# 3 Right Triangle Trigonometry CHAPTER

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```CHAPTER
3
Right Triangle Trigonometry
Suppose you need to calculate the distance across a river for the construction
of a bridge or the height of a building or monument. Each of these distances
can be calculated using the properties of right triangles, similar triangles, and
trigonometry. Trigonometry is the branch of mathematics that studies the
relationships between angles and the lines that form them in triangles. It was
ﬁrst developed for use in astronomy and geography. Today, trigonometry is
used in surveying, navigation, engineering, construction, and the sciences to
explore the relationships between the side lengths and angles of triangles.
Big Ideas
When you have completed this chapter, you will be able to …
• apply the Pythagorean theorem and primary trigonometric ratios to
solve problems involving right triangles
• solve problems involving indirect and direct measurement
• solve right triangles
Key Terms
hypotenuse
opposite side
tangent ratio
sine ratio
cosine ratio
primary
trigonometric
ratios
Trigonometry
Imperial
Measurement
Surface Area
& Volume
98 MHR • Chapter 3
SI
Astronomer
Astronomers study matter in outer space
and the celestial bodies. They study
their compositions, motions, and origins.
Astronomers usually focus their work on
planetary science, solar astronomy, the
origin and evolution of stars, and the formation
of galaxies. Extragalactic astronomy is the study of
distant galaxies. It includes studying how distant
galaxies move, when they collide, and how they
transform as a result of this interaction.
Make the following Foldable™ to take notes on what you will learn in
Chapter 3.
1
Staple four
sheets of singlesided grid paper
together, along
the left edge.
Make sure the
grid sides face
down.
2
3 Cut through the top 4 Label the Foldable™
Make a mark ten
squares up from the
two sheets up ten
as shown. On the
bottom right edge
more squares. As
back of the Foldable™,
of the top sheet.
you do this, you will
write the title What I
Cut through the top
form tabs along the
Need to Work On.
right side. Continue,
squares in from this
until you have four
mark as shown.
tabs.
Chapter 3
3.1
leave
blank
3.2
10 squares
5 squares
10 squares
5 squares
3.3
Chapter 3 • MHR
99
3.1
The Tangent Ratio
Focus on …
• explaining the
relationships between
similar triangles and
the deﬁnition of the
tangent ratio
• identifying the
hypotenuse, opposite
for a given acute angle
in a right triangle
• developing strategies
for solving right
triangles
• solving problems using
the tangent ratio
Vancouver, British Columbia
In addition to the Paciﬁc Ocean, there are many lakes in Western
Canada that are ideal for sailing. One important aspect of boating is
making sure you get where you want to go. Navigation is an area in
which trigonometry has played a crucial role; and it was one of the
early reasons for developing this branch of mathematics.
People have used applications of trigonometry throughout history.
The Egyptians used features of similar triangles in land surveying
and when building the pyramids. The Greeks used trigonometry
to tell the time of day or period of the year by the position of the
various stars. Trigonometry allowed early engineers and builders
to measure angles and distances with greater precision. Today,
trigonometry has applications in navigating, surveying, designing
buildings, studying space, etc.
100 MHR • Chapter 3
Investigate the Tangent Ratio
Sailing is a very popular activity. One of the
limitations of sailing is that a boat cannot sail
directly into the wind. Using a technique called
tacking, it is possible to sail in almost any
direction, regardless of the wind direction. When
sailing on a tack, you are forced to sail slightly
off course and then compensate for the distance
sailed when you change direction. You can use
trigonometry to determine the distance a boat is
off course before changing direction.
wind
Materials
• grid paper
• protractor
• ruler
tacking
1. a) On a sheet of grid paper draw a horizontal line 10 cm in
length to represent the intended direction.
b) Draw a tacking angle, θ, of 30°.
c) Every two centimetres, along your horizontal line, draw a
vertical line to indicate the off course distance. Label the
ﬁve triangles you created, ABC, ADE, AFG, AHI,
and AJK.
direction sailed
A
off course
distance
θ
intended direction
2. Measure the base and the height for each triangle. Complete
the following table to compare the off course distance to
the intended direction. In the last column, express the
off course distance , to four decimal places.
ratio, ____
intended direction
Triangle
Intended
Direction
Off Course
Distance
Off Course Distance
____
Intended Direction
ABC
AFG
AHI
AJK
3.1 The Tangent Ratio • MHR
101
Did You Know?
• vertices of a triangle
are commonly labelled
with uppercase letters,
for example ABC
• angles of a triangle are
commonly labelled with
Greek letter variables
• some common Greek
letters used are
theta, θ, alpha, α,
and beta, β.
3. a) The diagram you drew in step 1c) forms a series of nested
similar triangles. How do you know the triangles are
similar?
b) Use your knowledge of similar triangles to help describe
how changing the side lengths of the triangle affects the
off course distance .
ratio ____
intended direction
4. a) Use your calculator to determine the tangent ratio of 30o.
To calculate the tangent ratio of 30o, make sure your
calculator is in the degree mode.
Press C
30 = .
TAN
b) How does the value on your calculator relate to the data
in step 2?
hypotenuse
• the side opposite the
right angle in a right
triangle
5. In the two right triangles shown, the hypotenuse is labelled
and an angle is labelled with a variable. Copy each triangle.
Use the words opposite and adjacent to label the side
opposite the angle and the side adjacent to the angle.
opposite side
• the side across from
the acute angle being
considered in a right
triangle
• the side that does not
form one of the arms
of the angle being
considered
• the side that forms
one of the arms of
the acute angle being
considered in a right
triangle, but is not the
hypotenuse
α
hypotenuse
θ
6. Reﬂect and Respond
a) Use your results from steps 1 to 4 and the terminology from
step 5 to describe a formula you could use to calculate the
tangent ratio of any angle.
b) Use your formula to state the tangent ratios for ∠A and ∠B
in the following diagram.
A
c
B
102 MHR • Chapter 3
hypotenuse
b
a
C
A trigonometric ratio is a ratio of the
measures of two sides of a right triangle.
A
One trigonometric ratio is the
tangent ratio .
tangent ratio
The short form for the tangent ratio of
angle A is tan A.
tangent A =
hypotenuse
B
opposite
length of side opposite ∠A
______
length of side adjacent to ∠A
C
• for an acute angle in a
right triangle, the ratio
of the length of the
opposite side to the
opposite
__
• tan A =
Example 1 Write a Tangent Ratio
Write each trigonometric ratio.
a) tan A
b) tan B
B
20
A
12
16
C
Solution
a) tan A =
opposite
__
b) tan B =
BC
tan A = _
AC
12
tan A = _
16
3
_
tan A =
4
Calculate each trigonometric ratio.
a) tan L
b) tan N
opposite
__
AC
tan B = _
BC
16
tan B = _
12
_
tan B = 4
3
5
N
13
M
12
L
3.1 The Tangent Ratio • MHR
103
Example 2 Calculate a Tangent and an Angle
a) Calculate tan 25° to four decimal places.
b) Draw a triangle to represent tan θ =
the nearest tenth of a degree.
_5 . Calculate the angle θ to
4
Solution
a) tan 25° ≈ 0.4663
b) Since tan θ =
_5 , the side opposite the
4
angle θ is labelled 5 and the side adjacent
to the angle θ is labelled 4.
The inverse function on a calculator allows
you to apply the tangent ratio in reverse. If
you know the ratio, you can calculate the
angle whose tangent this ratio represents.
5
tan θ = _
4
5
θ = tan-1 _
4
θ = 51.340…°
The angle θ is 51.3°, to the
nearest tenth of a degree.
A
θ
4
B
5
( )
Explore your particular calculator to determine the sequence of
keys required. Then, calculate each tangent ratio and angle.
θ
104 MHR • Chapter 3
Tan θ
θ
Tan θ
27°
0.5095
45°
0.5543
57°
1.4653
C
Example 3 Determine a Distance Using the Tangent Ratio
A surveyor wants to determine the width of a river for a proposed
bridge. The distance from the surveyor to the proposed bridge site
is 400 m. The surveyor uses a theodolite to measure angles. The
surveyor measures a 31° angle to the bridge site across the river.
What is the width of the river, to the nearest metre?
river
proposed
bridge
31°
400 m
Solution
Let x represent the distance across
the river.
Identify the sides of the triangle
opposite
in reference to the given angle
x
of 31°.
31°
400 m
opposite
__
_
tan 31° = x
tan θ =
400
400(tan 31°) = x
240.344… = x
To the nearest metre, the
width of the river is 240 m.
A ladder leaning against a wall forms an angle
of 63° with the ground. How far up the wall will
the ladder reach if the foot of the ladder is 2 m
from the wall?
63°
2m
3.1 The Tangent Ratio • MHR
105
Example 4 Determine an Angle Using the Tangent Ratio
A small boat is 95 m from the base of a lighthouse that has a height
of 36 m above sea level. Calculate the angle from the boat to the
36 m
θ
95 m
Solution
Identify the sides of the triangle in reference to the angle of θ.
opposite
36 m
θ
95 m
tan θ =
opposite
__
36
tan θ = _
95
θ = 20.754…
The angle from the boat to the top of the lighthouse is
approximately 21°.
A radio transmission tower is to be supported by a guy wire. The
wire reaches 30 m up the tower and is attached to the ground a
horizontal distance of 14 m from the base of the tower. What angle
does the guy wire form with the ground, to the nearest degree?
106 MHR • Chapter 3
Key Ideas
• In similar triangles, corresponding angles are equal, and
corresponding sides are in proportion. Therefore, the ratios
of the lengths of corresponding sides are equal.
• The sides of a right triangle are labelled according to a
reference angle.
B
B
β
hypotenuse
θ
A
hypotenuse
opposite
A
C
opposite
C
• The tangent ratio compares the length of the side opposite the
reference angle to the length of the side adjacent to the angle in a
right triangle.
length of side opposite θ
tan θ = _____
length of side adjacent to θ
• You can use the tangent ratio to
determine the measure of one of the acute angles when the
lengths of both legs in a right triangle are known
determine a side length if the measure of one acute angle and
the length of one leg of a right triangle are known
Practise
1. Identify the hypotenuse, opposite, and adjacent sides
associated with each speciﬁed angle.
a) ∠X
b) ∠T
Z
X
c) ∠L
M
S
Y
R
T
L
N
2. Draw right DEF in which ∠F is the right angle.
a) Label the leg opposite ∠D and the leg adjacent to ∠D.
b) State the tangent ratio of ∠D.
3.1 The Tangent Ratio • MHR
107
3. Determine each tangent ratio to four decimal places using
a calculator.
a) tan 74°
b) tan 45°
c) tan 60°
d) tan 89°
e) tan 37°
f) tan 18°
4. Determine the measure of each angle, to the nearest degree.
a) tan A = 0.7
b) tan θ = 1.75
c) tan β = 0.5543
d) tan C = 1.1504
5. Draw and label a right triangle to illustrate each tangent
ratio. Then, calculate the measure of each angle, to the
nearest degree.
_2
_5
a) tan α =
b) tan B =
3
2
the nearest tenth of a unit.
a)
x
33°
30.5 m
b)
airport
1.25 km
θ
20 km
7. Kyle Shewfelt, from Calgary, AB, was the Olympic ﬂoor
exercise champion in Athens in 2004. Gymnasts perform their
routines on a 40-ft by 40-ft mat. They use the diagonal of the
mat because it gives them greater distance to complete their
routine.
a) Use the tangent ratio to determine the angle of the
gymnastics run relative to the sides of the mat.
b) To the nearest foot, how much longer is the diagonal of the
Did You Know?
The Franco-Albertan
ﬂag was created by
Jean-Pierre Grenier. The
March 1982.
108 MHR • Chapter 3
mat than one of its sides?
Apply
8. Claudette wants to calculate the angles of
the triangle containing the ﬂeur-de-lys on
the Franco-Albertan ﬂag. She measures the
legs of the triangle to be 154 cm and
103 cm. What are the angle measures?
9. A ramp enables wheelchair users and people pushing wheeled
objects to more easily access a building.
6°
3 ft
x
a) Determine the horizontal length, x, of the ramp shown.
b) For a safe ramp, the ratio of vertical distance : horizontal
distance needs to be less than 1 : 12. Would the ramp
shown be considered a safe ramp? Explain.
10.
Unit Project A satellite radio cell tower provides signals to
three substations, T1, T2, and T3. The three substations are
each located along a stretch of the main road. The cell tower is
located 24 km down a road perpendicular to the main road. A
surveyor calculates the angle from T1 to the cell tower to be 64°,
from T2 to the cell tower to be 33°, and from T3 to the cell tower
to be 26°. Calculate the distance of each substation from the
tenth of a kilometre.
cell tower
24 km
64°
A
33°
T1
26°
T2
T3
11. In the construction of a guitar, it is important to consider the
tapering of the strings and neck. The tapering affects the tone
that the strings make. For the Six String Nation Guitar shown,
suppose the width of the neck is tapered from 56 mm to 44 mm
over a length of 650 mm. What is the angle of the taper for one
side of the guitar strings?
θ
Did You Know?
The Six String Nation
Guitar, nicknamed
63 pieces of history and
heritage, from every part
many different cultures,
communities, and
characters. The guitar
wood, bone, steel, shell,
and stone from every
province and territory.
It literally embodies
3.1 The Tangent Ratio • MHR
109
12. When approaching a runway, a pilot needs to maneuver the
aircraft, so that it can approach the runway at a constant angle
of 3°. A pilot landing at Edmonton International Airport begins
the ﬁnal approach 30 380 ft from the end of the runway. At
what altitude should the aircraft be when beginning the ﬁnal
13. The Idaà Trail is a traditional route of the Dogrib, an Athapaskan-
speaking group of Dene. It stretches from Great Bear Lake to Great
Slave Lake, in the Northwest Territories. Suppose a hill on the
trail climbs 148 ft vertically over a horizontal distance of 214 ft.
a) Calculate the angle of steepness of the hill.
b) How far would you have to climb to get to the top of the hill?
Did You Know?
ﬁrst diamond mine. It is
located 200 km south of
the Arctic Circle in the
Northwest Territories.
Diamond mines contain
pipes, which are
cylindrical pits where
diamonds are founds.
Extend
14. One of the Ekati mine’s pipes,
called the Panda pipe, has
northern and southern gates.
A communications tower
stands 100 m outside the north
gate. The tower can be seen from
a point 300 m east of the south
gate at camp A.
a) The distance between
camp A and camp B is 600 m.
Calculate the diameter
of the Panda pipe.
b) Calculate the distance from
camp B to the tower.
Panda Pipe
tower
camp B
40°
100 m
Panda
pipe
open
pit
mine
600 m
300 m
110 MHR • Chapter 3
camp A
15. Habitat for Humanity Saskatoon has designed a home that
provides passive solar features. The idea is to keep the sun off
the outside south wall during the summer months and to have
the wall exposed to the sun as much as possible during the
winter months. The highest angle of the sun during the summer
months is 73°.
a) Suppose the wall of the house is 20 ft tall. How much
overhang on the roof trusses should be provided so that the
shadow of the noonday sun reaches the bottom of the wall
during the summer months?
b) The lowest angle of
summer
sun
the sun during the
winter months is 28°.
What height of the
wall will be in direct
sunlight during the
winter months?
winter
sun
20 ft
28°
73°
16. Nistowiak Falls, located in Lac LaRonge Provincial Park is one of
the highest waterfalls in Saskatchewan. Delana, a surveyor, needs
to measure the distance across the falls. She sighted two points, C
and D, from the baseline AB. The length of baseline AB is 30 m.
Delana recorded these angle measures: ∠ACD = 90°, ∠CAB = 90°,
∠ACB = 31.3°, and ∠CDA = 44.6°
a) Determine the distance AC across the falls. Express your
answer to the nearest tenth of a metre.
to the nearest tenth of a metre.
D
C
B
A
3.1 The Tangent Ratio • MHR
111
17.
The ﬁrst sound recordings were done on wax
cylinders that were 5 cm in diameter and 10 cm long. Wax
cylinders were capable of recording about 2 min of sound.
Modern music storage devices can have tremendous memory and
store thousands of songs. Janine calculated the number of wax
cylinders needed to match a 32 GB storage capacity. Imagine that
these cylinders are stacked one on top of another. From a distance
of 10 m, the angle of elevation to the top of the stack would
be 89.5°.
Unit Project
a) Draw and label a diagram to represent the situation.
b) Determine the height of the stack of cylinders, to the nearest
hundredth of a metre.
c) How many cylinders would need to be stacked to match
32 GB of storage?
Create Connections
18. Copy the following graphic organizer. For each item, describe its
meaning and how it relates to the tangent ratio.
ratio
θ = 63°
tangent
opposite side
tan θ = –3
4
tan 42°
tan θ = 1.428
19. Draw a right triangle in which the tangent ratio of one of the
acute angles is 1. Describe the triangle.
20. Devin stores grain in a cylindrical
granary. Suppose Devin places a 2-mtall board 9 m from the granary and
1.1 m away from a point on the ground.
Describe how Devin could use
trigonometry to calculate the angle
formed with the ground and the top of
the granary. Then, determine this angle.
112 MHR • Chapter 3
2m
9m
1.1 m
21.
MINI LAB When measuring inaccessible distances, a surveyor
can take direct measurements using a transit. A transit can
measure both horizontal and vertical angles.
Step 1
Construct a transit as shown in the diagram. Pin the
straw at the centre of the protractor.
straw
pin
tape
Step 2
tape
Explain how a transit could be used to assess the
distance to an object. Hint: You will need to draw and
measure a baseline. This is the line from A to B in the
diagram.
A
Step 3
Materials
• piece of cardboard
• large protractor
• drinking straw
• tape
• pin
• measuring tape
B
To calculate the distance to some objects in your
schoolyard, use your transit to measure the
required angles.
Object
Length of
Baseline AB
Measure
of ∠A
Distance to the
Object
3.1 The Tangent Ratio • MHR
113
3.2
Focus on …
• using the sine ratio and
cosine ratio to solve
problems involving right
triangles
• solving problems that
involve direct and
indirect measurement
Materials
• protractor
• ruler
The Sine and Cosine Ratios
The ﬁrst suspension bridge in Vancouver was built in 1889 by George
Mackay. He had built a cabin along the canyon wall and needed a
bridge to conveniently access his cabin. Mathematical tools, such
trigonometry, can enable you to calculate distances that cannot be
measured directly, such as the distance across a river canyon.
In section 3.1, you learned about the tangent ratio. This ratio
compares the opposite and adjacent side lengths in reference to an
acute angle in a right triangle. There are two other trigonometric
ratios that compare the lengths of the sides of a right triangle. These
ratios, called the sine ratio and cosine ratio, involve the hypotenuse.
Investigate Trigonometric Ratios
1. Choose an angle between 10° and 80°. This will be your
reference angle.
2. a) Draw right triangle ABC, using your reference angle.
b) Draw three right triangles similar to ABC using the
same reference angle.
114 MHR • Chapter 3
3. Write the equivalency statements that show the similarity
of each triangle to ABC.
4. Label the sides of each triangle. Use the terms hypotenuse,
opposite, and adjacent according to the reference angle.
5. Measure the sides of each triangle. You may wish to record
the measurements in a table similar to this one or using
spreadsheet software. Express each ratio to four decimal places.
Triangle
Length of
Hypotenuse
Length
of
Opposite
Side
Length
of
Side
Ratio of
Opposite
to
Ratio of
Opposite to
Hypotenuse
Ratio of
Hypotenuse
6. Complete a similar table using the other acute angle in each
7. Reﬂect and Respond Discuss with a partner the results of the
calculations of the ratios. Describe any similarities or patterns
that you notice.
8. What relationships do you observe among the ratios for the
angles between the two tables?
9. What conclusions can you make about how the ratios relate to
The short form for the sine ratio of angle A is sin A. The short
form for the cosine ratio of angle A is cos A.
B
hypotenuse
opposite
reference angle
A
sine ratio
• for an acute angle in
a right triangle, the
ratio of the length
of the opposite side
to the length of the
hypotenuse
opposite
___
• sin A =
hypotenuse
C
cosine ratio
sin A =
length
of side opposite ∠A
_____
length of hypotenuse
cos A =
length
______
length of hypotenuse
• for an acute angle in
a right triangle, the
ratio of the length
to the length of the
hypotenuse
___
• cos A =
hypotenuse
3.2 The Sine and Cosine Ratios • MHR
115
Example 1 Write Trigonometric Ratios
Write each trigonometric ratio.
a) sin A
b) cos A
c) sin B
d) cos B
B
5
A
Solution
a) sin A =
opposite
___
hypotenuse
BC
sin A = _
AB
4
sin A = _
5
c) sin B =
opposite
___
hypotenuse
12
N
13
L
116 MHR • Chapter 3
b) cos A =
___
hypotenuse
d) cos B =
___
hypotenuse
BC
cos B = _
AB
4
cos B = _
5
Write each trigonometric ratio.
5
C
3
AC
cos A = _
AB
_
cos A = 3
5
AC
sin B = _
AB
3
sin B = _
5
M
4
a) sin L
b) cos N
c) cos L
d) sin N
Example 2 Evaluate Trigonometric Ratios
The primary trigonometric ratios and their inverses can be
evaluated using technology.
a) Evaluate each ratio, to four decimal places.
sin 42° cos 68°
b) Determine each angle measure, to the nearest degree.
sin θ = 0.4771 cos β = 0.7225
primary
trigonometric
ratios
• the three ratios, sine,
cosine, and tangent,
deﬁned in a right
triangle
Solution
a) sin 42° ≈ 0.6691
cos 68° ≈ 0.3746
b) sin θ = 0.4771
cos β = 0.7225
β = cos-1 (0.7225)
β ≈ 44°
θ = sin-1 (0.4771)
θ ≈ 28°
a) Evaluate each trigonometric ratio, to four decimal places.
sin 60°
sin 30°
cos 45°
b) What is the measure of each angle, to the nearest degree?
sin β = 0.4384
cos θ = 0.2079
3.2 The Sine and Cosine Ratios • MHR
117
Example 3 Determine an Angle Using a Trigonometric Ratio
In the World Cup Downhill held at Panorama Mountain Village in
British Columbia, the skiers raced 3514 m down the mountain. If
the vertical height of the course was 984 m, determine the average
angle of the ski course with the ground. Express your answer to
the nearest tenth of a degree.
Solution
Visualize the problem by sketching
a diagram to organize the information.
3514 m
984 m
θ
sin θ =
opposite
___
For the unknown angle, the lengths of the opposite side
and hypotenuse are known. So, use the sine ratio.
hypotenuse
984
sin θ = _
3514
984
θ = sin-1 _
3514
θ = 16.2615…°
(
)
The average angle of
the ski course is 16.3°,
to the nearest tenth
of a degree.
A guy wire supporting a cell tower is 24 m long. If the wire is
attached at a height of 17 m up the tower, determine the angle
that the guy wire forms with the ground.
Example 4 Determine a Distance Using a Trigonometric Ratio
A pilot starts his takeoff and climbs steadily at an angle of 12.2°.
Determine the horizontal distance the plane has travelled when it
has climbed 5.4 km along its ﬂight path. Express your answer to
the nearest tenth of a kilometre.
Solution
Organize the information by sketching a diagram to illustrate the
problem.
5.4 km
12.2°
118 MHR • Chapter 3
x
cos θ =
___
hypotenuse
_
cos 12.2° = x
5.4
5.4(cos 12.2°) = x
5.278… = x
How do you decide which trigonometric
ratio to use?
The horizontal distance travelled by the airplane is approximately
5.3 km.
Determine the height of a kite above the ground if the kite string
extends 480 m from the ground and makes an angle of 62° with
the ground. Express your answer to the nearest tenth of a metre.
Key Ideas
• The sine ratio and cosine ratio compare the lengths of the legs
of a right triangle to the hypotenuse.
opposite
sin θ = ___
cos θ = ___
hypotenuse
hypotenuse
• The sine and cosine ratios can be used to calculate side lengths
and angle measures of right triangles.
• Visualizing the information that you are given and that you need
to ﬁnd is important. It helps you determine which trigonometric
ratio to use and whether to use the inverse trigonometric ratio.
Determine the value of θ, to the nearest degree.
8
18
θ
cos θ =
___
hypotenuse
8
cos θ = _
18
θ = cos-1
8
(_
18 )
θ = 63.6122…°
Angle θ is approximately 64°.
3.2 The Sine and Cosine Ratios • MHR
119
Practise
1. Evaluate each trigonometric ratio to four decimal places.
a) cos 34°
b) cos 56.4°
c) sin 62.9°
d) sin 19.6°
e) sin 90°
f) cos 80°
2. Write each trigonometric ratio in lowest terms.
A
26
C
21
M
G
10
T
24
20
29
P
a) sin A
b) sin C
c) cos C
d) cos G
e) sin P
f) cos P
3. Calculate the measure of each angle, to the nearest degree.
a) cos A = 0.4621
b) cos θ = 0.6779
c) sin β = 0.5543
d) sin C = 1.232
_1
e) sin α =
2
f) cos B =
_3
4
4. Determine each length of x. Express your answer to the nearest
tenth of a unit.
a)
b)
40°
20
x
7
18°
x
5. Determine the measure of each angle θ. Express your answer to
the nearest tenth of a degree.
a)
7
b)
12.8
θ
θ
120 MHR • Chapter 3
20
16
6. Determine the value of each variable. Express each answer to the
nearest tenth of a unit.
a)
10 m
7m
θ
b)
c)
132 m
x
θ
100 m
65°
6 ft
d)
vertical cliff
18°
x
70 m
Apply
7. Some farms use a hay elevator to move bales of
hay to the second storey of a barn loft. Suppose
the bottom of the elevator is 8.5 m from the
barn and the loft opening is 5.5 m above
the ground. What distance does a bale
of hay travel along the elevator?
nearest tenth of a metre.
8. A 30-m-long line is used to hold a helium weather balloon.
Due to a breeze, the line makes a 75° angle with the ground.
a) Draw a right triangle to model the problem. Label the
measurements you know. Use variables to represent the
unknown measurements.
b) Use trigonometry to determine the height of the balloon.
3.2 The Sine and Cosine Ratios • MHR
121
9. Oil rigs are found throughout Alberta. They play a crucial role in
the search for crude oil and natural gas products. Determine the
height of a rig if a 52-m-long guy wire is attached to the top of
the rig and forms an angle of 50° with the ground. Express your
answer to the nearest tenth of a metre.
10. Gerry is windsurﬁng at Squamish
Wind
Pit, just north of Vancouver, BC. In
order to get upwind 6000 m, Gerry
sails at a 45° angle to the wind and
then turns 90° and heads toward
his original destination. How far
would he have to sail to get directly
upwind the 6000 m? Express your
answer to the nearest tenth of
a metre.
6000 m
45°
11. Toonik Tyme is Nunavut’s biggest spring festival, celebrating
the return of spring. To set up one of the holes for ice golf,
the organizers cleared a track in the form of a right angle. The
distance from the teeing area to the vertex of the right angle
is 180 yd.
a) The angle from the teeing area to the ﬂag at the other end
of the track is 34°. Draw a diagram of the ice golf hole.
b) Determine the direct distance from the teeing area to the ﬂag,
to the nearest yard.
c) How much shorter would the direct distance be than following
the track?
12. The PEAK 2 PEAK Gondola connects two mountain ski resorts,
Whistler Mountain and Blackcomb Mountain, near Vancouver,
BC. The straight-line distance between the two peaks is 4400 m.
The gondola travels 4600 m along a cable that sags in the centre.
Determine the approximate angle that the cable makes with the
horizontal, to the nearest degree.
4400 m
Blackcomb
122 MHR • Chapter 3
Whistler
13. Dream Maker is a dolomite sculpture by
SK, artist Floyd Wanner. In the sculpture,
re, a
line can be drawn that passes through the
he
centre of the two upper circles. Suppose
e
1
___
this line is 129
in. long and the base
10
line is 45 in. Describe how you might
calculate
a) the height of Dream Maker
1 in.
129 __
10
b) the angle between the baseline
and the line through the two
upper circles
Did You Know?
Dolomite is a rock consisting mainly of calcium
and magnesium carbonate. It is mined around the
world, including in western Canada. Dolomite is
used to improve garden soil. It is also used as an
ornamental stone, and in construction materials.
θ
45 in.
14. At Wapiti Valley Ski Area in Saskatchewan, the beginner slope
is inclined at an angle of 11.6° from the horizontal and the
advanced slope at an angle of 26.9° from the horizontal.
a) Suppose Francis skis 1200 m down the advanced slope while
Barbara skis the same distance down the beginner slope.
Predict who will cover a greater horizontal distance. Justify
b) Calculate the difference between the horizontal distances for
the two skiers, to the nearest tenth of a metre.
Extend
15. Michael is building a cabin at Cold Lake, AB. He has drawn a
diagram to design his roof truss. Determine the values of x, y,
and θ.
x
y
3.50 m
θ
20°
14.50 m
16. An equilateral triangle is inscribed in a circle. Determine the side
length of the triangle if the diameter of the circle is 200 cm.
3.2 The Sine and Cosine Ratios • MHR
123
Create Connections
Materials
• 1 m of foam pipe
insulation, cut
lengthwise
• marble or small steel
ball
• eight to ten thick books
or bricks or a chair
• measuring tape
• table
17.
MINI LAB Work with a partner or in small groups to explore
how varying the angle of a ramp in ski jumping changes the
launch angle and duration of ﬂight.
Step 1
Build a ramp similar to the one shown. Place the edge
of the ramp at the end of the table. Make a sketch of the
right triangle formed by the pipe insulation, books, and
table. Include measurements of the length of each leg
of the triangle. Determine the angle formed between the
pipe insulation and the table.
Step 2
Place a marble at the top of the ramp. Without pushing,
let it roll. Observe the ﬂight path. Mark the place where
the marble ﬁrst lands on the ﬂoor, using masking tape.
Repeat this step two more times and record the horizontal
distance the marble lands from the edge of the table. You
may wish to complete a chart similar to this one.
Sketch of the
Triangle
Measure of
the Angle (°)
Distance Measured
Trial 1
Trial 2
Trial 3
Step 3
Adjust the ramp so that it curves downward to the table
and runs ﬂat along the table for about 20 cm before it
reaches the end. Roll the marble down the track and
record the distances.
Step 4
Add a book to the end of the ramp, so that the ramp
curves upward as it nears the end. Roll the marble and
a) Describe how changing the launch angle of the ramp affects the
distance travelled by the marble. Explain why.
b) Would changing the angle of the ramp with the table affect the
distance the marble travels? Explain.
124 MHR • Chapter 3
3.3
Solving Right Triangles
Focus on …
• explaining the
relationships between
similar right triangles
and the deﬁnitions of
the trigonometric ratios
• solving right triangles,
with or without
technology
• solving problems
involving one or more
right triangles
Materials
• metre stick or
measuring tape
Aurora borealis above Churchill, Manitoba
The polar aurora is one of the most beautiful and impressive
displays of nature. There have been various attempts to explain
the phenomenon of these northern lights. Carl Stormer, a
Norwegian scientist, used a network of cameras that simultaneously
photographed the aurora. He used the photos to measure the parallax
angle shifts and then calculate the height of the aurora.
Investigate Estimation of Distance
In this investigation you will use the method of parallax to help you
estimate the distance to an object.
1. Have a partner stand a distance away from you. Then, mark the
ﬂoor where each of you is standing using a small piece of paper
or other identifying item, such as masking tape. Stretch out your
3.3 Solving Right Triangles • MHR
125
Did You Know?
out in front of your face
upward, and then close
appears to shift slightly.
This shift is known as
this information to ﬁgure
out how far away from
you objects are.
2. Open your right eye and close your left eye. Do not move your
outstretched arm. Have your partner move to his or her right
until he or she is in line with your thumb again. Then, mark
the new location where your partner is standing.
3. Use a metre stick to measure the distance from you to your
partner and the distance between your partner’s locations.
4. Reﬂect and Respond
a) What is the relationship between the distance to your
partner and the distance between your partner’s locations?
Hint: You may wish to repeat your measurements to help
you examine the pattern.
distance to an object.
The line of sight is the invisible line from one person or object
to another person or object. Some applications of trigonometry
involve an angle of elevation and an angle of depression.
• An angle of elevation is the angle formed by the horizontal
and a line of sight above the horizontal.
• An angle of depression refers to the angle formed by the
horizontal and a line of sight below the horizontal.
Measure the angle of elevation and the angle of depression in
the diagram. How are the measures of two angles related?
horizontal
angle of depression
line of sight
angle of elevation
horizontal
126 MHR • Chapter 3
Example 1 Use Angle of Elevation to Calculate a Height
Sean wants to calculate the height of the First Nations Native
Totem Pole. He positions his transit 19.0 m to the side of the
totem pole and records an angle of elevation of 63° to the top of
the totem pole. If the height of Sean’s transit is 1.7 m, what is the
height of the totem pole, to the nearest tenth of a metre?
Solution
Let x represent the height from the transit to the top
of the totem pole.
tan θ =
Did You Know?
The First Nations Native
Totem Pole is in Beacon
Hill Park, in Victoria, BC.
The totem pole was
erected in 1956 and is
one of the world’s tallest
totem poles.
opposite
__
x
tan 63° = _
19.0
x = 19.0(tan 63°)
x = 37.289…
Height of totem pole
= height of transit + height from transit to top of pole
= 1.7 + 37.289…
= 38.989…
The height of the First Nations Native Totem Pole
is 39.0 m, to the nearest tenth of a metre.
A surveyor needs to determine the height of a large
grain silo. He positions his transit 65 m from the
silo and records an angle of elevation of 52°. If the
height of the transit is 1.7 m, determine the height
of the silo, to the nearest metre.
19.0 m
63°
63
1.7 m
3.3 Solving Right Triangles • MHR
127
Example 2 Calculate a Distance Using Angle of Depression
Did You Know?
A belayer is the person
on the ground who
secures a climber who
is rock climbing. The
belayer and climber
each wear a harness
that attaches to a rope.
The belayer controls
how much slack is in the
rope. It takes skill and
concentration to be a
successful belayer.
Natalie is rock climbing and Aaron is
belaying. When Aaron pulls the
rope taut to the ground, the
angle of depression is 73°. If
Aaron is standing 8 ft from
the wall, what length of
rope is off the ground?
Solution
Visualize the information by
sketching and labelling
a diagram.
Let h represent the
length of rope that
is off the ground.
73°
h
8 ft
Use the properties of angles to determine
the angle measure of one of the acute angles
inside the right triangle.
θ = 90° - 73°
θ = 17°
The angle that the rope makes at the top with the vertical is 17°.
opposite
sin 17° = ___
hypotenuse
_
sin 17° = 8
h
8
__
h=
sin 17°
h = 27.362…
The rope off the ground is approximately 27 ft long.
A balloonist decides to use an empty football ﬁeld for his landing
area. When the balloon is directly over the goal post, he measures
the angle of depression to the base of the other goal post to be
53.8°. Given that the distance between goal posts in a Canadian
football ﬁeld is 110 yd, determine the height of the balloon.
128 MHR • Chapter 3
Example 3 Solve a Right Triangle
A
Solve the triangle shown. Express each
measurement to the nearest whole unit.
22 cm
42°
C
Solution
B
To solve a triangle means to determine the lengths of all unknown
sides and the measures of all unknown angles. To solve this
triangle, you need to determine the lengths of sides AC and CB
and the measure of ∠A.
What is the sum of the angles in a triangle?
∠A = 180° - (90° + 42°)
∠A = 48°
What information
are you given? Use
the given information as
much as possible in your
calculations.
Using ∠B as the reference angle and knowing the length of the
hypotenuse, apply the cosine ratio to calculate the length of side CB.
cos B = ___
hypotenuse
CB
_
cos 42° =
22
CB = 22(cos 42°)
CB = 16.349…
Calculate the length of side AC.
Method 1: Apply a Trigonometric Ratio
Since all angles are known, any of the primary trigonometric ratios
could be applied.
opposite
How will you decide which ratio to use?
sin B = ___
hypotenuse
AC
sin 42° = _
22
AC = 22(sin 42°)
AC = 14.720…
Method 2: Apply the Pythagorean Theorem
AB2
222
484
216.704…
__________
√216.704…
14.720…
=
=
=
=
=
=
AC2 + CB2
AC2 + (16.349…)2
AC2 + 267.295…
AC2
AC
AC
A
48°
22 cm
C
42°
(16.349…) cm
B
Angle A measures 48°. Side CB is about 16 cm long and side AC is
Solve the triangle shown. Express each
measurement to the nearest whole unit.
F
42 m
D
31 m
E
3.3 Solving Right Triangles • MHR
129
Example 4 Solve a Problem Using Trigonometry
From a height of 50 m in his ﬁre tower near Francois Lake, BC, a
ranger observes the beginnings of two ﬁres. One ﬁre is due west at
an angle of depression of 9°. The other ﬁre is due east at an angle
of depression of 7°. What is the distance between the two ﬁres, to
the nearest metre?
9°
50 m
7°
Solution
Model the problem using right triangles.
Let x and y represent the lengths of the bases of the triangles.
9°
9°
tan 9° =
7°
y
x
7°
opposite
__
50
tan 9° = _
x
__
x = 50
tan 9°
x = 315.687…
tan 7° =
50 m
Use the given angles to ﬁnd the measure
of one acute angle in each right triangle.
opposite
__
50
tan 7° = _
y
__
y = 50
tan 7°
y = 407.217…
Add to determine the distance between the ﬁres.
315.687… + 407.217… = 722.904…
The distance between the ﬁres, to the nearest metre, is 723 m.
From his hotel window overlooking Saskatchewan Drive in
Regina, Ken observes a bus moving away from the hotel. The angle
of depression of the bus changes from 46° to 22°. Determine the
distance the bus travels, if Ken’s window is 100 m above street
130 MHR • Chapter 3
Key Ideas
• An angle of elevation is the angle between the line of sight and
the horizontal when an observer looks upward.
angle of
elevation
horizontal
• An angle of depression is the angle between the line of sight and
the horizontal when the observer looks downward.
horizontal
angle of
depression
• To solve a triangle means to calculate all unknown angle
measures and side lengths.
Practise
1. Solve each triangle, to the nearest tenth of a unit.
a)
b)
10
30°
y
45°
y
x
x
7
c) C
d)
J
7
3
U
B
12
M
61°
D
2. Calculate the length of BC, to one decimal place.
a)
C
A
40°
30°
b)
A
20°
8 cm
10 cm
D
B
40°
D
C
B
3.3 Solving Right Triangles • MHR
131
3. Determine the measure of ∠CAB, to the nearest degree.
C
16 cm
A
12 cm
8 cm
B
4. Describe each angle as it relates
to the diagram.
1
a) ∠1
2
3
b) ∠2
c) ∠3
4
d) ∠4
5. The heights of several tourist attractions are given in the table.
Determine the angle of elevation from a point 100 ft from the base
of each attraction to its top.
Attraction
Location
Height
a)
World’s largest ﬁre hydrant
Elm Creek, MB
29 ft
b)
World’s largest dinosaur
Drumheller, AB
80 ft
c)
Saamis Tipi
Medicine Hat, AB
d)
World’s largest tomahawk
Cut Knife, SK
40 ft
e)
Igloo church
Inuvik, NT
78 ft
215 ft
Apply
6. An airplane is observed by an air trafﬁc
controller at an angle of elevation of 52°.
The airplane is 850 m above the
observation deck of the tower. What is
the distance from the airplane to
nearest metre.
850 m
control
tower 52°
7. Cape Beale Lighthouse, BC, is on a cliff that is 51 m above sea
level. The lighthouse is there to warn boats of the danger of
shallow waters and the possibility of rocks close to the shore. The
safe distance for boats from this cliff is 75 m. If the lighthouse
keeper is 10 m above ground and observes a boat at an angle of
depression of 50°, is the boat a safe distance from the cliff? Justify
132 MHR • Chapter 3
8. At night, it is possible to make precise measurements of cloud
height using a search light. An alidade is set 720 ft away from the
search light. It measures the angle of elevation to the place where
the light strikes the cloud to be 35°. What is the altitude of the
35°
720 ft
9. The working arm of a tower crane is 192 m high and has a length
of 71.6 m. Suppose the hook reaches the ground and moves along
the arm on a trolley.
71.6 m
192 m
Did You Know?
For the 2010 Olympic
Games in Vancouver,
the Millennium Water
Project involved building
1100 condominiums.
use of eight tower
cranes that lifted steel,
concrete, large tools, and
generators. The cranes
often rise hundreds of
feet into the air and can
reach out just as far.
a) Determine the maximum distance from the hook to the
operator when the trolley is fully extended at 71.6 m and the
minimum distance when the trolley is closest to the operator at
8.1 m. Hint: The operator is located at the vertex of the crane.
b) Determine the maximum and minimum angles of
depression from the operator to the hook on the
of a degree.
10. Arctic Wisdom involved children, parents, and
Elders gathering on Bafﬁn Island, NU, to send a
message. To achieve the best picture of the human
image on the sea ice, an aerial photograph
was taken. The angle of depression from the
helicopter was 58° and the height of the
helicopter was 140 m. How far away from
the image was the helicopter?
3.3 Solving Right Triangles • MHR
133
11.
A cell phone can be used to send music, but as
your location changes, you move in and out of range from one
cell to the next. Three or more cellular towers may pick up a cell
phone’s signal. A cell phone signal has been located 5 mi from
tower 1.
Unit Project
tower 3
7 mi
tower 1
62°
5 mi
tower 2
caller
a) What is the distance from the caller to tower 3?
b) How far is tower 1 from tower 3?
12. The Disabled Sailing Association had its
ﬁrst sessions at the Jericho Sailing Centre in
Vancouver, BC. At a recent regatta, a television
n
news team tracked two sailboats from a
helicopter 800 m above the water. The team
observed the sailboats on the left and right
sides of the helicopter at angles of depression
of 58° and 36°, respectively.
a) Which boat is located closer to the
helicopter? Explain.
b) Determine the distance between the
nearest metre.
13. Two tourists stand on either side of the
war veterans, in Victoria, BC. One tourist
measures the angle of elevation of the top of
the pole to be 21°. To the other tourist, the
angle of elevation is 17°. If the height of the
pole is 5.5 m, how far apart are the tourists?
a metre.
134 MHR • Chapter 3
Extend
14. From the top of a 35-m-tall building, an observer sees a truck
heading toward the building at an angle of depression of 10°.
Ten seconds later, the angle of depression to the truck is 25°.
a) Determine the distance that the truck has travelled. Express
b) If the speed limit for the area is 40 km/h, is the truck driver
following the speed limit? Explain.
15. A rectangular prism has base dimensions of 24 cm by 7 cm. A
metal rod is run from the bottom corner diagonally to the top
corner of the prism. If the rod forms an angle of 40° with the
bottom of the box, calculate the volume of the box.
24 cm
7 cm
Create Connections
16. From her apartment, Jennie measures the angle of depression
to Mike’s house. At the same time, Mike measures the angle of
elevation to Jennie’s apartment.
α
line of sight
θ
a) Mike’s brother Richard observes Mike and states that Mike
made an error, because the angle of elevation must be greater
than the angle of depression. Is Richard correct? Explain
b) In order to calculate the measure of angle θ, you can be given
any of the following measurements:
• the height of Jennie’s window
• the horizontal distance between buildings
• the length of line of sight
• the measure of angle α
Which measurement(s) would you prefer to be given? Explain
how you would use these measurements to calculate θ.
3.3 Solving Right Triangles • MHR
135
3
Review
3.1 The Tangent Ratio, pages 100—113
Where necessary, express your answers to the nearest tenth of a unit.
1. Triangles ABC and XYZ are similar. Calculate the lengths
of the unknown sides.
X
9
Y
C
B
3
12
A
Z
2. Determine the value of the variable in each triangle.
a)
b)
8
x
θ
60°
10
c)
y
37°
3
3. A group of conservationists
needs to calculate the
angle of elevation of the
river bank of the North
set up a right triangle using
two measuring poles. If
they measure the vertical
height to be 64 cm and the
horizontal distance to be
50 cm, what is the angle of
elevation of the river bank?
136 MHR • Chapter 3
11
3.2 The Sine and Cosine Ratios, pages 114—124
Where necessary, express your answers to the nearest tenth of a unit.
4. Determine the value of the variable in each triangle.
a)
b)
x
13
4
24°
x
c)
32°
12.5
θ
15
5. Augers are used to move grain into storage bins. Suppose an
auger is 67 ft long and the granary is 44 ft high. Determine the
angle formed by this auger and the ground.
6. A 14-ft ladder leans against the bottom of a window and makes
an angle of 64° with the ground. What is the height to the bottom
of the window?
3.3 Solving Right Triangles, pages 125—135
Where necessary, express your answers to the nearest tenth of a unit.
7. In ABC, BC = 7.4 km, ∠B = 90°, and ∠A = 38°.
a) Draw and label the triangle.
b) Solve ABC.
8. The angle of depression from the top of an 80-m-high cliff to a
sailboat is 21°. Determine the distance from the base of the cliff to
the ship.
21°
80 m
9. A lifeguard sitting on a platform that is 14 ft high observes
someone swimming. The ﬁrst sighting of the swimmer is at an
angle of depression of 60°. The angle of depression becomes
30° the next time the lifeguard looks at the swimmer. Explain
whether the swimmer is moving toward or away from the
the distance that the swimmer has travelled.
Chapter 3 Review • MHR
137
3
Practice Test
Multiple Choice
For #1 to #4, choose the best answer.
1. For the similar triangles shown,
R
which expression is true?
PQ
RG
RG
FG = _
_
_
=_
A
B
QP
PG
GR
QF
QP
GR
GF = _
RF = _
_
_
C
D
RF
RP
RP
QR
F
G
P
Q
rafter
garage to build beside their house.
He wants a 30-cm overhang on
each side. How long should each
rafter be?
A 2.0 m
B 2.3 m
C 3.8 m
D 4.4 m
0.9 m
1.8 m
3. A gardener uses topsoil to improve garden soil for his Regina
customers. He purchased a special pickup truck that acts like a
dump truck. If the 80-in. truck bed is raised to a 40° angle, how
high is the upper end of the truck box above the wheels?
A 51 in.
B 61 in.
C 67 in.
D 80 in.
4. The 17th hole at the Rivershore Golf
Course near Kamloops, BC, is 197 yd
9° 197 yd
from the teeing area to the centre of the
9°
green. Suppose the largest angle at
which you can drive the golf ball to the
left or right and still land on the green is 9°.
What is the width of the green, to the nearest yard?
A 15 yd
138 MHR • Chapter 3
B 31 yd
C 47 yd
D 62 yd
5. During the annual Windscape Kite Festival in Swift Current, SK,
Yves and Lucian’s kite got caught in the top of a tree. Yves wants
to use similar triangles to calculate the height of the tree. A
nearby 9-m ﬂagpole casts a shadow that is 6 m long. Yves and
Lucian estimate the shadow of the tree to be 3.5 m long. What is
the height of the tree, to the nearest tenth of a metre? Include a
diagram of the situation.
6. Evaluate each trigonometric ratio, to four decimal places.
a) tan 17°
b) sin 68°
c) cos 23°
7. Calculate the measure of each angle, to the nearest degree.
a) sin θ = 0.2588
b) tan α = 5.6713
c) cos θ = 0.7431
8. Zachary was calculating the length of side CD in the ﬁgure.
His partial solution is shown.
80
_
cos 23° =
D
BD
80
__
BD =
(cos 23°)
BD
_
sin 18° =
A
CD
BD
_
CD =
sin 18°
18°
C
23°
80 cm
B
an error. Identify Zachary’s error. Explain a strategy to help him
avoid making this error again.
Extended Response
9. The Quikcard Edmonton Minor Hockey Week is one of the largest
hockey tournaments in North America. The tournament has
grown to include more than 480 teams from Alberta.
a) Suppose the goalie’s shoulder rises to 40 in., and a
player takes a shot 20 ft from the net. Through what
angle of elevation of the puck’s ﬂight will the goalie
of a degree.
b) The height of the net is 48 in. A player takes a shot over the
right shoulder of the same goalie from part a) at an angle of
elevation of 8.5°. If the puck travels a distance of 29 ft, will the
player score a goal? Explain why.
Chapter 3 Practice Test • MHR
139
1
Unit Connections
Unit 1 Project
1, 2, and 3, as well as your own research, to prepare a presentation on
music distribution. Your presentation should include the following:
• research on the history of music recording
• a comparison of various storage devices
• a description of the impact technology has had on music distribution
To complete your presentation, predict what the next technological
following questions:
• Describe what you think the next advance in music distribution
might look like. Provide measurements for length, area, and volume
of the new equipment in both SI and imperial units.
• How might this equipment work?
• What impact might the advance have on how you access music?
• How might this equipment distribute music to people around
the world?
Unit Review
Chapter 1 Measurement Systems
1. Identify referents that could be used for the following linear
measurements.
millimetre
inch
centimetre
foot
metre
yard
2. For each total length, choose a comparable unit of measurement
in the SI system. Determine the length to the nearest tenth of a
unit. Justify your choice of units.
a) A table-tennis ball has a diameter of the width of two ﬁngers.
Each ﬁnger is half an inch wide.
b) Samantha often wears her hair in a ponytail. Her ponytail is
5 hand-widths long. The width of her hand is 3 in.
c) It takes Everrett 14 steps to leave the classroom. One of his
paces measures half a yard.
140 MHR • Unit 1 Connections
3. Convert each measurement to the indicated unit.
a) 3500 mm = cm
b) 3.5 ft = in.
c) 8723 m = km
d) 4.25 ft = m
e) 67 cm = in.
f) 14 km = mi
4. A rectangular oak table measures 5 ft 10 in. by 3 ft 9 in. What is
the perimeter of the table, in feet and inches?
_1
5. An artist sculpts a 10 -in. tall clay model of a horse. If the scale
4
used for the sculpture is 1 : 6, how tall would the actual horse be,
in feet and inches?
Chapter 2 Surface Area and Volume
6. Calculate the area of each ﬁgure, as indicated.
a) a rectangle with dimensions 250 cm by 180 cm, in square
metres
b) a square of side length 4 mi in square yards
7. Melody is helping prepare a cake for a banquet in Nanaimo, BC.
She needs to know the amount of icing needed for the initial
covering of the cake before she adds the ﬁnal decorations.
Assume that Melody does not ice the bottom of any layer.
a) What surface area does Melody need to ice for the top three
layers, in square centimetres, if the top three layers are square
and have the following dimensions:
Top layer: side length of 10 cm and a height of 7 cm
Second layer: side length of 14 cm and a height of 8.5 cm
Third layer: side length of 18 cm and a height of 9 cm
b) The volume of cake used for the bottom layer is 4000 cm3.
The bottom square layer has a height of 10 cm. What surface
area, in square centimetres, does Melody need to ice on the
bottom layer?
8. Nalze went on a ﬁeld trip with his class
to the RCMP detachment in Yellowknife,
NT. In the Henry Larson Building, there
was a display on crime investigation.
Nalze used a magnifying glass to look at a
ﬁngerprint.
a) From the photo, estimate the diameter
of the magnifying glass Nalze used.
b) If the glass is approximately 0.3 cm
thick, what is the volume of
glass used?
Unit 1 Connections • MHR
141
9. Saskatchewan artist Jacqueline Berting created The Glass
of 11 000 individually crafted waist-high stalks of glass
wheat mounted in a steel base. The average cylindrical stem
is 40 in. tall with a diameter of _
8
wheat contains the equivalent amount of glass as a cone that
3 in. Approximately how
is 4 in. long with a base diameter of _
4
much glass did Jacqueline use for the sculpture?
The Glass Wheatﬁeld
Regina Plains Museum
Chapter 3 Right Triangle Trigonometry
10. Determine the measurements of each unknown side and
unknown angle. State side lengths to the nearest tenth of
a unit and angles to the nearest degree.
a)
b)
22 cm
θ
26 cm
θ
19 cm
142 MHR • Unit 1 Connections
x
x
14 cm
11. A tree casts a shadow 12 m long. The
angle measured to the top of the tree
from the end of the shadow is 68°.
What is the height of the tree?
tenth of a metre.
68º
12 m
12. An oil rig is held vertical by two guy wires of unequal lengths on
opposite sides of the oil rig. One of the wires makes an angle of
45° with the platform. The other wire is 90 ft long and makes an
angle of 55° with the platform. Both wires are attached 8 ft down
from the top of the rig.
a) Sketch and label a diagram of this situation.
b) Calculate the height of the oil rig, to the nearest foot.
c) Do you think the length of the unknown wire is greater than
the 90-ft wire? Justify your prediction. Then, determine the
measurement, to the nearest half of a foot.
d) Determine the distance on the platform between the two guy
wires, to the nearest half of a foot.
13. A 15-m-long ladder is placed in a driveway between two
buildings. The ladder leans against one building and reaches
12 m up the side. If the ladder is rotated to lean on the other
building, it reaches 8 m up the side. How wide is the driveway
between the two buildings?
14. Neighbourhoods A and B are situated on opposite sides of a
mountain that stands 780 m high. The angles of elevation from
each neighbourhood to the top of the mountain are 67° and 54°.
What would be the length of a tunnel from neighbourhood A to
of a metre.
Unit 1 Connections • MHR
143
1
Unit Test
Multiple Choice
For #1 to #4, choose the best answer.
1. What is the distance measured between the two arrows on this
imperial ruler?
0
A
1
_7 in.
8
B
2
3
16 in.
_
C
14
4
5
7
_
in.
D
16
6
15
_
in.
16
2. Elijah is helping install baseboards in a bedroom in the basement.
He knows that one of his paces is approximately equal to 1 yd.
If he walks 15 paces along the width of the room and 18 paces
along the length, what is the approximate perimeter of the room,
in feet?
A 99 ft
B 198 ft
C 270 ft
D 792 ft
3. Carrie was asked to calculate the slant height of a right cone. She
is given that the surface area of 251.3 cm2 and the diameter of
10 cm. Her work is shown below.
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
SA = πr2 + πrs
251.3 = π(52) + π(5)s
251.3
__
=s
(25π + 5π)
2.7 = s
When Carrie examined her work, she realized that she made her
ﬁrst error in
A Step 1
B Step 2
C Step 3
D Step 4
4. The equation that could be used to calculate
the value of h in the diagram is
h
_
A cos 58° =
7.8
h
_
B tan 58° =
7.8
h
_
C cos 61° =
14.2
h
_
D sin 61° =
6.9
144 MHR • Unit 1 Test
14.2 cm
61º
6.9 cm
h
58º
7.8 cm
Numerical Response
Complete the statements in #5 to #7.
5. Jett measures the diagonal of the television screen in his family
room to be 117 cm. Laura measures the diagonal of her television
screen to be 54 in. Laura’s television is in. larger than Jett’s
television, expressed to the nearest inch.
6. A glass paperweight is in the shape of a sphere and has a volume
of 356 818 mm3. The radius of the paperweight is mm.
7. Your school is installing a wheelchair ramp outside the front
doors. The current stairs reach a height of 0.7 m. If the ramp is
8 m long, the horizontal distance to the end of the ramp, to the
nearest tenth of a metre, is m.
Written Response
8. Alicia found a unique gift for her friend’s birthday. She bought a
purse that is in the shape of a right pyramid with a square base.
The dimensions of the base are 12.0 cm by 12.0 cm, and the slant
height is 16.16 cm.
a) Determine the height of the purse.
b) How much space is inside the purse?
c) Alicia wants to place the purse in a gift box with a lid. She has
gift boxes of the following volumes:
• 2100 cm3
• 2200 cm3
For each size of gift box, explain whether the purse will ﬁt
inside.
9. Given ACD is adjacent to ABC.
C
a) Write an equation that could be
used to calculate the length of AC.
b) Calculate the length of AC.
c) Calculate the length of DC, to
B
40º
5 cm
D
30º
the nearest centimetre.
A
10. As a spectator at a hockey game, Brennan is sitting 40 m
horizontally from the goal net. His seat is 10 m above ice level.
a) At what angle of depression is Brennan watching the goalie
make a save?
b) A seat becomes available directly below Brennan, so he moves
3 m down. Will the angle of depression from Brennan to the