Pronunciation Studio Index English Acc

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Pronunciation Studio
Free Course Sample from our 120 page course book with audio:
An
English Acc nt
Phonetics
Intonation
Schwa
IPA
Spelling & Sound
Index
Pg
Contents
1
Introduction
2
IPA Chart
3
Consonant Sounds
4
Vowel Sounds
5
Spelling & Sound
6
IPA
7
Structure - Schwa
8
Structure - Function
9
Intonation - 3 Patterns
10
Intonation - Tonic Syllable
11
What Next?
12
Answer Key
All Material & Audio © Joseph Hudson 2010
Introduction
Who is this course for?
This course is a practical guide to speaking with a neutral English Accent for
non-native speakers (those whose first language is not English). It may also
interest students of phonetics and English teachers.
Who made it?
The Pronunciation Studio speech school in London created and recorded the
course. We are a group of professional phoneticians, actors and English
teachers who specialise in accent classes.
How do I download the sound files?
The course pack comes with a free audio pack, which you can download
directly by following this link (copy or write it into your browser):
http://www.anenglishaccent.com/freeaudio.zip
The mp3 files will download directly to your computer ready to use so whenever
you see one of these: L1.1 you can listen to the recording to practice.
Which accent is used?
The model used in this course book is RP (Received Pronunciation) which is a
neutral English accent, sometimes known as BBC English.
What will I learn?
In this sample, you will:
•Say every consonant and vowel sound of English.
•See the way spelling can work in speech.
•Be introduced to IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet)
•Learn about the schwa sound /ə/
•Hear and produce the three English intonation patterns.
•Learn the way sentence stress is used.
How long does it take?
To go through this course pack will take between 1 to 2 hours.
- Are you ready to go?
- Have you downloaded the audio?
Then turn over and let’s start learning
‘An English Accent’!
Pronunciation Studio London
IPA Chart
1
Vowels (1-19)
1-12 Monothongs
13-19 Diphthongs
5
Consonants
20-26 Plosives
27-34 Fricatives
35-36 Affricates
37-39 Nasals
40-43 Approximants
44-45 Glottal
Voiceless
9
i:
2
ə
6
Regional
24
37
ɜ:
7
ʊ
11
10
u:
20
ɪ
3
p
21
b
25
38
t
22
d
26
m n
39
e
4
ʌ
8
ɔ:
12
k
27
g
31
ŋ
æ
13
ɑ:
16
ɒ
18
f
28
v
32
40
w
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41
r
eɪ
14
ɔɪ
əʊ
17
aʊ
ɒʊ
ɪə
19
eə
ʊə
θ
29
ð
33
42
j
s
30
z
34
43
lɫ
15
aɪ
ʃ
35
tʃ
ʒ
36
dʒ
44
h
45
ʔ
2
Consonant Sounds - Introduction
1. A Consonant Sound is made by blocking air as it leaves the mouth.
2. The tongue, lips & teeth and voice are used in different ways for each sound.
a) EXERCISE L1.1 - Below is an example of every consonant sound in English. Listen to the
recording and repeat. Which sounds are unusual to you?
type of sound
sound
word-initial
word-final
PLOSIVE
/p/
park
stop
Made by completely blocking the
air in the mouth followed by an
explosion of air..
/b/
best
lob
/t/
time
might
/d/
done
paid
/k/
cart
lake
/g/
guide
flag
FRICATIVE
/f/
fine
knife
Made by pushing the air through a
gap in the mouth, creating a
friction sound.
/v/
van
leave
/θ/
think
path
/ð/
those
bathe
/s/
sort
pass
/z/
zone
cheese
/ʃ/
ship
marsh
/ʒ/
-
measure
AFFRICATE
/tʃ/
chart
itch
Plosive followed by fricative.
/dʒ/
giant
page
NASAL
/m/
main
lime
Made partly through the nose.
/n/
no
rain
/ŋ/
-
sing
APPROXIMANT
/w/
wall
-
Imbetween a vowel and a
consonant, as the air is not fully
blocked.
/r/
right
-
/j/
yes
-
like
fall
/l/
/ɫ/
GLOTTAL
/h/
hate
-
Produced in the glottis.
/ʔ/
-
what
Pronunciation Studio London
Vowel Sounds - Introduction
1. A vowel sound shapes the flow of air in the mouth.
2. In spoken English there are 19 vowel sounds (shown below):
3. Sounds 1 - 12 are monothongs: they require one mouth position.
4. Sounds 13 - 19 are diphthongs: they require two mouth positions.
5. Sounds /ɒʊ/ and /ʊəә/ are common regional variations.
6. Sounds with / : / are long.
a) PRACTICE L 1.2 - Listen and repeat each word:
Short Sounds
Long Sounds
Diphthong Sounds
ɪ thin
ʊ look
e left
ʌ love
æ cat
ɒ lost
i: need
u: food
ɜ: turn
ɑ: heart
ɔ: bored
eɪ pave
ɔɪ boy
aɪ time
əʊ road
aʊ down
ɪə beard
eə chair
Long, Short or Diphthong?
b) EXERCISE L1.3 - Decide if the words below are long (l), short (s) or diphthong (d) sounds.
The first three have been done for you.
1. laugh L 2. hot S
3. side D
4. chip
5. moment
!
!
!
!
6. worn
7. machine
8. lose
9. round
10. west
11. cheers
12. son
13. book
14. where
15. are
16. hat
17. annoy
18. bird
19. meat
20. have
!-
Check your answers on the last page.
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4
Pronunciation Studio London
Spelling & Sound - Introduction
Unlike most modern languages, English is not phonetically written. This means that if
you say words in the way they are written you will make pronunciation errors.
!
The ‘Spelling & Sound’ section of the course shows you how to interpret written
English in speech. In this first unit, we will compare the sounds /s/ & /z/
!
TASTER - What is the difference in meaning and pronunciation for the following words?
lose
loose
- Check your answer on the last page of this pack.
s or z?
- An < s > in written English can be pronounced /s/ or /z/ in spoken English. There are some
rules for this, but with many words, you have to learn which pronunciation is correct.
EXERCISE - Say the words in the box, and put them into their correct column in the chart:
lease plays lose loose was lights it’s peas what’s crease
is us please pass as stop he’s who’s chase
s
z
lease
plays
- L1.7 Listen to check your answers.
- Learn any words which you put in the wrong column.
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5
Pronunciation Studio London
IPA - Introduction
1. IPA stands for International Phonetic Alphabet.
2. IPA shows us how to pronounce words instead of how to spell them.
3. It is very useful to learn IPA, as you can find the pronunciation of any word in a
dictionary.
4. On the course, you will learn how to read and write in IPA.
5. The most common sound in English is /ə/.
6. /ə/ can be spelt with < a > < e > < i > < o > or < u > in written English.
a) PRACTICE L1.8 Before you do the exercise below, listen to and repeat /ə/ sound.
Name it!
b) EXERCISE Match the categories on the left with words written in IPA on the left and write
the word next to the answer. If it is too difficult, use the sound file L1.9 to help.
Category
IPA
colour
Using IPA can be
tricky at first, but
when you are good
at it, your
pronunciation will
improve!
bəˈnɑ:nə
city
ˈkærəlaɪn
man’s name
məˈseɪdɪz
woman’s name
make of car
fruit
ˈkwi:n ɪˈlɪzəbəθ
ˈpɜ:pəl
məˈdrɪd
vegetable
ˈtɒməs
animal
ˈkærət
famous English man
famous English woman
sport
country
purple
ˈpɔ:tʃəgəl
ˈeləfənt,
ˈdeɪvɪd ˈbekəm
kəˈnu:.ɪŋ
- L1.9 Listen then repeat the words from ‘Name It’. Pay attention to the /ə/
sound.
- What does / ˈ / show? (Answer on last page of this pack).
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Pronunciation Studio London
Speech Structure - The Schwa /ə/
1. Spoken English is divided into strong and weak forms.
2. The weak sound /ə/ is the most common sound in English.
3. /ə/ is found in unstressed syllables of words:
L1.10 ˈphotograph
/ ˈfəʊtəgrɑ:f /
phoˈtography
/ fəˈtɒgrə& /
comˈputer
/ kəmˈpju:tə /
4. /ə/ is also found in function words (see next page for full description).
L1.10
There are a couple of people here.
| ðər ər ə kʌpəl əv pi:pəl hɪə |
ə
PRACTICE L1.11 Listen and repeat the schwa /ə/ sound. Your mouth should be relaxed with
the jaw slightly open and the tongue resting in the middle. Your lips
should not move when you produce the sound.
!
!
EXERCISE L1.12 Listen and underline the schwa sounds in these words
EG comˈpassion
ˈEngland ˈmother poˈtato
ˈbottomless
conˌgratuˈlations ˈdarken parˈticular
coˈllapse
ˈLondon
EXERCISE L1.13 Listen to the recording as you read the extract. The schwa sound is written.
My mothəәr is coming təә see me təәmorrow aftəәrnoon. She oftəәn
comes ovəәr on Satəәrdays becəәse my fathəәr is əәt thəә football. Thəә’s
nothing thəәt mum hates more thəәn football.
Norməәlly we have əә chat əәbout whatevəәr we’ve been doing, or if
thəә wəәs əәnything good on teləәvision yestəәrday. Təәmorrow əә’m certəәn
she’ll ask me əәbout my trip təә Brəәzil. əә’m going there fəәr əә month təә
film wild animəәls in thəә jungəәl, like tigəәrs əәnd parrəәts.
- ‘Həәve you checked thəә weathəәr forecast?’ she’ll ask.
- ‘Yəә’ve packed yəәr pyjaməәs əәnd yəәr slippəәrs’ will be next.
- ‘əәnd you won’t drink əә lot əәf alchəәhol, will you?’
əә probəәbly won’t mentəәn thəәt əә’ll be photəәgraphing səәme əәf thəә
most dangəәrəәs animəәls in thəә world. It might make həәr worry........
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7
Pronunciation Studio London
Speech Structure - Function Words
TASTER L1.14 i) Listen to the word ‘from’.
ii) Listen to the sentence ‘It’s from Keith’.
iii) How has the word changed in the sentence?
1. A function word only has a grammatical use in the sentence.
2. These are normally - pronouns (eg. she, his, they)
- auxilliary verbs (eg be, do, have, would, will)
- prepositions (eg to, from, for, at)
- articles (eg the, a, an)
- quantifiers (eg some, any)
3. Function words can be said in two ways: strong and weak.
4. Most function words contain the schwa /ə/ sound when they are weak.
5. Words that are not function are called Content Words.
PRACTICE L1.15 - Repeat the function word as a strong form, then as a weak form within a
sentence.
Function Word
(Strong Form)
Function Word In Sentence
(Weak Form)
1
for
Is that for John?
2
are
Are you ok?
3
have
What have you done?
4
as
As good as it gets.
5
to
Let’s go to the cinema.
6
at
She’s at school.
7
can
Can I help you?
8
from
It’s from Peter.
9
her
What’s her name?
10
do
Do you need some help?
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8
Pronunciation Studio London
Intonation - Introduction
1. Intonation is the movement in pitch of the voice.
2. There are three intonation patterns in spoken English:
fall
fall-rise
rise
↘
13
↗
↘↗
3. Intonation tells us the speaker’s attitude to the words they are saying:
L1.16 ↘No (no)
↘↗No (maybe)
↗No (surprise)
a) PRACTICE Repeat the words in the box on the right:
L1.17 1. Using ↘ Falling intonation
no yes what
how right
terrible ridiculous
L1.18 2. Using ↘↗ Fall-rising intonation
L1.19 3. Using ↗ Rising intonation
b) PRACTICE L1.20 Repeat after the recording.
1. ↘No ↘↗No ↗No
2. ↘Yes ↘↗Yes ↗Yes
3. ↘What ↘↗What ↗What
4. ↘How ↘↗How ↗How
5. ↘ Right ↘↗ Right ↗Right
6. ↘ ˈTerrible ↘↗ ˈTerrible ↗ ˈTerrible
7. ↘ Riˈdiculous ↘↗ Riˈdiculous ↗ Riˈdiculous
c) EXERCISE L1.21 Listen to the words and write the pattern that you hear below:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
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6.
7.
9
Pronunciation Studio London
Intonation - Tonic Syllable
TASTER L1.22 - Listen to the same question in 4 different ways:
1.
2.
3.
4.
|
|
|
|
are you from ˈGermany?
are you ˈfrom Germany?
are ˈyou from Germany?
ˈare you from Germany?
|
|
|
|
1. The tonic syllable is the most important syllable in the sentence.
2. In the taster above, the tonic syllable is different in each sentence.
3. The intonation pattern begins on the tonic syllable.
4. The intonation pattern ends at the end of the sentence/unit.
5. Before the tonic syllable, the pitch is quite flat.
d) PRACTICE L1.23 Repeat, following the patterns shown, the tonic syllable is underlined:
1.| Are you going ↘out tonight |↗
2. | Is everything ↗alright |↗
3. | How ↘ˈare you |
↗
4.| How are ↘ˈyou | ↗
5. | You’re ↗ˈwhat? |
6.| ↘ Good | ↘isn’t it | ↗
7.| ↘ Finished | ↗have you | ↗
8. | I’m ↘ˈbroke | ↘ˈaren’t I | ↗
9. | I hoped it would ↘ˈrain today |
↗
10. | I ↘↗hoped it would rain today |
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10
Congratulations!
/kəŋˌgrætʃəˈleɪʃənz/
You have finished the first unit of ‘An English Accent’!
You have:
•Pronounced every vowel & consonant sound in spoken English.
•Learnt that you cannot trust English spelling.
•Used ‘International Phonetic Alphabet’ as a study tool.
•Found out about the schwa sound.
•Produced and recognized the three English intonation patterns.
Would you like to study the subject more?
You can download the entire course, containing:
• 8 Chapters / 120 Pages.
• 200 mp3 audio files.
• 32 hours of study materials.
• Phonetics (Vowel & Consonant Sounds)
• Mouth Control & Positioning
• IPA Transcriptions.
• Weak Forms
• Joining
• Intonation
To buy the course for £12 (about €14), visit:
- www.anenglishaccent.com/e-book.html
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11
Answer Key
EXERCISE L1.3
1. lɑ:f - long (L)
2. hɒt - short (S)
3. saɪd - diphthong (D)
4. tʃɪp - S
5. məʊmənt - D
6. wɔ:n - L
7. məˈʃi:n - L
8. lu:z - L
9. raʊnd - D
10. west - S
11. tʃɪəz - D
12. sʌn - S
13. bʊk - S
14. weə - D
15. ɑ: - L*
16. hæt - S
17. ənɔɪ - D
18. bɜ:d - L
19. mi:t - L
20. hæv - S**
* ‘are’ can also be pronounced as a short /əә/
* * ‘have’ can also be pronounced /həәv/
SPELLING & SOUND TASTER
- What is the difference between ‘lose’ & ‘loose’.
lose - /lu:z/ = Verb meaning the opposite of win.
loose - /lu:s/ = Adjective meaning the opposite of tight.
When pronouncing the two words, ‘loose’ will sound slightly shorter even though it is spelt
with a double ‘o’. This is because the /s/ sound shortens the vowel.
NAME IT - L1.9
Colour - purple City - Madrid Man’s Name - Thomas Woman’s Name - Caroline
Make of Car - Mercedes Fruit - banana Vegetable - Carrot Animal - Elephant
Famous English Man - David Beckham Famous English Woman - Queen Elizabeth
Sport - Canoeing Country - Portugal.
EXERCISE L1.12 - Schwa
England, mother, potato, bottomless, congratulations, darken, particular, London.
EXERCISE L1.21 - Intonation
1. ↘↗ 2. ↘ 3. ↗ 4. ↘ 5. ↗ 6. ↘↗ 7. ↘↗
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