8 The theorem of Pythagoras Contents: A B C D E Pythagoras’ theorem [4.6] The converse of Pythagoras’ theorem [4.6] Problem solving [4.6] [4.6, 4.7] Circle problems Three-dimensional problems [4.6] Opening problem The Louvre Pyramid in Paris, France has a square base with edges 35 m long. The pyramid is 20:6 m high. Can you find the length of the slant edges of the pyramid? Right angles (90o angles) are used when constructing buildings and dividing areas of land into rectangular regions. The ancient Egyptians used a rope with 12 equally spaced knots to form a triangle with sides in the ratio 3 : 4 : 5: This triangle has a right angle between the sides of length 3 and 4 units. cyan magenta yellow Y:\HAESE\IGCSE01\IG01_08\169IGCSE01_08.CDR Tuesday, 23 September 2008 9:09:58 AM PETER 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 In fact, this is the simplest right angled triangle with sides of integer length. black IGCSE01 170 The theorem of Pythagoras (Chapter 8) The Egyptians used this procedure to construct their right angles: corner take hold of knots at arrows A line of one side of building make rope taut PYTHAGORAS’ THEOREM [4.6] A right angled triangle is a triangle which has a right angle as one of its angles. use oten hyp The side opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse and is the longest side of the triangle. The other two sides are called the legs of the triangle. legs Around 500 BC, the Greek mathematician Pythagoras discovered a rule which connects the lengths of the sides of all right angled triangles. It is thought that he discovered the rule while studying tessellations of tiles on bathroom floors. Such patterns, like the one illustrated, were common on the walls and floors of bathrooms in ancient Greece. PYTHAGORAS’ THEOREM c In a right angled triangle with hypotenuse c and legs a and b, c2 = a2 + b2 . a b By looking at the tile pattern above, can you see how Pythagoras may have discovered the rule? In geometric form, Pythagoras’ theorem is: In any right angled triangle, the area of the square on the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the areas of the squares on the other two sides. cX c a c a aX GEOMETRY PACKAGE b cyan magenta 95 yellow y:\HAESE\IGCSE01\IG01_08\170IGCSE01_08.CDR Wednesday, 17 September 2008 1:38:37 PM PETER b 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 bX black IGCSE01 The theorem of Pythagoras (Chapter 8) 171 There are over 400 different proofs of Pythagoras’ theorem. Here is one of them: a On a square we draw 4 identical (congruent) right angled triangles, as illustrated. A smaller square is formed in the centre. b b c Suppose the legs are of length a and b and the hypotenuse has length c. c a The total area of the large square = 4£ area of one triangle + area of smaller square, ) (a + b)2 = 4( 12 ab) + c2 c a c a2 + 2ab + b2 = 2ab + c2 ) ) b a2 + b2 = c2 a b Example 1 Self Tutor Find the length of the hypotenuse in: x cm 2 cm If x2 = k, then p x = § k, but p we reject ¡ k as lengths must be positive. 3 cm The hypotenuse is opposite the right angle and has length x cm. ) x2 = 32 + 22 ) x2 = 9 + 4 ) x2 = 13 p ) x = 13 fas x > 0g ) the hypotenuse is about 3:61 cm long. Example 2 Self Tutor Find the length of the third side of this triangle: 6 cm x cm 5 cm The hypotenuse has length 6 cm. x2 + 52 = 62 x2 + 25 = 36 ) x2 = 11 p ) x = 11 ) ) fPythagorasg fas x > 0g cyan magenta Y:\HAESE\IGCSE01\IG01_08\171IGCSE01_08.CDR Monday, 27 October 2008 3:15:14 PM PETER 95 100 50 yellow 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 ) the third side is about 3:32 cm long. black IGCSE01 172 The theorem of Pythagoras (Chapter 8) Example 3 Self Tutor Find x in surd form: a ~`1`0 cm b x cm 2x m xm 2 cm 6m a The ) ) ) ) hypotenuse has length x cm. p fPythagorasg x2 = 22 + ( 10)2 2 x = 4 + 10 x2 = 14 p fas x > 0g x = 14 b (2x)2 = x2 + 62 ) 4x2 = x2 + 36 ) 3x2 = 36 ) x2 = 12 p ) x = 12 p ) x=2 3 Example 4 fPythagorasg fas x > 0g Self Tutor 5 cm A Find the value of y, giving your answer correct to 3 significant figures. B x cm y cm D 1 cm C 6 cm In triangle ABC, the hypotenuse is x cm. ) x2 = 52 + 12 ) x2 = 26 p ) x = 26 Since we must find the value of y, we leave x in surd form. Rounding it will reduce the accuracy of our value for y. fPythagorasg fas x > 0g In triangle ACD, the hypotenuse is 6 cm. p ) y2 + ( 26)2 = 62 fPythagorasg 2 ) y + 26 = 36 ) y2 = 10 p fas y > 0g ) y = 10 ) y ¼ 3:16 EXERCISE 8A.1 1 Find the length of the hypotenuse in the following triangles, giving your answers correct to 3 significant figures: 4 cm a b c x km 7 cm 8 km x cm x cm 5 cm cyan magenta yellow Y:\HAESE\IGCSE01\IG01_08\172IGCSE01_08.CDR Tuesday, 16 September 2008 10:35:24 AM PETER 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 13 km black IGCSE01 The theorem of Pythagoras (Chapter 8) 173 2 Find the length of the third side these triangles, giving your answers correct to 3 significant figures: a b c x km 11 cm 6 cm x cm 1.9 km 2.8 km x cm 9.5 cm 3 Find x in the following, giving your answers in simplest surd form: a b 3 cm ~`7 cm c x cm x cm ~`2 cm x cm ~`1`0 cm ~`5 cm 4 Solve for x, giving your answers in simplest surd form: a b 1 cm Ö̀3 2 m x cm Qw_ cm Qw_ cm c x cm xm 1m Ew_ cm 5 Find the values of x, giving your answers correct to 3 significant figures: a b c 2x m 9 cm 26 cm 2x cm x cm 2x cm ~`2`0 m 3x m 3x cm 6 Find the value of any unknowns, giving answers in surd form: a b 2 cm 1 cm c x cm y cm 7 cm 4 cm 3 cm 3 cm x cm y cm y cm 2 cm x cm 7 Find x, correct to 3 significant figures: a 3 cm 2 cm (x-2)¡cm b 4 cm 5 cm x cm 9m 5m magenta Y:\HAESE\IGCSE01\IG01_08\173IGCSE01_08.CDR Friday, 10 October 2008 4:45:11 PM PETER 95 50 yellow 75 C 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 B 100 8 Find the length of side AC correct to 3 significant figures: cyan 13 cm A black D IGCSE01 174 The theorem of Pythagoras (Chapter 8) 9 Find the distance AB in the following: a b c C D 1m M 3 cm 4 cm B 4m N 5m 7m 6m 3m B A B A A Challenge 10 In 1876, President Garfield of the USA published a proof of the theorem of Pythagoras. Alongside is the figure he used. Write out the proof. B A 11 You are given a rectangle in which there is a point that is 3 cm, 4 cm and 5 cm from three of the vertices. How far is the point from the fourth vertex? E c a b c b a C 4 cm D 3 cm 5 cm x cm PYTHAGOREAN TRIPLES The simplest right angled triangle with sides of integer length is the 3-4-5 triangle. 5 The numbers 3, 4, and 5 satisfy the rule 32 + 42 = 52 . 3 4 The set of positive integers fa, b, cg is a Pythagorean triple if it obeys the rule a2 + b2 = c2 : Other examples are: f5, 12, 13g, f7, 24, 25g, f8, 15, 17g. Example 5 Self Tutor Show that f5, 12, 13g is a Pythagorean triple. We find the square of the largest number first. 132 = 169 and 5 + 122 = 25 + 144 = 169 ) 52 + 122 = 132 2 cyan magenta Y:\HAESE\IGCSE01\IG01_08\174IGCSE01_08.CDR Friday, 10 October 2008 4:45:36 PM PETER 95 100 50 yellow 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 So, f5, 12, 13g is a Pythagorean triple. black IGCSE01 The theorem of Pythagoras (Chapter 8) 175 Example 6 Self Tutor Find k if f9, k, 15g is a Pythagorean triple. Let 92 + k 2 ) 81 + k 2 ) k2 ) k ) k = 152 fPythagorasg = 225 = 144 p = 144 fas k > 0g = 12 EXERCISE 8A.2 1 Determine if the following are Pythagorean triples: a f8, 15, 17g b f6, 8, 10g c f5, 6, 7g d f14, 48, 50g e f1, 2, 3g f f20, 48, 52g 2 Find k if the following are Pythagorean triples: a f8, 15, kg b fk, 24, 26g c f14, k, 50g d f15, 20, kg e fk, 45, 51g f f11, k, 61g 3 Explain why there are infinitely many Pythagorean triples of the form f3k, 4k, 5kg where k 2 Z + . Discovery Pythagorean triples spreadsheet #endboxedheading Well known Pythagorean triples include f3, 4, 5g, f5, 12, 13g, f7, 24, 25g and f8, 15, 17g. SPREADSHEET Formulae can be used to generate Pythagorean triples. An example is 2n + 1, 2n2 + 2n, 2n2 + 2n + 1 where n is a positive integer. A spreadsheet can quickly generate sets of Pythagorean triples using such formulae. What to do: 1 Open a new spreadsheet and enter the following: a in column A, the values of n for n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, ...... b in column B, the values of 2n + 1 fill down 2 c in column C, the values of 2n + 2n d in column D, the values of 2n2 + 2n + 1. 2 Highlight the appropriate formulae and fill down to Row 11 to generate the first 10 sets of triples. 3 Check that each set of numbers is indeed a triple by adding columns to find a2 + b2 and c2 . cyan magenta yellow Y:\HAESE\IGCSE01\IG01_08\175IGCSE01_08.CDR Tuesday, 16 September 2008 11:05:49 AM PETER 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 4 Your final task is to prove that the formulae f2n + 1, 2n2 + 2n, 2n2 + 2n + 1g will produce sets of Pythagorean triples for all positive integer values of n. Hint: Let a = 2n + 1, b = 2n2 + 2n and c = 2n2 + 2n + 1, then simplify c2 ¡ b2 = (2n2 + 2n + 1)2 ¡ (2n2 + 2n)2 using the difference of two squares factorisation. black IGCSE01 176 The theorem of Pythagoras (Chapter 8) B THE CONVERSE OF PYTHAGORAS’ THEOREM [4.6] If we have a triangle whose three sides have known lengths, we can use the converse of Pythagoras’ theorem to test whether it is right angled. GEOMETRY PACKAGE THE CONVERSE OF PYTHAGORAS’ THEOREM If a triangle has sides of length a, b and c units and a2 + b2 = c2 , then the triangle is right angled. Example 7 Self Tutor Is the triangle with sides 6 cm, 8 cm and 5 cm right angled? The two shorter sides have lengths 5 cm and 6 cm. Now 52 + 62 = 25 + 36 = 61, but ) 52 + 62 6= 82 82 = 64: and hence the triangle is not right angled. EXERCISE 8B 1 The following figures are not drawn to scale. Which of the triangles are right angled? a b c 7 cm 9 cm 9 cm 12 cm 5 cm 5 cm 4 cm 8 cm 15 cm d f e 3 cm ~`2`7 m ~`7 cm ~`4`8 m 8m 15 m 17 m ~`1`2 cm ~`7`5 m 2 The following triangles are not drawn to scale. If any of them is right angled, find the right angle. a b c A A B magenta ~`2`4 km C yellow Y:\HAESE\IGCSE01\IG01_08\176IGCSE01_08.CDR Tuesday, 16 September 2008 11:07:50 AM PETER 95 100 50 A 75 25 0 5 12 m 95 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 ~`5 cm cyan ~`2`0`8 m B C B 5 km 8m 1 cm 100 2 cm C black 7 km IGCSE01 The theorem of Pythagoras (Chapter 8) 177 3 Ted has two planks 6800 mm long, and two planks 3500 mm long. He lays them down as borders for the concrete floor of his new garage. To check that the shape is rectangular, Ted measures a diagonal length. He finds it to be 7648 mm. Is Ted’s floor rectangular? 3500 mm 3500 mm 6800 mm Triangle ABC has altitude BN which is 6 cm long. AN = 9 cm and NC = 4 cm. Is triangle ABC right angled at B? B 4 6800 mm 6 cm A C 9 cm N 4 cm C PROBLEM SOLVING [4.6] Many practical problems involve triangles. We can apply Pythagoras’ theorem to any triangle that is right angled, or use the converse of the theorem to test whether a right angle exists. SPECIAL GEOMETRICAL FIGURES The following special figures contain right angled triangles: In a rectangle, right angles exist between adjacent sides. al n go dia Construct a diagonal to form a right angled triangle. rectangle In a square and a rhombus, the diagonals bisect each other at right angles. square rhombus In an isosceles triangle and an equilateral triangle, the altitude bisects the base at right angles. isosceles triangle equilateral triangle Things to remember cyan magenta yellow Y:\HAESE\IGCSE01\IG01_08\177IGCSE01_08.CDR Tuesday, 16 September 2008 11:13:42 AM PETER 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 Draw a neat, clear diagram of the situation. Mark on known lengths and right angles. Use a symbol such as x to represent the unknown length. Write down Pythagoras’ theorem for the given information. Solve the equation. Where necessary, write your answer in sentence form. 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 ² ² ² ² ² ² black IGCSE01 178 The theorem of Pythagoras (Chapter 8) Example 8 Self Tutor A rectangular gate is 3 m wide and has a 3:5 m diagonal. How high is the gate? Let x m be the height of the gate. 3m Now (3:5)2 = x2 + 32 fPythagorasg ) 12:25 = x2 + 9 ) 3:25 = x2 p ) x = 3:25 fas x > 0g ) x ¼ 1:80 Thus the gate is approximately 1:80 m high. xm 3.5 m Example 9 Self Tutor A rhombus has diagonals of length 6 cm and 8 cm. Find the length of its sides. The diagonals of a rhombus bisect at right angles. x cm 3 cm Let each side of the rhombus have length x cm. ) x2 = 32 + 42 ) x2 = 25 p ) x = 25 ) x=5 4 cm fPythagorasg fas x > 0g Thus the sides are 5 cm in length. Example 10 Self Tutor Two towns A and B are illustrated on a grid which has grid lines 5 km apart. How far is it from A to B? A B 5 km AB2 = 152 + 102 ) AB2 = 225 + 100 = 325 p ) AB = 325 ) AB ¼ 18:0 15 km 10 km magenta yellow Y:\HAESE\IGCSE01\IG01_08\178IGCSE01_08.CDR Tuesday, 16 September 2008 11:56:27 AM PETER 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 cyan fPythagorasg fas AB > 0g So, A and B are about 18:0 km apart. B 100 A black IGCSE01 The theorem of Pythagoras (Chapter 8) 179 Example 11 Self Tutor An equilateral triangle has sides of length 6 cm. Find its area. The altitude bisects the base at right angles. ) a2 + 32 = 62 ) a2 + 9 = 36 ) a2 = 27 p ) a = 27 Now, area = fPythagorasg 6 cm a cm fas a > 0g 1 2 1 2 £ base £ height p = £ 6 £ 27 p = 3 27 cm2 ¼ 15:6 cm2 3 cm So, the area is about 15:6 cm2 : Example 12 Self Tutor A helicopter travels from base station ¡S¡ for 112 km to outpost ¡A. It then turns 90o to the right and travels 134 km to outpost ¡B. How far is outpost ¡B¡ from base station ¡S? Let SB be x km. From the diagram alongside, we see in triangle SAB that b = 90o . SAB x2 = 1122 + 1342 ) x2 = 30 500 p ) x = 30 500 ) x ¼ 175 fPythagorasg A 112 km S 134 km x km fas x > 0g B So, outpost B is 175 km from base station S. EXERCISE 8C 1 A rectangle has sides of length 8 cm and 3 cm. Find the length of its diagonals. 2 The longer side of a rectangle is three times the length of the shorter side. If the length of the diagonal is 10 cm, find the dimensions of the rectangle. 3 A rectangle with diagonals of length 20 cm has sides in the ratio 2 : 1. Find the: a perimeter b area of the rectangle. 4 A rhombus has sides of length 6 cm. One of its diagonals is 10 cm long. Find the length of the other diagonal. cyan magenta 95 yellow y:\HAESE\IGCSE01\IG01_08\179IGCSE01_08.CDR Wednesday, 17 September 2008 1:47:01 PM PETER 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 5 A square has diagonals of length 10 cm. Find the length of its sides. black IGCSE01 180 The theorem of Pythagoras (Chapter 8) 6 A rhombus has diagonals of length 8 cm and 10 cm. Find its perimeter. 7 On the grid there are four towns A, B, C and D. The grid lines are 5 km apart. How far is it from: a A to B b B to C c C to D d D to A e A to C f B to D? A D B Give all answers correct to 3 significant figures. C 8 A yacht sails 5 km due west and then 8 km due south. How far is it from its starting point? 9 A cyclist at C is travelling towards B. How far will he have to cycle before he is equidistant from A and B? 10 km C B 2 km 4 km A 10 A street is 8 m wide, and there are street lights positioned either side of the street every 20 m. How far is street light X from street light: a A b B c C d D? A B C D X 11 Find any unknowns in the following: a b c 45° 1 cm 7 cm x cm y cm h cm 2 cm 60° x cm x cm y° 30° 12 cm 12 An equilateral triangle has sides of length 12 cm. Find the length of one of its altitudes. 13 The area of a triangle is given by the formula A = 12 bh: a An isosceles triangle has equal sides of length 8 cm and a base of length 6 cm. Find the area of the triangle. p b An equilateral triangle has area 16 3 cm2 . Find the length of its sides. 14 8 cm b 6 cm Heather wants to hang a 7 m long banner from the roof of her shop. The hooks for the strings are 10 m apart, and Heather wants the top of the banner to hang 1 m below the roof. How long should each of the strings be? 10 m 1m string string h cyan magenta 95 yellow y:\HAESE\IGCSE01\IG01_08\180IGCSE01_08.CDR Wednesday, 17 September 2008 2:29:05 PM PETER 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 7m black IGCSE01 The theorem of Pythagoras (Chapter 8) 181 15 Two bushwalkers set off from base camp at the same time, walking at right angles to one another. One walks at an average speed of 5 km/h, and the other at an average speed of 4 km/h. Find their distance apart after 3 hours. 16 To get to school from her house, Ella walks down Bernard Street, then turns 90o and walks down Thompson Road until she reaches her school gate. She walks twice as far along Bernard Street as she does along Thompson Road. If Ella’s house is 2:5 km in a straight line from her school gate, how far does Ella walk along Bernard Street? 17 Boat A is 10 km east of boat B. Boat A travels 6 km north, and boat B travels 2 km west. How far apart are the boats now? D CIRCLE PROBLEMS [4.6, 4.7] There are certain properties of circles which involve right angles. In these situations we can apply Pythagoras’ theorem. The properties will be examined in more detail in Chapter 27. C ANGLE IN A SEMI-CIRCLE The angle in a semi-circle is a right angle. B A b is always a right angle. No matter where C is placed on the arc AB, ACB O Example 13 Self Tutor A circle has diameter XY of length 13 cm. Z is a point on the circle such that XZ is 5 cm. Find the length YZ. bY is a right angle. From the angle in a semi-circle theorem, we know XZ Let the length YZ be x cm. 52 + x2 = 132 ) x2 = 169 ¡ 25 = 144 p ) x = 144 ) x = 12 ) Z fPythagorasg x cm 5 cm fas x > 0g X O Y 13 cm So, YZ has length 12 cm. A CHORD OF A CIRCLE The line drawn from the centre of a circle at right angles to a chord bisects the chord. centre O radius This follows from the isosceles triangle theorem. The construction of radii from the centre of the circle to the end points of the chord produces two right angled triangles. cyan magenta yellow Y:\HAESE\IGCSE01\IG01_08\181IGCSE01_08.CDR Tuesday, 23 September 2008 9:12:42 AM PETER 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 chord black IGCSE01 182 The theorem of Pythagoras (Chapter 8) Example 14 Self Tutor A circle has a chord of length 10 cm. If the radius of the circle is 8 cm, find the shortest distance from the centre of the circle to the chord. The shortest distance is the ‘perpendicular distance’. The line drawn from the centre of a circle, perpendicular to a chord, bisects the chord, so A 8 cm AB = BC = 5 cm: In ¢AOB, 5 + x2 = 82 ) x2 = 64 ¡ 25 = 39 p ) x = 39 ) x ¼ 6:24 2 fPythagorasg O 5 cm 10 cm x cm B fas x > 0g C So, the shortest distance is about 6:24 cm. TANGENT-RADIUS PROPERTY centre A tangent to a circle and a radius at the point of contact meet at right angles. O radius Notice that we can now form a right angled triangle. tangent point of contact Example 15 Self Tutor A tangent of length 10 cm is drawn to a circle with radius 7 cm. How far is the centre of the circle from the end point of the tangent? 10 cm Let the distance be d cm. 2 2 2 ) d = 7 + 10 ) d2 = 149 p ) d = 149 ) d ¼ 12:2 fPythagorasg 7 cm fas d > 0g d cm O So, the centre is 12:2 cm from the end point of the tangent. Example 16 Self Tutor A cyan magenta yellow Y:\HAESE\IGCSE01\IG01_08\182IGCSE01_08.CDR Tuesday, 23 September 2008 9:14:19 AM PETER 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 Two circles have a common tangent with points of contact at A and B. The radii are 4 cm and 2 cm respectively. Find the distance between the centres given that AB is 7 cm. black B IGCSE01 The theorem of Pythagoras (Chapter 8) 7 cm A 2 cm E 2 cm D 183 For centres C and D, we draw BC, AD, CD and CE k AB. B 2 cm C 7 cm ) ABCE is a rectangle ) and Now ) ) ) x cm CE = 7 cm fas CE = ABg DE = 4 ¡ 2 = 2 cm fPythagoras in ¢DECg x2 = 22 + 72 2 x = 53 p fas x > 0g x = 53 x ¼ 7:28 ) the distance between the centres is about 7:28 cm. T EXERCISE 8D 1 AT is a tangent to a circle with centre O. The circle has radius 5 cm and AB = 7 cm. Find the length of the tangent. 5 cm A O A circle has centre O and a radius of 8 cm. Chord AB is 13 cm long. Find the shortest distance from the chord to the centre of the circle. 2 O A B B 3 AB is a diameter of a circle and AC is half the length of AB. If BC is 12 cm long, what is the radius of the circle? O A B C A rectangle with side lengths 11 cm and 6 cm is inscribed in a circle. Find the radius of the circle. 4 11 cm 6 cm 5 A circle has diameter AB of length 10 cm. C is a point on the circle such that AC is 8 cm. Find the length BC. cyan magenta yellow Y:\HAESE\IGCSE01\IG01_08\183IGCSE01_08.CDR Tuesday, 23 September 2008 9:15:47 AM PETER 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 6 cm 100 A square is inscribed in a circle of radius 6 cm. Find the length of the sides of the square, correct to 3 significant figures. 6 black IGCSE01 184 The theorem of Pythagoras (Chapter 8) 7 A chord of a circle has length 3 cm. If the circle has radius 4 cm, find the shortest distance from the centre of the circle to the chord. 8 A chord of length 6 cm is 3 cm from the centre of a circle. Find the length of the circle’s radius. 9 A chord is 5 cm from the centre of a circle of radius 8 cm. Find the length of the chord. 10 A circle has radius 3 cm. A tangent is drawn to the circle from point P which is 9 cm from O, the circle’s centre. How long is the tangent? Leave your answer in surd form. 11 Find the radius of a circle if a tangent of length 12 cm has its end point 16 cm from the circle’s centre. 12 Two circular plates of radius 15 cm are placed in opposite corners of a rectangular table as shown. Find the distance between the centres of the plates. 80 cm 1.5 m 10 m 13 A and B are the centres of two circles with radii 4 m and 3 m respectively. The illustrated common tangent has length 10 m. Find the distance between the centres correct to 2 decimal places. B A 10 cm 14 Two circles are drawn so they do not intersect. The larger circle has radius 6 cm. A common tangent is 10 cm long and the centres are 11 cm apart. Find the radius of the smaller circle, correct to 3 significant figures. 15 The following figures have not been drawn to scale, but the information marked on them is correct. What can you deduce from each figure? a b 2 cm 3 cm O A 1.69 m P 3 cm 4 cm R cyan magenta yellow Y:\HAESE\IGCSE01\IG01_08\184IGCSE01_08.CDR Tuesday, 18 November 2008 11:54:58 AM PETER 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 Any two circles which do not intersect have two common external tangents as illustrated. The larger circle has radius b and the smaller one has radius a. The circles are 2a units apart. Show p 8a(a + b) units. that each common tangent has length 75 25 0 16 5 0.65 m 1.56 m B Q black IGCSE01 The theorem of Pythagoras (Chapter 8) 185 17 A chord AB of length 2 cm is drawn in a circle of radius 3 cm. A diameter BC is constructed, and the tangent from C is drawn. The chord AB is extended to meet the tangent at D. Find the length of AD. D C 2 cm E 3 cm A B THREE-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS [4.6] Pythagoras’ theorem is often used to find lengths in three-dimensional problems. In these problems we sometimes need to apply it twice. Example 17 Self Tutor A 50 m rope is attached inside an empty cylindrical wheat silo of diameter 12 m as shown. How high is the wheat silo? 12 m 50 m Let the height be h m. 12 m hm 50 m h2 + 122 = 502 h2 + 144 = 2500 ) h2 = 2356 p ) h = 2356 ) h ¼ 48:5 ) ) fPythagorasg fas h > 0g So, the wheat silo is approximately 48:5 m high. Example 18 Self Tutor The floor of a room is 6 m by 4 m, and its height is 3 m. Find the distance from a corner point on the floor to the opposite corner point on the ceiling. The required distance is AD. We join BD. In ¢BCD, x2 = 42 + 62 fPythagorasg In ¢ABD, y 2 = x2 + 32 fPythagorasg A 3m ) y 2 = 42 + 62 + 32 ) y 2 = 61 p ) y = 61 ) y ¼ 7:81 ym B 4m fas y > 0g C xm 6m D cyan magenta 95 yellow y:\HAESE\IGCSE01\IG01_08\185IGCSE01_08.CDR Wednesday, 17 September 2008 2:12:26 PM PETER 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 ) the distance is about 7:81 m. black IGCSE01 186 The theorem of Pythagoras (Chapter 8) Example 19 Self Tutor A pyramid of height 40 m has a square base with edges 50 m. Determine the length of the slant edges. Let a slant edge have length s m. sm 40 m Let half a diagonal have length x m. Using xm x2 + x2 = 502 ) 2x2 = 2500 ) x2 = 1250 xm 50 m 50 m xm Using sm 40 m xm fPythagorasg s2 = x2 + 402 fPythagorasg 2 ) s = 1250 + 1600 ) s2 = 2850 p fas s > 0g ) s = 2850 ) s ¼ 53:4 So, each slant edge is approximately 53:4 m long. EXERCISE 8E 1 A cone has a slant height of 17 cm and a base radius of 8 cm. How high is the cone? 2 A cylindrical drinking glass has radius 3 cm and height 10 cm. Can a 12 cm long thin stirrer be placed in the glass so that it will stay entirely within the glass? 3 A 20 cm nail just fits inside a cylindrical can. Three identical spherical balls need to fit entirely within the can. What is the maximum radius of each ball? 4 A cubic die has sides of length 2 cm. Find the distance between opposite corners of the die. Leave your answer in surd form. 2 cm 5 A room is 5 m by 3 m and has a height of 3:5 m. Find the distance from a corner point on the floor to the opposite corner of the ceiling. 6 Determine the length of the longest metal rod which could be stored in a rectangular box 20 cm by 50 cm by 30 cm. 7 A tree is 8 m north and 6 m east of another tree. One of the trees is 12 m tall, and the other tree is 17 m tall. Find the distance between: a the trunks of the trees b the tops of the trees. Q 5m 8 A rainwater tank is cylindrical with a conical top. The slant height of the top is 5 m, and the height of the cylinder is 9 m. Find the distance between P and Q, to the nearest cm. 9m P cyan magenta yellow Y:\HAESE\IGCSE01\IG01_08\186IGCSE01_08.CDR Tuesday, 18 November 2008 11:55:35 AM PETER 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 8m black IGCSE01 The theorem of Pythagoras (Chapter 8) 187 A 6 m by 18 m by 4 m hall is to be decorated with streamers for a party. 4 streamers are attached to the corners of the floor, and 4 streamers are attached to the centres of the walls as illustrated. All 8 streamers are then attached to the centre of the ceiling. Find the total length of streamers required. 9 4m 18 m 6m 10 Answer the Opening Problem on page 169. Review set 8A #endboxedheading 1 Find the lengths of the unknown sides in the following triangle. Give your answers correct to 3 significant figures. a b c 2 cm 4 cm 5 cm x cm x cm 2x cm 9 cm 7 cm x cm A 2 Is the following triangle right angled? Give evidence. ~`1`1 5 C 6 B 3 Show that f5, 11, 13g is not a Pythagorean triple. Find, correct to 3 significant figures, the distance from: a A to B b B to C c A to C. 4 A B 4 km C 5 A rhombus has diagonals of length 12 cm and 18 cm. Find the length of its sides. 6 A circle has a chord of length 10 cm. The shortest distance from the circle’s centre to the chord is 5 cm. Find the radius of the circle. cyan magenta Y:\HAESE\IGCSE01\IG01_08\187IGCSE01_08.CDR Friday, 10 October 2008 4:46:02 PM PETER 95 100 50 yellow 75 25 0 diagonal 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 7 The diagonal of a cube is 10 m long. Find the length of the sides of the cube. black IGCSE01 188 The theorem of Pythagoras (Chapter 8) 8 Two circles have the same centre. The tangent drawn from a point P on the smaller circle cuts the larger circle at Q and R. Show that PQ and PR are equal in length. R P Q 9 Find x, correct to 3 significant figures: a b x cm 2x cm tangent 9 cm x cm O 5 cm 10 cm 10 A barn has the dimensions given. Find the shortest distance from A to B. A 1.5 m 3m B 5m 2m Review set 8B #endboxedheading 1 Find the value of x: a x cm b xm Ö̀7 cm 5 cm 2x c Ö̀4̀2 5m 5x 6m B 2 Show that the following triangle is right angled and state which vertex is the right angle: 5 2 C A ~`2`9 10 m A 3 Is triangle ABC right angled? Give evidence to support your answer. C 5m cyan magenta Y:\HAESE\IGCSE01\IG01_08\188IGCSE01_08.CDR Friday, 10 October 2008 4:46:20 PM PETER 95 100 50 yellow 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 4m black B IGCSE01 The theorem of Pythagoras (Chapter 8) 189 The grid lines on the map are 3 km apart. A, B and C are farm houses. How far is it from: a A to B b B to C c C to A? 4 B A C 5 If the diameter of a circle is 20 cm, find the shortest distance from a chord of length 16 cm to the centre of the circle. 6 Find the length of plastic coated wire required to make this clothes line: 3m 3m 7 The circles illustrated have radii of length 5 cm and 7 cm respectively. Their centres are 18 cm apart. Find the length of the common tangent AB. B A 8 A 20 cm chopstick just fits inside a rectangular box with base 10 cm by 15 cm. Find the height of the box. 9 Find y in the following, giving your answers correct to 3 significant figures: a b y cm 8 cm y cm tangent 10 cm (y¡-¡6) cm 10 Marvin the Magnificent is attempting to walk a tightrope across an intersection from one building to another as illustrated. Using the dimensions given, find the length of the tightrope. cyan magenta yellow Y:\HAESE\IGCSE01\IG01_08\189IGCSE01_08.CDR Tuesday, 23 September 2008 9:22:57 AM PETER 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 18 m black 13 m IGCSE01 190 The theorem of Pythagoras (Chapter 8) Challenge #endboxedheading 1 A highway runs in an East-West direction joining towns C and B, which are 25 km apart. Town A lies directly north from C, at a distance of 15 km. A straight road is built from A to the highway and meets the highway at D, which is equidistant from A and B. Find the position of D on the highway. 2 Annabel Ant at A wishes to visit Bertie Beetle at B on the opposite vertex of a block of cheese which is 30 cm by 20 cm by 20 cm. What is the shortest distance that Annabel must travel if a her favourite food is cheese b she hates eating cheese? 20 cm B 30 cm 20 cm An aircraft hanger is semi-cylindrical, with diameter 40 m and length 50 m. A helicopter places an inelastic rope across the top of the hanger and one end is pinned to a corner at A. The rope is then pulled tight and pinned at the opposite corner B. Determine the length of the rope. 3 B 50 m A A 40 m 4 The radius of the small circle is r and the radius of the semi-circle is R. Find the ratio r : R, given that the semi-circles pass through each other’s centres. Note: When circles touch, their centres and their point of contact lie in a straight line, that is, they are collinear. The larger circle touches the diameter of the semi-circle at its centre. The circles touch each other and the semicircle. The semi-circle has radius 10 cm. Find the radius of the small circle. 5 cyan magenta Y:\HAESE\IGCSE01\IG01_08\190IGCSE01_08.CDR Monday, 3 November 2008 2:08:39 PM PETER 95 100 50 yellow 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 95 100 50 75 25 0 5 10 cm black IGCSE01