English

not defined

no text concepts found

New York State Common Core 4 Mathematics Curriculum GRADE GRADE 4 • MODULE 5 Topic B Fraction Equivalence Using Multiplication and Division 4.NF.1, 4.NF.3b Focus Standard: 4.NF.1 Instructional Days: 5 Coherence -Links from: G3–M5 Fractions as Numbers on the Number Line G5–M3 Addition and Subtraction of Fractions G5–M4 Multiplication and Division of Fractions and Decimal Fractions -Links to: Explain why a fraction a/b is equivalent to a fraction (n × a)/(n × b) by using visual fraction models, with attention to how the number and size of the parts differ even though the two fractions themselves are the same size. Use this principle to recognize and generate equivalent fractions. In Topic B, students start to generalize their work with fraction equivalence. In Lessons 7 and 8, students analyze their earlier work with tape diagrams and the area model in Lessons 3 through 5 to begin using multiplication to create an equivalent fraction comprised of smaller units, e.g., Conversely, students reason, in Lessons 9 and 10, that division can be used to create a fraction comprised of larger units (or a single unit) that is equivalent to a given fraction, e.g., . The numerical work of Lessons 7 through 10 is introduced and supported using area models and tape diagrams. In Lesson 11, students use tape diagrams to transition their knowledge of fraction equivalence to the number line. They see that any unit fraction length can be partitioned into n equal lengths. For example, each third in the interval from 0 to 1 may be partitioned into 4 equal parts. Doing so multiplies both the total number of fractional units (the denominator) and the number of selected units (the numerator) by 4. On the other hand, students see that in some cases fractional units may be grouped together to form some number of larger fractional units. For example, when the interval from 0 to 1 is partitioned into twelfths, one may group 4 twelfths at a time to make thirds. In doing so, both the total number of fractional units and the number of selected units are divided by 4. Topic B: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Fraction Equivalence Using Multiplication and Division 1/7/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported.License. 5.B.1 Topic B 4 5 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM A Teaching Sequence Towards Mastery of Fraction Equivalence Using Multiplication and Division Objective 1: Use the area model and multiplication to show the equivalence of two fractions. (Lessons 7–8) Objective 2: Use the area model and division to show the equivalence of two fractions. (Lessons 9–10) Objective 3: Explain fraction equivalence using a tape diagram and the number line, and relate that to the use of multiplication and division. (Lesson 11) Topic B: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Fraction Equivalence using Multiplication and Division 1/7/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported.License. 5.B.2 Lesson 7 4•5 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Lesson 7 Objective: Use the area model and multiplication to show the equivalence of two fractions. Suggested Lesson Structure Fluency Practice Application Problem Concept Development Student Debrief (12 minutes) (4 minutes) (34 minutes) (10 minutes) Total Time (60 minutes) Fluency Practice (12 minutes) Break Apart Fractions 4.NF.3 (4 minutes) Count by Equivalent Fractions 3.NF.3 (4 minutes) Draw Equivalent Fractions 4.NF.1 (4 minutes) Break Apart Fractions (4 minutes) Materials: (S) Personal white boards Note: This fluency activity reviews G4–M5–Lessons 1─3. T: S: (Project a tape diagram of 3 fifths with the whole labeled.) Name the fraction of 1 whole that’s shaded. . T: (Write = __.) Say the fraction. S: 3 fifths. T: On your boards, write as a repeated addition sentence using unit fractions. S: (Write T: (Write = + + = __ S: (Write = + + = 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 + .) 1 1 .) On your boards, complete the number sentence. ) Continue process for the following possible sequence: Lesson 7: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org 1 1 1 1 1 = + + + + =5 1 and Use the area model and multiplication to show the equivalence of two fractions. 1/7/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.3 Lesson 7 4•5 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM 1 1 1 1 1 = + + + + =5 1 . Count by Equivalent Fractions (4 minutes) Materials: (S) Personal white boards Note: This fluency activity prepares students for lessons throughout this module. T: S: T: Count from 0 to 10 by ones. 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. Count by 1 fourths to 10 fourths. Start at 0 fourths. (Write as students count.) 1 1 0 1 S: 1 1 2 1 1 , , , , , , , , , . T: 4 fourths is the same as 1 of what unit? S: 1 one. T: (Beneath 4 fourths, write 1.) 2 wholes is the same as how many fourths? S: 8 fourths. T: (Beneath , write 2.) Let’s count to 1 fourths again but this time, say the whole numbers when you come to a whole number. Start at 0. S: 0, , , , 1, , , , 2, , . 1 1 Repeat process, counting by thirds to 10 thirds. Draw Equivalent Fractions (4 minutes) Materials: (S) Personal white boards Note: This fluency activity reviews G4–M5–Lesson 6. T: S: (Write .) Say the fraction. . = T: On your boards, draw an area model to show . S: (Draw a model partitioned into 3 equal units. Shade 2 units.) T: (Write = .) Draw a dotted horizontal line to find the equivalent fraction. Lesson 7: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Use the area model and multiplication to show the equivalence of two fractions. 1/7/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.4 Lesson 7 4•5 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM S: (Draw a dotted horizontal line, breaking 3 units into 6 smaller units. Write = .) Continue process for the following possible sequence: = , = , = 1 , and = . Application Problem (4 minutes) Model an equivalent fraction for using an area model. NOTES ON MULTIPLE MEANS OF REPRESENTATION: Students working below grade level and others may benefit from explicit instruction as they decompose unit fractions. When doubling the number of units, instruct students to draw one horizontal dotted line. When tripling, draw two lines, and so on. Note: This Application Problem reviews G4–M5–Lesson 6 and leads into today’s lesson as students find equivalent fractions using multiplication. Concept Development (34 minutes) Materials: (S) Personal white boards Problem 1: Determine that multiplying the numerator and denominator by n results in an equivalent fraction. MP.7 T: Draw an area model representing 1 whole partitioned into thirds. Shade and 1 record below the area model. Draw 1 horizontal line across the area model. S: T: S: T: S: (Partition area model.) What happened to the size of the fractional units? The units got smaller. The unit became half the size. What happened to the number of units in the whole? There were 3; now there are 6. We doubled the total number of units. T: What happened to the number of selected units when we drew the dotted Lesson 7: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Use the area model and multiplication to show the equivalence of two fractions. 1/7/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.5 Lesson 7 4•5 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM S: line? There was 1 unit selected, and now there are 2! It doubled, too! T: That’s right. We can record the doubling of units with multiplication: S: Hey, I remember from third grade that is the same as . T: T: S: Yes, they are equivalent fractions. Why didn’t doubling the number of selected units make the fraction larger? We didn’t change the amount of the fraction just the size. Yeah, so the size of the units became half as big. Draw an area model representing 1 whole partitioned with a vertical line into 2 halves. T: T: S: T: MP.7 S: T: S: T: S: T: S: 1 1 . 1 1 1 Shade and record below the area model. If we want to rewrite using 4 times as many units, what should we do? Draw horizontal dotted lines, three of them. Then, we can write a number sentence using multiplication. This time it’s 4 times as many, so we will multiply the top number and the bottom number by 4. Show me. (Allow time for students to partition the area model.) What happened to the size of the fractional unit? The size of the fractional unit got smaller. What happened to the number of units in the whole? There are 4 times as many. They quadrupled. What happened to the number of selected units? There was 1, and now there are 4. The number of selected units quadrupled! Has the size of the selected units changed? There are more smaller unit fractions instead of one bigger unit fraction, but the area is still the same. 1 T: What can you conclude about and S: They are equal! T: Let’s show that using multiplication: 1 1 . ( ) T: When we quadrupled the number of units, the number of selected units quadrupled. When we doubled the number of units, the number of selected units doubled. What do you predict would happen to the shaded fraction if we tripled the units? S: The number of units within the shaded fraction would triple, too. Lesson 7: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Use the area model and multiplication to show the equivalence of two fractions. 1/7/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.6 Lesson 7 4•5 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Problem 2: Given an area model, determine an equivalent fraction for the area selected. T: 1 (Display area model showing .) Work with your partner to determine an 1 equivalent fraction to . S: Let’s draw one horizontal line. That will double the number of units. We can draw two horizontal lines. That will triple the number of units and make them smaller, too. If we multiply the top and bottom numbers by 4, we could quadruple the number of units. Each one will be a quarter the size, too. Circulate to listen for student understanding and to monitor their work. Reconvene to examine one or more equivalent fractions. T: S: T: S: Some groups drew one horizontal line. (Demonstrate.) Tell your partner what happened to the size of the units. The units got smaller. Tell your partner what happened to the number of units. There are twice as many units. T: Let’s record that: T: What is the relationship of the numerators, the top numbers, in the equivalent fractions? S: The numerator in is double the numerator in because we doubled the number of selected units. Since the size of the selected units are half as big, we doubled the numerator. What is the relationship of the denominators, the bottom numbers, in the equivalent fractions? T: S: 1 1 . 1 1 The denominator in is double the denominator in because we doubled the number of units. Since the size of the units are half as big, we doubled the denominator. Problem 3: Express an equivalent fraction using multiplication and verify by drawing an area model. 1 T: Discuss with your partner how to find another way to name without drawing an area model first. S: Let’s triple the number of units in the whole. So, we have to multiply the numerator and the denominator by 3. Or, we could double the top number and double the bottom number. Now verify that the fraction you found is equivalent by drawing an area model. (Work.) T: S: Lesson 7: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Use the area model and multiplication to show the equivalence of two fractions. 1/7/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.7 Lesson 7 4•5 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Problem Set (10 minutes) Students should do their personal best to complete the Problem Set within the allotted 10 minutes. For some classes, it may be appropriate to modify the assignment by specifying which problems they work on first. Some problems do not specify a method for solving. Students solve these problems using the RDW approach used for Application Problems. Student Debrief (10 minutes) Lesson Objective: Use the area model and multiplication to show the equivalence of two fractions. The Student Debrief is intended to invite reflection and active processing of the total lesson experience. Invite students to review their solutions for the Problem Set. They should check work by comparing answers with a partner before going over answers as a class. Look for misconceptions or misunderstandings that can be addressed in the Debrief. Guide students in a conversation to debrief the Problem Set and process the lesson. You may choose to use any combination of the questions below to lead the discussion. What pattern did you notice for Problems 1(a–d)? Discuss and compare with your partner your answers to Problems 2(e) and 2(f). In Problem 2, the unit fractions have different denominators. Discuss with your partner how the size of a unit fraction is related to the denominator. The numerator identifies the number of units selected. Can the numerator be larger than the denominator? Lesson 7: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Use the area model and multiplication to show the equivalence of two fractions. 1/7/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.8 Lesson 7 4•5 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Exit Ticket (3 minutes) After the Student Debrief, instruct students to complete the Exit Ticket. A review of their work will help you assess the students’ understanding of the concepts that were presented in the lesson today and plan more effectively for future lessons. You may read the questions aloud to the students. Lesson 7: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Use the area model and multiplication to show the equivalence of two fractions. 1/7/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.9 Lesson 7 Problem Set 4•5 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Name Date Each rectangle represents 1 whole. 1. The shaded unit fractions have been decomposed into smaller units. Express the equivalent fractions in a number sentence using multiplication. The first one has been done for you. a. b. 1 1 c. d. 2. Decompose the shaded fractions into smaller units using the area models. Express the equivalent fractions in a number sentence using multiplication. a. b. c. d. Lesson 7: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Use the area model and multiplication to show the equivalence of two fractions. 1/7/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.10 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Lesson 7 Problem Set 4•5 e. What happened to the size of the fractional units when you decomposed the fraction? f. What happened to the total number of units in the whole when you decomposed the fraction? 3. Draw three different area models to represent 1 third by shading. Decompose the shaded fraction into (a) sixths, (b) ninths, and (c) twelfths. Use multiplication to show how each fraction is equivalent to 1 third. a. b. c. Lesson 7: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Use the area model and multiplication to show the equivalence of two fractions. 1/7/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.11 Lesson 7 Exit Ticket 4•5 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Name Date 1. Draw two different area models to represent 1 fourth by shading. Decompose the shaded fraction into (a) eighths and (b) twelfths. Use multiplication to show how each fraction is equivalent to 1 fourth. a. b. Lesson 7: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Use the area model and multiplication to show the equivalence of two fractions. 1/7/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.12 Lesson 7 Homework 4•5 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Name Date Each rectangle represents 1 whole. 1. The shaded unit fractions have been decomposed into smaller units. Express the equivalent fractions in a number sentence using multiplication. The first one has been done for you. a. b. 1 1 c. d. 2. Decompose the shaded fractions into smaller units using the area models. Express the equivalent fractions in a number sentence using multiplication. a. b. c. d. Lesson 7: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org d. Use the area model and multiplication to show the equivalence of two fractions. 1/7/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.13 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Lesson 7 Homework 4•5 3. Draw three different area models to represent 1 fourth by shading. Decompose the shaded fraction into (a) eighths, (b) twelfths, and (c) sixteenths. Use multiplication to show how each fraction is equivalent to 1 fourth. a. b. c. Lesson 7: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Use the area model and multiplication to show the equivalence of two fractions. 1/7/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.14 Lesson 8 4•5 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Lesson 8 Objective: Use the area model and multiplication to show the equivalence of two fractions. Suggested Lesson Structure Fluency Practice Application Problem Concept Development Student Debrief Total Time (12 minutes) (4 minutes) (34 minutes) (10 minutes) (60 minutes) Fluency Practice (12 minutes) Multiply Mentally 4.OA.4 (4 minutes) Count by Equivalent Fractions 3.NF.3 (4 minutes) Draw Equivalent Fractions 4.NF.1 (4 minutes) Multiply Mentally (4 minutes) Materials: (S) Personal white boards Note: This fluency activity reviews G4–Module 3 content. T: S: T: S: T: S: (Write 32 3 = .) Say the multiplication sentence. 32 3 = 96. (Write 32 3 = 96. Below it, write 32 20 = .) Say the multiplication sentence. 32 20 = 640. (Write 32 20 = 640. Below it, write 32 23 = .) On your board, solve 32 23. (Write 32 23 = 736.) Repeat the process for the following possible sequence: 42 2, 42 20, 42 22 and 21 4, 21 40, 21 44. Count by Equivalent Fractions (4 minutes) Materials: (S) Personal white boards Note: This fluency activity reviews G4–M5–Lesson 4. T: Count by twos to 12. Lesson 8: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Use the area model and multiplication to show the equivalence of two fractions. 1/7/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.15 Lesson 8 4•5 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM S: T: 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12. Count by 2 thirds to 12 thirds. Start at 0 thirds. (Write as students count.) S: T: S: T: S: 1 whole is the same as how many thirds? 3 thirds. 2 wholes is the same as how many thirds? 6 thirds. T: (Beneath , write 2.) 3 wholes is the same as how many thirds? S: 9 thirds. T: 4 wholes is the same as how many thirds? S: 12 thirds. T: (Beneath , write 4.) Count by 2 thirds again. This time, say the whole numbers when you arrive at them. S: . Repeat the process, counting by 2 sixths to 18 sixths. Draw Equivalent Fractions (4 minutes) Materials: (S) Personal white boards Note: This fluency activity reviews G4–M5–Lesson 7. T: S: (Write .) Say the fraction. . T: On your board, draw a model to show . S: (Draw a model partitioned into 2 equal units. Shade 1 unit.) T: (Write .) Draw a dotted horizontal line to find the equivalent fraction. Then, complete the number sentence. S: (Draw a dotted horizontal line, breaking 2 units into 4 smaller units. Write = Continue the process for the following possible sequence: Lesson 8: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org = , = , = , = = .) , and = . Use the area model and multiplication to show the equivalence of two fractions. 1/7/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.16 Lesson 8 4•5 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Application Problem (4 minutes) Saisha gives some of her chocolate bar, pictured below, to her younger brother Lucas. He says “Thanks for of the bar ” Saisha responds “No I gave you of the bar ” Explain why both Lucas and Saisha are correct. CHOCOLATE Note: This Application Problem reviews content from G4–M5–Lesson 7. This bridges to today’s lesson where students will determine equivalent fractions of non-unit fractions. Revisit this problem in the Debrief by asking students to write the remaining portion as two equivalent fractions. Concept Development (34 minutes) Materials: (S) Personal white boards Problem 1: Determine that multiplying both the numerator and denominator by n results in an equivalent fraction. T: S: T: S: T: S: MP.7 T: S: T: Draw an area model to represent 2 thirds. Draw three horizontal lines across the area model. (Draw and partition the model.) What happened to the size of the fractional units? The units are 4 times as small because we divided each unit into 4 smaller units. What happened to the number of units? There were 3, and now there are 12. There are 4 times as many units. What happened to the number of selected units? There were 2 units selected, now there are 8 units selected. Discuss with your partner how to represent the equivalence of and using multiplication. S: We can multiply the numerator and denominator by 4. We can write . T: How do you know the fraction is still representing the same amount? Lesson 8: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Use the area model and multiplication to show the equivalence of two fractions. 1/7/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.17 Lesson 8 4•5 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM S: T: S: T: MP.7 T: S: I know it’s the same size because I didn’t change how much is selected. There are more smaller units instead of fewer bigger units, but the area of the selected fraction is still the same. The fractions are equivalent. What was different about this problem than the ones we did yesterday? The fraction that we are starting with doesn’t have as the numerator We know any fraction can be decomposed into the sum of unit fractions. Yesterday, we saw that 1 third equals 4 twelfths. Today, we see that 2 thirds equals 4 twelfths plus 4 twelfths, or 8 twelfths. Draw an area model to represent . Find an equivalent fraction with the denominator of 12. Explain to a partner how this is done. We partition each of the 6 units into 2 parts so that we have 12 units in the whole. We double the number of units to make twelfths. There are twice as many units in the whole and twice as many units selected, but the parts are only half as big. T: What have we discovered about finding equivalent fractions? S: The area of the fraction stays the same, but the number and size of the units change. The number of units increases. The size of the unit fraction decreases. Problem 2: Determine that two fractions are equivalent using an area model and a number sentence. T: S: T: S: (Project .) If the whole is the same, is this statement true or false? Three times 2 is 6, and 4 times 2 is 8. Yes, it’s true If we multiply both the numerator and denominator by 2, we get . Doubling the selected units and the number of units in the whole has the same area as . Represent the equivalence in a number sentence using multiplication, and draw an area model to show the equivalence. (Do so, as pictured to the right.) T: (Project .) If the wholes are the same, is this statement true or false? How do you know? Discuss with your partner. S: Three times 2 is 6, and times is It’s false We didn’t multiply by the same number. This is false. I drew a model for and then decomposed it into twelfths. There are 9 units shaded, not 6. The numerator is being multiplied by 2, and the denominator is being multiplied by 3. They are not equivalent fractions. T: With your partner, revise the right side of the equation to Lesson 8: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Use the area model and multiplication to show the equivalence of two fractions. 1/7/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.18 Lesson 8 4•5 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM make a true number sentence. S: We could change to . Or, we could change denominator would be multiplied by 2. to , because then both the numerator and Problem 3: Write a number sentence using multiplication to show the equivalence of two fractions. Draw the corresponding area model. T: Find an equivalent fraction without drawing an area model first. Write on your personal board. How have we found equivalent fractions? S: We’ve doubled tripled, or quadrupled the numerator and the denominator. We multiply the numerator and denominator by the same number. T: Find an equivalent fraction to using multiplication. S: When I multiply the numerator and denominator by 2, I get . T: S: Use an area model to confirm your number sentence. (Do so, correcting any errors as necessary. Answers may vary.) Problem Set (10 minutes) Students should do their personal best to complete the Problem Set within the allotted 10 minutes. For some classes, it may be appropriate to modify the assignment by specifying which problems they work on first. Some problems do not specify a method for solving. Students solve these problems using the RDW approach used for Application Problems. NOTES ON MULTIPLE MEANS OF ENGAGEMENT Invite students working above grade level and others to test their discoveries about multiplying fractions by partitioning shapes other than rectangles, such as circles and hexagons. This work may best be supported by means of concrete or virtual manipulatives. Student Debrief (10 minutes) Lesson Objective: Use the area model and multiplication to show the equivalence of two fractions. The Student Debrief is intended to invite reflection and active processing of the total lesson experience. Invite students to review their solutions for the Problem Set. They should check work by comparing answers with a partner before going over answers as a class. Look for misconceptions or misunderstandings that can be addressed in the Debrief. Guide students in a conversation to debrief the Problem Set and process the lesson. You may choose to use any combination of the questions below to lead the discussion. For Problems 3(a–d), how did you determine the number of horizontal lines to draw in each area model? Lesson 8: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Use the area model and multiplication to show the equivalence of two fractions. 1/7/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.19 Lesson 8 4•5 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM For Problem 5(c), did you and your partner have the same answer? Explain why you might have different answers. Explain when someone might need to use equivalent fractions in daily life. How are we able to show equivalence without having to draw an area model? Think back to the Application Problem. What fraction of the bar did Saisha receive? Exit Ticket (3 minutes) After the Student Debrief, instruct students to complete the Exit Ticket. A review of their work will help you assess the students’ understanding of the concepts that were presented in the lesson today and plan more effectively for future lessons. You may read the questions aloud to the students. Lesson 8: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Use the area model and multiplication to show the equivalence of two fractions. 1/7/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.20 Lesson 8 Problem Set 4 5 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Name Date Each rectangle represents 1 whole. 1. The shaded fractions have been decomposed into smaller units. Express the equivalent fractions in a number sentence using multiplication. The first one has been done for you. a. b. c. d. 2. Decompose the shaded fractions into smaller units, as given below. Express the equivalent fractions in a number sentence using multiplication. a. Decompose into tenths. b. Decompose into fifteenths. Lesson 8: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Use the area model and multiplication to show the equivalence of two fractions. 1/7/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.21 Lesson 8 Problem Set 4 5 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM 3. Draw area models to prove that the following number sentences are true. a. b. c. d. 4. Use multiplication to rename each fraction below. a. b. c. d. 5. Determine which of the following are true number sentences. Correct those that are false by changing the right-hand side of the number sentence. a. b. c. d. Lesson 8: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Use the area model and multiplication to show the equivalence of two fractions. 1/7/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.22 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Name Lesson 8 Exit Ticket 4•5 Date 1. Use multiplication to create an equivalent fraction for the fraction below. 2. Determine if the following is a true number sentence. If needed, correct the statement by changing the right-hand side of the number sentence. Lesson 8: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Use the area model and multiplication to show the equivalence of two fractions. 1/7/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.23 Lesson 8 Homework 4•5 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Name Date Each rectangle represents 1 whole. 1. The shaded fractions have been decomposed into smaller units. Express the equivalent fractions in a number sentence using multiplication. The first one has been done for you. a. b. c. d. 2. Decompose both shaded fractions into twelfths. Express the equivalent fractions in a number sentence using multiplication. a. b. Lesson 8: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Use the area model and multiplication to show the equivalence of two fractions. 1/7/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.24 Lesson 8 Homework 4•5 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM 3. Draw area models to prove that the following number sentences are true. a. b. c. d. 4. Use multiplication to create an equivalent fraction for each fraction below. a. b. c. d. 5. Determine which of the following are true number sentences. Correct those that are false by changing the right-hand side of the number sentence. a. b. c. d. Lesson 8: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Use the area model and multiplication to show the equivalence of two fractions. 1/7/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.25 Lesson 9 4•5 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Lesson 9 Objective: Use the area model and division to show the equivalence of two fractions. Suggested Lesson Structure Fluency Practice Application Problem Concept Development Student Debrief (12 minutes) (6 minutes) (32 minutes) (10 minutes) Total Time (60 minutes) Fluency Practice (12 minutes) Add and Subtract 4.NBT.4 (4 minutes) Find Equivalent Fractions 4.NF.1 (4 minutes) Draw Equivalent Fractions 4.NF.1 (4 minutes) Add and Subtract (4 minutes) Materials: (S) Personal white boards Note: This fluency activity reviews the year-long Grade 4 fluency standard for adding and subtracting using the standard algorithm. T: S: T: S: (Write 732 thousands 367 ones.) On your boards, write this number in standard form. (Write 732,367.) (Write 423 thousands 142 ones.) Add this number to 732,367 using the standard algorithm. (Write 732,367 + 423,142 = 1,155,509 using the standard algorithm.) Continue the process for 671,526 + 264,756. T: S: T: S: (Write 916 thousands 450 ones.) On your boards, write this number in standard form. (Write 916,450.) (Write 615 thousands 137 ones.) Subtract this number from 916,450 using the standard algorithm. (Write 916,450 – 615,137 = 301,313 using the standard algorithm.) Continue the process for 762,162 – 335,616 and 500,000 – 358,219. Lesson 9: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Use the area model and division to show the equivalence of two fractions. 1/15/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.26 Lesson 9 4•5 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Find Equivalent Fractions (4 minutes) Materials: (S) Personal white boards Note: This fluency activity reviews G4–M5–Lesson 7. 1 2 × × 1 2 (Write = S: 1 . 2 T: On your boards, complete the number sentence to make an equivalent fraction. S: (Write = 1 2 1×2 2×2 = 2 T: . Point to .) Say the unit fraction. 2 4 = .) 1 2 4 8 Continue the process for the following possible suggestions: = , Draw Equivalent Fractions (4 minutes) 1 3 2 6 = , 1 3 3 9 = , 1 4 = 4 16 1 5 3 15 , and = . Materials: (S) Personal white boards Note: This fluency activity reviews G4–M5–Lesson 8. T: 2 3 (Write .) Say the fraction. S: 2 . 3 T: On your boards, draw a model to show . T: (Write = = .) Draw a dotted horizontal line to find the equivalent fraction. Then, complete 6 3 × the number sentence. S: 2 3 2 × 2 2×2 3 3×2 4 = . 5 15 (Draw a dotted horizontal line, breaking 3 units into 6 smaller units. Write = Continue the process for the following possible sequence: 2 3 = 9 3 4 3 5 , = 12 , = 10 , and 4 6 = .) Application Problem (6 minutes) What fraction of a foot is 1 inch? What fraction of a foot is 3 inches? (Hint: 12 inches = 1 foot.) Draw a tape diagram to model your work. Note: Students are asked to think about fractions within a context, such as measurement, that will be useful in upcoming word problems. This measurement work will be developed more in G4–Module 7. Lesson 9: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Use the area model and division to show the equivalence of two fractions. 1/15/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.27 Lesson 9 4•5 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM NOTES ON MULTIPLE MEANS FOR EXPRESSION: Concept Development (32 minutes) Materials: (S) Personal white boards 6 Problem 1: Simplify by composing larger fractional units 12 using division. 6 T: (Project area model showing .) What fraction does 12 the area model represent? S: 6 . 12 As the conceptual foundation for simplification is being set, the word simplify is initially avoided with students as they compose higher value units. The process is rather referred to as composition, the opposite of decomposition, which relates directly to their drawing, their work over the last two lessons, and their work with whole numbers. When working numerically, the process is referred to at times as renaming, again in an effort to relate to whole number work. T: Discuss with a partner. Do you see any fractions 6 equivalent to 12? S: Half of the area model is shaded. The model shows . T: S: T: Which is the larger unit? Twelfths or halves? Halves! Circle the smaller units to make the larger units. Say the equivalent fractions. S: 6 1 = . 12 2 T: S: T: S: T: T: S: 1 2 6÷6 (Write = and point to the denominator.) Twelve units were in 12 ÷ 6 the whole, and we made groups of 6 units. Say a division sentence to record that. 12 ÷ 6 = 2. (Record the 2 in the denominator, and point to the numerator.) Six units were selected, and we made a NOTES ON group of 6 units. Say a division sentence to record MULTIPLE MEANS FOR that. REPRESENTATION: 6 ÷ 6 = 1. English language learners may confuse (Record the 1 in the numerator.) We write the terms decompose and compose. 6 6÷6 1 = = , dividing both the numerator and the Demonstrate that the prefix de12 12 ÷ 6 2 can be placed before some words denominator by 6 to find an equivalent fraction. to add an opposite meaning. What happened to the size of the units and the total Use gestures to clarify the number of units? meanings: Decompose is to take The size of the units got bigger. There are fewer units apart, and compose is to put in the whole. The units are 6 times as large, but the together. number of units is 6 times less. The units got bigger. Refresh students’ memory of The number of units got smaller. decomposition and composition in the context of the operations with whole numbers. Lesson 9: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Use the area model and division to show the equivalence of two fractions. 1/15/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.28 Lesson 9 4•5 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM 2 8 Problem 2: Simplify both and 3 1 as by composing larger fractional units. 12 4 2 T: Draw an area model to represent . Group two 8 units to make larger units. T: Write = = . How many groups of 2 are 8 8÷2 shaded? 1! (Write 1 in the numerator.) How many groups of 2 are in the whole? 4! S: T: S: 2 2÷2 2 2÷2 1 T: (Write = = .) Talk to your partner about how we showed that 2 eighths is the same as 1 fourth. 8 8÷2 4 Discuss both the model and our use of division. (Allow students time to discuss.) T: Draw an area model to represent . Compose an equivalent fraction. S: We can make groups of 2. No, that won’t work. Some of the groups could have shaded and unshaded units. Groups of 3 will work. That’s how many shaded units there are. How many groups of 3 are shaded? 1. How many groups of 3 in all? 4. The new fraction is? T: S: T: S: T: 3 12 S: 1 . 4 T: Write the number sentence to show you composed groups of 3. S: 3 3÷3 1 = = 12 12 ÷ 3 4 T: Compare the area models for S: They both equal . 1 4 2 6 Problem 3: Simplify both and T: S: T: S: 3 12 2 8 and . 4 1 as by composing larger fractional units. 12 3 When we composed fractions in the last two problems, what did you notice? We divided to find equivalent fractions. We made equal groups to make large units. We composed a unit fraction from a non-unit fraction. 2 4 Draw area models to show and . Rename 6 12 both fractions as the same unit fraction. I can make groups of 2 in both area models. I could make groups of 3, but I won’t be making equal Lesson 9: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Use the area model and division to show the equivalence of two fractions. 1/15/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.29 Lesson 9 4•5 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM T: S: T: S: groups of shaded and unshaded units. Four is a factor of both 4 and 12, so I can make groups of 4. First, I made groups of 2 when I was working with 4 twelfths, but then I noticed I could make groups of 2 again. Hey, dividing by 2 twice is the same as dividing by 4. Circle the groups, and express each composition in a number sentence using division. 2 2÷2 1 4 4÷4 1 = = . = = . 6 6 ÷ 2 3 12 12 ÷ 4 3 4 2 How are and related? 12 6 4 2 When I model and , I see that they both have the 12 6 1 1 4 2 same area as 3. 3 = 12 = 6. The equivalent fraction 4 2 1 for 12 and 6 with the largest units is 3. We composed 4 2 and into the same unit fraction. 12 6 Problem Set (10 minutes) Students should do their personal best to complete the Problem Set within the allotted 10 minutes. For some classes, it may be appropriate to modify the assignment by specifying which problems they work on first. Some problems do not specify a method for solving. Students solve these problems using the RDW approach used for Application Problems. NOTES ON MULTIPLE MEANS OF ENGAGEMENT: Challenge students working above grade level and others to couple the expressions of fraction composition with the related multiplication expression of decomposition. For example, 1 3 = 1×4 3×4 = 4 12 4 12 = 4÷4 12 ÷ 4 = 1 3 and . Student Debrief (10 minutes) Lesson Objective: Use the area model and division to show the equivalence of two fractions. The Student Debrief is intended to invite reflection and active processing of the total lesson experience. Invite students to review their solutions for the Problem Set. They should check work by comparing answers with a partner before going over answers as a class. Look for misconceptions or misunderstandings that can be addressed in the Debrief. Guide students in a conversation to debrief the Problem Set and process the lesson. You may choose to use any combination of the questions below to lead the discussion. • Look at Problems 1(a–d). Write some examples of fractions where the denominator is a multiple of the numerator. (Pause.) What do we know about these fractions? Lesson 9: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Use the area model and division to show the equivalence of two fractions. 1/15/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.30 Lesson 9 4•5 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM In Problems 3 and 4, does it matter how your area models are shaded? Will you still result in a correct answer? Explain how two fractions can be composed into the same larger unit fraction. How can what you know about factors help rename a fraction in larger units? 3 1 When we rename as , why is it helpful to 12 4 think about the factors of 3 and 12? Contrast the following: renaming fractions when you multiply versus when you divide and decomposing versus composing fractions. For each, discuss what happens to the size of the units and the number of units. 3 Use what you learned today to determine if can 8 be renamed as a larger unit. Why or why not? Exit Ticket (3 minutes) After the Student Debrief, instruct students to complete the Exit Ticket. A review of their work will help you assess the students’ understanding of the concepts that were presented in the lesson today and plan more effectively for future lessons. You may read the questions aloud to the students. Lesson 9: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Use the area model and division to show the equivalence of two fractions. 1/15/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.31 Lesson 9 Problem Set 4•5 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Name Date Each rectangle represents 1 whole. 1. Compose the shaded fractions into larger fractional units. Express the equivalent fractions in a number sentence using division. The first one has been done for you. a. b. 2 2÷2 1 = = 4 4÷2 2 c. d. 2. Compose the shaded fractions into larger fractional units. Express the equivalent fractions in a number sentence using division. a. b. c. d. Lesson 9: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Use the area model and division to show the equivalence of two fractions. 1/15/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.32 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Lesson 9 Problem Set 4•5 e. What happened to the size of the fractional units when you composed the fraction? f. What happened to the total number of units in the whole when you composed the fraction? 3. a. In the first area model, show 2 sixths. In the second area model, show 3 ninths. Show how both fractions can be renamed as the same unit fraction. b. Express the equivalent fractions in a number sentence using division. 4. a. In the first area model below, show 2 eighths. In the second area model, show 3 twelfths. Show how both fractions can be composed, or renamed, as the same unit fraction. b. Express the equivalent fractions in a number sentence using division. Lesson 9: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Use the area model and division to show the equivalence of two fractions. 1/15/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.33 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Name Lesson 9 Exit Ticket 4•5 Date 1. a. In the first area model, show 2 sixths. In the second area model, show 4 twelfths. Show how both fractions can be composed, or renamed, as the same unit fraction. b. Express the equivalent fractions in a number sentence using division. Lesson 9: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Use the area model and division to show the equivalence of two fractions. 1/15/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.34 Lesson 9 Homework 4•5 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Name Date Each rectangle represents one whole. 1. Compose the shaded fractions into larger fractional units. Express the equivalent fractions in a number sentence using division. The first one has been done for you. a. b. 2 2÷2 1 = = 4 4÷2 2 c. d. 2. Compose the shaded fractions into larger fractional units. Express the equivalent fractions in a number sentence using division. a. b. c. d. Lesson 9: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Use the area model and division to show the equivalence of two fractions. 1/15/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.35 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Lesson 9 Homework 4•5 e. What happened to the size of the fractional units when you renamed the fraction? f. What happened to the total number of units in the whole when you renamed the fraction? 3. a. In the first area model, show 4 eighths. In the second area model, show 6 twelfths. Show how both fractions can be composed, or renamed, as the same unit fraction. b. Express the equivalent fractions in a number sentence using division. 4. a. In the first area model below, show 4 eighths. In the second area model, show 8 sixteenths. Show how both fractions can be composed, or renamed, as the same unit fraction. b. Express the equivalent fractions in a number sentence using division. Lesson 9: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Use the area model and division to show the equivalence of two fractions. 1/15/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.36 Lesson 10 4 5 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Lesson 10 Objective: Use the area model and division to show the equivalence of two fractions. Suggested Lesson Structure Fluency Practice Application Problem Concept Development Student Debrief (12 minutes) (8 minutes) (30 minutes) (10 minutes) Total Time (60 minutes) Fluency Practice (12 minutes) Count by Equivalent Fractions 3.NF.3 (4 minutes) Find Equivalent Fractions 4.NF.1 (4 minutes) Draw Equivalent Fractions 4.NF.1 (4 minutes) NOTES ON MULTIPLE MEANS OF REPRESENTATION: Count by Equivalent Fractions (4 minutes) As you lead the Count by Equivalent Fractions fluency activity, enunciate the ending digraph /th/ of fraction names to help English language learners distinguish fractions from whole numbers (e.g., fourths, not fours). Materials: (S) Personal white boards Note: This fluency activity reinforces G4–Module 5 fraction concepts. T: S: T: Count by threes to 24. 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24. Count by 3 fourths to 24 fourths. (Write as students count.) S: 0 3 6 9 , , , 4 4 4 4 T: S: T: S: T: S: , 12 15 18 21 24 , , , , . 4 4 4 4 4 0 1 whole is the same as how 4 many fourths? 4 fourths. 0 2 wholes is the same as how many fourths? 8 fourths. 3 wholes is the same as how many fourths? 12 fourths. Lesson 10: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Couple numbers on the board with prepared visuals, if beneficial. 3 4 6 4 9 4 12 4 15 4 18 4 21 4 24 4 3 4 6 4 9 4 3 15 4 18 4 21 4 6 Use the area model and division to show the equivalence of two fractions. 1/15/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.37 Lesson 10 4 5 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM 12 4 T: (Beneath , write 3.) 4 wholes is the same as how many fourths? S: 16 fourths. T: 5 wholes is the same as how many fourths? S: 20 fourths. T: 6 wholes is the same as how many fourths? S: 24 fourths. T: (Beneath , write 6.) Count by 3 fourths again. This time, say the whole numbers when you arrive 4 at them. Start with zero. 24 3 4 6 4 9 4 S: 0, , , , 3, 15 18 21 , , , 6. 4 4 4 Repeat the process, counting by 3 fifths to 30 fifths. Find Equivalent Fractions (4 minutes) Materials: (S) Personal white boards Note: This fluency activity reviews G4–M5–Lesson 8. 3 4 × × 3 4 T: (Write = S: 3 . 4 T: On your boards, complete the number sentence. S: (Write = 3 4 3×2 4×2 = . Point to .) Say the fraction. 8 6 8 = .) Continue the process for the following possible suggestions: 3 4 = 9 12 , 2 3 4 6 = , 2 5 = 4 10 , 4 5 = 8 10 , and 3 5 4 12 1 3 9 15 = . Draw Equivalent Fractions (4 minutes) Materials: (S) Personal white boards Note: This fluency activity reviews G4–M5–Lesson 9. T: (Project model with 2 out of 4 equal units shaded.) Draw the model, and write the fraction that is shaded. S: (Draw model with 2 out of 4 equal units shaded. Write .) T: (Write = = .) Compose the shaded units into 1 larger unit by circling. 4 ÷ Then, complete the number sentence. S: 2 4 2 ÷ 2 4 2÷2 1 = .) 4÷2 2 3 1 4 1 = , = 9 3 8 2 (Circle the shaded units into 1 larger unit. Write = Continue the process for the following possible sequence: Lesson 10: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org , 2 8 1 4 = , 5 10 1 2 = , and = . Use the area model and division to show the equivalence of two fractions. 1/15/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.38 Lesson 10 4 5 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Application Problem (8 minutes) 9 Nuri spent of his money on a book, and the rest of his money 12 on a pencil. a. Express how much of his money he spent on the pencil in fourths. b. Nuri started with $1. How much did he spend on the pencil? Note: This Application Problem connects G4–M5–Topic A and G4–M5–Lesson 9 by finding the other fractional part of the whole and expressing equivalent fractions. Using what students know about money, ask why it is preferable to answer in fourths rather than twelfths. Students connect fourths to quarters of a dollar. Revisit this problem in the Debrief to express how much money was spent on the book in fourths. NOTES ON MULTIPLE MEANS OF REPRESENTATION: Concept Development (30 minutes) Materials: (S) Personal white boards Problem 1: Simplify a fraction by drawing to find a common factor, and relate to division. 10 12 There are multiple ways of showing a given fraction using an area model. Area models may, therefore, look different from student to student. Allow students to share how they have drawn different area models and be accepting of those that are mathematically correct. T: Draw an area model that represents . T: If we want to compose an equivalent fraction, what do we do? We make equal groups. We divide the numerator and the denominator by the same number. We should divide by 10. We divided by the same number that was in the numerator yesterday. Can I divide both the numerator and the denominator by 10? No. Discuss with your partner how to determine the largest possible unit. We can try to make groups of 2, then 3, then 4, until we have the largest number of units in a group with no remainder. We can only make equal groups of 2. The other numbers don’t divide evenly into both the numerator and the denominator. Show me. (Allow time for students to compose area model.) What happened to the number of shaded units? There were 10 units shaded, and now there are 5 groups of 2 units S: T: S: T: S: T: S: Lesson 10: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Use the area model and division to show the equivalence of two fractions. 1/15/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.39 Lesson 10 4 5 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM shaded! 1 12 1 6 T: Consider the unit fractions and . What do you notice about their denominators? S: T: S: T: S: T: 6 is a factor of 12. What about the numerators 10 and 5? 5 is a factor of 10! List the factors of 10 and 12. The factors of 12 are 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 12. The factors of 10 are 1, 2, 5, and 10. 1 and 2 are factors of both. We know then we can make equal groups of 2. Equal groups of 1 bring us back to the original fraction. Problem 2: Draw an area model of a number sentence that shows the simplification of a fraction. 6 6÷2 3 = = . 10 10 ÷ 2 5 T: Project T: S: Draw an area model to show how we can we know this number sentence is true. The numerator and denominator are both being divided by 2. I will circle groups of 2. I know 2 is a factor of 6 and 10, so I could make groups of 2. There are 3 shaded groups of 2 and 5 total 3 groups of 2. That’s ! 5 Problem 3: Simplify a fraction by drawing to find different common factors, and relate to division. T: S: 8 8 With your partner, draw an area model to represent . Rename using larger fractional units. You 12 12 may talk as you work. (Circulate and listen.) I can circle groups of 2 units. 2 is a factor of 8 and 12. There are 6 groups of 2 units in the 4 whole. Four groups are shaded. That’s . 6 T: S: What happens when I use 4 as a common factor instead of 2? Turn and talk. Four is a factor of both 8 and 12. It works. We can make larger units with groups of 4. Thirds are larger than sixths. 8 2 = . We have fewer units, but they’re bigger. 12 T: 3 Express the equivalent fractions as a division number sentence. Lesson 10: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Use the area model and division to show the equivalence of two fractions. 1/15/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.40 Lesson 10 4 5 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM S: 8 8÷4 2 = = . 12 12 ÷ 4 3 8 8÷2 4 = = . 12 12 ÷ 2 6 2 3 4 6 T: What can you conclude about and ? S: They are both equivalent to . T: What is true about dividing the numerator and the denominator in S: Two and 4 are both factors of 8 and 12. The larger the factor used, the larger the fractional units will be. Interesting. Discuss what your classmate said. “The larger the factor, the larger the new fractional units.” When we divided by 2, we got sixths, and when we divided by 4, we got thirds. Thirds are larger. Four is larger than 2. A bigger factor gave a bigger unit. When the factor is larger, it means we can make fewer units but bigger ones. T: S: 8 12 8 12 by 2 or by 4? Problem 4: Simplify a fraction using the largest possible common factor. T: S: T: S: T: S: T: 8 Discuss with your partner how to rename with the largest units possible without using an area 12 model. Figure out the greatest number of units that can be placed in equal groups. Divide the numerator and denominator by the same number, just like we’ve been doing. Find a factor of both 8 and 12, and use it to divide the numerator and the denominator. Express the equivalence using a division number sentence. 8 8÷2 4 = = . 12 12 ÷ 2 6 8 8÷4 2 Four and 6 are still both even, so that wasn’t the largest factor. = = . The only 12 12 ÷ 4 3 common factor 2 and 3 have is 1, so 4 must be the largest factor they have in common. How can we know we expressed an equivalent fraction with the largest units? When we make equal groups, we need to see if we can make larger ones. When we find the factors of the numerator and denominator, we have to pick the largest factor. Four is larger than 2, 4 so dividing the numerator and denominator by 4 gets us the largest units. When I found , I 6 realized 2 and 4 are both even, so I divided the numerator and denominator again by 2. Two and 3 only have a common factor of 1, so I knew I had made the largest unit possible. Dividing by 2 twice is the same as dividing by 4. Just get it over with faster and divide by 4! 8 4 It’s not wrong to say that = . It is true. It’s just that at times it really is simpler to work with larger 12 6 units because it means the denominator is a smaller number. Problem Set (10 minutes) Students should do their personal best to complete the Problem Set within the allotted 10 minutes. For some classes, it may be appropriate to modify the assignment by specifying which problems they work on first. Some problems do not specify a method for solving. Students solve these problems using the RDW approach used for Application Problems. Lesson 10: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Use the area model and division to show the equivalence of two fractions. 1/15/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.41 Lesson 10 4 5 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Student Debrief (10 minutes) Lesson Objective: Use the area model and division to show the equivalence of two fractions. The Student Debrief is intended to invite reflection and active processing of the total lesson experience. Invite students to review their solutions for the Problem Set. They should check work by comparing answers with a partner before going over answers as a class. Look for misconceptions or misunderstandings that can be addressed in the Debrief. Guide students in a conversation to debrief the Problem Set and process the lesson. You may choose to use any combination of the questions below to lead the discussion. In Problem 2(b), did you compose the same units as your partner? Are both of your answers correct? Why? In Problems 4(a–d), how is it helpful to know the common factors for the numerators and denominators? In Problem 4, you were asked to use the largest 4 1 common factor to rename the fraction: = . By 4 8 2 doing so, you renamed using larger units. How 8 is renaming fractions useful? Do fractions always need to be renamed to the largest unit? Explain. Why is it important to choose a common factor to make larger units? How can you tell that a fraction is composed of the largest possible fractional units? When you are drawing an area model and circling equal groups, do all of the groups have to appear the same in shape? How do you know that they still show the same amount? Explain how knowing the factors of the numerator and the factors of the denominator can be helpful in identifying equivalent fractions of a larger unit size. Lesson 10: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Use the area model and division to show the equivalence of two fractions. 1/15/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.42 Lesson 10 4 5 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Exit Ticket (3 minutes) After the Student Debrief, instruct students to complete the Exit Ticket. A review of their work will help you assess the students’ understanding of the concepts that were presented in the lesson today and plan more effectively for future lessons. You may read the questions aloud to the students. Lesson 10: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Use the area model and division to show the equivalence of two fractions. 1/15/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.43 Lesson 10 Problem Set 4•5 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Name Date Each rectangle represents 1 whole. 1. Compose the shaded fraction into larger fractional units. Express the equivalent fractions in a number sentence using division. The first one has been done for you. a. b. 4 4÷2 2 = = 6 6÷2 3 c. d. 2. Compose the shaded fractions into larger fractional units. Express the equivalent fractions in a number sentence using division. a. b. Lesson 10: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Use the area model and division to show the equivalence of two fractions. 1/15/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.44 Lesson 10 Problem Set 4•5 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM 3. Draw an area model to represent each number sentence below. a. 4 10 = 4÷2 10 ÷ 2 = 2 5 b. 6 9 = 6÷3 2 = 9÷3 3 4. Use division to rename each fraction given below. Draw a model if that helps you. See if you can use the largest common factor. a. 4 8 b. 8 12 c. 9 12 d. 10 15 Lesson 10: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Use the area model and division to show the equivalence of two fractions. 1/15/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.45 Lesson 10 Exit Ticket 4 5 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Name Date 1. Draw an area model to show why the fractions are equivalent. Show the equivalence in a number sentence using division. 4 10 = 2 5 Lesson 10: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Use the area model and division to show the equivalence of two fractions. 1/15/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.46 Lesson 10 Homework 4 5 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Name Date Each rectangle represents one whole. 1. Compose the shaded fraction into larger fractional units. Express the equivalent fractions in a number sentence using division. The first one has been done for you. a. b. 4 4÷2 2 = = 6 6÷2 3 c. d. 2. Compose the shaded fractions into larger fractional units. Express the equivalent fractions in a number sentence using division. a. b. Lesson 10: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Use the area model and division to show the equivalence of two fractions. 1/15/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.47 Lesson 10 Homework 4•5 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM 3. Draw an area model to represent each number sentence below. a. 12 16 = 12 ÷ 4 3 = 16 ÷ 4 4 b. 6 18 = 6÷3 18 ÷ 3 = 2 6 4. Use division to rename each fraction given below. Draw a model if that helps you. See if you can use the largest common factor. a. 6 9 b. 4 12 c. 10 15 d. 12 16 Lesson 10: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Use the area model and division to show the equivalence of two fractions. 1/15/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.48 Lesson 11 4•5 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Lesson 11 Objective: Explain fraction equivalence using a tape diagram and the number line, and relate that to the use of multiplication and division. Suggested Lesson Structure Fluency Practice Application Problem Concept Development Student Debrief (12 minutes) (5 minutes) (33 minutes) (10 minutes) Total Time (60 minutes) Fluency Practice (12 minutes) Find the Quotient and Remainder 4.NBT.6 (4 minutes) Find Equivalent Fractions 4.NF.1 (4 minutes) Draw Equivalent Fractions 4.NF.1 (4 minutes) Find the Quotient and Remainder (4 minutes) Materials: (S) Personal white boards Note: This fluency activity reviews G4–M3–Lesson 28’s Concept Development. T: S: (Write 6,765 ÷ 2.) On your boards, find the quotient and remainder. (Solve for and write the quotient and remainder.) Continue for the following possible sequence: 6,811 ÷ 5, 1,265 ÷ 4, and 1,736 ÷ 4. Find Equivalent Fractions (4 minutes) Materials: (S) Personal white boards Note: This fluency activity reviews G4–M5–Lesson 9. T: S: 2 2 ( = 2 = . Point to .) Say the fraction. . T: On your boards, fill in the missing number to find the equivalent fraction. S: (Write 2 = 2 2 2 = ) Lesson 11: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Explain fraction equivalence using a tape diagram and the number line, and relate that to the use of multiplication and division. 1/15/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.49 Lesson 11 4•5 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Continue process for the following possible sequence: 2 , , , and 2. Draw Equivalent Fractions (4 minutes) Materials: (S) Personal white boards Note: This fluency activity reviews G4–M5–Lesson 10. T: (Project model with 4 out of 10 equal units shaded.) Draw the model and write the fraction that is shaded. S: (Draw model with 4 out of 10 equal units shaded. Write .) T: (Write = = ) Compose the shaded units into larger units by circling. Then, complete the number sentence. S: (Circle the shaded units into 1 larger unit. Write Continue the process for the following possible sequence: = , , 2 2 = ) 2 8 , and . Application Problem (5 minutes) Kelly was baking bread but could only find her 8 cup measuring cup. She needs cup sugar, cup whole wheat flour, and cup all purpose flour. How many cups will she need for each ingredient? 2 8 Solution 2 Solution 1 Note: This Application Problem places equivalent fractions into a context that may be familiar to students. Multiple solution strategies are possible. The first solution models the equivalency learned in G4–M5–Lessons 7 and 8. The second solution uses number bonds to find unit fractions, reviewing G4–M5– Topic A content. Lesson 11: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Explain fraction equivalence using a tape diagram and the number line, and relate that to the use of multiplication and division. 1/15/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.50 Lesson 11 4•5 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Concept Development (33 minutes) Materials: (S) Personal white boards, ruler Problem 1: Use a tape diagram and a number line to find equivalent fractions for halves, fourths, and eighths. T: S: T: S: T: S: T: S: T: S: T: S: T: S: Draw a tape diagram to show 1 whole partitioned into halves. (Draw tape diagram.) Shade Now, decompose halves to make 2 fourths. How many fourths are shaded? 2 fourths. On your personal board, write what we did as a multiplication number sentence. 2 2 2 2 2 Decompose fourths to make eighths. How many eighths are shaded? 4 eighths. Write a multiplication number sentence to show that 2 fourths and 4 eighths are equal. 2 2 2 2 8 2 2 8 Label 2 on the number line. Decompose the number line into fourths. What is equivalent 2 to on the number line? 2 2 . We showed that on the tape diagram. Decompose the number line into eighths. (Label the eighths.) T: What is 8 equal to on the number line? T: In order to preserve the pace of the lesson, provide a tape diagram and number line template for some learners. Students may also choose to transform the tape diagram into a number line by erasing the top line, labeling points, and extending the end points. Now, use a ruler to draw a number line slightly longer than the tape diagram. Label points 0 and 1 so they align with the ends of the tape diagram. (Draw number line). T: S: S: NOTES ON MULTIPLE MEANS OF REPRESENTATION: 2 8 . 2 8 . That also means 2 2 8 . Explain what happened on the number line as you decomposed the half. Lesson 11: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Explain fraction equivalence using a tape diagram and the number line, and relate that to the use of multiplication and division. 1/15/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.51 Lesson 11 4•5 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM S: When we decomposed the half into fourths, it was like sharing a licorice strip with four people instead of two. We got 4 smaller parts instead of 2 bigger parts. There are 4 smaller segments in the whole instead of 2 larger segments. We doubled the number of parts but made smaller parts, just like with the area model. It made 2 lengths that were the same length as 1 half. Problem 2: Use a number line, multiplication, and division to decompose and compose fractions. T: T: Partition a number line into thirds. Decompose 1 third into 4 equal parts. Write a number sentence using multiplication to show what fraction is equivalent to 1 third on this number line. S: T: S: T: S: T: S: 2 . Explain to your partner why that is true. It’s just like the area model. We made more smaller units but the lengths stayed the same, instead of the area staying the same. If we multiply a numerator and a denominator by the same number, we find an equivalent fraction. 1 third was decomposed into fourths, so we multiplied the number of units in the whole and the number of selected units by 4. Write the equivalence as a number sentence using division. 2 2 . Explain to your partner why that is true. We can join four smaller segments to make one longer one that is the same as 1 third. We can group the twelfths together to make thirds. Four copies of equals . Just like the area 2 model, we are composing units to make a larger unit. Problem 3: Decompose a non-unit fraction using a number line and division. 2 T: Draw a number line. Partition it into fifths, label it, and locate . S: (Draw.) T: Decompose into 6 equal parts. First, discuss your strategy with your partner. I will make each fifth into 6 parts. No, we have to decompose 2 units, not 1 unit. Each unit will be decomposed into 3 equal parts. Two units are becoming 6 units. We are multiplying the numerator and the denominator by 3. Write a number sentence to express the equivalent fractions. S: T: S: 2 2 2 . Lesson 11: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Explain fraction equivalence using a tape diagram and the number line, and relate that to the use of multiplication and division. 1/15/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.52 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Lesson 11 4•5 Problem Set (10 minutes) Students should do their personal best to complete the Problem Set within the allotted 10 minutes. For some classes, it may be appropriate to modify the assignment by specifying which problems they work on first. Some problems do not specify a method for solving. Students solve these problems using the RDW approach used for Application Problems. Student Debrief (10 minutes) Lesson Objective: Explain fraction equivalence using a tape diagram and the number line, and relate that to the use of multiplication and division. NOTES ON MULTIPLE MEANS OF ENGAGEMENT: Challenge students working above grade level and others to discuss or journal about the three models used for finding equivalent fractions. Ask, “How do the tape diagram and number line relate to one another? When might you choose to use a number line rather than an area model? Why?” The Student Debrief is intended to invite reflection and active processing of the total lesson experience. Invite students to review their solutions for the Problem Set. They should check work by comparing answers with a partner before going over answers as a class. Look for misconceptions or misunderstandings that can be addressed in the Debrief. Guide students in a conversation to debrief the Problem Set and process the lesson. You may choose to use any combination of the questions below to lead the discussion. In Problem 1, compare the distance from 0 to each point on the number line you circled. What do you notice? In Problem 1, does the unshaded portion of the tape diagram represent the same length from the point to 1 on every number line? How do you know? Compare your number sentences in Problem 2. Could they be rewritten using division? In Problem 5, what new units were created when 2 fifths was decomposed into 4 equal parts? How is modeling with a number line similar to modeling with an area model? How is it different? In Grade 3, you found equivalent fractions by locating them on a number line. Do you now require a number line to find equivalent fractions? What other ways can you determine equivalent fractions? Lesson 11: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Explain fraction equivalence using a tape diagram and the number line, and relate that to the use of multiplication and division. 1/15/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.53 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Lesson 11 4•5 Exit Ticket (3 minutes) After the Student Debrief, instruct students to complete the Exit Ticket. A review of their work will help you assess the students’ understanding of the concepts that were presented in the lesson today and plan more effectively for future lessons. You may read the questions aloud to the students. Lesson 11: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Explain fraction equivalence using a tape diagram and the number line, and relate that to the use of multiplication and division. 1/15/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.54 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Name Lesson 11 Problem Set 4•5 Date 1. Label each number line with the fractions shown on the tape diagram. Circle the fraction that labels the point on the number line that also names the selected part of the tape diagram. 1 a. 1 b. c. 1 2. Write number sentences using multiplication to show a. the fraction represented in 1(a) is equivalent to the fraction represented in 1(b). b. the fraction represented in 1(a) is equivalent to the fraction represented in 1(c). Lesson 11: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Explain fraction equivalence using a tape diagram and the number line, and relate that to the use of multiplication and division. 1/15/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.55 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Lesson 11 Problem Set 4•5 3. Use each shaded tape diagram below as a ruler to draw a number line. Mark each number line with the unit fractions shown on the tape diagram, and circle the fraction that labels the point on the number line that also names the selected part of the tape diagram. 1 a. 1 b. 1 c. 4. Write number sentences using division to show a. the fraction represented in 3(a) is equivalent to the fraction represented in 3(b). b. the fraction represented in 3(a) is equivalent to the fraction represented in 3(c). 5. a. Partition a number line from 0 to 1 into fifths. Decompose into 4 equal lengths b. Write a number sentence using multiplication to show what fraction represented on the number line is equivalent to . c. Write a number sentence using division to show what fraction represented on the number line is equivalent to . Lesson 11: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Explain fraction equivalence using a tape diagram and the number line, and relate that to the use of multiplication and division. 1/15/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.56 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Name Lesson 11 Exit Ticket 4•5 Date 1. a. Partition a number line from 0 to 1 into sixths. Decompose into 4 equal lengths. b. Write a number sentence using multiplication to show what fraction represented on the number line is equivalent to . c. Write a number sentence using division to show what fraction represented on the number line is equivalent to . Lesson 11: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Explain fraction equivalence using a tape diagram and the number line, and relate that to the use of multiplication and division. 1/15/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.57 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Name Lesson 11 Homework 4•5 Date 1. Label each number line with the fractions shown on the tape diagram. Circle the fraction that labels the point on the number line that also names the selected part of the tape diagram. a. b. c. 2. Write number sentences using multiplication to show a. the fraction represented in 1(a) is equivalent to the fraction represented in 1(b). b. the fraction represented in 1(a) is equivalent to the fraction represented in 1(c). Lesson 11: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Explain fraction equivalence using a tape diagram and the number line, and relate that to the use of multiplication and division. 1/15/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.58 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Lesson 11 Homework 4•5 3. Use each shaded tape diagram below as a ruler to draw a number line. Mark each number line with the unit fractions shown on the tape diagram, and circle the fraction that labels the point on the number line that also names the selected part of the tape diagram. 1 a. 1 b. 1 c. 4. Write number sentences using division to show a. the fraction represented in 3(a) is equivalent to the fraction represented in 3(b). b. the fraction represented in 3(a) is equivalent to the fraction represented in 3(b). 5. a. Partition a number line from 0 to 1 into fourths. Decompose into 6 equal lengths. b. Write a number sentence using multiplication to show what fraction represented on the number line is equivalent to . c. Write a number sentence using division to show what fraction represented on the number line is equivalent to . Lesson 11: Date: © 2014 Common Core, Inc. Some rights reserved. commoncore.org Explain fraction equivalence using a tape diagram and the number line, and relate that to the use of multiplication and division. 1/15/14 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. 5.B.59