What If They Don’t Speak English? For Primary & Secondary Teachers

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Paulo Freire
Paulo Freire

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Bill Martin, Jr.
Bill Martin, Jr.

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What If They Don’t
Speak English?
For Primary & Secondary
This book is to serve as a
Resource Guide
for the educator
who has been assigned
students who speak
a language other than English
in their homes
have a limited proficiency in English
Compiled from various English as a Second Language Resources
by the MISD Bilingual/ESL Department
Suchiraphon McKeithen-Polish, Bilingual Education Consultant
What do I do now?
Que Pasa?
Information in this booklet is for classroom
teacher’s use, not to be sold, and has been compiled
from a variety of sources for English-as-a-Second
Language teaching from various Curriculum
Departments and Bilingual/ESL Program
Introduction …… 4
Strategies to use with ELL……..4-6
Buddy/Helpmate… 7-8
Expressions in various languages ……….9-10
Activities for ELL within a regular classroom……… 11-12
Factors affecting ELL in middle school and high school
Language Factors: 13-14
Cultural Factors: 14-15
Review of ESL teaching methods ………… 22-28
Primary Grades Methods
Natural Approach………….. 28
Story Telling ………….35
Story Reading…………36
Direct teaching of speaking…………. 37
Reading and Writing for Communication………………39
Higher Level Thinking Skills for ELL…………41
The Shelter Instructional Observation Protocol, (SIOP)……. 45-60
Experiencing Culture in the Classroom ……61
Becoming Culturally Aware ……….. 62-65
Specifics About Diverse Cultural Communities
Middle East and Arabic ………….. 66
Mexican-American & Hispanic ……………68
Hmong ………….. 71
Vietnamese ……… 74
Chinese ………….. 83
Cultural Etiquette Guidelines/ Gestures ………………..85
Resources and References ……………..88-89
Working with ELL students Strategies Overview
1. Videos – Show videos to students of particular subjects, stories or
plays to introduce and to finish the lesson
2. Higher level of thinking skills instructional strategies – SIOP
3. Cultural Responsive Instruction – Use students diverse backgrounds in
creating lessons
4. Hands-on activities – Bloom Ball Activity
5. Music/Dance/Songs – Involvement
6. Games – Cultural Bingo
7. Reading/Writing activities – Journaling
8. Role Play – News reporter/interviewer, characters
9. Field Trips – Actual application
10. Pairing – Non English speaker/reader/writer paired with intermediate level
student who can speak the particular native language
11. Cooperative Learning – Group 3-4 with specific roles
12. Native language support - Tutors
13. Collaboration – Among teachers: ESL and mainstream teachers
14. Parental Involvement- Tutors as interpreters for communicating with
You have just been assigned a non English speaking student or a
student who speaks a language other than English in their home----1
Over 45 different languages are spoken in the homes of students in
Macomb county. Many of these students enter school with limited
English proficiency. Macomb county also is a growing community with
many refugees from Eastern European regions, Arabic areas, Southeast
Asian, and Hispanic populations. These students are English Language
Learners who speak a language other than English in their homes. The
learning of a foreign language is a process which becomes more difficult
as one becomes older. Often the younger student will grasp
conversational speech in the classroom rather quickly as he or she
interacts with the other students. However, it must be remembered that
it takes from 7 to 10 years for a second language learner to perform like
a native speaker academically. If a child learns a language before he or
she is 12 years old, she/he will often speak both languages with the
proper accent. So be patient with your students and maintain high, yet
realistic expectations. Remind yourself frequently “limited English
proficient” is not “limited thinking proficient.”
Some basic suggestions for working effectively
with the Limited English Proficient(LEP)
student are:
1. Be friendly and welcoming. It is not necessary
to speak in a louder voice, just speak clearly and
2. Assign buddies or other classmates to help the
ELL student. Students like to help each other.
Helpmates may be assigned for helping the newcomer feel more
comfortable in their new surroundings. I.E. Desk mate, who sits
near the students and assists with materials, books, and page
numbers. This student also helps during fire drills and other
emergency procedures. Playground mate, who makes certain the
See Resources and References at end of booklet for source of information and more detailed information
on this topic.
ELL student is included in games, knows safety procedures and how
to get help if necessary. Bus Mate, who helps the ELL student with
every aspect of riding the bus. This should be a student who rides the
same bus route. Cafeteria mate, who acts as a guide and protector
during lunch, including the line procedure, how to select food and
eating procedures.
3. Use visual props, gestures, and facial expressions to communicate.
Body language is very communicative. Use thematic lessons and
small groups to connect learning and to build concepts. Working
together with other students on activity-oriented, hands-on projects
helps all students learn and gives the LEP students an important
reason to use their English to communicate with classmates.
4. Include the student in all class activities. He or she will follow the
other students. Give the LEP student assignments and/or duties
he/she can complete successfully. Examine folk lore from many
cultures and read different versions of the same story to learn to value
similaritie4s and differences among cultural groups. Read to your
students frequently. Read picture books. Magazine and newspaper
articles with pictures, poems, and Weekly Reader’s articles Have the
ELL students follow their copy as the story is read.
5. Welcome the richness of cultural diversity in
your classroom. Give geography more
meaning as all class members use maps to
show their families’ origins. Encourage your
ELL student to share his/her culture and
language with you and the class. Make a
picture dictionary with words in the
student’s language (written by the student is
he or she has been to school in another
country) and words in English.
6. Focus attention on survival vocabulary and
key words. Use pictures, charts, graphs,
and stories to teach vocabulary in context. Make lots of charts to help
your students learn words. Poem charts, language experience story
charts, and “maps” of stories are all helpful. Generate word lists
from content areas and stories to be used as word banks for writing
7. Keep talking to your student. It is normal for him/her to experience a
“silent period” which may last for days, weeks, or months. Do not
force the child to speak if he or she is reluctant to speak in English.
8. Arrange intensive help with English whenever possible. It is
important to have understandable instruction.. Many students agree
“yes” even if they don’t understand.
9. Use a grading system which shows progress,
but does not unfairly compare the ELL student
to his/her English-only peer’s performance.
Look at many areas when assessing learning.
Look at progress in their class participation, art
work, and social interaction. Include informal
and unofficial talk situations such as free time,
small-group activity time, and playground tie as well as formal talk
during lessons. Keep anecdotal records of social and verbal
interactions as well as writing samples.
10. Many LEP students have either repeated a grade, or placed in lower
grades in the erroneous belief they will learn English faster. These
students are best served by keeping them at grade level, modifying
and adapting their assignments, and offering additional help with
English as frequently as possible.
Ideas for using the HELPMATE or BUDDY to work
effectively with your ELL student in the regular
1. Assign the “Help mate” or “buddy” to explain to the ELL student
whatever has to be done – in sign language, English, or whatever
works to get the message across.
2. Have the class brainstorm a list of classroom instructions their ELL
student will need to know to function as part of the class. The class
can act out appropriate responses, or have the “buddy” or “help mate”
teach the instructions.
3. Label Everything Possible in the room in English and the ELL
student’s Native language, if possible. This will help the ELL student
feel at home in the classroom and will help the other students
appreciate another language.
4. Have the ELL student’s “help mate” or “buddy” take him/her around
the room, introducing common classroom objects, pronouncing their
names, and having the ELL student repeat the names.
5. Give the ELL student many opportunities to hear regular English
used for communication purposes. Provide opportunities to speak
English in purposeful interactions requiring communication.
6. Use props and gestures whenever possible to add context to your
language. This will also help the student to remember the words and
their meaning.
7. Have the “buddy” or “help mate” include the ELL student in all
classroom and school activities. This will increase his/her motivation
to learn English.
8. Remind the “buddy” or “Help Mate” to be positive. You will enjoy the
experience by keeping a positive attitude.
Common Expressions in Various Languages
Good Morning
How are you?
My name is _____.
Buon giorno Dobro Jutro
Come sta?
Kako ste?
Mi chiamo ___.Mode ime je ___.
Classroom Expressions
Give me
Get up
Let’s go !
Sit down
Be quiet
Stop, quit it
It’s time to eat E ora di mangiare
to play
di giocare
to work
di lavprare
to read
di leggere
to speak
di parlare
to write
di scrivere
to draw
di disegnare
Budi miran
Stani, Prekini
Vrijeme je da se jede
da se igra
da se rani
da se cita
da se prica
da se pise
da se crta
e kuge
e verddhe
e zeze
e bardhe
English Italian
Sample Activities for
Teaching English to
Speakers of Other Languages1
The following activities may be used by the regular classroom teacher to
teach English to limited English proficient students who are learning
English and is in the mainstream classroom.
1. Songs and games are very effective in teaching vocabulary. All the
students are interacting together in songs such as “The Alphabet
song,” “Simon Says,” “Chutes and Ladders,” “Old McDonald Had a
Farm,” etc.
2. A Picture dictionary or index card file using magazines newspaper and
catalog pictures as well as the students’ own drawings provide
references for English and native language words. As the dictionary
grows and the students become more skilled in reading and writing
English these can be used in the following ways:
• label pictures with words and then form descriptive
• alphabetize all labels or group them by subject
• classify objects pictured by size, color, shape, etc.
• create main categories and subdivisions within them (e.g.,
likes and dislikes, groups, common in U.S.A., common in
native country, cooked, raw, served at what meal, source,
3. Have the students name anything and everything –when able, write
labels. Label objects in the classroom in both English and the
student’s native language (if possible).
4. Pantomime is a universal language. Set aside regular time when the
whole class communicates on an even footing non-verbally.
5. Listening practice is important. Read aloud to students prose, poetry
and rhymes. Use colorfully illustrated books, records ands tapes (Dr.
Seuss, folk tales, myths, fables).
6. Have students trace an outline of a friend on a large sheet of paper.
Orally or in writing, name the various body parts. Clothing can be
colored in and labeled.
8. Use a calendar to teach days of the week, months, numbers, seasons
and holidays. The calendar can be used to introduce the past, future
tense and place (e.g. “Monday is after Tuesday.” “The five is above
the twelve.”) Ask questions in sentences.
9. Provide students with opportunities to teach the class portions of their
native language. They could start with numbers, alphabet and body
parts. Then students could graduate to sentences and songs.
10. Introduce students to school staff and tour the building. Follow up the
tour by having students name staff people and identify the job they
do. Use photos of the staff for identification exercises.
11. Ask the students to draw a family picture or bring a photo to class.
Use it to teach names of family relationships (father, son, sister,
brother), pronouns and as a basis for discussing life roles.
12. To teach the students the alphabet and beginning sounds have the
students make a booklet and put a letter on each page. Then have
the students record words as they learn them on the correct page and
perhaps draw a picture.
13. Use peer tutors or “help
mates” to work with
students who will also
benefit from “teaching”
the limited English
Proficient student.
How We Learn Language- - Major Factors Affecting Teaching LEP and
Minority Language Students in Middle School and
Secondary School2
When entering the American educational structure, minority language
students begin a process of “acculturation” which is one culture impacting
on another. This requires major adjustment for most students. First
generation students are likely to encounter a type of “shock” because what
they are now experiencing may be vastly different from the way things
were in their native culture. Therefore, any plan to effectively teach LEP
students must begin with the basic understanding that, as a group,
minority language students are heterogeneous with diverse language
proficiency skills. This normally requires a multifaceted program that is
comprehensive and flexible enough to meet these needs.
1. First generation students bring to the school a unique language
situation which represents the following levels of language proficiency:
a. Those who have oral proficiency in their home language, but
possess no reading or writing skills in that language.
b. Those who have oral proficiency and limited reading and writing
skills in the home language.
c. Those who have oral, reading and writing proficiency in the home
language which are appropriate to their grade level.
Based upon these levels of language proficiency, it may be assumed
that as first generation minority language students:
d. Most LIKELY will not speak English well enough to participate in
the regular English-only program.
e. Many may lack reading and writing skills in both languages.
f. Many bring educational backgrounds which are incompatible with
American schools relative to the concepts covered and the skills
1. From Michigan’s Model for Delivering Vocational Education to Secondary LEP and language minority
students. 1985 MDE copyright p. 56-58
2. Second and third generations students, on the other hand, though they
have had prior experience with the American culture since birth, may
be faced with discrepancies between what is expected and practiced at
home and the expectations and practices of the educational
Second and third generation students represent a different set of
language proficiency levels because they may:
a. Have limited vocabulary, enabling them to function socially but not
to comprehend English reading and writing well enough to function
effectively in an academic setting.
b. Have limited proficiency in the home language making them unable
to read and write in that language.
c. Have limited proficiency in both the home language and in English.
The relevance of these language proficiency levels to educators of LEP
students rests with the fact that the student’s ability to transfer and
apply concepts is greatly influenced by how proficient the student is in
speaking, reading, and writing the home language. (In our educational
system, information necessary to perform learning tasks is given and
received in English this requires a level of comprehension if the student is
to succeed.)
Regardless of the student’s language skills and whether they are new
immigrants or second or third generation, minority language students are
likely to experience further conflict because of other cultural differences.
Cultural factors that are known to have the greatest visible importance
and are manifested in the following characteristics:
1. Social Class
Some cultures have a strict social class system by which people are
distinctly classified according to position and behavior which is based
on laws and traditions.
2. Family Structure
some cultures have extended families which include members other
than the parents and children. In some cases, authority and power are
administered by a designated member who may or may not be a parent
of the nuclear family. Also, position and birth order may determine
the role(s), responsibilities, privileges, and opportunities afforded the
3. Religion
Cultures are often characterized by one or more religions, i.e., beliefs
or ways of living based on traditions and teachings that prescribe codes
of conduct. Students who practice religions different from those that
are Christian or Western-based find that the values and behaviors
taught at home are often not understood in American schools. For
example, head apparel, which is symbolic of some religions, may be
perceived as eccentric dress by those who are unknowledgeable.
4. Values and Attitudes
Education is viewed as a privilege in some cultures and is often
reserved for the upper-class or for a specific sex group. Cultural and/or
family attitudes may affect the student’s participation in school.
5. Respect
Some cultures teach children to be passive and submissive and not to
question teachers or other authority figures. Children may also be
taught not to look directly (eye contact) at the authority figure which,
in a classroom setting is, of course, the teacher. When this occurs,
such behavior may be misinterpreted as evasion, impudence, or lack of
6. Time
The concept of “time” is highly valued in the American culture but is
not given the same priority in other cultures. In fact, in some cases
there is no comparable concept of time as Americans have come to
know and use it.
English as a Second
Language (ESL)
Methods the Primary Teacher
Needs to Know
Orientations toward Teaching English Language Learners
A review of the various ESL methods and orientations
Grammar Translation
Direct Method
Notational-functional Approach
Audiolingual Method
Silent Way
Community language Learning
Total Physical Response
Natural Approach
Problem Posing
Content-Based language
Grammar-based orientation.
Grammar-based orientation was based on a belief in faculty psychology
which purported that different kinds of knowledge were located in separate
sections of the brain. Students were given exercises in various studies to
develop each part of the brain by studying different subjects. Thus, students
learned to conjugate verbs in Latin as a good mental exercise even though it
did not serve a practical purpose. This is the same orientation basis for
studying traditional grammar where we divided sentences into subjects and
predicates and labeled words as nouns and verbs. We studied different
tenses and moods and were taught to make subjects and verbs agree. This
orientation is based on a set of assumptions about language and learning.
The following assumptions characterize the grammar-based orientation:3
Learning a language means learning the grammar and the vocabulary.
Learning a language expands one’s intellect.
Learning a foreign language enables one to translate great works of
Learning the grammar of a foreign language helps one learn the grammar of
one’s native language.
For example, a students would study Latin or Greek as a good mental
discipline, not because they expected to communicate in the language. The
Freeman and Freeman. 1998. ESL/EFL Teaching Principles for Success. Heinemanhn, NH. P. 6. All
information in this handout is from this reference. For more information consult the book.
goal was to be able to translate great works from the classical languages into
In a grammar-translation class, students study the grammar and the
vocabulary. The goal is to develop the ability to translate between the target
language and the student’s primary language. Students spend a great deal of
time memorizing the vocabulary. A short reading is usually included in each
lesson followed by questions about the reading. Grammar study involves
learning the parts of speech, learning verb tenses, learning the difference
between singular and plural forms, learning about agreement between
subjects and verbs, or learning about the use ofd the subjective, etc.
However, little real attention is paid to oral language development for
communicative purposes.
Communicative Orientation:
A second early orientation to language learning focuses on
communication with native speakers and was based on the work of Gouin as
early as the 1800. Gouin observed children learning language in a natural
setting. In these classes, lessons used intensive oral interaction in the target
The communicative orientation is based on the following premises:4
The native language should not be used in the classroom.
Students should make direct associations between the target language and
the meaning.
Language is primarily speech, but reading and writing should also be taught
from the beginning.
The purpose of language learning is communication.
Learning a language involves learning about the culture.
The emphasis in communicative orientation is on learning to
communicate in the language they are studying, understanding the meaning
instead of translating terms into their native language. The Direct Method
was one of the names given to a communicative orientation method because
the students were encouraged to make direct associations between objects or
concepts and the corresponding words in the target language. New words in
the target language are introduced through realia, pictures, or pantomime.
Teachers demonstrate rather than translate to answer questions. Lessons
are organized around topics, such as body parts, food, and clothing. Teachers
ask students questions and students ask one another questions. The most
widely known application of the Direct Method is in the Berlitz language
Freeman and Freeman. 1998. ESL/EFL Teaching Principles for Success. Heinemanhn, NH. P. 8.
schools. Freeman report that this method fell out of favor in “noncommercial
schools” as early as 1920 and grammar-translation methods dominated
public and university language classes in the USA until World War II.
World war II brought significant changes to language teaching
methodology in the USA because it was found that the grammar-translation
methodology did not produce people who could use languages for real
purposes. Changes in beliefs about how people learn and insights into
language led to the empiricist orientation to language teaching based on
behaviorist psychology and structural linguistics. Linguists, such as
Fries(1945) began to view language as consisting of certain structural
patterns. These insights led to the following set of assumptions:
Language is speech, not writing.
A language is a set of habits.
Teach the language, not about the language.
A language is what its native speakers say, not what someone thinks they
ought to say.
Languages are different.
These linguists realized that languages differed in significant ways.
Therefore, when teaching English to a Spanish speaker, the teacher should
be aware of the language contrasts and teach the parts that differed.
Empiricist orientation had students learn dialogues that included natural,
colloquial speech. Two main communicative methods that follow an
empiricist orientation are the audiolingual method and Suggestopedia.
Audiolingual method(ALM): In the ALM lesson, students begin with a
dialogue which includes a particular structural pattern. The exercises and
drills following the dialogue would be designed to give the students more
practice with the structure being studied. The emphasis is based on
development of oral language. For example, in a single slot substitution drill,
the teacher would hold up a pencil and say, “This is a pencil.” Students
repeat. Then, the teacher would hold up a pen and students would repeat
“This is a pen.” The emphasis is on syntactic patterns rather than on
meaning. Attention is also paid to correct pronunciation. Because behaviorist
psychology described learning, including language acquisition, as a matter of
conditioning—responses to outside stimuli, it was considered that one
learned a language through mimicry and memorization. And through
analogy. Thus, the two basic techniques of Audiolingual methodology are: 1)
various kinds of mimicry and memorization, and 2) pattern drills based on
Notional-Functional Approach was similar to the ALM, but based on the
idea that languages express different notions, such as time or space, and
different functions in different ways. The dialogues reflected functions such
as greetings, introductions, or situations one might find oneself in.
Suggestopedia was developed by Lozanov (1982) a Bulgarian psychiatristeducator, who wanted to eliminate the psychological barriers people have to
learning. His idea bas based on three principles:
1. People are able to learn at rates many times greater than what is commonly
2. Learning is a global event and involves the entire person; and
3. .Learners respond to various influences, many of them nonconscious.
Suggestopedia uses drama, art, physical exercise, and desuggestive
communicative psychotherapy as well as the traditional modes of listening,
speaking, reading, and writing. Students take a new name in the language
they are learning. Baroque music is played as students close their eyes and
do relaxing breathing. The teacher then reads the lesson to the beat of the
music. In following lessons, students role-play, sing songs, play different
games, and make up skits to work with the material in the lessons.
Rationalist Orientation:
Chomsky (1959) prompted a shift from the empiricist orientation to a
rationalist orientation. Cognitive psychology, which stresses the importance
of the activity of the learner, was beginning to replace behaviorism. It’s how
the learner acts on the environment, not how the environment acts on the
learner that really matters. Chomsky developed a new approach to
linguistics called transformational-generative grammar. He believed
learning a language is a natural process and involves developing deep
structures and also developing the ability to transform them into the
different surface structures. This lead to a new set of assumptions:
A living language is characterized by rule-governed creativity.
The rules of grammar are psychologically real.
People are especially equipped to learn language.
A living language is a language in which we can think.5
Linguists believed students gained a knowledge that a sentence sounds
right rather than the knowledge of the kinds of grammar rules taught in
school. They believe that students uses rules they have internalized to create
new sentences. The rationalist orientation commonly used methods are the
Silent Way, Community Language Learning, Total Physical Response, the
Natural Approach , and CALLA.
Diller 1978, p. 21
The Silent Way. A method of language teaching that seems to
reflected the influence of the cognitive-code theory of learning is the system
developed by Gattergno (1972) The students do make oral statements and
responses in the language they are learning, but the teacher speaks much
sell than in the average audiolingual classroom, and the students do not
mimic and repeat aloud so frequently. Rather , they are motivated to “think
and say” the appropriate sentence(s) to accompany actions performed under
the guidance of the teacher. Sounds of the new language are taught from
color-coded sound charts. Next, teachers focus on language structures
perhaps using colored rods to visually represent parts of words and
sentences. The most remarkable characteristic of Gattergno’s method is the
keen attention which the students watches the actions and listens to the
utterances of the teacher and his fellow students while striving to grasp the
meaning as well as the form of those utterances.
Community Language Learning. Teachers serve as counselors who
facilitate learning. Students sit in a small circle and the teacher stands
behind one of the students. This students makes a statement in his native
language. The teacher translates what the student said to the language
being learned. The students repeats the teachers sentence and may record it
on a tape recorder. Later the students listen to the conversation which has
been recorded and the teacher writes it on the board. Students copy the
written conversation from the board. Often the language is analyzed for
vocabulary or grammar study. The curriculum comes from the students.
Total Physical Response (TPR). Total Physical Response method
was developed by Asher (1979) to involve all the senses as well as our minds
in learning. Students are given simple commands as “Raise your right hand.”
Students respond with the action. As students progress the commands
become more complex. In English the verb forms used for commands are in
simple form and students don’t have to consider tense changes. All the
students respond to the commands and students can see and learn as a
group. Romin and Seely expanded the TPR method to include more complex
commands and in their 1995 book called TPR is More Than commands At All
Levels, they include dialogues, role play, and storytelling. Students enjoy the
game like atmosphere involved in acting out commands. (More examples will
be given in following chapters.)
The Natural Approach is one of the most widely used methods for
teaching a second language developed by Krashen and Terrell (1983). The
central tenet of this theory is that we acquire rather than learn a second
language. Acquisition occurs in a natural order when students receive
comprehensible input, messages they understand. The teacher’s main
responsibility is to make instruction comprehensible. Students move through
4 stages:
Preproduction – students do not talk except to name other students or answer
“yes” and “no.”
Early Production – after about a month of instruction, Students use one or two
words or short phrases. Lessons expand the learners’ receptive vocabulary.
Speech Emergence -- Some time later – The teacher models correct structures ,
students speak in longer phrases and complete sentences. The activities are
designed to develop higher levels of language use.
Intermediate fluency – Still later Students engage in conversation and produce
connected narrative. They continue to expand their receptive vocabulary.
Activities are designed to develop higher levels of language use in content areas,
and reading and writing activities are incorporated. (More information will be
given in the following chapters.)
CALLA or the Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach was
developed to teach content to second language learners. It is an Instructional
system designed to develop academic language skills in English for students
in upper elementary and secondary schools. The rationale is that “learning a
language has more in common with learning complex cognitive skills than it
does with learning facts, isolated pieces of information, or even meaningful
texts.” Thus second language learners learn language through an organized
approach to the content area materials they need to study in the regular
classroom. The method used metacognitive strategies which include advance
organization, selective attention, and self-evaluation. Cognitive strategies
such as grouping, note taking, imagery, and inferencing, encouraging
students to manipulate content material in different ways. Social-affective
strategies such as cooperative learning give students a chance to interact in
order to ask questions and clarify the content. The goal is to provide
students with different ways to practice language and learn content at the
same time.
Sociopsycholinguistic Orientation:
Sociopsycholinguistic Orientation includes both the social and
individual psychological aspects of language learning. This view of learning
is influenced by Piaget (1955), Vygotsky (1962, 1978) and Rosenblatt (1978).
Piaget showed how learning passed through a series of developmental stages
as students learn to understand the world. He believed we develop concepts
through a process of assimilation and accommodation. Students learn as
they act on and interact with the environment. Vygotsky considered the role
other people play in learning and focused on a more social theory of learning.
While Rosenblatt explained learning as consisting of transactions between a
reader and a text. Meaning is not found in the reader or in the text, but
rather in the transactions which occur as one reads. As we read more, we
have more experiences to bring to a new text and this shapes our
understanding of the new text. This seems to hold true for oral language
learning as well. Goodman’s (1967) research on reading miscue also provides
insights into how learners use cues from three linguistic systems—
graphophonic, syntactic, and semantic—to construct meaning from written
texts. Based on this research the sociopsycholinguistic orientation for
language teaching premises are:
Learning goes from whole to part.
Lessons should be learner-centered because learning is the active construction
of knowledge.
Lessons should have meaning and purpose for students now.
Learning occurs in social interaction.
Reading, writing, speaking, and listening all develop together.
Lessons should support students’ first languages and cultures.
Faith in the learner expands learning potential.
Problem Posing was developed by Paulo Freire (1970) and
Wallerstein (1987) to help teach literacy to adults. The teacher may take a
photo of their personal experiences (i.e. photo of their family or home ) The
students use the second language to solve the problem or personal concern.
The problem is based on the learner’s lives and they solve real-life problems.
Content-Based Language Teaching. This is a dual approach in
which teachers teach language through content. The teachers must be aware
of both the academic and language needs of the students.
Common Sense Assumptions and Principles for Success
Mainstream teachers generally have a set of assumptions about
teaching and learning languages mainly as a result of the teacher’s own
language learning experiences, the teacher’s formal course work and or the
teacher’s past experiences in the classroom with non-English speaking
students. What the teacher does to assist the English language learner may
depend on what materials are available to her. Early methods of language
teaching took on either a grammar-based orientation or a communicative
Freeman and Freeman (1998) state that there is a set of commonsense
assumptions which they believe limit students’ potential. They contrast
these commonsense assumptions with a set of principles for success. They
believe that teachers who follow the principles for success will expand their
student’s potential.
Commonsense Assumptions
Learning proceeds from part to whole.
Principles for Success
Learning proceeds from whole to part
so teachers organize curriculum
around big questions.
Learning Proceeds from Whole to Part
Students need the big picture first. They develop concepts and the
language to understand and express those concepts by beginning with
general ideas and then filling in the specific details. Organize
curriculum around themes based on big questions helps teachers move
from whole to part. English languages learners need to know where
they are going as they learn their new language. For this reason,
preview and review in the primary language is especially helpful
Lessons should be teacher centered
because learning is the transfer of
knowledge from the teacher to the
Lessons should be learner centered
because learning is the active
construction of knowledge by the
learner so teachers base lessons on
learners’ needs and interests.
Lessons should be Learner-Centered
Lessons begin with what students know, and activities build on student
interests. Teachers create contexts in which students can construct
knowledge because they know that learning is not simply the
transmission of information.
Lessons should prepare students to
function in society after schooling.
Lessons should have meaning and
purpose now so teachers draw on
student background knowledge and
interests and give students choices as
they involve them in authentic
reading and writing experiences,
Lessons should have meaning and purpose now
Students learn things they see as meeting a present need. Students are
given choices in what they study. They reflect upon what they are
learning and apply what they learn to their life inside and outside of
school. In this process, teachers involve students in authentic reading
and writing experiences.
Learning takes place as individuals
practice skills and form habits.
Learning takes place as students
engage in meaningful social
interaction so teachers give students
opportunities to work collaboratively.
Learning Should Engage Students in Social Interaction
When students share their ideas in social settings, individual inventions
are shaped by social conventions. Working in groups, students also
learn the important life skill of collaboration., English language
learners develop cognitive, academic, and language proficiency more
easily in classrooms where teachers organize for collaborative learning.
In a second or foreign language, oral
language acquisition precedes the
development of literacy.
In a second ore foreign language, oral
and written language are acquired
simultaneously so teachers have
students read and write as well as
speak and listen during their
learning experiences.
Lessons Should Develop Both Oral and Written Language
Especially for English language learners, the tradition view has been
that the development of oral language must precede the development of
literacy. However, involvement in reading and writing from the start is
essential for developing academic competence. Both written and oral
language can be developed simultaneously.
Lessons should take place in English
to facilitate the acquisition of English
Lessons should support students’
first languages and cultures so
teachers can draw on and develop
students’ strengths.
Lessons Should Support Student’s First Languages and Cultures
When students come to school speaking a language other than English,
teachers can build on str4engths by helping the student develop
concepts in the first language. Full development of the primary
language facilitates the acquisition of English; recognition of the first
language and cultured, even in foreign language settings, builds selfesteem.
The learning potential of bilingual
students is limited.
Learning potential is expanded
through faith in the learner so
teachers involve students in activities
that build their self-esteem and
provide them with opportunities to
Lessons Should show Faith in the Learner to Expand Students’
Teachers who believe in their students, including their English language
learners, plan activities that show their faith in the learner. All
students can learn if they are engaged in meaningful activities that
move from whole to part, build on students’ interests and backgrounds,
serve their needs, provide opportunities for social interaction, develop
their skills in both oral and written language and support their first
languages and cultures.6
Children working in a cooperative group to learn from each other.
Freeman and Freeman. 1998. ESL/EFL Teaching Principles for success. Heinemanhn, NH. P. 6 for
more information consult the book.
The Natural Approach in the
(Rationalist Orientation)
The Natural Approach (Krashen and Terrell 1983) is designed to develop
basic communication skill following the developmental stages of:
Comprehension (pre-production), Early Production, and Speech
Emergence. This approach to teaching language has been proven to be
particularly effective with limited English proficient students.
STAGE 1: Comprehension (Pre-production)
In order to maximize opportunities for comprehension experiences,
Natural approach instructors (1) create activities designed to teach
students to recognize the meaning of words used in meaningful contexts,
and (2)teach students to guess at the meaning of phrases without
knowing all of the words and structures of the sentences.
a. Use Total Physical Response (see later) The teacher gives commands
to which the students react with their bodies as well as their brains.
b. Descriptions of pictures and persons
Information is associated with class members. Teacher asks “Who
has the _______?” “Who is wearing a _______?”
c. Students respond with names, gestures, say yes/no in English, or
point to an item or picture.
d. Children do not initially make many attempts to communicate using
words; they communicate non-verbally.
Always use Visual Aids (pictures, objects, gestures).
Modify Your Speech. To aid comprehension: speak more slowly,
emphasize key words, simplify vocabulary and grammar, use related
ideas, do not talk out of context.
Keep Talking to Your Student. It is normal for him/her to experience a
“silent period” which may last days, weeks, or even months. If a child is
reluctant to speak in English, do not force production.
Student Responses in early speech stage
In non-threatening environments, students move voluntarily into Stage
2. Stage 2 begins when students begin using English words to give:
Yes/no answers
One word answers
Lists of words
Two word strings and short phrases
Teacher Questioning Techniques to encourage the transition from
Stage 1 to Stage 2:
Yes/no questions ( Is Joan wearing a dress today?)
Either/or questions (Is this a book or a pen?)
single/two -word answers (What does the girl have in her hand? Book
Where is the book? Desk Who’s desk is this? Joan’s
Open-ended sentences to be answered with a list of words. (What do
you see on the desk now?)
Open sentence with pause for student response (Joe is wearing a
green shirt, but John is wearing a __________shirt.)
STAGE 3: Speech Emergence
In speech emergence stage, speech production will normally improve in
both quantity and quality. The sentences the students produce become
longer and more complex. Students use a wider range of vocabulary.
Finally, the number or errors will slowly decrease. Students need to be
given the opportunity to use oral and written language whenever
games and recreational activities
problem solving using charts, tables, graphs, maps
advertisements and signs
group discussions
skits, finger plays, flannel boards puppets
music, radio, television, film strips, slides
writing exercises such as the language experience approach
reading and culture activities
TPR of Total Physical Response
A good way to get started!2
(Rationalist Orientation)
Total Physical Response or TPR is a systematized approach to
the use of commands followed by physical responses by the students. It
was developed by the psychologist James Asher (1960’s, 1986) It is often
used to introduce students to a foreign language and can be used with
kindergarten through adult students. It increases the listening skills
and helps the beginning student to respond through in a nonthreatening, low-anxiety, whole body way. Some ESL programs begin
classes with five to ten minutes on listening and responding activities for
beginning students every day. The activities help prepare students to
understand the behavior required and the instructions they will hear in
the mainstream classrooms, in the halls, on fire drills, on trips, and/or
at assembly programs.
In TPR, teachers give commands and the students
demonstrate comprehension through physical
response. The following sequence is
recommended by Helena Curtain and Carol
Pesola (1994)
1. Commands involving the entire body, largemotor skills:
• Point to your ear
• Put your right hand on your head and
turn around two times
• Walk backwards to the front of the class and shake the
teacher’s hand
• Clap your hands for Mary. Good Work!
2. Commands involving interaction with concrete materials and
manipulatives, beginning with classroom objects
• Take the red circle and place it in the wastebasket.
• Pick up your green crayon and lay it under your chair.
• Walk to the chalkboard, take a piece of yellow chalk, and draw
a picture of the sun.
3. Commands relating to pictures, maps, numbers, and other indirect
• Go to the map and trace the outline of
• Go to the picture of the bathroom and
(pretend to) brush your teeth.
• Go to the wall chart and point to a food
from the fruit and vegetables group.
Curtain and Pensola suggest when giving a
command for the first time, the teacher model the desired behavior,
removing the model after several repetitions of the same command. Then
when students respond confidently to a single command, the teacher
begins combining commands in original and unique ways to lead
students into discovering that they can understand and respond to
language expressed in ways never heard before. The creation of novel
commands encourages careful and creative listening. TPR seeks to teach
new concepts through the body by responding to the new language and
its meaning.
A sample lesson presented in the ESL Teacher’s Activities Kit, Elizabeth
Claire, Prentice-Hall 1988, is as follows:
OBJECTIVES: To develop listening skills, vocabulary, learn command
forms of verbs, and English verb + object, English verb + prepositional
phrases word order; to have fund and physical exercise.
1. Gather materials needed for each drill.
2. Give the instruction to the entire class, modeling the performance
3. Repeat, varying the order of instructions, and continue to model the
4. Repeat the instructions a third time, without modeling, allowing
students to copy other students. Praise the students generously.
5. Select small groups of students to go through the actions while the
remainder of the class watches.
6. Call on individual volunteers to act out the instructions. The idea is
to keep the anxiety level low with a “no failure” activity, yet still
challenge the students with a swift pace and variety of modes, with
humorous inclusions of impossible or silly tasks.
7. On the second day, review segments from previous lessons, combining
them with new material, keeping a rapid pace.
8. Add whatever is appropriate to extend vocabulary in areas needed in
your classroom and school.
9. Reading lessons may be based on the drills. Make enough copies for
your class. Read each command and signal for the class to repeat
after you. Call on volunteers to read individual sentences. Allow
more able students to give all the commands as others act them out.
10. Create your own TPR drills to introduce or reinforce any new topic—
adjectives, comparisons, clauses, compound sentences. “go to the
tallest boy.” “Bring me the book with the most pages.”
MATERIALS NEEDED: Book of any kind for each student.
Stand up.
Sit down.
Stand up.
Sit down.
Raise your hand.
Put you hand down.
Stand up.
Raise your hand.
Put your hand down.
Sit down.
Raise two hands.
Put one hand down.
Put your other hand down.
Open you book.
Close your book.
Open your hands.
Close your hands.
Close your eyes.
Open your eyes.
Stand up.
Raise your hand.
Put your hand down.
Raise your book.
Put your book down.
Open your mouth.
Close your mouth.,
Close your book.
Sit down.
Open your mouth.
Close your mouth.
Shh., Be quite.
That’s very, very good.
(Model each action as you
give the command until most
students participate without
(Repeat and review commands
after you add new ones. Then
repeat the new ones,
recombining them before
adding more. Keep students
feeling successful.)
(Put a finger to your lips;
Hold students quite for 30 sec.)
(Applaud their accomplishment.)
A level 2 Sample TPR Lesson1 as in Help! They Don’t Speak English,
Eastern Stream Center for Resources and Training, Oreonta, NY, 1991.
OBJECTIVES: Children will recognize classroom objects and follow
ACTIVITY: School Bag
(Students should have already been introduced to most of the items in
the school bag.)
PROCEDURE: Call students up one by one and ask them to choose an
object from a school bag. They name it if they can. If the object is new
to the class, talk about and show its use and care briefly, and write its
name or put a label in the pocket chart. Ask the student to take the
object back to her/his seat. You can also play this in a circle on the
You can now do TPR with these objects. “Hold up, put down,
touch, give . . .” You can also ask the class questions such as “Who has
the eraser? Do you/ does _______ have the eraser?” Bring in other
vocabulary, especially color words, as you talk about the crayons and
When you sense the activity has gone on long enough, call the
objects back in. Rather than calling on a student to return an object,
you simply say, “I’d like/ please give the eraser.” See if that child
responds. If not, perhaps classmates will prompt him/her to give it
back. Make this into a game and move it quickly.
TEACHER’S NOTE: A rule of thumb—15 minutes to TPR is probably
enough. Please remember another rule: 3 - 7 new words given at any
As a follow-up to this lesson, play either “Mystery Bag” or “What’s
CORE VOCABULARY: Beginning: take a pencil
color words
touch the eraser
pick up the paper
please give me the book
put down the bag
give the crayon to ______
get a ruler
who . . .?
the scissors
do you?
the/a pen
does she?
the chalk
yes / no
MATERIALS NEEDED: classroom objects listed above, labels for objects.
READING/WRITING SUPPORT : objects and labels; drawing and writing
Match the objects to the labels or
words you put in front of the class
during the above activity. Point to a
word and ask the student with that
object to hold it up.
Fill in the missing letters: Write
some of the words on the board with
one or two letters missing. 1. _encil
2. School _ag 3. _ote_ook 4. _4a_on 5. _uler. Ask children to come
up and fill in the missing letters, say the word, and draw the object or
point to it.
Draw and Label: Have students draw and label the object in their school
FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITY MATERIALS: same objects; a bag to hold them, a
towel or other covering; bingo, lotto, spinner games.
Mystery Bag: Children close their eyes and reach into a bag, removing
an object which they must try to name, or describe, without seeing it.
Classmates remain silent until child has made a guess and opens
his/her eyes or removes blindfold.
What’s Missing? You show the children 3-5 objects on a table in front
of the class. They name them. Then cover the objects with something a towel perhaps - and from under the cover remove one object, so
children don’t see what you’ve taken away. You remove the cover and
they must name the missing object.
Card Games: such as bingo and lotto, review and extend this vocabulary
nicely. A spinner game may also be used.
Storying Telling2
(Communicative Orientation)
Storytelling is recommended by many researchers (Egan 1979,
1986; Bruner 1990; Wajnryb 1986; Ryerson 1992) as a natural choice for
a listening activity for K - 8 English as a second language learners in the
classroom. Story form is one of the most effective tools for
communicating new information to young learners. Our perception of
the world is shaped by the stories to which we are exposed and that we
have internalized. Certainly the myths, folk tales, fairy tales, and
legends of a culture constitute a direct means of communicating cultural
ideas and values. Stories can give children a cultural experience in
common with the other children in the classroom and inform all about
the target culture.
Wajnryb (1986) identifies the following reasons for telling stories in
the English as a second language learners:
1. The purpose of telling a story is genuinely
2. Storytelling is linguistically honest. (It is oral
language, meant to be heard.)
3. Storytelling is real! (People do it all the time.)
4. Storytelling is sensual.
5. Storytelling appeals to the affective domain.
6. Storytelling caters to the individual while forming
a community in the classroom.
7. Storytelling provides listening experiences with reduced anxiety.
8. Storytelling is pedagogically sound.
Stories meet the criteria for language acquisition when they:
1. are highly predictable or familiar to the children—choose stories that
include vocabulary representing the home and school environments of
the children.
2. are repetitive, using patterns that occur regularly and predictably.
The best stories repeat elements which provide language children can
later use. Examples are Brown Bear, Brown Bear (1983) or When It
Rains, It Rains, (1970) by Bill Martin Jr.
3. have a story line which lends itself to dramatization and pantomime.
4. lend themselves to heavy use of visuals and realia to illustrate its
content and progress.
5. are authentic stories from the target culture and meet the above
After having told the story several times have the children
pantomime the story as the teacher tells it again. This “physical story
telling” can be carried even further, as the teacher recombines previously
learned TPR commands with familiar story
material to create a new story that the children
act out.
Reading stories aloud using the illustrations to
help carry the meaning is helpful. While reading
aloud, point to the words or lines being read,
emphasize the connection of oral language to print. Pause frequently to
discuss the illustrations.
Remember speaking is the starting point for limited English
proficient students who speak a language other than English in their
home. Teach survival language sentences and vocabulary so language
will meet the basic needs of the students.
Constance Knop (1985) suggests teaching essential classroom
language by using “passwords.” One may be taught each day and the
students are then required to produce the password before leaving the
class, etc..
Passwords may be posted on the wall. Examples are:
May I go to the bathroom (office, drinking fountain, cloakroom, etc.?
How do you say that?
Can you help me?
I can’t find my eraser (paper, book, homework, lunch ticket, etc.).
Give me a jump rope, please.
Please leave me alone.
I am almost finished.
May I get my coat (book, pencil, band instrument, etc.)?
I need paper.
I’ll help you.
This is very nice of you.
Hello. How are you?
Close the door (window, desk, locker), please.
Please pull down the shade.
May I borrow that?
That is mine. (that belongs to me.)
Don’t look at my paper.
I’ll share that with you.,
My bus was late.
Sit down next to me.
He was sitting in my place.
What are we having to eat?
I was absent yesterday.
I don’t know who to say that.
I can’t say that.
__________ is absent today.
What time is it?
May I have a tissue?
These can be posted on the wall with accompanying visual cues, and
sequenced or clustered to show their relationship and to assist the
students in remembering their meaning.
1. Teacher Repetition – In an activity requiring the whole class to respond
the student should not repeat a response with the students. This is
the time to listen to hear the responses.
2. Modeling - Always model the language with natural speed and
3. Backward buildup - songs pass words, rhymes and dialogues should
be simple enough for the children to understand and learn in
complete utterances. If the utterance is longer than seven syllables, it
may be necessary to teach the utterance part by part. Keep it in
meaningful units. Such as “I wasn’t able to get my homework done
yesterday.” Proceed as follows:
. . . yesterday.
. . .done yesterday.
. . . my homework done yesterday.
. . .to get my homework done yesterday.
. . .able to get my homework done yesterday.
. . .I wasn’t able to get my homework done yesterday.
This should be used only in very specific situations where the phrase is
very important to the rest of the lesson or to the children.
4. Answer precedes question - In some exchanges it is useful to teach the
answer first, then the question. I.E. “It is three o’clock.” Or “Today is
Wednesday.” Or My name is __________.” Then teach “What time is
it?” and the student responds with the answer.
Students who have learned to read in
another language transfer the skills they
have acquired in one language to the other
language. Data from standardized reading
tests show that concentrating on isolated
skills do not teach students to read. Also
isolated fill in the blanks exercises in
second-language reading do not provide meaningful reading experiences.
In a communicative English as a second language program, students
need the opportunity to begin with success-building language and
reading experiences.
According to Alma Flor Ada and Maria Pilar de Olave (1986), “by
learning the mechanics of reading, one does not necessarily become a
good reader. . . Success depends not on specific techniques but on high
interest material.” They recommend:
1. Learning to read and write should be an extension of the process of
learning to speak.
2. Children should be motivated. They will grasp more easily what has
meaning and interest for them.
3. Reading to children and telling them stories will make them better
4. Reading materials should be written in the clear and simple language
children are familiar with.,
5. Teaching of reading and writing should be done simultaneously.
6. There is a correlation between children’s oral language development
and their reading ability.
7. Children learn to read more quickly and easily when there is a reason
for doing so.
Students keep a word bank of key words they want to use. The words
are written on cards and kept in a small file box.
Students become readers naturally as they
make sense of environmental print. Such as
words on milk cartons, pop bottles, cereal
and candy names, buildings, stores, etc.
Functional print is the type of written
information in authentic materials needed
for writing that communicates needed
information., such as direction, ads,
posters, programs, etc. This type of print focuses students attention to
the real use of written language.
The Language-Experience Approach to Reading
The language experience approach to reading is based on the idea
that speech can be written down and can be read again later. Familiar
experiences are translated into oral expression, then recorded and read.
After an experience the teacher discusses the activity with the
group and then together the teacher writes down the students’ words
and ideas on a large chart or on their individual papers which the child
illustrates. Then the teacher and the students read the stories together.
Roach Van Allen pioneered the
work with the language
experience approach. This
approach is used successfully
with both first and second
language learners. With second
language learners a firm
direction from the teacher is
needed to keep the language
activity in the target language.
Shared reading can be accomplished by reading big books aloud.
The shared books should have predictable story lines with strong
rhythm, rhyme, repeated patterns, logical sequence, and supportive
Story mapping or story structure is a strategy to identify and
visually organize the central structure and main components of simple
stories. The story map may be used before the story to access prior
knowledge about the topic of the story. It can be used during the story
to keep track of details as the students read or after the story to recall
the important facts. The story map graphically organizes the story so
limited English proficient students are bette3r able to sort out the
important information.
One type of story map is as follows:
The Setting
The Problem
The Goal
Event 1
Event 2
Event 3
Event 4
The Resolution
Higher Level Thinking Skills are
important for the student learning
English as a Second Language2
Semantic mapping is a strategy useful for vocabulary development
for limited English proficient students. The Los Angeles County Office of
Education (1983) and Cook (1986) suggest the following procedures:
1. Choose a simple topic and write it on the board and draw a circle
around it.
2. Have students brainstorm ideas about the topic.
I.e. fish
3. Write down student responses. Have the class identify groups of
related words in the list and develop categories.
4. Have students develop secondary categories to name the groups.
Things that cross the river:
Things that live in the river
Things that go on the river
Depict graphically in a simple map format.
Venn Diagrams
The Venn diagram is another graphic organizer to help students
see logical relationships among concepts with overlapping ideas. Two
intersecting circles can be drawn. Items in one group are placed in
circle A, items in the other group are placed in circle B, and items
which have characteristic of both groups are placed in the intersection
of the circles. I.E.
Considerations in the Integration of Subject Content
The work of James Cummins (1981) is very helpful in explaining
some of the strategies found in subject content instruction. In second
language proficiency the degree of contextual support available for
expressing or comprehending through a language assists the student in
understanding. He describes “context-embedded” language, which is
supported by a wide range of clues, and “context-reduced” language ,
which has very little extra support, so that everything depends on the
words themselves.
A. Cognitively undemanding and context-embedded (embedded in
context that helps to make the meaning clear)
Demonstrations illustrations
Following directions
Art/ Music/ PE
Face to face conversations
Simple games
B. Cognitively undemanding and context-reduced (little context provided)
Telephone conversation
Note on a refrigerator
Written directions (without diagrams or examples)
C. Cognitively demanding and context-embedded
Mathematics computations
Science experiments
Social studies projects (map activities, etc.)
D. Cognitively demanding and context-reduced.
Subject-content explanation (without diagrams or examples.)
Mathematics word problems (without illustrations)
Explanation of new abstract concepts
Standardized testing.
Implications for Teaching
Make New Concepts Less Language-Dependent
Make increased use of visuals and realia.
Provide the hands-on involvement of learners.
Increase the number and vividness of examples.
Establish a clear, meaningful context.
Draw on learners’ past experience and previous learning from the
6. Make sure of rephrasing and repetition.
Make Language Tasks More Cognitively Engaging
1. Relate second language lessons to the concepts in the general
elementary or middle school curriculum.
2. Make use of processes developed in the general curriculum to engage
learners at higher cognitive levels: classifying, categorizing, graphing,
estimating predicting, comparing, sequencing, identifying patterns.
3. Create opportunities for learners to practice new language in
communicative and problem solving situations, including games,
rather than using imitation and drill.
Use Three (3) Levels of questioning
1. Basic questions that answer “yes” or “no” questions. Students can
nod their heads to respond.
Example: “In this story, did the main character go to school?”
2. Questions that require the students to infer (guess) using facts from
the story.
Example: “Based on the descriptions of the land, what season is it?”
3. Critical thinking: There is no right or wrong answer. The students
use their opinions and back it up with excerpts or passages from the
story. This is perfect for doing a poetry unit with more advanced ELL
Example: “What feelings did you get from reading this poem?” Please
use passages or excerpts from it to support your opinion(s).
SIOP Model – The Sheltered Instructional Observation Protocol: Helping
English Learners Succeed.
This is a research-based instructional model that has proven effective with English Language
Learners (ELL) who are studying content topics while learning English. It is organized around
eight components essential for making content comprehensible for English Language Learners
(ELL). These components are: Preparation, Building Background, Comprehensible Input,
Strategies, Interaction, Practice/Application, Lesson Delivery, and Review/Assessment.
Making Content Comprehensible for English Language Learners—SIOP Model
for Academic Achievement
Key Components – Teaching language and content effectively:
Clearly define content objectives
Write on the board
State orally
Clearly define language objectives
Write on the board
State orally
Choose content concepts for age appropriateness and “fit” with educational
background of students
Use supplementary materials to make lessons clear and meaningful
Adapt content to all levels of student proficiency—use graphic organizers, study
guides, taped texts, jigsaw reading…
Provide meaningful and authentic activities that integrate lesson concepts with
language practice opportunities—surveys, letter writing, making models, plays,
Building Background:
Explicitly link concepts to students’ background experience
Make clear links between students’ past learning and new concepts
Emphasize key vocabulary
Comprehensible Input:
Speak appropriately to accommodate students’ proficiency level
Clearly explain academic tasks
Use a variety of techniques to make content concepts clear--modeling, hands-on
materials, visuals, demos, gestures, film clips…
Provide ample opportunities for students to use strategies--GIST, SQP2R, Reciprocal
Teaching, mnemonics, 12 minute research paper, 2 column notes, repeated readings, …
Consistently use scaffolding techniques throughout lesson --think-alouds, paraphrasing,
Employ a variety of question types—use Question Cube, Thinking Cube, Bloom’s
Provide frequent opportunities for interaction and discussion—Supplies much needed
“oral rehearsal”
Group students to support language and content objectives—use at least 2 different
structures during a lesson—pairs, triads, teams, varied by language proficiency or
Consistently afford sufficient wait time—let other students write down answers while
waiting for one student to respond
Give ample opportunities for clarification for concepts in L1—use bilingual
paraprofessionals, native language materials, notes by students…
Supply lots of hands-on materials
Provide activities for students to apply content/language knowledge— discussing and
doing make abstract concepts concrete; allow students to work in partners before
working alone
Integrate all language skills into each lesson--listening, speaking, reading, writing
Lesson Delivery:
Clearly support content objectives—objectives apparent throughout lesson; no “birdwalks”
Clearly support language objectives—students given ample opportunities to “show off”
their language capabilities in speaking, reading, writing
Engage students 90-100% of the lesson—less “teacher talk”, no “down-time”, students
are actively working in whole groups, small groups, individually…
Appropriately pace the lesson to students’ ability level
Provide comprehensive review of key vocabulary—teach, review, assess, teach…; use
word study books, Content Word Wall, …
Supply comprehensive review of key content concepts—review content directly related to
objectives throughout lesson; use graphic organizers as review
Regularly give feedback to students on their output--clarify, discuss, correct responses
Conduct assessment of student comprehension and learning—use a variety of quick
reviews: thumbs up-down, numbered wheels, small dry erase boards; include student
Making Content Comprehensible—
1. Lesson Preparation
Adaptation of Content:
Make texts accessible to all students without “watering down “ texts
Use before, during, and after reading or writing
Graphic Organizers:
Schematic visuals that assist students to grasp the “wholeness and parts” of a
concept. Use to supplement written or spoken words--
--Before reading or writing: guides and supplements to build background for difficult or dense
text and helps organize writing
--During reading: focuses students’ attention and makes connections, helps with taking notes and
understanding text structure
--After reading or writing: assists in recording personal understandings and responses; doublechecks organization
Examples: “I Wonder”, Venn Diagrams Timelines, Discussion webs, Thinking maps…
Tip: With English Language Learners, it is helpful to actually construct the graphic organizer in
front of the students on chart paper or transparency for deep understanding
▪ Outlines:
Teacher prepared outlines that help students take notes in an organized
Tip: T-charts are useful outlines to begin organizing
Tip: Some students need picture support, or to see the completed outline
▪ Highlighted text:
For newcomers: highlight (using blue highlighter) key concepts,
important vocabulary, and summary statements in students’ textbooks.
Newcomers only read highlighted sections. This reduces stress yet
maintains key concepts.
Marginal notes:
Like highlighted text, teacher notes in the margins of a newcomer’s textbook assist in
focusing attention on important ideas, key concepts, key words and their definitions, or draw
attention to important supporting facts for “why” or “how”. The Teacher’s Edition marginal
notes may help in choosing key facts, etc. Parent volunteers could assist in putting in
marginal notes in multiple textbooks. If you didn’t want to write in actual student textbooks,
you could use sticky notes that are removable.
Taped Text:
Teacher, paraprofessional, or older student tapes textbook for newcomers. This allows for
multiple exposures to text and should improve reading and understanding. Students can
take home text and tape for homework.
Adapted Text:
Sometimes it is necessary to rewrite dense text in order for English Language Learners to comprehend
a content. Short, simpler sentences are easier for newcomers to understand. The format should
follow a topic sentence followed by several supporting detail sentences. All sentences need to be
relevant to the content. Maintaining a consistent format affords easier reading and more connections
to prior knowledge.
▪ Jigsaw text reading:
One or two members of each cooperative team are chosen by the teacher to form an “expert” team.
Each “expert team” is responsible for one section of assigned text. Text sections are read aloud in the
“expert team”, discussed and reviewed for essential information, key vocabulary, and better collective
understanding. When clear understanding is reached, “expert team” members return to their original
cooperative teams to teach their teammates—demonstrating peer-modeling. English Language
Learners benefit from this system because they are learning from others while not burdened with
reading the longer text.
▪ Leveled study guides:
Teacher composes guides to accompany students’ textbook –may include:
Summary of text—Questions-- Statements of learning
Teacher can designate questions for different levels by marking with * (easiest), **
(moderately challenging, and *** (most challenging)
Supplementary Materials: Sources
☺ Hands-on manipulatives and realia—connects abstract concepts with concrete experiences
and student’s own life
☺ Pictures, Photos, Visuals: provide visual support to harder concepts. Helps relate to prior
knowledge and oral presentations. Include models, charts, overheads, maps, timelines as
you are presenting concepts
☺ Multimedia: film clips, songs and chants, posters, computer games, etc.--related to concept
solidify key concepts into the deep memory
☺ Demonstrations: Model step-by-step completion of tasks, or model language to use with
presentations. This scaffolds and enhances learning
☺ Related Material: Most Dearborn schools have a multitude of leveled books—both fiction and
non-fiction that supplement science and social studies themes. Check your school’s
resource room for materials.
Making Content Comprehensible—
2. Building Background
There is a strong correlation between vocabulary knowledge and student achievement
Select fewer key terms to focus on
Explicitly teach “school language”—ex. Identify, compare, summarize, define…
1. Contextualizing Key Vocabulary:
Review the content and select key terms that are critical to understanding the
lesson’s most important concepts. The teacher
Introduces and defines terms simply and concretely
Demonstrates how terms are used in context
Explains use of synonyms, or cognates to convey meaning
2. Vocabulary Self-Selection:
After reading a content text, students self select vocabulary they think is
essential to the understanding the content concepts.
Words are selected by individuals, partners, or teams
Shared, discussed, and agreed upon by whole class
Empowers students in choosing the most appropriate key vocabulary
3. Personal Dictionaries:
Personal dictionaries are created as an individual vocabulary and spelling
resource for students.
▪ Students read text in partners or teams and select unknown words
▪ Teacher works with teams to review each student’s personal dictionary and providing
clarifications where needed
Words can be arranged alphabetically, by concept, or structure
4. Content Word Wall:
This is a Content Word Wall specific to one content area, reserved for key vocabulary that
relates to that content.
▪ Key words are displayed alphabetically
▪ Revisited frequently during lessons
▪ Students use words throughout unit of study
▪ Remove some words regularly in order to keep words displayed to a reasonable number
Ex: Social Studies Word Wall: Revolutionary War
Battle Constitution
liberty M
5. Concept Definition Map
A simple graphic system used to discuss complex concepts and clarify the
meaning of a concept.
Ex: Concept Definition Map—Revolution
What is it?
What is it like?
Overthrow of Government
Can be violent
Often emotional
Usually political
May result in changed
system of government
American Revolution
French Revolution
Russian Revolution
What are some examples?
6. Cloze Sentences:
Used to teach and review content vocabulary in context.
▪ Teacher chooses a sentence that has a strong contextual support for the vocabulary
focus word.
▪ Possible replacement words are brainstormed
▪ Teacher assists students in choosing correct word
Ex: During a _______________ a group of people tries to overthrow an existing government or
social system. (revolution)
7. Word Sorts:
Students categorize words or phrases (previously introduced) and sorts them according to
meaning, structure, word endings, or sounds. This reinforces word relationships, spelling,
and word structure.
Ex: Word Sort by endings—American Revolution
8. Word Generation:
This is a review of new content vocabulary through analogy. Students brainstorm words that
contain a “chunk” of a word.
Ex: Port “to carry”—portable, export, transport, deport…
9. Visual Vocabulary:
English Language Learners benefit from a “picture” of a term added to a definition
of the word. Use stick figures, a picture dictionary format, or a photograph.
10. Vocabulary through Songs:
Use the “Jim Walters Approach” –“Science Through Song CD” for teaching difficult concepts
through a song format. Concepts and relationships are explained and remembered easier for
some students through this multiple intelligence medium.
Making Content Comprehensible—
3. Comprehensible Input
Appropriate Speech:
Use speech that is appropriate to students’ proficiency level—slow down and enunciate
where applicable
Avoid jargon and idiomatic speech as much as possible
Explanation of Academic Tasks:
Present instructions in a step-by-step manner and/or with demonstrations.
directions on board—ask students to re-explain
Write oral
Use peer-modeling—Focus attention on one group that is functioning well on activity. Let
those students explain step-by-step instructions to whole class using an overhead
Scaffolding: Use verbal and procedural scaffolding routinely:
▪ Verbal scaffolding: Paraphrasing—restating student’s response to model correct English
Think-Alouds—saying out loud what you are doing as you try to use a strategy
Reinforcing contextual definitions—restating a term by giving a context or definition
Ex. Aborigines, the native people of Australia, were being driven from their homes.
Procedural scaffolding:
Explicit Teaching
--Small group instruction with less experienced students practicing with experienced
--Partnering students for practice
Use a variety of question types: see “Thinking Cube” for examples.
Use “Question Cube” to promote students asking a variety of questions: Who, What,
When, Where, Why,
Effective classes are characterized by a variety of grouping structures
▪ At least 2 different grouping structures should be used during a lesson—partners,
triads, teams, etc.
▪ Vary group configurations from day-to-day across the week to pique interest, and
increase student involvement
Wait Time:
Effective teachers wait 20 seconds or more for a student to respond—many English
Language Learners need longer time to formulate answers.
While waiting for a student to reply other students can be writing down their response
then confirm with answer.
Clarifying Key Concepts in First Language:
Allowing students to confer with each other, teacher, or paraprofessional in their native
language about subject matter material provides needed support for true understanding of
content while student is learning English
Application of Content and Language Knowledge:
Discussing and doing make abstract concepts concrete, therefore projects, discussion
teams, reports lend themselves to true comprehension
Include opportunities to practice English—reporting out orally and in writing, working with
teams or partners
Integration of Language Skills:
Reading, writing, listening, and speaking are mutually supportive and need to be
developed in an integrated manner. Practice in writing promotes development in reading.
Review of Key Vocabulary
Review of vocabulary needs to include attention to word structure and sentence structure
Multiple exposures to new terminology builds proficiency
▪ Use paraphrasing as review—provides context
▪ Use multiple modalities to remember words
▪ Have students use Individual Word Study Books for personal reference—grouping words
by structure (-tion, -sion,- tation…)
Assessment of Lesson Objectives:
Use a variety of methods to elicit group responses
▪ Thumbs up/ thumbs down—Used to obtain a quick summary of agree/disagree
responses. “I don’t know” response is indicated by a closed fist
▪ Number wheels or numbered fingers: Used to indicate responses to multiple-choice
questions. Teacher puts possible responses on board or transparency, waits, then says
“Show me!”
▪ Response boards: Use individual chalk boards or dry-erase boards for responses given
in unison. Dollar stores or home improvement centers—bathroom tile board makes great
dry-erase boards!
Making Content Comprehensible—
4. Strategies
Discussing and doing make abstract concepts concrete
Academic language learning is more effective with learning strategies
Content teaching –One Approach (40-55 minutes):
Do an “I Wonder” Brainstorming—(5 minutes) about book, topic, theme—should be in the
form of questions (Who, what, when, what if, why…) or “I wonder if…”
I wonder
Do a Preview and Predict strategy—15 minutes:
1. 1 minute—Students individually preview text material, looking at illustrations, photos, bold
2. 3 minutes—With a partner, students write 3 things they think they will learn about from
this text. Write in complete sentences, note form, or pictures, depending on students’
language proficiency.
3. 4 minutes—Partners share their list with another pair of students and list is condensed
and or expanded. Transfer final list to chart paper.
Matter is everything.
A tree is matter.
A girl is matter.
Matter can change.
4. 3 minutes—4 person teams report out findings and post list.
5. 4 minutes-- Teacher reads first section of text (one page or less) while students follow
Do GIST summarizing strategy—7 minutes:
1. 3 minutes--After reading a passage or section of text, teacher and students underline or
pick out 10 words and concepts that are “most important” to understanding text.
2. 1 minute--Write 10 words on the board.
states of matter
living things
3. 3 minutes--Teacher and students write 1-2 summary statements using as many of the
listed words as possible. Could be partner work. Post on board.
3 minutes--Refer back to Preview Chart. Read each statement, confirm if it is + or -,
depending on reading selection. Erase or cross out statements that are not likely to relate to
rest of reading selection, and add new predictions.
Matter can change.
A rock is matter.
Atoms are the largest part
of a thing.
10 minutes--Students continue with reading, either in partners or small teams and do
GIST strategy within their team. If the selection is too long, teams can jigsaw reading
selection and share out their summary statements with whole group.
• Refer back to ”I Wonder” chart—4 minutes. Write down answers to questions that
were found in reading. If questions were not answered brainstorm where answers could be
found and form Research Teams to explore other sources.
Represent new learning in some way—6 minutes—by one of these:
--Use Thinking Cube to generate at least 6 higher order thinking questions about text.
Ex: Give a quote from the book that tells what matter is made of.
How many ways can matter change?
How can you measure matter?
--Make a Word Splash using the important words in this text.
living things
--Construct a graphic organizer (T-list, Venn Diagram, etc.) depicting the highlights of
reading selection.
--Illustrate new learning on a poster including appropriate captions and details.
--Create a poem, chant, song, or play demonstrating new learning.
--Do a Graffiti Write representing students’ learning:
1. Each team has chart paper, each team member has a marker. A topic or question
is posed. At the start signal each person writes a personal comment about the topic
or question on the chart paper—at the same time. 2 minutes.
2. When time is called, teams rotate to next table, read comments and add their own—
may be same topic/question or another question or focus. 2 minutes.
3. Rotate again, either to another table or back to own table. Post results.
Report Out representations for class to enjoy or problem solve answers.
Making Content Comprehensible—
5. Interaction
Opportunities for Interaction:
☺ Learning is more effective when students have an opportunity to participate fully—discussing
ideas and information
☺ Effective teachers strive to provide a more balanced linguistic exchange between themselves
and their students—ELL students need the practice in speaking!
☺ Interaction accesses the thought processes of another and solidifies one’s own thinking
☺ Talking with others, either in pairs or small groups allows for oral rehearsal of learning
Encouraging more elaborate responses:
--going beyond “yes” and “no” answers—
“Tell me more about that”
“What do you mean by…”
“What else…”
“How do you know?”
“Why is that important?”
“What does that remind you of?”
or teacher restates student’s answer—
“In other words….
Is that accurate?”
or teacher allows wait time for student to formulate answer
or teacher calls on another student to extend classmate’s response
Fostering student-student interaction:
--Putting students in pairs, triads or small groups
--Types of activities that encourage “table talk”:
Literature circles, think-pair-share, jigsaw readings debates, science or
math experiments
Grouping Configurations:
☺ All students, including English Language Learners, benefit from instruction that frequently
includes a variety of grouping configurations
☺ It is recommended that at least 2 different grouping structures be used during a lesson
▪ Variety:
Whole class—
To develop classroom community
To provide a shared experience for everyone
Flexible small groups—
To promote multiple perspectives
To encourage collaboration
To provide practice opportunities
To scaffold instruction
To give assistance before independent practice
Homogenous or Heterogeneous grouping
By gender, language proficiency, language background, and/or ability
Variety maintains students’ interest
Movement from whole class, to partners, to small group increases student involvement
Varying group structures increases the preferred mode of instruction for students
Cooperative Learning Activities:
Information gap activities—Each student in a group has only one or two pieces of
information needed to solve the puzzle or problem. Students must work together, sharing
information while practicing their language, and using critical thinking skills.
Jigsaw—Jigsaw reading task by chunking text into manageable parts (1-2 pages).
Number students in each group (1-4 or 5). All #1s read the first 2 pages, #2s read the
second 2 pages, etc. These expert groups then discuss their reading and share ideas. The
original groups reconvene, discuss the whole text and share their expertise. Students pool
their information.
Numbered heads together—Similar to Jigsaw without forming expert groups. Each
student works on one portion of assignment and then students share.
Four corners—Great activity to introduce a topic or chapter of study. Write one question
or idea on each chart paper. Divide class into 4 groups, each group has a different color
marker—students move to one corner chart paper and designated student begins writing
their ideas on chart. Time activity 2-4 minutes. Students move clockwise to next corner,
read responses and add their comments.
Roundtable—Use with open-ended questions, grammar practice. 4-5 students are
grouped at tables, one sheet of paper, one pencil. Question or grammar point is given by
teacher, students pass paper around table, each writing their own response. Teacher
circulates room.
3 Step Interview—Students are paired. Each student listens to the other as they respond
to a topic question. At the end of 3 minutes, each pair joins another pair of students and
shares what their partners said. Good way to practice language.
Writing Headlines—Good way to practice summarizing an activity, story or project.
Provide models of Headlines. Students work in pairs writing a headline for an activity. Pairs
share out their headlines and class votes on most effective headline.
Send a Problem—One table team sends a question or problem to another table. Each
table team solves or answers question and passes it back to original table. This is a good
way to review for a test.
Wait Time:
▪ Wait time varies by culture: The average length of wait time in US classrooms is clearly
not sufficient
--Effective teachers allow students to express their thoughts fully without interruption
TIP: Allow students to practice their answer with a partner before calling on them to speak out
before the whole class.
TIP: Have more advanced students write down their responses while waiting, and then check
their answers against the final answer.
Clarify Key Concepts in L1:
▪ Best practice indicates that ELLs benefit from opportunities to clarify concepts in their native
language L1—
--Use bilingual paraprofessionals, teachers, peers as clarifiers for vocabulary, concepts, or
--Use native language texts, dictionaries as tools to illuminate or illustrate topic
Making Content Comprehensible—
6. Practice and Application
Hands-on Materials and/or Manipulatives for Practice:
☺ Students have a greater chance of mastering content concepts and skills when :
▪ given multiple opportunities to practice
▪ practice is in relevant, meaningful ways
▪ practice includes “hands-on “ experiences
☺ Planning for hands-on practice:
Divide content into meaningful short chunks
Time for practice should be short—10-15 minutes
New learning should have several short practices close together
Older learning should be practices distributed further apart—review material periodically
Give students immediate feedback on how well they have done
☺ ELL students need to connect abstract concepts with concrete experiences: Material
can be organized, created (chart learning), counted, classified (concept mapping), stacked
(index card review), rearranged, dismantled…
Application of Content and Language Knowledge:
☺ Abstract concepts and new information needs to be applied in a personally relevant way-▪ Writing in a diary format through a character
▪ Making and Playing a game for content review (Jeopardy, Bingo, Wheel of Fortune…)
▪ Creating a semantic map
▪ Writing test questions to ask another student
▪ Teaching concepts to another student
☺ Discussing and “doing” make abstract concepts concrete.
Making and using graphic organizers
Solving problems in cooperative groups
Engaging in discussion circles
Partnering students in a project before independent work
☺ Opportunities for social interaction promote language development.
Small group discussions
Working with partners
Reporting out information orally and in writing
☺ Modeling correct English after a student has made a pronunciation or grammar error can
gently but effectively instill appropriate usage.
Integration of Language Skills:
☺ Reading, writing, listening, and speaking are interrelated and integrated naturally—we
read when we write, we listen when we are talking with someone, etc.
☺ Most young children become grammatically competent in their home language by age 5—for
ELL students, the teacher needs to develop language skills in a holistic manner.
☺ Practice in any one area (listening, speaking, reading, writing) promotes development in
the others.
☺ Connections between abstract and concrete concepts are best accomplished when all
language processes—reading, writing, listening, and speaking—are incorporated during
practice and application.
What does a Classroom that Incorporates
Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing…
Does your classroom incorporate a variety of Listening, Speaking, Reading,
and Writing activities during Practice and Application?
Making Content Comprehensible—7. Lesson Delivery
Content Objectives:
☺ Content objectives must be clearly supported by lesson delivery:
▪ Should be stated orally
▪ Should be written on board for all to see—preferably in a designated space every time
▪ Purpose:
Reminds us of lesson focus
Provides a structure to classroom procedures—before, during, after
Allows students to know direction of the lesson
Supplies way for students and teacher to evaluate lesson in light of content
▪ Limit content objectives to one or two per lesson
☺ “When teachers spend their time and energy teaching students the content the students need
to learn, students learn the material…”
Language Objectives:
☺ Language objectives must be clearly supported by lesson delivery:
▪ Should be stated orally
▪ Should be written on board for all to see—preferably in a designated space every time
▪ Can relate to ESL Standards from TESOL
▪ Can be from State Language Arts Benchmarks
▪ Can be specific to book language studied (certain verb form, word endings, vocabulary,
punctuation, summarizing, active discussion…
▪ Needs to be recognizable in lesson’s delivery
Students Engaged:
☺ Students should be engaged 90-100% of the period for lesson delivery to be effective
☺ “When students spend their time actively engaged in activities that relate strongly to the
materials they will be tested on, they learn MORE of the material.”
Leinhart, Bickel & Pallay
☺ The most effective teachers minimize boredom, off-task behaviors, making announcements,
passing out papers, etc.
☺ Aspects of student engagement to consider:
▪ Allocated time—decisions teachers make regarding amount of time spent on topic and
each academic task (reading, word study, writing…)
▪ There is a balance between teacher presentation and opportunities for students to apply
▪ Engaged time—Time students are actively participating during allocated time:
The more actively students participate in the instructional process the more they
▪ Students learn more then they are attending
to the learning tasks that are the focus of instruction
Academic learning time—Students’ time-on-task, when the task is related to the
materials on which they will be tested—not just-for-fun activities!
Class time needs to be planned efficiently—and therefore effective use of time and
☺ Factors that contribute to high levels of student engagement:
1. Well planned lessons
2. Clear explanation of academic tasks or instructions
3. Appropriate amount of time spend on an academic task
4. Strong classroom management skills
5. Opportunities for students to apply learning in meaningful ways
6. Active student involvement
7. Lesson design meets the language and learning needs of students
☺ Pacing refers to the rate at which information is presented during a lesson.
▪ Rate for ELL students must be brisk enough to maintain students’ interest but not too
quick to lose their understanding.
▪ Practice will reward a perfect pace.
Making Content Comprehensible—
8. Review and Assessment
Review of Key Vocabulary:
☺ Key vocabulary can be developed through analogy:
▪ Relating newly learned words to other words with the same structure or pattern (ex:
photosynthesis ↔ photography)
Drawing students’ attention to tense, parts of speech, and sentence structure
Repeating and reinforcing language patterns for words to become automatic
☺ Ways to scaffold :
Paraphrasing—oral rehearsal of what student is going to say with group before saying it to
the whole class or saying the definition of a word right after the word
▪ Systematic study—remember “research says isolated word lists and dictionary definitions
alone do not promote vocabulary and language development. Words should be studied
through multiple modalities—see them, say them, write them many times in different ways,
act them out, sing them, draw them, find them in context….
▪ Word Study Books—This is a student-made personal notebook in which the student
includes frequently used words and concepts. Book can be organized by language structure:
-tion, -sion, -tation and/or alphabetical, and/or by topic of study (ex: Revolution words)
One way to enter words: Write the word, include a personal definition, use the word in
a sentence, and add a memorable symbol or drawing that will trigger the word from
▪ “School Talk” sessions—Teach discussion circle protocol:
taking turns, polite
disagreement words, how to ask and answer questions. Do a practice session with a fun
topic of students’ interest like movie stars, cars…
Review of Key Content Concepts:
☺ Review key concepts during and at the end of a lesson:
▪ Informal summarizing review—ex: “Up to this point….Discuss in your groups the 3
important things we have learned so far.”
▪ Periodic review (chunking) leads into next section to be studied
▪ Structured review—summarizing with partners, listing key points on board.
▪ Link review to content objectives—ensures focus on essential concepts
▪ Final review—allows students to assess their own understandings and clarify
Providing Feedback:
☺ Periodic review:
▪ Clarifies and corrects misconceptions
▪ Develops students’ proficiency in English
▪ Allows for paraphrasing students’ responses in correct English and complete sentences
☺ Feedback given orally and in writing, supported by facial expressions and body language—
nod, smile, encouraging look…
Assessment of Lesson Objectives:
☺ Assessment is “the gathering and synthesizing of information concerning students’ learning”
☺ Evaluation is “making judgments about students’ learning”. Assessment comes first, then
☺ Informal Assessment:
▪ On-the-spot, ongoing opportunities to determine the extent of students’ learning.
▪ Includes teacher observations, anecdotal reports, informal conversations with students,
☺ Authentic Assessment:
▪ Application to real life—real life contexts
▪ Multidimensional—ex: students’ writing, taped pieces, interviews, videotapes, observations,
projects, discussion, performances, group responses…
▪ Includes multiple indicators to show competency of a content objective. Use of a rubric
defines level of learning and is shared with students and parents
▪ Group responses:
Agree/Disagree, True/False, Yes/No –index cards that students or groups of
students could use to quickly give their answers to questions. Teacher can quickly
see responses.
Thumbs up/thumbs down—Like the index cards, students can quick respond to
questions. For “I don’t know” students can make a fist. Teacher gets a feel for whole
class understanding or agreement.
Numbered wheels-Tag board strips (5” x 1”). Each strip is numbered 0-5 or 0-10.
This allows students to answer multiple-choice questions quickly by holding up
appropriate number. O is a “Don’t know” response. These are great for review
before a written test.
Response boards: Small chalk or white boards, or even plastic plates can be used
for group resonses. Use dry-erase markers, chalk, or crayons that can be erased for
next question.
Experiencing Culture
in the Classroom
Having students in our classes who represent a different culture
from our own is both a challenge and an opportunity for growth. This is
a great opportunity to broaden our perspectives and learn about our
students’ lives and where they come from. It also means honoring their
language and culture. The whole class can together celebrate the
diversity they represent within this nation of immigrants. The New York
ESL guide for Primary teachers suggests:
• If you wish to know more about your students and the
culture they represent, ask them.
• Whenever possible, include information and prepare lessons
about your students, who speak a language other than
English in their homes, country and the culture of the
• If they speak little English, learn some words in their
language to welcome them and to make them feel
• Take time to visit the library and find out about the country
your students come from, the foods they eat, the holidays
they celebrate, the language they speak, etc.
For example, L’Anse Creuse Higgins Elementary School has many
Spanish speaking students who come to work in the farming areas
nearby. The teachers have a Cinco De Mayo festival in May so all the
students can learn about the
Mexican holiday, foods and
customs. Teaching migrant
students becomes a very enriching
experience for the teachers and for
the rest of their class. The potential
for broadening cross-cultural
understanding is great. Respecting
and learning about others and their
cultures helps us all to grow.
Identifying Cultural Information to Integrate Culture
in the Classroom2
To integrate cultural experiences into the classroom curriculum
teachers can use the first hand experiences and rich background of the
students in the classroom and their parents. Cultural symbols, cultural
products and practices have been suggested by Pesola (1991)
Cultural Symbols
•flags, insignia
•significant national monuments
•symbols associated with holidays
•symbols of good and bad luck
•symbolic meaning of animals
•heroes from history
Cultural Products
•visual arts and artists
•musical arts and composers
•important characters, events and folk
•traditional children’s songs, rhymes, and
•traditional stories and legends
•folk arts
•currency, stamps and other realia
•traditional and holiday foods
Cultural Practices
• forms of greeting
• celebration of holidays
• use of gestures
• meals and eating practices
• shopping
• favorite playtime and recreational activities
• home and school life
• patterns of politeness
• types of pets and attitudes toward pets
• how children and families move from place to place.
Children’s literature, folk and fairy tales, songs, rhymes, and finger
plays provide valuable resources for cultural information. Take fantasy
trips to other cultures and countries where the children in your class
originated. Use background music, cultural realia and photos to
encourage the fantasy trip.
Invite the bilingual instructional assistant working with the limited
English Proficient student to come to the classroom to talk about their
culture, holidays and customs.
Learn folk dances and singing games
from other cultures.
Michigan Humanities Council
has ROADS Culture Kits with
information and realia about six
different cultures which have an
influence in Michigan. These kits
are designed to supplements any
school curriculum and correspond to
the MDE Content Standards and Benchmarks for Language Arts and
Social Studies.
The Current ROADS Culture Kits include:
• Native Peoples: Indians of the Great Lakes
• German Heritage
• African-American Heritage
• the Americas: Hispanic History and Cultures
• African History and Cultures
Even though 28% of Michigan’s population claims to be of German
descent, most have been long ago assimilated into the mainstream
culture and today we have only few students in our schools who speak
the German language in their homes. However, one of the largest groups
who speak a language other than English in their homes is the Arabic or
Middle East population.
The Middle East and Arabic Cultures7
More than 250,000 Arabs live in southeastern Michigan
representing the second largest Arabic population outside of the Middle
East. This is Michigan’s second largest and one of the fastest-growing
minority populations. Most of the Arabic-speaking population in
Michigan come from Palestine, Lebanon, Yemen, Egypt, Iran and Iraq.
Initially this group was attracted by Detroit’s auto industry, but now they
come to live among the large networks of relatives in the area. Since they
come from diverse backgrounds, there is a broad range of lifestyles,
religions, and levels of assimilation.
The ROADS Culture kit contain specific lesson plans and cultural
artifacts focusing on:
• Religions of the Middle East
• Development of the early alphabet
• History of Al Andalus (Muslin Spain)
• Middle Eastern Folksongs and Folkdances
• Food Traditions in the Arab World
• Science: The Islamic Legacy
Cultural Factors and Traditions
Family composition and organization – There is usually an
extended family structure. Usually the male is viewed as the decision
maker and authority figure in the family. In some instances, the female
makes the decisions. Females are trained at an early age to take care of
the home and household activities and to prepare for the role of wife and
mother in the future. However, more females are being educated and
preparing themselves for various careers such as education, social
services, and business.
In the Middle East the predominant religion is Islam. However,
other religions are practices such as Christianity, Judaism, Bahais, and
Druze. Some of the Moslem females still wear the scarf over their heads
but some have gradually stopped wearing a veil or chador which is a
symbol of the Islamic religion.
Attitudes toward Handicaps.
In the Middle East there are few if any special programs and/or
services for the handicapped. Often families try to hide the handicapped
condition of their children in order to prevent them from becoming
Grades are important to both parents and students. Elementary
schools in the Middle East are composed of grades Kindergarten through
seventh. Many schools provide bilingual programs in Arabic and either
English or French. At the end of the seventh year, a national
examination is given to all students to determine if they will enter junior
high school or go to a vocational program.
Work Ethic.
The parents may have either one of two focuses regarding the work
ethic. One is they want a good education that will lead their children
into a professional career. They urge high aspirations and tell their
children that if they succeed in school they will have a good job in the
The second focus some parents have is to train the children to run
a business. At an early age, children are encouraged to participate in the
family-owned business in order to learn the value of work and receive the
necessary training to carry on with the family business.
The Mexican-Americans and Hispanic Population and
Culture7 4
The 1990 census projections estimated Hispanic Americans to
number about 22.4 million. In Macomb County, migrant works also
come to the farming areas in the northern communities and then travel
back to Mexico during the three winter months. These students provide
an ongoing interaction with their original homeland and reinforcement of
traditional values and cultural practices. It helps if teachers and
students better understand the historical cultural roots of this growing
population. The Humanities Cultural Kits present holidays such as La
Dia de Los Muerdos/ Day of the Dead Celebrations, Latin American
Folktales, Mariachi Music Tradition, The art of Diego Rivera and Frida
Khalo as well as a history of the Aztecs, Mayas, and Incas.
More information about the Culture Kits may be obtained from the
MHC office 1(517)372-7770.
The Hispanic population in Michigan includes Cubans, Central
Americans, Mexican-Americans , Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, Spaniards,
and south Americans. Even the Mexican-Americans are not a
homogeneous population., but represent a wide range of acculturation
and interaction in American society. Many of the parents of MexicanAmerican students living in America want to retain their language and
cultural traditions. Thus, elementary schools that have a foreign
language program which includes Spanish in the elementary school will
find these parents very please. Parents want their students to retain and
develop both languages.
Cultural factors
Family composition and organization -- Within the Mexican
culture, the family is the most valued institution, and the main focus of
social identification. Nuclear families are commonly found among
Mexican-Americans, but there still exist many extended families which
extend to over three generations. Traditional females tend to display
subdued qualities, while males have been the authority figure in the
family. Each person in the family has the potential for increasing
community respect for the family by their personal; behavior.
Most Mexican-Americans appreciate and value the American
educational system. Traditional Mexican-American students have been
taught to respect older members of their community, teachers, and
employers. Many students experience our educational with little or no
difficulties. At the same time, there are Mexican-American students who
have difficulties due to cultural differences and/or lack of English
proficiency skills. Some students are unable to fully benefit from the
educational system because of economic conditions which force them to
be employed to maintain themselves. Also, the rate of mobility between
the U.S. and Mexico affects the education of the students.
Work ethic
In the Mexican-American culture there is a strong loyalty and
solidarity in the family unit. This family loyalty often is transferred to
the work setting. This loyalty translates into work behaviors such as
willingness to do additional tasks without being asked, working
additional hours, or providing moral support to their supervisor and/or
co-workers; therefore, Mexican-Americans become valued employees. In
the educational setting, Mexican-American students work particularly
well in groups. Mexican-American parents encourage their teenage
children to find employment. Many parents view it as an opportunity to
understand the world of work and the value of earning money. In some
poor families, the children’s earnings are necessary in order to feed and
clothe the family members.
In the home of the Mexican-Americans, the principal language is
usually Spanish. In the migrant community the parents, as a rule, know
little or no English. They often rely on their children who have been to
school here to translate for them and to help them make purchases. At
home, the children speak varying amounts of Spanish and English.
Generally speaking, the children who have lived in the U.S. the longest
are the ones who use the most English, although their Spanish remains
essential in order to converse with their parents and older relatives. The
parents of the Mexican-American children are often illiterate in Spanish
which means the children do not usually have much exposure to the
process of reading and writing except in the school setting.
Southeast Asians may be Hmong, Cambodians, Laotians, Thai,
Vietnamese, Korean, Chinese and Mien
South East Asian Americans and Refugees
Many immigrants from Southeast Asia arrived as refugees to
United States. The Southeast Asians include Vietnamese, Cambodians
(Khmer), Hmong, Mien, Laotians and Thai.
Hmong Culture and Traditions
(from MDE Bilingual Dept. Refugee Inservice Project4)
The Hmong are new arrivals to Macomb County Michigan
and currently we have over 200 receiving ESL services from the
MISD Bilingual/ESL program. There are many other students
who have not been referred to our program. These students are
descendants of the refugees from the mountains of northern
Laos. Their ancestors emigrated to Laos from China nearly 150
years ago, probably to escape slave conditions. The name
Hmong means “free man.”
In Laos, the Hmong practiced slash and burn agriculture,
which required moving every few years as the old soil became
depleted. Their principle crops were dry rice, garden vegetables
and opium poppies. They were also well-known in their
homeland as hunters and horsemen. Since they were good
soldiers and knew the region they were recruited by the CIA as
soldiers in the Vietnam War. When the war was over, they had
to flee their country and many became the “boat people” to
escape persecution.
For the Hmong, both here and in Laos, family life is of paramount
importance. There are approximately twenty clans of Hmong and each
can be regarded as an extended family who shares a common ancestry.
The Hmong last names utilized in this country are the clan names. Clan
leaders have traditionally been the key decision makers for the Hmong
community and their influence is important in this country as well.
Many of the
Hmong traditionally are
animists who believe in
an omni-present spirit
world. These beliefs are
manifest in all aspects of daily living and account for many Hmong
customs and rituals. For example, home building, childbirth and
medical practices all take into consideration the role of the spirits or tlan
in the life of the Hmong.
The rich heritage of spiritual beliefs carries over to the art work of
the Hmong. The Hmong women have long practiced embroidery and
stitchery called paj ntaub (pahn-dow) which incorporates a variety of
symbolic designs. The intricate embroidery stitches and reverse applique
were traditionally used to decorate native clothing. The women have
adapted their craft to include items popular in this country as well.
Many of the designs used can be seen in the cultural activities, as
illustrated on the next page.
A Lesson Plan Using a Hmong Folktale
The Dog and the Horse6
There once was a farmer with a dog and a horse. One day, a
burglar entered the farmer’s home, but the dog didn’t do anything about
it. He let the thief steal all of the farmer’s things.
In the morning, when the farmer went to check his things,
everything was gone. He turned to the dog and asked if he’d seen
someone steal his things the night before. The dog denied having seen
In the evening, the horse asked the dog why he hadn’t done
anything to the thief the night before.
The dog answered, “I didn’t do anything last night because many
times before I chased thieves away, but the farmer never gave me
anything to eat. He still lets me go very hungry.”
The horse said, “If you don’t want to do anything when a thief
comes, let me do it.”
The Dog agreed , so the horse continued, “If I see a thief coming to
steal things, I will make a loud noise, and farmer will come to catch the
In the evening, the thief came again, so the horse made a loud
noise. The farmer came running, but instead of praising the horse for
his good deed, the farmer picked up a board and hit the horse in the
mouth to make him be quiet.
The dog, who had been watching, spoke to the horse, “I told you
already, but you wouldn’t believe me. Now, you know I was right. You
said you wanted to do it, and you didn’t believe me, and now you know I
was right.”
The poor horse answered, “I hoped the farmer wouldn’t do that,
and I don’t know why he did that to me.” The horse never helped the
farmer again.
The moral of the story is: “Don’t force your help on someone who
does not request it.”
Lesson for The Dog and The Horse
Students will gain an understanding of Hmong life by reading and
dramatizing a story from Hmong folklore.
Grade Level:
all levels
Materials Needed:
above story of The Dog and The Horse
1. Read the Hmong folktale “The Dog and The Horse” and instruct
students to listen for the following:
a. characters – personality, qualities, movement
b. setting
c. sequence
d. clues that tell about the Hmong people and their way of
2. Have students orally or on paper answer the following
a. Who were the characters in the folktale?
b. What was the farmer’s problem?
c. When did the problem occur?
d. Why didn’t the dog do anything to help the farmer?
e. How did the horse help the farmer?
f. How did the farmer praise the horse?
g. What is the moral of this folktale?
h. What does the this moral mean to you?
3. Dramatize the story.
Divide the students into four equal groups, each group
representing a character. Have the students sit in a circle
according to character. Review sequence and action of the
tale and each character. Students practice parts, movement
and dialogue may be used, allow 3-5 minutes. Reread the
tale with performers acting out their specific roles on cue
from the leader. Discuss when they’re finished.
4. Students write their own folktales incorporating their own
beliefs of right and wrong. Include characters, setting, plot
and moral.
Vietnamese Culture Factors and
Family Composition and Organization.4
Vietnamese have a solid extended family structure. Each
individual comes second to the family providing support to all members.
The family includes a nuclear family and extended family of parents,
children, grandchildren, in-laws, paternal and maternal grandparents.
Children are expected to care for their parents in old age and maintain
the ancestral shrine. Children represent abundance and happiness.
Obedience is the most important rule that children have to follow.
Sex Role:
The father is the head of the household and usually the wage earner and
always treated with respect. Often the female is responsible for
managing family finances, running the household, and rearing children.
Concepts of Modesty –When a Vietnamese is praised for doing something
very well, a denial is commonly heard.
In Vietnam, Buddhism is the predominant religion. The religion
originated by an Indian Prince, Siddartha, later called Gautama Buddha;
Buddha means “the Enlightened One.” Another influence is the religious
philosophy of Confucianism which is a code of social. Behavior. This
philosophy advocates humanism. Yet another influence is Taoism which
was founded by Lao-tzu, a Chinese philosopher. The principal teachings
of Taoism are charity, simplicity,. Patience, harmony among men and
harmony between man and nature.
Ancestor worship is also practiced. They believe that proper worship of
one’s ancestors can bring beneficial results to one’s life. Therefore, the
anniversary of the ancestor’s death is an important day that must be
observed with proper respect. On that day, an actual mean - usually
more elaborate than an ordinary meal - is prepared and served on the
family altar where incense and aromatic joss sticks are burned. Many
Vietnamese also follow a vegetarian diet on the fifteenth day of the lunar
calendar. They often go to Buddhist temples this day as well.
Catholicism was introduced in Vietnam in the Sixteenth Century by
missionaries bust suffered persecution during the Nineteenth Century.
However, this religion prospered again during the 1950’s.
Vietnamese Student’s Behavior in School.
Greeting and leaving taking - as a sign of respect, students usually stand
up and great the teacher simultaneously when he/she enters the
classroom. They try to be quiet in class and usually avoid asking for
clarification, being afraid to hurt the teacher’s feelings. A negative
response is always embarrassing for a Vietnamese because it implies a
violation of the rule of harmony. “Yes” may be understood as a polite
“No.” It also may mean “Yes, I’m acknowledging your question,” rather
than “Yes, I understand you.” Vietnamese students seldom admit to
their teacher that they do not understand what is being taught. Most
Vietnamese students are very polite and sometimes shy.
Cultural Value of Time:
The Vietnamese concept of time is different from that of the Americans.
Since time in and of itself has no intrinsic value, the pace of life in their
country is very relaxed.
In seeking to understand the Vietnamese, it is useful to keep understand
the Vietnamese axiom:
“Just as the length of a road is known only
by actually traveling on it.,
The qualities of a man are known only
By living with him for a long time.”
Lesson Plan on Vietnamese Proverbs4
Proverbs - Bits of Wit and Wisdom
To learn about Vietnamese culture through its folklore; to
distinguish between literal and inferred meanings.
Grade Level
Upper elementary
Materials Needed
Paper, pencils and attached list of proverbs or Vietnamese Sayings.
1. Provide copies of proverbs. Discuss what a proverb is and give
examples with which students might be familiar. Examples:
“People in glass houses shouldn’t throw stones,” “A stitch in
time, saves nine.” Talk about the literal and inferred meanings.
2. Go over proverbs with students, making sure the inferred
meanings are clear. Have them write the meanings under the3
proverb. Discuss what can be learned about people from their
3. This is an activity that is fun to dramatize. Group students into
sets of 2 or 3, each group choosing one proverb to act out. This
can be done in pantomime (gestures but no words) or using
4. Give 5-10 minutes for small groups to meet and formulate a
short skit showing the meaning.
5. Each group presents its “act” to the class, who try to figure out
which proverb is being dramatized.
Optional Activities
1. Compile lists of proverbs family or friends have heard. Share
with the class.
2. Print a proverb on a piece of paper or oak-tag,. Decorate with
symbols appropriate to the wording of the proverb. Compile in
a book.
3. Great sources for other proverbs are the Oxford Dictionary of
English Proverbs, Wm. Smith and E. P. Wilson, and McMillan
Book of Proverbs, B. Stevenson.
Vietnamese Sayings
1. What is written in the stars cannot be changed or altered.
2. Man cannot know the whole world, but can know his own
small part.
3. A jewel box of gold and jade holds only jewels of great price.
4. An evil heart keeps records on the face of its owner.
5. He lived his days in justice standing strong against the
6. A man’s worth is what he does, not what he says he can do.
7. What is to be must happen as day follows after night.
8. In truth, beauty seeks goodness; what is one is the other.
9. Real beauty mirrors goodness; what is one is the other.
10. Beauty is not painted on; it is the spirit showing.
English Proverbs---Old, Well Known Sayings.
Complete these old, well known American Proverbs:
Better Be Safe Than . . .
It’s Always Darkest Before . . .
Strike While The . . .
Never Under Estimate The Power of . . .
You Can Lead a Horse To Water But . .
Don’t Bite The Hand That . . .
No News Is . . .
A Miss Is As Good As A . . . .
You Can’t Teach An Old Dog New . . .
If You Lie Down With The Dogs, You’ll . . .
Love All, Trust . .
The Pen Is Mightier Than The . . .
An Idle Mind Is . . .
Where There’s Smoke, There’s . . .
Happy The Bride Who . . .
A Penny Saved Is . . .
Two’s Company, Three’s . . .
Don’t Put off Tomorrow What . . .
Laugh And The Whole World laughs With You, Cry And . . .
Children Should be Seen And Not . . .
If At First You Don’t Succeed . . .
You Get Out of Something What You . . .
When The Blind Leadeth The Blind . . .
There Is No Fool Likes . . .
Answers on the following page
Old English Proverb Sayings:
Better Be Safe Than Sorry.
It’s Always Darkest Before the storm.
Strike While The iron is hot.
Never Under Estimate The Power of a woman.
You Can Lead a Horse To Water But you can’t make him drink.
Don’t Bite The Hand That feeds you.
No News Is good news.
A Miss Is As Good As A mile.
You Can’t Teach An Old Dog New tricks.
If You Lie Down With The Dogs, You’ll . . ..
Love All, Trust none.
The Pen Is Mightier Than The sword.
An Idle Mind Is the devils workshop.
Where There’s Smoke, There’s fire.
Happy The Bride Who The Sun Shines On.
A Penny Saved, Is a penny earned.
Two’s Company, Three’s a crowd.
Don’t Put off Tomorrow What you can do today.
Laugh And The Whole World laughs With You, Cry And you cry alone.
Children Should be Seen And Not heard.
If At First You Don’t Succeed, try, try again.
You Get Out of Something What You put in.
When The Blind Leadeth The Blind
There Is No Fool Like an old fool.
A Third grade teacher collected old, well known proverbs.
She gave each kid in her class the first half of a proverb, and had them
come up with the rest.
Better Be Safe Than . . .
Punch a 5th Grader.
It’s Always Darkest Before . . .
Daylight Savings Time.
Strike While The . . . .
Bug is close.
Never Under Estimate The Power of . . .
You Can Lead a Horse To Water But . .
Don’t Bite The Hand That . . .
Looks Dirty.
No News Is . . .
A Miss Is As Good As A . . . .
You Can’t Teach An Old Dog New . . .
If You Lie Down With The Dogs, You’ll . . . Stink In the Morning.
Love All, Trust . .
The Pen Is Mightier Than The . . .
An Idle Mind Is . . .
The Best Way To Relax.
Where There’s Smoke, There’s . . .
Happy The Bride Who . . .
Gets All The Presents!
A Penny Saved Is . . .
Not Much.
Two’s Company, Three’s . . .
The Musketeers.
Don’t Put off Tomorrow What . . .
You Put On To Go To Bed.
Laugh And The Whole World laughs With You, Cry And . . .
You Have to Blow Your Nose.
Children Should be Seen And Not . . .
Spanked or Grounded.
If At First You Don’t Succeed . . .
Get New Batteries.
You Get Out of Something What You . . . See Pictured On The Box.
When The Blind Leadeth The Blind . . .
Get Out Of The Way.
There Is No Fool Likes . . .
Aunt Edie.
In the 1990’s many new Chinese immigrants settled in
Macomb County. The Chinese family is a tightly-knit group,
believing that in unity there is strength. No matter what size
the family is, there is a strong bond within both the nuclear
and extended units. Respect and priority is given to the eldest
in all activities. There is a strong emphasis placed on kindheartedness, righteousness, morality and ethics, propriety and
sense of humility, filial piety and family ties, respect for elders
and authority. This is the Sino-Confucian tradition.
The Chinese system of writing is based on Characters. This
system of writing is ancient, unique and fascinating. In contrast to our
Western world where writing is functional or a way of communicating
verbal idea, In Asia, writing is aesthetic experience, taking rhythm,
fluency and variety into consideration. The very ancient characters were
pictures that represented an object or idea. Pictographs have been found
carved onto rocks, shells and bones dated as early as five thousand
years ago. However, as the Chinese society developed, a more
sophisticated system of communication was required and writing
symbols changed. The new characters were made from modifications of
the old pictographs and additions based on the needs of a growing
society just as has happened in our own language.
Attached are Chinese characters for the Common Expression
presented in the booklet for other languages. Unless your students have
been to school in China or where Chinese was studied your students will
not be able to read the symbols because they learn their home language
orally from their parents.
Lesson Plan Activity For Deciphering the Code4
Purpose: To introduce students to Chinese writing and interpretation of
Grade Level: Upper elementary
Materials Needed: paper
attached items
Attached: “Teardrop Dragon” story
Character Guides (1 copy of each per student)
1. Discuss writing and characters, ask students to recall symbols in our
everyday lives: road signs, logos for companies, musical groups.
Discuss how these develop and change.
2. hand out character sheet #1 and discuss changes. Speculate as to
why changes might have occurred; neatness in work, uniformity in
symbols, change in writing tools, etc.
3. Refer to the directions and description on character sheet #2. Have
students practice their strokes by using the practice grid as a guide.
Use calligraphy markers or brushes and black watered down tempera
4. Hand out copies of the story and character guide #3. Read the first
two sentences together, discerning the English equivalent of the
Chinese character., Insert the English word above the character.
5. Have the students complete the story on their own.
6. As an additional activity have the students write their own story using
character guide #3 as a reference. By exchanging stories the students
can do several decoding activities.
Cultural Etiquette
Some guidelines to help you understand these cultures:
1. Indian Social Etiquette – (India)
a. We do not call the elders and seniors by their name, but by way
of respect; we call them ‘uncle’ or ‘aunt’
b. Teacher is not called by name, but as Sir or Madame
c. Children don’t make eye contact when talking to elders or
d. One can not touch or take off the Turban of a Sikh – it is an
e. Guests are shown great respect and hospitality
f. When going to the Sikh Temple, one should cover head
2. Hmong, Thai, Lao (Southeast Asian)
a. To beckon, one waves all fingers with the palm facing down
b. The head is the most sacred part of the body
c. One never touches a person’s head without expressed
d. People do not show the bottom of their foot
e. Men and women rarely show affection in public
f. When conversing with an elder or superior, one stands at a
distance of a few feet
g. To pass in front of someone or between two people, one asks
permission and bows slightly until past
h. When conversing with a superior, one crosses the hands rather
than keeping them by one’s side
3. Albanian (Albania)
a. Albanians often move their hands and heads when conversing,
although maintain eye contact as much as possible
b. To indicate “yes,” one shakes the head slowly from left to right
c. To indicate “no,” one either nods briefly up and down or by
clicking the tongue and nodding the head down once
d. A “thumbs up” gesture is impolite, meaning “You’ll get nothing
from me”
e. Placing a left hand over the chest and moving the head slightly
show appreciation
f. Albanians use the index finger when making point
g. Showing both hands with open fingers, palms up, means “Our
conversation is over”
h. To pat another person’s shoulder means “I am proud of you”
i. Young people might show strong approval by quickly moving
the hand horizontally, while at the same time bringing the
thumb and index fingers together and clicking the tongue
4. Bosnian (Bosnia)
a. Friends may wave to one another on the street
b. It is impolite to beckon with the index finger, giving an
impression that one is in trouble
c. Bosnians customarily offer older persons a seat on the bus
d. Eye contact is expected when people raise their glasses prior to
a toast
5. Arabic (Algeria)
a. Algerians commonly use hand gestures during or instead on
b. Two clasped hands is a greeting at a distance
c. Men often slap the palm of a friend’s hand to express something
like “brilliant,” “good joke,” or “touche”
d. Pressing a flat right hand to the heart shows appreciation or
e. To ask for patience, one joins the right hand’s fingertips, palm
up, and moves it up and down slightly
f. The index finger may be extended to indicate a warning, but it
is impolite to point directly at someone or something
g. Algerians avoid using the left hand for gestures
h. One passes items with the right hand or both hands
i. Facial gestures, such as expressing doubt by tightening the lips
and raising the eyebrows, are also common
j. Algerians take care not to let the bottom of the foot point at
others, and they do not place feet on furniture
k. Showing thumb is bad; it means you are disobeying or you are
not going to do what you are asked to do
l. You can not show thumbs to the elders
m. Girls should not laugh too loud
6. Mexican (Mexico)
a. Mexicans typically stand close to each other while talking,
sometimes touching their friend’s clothing
b. They often use hand and arm gestures in conversation
c. A person can indicate “no” by shaking the hand from side to
side with the index finger extended and palm outward
d. The “thumbs up” gesture expresses approval, but the “thumbs
down” gesture is considered vulgar
e. Tossing items is offensive
f. If someone sneezes, a person may say Salud! (Health)
g. If passing between conversing individuals is unavoidable, one
says “Con Permiso” (Excuse me)
h. It is considered important to say “Gracias” (Thank you) for any
favor or commercial service rendered
Resources and References
1. Eastern Stream Center for Resources and Training, Oreonta, NY
Help! They Don’t Speak English Starter Kit 1991.
2. Curtain, Helena & Carol Pesola. Languages and Children, Making the
Match. 2nd Ed. Longman, 1994.
3. Freeman, Yvonne & David Freeman. ESL/EFL Teaching, Principles for
Success. Heinemann, 1998
4. MDE Office of Bilingual Education, Refugee Inservice Project.
Activities for the Classroom. 1985.
5. Maculaitis, Jean & Mona Scheaga. The Compete ESL/EFL Resource
Book. National Text Book Company, 1995.
6. McDowell, Marsha, Editor. Hmong Folk Arts: A Guide for Teachers,
“The Dog and The Horse” Michigan State University, 1984.
7. Michigan’s Model for Delivering Vocational Education to Secondary
Limited English Proficient and Minority Language Students, 1985.
8. Source taken from: “Making Content Comprehensible for English Language
Learners”, Echevarria, Vogt, Short.
Compiled by the Bilingual and Compensatory Education Resource Team,
Dearborn Public Schools,
Michigan 2002
Recommended Teaching materials/books
1. Handbook for Teaching Hmong-Speaking Students. By Bruce Thowpaou
Bliatout & Downing Bruce & Judy Lewis & Dao Yangs.Southeast
Asia Community Resource Center, Folsom Cordova Unified School
District, 1988. Address: 125 East Bidwell Street, Folsom, CA 95630.
Telephone: (916) 635-6815 or 985-4483. Cost: $4.77.
2. Helping Kids Learn Multi-Cultural Concepts. By Michael G. Pasternak.
Research Press Company, 1986. Address: 2612 N. Mattis Aavenue,
Champaign, Illinois 61821. ISBN: 0-87822-194-8.
3. What Teachers Need to Know About Language. Edited by Carolyn
Temple Adger, Catherine E. Snow & Donna Christian. A publication of
Delta Systems Co., Inc.m and The Center for Applied Linguistics.
ISBN: 1-887744-75-4.
4. Making Content Comprehensible for English Language Learners – The
SIOP Model. By Jan Echevarria, MaryEllen Vogt & Deborah J. Short. A
Pearson Education Company, Needham Heights, MA 02494. ISBN: 0205-29017-5.
5. “Ready-To-Use ESL Activities for Every Month of School Year.” By Carol
A. Josel. The Center for Applied Research in Education, West Nyack,
New York 10995. ISBN: 0-87628-848-4.
6. Newcomer Program Activity Book. K-2. By Judie Haynes. Prentice Hall
Regents ESL. ISBN: 0-13-369257-4.

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