-5). The exception form is comment calculates sewer charges from these same
pleted by the vendor requesting the landfill option
meter readings based on the assumption that water
and reviewed for possible options by the Corporate
entering a site will exit the site through the sewer.
environmental team.
In industrial sites such as Polaroid where film
Results
processing and machinery generate vast amounts
Polaroid’s commitment to environmental responof heat, large cooling towers are required to mainsibility has greatly reduced long term liabilities. In
tain stable temperatures and humidity levels. Aladdition, Polaroid has created an environmental
though these cooling towers consume large amounts
awareness throughout the company in all of its
of water for operation, only about 10% of the water
programs.
returns to the sewer system while the remaining
92
90% evaporates from the towers. As a result, Polaroid
negotiated with the City of Waltham’s Water Department for an annual rebate of sewer charges for
the water which evaporates from its cooling towers.
Description
Until 1996, Polaroid paid full sewer charges for
the evaporated water. Based on widely accepted
engineering practices, on-site evaluations, and cooling tower blow-down cycles, Polaroid confirmed
that an average of 90% of the water consumption
volume for its 16 cooling towers evaporates, and the
remaining 10% is discharged into the sanitation
sewer system through the blow-down cycles. This
breakdown equates to a 10:1 reduction of water
consumed versus water entering the sewer system.
Key to qualifying for the annual rebate was
Polaroid’s presentation and demonstration to the
city that the Water Department’s metering and
sewer charging practices were inadequately reflecting the actual water discharged to the sewer system.
The city granted approval for the rebate, but
required Polaroid to purchase and install new water meters at the intake of each of the water towers.
The meters, which were compatible with the city’s
present metering system, registered in cubic feet
and allowed for remote readout from a touchpad
using a smart gun.
Results
By using the new method to estimate sewer discharge, Polaroid established a reliable accounting
method for determining how much water evaporates
at the cooling towers and how much enters the sewer
system. Sewer charges are no longer based on the
assumption that all water entering a site will be
discharged through the sewer system. Polaroid’s
annual sewer charge rebate for its 16 cooling towers
is estimated at $150,000 to $200,000 with a hardware
implementation cost of less than $4,000.
Watershed Protection
Background
In the mid-1980s, Polaroid and the Waltham
community became aware of the need for coordinated watershed planning and a program to reduce
the potential for liability. Since Polaroid sits on a
steep hill, runoff water flows directly into a drainage area adjacent to Route 128, a major commuting
highway, and then into a drinking water reservoir.
Polaroid had spill response plans for specific buildings at its facility, but no unified site plan to
accommodate a spill which might flow beyond the
boundaries of a building. In response, Polaroid
developed a watershed protection plan for minimizing site spill risks to the community.
Polaroid initiated a hazardous materials team
which established a coordinated site spill response
plan. In the event of a site spill, Polaroid can close,
within seconds, a 42-inch storm water valve in the
site’s drainage system which will prevent 60,000
gallons of runoff water from flowing into the community reservoir. If a spill occurs during a sustained heavy rainfall, the storm water valve and
drainage system can contain the spill for two hours.
Even in a worst-case scenario, the valve will provide enough time for Polaroid to respond to an
incident without impacting the community.
Description
Polaroid improved the roadways around its site
to provide multiple vehicular routes to its buildings
and reduce the likelihood and impact of a transport
vehicle spill. Other improvements include a holding bay to stage loaded trucks in inclement weather
and a large storage tank to collect roof runoff water.
The roof runoff water is then used for vacuum lines
and cooling towers, eliminating the need to purchase water for this purpose. The Massachusetts
Water Department has appreciated the steady discharge to the community water because it is now
more manageable.
Another aspect of Polaroid’s watershed protection program involves its community outreach efforts. These efforts include Polaroid’s regular participation in the Waltham Earth Day festivities;
assistance to the Cambridge Water Department by
jointly developing informational brochures and hosting community meetings; voluntary stenciling of
community water drains to discourage pollution; and
open-line communication to the Massachusetts Water Department and the Waltham community.
Results
Polaroid has gained many benefits from its watershed protection plan and activities. The risk in
handling a site spill is now minimal. Increased
community awareness of the issues and the spill
response plan characterizes Polaroid as a company
concerned with the health and safety of its community. By partnering with the Cambridge Water
Department, Polaroid has also established credibility with the authorities and a strong line of communication for resolving issues.
93
Rockwell Collins Avionics &
Communications Division Cedar Rapids, IA
Pay from Receipt
Background
CACD’s new accounts payable process electronically matches the purchase order with the receiving document, and the system completely eliminates supplier invoices from the payment process.
The Pay From Receipt (PFR) process is now standard for parts and material procurement at Rockwell
CACD.
Description
Rockwell determined that most companies pay
suppliers by matching the purchase order (what to
buy) with the receiving document (what is received) with the invoice from the supplier (what is
delivered). These documents address the same type
of data, which leads to errors. It was determined
that the supplier invoice added no value to the
process, and therefore was eliminated. Without
this function, the supplier did not need to submit
invoices; CACD did not input invoices into a database, resolve problem invoices, or store invoices.
The PFR process was implemented in phases—
each phase consisting of a selected number of
suppliers. A brochure announcing the new PFR
process to suppliers was created and distributed,
and 1200 suppliers were added to the PFR process
between April and July 1993. It was implemented
for all production part suppliers by November 1993.
Cost of implementation was $58K.
Results
This major business change has provided dramatic savings in administrative costs while maintaining timely payments to the supplier and the
integrity of the procurement process. The Accounts
Payable Department has been able to perform the
new payment process with five employees instead
of 15. The cost per document (including information systems cost) has been reduced from $8.00 to
$3.00. The PFR process has placed CACD in-house
accounting staff costs reductions at a world-class
level in accordance with data reported in the Commercial/Government Accounting Function Cost Comparison study by Hackett, 1992, Journal of Accountancy, October, 1993.
94
United Defense, L.P., Ground
Systems Division - Santa Clara, CA
Environmental Remediation Remedial Cost Estimating
Background
Because of concern over remediation cost estimates that were consistently too low, which resulted in cost overruns averaging 40% in the industry, United Defense, L.P. Ground Systems Division
(GSD) joined a consortium of approximately 200
companies and government facilities using the
statistical model HazRisk.
Description
HazRisk has a database containing information
on 237 actual, completed remedial site assessments,
cleanups, and underground storage tank projects.
This information is provided by the members of the
consortium. HazRisk is operated by Independent
Project Analysis, Inc. in Reston, Virginia.
By putting minimal amounts of current site data
into HazRisk software, users like GSD can obtain
accurate and defensible cost estimates based on the
database site information already in the system.
Since remedial costs generally run very high, corporate executives require accurate cost predictions. HazRisk not only makes cost predictions, but
also quantifies the relative reliability of the current
site data compared to the database sites, and it
quantifies the probabilities for cost over/underruns.
Results
In using HazRisk, GSD has found the statistical
model to be most useful in soil cleanup situations
and least useful for complex sites with multiple
environmental contaminants. This problem is typically solved by breaking the large, complex, multicontainment problem areas into small, less complex areas called operable units. Independent Project
Analysis, Inc. has also found that the major cost
driver in remediation projects is the volume of the
contaminated media; the greater the volume, the
greater the remediation costs.
Environmental Remediation In-Situ Soil Treatment
Background
Soil remediation by excavation and off-site treatment is costly, time consuming, and interferes with
normal site operations.
One area of concern to GSD is soil contaminated
with petroleum hydrocarbons. Such soils have traditionally been excavated and disposed of as hazardous waste in hazardous waste landfills or
remediated using technologies such as fixation, soil
vapor extraction, or forced air bioremediation.
Description
In-situ soil treatment has been recognized as a
viable alternative, and GSD has worked with its
managing general partner, FMC Corporation, to
test and develop a product called PermeOx.
PermeOx has been developed to provide controlled
release of oxygen in-situ which permeates throughout the substrata, enhancing the bioremediation
process. A minimal amount of PermeOx produces
optimum levels of oxygen in the soil.
Results
GSD recently tested PermeOx to determine its
effectiveness at enhancing the natural bioremediation process. In the pilot study, GSD found
by mixing PermeOx with petroleum hydrocarbon
affected soil, an 85% to 90% reduction in total
petroleum hydrocarbon (diesel) concentrations and
40% reductions in total recoverable petroleum hydrocarbon (hydraulic oil) concentrations. Using
PermeOx instead of forced air bioremediation or
typical soil vapor extraction, 40% cost reductions
per ton of soil can potentially be realized.
Environmental Remediation
Analysis, Computer Modeling,
and Visualization
Background
Since 1985, internal research and development
investments at GSD have focused on improving the
communication between analyst and client in environmental clean-ups.
In the past, much of this analysis was done using
tabular data and then visualized on typical twodimensional plots and overhead slides. Regulators
often applied default clean-up levels which were
often overly conservative and costly. The regulators did not have the time and expertise to absorb
the tremendous amount of information from computer modeling and risk assessment for site-specific proposals.
Description
Building on its experience using computer modeling and three-dimensional visualization for vehicle analysis, GSD has developed an interactive
three-dimensional color graphics software called
VIS3D, to integrate analysis with the environmental clean-up cycle (Figure 4-6).
The VIS3D software allows GSD to display and
animate field data and/or modeling results in three
dimensions. Realistic three-dimensional models of
buildings, wells, roadways, and aquifers can be
displayed to orient the analyst within the site.
Animations of pollutant flows (plumes) can predict
the spread of pollutants over long periods of time.
Simulation models clearly illustrate the spread of
pollutants over time taking into consideration rainfall and movements of underlying aquifers. This
information can be viewed interactively on a computer terminal or be videotaped for viewing by GSD
staff, government regulators, or court jurors. It
gives the audience a three-dimensional visual understanding of what is happening at a given site.
VIS3D can interactively cut, slice, and rotate the
site for a better understanding of particular areas
of a site. It can also calculate impacted soil volumes
and perform threshold analyses to determine concentrations of contaminants through the site. Such
information is valuable as input data to cost prediction statistical models.
Results
GSD's VIS3D package has been used to provide
analytical services for many environmental cleanup clients.
These tools and services serve to: guide site
investigations by improving pollution characterization and minimizing boreholes; guide remedial
design through the development of more realistic
remediations tailored to the site; negotiation of
clean-up specifics with agencies and the public
through understandable models which clarify ambiguities and alleviate regulator and public concerns; and use in litigation in place of charts to
illustrate the nature of the pollution and clean-up
problems to non-technical personnel.
GSD is continuing to develop this modeling technology through strategic alliances and Cooperative
Research and Development Agreements with two
western national laboratories.
Emergency Response Team
Background
Prior to the catastrophic earthquake that struck
the area in 1989, there was little in place at GSD-O
to respond to emergency situations in a coordinated
fashion. The earthquake caused $21.4M in dam-
95
Figure 4-6. Example of Environmental Computer Modeling
age, including the loss of a major manufacturing
building. This event, coupled with emerging legislation in the environmental area, led management to
support creation of the Emergency Response Team
(ERT) and the Crisis Management Team.
Description
United Defense, L.P., GSD-O has established a
highly trained, well-equipped core of approximately
50 volunteer employees for its ERT. Team members
are cross trained and certified to deal with chemical
spills, incipient fire response, medical emergencies, and natural/industrial emergencies such as
earthquakes, flooding, gas leaks, industrial accidents, and search and rescue.
Today, the ERT has well-stocked equipment lockers strategically located across the facilities. It also
maintains a large commercial-type van that has
been outfitted to carry a wide variety of equipment
and supplies needed in the different emergency
96
situations. All team members are equipped with
pagers and can be called by security to respond to
various levels of emergency. The intent is to provide rapid response to an emergency situation to
prevent catastrophic results. The average response
time is between 2 and 3.5 minutes. The team
conducts periodic drills internally and in cooperation with outside agencies.
Results
Implementing and supporting this concept has
resulted in a reduction of call-outs by 63% from
1990-1991, by 36% from 1991-1992, and by 34%
from 1992-1993. The team has gained recognition
by local and state Emergency Response agencies as
well as gaining employee confidence in being capable of quickly responding to any emergency. This
organized response has also reduced operational
cost by avoiding costly downtime in containment of
problems that could potentially stop work.
Appendix A
Table of Acronyms
Acronym
Definition
ACGIH
ADD
AE&CDP
AES
AFP44
AIM
AMC
ARACT
AS&ASD
ASHRAE
American Conference of Governmental and Industrial Hygienists
Actual Delivered Density
Advanced Engineering and Core Design Process
Autonetics Electronics Systems
Air Force Plant #44
Automated Industrial Monitoring
Asbestos Management Council
Alternate Reasonably Available Control Technology
Autonetics Sensors and Aircraft Systems Division
American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air conditioning Engineers
BAWSS
BCTMP
BHTI
BMP
BMPCOE
BTEX
BUD
By-product And Waste Search Service
Bleached Chemi-Thermo-Mechanical Pulp
Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc.
Best Manufacturing Practices
Best Manufacturing Practices Center Of Excellence
Benzene, Toulene, Ethylbenzene, Xylene
Beneficial Use Determination
CAA
CACD
CC
CERES
CFC 113
CMA
CMS/CAS
CPED
CSR
CSTA
CTD
Clean Air Act
Collins Avionics and Communications Division
Clear Choice
Coalition for Environmentally Responsible Economies
Chlorofluorocarbon-113
Chattanooga Manufacturers Association
Correctives-Measures and Cleanup-Alternatives Studies
Computational Physics and Engineering Division
Chemical Source Reduction
Combat Systems Test Activity
Cumulative Trauma Disorder
dB
DAFB
DCMC
DEC
DED
DFE
DLA
DOD
DOE
DOT
DPI
DWTP
Decibel
Dover Air Force Base
Defense Contract Management Command
Digital Equipment Corporation
Department of Economic Development
Design for Environment
Defense Logistics Agency
Department of Defense
Department of Energy
Department of Transportation
Dayton Parts, Inc.
Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plant
A-1
A-2
Acronym
Definition
E&M
EADC
EARS
EBMP
ECC
ECLS
EIS
EM
EMD
EPA
EPI
ER
ERT
ES&H
ESFR
ESP
ESRS
Electronics and Missiles
Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Center
Environmental Accounting and Reporting System
Environmental Best Manufacturing Practices
Environmental Control Center
Environmental Control and Life Support
Environmental Impact Statement
Environmental Management
Engineering Manufacturing Development
Environmental Protection Agency
Environmental Purification Industries
Environmental Restoration
Emergency Response Team
Environment, Safety, and Health
Early Suppression Fast Response
Economy Surplus Power
Electrolytic Silver Recovery System
FAA
Federal Aviation Administration
GIS
GSD
GSS
Geographic Information Systems
Ground Systems Division
GeoSpatial Support
HazMat
HAZCOM
HE
HRS
HSE
HSEMC
HVAC
HVLP
HVOF
HW
Hazardous Material
Hazard Communication
High Explosive
High Risk Situation
Health, Safety, and Environmental
Hamilton Standard Electronic Manufacturing Center
Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning
High Volume Low Pressure
High Velocity Oxy-Fuel Flame
Hazardous Waste
IAAP
IAQ
IC
IEPA
IHDIV
IPDP
IPT
IRA
ISO
ISV
ITDS
ITTD&E
IVDAl
IWE
IWRC
IWTP
Iowa Army Ammunition Plant
Indoor Air Quality
Integrated Circuits
Illinois Environmental Protection Agency
Indian Head Division
Integrated Product Development Process
Integrated Product Team
Iowa Recycling Association
International Standards Organization
In Situ Vitrification
Interactive Technology Distribution System
ITT Defense and Electronics
Ion Vapor Deposition of Aluminum
Iowa Waste Exchange
Iowa Waste Reduction Center
Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant
Acronym
Definition
JGAPP
JLC
JPPAB
JTP
Joint Group on Acquisition Pollution Prevention
Joint Logistics Commanders
Joint Pollution Prevention Advisory Board
Joint Test Protocol
LEPC
LMTAS
Local Emergency Planning Committees
Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems
M&H
MATURA
MDA
MEK
MPC
MSD
MSDS
MSFC
MTC
MWR
MWRA
Mason & Hanger Corporation
Massachusetts Toxic Use Reduction Act
McDonnell Douglas Aerospace
Methyl Ethyl Ketone
Materials and Process Characterization
Missile Systems Division
Material Safety Data Sheet
Marshall Space Flight Center
Manufacturing Technology Center
Maintenance Work Requests
Massachusetts Water Resource Authority
NAVDEP
NAVEODTECHDIV
NAVSCOLEOD
NG
NIOSH
NOx
NPDES
NUWC
NYSDEC
Naval Aviation Depot
Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technology Division
Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal School
Nitroglycerin
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
Nitrogen Oxide
National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
Naval Undersea Warfare Center
New York State Department of Environmental Conservation
OC-ALC
ODC
ODS
OREIS
ORNL
OSHA
OxyChem
Oklahoma City-Air Logistics Center
Ozone Depleting Compound/Ozone Depleting Chemical
Ozone Depleting Substance
Oak Ridge Environmental Information System
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Occidental Chemical
P2
PaDER
PCB
PCBTF
PDC
PDP
PEG
PEL
PFR
PGDN
PGDP
PHA
Pollution Prevention
Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Regulations
Polychlorinated Biphenyl
Parachlorobenzo-trifluorice
Professional Development Committee
Product Delivery Process
Polaroid Exposure Guideline
Permissible Exposure Limit
Pay From Receipt
Propylene Glycol Dinitrate
Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant
Process Hazard Analysis
A-3
A-4
Acronym
Definition
PLC
PPM
PPOA
PPP
PVC
PWB
Programmable Logic Controller
Parts Per Million
Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment
Pollution Prevention Program
Polyvinyl Chloride
Printed Wiring Board
QFD
Quality Function Deployment
RCRA
RDD
REECO
RET
ROSATM
RRTTC
RSI
RSSS
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
Required Delivered Density
Regenerative Environmental Equipment Company
Recommended Exposure Limit
Reduced Oxide Soldering Activation
Recycling Reuse Technology Transfer Center
Repetitive Strain Injury
Remote Sensing Special Surveys
SAW
SERA
SNL
SRIP
STAR
SWELL
SWSA4
Surface Acoustic Wave
Sequential Electrochemical Reduction Analysis
Sandia National Laboratories
Source Reduction Implementation Plan
Surface Technique and Research
Solid Waste Environmental Leadership and Learning
Solid Waste Storeage Area 4
TAA
TDS
TO
TCA
TCE
TEGDN
TI
TIESYS
TLD
TMETN
TSDF
TUWR
TVA
Total Assessment Audit
Total Dissolved Solids
Technical Order
Trichloroethane
Trichloroethylene
Triethylene Glycol Dinitrate
Texas Instruments
Texas Instruments Environmental Systems
Technology Logic Diagram
Trimethylolethane Trinitrate
Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facility
Toxic Use and Waste Reduction
Tennessee Valley Authority
USA
UV
United States of America
Ultraviolet
VAV
VOC
Variable Air Volume
Volatile Organic Compound
WAG4
WRAP
Waste Area Grouping 4
Waste Reduction Assistance Program
Appendix B
Where to Find Help
This section is a collaboration among the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Tennessee Valley
Authority (TVA), and Rockwell Avionics & Communications, and contains the following information on
where to find help for assistance on environmental issues:
• Web Sites
• EPA Summary of State Pollution Prevention Programs
• EPA Partners for the Environment
• TVA Summary of State Pollution Prevention Programs
• The University of Northern Iowa’s Recycling Reuse Technology Transfer Center and Iowa Waste
Reduction Center
• Environmental Programs for the State of Iowa
• Rockwell Avionics & Communications: Solid Waste Environmental Leadership and Learning Team
Web Sites
Army Acquisition Pollution Prevention Support Office
This web site contains links to the Joint Group on Acquisition Pollution Prevention (JG-APP). In accordance with
JGAPP charter, the Joint Pollution Prevention Advisory Board (JPPAB) was formally chartered in 1995. The Advisory
Board provides technical and programmatic support to the JGAPP and manages, coordinates, and executes the tasks
in the JGAPP's Action Plan. Board members are responsible for coordinating all the activities within their respective
services and for identifying required resources.
http://www.aappso.com/jgapp.html
Best Manufacturing Practices Center Of Excellence (BMPCOE)
The goal of the BMPCOE is to identify best practices being used in the areas of design, test, production, facilities,
logistics, management, and environment, and to encourage industry and government to share information about these
practices. To accomplish this goal, independent teams of government and industry experts have been established to
survey organizations that are ready to share information about their own best processes. By fostering the sharing of
information across industry lines, BMPCOE has become a resource in helping companies identify their weak areas and
examine how other companies have improved similar situations.
http://www.bmpcoe.org
Design for Environment
The Design for Environment Website’s focus is to provide resources for the design and production of environmentally
friendly products. Topics include: design alternatives links (cadmium alternatives, chrome alternatives, ODC alternatives, and global warmer alternatives), pollution prevention links, recycling links, hazardous materials links (EPA’s Top
20, EPA 33/50, hazardous air pollutants, Class I Ozone depleting substances, ATSDR, Regulatory resources, DFE
conference announcements, and numerous other valuable internet resources.
http://www.flash.net/~rcade/dfe/index.htm
Division of Pollution Prevention and Environmental Assistance (DPPEA)
North Carolina Division of Pollution Prevention and Environmental Assistance (DPPEA); formerly North Carolina
Office of Waste Reduction (OWR) Helping North Carolina.
http://www.owr.ehnr.state.nc.us
B-1
Eco-Cycle
Eco-Cycle believes in individual and community action to transform society’s throw-away ethic into environmentally
responsible stewardship. Its mission is to provide publicly-accountable recycling, conservation and education services,
and to identify, explore and demonstrate the emerging frontiers of sustainable resource management—Reduce, Reuse,
Recycle. Eco-Cycle is one of the oldest and is the largest of non-profit community recyclers in the U.S. Founded as a
community-based grassroots organization in 1976, Eco-Cycle continues to promote a strong conservation ethic for
Boulder County, CO. Community support and involvement are the keys to Eco-Cycle’s success
http://www.ecocycle.org/
Energy Information Administration
Hundreds of links to other energy related sites such as Fuel Groups, Other Energy Groups, Special Features, and
Customer Services. This is one of the most complete lists of energy links available.
http://eiainfo.eia.doe.gov/
Farm*A*Syst/Home*A*Syst
This voluntary program is a partnership between government and private business that enables individuals to
prevent pollution on farms, ranches, and homes using confidential environmental assessments.
http://www.wisc.edu/farmasyst
International Journal of Environmentally Conscious Design and Manufacturing (ECD&M)
Introduces the rapidly evolving multidisciplinary field of industrial ecology, which seeks to understand how economic
activities can be integrated with and have minimal impact on the surrounding natural systems.
http://ie.uwindsor.ca/ecdm_lab.html
Navy CFC & Halon Clearinghouse
The purpose of the Navy CFC & Halon Clearinghouse is to provide users of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) with
a central point of contact for information, data, and expertise on Navy ODS policy, EPA regulations, and alternative,
chemicals, process, and equipment.
http://home.navisoft.com/navyzone/index.html
Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT)
OIT creates partnerships among industry, trade groups, government agencies, and other organizations to research,
develop, and deliver advanced energy efficiency, renewable energy, and pollution prevention technologies for industrial
customers.
http://www.oti.doe.gov
Recycler's World
Recycler's World was established as a world wide trading site for information related to secondary or recyclable
commodities, by-products, used and surplus items or materials.
http://www.recycle.net/recycle/index.html
Solvent Alternatives Guide (SAGE)
SAGE is a comprehensive guide designed to provide pollution prevention information on solvent and process
alternatives for parts cleaning and degreasing.
http://www.clean.rti.org
The Utility Connection
The Utility Connection provides links to over 2,000 electric, gas, water, and wastewater utilities, utility associations,
organizations, news, magazines, utility financial resources, and related state and federal regulatory and information
sites.
http://www.magicnet.net/~metzler/index.html
B-2
The Small Business Assistance Program (SBAP)—General Information About the Program and Guiding
Businesses Into Compliance With Environmental Programs
The SBAPof the Maryland Department of the Environment was created in April 1993 under the 1990 Clean Air Act
to help small businesses comply with air quality programs. In July 1995, the SBAP underwent two significant changes.
The program was incorporated in the Environmental Permits Service Center and its duties were expanded to provide
small businesses with environmental compliance assistance for all media (air, water, and waste). The SBAP provides
real-world help to small businesses both pro-actively (through outreach projects) and reactively (telephone hotline).
Please call Linda Barker Moran, Program Manager, Small Business Assistance Program at (410) 631-3165 or (800) 4331247 with your questions or comments.
http://www.mde.state.md.us/epsc/sbap.html
The Global Network (GNET)
This site is made possible by a cooperative agreement from the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) and the
Department of Energy Office of Science and Technology (OST). GNET is a dynamic, communications and information
delivery system that facilitates the rapid commercialization and diffusion of environmental technologies through public
and private collaboration in the global marketplace.
http://www.gnet.org
United States Environmental/Recycling Hotline “Earth’s 911"
The U.S. Environmental/Recycling Hotline puts geographically specific information at your fingertips nationwide.
Locating this important environmental information and recycling centers "for all types of recyclables,” is easier than ever
before. Just type in your zip code and click away.
http://www.1800cleanup.org/index.htm
Best Manufacturing Practices in Environmental Management
The following environmental management links are sorted by category (i.e., Regulatory, Chemical Specific,
Water, Land/Soil, Air Information, Hazardous Waste, etc.). Master World Wide Web sites provide a brief
description and links to environmental information requirements and can be found beginning on page B-9.
Regulatory
1. ISO 14000
The organization is in the process of developing environmental standards; search for news groups using this
link.
2. Federal
• The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR)
A complete searchable test from the House Information Systems directly.
Online help at www.pls.com/plweb/info/help.oltoc.html
• Federal Register Available through websites, telnet, and limited e-mail; access to GPO and Unified
Agendas databases through four university sites.
- www.okstate.edu/gpolink.html
- thorplus.lib.purdue.edu/gpo
- www.gpo.ucop.edu/
- www.lib.utk.edu/gpo/GPOsearch.html
• U.S. Code, Bills, and Congressional Record
Available via the web, gopher, and telnet; GPO provides the searchable accesses to seven databases via the
university websites listed above under Federal Register.
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• Title 40 CFR
EPA established for the complete contents of the Title 40 CFR; searchable version is maintained by the
National Environmental Information Service.
www.virtulu.nvi.net/cgi-bin/webinator
• States
Several states maintain their own Code of Regulations; currently, Indiana is not one of them.
Chemical Specific
1. EPA’s Chemical Substances Database
A database maintained by the University of Virginia on hundreds of chemicals.
gopher://ecosys.drdr.Virginia.edu:70/11/library/gen/toxics
2. Agency for Toxic Substances Research’s (ATSDR’s) Hazdat database
Substance-specific health effects information at
http://atsdr1.atsdr.cdc.gov.8080/hazdat.html
3. Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
Searchable databases for hundreds of chemicals and manufacturers maintained by the University of Utah
and Vermont SIRI, respectively.
gopher://atlas.chem.utah.edu:70/11/MSDS
http://hazard.com/msds
4. NTP’s Abstracts of Toxicological Studies Database
Online abstracts NTP reports on toxicology and carcinogens
http://ntp-server.niehs.nih.gov/Main _pages/NTP_DOCS_PUBS.HTML
5. Right-to-Know Computer Network’s (RTK NETs) New Jersey Fact Sheets
Public access to the EPA’s Toxic Release Information (TRI)
telnet://198.3.148.6:23
6. Envirofacts Master Chemical Integrator (EMCI)
Integrates varied chemical identification and cross references chemical data from four EPA databases using
an internal Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) registry number.
http://www.epa.gov/enviro/html/emci/emci_overview.html
7. Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)—an international database collection of water research.
http://www.uwin.siu.edu/databases/wrsic/
8. California’s Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC)
Information on waste management of chemical or mixture specific materials such as solvents, batteries, lead
usage, pesticides, illuminating devices, lubricants, refrigerants, and others.
http://www.calepa.cahwnet.gov/dtsc.html
9. California’s Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment
List of Proposition 65 chemicals (carcinogens or reproductive toxins).
http://www.calepa.cahwnet.gov.ochha
10. Cal-EPA Chemical Cross Index
Cross-index of chemicals and the programs under which those chemicals are regulated.
http://www.calepa.cahwnet.gov/cci.htm
Water
1. EPA’s Permit Compliance System (PCS)
National system that contains National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) data and tracks
permit issuance, permit limits, monitoring data, and enforcement actions.
http://www.epa.gov/enviro/html/PCS/PCS overview
B-4
2. RTK NET’s PCS database
telnet://198.3.148.6:23
3. EPA’s Office of Research and Development (ORD) BBS
A text-searchable database of all ORD publications; no telnet address is currently available.
4. USGS’s Water Use Data
Data regarding water use is available.
http://edcwww.cr.usgs.gov/glis/hyper/guide/1_250_lulc
5. USGS’S National Water Conditions
Data regarding groundwater extremes, groundwater aquifers, stream water extremes, water quality, and
selected reservoirs is available.
http://nwcwww.er.usgs.gov:8080/NWC/
6. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC )
Site provides buoy information and information regarding marine toxic substances and pollutants.
http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/
7. WRSIC of the USGS
Selected Water Resources Abstracts international collection database
http://www.uwin.siu.edu/databases/wrsic/index.html
8. EPA’s Online Library System (OLS )
Databases including its Clean Lakes database which contains citations and summaries on topics relating to
lake management, protection, and restoration.
telnet://epaibm.rtpnc.epa.gov
9. Environmental Guidance Documents
Provides information on the following water issues: the Clean Water Act (CWA); the Safe Drinking Water
Act; groundwater; and the Oil Pollution Act.
http://www.tis.eh.doe.gov:80/docs/egm/links.html
10. Environmental News Groups
Sources to find current discussions in a particular field and to find FAQs and pointers to web sites, mailing
lists, and other resources
• http://news.sci.environment
• http://news.sci.hydrology
• http://news.sci.engr
Land/Soil
1. USGS’s Radon Database
Information on the radon potential of rocks, soils, and water of the U.S. as a whole; more detailed radon risk
assessments in specific geologic environments; and investigations of the correlations between geology and
indoor radon; EPA radon publications are available at this website.
http://www.epa.gov/RadonPubs
2. Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC)
Selected Water Resources Abstracts
http://www.uwin.siu.edu/databases/wrsic/
3. USGS’s Land Use and Land Cover Data
http://edcwww.cr.usgs.gov/
B-5
4. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency’s (NAA’s) National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC)
Manages environmental data in the fields of marine geology and geophysics, paleoclimatalogy, solar-terrestrial physics, solid earth geophysics, and glaciology (snow and ice).
http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/
5. Environmental Guidance Documents
Provides guidance information regarding radiation protection and the oil pollution act.
http://www.tis.eh.doe.gov:80/docs/egm/links.html
Air Information
1. Office of Air Quality Planning’s (OAQP’s) Technology Transfer Network
Information exchange in different areas of air pollution control at eighteen BBSs.
• http://ttnwww.rtpnc.epa.gov/
• telnet://ttnbbs.rtpnc.epa.gov
2. AIRS Executive USA
Database that contains a select subset of data extracted from the AIRS database.
• gopher://gopher.epa.gov (U.S. EPA’s Gopher Server)
• http://www.epa.gov/ (EPA’s web server)
• ftp://ftp.epa.gov (EPA’s ftp site)
• TTNBBS (EPA’s electronic Bulletin Board System)
3. Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC) Selected Water Resources Abstracts
General air areas covered are meteorology, geophysics, energy, atmospheric technology, fluid mechanics,
physics, climatology, and mathematical modeling.
http://www.uwin.siu.edu/databases/wrsic/
4. NOAA’s Data Set Catalog
A forms-based tool that allows users to search for publicly available environmental data held by public and
private sources.
http://www.esdim.noaa.gov.NOAA-Catalog
5. The National Climactic Data Center (NCDC)
The NCDC provides online data access to its data sets, including data inventories, long-term climatological
data sets, U.S. monthly precipitation data, monthly temperature data, and special sensor microwave/imager
data sets.
http://www.esdim.noaa.gov
Hazardous Waste
1. EPA’s Resource Conservation and Recovery Information System (RCRIS)
RCRIS is primarily used to track handler permit or closure status, compliance with federal and state regulations, and cleanup activities. RCRIS contains data regarding handler names and addresses, hazardous waste
categories and activities, owners and operators, and authorized waste handling methods.
http://www.epa.gov/enviro/html/rcris/
2. RTK NET’s Biennial reporting System (BRS) and NPL List
Designed to provide easy public access to EPA’s TRI information.
telnet://198.3.148.6:23
3. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System
Official repository for site-and non-site-specific Superfund data.
http://www.epa.gov/enviro/html/cerlis
B-6
4. EPA’s ATTIC
ATTIC is a comprehensive automated bibliographic reference that integrates existing hazardous waste data
into a unified, searchable resource.
No address at this time
5. EPA’s CLU-IN
A publicly accessible, online computer system that fosters technology transfer and facilitates communication
among those involved in solid and hazardous waste cleanup.
http://clu-in.com
6. EPA’s VISITT
Database developed by EPA to provide current information about innovative technologies designed to
remediate groundwater or nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) in situ, and in soil, sludge, soil-matrix waste,
natural sediments, and off-gas.
telnet://clu-in.epa.gov
7. EPA’s Vendor Facts Bulletin
Designed to promote use of innovative technologies for field analytical techniques and site characterization.
telnet://clu-in.epa.gov
8. WRSIC
An international database collection of water research.
http://www.uwin.siu.edu/databases/wrsic/
9. EPA’s OLS
Contains several databases including its Hazardous Waste Database, which contains citations and summaries of key materials on hazardous waste.
telnet://epaibm.rtpnc.epa.gov
10. Environmental Guidance Documents
A gopher site that provides guidance information regarding waste issues.
http://www.tis.eh.doe.gov:80/docs/egm/links.html
11. DOT’s HMIX Database
HMIX BBS provides hazardous materials technical assistance and much more, but is limited to government
employees.
telnet://hmix.dis.anl.gov
Release and Risk
1. EPA’s Emergency Release Notification System (ERNS)
ERNS is a database used to store information on notification of oil discharges and hazardous substance
releases.
http://www.epa.gov/ERNS
2. RTK NET ERNS
RTK NET is used mostly by environmental and public interest groups; designed to provide easy public access
to EPA’s toxic release inventory (TRI) information.
telnet://198.3.148.6:23
3. EPA’s Toxic Release Inventory Systems (TRIS)
TRIS contains information about release and transfers of more than 300 toxic chemicals and compounds to
the environment.
http://www.epa.gov/enviro/html/tris/tris_overview.html
4. EPA’s Center for Exposure Assessment Modeling (CEAM)
CEAM serves as the focal point for ORD’s multimedia assessment modeling, ecological risk assessment, and
distribution of related software products; also provides a mailing list service.
http://www.epa.gov/epa_ceam/wwwhtmlceamhome.htm
B-7
5. Hazardous Materials Mailing List
This mailing list focuses on transportation, storage, and reporting of hazardous materials. To subscribe to
this mailing list, send an e-mail message with the subject blank to following address.
[email protected]olorado.edu
6. Environmental Training Mailing List
This unmoderated mailing list covers all aspects of environmental training including needs assessments,
selection of training topics, macro-designs, micro-designs, evaluation, follow up, impact assessment and
project management. To subscribe to this mailing list, send an e-mail message with the subject blank to the
following address.
[email protected]
General Environmental Information
1. Environmental Agency Contacts
Agency home pages that usually provide an organizational chart and/or list of names, addresses, and phone
numbers of contacts; other resources are also referenced on the web.
telnet://epaibm.rtpnc.epa.gov
2. Online Library Catalogs (OLCs)
Most academic institutions and many large organizations now catalog their library holdings electronically.
Many of these library catalogs are available online (though not necessarily through the Internet). Phoning
the institution’s library will generally allow you to determine if its holdings are accessible to the public and if
it has an online catalog of its holdings.
3. Stanford University’s Online Catalog (SOCRATES)
SOCRATES catalogs all books and journals in the Stanford collection.
telnet://Forsythetn.stanford.edu
4. EPA’s OLS
OLS’s National Catalog provides citations and summaries of environmentally related topics encompassing
biology, chemistry, ecology, and other basic sciences, and EPA reports distributed through the National
Technical Information Service.
telnet://Forsythetn.stanford.edu
5. EnviroFacts
EnviroFacts is a compilation of EPA databases available via the web. EnviroFacts combines data extracted
from four major EPA databases into a single, relational database. The databases that comprise EnviroFacts
are: 1) Permit Compliance System, 2) RCRIS, 3) CERCLIS, and 4) TRIS. The databases also include FINDS
and EMCI.
http://www.epa.gov/enviro/html/ef_home.html
6. EPA’s Facility Index System (FINDS)
FINDS is a central inventory of facilities regulated or monitored by the different programs within the EPA.
The system functions as a repository for facilities monitored by EPA, a repository of spatial data (i.e., latitude
and longitude data) for these facilities, and as an integrator for facilities monitored by more than one program office.
http://www.epa.gov/enviro/html/finds/find_overview.html
7. Environmental Guidance Documents
Documents at this site provide guidance information regarding DoE comments, Environmental Surveys,
Federal Facilities, General Information, Training, National Environmental Policy Act, and the Toxic Substances Control Act.
http://www.tis.eh.doe.gov:80/docs/egm/links.html
B-8
Related Industry Links
1. American Trucking Industry
The American Trucking Association covers everything, including safety, except environmental and engineering expertise.
http://www.trucking.org/
2. Petroleum Business Directory
A comprehensive listing of petroleum-related businesses categorized by state and business type.
http://www.ipbd.com/ipbd
3. Engineering/Contractor Firms
Some firms have groups that specialize in products and services in all aspects of the environment.
http://www.blymyer.com
4. Law/Legal Firms
Some firms have an environmental group that specializes in land use, natural resources, and most other
areas of environmental law.
http://mccutchen.com/env/eg_001.htm
Once linked to an environmental site, suggested keywords for narrowing the search are: appeals,
approvals, arbitration, assessments, assistance, authorizations, claims, classifications, collections, compensation, conformations, criteria, definitions, designations, disclosures, emergencies, enforcement, exemptions, governing, grants, guidance, guidelines, hearings, implementations, information, judicial, liability,
licenses, mandates, monitoring, notifications, organization, participation, penalties, permits, planning,
policies, prevention, privacy, procedures, protection, publicity, records, registrations, regulation, reimbursements, reporting, reports, responsibilities, revocations, rules, secrecy, standards, terminologies, testing, and etc.
The following world wide web sites will provide most links and subsequent links to nearly all environmental
information requirements.
1. The mission of the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), as an agency of the U.S.
Department of Health and Human Services, is to prevent exposure and adverse human health effects and
diminished quality of life associated with exposure to hazardous substances from waste sites, unplanned
releases, and other sources of pollution present in the environment. ATSDR is directed by congressional
mandate to perform specific functions concerning the effect on public health of hazardous substances in the
environment. These functions include public health assessment of waste sites, health consultations concerning specific hazardous substances, health surveillance and registries, response to emergency releases of
hazardous substances, applied research in support of public health assessments, information development
and dissemination, and education and training concerning hazardous substances.
http://atsdr1.atsdr.cdc.gov.8080/hazdat.html
2. The Hazardous Waste Clean-up Information Web Site provides information about innovative treatment
technologies to the hazardous waste remediation community. It describes programs, organizations, publications and other tools for federal and state personnel, consulting engineers, technology developers and vendors, remediation contractors, researchers, community groups, and individual citizens. The site was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency but is intended as a forum for all waste remediation
stakeholders.
http://clu-in.com
3. The Safety Information Resources on the Internet (SIRI) MSDS archive objective is to make critical safety
information immediately and universally accessible with a few universal online archives which can provide a
single source where any MSDS can be instantly located. Information from all manufacturers is accessible in a
single index. All information in this archive is freely accessible; provides links to other MSDS sites.
http://hazard.com/msds
B-9
4. News groups are a great place to find current discussions in a particular field and to find FAQs and pointers
to web sites, mailing lists, and other resources. However most of the news groups are unmoderated, leading to
a lot of noise (irrelevant messages).
• http://news:sci.engr
• http://news.sci.environment
• http://news.sci.hydrology
5. Federal and State Regulatory Agencies use the National Toxology Program (NTP) study data in considering
the need for regulation of specific chemicals to protect human health.
http://ntp-server.niehs.nih.gov/
6. National water conditions linked from http://www.usgs.gov
http://nwcwww.er.usgs.gov:8080/NWC/
7. TTN 2000 is information transfer born from the OAQPS Technology Transfer Network Bulletin Board System
(TTN BBS), with the latest Internet information transfer tools. TTN 2000 fully connects the information
resources of the TTN BBS with the entire world via the Internet. The true power of TTN 2000 lies in the fact
that all the information is available from any connectivity option.
http://ttnwww.rtpnc.epa.gov/
8. Blymyer Engineers is a nationwide environmental and industrial engineering firm with specialized experience in the transportation industry. In addition to providing full-service consulting services, they have
developed products to assist the transportation industry in complying with storm water and other environmental regulations. Blymyer Engineers constantly track existing and upcoming environmental regulations
and technologies. Blymyer Engineers Home Page is a single source for easy access to environmental information on the Internet. The primary purpose of this page is to provide corporate environmental managers with
links to useful environmental databases in an organized, user-friendly format.
http://www.blymer.com
9. This page presents interested parties with environment related documents and information provided by Cal/
EPA and affiliated organizations. Sites linked through Cal/EPA are The Air Resources Board (ARB), the
Department of Pesticide Regulation (DPR), the Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC), the Integrated Waste Management Board (IWMB), the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment
(OEHHA), and the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRC).
http://www.calepa.cahwnet.gov/
10. Fifteen links to factual information in multiple formats plus new items, search capability, browsing, and
feedback. For use by citizens, businesses, industries, educators, scientific communities, and established
governing bodies. Can provide links to all aspects of environmental concerns. The fifteen links are:
1) Concerned Citizens, 2) Business and Industry, 3) Students and Teachers, 4) Researchers and Scientists, 5)
Kids, 6) State, Local, and Tribal Governments, 7) About EPA, 8) EPA News, 9) Offices, Labs, and Regions, 10)
Regulations, 11) Contracts, Grants, and Financing, 12) Programs and Initiatives, 13) Publications, 14) Data
Systems and Software, and 15) Information Services.
http://www.epa.gov/
11. Seven links for concerned citizens are: 1) At Home and In the Garden, 2) Protecting Our Children, 3) At the
Workplace, 4) On the Road, 5) Involved in the Community, 6) Thinking Globally, 7) Environmental Emergencies.
http://www.epa.gov/epahome/citizen.htm
12. Three major links for teachers and students are: 1) Teachers and Students Curriculum Guides, 2) Facts
about the Environment, and 3) Are Schools Environmentally Safe?
http://www.epa.gov/epahome/students.htm
Two major links with many sublinks are: 1) Fun Things, and 2) How You Can Help.
http://www.epa.gov/epahome/kids.htm
B-10
13. Seven major links for business and industry are: 1) Programs & Initiatives for Business, 2) Small Business,
3) Partners for the Environment, 4) Regulations & Compliance, 5) Doing Business with EPA: Contracts &
RFPs, 6) Publications, and 7) Data Systems & Software.
http://www.epa.gov/epahome/businesss.htm
14. Ten major links are: 1) Data Systems & Software, 2) Doing Business With EPA: Contracts & RFPs, 3)
Environmental Test Methods & Guidelines, 4) Government Information Locator Service (GILS), 5) Grants
and Fellowship Information, 6) Library Resources, 7) Offices, Regions, and Laboratories, 8) Regulatory
Information, 9) Research Programs, and 10) Technical Documents.
http://www.epa.gov/epahome/research.htm
15. Four major links are: 1) Programs and Initiatives of Interest, 2) Financing for Governments, 3) Publications,
and 4) Locations.
http://www.epa.gov/epahome/govts.htm
16. EPA’s reinvention philosophy is to focus on improved environmental results. With one major link, the EPA’s
mission is presented: New Directions at the EPA.
http://www.epa.gov/epahome/epas.htm
17. Five major links for news and events are: 1) EPA Press Releases, 2) Announcements, 3) Speeches, 4) Newsletters, and 5) EPA Journal.
http://www.epa.gov/epahome/news.htm
18. Four major links for Offices, Regions, Laboratories, Programs and Initiatives are: 1) Offices, 2) Regions, 3)
Laboratories, and 4) Programs and Initiatives.
http://www.epa.gov/epahome/Offices.htm
19. Four major links for rules and regulations are: 1) Federal Register - Daily Table of Contents, 2) Federal
Register - Environmental Subset with Toxic Programs - Proposed Rules Subset, 3) Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) with the CFR Title 40-Environmental Protection (1995 Pilot) Subset with Office of Water Subset,
and 4) United States Code.
http://www.epa.gov/epahome/rules.htm
20. Three major links for Contracts, Grants, and Financing are: 1) Contracts and RFP’s, 2) Grants and Fellowships, and 3) Environmental Financing.
http://www.epa.gov/epahome/Finance.htm
21. Seven major links for Programs and Initiatives are: 1) General Interest, 2) Media Programs, 3) Industry
Partnerships, 4) State, Tribal, and Local, 5) Geographic Focus, 6) Other Programs, and 7) Policy Statements
and Strategy Documents.
http://www.epa.gov/epahome/Program.htm
22. The National Center for Environmental Publications and Information (NCEPI) is a central repository for all
EPA documents. In addition to NCEPI, the EPA maintains numerous hotlines, which provide information on
specific subjects. Agency dockets contain the public records of information used in the promulgation or
revision of Agency rule making or policies. Docket files include Federal register notices, transcripts of public
hearings, public comments, etc. EPA publications on this server are An Overview of the EPA Publications
Numbering System and a listing of New Offerings. Links to other sources of EPA Publications are: EPA
National Library Network Program, INFOTERRA, Education Resource Information Center (ERIC), Government Printing Office (GPO), FedWorld/National Technical Information Service (NTIS), and the Environmental Technology Gateway.
http://www.epa.gov/ncepihom/index.htm
B-11
23. EPA has a variety of database systems available for use in understanding the environment. They are:
1) AIRS - Aerometric Information Retrieval System, 2) Ecoplaces, 3) Emergency Response Notification
System (ERNS), 4) Envirofacts with several sublinks (AIRS/AFS, CERCLIS, PCS, RCRIS, and TRIS), 5)
Environmental Indicators Home Page, 6) Enviro$en$e, 7) Geospatial Data Clearinghouse, 8) Great Lakes
Information Network, 9) Great lakes Regional Information System, 10) Hazardous Waste Data, 11) Municipal
Solid Waste Fact Book, 12) National GIS Program, 13) Reporting on Municipal Solid Waste: A Local Issue,
and 14) STOrage and RETrieval System for Water and Biological Monitoring Data (STORET). In addition to
maintaining information, there is software available from EPA to monitor and protect the environment. They
are: 1) AIRS Executive Software, 2) Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Division Software Tools, 3) Center for
Exposure Assessment Modeling (FTP site), 4) Center for Subsurface Modeling Support, 5) ECOTOX Threshold Software, 6) EPA’s Information Systems Inventory (ISI), 7) EPANET, 8) Four available under Office of
Science and Technology, 9) Software for Environmental Awareness, 10) Vehicle and Engine Emission Modeling Software, 11) Water Radioactivity Software, and 12) Freely Available Utilities.
http://www.epa.gov/epahome/Data.htm
24. Information Services and Tools has thirteen sublinks: 1) Clearinghouses, 2) Dockets, 3) Hotlines, 4) Information Centers, 5) International Information Services, 6) Library Resources, 7) Bulletin Board Systems, 8) Data
System and Software, 9) Models, 10) Publications (NCEPI), 11) Test Methods & Guidelines, 12) Access EPA,
and 13) Government Information Locator Service (GILS).
http://www.epa.gov/epahome/finding.htm
25. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Information Services provides data
products and links to meteorology/weather, archived data, information about organizations, on-line systems,
data sets, and other products available from other NOAA data providers. The National Environmental Data
Index (NEDI) provides direct access to environmental data information descriptions held at many locations.
It allows full-text searching of these environmental metadata using WAIS search software and the Z39.50
protocol to communicate over the Internet. The overall goal of NEDI is to identify the widest possible range of
environmental data and information and thereby facilitate their use by citizens, industry, government, and
academia. NEDI is a core element of the National Information Infrastructure (NII).
http://www.esdim.noaa.gov
26. Public access is available through the Federal Depository Library, or directly from GPO. Access, a service of
the U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO) provide The Federal register, Congressional Record, Congressional bills and other Federal Government information via GPO. Links to documents in GPO WAIS databases
are provided. Connection to the Online Databases permits searches via Government Information Locator
Service (GILS) Records, the Monthly Catalog of U.S. Government Publications (MOCAT, the Federal Bulletin
Board (FBB)), Information on Demand from U.S. Fax Watch, the Federal Depository Library Gateway, the
Access Federal Locator Services, and the On-Demand Delivery Services.
http://www.access.gpo.gov/
27. McCutchen, Doyle, Brown & Enersen, LLP is a full-service law firm specializing in securities litigation,
product liability, torts, insurance, environmental litigation, commercial litigation, intellectual property,
health care, and appellate practice. A leader in agribuisness law and environmental and natural resources
practices. The environmental attorneys focus on legislative and regulatory issues and litigation for clients in
waste management matters, hazardous substance litigation, air and water quality matters, and the regulation of hazardous materials. We assist clients in conducting internal reviews of their own compliance status,
as well as both full-scale and target environmental review in connection with mergers and acquisitions, and real
estate transactions and financings. A natural extension of their environmental and agribusiness practices has
been the development of other specialized practice groups in food and drug and biotechnology law.
http://www.mccutchen.com/env/eg_001.htm
28. DOE’s Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Technical Information Services (TIS) is a collection of
information services that provides safety and health professionals with reliable, accurate and current
information. The Office of Information Management combines information technology and services. Through
the ES&H Info Center, an experienced research staff provides multi-media access to federal, industry and
international information sources.
http://www.tis.eh.doe.gov:80/tis.html
B-12
29. All the information needed from ATA are available at this site for safety in transportation using over-theroad haulers.
http://wwww.trucking.org/
30. The agency provides the systematic and scientific “classification of the public lands and examination of the
geological structure, mineral resources, and products of the national domain” for geologic, topographic and
hydrologic information and promotes the health, safety, and well-being of the people. This information
consists of maps, databases, and descriptions and analyses of the water, energy, and mineral resources, land
surface, underlying geologic structure, natural hazards, and dynamic processes of the earth. Provides information in many forms to the public to predict, prevent, and mitigate the effects of natural hazards. USGS
activities in the environment theme area include studies of natural processes and of the results of human
actions; the goal is to provide the understanding and scientific information needed to recognize and mitigate
adverse impacts and to sustain the environment.
http://www.usgs.gov
31. The Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center (EDC) is a data management, systems
development, and research field center of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Mapping Division. There are
over 250,000 products to scientists and resource managers around the world to support scientific studies,
resource management and environmental monitoring activities world-wide.
http://edcwww.cr.usgs.gov/
32. The Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) data files describe the vegetation, water, natural surface, and cultural
features on the land surface. The USGS provides these data sets and associated maps as a part of its National
Mapping Program. The LULC mapping program is designed so that standard topo graphic maps of a scale of
1:250,000 can be used for compilation and organization of the land use and land cover data.
http://edcwww.cr.usgs.gov/glis/hyper/guide/1_250_lulc
http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/
http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/
http://www.okstate.edu/gpolink.html
http://www.pls.com/plweb/info/help.oltoc.html
http://www.tis.eh.doe.gov:80/docs/egm/links.html
http://www.trucking.org/
http://www.uwin.siu.edu/databases/wrsic/
http://www.uwin.siu.edu/databases/wrsic/index.html
http://www.virtula.nvi.net/cgi-bin/webinator
telnet://198.3.148.6:23
telnet://clu-in.epa.gov
telnet://epaibm.rtpnc.epa.gov
telnet://Forsythetn.stanford.edu
telnet://hmix.dis.anl.gov
telnet://ttnbbs.rtpnc.epa.gov
thorplus.lib.purdue.edu/gpo
http://www.usgs.gov/thomes/environ.htm
http://www.usgs
B-13
EPA
Summary of State Pollution Prevention Programs
A vast amount of help is available in the environmental community. Answers to environmental questions
and solutions to environmental problems pertaining to particular issues are available. When compiling this
guideline document, EBMP Committee Members wanted to give the reader a direction on how to begin the
process of finding help to resolve or clarify regulatory questions. Following are pollution prevention
programs listed by state, and a listing of EPA Regional Offices.
ALABAMA
Daniel E. Cooper, Chief Special Projects
Alabama Waste Reduction and
Technology Transfer (WRATT) Program
Alabama Department of
Environmental Management
1751 Congressman William L Dickinson Dr.
Montgomery, AL 36130
(205) 260-2779
ALASKA
David Wigglesworth, Chief
Pollution Prevention Office
Alaska Department of
Environmental Conservation
P.O. Box 0
Juneau, AK 99811-1800
(907) 465-5275
Kristine Benson
Waste Reduction Assistance Program (WRAP)
Alaska Health Project
1818 West Northern Lights Boulevard
Suite 103
Anchorage, AK 99517
(907) 276-2864
ARIZONA
Sandra Eberhardt, Manager
Pollution Prevention Unit
Arizona Waste Minimization Program
Arizona Department of
Environmental Quality
3033 North Central Avenue, Room 558
Phoenix, AZ 85012
(602) 207-4210
ARKANSAS
Robert J. Finn
Hazardous Waste Division
Arkansas Pollution Prevention Program
Arkansas Department of Pollution
Prevention and Ecology
P.O. Box 8913
Little Rock, AR 72219-8913
(501) 570-2861
B-14
CALIFORNIA
Mr. Kim Wilheim
Department of Toxic Substances Control
Pollution Prevention, Public and Regulatory
Assistance Division
400 P Street
P.O. Box 806
Sacramento, CA 95812-0806
(916) 322-3670
Tony Eulo
Local Government Commission
909 12th Street, Suite 205
Sacramento, CA 95814
(916) 448-1198
California Integrated Waste Mgmt. Board
8800 Cal Center Drive
Sacramento, CA 95826
Recycling Hotline: (800) 553-2962
General Public Information: (916) 255-2289
COLORADO
Kate Kramer
Program Manager
Pollution Prevention and
Waste Reduction Program
Colorado Department of Health
4300 Cherry Creek Drive South
Denver, CO 80220
(303) 692-3003
Michael Nemeck
Colorado Public Interest Research Group
(COPIRG)
1724 Gilpin Street
Denver, CO 80218
(303) 355-1861
CONNECTICUT
Andrew Vecchio
Connecticut Technical Assistance Program
(CONNTAP)
Connecticut Hazardous Waste Mgmt. Service
900 Asylum Avenue, Suite 360
Hartford, CT 06105-1904
(203) 241-0777
EPA
Summary of State Pollution Prevention Programs (Continued)
Liz Napier
Bureau of Waste Management
Connecticut Department of
Environmental Protection
165 Capitol Avenue
Hartford, CT 06106
(203) 566-5217
DELAWARE
Philip J. Cherry
Andrea K. Farrell
Delaware Pollution Prevention Program
Department of Natural Resources and
Environmental Control
P.O. Box 1401
Kings Highway
Dover, DE 19903
(302) 739-5071/3822
Herb Allen
Department of Civil Engineering
University of Delaware
Newark, DE 19716
(302) 451-8522/8449
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
Evelyn Shields
Recycling Coordinator
Office of Recycling
D.C. Department of Public Works
65 K Street, NE
Washington, DC 20002
(202) 727-5887
George Nichols
Department of Environmental Programs
Council of Governments
777 North Capitol Street, NE
Suite 300
Washington, DC 20002-4201
(202) 962-3355
Kenneth Laden
Environmental Policy Division
D.C. Department of Public Works
2000 14th Street, NW
Washington, DC 20009
(202) 939-8115
Ms. Ferial Bishop
Administrator
Environmental Regulation Administration
D. C. Department of Consumer and
Regulatory Affairs
2100 MLK Avenue, SE, Suite 203
Washington, DC 20020
(202) 404-1136
FLORIDA
Janeth A. Campbell
Director
Waste Reduction Assistance Program (WRAP)
Florida Department of
Environmental Regulation
2600 Blair Stone Road
Tallahassee, FL 32399-2400
(904) 488-0300
GEORGIA
Susan Hendricks, Program Coordinator
Environmental Protection Division
Georgia Multimedia Source Reduction
and Recycling Program
Georgia Department of Natural Resources
4244 International Parkway, Suite 104
Atlanta, GA 30334
(404) 362-2537
HAWAII
Jane Dewell
Waste Minimization Coordinator
Hazardous Waste Minimization Program
State of Hawaii Department of Health
Solid and Hazardous Waste Branch
Five Waterfront Plaza, Suite 250
500 Ala Moana Boulevard
Honolulu, HI 96813
(808) 586-4226
John Harder
Department of Health
Office of Solid Waste
Five Waterfront Plaza, Suite 250
500 Ala Moana Boulevard
Honolulu, HI 96813
(808) 586-4373
B-15
EPA
Summary of State Pollution Prevention Programs (Continued)
IDAHO
Joy Palmer
Katie Sewell
Division of Environmental Quality
Idaho Department of Health and Welfare
1410 North Hilton Street
Boise, ID 83720-9000
(208) 334-5879
ILLINOIS
Dr. David Thomas
Director
Illinois Hazardous Waste Research and
Information Center (HWRIC)
One East Hazelwood Drive
Champaign, IL 61820
(217) 333-8940
Mike Hayes
Illinois Environmental Protection Agency
Office of Pollution Prevention
2200 Churchill Road
P.O. Box 19276
Springfield, IL 62794-9276
(217) 785-0533
INDIANA
IOWA
John Konefes, Director
Kim Gunderson, Environmental Specialist
Iowa Waste Reduction Center (IWRC)
University of Northern Iowa
Cedar Falls, IA 50614-0185
(319) 273-2079
Tom Blewett, Bureau Chief
Scott Cahail, Environmental Specialist
Waste Management Authority Division
Department of Natural Resources
Wallace State Office Building
Des Moines, IA 50319
(515) 281-8941
KANSAS
Tom Gross, Bureau Chief
State Technical Action Plan (STAP)
Kansas Department of Health and Environment
Forbes Field, Building 740
Topeka, KS 66620
(913) 296-1603
Lani Himegarner, Program Manager
Engineering Extension Programs
Kansas State University RITTA Program
133 Ward Hall
Kansas State University
Manhattan, KS 66506-2508
(913) 532-6026
Joanne Joice, Director
Charles Sullivan, Environmental Manager
Office of Pollution Prevention and
Technical Assistance
Indiana Department of Environmental Mgmt.
105 South Meridian Street
P.O. Box 6015
Indianapolis, IN 46225
(317) 232-8172
KENTUCKY
Rick Bossingham, Coordinator
Jeff Burbrink, Agricultural Pollution Prevention
Coordinator
Indiana Pollution Prevention Program
Environmental Management and
Education Program
2129 Civil Engineering Building
Purdue University
West Lafayette, IN 47907-1284
(317) 494-5038
LOUISIANA
B-16
Joyce St. Clair
Executive Director
Kentucky Partners-State Waste
Reduction Center
Ernst Hall, Room 312
University of Louisville
Louisville, KY 40292
(502) 588-7260
Gary Johnson
Waste Minimization Coordinator
Louisiana Department of
Environmental Quality
P.O. Box 82263
Baton Rouge, LA 70884-2263
(504) 765-0720
EPA
Summary of State Pollution Prevention Programs (Continued)
MAINE
Gayle Briggs
Maine Waste Management Agency
State House Station 154
Augusta, ME 04333
(207) 287-5300
MARYLAND
James Francis
Hazardous Waste Program
Waste Management Administration
Maryland Department of the Environment
2500 Broening Highway, Building 40
Baltimore, MD 21224
(410) 631-3344
George G. Perdikakis
Director
Maryland Environmental Services
2020 Industrial Drive
Annapolis, MD 21401
(301) 974-7281
Travis Walton
Director
Technical Extension Service
Engineering Research Center
University of Maryland
College Park, MD 20742
(301) 454-1941
MASSACHUSETTS
Barbara Kelley, Director
Richard Reibstein, Outreach Director
Office of Technical Assistance for
Toxics Use Reduction
Massachusetts Department of Environment
Office of Technical Assistance
100 Cambridge Street
Boston, MA 02202
(617) 727-3260
Jack Luskin
Director of Education and Outreach
Toxics Use Reduction Institute
University Avenue
Lowell, MA 01854
(508) 934-3262
MICHIGAN
Nan Merrill
Manager
Office of Waste Reduction Services
Environmental Services Division
Michigan Departments of Commerce and
Natural Resources
116 West Allegan Street
P.O. Box 30004
Lansing, MI 48909-7504
(517) 335-1178
MINNESOTA
Kevin McDonald, Sr.
Pollution Prevention Planner
Minnesota Office of Waste Mangement
1350 Energy Lane, Suite 201
St. Paul, MN 55108-5272
(612) 649-5750/5744
Eric Kilberg
Pollution Prevention Coordinator
Environmental Assessment Office
Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA)
520 Lafayette Road
St. Paul, MN 55155
(612) 296-8643
Cindy McComas
Director
Minnesota Technical Assistance Program (MNTAP)
Environmental Health School of Public Health
University of Minnesota
1313 5th Street, SE, Suite 207
Minneapolis, MN 55414
(612) 627-4555/4646
MISSISSIPPI
Dr. Caroline Hill
Mississippi Waste Reduction/Waste Minimization
Program, Mississippi Technical Assistance Program (MISSTAP), and Mississippi Solid Waste
Reduction Assistance Program (MSSWRAP)
P.O. Drawer CN
Mississippi State, MS 39762
(601) 325-8454
Thomas E. Whitten, Director
Waste Reduction/Waste Minimization Program
Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality
P.O. Box 10385
Jackson, MS 39289-0385
(601) 961-5171
B-17
EPA
Summary of State Pollution Prevention Programs (Continued)
MISSOURI
Becky Shannon
Pollution Prevention Coordinator
Waste Management Program (WMP)
Hazardous Waste Program
Division of Environmental Quality
Missouri Department of Natural Resources
205 Jefferson Street
P.O. Box 176
Jefferson City, MO 65102
(314) 751-3176
Steve Mahfood, Director
Tom Welch, Assistant for Planning and
Project Development
Environmental Improvement and
Energy Resources Authority
225 Madison Street
P.O. Box 744
Jefferson City, MO 65102
(314) 751-4919
MONTANA
Dan Fraser, Water Quality Bureau Chief
Solid and Hazardous Waste Bureau
Department of Health and Environmental
Sciences
Room A-206
Cogswell Building
Helena, MT 59620
(406) 444-2406
Jeff Jacobsen
Montana State University Extension Service
807 Leon Johnson Hall
Bozeman, MT 59717-0312
(406) 994-5683
NEBRASKA
Teri Swarts
Waste Minimization Coordinator
Hazardous Waste Section
Nebraska Department of
Environmental Control
301 Centennial Mall South
P.O. Box 98922
Lincoln, NE 68509
(402) 471-4217
B-18
NEVADA
Kevin Dick
Manager
Business Environmental Program
Nevada Small Business Development Center
University of Nevada - Reno
Reno, NV 89557-0100
(702) 784-1717
Doug Martin
Bureau of Waste Management
Division of Environmental Protection
123 West Nye Lane
Carson City, NV 89710
(702) 687-5872
Curtis Framel
Manager
Nevada Energy Conservation Program
Office of Community Services
Capitol Complex
201 South Fall Street
Carson City, NV 89710
(702) 885-4420
NEW HAMPSHIRE
The Office of the Commissioner,
Waste Management Division and Water Division,
Health and Human Services Building
New Hampshire Department of
Environmental Services
6 Hazen Drive
Concord, NH 03301-6505
(603) 271-3503
Air Resources Division
64 North Main Street
Concord, NH 03301-6505
(603) 271-3503
NEW JERSEY
Jean Herb, Director
Office of Pollution Prevention
New Jersey Pollution Prevention Program
New Jersey Department of
Environmental Protection
CN-402
401 East State Street
Trenton, NJ 08625
(609) 777-0518
EPA
Summary of State Pollution Prevention Programs (Continued)
Kevin Gashlin, Director
New Jersey Technical Assistance Program
(NJTAP)
New Jersey Institute of Technology
Hazardous Substance Management
Research Center
Center for Environmental and
Engineering Sciences
323 Martin Luther King Boulevard
Newark, NJ 07102
(201) 596-5864
NEW MEXICO
New Mexico Environment Department
Harold S. Runnels Building
1190 S. St. Francis Drive
Santa Fe, NM 87505-4182
(505) 827-2855 or (800) 879-3421
Air Quality Bureau
(505) 827-0042
Occupational Health and Safety Bureau
(505) 827-4230
Solid Waste Bureau
(505) 827-2775
Underground Storage Tank Bureau
(505) 827-0188
NEW YORK
John Ianotti
Director
Bureau of Pollution Prevention
Division of Hazardous Substances
Regulation and the Division of Solid Waste
New York State Department of Environmental
Conservation
50 Wolf Road
Albany, NY 12233-7253
(518) 457-7276
NORTH CAROLINA
Gary Hunt, Director
Stephanie Richardson, Manager
Pollution Prevention Program
Office of Waste Reduction
North Carolina Department of Environment,
Health, and Natural Resources
P.O. Box 27687
Raleigh, NC 27611-7687
(919) 571-4100
OHIO
Jeff Shick, State Coordinator
Jackie Rudolf
Ohio Technology Transfer Organization (OTTO)
Ohio Department of Development
77 South High Street, 26th Floor
Columbus, OH 43255-0330
(614) 644-4286
Roger Hannahs
Michael W. Kelley
Anthony Sasson
Pollution Prevention Section
Division of Hazardous Waste Management
Ohio Environmental Protection Agency
P.O. Box 1049
Columbus, OH 43266-0149
(614) 644-3969
OKLAHOMA
Chris Varga
Pollution Prevention Technical
Assistance Program
Hazardous Waste Management
Service, 0205
Oklahoma State Department of Health
1000 Northeast 10th Street
Oklahoma City, OK 73117-1299
(405) 271-7047
OREGON
Roy W. Brower, Manager
David Rozell, Pollution Prevention Specialist
Phil Berry, Pollution Prevention Specialist
Waste Reduction Assistance Program (WRAP)
Hazardous Waste Reduction and
Technical Assistance Program
Hazardous and Solid Waste Division
Oregon Department of Environmental Quality
811 SW Sixth Avenue
Portland, OR 97204
(503) 229-6585
B-19
EPA
Summary of State Pollution Prevention Programs (Continued)
PENNSYLVANIA
Meredith Hill
Assistant to Deputy Secretary
Department of Environmental Resources
Office of Air and Waste Management
Pennsylvania Department of Environmental
Resources
P.O. Box 2063
Harrisburg, PA 17105-2063
(717) 772-2724
Roger Price
Center for Hazardous Materials Research
University of Pittsburgh
Applied Research Center
320 William Pit Way
Pittsburgh, PA 15238
(412) 826-5320 or 1-800-334-CHMR
Jack Giddo
Director
Pennsylvania Technical Assistance Program
(PENNTAP)
Penn State University
110 Barbara Building II
810 North University Drive
University Park, PA 16802
(814) 865-0427
RHODE ISLAND
Richard Enander, Chief
Janet Keller
Office of Environmental Coordination
Hazardous Waste Reduction Program
Rhode Island Department of
Environmental Management
83 Park Street
Providence, RI 02903-1037
(401) 277-3434
Eugene Pepper
Senior Environmental Planner
Hazardous Waste Reduction Section
Office of Environmental Coordination
Rhode Island Department of
Environmental Management
83 Park Street
Providence, RI 02903-1037
(401) 277-3434
B-20
SOUTH CAROLINA
Ray Guerrein
Center for Waste Minimization
South Carolina Department of Health and
Environmental Control
2600 Bull Street
Columbia, SC 29201
(802) 734-4715
SOUTH DAKOTA
Wayne Houtcooper
Waste Management Program
Department of Environment and Natural
Resources
Joe Foss Building
523 E. Capitol Avenue
Pierre, SD 57501-3181
(605) 773-4216
TENNESSEE
Paul Evan Davis
Bureau of Environment
Tennessee Department of Health and
Environment
14th Floor, L & C Building
401 Church Street
Nashville, TN 37243-0455
(615) 741-3657
George Smelcer, Director
Waste Reduction Assistance Program
Waste Reduction Assessment and Technology
Transfer Training Program (WRATT)
Cam Metcalf (Suite 606)
Center of Industrial Services
University of Tennessee
226 Capitol Boulevard Building
Nashville, TN 37219-1804
(615) 242-2456
Carroll Dugan
Section Manager
Waste Reduction and Management Section
Tennessee Valley Authority
Mail Code HB 2G-C
311 Broad Street
Chattanooga, TN 37406
(615) 751-4574
EPA
Summary of State Pollution Prevention Programs (Continued)
TEXAS
John R. Bradford
Director
Center for Hazardous and Toxic
Waste Studies
Texas Tech University
P.O. Box 4679
Lubbock, TX 79409-3121
(806) 742-1413
UTAH
Sonja Wallace
Pollution Prevention Co-Coordinator
Stephanie Bernkopf
Pollution Prevention Co-Coordinator
Office of Executive Director
Utah Department of Environmental Quality
168 North 1950 West Street
Salt Lake City, UT 84114-4810
(801) 536-4480
VERMONT
Gary Gulka
Pollution Prevention Division
Vermont Department of
Environmental Conservation
103 South Main Street
Waterbury, VT 05676
(802) 244-8702
Paul Maskowitz, Chief
Recycling and Resource
Conservation Section
Vermont Department of
Environmental Conservation
103 South Main Street
Waterbury, VT 056 76
(802) 244-8702
VIRGINIA
Sharon Kenneally-Baxter, Director
Waste Minimization Program
Virginia Department of Waste Mgmt.
Monroe Building, 11th Floor
101 N. 14th Street
Richmond, VA 23219
(804) 371-8716
WASHINGTON
Stan Springer
Joy St. Germain
Peggy Morgan
Waste Reduction, Recycling and Litter
Control Program
Washington Department of Ecology
Mail Stop PV-11
Olympia, WA 98504-8711
(206) 438-7541
WEST VIRGINIA
Richard Ferrell, Environmental Analyst
Waste Management Section
Pollution Prevention and Open Dump Program
(PPOD)
West Virginia Division of Natural Resources
1356 Hansford Street
Charleston, WV 25301
(304) 558-4000
WISCONSIN
Lynn Persson, Hazardous Waste Reduction
and Recycling Coordinator
Kate Cooper, Assistance Recycling Coordinator
Bureau of Solid and Hazardous Waste Mgmt.
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources
P.O. Box 7921 (SW/3)
Madison, WI 53707-7921
(608) 267-3763
WYOMING
David Finley, Manager
Pat Gallagher, Senior Environmental Analyst Solid
Waste Management Program
Wyoming Department of
Environmental Quality
122 West 25th Street
Herschler Building
Cheyenne, WY 82002
(307) 777-7752
B-21
EPA
Summary of Pollution Prevention Programs
Postal Service
Bernie Denno
Environmental Specialist
U.S. Postal Service, Room 6830
475 L’Enfant Plaza, SW
Washington, DC 20260-2810
(202) 268-6014
Tennessee Valley Authority
Paul Schmierbach
Environmental Compliance Department
Tennessee Valley Authority
400 Summit Hill Drive
Knoxville, TN 37902
(615) 632-6644
Department of Transportation
Janet Krause
Environmental Engineer
Office of the Secretary
Department of Transportation
400 7th Street, SW
Washington, DC 20590
(202) 366-0038
Coast Guard
T. J. Granito, Environmental
Compliance and Restoration Branch
P2 and Recycling Coordinator
U.S. Coast Guard
USCG (G-ECV-1B)
2100 2nd Street, SW
Washington, DC 20593
(202) 267-1941
B-22
Federal Aviation Administration
Tom Halloway
Manager of Hazardous Materials
and Special Projects Staff
Federal Aviation Administration, AEE-20
800 Independence Avenue, SW
Washington, DC 20591
(202) 267-8114
Department of the Treasury
William McGovern
Chief, Environmental Compliance Division
Department of the Treasury
Treasury Annex
1500 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20220
(202) 622-0043
Department of Veterans Affairs
John Staudt
Chief, Hazardous Materials Mgmt. Division
Department of Veterans Affairs, 138C-4
810 Vermont Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20420
(202) 233-7863
EPA Partners for the Environment
Over the last several years, an important change has taken place in our National strategy for protecting
the environment. Through an array of partnership programs that we collectively refer to as Partners for the
Environment, EPA is demonstrating that voluntary goals and commitments achieve real environmental
results in a timely and cost-effective way. In addition to traditional approaches to environmental protection,
EPA is building cooperative partnerships with a variety of groups, including small and large businesses,
citizen groups, state and local governments, universities, and trade associations.
The results of the Partners for the Environment efforts are impressive. Thousands of organizations are
working cooperatively with EPA to set and research environmental goals such as conserving water and
energy, and reducing greenhouse gases, toxic emissions, solid wastes, indoor air pollution, and pesticide risk.
Our partners are making pollution prevention a central consideration in doing business. Partnership also
means that we are working cooperatively with the private sector to provide stakeholders with effective tools
to address environmental issues. These partners are achieving measurable environmental results often more
quickly and with lower costs that would be the case with regulatory approaches. EPA views these partnership
efforts as key to the future success of environmental protection.
B-23
EPA Partners for the Environment (Continued)
33/50
Reduce toxic releases of 17 high priority chemicals
202/260-6907
AgSTAR
Reduce methane emissions from manure
management
202/233-9041
Climate Wise
Reduce industrial greenhouse gas emissions & energy costs through comprehensive pollution prevention & energy efficiency programs. *An EPA/DOE
partnership
202/260-4407
Coalbed Methane Outreach
Increase methane recovery at coal mines
202/233-9468
Common Sense Initiative
Reinvent environmental regulation to achieve
cleaner, cheaper, smarter results for six industry sectors: auto mfg; computers & electronics; iron & steel;
metal finishing & plating petroleum refining; & printing
202/260-7417
Design for the Environment
Include environmental consideration in product
design
202/260-1678
Energy Star Buildings
Maximize energy efficiency in commercial & industrial buildings
202/775-6650
Energy Star Residential
Promote energy efficiency through new home design
and residential use of energy efficient products
202/775-6650
Energy Star Office Equipment
Increase manufacture of energy efficient office
equipment
202/775-5650
Energy Star Transformer
Increase manufacture and use of high-efficiency
distribution transformers by utilities
202/233-9002
B-24
Environmental Accounting
Increase business identification of environmental costs, &
incorporation of these costs into decision making
202/260-1023
Environmental Leadership
Recognize facilities defined as environmental leaders
and promote environmental management systems
202/564-5081
EPA Standards Network
Coordinate Agency involvement in international standards development and provide public information.
202/260-3584
Green Chemistry
Promote and recognize breakthroughs in chemistry
that accomplish pollution prevention cost effectively
202/260-2659
Green Lights
Increase use of energy efficient lighting technologies
202/233-9178
Indoor Environments
Reduce risks from indoor air pollution
202/233-9370
Landfill Methane Outreach
Develop landfill gas-to-energy projects
202/233-9042
Natural Gas STAR
Reduce methane emissions from natural gas industry
202/233-9044
Pesticide Environmental Stewardship
Promote integrated pest management & reduce pesticide risk in agriculture & non-agriculture settings
800/972-7717
Project XL
Develop alternative regulatory approaches to achieve
greater environmental benefits
202/260-4297
Ruminant Livestock Methane
Reduce methane emissions from ruminant livestock
202/233-9043
EPA Partners for the Environment (Continued)
State and Local Outreach
Reduce greenhouse gas emissions by empowering
state & local decision makers.
202/260-4314
Transportation Partners
Reduce carbon dioxide emissions from transportation sector
202/260-3729
U.S. Initiative on Joint Implementation
Promote international projects that reduce greenhouse gases
202/260-6803
Voluntary Aluminum Industrial
Partnership
WAVE
Promote water efficiency in lodging industry
202/260-7288
WasteWise
Reduce business solid waste through prevention,
reuse & recycling
800/372-9473
Waste Minimization National Plan
Reduce persistent, bioaccumulative, & toxic chemicals in harzardous waste.
703/308-8438
Internet address at:
http://www.epa.gov/partners or
http://es.inel.gov/partners
Reduce perfluorocarbon gas emissions from aluminum smelting.
202/233-9793
B-25
TVA
Summary of State Pollution Prevention Programs
STATE
PROGRAMS
CONTACTS
Alabama
Alabama Department of Environment & Conservation
(ADEM) Advisory Committee
Gary Ellis
(334) 213-4303
fax (334) 213-1399
The University of Alabama - Environmental Institute
Research & Service Programs For The Environment
Dr. Robert A. Griffin
(205) 348-1591
• National Institute For Global Environmental Change (NIGEC)
• EPA/Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive
Research (EPA/EPSCoR)
• Gulf Coast Hazardous Substance Research Center
• Hazardous Materials Management & Resource Recovery
(Hammarr)
Florida
Georgia
Dr. Atly Jefcoat
(205) 348-6455
William J. Herz
(205) 348-1102
Department of Environmental Protection Pollution
Prevention Program
• Pollution Prevention at the Source
• Onsite Technical Assistance
• Pollution Prevention Assessments
• Local Government Pollution Prevention Training
• Newsletter - P2 Links
• P2 in Permits and Inspections
• Computerized P2 Source Center
• Computerized P2 Source Center of Information & Vendors
• Department-Wide Training
Steffi Tassos
(909) 488-0300
fax (904) 921-8061
Florida Derm Dade County Pollution Prevention
Nichole Hefty
(305) 372-6825
fax (305) 372-6760
Florida Center for Solid & Hazardous Waste Management
• Southern Waste Information Exchange Clearinghouse
Eugene B. Jones
(800) 441-SWIX (7949)
Georgia Environmental Protection Division (EPD)
• Target Industries for Vol. Multimedia Red.
• Workshops for the General Public, Ind. Groups Professional
and Environmental Organizations
• In-House Training for EPD Inspectors
• Review of Hazardous Waste Red. Plans (Facility)
Harold F. Reheis
(404) 656-4713
fax (404) 651-5130
Georgia EPD Planning Requirement for Large Quantity
Generators
• Project Petro (Waste Oil Recycling Program)
Pollution Prevention Assistance Division
• Target Technical & Financial Assistance to Industry
(Source Reduction)
• Information Clearinghouse
• Seniors’ Assessment Technical Assistance Program (SATAP)
• Quarterly Source Reduction Newsletter
• Source Reduction Workshops and Seminars in Cooperation
with GTRI
• Demonstration Grant Program (with GTRI)
B-26
G. Robert Kerr
(404) 651-5120
Bob Donaghue
(404) 651-5120
fax (404) 651-5130
TVA
Summary of State Pollution Prevention Programs (Continued)
STATE
PROGRAMS
CONTACTS
Kentucky
Kentucky General Assembly HB722 - Info & Technical
Assistance Program for Waste Reduction for Kentucky
Industries and Businesses. This Program is Free,
Confidential, and Non-Regulatory
Ralph Collins
Deputy Commissioner
(502) 564-2150
Kentucky Pollution Prevention Center
• On-Site Technical Assistance to Hazardous Waste Generators
In Kentucky (Assisted by 6 Retired Engineers)
• Free Quarterly Newsletters
• Frequent Workshops, Annual Seminars
• EPA/State Funding
• Gov’t Agency (Public Sector) Waste Reduction Assessments
• P2 Research
Cam Metcalf
(502) 852-0965
fax (502) 852-0964
Debbie Phillips
University of Louisville Chemical Engineering Department
Industrial Assessment Center (IAC)
• Waste Minimization Audits
• Options Development
• Waste Minimization Research
Dr. Marvin Fleischman
(502) 852-6357
fax (502) 852-6355
Comprehensive Pollution Prevention Act of 1990
Mississippi Pollution Prevention Program
• Coordinator - Hazardous Waste
• Coordinator - Solid Waste
Thomas Whitten
(601) 961-5241
fax (601) 354-6612
Jim Hardage
Mississippi State University
Mississippi Technical Assistance Program (MISSTAP)
• Technology Transfer
• Technical Assistance
• Waste Exchange
• Education
• Workshops & Seminars
• On-Site Visits & Audits
• Information Clearinghouse Library
Dr. Donald O. Hill
(601) 325-8454
fax (601) 325-8616
Dr. Caroline Hill
(601) 325-8454
fax (601) 325-8616
Mississippi
North
Carolina
North Carolina Division of Pollution Prevention &
Environmental Assistance (DPPEA)
Office of Waste Reduction
• On-Site Technical Assistance
• R&D Education Projects
• Workshops, Outreach, and Seminars
• Information Clearinghouse & Library
• Recycling
Gary Hunt
(919) 715-6500
fax (919) 715-6794
UNC Charlotte, Urban Institute Southeast Waste
Exchange “Waste Watcher”
• Matches Waste Generators with Waste Management Activities
Maxie May
(704) 547-2307
fax (704) 547-3178
B-27
TVA
Summary of State Pollution Prevention Programs (Continued)
STATE
PROGRAMS
CONTACTS
South
Carolina
Hazardous Waste Management Research Fund
• Develop & Promote Waste Minimization Technologies
Betty Branham
(803) 777-9109
fax (803) 777-4575
Department of Health & Environmental Control (DHEC)
Center for Waste Minimization
• Waste Reduction Advice
• Information Clearinghouse
• On-Site Technical Assistance
• Resource of Free Material for P2 & Waste Minimization
Bob Burgess
(803) 734-4761
fax (803) 734-9934
Office of Solid Waste Reduction & Recycling
Steve Thomas
1-800-768-7348
Sumter Technical College
South Carolina Environmental Training Center
• Workshops & Seminars on Solid Waste, Recycling Hazardous
Waste, and Waste Minimization
• Industry Seminars and In-House Training
Nancy Bishop
(803) 778-6656
fax (803) 778-7879
B-28
The University of Northern Iowa’s Recycling Reuse Technology Transfer
Center and Iowa Waste Reduction Center
The Recycling Reuse Technology Transfer Center (RRTTC) and the Iowa Waste Reduction Center (IWRC)
are located at the University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, Iowa. The RRTTC is an applied research,
education, and outreach program which focuses on research related to by-product reutilization and industrial
ecology. The IWRC is a small business assistance program which focuses on providing direct assistance to
small business clients in regard to environmental regulations and pollution prevention. Both centers work
with a diverse clientele. While IWRC is more strictly oriented toward outreach and education in the small
business community, the RRTTC bridges the worlds of academia and business by involving students in
applied research and internships. What follows are two examples of work with small business, one from
RRTTC and the other IWRC.
• RRTTC Assists Small Business Entrepreneurs Develop Fines Compaction Equipment
A graduate intern with the RRTTC is working with APEX Corporation to assist them in developing a small scale
prototype fines compaction apparatus known as the Hanson/Packer. This equipment can be used to separate waste
oils and cutting fluids from metal shaving and honing sludges allowing the metal working shop to recover and
separate waste oils or cutting fluids from the metal for recycling. The metal is reduced to an 8-10 pound ingot.
Work is focused on identifying system improvements or manufacturing defects; potential market; the characteristics of the melts from formed ingots; and any potential regulatory barriers for use with this equipment on site with
the small metal working shop. A patent has been obtained for various system components.
• IWRC Assists Small Surface Coating Operation to Reduce Their VOC Emissions
The Surface Technique and Research (STAR) training project has been a very successful effort. Information used
to develop the STAR training program was first obtained through applied research in surface coating techniques
and evaluation. Careful study of and experimentation with various approaches to spray plan of attack, estimation
practices, and thoughtful selection of surface coating equipment provided the basis for this effective and practical
training program.
STAR efforts have focused on disseminating and conducting training programs both with private businesses and
state technical assistance providers. Training sessions have involved shop personnel from small autobody
operations and state and regional technical assistance programs.
This education/outreach effort focuses on training the surface coater to increase transfer efficiency, improve build
efficiency, reduce build variation, and improve finish quality, while reducing overspray emissions and waste.
Through the use of STAR program techniques, significant improvements in operator dependent variables are
achieved by carefully training the operator in regard to best practices for optimum pollution prevention in the areas
of coating mixture, proper use of chosen equipment type, maintenance practices, gun set-up, spray distance and angle,
spray technique, and plan of attack. An integral part of the STAR program is the training manual entitled “Increased
Profits Through Efficient Spraying.”
Point of Contact
For further information about this program, please contact:
Catherine Zeman, Program Manager
Recycling Reuse Technology Transfer Center
University of Northern Iowa
2244 McCollum Science Hall
Cedar Falls, IA 50714-0421
(319) 273-7090
FAX (319) 273-5815
E-mail: [email protected]
B-29
Environmental Programs for the State of Iowa
The State of Iowa, through its comprehensive network of state and local environmental programs, is
assisting business and industry to make environmentally sound business decisions. The following programs
are available to business and industry for technical and/or financial assistance:
Waste Reduction Assistance Program
Beth Hicks
Iowa Department of Natural Resources
900 East Grand Avenue
Des Moines, IA 50319-0034
(515) 281-8927
Fax: (515) 281-8895
E Mail: [email protected]
The Waste Reduction Assistance Program (WRAP) provides:
• Business and industry no-cost, confidential, non-regulatory assistance with waste reduction and
recycling;
• Industry consultants who lend technical assistance to businesses and organizations of more than
100 employees;
• On-site opportunity assessments, workshops and on-going information transfer on pollution prevention
technologies;
Connections to pollution prevention resources, including searches via the internet, access to an extension
library, connection to waste exchanges, regional and national newsletters and journals, and vendor lists to
meet manufacturers needs.
Landfill Alternatives Financial Assistance Program
Tom Anderson
Waste Management Assistance Division
Iowa Department of Natural resources
900 East Grand Avenue
Des Moines, Iowa 50319-0034
(515) 281-8623
Fax: (515) 281-8895
E-mail: [email protected]
The Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Waste Management Assistance Division administers a
financial assistance program that provides incentives for alternatives to landfilling solid wastes and market
development. Financial assistance is awarded on a competitive basis. Funding for this program is provided
by a portion of the tonnage fees assessed on every ton of solid waste landfilled in the State of Iowa. Applicants
are required to provide a minimum cost share toward project costs.
Landfill Alternatives Financial Assistance Program (LAFAP)
• Projects eligible to receive a grant include public education projects; waste reduction at the source projects;
research and development projects (new technologies); and demonstration projects that are new to the State
of Iowa.
B-30
Environmental Programs for the State of Iowa (Continued)
• Projects eligible to receive a zero interest loan include projects that do not meet the above criteria; recycling
and reuse projects; combustion with energy recovery projects; and combustion for volume reduction projects.
The term of loans awarded through this program are negotiated.
• Two funding cycles are offered each year. Application deadlines are 4:30 p.m. the first Monday in June and
4:30 p.m. the first Monday in December.
Recycling Equipment Sales Tax Exemption
• Industrial machinery, equipment, computers and replacement parts are tax exempt if used primarily in
recycling or reprocessing waste products. Contact: Department of Revenue and Finance, (515) 281-3114.
Recycling Equipment Property Tax Exemption
• Personal and real property are tax exempt if used primarily in converting waste plastic, waste paper, or
waste paperboard into raw materials or products composed primarily of recycled material. Contact: Department of Revenue and Finance, (515) 281-3114.
Recycle Iowa
Margo Underwood
200 East Grand Avenue
Des Moines, IA 50309
(515) 265-0889
Fax: (515) 265-6690
Recycle Iowa is a cooperative program between the Iowa Departments of Economic Development and
Natural Resources. Recycle Iowa is assisting to achieve the state-wide 50% recycling goal and improve Iowa’s
environment by developing and expanding markets for recyclables. New and expanded recyclable markets
also increase capital investments and employment opportunities for Iowans.
The goals of the Recycle Iowa program are:
• To encourage community-based economic development through expansion of markets for recyclables.
• To foster resource conservation attitudes, practices and policies in Iowa by identifying economic
incentives that encourage recycling market development.
• To facilitate the use of recyclables in Iowa industry to produce recycled products and stabilize valueadded markets.
• To stimulate and stabilize the balance of supply and demand of recyclable materials and recycled
products in Iowa.
By-product and Waste Search Service Iowa Waste Exchange
Iowa Waste Exchange Administration and Support
Leisha Barcus
Recycle Iowa Office
200 East Grand Avenue
Des Moines, IA 50309
(515) 242-4755
Internet: http://www.recycleiowa.org.
B-31
Environmental Programs for the State of Iowa (Continued)
Iowa Waste Exchange Technical Contractor
Jennifer Drenner
Iowa Waste Reduction Center
75 Biology Research Complex
University of Northern Iowa
Cedar Falls, IA 50614-0185
(800) 422-3109 or (319) 273-2079
Fax: (319) 273-2926
Iowa's Waste Exchange (IWE) is Iowa’s free, confidential By-product and Waste Search Service. Administered by the Recycle Iowa Office, this is a cooperative effort between the Iowa Department of Natural
Resources, the Iowa Department of Economic Development, Iowa community colleges, councils of governments and the Iowa Waste Reduction Center. The IWE staff meets with business people to:
• Identify your company’s waste streams;
• Facilitate transfer of materials by actively searching for companies and non-profit organizations to reuse
or recycle them;
• Save your company money in avoided disposal costs; and
• Locate valuable secondary materials for potential use in your business, saving your company money on
the purchase of new materials.
Iowa Department of Economic Development
Peggy Russell
Marketing and Business Expansion Bureau
200 East Grand Avenue
Des Moines, IA 50309
(515) 242-4735
Fax: (515) 242-4749
The Department of Economic Development (DED) offers financial assistance programs to aid in economic
development through a variety of programs.
Iowa Manufacturing Technology Center
Del Shepard
DMACC, Building #3E ATC
2006 South Ankeny Boulevard
Ankeny, IA 50021
(515) 965-7125
E-mail: [email protected]
The Manufacturing Technology Center (MTC) offers single-contact resources connecting small and midsized manufacturers to all of the varied pools of knowledge that once worked independently. The MTC is a
state-wide network with field agents available to conduct formal assessments of a manufacturer’s needs to
develop plans and coordinate delivery of services to meet manufacturing needs. In addition, the MTC assists
in modernizing facilities, upgrading processes and improving the work force through the use of effective
training and skill development.
B-32
Environmental Programs for the State of Iowa (Continued)
Iowa Recycling Association
c/o Recycle Iowa Office
Margo Underwood, President
2 Post Road
Mason City, IA 50401
(515) 265-0889
Fax: (515) 265-6690
The Iowa Recycling Association (IRA) is a non-profit association of businesses, government agencies, nonprofit organizations and individuals who believe that waste reduction and recycling are good for the
environment and for economic development. The IRA focuses on:
• Educating the public about the increasing importance of waste reduction and recycling;
• Advising government about solid waste management;
• Developing new markets for recyclable materials;
• Collecting and processing recyclables and remanufacturing them into useful products;
• Shaping public policy on recycling.
Iowa Waste Reduction Center
University of Northern Iowa
75 Biology Research Center
Cedar Falls, IA 50614-0185
(800) 422-3109 or (319) 273-2079
Fax: (319) 273-2926
The Iowa Waste Reduction Center (IWRC) helps small business owners and operators meet and exceed
environmental regulations; and reduce costs through pollution prevention. The Center provides free,
confidential on-site environmental assistance to small businesses (200 employees or fewer). Other programs
at the IWRC include:
• Iowa Air Emissions Assistance Program - assistance with air permitting and regulations for small
business.
• Small Business Pollution Prevention Center - applied research and education outreach for critical small
business environmental issues.
Recycling and Reuse Technology Transfer Center
Catherine Zeman
University of Northern Iowa
2244 McCollum Science Hall
Cedar Falls, IA 50314-0185
(319) 273-7090
The purpose of the RRTTC is to promote and support research, education and outreach for solid waste reuse
and recycling technologies and processors. RRTTC projects target key Iowa industries and solid waste
streams in order to reduce the amount of wastes sent to Iowa landfills, with the overall goal of preventing
B-33
Environmental Programs for the State of Iowa (Continued)
environmental degradation while promoting Iowa’s economy. Established by the Iowa State Legislature, the
RRTTC supports research projects to:
• Identify and design new reuse and recycling technologies;
• Transfer emerging and existing technologies and manufacturing processes to new industries;
• Disseminate research findings and encourage implementation.
Climate Wise
Anne Black
Iowa Department of Natural Resources,
Energy Bureau
Wallace State Office Building
Des Moines, IA 50319
(515) 242-5851
Fax: (515) 281-6794
Climate Wise is a result of the Climate Change Action Plan—a historic international environmental
agreement signed by President Clinton in 1993. The Plan calls for signatories to return greenhouse gas
emissions to 1990 levels by the year 2000. In keeping with these goals, Climate Wise encourages comprehensive, cost-effective industrial energy efficiency and pollution prevention actions, and allows companies to
tailor their programs to meet the needs and opportunities of their operations. Climate Wise:
• Targets the industrial sector;
• Is conducted as a full partnership between the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department
of Energy;
• Promotes emissions reduction through voluntary public/private sector partnerships;
• Provides support for a broad array of emissions reduction opportunities.
Rebuild Iowa
Linda King
Iowa Department of Natural Resources,
Energy Bureau
Wallace State Office Building
Des Moines, Iowa 50319
(515) 281-7015
FAX: (515) 281-6794
GOAL: Reduce energy consumption in participating buildings by 25% and increase economic development
by using local businesses, financiers, and contractors.
Rebuild Iowa is a program designed to assist communities seeking to increase economic development by
implementing energy efficiency improvements in community buildings. Participants include, but are not
limited to, the following buildings: schools, hospitals, local government buildings, commercial and industrial
buildings, multi-family dwellings, and residential housing. A coordinator in each community acts as a
marketer of the program and as a liaison with the Department of Natural Resources to provide communities
with information to improve local economies through energy efficiency.
The Rebuild Iowa program is based on the following steps:
• Identify building improvements and their anticipated economic pay back through an analysis;
• Estimate dollar savings from those improvements;
• Implement improvements in community buildings.
B-34
Environmental Programs for the State of Iowa (Continued)
Total Assessment Audit
Anne Black
Iowa Department of Natural Resources,
Energy Bureau
Wallace State Office Building
Des Moines, IA 50319
(515) 242-5851
Fax: (515) 281-6794
William Haman, P.E.
Iowa Energy Center
2521 Elwood Dr.
Ames, IA 50010-8263
(515) 294-4710
Fax: (515) 294-9912
The Total Assessment Audit (TAA) program is available for private industry interested in identifying
wasteful energy and manufacturing practices. TAA offers solutions which allow industry to compete in a
global market by analyzing production costs and complying with environmental standards, while eliminating
excessive use of energy in the production process. The TAA format provides comprehensive and accurate
analyses of industrial facilities to identify:
• Opportunities for investment in energy efficiency technologies;
• Options to improve economic competitiveness and viability through new or converted technologies;
• Possible opportunities to reduce pollution and contamination of natural resources while improving
production in facilities.
Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Center
Dr. Howard Shapiro
Iowa State University
2088 Black Engineering Building
Ames, IA 50011-2160
(515) 294-3080
The Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Center (EADC) provides tenured faculty from Iowa State University
College of Engineering to guide senior and graduate engineering students as they analyze your plant’s energy
use. Free and confidential, this energy audit will reveal simple ways to cut energy use quickly, often with a very
small capital investment.
This energy audit is available for all types of manufacturing. Your company is eligible for EADC services
if your plant’s products are within the standard industrial classification codes 20 through 39 and if you are
located within about 150 miles of Iowa State University. Your plant must also:
• Have gross annual sales of $75 million or less;
• Consume energy at a cost of $100,000 to $1.75 million per year;
• Employ no more than 500 people;
• Have no technical staff to do energy analysis.
Every effort has been made to verify the information provided in each entry. No warranty, expressed or
implied, and no endorsement of any facility, business, organization or individual is suggested by inclusion
or exclusion of this list.
B-35
Rockwell Avionics & Communications
Solid Waste Environmental Leadership and Learning Team
At Rockwell, our Vision is to be the best diversified, high technology company in the world. To attain this
goal, we truly have to be the best in all areas, including our prudent use of resources— those of our company,
our community, and our planet. Rockwell’s comprehensive waste reduction and reuse program was expanded
in January 1993 at Collins Avionics and Communications Division’s (CACD) Coralville, Iowa location. This
production facility dealt with a mountain of potential recyclables each day, ranging from plastic bags to
package padding and electronic packaging materials.
With the assistance of the By-product and Waste Search Service (BAWSS)—Iowa’s waste exchange
program—Coralville kicked off a program in which many “waste” items could be reused within the facility,
sold, given to other companies, or shipped back to the suppliers who pay the freight. Not only has this landfill
avoidance been a boon to the environment, it also translates into revenues of more than $75,000 annually.
This savings provides the funding for the continuation of Rockwell’s recycling program.
Rockwell has found an excellent means to process recyclables while contributing to the community. Many
packaging materials are shipped to Goodwill Industries of Southeast Iowa, where mentally and physically
challenged employees at the Rehabilitation Center grade and prepare these materials for reuse or recycling.
This provides jobs to these valuable members of our community while freeing Rockwell employees from
having to divert time away from work to process recyclables.
CACD leadership chartered a cross-functional team to develop a similar initiative for the Cedar Rapids,
Iowa and Anamosa, Iowa facilities after having been convinced of the effectiveness of the program by the
Coralville results and corporate accolades. This Solid Waste Environmental Leadership and Learning
(SWELL) team soon grew to encompass Collins Commercial Avionics (CCA) and Rockwell Graphic Systems
(Goss). The SWELL program has been presented to numerous businesses, agencies and recycling organizations nationally and internationally as well as corporate-wide at Rockwell.
How did the SWELL program come so far so fast? One of the critical elements is commitment—on the part
of both employees and leadership. This includes a strong company/union partnership, which has been
invaluable to the success of the program. Bargaining unit employees are an important part of the SWELL
team, and a strong partnership between Union and Rockwell management has paved the way for the team’s
progress. The cross-functional, multi-level nature of the team has also helped the program’s implementation—when a recyclable item finds its way into the garbage, there more than likely is a SWELL team member
nearby to pass along a gentle reminder to the offender. The program relies on the support, ideas and
dedication of all for its success.
It is for this very reason that education is so important. Successful waste minimization requires a day-today commitment for accurate source separation of recyclable items. Rockwell’s division-wide clean out your
office days have not only provided an excellent way to rid the facility of excess items and free up valuable floor
space, but they gave employees the best possible opportunity to learn the recycling guidelines—through
practice. For the first such event, held on Earth Day, 1995 at CACD, the SWELL team published a booklet
of guidelines in addition to populating work areas with well-marked recycling bins.
Employees were encouraged to wear casual attire for the day-long event, which further boosted participation. Other clean out your files day have followed; the SWELL principles were put into action April 23, 1996
at the State of Iowa’s “Clean Your Files Day” on the Capital Complex, where forty-six and a half tons of
material were collected in under five hours. Rockwell was proud to team with Iowa’s Department of Natural
Resources and Department of General Services to make this far-reaching clean-up a reality.
Rockwell’s employees environmental awareness has also provided an opportunity for employees to make
a contribution to Goodwill Industries. The workforce at Rockwell has the option of on-site drink can and bottle
redemption ($.05 can deposit in Iowa) but almost all choose to leave the beverage cans in designated
receptacles for Goodwill donation which resulted in a donation of over $10,000 in FY96.
We at Rockwell feel we have the responsibility to share what we know—both our successes and lessons
learned—with other companies and organizations. We recently captured the principles championed by
SWELL in a “how to” document. The resulting 11-step booklet, the “World Class Resource Recovery &
B-36
Recycling Program Guide,” has been distributed to all of Rockwell’s North American operations and to several
other businesses to assist them as they kick off their own environmental waste minimization programs.
You can have the most successful recycling program in the world, but unless you have a market for recycled
items, your efforts are futile. To facilitate end use opportunities for collected materials, The National Buy
Recycled Business Alliance and several state Buy Recycled programs have been working to encourage businesses
to consider recycled goods when making office and facility purchases. If a business has not looked at recycled
content materials recently, the cost, quality, and availability of today’s supplies will surprise them.
There are some odd items for which we have not yet found a market—a selection of miscellaneous plastics
and foam “trash.” However, this “trash” became treasured works of art in the hands of hundreds of area
children during the Iowa City Artfest, held in the summer of 1996. In response to the SWELL team’s “Junk
Art” craft tables at the festivals, many teachers continually approach Rockwell about receiving a supply of
these “unrecyclable” items for future art projects.
As you undoubtedly realize, “It’s not easy bein’ green” . . . it requires planning, education, and a great deal
of commitment. Even so, a waste reduction and reuse program brings with it some hefty dividends—not just
to a company’s bottom line, but to the environment and the community. When we lend a hand to other companies
piloting their waste reduction programs, we have reached another step closer to attaining our Vision.
B-37
Appendix C
Point of Contact Directory
Air Force Plant #44
Hughes Missile Systems Company Tucson, AZ
City of Chattanooga - Chattanooga, TN
Company Point of Contact:
Mr. Ken Hays
Chief of Staff
Office of the Mayor
City of Chattanooga
Municipal Building
Chattanooga, TN 37402
Phone: (423) 757-5276
Fax:
(423) 757-0005
Company Point of Contact:
Paul W. Fecsik
Hughes Missile Systems Company
P.O. Box 11337 - Bldg 815A
Tucson, AZ 85734
Phone: (520) 794-4105
Fax:
(520) 794-1077
E-mail: [email protected]
Success Story
Chemical Waste Minimization and
Process Water Recycling
Certified Best Practices
Page
77
Company Point of Contact:
Ms. Debra Rodriguez
P.O. Box 482; Dept 2V
Forth Worth, TX 76101
Phone: (817) 280-8729
Fax:
(817) 280-3604
V-22 and Pollution Prevention
Paint and Paint Gun Improvements
Page
3
23
Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. (BHTI), located in
Forth Worth, Texas, is a manufacturer of commercial and military helicopters. Bell employs about
7,000 workers. BHTI began full scale development
of the V-22 (Osprey) in 1984 with Engineering
Manufacturing Development activities beginning
in October 1993. The V-22 vertical takeoff aircraft
program is the first major weapon system acquisition for Bell Helicopter requiring a pollution prevention plan. The tilt rotor technology is being
developed jointly by Bell Helicopter and Boeing
Helicopters of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
23
Chattanooga Manufacturer’s Association
4
Curbside Recycling Collection Program
78
Economy Surplus Power for
Wastewater Treatment
Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. Fort Worth, TX
Success Stories
Page
CARTA/Electric Buses
7
Environmental Court
6
Greenways
4
Hamilton County Air Pollution Control
Bureau
7
Parks and Recreation Alliances with
Non-Profit Groups and Private Industry
5
Stormwater Community Education
Program
5
Sustainable Development
24
Warner Park Recycling Program
78
Chattanooga, Tennessee is located at the juncture
of the states of Tennessee, Georgia and Alabama
and is surrounded by the southern Appalachian
mountains and Cumberland Plateau. Nestled in the
heart of the Tennessee River Valley, Chattanooga is
home to more than 152,000 people and is part of
Hamilton County that supports a population in
excess of 285,000. The City's economic base includes
a diverse group of businesses including Coca-Cola,
MoonPies, Brock Candies, Olan Mills, Provident
Insurance, Dixie Yarns, and numerous heavy industry representatives. A city with a heavy manufacturing base, Chattanooga was designated in 1969
by the then-U.S. Health, Education and Welfare
Department as one of the most polluted cities in the
United States. Since that critical turning point, Chattanooga has evolved into a benchmark for environmental improvement with a strong commitment to
sustainable development through economic growth.
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The City's long and sometimes painful journey was
acknowledged in 1990 when the EPA recognized
Chattanooga for its clean air and in 1995 designated
it on Earth Day as America's most improved city.
What makes this turnaround effort so significant
was the concerted effort between government, business organizations, and the community to work
together first on individual problems, then as part
of a more coherent "vision" for Chattanooga's future. What became apparent during the late 1960s
to early 1980s was that the citizens wanted not just
change, but continuously maintainable development so that protection of the environment incorporated economic growth and quality of life for all of
Chattanooga. This evolutionary initiative, begun in
the late 1960s, became an infusive vision manifested in several programs such as the Chattanooga
Venture, the Chattanooga Neighborhood Enterprise, the Greenway initiative, Riverpark, and the
Electric Bus program.
What began as a response to overwhelming problems has evolved into a highly successful, interrelated series of programs and projects for Chattanooga. Building on what matters to its citizens—
the environment, quality of life, and sustainable
growth—the City continues to canvass, analyze,
and incorporate goals and objectives to ensure that
it stays a model, environmentally-supportable city
that listens and cares not just about the environment, but about the generations of Chattanoogans
who will inherit it.
Dayton Parts, Inc. - Harrisburg, PA
Company Point of Contact:
Mr. Harry Pehote
Director of Quality Assurance
Dayton Parts, Inc.
P.O. Box 5795
1300 N. Cameron Street
Harrisburg, PA 17110
Phone: (717) 257-5003
Fax:
(717) 255-8569
Certified Best Practice
Spring Coating Environmental
Requirements
Defense Contract Management
Command - Ft. Belvoir, VA
Company Point of Contact:
Mr. A. Ken Siler
8725 John J. Kingman Road
Ft. Belvoir, VA 22060-6221
Phone: (703) 767-3412
Fax:
(703) 767-2379
E-mail: [email protected]
Home page: http://www.jgapp.com
Success Story
Eliminating Hazardous Materials from
DOD Contracts and Weapons Systems
Department of Energy, Oak Ridge
Operations - Oak Ridge, TN
Page
25
Dayton Parts Inc. (DPI), located in Harrisburg,
PA, was originally founded as Stanley Springs in
1921, and its original product line of heavy-duty leaf
springs used on tractors, trailers and other heavy
equipment has remained central to the company's
business. The company became Dayton Parts in
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1988 and kept the Stanley Springs name for its
spring line and its repair facility. Acquired by JPE,
Inc. in 1992, DPI manufactures and/or distributes
truck and automotive components for the original
equipment market and aftermarket and sells to
heavy-, medium-, and light-duty truck and trailer
independent companies. Its primary customers are
independent warehouse distributors, mega distributors, wheel and rim distributors, and spring service
outlets for heavy duty and medium duty commercial vehicles and related equipment.
The spring manufacturing plant is well-equipped
and features state-of-the-art taper spring manufacturing equipment. Supporting a work force of approximately 120 non-union employees, the plant is
capable of producing more than 17,000 spring types
and typically manufactures over 5,000 spring part
numbers per year with 60% of these in lot sizes
ranging from 1 to 40. Typical big lots average between 100 and 200. Leaf spring products currently
represent approximately 80% of the manufactured
product with the tapered spring line expected to
grow from its current 20% in the future.
Company Point of Contact:
Tammy Graham, Program Manager
Oak Ridge Centers for Manufacturing
Technology
Oak Ridge BMP Regional Support Center
P.O. Box 2009, Bldg. 9737
Oak Ridge, TN 37831-8091
Phone: (423) 576-5532
Fax:
(423) 574-2000
Email: [email protected]
Page
25
Certified Best Practices
Page
Improved Handling of Recycled Materials
79
In Situ Vitrification Method for
Waste Disposal
80
Recycling Chemicals Used in
Electroless Plating
27
Resource Conservation and Recovery
Act Closures
80
Sensor Development for Environmentally
Relevant Species
81
Spill Control System
81
Technology Logic Diagram
81
Located in the city of Oak Ridge, Tennessee,
Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Operations encompasses 35,252 acres of land and embraces three
primary research and technology facilities (Oak
Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant,
and East Tennessee Technology Park) as well as
supportive organizations.
Operated by Lockheed Martin Energy Research
Corporation, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory
conducts applied research and engineering development to advance the Nation’s energy resources,
environmental quality, scientific knowledge, educational foundations, and industrial competitiveness.
Operated by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems,
Inc., the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant provides weapon
components dismantlement; highly-enriched uranium storage and management; nuclear weapon
stockpile support; environmental restoration; waste
management activities; precision manufacturing;
and national security programs. The Oak Ridge
Centers for Manufacturing Technology, also located
at Y-12, provides manufacturing technology transfer programs that are available to the Nation’s
private sector as well as other federal customers.
Also operated by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., the East Tennessee Technology Park
provides leading-edge research, development, and
implementation of environmental restoration and
waste management technologies related to monitoring, handling, decontaminating, decommissioning, treatment, and storage.
Oak Ridge serves the Nation through the Oak
Ridge Centers for Manufacturing Technology by
maintaining core competencies related to weapon
manufacturing, providing access to user facilities,
operating the manufacturing skills campus, and
providing opportunities via technology transfer programs. Success results by combining the overlapping research and development capabilities of the
Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the unique manu-
facturing technologies of the Y-12 Plant, and the
environmental restoration experience of the East
Tennessee Technology Park.
As the training arm of the Oak Ridge Centers for
Manufacturing Technology, the Manufacturing
Skills Campus offers intense hands-on and performance-based training courses for government, industry, and academia. The Campus features national broadcasts on industry-relevant topics via
remote electronic hook-up, and a virtual training
model which reduces traditional cost and schedule
barriers.
Oak Ridge Operations continues to advance in
quality, excellence, and research. This spirit continues to characterize Oak Ridge’s activities as it
builds on its historic strengths; delivers scientific
and technological value; and establishes itself as an
efficient, cost effective complex regarded for its high
excellence, ethics, and integrity.
Digital Equipment Corporation Westfield, MA
Company Point of Contact:
Ms. Nancy Shear
Digital Equipment Corporation
85 Atkinson Lane
Sudbury, MA 01776
Phone: (508) 467-3643
E-mail: [email protected]. com
Certified Best Practice
Painting/EPA and State Regulations
Page
27
(Important: Business has since been sold.) Located
in Westfield, Massachusetts, the Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) Enclosures Business encompasses 225,000 square feet with a staff of 600
employees in support of the total business. DEC
Westfield, together with its facility located in
Maynard, Massachusetts, provides sheet metal fabrications finishing and assembled enclosures from
single tools to model, prototypes and high volume
products. Westfield's fabrication and assembly flexibility is enhanced by CNC equipment under DNC
control, design-to-manufacturing connectivity
through electronic transfer, and a computer-controlled EPA compliant paint system. In addition to
Westfield's manufacturing capabilities, services offered through DEC Enclosures Business include
the use of information technology to manage the
business, sheet metal versus plastic analysis, concurrent engineering, material management, and
integrated work cell manufacturing teams.
C-3
Dover Air Force Base - Dover, DE
Company Point of Contact:
Ms. Sue Walls
Dover Air Force Base
436 AW/PA
Dover Air Force Base, DE
Phone: (302) 677-3379
Fax:
(302) 677-2901
Success Stories
Dover Air Force Base as a National
Test Site Groundwater and Soil
Cleanup Testing
Hazardous Materials Pharmacy
Volatile Organic Compound Release
Reduction
Page
82
7
28
Dover Air Force Base (DAFB) is home to the 436th
Airlift Wing, more commonly known as the “Eagle
Wing”, and the 512th Airlift Wing, the Reserve
associate, referred to as the “Liberty Wing.” C-5
Galaxy airplanes, the largest transport aircraft in
the Air Force, are flown by both wings, who form the
“Dover Team.” The base covers more than 3,900
acres which house some 1,700 buildings. DAFB’s
economic impact is more than $470 on the local
economy and is Delaware’s third largest industry.
The Dover Team’s mission is essentially to provide global airlift capability. DAFB also houses the
world’s largest aerial port, which moves more cargo
than Federal Express and UPS combined.
The Charles E. Carson Center for Mortuary Affairs, DAFB’s port mortuary also plays a vital role as
a place of honor where the remains of Department
of Defense personnel killed overseas are received.
The Charles E. Carson Center for Mortuary Affairs
will be formally dedicated on 28 May 1997.
Hamilton Standard Electronic
Manufacturing Center - Farmington, CT
Company Point of Contact:
Mr. Steve Pavlech
Manager, Operations Planning
Hamilton Standard United Technologies
One Hamilton Road, M/S 1-2A-3
Windsor Locks, CT 06096
Phone: (860) 654-5653
Fax:
(860) 654-6439
E-mail: [email protected]
C-4
Certified Best Practices
Page
Environmental Program
28
Work Environment
29
The Hamilton Standard Electronic Manufacturing Center (HSEMC) in Farmington, Connecticut is
a functional unit of the Hamilton Standard division
of United Technologies Corporation. This facility
covers over 160,000 square feet and supports almost
400 employees. Operations include production of
electronic systems for flight controls for the Black
Hawk helicopter, CH53/MH53 helicopter and
Seahawk helicopter. In addition, HSEMC produces
electronics for the data systems for the F/A-18, C17, and F-15 aircraft, as well as the Apache and
Comanche helicopters. Electronic systems are also
included in the missile engine controls for the Harpoon missile. HSEMC also produces precision sensors for military aircraft, helicopters, and missiles.
The Hamilton Standard Electronic Manufacturing Center provides any company with a roadmap
for applying good management techniques and sound
business practices—and ensuring its successful
application by strong support from highly motivated and trained personnel. This effort is providing HSEMC with an environment of opportunity to
expand its share of the global marketplace. The
company is well on the road to world class manufacturing through strong communication procedures
and individualized application of common practices.
ITT Defense and Electronics - Mclean, VA
Company Point of Contact:
Mr. Alan Leibowitz
ITT Defense and Electronics
Director EHS
1650 Tysons Boulevard, Suite 1700
McLean, VA 22102
Phone: (703) 790-6321
Fax:
(703) 790-6366
E-mail: [email protected]
Success Story
Development and Implementation of
Multifunctional Multiunit Chemical
Use Reduction Teams
Page
8
ITT Defense and Electronics (ITT D&E) is a leading supplier of high technology commercial and
defense electronic systems, semiconductors, standard and customized connectors and operations and
management services. Its primary business markets include avionics, data communications, instrumentation, military/space and transportation cus-
tomers. With annual sales of approximately $1.7
billion and 15,000 employees, ITT Defense and
Electronics has operations in North America, Europe, Asia, and the Middle East, and is one of three
business segments of ITT Industries.
Kurt Manufacturing Company Minneapolis, MN
Company Point of Contact:
Mr. Dale Owens
Corporate Quality Director
Kurt Manufacturing Company
5280 N.E. Main Street
Minneapolis, MN 55421
Phone: (612) 572-4561
Fax:
(612) 572-9878
Certified Best Practice
Coolant Reclamation System
Page
30
Kurt Manufacturing Company produces precision machine parts and assemblies for the computer, aircraft, compressor, fluid power, and defense industries. The product lines include rotary
transfer machines, machine tool accessories, industrial vises, electronic machine controllers, electronically-controlled modular gaging and statistical analyzers, and shop hard computers. Kurt also provides
contract services to manufacturers in areas such as
prototype development, special machine tool construction, and precision die castings.
Kurt Manufacturing comprises seven divisions
housed in eight separate facility sites. Six of the
eight plants are located in the Minneapolis, Minnesota area with additional sites in Pueblo, Colorado
and Layman, Nebraska. Kurt Manufacturing includes the Machining Division, Screw Machine Division, Industrial Products Division, Electronic Division, Die Casting Division, Machine Tool Division, and Gear Division. The work force of more
than 1,100 employees is housed in over 580,000
square feet company-wide.
Certified Best Practice
Environmental Practices
Company Point of Contact:
Mr. Ken White
Director, Operations Engineering
Lockheed Martin Electronics & Missiles
5600 Sand Lake Road, MP-233
Orlando, FL 32819-8907
Phone: (407) 356-5420
Fax:
(407) 356-0917
30
Lockheed Martin Electronics and Missiles (E&M)
is headquartered in Orlando, FL with additional
sites in Ocala, FL; Pike County, AL; Goldsboro, NC;
and other U.S. and international locations. Part of
the Lockheed Martin Electronics Sector located in
Bethesda, MD, E&M maintains three primary product mission areas—Missile Systems, Fire Control
Systems, and Advanced Systems. Varied technologies are key to these missions such as electro-optics,
millimeter wave radar, image and signal processing,
miniaturized and large scale ICs, and multi-sensor
fusion. Over 5,000 employees occupy E&M facilities
that encompass more than 3,000,000 square feet.
Like many defense-related industries and companies, Lockheed Martin Electronics and Missiles is
successfully adapting to changes in the market
environment. Continually benchmarking itself
against the internal and external “best,” integrating what it learns in a closed-loop process, and
applying conscientious efforts to produce high-quality products for its customer, Lockheed Martin Electronics and Missiles continues to produce practices
that are among the best in industry and government.
Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft
Systems - Ft. Worth, TX
Company Point of Contact:
Mr. John A. Horton
Program Manager
Lean Aircraft Imitative
Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems
P.O. Box 748, M/Z 6494
Lockheed Boulevard
Ft. Worth, TX 76101
Phone: (817) 763-3060
Fax:
(817) 762-9643
E-Mail: [email protected]
Certified Best Practice
Hazardous Material Management
Lockheed Martin Electronics and
Missiles - Orlando, FL
Page
Success Stories
Elimination of Ozone-Depleting
Compounds in F-16 Technical Orders
Page
31
Page
31
Low Vapor Pressure Cleaning Solvent
32
Use & Verification of Aqueous Alkaline
Cleaners
33
Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems
(LMTAS) is a government-owned, contractor-operated facility designated as Air Force Plant 4, located
C-5
adjacent to the realigned Carswell reserve base in
Ft. Worth, Texas. This division of Lockheed Martin
employs over 11,900 personnel with a 1994 payroll
of $677.76 million. Facilities encompass 602 acres
with over seven million square feet of building
space. LMTAS supports several major programs
including the Air Force's F-16 Fighting Falcon, FSX, and F-22 Air Superiority Fighter aircraft. In
addition, LMTAS is leading Lockheed Martin's effort in the Joint Advanced Strike Technology program to develop future tactical aircraft for the
Navy, Marines, and Air Force.
In 1988, General Dynamics had a corporate strategy of protecting the environment and achieving
zero discharge of all hazardous wastes. This policy
was forward-looking and successfully generated
LMTAS' present-day, proactive emissions remediation
management program. More than 50 successful zerodischarge projects have been completed, and pollution prevention initiatives have saved the company
more than $25 million on hazardous waste disposal.
The result of LMTAS' environmental program was its
selection to receive the Clean Texas 2000 1995
Governor's Award for Environmental Excellence.
Companies such as Lockheed Martin Tactical
Aircraft Systems will continue to meet considerable
challenges for many years. However, building on
past successful practices—like its environmental
program—and cultivating current programs such
as its Lean Enterprise Initiative and solid supplier
relations, LMTAS is adapting to and excelling in a
highly competitive arena.
Overall Point of Contact for Lockheed Martin
Tactical Aircraft Systems’ Success Stories and Technical Point of Contact for Low Vapor Pressure Cleaning Solvent Success Story:
Mr. Tony Phillips
Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems
P.O. Box 748, Mail Zone 2852
Fort Worth, TX 76101-0748
Phone: (817) 777-3758
Fax:
(817) 777-4254
E-Mail: [email protected]
Website: http://www.lmtas.com
C-6
Technical Point of Contact for Use & Verification of
Aqueous Alkaline Cleaners:
Mr. Tom Woodrow
Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems
P.O. Box 748, Mail Zone 2852
Fort Worth, TX 76101-0748
Phone: (817) 777-4479
Fax:
(817) 777-2115
E-mail: [email protected]
Website: http://www.lmtas.com
Technical Point of Contact for Ozone-Depleting
Compounds Phaseout in F-16 Technical Orders:
Mr. C. J. (Jerry) Brown
Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems
P.O. Box 748, Mail Zone 2852
Fort Worth, TX 76101-0748
Phone: (817) 777-2150
Fax:
(817) 777-4254
E-mail: [email protected]
Website: http://www.lmtas.com
Mason & Hanger Corporation Middletown, IA
Company Point of Contact:
Mr. Ronald E. Durbin
Environmental Coordinator
Mason & Hanger Corporation
Iowa Army Ammunition Plant
Middletown, IA 52638
Phone: (319) 753-7538
Fax: (319) 753-7167
E-Mail: [email protected]
Success Stories
Page
Barcode System For Hazardous Waste
Management
83
Closed Loop Pink Water Treatment
Facility
83
Mason & Hanger Corporation is the operating
contractor of the government-owned Iowa Army
Ammunition Plant (IAAP), a 19,000 acre production
facility located near Middletown, Iowa. The IAAP is
a primary Load/Assemble/Pack facility for the manufacture and demilitarization of conventional ammunition for the Army. A major process function
is the high explosive loading of ammunition, by
either the meltcast method or by mechanical pressing. In addition to the production operations, Mason
& Hanger has a Development facility, Chemical
Laboratory, Metrology Laboratory, Test Fire Facility and a staff of engineers, scientists and technicians. Current employment at the facility is in
excess of 900 Mason & Hanger employees, along
with another 20 government employees.
include a 550-person Security Force, as well as
Environmental Safety & Health, Waste Management, Environmental Restoration activities. This
facility is in a strong position to meet the new needs
of the Department of Energy triggered by changes
in the world environment. Integrating its capabilities, applying its developed technology, and initiating benchmarking beyond the facility's borders are
among the best in government and industry.
Mason & Hanger Corporation, Pantex
Plant - Amarillo, TX
Company Point of Contact:
Mr. John C. Drummond
Quality Manager
Mason & Hanger, Pantex Plant
P.O. Box 30020
Amarillo, TX 79177
Phone: (806) 477-6204
Fax:
(806) 477-6601
E-mail: [email protected]
Certified Best Practices
Energy Conservation
Groundwater Monitoring Program
McDonnell Douglas Aerospace St. Louis, MO
Page
9
33
Pantex Pollution Prevention
10
Sitewide Environmental Impact
Statement
34
Treatment of High Explosive
Contaminated Groundwater
9
The Mason & Hanger Corporation (M&H) is the
management and operating contractor at the Department of Energy (DOE) Pantex Plant located
outside of Amarillo, TX. This DOE facility covers
more than 16,000 acres, and Mason & Hanger is
responsible for more than 3,000 employees. With an
additional staff of 600 from various government
agencies and contractors such as Battelle Memorial
Institute and Sandia National Laboratories, Pantex is the only facility tasked with the assembly,
disassembly, repair, and retirement of the nation's
nuclear weapons. Although originally constructed
during World War II as a conventional bomb construction plant, Pantex has evolved into a facility
with five primary operational missions including: to
fabricate chemical high explosive components for
nuclear weapons; to assemble nuclear weapons for
the nation's stockpile; to maintain and evaluate the
nuclear weapons in the stockpile; to disassemble
nuclear weapons from the stockpile; and to serve as
an interim storage site for plutonium components
from retired weapons.
Security and safety are critical issues to Pantex
employees because of the nature of the nuclear
assembly/ disassembly processes. Relating closely
to these issues are the environmental and human
health and safety concerns for on-site personnel and
the surrounding population. The plant has highlydeveloped and sophisticated security and environmental elements that work intently with the government agencies to ensure total control of the
processes from cradle to grave. These elements
Company Point of Contact:
Mr. Rob Herhold
McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (St. Louis)
S 3062333
325 J.S. McDonnell Boulevard, P.O. Box 516
St. Louis, MO 63166
Phone: (314) 232-0879
Fax:
(314) 233-0252
E-mail: [email protected]
Certified Best Practices
Page
Environmental Improvement Initiatives
35
Project Deployment: Technology
Transition to Production
35
Information Item
FLASHJET™ Coating Removal Process
Page
10
McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (MDA) (St. Louis)
is a leading producer of tactical and training aircraft, military transport aircraft, strike missiles,
military and commercial helicopters, space launch
vehicles, space platforms, defense systems, C4I systems, and related services. Products include the F/
A-18 (C/D and E/F), F-15, AV-8B, T-45 and Harpoon/SLAM. Principal customers include the Department of Defense and foreign governments such
as the Netherlands and Great Britain. The MDA
(St. Louis) complex houses MDA management and
support functions as well as program management
and fabrication/assembly facilities for the F/A-18,
production aircraft, and the Harpoon/SLAM. Research and testing facilities, test and flight simulation laboratories, a manufacturing technology development center, and prototype airframe manufacturing facility also reside in St. Louis.
With the current funding environment unlikely
to change in the near future, every company engaged in defense-related work is examining, streamlining, and adjusting its programs to competitively
manufacture high quality, affordable products.
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McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (St. Louis) is answering this challenge by learning from past experiences, incorporating the best of its capabilities and
personnel into its Integrated Product Definition
process, and continually benchmarking itself against
world-class competitors to provide its customers
with economical, superior quality products. These
activities have been integrated into MDA's product
lines and are producing impressive results, considered among the best in industry and government.
Millar Western Pulp (Meadow Lake)
Ltd. - Saskatchewan, Canada
Page
Air Pollution
36
Chemical Recycling
36
Elimination of Liquid Effluent
84
Pollution Prevention
11
Process Waste Minimization
11
Recycle of Recovery Boiler Smelt
36
Millar Western Pulp (Meadow Lake) Limited is the
world’s first successful zero-liquid effluent pulp mill.
The company has 200 employees at its site, its mill
produces totally chlorine free Bleached ChemiThermo-Mechanical Pulp (BCTMP). The company is
a dynamic, innovative team dedicated to maintaining
its site as a model of environmental excellence and
leadership.
In conducting business the company is committed
to:
• meeting or exceeding all applicable laws and
regulations,
• continuously improving its systems, technologies and process to minimize its environmental
impact of both current and future operations,
ensuring pollution prevention is considered at
every stage of the process,
• setting measurable annual objectives and maintaining reliable processes for tracking its environmental performance
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NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Huntsville, AL
Company Point of Contact:
Mr. Larry Lechner
Tech Manager
Tech Transfer Office
NASA Marshall Space Flight Center
Building 4201, M/C LA02
Huntsville, AL 35812
Phone: (205) 544-5227
Fax:
(205) 544-4810
E-mail: [email protected]
Company Point of Contact:
J. Mark A. Hoddenbagh
Millar Western Pulp (Meadow Lake) Ltd.
Senior Mill Chemist
P.O. Box 9100, Meadow Lake, Saskatchewan,
Canada, 9X 1V7
Phone: (306) 236-2444
Fax:
(306) 236-4880
Success Stories
• fostering openness and dialogue with its employees, the public, and its customers; anticipating and responding to their concerns about
potential hazards and impacts of the company's
operations, products, and wastes, and
• encouraging its suppliers and contractors to perform their operations in a manner that is consistent with the company's environmental policy
Certified Best Practice
Environmental Control and Life
Support Systems
Page
84
Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was established in 1960 and is a field installation of NASA.
MSFC is recognized as a national leader in propulsion systems; payload design, development and
integration; and science investigations. Its extensive areas of expertise include management of complex programs; systems engineering and integration; systems development; payload systems analysis and integration; the technical disciplines encompassing propulsion systems, structural systems,
material science and engineering, electronics, guidance, navigation and control, power systems, data
systems, environmental control and life support systems; optical systems and science and applications
areas of astrophysics, earth science and applications,
low gravity science, and solar terrestrial physics.
With 3,700 employees occupying over 1,800 acres
in the U.S. Army Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville,
Alabama, MSFC also includes facilities in the
Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans, Louisiana, the Yellow Creek Production Facility in Mississippi, the Slidell Computer Complex in Slidell, Louisiana, and the John C. Stennis Space Center in
Mississippi. MSFC facilities include structural and
test-firing facilities for large space systems, and
specialized laboratories for studies and facilities for
assembling and testing large space hardware.
MSFC's specific capabilities include:
• Scientific and engineering activities associated
with design, development, test, mission operations and evaluation of space launch vehicle
transportation systems and payloads.
• Planning and conceptual development of new
programs in support of MSFC and NASA
objectives.
• Technical services and program support activities including facilities planning, construction
and maintenance, purchasing, contract administration, technology utilization, computer operations, and communications support.
NASA and its Centers have long been advocates of
technology transfer with a deep commitment that
goes beyond legislatively dictated efforts. This commitment is strongly manifested in MSFC's exemplary relationship with contractors. Not only does
this relationship enhance the technology and expertise transfer between NASA and contractor, but
also among contractors. This environment, coupled
with a strong positive attitude among personnel,
contributes to a teamwork atmosphere where employees are open to new ideas, and projects are
pursued with excellence through continuous improvement. A grass roots TQM effort has already
begun, is influencing many aspects of project work,
and is gaining momentum among management
with impressive results. The guiding principle towards achieving MSFC's goals of excellence and
continuous improvement is supported by a strong
dedication to learning new ways of doing things and
sharing that technology and expertise with industry and other government activities.
Nascote Industries, Inc. - Nashville, IL
Company Point of Contact:
Wayne Broadwater
Conix Corporation
Nascote Industries, Inc.
18310 Enterprise Avenue
Nashville, IL 62263
Phone: (618) 327-4381, Ext. 203
Fax:
(618) 327-3566
Certified Best Practices
located in Nashville, Illinois has 600 employees and
is a major supplier of exterior trim products to the
automotive industry. Sales for 1995 reached $120
million. Although teaming constitutes a critical
component of Nascote's success, maintaining a
workforce with highly-developed skills and experience is just as important. With an average employee
age of 29 and a strong work ethic, the Nascote
employee provides a valuable resource to the plant
and represents a pivotal factor in the company's
receiving the General Motors Fascia Supplier of the
Year award in both 1994 and 1995.
The company's environmental efforts represent
another instance of Nascote's emphasis on quality.
To reduce operationally-produced hazardous waste
such as paint fumes, sludge, and solvent, Nascote
implemented several changes including the installation of a state-of-the-art thermal oxidation system
to destroy volatile organic compound emissions.
The company also contracts with outside agencies
to recycle the paint sludge into products used by
other industries. In addition, Nascote has instituted cleaning its paint solvent for reuse. The
company's commitment to the workforce and the
environment is paralleled only by its commitment
to producing a quality product.
Naval Aviation Depot - Jacksonville, FL
Company Point of Contact:
Mr. David Dollar
Naval Aviation Depot
Code 6.04.A1
Naval Air Station
Jacksonville, FL 32212-0016
Phone: (904) 772-2690
Fax:
(904) 772-3703
E-mail: [email protected]
Certified Best Practices
Page
Paint Fumes Management
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Paint Sludge Recycling
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Nascote Industries, Inc., formed in 1985, is one of
three plants run by the Conix Corporation, a joint
venture between Magna International (51%) and
the Ford Motor Company (49%). The company,
Page
Closed Loop Recycle Systems for Waste
Minimization
37
Environmental Control Center
37
The Naval Aviation Depot (NADEP)-Jacksonville
is one of six industrial facilities that performs rework, repair, and modification of aircraft, engines,
and aeronautical components. NADEP-Jacksonville
covers over 100 acres of land on the St. John's River
in Jacksonville, Florida and maintains a work force
of over 2,500 personnel. Depot maintenance is performed on the P-3 Orion, T-2 Buckeye, F/A-18 Hornet,
S-3 Viking and A-7 Corsair. NADEP-Jacksonville is
the Navy's premier engine facility and reworks jet
engines and over 36,000 components and avionics.
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Upgraded Press Control and Hydraulic
Power Systems
Naval Surface Warfare Center,
Crane Division - Crane, IN
Company Point of Contact:
Ms. Cathy Andrews
Commander
Naval Surface Warfare Center
300 Highway 365 - Code PPO
Crane, IN 47522-5001
Phone: (812) 854-3391
Fax:
(812) 854-3981
E-Mail: [email protected]
Success Stories
Page
Digital Photo Processing
38
Powder Coating
38
The Crane Naval Surface Warfare Center is a
large Navy facility covering 100 sq. miles in southern Indiana. It has a compliment of about 3,400
personnel. Its mission is to provide low cost, quality,
and responsive acquisition, engineering, logistics,
and maintenance for the Fleet’s weapon and electronic systems, ordnance, and associated equipment and components. This will be accomplished in
partnership with industry, academia, and government activities.
Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian
Head Division - Indian Head, MD
Company Point of Contact:
Ms. Johna Woods
Waste Management and Prevention Branch
Naval Surface Warfare Center - Indian Head
Division
101 Strauss Avenue, Code 046D
Indian Head, MD 20640-6035
Phone: (301) 743-6745/6746 - DSN: 354
Fax: (301) 743-4180
Success Stories
Annealing Oven Control System
Carbon Adsorption
Carpet Roll Weight Control
New Flying Press Cutters
Photographic/X-ray Fixer Recycling
Reduced Diameter Extrusion Dies
Reengineering Propellant Extrusion
Process
Solid Waste Recycling
Trichloroethane Recycling
Ultraviolet Treatment of Contaminated
Wastewater
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Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head Division (IHDIV) is located at Indian Head, Maryland,
employs more than 2,000 people, and encompasses
approximately 3,400 acres of land divided between
two peninsulas along the eastern shore of the
Potomac River. The larger peninsula is designated
as the IHDIV; the smaller peninsula (about 1,100
acres) is designated as the Naval Surface Warfare
Center, Stum Neck Annex IHDIV command, while
operations at Stump Neck Annex are conducted by
a tenant of IHDIV, the Naval Explosive Ordnance
Disposal Technology Division (NAVEODTECHDIV).
In addition, the Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal School, (NAVSCOLEOD), which is also a
tenant, conducts operations both mainside and at
Stump Neck.
IHDIV is the oldest continuously operating Naval
ordnance facility in the United States. Established
in 1890 as aproving ground for Naval guns, the
Activity has evolved from a “powder factory” to a
critical source of specialized ordnance devices and
components serving the Army, Navy, and Air Force.
The main production focus is energetic materials.
Some examples of these materials are propellants,
explosives, and pyrotechnics. Energetic materials
are used for the nation’s defense in items such as
aircrew escape propulsion systems, rocket motors,
mines, mine countermeasures, torpedoes, and warheads. IHDIV has full-spectrum capabilities in energetics research, development, engineering, manufacturing technology, limited production, industrial
base support, test and evaluation, and fleet/operation support. As a tenant command of the IHDIV,
the NAVEODTECHDIV’s mission is to provide explosive ordnance disposal technology and logistics
management for the Joint Services; and develop
war essential elements of intelligence, equipment
and procedures to counter munitions both U.S. and
foreign, as required to support the DOD.
IHDIV’s mission is to work on energetic products
for all areas of Naval Warfare. While a significant
portion of the work is performed for the Army, Air
Force, and private defense contractors, IHDIV primarily works Navy unique ordnance, i.e. ordnance
unique to surface combatants and submarines.
Another facet of IHDIV’s mission is to develop
production sector. In time of war, IHDIV has the
technical expertise to kickstart the nation’s dormant ordnance industry.
The Indian Head Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center has recently been honored with the
following Department of Defense awards: Naval
Sea Systems Command Excellence Awards; Chief of
Naval Operations Environmental Awards; Secretary of the Navy Environmental Awards; and Secretary of Defense Environmental Security Awards.
Naval Undersea Warfare Center
Division - Keyport, WA
Company Point of Contact:
Mr. Mike Lehman
Technology Development Office
Naval Undersea Warfare Engineering
Building 82, Code 20
610 Dowell Street
Keyport, WA 98345-7610
Phone: (360) 396-7173
Fax:
(360) 396-2578
E-mail: [email protected]
Located in the environmentally conscious Northwest, Keyport is expected to have a solid environmental program.. The efforts in this area are extensive, with the program extending to the supplier
level. Keyport personnel are very conscious of the
environmental impact of hazardous material disposal and are very conversant with the companies
with which they do business. For example, Keyport
determined that there were only two companies of
the many authorized to do business with the Navy,
that are correctly disposing of laser toner cartridge
material and consequently have contracted exclusively with them. This awareness is not legislatively
dictated, but is an attitude in all Keyport personnel.
It was recognized by the Secretary of the Navy in
1993 when Keyport received the first ever Meritorious Unit Commendation (to every employee) for
Environmental Achievement.
Norden Systems, Inc. (Northrop Grumman
Norden Systems) - Norwalk, CT
Certified Best Practices
Page
HAZMIN Working Group
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OTTO Fuel Reclamation
87
Located in the state of Washington, the Naval
Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC) Division Keyport
is the Navy's sole repair and maintenance depot for
torpedoes and undersea mobile targets. In this
capacity, Keyport—with remote sites in Hawaii,
Southern California, and Hawthorne, Nevada—
provides test and evaluation, depot maintenance
and repair, In-Service Engineering, and fleet industrial support for torpedoes and other undersea warfare systems including mobile mines, unmanned
underwater vehicles and countermeasures. Further efforts include responsibility for undersea combat systems and foreign military sales to almost 39
Allied countries. To support these activities, Keyport
maintains and operates three underwater, threedimensional tracking range sites with the capability to conduct vendor acceptance and in-service
testing and evaluation of undersea weapons.
At Keyport's main site, some 600 of the 3,100
resident civilian and military personnel, together
with more than 200,000 square feet of industrial
shops, are dedicated to processes that span prototype development to manufacturing and refurbishment of small components and entire systems.
Keyport was noteworthy in many areas, but particularly in its environmental stewardship efforts
and its "total quality way of life." These two concepts are firmly entrenched in the activity's policies,
processes, and employee attitude.
Company Point of Contact:
Mr. Anthony C. Izzo
Director, Manufacturing & Quality Operations
Northrop Grumman Norden Systems
P.O. Box 5300
10 Norden Place
Norwalk, CT 06856-5300
Phone: (203) 852-5431
Fax:
(203) 852-5333
E-mail: [email protected]
Certified Best Practice
Environmental Initiatives
Page
40
Norden Systems, Inc. (now Northrop Grumman
Norden Systems) is a subsidiary of United Technologies and is headquartered in Norwalk, Connecticut. Norden designs, develops, and manufactures advanced electronics systems for military use.
These systems are currently incorporated in combat vehicles, aircraft, ships, submarine and missiles. The U.S. Navy's A-6E and EA-6B, the Air
Force's F-111B and B-52, the Army's Battery Computer System and Multiple Launch Rocket System,
and the joint Army/Air Force JSTARS represent
just a few of Norden Systems' major programs. In
addition to contracts with the Department of Defense, Norden also provides advanced radar capabilities to the Federal Aviation Administration for
use at civilian airports around the United States.
Over 3,000 employees are housed at the Norwalk
facility with an additional 2,000 personnel located
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at Norden's facilities in New York and Maryland.
The Norwalk facility contains manufacturing and
engineering operations as well as research and
development laboratories. The company operates
hybrid microelectronics development and manufacturing, environmental testing, radar system integration, and indoor and outdoor radar test ranges.
At the Melville, New York facility, Norden conducts
shipboard and ground systems development and
manufacturing. In Gaithersburg, Maryland, Norden
personnel provide engineering services, software
development and shipboard emulation equipment
for land-based sites.
Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, TN
Company Point of Contact:
Michael J. Taylor
Member of Development Staff
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
P.O. Box 2008
Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6415
Phone: (423) 576-0055
Fax:
(423) 576-0003
E-mail: [email protected]
Success Story
Page
Numerical Modeling of Environmental
Problems
41
OxyChem Center - Dallas, TX
Company Point of Contact:
Mr. Frederick Fedri
Manager of Environmental Communications
OxyChem Center - Dallas
Occidental Tower
5005 LBJ Freeway
P.O. Box 809050
Dallas, TX 75380
Phone: (972) 404-2411
Fax:
(972) 404-3285
Success Stories
Page
OxyChem’s Durez Ft. Erie, Canada
Receives Environmental Awards for
Environmental Efforts
45
OxyChem’s Niagara, New York Plant
44
OxyChem’s Niagara Plant Receives
BUD from NYSDEC
88
Pollution Reduction Project - OxyChem's
Ashtabula, Ohio Plant - Toluene
Emissions and Releases Reduction
44
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As one of the world’s largest commodity chemical
producers, Occidental Chemical Corporation
(OxyChem®) operates the chemical business of the
Occidental Petroleum Corporation. Headquartered
in Dallas, Texas, OxyChem retains the service of
over 10,000 employees. The 44 manufacturing facilities located worldwide are committed to global
excellence in business, health, safety and the environment. With sales of $5 billion in 1995, its operations are in the major business groups of basic
chemicals, polymers and plastics, speciality chemicals, and petrochemicals.
Basic chemicals include facilities producing chloralkali products. OxyChem is the largest merchant
marketer of chlor-alkali products in the United
States. Chlorine is used in water treatment, semiconductors, medical devices, coatings, adhesives and
pharmaceuticals. Nearly 60% of its chlorine production is utilized to produce vinyl chloride plastic and
resins. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resins are widely
used in residential and commercial pipe, window
frames, house siding, flooring, wall coverings, and a
multitude of auto, consumer and home products.
The OxyChem polymers and plastics group produces PVC molding plastics that are used in automotive, household and industrial products. The
plants in this group manufacture PVC copolymer
dispersion resins and PVC speciality resins.
OxyChem is also a major producer of petrochemicals for use in products ranging from packaging,
bottles, and bags to textiles, construction materials
and detergents. Specialty business products, including phenolic resins, chrome chemicals, silicates,
PVC film, speciality resins bonding products, fireretardant additives, and plastic molding compounds
are used in home, auto, aerospace and industrial
applications. The speciality chemical division also
produces a unique and environmentally friendly
alternative solvent known as OXSOL® that offers
regulatory compliance while providing the performance of many traditional solvents.
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, WA
Company Point of Contact:
Ms. Jill Engel-Cox
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Battelle Boulevard
Richland, WA 99352
Phone: (509) 372-0307
Fax:
(509) 376-6663
E-mail: [email protected]
Current P2 home page address:
http://esp.pnl.gov:2080/esp/
Success Stories
Page
Certified Best Practices
Page
Activity-Based Risk Management
Performance System
13
Asbestos Management Council
90
Beyond Environmental Compliance
17
Chemical Labeling
47
Community Outreach
59
Cooling Tower Make-up Water Metering
92
Drum Handling
47
Early Suppression Fast Response Fire
Protection
48
Electrostatic Discharge Machining Oil
Removal
90
Electronic Signatures and Newsletters
46
Emergency Planning Program
13
In-line Solvent Recovery Systems
89
Engineering Controls
14
Quantitative Extraction of Organic
Chemicals
46
Environmental Reporting
59
Recycling of Hazardous Materials and
Operations Upgrades
89
Recycling of Non-Hazardous Materials
88
Reduction of Radioisotope Use for
Molecular-Biological Analyses
Rubbercycle
Environmental Scorecard
49
Ergonomic Program
49
Establishment of Chemical Categories
91
60
11
Ethics and Compliance Awareness
Training
Free Cooling with Evaporative Fill
Media Pads
55
12
Hazardous Waste Disposal Audit
Procedure
91
Indoor Air Quality Management
18
Landfill Avoidance
92
Local Emergency Planning Committee
Membership
50
Moving Crates
56
Occupational Medical Program
60
Polaroid Exposure Guidelines
61
The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (Pacific Northwest) is a U.S. Department of Energy
(DOE) research laboratory operated by Battelle
Memorial Institute. Energy and environmental technology research and development is the mission of
Pacific Northwest. A wide variety of technology
research programs are conducted at Pacific Northwest, including material sciences, molecular biology,
health physics, information management, national
security, chemical processing, environmental surveillance and monitoring, and other technology planning and analysis research, in support of DOE, the
Department of Defense, and industrial clientele. Pacific Northwest has approximately 3,600 employees.
Polaroid Corporation - Waltham, MA
Company Point of Contact:
Mr. Tim Hawes
Polaroid Corporation
1265 Main Street
Waltham, MA 02254
Phone: (617) 386-0893
Fax:
(617) 386-0880
E-mail: [email protected]
Polaroid Foundation
61
Power Factor Correction for Energy
Conservation
57
Preheated Boiler Make-up Water
57
Pressure Nutsche
14
Proactive Roles with Public Groups,
Boards, and Committees
62
Process Safety Management
50
Product Delivery Process
52
Product Safety Emission Testing
12
Product Safety Management Guidelines
62
Professional Development Committee
63
Project Bridge
64
Regulatory Training Requirements
64
Reinforcing Safety Values at Polaroid
Program
53
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Safety Ambassador
54
Safety Values Process
54
Toxicity Bulletin
55
Ultraviolet Light Treatment
58
Variable Air Volume HVAC System
58
Volatile Organic Compound Abatement
System
16
Watershed Protection
93
Dr. Edwin Land founded the Polaroid Corporation in 1937. Although best known as the inventor of
the instant photography process and the Polaroid
Land camera, Dr. Land was a strong social advocate. For example, he started a family practice
health clinic for his employees and their families;
established a safety program in the 1950s; and
initiated environmental efforts in preparation for
the first Earth Day in 1970. Originally, Polaroid
produced light polarizing filters. Today, the company designs, manufactures, and markets instant
imaging recording products worldwide, such as instant photographic cameras and films; electronic
imaging recording devices; conventional films; and
light polarizing filters and lenses. With its corporate headquarters located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, Polaroid maintains eight U.S. sites, employs 8,500 personnel worldwide, and achieved $2.5
billion in revenues for 1996.
Polaroid's Waltham (Main Street), Massachusetts
site employs 1,200 personnel and encompasses 150
acres. Featuring Polaroid's Chemical Operations
Division, this site synthesizes chemical components
used in Polaroid film; manufactures chemical reagents; coats photographic materials; assembles
technical and industrial film products; and performs research, engineering, and wastewater treatment. Polaroid promotes proactive approaches; open
communication; environmental and safety commitments; and community involvement.
Raytheon Missile Systems Division Andover, MA
Company Point of Contact:
Mr. Peter Teague
Manager, Program Control
Electronics Systems
Raytheon Company
350 Lowell Street
Andover, MA 01810
Phone: (508) 470-6404
Fax:
(508) 470-6098
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Certified Best Practice
ODC Reduction
Page
65
Raytheon Missile Systems Division (MSD) is a
division of the Raytheon Corporation's Electronics
segment. Headquartered in Bedford, Massachusetts, Raytheon MSD also has additional sites in
Andover, Lowell, and Tewksbury, Massachusetts,
as well as Bristol Tennessee. These sites cover more
than 3,000,000 square feet and house over 16,000
employees. The MSD product line includes many
foremost missile systems currently in use by the
U.S. Armed Forces and international customers.
These systems include the Patriot and Hawk AirDefense Systems, Stinger Surface-to-Air Missile, Standard Missile-2, Sparrow Missile, Sidewinder Missile
and Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile.
Rockwell Autonetics Electronics Systems
(Boeing North American A&MSD) Anaheim, CA
Company Point of Contact:
Mr. Mark Williams
Autonetics Missile Systems Division
Boeing North American, Inc.
D/214, M/C GE96
3370 Miraloma Avenue
Anaheim, CA 92803
Phone: (714) 762-0255
Fax:
(714) 762-6222
E-mail: [email protected]
Certified Best Practice
Approach to Achieving 100 Parts Per
Million Program
Page
65
Rockwell Autonetics Electronics Systems (AES)
is a subsidiary of the Rockwell International Corporation. AES comprises five major divisions employing more than 8,500 people. Facilities cover over 200
million square feet on 200 acres over six sites. The
division's main headquarters are located in Anaheim, California with additional sites in San
Bernadino, California; Norcross and Duluth, Georgia; El Paso, Texas; and Australia.
The Marine Systems Division specializes in antisubmarine warfare electronics, ship systems, and
navigation and control systems. Antisubmarine
Warfare Electronics has produced several systems
with capabilities in acoustic signal recording, processing, analysis and displays. Ship Systems designs, builds, and installs ship systems such as the
Data Multiplex System, BSY-1 Own Ship Data Set,
and a range of ship system engineering and simulation services. Navigation and Control supplies and
supports inertial navigators for ballistic missile
submarines used by both the United States and
United Kingdom.
The Autonetics Sensors and Aircraft Systems
Division (AS&ASD) serves as an electronics integrator and supplier of systems hardware. AS&ASD
designs and develops integrated avionics systems,
aided target acquisition and classifications systems,
and sensor systems including millimeter wave, laser radar, infrared and multi-sensor system.
AS&ASD also has the capabilities to create new
hardware, electrical designs and software for operational flight programs, as well as to modify fire
control systems, navigation systems and stores management systems.
Autonetics ICBM Systems Division researches
and produces highly reliable leading-edge solutions
for Air Force deployed ICBMs and develops launch
control and security systems for the Peacekeeper
Rail Garrison Program. The Division has perfected
developments in guidance technology and is advancing command and control capabilities for strategic weapon systems and land battle management.
The Missile Systems Division produces accurate,
low cost guided weapon systems. They pioneered
the application of television and laser precision
guidance to tactical weapons including Hellfire, the
GBU-15 guided weapon system and its powered
version, the AGM-130.
Rockwell Collins Avionics and
Communications Division Cedar Rapids, IA
Company Point of Contact:
Mr. Mark R. Marikos
Program Manager - Industrial Initiatives
Rockwell Collins, Inc.
M/S 108-205
400 Collins Road, NE
Cedar Rapids, IA 52498
Phone: (319) 295-3163
Fax:
(319) 295-8724
E-mail: [email protected]
Certified Best Practices
Page
Automated Conformal Coating
Application Process
66
Freon Replacement and Hazmat
Program
66
On Line PWB Manual
18
Pay From Receipt
94
Solid Waste Environmental Leadership
and Learning Team
67
Information Items
Page
Ozone Depleting Substance
Alternatives Implementation Team
68
Paperless Work Flow for Electronic
Maintenance Work Request
68
Printed Circuit Wiring Board Etch Reuse
68
Rockwell Collins Avionics and Communications
Division (CACD) is a world leader in electronic
information distribution, processing, and control.
In its communications effort, Rockwell CACD's capabilities include air, land, sea, satellite, C3I, and
ECCM efficiencies; information distribution systems, and displays. On the navigational end, CACD
produces cockpit and flight management systems,
integrated avionics, and advanced programs in both
communication and navigation. These capabilities
translate into the business applications of communications/ information transport, customer support,
advanced high frequency information systems, navigation/information collection, advanced concepts,
and integrated applications. CACD's almost 4,000
employee workforce is headquartered in Iowa, with
one facility in Cedar Rapids covering 596,000 square
feet, and another in nearby Coralville encompassing 140,000 square feet. In 1987, the company was
known as Collins Defense Communications. Since
that time, this company has undergone changes and
consolidation, and has seen the defense industry
experience much the same.
There is a strong undercurrent of constructive
change, supported by a collective, positive attitude.
“Doing more with less people” does not constitute an
obstacle to CACD; it represents a challenge and one
that Rockwell is meeting. The company remains
outward-looking—continually open to new ideas
and technology—and is a strong advocate for technology transfer.
There are two programs that highlight this technology transfer philosophy — the Sequential Electrochemical Reduction Analysis (SERA) Solderability Assessment Technology Program, and the Reduced Oxide Soldering Activation (ROSATM) Solder-
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ing Technology Program. The SERA process determines the type and degree of oxidation present on a
solder surface by electrochemically removing the
oxides from the solder surface and measuring the
voltage/charge associated with the removal process.
The use of this technology has facilitated the reduction of solder defects in a production environment.
ROSATM is a new method of removing oxidation of
copper, tin, and tin-lead surfaces through electrochemical reduction for use in mass soldering processes. This technology has been shown to be a practical means of ensuring solderability without the use
of CFC solvent materials for removing flux residue.
Rockwell CACD is a company making difficult
adaptations to the defense industrial base shift, but
is doing so successfully through careful application
of the systems and philosophies exhibited in the
HPWS and through programs such as STEP. These
efforts have proven successful as evidenced by the
CACD Coralville facility's selection as one of the top
25 finalists in Industry Week magazine's fifth annual “Best Plants” contest in 1994. The contest
targets companies that exemplify manufacturing
excellence and are committed to world class competitiveness and continuous involvement. By implementing and supporting forward-thinking programs,
Rockwell CACD will maintain and expand its share
in the world marketplace.
Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, NM
Company Point of Contact:
Mr. Gary M. Ferguson
Sandia National Laboratories
P.O. Box 5800
M/S 0863
Albuquerque, NM 87185-0955
Phone: (505) 845-9484
Fax:
(505) 284-3283
E-mail: [email protected]
Certified Best Practices
Page
DOE/DOD Environmental Data Bank
18
Environment, Safety, & Health
Regulation Compliance Support for
Suppliers
19
Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is a Department of Energy (DOE) multiprogram national effort that maintains sites in New Mexico and California with test facilities in Nevada and Hawaii. Headquartered in Albuquerque, NM and operated by the
Sandia Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of
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Martin Marietta, SNL employs over 8,500 personnel and has an annual budget of more than $1.4B.
The laboratories have facilities for manufacturing
process development, environmental testing, renewable energy, radiation research, combustion
research, computing, and microelectronics research
and production.
Sandia's research-based engineering efforts are
solidly based on a matrix of core competencies.
Comprised of two critical elements, research foundations and integrated capabilities, Sandia's core
competencies have been developed and advanced by
40 years of research and development in nuclear
weapons, energy, environmental, and work for other
government agencies. These core competencies are
critical to SNL's long term success and constitute
their singular capabilities in the national laboratory field. Engineered processes and materials, computational and information sciences, microelectronics and phototonics, and engineering sciences comprise Sandia's four major research foundations.
These are complemented by and rely on the laboratories' integrated capabilities of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Advanced Information Technology, Electronics, and Pulsed-Power.
Originally tasked with nuclear weapon development, SNL has expanded their mission beyond that
of researching and developing programs for solutions to military security, energy security, environmental integrity, and work for other government
agencies. SNL now also maintains a goal to team
with industry in programs to include advanced
manufacturing technologies, improved transportation, cost-effective health care, and information/
computation science and technology. These new
responsibilities are in response to the changing
global environment and Sandia's endeavor to share
technology to enhance America's global competitiveness and the national quality of life.
As one of the premier laboratories in the nation,
Sandia offers industry and government a rich research and development resource. Sandians have
researched and assiduously recorded information
on complete process life cycles - information which
industry needs. From years of experience in scientific areas, Sandia has also examined and developed
numerous related technological concepts which have
practical applications in the industrial arena. For
example, the design-for-environment system
EcoSysTM can provide designers and process engineers with perspectives on the relative environmental impact between alternate designs. This in-
formation system taps into detailed life cycle, product, process, and material data that is critical to the
analysis.
Sandia National Laboratories is staffed with personnel who are innovative, independent-thinking,
motivated, and represent a critical element of this
national resource. This high level of expertise is as
much a strength of SNL as the transferable technology. This combination of personnel, research and
development proficiency, and technical capabilities
makes Sandia a vital element in maintaining the
United States' energy security as well as its environmental integrity and global economic competitive position.
Sullivan Graphics - Marengo, IA
Company Point of Contact:
Mr. Randy Fry
Sullivan Graphics
810 East South Street
Marengo, IA 52301
Phone: (319) 642-7311, ext. 246
Fax:
(319) 642-7646
Success Story
Strategic Scheduling
Page
69
Sullivan Graphics is an international commercial
printing company. It has 22 locations across the
U.S. and Canada. Sullivan’s annual sales are in
excess of $500 million and it employs over 2,200
people. The primary business product is newspaper
advertising inserts, book publishing, and publications. In 1994, the Sullivan plant in Marengo, IA
won the Iowa Governor’s award for waste reduction
in a non-manufacturing facility.
Texas Instruments, DS&EG - Dallas, TX
Company Point of Contact:
Mr. Gary Cotten
Production Engineering Manager
Defense Systems
Texas Instruments, Inc.
M/S 3476, P.O. Box 405
Lewisville, TX 75067
Phone: (972) 462-3558
Fax:
(972) 462-4638
E-mail: [email protected]
Certified Best Practices
Page
Environmental Database System
Timeline
20
Laser Cutting System
70
Success Stories
Design for the Environment (DFE)
Initative
Page
70
DFE Communication and Deployment
71
DFE Design Process Integration
71
DFE Guidelines Development
70
DFE Trade Studies
70
Texas Instruments Defense Systems and Electronics Group (TI DS&EG) is one of five groups in
the Texas Instruments company. TI DS&EG is
comprised of three separate entities including Avionics Systems, Weapons Systems, and Advanced
Technology. Headquartered in Dallas, Texas, the
DS&EG group of Texas Instruments is housed in
facilities located in Lewisville, Texas; Austin, Texas;
Colorado Springs, Colorado; Denton, Texas; and
Sherman, Texas.
With their facility at the Expressway, Dallas,
Texas, the Advanced Technology Entity produces
microwave devices/ components, advanced IC products, IR FPA detectors, artificial intelligence, high
density packaging, advanced systems, computer
processing, and information processing.
Company Point of Contact for Laser Cutting System:
Mr. Allan Hrncir
Engineering Manager
Defense Systems Electronics
Texas Instruments, Inc.
M/S 8420
6500 Chase Oaks Blvd.
Plano, TX 75023
Phone: (972) 575-5310
Fax:
(972) 575-6807
E-mail: [email protected]
Company Point of Contact for Success Stories:
Mr. Mike Leake
ESH Manager
Defense Systems Electronics
Texas Instruments
P. O. Box 655303, M.S. 8365
Dallas, TX 75265
Phone: (972) 997–2958
Fax:
(972) 997-2101
C-17
Tinker Air Force Base Oklahoma City, OK
United Defense, L.P., Ground Systems
Division - Santa Clara, CA
Company Point of Contact:
Mr. Mathew Chathanatt
Tinker Air Force Base
Propulsion Directorate, Production Division OCALC/LPP
Oklahoma City, OK 73145
Phone: (405) 736-2635
Fax:
(405) 736-2501
Success Stories
Page
Company Point of Contact:
Mr. Curtis Toone
Manager, Manufacturing CAD/CAM Services
Ground Systems Division
United Defense, L.P.
1125 Coleman Avenue, M/D E50
San Jose, CA 95103
Phone: (408) 289-2730
Fax:
(408) 289-2161
Certified Best Practices
Page
Arc Spray
74
Cadmium Strip Rejuvenation Process
72
Emergency Response Team
95
Carbon Dioxide Blast Booth
72
95
High Velocity Oxy-Fuel Flame Spray
73
Environmental Remediation Analysis,
Computer Modeling, and Visualization
Pressure Spray Washers
73
Environmental Remediation In-Situ Soil Treatment
94
Environmental Remediation Remedial Cost Estimating
94
Solvent Recycling System
73
Water Jet Knife
74
Zinc-Nickel Alloy Plating
74
Today, with nearly 22,000 civilian and military
assigned to the base, logistics work is just part of
Tinker’s mission. After the arrival of the Navy,
Tinker became one of DOD’s premiere interservicing
facilities. Not only is total support of America’s
defense systems a priority, but protecting and enhancing the environment is a top concern as well.
Through the use of aggressive and innovative technologies, Tinker has become a national leader in
pollution prevention.
Tinker’s largest organization is the Oklahoma
City Air Logistics Center (OC-ALC), one of five
depot repair centers in the Air Force Materiel Command. The OC-ALC is the worldwide manager for a
wide range of aircraft, engines, missiles and commodity items. The center manages an inventory of
2,267 aircraft which include the B-1, B-2, B-52, C/
KC-135, E-3, VC-25, VC-137, and 25 other Contractor Logistics Support aircraft.
The Center also manages an inventory of more
than 13,724 jet engines that range from the Korean
Conflict vintage J33s (T33) to state-of-the-art B-2
engines such as the F118. Missile systems managed
by the center include the Air Launched Cruise
Missile, Short Range Attack Missile, Harpoon and
Advanced Cruise Missiles. Commodities management includes responsibility for some 42,399 different exchangeable or commodity items.
C-18
FMC Corporation and Harsco Corporation formed
a limited partnership in January 1994 to become
the largest manufacturer of tracked, armored combat vehicles in the United States. United Defense,
Limited Partnership (L.P.) is 40% owned by Harsco,
and FMC, the managing general partner, owns
60%. Brought together, FMC's Defense Systems
Group and Harsco's BMY Combat Systems Division
provide engineering and systems integration skills;
research and development in principal technologies; flexible manufacturing and conversion of light,
medium, and heavy vehicles made from aluminum,
steel, and composites; and proven logistics support
proficiency. Headquartered in Arlington, Virginia,
United Defense, L.P. maintains worldwide engineering, manufacturing, and service sites in locations such as Santa Clara and San Jose, California;
Anniston, Alabama; York, Pennsylvania; Tabuk,
Saudi Arabia; Fridley, Minnesota; Ankara, Turkey;
and Aiken, South Carolina.
U.S. Army Combat Systems Test Activity
(Aberdeen Test Center) - Aberdeen, MD
Company Point of Contact:
Mr. Rick Kost
Program Analyst
Aberdeen Test Center
STEAC-RM-T
Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5059
Phone: (410) 278-3055
Fax:
(410) 278-2701
E-mail: [email protected]
Certified Best Practice
Environmental Noise Management
Program
Page
21
The U.S. Army Combat Systems Test Activity
(CSTA) (now Aberdeen Test Center), located at
Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland, provides a
premier range and test facility for the Department
of Defense. Chartered in 1917 to provide testing of
field artillery, weapons and ammunition, CSTA
now operates under the Army's Test and Evaluation
Command (TECOM) and has become a world class,
all purpose testing center. CSTA encompasses stateof-the-art facilities and equipment, advanced instrumentation, and comprehensive support capabilities to test a wide range of military weapons
systems, equipment, and materiel. Testing covers
the full range of life cycle support from concept
evaluation and research prototypes through advanced development to quality assurance testing of
production items. Testing is primarily performed
for the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marines, but
CSTA also offers its services to other government
agencies and private industry as well.
Capabilities at CSTA are sustained by scientists,
engineers, mathematicians, technicians, and support employees, totaling 1,000 military and civilian
personnel. These capabilities include the ability to
design, develop, and construct state-of-the-art instrumentation incorporating advanced technologies
necessary to keep pace with testingrequirements of
current military systems. Soldiers from the field
participate as members of test teams, bringing
valuable field experience and training to the test
effort. Located on 52,000 acres, CSTA maintains
numerous exterior and interior firing ranges, automotive courses, environmental chambers that simulate temperature conditions, underwater explosive
test ponds, non- destructive test facilities, and an
extensive industrial complex to support equipment
maintenance and experimental fabrication. These
capabilities are used in the three principal directorates for technical management including Live Fire
Vulnerability, Automotive and Support Equipment,
and Armament and Advanced Technology.
C-19
Appendix D
Index of Certified Best Practices and Success Stories
A
Page
Activity-Based Risk Management Performance System ..................................................................................... 13
Air Pollution ........................................................................................................................................................... 36
Annealing Oven Control System ........................................................................................................................... 39
Approach to Achieving 100 Parts Per Million Program ...................................................................................... 65
Arc Spray ................................................................................................................................................................ 74
Asbestos Management Program ........................................................................................................................... 90
Automated Conformal Coating Application Process ........................................................................................... 66
B
Barcode System For Hazardous Waste Management ......................................................................................... 83
Beyond Environmental Compliance ..................................................................................................................... 17
C
Cadmium Strip Rejuvenation Process .................................................................................................................. 72
Carbon Adsorption ................................................................................................................................................. 86
Carbon Dioxide Blast Booth .................................................................................................................................. 72
Carpet Roll Weight Control ................................................................................................................................... 39
CARTA/Electric Buses ........................................................................................................................................... 23
Chattanooga Manufacturer’s Association .............................................................................................................. 4
Chemical Labeling ................................................................................................................................................. 47
Chemical Recycling ................................................................................................................................................ 36
Chemical Waste Minimization and Process Water Recycling ............................................................................ 77
Closed Loop Pink Water Treatment Facility ....................................................................................................... 83
Closed Loop Recycle Systems for Waste Minimization ....................................................................................... 37
Community Outreach ............................................................................................................................................ 59
Coolant Reclamation System ................................................................................................................................ 30
Cooling Tower Make-up Water Metering ............................................................................................................. 92
Curbside Recycling Collection Program ............................................................................................................... 78
D
Design for the Environment (DFE) Initative ....................................................................................................... 70
DFE Communication and Deployment ................................................................................................................. 71
DFE Design Process Integration ........................................................................................................................... 71
DFE Guidelines Development ............................................................................................................................... 70
DFE Trade Studies ................................................................................................................................................ 70
Development and Implementation of Multifunctional Multiunit Chemical Use Reduction Teams .................. 8
Digital Photo Processing ....................................................................................................................................... 38
DOE/DOD Environmental Data Bank ................................................................................................................. 18
Dover Air Force Base as a National Test Site Groundwater and Soil Cleanup Testing ................................... 82
Drum Handling ...................................................................................................................................................... 47
D-1
E
Page
Early Suppression Fast Response Fire Protection .............................................................................................. 48
Economy Surplus Power for Wastewater Treatment ............................................................................................ 7
Electronic Signatures and Newsletters ................................................................................................................ 46
Electrostatic Discharge Machining Oil Removal ................................................................................................. 90
Eliminating Hazardous Materials from DOD Contracts and Weapons Systems .............................................. 25
Elimination of Liquid Effluent .............................................................................................................................. 84
Elimination of Ozone-Depleting Compounds in F-16 Technical Orders ............................................................ 31
Emergency Planning Program .............................................................................................................................. 13
Emergency Response Team ................................................................................................................................... 95
Energy Conservation ............................................................................................................................................... 9
Engineering Controls ............................................................................................................................................. 14
Environment, Safety, & Health Regulation Compliance Support for Suppliers ............................................... 19
Environmental Control Center ............................................................................................................................. 37
Environmental Control and Life Support Systems ............................................................................................. 84
Environmental Court ............................................................................................................................................... 6
Environmental Database System Timeline ......................................................................................................... 20
Environmental Improvement Initiatives ............................................................................................................. 35
Environmental Initiatives ..................................................................................................................................... 40
Environmental Noise Management Program ...................................................................................................... 21
Environmental Practices ....................................................................................................................................... 30
Environmental Program ........................................................................................................................................ 28
Environmental Remediation Analysis, Computer Modeling, and Visualization ............................................... 95
Environmental Remediation - In-Situ Soil Treatment ....................................................................................... 94
Environmental Remediation - Remedial Cost Estimating.................................................................................. 94
Environmental Reporting ...................................................................................................................................... 59
Environmental Scorecard ...................................................................................................................................... 49
Ergonomic Program ............................................................................................................................................... 49
Establishment of Chemical Categories ................................................................................................................ 91
Ethics and Compliance Awareness Training ....................................................................................................... 60
F
FLASHJET™ Coating Removal Process .............................................................................................................. 10
Free Cooling with Evaporate Fill Media Pads ..................................................................................................... 55
Freon Replacement and Hazmat Program ........................................................................................................... 66
G
Greenways ................................................................................................................................................................ 4
Groundwater Monitoring Program ....................................................................................................................... 33
H
Hamilton County Air Pollution Control Bureau .................................................................................................... 7
Hazardous Material Management ........................................................................................................................ 31
Hazardous Materials Pharmacy ............................................................................................................................. 7
Hazardous Waste Disposal Audit Procedure ....................................................................................................... 91
HAZMIN Working Group ...................................................................................................................................... 39
High Velocity Oxy-Fuel Flame Spray ................................................................................................................... 73
D-2
I
Page
Improved Handling of Recycled Materials ........................................................................................................... 79
Indoor Air Quality Management .......................................................................................................................... 18
In-line Solvent Recovery Systems ......................................................................................................................... 89
In Situ Vitrification Method for Waste Disposal ................................................................................................. 80
L
Landfill Avoidance ................................................................................................................................................. 92
Laser Cutting System ............................................................................................................................................ 70
Local Emergency Planning Committee Membership .......................................................................................... 50
Low Vapor Pressure Cleaning Solvent ................................................................................................................. 32
M
Moving Crates ........................................................................................................................................................ 56
N
New Flying Press Cutters ..................................................................................................................................... 39
Numerical Modeling of Environmental Problems ............................................................................................... 41
O
Occupational Medical Program ............................................................................................................................. 60
ODC Reduction ...................................................................................................................................................... 65
On Line PWB Manual ........................................................................................................................................... 18
OTTO Fuel Reclamation ...................................................................................................................................... 87
OxyChem’s Durez Ft. Erie, Canada Receives Environmental Awards for Environmental Efforts .................. 45
OxyChem’s Niagara, New York Plant .................................................................................................................. 44
OxyChem’s Niagara, New York Plant Receives BUD from NYSDEC ................................................................ 88
Ozone Depleting Substance Alternatives Implementation Team ...................................................................... 68
P
Paint Fumes Management .................................................................................................................................... 36
Paint and Paint Gun Improvements .................................................................................................................... 23
Paint Sludge Recycling .......................................................................................................................................... 84
Painting/EPA and State Regulations ................................................................................................................... 27
Pantex Pollution Prevention ................................................................................................................................. 10
Paperless Work Flow for Electronic Maintenance Work Request ...................................................................... 68
Parks and Recreation Alliances with Non-Profit Groups and Private Industry ................................................. 5
Pay From Receipt ................................................................................................................................................... 94
Photographic/X-ray Fixer Recycling ..................................................................................................................... 86
Polaroid Exposure Guidelines ............................................................................................................................... 61
Polaroid Foundation .............................................................................................................................................. 61
Pollution Prevention .............................................................................................................................................. 11
Pollution Reduction Project OxyChem’s Ashtabula Ohio Plant - Toluene Emissions and
Releases Reduction ............................................................................................................................................. 44
Powder Coating ...................................................................................................................................................... 38
Power Factor Correction for Energy Conservation .............................................................................................. 57
Preheated Boiler Make-up Water ......................................................................................................................... 57
D-3
P
Page
Pressure Nutsche ................................................................................................................................................... 14
Pressure Spray Washers ....................................................................................................................................... 73
Printed Circuit Wiring Board Etch Reuse ............................................................................................................ 68
Proactive Roles with Public Groups, Boards, and Committees .......................................................................... 62
Process Safety Management ................................................................................................................................. 50
Process Waste Minimization ................................................................................................................................. 11
Product Delivery Process ....................................................................................................................................... 52
Product Safety Emission Testing .......................................................................................................................... 12
Product Safety Management Guidelines .............................................................................................................. 62
Professional Development Committee ................................................................................................................. 63
Project Bridge ......................................................................................................................................................... 64
Project Deployment: Technology Transition to Production ................................................................................. 35
Q
Quantitative Extraction of Organic Chemicals .................................................................................................... 46
R
Recycle of Recovery Boiler Smelt .......................................................................................................................... 36
Recycling Chemicals Used in Electroless Plating ................................................................................................ 27
Recycling of Hazardous Materials and Operations Upgrades ............................................................................ 89
Recycling of Non-Hazardous Materials ................................................................................................................ 88
Reduced Diameter Extrusion Dies ....................................................................................................................... 39
Reduction of Radioisotope Use for Molecular-Biological Analyses ..................................................................... 11
Reengineering Propellant Extrusion Process ...................................................................................................... 39
Regulatory Training Requirements ...................................................................................................................... 64
Reinforcing Safety Values at Polaroid Program .................................................................................................. 53
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closures ............................................................................................. 80
Rubbercycle ............................................................................................................................................................ 12
S
Safety Ambassador ................................................................................................................................................ 54
Safety Values Process ............................................................................................................................................ 54
Sensor Development for Environmentally Relevant Species .............................................................................. 81
Sitewide Environmental Impact Statement ........................................................................................................ 34
Solid Waste Environmental Leadership and Learning Team ............................................................................ 67
Solid Waste Recycling ............................................................................................................................................ 85
Solvent Recycling System ...................................................................................................................................... 73
Spill Control System .............................................................................................................................................. 81
Spring Coating Environmental Requirements .................................................................................................... 25
Stormwater Community Education Program ........................................................................................................ 5
Strategic Scheduling .............................................................................................................................................. 69
Sustainable Development ..................................................................................................................................... 24
D-4
T
Page
Technology Logic Diagram .................................................................................................................................... 81
Toxicity Bulletin .................................................................................................................................................... 55
Treatment of High Explosive Contaminated Groundwater .................................................................................. 9
Trichloroethane Recycling ..................................................................................................................................... 86
U
Ultraviolet Light Treatment ................................................................................................................................. 58
Ultraviolet Treatment of Contaminated Wastewater ......................................................................................... 86
Upgraded Press Control and Hydraulic Power Systems ..................................................................................... 39
Use and Verification of Aqueous Alkaline Cleaners ............................................................................................ 33
V
V-22 and Pollution Prevention ................................................................................................................................ 3
Variable Air Volume Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning System ........................................................ 58
Volatile Organic Compound Abatement System ................................................................................................. 16
Volatile Organic Compound Release Reduction .................................................................................................. 28
W
Warner Park Recycling Program .......................................................................................................................... 78
Water Jet Knife ...................................................................................................................................................... 74
Watershed Protection ............................................................................................................................................ 93
Work Environment ................................................................................................................................................ 29
Z
Zinc-Nickel Alloy Plating ...................................................................................................................................... 74
D-5

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