Self-Publishing with OOo3 Writer - Taming LibreOffice

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Self-publishing
using
LibreOffice Writer
How to use free software to
write, design, and create PDFs
for print-on-demand books
Jean Hollis Weber
Friends of OpenDocument, Inc.
Australia
Copyright © 2012 Jean Hollis Weber
This book is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, v 3.0
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/). You are free to copy, distribute
and transmit the work, and to adapt the work, under the condition that you must
attribute the source (this book) to Jean Hollis Weber, but not in any way that that
suggests Jean endorses you or your use of the work.
All trademarks within this guide belong to their legitimate owners.
Published by:
Friends of OpenDocument Inc.
544/60 Beck Drive North
Condon, QLD 4915
Australia
This book was created using free software: LibreOffice Writer 3.6 (word processing
and page layout) and the Gimp 2.8 (image editing). Both programs are available for
Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X.
ISBN 978-1-921320-29-3
Contents
Preface............................................................. vii
Why use LibreOffice?............................................................ vii
What do you need to do first?.............................................. viii
Using LibreOffice on a Mac.................................................. viii
What are all these things called?..........................................viii
What you see may be different................................................ x
For more on self-publishing.................................................... x
Acknowledgments................................................................... x
Part 1:
Essentials...........................................................1
1 Introduction to Writer....................................3
The Writer workspace............................................................. 3
Toolbars.............................................................................. 4
Context-sensitive toolbars.................................................. 4
Displaying and hiding toolbars..........................................5
Moving toolbars.................................................................. 5
Customizing toolbars.......................................................... 5
Docked and floating windows................................................. 6
Right-click (context) menus.................................................... 6
Status bar................................................................................ 6
Changing document views...................................................... 9
Using the Navigator................................................................ 9
Move quickly through a document....................................11
Use the Navigation toolbar............................................... 12
Set reminders.................................................................... 12
Creating a new document...................................................... 13
Create a document from a template.................................13
Saving a document.................................................................14
Saving as a Microsoft Word document............................. 14
Combining several documents into a book...........................15
2 Set Up Writer................................................17
Choosing options for all of LibreOffice..................................17
User data........................................................................... 18
i
General options.................................................................18
View options..................................................................... 19
Print options.....................................................................20
Appearance options.......................................................... 21
Choosing Load and Save options..........................................22
Choosing options for Writer.................................................24
Writer general options.....................................................24
View options..................................................................... 25
Formatting Aids options...................................................25
Grid options......................................................................26
Print options for Writer....................................................26
Table options.................................................................... 28
Change-tracking options.................................................. 28
Choosing language settings...................................................28
Install the required dictionaries.......................................28
Change some locale and language settings......................29
Choose spelling options....................................................30
3 Write and Edit in Writer...............................31
General recommendations.................................................... 31
Selecting, copying, and pasting text...................................... 32
Moving paragraphs quickly................................................... 32
Finding and replacing text and formatting...........................33
Find and replace specific formatting................................34
Find and replace paragraph styles...................................35
Find and replace line breaks and paragraph ends...........35
Checking spelling.................................................................. 36
Using Writer’s built-in language tools..................................37
Using the thesaurus.............................................................. 39
Using automatic functions.................................................... 39
AutoCorrect...................................................................... 40
Word completion.............................................................. 41
AutoText........................................................................... 42
Including document information..........................................42
4 Design your Book using Writer’s Styles.........45
What are styles? Why use them?...........................................45
Types of styles.................................................................. 46
Basic page layout using page styles.......................................46
Automating the sequence of page styles..........................48
Creating and modifying paragraph styles..............................51
ii
Properties of paragraph styles.......................................... 52
Modify the built-in sequence of styles..............................53
5 Format Pages in Writer................................. 57
Defining page styles...............................................................57
Examples...........................................................................57
Setting up headers and footers.............................................62
Numbering pages.................................................................. 63
Restart page numbering................................................... 63
Applying page styles.............................................................. 64
Apply a sequence of page styles........................................64
Change a sequence manually...........................................64
Add a title page to an existing book..................................65
Add a copyright page to an existing book........................66
6 Format Text in Writer................................... 67
Typography............................................................................67
Hyphenating words............................................................... 68
Manual hyphenation........................................................ 70
Working with fonts................................................................70
Use paragraph styles......................................................... 71
Use character styles...........................................................71
Applying paragraph and character styles..............................72
Use the Styles and Formatting window............................72
Use the Apply Style list..................................................... 72
Use Fill Format mode....................................................... 73
Use keyboard shortcuts.................................................... 74
Inserting special characters...................................................74
Inserting non-breaking spaces and hyphens........................75
Inserting dashes.................................................................... 75
Defining your own tabs and indents.....................................76
Working with lists..................................................................77
Create a new list style.......................................................77
Apply the list style.............................................................81
Combine list and paragraph styles...................................81
7 Create PDFs using Writer.............................83
Quick export to PDF..............................................................83
Controlling PDF content and quality.................................... 84
General tab of PDF Options dialog..................................84
Initial View tab................................................................. 87
iii
User Interface tab............................................................. 87
Links tab........................................................................... 88
Security tab...................................................................... 88
Part 2:
Extras............................................................... 89
8 Pictures and Graphics in Writer....................91
Creating and editing images.................................................. 91
Prepare images for black-and-white printing..................92
Inserting an image from a file............................................... 93
Inserting images from other sources....................................95
Graphics program............................................................. 95
Scanner............................................................................. 95
LibreOffice Gallery........................................................... 96
Modifying an image............................................................... 97
Use the Picture toolbar..................................................... 97
Use the Object toolbar and right-click menu...................98
Use the Picture dialog...................................................... 98
Crop an image.................................................................. 98
Rotate an image................................................................ 99
Positioning images within the text......................................100
Arrange images............................................................... 101
Anchor images.................................................................101
Align images................................................................... 102
Wrapping text around images............................................. 103
Example: page wrapping................................................ 105
Using Writer’s drawing tools...............................................106
9 Tables of Contents in Writer........................107
Creating a table of contents quickly....................................107
Defining a hierarchy of headings........................................108
Choose paragraph styles for outline levels.....................109
Customizing a table of contents........................................... 110
Index/Table tab............................................................... 111
Entries tab....................................................................... 113
Styles tab......................................................................... 115
Columns tab.................................................................... 116
Background tab............................................................... 116
Maintaining a table of contents...........................................116
iv
10 Indexes in Writer......................................... 117
Adding index entries............................................................ 117
Building an alphabetic index quickly................................... 119
Customizing index entries...................................................119
Example of using an index key....................................... 120
Customizing an index...........................................................121
Index/Table tab............................................................... 121
Entries tab....................................................................... 123
Columns tab.................................................................... 124
Styles tab......................................................................... 125
Maintaining an index...........................................................125
View and edit existing index entries............................... 126
11 Create Special Effects in Writer...................127
Drop caps............................................................................. 127
Edit the Drop Caps character style.................................128
Character spacing................................................................ 129
Rotating text........................................................................ 130
Centering text vertically on a page....................................... 131
Paragraph borders and backgrounds..................................132
Page borders and backgrounds...........................................132
Header and footer special effects........................................133
Include document information.......................................134
Use a table to align text in headers and footers..............135
Special effects for lists......................................................... 136
12 Track Changes in Writer..............................137
Preparing a document for review........................................ 138
Recording changes and comments......................................138
Viewing recorded changes................................................... 139
Accepting or rejecting changes............................................ 139
Merging modified documents.............................................. 141
Comparing documents......................................................... 141
Inserting, editing, and replying to notes.............................142
13 Use Templates in Writer..............................145
Creating a template............................................................. 146
Using predefined templates................................................. 147
Setting up a custom default template..................................148
Creating a document from a template.................................149
Editing a template............................................................... 150
v
Updating a document when its template is changed..........150
Changing to a different template.........................................151
Use a blank document based on a new template............151
Use the Template Changer extension.............................152
14 Customize Writer........................................ 153
Customizing menus and toolbars........................................ 153
Assigning shortcut keys....................................................... 153
Example: Assign styles to shortcut keys.........................153
Example: Assign macros to shortcut keys...................... 155
Reset the shortcut keys...................................................157
Adding functionality with extensions..................................158
Install extensions............................................................ 158
Index...............................................................159
About the author............................................. 164
vi
Preface
This book is for beginners to intermediate users of LibreOffice
Writer who want to produce a book-length document such as a
novel, a collection of poetry or essays, or a non-fiction book, and
then self-publish the book using an on-demand printing service
(Lulu, CreateSpace, Lightning Source, or the like).
Why use LibreOffice?
People use LibreOffice for several reasons:
•
No licensing problems. You can put the program on as
many computers as you wish, and give away copies to as
many people as you wish. LibreOffice does not need to be
activated or registered, and it never “phones home” unless
you have told it to do so—to check for updates, for example.
•
No cost. You never have to pay for a copy, if you download it
from the official website. CDs are available at low cost.
Beware of people selling the program on CD for more than
$10—or at any price for downloading from any website.
Higher prices and download fees are legal, but why pay more
for a free program?
•
Multi-platform. It works on Microsoft Windows, Apple’s
Mac OS X, Linux, and other operating systems.
•
File compatibility. You can open and save to many file
formats, including Microsoft Office formats, in addition to
the default OpenDocument format.
•
Built-in export to PDF (Portable Document Format). You
no longer need to buy or use another program to create PDFs,
unless your printing service demands that you do so.
vii
What do you need to do first?
This book assumes that you have successfully installed LibreOffice
on your computer, and that you know how to create, edit, save, and
print files. Although this book was written for LibreOffice 3.6, most
of the information is relevant to earlier versions of LibreOffice and
to Apache OpenOffice. Some details may vary with the version and
with your operating system.
If you do not already have a copy of LibreOffice, or if you want to
upgrade to the latest version, go to http://www.libreoffice.org/ to
download a free copy.
Using LibreOffice on a Mac
Some keystrokes and menu items are different on a Mac from those
used in Windows and Linux. The table below gives some common
substitutions for the instructions in this chapter. For a more
detailed list, see the application Help.
Windows or Linux
Mac equivalent
Effect
Tools > Options
menu selection
Right-click
LibreOffice >
Preferences
Control+click and/or
right-click depending
on computer setup
z (Command)
Shift+z+F5
z+T
Access setup options
Ctrl (Control)
F5
F11
Open a context menu
Used with other keys
Open the Navigator
Open the Styles and
Formatting window
What are all these things called?
The terms used in LibreOffice for most parts of the user interface (the
parts of the program you see and use, in contrast to the behind-thescenes code that actually makes it work) are the same as for most
other programs.
A dialog is a special type of window. Its purpose is to inform you
of something, or request input from you, or both. It provides
controls for you to use to specify how to carry out an action. The
technical names for common controls are shown below; not shown
viii
is the list box (from which you select an item). In most cases This
book does not use the technical terms, but it is useful to know them
because the Help and other sources of information often use them.
1. Tabbed page (not strictly speaking a control).
2. Radio buttons (only one can be selected at a time).
3. Checkbox (more than one can be selected at a time).
4. Spin box (click the up and down arrows to change the number
shown in the text box next to it, or type in the text box).
5. Thumbnail or preview.
6. Drop-down list from which to select an item.
7. Push buttons.
In most cases, you can interact only with the dialog (not the
document itself) as long as the dialog remains open. When you close
the dialog after use (usually, clicking OK or another button saves
your changes and closes the dialog), then you can again work with
your document.
ix
Some dialogs can be left open as you work, so you can switch
back and forth between the dialog and your document. An example
of this type is the Find & Replace dialog.
What you see may be different
The illustrations in this book were taken from a variety of computers
and operating systems. Therefore, some illustrations will differ from
what you see on your computer display.
For more on self-publishing
This book introduces Writer as a tool for preparing a PDF for a selfpublished book, but it does not cover other aspects of the printing
and publishing process or specifics of the various print-on-demand
services.
You can find numerous books on these topics. Aaron Shepherd’s
book Aiming at Amazon has many essential tips for the selfpublisher about publishing, obtaining and using ISBNs, print-ondemand (particularly through Lightning Source), and getting your
book listed by Amazon and other online bookstores. You can get
Aaron’s book from his website,
http://www.newselfpublishing.com/books/AimingAmazon.html
Acknowledgments
Material in this book is generally based on Getting Started with
LibreOffice and LibreOffice Writer Guide. These books were
produced by a team of volunteers. Copies are available as free PDFs
on the LibreOffice website, on the LibreOffice Documentation wiki,
and in low-cost printed editions published by Friends of
OpenDocument, Inc. Here are the website addresses:
http://www.libreoffice.org/get-help/documentation/
https://wiki.documentfoundation.org/Documentation/Publications
http://www.lulu.com/spotlight/opendocument
x
Part 1:
Essentials
The first seven chapters of this book cover topics that every selfpublisher needs to know about using LibreOffice Writer for
writing and desktop publishing of books.
1 Introduction to Writer
2 Set Up Writer
3 Write and Edit in Writer
4 Design your Book using Writer’s Styles
5 Format Pages in Writer
6 Format Text in Writer
7 Create PDFs using Writer
The seven chapters in Part 2: Extras (beginning on page 89)
cover topics that may be relevant to your book or your use of
LibreOffice Writer, but are not needed by everyone.
1
Introduction to Writer
Writer is the word processing component of LibreOffice. It has
many important features that are of interest to self-publishers:
•
Powerful page layout
•
Easy-to-use templates and styles
•
Export to PDF
•
Placement of pictures and graphics
•
Automatic creation of tables of contents and indexes
•
Tracking of changes during editing
Writer also provides the usual features of a word processor,
including spelling checker, thesaurus, hyphenation, autocorrection,
find and replace, and mail merge.
Learning how to use Writer to create, edit, and manage
documents is an important first step. This chapter introduces these
basics.
Writer is similar to Microsoft Word, but it is also different. If you
are familiar with Word, you may need to learn some new ways when
you work in Writer. If you can’t find a certain feature in Writer,
don’t assume that feature is not there. Writer might handle it in a
different way.
The Writer workspace
The most commonly used view of the main Writer workspace, Print
Layout, is shown on the next page. (Go to page 9 for more about
document views.)
Chapter 1 Introduction to Writer
3
Toolbars
Most of Writer’s toolbars can be either docked or floating. They can
be moved to different locations (top, side, bottom) in the Writer
workspace. They can even be floated outside the Writer window.
The top toolbar is called the Standard toolbar. All LibreOffice
components (Writer, Calc, Draw, Impress, Base) have this toolbar.
The second toolbar at the top is the Formatting toolbar. It shows
tools related to the selection or the cursor’s position. For example,
when a graphic is selected, the Formatting toolbar shows tools for
formatting graphics. When the cursor is in text, the tools shown are
Writer’s text formatting tools.
Context-sensitive toolbars
Writer has several other toolbars that normally appear only when
the context requires them. For example, when the cursor is in a
table, the Table toolbar appears. When the cursor is in a list, the
Bullets and Numbering toolbar appears. These toolbars are
normally floating, but you can dock them.
4
Chapter 1 Introduction to Writer
Displaying and hiding toolbars
To display or hide toolbars, choose View > Toolbars, then click on
the name of a toolbar in the list. An active toolbar has a checkmark
next to its name.
Moving toolbars
To move a docked toolbar, click on its handle and drag it to the new
location. To move a floating toolbar, click on its title bar and drag it
to the new location. Floating toolbars dragged to a docking location
change into docked toolbars.
Customizing toolbars
You can choose which icons are visible on a toolbar. You can also
add icons and create new toolbars, as described in Chapter 14.
To customize a toolbar, right-click between the icons on the
toolbar. A menu drops down.
Choose Visible Buttons from this menu to open a submenu.
Visible icons are indicated by a border around the icon or a
checkmark by the icon (depending on your operating system). Click
on an icon to select or deselect it.
The Writer workspace
5
Docked and floating windows
Windows such as the Navigator, Styles and Formatting, and Gallery
can be moved, re-sized, or docked.
To dock or undock a window, hold down the Control key and
double-click on the gray area next to the icons at the top of the
window.
To move a floating window, click on the title bar and drag the
window, as you would do for a floating toolbar.
Right-click (context) menus
You can quickly access many menu functions by right-clicking on a
paragraph, a graphic, or another object. A context menu will pop up.
Often the context menu is the fastest and easiest way to reach a
function. If you do not know where to find a function in the menus
or toolbars, you can often find it by right-clicking.
Status bar
The Writer status bar provides both information about the
document and convenient ways to quickly change some document
features. From left to right, the fields are as follows.
6
Chapter 1 Introduction to Writer
Left end of status bar
Page number
Shows the current page number, the sequence number of the
current page (if different), and the total number of pages in the
document. If you restarted page numbering at 1 on the third page,
then its page number is 1 but the sequence number of that page is 3.
If any bookmarks have been defined in the document, a rightclick on this field pops up a list. Click on the required bookmark.
To jump to a specific page in the document, double-click on this
field. The Navigator opens (see page 9). On the Navigator, click in
the Page Number field and type the sequence number of the
required page. After a brief delay, the display jumps to that page.
Word count
Shows the number of words in the document, updated as you add or
delete words. If you select some text, this area also includes a word
count for the selection (as shown in the illustration).
Page style
Shows the style of the selected page. To change the page style, rightclick on this field. A list of page styles pops up; choose a different
style by clicking on it. To edit the current page style, double-click on
this field; the Page Style dialog opens.
Language
Shows the language for the selected text. Click to open a menu
where you can choose another language for the selected text or for
the paragraph where the cursor is located. You can also choose
None (Do not check spelling). Choose More to open the
Character dialog.
Insert mode
This area is blank when in Insert mode. Double-click to change to
Overwrite mode. Single-click to return to Insert mode.
Status bar
7
Right end of status bar
Selection mode
Click to toggle between Standard, Extending, Adding and Block
selection. The icon does not change, but a tooltip indicates which
mode is active. Extending is an alternative to Shift+click when
selecting text. See the Writer Guide for more information about
these modes. Normally you would use Standard.
Unsaved changes
Different icons appear here if the document has unsaved changes
(
) or if all changes have been saved (
).
Digital signature
An icon ( ) appears here if the document has been digitally signed.
Double-click the icon to view the certificate.
Object information
When the cursor is in a section, heading, or list item, or when an
object (such as a picture or table) is selected, information about that
item appears in this field. Double-clicking in this area opens a
relevant dialog.
View layout
Choose an icon to change between single page, side-by-side, and
book layout views. You can edit the document in any view.
Zoom settings (see below) interact with the selected view layout and
the window width to determine how many pages are visible in the
document window.
Zoom
To change the view magnification, drag the Zoom slider or click on
the + and – signs or right-click on the percent field to pop up a list
of choices.
8
Chapter 1 Introduction to Writer
You can also double-click on the percent field to open the Zoom
and View Layout dialog.
Changing document views
Writer provides three ways to view a document: Print Layout, Web
Layout, and Full Screen. To change the view, go to the View menu
and click on the desired view. (When in Full Screen view, press the
Esc key to return to either Print or Web Layout view.)
When in Print Layout, you can use both the Zoom slider and the
View Layout icons on the status bar. In Web Layout, you can use
only the Zoom slider.
You can also choose View > Zoom from the menu bar to
display the Zoom & View Layout dialog, where you can set the same
options that are on the status bar. In Web Layout view, most of the
choices are not available.
Using the Navigator
In addition to the Page Number field on the status bar (described on
page 6), Writer provides other ways to move quickly through a
document. The many features of the Navigator, the Navigation
toolbar, and related icons help you find specific items in a
document.
Using the Navigator
9
The Navigator lists all of the headings, tables, text frames,
graphics, bookmarks, and other objects contained in a document.
To open the Navigator, click its icon on the Standard toolbar,
or press F5, or choose View > Navigator on the menu bar, or
double-click on the Page number field on the status bar. You can
either dock the Navigator to the side of the main Writer window or
leave it floating.
In the list of categories, click the + sign by any of the lists to
display the contents of the list.
The icons at the top of the Navigator window have the effects
described in the table below.
Active only in master documents and their associated
subdocuments.
Opens the Navigation toolbar (see page 12).
Jumps to the previous or next item in the document. To select
the category of items, see page 12.
Jumps to the page number in the box. Type the page number
or select it using the up and down arrows.
Drag Mode. Select hyperlink, link, or copy.
10
Chapter 1 Introduction to Writer
List Box On/Off. Shows or hides the list of categories.
Content View. Switches between showing all categories and
showing only the selected category.
Inserts a reminder (see page 12).
Jumps between the text area and the header or footer area (if
the page has them).
Jumps between a footnote anchor and the corresponding
footnote text.
Choose the number of heading levels to be shown.
Move quickly through a document
The Navigator provides several convenient ways to move around a
document and find items in it:
•
To jump to a specific page in the document, type its sequence
number in the box at the top of the Navigator.
•
When a category is showing the list of objects in it, doubleclick on an object to jump directly to that object’s location in
the document.
To see the content in only one category, highlight that
category and click the Content View icon. Click the icon
again to display all the categories. You can also change the
number of heading levels shown when viewing Headings.
•
Use the Previous and Next icons to jump to other objects of
the type selected in the Navigation toolbar. (See below for
details.)
Tip
Objects are much easier to find if you have given them names
when creating them, instead of keeping Writer’s default names
of graphics1, graphics2, Table1, Table2, and so on. These default
names may not correspond to the position of the object in the
final document.
Using the Navigator
11
Use the Navigation toolbar
To display the Navigation toolbar, click the Navigation icon in
the Navigator (page 9) or the small Navigation icon near the lower
right-hand corner of the window below the vertical scroll bar
(shown on next page).
The Navigation toolbar shows icons for all of the object types
shown in the Navigator, plus some extras (for example, the results
of a Find command).
Previous, Navigation, and Next icons
Navigation toolbar
Click an icon to select that object type. Now all the Previous and
Next icons (in the Navigator itself, in the Navigation toolbar, and on
the scroll bar) will jump to the next object of the selected type. This
is particularly helpful for finding items like bookmarks and index
entries, which can be difficult to see in the text. The names of the
icons (shown in the tooltips) change to match the selected category;
for example, Next Graphic, or Next Bookmark.
Set reminders
A little-known and very useful feature of Writer is reminders.
Reminders let you mark places in your document that you want to
return to later on, to add or correct information, make some other
change, or simply mark where you finished editing. The possible
uses of reminders are limited only by your imagination.
12
Chapter 1 Introduction to Writer
To set a reminder at the cursor’s location, click on the
Reminder icon in the Navigator. You can set up to 5 reminders
in a document (setting a sixth causes the first to be deleted).
Reminders are not highlighted in any way in the document, so
you cannot see where they are, except when you jump from one to
the next—the location of the cursor then shows the location of the
reminder.
To jump between reminders, first select the Reminder icon on
the Navigation toolbar. Then click the Previous and Next icons.
Creating a new document
To create a new, blank document in Writer:
•
When LibreOffice is open but no document is open, click the
Text Document icon in the Start Center, or click the
Templates icon to start a new document using a template.
When a document is already open in Writer:
– Press the Control+N keys, or
– Use File > New > Text Document, or
– Click the New button on the main toolbar.
The new document opens in a new Writer window.
•
Create a document from a template
A template serves as the foundation of a set of documents, to make
sure that all documents in the set have a similar layout: the same
page size, the same headers and footers, the same fonts, and so on.
If you plan to save the chapters of your book as separate
documents and combine them into one file at the end, as described
on page 15, then you should base the individual chapters on a
template.
To create a new document based on a template, choose File >
New > Templates and Documents, or click the Templates icon
on the Welcome screen. In the Templates and Documents dialog,
choose the required template and click Open.
For more about creating and using templates, see Chapter 13.
Creating a new document
13
Saving a document
Writer saves in a file format called OpenDocument Text (.odt).
To save a document:
• Press Control+S, or
• Use File > Save, or
• Click the Save icon on the main toolbar.
To save a document under a different name, choose File > Save As.
Saving as a Microsoft Word document
If you need to exchange files with users of Microsoft Word who are
unwilling or unable to receive .odt files, you can save a document as
a Microsoft Word file.
1 First save your document in the file format used by
LibreOffice, *.odt (very important—this is your working
copy).
2 Then click File > Save As.
3 On the Save As dialog, in the File type drop-down menu,
select the type of Word document you need. Click Save.
You want to keep working with the LibreOffice version of your
document, so close the Microsoft Word file and open the .odt file
again. If you don’t, then all changes you make to the document will
occur in the Microsoft Word (.doc) document.
This procedure leads to the undesirable situation of having two
versions of the document on your computer: .odt and .doc.
To avoid this, you can generate a .doc file and email it to
someone without saving it. Choose File > Send > E-mail as
Microsoft Word. Writer creates a temporary .doc file and opens
an email program with the .doc file attached. Type or select the
recipient’s email address and send the email as you normally would.
14
Chapter 1 Introduction to Writer
Combining several documents into a book
One way to build your book is to save each chapter or section in a
separate document. Reviewers or editors can then deal with
individual chapters while you work on others.
When the book is complete, you need to combine all the chapters
and other material (title page, copyright page, and so on) into one
file before final formatting, creating a table of contents, and
producing a PDF for printing.
To combine files:
1 Open the first file. Ensure that end-of-paragraph marks are
visible.
2 Go to the last page of the document. If there is no blank
paragraph at the end, press Enter at the end of the last
paragraph to create a blank paragraph.
3 With the cursor in the blank paragraph, choose Insert >
File from the menu bar.
4 Select the second document and click Insert.
5 Wait a few seconds for the file to open and paginate, then
repeat steps 2 through 4 for the third and subsequent
documents until all have been included. Save the book under
another file name.
6 Proceed with final formatting (see Chapter 5).
Note on master documents
LibreOffice has a master document feature for combining a
collection of files into one file. Although master documents do
work, they have some quirks that can make them more trouble
than they are worth for books that are mostly text. Master
documents are best left for more complex documents. For this
reason they are not covered in this book.
Combining several documents into a book
15
2
Set Up Writer
This chapter describes how to set up some of Writer’s features. You
may want to jump right into designing or writing your book, but
spending a few minutes with this chapter now will save you from
irritation later.
This chapter does not cover all of the options. See the help file or
the Writer Guide for more information.
Choosing options for all of LibreOffice
On the menu bar, click Tools > Options. If you don’t see the
subsections in the Options dialog, click the expansion symbol (+
sign or triangle) by LibreOffice in the left-hand section.
Note
The Back button (not shown above) resets the options to the
values that were in place when you opened LibreOffice. This
button has the same behavior on all the Options pages.
Chapter 2 Set Up Writer
17
User data
Because Writer uses the name or initials stored in the User Data
page for several things, for example document properties (created
by and last edited by information) and the name of the author of
notes and changes, you’ll want to make sure that the correct
information appears in this field.
General options
Some of the options on the General page are described below.
Help – Tips
When Tips is active, one or two words appear when you hover
the mouse pointer over an icon or field.
Help – Extended tips
When Extended tips is active, a brief description of the function
of a particular icon or menu command appears when you hover
the mouse pointer over that item.
18
Chapter 2 Set Up Writer
Help Agent
To turn off the Help Agent (similar to Microsoft’s Office
Assistant), deselect this option. To restore the default behavior,
click Reset Help Agent.
Document status
If this option is selected, then the next time you close the
document after printing, the print date is recorded in the
document properties as a change and you will be prompted to
save the document again, even if you did not make any other
changes.
View options
The View choices control how the document window looks and
behaves. Some of the options are described below.
User Interface – Scaling
Changes the font size in menus and in the help files. This setting
does not change the actual font size of text in documents.
User Interface – Icon size and style
Changes the size and style of toolbar icons.
Menu – Show icons in menus
Causes icons to appear next to words in menus.
Choosing options for all of LibreOffice
19
Font Lists – Show preview of fonts
Shows an example of the font along with the font name.
(Left) Font list with preview; (Right) Without preview
Font Lists – Show font history
Causes the last five fonts that you have assigned to the current
document to be displayed at the top of the font list.
Selection – Transparency
Selected text or graphics appear on a shaded background. To
make the shaded background more or less dark, increase or
decrease the Transparency setting.
Print options
Set print options for the default printer and most common printing
method. Change these settings at any time by using this page or by
clicking the Options button on the Print dialog during the printing
process.
In the Printer warnings section near the bottom, you can choose
to be warned if the paper size or orientation in the document do not
match the paper size or orientation of the printer.
Tip
If your printouts are coming out incorrectly placed on the page
or chopped off at the top, bottom, or sides, or if the printer is
refusing to print, the most likely cause is page size
incompatibility. See also “Print options for Writer” on page 26.
20
Chapter 2 Set Up Writer
Appearance options
Writing, editing, and (especially) page layout are easier when you
can see the page margins (text boundaries), the boundaries of tables
and sections, grid lines, and other features. In addition, you might
prefer colors that are different from the defaults of LibreOffice for
such items as note indicators and field shadings.
•
To show or hide things such as text boundaries, select or
deselect them.
•
To change the colors of these items, click the down-arrow in
the Color setting column and select a color from the dropdown list.
•
To save your color changes as a color scheme, type a name in
the Scheme box and click Save.
Choosing options for all of LibreOffice
21
Choosing Load and Save options
In the Options dialog, click the expansion sign (+ or triangle) to the
left of Load/Save and choose General. Some items are described
below.
22
Chapter 2 Set Up Writer
Load user-specific settings with the document
When you save a document, certain settings are saved with it.
When a document is opened, some settings (printer name, data
source linked to the document) are always included (loaded),
whether or not this option is selected. If you select this option,
these document settings are overruled by the user-specific
settings of the person who opens the document. If you deselect
this option, users’ personal settings do not overrule the settings
in the document.
Load printer settings with the document
If this option is not selected, the printer settings that are stored
with the document are ignored when you print using the Print
File Directly icon. The default printer in your system is used
instead.
Edit document properties before saving
If this option is selected, the Document Properties dialog pops
up to prompt you to enter relevant information the first time you
save a new document (or whenever you use Save As).
Save AutoRecovery information every __ Minutes
Choose whether to enable AutoRecovery and how often to save
the information used by the AutoRecovery process.
AutoRecovery overwrites the original file. If you also choose
Always create a backup copy, the original file then
overwrites the backup copy. Recovering your document after a
system crash will be easier, but recovering an earlier version of
the document may be harder.
Default file format and ODF settings
ODF format version. If you share documents with people who
use software that does not handle ODF 1.2 well, you can save the
document using ODF version 1.0/1.1.
Document type. If you routinely share documents with users
of Microsoft Word, you might want to change the Always save
as attribute for text documents to one of the Word formats. (A
better strategy would be to ask the Word users to work with
your .odt files. See “Saving as a Microsoft Word document” on
page 14 for more information.)
Choosing Load and Save options
23
Choosing options for Writer
Settings chosen on the pages in the
LibreOffice Writer section of the
Options dialog determine how your
Writer documents look and behave
while you are working on them.
In the Options dialog, click the
expansion symbol (+ sign or triangle)
next to LibreOffice Writer in the lefthand section of the dialog. A list of
pages drops down.
Writer general options
Settings on this page control the
updating of links and fields, the units
used for rulers and other measurements, whether captions are
automatically added to things such as tables and figures, and
paragraph spacing and tab stop behavior.
The main items of interest on this page are in the Settings
section: the measurement unit and the default tab stop interval.
The default tab stops setting controls two things: tabs within
paragraphs and the indentation of entire paragraphs when using the
Increase Indent button on the Formatting toolbar.
Using the default tab stops to space out material on a page is not
recommended. It may cause major formatting problems. Instead,
define your own tab stops in paragraph styles or individual
24
Chapter 2 Set Up Writer
paragraphs, as described in “Defining your own tabs and indents”
on page 76.
Tip
To change the measurement unit of the ruler itself, right-click on
the ruler, then select the desired unit from the pop-up list. This
change does not change the measurement unit chosen under
Tools > Options.
View options
Set the defaults for viewing Writer documents on the two pages
called View and Formatting Aids.
View is a good page to check when you cannot see expected
graphics or when you see field codes instead of text or numbers.
Formatting Aids options
Symbols for tabs and for paragraph ends help you when writing,
editing, and doing page layout. You might want to know if any tabs
or blank paragraphs are present or if any tables or graphics extend
into the margins.
Note
Direct cursor lets you place text, images, tables, frames, and
other objects in any blank area on the page. Writer inserts blank
paragraphs and tabs to position the text or objects. Avoid this
feature. It is incompatible with the correct use of styles and leads
to formatting oddities.
Choosing options for Writer
25
Grid options
Snap to grid is helpful when you are trying to align objects such as
graphics or tables. You can adjust the sizing of the grid and you can
specify other grid details.
Print options for Writer
Choose which items are printed with the document by default.
These options are in addition to those on the LibreOffice – Print
page (page 20).
Some considerations:
•
26
When you are working on drafts and you want to save printer
ink or toner, deselect some of the items in the Contents
section.
Chapter 2 Set Up Writer
•
The Print black selection causes colored text (but not
graphics) to print as solid black on both color and black-andwhite printers. (On most black-and-white printers, colored
text and graphics print as grayscale.)
Contrast this setting with Convert colors to grayscale on
the LibreOffice – Print page (page 20), which causes both
colored text and graphics to print as greybeard on color
printers.
•
If you are printing double-sided on a non-duplexing printer,
print only the left or the right pages, then turn the stack over
and print the other half.
•
Depending on how your printer ejects pages (face up or face
down), you might need to print the pages in reverse order so
that they stack in the correct order as they are printed.
Tip
You can override any of these defaults when printing a
document. Click File > Print, then click the Options button on
the Print dialog. The Printer Options dialog that appears is
similar to the one shown above.
Choosing options for Writer
27
Table options
Use this page to specify the default behavior of tables.
•
If most of your tables will require borders or headings, select
those options. Otherwise, deselect borders and headings here,
and add them as needed to individual tables.
•
Number recognition can be very useful if most of your tables
contain numerical data. Writer recognizes dates or currency,
for example, and formats the numbers appropriately.
However, if you want the numbers to remain as ordinary text,
deselect this option.
Change-tracking options
If you plan to use the change-tracking feature of Writer (described
in Chapter 12), use the Changes page to choose how inserted and
deleted material is marked, whether and how attribute changes such
as bold or italics are marked, and whether and how change bars
appear in the margins.
Choosing language settings
You may need to do several things for the language settings:
• Install the required dictionaries
• Change some locale and language settings
• Choose spelling options
Install the required dictionaries
LibreOffice automatically installs several dictionaries. To add other
dictionaries, be sure you are connected to the Internet, and then use
Tools > Language > More Dictionaries Online. LibreOffice
will open your default web browser to a page of links to additional
dictionaries (supplied as extensions). Follow the instructions on
page 158 to select and install the ones that you want.
28
Chapter 2 Set Up Writer
Change some locale and language settings
You can change some details of the locale and language settings that
LibreOffice uses, for all documents or for specific documents.
In the Options dialog, on the left, choose Language Settings >
Languages. On the right, change User interface, Locale setting,
Default currency, and Default languages for documents as required.
In the example, English (UK) has been chosen for all the settings.
If you want the language (dictionary) setting to apply to the
current document only, instead of being the default for all new
documents, select For the current document only.
Here you can also select the options to enable support for Asian
languages (Chinese, Japanese, Korean) and support for CTL
Choosing language settings
29
(complex text layout) languages such as Hindi, Thai, Hebrew, and
Arabic. If you choose either of these options, the next time you open
this dialog, you will see some extra choices under Language
Settings. These choices (Searching in Japanese, Asian Layout, and
Complex Text Layout) are not discussed here.
Choose spelling options
In the Options dialog, on the left, choose Language Settings >
Writing Aids. On the right, near the bottom, choose the settings
that are useful for you.
•
If you don’t want spelling checked as you type, deselect
Check spelling as you type and select Do not mark
errors (to find these, scroll down in the Options list).
•
If you use a custom dictionary that uses uppercase words and
words with numbers such as AS/400, select Check
uppercase words and Check words with numbers.
•
Check special regions is for checking the spelling of
headers, footers, frames, and tables.
Here you can also check which of the user-defined (custom)
dictionaries are active. Add or remove dictionaries by clicking the
New or Delete buttons.
30
Chapter 2 Set Up Writer
3
Write and Edit in Writer
This chapter covers the basics of writing and editing using Writer.
Formatting, fonts, symbols, and lists are covered in Chapter 6.
•
Select, copy, paste, and move text
•
Find and replace text
•
Check spelling and use the thesaurus
•
Use language tools
•
Use autocorrection, word completion, and autotext
•
Include document information in text
General recommendations
Write and edit before formatting
Write, edit, and assemble materials, and then use Writer to format
your book. Do not format as you write.
Concentrate on the content when you are in the writing and
editing stage. Concerns about formatting in this stage will just
distract you.
Certainly, apply paragraph styles to headings and other elements
as you go, but don’t worry about other layout issues such as spacing,
page breaks, font choices, placement of graphics, and so on.
If you need to share drafts with a user of Microsoft Word, you
can save drafts in Word and receive edits in Word, without being
concerned about possible formatting incompatibilities.
Spacing of paragraphs and headings
Define spacing between paragraphs in the paragraph style as
described in Chapter 6.
Do not press Enter several times to create extra space either
between paragraphs or before and after headings. Doing this might
create blank paragraphs tagged as headings, which will show up
with page numbers in the Table of Contents.
Chapter 3 Write and Edit in Writer
31
Selecting, copying, and pasting text
The Writer operations of selecting, cutting, and copying text are
similar to the same operations in other word processors. You can
copy or move text within a document, or between documents, by
dragging or by using menu selections, icons, or keyboard shortcuts.
You can also copy text from other sources and paste it into a Writer
document.
When you paste text, the result depends on the source of the text
and how you paste it. If you click on the Paste icon, then the pasted
text keeps its original formatting. If you do not like the results, click
the Undo icon or press Control+Z.
To make the pasted text take on the formatting of the text
surrounding where it is pasted, choose either:
•
Edit > Paste Special, or
•
Click the triangle to the right of the Paste icon, or
•
Click the Paste icon and hold down the mouse button.
Then select Unformatted text from the resulting menu.
The range of choices on the Paste Special menu varies depending
upon the origin and formatting of the text (or other object) to be
pasted.
Moving paragraphs quickly
Click anywhere in the paragraph, then press and hold the
Control+Alt keys while pressing the up-arrow or down-arrow key.
The paragraph will move to a new location either before the
previous paragraph or after the next paragraph. To move more than
one paragraph at a time, select at least part of all the paragraphs you
want to move before pressing the Control+Alt+arrow keys.
Tip
If your paragraphs suddenly jump from one place to another, the
most likely reason is that you have accidentally pressed one of
these key combinations.
32
Chapter 3 Write and Edit in Writer
Finding and replacing text and formatting
Using Writer’s Find and Replace feature, you can search for and
replace:
•
Words and phrases
•
Specific formatting (such as bold or italic)
•
Paragraph styles
•
End-of-paragraph and line break marks
To display the Find & Replace dialog, use the keyboard shortcut
Control+F or select Edit > Find & Replace.
Expanded Find & Replace dialog
1 Type the text you want to find in the Search for box.
2 To replace the text with different text, type the new text in
the Replace with box.
Finding and replacing text and formatting
33
3 You can select various options, such as matching the case,
matching whole words only, or doing a search for similar
words. (See the next section for some other choices.)
When you have set up your search, click Find or Find All. To
replace text, click Replace instead.
Caution
Use Replace All with caution; otherwise, you may end up with
some highly embarrassing mistakes that might require a manual,
word-by-word search to fix.
Find and replace specific formatting
A very powerful use of Find & Replace takes advantage of the format
option. For example, you might want to replace underlined words
with italics.
On the Find & Replace dialog (with More Options displayed):
1 To search for specific formatting only, delete any text in the
Search for box.
To search for text with specific formatting, type the text in
the Search for box.
2 Click Format to display the Text Format (Search) dialog.
The tabs on this dialog are similar to those on the Paragraph
format and Paragraph Style dialogs.
3 Choose the formats you want to search for and then click
OK. The names of selected formats appear under the
Search for box. For example, you might search for all text
in 14-point bold Helvetica.
4 To change the formatting, click in the Replace with box,
then click Format to display the Text Format (Replace)
dialog. Choose the formats you want, and then click OK.
To leave the text unchanged, and only change the formatting,
leave the Replace with box blank.
To replace text as well as formatting, type the replacement
text in the Replace with box.
5 To remove specific character formatting, click Format,
select the Font tab, then select the opposite format (for
34
Chapter 3 Write and Edit in Writer
example, No Bold). The No Format button on the Find &
Replace dialog clears all previously selected formats.
6 Click Find, Find All, Replace, or Replace All.
Tip
Unless you plan to search for other text using the same
attributes, click No Format to remove the attributes after
completing your search. If you forget to do this, you may wonder
why your next search fails to find words you know are in the
document.
Find and replace paragraph styles
If you combine material from several sources, you may discover that
lots of unwanted paragraph styles suddenly show up in your
document. To quickly replace one (unwanted) style with another
(preferred) style:
1 On the expanded Find & Replace dialog, select Search for
Styles. (If you have attributes specified, this option is
labeled Including Styles.) The Search for and Replace
with boxes now contain a list of styles.
2 Select the style you want to search for and the style you want
to replace it with.
3 Click Find, Find All, Replace, or Replace All.
Repeat steps 2 and 3 for each style that you want to replace.
Find and replace line breaks and paragraph ends
If you paste material from emails or websites, you may find that
such material often uses two line breaks at the end of a paragraph
instead of one end-of-paragraph mark. This causes a whole group of
paragraphs, often including headings, to be treated as only one
paragraph in Writer, often resulting in major formatting problems.
To change two line breaks into one end-of-paragraph mark:
1 On the Find & Replace dialog, click More Options to see
more choices. On this expanded dialog, select Regular
expressions.
2 Type \n\n in the Search for box and \n in the Replace
with box. Click Find, Find All, Replace, or Replace All.
Finding and replacing text and formatting
35
Tip
When searching, Writer uses $ for the end-of-paragraph mark
and \n for a line break. For a replacement character, use \n for
the end-of-paragraph mark.
You don’t need to use Find & Replace (as you do in some other
programs) to replace two end-of-paragraph marks (with nothing
in between) with one. Instead, you can go to Tools >
AutoCorrect > Options and check the box for Remove
blank paragraphs.
Searches for end-of-paragraph marks are usually combined with
other regular expressions and wildcards. The online help
describes many regular expressions and their uses. Regular
expressions can save you time and effort by combining multiple
finds into one. Most of them are not the same in LibreOffice and
Microsoft Office.
Checking spelling
The spelling feature of Writer can be used in two ways. You can use
a toolbar icon to choose a method. You can also use choose an
option in Tools > Options > Language Settings > Writing
Aids to set LibreOffice to check spelling as you type (see “Choose
spelling options” on page 30).
AutoSpellcheck checks each word as it is typed and displays a
wavy red line under any misspelled words. When the word is
corrected, the wavy red line disappears.
To perform a separate spelling check on the whole document
or on selected text, click the Spelling and Grammar button or
press F7. This opens the Spelling and Grammar dialog if any
misspelled words are found.
Here are some more features of the spelling checker:
36
•
Right-click on a word with a wavy red underline to open a
powerful context menu. You can select from the suggested
words on the menu.
•
You can change the dictionary language (for example,
Spanish, French, or German) on the Spelling and Grammar
dialog.
Chapter 3 Write and Edit in Writer
•
To add a word to a dictionary, click Add in the Spelling and
Grammar dialog and pick the dictionary to add it to.
•
Click the Options button on the Spelling and Grammar dialog
to open a dialog similar to the one in Tools > Options >
Language Settings > Writing Aids, that was described in
Chapter 2.
Using Writer’s built-in language tools
Writer provides some tools that make your work easier if you use
more than one language in the same document or if you write
documents in various languages.
On the Font tab of the Paragraph Styles dialog, you can specify
that certain paragraphs be checked in a language that is different
from the language of the rest of the document. See “Working with
fonts” on page 70 for more information.
The main advantage of changing the language is that you can
then use the correct dictionaries to check spelling and apply the
localized versions of thesauruses, hyphenation rules, and
AutoCorrect replacement tables.
You can also set the language for a paragraph or a group of
characters as None. This option is especially useful when you insert
Using Writer’s built-in language tools
37
text such as web addresses or programming language snippets that
you do not want to check for spelling.
Specifying the language in character and paragraph styles is the
preferred method, because styles allow a greater level of control and
make changing the language much faster.
However, you can set the language for the whole document, for
individual paragraphs, or even for individual words and characters,
all from Tools > Language on the menu bar.
For selection
Applies the selected language to the selected text (the selection
can be as short as a few characters or as long as several
paragraphs).
For paragraph
Applies the selected language to the paragraph where the cursor
is located.
For all text
Applies the selected language to the entire document.
Another way to change the language of a whole document is to use
Tools > Options > Language Settings > Languages. In the
Default languages for documents section, you can choose a
different language for all of the text.
Unlike the menu tool that applies to the individual document, a
change in the default language from the Options dialog is a general
change of settings of LibreOffice and will therefore apply to all the
documents created in the future. If you want to change the language
for the current document only, be sure to select the For the
current document only option.
The spelling checker works only for those languages in the list
that show the symbol
. If you do not see this symbol next to your
preferred language, you can install the dictionary using Tools >
Languages > More dictionaries online.
The language used for checking spelling is also shown in the
status bar, next to the current page style (see page 7).
38
Chapter 3 Write and Edit in Writer
Using the thesaurus
The thesaurus gives alternate words and phrases. Select the word or
phrase you want to find more choices for and click Tools >
Language > Thesaurus or press Control+F7. Click on a meaning
to show alternate words and phrases.
Note
If the selected language does not have a thesaurus installed, this
feature is disabled.
Using automatic functions
Writer provides several ways to automate some of your work. If you
do not want to use a particular automated function, you can turn it
off easily.
Using automatic functions
39
AutoCorrect
Writer’s AutoCorrect function automatically corrects a long list of
common misspellings and typing errors. For example, hte will be
changed to the.
Select Tools > AutoCorrect Options to open the AutoCorrect
dialog. There you can define what specific strings of text will be
corrected. In most cases, the defaults are fine.
AutoCorrect is turned on when Writer is installed. To turn it off,
uncheck Format > AutoFormat > While Typing.
To fine-tune AutoCorrect, examine the different tabs of the
dialog. You will see that many options are available.
To stop Writer from replacing a specific spelling, go to the
Replace tab, highlight the word pair, and click Delete.
To add a new spelling to the list, type it into the Replace and
With boxes on the Replace tab, and click New.
40
Chapter 3 Write and Edit in Writer
AutoCorrect can also be used as a quick way to insert special
characters. For example, (c) will be autocorrected to ©. You can add
your own special characters.
Word completion
If Word Completion is enabled, Writer tries to guess which word
you are typing and offers to complete this word for you. To accept
the suggestion, press Enter. Otherwise, continue typing.
To turn off Word Completion, select Tools > AutoCorrect
Options > Word Completion and uncheck Enable word
completion.
You can customize word completion from the Word Completion
tab.
•
Add (append) a space automatically after an accepted word.
•
Show the suggested word as a tip that simply hovers over the
word instead of completing the word as you type.
•
Change the maximum number of words remembered for
word completion and the minimum allowable length of the
words.
•
Delete specific entries from the word completion list.
Using automatic functions
41
•
Change the key that accepts a suggested entry. The options
are right arrow, End key, Return (Enter), Space bar, and
Tab.
Automatic word completion occurs only after you type a word for
the second time in a document.
AutoText
You can assign text, tables, graphics, and other items to an AutoText
shortcut key combination. Then, to insert the AutoText, type the
shortcut and press F3.
For example, rather than typing Senior Management, you can
save those words as AutoText with the shortcut sm, then simply type
sm and press F3 to insert the words into your document. Similarly,
you can save a formatted table as AutoText with the name tip and
then insert a copy by typing tip and pressing F3.
To assign some text to an AutoText shortcut:
1 Type the text into your document.
2 Select the text.
3 Go to Edit > AutoText (or press Control+F3).
4 Enter a name for your shortcut. Writer will suggest a oneletter shortcut, which you can change.
5 Click the AutoText button on the right of the AutoText
dialog and select New (text only) from the menu.
6 Click Close to return to your document.
Tip
If the only option under the AutoText button is Import, either
you have not entered a name for your AutoText or there is no
text selected in the document.
Including document information
Sometimes you may want to put information such as the file name,
the date the document was last edited, or the word count
somewhere in the text or in a header or footer.
Some information fields can be inserted directly from the Insert
> Fields submenu.
42
Chapter 3 Write and Edit in Writer
Other information fields are on the Document or
DocInformation tabs of the Fields dialog, shown below and on the
next page.
Select the type of information required in the left-hand column
(here we have chosen Statistics), the specific item in the middle
column, and the format in the right-hand column. If you’re not sure,
choose the default format selection (whatever is highlighted for your
choices in Type and Select). If the result is not what you want, you
can change it later.
Some of the document properties information is generated
automatically, some comes from information you enter on the
Description tab of the Document Properties dialog (File >
Properties), and some comes from information on the User Data
page of Tools > Options > LibreOffice (see page 18).
Including document information
43
44
Chapter 3 Write and Edit in Writer
4
Design your Book using
Writer’s Styles
This chapter describes how to plan and set up the design of your
book, using Writer’s styles.
The steps in designing a book are:
•
Plan the sequence of pages needed in the book.
•
Set up the page styles needed for this sequence of pages.
•
Set up the paragraph styles.
What are styles? Why use them?
Styles are sets of formats for pages, text, frames, and other elements
of a document. When you apply a style, you apply a whole group of
formats at the same time. Proper use of styles improves consistency
in a document and makes major formatting changes easy.
To change the appearance of an element (such as the font), you
change the style, and then all of the elements that use that style will
change automatically. This helps maintain consistency throughout
the book.
Writer also uses styles for processes such as compiling a table of
contents.
Tip
Any modifications of styles, and any new styles that you define,
apply only to the document you are working on. If you want the
changes to be available to other documents, you need to put
them into a template. See Chapter 13 for details.
Chapter 4 Design your Book using Writer’s Styles
45
Types of styles
Writer has five types of styles:
•
Page styles control page formatting (page size, margin, and
the like).
•
Paragraph styles control the formatting of entire paragraphs.
(Headings are a type of paragraph.)
•
Character styles control the formatting of a selected text
inside a paragraph.
•
List styles control outlines, numbered lists, and bulleted lists.
•
Frame styles control frames and graphics.
The Styles and Formatting window lists all styles defined for a
document. To display this window, press F11 or click the Styles and
Formatting icon on the Formatting toolbar. This window can be
docked or it can be floating.
Basic page layout using page styles
All pages in a Writer document are based on page styles. Page styles
define the basic layout of pages, such as page size, margins, the
placement of headers and footers, borders and backgrounds, and
number of columns.
In this section, we’ll define some typical page styles to use in our
book.
46
Chapter 4 Design your Book using Writer’s Styles
Tip
Look toward the left end of the status bar at the bottom of the
Writer window. The page style for the current page is displayed
there.
You can modify Writer’s built-in page styles, and you can define
new (custom) page styles. You can have one or many page styles in a
single document. If you do not specify a page style, Writer uses its
built-in Default page style.
The illustration below shows a typical sequence of the pages in a
book. Notice that some have no page numbers, while others have
lower-case roman numerals (i, ii, iii) and others have Arabic
numbers (1, 2, 3).
Basic page layout using page styles
47
Tip
The publishing term for all the pages before the first page of
Chapter 1 (or the Part 1 page, if there is one) is front matter.
Automating the sequence of page styles
When you need a page with one style to be followed by a page with a
specific style, you can automate the sequence. The style of the page
that follows can be the same as the style of the first page, or it can be
different.
As we’ll see in this section, automation is the only practical way
to handle a sequence of page styles in some cases. In other cases,
automation is optional but using it means you don’t have to
remember which style comes next in the sequence and assign it
manually.
The first thing to do is decide on the styles you need. Don't worry
if you think that later you might need another style or want to
change the sequence—you can do so at any time.
The styles we’ll be using correspond to the pages shown in the
diagram on page 47:
•
Title (cover) page
•
Copyright page
•
Table of Contents page
•
Contents other pages
•
First Page (for each chapter)
•
Default page (for all other pages in each chapter)
Automating a sequence of styles makes use of the Next Style
property of styles. You can define page styles in any order you want,
but some ways are more efficient than others. You might think it
makes sense to work through the page styles from the beginning of
the book, starting with the Title page, but in fact it is easier to start
at the end of a sequence of pages, so that the next style is always
defined before it is needed in the sequence.
Single chapter
First we will look at a single chapter from somewhere in the book.
Most chapters will be like this one. It needs two styles: First Page
and Default. The figure on the next page shows the concept.
48
Chapter 4 Design your Book using Writer’s Styles
Both of these styles are provided by Writer, so we don’t need to
create new ones. In addition, both styles have been set up to have a
Next Style of Default, so we can proceed without modifying them.
To demonstrate the effect of this automatic sequence:
1 Create a new document (choose File > New > Text
Document or press Control+N). Make sure that end-ofparagraph marks are showing.
2 Click anywhere in the first page of the document.
3 Go to Page Styles in the Styles and Formatting window and
choose First Page, or right-click in the Page Style area of
the status bar and choose First Page from the pop-up list.
4 Type or paste something on this page. Because this is a
demonstration of page styles, don’t be concerned with the
formatting of the text. Keep typing or pasting until the text
continues to a second page.
Notice that the page style for the new page is shown in the
status bar as Default, which is the style that it should be. You
didn’t have to do anything; the change in page styles
occurred automatically.
5 Keep typing or pasting until the text continues to a third
page. Notice that the page style for the third page is also
Default, as it should be.
Note
A real book chapter would have several pages of text already, so
all you would need to do is steps 2 and 3 to apply the sequence of
page styles to an existing chapter.
Basic page layout using page styles
49
Start of a book
The figure below shows a more complex sequence of page styles for
the start of a book.
This sequence uses four styles that are not provided by Writer,
so we need to create them. We’ll start at the end of the sequence and
work our way forward: Contents Other, Table of Contents,
Copyright page, Title page.
1 Open a new document, or use the one from the previous
example. Go to Page Styles in the Styles and Formatting
window. Right-click and choose New from the pop-up menu.
2 On the Organizer tab of the Page Style dialog, type Contents
Other in the Name box. Open the Next Style drop-down list
and select Contents Other.
3 For now, ignore the other tabs. Click OK to save.
4 Repeat steps 2, 3, and 4 three times, in this order:
Name: Table of Contents
Next Style: Contents Other
Name: Copyright page
Next Style: Table of Contents
Name: Title page
Next Style: Copyright page
To apply this sequence of styles, see Chapter 5.
50
Chapter 4 Design your Book using Writer’s Styles
Add a chapter to the book sequence
How do you change from the “front matter” sequence to the chapter
sequence? The concept is shown in the illustration on the next page.
A change from one sequence to a new sequence can be done
either manually or by using a property of paragraph styles to
automate the change. These methods are described in Chapter 5.
Which method you use is entirely up to you.
Creating and modifying paragraph styles
Paragraph styles control aspects of a paragraph’s appearance such
as text alignment, tab stops, line spacing, borders, and character
formatting (font, font size, color). The formatting of individual
words within a paragraph can be changed by using character styles
or manual formatting. Character formatting is covered in Chapter 3.
Writer comes with many predefined paragraph styles, which you
can modify. You can also define new (custom) styles.
Creating and modifying paragraph styles
51
You can modify paragraph styles by:
•
Using the Paragraph Style dialog
•
Updating from a selection
•
Using AutoUpdate (not recommended)
•
Loading or copying styles from another document or
template
Properties of paragraph styles
Save some time by understanding some of the properties of
paragraph styles and then doing some things in a particular order.
Two important properties are Linked with and Next Style; both are
found on the Organizer tab of the Paragraph Style dialog.
•
Linked with. When styles are linked, a change in the base
style affects every style linked with it. For example, every
Heading style (such as Heading 1, Heading 2) is linked with a
base style called Heading.
•
Next style. When you type a paragraph and then press
Enter to start a new paragraph, the new paragraph will
automatically have the style defined as the next style. For
example, you can define the Heading 1 style to be followed by
a First paragraph style, the First paragraph style to be
followed by a Text body style, and the Text body style to be
followed by more paragraphs in the Text body style until you
change one of them to another style.
The Next style property is effective only when you are typing
in text. If you later apply a style (such as a heading) to a
paragraph, the style of the following paragraph does not
change.
Caution
If you are in the habit of manually overriding styles in your book,
be sure that the AutoUpdate option (on the Organizer page of
the Paragraph Style dialog) is not enabled, or you will suddenly
find whole sections of your document reformatting
unexpectedly.
52
Chapter 4 Design your Book using Writer’s Styles
Modify the built-in sequence of styles
The built-in sequence of heading and paragraph styles uses
Heading 1 for chapter titles and Heading 2, Heading 3, and so on
for subheadings, with each heading followed by a paragraph in the
Text body style. If you want a different sequence, read on. For our
example sequence, we’ll modify three built-in styles (Heading 1,
Heading 2, and Text body) and create one custom style (First para).
Tip
Heading styles are essential for creating an automatic table of
contents and for placing information such as chapter titles into
headers or footers. For more information, see Chapters 9 and 11.
One common book design uses one paragraph style for the first
paragraph of a chapter or section, and another paragraph style for
all of the other paragraphs in the chapter or section. This book uses
this design.
To set up a different style for the first paragraph of each chapter,
you need to do two things:
•
Create a new style, or modify an existing style, for the first
paragraph, and set it up to be followed automatically by the
style used for the other paragraphs.
•
Set up the heading styles to be followed automatically by your
chosen first paragraph style.
Because a style must exist before we can choose it as a Next
Style, we will create the First paragraph style before defining the
heading styles.
We want the First paragraph style to be the same as the Text
body style, with one difference: Text body will have the first line
indented, but First paragraph will have no indentation of the first
line. We can save some time (and later inconsistencies if we change
something else) by linking the First paragraph style to the Text
body style and changing only that one setting. Later, if we make
other changes to the Text body style, those changes (such as font
and spacing) will apply to the First paragraph style as well.
Modify the Text body style
To do all of this efficiently, we’ll start with the Text body paragraph
style.
Creating and modifying paragraph styles
53
1 If the Styles and Formatting window is not already open,
press F11 to open it. Go to the Paragraph Styles list. Rightclick on the Text body style and select Modify from the popup menu.
2 On the Organizer tab, notice that you cannot change the
name of the style (because it is a built-in style), the
AutoUpdate option is not marked, Next Style is already set to
Text body, and the Text body style is linked with the Default
style. All of these settings are what we want.
3 On the Indents & Spacing tab, change the setting for First
line indent (the example uses 18 pt).
4 Leave the other tabs alone for now. Click OK to save the
change.
Create the First paragraph style
Now that we’ve modified the Text body style, we’ll create a First
paragraph style linked with it.
1 On the Styles and Formatting window, right-click on the
Text body style and select New.
2 On the Organizer tab, change the Name from Untitled to
First paragraph. Do not select the AutoUpdate option.
54
Chapter 4 Design your Book using Writer’s Styles
3 Click on the Next Style list; it changes from Untitled to First
paragraph. Scroll down and select Text body.
4 Notice the Linked with setting, which is Text body. That is
what we want, so leave it as shown.
5 Go to the Indents & Spacing tab and change the First line
setting to 0.00.
6 Leave the other tabs alone for now. Click OK to save your
new style.
Modify the heading styles
Now that we have created the First paragraph style, we can change
the heading styles to use it as a next style. At the same time, we will
set up the chapter titles (Heading 1) to start on a new page.
1 On the Styles and Formatting window, right-click on the
Heading 1 style and select Modify.
2 On the Organizer tab, change Next Style to First paragraph.
3 On the Text Flow tab, under Breaks, select Insert and With
Page Style. Choose First Page from the drop-down list of
styles. Leave Page number set to 0. Click OK.
4 Leave the other tabs alone for now. Click OK to save the
change.
5 Repeat steps 1, 2, and 4 for the Heading 2 and Heading 3
styles.
Creating and modifying paragraph styles
55
5
Format Pages in Writer
Apply your book design using Writer’s page styles.
• Define and apply page styles
• Set up headers and footers
• Set up page numbering
As you know, a book has different types of pages (copyright
page, table of contents page, chapter title page, and so on). Writer
controls the layout of these pages using page styles. Headers and
footers are part of page layout, so they are included in the page style.
First define the appearance (format) of pages in the page styles.
Then apply these page styles by using a combination of automatic
sequencing and manually changing the sequence.
Defining page styles
In Chapter 4, we created the page styles for an example book and set
up their sequencing. Now we will define the margins and other
formatting for the pages.
Examples
Default page style
The Default page style is the most commonly-used page style. All the
chapter pages (except the first page of each chapter) use it. These
pages are normally mirrored. Facing pages may have page numbers
on the outer edges and the inner (binding) margin may be wider
than the outer margin.
1 On the Page Styles tab of the Styles and Formatting window,
right-click on Default, and choose Modify.
2 On the Page tab of the Page Style: Default dialog, in the
Paper Format section, choose the page size for your book, or
define a custom size by changing the dimensions in the
Chapter 5 Format Pages in Writer
57
Width and Height boxes. Choose Mirrored for the page
layout. The Format item under Layout settings refers to
the page numbers. For the Default pages, leave it set to
1,2,3, ….
3 On the Header tab, choose Header on and uncheck Same
content left/right. Leave the other settings unchanged.
4 The Footer tab is almost identical to the Header tab. Choose
Footer on and uncheck Same content left/right. Leave
the other settings unchanged.
5 Click OK to save your changes.
You can also define some formatting of the headers and footers here
(for example drawing a line above the footer). See page 133 for more
information.
58
Chapter 5 Format Pages in Writer
First Page style
The first page of a chapter normally starts on a right-hand page. It
usually does not have a header, but it may have a footer containing a
page number.
1 On the Page Styles tab of the Styles and Formatting window,
right-click on First Page and choose Modify.
2 On the Page tab of the Page Style: First Page dialog, set the
Paper Format to match the paper format chosen for the
Default page style.
3 Set Page layout to Only right and set the margins as
needed. Typically the right margin for the First Page style is
the same as the outer margin for the Default page style, the
left margin is the same as the inner margin, and the bottom
margins are the same. You may want to make the top margin
larger.
4 On the Header tab, make sure Header on is not checked.
5 On the Footer tab, choose Footer on. Leave the other
settings unchanged.
Defining page styles
59
Title Page style
A title page is always a right-hand page. It usually has no header or
footer.
1 On the Page Styles tab of the Styles and Formatting window,
right-click on Title Page and choose Modify.
2 On the Page tab of the Page Style: Title Page dialog, set the
Paper Format to match the paper format chosen for the
Default page style.
3 Set Page layout to Only right and set the margins as
needed. The margins for a title page are often quite different
from the margins for other pages in a book.
4 On the Header and Footer tabs, make sure Header on and
Footer On are not selected.
Copyright page style
A copyright page is always a left-hand page. It has no header or
footer and may have margins that are different from other pages in
the book.
1 On the Page Styles tab of the Styles and Formatting window,
right-click on Copyright and choose Modify.
60
Chapter 5 Format Pages in Writer
2 On the Page tab, set the Paper Format to match the paper
format chosen for the Default page style. Set Page layout to
Only left and set the margins as needed.
3 On the Header and Footer tabs, make sure Header on and
Footer On are not selected.
Table of Contents page style
The Table of Contents page style is usually similar to the First Page
style for chapters, but it has one major difference: the page numbers
are in lower-case Roman numerals.
1 On the Page Styles tab of the Styles and Formatting window,
right-click on Table of Contents and choose Modify.
2 Define the Table of Contents page style to match the First
Page style except for Format in the Layout settings section
of the Page tab: choose i, ii, iii, … from the drop-down list.
3 On the Header tab, make sure Header on is not selected.
On the Footer tab, select Footer on. Leave the other settings
unchanged.
Defining page styles
61
Contents Other page style
This page style is similar to the Default page style, but the page
numbers are in lower-case Roman numerals.
1 On the Page Styles tab of the Styles and Formatting window,
right-click on Contents Other and choose Modify.
2 Make all the settings the same as for the Default page style
except for Format in the Layout settings section: choose
i, ii, iii, … from the drop-down list.
3 On the Header and Footer tabs, make the settings the same
as for the Default page style.
Setting up headers and footers
Headers and footers are specified in page styles. Placing text (or
fields such as page numbers or the name of the chapter) in a header
or footer causes that text to appear on all pages with that page style
and change to suit the page it’s on.
Note
Many people incorrectly use the words header and heading
interchangeably, but the two words refer to quite different
concepts. Headers are sometimes called running headers.
Our basic page layout included some headers and footers. Now we’ll
see how to use them.
Headers and footers usually have only one paragraph. You can
also design more complex headers and footers, and you can include
62
Chapter 5 Format Pages in Writer
graphics. We’ll look at the simple case here. See page 133 for
information on more complex layouts.
Numbering pages
The simplest case is to have the page number at the top or bottom of
every page. To do this, click in the header or footer and select
Insert > Fields > Page Number from the menu bar.
The page number now appears on every page that has this page
style. You can align the page number to the left, right, or center of
the page.
Note
Page numbers appear with a gray background. This background
indicates that the page number is a field. It is not printed and is
not visible in a PDF. To turn this feature on or off, choose View
> Field Shadings (or press Ctrl+F8), but be aware that turning
field shadings off affects all fields in the file.
Tip
If you see the words Page numbers instead of a number in the
header or footer, choose View > Field Names (press Ctrl+F8)
to display the page numbers.
Restart page numbering
You may want to restart the page numbering at 1 on the first page of
the first chapter. You may also want to have the table of contents
numbered with Roman numerals and the main body of the
document numbered in Arabic numerals.
1 Place the cursor in the first paragraph of the page on which
you want to restart page numbering.
2 Choose Format > Paragraph.
3 On the Text Flow page of the Paragraph dialog, in the Breaks
section, choose Insert.
4 In the Type drop-down list, choose Page.
5 In the Position drop-down list, choose Before.
Numbering pages
63
6 To change from Roman to Arabic numerals, choose With
Page Style and the page style for this page (First Page in
our example).
7 Choose the page number to start from (1) and click OK.
Applying page styles
To format a book, use a combination of automatic sequencing of
page styles and manually changing the sequence.
Apply a sequence of page styles
Your book file has a title page, a copyright page, one or more table of
contents pages, and more than one chapter. The copyright page,
first page of the table of contents, and first page of each chapter
were created using manual page breaks.
The sequence of page styles was set up Chapter 4. Now we will
apply these styles.
1 In the Styles and Formatting window, click the Page Styles
icon.
2 With the cursor in the title page of the document, choose
Title page in the Styles and Formatting window.
3 Go to the second page of the book. The status bar at the
bottom of the Writer window should show Copyright as the
page style.
4 Go to the third page. The status bar should show Table of
Contents as the page style.
5 Go to the next page. The status bar should show Contents
Other as the page style.
At this point, all the pages that follow have a page style of Contents
Other. Now you need to change the page style of the first page of
each chapter, as described below.
Change a sequence manually
1 Go to the first page of Chapter 1.
2 Click in the first paragraph on the page—usually the chapter
title—and choose Format > Paragraph from the menu
64
Chapter 5 Format Pages in Writer
bar, or right-click and choose Paragraph from the pop-up
menu.
3 On the Text Flow tab of the Paragraph dialog, under Breaks,
select Insert and With Page Style. Choose First Page
from the drop-down list of styles.
4 Change Page number to 1.
Now the status bar for this page shows First Page as the
style. Go to the next page. The status bar should show
Default.
5 At this point, all the pages that follow should have a page
style of Default, with the exception of the first page of each
chapter. If you have set up the Heading 1 paragraph style as
described in Chapter 4, these should have a page style of
First Page.
6 Go to the first page of each chapter and verify that its page
style is First Page. If it is not, repeat steps 2 and 3, but leave
Page number set to 0 for all chapters except the first, so
the page numbers continue from one chapter to the next for
the entire book.
Add a title page to an existing book
If your book does not include a title page, you can add one at any
time.
1 Be sure end-of-paragraph markers are showing.
2 Place the cursor before the first character on the first page of
the file.
3 Choose Insert > Manual Break from the menu bar. On
the Insert Break dialog, choose Page Break, ignore the
other boxes, and click OK.
4 Go to the new (blank) first page and set its page style to Title
Page.
5 Type or paste in the text for the title page.
Applying page styles
65
Writer now provides another way to add a title page (Format >
Title Page from menu bar). However, that method is generally not
suitable for printed books, which usually also include a copyright
page, table of contents page, and other pages before the main body
of the text.
Add a copyright page to an existing book
If the book has a title page but no copyright page, here is how to add
one.
1 Be sure end-of-paragraph markers are showing.
2 With the cursor after the last character in the last paragraph
of the title page, choose Insert > Manual Break from the
menu bar.
3 On the Insert Break dialog, choose Page Break, ignore the
other boxes, and click OK.
The document now has a second page, with a page style of
Copyright.
In a similar way, you can add pages for the table of contents, a
foreword, a dedication, and so on.
66
Chapter 5 Format Pages in Writer
6
Format Text in Writer
This chapter covers the basics of formatting text in Writer:
•
Typography
•
Hyphenating words
•
Working with fonts
•
Applying paragraph styles
•
Applying character styles
•
Inserting special characters and dashes
•
Defining tabs and indents
•
Working with lists
More advanced text formatting techniques are described in
Chapter 11.
Typography
To create a professional appearance for your book, follow a few
simple typographic principles:
•
Choose a typeface (font) and size that is easy to read and
prints well (some typefaces are too light or too heavy). For
help in choosing a typeface, see one of the many books and
websites on this topic.
•
Use “curly quotes” (whether single or double quotation
marks) and apostrophes—not "straight quotes". But don’t use
curly quotes for symbols such as foot and inch—these are
correctly done as straight quotes.
To use curly quotes, go to Tools > AutoCorrect Options >
Custom Quotes and select the Replace option for both
single and double quotes.
•
Be sure your curly quotes are the right way around. Many
programs, including Writer, sometimes get this wrong.
Chapter 6 Format Text in Writer
67
For example, the apostrophe in the phrase in the ’90s
sometimes turns into an opening single quotation mark (‘).
To fix this, type two apostrophes and delete the first one,
which is the one that turns in the wrong direction.
•
Use real dashes, not two or three hyphens. See “Inserting
dashes” on page 75.
•
Use the correct symbols for copyright (©), registered
trademark (®), degrees (°), multiplication signs (×, not an
ordinary x), certain fractions, and other special symbols.
You can use either AutoCorrect or Insert > Special
Characters for this, depending on the symbol.
•
Decide whether to use fully-justified or left-aligned (raggedright) paragraphs. Many people think “real books” must use
fully-justified text, but left-aligned text is becoming more
commonly used, including in books from big-name
publishers. Full justification in Writer, as in most word
processors, often does not produce high-quality results. To
make it look right, you would have to make some manual
adjustments, not discussed in this book.
•
Decide whether to hyphenate words at the ends of lines of
type. If you use fully-justified paragraphs, the word spacing
may look awkward if words are not hyphenated, but the
hyphenation dictionaries in software like Writer are often
incorrect, so you may need to do a lot of manual adjustment
to achieve a professional-looking result.
Hyphenating words
You have several choices regarding hyphenation: let Writer do it
automatically (using its hyphenation dictionaries), insert
conditional hyphens manually where necessary, or don’t hyphenate
at all. Each choice has its pros and cons. I prefer to insert
conditional hyphens manually when using fully-justified
paragraphs, and I prefer no hyphenation when using left-aligned
(ragged-right) paragraphs.
If you let Writer hyphenate words automatically, you’ll need to
check carefully for incorrect hyphenation and make corrections
when proofreading your book.
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Chapter 6 Format Text in Writer
To turn automatic hyphenation of words on or off:
1 On the Paragraph Styles page of the Styles and Formatting
window, right-click on Default and select Modify.
2 On the Paragraph Style dialog, select the Text Flow tab.
3 Under Hyphenation, select or deselect the Automatically
option.
4 Click OK to save.
Note
Turning on hyphenation for the Default paragraph style will
apply it to all other paragraph styles that are based on Default.
You can individually change other styles so that hyphenation is
not active. Any styles that are not based on Default are not
affected and must be set separately if you want them hyphenated
as well.
You can also set some hyphenation choices through Tools >
Options > Language Settings > Writing Aids. In Options, near
the bottom of the dialog, scroll down to find the hyphenation
settings.
To change the minimum number of characters for hyphenation,
the minimum number of characters before a line break, or the
Hyphenating words
69
minimum number of characters after a line break, select the item,
and then click Edit.
Hyphenate without inquiry specifies that you will never be
asked to manually hyphenate words that the hyphenation dictionary
does not recognize. If this box is not selected, when a word is not
recognized, a dialog opens and you can manually enter hyphens.
Hyphenate special regions specifies that hyphenation will
also be carried out in footnotes, headers, and footers.
Hyphenation options set on the Writing Aids dialog are effective
only if hyphenation is turned on through paragraph styles.
Choices on the Writing Aids dialog for characters before line
break and characters after line break override settings in
paragraph styles for characters at line end and characters at line
begin.
Manual hyphenation
To manually hyphenate words, do not use a normal hyphen, which
will remain visible even if the word is no longer at the end of a line
when you add or delete text or change margins or font size. Instead,
use a conditional hyphen, which is visible only when required.
To insert a conditional hyphen inside a word, click where you
want the hyphen to appear and press Control+hyphen. The word
will be hyphenated at this position when it is at the end of the line,
even if automatic hyphenation for this paragraph is switched off.
Working with fonts
Fonts are handled through both paragraph styles and character
styles. Paragraph styles define the font characteristics for the entire
paragraph. When you apply a character style to selected text within
a paragraph, the character style over-rides the paragraph style for
that bit of text.
You can apply many formats (including font choices and type
sizes) to paragraphs and characters using the buttons on the
Formatting toolbar. However, it is highly recommended that you
use styles and not manual formatting, especially for books and other
long documents. As stated in Chapter 4, using styles is usually better
and more convenient in the long run. For this reason, this book does
not cover manual formatting.
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Chapter 6 Format Text in Writer
Use paragraph styles
The Paragraph Style dialog has three tabs that have to do with fonts.
Other tabs are described in “Creating and modifying paragraph
styles” starting on page 51.
Font
Sets the font, typeface, and size. You can set the size in several
ways, including as a percentage of the font size defined for the
paragraph style that this style is based on. For example, you
might set a heading to be 130% of the body text size. If you later
make body text larger or smaller, the heading adjusts to match.
You can also set the language of the paragraph, so that spelling
will be checked using the correct dictionary.
Font Effects
Sets font color, underlining, relief, and other effects.
Position
Sets text rotation and character spacing for the paragraph style.
See Chapter 11 for some examples of use. Subscript and
superscript are more likely to be used in character styles.
Use character styles
Character styles complement paragraph styles and are applied to
groups of characters instead of whole paragraphs. They are used
when you want to change the appearance or attributes of only parts
of a paragraph, such as a word or phrase. Some effects that can be
obtained by means of character styles are bold or italic typeface,
subscripts, or a change in font.
Character styles do not have as many options as paragraph
styles, but the Font, Font Effects, and Position tabs are similar. See
Chapter 11 for some examples of use.
If you are accustomed to formatting text manually, character
styles can take some getting used to. Here are some suggestions for
making the transition easier:
•
Never mix character styles and manual formatting. Manual
formatting supersedes character styles. If you combine the
two, you may end up wasting hours trying to figure out why
your character styles don’t work.
Working with fonts
71
•
Right-clicking and choosing Default Formatting removes
any text formatting (both manual and styles).
•
Keep the Styles and Formatting window open to make
paragraph and character styles easy to access.
Applying paragraph and character styles
Writer provides several ways for you to apply styles to paragraphs
and characters:
•
Using the Styles and Formatting window
•
Using the Apply Style list (paragraph styles only)
•
Using Fill Format mode
•
Using keyboard shortcuts
To apply a paragraph style, click anywhere in the paragraph, and
then use one of these methods. To apply a character style, select the
text to be formatted, and then use one of these methods.
Use the Styles and Formatting window
Click anywhere in the paragraph, or select the text to be formatted,
and then double-click on the name of the style in the Styles and
Formatting window.
Tip
At the bottom of the Styles and Formatting window is a dropdown list. In the example on page 46, the window shows
Automatic, which means that the list shows only those styles
that are applied automatically by Writer. You can choose to show
all styles, only custom styles, or other groups of styles.
Use the Apply Style list
After you have used a paragraph style at least once in a document,
the style name appears in the Apply Style list on the left of the
Formatting toolbar, next to the Styles and Formatting icon.
Click in the paragraph you want to apply a style to, then open
this list using the down-arrow to the right, scroll through the list
and click on the style to apply it.
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Chapter 6 Format Text in Writer
Tip
Select More... at the bottom of the list to open the Styles and
Formatting window.
Use Fill Format mode
Use Fill Format to apply a style to many different areas quickly
without having to go back to the Styles and Formatting window or to
the Apply Style list every time.
1 Open the Styles and Formatting window and select the style
you want to apply.
2 Click the Fill Format mode icon. The mouse pointer
changes to a pouring-can icon.
3 To apply a paragraph style to a paragraph, click on the
paragraph.
To apply a character style, hold down the mouse button while
selecting the characters; when you release the mouse button,
the style is applied. You can also click on a word to apply the
selected character style to that word.
4 Repeat step 3 until you made all the changes you want using
that style.
5 To quit Fill Format mode, click the Fill Format mode icon
again or press the Esc key.
Caution
When this mode is active, a right-click anywhere in the
document undoes the last Fill Format action. Be careful not to
Applying paragraph and character styles
73
accidentally right-click and thus undo actions that you want to
keep.
Use keyboard shortcuts
Some keyboard shortcuts for applying paragraph styles are
predefined, including Ctrl+0 for Text body, Ctrl+1 for Heading 1,
and Ctrl+2 for Heading 2. You can modify these shortcuts and
create your own (see Chapter 14).
Inserting special characters
A special character is one that is not on a standard English
keyboard. For example, © ¾ æ ç ñ ö ø ¢ are all special characters.
To insert a special character:
1 Click where you want the character to appear.
2 Choose Insert > Special Character to open the Special
Characters dialog.
3 Select the characters (from any font or mixture of fonts) you
wish to insert, in order; then click OK. The selected
characters are shown in the lower left of the dialog. As you
select each character, it is shown on the lower right, along
with the numerical code for that character.
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Chapter 6 Format Text in Writer
Note
Different fonts have different special characters. If you do not
find a particular special character you want, try a different font.
Inserting non-breaking spaces and
hyphens
To keep two words from being separated at the end of a line, press
Control+spacebar after the first word (instead of just the spacebar)
to insert a non-breaking space.
In cases where you do not want a hyphen to appear at the end of
a line, for example in a telephone number such as 123-4567, press
Shift+Control+hyphen to insert a non-breaking hyphen. These show
with a gray background on screen.
Inserting dashes
An em dash is the length of the character m; an en dash is the length
of the character n. En and em dashes are used for different purposes
in typography. (The Wikipedia page on dashes has a good
summary.)
You can enter en and em dashes in several ways.
If you have selected the Replace dashes option under Tools >
AutoCorrect > Options, then when you type two hyphens, they
are replaced with a dash. The type of dash depends on whether you
also type spaces before or after the hyphens. In the following table,
the A and B represent text consisting of letters A to Z (in upper or
lower case) or digits 0 to 9.
Text that you type
Result
A - B (A, space, hyphen, space, B)
A -- B (A, space, hyphen, hyphen,
space, B)
A--B (A, hyphen, hyphen, B)
A-B (A, hyphen, B)
A -B (A, space, hyphen, B)
A --B (A, space, hyphen, hyphen, B)
A – B (A, space, en-dash, space, B)
A – B (A, space, en-dash, space, B)
A—B (A, em-dash, B)
A-B (unchanged)
A -B (unchanged)
A –B (A, space, en-dash, B)
You can also use the Insert > Special Characters dialog;
select the U+2013 or U+2014 character.
A third method uses keyboard shortcuts. These shortcuts vary
according to your operating system.
Inserting dashes
75
Windows
Hold down one of the Alt keys and type on the numeric keypad:
0150 for an en dash or 0151 for an em dash. The dash appears
when you release the Alt key.
On a keyboard with no numeric keypad, use a Function (Fn) key
combination to type the numbers. (The Fn key is usually to the
right of the left-hand Control key.) For example, on a US
keyboard layout, the combination for an en dash should be
Alt+Fn+mjim and for an em dash it should be Alt+Fn+mjij.
Mac OS X
For an en dash, hold down the Option (Alt) key and type a
hyphen. For an em dash, the combination is
Shift+Option+Hyphen.
Linux
Hold down the Compose key and type two hyphens and a period
for an en dash, or three hyphens for an em dash. The dash
appears when you release the Compose key.
The key that operates as a Compose key varies with the Linux
distribution. It is usually one of the Alt or Win keys but it may be
another key. It should be user-selectable.
Tip
You can also record macros to insert en and em dashes and then
assign those macros to unused key combinations, for example
Ctrl+Shift+N and Ctrl+Shift+M. See Chapter 14.
Defining your own tabs and indents
The default tab stop interval (defined in Tools > Options >
LibreOffice Writer > General) controls two things: tabs within
paragraphs and the indentation of entire paragraphs when using the
Increase Indent button on the Formatting toolbar.
Using the default tab stops to space out or indent material on a
page is not recommended.
•
76
If you use the default tab interval and then send the
document to an editor who uses a different default tab
interval, then your tabbed material will be displayed using
the other person’s default tab settings.
Chapter 6 Format Text in Writer
•
Any changes to the default tab stops will change the existing
default tab stops in any document you open afterward, as well
as tab stops you insert after making the change.
To avoid these unwanted changes, define your own tab stops in
paragraph styles or individual paragraphs, using the Tabs page of
the Paragraph dialog. Better still, change the tabs defined in the
paragraph style. Right-click on the paragraph, choose Edit
Paragraph Style from the pop-up menu, and go to the Tabs page.
To change the indentation of one or more selected paragraphs,
use the Indents & Spacing page of the Paragraph dialog. You can
also change the indentation defined in the paragraph style. Rightclick on the paragraph, choose Edit Paragraph Style from the
pop-up menu, and go to the Indents & Spacing page.
Working with lists
List styles (also called numbering styles) work together with
paragraph styles. They define indentation, alignment, and the
numbering or bullet characters used for list items. You can define
many list styles, from simple bulleted lists to complex multi-level
(nested) lists.
Although you can create simple lists quickly by using the
Numbering On/Off or Bullets On/Off icons on the Formatting
toolbar, and create quite complex nested lists using the icons on the
Bullets and Numbering toolbar, the appearance of the resulting lists
may not be what you want. And if you later need to change the
appearance of the lists, you will have a lot of manual work. Using
List styles is usually better and more convenient in the long run.
Note
Writer uses two terms, numbering style and list style, for the
same thing. For example, the tooltip in the Styles and
Formatting window says List Styles, but its style dialog says
Numbering Style.
Create a new list style
The dialog that creates a new list style consists of six tabs, in
addition to the usual Organizer tab.
Working with lists
77
Bullets, Numbering Styles, and Graphics tabs
The Bullets, Numbering Style, and Graphics tabs contain predefined
formatting for list item symbols (bullets or numbers). To use one of
them for your style, click on the image. A thick border indicates that
you have selected the item.
The bullets on the Bullets tab are font characters; those on the
Graphics tab are graphics.
Outline tab
Use the Outline tab to select from eight predefined nested lists. (A
nested list is one that is embedded in another list. For example, on
page 81 the list numbered a-b-c is nested within the list numbered 12-3-4. Nested lists can be several levels deep.)
You can also select a predefined list and use it as a starting point
for your own style, customizing the list using the Position tab and
the Options tab.
Position tab
Use the Position tab to fine tune the indentation and spacing of the
list item symbol and the text of the list item. Use this tab together
with the Options tab (next section).
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Chapter 6 Format Text in Writer
You can adjust these settings for each level individually or all at
once (to make them all the same). I recommend adjusting the
settings in the order given below and not according to the order on
the dialog. Start from the overall indentation for the list elements,
then fix the position of the symbols, and finally adjust the alignment
of the symbols.
•
Numbering followed by: the element that comes right
after the bullet or number (plus any characters—for example,
a punctuation mark—chosen on the Options tab to appear
after the number). Choose between a tab stop, a space, or
nothing. If you select the tab stop, you can specify the
position of the tab.
•
Indent at: how much space is reserved for the numbering
symbol, measured from the left page margin. The alignment
of the first line of the list is also affected by any tab you may
have set to follow the numbering.
•
Aligned at: the position of the numbering symbol, measured
from the left margin of the page.
•
Numbering alignment: how the numbering (including any
text before or after as set in the Options page) will be aligned.
Select from the drop-down menu. The Aligned at value
determines the symbol alignment.
Making the Numbering followed by distance the same as the
Indent at distance usually works well.
Note
The Position page is slightly different for lists in documents
created with earlier versions of Writer. See the Writer Guide for
details.
Tip
To fully appreciate how numbering alignment works, try to
create a numbered list with more than ten elements and make
sure that enough room has been made for a number of two or
more digits.
Working with lists
79
A numbered list of CD tracks highlighting the various elements
Options tab
Use the Options tab to define the style of the outline levels.
First, on the left side, select the outline level that you want to
modify. To modify all ten levels at once, select 1 – 10 as the level. If
you started from a predefined outline, some of the levels will already
have settings.
Your choice of numbering style in the Numbering list (bullet,
graphics, or one of the numbering sequences such as 1, 2, 3, ...)
determines which other options are available. The right-hand side of
the dialog shows a preview of the modifications made.
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Chapter 6 Format Text in Writer
To revert to the default values, click the Reset button in the
bottom right corner.
Apply the list style
Now that the list style is available, it can quickly be applied to any
list in the document. Select the list and then double-click on the
desired list style name in the Styles and Formatting window.
Remember that applying a list style does not affect the
characteristics of the underlying paragraph; therefore you may want
to make sure that you are satisfied with the paragraph style before
applying the list style.
If you have more than one list in a document, the second and
subsequent lists with the same style continue their numbering from
the previous list. To restart a list at 1, right-click anywhere in the
paragraph you want numbered 1, and choose Restart numbering.
To stop using numbering, click the Numbering On/Off icon
on the Standard toolbar.
Tip
If you intend to combine several files into one book, be sure to
restart list numbering for the first list in every chapter. If you
don’t, then when you combine the files, the first list will continue
numbering from the last list in the previous chapter.
Combine list and paragraph styles
When applying a list style, the underlying paragraph style remains
unchanged. If your list must also have a certain font size, certain
indentations, and so on, you can combine a specific list style with a
paragraph style and then apply the paragraph style to the list.
To combine a list style with a paragraph style, use the
Numbering page of the Paragraph Style dialog.
1 Create the list style that you want to use for the paragraph,
for example MyNumberedList.
2 Create a new paragraph style.
3 On the Organizer tab of the Paragraph Style dialog:
a
Give the new paragraph style a name, say Numbered
Paragraph.
Working with lists
81
b For Next Style, choose Numbered Paragraph (this
will make the following paragraph have the same style,
until you choose a different style).
c
For Linked with, choose None.
4 Set up this paragraph style to your liking. Because the
indentation is controlled by the list style, do not change the
indent settings on the Indents & Spacing tab. (You might
want to change the spacing above and below the paragraph.)
5 On the Outline & Numbering tab, choose the
MyNumberedList style created in Step 1.
6 Click OK to save this style.
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Chapter 6 Format Text in Writer
7
Create PDFs using
Writer
Writer can export documents to PDF (Portable Document Format),
the file format usually required by print-on-demand publishers.
PDF is also the most commonly used file format for e-books,
because it can be read on most computers and handheld devices.
Be sure to check with your print-on-demand service for any
special requirements they may have regarding PDFs. At the time of
writing, common requirements include:
•
Graphics must not have transparency. If necessary, use your
image processing program to remove the transparency.
(Consult that program’s documentation for how to do this.)
•
Graphics/images should be in grayscale, not color, at a
resolution of no more than 600 dpi (300 dpi preferred). You
can set this during PDF export.
•
All fonts must be fully embedded. Writer’s PDF export does
this automatically.
The best settings for PDFs intended for printing may be different
from the best settings for PDFs to be read as e-books. If you want to
make your book available in both printed and e-book forms, you
may want to create two PDFs using different settings.
Quick export to PDF
Click the Export Directly as PDF icon
to export the entire
document using the last set of selections made through the PDF
Options dialog. You can choose the file name and location for the
PDF, but you do not get a chance to choose a page range or the print
quality. Direct export is convenient for creating draft PDFs or
multiple PDFs using the same settings.
Chapter 7 Create PDFs using Writer
83
When producing a PDF to send to your printing service, be sure
to go through the PDF Options dialog to ensure that all the settings
are exactly what you want.
Controlling PDF content and quality
For more control over the content and quality of the resulting PDF,
use File > Export as PDF. After you choose the location and file
name of the PDF, the PDF Options dialog opens. This dialog has five
pages (General, Initial View, User Interface, Links, Security). Make
your selections, and then click Export.
General tab of PDF Options dialog
On the General tab, you can choose which pages to include in the
PDF, the type of compression to use for images (which affects the
quality of images in the PDF), and other options.
Range section
All
Exports the entire document. This is the setting you would
normally use for creating a PDF of a book.
Pages
As you assemble the book, you might want to export a few
sample pages. For a range of pages, use the format 3–6 (pages 3
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Chapter 7 Create PDFs using Writer
to 6); for single pages, use 7,9,11 (pages 7, 9, and 11). You can
also export a combination of page ranges and single pages, by
using a format like 3–6,8,10,12.
Selection
Exports whatever material is selected. Useful for checking
portions of a book.
Images section
Lossless compression
Images are exported without any loss of quality. For printed
books, select this option.
JPEG compression
Allows for varying degrees of quality. A setting of 90% tends to
work well with photographs. Suitable for e-books.
Reduce image resolution
For print-on-demand publishing, set this for 300 or 600 dpi
(dots per inch). Lower-dpi images may be suitable for e-books if
image quality is not a major concern, but they are not suitable
for printed books. Higher dpi images are best for commercial
offset printing, but may be rejected by print-on-demand
services. Check with your printing service to be sure.
Watermark section
When the Sign with Watermark option is selected, a transparent
overlay of the watermark text you specify appears on each page of
the PDF. You might use this to print “Draft” or “Not for Resale” or
other words on copies of your book that you send out for review.
General section
Embed OpenDocument file
Choose this setting to export the document as a file containing
two file formats: PDF and ODF. In PDF viewers it behaves like a
normal PDF file, but it remains fully editable in LibreOffice.
Note that this choice can significantly increase the size of the
exported file.
Controlling PDF content and quality
85
PDF/A-1
This format is designed for long term preservation. It is
generally not suitable for print-on-demand printing. Do not
select.
Tagged PDF
Relevant only for onscreen viewing of PDFs. Depends upon
the .odt file having special tags embedded within it. This topic is
too complex for this book. Do not select.
Create PDF form
Choose format of forms submitted from within the PDF file. Not
relevant to print-on-demand or e-books. Do not select.
Export bookmarks
Creates PDF bookmarks for all hyperlinked table of contents
entries. For printed books, do not select. For e-books, select this
option.
Export notes
Exports comments as PDF notes. Do not select.
Export automatically inserted blank pages
Books usually have chapters set to always start on an oddnumbered (right-hand) page. When the previous chapter ends
on an odd page, Writer inserts a blank page between the two odd
pages. For printed books, select this option. For e-books, you
may wish to deselect this option.
Embed standard fonts
Normally the 14 standard PostScript fonts are not embedded in a
PDF file, because PDF reader software contains these fonts.
However, you can choose to embed these fonts in PDFs created
by LibreOffice to enhance display accuracy in PDF viewers. Font
embedding may also be required by some print-on-demand
services.
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Chapter 7 Create PDFs using Writer
Initial View tab
This tab is relevant only for e-books. The options control how a PDF
viewer displays the file.
To avoid problems for printed books, choose Page only in the
Panes section, leave Open on page as 1, and choose Default for
Magnification and Page layout.
For e-books, you may wish to choose Bookmarks and page
for Panes, but leave Magnification and Page layout as Default.
User Interface tab
This tab is relevant only for e-books. The options control how a PDF
viewer displays the file.
To avoid problems for printed books, deselect all options except
All bookmark levels in the Bookmarks section.
For e-books, select Display document title in the Window
options section, but deselect all other options in that section and the
User interface options section. In the Bookmarks section, select
Visible bookmark levels and change the number to match the
number of heading levels in the table of contents of the printed
book.
Tip
Be sure the correct title is on the Description tab of the
Document Properties (File > Properties).
Controlling PDF content and quality
87
Links tab
Chooses how links between e-books and other electronic documents
are exported to PDF, an advanced topic that is not covered in this
book.
For printed books, deselect all options, except Default mode in
the Cross-document links section.
Security tab
PDF export includes options for encryption (so that a password will
be needed in order to open the PDF) and applying some digital
rights management (DRM) features.
For PDFs that are to be printed, do not set any passwords.
Printers cannot handle files that require passwords. For an e-book,
you may wish to set some of these passwords. If you want to sell
both print-on-demand books and e-books with DRM features, you
need to create two PDFs using different settings.
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Chapter 7 Create PDFs using Writer
Part 2:
Extras
The first seven chapters of this book covered topics that every
self-publisher needs to know about using Writer for writing and
desktop publishing of books.
The next seven chapters cover topics that may be relevant to
your book or your use of Writer, but are not needed by everyone.
8 Pictures and Graphics in Writer
9 Tables of Contents in Writer
10 Indexes in Writer
11 Create Special Effects in Writer
12 Track Changes in Writer
13 Use Templates in Writer
14 Customize Writer
8
Pictures and Graphics
in Writer
Graphics in Writer are of three basic types:
•
Image files such as photos, drawings, and scanned images
•
Diagrams created using Writer’s drawing tools
•
Charts created using LibreOffice’s Chart facility
This chapter covers images and diagrams.
More detailed descriptions on working with drawing tools are in
the Draw Guide and Impress Guide. How to create charts is
described in the Calc Guide.
Creating and editing images
Images (also called ‘pictures’ in LibreOffice and in this book) might
be created with a graphics program, scanned, or downloaded from
the Internet (if you have permission to use them), or they might be
photos from a digital camera.
Writer can import various vector (line drawing) and raster
(bitmap) file formats. The most common are GIF, JPG, PNG, and
BMP.
Some things to consider when choosing or creating pictures
include image quality and whether the picture will be printed in
color or grayscale (‘black and white’).
Use a resolution of 300 dpi (dots per inch) for photos and 600
dpi for line drawings. Higher resolution won’t improve image
quality on POD printers. Be careful with downloaded artwork,
which is often at 72 dpi—it may be suitable for display on a screen
but it is not good for printing.
To edit photos and other bitmap images, use a bitmap editor. To
edit line drawings, use a vector drawing program. You do not need
to buy expensive programs. Open-source (and usually no-cost) tools
such as Gimp (bitmap editor) and Inkscape (vector drawing
Chapter 8 Pictures and Graphics in Writer
91
program) are excellent. These and many other programs work on
Windows, Macintosh OS X, and Linux.
For best results:
•
Create images that have the exact dimensions required for
the document, or use an appropriate graphics package to
scale photographs and large drawings to the required
dimensions. Do not scale images with Writer, even though
Writer has tools for doing this, because the results might not
be as clear as you would like.
•
Do any other required image manipulation (brightness and
contrast, color balance, cropping, and so on) in a graphics
package, not in Writer, even though Writer has the tools to do
a lot of these things too.
•
If the book will be printed in black and white, convert all
color images into grayscale before creating the PDF of the
book. Be sure to check your print-on-demand service’s
requirements: some may print in black-and-white from a
color PDF; others require than any images be converted to
grayscale. To convert images to grayscale from within Writer,
use the Graphics Mode list on the Picture toolbar as
described on page 97.
Prepare images for black-and-white printing
If color images are to be printed in grayscale, check that any
adjacent colors have good contrast and print dark enough. Test by
printing on a black-and-white printer
using a grayscale setting. Better still:
change the “mode” of the image to
grayscale, either in a photo editor or in
Writer itself (see “Graphics mode” on
page 97).
For example, the top diagram to the
right looks good in color. The circle is
dark red and the square is dark blue. In
grayscale, the difference between the two
is not so clear. A third element in the
diagram is a yellow arrow, which is
almost invisible in grayscale.
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Chapter 8 Pictures and Graphics in Writer
Changing the colors of the circle and the arrow improves the
contrast and visibility of the resulting grayscale image. A better
result can often be obtained by choosing grayscale fills, not color
fills.
Inserting an image from a file
When the image is in a file stored on your computer, you can
immediately insert it into the Writer document.
To insert an image from a file, use either of these methods.
Drag and drop
1 Open a file browser window and locate the image you want to
insert.
2 Drag the image into the Writer document and drop it where
you want it to appear. A faint vertical line marks where the
image will be dropped.
Insert Picture dialog
1 Click in the location in the Writer document where you want
the image to appear.
2 On the menu bar, select Insert > Picture > From File.
3 On the Insert Picture dialog, navigate to the file to be
inserted, select it, and click Open.
At the bottom of the Insert picture dialog are two options,
Preview and Link.
Inserting an image from a file
93
Select Preview to view a small image of the selected graphic file
on the right, so you can verify that you have the correct file.
Select Link to create a link to the file containing the image,
instead of embedding (saving a copy of) the image in the document.
If you link to an image, then the image is displayed in the
document, but the saved document contains only a reference to the
image file—not the image itself. The document and the image
remain as two separate files, which are temporarily merged together
only when you open the document again.
The main advantage to linking pictures comes during the draft
phase of writing and illustrating a book. If you change a picture but
keep the same filename and location on your computer, then the
next time you open the book file, the changed picture is included.
You don’t have to remember to replace the earlier version with the
revised picture (which is what you have to do when you embed).
A minor advantage to linking pictures is a smaller file size for the
main document. For most people, file size is no longer the problem
it was some years ago.
The main disadvantage to linking comes if you need to send the
file to someone else, or when you copy or move it to another
computer or another location on the same computer. In these
situations, you must make sure that the image files remain in the
same location relative to the text file. Keeping all the files in one
folder and sending or moving the whole folder is the easiest way to
make sure that the files stay together.
You can embed linked images into the main file at any time.
1 Open the document in Writer and choose Edit > Links from
the menu bar.
2 The Edit Links dialog shows all the linked files. In the Source
file list, select the files you want to change from linked to
embedded.
3 Click the Break Link button.
4 Save the Writer document.
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Chapter 8 Pictures and Graphics in Writer
Inserting images from other sources
You can insert images from a graphics program, a scanner, and the
Gallery.
Graphics program
You can use many different graphics programs to edit an image. You
can either save the edited image as a file and insert it as described
earlier, or insert the image directly from the graphics program into
your Writer document.
Follow these steps:
1 In the graphics program window, select an area of the image
to be copied (or select the entire image).
2 Move the cursor over the selected area and press Control+C
to copy.
3 Switch to the Writer window.
4 Click to place the cursor where the image is to be inserted.
Press Control+V to paste the image.
Scanner
If a scanner is connected to your computer, Writer can call the
scanning application and add the scanned image to the document in
one step. Click where you want the image to appear, and then select
Insert > Picture > Scan > Select Source from the menu bar.
Inserting images from other sources
95
This procedure probably will not give you a high-quality image
that is of the correct size. You will get better results by scanning
material into a graphics program and editing it there before
inserting it into Writer.
LibreOffice Gallery
The Gallery contains graphics that you can insert into your
documents. Writer does not come with many graphics, but you can
add your own pictures or find extensions containing more graphics.
For more about the Gallery, see Getting Started with LibreOffice.
To insert a Gallery image into a document:
1 Click on the Gallery icon (right side of the Standard
toolbar) or choose Tools > Gallery.
2 Select the theme containing the image you want to insert.
3 Click on the image, then drag and drop it into the document.
You can also right-click on the image and select Insert >
Copy.
Here is an example of an image dragged from the Gallery. (The
oval marks the Show/Hide button; click on this button to hide the
Gallery and view the full Writer workspace.)
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Chapter 8 Pictures and Graphics in Writer
Modifying an image
When you insert a new image, you may need to modify it to make it
more suitable for the document.
Although Writer provides many tools for working with images,
for best results it is generally better to use an image manipulation
program such as Gimp to modify images (for example, to crop,
resize, rotate, and change color values) and then insert the result
into Writer.
Use the Picture toolbar
When you insert an image or select one that is present in the
document, the Picture toolbar appears. This toolbar can be either
floating or docked.
Two other toolbars can be opened from this one: the Graphic
Filter toolbar, which can be torn off, and the Color toolbar, which
opens as a separate floating toolbar.
From these three toolbars, you can apply small corrections to
graphics or obtain special effects. See the Writer Guide for a
complete listing of these tools. Here are three of them.
Graphics mode
Some print-on-demand services want all graphics to be in
grayscale, if the book is to be printed in black-and-white. If you
have not changed color images to grayscale in a graphics
program, you can do it here. Select the image, and then select
Grayscale from the Graphics mode list.
Transparency
Do not use transparency for print-on-demand books, because
the printing service might not accept the resulting PDF.
Flip vertically or horizontally
To flip an image vertically or horizontally, select the image, and
then click either the relevant icon.
Modifying an image
97
Use the Object toolbar and right-click menu
When you insert an image or select one that is already in the
document, the Object toolbar appears. This toolbar is usually
docked just below the main toolbar, but it can be made to float.
The Object toolbar has icons for basic wrapping, alignment,
anchoring, borders, and other functions. Right-clicking on an image
pops up a menu of functions similar to those on the Object toolbar.
See the Writer Guide for details.
Use the Picture dialog
Use the Picture dialog for more control over images. Cropping,
borders, wrapping, and other functions are accessed through this
dialog. The functions are described in detail in the Writer Guide.
Crop an image
Sometimes you might want to crop (cut off) parts of an image. It’s
best to do this in a graphics package, but you can do it in Writer. To
start, right-click on the image and select Picture from the pop-up
menu. In the Picture dialog, go to the Crop tab.
Keep scale / Keep image size
When Keep scale is selected, cropping the image does not
change the scale of the picture.
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Chapter 8 Pictures and Graphics in Writer
When Keep image size is selected, cropping produces
enlargement (for positive cropping values), shrinking (for
negative cropping values), or distortion of the image so that the
image size remains constant.
Left, Right, Top, and Bottom
The image is cropped by the amounts entered in these boxes. For
example, a value of 3 cm in the Left box cuts 3 cm from the left
side of the picture.
•
When Keep scale is selected, the size of the image also
changes.
•
When Keep image size is selected, the remaining part of
the image is enlarged (when you enter positive values for
cropping) or shrunk (when you enter negative values for
cropping). The overall width and height of the image remains
unchanged.
Width and Height
The Width and Height fields under either Scale or Image size
change as you enter values in the Left, Right, Top, and Bottom
fields. Use the thumbnail next to these fields to determine the
correct amount by which to crop.
Rotate an image
Writer does not provide a tool for rotating an image, but you can use
a drawing or graphics program to rotate the image before adding it
to the Writer document. Here is how to do it in LibreOffice Draw.
1 Open a new Draw document (File > New> Drawing).
2 Insert the image you want to rotate.
3 Select the image, then in the drawing toolbar (shown by
default at the bottom of the window in Impress and Draw),
select the Rotate icon
.
4 Rotate the image as desired. Use the red handles at the
corners of the picture and move the mouse in the direction
you wish to rotate. By default the picture rotates around its
center (indicated by a black crosshair), but you can change
Modifying an image
99
the pivot point by moving the black crosshair to a new
rotation center.
5 Select the rotated picture by pressing Ctrl+A, then copy the
image to the clipboard with Ctrl+C.
6 Then go back to the location in the Writer document where
the image is to be inserted and paste the image (Ctrl+V).
Tip
To restrict the rotation angle to multiples of 15 degrees, hold
down Shift while rotating the image in step 4.
Positioning images within the text
When you add an image to a text document, you need to choose how
to position it. Writer is not a desktop publishing program, so there
are some limitations to the positioning of images.
Positioning is controlled by four settings:
•
Arrangement refers to the stacking position of an image
relative to other graphic objects or text.
•
Alignment refers to the vertical or horizontal placement of
the image in relation to the anchor point.
•
Anchoring refers to the reference point for the image. This
point could be the page, the frame where the object is, a
paragraph, or even a character. An image always has an
anchor point.
•
Text wrapping refers to the relation of images to the
surrounding text. The text might treat the image as a separate
paragraph or character. It might wrap around the image on
one or both sides or it might be behind or in front of the
image.
You can access these settings in these ways:
•
From the Format menu
•
From the pop-up menu when you right-click on the image
•
From the Object toolbar
•
From the Type and Wrapping tabs of the Picture dialog
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Chapter 8 Pictures and Graphics in Writer
Arrange images
Arrangement is only relevant when objects are overlapping. You can
choose between four settings, plus a special setting just for drawing
objects.
•
Bring to Front: Places the image on top of any other
graphics or text.
•
Bring Forward: Brings the image one level up in the stack.
Depending on the number of overlapping objects, you may
need to apply this option several times to obtain the desired
result.
•
Send Backward: The opposite of Bring Forward; sends the
selected object one level down in the object stack.
•
Send to Back: Sends the selected image to the bottom of the
stack, so that other graphics and text cover it.
•
To Background / To Foreground: (Only available for
drawing objects.) Moves the drawing object behind or in front
of the text.
Anchor images
You can anchor images as a character or to a page, paragraph,
character, or frame. The method you choose depends on what you
are trying to achieve.
To Page
The image keeps the same position in relation to the page
margins. It does not move as you add or delete text or other
graphics. This method is useful when the image does not need to
be visually associated with a particular piece of text. It is often
used when producing newsletters or other documents that are
very layout intensive, or for placing logos in letterheads.
To Paragraph
The image is associated with a paragraph and moves with the
paragraph. It may be placed in the margin or another location.
This method is a good alternative to using a table for placing
images next to paragraphs.
Positioning images within the text
101
To Character
The image is associated with a character, but it is not in the text
sequence. It moves with the paragraph but may be placed in the
margin or another location. This method is similar to anchoring
to a paragraph but cannot be used with drawing objects.
As Character
The image is placed in the document like any other character
and, therefore, affects the height of the text line and the line
break. The image moves with the paragraph as you add or delete
text. This method is useful for keeping images in sequence in a
procedure (by anchoring them as a character in a blank
paragraph) or for adding a small (inline) icon in sequence in a
sentence.
To Frame
If the image has been placed in a frame, you can anchor the
graphic in a fixed position inside the frame. The frame can then
be anchored to the page, a paragraph, or a character, as
required.
Align images
Once you have established the anchor point of the image, you can
decide on the position of the image relative to this anchor. This is
called aligning the image.
Choose from six options: three for aligning the graphic vertically
(top, center, bottom) and three for aligning the graphic horizontally
(left, center, right). Horizontal alignment is not available for images
anchored as character.
For finer control of the alignment, use the Position options on
the Type page of the Picture dialog. In the example below, the
upper-left corner of the image will be placed 3 cm from the left
margin of the page horizontally and on the top margin vertically.
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Chapter 8 Pictures and Graphics in Writer
Wrapping text around images
The Wrap setting determines the relation between the text and the
image. It is normally selected after the anchoring and the alignment
of the picture have been set.
•
No Wrap: Text is placed above and below the image but not
around it. This is the wrapping type used for most of the
pictures in this book.
•
Page Wrap or Optimal Page Wrap: Text flows around the
image. Moving the image around the page makes the text fill
the space to the left and right. If the distance between the
object and the page margin is less than 2 cm, the text is not
wrapped on that side.
•
Wrap Through: Superimposes the image on the text. This
option must be used with the image-transparency setting in
order to make the text under the picture visible. It is not
suitable for creating PDFs to be printed by those print-ondemand services that do not allow transparency.
•
In Background: Similar to Wrap Through but the image is
placed behind the text. You do not need to change the
transparency to make text visible.
Notes
The No Wrap option found in the pop-up menu of a picture is
equivalent to the Wrap Off menu item in the Format > Wrap
menu.
When you anchor a graphic as character, you can only adjust the
distance between the image and the text. No wrapping option is
available.
To fine tune the wrapping options, open the Picture dialog and
select the Wrap tab.
This tab is divided into three sections. In the top part you can
select from the wrap types mentioned above, plus two additional
wrap formats: After prevents the text from filling the area to the left
of the image, and Before prevents the text from filling the area to
the right.
Use the Spacing section of the page to adjust the spacing
between the image and the text.
Wrapping text around images
103
The options available in the lower right of this tab change
depending on the selected wrap format.
First paragraph
Starts a new paragraph below the image when you press Enter,
even if the text could have wrapped around the image.
In background
If Through Wrap is selected, moves the image into the
background.
Contour
Wraps the text around a custom contour rather than around the
edge of the picture. It is only available for Page or Optimal Page
Wrap. See the Writer Guide for a detailed description and an
example.
Outside only
Forces the text to wrap on the outside of the image, even if the
contour contains open areas within the shape.
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Chapter 8 Pictures and Graphics in Writer
Example: page wrapping
The picture on the next page is an example of page wrapping in
action. To accomplish page wrapping:
1 Insert the image into the document, then anchor it to the
first paragraph by selecting the image and moving it until the
anchor symbol is at the beginning of the paragraph.
2 Use either the mouse or the advanced settings to align the
image so that the left of the image is in line with the
paragraph indentation. In the example, the image is placed 1
cm from the left margin.
3 Change the wrap to Page Wrap. To increase the space
between image and text, go to the Wrap page of the Picture
dialog and set the image and text gap (in the Right and
Bottom boxes) to 0.2 cm.
4 Change the position so that the image is below the first line
of the paragraph. Again, use the mouse to drag the image or
use the advanced settings.
Example of image with Page Wrap formatting
Wrapping text around images
105
Using Writer’s drawing tools
I recommend that you avoid using Writer’s drawing tools to create
graphics or annotate other images. The results can be unpredictable.
•
The stacking order of drawing objects does not always stay
the way you set it, so a line or circle that should be on top of
another object may suddenly end up underneath the object.
•
You cannot group images and drawing objects together, so
they may get out of alignment in your document.
•
If you convert a Writer document to another format, such as
HTML, the drawing objects and the graphics will not remain
associated; they are saved separately.
To avoid potential problems, use a graphics package such as
LibreOffice Draw or Gimp to create the graphics, then either copy
the graphics directly into the Writer document or export them as an
image file and import that file into Writer.
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Chapter 8 Pictures and Graphics in Writer
9
Tables of Contents in
Writer
Does your book need a table of contents? Novels don’t usually have
them, but non-fiction books and collections of short stories or
poetry usually do. Writer (like other word processors) provides a
convenient way to compile an automated table of contents from the
headings in your book.
This chapter shows you how to:
•
Create a table of contents quickly, using the defaults
•
Define a hierarchy of headings
•
Customize a table of contents
Before you start, make sure that the headings are styled
consistently. Writer’s built-in styles for chapter titles and
subheadings are Heading 1, Heading 2, Heading 3, and so on.
Headings with these styles will appear in the table of contents.
You can use any styles you wish for the headings, including
custom styles, but if you do, you will have to make some other
changes, described later in this chapter.
Creating a table of contents quickly
Although a table of contents (TOC) can be customized extensively in
Writer, the default settings are usually fine until you get to the final
stages of book design and layout.
Quickly creating a TOC is simple.
1 When you create your book, use the built-in paragraph styles
for the headings (chapter titles and subheadings): Heading 1,
Heading 2, and Heading 3.
2 Click in the document where you want the TOC to appear.
3 Select Insert > Indexes and Tables > Indexes and
Tables.
Chapter 9 Tables of Contents in Writer
107
4 If you have defined any index entries in your book, be sure to
deselect Index marks when you create a TOC.
5 Change nothing else in the Insert Index/Table dialog. Click
OK. The result will be a typical table of contents.
Tips
•
If some of your headings don’t show up in the generated TOC,
check that the headings have been tagged correctly. If a whole
level of headings doesn’t show up, see “Defining a hierarchy
of headings” on page 108.
•
You can customize an existing TOC at any time. Right-click
anywhere in it and select Edit Index/Table from the popup menu. Continue as described in “Customizing a table of
contents” on page 110.
•
The TOC appears with a gray background. This background is
not printed and does not appear in a PDF. To turn off this
gray background, go to Tools > Options > LibreOffice >
Appearance, then scroll down to the Text Document section
and uncheck the option for Index and table shadings.
This change may leave a gray background showing behind the
dots between the headings and the page numbers, because
the dots are part of a tab. To turn that shading off, go to
Tools > Options > LibreOffice Writer > Formatting
Aids and uncheck the option for Tabs.
Defining a hierarchy of headings
Paragraph styles are the key to Writer’s automatic TOC feature. The
paragraph styles assigned to outline levels by Writer are the heading
styles supplied with Writer: Heading 1, Heading 2, Heading 3, and
so on.
Tools > Outline Numbering defines the hierarchy of
headings in a document. This name is misleading: your headings do
not need to have outline numbers.
If you are using the default heading styles for the headings in
your outline, and you do not want to use heading numbering for
automatic numbering of chapter titles, you do not need to do
anything on the Outline Numbering dialog except verify that the
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Chapter 9 Tables of Contents in Writer
correct styles are given for each heading level you want to be shown
in the TOC.
Choose paragraph styles for outline levels
To use custom paragraph styles instead of one or more of the default
heading styles, or to use automatic heading numbering for the
chapter titles:
1 Be sure the custom paragraph styles have been defined. For
our example, we’ll use only one: MyHeading1 for the chapter
titles.
2 Click Tools > Outline Numbering to open the Outline
Numbering dialog.
3 Click the number in the Level box that corresponds to the
heading for which you want to change the paragraph style. In
our example, this is Level 1.
4 In the Numbering: Paragraph Style section, choose from the
drop-down list the paragraph style that you want to assign to
that heading level. In our example, choose MyHeading1to
replace Heading 1.
5 Repeat for each outline level that you want to change. Click
OK when done.
Defining a hierarchy of headings
109
Customizing a table of contents
You can alter the content and appearance of a TOC in many
different ways.
To customize a TOC, right-click anywhere in it and choose
Modify from the pop-up menu.
The Insert Index/Table dialog opens. This dialog has five tabs.
Any or all of them can be used when creating or editing a TOC:
•
Use the Index/Table tab to set the attributes..
•
Use the Entries and Styles tabs to format the entries.
•
Use the Columns tab to have more than one column.
•
Use the Background tab to add color or a graphic to the
background.
You can display a preview box, located on the left-hand side of
the dialog, to show as you work how the TOC will look. (If you do
not see the preview box, select the Preview option in the lower
right-hand corner of the dialog.) The illustrations in this chapter
show the dialog as it appears with the preview box hidden.
After making all of your changes, click OK to save the TOC so
that it appears in your document.
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Chapter 9 Tables of Contents in Writer
Index/Table tab
Use the Index/Table tab to set the attributes of the TOC.
Change the title
To give the TOC a different title, type it in the Title field. To
delete the title, clear the Title field.
Set the type of index
In computer terminology, a table of contents is one of several
types of indexes. Be sure the Type of Index is set to Table of
Contents. (In the chapter on indexes, we’ll use this same dialog
but choose “Alphabetic Index” and a different set of options. We
won’t look at the other index types.)
Choose the scope of the table of contents
From the for drop-down list in the Create index/table area,
select Entire document. There is an additional option to
create a TOC for just the current chapter.
Change the number of levels included
Writer uses up to 10 levels of headings when it builds the TOC.
To change the number of levels, enter the required number in
the Evaluate up to level box.
Protect against manual changes
To prevent the TOC from being changed accidentally, select the
Protected against manual changes option. The TOC can
then only be changed using the right-click menu or the Insert
Table/Index dialog. If the box is not checked, the TOC can be
changed directly on the document page, just like other text, but
any manual changes will be lost when you update it.
Create a table of contents from an outline
Select the Outline option to create the TOC using outline levels;
that is, using paragraphs formatted with the styles specified in
the Outline Numbering dialog. This is the method used for most
books.
Create from index marks
Not normally used for a TOC, so deselect this option. We’ll look
at index marks in Chapter 10.
Customizing a table of contents
111
Create from additional styles
Writer automatically includes in the TOC all paragraphs that
have been formatted with the paragraph styles selected in Tools
> Outline Numbering. You might also wish to include
headings formatted with other styles. For example, you might
have styles for appendix titles or for the title of an Index page,
and you might want those titles to appear in the TOC at the same
level as the chapter titles.
Because only one paragraph style can be assigned to an outline
level in Tools > Outline Numbering, to include in the TOC
paragraphs formatted with other styles, do this:
1 In the Create from area, select Additional Styles and click
the (...) button to the right. The Assign Styles dialog opens.
2 In the Not applied column, click the style that you want to
assign to the TOC.
3 Use the >> button at the bottom of the dialog (not shown
below) to move the selected style to the desired outline level.
For example, to have paragraphs formatted with the selected
style appear as top-level entries in the table of contents, click
the >> button once to move the style into the 1 column. To
move the style in the opposite direction, use the << button.
4 Click OK to save your changes and return to the Index/Table
page or click Cancel to return without saving your changes.
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Chapter 9 Tables of Contents in Writer
Entries tab
Use the Entries tab to define and format the entries in the TOC. For
each outline level, you can add and delete elements such as chapter
(heading) numbers. You can also apply character styles to individual
elements.
To begin, click a number in the Level column to select the
outline level whose elements you want to format. (You will be able
to apply changes to all outline levels later.) The Structure line
displays the elements for entries in that level. Each button on the
Structure line represents one element.
•
The E# button represents the “chapter number”, which
means the heading number. This number is for all levels of
headings.
•
The E button represents the text of the heading.
•
The T button represents a tab.
•
The # button represents the page number.
•
The LS button represents the start of a hyperlink.
•
The LE button represents the end of a hyperlink.
Each white field on the Structure line represents a blank space.
If you wish, you can add custom text such as the word Chapter.
Customizing a table of contents
113
Add elements
To add an element to the Structure line:
1 Click in the white field where you want to insert the element.
2 Click one of the five buttons just below the Structure line.
(For example, to add a tab, click the Tab stop button.) A
button representing the new element appears on the
Structure line.
3 To add custom text, type the text in the white field.
Delete elements
To delete an element from the Structure line, click the button
representing that element and then press the Delete key on the
keyboard.
Apply character styles
You might want an element to be a bit different from the rest of the
line. For example, you might want the page number to be bold. To
apply a character style to an element:
1 Be sure you have defined a suitable character style.
2 On the Structure line, click the button that represents the
element to be changed.
3 From the Character Style drop-down list, select the desired
style.
To view or edit the attributes of a character style, select the style
from the Character Style drop-down list and then click the Edit
button.
Tip
The default character style for hyperlinks is Internet Link. By
default, this style is blue and underlined.
If you want the TOC entries to be hyperlinks, but not appear
underlined and blue, select the LS button on the Structure line
and change the character style selection to Index Link. Click the
Edit button to change the settings for Index Link.
(You could change the settings for the Internet Link character
style, but doing this changes the attributes of all hyperlinks in
the document.)
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Chapter 9 Tables of Contents in Writer
Apply changes to all outline levels
To apply the displayed structure and formatting to all outline levels,
click the All button.
Tab position relative to Paragraph Style indent
When this option is selected, entries are indented according to the
settings of their individual formats. When a paragraph style
specifies an indent on the left, tab positions are relative to the
indent. If this option is not selected, tab positions are relative to the
left margin position.
Styles tab
Use the Styles tab to change which paragraph style is assigned to
each level in the TOC. In most cases, the best strategy is to keep the
assigned styles but change their settings as needed to make the TOC
appear the way you want.
If you define custom styles, do this to apply them to the TOC:
1 In the Levels list, select the outline level.
2 In the Paragraph Styles list, click the desired paragraph
style.
Customizing a table of contents
115
3 Click the < button to apply the selected paragraph style to the
selected outline level.
The style assigned to each level appears in square brackets in the
Levels list.
To remove paragraph styling from an outline level, select the
outline level in the Levels list, then click the Default button.
To view or edit the attributes of a paragraph style, click the style
in the Paragraph Styles list, then click the Edit button.
Columns tab
Multiple columns are more commonly used in indexes. To change
the number of columns in a TOC, see “Using the Columns page” in
Chapter 10.
Background tab
Use the Background tab to add color or a graphic image to the
background of the table of contents. This is not commonly done in
books with black-and-white interiors.
Maintaining a table of contents
To edit an existing TOC, right-click anywhere in it and choose Edit
Index/Table from the pop-up menu. The Insert Index/Table
dialog opens and you can edit and save the table as described in the
previous section.
Writer does not update the TOC automatically, so after any
changes to the headings, you must update it manually. To update a
TOC when changes are made to the document, right-click anywhere
in it and choose Update Index/Table from the pop-up menu.
Writer then updates the TOC.
To delete a TOC from a document, right-click anywhere in it and
choose Delete Index/Table from the pop-up menu. Writer does
not prompt you to confirm the delete.
Tip
If you cannot right-click in the table of contents, go to Tools >
Options > LibreOffice Writer > Formatting Aids and
select Enable in the Cursor in protected areas section.
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Chapter 9 Tables of Contents in Writer
10
Indexes in Writer
Does your book need an index? Novels and collections of short
stories or poetry don’t usually have them, but non-fiction books
usually do.
The index is usually in the back of a book. It list words and
phrases and their locations in the book.
Writer (like other word processors) provides a convenient way to
build an automated index from index entries that you define in your
book.
This chapter describes how to:
•
Add index entries to the book
•
Build an alphabetic index quickly
•
Customize the display of index entries
•
View and edit existing index entries
Adding index entries
Before you can build an index, you must add some index entries to
the book. To do this:
1 Highlight the word or phrase to add to the index, or click at
the beginning of the word or phrase. (To add multiple words
as one entry, highlight the entire phrase.)
2 Click Insert > Indexes and Tables > Entry to display a
dialog similar to the one shown on the next page. You can
accept the word or phrase shown in the Entry box or change
it to whatever you want.
See “Customizing index entries” on page 119 for an
explanation of the fields on this dialog.
3 Click Insert to create the entry.
Chapter 10 Indexes in Writer
117
You can insert multiple entries without closing the dialog. For
each one:
1 Click at the location in the document that you want to
include in the index.
2 Click again on the dialog.
3 Change the entry if needed, and click Insert.
4 Repeat steps 1–3 until you have finished entering index
terms, then click Close.
Tip
You can also open the Insert Index Entry dialog by clicking the
Entry icon on the Insert toolbar.
Note
If field shading is active (View > Field shadings), then a word
or phrase that has been added to the index is shown in the text
with a gray background. Index entries containing text that is
different from the text in the document are marked by a small
gray rectangle.
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Chapter 10 Indexes in Writer
Building an alphabetic index quickly
Now that you have some index entries, you can build the index.
Although indexes can be customized extensively in Writer, most
of the time you need to make only a few choices. To create an index
quickly:
1 Click in the document where you want the index to appear.
2 Select Insert > Indexes and Tables > Indexes and
Tables.
3 In the Type box on the Index/Table page, select
Alphabetical Index.
4 In the Options section, uncheck Case sensitive (so that
capitalized and lower-case words are treated as the same
word) and uncheck Combine identical entries with p or
pp.
5 Click OK. The result will be a typical index.
Customizing index entries
These are the fields in the Insert Index Entry dialog.
Index
The type of index that this entry is for. The default is
Alphabetical Index, but you can use this field to create extra
entries for an index or list of almost anything. For example, you
might want an index containing only the scientific names of
species mentioned in the text along with a separate index
containing only the common names of species.
Entry
The word or phrase to be added to the selected index. This word
or phrase does not need to actually be in the document itself.
You can add synonyms and other terms that you want to have in
the index.
1st key
An index key is an entry that has no associated page number and
has several subentries that do have page numbers. Using keys is
a useful way of grouping related topics. (See “Example of using
an index key” on page 120.)
Customizing index entries
119
2nd key
You can have a three-level index, where some of the first-level
keys have level-2 entries that are also keys (without page
numbers). This degree of index complexity is not often
necessary.
Main entry
When the same term is indexed on several pages, often one of
those pages has more important or detailed information on that
topic. To make the page number for the most important (main)
entry stand out, select this option and then define the character
style for the page number of a main index entry to be bold.
Apply to all similar texts
Select this option to have Writer automatically identify and mark
as an index entry any word or phrase that matches the current
selection. The Match case and Whole words only options
become available if this option is selected. Use this option with
care, as it may result in many unwanted page numbers being
listed in the index.
Note
If Asian languages support has been enabled in Tools >
Options > Languages Settings > Languages, some
additional fields for phonetic reading are shown in the Insert
Index Entry dialog. Enter the phonetic reading for the
corresponding entry. For example, if a Japanese Kanji character
has more than one pronunciation, enter the correct
pronunciation as a Katakana word. The Kanji character is then
sorted according to the phonetic reading entry.
Example of using an index key
An index key is a primary entry that has subentries. For
example, you might want to create a grouping similar to this:
LibreOffice
Calc 10, 25
Impress 15
Writer 5, 11
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In this example, LibreOffice is the 1st key. The subentries (with
the page numbers showing) are the indexed entries. To insert an
index entry for the topic Writer, on the Insert Index Entry dialog,
type Writer in the Entry box and LibreOffice in the 1st key box.
Customizing an index
You can customize an index in numerous ways.
To customize an existing index, right-click anywhere in the index
and choose Modify from the pop-up menu.
The Insert Index/Table dialog has five tabs. Any or all of them
can be used to customize the appearance of an index.
•
Use the Index/Table tab to set the attributes.
•
Use the Entries and Styles tabs to format the entries.
•
Use the Columns tab to specify more than one column.
•
Use the Background tab to add color or a graphic to the
background.
You can display a preview box, located on the left-hand side of
the dialog, to show as you work how the index will look. (Select the
Preview option in the lower right-hand corner of the dialog.) The
illustrations in this chapter show the dialog as it appears with the
preview box hidden.
After making all your changes, click OK to save the index.
Index/Table tab
Use the Index/Table tab to set the attributes of the index.
1 To give the index a different title, type it in the Title field.
(You can change an existing title by typing over it.) To delete
the title, clear the Title field.
2 Be sure the Type of Index is set to Alphabetic Index.
3 To prevent the index from being changed accidentally, check
the Protected against manual changes option. The
index can then only be changed using the right-click menu or
the Insert Table/Index dialog. If the box is not checked, the
index can be changed directly on the document page, just
like other text, but any manual changes will be lost when you
update it.
Customizing an index
121
4 From the drop-down list in the Create index/table area,
select Entire document. You can also choose to create an
index for just the current chapter.
5 Various other options determine how the index handles
entries:
122
•
Combine identical entries. Defines how identical
entries are dealt with. Normally each page number of an
indexed word or phrase is shown in the index, but page
numbers can be combined using these options. If you
want a page range displayed, select Combine with –
(which will produce something similar to 23–31). If you
want different entries based on what letters are
capitalized, select Case sensitive.
•
AutoCapitalize entries. Automatically capitalizes the
first letter of each index entry regardless of how the words
are capitalized within the document.
•
Keys as separate entries. Makes the index keys have
their own page numbers.
•
Concordance file. Allows a list of words in an external
file to be imported (select using the File button) and then
Chapter 10 Indexes in Writer
used within the index. For more information, see
concordance file in the help. Using a concordance file can
speed up production of an index, but unless the words are
very carefully selected and unless you edit the index
afterward, the resulting index can be full of page numbers
for minor mentions of a term.
•
Sort. Defines how the entries are sorted when displayed.
The only option is alphanumeric, but you can specify
which language alphabet is to be used.
Entries tab
Use the Entries tab to define and format the entries in the index.
To begin, click a number in the Level column to select the index
level whose elements you want to format. (You will be able to apply
your changes to all index levels later.)
The Structure line displays the elements for entries in that level.
This line works the same way as for a TOC; see page 113 for details.
Each of the items that can be added to the Structure line may
have additional formatting. For example, you may want the page
number to be a different size from the rest of the index text. To do
this, apply a character style to one of the elements in the Structure
line, as described for TOCs.
Customizing an index
123
Formatting entries
You can apply additional formatting using the options in the Format
section.
Alphabetical delimiter
This will display, as a means of separating index entries, the
letter of the alphabet for the index entries that follow. For
example:
A
apple, 4
author, 10
B
break, 2
bus, 4
Key separated by commas
Arranges the entries in the index on the same line but separated
by commas.
Tab position relative to Paragraph Style indent
Indents entries according to the settings of their individual
formats. When a paragraph style with an indent on the left is in
use, tab stops will be relative to this indent. If this option is not
selected, tab stops will be relative to the left margin position.
Columns tab
Use the Columns tab to change the number of columns for the
index.
1 Choose the number of columns desired in the box labeled
Columns, or select the icon representing the number of
columns.
2 To evenly distribute the columns according to the page
width, check the AutoWidth box. If it is unchecked, you can
manually set both the width of each of the columns and the
spacing between the columns.
3 You can choose to have a separator line between the
columns:
•
124
Line: The width (thickness) of the line.
Chapter 10 Indexes in Writer
•
Height: The height of the line.
•
Position: Position of the line relative to the columns (top,
middle, or bottom) if the height is less than 100%.
Styles tab
Refer to “Styles tab” on page 115 for tables of contents.
Maintaining an index
To edit an existing index, right-click anywhere in the index and
choose Edit Index/Table from the pop-up menu. The Insert
Index/Table dialog opens. Edit and save the index as described in
the previous section.
Writer does not update the index automatically, so after making
changes to the index entries, you must update it manually. To
update an index, right-click anywhere in the index and choose
Update Index/Table from the pop-up menu.
To delete an index, right-click anywhere in the index and choose
Delete.
Maintaining an index
125
View and edit existing index entries
After you have inserted the initial index entries into the document,
you can add more entries or you can edit them. To view and edit
existing entries:
1 Ensure that field shading is active, so you can locate index
entries more easily (View > Field shadings).
2 Right-click on an existing index entry in the body of your
document and select Index Entry from the pop-up menu.
3 A dialog similar to the one below appears. Use the forward
and back arrow buttons to move through the index entries.
4 Make the necessary modifications to the index entries and,
when finished, click OK, then Close.
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Chapter 10 Indexes in Writer
11
Create Special Effects
in Writer
This chapter describes how to create a few commonly-used special
effects using Writer:
•
Drop caps
•
Character spacing
•
Rotating text
•
Centering text vertically on a page
•
Paragraph borders and backgrounds
•
Page borders and backgrounds
•
Header and footer special effects
•
Special effects for lists
Drop caps
A drop cap, a design that can be applied to the first letter of a
paragraph, is a large capital letter that can be several lines in height.
Some books use this design at the beginning of every chapter.
Chapter 11 Create Special Effects in Writer
127
Drop caps, when defined, appear only when the paragraph
contains at least as many lines as the height of the drop cap. Shorter
paragraphs, even if formatted with the style, do not show a drop
cap.
To define a drop cap:
1 Choose Format > Paragraph, or right-click and choose
Paragraph or (for a paragraph style) right-click and choose
Edit Paragraph Style.
2 On the Drop Caps page, choose the number of characters to
include in the drop caps (usually this is 1), the number of
lines for the height of the drop cap, and any extra space to
text. You may need to experiment to find the best settings.
3 (Optional) Choose Drop Caps for the character style, if you
want to have the drop cap in a different font from the rest of
the paragraph. See the next topic for more on the Drop Caps
character style.
4 Click OK when done.
Edit the Drop Caps character style
You can choose a different font for the drop cap characters. To do
this:
1 On the Styles and Formatting window, click on the Character
Styles icon at the top.
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Chapter 11 Create Special Effects in Writer
2 Right-click on Drop Caps and choose Modify. This opens
the Character Style dialog, where you can change the font.
3 Then (as described above), on the Drop Caps page of the
Paragraph Style dialog, choose Drop Caps for the
Character Style.
Character spacing
You can use character spacing for a decorative effect.
To create the effect shown above, define a paragraph style with
extra spacing between characters. (Use a paragraph style because
you want it to apply to the entire paragraph. You could use a
character style and apply that to selected words, but then you have
to be sure not to miss any of the words.)
To set extra spacing, go to the Position tab of the Paragraph Style
dialog for the style that you want to change. In the Spacing section,
select Expanded spacing and enter the amount of space to be
inserted between characters. You might need to experiment a bit to
find the best spacing for your desired effect.
Character spacing
129
Rotating text
The second section of the Position tab for a paragraph style controls
rotation of the paragraph text. Two common uses for rotated
paragraphs are fitting headings above narrow table columns (as
shown below) and placing decorative effects on a page.
A table with rotated headings
To create the effect shown above, create a new paragraph style.
On the Position page of the Paragraph Style dialog, in the Rotation /
scaling section, select 90 degrees. Click OK to save the new style.
Then select the heading row of the table and apply the new style.
Any text in the cells of the heading row is now rotated.
If the headings are aligned to the top of the cells, you might want
to change the alignment to the bottom of the cells, as shown in the
example. To do this, select the cells, and then right-click and choose
Cell > Bottom (or choose Format > Alignment > Bottom from
the menu bar).
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Chapter 11 Create Special Effects in Writer
Centering text vertically on a page
You might want to center text vertically on a title page. To do this,
you need to place the text in a frame and center the frame vertically
on the page.
1 Select the text that you want to center vertically.
2 Choose Insert > Frame from the menu bar. On the Type
tab, select Automatic under Width, AutoSize under
Height, To page under Anchor, and Center under both
Horizontal and Vertical in the Position section.
3 For vertical centering, your choice between centering on the
page text area or centering on the entire page will depend on
the top and bottom margins of the page and the effect you
want to achieve.
4 Click OK to insert the frame.
Centering text vertically on a page
131
Paragraph borders and backgrounds
To add a decorative element to a heading or make a quotation or
other paragraph stand out from the text, you can give the paragraph
a border or a colored or graphic background.
Use the border or background tabs of the paragraph or
paragraph style dialogs. The options on these tabs are fairly selfexplanatory, but you may want to consider the following points.
On the Borders tab:
•
Watch out for the effects that the spacing between borders
and paragraph area produces on indentations.
•
If you want the border to be drawn around multiple
paragraphs, mark that option at the bottom of the page.
On the Background tab:
•
For best effect in black-and-white printing, choose one of the
gray selections, not a color. If you do not find the desired
color in the list of predefined ones, you can define your own
by selecting Tools > Options > Colors.
•
You can use a graphic instead of a solid color as background,
but graphic backgrounds generally do not reproduce well in
black and white. Select Graphic in the drop-down menu,
then select the graphic object you want to use and adjust the
settings as required.
•
The background is applied only to the paragraph area. If you
have defined some indentations, the space between the
paragraph and the margin remains in the page color.
Page borders and backgrounds
Borders and backgrounds for pages are part of the page style. Use
the Borders tab to draw a border around the text area of the page.
Use the Background tab of the page style dialog to apply a
background. You can choose between a solid color and a graphic
image for the background. Choose from several line styles for the
borders.
Borders and backgrounds do not include the margin area, but
they do include the header and footer area. If you want a color or
image to cover the entire page (or any part of the margins) on some
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Chapter 11 Create Special Effects in Writer
pages, you can create a special page style with zero-width page
margins and apply that style to those pages. To include text (such as
a chapter title) on such a page, create paragraph styles with
appropriate margins, or place the text in a frame and position the
frame where you want the text to appear. (See also “Centering text
vertically on a page” on page 131.)
Header and footer special effects
Suppose you want to have a simple header or footer that contains
only a page number that is visually separated from the main text by
a thin line—but you don’t want the line to extend the full width of
the footer area. Here’s how to do it.
Define the Footer paragraph style to have indents before and
after the text, a center alignment, and a border above the paragraph.
The following illustrations show an example of these settings;
the result is on the next page.
Header and footer special effects
133
You can also place images, document information such as the
book’s title or author, and small tables in a header or footer.
Insert a table when you want to have more than one line of text
and when you want the information to be aligned in different ways
(left, right, or center).
Include document information
Headers and footers often include document information such as
the book’s title or author or the name of the chapter.
You can type this and other unchanging information into the
header or footer, or you can use a field.
When information will change from one chapter or section to the
next, you need to use a field that displays the information that is
relevant to each page.
To include the chapter name in a header or footer:
1 Click in the header or footer, and then choose Insert >
Fields > Other (or press Control+F2) to open the Fields
dialog.
2 On the Document tab, select Chapter in the Type list and
Chapter name in the Format list.
3 Make sure that Level is set to 1, and then click Insert.
The Chapter field uses the hierarchy of headings defined in the
Outline Numbering dialog (which also determines which headings
go into a table of contents. See page 108).
The Level box determines which heading (outline) level is
displayed in the field. For example, Level 1 always displays the most
recently found heading that has the paragraph style selected for
Level 1 in the Outline Numbering dialog, Level 2 displays the most
recent heading with the paragraph style selected for Level 2 in
Outline Numbering, and so on.
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Chapter 11 Create Special Effects in Writer
Note
A Chapter field in a page header always picks up the highest
heading level on a page, even if you have specified a lower level.
For example, if a page has a Heading 1 and a Heading 2 on it,
then a Level 2 Chapter name field in the header of that page will
display the Heading 1 paragraph, not the first Heading 2
paragraph as intended. In a footer, the levels work as intended.
Use a table to align text in headers and footers
If one or more of the items to be included in the header or footer is
too long to fit in the space available, or you need more than one line
of information, you can use a table for layout. The contents of each
cell can be aligned to the left, center, or right, independently of the
other cells.
A table in a page footer
Header and footer special effects
135
Place the cursor in the footer area and choose Insert > Table
from the menu bar. Choose the number of rows and columns
required, and click OK. A typical arrangement would be 3 columns,
1 row, as shown in the example.
Special effects for lists
Numbers of list items are in the same font and size as the text. To
add visual interest to numbered lists, you can make the numbers
larger, bold, in a different font, or with other effects.
Change the Numbering Symbols character style, using the Font
and Font Effects tabs.
Make sure the list (numbering) style has Numbering Symbols
selected as the character style on the Options tab. (You need to do
this for each level in the list style that you wish to change.)
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Chapter 11 Create Special Effects in Writer
12
Track Changes in
Writer
You can use several methods to keep track of changes made to a
document.
•
Ask editors and reviewers to use Writer’s change marks
(often called revision marks) to show where they have added
or deleted material or changed formatting. Later, you can
review and accept or reject each change.
•
Make changes to a copy of the document (stored in a different
folder, under a different name, or both), then use Writer to
combine the two files and show the changes that were made.
This technique is most useful when you are the only person
working on the document.
•
Save versions as part of the original file. Avoid this method. It
provides no real benefit to a self-publisher and can cause
problems with larger or more complex documents, especially
if you save a lot of versions.
The picture below shows how Writer tracks insertions and
deletions. The change bars in the margin remain visible when the
changes are hidden. See Chapter 2 for instructions on setting up
how your changes will be displayed.
Chapter 12 Track Changes in Writer
137
Preparing a document for review
When you send a document to someone else to review or edit, you
may want to prepare it to ensure that any changes are recorded,
without the editor or reviewer needing to remember to turn on
change tracking. Writer calls this protecting a document.
1 Open the document and make sure that the Edit > Changes
> Record menu item is checked.
2 Choose Edit > Changes > Protect Records. On the Enter
Password dialog, type a password (twice) and click OK.
Passwords must contain at least five characters.
Now no one can turn off change recording, or accept or reject
changes, without entering the correct password.
Recording changes and comments
To begin tracking (recording) changes, click Edit > Changes >
Record. To stop recording changes, click Edit > Changes >
Record again.
To add a comment to a marked change, or edit an existing
comment, click in the area of the change and choose Edit >
Changes > Comment from the menu bar. The comment is shown
in the list in the Accept or Reject Changes dialog (see page 139). If
you want the comment to appear at the side of the page, use Notes
instead (see page 142).
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Chapter 12 Track Changes in Writer
After you have recorded more than one change, you can move
between them using the arrow buttons. If no comment has been
recorded for a change, the Text field is blank.
Note
Not all changes are recorded. For example, changing a tab from
align left to align right and changes in formulas (equations) or
linked graphics are not recorded.
Viewing recorded changes
To display or hide all changes (insertions, deletions, and
formatting), in the document, click Edit > Changes > Show.
When changes are hidden, insertions and new formatting appear in
the text and deletions are not visible.
When changes are showing, hold the mouse pointer over a
marked change to see a Help Tip that describes the type of change,
the author of the change, and the date and time of the change. (The
author’s name is taken from information in Tools > Options >
LibreOffice > User Data on the computer used by that person
when editing the file.) If you have Extended Tips turned on (Tools
> Options > LibreOffice > General), the comment is also visible
in a tooltip when the mouse pointer is over the change.
Accepting or rejecting changes
Changes that have not yet been accepted or rejected are listed in the
Accept or Reject Changes dialog.
Accepting or rejecting changes removes them from this list.
Rejected changes are also removed from the document. To have a
record of changes, save a copy of the file before doing this step.
1 Choose Edit > Changes > Accept or Reject. The Accept
or Reject Changes dialog opens.
Accepting or rejecting changes
139
2 When you select a change in the dialog, the actual change is
highlighted in the document, so you can see what the editor
changed.
3 Click Accept or Reject to accept or reject the selected
change. You can also click Accept All or Reject All if you
do not want to review each individual change.
To show only certain types of changes, use the Filter tab of the
Accept or Reject Changes dialog. After specifying the filter criteria,
return to the List page to see those changes that meet your criteria.
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Chapter 12 Track Changes in Writer
Tip
After accepting and rejecting changes, go through the document
and look for minor errors such as a change that incorrectly
deleted (or failed to delete) a space between words, or major
errors such as unwanted changes in paragraph tagging.
Merging modified documents
Sometimes two or more reviewers return edited versions of a
document at the same time. If all of the edited documents contain
recorded changes, it may be more efficient to merge the documents
and review all of the changes at once.
However, merged documents can sometimes be confusing to
read, because more than one person may have changed the same
text in different ways. You may find that dealing with one set of
changes at a time is easier.
To merge documents:
1 Open one copy.
2 Choose Edit > Changes > Merge Document. Select the
copy of the document that is to be merged with the first, and
click Insert.
3 After the documents merge, the Accept or Reject Changes
dialog opens, showing changes by more than one reviewer.
4 If you want to merge another copy of document with the
original, close the dialog and then repeat step 2.
5 Repeat until all copies are merged.
6 All recorded changes are now included in the open copy.
Save this file under another name.
Comparing documents
If you have not protected the document, some reviewers may forget
to record the changes they make. Use Writer’s Compare documents
feature to find those changes.
To compare documents, you need to have the original document
and the one that has been edited.
1 Open the edited document. Choose Edit > Compare
Document.
Comparing documents
141
2 Select the original document and click Insert.
3 Writer finds and marks the changes and displays the Accept
or Reject Changes dialog. From this point, you can go
through the document and accept or reject changes as
described earlier.
Inserting, editing, and replying to notes
During the review process, you may want to include notes in the
text, either for yourself or for other reviewers. Starting with
LibreOffice 3, notes are displayed at the side of the page and colorcoded according to the person who created them.
To insert a note, place the cursor in the place the note refers to
and select Insert > Note or press Ctrl+Alt+N. The anchor point of
the note is connected by a line to a box on the right-hand side of the
page where you can type the text of the note. Writer automatically
adds the author of the note and the date and time when the note was
created. (The author’s name is taken from information in Tools >
Options > LibreOffice > User Data on the computer used by
that person when editing the file.)
If more than one person edits the document, each author is
automatically allocated a different background color.
Right-clicking on a note pops up a menu where you can delete
the note, or all the notes from the same author, or all the notes in
the document. From this menu, you can also apply some basic
formatting to the note’s text. You can change font type, size, and
alignment from the Formatting toolbar.
Several people can have a discussion using notes, by rightclicking on a note and selecting Reply from the pop-up menu. The
illustration on the next page shows an example of two notes and a
reply to one of them.
To navigate from one note to another, open the Navigator (F5),
expand the Notes section, and click on the note text to move the
cursor to the anchor point of the note in the document.
You can also navigate through the notes using the Previous and
Next icons in the Navigation toolbar (see page 12) or by using the
keyboard. Control+Alt+Page Down moves to the next note and
Control+Alt+ Page Up moves to the previous note.
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Chapter 12 Track Changes in Writer
Inserting, editing, and replying to notes
143
13
Use Templates in
Writer
A template is a model that you use to create other documents. For
example, you can create a template for a book chapter that contains
the page styles, paragraph styles, header and footer contents such as
page numbers, and other information. New chapters created from
this template will all have the same contents and appearance.
Later, you can edit the styles in a template and then update the
documents created from that template, keeping all the chapters
consistent in appearance. See “Updating a document when its
template is changed” on page 150.
You can also apply a different template to a document. If the
styles in the new template have the same names as the styles in the
document, the appearance of the document will change to match the
new template. See “Changing to a different template” on page 151.
Templates can contain anything that regular documents can
contain, including text, graphics, a set of styles, and user-specific
setup information such as measurement units, language, the default
printer, and toolbar and menu customizations.
All Writer documents are based on templates. If you do not
specify a particular template when you start a new document, then
Writer uses the default template for text documents. If you have not
previously specified a custom template to be the default template
(see “Setting up a custom default template” on page 148), Writer
uses the blank template for text documents that is installed with
Writer.
To see what template is associated with a document, go to File >
Properties and look near the bottom of the General tab. If no
template is listed, the document was created from the default
template for text documents or in some other way such as copying
an existing document.
Chapter 13 Use Templates in Writer
145
Creating a template
Previous chapters of this book described how to set up styles,
headings, and a sequence of pages in a document. You could simply
use that document for your book, but saving it as a template is good
practice.
To create a template from a document that contains the layout
and styles that you want:
1 Open the document.
2 From the main menu, choose File > Templates > Save.
The Templates dialog opens.
3 In the New template field, type a name for the new template.
4 In the Categories list, click the category to which you want to
assign the template. (The category is simply the template
folder in which you want to save the template.)
5 Click OK to save the new template.
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Chapter 13 Use Templates in Writer
Using predefined templates
Several collections of templates are available as extensions to
Writer. This page lists many of the available extensions:
http://extensions.libreoffice.org/. See Chapter 14 for information
about installing extensions.
After installation, these templates are listed in the Templates
and Documents window. They are usually in separate folders.
If you obtain a template that is not in an extension, you can save
it anywhere on your computer and then import it into a LibreOffice
template folder:
1 Choose File > Templates > Organize from the main
menu.
2 In the Template Management dialog (shown below), select
the folder where you want to put the template.
3 Click the Commands button and choose Import
Template from the drop-down menu.
4 Find and select the template that you want to import, and
then click Open.
Using predefined templates
147
Setting up a custom default template
You won’t want your book template to be the default template for
every document you write, but you might want to set up a default
template that is different from the one supplied with Writer. For
example, you might prefer to use different fonts, or a different page
size or page margins, instead of those provided in Writer’s default
template. By setting up your own default template, you avoid having
to make those changes every time you start a new document.
Here’s how to set up a custom default template:
1 Open the document that has the settings that you want to use
as the defaults.
2 From the main menu, choose File > Templates >
Organize. The Template Management dialog opens.
3 In the box on the left, double-click the folder containing the
template that you want to set as the default.
4 Click the template that you want to set as the default.
5 Click the Commands button. From the drop-down menu,
choose Set as Default Template and click Close.
The next time that you create a new document by choosing File >
New > Text Document, the document will be created from this
template. The changes do not affect existing documents.
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Chapter 13 Use Templates in Writer
Creating a document from a template
1 From the main menu, choose File > New > Templates
and Documents. The Templates and Documents window
opens.
2 In the box on the left, click the Templates icon if it is not
already selected. A list of template folders appears in the
center box.
3 Double-click the folder containing the template that you
want to use. A list of all the templates contained in that
folder appears in the center box.
4 Click the template that you want to use. You can preview the
selected template or view the template’s properties by
clicking the appropriate icon. The preview or properties
appear in the box on the right.
5 Click Open. A new document based on the selected template
opens in Writer.
Creating a document from a template
149
Editing a template
You can edit the styles and content of a template, and then you can
reapply the template’s styles to documents that were created from
that template. (You can only reapply styles. Any changes to the
content of a template, such as text in headers and footers, affect new
documents created from the template but do not affect existing
documents.)
To edit a template:
1 From the main menu, choose File > Templates > Edit.
2 In the Open dialog, find the required template and click
Open.
3 Edit the template as you would edit any document. To save
your changes, choose File > Save from the main menu.
Updating a document when its template is
changed
The next time you open a document that was created from the
changed template, a message appears asking if you want to update
the document’s styles from the changed template.
Click Yes to apply the template’s changed styles to the
document, or click No if you do not want to apply the changed styles
to the document.
Caution
If you choose No in the message box, that message will not
appear again, and you will not get another chance to update the
styles from the template.
You can re-enable this feature by using a macro described in the
Writer Guide, or by using the Template Changer extension to
reapply the template, as described on page 152.
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Chapter 13 Use Templates in Writer
Changing to a different template
At times you might want to change the template associated with a
document, or perhaps you are working with a document that did not
start from a template. A common scenario for writers is to start with
a template designed for drafts (full size paper, double-spaced type)
while writing and editing the manuscript, and then change to a
template designed for final formatting.
Tip
For best results, the names of styles in the existing document
and the names of the styles in the new template should be the
same. You may wish to rename the styles in the document before
applying the new template. If the names of the styles are not the
same, you will need to use Find & Replace to replace the old
styles with the new ones. Note, however, that Find & Replace
works only with Paragraph styles, not Character, Page, or Frame
styles. See Chapter 3 for more about replacing styles.
You can change templates in two ways. If you want to update styles
only, then use the Template Changer extension. If you also want to
include content from the new template, then use the blank
document based on new template procedure.
Use a blank document based on a new template
This method includes both styles and content from the new
template. It is most useful when you want to include in your
document any graphics, wording (such as copyright or other legal
notices), header and footer information (such as cross-references to
chapter information), or other content from the template.
1 Use File > New > Templates and Documents. Choose
the template you want. In the new document, delete any
unwanted text or graphics. Save this file with a new name.
2 Open the existing document that you want to change. (It
opens in a new window.) Press Control+A to select
everything in the document. Copy and paste the contents
into the blank document that was created in step 1.
3 Update the table of contents, if there is one. Save the file.
Changing to a different template
151
Use the Template Changer extension
This method does not does not include any graphics or text from the
new template. It only updates the styles and establishes an
association between the template and the document.
1 Download the Template Changer extension from
http://extensions.libreoffice.org/ and install it as described
in Chapter 14.
2 Close and reopen LibreOffice. Now the File > Templates
menu has two new choices: Assign Template (current
document) and Assign Template (folder).
3 Open the document whose template you want to change.
Choose File > Templates > Assign Template (current
document).
4 In the Select Template window, find and select the required
template and click Open.
5 Save the document.
152
Chapter 13 Use Templates in Writer
14
Customize Writer
You can customize menus, toolbars, and keyboard shortcuts in
Writer, and add new menus and toolbars. However, you cannot
customize right-click (context) menus.
You can add extra functions to Writer by installing extensions
(add-ons) from the LibreOffice website or from other providers.
This chapter describes some common customizations and
extensions that you may wish to use.
Customizing menus and toolbars
In addition to changing the menu font (described in Chapter 2), you
can add and rearrange items on the menu bar, add items to menus,
and make other changes. Most people never want to do this, so I
won’t go into the details here. Instructions are in the Writer Guide.
Assigning shortcut keys
LibreOffice has a general set of keyboard shortcuts that are available
in all components. Also, each component (Writer, Draw, Impress,
Base, and Math) has its own component-specific set of keyboard
shortcuts.
You can define other shortcuts for built-in functions or your own
macros and save them for use with all of the components of
LibreOffice or only with Writer. In most cases you will want to save
your custom shortcuts only for Writer, because they will be specific
to your use of Writer.
In this chapter we look at two examples of things that selfpublishers might want to assign to shortcuts.
Example: Assign styles to shortcut keys
You can configure shortcut keys to quickly assign styles in your
document. Some shortcuts, such as Ctrl+0 for the Text body
paragraph style, Ctrl+1 for the Heading 1 style, and Ctrl+2 for
Chapter 14 Customize Writer
153
Heading 2, are predefined. You can modify these shortcuts and you
can create your own.
1 Click Tools > Customize > Keyboard.
2 Choose the shortcut keys that you want to assign to a style. In
this example, we have chosen Ctrl+9 for our List 1 style.
3 In the Functions section at the bottom of the dialog, scroll
down in the Category list to Styles. Click the + sign to expand
the list of styles.
4 Choose the category of style that you want to use. (Our
example uses a paragraph style, but you can also choose
character styles and others.) The Function list now displays
the names of the built-in and custom styles that are
available? for the selected category.
5 To make Ctrl+9 the shortcut key combination for the List 1
style, select List 1 in the Function list, and then click
Modify. Ctrl+9 now appears in the Keys list on the right,
and List 1 appears next to Ctrl+9 in the Shortcut keys box at
the top.
6 Make any other required changes, and then click OK to save
the settings and close the dialog.
Notes
•
Any existing shortcut keys for the currently selected function
are listed in the Keys selection box. If the Keys list is empty,
then you can use the key combination that you have chosen.
If you want to reassign a shortcut key combination that is
already in use, you must delete the existing shortcut first.
•
Shortcut keys that are grayed-out in the listing (F1 and F10
are always going to be grayed out) are not available for
reassignment.
154
Chapter 14 Customize Writer
Example: Assign macros to shortcut keys
A common use for assigning macros to shortcut keys is to enable
quick and easy insertion of special characters. Our example shows
how to set up keyboard shortcuts for inserting en-dashes and emdashes.
Tip
Extensions such as Accentuate or Compose Special Characters
are useful for doing this specific task. See “Adding functionality
with extensions” on page 158.
Assigning shortcut keys
155
First, you need to record a macro for inserting each type of dash.
Then, you need to assign those macros to shortcut key
combinations.
1 Be sure Enable macro recording (limited) is selected in
Tools > Options > LibreOffice > General (see page 18).
2 Choose Tools > Macros > Record Macro
to start recording a macro.
A small window is displayed so you know that
LibreOffice is recording.
3 Choose Insert > Special Characters to open the Special#
Characters dialog. Scroll down until you find the en-dash
(U+2013) and em-dash (U+2014) characters. Select one of
them and click OK.
4 Click the Stop Recording button to stop recording, save
the macro, and display the LibreOffice Basic Macros dialog.
Type a descriptive name for the new macro in the Macro
name box on the upper left.
5 In the Save macro in box, click the + next to the library
container named My Macros. In the My Macros list, find
the library named Standard. Under Standard, select Module1
and click Save.
6 Repeat steps 1–4 to create other macros, for example to
insert an em-dash.
7 Choose Tools > Customize > Keyboard. In the Shortcut
keys list, pick an unused combination (for example,
156
Chapter 14 Customize Writer
Ctrl+Shift+N for an en-dash). In the Category list, scroll
down to LibreOffice Macros, click the + sign, then click the +
next to the Standard library and choose Module1. In the
Function list, choose Endash and click the Modify button
on the upper right. The selected key combination now
appears in the Keys list on the lower right, and Endash
appears next to Ctrl+Shift+N in the Shortcut keys list.
8 Repeat for the em-dash macro, and then click OK.
Reset the shortcut keys
To reset all of the keyboard shortcuts to their default values, click
the Reset button at the bottom right of the Customize dialog. Use
this feature carefully because there is no confirmation dialog before
the defaults are reset.
Assigning shortcut keys
157
Adding functionality with extensions
An extension is a package that adds functions to LibreOffice. Some
dictionary extensions are provided with LibreOffice, and many
others are available for download from the LibreOffice extension
repository, http://extensions.libreoffice.org/.
Some extensions are free of charge. Others are fee based. Check
the descriptions to see what licenses and fees apply to the ones that
interest you.
Install extensions
To install an extension:
1 Download the extension and save it anywhere on your
computer.
2 In Writer, select Tools > Extension Manager from the
menu bar. In the Extension Manager dialog, click Add.
3 Find and select the extension you want to install and click
Open. The extension begins installing. You may be asked to
accept a license agreement.
4 When the installation is complete, the extension is listed in
the Extension Manager dialog.
158
Chapter 14 Customize Writer
Index
A
D
accept changes 139
align graphics 102
alphabetical delimiter 124
anchor graphics 101
appearance options 21
Apply Style list 72
arrange graphics 101
Asian language support 29
autocapitalize index entries 122
autorecovery 23
dash 75
default
currency settings 29
file format 23
languages 29
printer 20, 23
tab stop interval 24
dictionaries 28
digital rights management (DRM)
88
digital signature flag 8
direct cursor 25
document
combine into book 15
create from template 13, 149
create new 13
email 14
master document 15
save 14
save as .doc (Microsoft Word)
14
views 9
document properties 23
document status 19
double-sided printing 27
drag and drop 93
drop cap 127
B
backup copy 23
bookmarks 7
bookmarks in PDFs 86
borders and backgrounds 132
C
change tracking options 28
changes
accept or reject 139
display or hide 139
filter 140
character spacing 129
character style
apply 72
drop cap 128
in table of contents 114
using 71
characters
special 74
comments 138
compare documents 141
complex text layout (CTL) 30
concordance file 123
context menu 6
context-sensitive toolbars 4
copy text 32
crop image 98
curly quotes 67
currency settings 29
current page style 47
custom dictionary 30
customize menus and toolbars 153
159
E
e-books 83, 86, 87
en and em dashes 75
export directly as PDF 83
extensions 158
F
field shading 118, 126
file format 23
file properties 145
Fill Format 73
find and replace
formatting 34
line breaks 35
paragraph ends 35
paragraph styles 35
regular expressions 36
text 33
Index
font effects 71
font history 20
font size in menus 19
footer
document information 134
special effects 133, 135
table to align text 135
formatting aids options 25
G
Gallery 96
GIMP 97
graphics
align 100
arrange 100, 101
crop 98
modify 97
Object toolbar 98
position 100
right-click menu 98
rotate 99
wrap text around 103
grid options 26
H
header
document information 134
special effects 133
headers and footers 62
heading spacing 31
help agent 19
hierarchy of headings 108
hyphenation
automatic 69
manual 70
alphabetical delimiter 124
autocapitalize entries 122
build 119
combine identical entries 122
concordance file 123
customize 119, 121
delete 125
edit 125
entries 117
format entries 124
key 119, 120
main entry 120
phonetic reading 120
sort 123
update 125
index entries
add 117
edit 126
Insert Index/Table dialog
Background tab 116
Columns tab 116, 124
Entries tab 113, 123
Index/Table tab 111, 121
Styles tab 115
insert mode 7
Insert Picture dialog 93
J
JPEG compression 85
K
keyboard shortcuts
assign macros to 155
define 153
reset to default values 157
I
L
icon size and style 19
icons in menus 19
image resolution 85
images
align 102
arrange 101
crop 98
modify 97
position 100
rotate 99
scanned 95
wrap text around 103
index
language
settings 28
status bar field 7
left-aligned paragraphs 68
line breaks 35
links between e-books 88
list
special effects 136
styles 77
load options 22
locale settings 29
lossless compression 85
Index
160
M
master document 15
measurement unit 24
menus
context (right-click) 6
customize 153
merge documents 141
N
Navigation toolbar 12
Navigator 7, 9
non-breaking hyphen 75
non-breaking space 75
notes 142
number recognition 28
numbering pages 63
O
object information (status bar) 8
ODF settings 23
OpenDocument file format 14
options
appearance 21
change-tracking 28
formatting aids 25
general LibreOffice 18
general Writer 24
grid 26
language settings 28
LibreOffice 17
load 22
print 20
print (Writer) 26
save 22
spelling 30
table 28
user data 18
View 19, 25
view (Writer) 25
Writer 24
Outline Numbering dialog 108
overwrite mode 7
P
page layout
borders and backgrounds 132
mirrored 58
only left 61
only right 59
161
views 8
page number
insert 63
status bar field 7
page styles
add chapter to book 51
apply automatic sequence 64
automate the sequence 48
change sequence manually 64
copyright page example 60
default style example 57
examples 57
first page style example 59
headers and footers 62
margins 57
other contents pages 62
single chapter 48
start of book 50
status bar field 7
table of contents example 61
title page example 60
typical sequence 47
paragraph
borders and backgrounds 132
indenting 76
justified 68
move quickly 32
paragraph ends
find and replace 35
markers 25
paragraph spacing 31
paragraph styles
apply 72
built-in sequence 53
find and replace 35
First paragraph, create 54
font effects 71
headings, modify 55
modifying 52
outline levels 109
properties 52
Text body, modify 53
using 71
Paste Special 32
paste text 32
PDF
blank page export 86
bookmarks 86
Index
digital rights management
(DRM) 88
e-books 83, 86, 87
export documents to 83
grayscale 83
image compression and
resolution 85
initial view 86
links 88
pages to export 85
quality 84
security settings 88
tagged 86
user interface 87
PDF Options dialog 84
Picture dialog 98
Picture toolbar 97
pictures
transparency 97
wrap text around 103
prepare document for review 138
preview of fonts 20
print black 27
print options 20
print options for Writer 26
printer warnings 20
protect document 138
Q
quotation marks 67
R
ragged-right paragraphs 68
record changes 138
regular expressions 36
reject changes 139
reminders 12
restart page numbering 63
revision marks 137
right-click menu 6
rotate an image 99
rotate text 130
S
save options 22
scanner 95
select text 32
selection mode 8
sequence number of page 7, 11
shortcut keys
Index
assign macros to 155
define 153
snap to grid 26
sort index 123
special character 74
spelling options 30
status bar 6
straight quotes 67
styles
apply 64
Apply Style list 72
assign to shortcut keys 153
character 72, 128
Fill Format 73
heading 55
list 77
page 46, 57
paragraph 51, 72
purpose and use 45
save in a template 145
sequence 48, 53
types 46
Styles and Formatting window 46,
72
T
tab stop interval 24, 76
table of contents
change title 111
create from additional styles
112
create from an outline 111
create from defaults 107
customize 110
delete 116
edit 116
hierarchy of headings 108
number of levels included 111
protect against manual changes
111
tab position in entries 115
update 116
table options 28
tagged PDF 86
template
change assignment 151
contents 145
create 146
create document from 149
162
create new document from 13
default 145, 148
edit 150
extensions 147
import 147
predefined 147
update document styles from
150
Template Changer extension 152
text
character spacing 129
rotate 130
vertical centering on page 131
text boundaries 21
text wrapping 103
toolbars
context-sensitive 4
customize 5
display or hide 5
float or dock 6
location 4
move 5
tooltips 18
track changes 138
transparency 83, 97
typography 67
U
unsaved changes flag 8
user data 18
user-specific settings 23
V
vertical centering on page 131
View Layout dialog 9
view magnification 8
view options 19, 25
W
workspace 3
wrap text around graphics 103
Writer general options 24
Z
zoom slider 8
163
Index
About the author
Jean Hollis Weber has over 30 years of
experience as a science writer and
technical editor and writer, mostly in
computing and high technology. She
retired from full-time work in 1999 and
began to self-publish.
In 2002, when she started to use OpenOffice.org 1.0, she
discovered that there was no user guide and that the Help was
poorly written, poorly indexed, and often wrong. Jean put her years
of technical writing experience to work and, with the help of
members of the OpenOffice.org user mailing list, wrote Taming
OpenOffice.org Writer, the first book published on Writer. This
book was published through Lightning Source.
In 2003 Jean became lead editor for OOoAuthors, a group of
volunteers from the OpenOffice.org community who were writing
user guides for the program. In 2009 she became co-lead of the
OpenOffice.org Documentation Project. In 2011 she moved to The
Document Foundation’s LibreOffice project, where she is now the
leader of the LibreOffice Documentation Team.
Jean has published printed versions of the OpenOffice.org and
LibreOffice user guides through Lulu.com. She has also published
books on other topics, and by other people, through Lulu.com and
Lightning Source.
Some of Jean’s other self-published books are Electronic
Editing, 1999, and Editing Online Help, 2000. In 2004, O’Reilly
published Jean’s OpenOffice.org Writer: The Free Alternative to
Microsoft Word and Hentzenwerke published her book Is the Help
Helpful? How to create online help that meets your users' needs.
Jean likes to travel, read science fiction, and write. She
maintains several Web sites, including:
http://jeanweber.com/, for technical editors
http://avalook.com/, for travelers to Australia
http://taming-libreoffice.com/, for LibreOffice users
Related books by the
LibreOffice Documentation Team
Getting Started with LibreOffice is for
anyone who wants to get up to speed
quickly with LibreOffice. It introduces
Writer (word processing), Calc
(spreadsheets), Impress
(presentations), Draw (vector
drawings), Math (equation editor) and
Base (database).
September 2012
ISBN: 978-1-921320-27-9
LibreOffice Writer Guide is for
beginners to advanced users. It covers
setting up Writer to suit the way you
work; using styles and templates;
working with text, graphics, tables, and
forms; formatting pages (page styles,
columns, frames, sections, and tables);
printing and mail merge; creating
tables of contents, indexes, and
bibliographies; using master
documents, fields, and the equation
editor (Math); creating PDFs; and
more.
May 2012
ISBN: 978-1-921320-22-4
Friends of OpenDocument Inc. sells these books
and books for other components of LibreOffice.
http://stores.lulu.com/opendocument

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