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Page 1 of 2 6.4 Factoring and Solving Polynomial Equations What you should learn GOAL 1 Factor polynomial expressions. GOAL 1 FACTORING POLYNOMIAL EXPRESSIONS In Chapter 5 you learned how to factor the following types of quadratic expressions. TYPE EXAMPLE General trinomial 2x 2 º 5x º 12 = (2x + 3)(x º 4) Perfect square trinomial x 2 + 10x + 25 = (x + 5)2 Why you should learn it Difference of two squares 4x 2 º 9 = (2x + 3)(2x º 3) To solve real-life problems, such as finding the dimensions of a block discovered at an underwater archeological site in Example 5. AL LI Common monomial factor 6x 2 + 15x = 3x(2x + 5) Use factoring to solve polynomial equations, as applied in Ex. 87. In this lesson you will learn how to factor other types of polynomials. ACTIVITY Developing Concepts FE RE GOAL 2 The Difference of Two Cubes Use the diagram to answer the questions. Volume of Volume of Volume of + solid II + solid III . solid I 1 Explain why a3 º b3 = 2 For each of solid I, solid II, and solid III, write an algebraic expression for the solid’s volume. Leave your expressions in factored form. 3 Substitute your expressions from Step 2 into the equation from Step 1. Use the resulting equation to factor a3 º b3 completely. III II a b b b I a a In the activity you may have discovered how to factor the difference of two cubes. This factorization and the factorization of the sum of two cubes are given below. S P E C I A L FA C TO R I N G PAT T E R N S SUM OF TWO CUBES Example a3 + b3 = (a + b)(a2 º ab + b2) x 3 + 8 = (x + 2)(x 2 º 2x + 4) DIFFERENCE OF TWO CUBES a3 º b3 = (a º b)(a2 + ab + b2) 8x 3 º 1 = (2x º 1)(4x 2 + 2x + 1) 6.4 Factoring and Solving Polynomial Equations 345 Page 1 of 2 EXAMPLE 1 Factoring the Sum or Difference of Cubes Factor each polynomial. a. x3 + 27 b. 16u5 º 250u2 SOLUTION a. x3 + 27 = x3 + 33 Sum of two cubes 2 = (x + 3)(x º 3x + 9) b. 16u5 º 250u2 = 2u2(8u3 º 125) Factor common monomial. = 2u (2u) º 5 2 3 3 Difference of two cubes = 2u2(2u º 5)(4u2 + 10u + 25) .......... For some polynomials, you can factor by grouping pairs of terms that have a common monomial factor. The pattern for this is as follows. ra + rb + sa + sb = r(a + b) + s(a + b) = (r + s)(a + b) EXAMPLE 2 Factoring by Grouping Factor the polynomial x3 º 2x 2 º 9x + 18. SOLUTION x3 º 2x 2 º 9x + 18 = x 2(x º 2) º 9(x º 2) Factor by grouping. = (x2 º 9)(x º 2) = (x + 3)(x º 3)(x º 2) Difference of squares .......... An expression of the form au2 + bu + c where u is any expression in x is said to be in quadratic form. The factoring techniques you studied in Chapter 5 can sometimes be used to factor such expressions. EXAMPLE 3 Factoring Polynomials in Quadratic Form Factor each polynomial. a. 81x4 º 16 b. 4x6 º 20x4 + 24x 2 SOLUTION a. 81x4 º 16 = (9x 2)2 º 42 b. 4x6 º 20x4 + 24x 2 = 4x 2(x4 º 5x 2 + 6) = (9x 2 + 4)(9x 2 º 4) = (9x 2 + 4)(3x + 2)(3x º 2) 346 Chapter 6 Polynomials and Polynomial Functions = 4x 2(x 2 º 2)(x 2 º 3) Page 1 of 2 GOAL 2 SOLVING POLYNOMIAL EQUATIONS BY FACTORING In Chapter 5 you learned how to use the zero product property to solve factorable quadratic equations. You can extend this technique to solve some higher-degree polynomial equations. EXAMPLE 4 Solving a Polynomial Equation Solve 2x5 + 24x = 14x3. STUDENT HELP SOLUTION 2x5 + 24x = 14x3 Study Tip In the solution of Example 4, do not divide both sides of the equation by a variable or a variable expression. Doing so will result in the loss of solutions. 5 Write original equation. 3 2x º 14x + 24x = 0 Rewrite in standard form. 2x(x4 º 7x 2 + 12) = 0 Factor common monomial. 2x(x 2 º 3)(x 2 º 4) = 0 Factor trinomial. 2 2x(x º 3)(x + 2)(x º 2) = 0 Factor difference of squares. x = 0, x = 3, x = º3, x = º2, or x = 2 Zero product property The solutions are 0, 3, º3, º2, and 2. Check these in the original equation. EXAMPLE 5 Solving a Polynomial Equation in Real Life ARCHEOLOGY In 1980 archeologists at the ruins of Caesara discovered a huge hydraulic concrete block with a volume of 330 cubic yards. The block’s dimensions are x yards high by 13x º 11 yards long by 13x º 15 yards wide. What is the height? FOCUS ON CAREERS SOLUTION VERBAL MODEL LABELS RE FE L AL I ARCHEOLOGIST INT Archeologists excavate, classify, and date items used by ancient people. They may specialize in a particular geographical region and/or time period. NE ER T CAREER LINK www.mcdougallittell.com ALGEBRAIC MODEL Volume = Height • Length • Width Volume = 330 (cubic yards) Height = x (yards) Length = 13x º 11 (yards) Width = 13x º 15 (yards) 330 = x (13x º 11) (13x º 15) 0 = 169x3 º 338x 2 + 165x º 330 Write in standard form. 0 = 169x 2(x º 2) + 165(x º 2) Factor by grouping. 2 0 = (169x + 165)(x º 2) The only real solution is x = 2, so 13x º 11 = 15 and 13x º 15 = 11. The block is 2 yards high. The dimensions are 2 yards by 15 yards by 11 yards. 6.4 Factoring and Solving Polynomial Equations 347 Page 1 of 2 GUIDED PRACTICE ✓ Concept Check ✓ Vocabulary Check 1. Give an example of a polynomial in quadratic form that contains an x 3-term. 2. State which factoring method you would use to factor each of the following. a. 6x3 º 2x 2 + 9x º 3 b. 8x3 º 125 c. 16x4 º 9 3. ERROR ANALYSIS What is wrong with the solution 2x4 º 18x 2 = 0 at the right? 2x 2(x 2 º 9) = 0 4. a. Factor the polynomial x3 + 1 into the product of a x2 º 9 = 0 linear binomial and a quadratic trinomial. (x + 3)(x º 3) = 0 b. Show that you can’t factor the quadratic trinomial from part (a). Skill Check ✓ x = º3 or x = 3 Ex. 3 Factor the polynomial using any method. 5. x6 + 125 6. 4x3 + 16x 2 + x + 4 8. 2x3 º 3x 2 º 10x + 15 9. 5x3 º 320 7. x4 º 1 10. x4 + 7x 2 + 10 Find the real-number solutions of the equation. 11. x3 º 27 = 0 12. 3x3 + 7x 2 º 12x = 28 13. x3 + 2x 2 º 9x = 18 14. 54x3 = º2 15. 9x4 º 12x 2 + 4 = 0 16. 16x8 = 81 17. BUSINESS The revenue R (in thousands of dollars) for a small business can be modeled by R = t 3 º 8t 2 + t + 82 where t is the number of years since 1990. In what year did the revenue reach $90,000? PRACTICE AND APPLICATIONS STUDENT HELP Extra Practice to help you master skills is on p. 948. MONOMIAL FACTORS Find the greatest common factor of the terms in the polynomial. 18. 14x 2 + 8x + 72 19. 3x4 º 12x3 20. 7x + 28x 2 º 35x3 21. 24x4 º 6x 22. 39x5 + 13x3 º 78x 2 23. 145x9 º 17 24. 6x 6 º 3x 4 º 9x 2 25. 72x 9 + 15x 6 + 9x 3 26. 6x 4 º 18x 3 + 15x 2 MATCHING Match the polynomial with its factorization. 27. 3x 2 + 11x + 6 A. 2x3(x + 2)(x º 2)(x 2 + 4) 28. x3 º 4x 2 + 4x º 16 B. 2x(x + 4)(x º 4) 3 348 29. 125x º 216 C. (3x + 2)(x + 3) 30. 2x7 º 32x3 D. (x 2 + 4)(x º 4) 31. 2x5 + 4x4 º 4x3 º 8x2 E. 2x2(x2 º 2)(x + 2) 32. 2x3 º 32x F. (5x º 6)(25x 2 + 30x + 36) Chapter 6 Polynomials and Polynomial Functions Page 1 of 2 STUDENT HELP SUM OR DIFFERENCE OF CUBES Factor the polynomial. HOMEWORK HELP 33. x3 º 8 34. x3 + 64 35. 216x3 + 1 36. 125x3 º 8 37. 1000x3 + 27 38. 27x3 + 216 39. 32x3 º 4 40. 2x3 + 54 Example 1: Exs. 18–40, 59–67 Example 2: Exs. 18–32, 41–49, 59–67 Example 3: Exs. 18–32, 50–67 Example 4: Exs. 68–85 Example 5: Exs. 87–92 GROUPING Factor the polynomial by grouping. 41. x3 + x 2 + x + 1 42. 10x3 + 20x 2 + x + 2 43. x3 + 3x 2 + 10x + 30 44. x3 º 2x 2 + 4x º 8 45. 2x3 º 5x 2 + 18x º 45 46. º2x3 º 4x 2 º 3x º 6 47. 3x 3 º 6x 2 + x º 2 48. 2x3 º x 2 + 2x º 1 49. 3x 3 º 2x 2 º 9x + 6 QUADRATIC FORM Factor the polynomial. 50. 16x4 º 1 51. x4 + 3x 2 + 2 52. x4 º 81 53. 81x4 º 256 54. 4x4 º 5x 2 º 9 55. x4 + 10x 2 + 16 56. 81 º 16x4 57. 32x6 º 2x 2 58. 6x5 º 51x3 º 27x CHOOSING A METHOD Factor using any method. 59. 18x3 º 2x 2 + 27x º 3 60. 6x3 + 21x 2 + 15x 61. 4x4 + 39x 2 º 10 62. 8x3 º 12x 2 º 2x + 3 63. 8x3 º 64 64. 3x4 º 300x 2 65. 3x4 º 24x 66. 5x4 + 31x 2 + 6 67. 3x4 + 9x3 + x 2 + 3x SOLVING EQUATIONS Find the real-number solutions of the equation. 68. x3 º 3x 2 = 0 69. 2x3 º 6x 2 = 0 70. 3x4 + 15x 2 º 72 = 0 71. x3 + 27 = 0 72. x3 + 2x 2 º x = 2 73. x4 + 7x3 º 8x º 56 = 0 74. 2x 4 º 26x 2 + 72 = 0 75. 3x7 º 243x3 = 0 76. x3 + 3x 2 º 2x º 6 = 0 77. 8x3 º 1 = 0 78. x3 + 8x 2 = º16x 79. x3 º 5x 2 + 5x º 25 = 0 80. 3x4 + 3x3 = 6x 2 + 6x 81. x4 + x3 º x = 1 82. 4x4 + 20x 2 = º25 83. º2x6 = 16 84. 3x7 = 81x4 85. 2x5 º 12x3 = º16x 86. Writing You have now factored several different types of polynomials. Explain which factoring techniques or patterns are useful for factoring binomials, trinomials, and polynomials with more than three terms. INT STUDENT HELP NE ER T HOMEWORK HELP Visit our Web site www.mcdougallittell.com for help with problem solving in Ex. 88. 87. PACKAGING A candy factory needs a box that has a volume of 30 cubic inches. The width should be 2 inches less than the height and the length should be 5 inches greater than the height. What should the dimensions of the box be? 88. MANUFACTURING A manufacturer wants to build a rectangular stainless steel tank with a holding capacity of 500 gallons, or about 66.85 cubic feet. If steel that is one half inch thick is used for the walls of the tank, then about 5.15 cubic feet of steel is needed. The manufacturer wants the outside dimensions of the tank to be related as follows: • • x9 The width should be one foot less than the length. The height should be nine feet more than the length. x x1 What should the outside dimensions of the tank be? 6.4 Factoring and Solving Polynomial Equations 349 Page 1 of 2 89. CITY PARK For the city park commission, you are designing a marble planter in which to plant flowers. You want the length of the planter to be six times the height and the width to be three times the height. The sides should be one foot thick. Since the planter will be on the sidewalk, it does not need a bottom. What should the outer dimensions of the planter be if it is to hold 4 cubic feet of dirt? 6x – 2 3x 3x – 2 x 6x SCULPTURE In Exercises 90 and 91, refer to the sculpture shown in the picture. 90. The “cube” portion of the sculpture is actually a rectangular prism with dimensions x feet by 5x º 10 feet by 2x º 1 feet. The volume of the prism is 25 cubic feet. What are the dimensions of the prism? “Charred Sphere, Cube, and Pyramid” by David Nash 91. Suppose a pyramid like the one in the sculpture is 3x feet high and has a square base measuring x º 5 feet on each side. If the volume is 250 cubic feet, what 1 3 are the dimensions of the pyramid? (Use the formula V = Bh.) 92. Test Preparation CRAFTS Suppose you have 250 cubic inches of clay with which to make a rectangular prism for a sculpture. If you want the height and width each to be 5 inches less than the length, what should the dimensions of the prism be? 93. MULTIPLE CHOICE The expression (3x º 4)(9x 2 + 12x + 16) is the factorization of which of the following? A ¡ 27x3 º 8 B ¡ 27x3 + 36x 2 C ¡ D ¡ 27x3 º 64 27x3 + 64 94. MULTIPLE CHOICE Which of the following is the factorization of x3 º 8? A ¡ C ¡ (x º 2)(x 2 + 4x + 4) (x + 2)(x 2 º 4x + 4) B ¡ D ¡ (x + 2)(x 2 º 2x + 4) (x º 2)(x 2 + 2x + 4) 95. MULTIPLE CHOICE What are the real solutions of the equation x5 = 81x? A ¡ C ¡ ★ Challenge x = ±3, ±3i x = 0, ±3, ±3i B ¡ D ¡ x = 0, ±9 x = 0, ±3 b Explain how the figure shown at the right can be used as a geometric factoring model for the sum of two cubes. 96. GEOMETRY CONNECTION b b a3 + b3 = (a + b)(a2 º ab + b2) a Factor the polynomial. EXTRA CHALLENGE www.mcdougallittell.com 350 97. 30x 2y + 36x 2 º 20xy º 24x 98. 2x7 º 127x Chapter 6 Polynomials and Polynomial Functions a a Ex. 96 Page 1 of 2 MIXED REVIEW SIMPLIFYING EXPRESSIONS Simplify the expression. (Review 6.1 for 6.5) 6 x3 y9 99. 36x3yº2 7 2 xº 3 y2 101. 4 9 xº 3 yº 2 5º2x 2yº1 100. 52xy3 SYNTHETIC SUBSTITUTION Use synthetic substitution to evaluate the polynomial function for the given value of x. (Review 6.2 for 6.5) 102. ƒ(x) = 3x4 + 2x3 º x 2 º 12x + 1, x = 3 103. ƒ(x) = 2x5 º x3 + 7x + 1, x = 3 SEWING At the fabric store you are buying solid fabric at $4 per yard, print fabric at $6 per yard, and a pattern for $8. Write an equation for the amount you spend as a function of the amount of solid and print fabric you buy. (Review 3.5) INT 104. NE ER T Solving Polynomial Equations THEN APPLICATION LINK www.mcdougallittell.com IN 2000 B.C. the Babylonians solved polynomial equations by referring to tables of values. One such table gave the values of y3 + y2. To be able to use this table, the Babylonians sometimes had to manipulate the equation, as shown below. ax3 + bx 2 = c 3 3 2 2 Write original equation. 2 2 ax ax ac + = Multiply by }a}3 . 3 2 3 b b b b 2 ax 3 ax 2 a c + = Re-express cubes and squares. b b b3 a2c Then they would find in the y3 + y2 column of the table. b3 Because they knew that the corresponding y-value was equal to by ax , they could conclude that x = . b a 1. Calculate y3 + y2 for y = 1, 2, 3, . . . , 10. Record the values in a table. Use your table and the method discussed above to solve the equation. NOW 2. x3 + x 2 = 252 3. x3 + 2x 2 = 288 4. 3x3 + x 2 = 90 5. 2x3 + 5x 2 = 2500 6. 7x3 + 6x 2 = 1728 7. 10x3 + 3x 2 = 297 TODAY computers use polynomial equations to accomplish many things, such as making robots move. A . D . 1100 2000 B . C . Babylonians use tables. Chinese solve cubic equations. 1545 Cardano solves cubic equations. Polynomials are used to program NASA robot. 1994 6.4 Factoring and Solving Polynomial Equations 351