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version 2010–02–5 of
French
The current, editable version of this book is available in Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks
collection, at
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/French
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms
of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by
the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and
no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU
Free Documentation License."
Attributions and Licenses
This wikibook was written by several Wikibooks contributors.
All images are available on WikiMedia Commons (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/) unless stated
otherwise.
Main Contents
Lessons
Grammar
Appendices
Texts
Q&A
About the Book
GFDL
LESSONS
Contents
Introductory Lessons
Level One Lessons
Level Two Lessons
Level Three Lessons
GNU Free Documentation License
INTRODUCTORY
Introductory Lessons Contents
Lesson 0.01 - Introduction
Lesson 0.02 - Learning French
Lesson 0.03 - The Alphabet
Lesson 0.04 - Accents
Lesson 0.05 - Greetings
Lesson 0.06 - Formal Speech
Lesson 0.07 - How are you?
Lesson 0.08 - Numbers
Lesson 0.09 - The Date
Lesson 0.10 - Telling Time
Lesson 0 Review
Lesson 0 Test
Bonjour! - Introductory French
01 Leçon 01 : Introduction
History of the French Language
Extent of the French Language
Lesson 01 : Introduction
02 Leçon 02 : Apprendre le français Reasons To Learn French, Book Organization
Advice on Studying French
Lesson 02 : Learning French
03 Leçon 03 : L'alphabet
Lesson 03 : The Alphabet
04 Leçon 04 : Les accents
Lesson 04 : Accent Marks
05 Leçon 05 : Les salutations
Lesson 05 : Greetings
06 Leçon 06 : Le discours formel
Lesson 06 : Formal Speech
07 Leçon 07 : Ça va?
Lesson 07 : How are you?
08 Leçon 08 : Les nombres
Lesson 08 : Numbers
09 Leçon 09 : Les dates
Lesson 09 : Dates
10 Leçon 10 : L'heure
Lesson 10 : Telling Time
Rv Revue
Review
Ex L'examen
Test
Letters
Punctuation
Acute Accent, Grave Accent
Tonic Accent, Stress
Greetings
Good-byes, Names
Vous vs. tu, Courtesy
Titles, Asking For One's Name
Asking How One Is Doing
Cardinal Numbers
Ordinal Numbers
Numbers 01-31, Seasons
Days of the week, Months of the Year
Numbers 30-60, Times of Day
Asking for the time
Introductory review
Revue de l'introduction
Chapter test
Chapitre l'examen
Lesson 0.01 - Introduction
Introduction
See also: w:French language
French is a Romance language descended from Latin which developed as a result of Celtic and Frankish
influences in Gaul (now France). Being a Romance language, it is closely related to Portuguese, Spanish,
Italian, and Romanian, as well as many other languages. There are over 87 million native French speakers
and an additional 68 million non-native speakers in the world.
History
Further information: w:History of the French language
During the Roman occupation of Gaul, the Latin language was imposed on the natives. This Latin language
eventually developed into what is known as Vulgar Latin, which was still very similar to Latin. Over the
centuries, due to Celtic and Germanic influences (particularly the Franks), la langue d'oïl was developed. A
dialect of la langue d'oïl known as le francien was the language of the court, and thus became the official
language of what was to become the Kingdom of France, and later the Nation-State of France.
From medieval times until the 19th century, French was the dominant language of diplomacy, culture,
administration, trade and royal courts across Europe. Due to these factors, French was the lingua franca of
this time period.
French has influenced many languages world wide, including English. It is through French (or more
precisely Norman, a dialect of la langue d'oïl) that English gets about one third of its vocabulary.
Extent of the Language
Main article: w:La Francophonie
Main article: w:French colonial empires
In modern times, French is still a significant diplomatic language: it is
an official language of the United Nations, the Olympic Games, and
the European Union. It is also the official language of 29 countries and
French is spoken all around the
is spoken in France, Belgium, Switzerland, Luxemburg, Tunisia,
world.
Morocco, Senegal, Haiti, the Ivory Coast, Madagascar, the Congo,
Algeria, Niger, Mali, Burkina Faso, Togo, Gabon, the Seychelles,
Burundi, Chad, Rwanda, Djibouti, Cameroon, Mauritius, and Canada
(mostly in the province of Québec, where it is the primary language, but it is also used in other parts of the
country. All consumer product packages in Canada are required by law to have both English and French
labels).
Allons-y! Bonne chance!
Lesson 0.02 - Learning French
Reasons to learn French
As mentioned earlier, French is a major diplomatic language. You are bound to find speakers almost
anywhere in the world. In addition to these societal reasons, there are hundreds of famous French novels and
nonfiction works in a wide variety of subjects. Because much can be lost in translation, the best way to read
these works is in the original language.
Advice on studying French
Main article: How to learn a language
French tends to have a reputation among English speakers as hard to learn. While it is true that it poses
certain difficulties to native English-speakers, it may be noted that English is also considered 'difficult' to
learn, and yet we learned it without the benefit of already knowing a language. In fact, the French language
can be learned in only 10 months
(http://web.archive.org/web/20071211081522/http://en.wikinerds.org/index.php/Learning_French_in_10_months
, if only for the specific purpose of passing a standardized test, such as the Test d'Evaluation de Français.
According to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages, in order to reach the level of
'Independent User' (after completing Level B2), you must complete 400 hours of effective learning (so if
you study 4 hours a week, every single week of the year, you would need two years to achieve it). Any way
you look at it, learning any new language requires a long-term commitment. Remember, that like any skill, it
requires a certain amount of effort. And it is likely that if you do not practice your French regularly, you will
begin to forget it. Try to make French practice a part of your routine; even if it's not daily, at least make it
regular.
Also remember that you are learning a new skill. Try to master the simple stuff before moving on to the
more complex concepts. We all have to add and subtract before we can do calculus. French is a complete
language. While this course can teach you to read and write in French, these are only half of the skills that
make up fluency. A written document cannot teach much about listening to and speaking French. You must
train all of these skills, and they will reinforce one another. For listening and speaking, find a native speaker
to help you.
The very best way to learn French is to visit France or another French-speaking country. This allows you to
start with a clean slate, as babies do. However, since most of us are unwilling or unable to take that step, the
next best option is immersion. If you are serious about learning French, a period of immersion (during which
you live in a Francophone culture) is a good idea once you have some basic familiarity with the language. If
you can't travel to a French-speaking country, then try listening to French-language programs on the radio,
TV, or the Internet. Rent or buy French-language movies (many American and U.K. movies have a French
language option). Pay attention to pronunciation. Grab a French speaker you meet and talk to him or her in
French. Listen, speak, and practice. Read French newspapers and magazines. Google's news page, which
links to French-language news stories, is an excellent source that will enrich your vocabulary.
Book organization
This book is divided into one set of preliminary lessons, the page you are reading now, and four increasingly
complex lesson levels. The introductory lessons will teach you pronunciation and phrases. In the first level,
you will learn basic grammar, including pronouns, the present indicative, most common present tense, and
several irregularly-conjugated verbs. In the second level, the passé composé, the most common past tense, is
given, along with many other irregular verbs. In the third level, you will learn several more tenses and
complex grammar rules. The fourth level (still in development), will be conducted in French and will focus
on French literature and prose writing. For more on course structure, and information on how you can help
improve this book, see the lessons planning page.
Lesson 0.03 - The Alphabet
Introduction
French Grammar • Print version • audio (info •101 kb • help)
The French Alphabet L'alphabet français
Characters Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee
Ff
Gg
Hh Ii
Pronunciation ah
bay say day euh
eff jhay
ash ee
Characters Jj
Kk Ll Mm Nn
Oo Pp
Qq Rr
oh
ku air
Pronunciation ghee kah el emm enn
Characters Ss
Tt Uu Vv Ww
pay
Xx Yy
Zz
Pronunciation ess tay oo vay dubla-vay eeks ee-grehk zed
In addition, French uses several accents which are worth understanding. These are: à, è, ù, (grave accents)
and é (acute accent). A circumflex applies to all vowels: â, ê, î, ô, û. A tréma (French for dieresis) is also
applied: ë, ï, ü, ÿ. Two combined letters are used: æ and œ, and a cedilla is used on the c to make it sound
like an English s: ç. More information on accents will be found in the next section.
Letters and examples
French Grammar • Print version • audio (info •101 kb • help)
The French Alphabet L'alphabet français
letter
pronunciation
name in French
(in IPA transcription)
Aa
like a in father
/a/
Bb
like b in may"be
/be/
Cc
before e and i: like c in center
before a, o, or u: like c in cat
/se/
Dd
like d in dog
/de/
Ee
approx. like u in burp**
/ə/
Ff
like f in fog
/ɛf/
Ii
before e and i: like s in measure
before a, o, or u: like g in get
aspirated h: see note below*
non-aspirated h: not pronounced***
like ea in team
Jj
like s in measure
/ʒi/
Kk
like k in kite
/ka/
Ll
like l in lemon
/ɛl/
Gg
Hh
Mm like m in minute
/ʒe/
/aʃ/
/i/
/ɛm/
Nn
like n in note
/ɛn/
Oo
closed: approx. like u in nut
open: like o in nose
/o/
Pp
like p in pen*
/pe/
Qq
like k in kite
/ky/ see 'u'
for details
Rr
Ss
Tt
force air through the back of your throat
near the position of gargling,
/ɛʀ/
but sounding soft
like s in sister at beginning
of word or with two s's
/ɛs/
or like z in amazing if only one s
like t in top
/te/
Say the English letter e,
/y/
but make your lips say "oo".
/ve/
Vv like v in violin
Depending on the derivation of the word,
Ww
/dubləve/
like v as in violin, or w in water
Uu
Xx
either /ks/ in socks,
or /gz/ in exit
/iks/
Yy
like ea in leak
/igrək/
Zz
like z in zebra
/zɛd/
Final consonants
In French, certain consonants are silent when they are the final letter of a word. The letters p (as in 'coup'), s
(as in 'héros'), t (as in 'chat'), d (as in 'marchand'), and x (as in 'paresseux'), are generally not pronounced at
the end of a word. They are pronounced if there is an e letter after ('coupe', 'chatte', 'marchande', etc.)
Dental consonants
The letters d, l, n,s, t, and z are pronounced with the tip of the tongue against the lower teeth and the middle
of the tongue against the roof of the mouth. In English, one would pronounce these letters with the tip of the
tongue at the roof of one's mouth. It is very difficult to pronounce a word like 'voudrais' properly with the d
formed in the English manner.
b and p
Unlike English, when you pronounce the letters 'b' and 'p' in French, little to no air should come out of your
mouth. In terms of phonetics, the difference in the French 'b' and 'p' and their English counterparts is one of
aspiration. (This is not the same as the similarly-named concept of 'h' aspiré discussed below). Fortunately,
in English both aspirated and unaspirated variants (allophones) exist, but only in specific environments. If
you're a native speaker, say the word 'pit' and then the word 'spit' out loud. Did you notice the extra puff of
air in the first word that doesn't come with the second? The 'p' in 'pit' is aspirated [pʰ]; the 'p' in 'spit' is not
(like the 'p' in any position in French).
Exercise
1. Get a loose piece of printer paper or notebook paper.
2. Hold the piece of paper about one inch (or a couple of centimeters) in front of your face.
3. Say the words baby, and puppy like you normally would in English. Notice how the paper moved
when you said the 'b' and the 'p' respectively.
4. Now, without making the piece of paper move, say the words belle (the feminine form of beautiful in
French, pronounced like the English 'bell.'), and papa (the French equivalent of "Dad").
If the paper moved, your pronunciation is slightly off. Concentrate, and try it again.
If the paper didn't move, congratulations! You pronounced the words correctly!
Aspirated vs. non-aspirated h
In French, the letter h can be aspirated (h aspiré), or not aspirated (h non aspiré), depending on which
language the word was borrowed from. What do these terms mean?
Ex.: the word héros, (hero) has an aspirated h, because when the definite article le is placed before it,
the result is le héros, and both words must be pronounced separately. However, the feminine form of
héros, héroïne is a non-aspirated h. Therefore, when you put the definite article in front of it, it
becomes l'héroïne, and is pronounced as one word.
Remember that in French, an h is NEVER pronounced, whether it is aspirated or not aspirated!
The only way to tell if the h at the beginning of a word is aspirated is to look it up in the dictionary. Some
dictionaries will place an asterisk (*) in front of the entry word in the French-English H section if the h is
aspirated. Other dictionaries will include it in the pronunciation guide after the key word by placing a (')
before the pronunciation. In short, the words must be memorized.
Here is a table of some basic h words that are aspirated and not aspirated:
aspirated
héros, hero (le héros)
non-aspirated
héroïne, heroine (l'héroïne)
haïr, to hate (je hais or j'haïs...) habiter, to live (j'habite...)
huit, eight (le huit novembre)
harmonie, harmony (l'harmonie)
Exercise
1. Grab a French-English dictionary and find at least ten aspirated h words, and ten non-aspirated h
words
2. On a piece of paper, write down the words you find in two columns
3. Look at it every day and memorize the columns
Punctuation
From Wiktionary:
&
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (info •608 kb • help)
Punctuation La ponctuation
esperluette, et
virgule
accolades
,
{ }
~
commercial
tilde
'
apostrophe
=
égal
%
pourcent
*
astérisque
$
dollar
.
point
«»
guillemets
!
point
d'exclamation
+
plus
\
barre oblique
inverse
>
supérieur à
#
dièse
[ ]
crochets
<
inférieur à
?
point
d'interrogation
:
deux points
-
_
soulignement
;
point virgule
( )
/
barre oblique
moins, tiret, trait
d'union
parenthèses
@
arobase, a
commercial, arobe
The punctuation symbols in French operates very similarly to English with the same meaning. The only
punctuation symbol not present in French would be the quotation marks; these are replaced by the guillemets
shown in the table above.
The two stroke punctuation marks (such as ;, :, ?, !) may require a non-breaking space before or after the
mark in question. For purposes of this textbook, this style will be used to maintain consistency with other
projects on WikiMedia - however, the location and context at which you will use French may have different
spacing rules. The following resources are an example of available materials for further reading:
Lexique des règles typographiques en usage à l'Imprimerie nationale, ISBN 9782743304829,
Imprimerie nationale
Wikipédia:Conventions typographiques
(http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipédia:Conventions_typographiques#Espaces)
French Style Guide (http://www.cprp.ca/guide.php?category_name=autres-ressources/#english) ,
Nova Scotia Department of Education (for Canadian French)
EXERCISE • Translator (http://translate.google.com/translate_t) • Exercise Appendix • Print version
• E: 0.03 1 - Punctuation - State the Word
[show ▼]
Lesson 0.04 - Accents
Introduction
Five different kinds of accent marks are used in written French. In many cases, an accent changes the sound
of the letter to which it is added. In others, the accent has no effect on pronunciation. Accents in French
never indicate stress (which always falls on the last syllable). The following table lists every French accent
mark and the letters with which it can be combined:
accent
letters
used
examples
acute accent
(accent aigu)
é only
éléphant: elephant
grave accent
(accent grave)
è, à, ù
fièvre: fever, là: there, où: where
gâteau: cake, être: to be, île: island,
chômage: unemployment,
dû: past participle of devoir
â, ê, î,
circumflex
(accent circonflexe) ô, û
diaeresis
(tréma)
ë, ï, ü, ÿ
Noël: Christmas, maïs: corn, aigüe: acute(fem)
cedilla
(cédille)
ç only
français: French
[1]
[2]
1. ↑ Note: The letter ÿ is only used in very rare words, mostly old town names like L'Haÿ-Les-Roses, a
Paris surburb. This letter is pronounced like ï.
2. ↑ Note: As of the spelling reform of 1990, the diaresis indicating gu is not a digraph on words
finishing in guë is now placed on the u in standard (AKA "académie française" French) : aigüe and not
aiguë, cigüe and not ciguë, ambigüe and not ambiguë (acute(fem), conium, ambiguous). Since this
reform is relatively recent and mostly unknown to laypeople, the two spellings can be used
interchangeably.
Acute accent - Accent aigu
The acute accent (French, accent aigu) is the most common accent used in written French. It is only used
with the letter e and is always pronounced /e/.
One use of the accent aigu is to form the past participle of regular -er verbs.
infinitive
aimer, to love
past participle
aimé, loved
regarder, to watch regardé, watched
Another thing to note is if you are unsure of how to translate certain words into English from French, and the
word begins with é, replace that with the letter s and you will occasionally get the English word, or an
approximation thereof:
étable --> stable (for horses)
école --> scole --> school
il étudie --> il studie --> he studies
And to combine what you already know about the accent aigu, here is one last example:
étranglé (from étrangler) --> stranglé --> strangled
NB: This will not work with every word that begins with é.
Grave accent - Accent grave
à and ù
In the case of the letters à and ù, the grave accent (Fr. accent grave), is used to graphically distinguish one
word from another.
without accent grave
a (3rd pers. sing of avoir, to have)
with accent grave
à (preposition, to, at, etc.)
la (definite article for feminine nouns) là (there)
ou (conjunction, or)
où (where)
è
Unlike à and ù, è is not used to distinguish words from one another. The è is used for pronunciation. In
careful speech, an unaccented e is pronounced like the article a in english (a schwa), and in rapid speech is
sometimes not pronounced at all. The è is pronounced like the letter e in pet.
Cedilla - Cédille
The cedilla is used only with the letter "c", and is said to make the "c" soft, making it equivalent to the
English and French S.
le garçon --> (boy)
French Accents on computers
While French keyboards are available, some French students may need to enter accented characters on an
English keyboard. There are two methods of doing so - some modern word processing software allow
entering accents using a key combination, while other applications may require using an Alt code.
In supporing word processing software, you can initiate an accent by entering an appropriate key
combination.
accent
key combination
acute accent
(accent aigu)
CTRL-'
grave accent
(accent grave)
CTRL-`
circumflex
CTRL-SHIFT-6
(accent circonflexe)
diaeresis
(tréma)
CTRL-;
cedilla
(cédille)
CTRL-,
On applications that do not support the key combinations, the alternate method available to students is to
hold down the ALT key, and enter the code number on the keypad. In some applications, you may also need
to have the numlock turned on to avoid undesirable effects.
Character code Character
code
à
133
À
0192
â
131
Â
0194
ä
132
Ä
142
æ {ae}
145
Æ {ae}
146
œ {oe}
0156 Π{oe}
0140
ç
135
Ç
128
é
130
É
144
ê
136
Ê
0202
è
138
È
0200
ë
137
Ë
0203
î
140
Î
0206
ï
139
Ï
0207
ô
147
Ô
0212
ù
151
Ù
0217
û
150
Û
0219
ü
129
Ü
154 or 0220
«
174
»
175
Lesson 0.05 - Greetings
D: Greetings
French Dialogue • Print version • audio (upload)
Greetings Les salutations
Jacques et Marie
Jacques Bonsoir, Marie.
Marie Euh ? Tu t'appelles comment ?
Jacques Moi[1], je m'appelle Jacques.
Marie Ah, oui. Quoi de neuf, Jacques ?
Jacques Pas grand-chose. Alors[2], au revoir, à demain, Marie.
Marie À la prochaine, Jacques.
Olivier et Luc
Olivier Salut.
Luc
Bonjour.
Olivier Tu t'appelles comment ?
[3]
Luc
Luc. Et toi ?
Olivier Je suis Olivier.
Luc
Ah, oui. Alors, à bientôt, Olivier.
Olivier Salut, Luc !
^ me
^ so, then ^ And you ? (informal)
V: Greetings
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (info •111 kb • help)
Greetings Les salutations
Salut
Hi./Bye.
(informal)
Bonjour
Hello
(more formal than salut) (all day)
Bonsoir
Hello
(after 19h00)
Bonne soirée
Good evening
Bonne nuit
Good night
bun nwee
Quoi de neuf ? What's up (about you)? (lit. what's new)
Pas grand-chose. Not much. (lit. no big-thing)
Formal Lesson - Greetings
When talking to one's peers or to children, Salut is used as a greeting. Its English equivalents would be hi
and hey. Bonjour, literally meaning good day, should be used for anyone else. Bonsoir is used to say Good
evening. Bonne nuit is used to say Good night before going to bed.
V: Good-bye
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (info •202 kb • help)
Good-bye Au revoir
Salut.
Hi./Bye.
(informal)
Au revoir.
Good-bye.
ohrvwahr (ev not pronounced)
À demain.
See you tomorrow.
ah duhman (Lit: To/Until Tomorrow)
Au revoir, à demain. Bye, see you tomorrow.
À tout à l'heure.
See you (later today)! ah tootah luhr
À la prochaine.
See you (tomorrow)! ah lah proh shayn
À bientôt.
See you soon.
ah byantoe
Ciao
Bye.
chow (Italian)
Formal lesson - Good-byes
In addition to being used as an informal greeting, Salut also means bye. Again, it should only be used among
friends. Another informal greeting is ciao, an Italian word commonly used in France. Au revoir is the only
formal way to say Good-bye. If you will be meeting someone again soon, use À bientôt or À tout à l'heure. À
demain is used if you will be seeing the person the following day.
V: Names
Tu t'appelles comment ? is used to informally ask someone for his or her name. It is normal to just reply by
stating your name, however you may also respond Je m'appelle [name] (I am called...). In the next lesson,
you will learn more formal ways of asking someone for their name.
Check for understanding
One of your good friends is introducing you to his younger cousin who is visiting on a trip from France, and
doesn't speak a word of English. You want to introduce yourself to him, tell him your name, and ask "What's
up?"
Lesson 0.06 - Formal Speech
D: A formal conversation
French Dialogue • Print version • audio (info •65 kb • help)
A Formal Conversation Une conversation formelle
Two people—Monsieur Bernard and Monsieur Lambert—are meeting for the first time:
Bonjour. Comment vous appelez-vous ?
Monsieur Bernard
Monsieur Lambert
Je m'appelle Jean-Paul Lambert. Et vous ?
Monsieur Bernard
Moi, je
Monsieur Lambert
Enchanté .
[4]
suis Marc Bernard. Enchanté.
[5]
^ I (I is not capitalized in French (unless, of course, beginning a sentence))
^ Nice to meet you (lit. enchanted)
G: Vous vs. tu
This is an important difference between French and English. English no longer distinguishes between the
singular and the plural, formal version of "you", although "thou" used to be the informal singular version in
the days of Shakespeare.
In French, it is important to know when to use "vous" and when to use "tu".
"Vous" is the plural form of "you". This is somewhat equivalent to "you all", "you guys", "all of you",
except that it does not carry any familiarity when used with the plural. You'd use it to address your friends as
well as when talking to the whole government at a press conference.
"Vous" is also used to refer to single individuals to show respect, to be polite or to be neutral. It is used when
talking to someone who is important, someone who is older than you are, or someone with whom you are
unfamiliar. This is known as Vouvoiement. Note the conversation between M. Bernard and M. Lambert
above as an example of this use.
Conversely, "tu" is the singular and informal form of "vous" (you) in French. It is commonly used when
referring to a friend or a family member, and is also used between children or when addressing a child. If it
is used when speaking to a stranger, it signals disrespect. This is known as Tutoiement. As a rule of thumb,
use "tu" only when you would call that person by his first name, otherwise use "vous". French people will
make it known when they would like you to refer to them by "tu". The use of "vous" is less common in
Quebequois than in French from France.
V: Courtesy
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (info •160 kb • help)
Courtesy La politesse
S'il te plaît.
(Lit: If it pleases you.)
Please
S'il vous plaît.
(formal).
Thanks (a lot) Merci (beaucoup).
De rien.
Pas de quoi.
You're welcome.
Je t'en prie.
Je vous en prie
(Lit: It's nothing.)
(Lit: Not of what.) (No problem.)
I pray you (informal)
(formal)
V: Titles
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (info •99 kb • help)
Titles Les titres
French
Abbr. Pronunciation English, Usage
Singular Monsieur
Plural Messieurs.
M.
Singular Madame
Plural Mesdames
M
me
Singular Mademoiselle
lle
M
Plural Mesdemoiselles
muhsyeu
mehsyeu
Mr., Sir.
Gentlemen.
mahdamn
maydahm
Mrs., Ma'am.
Ladies
mahdmwahzell Miss, Young lady
mehdmwahzell Young ladies
Formal lesson - Titles
The titles monsieur, madame, and mademoiselle are almost always used alone, without the last name of the
person. When beginning to speak to a professor, employer, or generally someone older than you, it is polite
to say monsieur, madame, or mademoiselle.
V: Asking for one's name
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (info •110 kb • help)
Asking For One's Name Demander le nom de quelqu'un
Comment vous appelez-vous ? How do you call yourself? (formal)
Quel est votre nom ?
What is your name?
What is your name? (informal)
Tu t'appelles comment ?
(lit: How do you call yourself?)
Je m'appelle...
My name is... (lit. I call myself...)
Je suis...
I am...
Lesson 0.07 - How are you?
D: A simple conversation
Two good friends—Marie and Jean—are meeting:
Marie: Salut Jean. Ça va ?
Jean: Ça va bien, merci. Et toi, ça va ?
Marie: Pas mal.
Jean: Quoi de neuf ?
Marie: Pas grand-chose.
Marie: Au revoir Jean.
Jean: Au revoir, à demain.
V: How are you?
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (info •105 kb • help)
How are you? Ça va?
Comment allez-vous ? (formal),
Comment vas-tu ? (informal),
How are you?
Comment ça va ? / Ça va ? (informal)
I'm doing (very) well
Ça va (très) bien
(lit. It's going (very) well)
Oui, ça va.
Yes, it goes.
Très bien, merci.
Very well, thanks.
Pas mal.
Not Bad
pas si bien/pas très bien
not so well
(très) mal
(very) bad
Comme ci, comme ça.
So-So.
Désolé(e).
Sorry.
Et toi ?
And you? (informal)
Et vous ?
And you? (formal)
Check for understanding
Write down as many ways to respond to Ça va? as you can think of off the top off your head. Then go back to
the vocabulary and learn other ways.
E: Basic phrases - Dialogue
French Exercise • Print version • audio (info •60 kb • help)
Basic Phrases Expressions de base
Exercise
Put the following conversation in order:
First
Second
Third
Au revoir
1. Michel Je ne vais pas très bien. Bonjour, Jacques
Ça va très bien! Et vous?
À demain.
2. Jacques Désolé.
Allez-vous bien?
Solution:
First
Second
Third
1. Michel Bonjour, Jacques.
Comment ça va?
2. Jacques Salut, Michel!
Ça va très bien! Et vous?
Désolé.
Allez-vous bien?
Fourth
Comment ça va?
Salut, Michel!
Fourth
Je ne vais pas très bien. Au revoir.
À demain.
Formal lesson - Asking how one is doing
Ça va? is used to ask someone how they are doing. The phrase literally means It goes?, referring to the body
and life. A more formal way to say this is Comment allez-vous?. You can respond by using ça va as a
statement; Ça va. roughly means I'm fine. The adverb bien is used to say well, and is often said both alone
and as Ça va bien. Bien is preceded by certain adverbs to specify the degree to which you are well. Common
phrases are assez bien, meaning rather well, très bien, meaning very well, and vraiment bien, meaning really
well. The adverb mal is used to say badly. Pas is commonly added to mal to form Pas mal., meaning Not
bad. Comme ci, comme ça., literally translating to Like this, like that., is used to say So, so. To be polite, add
merci, meaning thank you to responses to questions.
Check for understanding
Pretend to have (or actually have) a verbal conversation with various people that you know, such as siblings,
friends, children, teachers, coworkers, or heads of state. Address them in different ways, depending on their
relation to you. Ask them how they are doing, and finally say goodbye.
Lesson 0.08 - Numbers
V: Cardinal numbers
Main article: French/Appendices/Dates, time, and numbers#Les numéros
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (info •337 kb • help)
Numbers Les nombres
un
1
une unité (a unity)
deux
2
trois
3
quatre
4
cinq
5
six
6
sept
7
huit
8
neuf
9
dix
10
une dizaine (one ten)
onze
11
douze
12
une douzaine (one dozen)
treize
13
quatorze
14
quinze
15
seize
16
dix-sept
17
dix-huit
18
dix-neuf
19
vingt
20
une vingtaine (around twenty)
vingt et un
21
vingt-[deux - neuf]
22-29
trente
30
trente et un
31
trente-[deux - neuf]
32-39
quarante
40
cinquante
50
soixante
60
soixante-dix
70
soixante et onze
71
soixante-[douze - dix-neuf] 72-79
quatre-vingts
80
quatre-vingt-un
81
quatre-vingt-[deux - neuf]
82-89
quatre-vingt-dix
90
quatre-vingt-[onze - dix-neuf] 91-99
cent
[deux - neuf] cents
deux cent un
neuf cent un
mille
(un) million
(un) milliard
100
une centaine (one hundred)
200-900
201
901
1.000
un millier (one thousand)
1.000.000
1.000.000.000
Things of note about numbers:
For 70-79, it builds upon "soixante" but past that it builds upon a combination of terms for 80-99
Only the first (21,31,41,51 and 61, but not 71 nor 81 nor 91) have "et un" without a hyphen; but past
this it is simply both words consecutively (vingt-six, trente-trois, etc) with a hyphen in between.
For 100-199, it looks much like this list already save that "cent" is added before the rest of the
number; this continues up to 1000 and onward.
Many speakers of French outside of France refer to the numbers 70 to 99 in the same pattern as the
other numbers. For instance, in Switzerland and Belgium, seventy is "septante," 71 is "septante et un,"
72 "septante deux," and so on. Ninety is "nonante". In Switzerland, Eighty is "huitante" or "octante".
V: Mathematics
In french, the addition, subtraction, multiplication and division are as follows: Calculez:
a) un plus (plus) un = (égal) deux (the final 's' must be prononced)
b) dix moins (moén) sept = trois
c) quatre fois (foá) trois = douze
d) vingt divisé par (divisê par) dix = deux
Note: You may sometimes use "un plus un font deux".
Exercises
huit plus cinq égal : (treize)
cinq et un égal : (six)
neuf plus huit égal (dix-sept)
trente-deux plus quarante-neuf égal (quatre-vingt-un)
soixante plus vingt égal (quatre-vingts)
cinquante-trois plus douze égal (soixante-cinq)
dix-neuf plus cinquante égal (soixante-neuf)
quarante-sept plus vingt-sept égal (soixante-quatorze)
Soixante-trois plus trente-deux égal (quatre-vingt-quinze)
soixante plus trente-deux égal (quatre-vingt-douze)
D: In school
Toto est un personnage imaginaire qui est un cancre à l'école. Il y a beaucoup d'histoires drôles sur Toto, un
jour je vous en raconterai une!
Toto is an imaginary person that is a dunce at school. There are a lot of funny stories about Toto, one day I
will tell you one of them!
- L'instituteur : Bonjour, les enfants! Aujourd'hui c'est mardi, nous allons réviser la table d'addition.
Combien font huit plus six ?
- Toto : Treize, monsieur !
- L'instituteur : Non Toto tu t'es trompé! Huit plus six égal quatorze. Et combien font cinq plus neuf ?
- Clément : Quatorze !
- L'instituteur : Très bien Clément.
Lesson 0.09 - The Date
V: The days of the week.
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (info •127 kb • help)
The Days of the Week. Les jours de la semaine.
#
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
French
lundi
mardi
mercredi
jeudi
vendredi
samedi
dimanche
Pronunciation
luhndee
mahrdee
maircruhdee
juhdee
vahndruhdee
sahmdee
deemahnsh
English
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Saturday
Sunday
Origin
Moon
Mars
Mercury
Jupiter
Venus
Saturn
Dies Domini
Notes:
What day is it today? is equivalent to Quel jour sommes-nous aujourd'hui?, Quel jour est-on
aujourd'hui? or On est quel jour aujourd'hui? (last one is less formal but more common)
Quel jour sommes-nous aujourd'hui? can be answered with Aujourd'hui c'est..., C'est... or Nous
sommes ... / On est...
Nous sommes... is not used with hier, aujourd’hui, or demain. C'était (past) or C'est (present/future)
must be used accordingly.
The days of the week are not capitalized in French.
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (info •67 kb • help)
Asking For The Day Demander le jour
1a Aujourd'hui on est quel jour ? Today is what day?
ojzoordwee on ay kell jzoor
1b Aujourd'hui on est [jour].
Today is [day].
2a Demain c'est quel jour ?
Tomorrow is what day? Duhman say kell jzoor
2b Demain c'est [jour].
Tomorrow is [day].
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (info •164 kb • help)
Relative Days Les jours relatifs
avant-hier
the day before yesterday
hier
yesterday
aujourd'hui
today
ce soir
tonight
demain
tomorrow
après-demain
the day after tomorrow
V: The months of the year
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (info •163 kb • help)
The Months of the Year Les mois de l'année
#
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
French
janvier
février
mars
avril
mai
juin
juillet
août
septembre
octobre
novembre
décembre
Pronounced
jzahnvyay
fayvryay
mahrse
ahvrill
maye
jzwan
jzuyay
oot/oo
septahmbruh
oktuhbr
novahmbr
daysahmbr
English
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
The months of the year are not capitalized in French.
For phrases relating to the months of the year, see the phrasebook
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (info •99 kb • help)
Asking For The Date Demander la date
Quelle est la date
What is the date
kell ay lah daht
(d'aujourd'hui) ?
(today)?
C'est le [#] [month].
It's [month] [#].
say leuh...
V: Seasons
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (info •142 kb • help)
Seasons Les Saisons
la saison
season
le printemps
Spring
l'été (m)
Summer
l'automne (m)
Autumn
l'hiver (m)
Winter
Lesson 0.10 - Telling Time
V: Asking for the time
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (info •164 kb • help)
Asking For The Day, Date, Time Demander le jour/la date/le temps
Asking for the time.
4a Quelle heure est-il ?
4b Quelle heure il est ?
5 Il est [nombre] heure(s).
What hour/time is it?
It is [number] hours.
kell er ayteel
kell er eel ay
eelay [nombre] er
V: Time
In French, “il est” is used to express the time; though it would literally translate as “he is”, it is actually, in
this case, equivalent to “it is” (impersonal "il"). Unlike in English, it is always important to use “heures”
(“hours”) when referring to the time. In English, it is OK to say, “It’s nine,” but this wouldn’t make sense in
French.
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (info •145 kb • help)
Time Le temps
Quelle heure est-il ?
What time is it?
Il est une heure.
It is one o’clock.
Il est trois heures.
It is three o’clock.
Il est dix heures.
It is ten o’clock.
Il est midi.
It is noon.
Il est minuit.
It is midnight.
Il est quatre heures cinq.
It is five past four.
Il est quatre heures et quart.
It is a quarter past four.
Il est quatre heures moins le quart
It is a quarter till 4.
Il est quatre heures quinze.
It is four fifteen.
Il est quatre heures et demie.
It is half past four.
Il est quatre heures trente.
It is four thirty.
Il est cinq heures moins vingt.
It is twenty to five.
Il est quatre heures quarante.
It is four forty.
V: Times of day
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (info •183 kb • help)
Times of Day L'heure relatif
daybreak
le lever du jour
lit:the rise of the day
sunrise
le lever du soleil
lit: the rise of the sun
le soleil levant
le matin
...du matin
hier matin
le midi
l'après-midi (m)
le soir
...du soir
la nuit
le coucher du soleil
rising sun.
morning
A.M., lit: of the morning
yesterday morning
noon, midday
afternoon
evening, in the evening
P.M. lit: of the evening
night
sunset
D: The Principal
French Dialogue • Print version • audio (info •505 kb • help)
The Principal Le directeur
(frappe à la porte : toc toc toc)
Daniel
(knocks on the door: knock knock knock)
Entrez !
Le directeur
Enter!
Bonjour, monsieur le directeur. Est-ce que vous allez bien ?
Daniel
Hello, Mr. Director. Are you well?
Je vais bien merci. Et vous, comment allez-vous ?
Le directeur
I am well, thank you. And you, how are you?
Je vais bien. Je veux vous demander s'il est possible d'organiser
une fête pour mon anniversaire. Je l'organiserais le 3 mars vers 14 h.
Daniel
I'm well. I want to ask you if it is possible to organize a party for my
birthday. I would organize it the third of March around 02:00 PM.
Et vous voulez l'organiser où ?
Le directeur
And you want to organize it where?
Dans la grande salle de réunion au deuxième étage. On en
aurait besoin jusqu'à 16 h, le temps de tout nettoyer.
Daniel
In the large conference room on the second floor. We would
need it until 04:00 PM, the time of cleaning everything.
Entendu! J' espère que je serais invité ?
Le directeur
Agreed! I hope that I would be invited?
Bien sûr ! Merci Beaucoup !
Daniel
Of course! Thanks a lot!
Au revoir !
Le directeur
Good-bye!
Au revoir et encore merci !
Daniel
Good-bye and thanks again.
Lesson 0 - Review
G: The French alphabet
French Grammar • Print version • audio (info •101 kb • help)
The French Alphabet L'alphabet français
Characters Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii
Jj
Pronunciation ah bay say day euh eff jhay ash ee zhee
Characters Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt
Uu Vv Ww
Kk Ll
Mm
kah el
em
Xx Yy
Zz
Pronunciation enn oh pay ku air ess tay ue vay dubl-vay eeks ee-grehk zedh
In addition, French uses several accents which are worth understanding. These are: à, è, ù, (grave accents)
and é (acute accent). A circumflex applies to all vowels: â, ê, î, ô, û. A tréma (French for dieresis) is also
applied: ä, ë, ï, ö, ü, ÿ. Two combined letters are used: æ and œ, and a cedilla is used on the c to make it
sound like an English s: ç.
V: Basic phrases
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (info •353 kb • help)
Basic Phrases Les expressions de base
bonjour, salut
hello (formal), hi (informal)
Comment allez-vous ? (formal),
Comment vas-tu ? (informal),
How are you?
Comment ça va ? / Ça va ? (informal)
ça va (très) bien
I'm doing (very) well (lit. It's going (very) well)
merci
thank you
et toi ? et vous ?
and you? (informal) and you? (formal)
pas mal
not bad
bien
well
pas si bien/pas très bien
not so well
comme ci, comme ça
so-so
Désolé(e)
I'm sorry.
quoi de neuf ?
what's up (about you)? (lit. what's new)
pas grand-chose
not much (lit. no big-thing)
au revoir
bye (lit. with reseeing, akin to German auf Wiedersehen)
à demain
see you tomorrow (lit. at tomorrow)
Au revoir, à demain.
Bye, see you tomorrow
V: Numbers
un
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (info •337 kb • help)
Numbers Les nombres
1
une unité (a unity)
deux
2
trois
3
quatre
4
cinq
5
six
6
sept
7
huit
8
neuf
9
dix
10
une dizaine (one ten)
onze
11
douze
12
une douzaine (one dozen)
treize
13
quatorze
14
quinze
15
seize
16
dix-sept
17
dix-huit
18
dix-neuf
19
vingt
20
vingt et un
21
vingt [deux - neuf]
22-29
trente
30
trente et un
31
trente [deux - neuf]
32-39
quarante
40
cinquante
50
soixante
60
soixante-dix
70
soixante et onze
71
soixante-[douze - dix-neuf] 72-79
quatre-vingts
80
quatre-vingt-un
81
quatre-vingt-[deux - neuf]
82-89
quatre-vingt-dix
90
quatre-vingt-[onze - dix-neuf] 91-99
cent
100
une centaine (one hundred)
[deux - neuf] cents
200-900
deux cent un
201
neuf cent un
901
mille
1.000
un millier (one thousand)
(un) million
1.000.000
(un) milliard
1.000.000.000
(un) billion
1.000.000.000.000
Things of note about numbers:
For 70-79, it builds upon "soixante" but past that it builds upon a combination of terms for 80-99
Only the first (21,31,41,51,61 and 71, but not 81 nor 91) have "et un" without a hyphen; but past this it
is simply both words consecutively (vingt-six, trente-trois, etc) with a hyphen in between.
For 100-199, it looks much like this list already save that "cent" is added before the rest of the
number; this continues up to 1000 and onward.
V: Asking for the day/date/time
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (info •612 kb • help)
Asking For The Day, Date, Time Demander le jour, la date, le temps
Asking for the day.
1a Quel jour c'est Aujourd'hui ? What day is today ?
kell jzoor say ojzoordwee
1b c'est [jour].
Today is [day].
2a Quel jour c'est demain ?
What day is tomorrow ? kell jzoor say duhman
2b Demain c'est [jour].
Tomorrow is [day].
Asking for the date.
Quelle est la date
What is the date
3a
kell ay lah daht
(aujourd'hui) ?
(today) ?
3b C'est le [#] [month].
It's [month] [#].
Asking for the time.
4a Quelle heure est-il ?
kell er ayteel
What hour/time is it ?
4b Il est quelle heure ?
eel ay kell er
5 Il est [nombre] heure(s).
It is [number] hours.
eelay [nombre] er
V: Time
In French, “il est” is used to express the time; though it would literally translate as “he is”, it is actually, in
this case, equivalent to “it is” (unpersonal "il"). Unlike in English, it is always important to use “heures”
(“hours”) when referring to the time. In English, it is OK to say, “It’s nine,” but this wouldn’t make sense in
French. The French time system traditionally uses a 24 hour scale. Shorthand for writing times in French
follows the format "17h30", which would represent 5:30PM in English.
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (info •145 kb • help)
Time Le temps
Quelle heure est-il ?
What time is it?
Il est une heure.
It is one o’clock.
Il est trois heures.
It is three o’clock.
Il est dix heures.
It is ten o’clock.
Il est midi.
It is noon.
Il est minuit.
It is midnight.
Il est quatre heures cinq.
It is five past four.
Il est quatre heures et quart.
It is a quarter past four.
Il est quatre heures quinze.
It is four fifteen.
Il est quatre heures et demie.
It is half past four.
Il est dix-neuf heures moins le quart. It is a quarter to seven, or six forty-five.
Il est quatre heures trente.
Il est cinq heures moins vingt.
Il est quatre heures quarante.
It is four thirty.
It is twenty to five.
It is four forty.
V: The days of the week.
Les jours de la semaine [lay jzoor duh lah suhmen]
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (info •420 kb • help)
The Days of the Week. Les jours de la semaine.
#
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
French
lundi
mardi
mercredi
jeudi
vendredi
samedi
dimanche
Pronunciation
luhndee
mahrdee
maircruhdee
juhdee
vahndruhdee
sahmdee
deemahnsh
English
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Saturday
Sunday
Origin
Moon
Mars
Mercury
Jupiter
Venus
Saturn
Sun
The days of the week are not capitalized in French.
For phrases relating to the day of the week, see the phrasebook.
Notes:
What day is it today? is equivalent to Quel jour sommes-nous ?.
Quel jour sommes-nous ? can be answered with Nous sommes..., C'est... or On est... (last two are less
formal).
Nous sommes... is not used with hier, aujourd’hui, or demain. C'était (past) or C'est (present/future)
must be used accordingly.
V: The months of the year
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (info •561 kb • help)
The Months of the Year Les mois de l'année
#
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
French
janvier
février
mars
avril
mai
juin
juillet
août
septembre
octobre
novembre
Pron.
jzahnveeyay
fayvreeyay
mahrse
ahvrill
maye
jzwan
jzooeeyay
oot/oo
septahmbruh
oktuhbruh
novahmbruh
English
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
12
decembre
daysahmbruh
December
V: Relative date and time
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (info •883 kb • help)
Relative Date and Time Date et heure relatives
le lever du jour
le lever du soleil
le soleil levant
le matin
...du matin
hier matin
le midi
l'après-midi (m)
le soir
...du soir
le coucher du soleil
la nuit
avant-hier
hier
aujourd'hui
ce soir
demain
après-demain
Times of Day
daybreak
lit:the rise of the day
sunrise
lit: the rise of the sun
rising sun.
morning
A.M., lit: of the mornng
yesterday morning
noon, midday
afternoon
evening, in the evening
P.M. lit: of the evening
sunset
night
Relative Days
the day before yesterday
yesterday
today
tonight
tomorrow
the day after tomorrow
V: Seasons
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (info •142 kb • help)
Seasons Les Saisons
la saison
season
le printemps
Spring
l'été (m)
Summer
l'automne (m)
Autumn
l'hiver (m)
Winter
D: A conversation between friends
French Dialogue • Print version • audio (upload)
A Coversation Between Friends Une conversation entre amis
Daniel
Hervé
Bonjour Hervé. Comment vas-tu ?
Hello, Hervé. How are you? [lit: How go you?]
Je vais bien, merci. Et toi ça va ?
1
I'm good, thank you. And you, it goes (fine)?
2
Daniel Ça va bien. Est-ce que tu viens à mon anniversaire ? J'organise une petite fête.
It goes well. You're coming to my party? I'm organizing a little party.
C'est quand ?
Hervé
When is it? [lit: It is when?]
Le 3 mars à 20h.
Daniel
March 3rd at 08:00 PM.
3
Hervé Le 3 mars, entendu. Tu fais ça chez toi ?
March 3rd, agreed. You're having it at your place?
Oui c'est chez moi. J'ai invité une vingtaine d'amis. On va danser toute la nuit.
Daniel
4
Yes, it's at my place. I have invited (a set of) twenty friends. We are going to dance all night.
C'est très gentil de m'inviter, merci. A bientôt.
Hervé
It's very nice to invite me, thank you. So long.
A demain, bonne journée.
Daniel
Until tomorrow, good day.
1
Bien is an adverb meaning well. Its adjective equivalent is bon(ne), which means good. Since je vais, meaning I go, uses an
action verb, the adverb bien is used. In English, I'm good, which uses the linking verb am, is followed by an adjective rather than
an adverb.
2
Est-ce que... literally means Is is that... and is often used to start questions. This is used in a similar manner to do in English.
Instead of You want it?, one can say Do you want it? Est-ce que... has no real meaning, other than signifying that a question
follows.
3
chez... is a preposition meaning at the house of.... Chez moi is used to say at my place. Chez [name] is used to say at [name's]
place.
4
on can mean we or one.
Lesson 0 - Test
The following test will confirm your progress in the French introduction. Try to answer the questions to the
best of your ability without turning to the previous chapters or consulting the test answers.
Grammar
Verb forms
Name the verb forms for the subject and infinitive specified. (1 point each)
Translating
English to French
Translate the following phrases and sentences into French. (2 points each)
1. What day is today?
2. How are you?
3. What is your name?
French to English
Translate this dialogue between Henri and Jacques into English. Each phrase is worth 1 points. (11 points
total)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Bonjour! Quel est ton nom?
Je m'appelle Jacques. Comment vous-appelez vous?
Je m'appelle Henri. Comment ça va?
Pas mal. Et toi, comment ça va?
Trés bien, merci. À demain Jacques!
À demain Henri.
Reading comprehension
Fill in the blank
Fill in the blanks in these conversations. Note: Every blank is one word. (1 point each)
Vocabulary
Matching
Match the French words with their English definitions. (1 point each)
LEVEL ONE
Level One Lessons Contents
Lesson 1.01 - Basic Grammar
Lesson 1.02 - To Be
Lesson 1.03 - Description
Lesson 1.04 - Family
Lesson 1.05 - Recreation
Lesson 1.06 - The House
Lesson 1.07 - Weather
Lesson 1.08 - Travel
Lesson 1.09 - Art
Lesson 1.10 - Science
If you haven't done so already, spend a few minutes to first read the course's introductory lessons. Once
that's done, you're ready to begin your very first traditional French lesson! After you have completed this
level, you can move on to the next level. Finally, go to the lessons planning page if you would like to help
improve this course.
Allons! - Basic French
Leçon 01 :
01 Grammaire de
base
Lesson 01 : Basic
Grammar
02 Leçon 02 : Être
Lesson 02 : To be
Leçon 03 : La
03
description
Lesson 03 :
Description
Leçon 04 : La
04
famille
Lesson 04 :
Family
Leçon 05 :
05
Récréation
Lesson 05 :
Recreation
Leçon 06 : La
06
maison
Lesson 06 : The
House
Leçon 07 : Le
07
temps
Lesson 07 :
Weather
Leçon 08 : Les
08
voyages
Lesson 08 : Travel
09 Leçon 09 : L'art
Lesson 09 : Art
Leçon 10 : La
science
Lesson 10 :
Science
Ex L'examen
Test
10
G: Gender, Articles,
Subject Pronouns
V: People
G: Conjugation, Être
V:
G: Conjugation, Être,
Adjectives
V: Colors, Numbers
G: Avoir, le, la, and les
V: Family
G: -er Verbs, lui and
leur
V: Games, Sports,
Places, Playing
G: Faire, me, te, nous,
and vous
V: Household,
Housework, Furniture
G: Negation,
Contractions, Aller
V: Weather
G: -ir Verbs,
Possessive Adjectives
V: Hotels, Directions
G: -re Verbs, Beau,
Nouveau, and Vieux
V: Museums, Music,
Plays
G: Prendre
V: Elements,
Astronomy
Chapter test
Chapitre l'examen
Lesson 1.01 - Basic Grammar
G: Gender of nouns
In French, all nouns have a grammatical gender; that is, they are either masculin (m) or feminin (f).
Most nouns that express people or animals have both a masculine and a feminine form. For example, the two
words for "the actor" in French are l'acteur (m) and l'actrice (f). The two words for "the cat" are le chat (m)
and la chatte (f).
However, there are some nouns that talk about people or animals whose gender are fixed, regardless of the
actual gender of the person or animal. For example, la personne (f) (the person) is always feminine, even
when it's talking about your uncle! Le professeur (m) (the professor) is always masculine, even when it's
talking about your female professor/teacher!
The nouns that express things without an obvious gender (e.g., objects and abstract concepts) have only one
form. This form can be masculine or feminine. For example, la voiture (the car) can only be feminine; le
stylo (the pen) can only be masculine.
Unfortunately, there are many exceptions in French which can only be learned. There are even words that
are spelled the same, but have a different meaning when masculine or feminine; for example, le livre (m)
means the book, but la livre (f) means the pound! Some words that appear to be masculine (like le photo,
which is actually short for la photographie) are in fact feminine, and vice versa. Then there are some that
just don't make sense; la foi is feminine and means a belief, whereas le foie means liver. To help overcome
this hurdle which many beginners find very difficult, be sure to learn the genders along with the words.
When you think of a noun in French, think of the noun with its article (le or la). While this may seem
difficult now, it is absolutely essential in la langue française (the French language), as you will see later on!
Here is a chart which depicts some tendencies of French nouns. Eventually, you will be able to guess the
gender of a noun based on tricks like this:
Examples
French Grammar • Print version • audio (info •113 kb • help)
Gender of Nouns Genre des Noms
Masculine
[6]
le cheval
the horse
le chien
the dog
le livre
the book
le bruit
the noise
Feminine
la colombe
the dove
la chemise
the shirt
la maison
the house
la liberté
liberty
Common Endings Used
With Masculine Nouns:
le fromage
-age
the cheese
[7]
le professeur
the teacher
le chat
-t
the cat
le capitalisme
-isme
capitalism
Common Endings Used
With Feminine Nouns:
la boulangerie
-ie
the bakery
la nation
-ion
the nation
la fraternité
-ite/-ité
brotherhood
la balance
-nce
the scales
la fille
-nne
the girl
-mme
l’indienne
-lle
the Indian
-r
^ Professeur can be shortened to prof (in a familiar context). While the long form, professeur, is always
masculine, even when referring to female teachers, prof can be either masculine or feminine. (le prof - the
(male) teacher) (la prof - the (female) teacher)
'^ In this book, the definite article will come before a noun in vocabulary charts. If the definite article is l
due to elision, (m) will follow a noun to denote a masculine gender and (f) will follow a noun to denote a
feminine gender.
G: Definite and indefinite articles
The definite article
In English, the definite article is always “the”.
Unlike English, the definite article is used to talk about something in a general sense, a general statement or
feeling about an idea or thing.
In French, the definite article is changed depending on the noun's:
1. Gender
2. Plurality
3. First letter of the word
There are three definite articles and an abbreviation. "Le" is used for masculine nouns, "La" is used for
feminine nouns, "Les" is used for plural nouns (both masculine or feminine), and "L' " is used when the
noun begins with a vowel or silent "h" (both masculine or feminine). It is similar to English, where "a"
changes to "an" before a vowel.
French Grammar • Print version • audio (info •78 kb • help)
The Definite Article L'article défini
feminine
la la fille
the daughter
singular
[8]
masculine
le le fils
the son
singular, starting with a vowel sound l’ l’enfant the child
les filles the daughters
the sons
plural
les les fils
les enfants the children
Plurality, pronunciation, and exceptions
The plural of most nouns is formed by adding an -s. However, the -s ending is not pronounced. It is the
article that tells the listener whether the noun is singular or plural.
^ Fils: Most singular nouns do not end in -s. The -s is added for the plural form of the noun. Fils is one
exception. Whenever the singular form of a noun ends in -s, there is no change in the plural form.
le fils
les fils
un fils des fils
the son
the sons
a son
(some) sons
le cours les cours un cours des cours
the course the courses a course (some) courses
Secondly, the final consonant is almost always not pronounced unless followed by an -e (or another vowel).
Fils (pronounced feece) is also an exception to this rule.
Elision
Elision refers to the suppression of a final unstressed vowel immediately before another word beginning
with a vowel. The definite articles le and la are shortened to l’ when they come before a noun that begins
with a vowel or silent h. When pronounced, the vowel sound is dropped.
(le) ami - l'ami - lahmee - the (male) friend
(la) amie - l'amie - lahmee the (female) friend
(le) élève - l'élève - lay lev - the student
(la) heure - l'heure - leur - the hour/the time
Elision does not occur on an aspired h:
(le) héros - le héros - a legendary hero
In addition to the definite article, elision will also occur with other words, such as que, je, le, ce, ne, and de.
The details on these words will be covered in later sections of the book.
The indefinite article
In English, the indefinite articles are "a" and "an". "Some" is used as a plural article in English.
Again, indefinite articles in French take different forms depending on gender and plurality. The articles "Un"
and "une" literally mean "one" in French.
French Grammar • Print version • audio (info •55 kb • help)
The Indefinite Article L'article indéfini
feminine
une oon une fille a daughter
singular
masculine un uh un fils
a son
des filles some daughters
plural
des day
1
some sons
des fils
1
"des fils" does mean "some sons" but is a homograph: it can also mean "some threads" (when pronounced
like "fill")
Liaison
Remember that the last consonant of a word is typically not pronounced unless followed by a vowel. When a
word ending in a consonant is followed by a word beginning with a vowel sound (or silent h), the consonant
often becomes pronounced. This is a process called liaison. When a vowel goes directly after un, the
normally unpronounced n sound becomes pronounced.
(un) ami - un ami (uhnahmee) - a (male) friend
n
(un) élève - un élève (uhnay lev) - a student
n
Compare the pronunciation to words without liaison:
un garçon (uh gehrsoh)
Une is unaffected by liaison.
Liaison also occurs with les and des.
(les) amis - les amis (layzahmee) - (some) (male) friends
z
(des) amis - des amis (dayzahmee) - (some) (male) friends
z
(des) amies - des amies (dayzahmee) - (some) (female) friends
z
In this book, you will see liaison denoted with or between two words.
n
z
As with elision, an aspired h isn't liaised.
(les) hangars - les hangars
"Some"
Note that des, like les, is used in French before plural nouns when no article is used in English. For example,
you are looking at photographs in an album. The English statement "I am looking at photographs." cannot be
translated to French as "Je regarde photographies" because an article is required to tell which photographs
are being looked at. If it is a set of specific pictures, the French statement should be "Je regarde les
photographies." ("I am looking at the photographs.") . On the other hand, if the person is just randomly
browsing the album, the French translation is "Je regarde des photographies." ("I am looking at some
photographs.")
V: People
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (info •679 kb • help)
People Les personnes
la personne
person
pehr son
Gender and Age
l'homme (m)
man
ohm
la femme
woman
fehm
le garçon
boy
gehrsoh
la fille
girl
fee
la fillette
little girl
fee yet
Friends
l'ami (m)
ahmee
male friend
le copain
co pahn
l'amie (f)
ahmee
female friend
la copine
co peen
V: Expressions
Qu’est-ce que c’est?
To say What is it? or What is that? in French, Qu’est-ce que c’est? (pronounced kehss keuh say) is used.
Qu’est-ce que c’est ? - What is it?
Literally, Qu’est-ce que c’est? translates to What is it that it is? You will be using Qu'est-ce que...? often to
say What...? at the beginning of sentences.
To respond to this question, you say C’est un(e) [nom]., meaning It is a [noun].
C'est un livre. - It's a book.
C'est un chien. - It's a dog.
Remember that the indefinite article (un or une) must agree with the noun it modifies.
C'est une chemise. - It's a shirt.
Check for understanding - Qu’est-ce que c’est?
Respond according to the pictures.
une pomme
un chaton (un chat)
une poire
un chien
Il y a and voici/voilà
Il y a (pronounced eel ee ah) is used to say there is or there are. Il y a expresses the existence of the noun it
introduces.
Il y a une pomme. - There is an apple.
The phrase is used for both singular and plural nouns. Unlike in English (is => are), il y a does not change
form.
Il y a des pommes. - There are (some) apples.
The -s at the end of the most pluralised nouns tells you that the phrase is there are instead of there is. In
spoken French, when both the singular and plural forms almost always sound the same, the article (and
perhaps other adjectives modifying the noun) is used to distinguish between singular and plural versions.
You will soon learn that a is the present third person singular form of avoir, the verb meaing to have, and
that y is a pronoun meaning there. The phrase il y a, then, literally translates to he has there. You will see
this phrase used in all French tenses. It is important to remember that verb stays as a form of have and not
be.
Like in English, il y a... is not often used to point out an object. To point out an object to the listener, use
voici ("over here is/are" or "right here is/are") and voilà ("over there is/are").
Lesson 1.02 - To Be
D: Where are you from?
French Dialogue • Print version • audio (info •226 kb • help)
Where are you from? Tu es d’où?
Quentin Bonjour, Léon. Dis donc, tu es d’où?
Léon
Je suis de Paris, Quentin.
Quentin Alors, tu es français?
Léon
Oui, exactement.
Quentin Et Marie, elle est d’où?
Léon
Elle est de Marseille. Elle est française, aussi.
Quentin Merci, Léon. Au revoir.
G: Subject pronouns
French has six different types of pronouns: the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd person singular and the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd
person plural.
French Grammar • Print version • audio (info •61 kb • help)
Subject Pronouns Les pronoms soumis
1st person
2nd person
singular
plural
singular
plural
singular
3rd person
plural
je
I
nous
we
tu
you
vous
you
il, elle, on he, she, one
they (masculine)
ils, elles
they (feminine)
When referring to more than one person in the 2nd person, “vous” must be used. When referring to a single
person, “vous” or “tu” may be used depending on the situation; see notes in the introductory lessons.
The pronoun it does not exist in French. Il replaces all masculine nouns, even those that are not human. The
same is true with elle and feminine nouns.
In addition to the nuances between vous and tu, as discussed earlier, French pronouns carry meanings that do
not exist in English pronouns. The French third person "on" has several meanings, but most closely matches
the now archaic English "one". While in English, "One must be very careful in French grammar" sounds
old-fashioned, the French equivalent "On doit faire très attention à la grammaire française" is quite
acceptable. Also, while the third person plural "they" has no gender in English, the French equivalents "ils"
and "elles" do. However, when pronounced, they normally sound the same as "il" and "elle", so
distinguishing the difference requires understanding of the various conjugations of the verbs following the
pronoun. Also, if a group of people consists of both males and females, the male form is used, even with a
majority of females — however, this sensibly yields to overwhelming majority: given a group of only one
male to thousands of females, the female form would be used.
In everyday language, “on” is used, instead of “nous”, to express “we”; the verb is always used in the 3rd
person singular. For example, to say "We (are) meeting at 7 o'clock", you could say either “On se rencontre
au cinéma à sept heures.” (colloquial) or “Nous nous rencontrons au cinéma à sept heures.” (formal) (there
are two words "nous"). For more, see the Wikipedia entry.
G: Introduction to Verbs
A verb is a word that describes an action or mental or physical state.
Tenses and Moods
French verbs can be formed in four moods, each of which express a unique feeling. Each mood has a
varying number of tenses, which indicate the time when an action takes place. The conjugations in the
present tense of the indicative mood, the present indicative, is discussed in the next section. There is one
conjugation for each of the six subject pronouns.
Infinitives
The infinitive form is the basic form of a verb. It does not refer to a particular tense, person or subject. In
this book, the infinitive form of the verb is used to identify it. In English, the infinitive form is to ___. In
French, the infinitive is one word. For example, parler translates to to speak, finir translates to to finish, and
aller translates to to go.
Conjugation
French verbs conjugate, which means they take different shapes depending on the subject. English verbs
only have one conjugation; that is the third person singular (I see, you see, he/she sees, we see, they see).
The only exception is the verb "to be" (I am; (thou art); you are; he/she is; we are; they are;). Most French
verbs will conjugate into many different forms. Most verbs are regular, which means that they conjugate in
the same way. The most common verbs, however, are irregular.
G: Être - To Be
Être translates as to be in English. As in most languages, it is an irregular verb, and is not conjugated like
any other verb.
Formation
French Verb • Print version • audio (info •103 kb • help)
être to be
Singular
Plural
first person je suis jeuh swee I am
second person tu es too ay
il est eel ay
third person elle est ell ay
on est ohn ay
Examples
you are
he is
she is
one is
nous sommes noo sum we are
vous êtes
ils sont
elles sont
voozett you are
eelsohn
they are
(masc. or mixed)
ellsohn they are (fem.)
French Grammar • Print version • audio (info •87 kb • help)
To Be Examples Exemples d'Être
Je suis avocat.
I am (a) lawyer.
jzeuh sweez ah voh cah
Tu es à la banque. You are at the bank. too ay ah lah bahnk
Il est beau.
He is handsome.
eel ay boh
Try to learn all these conjugations. They will become very useful in forming tenses.
Idioms
Ça y est! - I've done it! Finished!
J'y suis! - I get it!
Vous y êtes? - Are you ready?
Expressing Agreement
Tu es d’accord ou pas?, Tu es d’accord? (lit: You are of agreement?), or simply D'accord? is used
informally to ask whether someone agrees with you.
To respond positively, you say Oui, je suis d'accord. or simply D'accord. D'accord corresponds to the
English okay.
G: Cities and Nationalities
To say what city you are from, you use the preposition de.
Il est de Paris.
When stating your nationality or job, it is not necessary to include the article. This is an exception to the
normal rule.
Je suis Australien(ne). - I am [an] Australian.
There is both a masculine and feminine form of saying your nationality - for males and females respectively.
Il est Australien. - He is [an] Australian.
Elle est Australienne. - She is [an] Australian.
In the next lesson, you will learn how to say the nationality of more than one person.
Check for understanding
Please use the the nationalities list to find out what your nationality is in French. Then say what city you are
from and what nationality you are. Then say what nationality some of your friends are, and what city they are
from. For example, Marie est italienne. Elle est de Rome.
Lesson 1.03 - Description
G: Adjectives - Les adjectifs
Main article: French/Grammar/Adjectives
Just like articles, French adjectives also have to match the nouns that they modify in gender and plurality.
Regular Formation
Most adjective changes occur in the following manner:
Feminine: add an -e to the masculine form
un garçon intéressant --> une fille intéressante
un ami amusant --> une amie amusante
un camion lent --> une voiture lente
Plural: add an -s to the singular form
un garçon intéressant --> des garçons intéressants
une fille intéressante --> des filles intéressantes
Pronunciation
Generally, the final consonant is pronounced only when it comes before an -e. Most adjectives, such as those
above, are affected by this rule.
Masculine Pronunciation: intéressan, amusan, len
Feminine Pronunciation: intéressant, amusant, lent
With plural adjectives, the -s ending is not pronounced, so the adjective will sound exactly the same as the
singular form.
Exceptions and Irregularities
Adjectives that end in e in the masculine form do not change in gender. When an adjective, such as gros,
ends in -s, it does not change in the masculine plural form. Sometimes the final consonant is doubled in the
feminine form. See French/Grammar/Adjectives for more.
V: Describing People
French Grammar • Print version • audio (info •1636 kb • help)
Describing People Décrire des personnes
Masculine Singular Feminine Singular Masculine Plural
Feminine Plural
size and weight
Il est petit.
Elle est petite.
Ils sont petits.
Elles sont petites.
Il est moyen.
Elle est moyenne.
Ils sont moyens.
Elles sont moyennes.
Il est grand.
Elle est grande.
Ils sont grands.
Elles sont grandes.
Il est gros.
Elle est grosse.
Ils sont gros.
Elles sont grosses.
hair color
Il est blond.
Elle est blonde.
Ils sont blonds.
Elles sont blondes.
Il est brun.
Elle est brune.
Ils sont bruns.
Elles sont brunes.
attitude and personality
Il est intelligent.
Elle est intelligente. Ils sont intelligents. Elles sont intelligentes.
Il est intéressant.
Elle est intéressante. Ils sont intéressants. Elles sont intéressantes.
Il est amusant.
Elle est amusante.
Ils sont amusants.
Elles sont amusantes.
V: Common Adjectives
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (info •1018 kb • help)
Common Adjectives Les adjectifs communs
Attitude and Personality
sympa(thique)(s)
nice
amusant(e)(s)
funny
intelligent(e)(s)
intelligent
intéressant(e)(s)
interesting
patient(e)(s)
patient
sociable(s)
sociable
timide(s)
dynamique(s)
gentil(le)(s)
timid
outgoing
nice, gentle
strict(e)(s)
fort(e)(s)
strict
strong
Size and Weight
gros(se)(ses)
fat
petit(e)(s)
small
moyen(ne)(s)
average
grand(e)(s)
tall,big
Actions
bon(ne)(s)
good
mauvais(e)(s)
bad
Difficulty
facile(s)
easy
difficile(s)
difficult
V: Colors
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (info •160 kb • help)
Colors Les couleurs
Masculine
blanc
gris
noir
rouge
orange
jaune
vert
bleu
violet
marron
brun
rose
Feminine
blanche
grise
noire
rouge
orange
jaune
verte
bleue
violette
marron
brune
rose
English
white
gray
black
red
orange
yellow
green
blue
violet
brown (everything but hair)
brown (hair - dark haired)
pink
safran
safranne
saffron
G: Adverbs Expressing Degree
assez - rather, enough
Il est assez intelligent. - He is rather intelligent.
très - very
[9]
Il est très intelligent.
z
- He is very intelligent.
vraiment - truly, really
Il est vraiment intelligent. - He is really intelligent.
^ In this book, liaison is shown that the sound is connected using or some letter. See also
z
French/Lessons/Basic_grammar#Liaison.
Lesson 1.04 - Family
G: The verb avoir
"Avoir" can be translated as "to have".
Formation
French Verb • Present Indicative •
audio (100 kb • help)
avoir to have
Singular
first person
j'ai jay
I have
Plural
nous avons noozahvohn we have
z
second person tu as too ah you have vouszavez voozahvay you have
il a eel ah he has
eelzohn
t
they have
(masc. or mixed)
elles ont ellzohnt
they have (fem.)
ils ont
z
third person elle a ell ah she has
on a ohnah one has
z
n
Examples
J'ai deux stylos.
I have two pens.
Tu as trois frères.
You have three brothers.
Il a une idée.
He has an idea.
Expressing Age
Avoir is used to express age.
Tu as quel âge? - How old are you? [lit: You have what age?]
J'ai trente ans. - I'm thirty (years old). [lit: I have thirty years]
There is/are - Il y a
The expression il y a means there is or there are.
Il y a un livre. - There is a book.
Il y a des livres. - There are books.
V: The Family
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (info •1245 kb • help)
The Family La Famille
Immediate Family
Extended Family
ma famille
les parents
la mère
le père
la femme
le mari
la soeur
le frère
l'enfant
les enfants
la fille
le fils
my family ma famille éloignée my extended family
parents
les grand-parents grandparents
mother
la grand-mère
grandmother
father
le grand-père
grandfather
wife
les petits-enfants grandchildren
husband
le petit-fils
grandson
sister
la petite-fille
granddaughter
brother
l'oncle, tonton
uncle
child (m or f) la tante, tati
aunt
children
le neveu
nephew
daughter
la nièce
niece
son
le/la cousin(e)
cousin (m or f)
Step Family
la belle-mère stepmother la demi-soeur
half sister
le beau-père stepfather
le demi-frère
half brother
To speak about more complex family relations, such as "my grandmother's cousin", you must use the de
mon/ma/mes form - "le cousin de ma grandmère".
G: Direct Object Pronouns le, la, and les
le, la, and les are called direct object pronouns, because they are pronouns that are, you guessed it, used as
direct objects. A direct object is a noun that is acted upon by a verb.
Il lance la balle. - He throws the ball.
In the above sentence la balle is the direct object.
You have learned earlier that names and regular nouns can be replaced by the subject or nominative
pronouns "I, you, he..." (je, tu, il...). Similary, direct objects, such as "la balle", can be replaced by pronouns.
These are a different set of pronouns (accusative). As in English, you would say "She gave him," and not
"Her gave he." He/she are subjects used in the nominative case, while him/her are direct objects used in the
accusative case.
le - replaces a masculine singular direct object
la - replaces a feminine singular direct object
l' - replaces le and la if they come before a vowel
les - replaces plural direct objects, both masculine and feminine
The direct object pronouns come before the verb they are linked to.
Il la lance. - He throws it.
Il les lance. - He throws them.
Le, la, and les can replace either people or inanimate objects.
Lesson 1.05 - Recreation
G: Regular -er Verbs
Formation
Most French verbs fall into the category of -er verbs. To conjugate, drop the -er to find the "stem" or "root".
Add endings to the root based on the subject and tense.
jouer - to play
French Grammar • Print version • audio (info •184 kb • help)
-er Verb Formation Formation de verbes en -er
pronoun
ending
verb
je
-e
joue
tu
-es
joues
il/elle
-e
joue
nous
-ons
jouons
vous
-ez
jouez
ils/elles
-ent
jouent
Elision and Liaison
In all conjugations, je changes to j ' when followed by a vowel or silent h. Example: J'attends, J'habite.... If a
phrase is negative, ne changes to n'.
In all plural forms, the s at the end of each subject pronoun, normally unpronounced, becomes a z sound and
the n of on becomes pronounced when followed by a vowel.
Common -er Verbs
French Grammar • Print version • audio (upload)
Formation of Common -er Verbs Formation des verbes communs en -er
Infinitive Stem
Present Indicative Conjugation
First Person
parler
to speak
habiter
to live
écouter
to listen
parl Je parle
Nous parlons
habit J'habite
Nous habitons
écout J'écoute
Nous écoutons
Second Person
Third Person
Tu parles
Il parle
Vous parlez
Ils parlent
Tu habites
Il habite
Vous habitez
Ils habitent
Tu écoutes
Il écoute
Vous écoutez
Ils écoutent
Singular
Plural
Singular
Plural
Singular
Plural
S'amuser
Main article: French/Grammar/Verbs/Pronominal
The verb s'amuser means to have fun in English. It is a type of pronominal verb (a verb that includes a
pronoun as part of it) called a reflexive verb, which means that the action of the verb is reflected back onto
the subject. Literally translated, the verb means To amuse oneself.
Formation
French Grammar • Print version • audio (upload)
Formation of Common -er Verbs Formation des verbes communs en -er
Infinitive Stem
Present Indicative Conjugation
First Person
s'amuser amus Je m'amuse
to have fun
Second Person
Tu t'amuses
Third Person
Il s'amuse
Nous nous amusons Vous vous amusez Ils s'amusent
Singular
Plural
Conjugated Verb + Infinitive
Like in English, some verbs can be followed by infinitives. The most common -er verbs used in this manner
are aimer and détester.
J'aime parler. - I like to talk.
Nous détestons travailler. - We hate working.
When negating a sentence, remember that the negative goes around the conjugated verb.
Je n'aime pas parler. - I don't like to speak.
D: Recreation
Here is a short dialog about people planning/doing leisure activities. Besides the new vocabulary you should
also have a look at how the verbs are conjugated depending on the subject of the sentence.
Jean-Paul : Qu'est-ce que vous faites ?
Marc et Paul : Nous jouons au tennis.
Marie : Je finis mes devoirs.
Michel : J'attends mon amie.
Pierre : Je vais au parc.
Christophe : Je viens du stade.
V: Recreation
Qu'est-ce que vous faites? What are you doing?
jouer
to play
[10]
to finish
finir
[11]
attendre
to wait (for)
aimer
to like
détester
to hate
[12]
(my) friend
(mon) ami(e)
^ Finir and attendre are not -er verbs. You will learn their conjugation in a later lesson.
^ Mon is often substituted for ma when the following word begins with a vowel. Thus, mon amie is used
instead of ma amie, while ma bonne amie would be okay.
V: Places
la bibliothèque library1
le parc
park
la piscine
swimming pool
la plage
beach
le restaurant
restaurant
salle de concert concert hall
le stade
stadium
le théâtre
theater
1
Caution: a librairie is a bookshop.
G: Indirect Object Pronouns lui and leur
Indirect objects are prepositional phrases with the object of the preposition, a direct object is a noun that
receives the action of a verb.
Il jette la balle à Jacques. - He throws the ball to Jack.
Il jette la balle à Marie. - He throws the ball to Mary.
Il jette la balle à Jacques et Marie. - He throws the ball to Jack and Mary.
Lui and leur are indirect object pronouns. They replace nouns referring to people and mean to him/her and to
them respectively.
lui - replaces a singular masculine or feminine indirect object referring to a human
leur - replaces a plural masculine or feminine indirect object referring to a human
An example follows:
Il lui jette la balle. - He throws the ball to him.
Il lui jette la balle. - He throws the ball to her.
Il leur jette la balle. - He throws the ball to them.
Whether lui means to him or to her is given by context.
In English, "He throws him the ball" is also said, and means the same thing.
When used with the direct object pronouns le, la, and les, lui and leur come after those pronouns.
Il la lui jette. - He throws it to him.
Note that while le, la, and les are used to replace people or inanimate objects, lui and leur are not used to
replace innanimate objects and things.
Also note that unlike le and la, which are shortened to l' when followed by a vowel, lui is never shortened
V: Jouer
The verb jouer is a regular -er verb meaning to play. It can be used to refer to both sports and instruments.
When referring to sports, use jouer à, but when referring to instruments, use jouer de...
As always, jouer must be conjugated rather than left in the infinitive.
French Vocabulary • Print version •
Play Jouer
audio (upload)
jouer à...
jouer de...
au baseball
baseball
de la clarinette clarinet
au basket
basketball
du piano
piano
au football
soccer; football de la guitare guitar
au football américain American football du violon
violin
au golf
golf
de la batterie drums
au tennis
tennis
(singular
in French)
au volley
volleyball
aux cartes
cards
aux dames
checkers/ draughts
aux échecs
chess
Lesson 1.06 - The House
V: The House
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (upload)
The House La maison
General
[13]
la rue
la (belle) vue
street
Actions
arriver (à la maison) to arrive (home)
(beautiful) sight, view rentrer (à la maison) to go back home
[14] to leave (home)
(tout) près (de)
(very) close (to)
quitter (la maison)
(pas) (tout) loin (de) (not) (very) far (from) quitter (une salle)
to leave (a room)
at the house of [person] donner sur la rue
to overlook the street
chez [person]
at [person]'s house
donner sur la cour
to overlook the courtyard
habiter
to live (somewhere)
Houses
la maison
la maisonnette
le pavillon
l'immeuble (m)
house, home
small house
individual house
(apartment) building
la voiture
car
habiter en ville
habiter en banlieue
to live downtown
to live in the suburb
Floors
l'appartement (m)
flat/apartment
l'étage (m)
level
le studio
studio
le rez-de-chaussée
lobby, ground floor
H.L.M.
le premier étage
second floor
(Habitations à
le deuxième étage
third floor
low income housing
Loyer Modéré)
le troisième étage
fourth floor
Cities and Neigbhorhoods
le quartier
neighborhood
le centre ville
downtown
l'arrondissement (m) district
la ville
city
la banlieue
the suburb
le village
town
Rooms
Parts of a Room
la pièce
room
le plafond
ceiling
la chambre
la salle de séjour
family room
le sol
ground
la cave
basement
la fenêtre
window
le grenier
attic
le mur
wall
la cuisine
kitchen
le toit
roof
la salle à manger
dining room
Entering and Exiting
la salle de bains
bathroom
l'escalier (m)
stairs
la chambre à coucher bedroom
monter à pied
to walk up stairs
le garage
Garage
l'ascenseur (m)
elevator/lift
les toilettes
water-closet, restroom monter en ascenseur to go up by elevator
(f) (no singular)
(only toliet, no bath) prendre l'ascenseur to take the elevator
le bureau
office
monter à pied
to go up by foot
la porte
door
Outside a House
l'entrée (f)
entry(way)
la terrasse
patio
le balcon
le jardin
la fleur
l'arbre (m)
la cour
le (la) voisin(e)
balcony
garden
flower
tree
courtyard
neighbor
Furniture
curtain
chair
table
cupboard
bed
carpet
armchair
le rideau
la chaise
la table
l'armoire (f)
le lit
le tapis
le fauteuil
^ To express to live on ____ street, you say habiter rue ____
J'habite Rue Lecourbe. - I live on Lecourbe Street.
Il habite Rue de Rennes. - He lives on Rennes Street.
^ Quitter must be followed by a direct object, usually a room or building.. Partir is used in other phrases.
You will learn how to conjugate these verbs in a future lesson.
G: Faire
The verb faire is translated to to do or to make. It is irregularly conjugated (it does not count as a regular -re
verb).
Formation
French Verb • Present Indicative •
audio (432 kb • help)
faire to do, to make
Singular
first person
je fais jeuh fay I do
second person tu fais too fay you do
il fait eel fay he does
third person elle fait ell fay she does
Plural
nous faisons noo fezohn we do
vous faites voo feht
ils font
eel fohn
t
on fait oh fay one does elles font ell fohnt
you do
they do
(masc. or mixed)
they do (fem.)
Uses For Faire
sports (in French you do sports rather than play them)
weather
tasks
le faire causatif
faire (conjugated) + infinitive - to have something done for oneself
Je fais réparer le fourneau. - I make/have the stove repaired.
Related Words
défaire - to demolish
malfaire - to do badly
refaire - to remake
Expressions with Faire
faire attention - to pay attention
faire connaissance - to get acquainted
faire la morale - to scold
faire la queue - to wait in line
s'en faire - to worry
V: Housework
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (info •524 kb • help)
Housework Le ménage
faire la cuisine
to do the cooking
faire la lessive/le linge
to do the laundry
faire le jardin
to do the gardening
faire le lit
to make the bed
faire le ménage
to do the housework
faire la vaisselle
to do the dishes
faire les carreaux
to do the windows
faire les courses
to do the shopping/errands
faire le repassage
to do the ironing
G: me, te, nous, and vous
Direct and Indirect Object Pronouns
Meanings
me - me, to me
te - you, to you (singular, informal)
nous - us, to us
vous - you, to you (plural, formal)
Place in sentences
These pronouns are placed before the verb that they modify
Je te vois. - I see you.
Je veux te voir. - I want to see you.
If a perfect tense is used, these pronouns go before the auxiliary verb.
Je t'ai vu. - I saw you.
Direct Object Replacement
Il me voit. - He sees me.
Il te voit. - He sees you.
Il nous voit. - He sees us.
Il vous voit. - He sees you.
Indirect Object Replacement
Il me l'appelle. - He calls to me.
Il te le jette. - He throws it to you.
Il nous le jette. - He throws it to us.
Il vous le jette. - He throws it to you.
Exercises
Try to describe your house or bedroom using the vocabulary. Don't forget prepositions.
You may also wish to talk about what housework you do.
Chez moi
[15]
J'habite une villa à Mornant, à côté de
Lyon en France. Ma maison a deux chambres : la première pour
moi et ma femme avec un grand lit. La deuxième est plus petite : c'est la chambre de mon fils. Nous avons
[16]
aussi un bureau avec trois ordinateurs
: un par personne ! La salle de séjour est très grande et à coté, il y a
[17]
un petit salon. Nous aimons regarder
la télévision allongés dans le fauteuil. La cuisine est toute petite et
[18]
[19]
nous y
mangeons
le soir. Il y a une petite table et quatre chaises. La maison est de plein pied et ne
comporte pas d'étage. Le jardin est assez grand et nous y faisons pousser des fleurs.
^ à côté de - at the side of, next to ^ l'ordinateur (m) - computer ^ aimer regarder - to like to watch
^ y (ee) - there
^ manger - to eat
Lesson 1.07 - Weather
G: Standard Negation
In order to say that one did not do something, the ne ... pas construction must be used. The ne is placed
before the verb, while the pas is placed after.
Formation and Rules
Simple negation is done by wrapping ne...pas around the verb.
Je ne vole pas. - I do not steal.
In a perfect tense, ne...pas wraps around the auxillary verb, not the participle.
Je n'ai pas volé. - I have not stolen.
When an infinitive and conjugated verb are together, ne...pas usually wraps around the conjugated
verb.
Je ne veux pas voler. - I do not want to steal.
ne pas can also go directly in front of the infinitive for a different meaning.
Je veux ne pas voler. - I want not to steal.
ne goes before any pronoun relating to the verb it affects.
Je ne le vole pas. - I am not stealing it.
Examples
French Grammar • Print version • audio (info •262 kb • help)
Negation Formation Examples Exemples de formation de négation
Il est avocat.
He is [a] lawyer.
Il n'est pas avocat.
He is not [a] lawyer.
Nous faisons nos devoirs.
We are doing our homework.
Nous ne faisons pas nos devoirs.
We are not doing our homework.
Je joue du piano.
I play the piano.
Je ne joue pas du piano.
I do not play the piano.
Vous vendez votre voiture.
You sell your car.
Vous ne vendez pas votre voiture.
You do not sell your car.
Negation of Indefinite Articles
The indefinite articles un, une, and des change to de (or d’) when negating a sentence.
J'ai un livre. - I have a book.
Je n'ai pas de livre. - I don't have any book.
J'ai des livres. - I have some books.
Je n'ai pas de livres. - I don't have any books.
Examples
Il est belge..
He is Belgian.
Il n'est pas belge.
He is not Belgian.
Nous lisons un livre.
We read a book.
Nous ne lisons pas de livre. We do not read a book.
Je mange une cerise.
I eat a cherry.
Je ne mange pas de cerise. I do not eat a cherry.
G: Contractions
Contractions have been discussed previously in the form of elision. They are a combination of two or more
consecutive words that have been integrated into the language, for example, aujourd'hui.
A common contraction occurs with the words à (at) and de (from), when combined with the definite
pronouns le and les. The definite pronoun la remains in full form.
à + le = au
à + les = aux
de + le = du
de + les = des
The contractions do not occur with the la, or with any contracted pronoun:
à + la = à la
à + l' = à l'
de + la = de la
de + l' = de l'
V: Weather - Le temps
French Vocabulary • Print version •
Weather
General
le soleil
sun
le ciel
sky
Warm Weather
audio (upload)
[20]
Le temps
Cloudy Weather
le nuage
cloud
Il y a des nuages. It's cloudy.
lit: There are some clouds.
nuageux(-euse)
cloudy
couvert(e)(s)
overcast, lit: covered
l'éclaircie (f)
clearing, break (in clouds)
Cold and Windy Weather
Il fait chaud.
It's warm.
Il fait froid.
It's cold.
Le ciel est dégagé.
The sky is clear.
le vent
wind
Le ciel se dégage.
lit: The sky is freed.
Il fait du vent.
It's windy.
The sky is clearing up. Le vent souffle.
The wind blows.
Le soleil brille.
The sun is shining.
la rafale
gust of wind
Rainy Weather
Snowy Weather
la brume
fog, haze, mist
l'hiver (m)
winter
la neige
snow
le brouillard
fog
Il neige.
It's snowing.
la grêle
hail
Il tombe de la grêle. It's hailing.
la bruine
drizzle
lit: It falls of the hail.
une goutte de pluie
a drop of rain
Extreme weather
Il fait beau
It's nice.
la pluie
La pluie tombe.
un orage
orageux(-euse)
Il y a un orage!
rain
The rain falls.
Il pleut.
It's raining.
l'éclair (m)
il a plu.
It rained.
la foudre
Il va pleuvoir.
It's going to rain.
pluvieux(-euse)
rainy
Le temps est pluvieux. It's raining.
la tempête
lit: The weather is rainy.
de gros nuages noirs. large black clouds
agité(e)(s)
l'averse (f)
downpour
le tonnerre
a storm
stormy
There's a storm!
flash (of lightning)
lightning
storm, tempest
stormy, agitated
thunder
^ Le temps means both the weather and the time.
G: Aller
The verb aller is translated to to go. It is irregularly conjugated (it does not count as a regular -er verb).
Formation
In the present indicative, aller is conjugated as follows:
French Verb • Print version • audio (info •327 kb • help)
aller to go
Singular
first person je vais jeuh vay I go
second person tu vas too vah you go
il va eel vah he goes
third person elle va ell vah she goes
Plural
nous allons nouzah lohn we go
z
vous allez vouzah lay you go
z
ils vont
eel vohn
on va ohn vah one goes elles vont ell vohn
they go
(masc. or mixed)
they go (fem.)
Usage
There is no present progressive tense in French, so aller in the present indicative is used to express both I go
and I am going.
Aller must be used with a place and cannot stand alone.
The preposition à, meaning in, at, or to, is used, followed by the place.
Tu vas à l'école? - You're going to school.
Remember that à le contracts to au and à les contracts to aux.
Je vais au stade. - I'm going to the stadium.
Instead of a preposition and place, you can use the pronoun y, meaning there. Y comes before the verb.
Remember that aller must be used with a place (there or a name) when indicating that you are going
somewhere, even if a place wouldn't normally be given in English.
J'y vais. - I'm going there.
Tu y vas. - You're going there.
Nous y allons. - We're going there.
The negative form of aller with the y pronoun has both the verb and pronoun enclosed between ne and pas.
Il n'y va pas. - He's not going there.
Futur Proche
The structure aller + infinitive is used to say that something is going to happen in the near future.
Il va pleuvoir demain. - It's going to rain tomorrow.
Il va faire froid. - It's going to be cold.
Remember that the negative goes around the conjugated verb.
Il ne va pas pleuvoir demain. - It's not going to rain tomorrow.
Idioms
Allons-y - ahlonzee - Let's go! (impératif)
Ça va? - How are you? (lit: It goes?)
On y va! - Let's get going!
On y va? - Should we go?
Liaison
Usually, whenever a vowel sound comes after ...ons or ...ez, the usually unpronounced s and z change to a
sharp z sound and link to the next syllable. (This process is called liaison.) However, since allons and allez
begins with vowels, nous allons is pronounced nyoozahloh and vous allez is pronounced voozahlay. In order
to have a pleasing and clean sound, two liaisons should not go consecutively. There is therefore no liaison in
allons à when it comes right after nous and allez à when it comes after vous.
In the phrase Vous allez à l'école?, vous allez à is pronounced vouzahlay ah.
In the phrase vous et Marie allez à l'école?", allez à is pronounced ahlayzah.
Lesson 1.08 - Travel
G: Regular -ir Verbs
The second category of regular French verbs is -ir verbs. To conjugate, drop the -ir to find the "stem" or
"root". Add endings to the root based on the subject and tense.
finir - to finish
French Grammar • Print version • audio (upload)
-ir Verb Formation Formation des verbes en -ir
pronoun
ending
verb
je
-is
finis
tu
-is
finis
il/elle
-it
finit
nous
-issons
finissons
vous
-issez
finissez
ils/elles
-issent
finissent
G: Possessive Adjectives
Formation
French Grammar • Print version • audio (upload)
Possessive Adjectives Les adjectifs possessifs
First Person
Singular mon, ma, mes
Second Person
my ton, ta, tes
Third Person
your son, sa, ses
his, her
Plural notre, notre, nos our votre, votre, vos your leur, leur, leurs their
Usage
As you can probably tell from their name, possessive adjective are used to express possession of an object.
C'est mon livre. - It's my book.
In English the possessive adjective agrees with the subject (his sister, her brother). But in French, possessive
adjectives act like all other adjectives: they must agree with the noun they modify.
French Grammar • Print version • audio (upload)
Possesive Adjective Usage Utilisation des adjectifs possessifs
Masculine Noun
le livre
le livre de Marc
son livre
the book of Marc
his book
Feminine Noun
la voiture
la voiture de Marc
sa voiture
the car of Marc
his car
les livres de Marc
the books of Marc
le livre de Marie
the book of Marie
les livres de Marie
the books of Marie
ses livres
his books
son livre
her book
ses livres
her books
les voitures de Marc
the cars of Marc
la voiture de Marie
the car of Marie
les voitures de Marie
the cars of Marie
ses voitures
his cars
sa voiture
her car
ses voitures
her cars
Whether the third person singular possessive adjectives son, sa and ses are his or her is indicated by context.
Elle lit son livre. - She reads her book.
Liaison and Adjective Changes
Liaison occurs when mon, ton, and son are followed by a vowel.
Il est mon ami. - He is my friend.
n
Il est ton ami. - He is your friend.
n
Il est son ami. - He is his/her friend.
n
Liaison also occurs with all plural forms, since they all end in s.
Ils sont mes amis. - They are my friends.
z
Ils sont nos amis. - They are our friends.
z
Mon, ton, and son are used before a feminine singular noun that starts with a vowel or silent h. Elision (to
m', t', or s') does not occur.
Elle est mon amie. - She is my friend.
n
V: Travel
French Vocabulary • Print version •
Travel Voyage
General
l'aéroport (m)
le billet
la poste
la station
le métro
les bagages
le ticket
la valise
audio (upload)
Vehicles
Airport
l'auto (f)
car
ticket (for train, airplane) l'avion (m) Airplane
post office
l'autobus (m) bus
station
le bateau
Boat
subway, underground
le train
train
baggage
le taxi
taxi
ticket (for bus, métro)
la voiture
car
suitcase
Hotels
la chambre
room
chambre de libre free room
Lesson 1.09 - Art
G: Regular -re Verbs
The third category of regular verbs is made up of -re' verbs. To conjugate, drop the -re to find the "stem" or
"root". Add endings to the root based on the subject and tense, as demonstrated below for the present tense.
Formation
attendre – to wait
French Grammar • Print version • audio (upload)
-re Verb Formation Formation des verbes en -re
pronoun
ending
verb
je (j')
-s
attends
tu
-s
il/elle
nous
-ons
attends
attend
attendons
vous
-ez
attendez
ils/elles
-ent
attendent
Vendre
The verb vendre is a regular -re verb:
French Verb • Present Indicative •
vendre to sell
Singular
first person je vends jeuh vahn I sell
audio (upload)
Plural
nous vendons noo vahn dohn we sell
second person tu vends too vahn you sell vous vendez voo vahn day' you sell
il vend eel vahn he sells
third person elle vend ell vahn she sells
ils vendent eel vahnde
on vend oh vahn one sells elles vendent ell vahnde
they sell
(masc. or mixed)
they sell (fem.)
Common -re Verbs
Compared to -er verbs, -re verbs are not very common. You will however see the following verbs fairly
often:
prendre - to get, to take
Irregular conjugation: je prends, tu prends, il/elle/on prend, nous prenons, vous prenez, ils/elles
prennent
mettre - to put, to place
Irregular conjugation: je mets, tu mets, il/elle/on met, nous mettons, vous mettez, ils/elles
mettent
connaître - to know (Note: "savoir" may also mean to know)
Irregular conjugation: je connais, tu connais, il/elle/on connaît, nous connaissons, vous
connaissez, ils/elles connaissent
V: Music
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (info •287 kb • help)
Music La musique
écouter de la musique
to listen to music
des paroles
lyrics (la parole = word)
Composing
le musicien
musician
le compositeur
composer
l’auteur (des paroles)
(lyrics) writer
Instruments
l'instrument (m)
instrument
la clarinette
clarinet
le violon
violin
la harpe
harp
la guitare
guitar
le piano
piano
la flûte
flute
V: French Museums
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (upload)
Museums Les musées
la portraitiste
portraitist
Musée du Louvre
Musée des Beaux-Arts de Dole
G: Beau, Nouveau, and Vieux
Musée des arts et métiers
Formation
French Grammar • Print version • audio (upload)
The Adjectives Beautiful, New, and Old Beau, Nouveau, and Vieux
Masc. Consonant
Beau
Nouveau
Vieux
Singular un beau garçon
Plural de beaux garçons
Singular un nouveau camion
Masc. Vowel
un bel individu
Fem. Sing. (all)
une belle fillette
de beaux individus de belles fillettes
z
un nouvel ordre
une nouvelle idée
Plural de nouveaux camions de nouveauxzordres de nouvelles idées
Singular un vieux camion
Plural de vieux camions
un vieil ordre
une vieille idée
de vieux ordres
de vieilles idées
z
Sentences Placement
As you have already learned, most adjectives come after the noun they modify in French.
un homme intelligent - an intelligent man
des hommes intelligents - intelligent men
However, some common French adjectives, including beau, nouveau, and vieux come before the noun.
une jolie voiture - a pretty car
Des is replaced with de when an adjective comes before the noun.
de jolies voitures - pretty cars
Note that in informal speech, des is very often used in place of de.
V: Plays
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (upload)
Plays Les pièces
At the Theater
Play Genres
le théâtre
theater
le ballet
ballet
(theatrical) play
la pièce (de théâtre)
la comédie
comedy
lit: (theatrical) piece
l'acte (f)
act
la scène
scene
la comédie musicale musical comedy
l'entracte (m)
intermission
chanter
to sing
le drame
drama
le (la) chanteur (-euse) singer
danser
to dance
la tragédie
tragedy
le (la) danseur (-euse) dancer
V: French Artists and Entertainers
Charles Aznavour
Gilbert Becaud
Jacques Brel
Robert Charlebois
Joe Dassin
Raymond Devos
Celine Dion
Garou
Juliette Greco
Edith Piaf
Lesson 1.10 - Science
G: Prendre
Prendre is an irregular -re verb, and is conjugated differently.
Formation
French Verb • Present Indicative •
audio (upload)
prendre to take
Singular
first person je prends jeuh prahn I take
Plural
nous prenons noo prenn ohn we take
second person tu prends too prahn you take vous prenez voo prennay you take
il prend eel prahnn he takes
third person elle prend ell prahnn she takes
ils prennent eel prehn
on prend oh prahnn one takes elles prennent ell prehn
they take
(masc. or mixed)
they take (fem.)
Related Words
prendre - to take
apprendre - to learn
comprendre - to comprehend/understand
se méprendre - to be mistaken
surprendre - to surprise
Idioms and Related Expressions
prendre - to take, to have something to eat
prendre conscience (de) - to become aware (of)
prendre la correspondance - to change trains
prendre une décision - to make a decision
prendre des kilos - to gain weight
prendre part (à) - to take part (in)
prendre la parole - to start talking
prendre le pas sur - to surpass
prendre le petit déjeuner - to eat breakfast
prendre rendez-vous - to make an appointment
prendre le métro - to get the subway
prendre un café - to have a coffee
V: The Sciences - Les Sciences
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (upload)
The Sciences and Scientists Les sciences et les savants
General
une personne qui expérimente
a person who experiments
to observe
to analyse
Biology - La biologie
le savant
la bio(logie) l’étude des organismes vivants
scientist
biology
the study of living organisms
observer
la botanique l’étude des plantes
analyser
botany
the study of plants
l’anatomie (f) l’étude du corps humain
Physics - La physique
anatomy
the study of the human body
la physique l’étude de la matière et de l’énergie la zoologie l’étude des animaux
physics
the study of matter and energy
zoology
the study of animals
le physicien physicist
le biologiste biologist
la cellule
a cell
Chemistry - La chimie
la chimie
chemistry
des microbes germs
des bactéries bacteria
des virus
virus
le microscope microscope
l’étude des éléments
the study of elements
le chimiste chemist
V: Elements - Les éléments
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (upload)
Elements Les éléments
l'argent (m)
silver
Also: money
l'azote (m)
nitrogen
le chrome
chromium /krom/
le cuivre
copper
Also a conjugation of cuivrer
le fer
iron
l'hydrogène (m) hydrogen Also a conjugation of hydrogéner.
le manganèse manganese
l'or (m)
gold
Also a conjunction meaning yet, however.
l'oxygène (m) oxygen
le soufre
sulphur
/sufr/ (audio)
le xénon
xenon
/zɛ̃ɡ/, /zE~g/
Also: (informal) counter
le zinc
zinc
Also: (in a bar, café, etc), bar
For a complete listing of the elements, see Tableau périodique des éléments.
V: Astronomy
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (upload)
Astronomy L'astronomie
The Planets
Mercure
Vénus
La (planete) terre
Mercury
Venus
Earth
Mars
Jupiter
Saturne
Uranus
Neptune
Pluton
Mars
Jupiter
Saturn
Uranus
Neptune
Pluto
Other Obejcts
Le soleil
La lune
L'étoile
sun
moon
star
LEVEL TWO
Level Two Lessons Contents
Lesson 2.01 - School
Lesson 2.02 - Culture
Lesson 2.03 - Shopping
Lesson 2.04 - Going Out
Lesson 2.05 - Transportation
Lesson 2.06 - Everyday Life
Lesson 2.07 - Rural Life
Lesson 2.08 - Food and Drink
Lesson 2.09 - Dining
Lesson 2.10 - Communication
Now that you know how to compose French sentences in the present indicative, you can continue on to
Wikibook's second French course. Inside, you will learn the passé composé, the most common French past
tense, and review the grammar you have already learned. The grammar now becomes a lot more advanced,
and each lesson now gives much more information. After you have completed this level, you can move on to
the next level. Also remember to go to the lessons planning page if you would like to help improve this
course.
Toujours Là? - Slightly More Advanced French
01 Leçon 01 : L'école
Lesson 01 : School
G: Passé Composé of Regular Verbs, Lire, Écrire
V: School, School Subjects
02 Leçon 02 : La culture
G: Regular Verbs Review, Croire & Voir
V: Life, Religions, Holidays, Celebrations (Birthdays, Christmas, Bastille
Day)
Lesson 02 : Culture
Leçon 03 : Faire des
courses
Lesson 03 : Shopping
04 Leçon 04 : Sortir
Lesson 04 : Going Out
05 Leçon 05 : Le transport
Lesson 05 :
Transportation
06 Leçon 06 : Le quotidien
Lesson 06 : Everyday
Life
07 Leçon 07 : La vie rurale
Lesson 07 : Rural Life
03
G: exer Verbs (Acheter), -yer Verbs (Payer), Object Pronoun Review,
Irregular Past Participles (so far)
V: Shopping, Clothing, Shoes
G: Sortir & Partir, -enir Verbs (Venir), -éxer Verbs
V: Leisure Activities, Directions, How to Get to Places, Places to go, Movies
G: -uire Verbs (Conduire), -rir Verbs (Ouvrir), Y, Passé Composé with Être
V: Local Travelling, Methods of transportation
G: Devoir, Falloir, Reflexive Verbs
V: Employment, Waking up, Preparing for work, Driving to Work, Sleep
G: Suivre, Vivre, Naître, Passé Composé with Reflexive Verbs
V: Pets, Farm Animals
08 Leçon 08 : La nourriture
Lesson 08 : Food and
Drink
09 Leçon 09 : Dîner
Lesson 09 : Dining
Leçon 10 : La
10
communication
Lesson 10 :
Communication
G: Manger, Boire, Partitive Article, En, Mettre
V: Meat, Dairy Products, Drinks, Desserts
G: -cer Verbs, Servir, Vouloir & Pouvoir
V: Meals, Silverware, Dining at a Restaurant
G: Dire, -aître Verbs, Connaître & Savoir, Envoyer, Recevoir
V: Mail, Calling Others, Computers
Level Two Test and the Answers
Lesson 2.01 - School
G: Introduction to Perfect Tenses
The next section is optional. You will eventually learn everything that is covered in it, but if you would like
a preview, read it, and if not, continue on to the school section.
[show ▼]
Introduction to Perfect Tenses
G: Introduction to Moods and Tenses
Like the above section, this is also optional. You will eventually learn everything in here.
V: School
French Vocabulary • Print version •
School L'école
[21]
General
[22]
teacher
le professeur
la bourse
scholarship
le diplôme (professionnel) diploma
le bac(calauréat)
high school exit exam
la bibliothèque
library
les notes
grades (as on a test)
les cours
classes or courses
la classe
grade (e.g. 6th Grade)
en cours de [...]
in [...] class
Pendant les cours - During Classes
le tableau
chalkboard
la craie
chalk
le pupitre
desk
Classes / Grades
12th Grade
Classe Terminale
11th Grade
10th Grade
9th Grade
8th Grade
7th Grade
6th Grade
5th Grade
4th Grade
3rd Grade
1ère (la première classe)
2ème (la deuxième classe)
3ème (la troisième classe)
4ème (la quatrième classe)
5ème (la cinquième classe)
6ème (la sixième classe)
CM2 (CM = cours moyen)
CM1
CE2 (CE=cours élémentaire)
2nd Grade
1st Grade
CE1
CP1 (CP = cours préparatoire)
Verbs
l'examen (m)
test
les devoirs
homework
passer
un examen
étudier
la classe
class
écrire
la cantine
cafeteria
déjeuner
to (eat) lunch
la récré(ation)
recess
la cour
courtyard
Schools and Students
l'école (f)
school
audio (upload)
to take a test
to study
[23]
to write
[24]
lever (la main)
to raise (your hand)
poser
(une question)
parler
to speak
écouter
to listen (to)
to ask (a question)
[25]
l'étudiant
l'étudiante
le collège
(classes 6-4)
le collégien
le lycée
(classes 3-terminale)
le lycéen
student (m)
[26]
entendre
to hear (of)
student (f)
jr. high school
regarder
to watch
(grades 6-9)
jr. high school student déjeuner
to (have) lunch
high school
(grades 10-12)
high school student
Describing Teachers and Students
intelligent(e)
intelligent
l'université (f)
university
la fac(ulté)
nul(le)
not good, not bright
higher education
l'enseignement supérieur
strict(e)
strict
graduate school
Des fournitures scolaires - School Supllies
la craie
le tableau
le stylo(-bille)
le crayon
la calculatrice
le livre
le bouquin
le cahier
chalk
the board
pen
pencil
calculator
cray
tahbloh
steeloh (bee)
krayoh
book
leevr
notebook kie ay
le papier
paper
pahpeeyay
la feuille de papier sheet of paper
le bloc-notes
(small) notepad block nut
le classeur
three-ring binder
le sac à dos
backpack
sack ah doe
la gomme
eraser
gum
la règle
ruler
rehgluh
le feutre
marker
feuhtr
^ The word professeur is considered masculine at all times, even if the teacher is female. The only case
when "professeur" can be preceded by feminine determinant is either when contracting it in colloquial
language "la prof", or when adding a few words before : "madame/mademoiselle la/le professeur".
^ The way that grades are numbered in France is opposite the way they are in the US. Whereas American
grade numbers go up as you approach your senior year, they descend in France.
^ Écrire is an irregular verb. You will learn to conjugate it in the next section.
^ In French, you do not "own" body parts. While in English, you would say my hand or your hand, the
definite article is almost always used in French.
la main - my hand
la jambe - my leg
le bras - my arm
For example, you would say Je me suis cassé la main (I have broken my hand) and never Je me suis cassé
ma main. But you must say "Ma main est cassée" (My hand is broken) and not "La main est cassée" (lit. The
hand is broken) if you speak about your own hand.
^ To and of are built into the verbs écouter and entendre respectively. It is not necessary to add a
preposition to the verb. Other verbs, such as répondre {à), meaning to respond (to), are almost always
followed by a preposition.
EXERCISE • Translator (http://translate.google.com/translate_t) • Exercise Appendix • Print version
• E: 2.01 1 - School Vocabulary - Complétez
[show ▼]
G: Écrire & Lire
Écrire is an irregular french verb, meaning to write. It varies from other '-re' verbs in the plural conjugation,
by adding a 'v'.
French Verb • Print version • audio (upload)
écrire to write
past participle: écrit
Singular
first person
j' écris jay cree
Plural
I write
nous écrivons noozay creevohn we write
second person tu écris tue aycree you write vous écrivez voozay creevay you write
il écrit eel aycree he writes
ils écrivent eel zaycreeve
they write
(masc. or mixed)
on écrit ohn aycree one writes elles écrivent ell zaycreeve
they write (fem.)
third person elle écrit ell aycree she writes
Lire is an irregular french verb, meaning to read. It's plural conjugation adds an additional 's'.
French Verb • Print version • audio (upload)
lire to read
past participle: lu
Singular
first person
je lis jeuh lee I read
Plural
nous lisons noo leezonn we read
second person tu lis tue lee you read vous lisez voo leezay you read
il lit eel lee he reads
third person elle lit ell lee she reads
ils lisent eel leez
on lit ohn lee one reads elles lisent ell leez
V: School Subjects
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (upload)
School Subjects Les matières d'enseignement
les langues
languages
l'anglais
le français
l'espagnol
English
French
Spanish
l'allemand
German
le russe
l'italien
Russian
Italian
les mathématiques
mathematics
les maths
l'algèbre (f)
algebra
le calcul
calculus
la géométrie
geometry
les sciences
social
sociales
sciences
l'économie
economics
la géo(graphie)
geography
l'histoire (f)
history
they read
(masc. or mixed)
they read (fem.)
les sciences natural
d'autres
naturelles
sciences
matières
la biologie
biology
le dessin
la bio
la chimie
chemistry l'informatique (f)
la technologie engineering la littérature
la physique physics
la musique
other subjects
drawing
computer science
literature
music
G: Passé Composé with Regular Verbs
Main article: French/Grammar/Tenses/Present perfect
The passé composé is a perfect tense, and is therefore composed of an auxiliary verb and a past participle.
With most verbs, that auxiliary verb is avoir.
Meaning
In English, verbs conjugated in the passé composé literally mean have/has ____ed. While there is a simple
past tense in French, it is almost only used in formal writing, so verbs conjugated in the passé composé can
also be used to mean the English simple tense.
For example, the passé composé form of parler (to speak), [avoir] parlé, literally mean has/have
spoken, but also means spoke.
Basic Formation
To conjugate a verb in the passé composé, the helping verb, usually avoir, is conjugated in the present
indicative and the past participle is then added.
Auxiliary Verb - Avoir
Conjugate avoir in the present indicative.
j'ai I have nous avons we have
tu as you have vous avez you have
il a he has ils ont
they have
Past Participle
-er verbs - replace -er with é
-ir verbs - replace -ir with i
-re verbs - replace -re with u
irregular verbs - varies, must be memorized.
Formation of the Past Participle
Verb Group Infinitive Stem Past Participle
-er verbs jouer
jou
joué
-ir verbs
fin
fini
finir
-re verbs répondre répond répondu
Avoir + Past Participle
J'ai joué. I have played
Nous avons joué. We have played.
Tu as joué. You have played. Vous avez joué. You have played.
Il a joué. He has played. Ils ont joué.
They have played.
EXERCISE • Translator (http://translate.google.com/translate_t) • Exercise Appendix • Print version
• E: 2.01 2 - Passé Composé - English to French
[show ▼]
EXERCISE • Translator (http://translate.google.com/translate_t) • Exercise Appendix • Print version
• E: 2.02 3 - Passé Composé - Present Indicative to Passé Composé
[show ▼]
Lesson 2.02 - Culture
This lesson is on the culture of France. The culture of France is diverse, reflecting regional differences as
well as the influence of recent immigration. Also, try and reflect on how your culture is similar and different
to French culture.
G: General Verbs Review
Most verbs in French are regular -er verbs. Others are regular -ir or -re verbs or are simply irregular.
Formation
French Grammar • Print version • audio (upload)
Regular Verbs Les verbes réguliers
-er Verbs
-ir Verbs
-re Verbs
parl...
fin...
vend...
Stem:
Subject Ending Example Ending Verb Ending Example
Je
-e
parle
-is
finis
-s
vends
Tu
-es
parles
-is
finis
-s
vends
Il
-e
parle
-it
finit
-
vend
Nous -ons
parlons
-issons finissons -ons
vendons
Vous -ez
parlez
-issez
vendez
parlent
-issent finissent -ent
Ils
-e
finissez -ez
vendent
Irregular Verbs Ending in -er
aller
Common -ir Verbs
Finir
Irregular Verbs Ending in -ir
acquérir | avoir | s'asseoir | devoir | dormir | falloir | ouvrir | partir | pleuvoir | pouvoir | recevoir | savoir |
servir | venir | voir | vouloir
Common -re Verbs
attendre - to wait (for)
répondre - to answer
Irregular Verbs Ending in -re
boire | conduire | connaître | croire | dire | écrire | être | faire | lire | mettre | prendre | rire | suivre | vivre
G: Croire & Voir
Croire is an irregularly conjugated -re verb.
French Verb • Present Indicative •
audio (upload)
croire to believe
(past participle - cru)
Singular
first person
Plural
je crois jeuh crah I believe
nous croyons noo croy oh we believe
second person tu crois too crah you believe vous croyez voo croy ay you believe
il croit eel crah he believes
third person elle croit ell crah she believes
they believe
(masc. or mixed)
ils croient eel crah
on croit oh crah one believes elles croient ell crah
they believe (fem.)
Voir is an irregularly conjugated -re verb.
French Verb • Present Indicative •
voir to see
(past participle - vu)
Singular
first person
je vois jeuh vwah I see
audio (upload)
Plural
nous voyons noo vwahyoh we see
second person tu vois too vwah you see vous voyez voo vwah ay you see
il voit eel vwah he sees
third person elle voit ell vwah she sees
ils voient eel vwah
on voit oh vwah one sees elles voient ell vwah
V: Religion
la religion
religion
le Christianisme
Christianity
l'Islam
Islam
le Judaïsme
Judaism
le Chrétien/la Chrétienne
Christian
le Musulman/la Musulmane Muslim
le Juif/la Juive
Jew
l'athée (m.)
atheist
they see
(masc. or mixed)
they see (fem.)
Le Père noël
Santa Claus
le 14 juillet
Bastille Day
V: Birthday
Birthdays
l'anniversaire (m) birthday
Tu as quel âge? How old are you?
I am ____ years old.
J'ai ____ ans.
[lit: I have ___ years.]
le gâteau
cake
le cadeau
gift
la bougie
candle
la fête
party
inviter
to invite
donner une fête to throw a party
V: Marriage
Marriage
Le mari Husband
La femme Wife
V: Holidays
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (upload)
Holidays Les jours fériés
New Year's Day
le Nouvel An
1 janvier
Labor Day
La Fête du Travail
Memorial Day ; Armistice Day jour de l'Armistice
Independance Day
la Fête Nationale 4 juillet
Christmas Eve
le Réveillon
24 décembre
Christmas ; Yule
Noël
25 décembre
V: Bastille Day and Parades
V: Islamic Holidays
Lesson 2.03 - Shopping
V: Shopping
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (upload)
Shopping Les achats
To Go Shopping
Buying Goods
faire des courses
le(la) vendeur(euse) salesperson
to go shopping
faire du shopping
le(la) cassier(-ière)
cashier
faire le marché
to go grocery shopping (plus/moins) cher(ère) (more/less) expensive
faire du lèche-vitrine to go window shopping la vitrine
display window
porter
to wear, to carry
en solde
on sale
demander
to ask (for)
le prix
price
demander le prix - to ask for the price
payer
to pay
cash register
la caisse
payer à la caisse
to pay at the counter
checkout counter
vendre
to sell
coûter
to cost
How much is it?
C’est combien?
[lit: It's how much?]
acheter
to buy
Ça coûte combien?
[lit:It costs how much?]
How much does [noun] cost?
Combien coûte [nom]?
[lit: How much costs [noun]?]
General Goods Stores
Foods Stores
le magasin
shop; store
le supermarché
supermarket
le centre commercial mall; shopping centre l'hypermarché (m)
hypermarket; big supermarket
1
le grand magasin
department store
la boucherie
butcher shop
le rayon
department
la boulangerie
bakery
la boutique
small store
le dépôt de pain
a place that sells bread
la pharmacie
pharmacy; chemist
la charcuterie
le marché
outdoor market
la crémerie
la pâtisserie
la poissonnerie
delicatessen
dairy store
pastry shop; pâtisserie
seafood store; fishmonger
l'épicerie (f)
grocery
2
2
3
4
1. French butchers do not sell pork, pork products, nor horsemeat. For these products, go to a
charcuterie. However, a lot of boucheries are also charcuteries, and are called boucherie-charcuterie
2. In France, bakeries only sell fresh bread; e.g. the bread is baked on site. Places where they sell bread
that is not fresh are called dépôt de pain.
3. 'Charcuteries' sell things besides pork products, including pâté, salami, cold meats, salads, quiches
and pizzas.
4. An alternative to an 'épicerie' is an alimentation générale (a general foodstore).
G: Object Pronouns Review
Direct Objects
While the subject of a sentence initiates an action (the verb), the direct object is the one that is affected by
the action. A direct object pronoun is used to refer to the direct object of a previous sentence:
Pierre voit le cambrioleur. Pierre sees the burglar.
Pierre le voit.
Pierre sees him.
The following table shows the various types of direct object pronouns:
French me, m' te, t' le, l'
English me1
la, l' nous vous les
1
1
1
you him, it her, it us you them
Notes:
1
me, te, nous, and vous are also used as indirect objects to mean to me, to you, to us, and to you
respectively.
The pronoun form with an apostrophe is used before a vowel.
The direct object pronoun for nous and vous is the same as the subject.
When the direct object comes before a verb in a perfect tense, a tense that uses a past participle, the
direct object must agree in gender and plurality with the past participle. For example, in the phrase Je
les ai eus, or I had them, the past participle would be spelled eus if the direct object, les, was referring
to a masculine object, and eues if les is referring to a feminine object.
Indirect Objects
An indirect object is an object that would be asked for with To whom...? or From whom...?. It is called
indirect because it occurs usually together with a direct object which is affected directly by the action:
Il donne du pain à Pierre. He gives some bread to Pierre.
Il lui donne du pain.
He gives bread to him.
The following table shows the various types of indirect object pronouns:
French me, m' te, t'
lui
nous vous
leur
English to me1 to you1 to him, to her to us1 to you1 to them
Notes:
1
me, te, nous, and vous are also used as direct objects to mean me, you, us, and you respectively.
The pronoun form with an apostrophe is used before a vowel.
The indirect object pronoun for nous and vous is the same as the subject.
The indirect object pronouns do not agree with the past participle like the direct object pronouns do.
When me, te, nous, and vous are used in a perfect tense, the writer must decide whether they are used
as direct or indirect object pronouns. This is done by looking at the verb and seeing what type of
action is being performed.
The bread is given by the man (direct). Pierre gets the given bread (indirect).
G: -exer Verbs
-exer are regular -er verbs, but also are stem changing. The stem change applies to all forms except nous and
vous. The stem change involves adding a grave accent ( ` ) over the e in the stem.
Formation
French Verb • Present Indicative •
audio (upload)
acheter to buy
(past participle - acheté)
Singular
first person
j'achète jzah shet I buy
Plural
nous achetons noozashtoh we buy
z
second person tu achètes too ahshet you buy vouszachetez voozahshtay you buy
il achète eel ahshet he buys
ils achètent eelzahshet
z
third person elle achète ell ahshet she buys
on achète ohnahshet one buys elles achètent ellzahshet
n
z
they buy
(masc. or mixed)
they buy (fem.)
Other -exer Verbs
peser - to weigh
mener - to carry out
emmener - to take along
amener - to bring
surmener - to overwork
lever - to raise
soulever - to raise
V: Clothing
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (upload)
Clothing Habillement
les vêtements habillés - dress
clothes
la chemise
button down shirt
les vêtements sport - casual
clothes
la casquette
cap
la cravate
tie
le tee-shirt
t-shirt
le pantalon
pants
le polo
polo shirt les baskets
basketball
shoes
trainers
suit
le pull(over)
a sweater les tennis
tennis shoes
coat
le sweat-shirt
le blouson
la veste
le jean
sweatshirt les sandales
sandals
le complet
le costume
le manteau
le tailleur
women's suit
la robe
dress
jacket
jeans
les chaussures - shoes
les chaussures
la paire de
chaussures
shoes
pair of shoes
le chemisier
blouse
la jupe
skirt
les chaussettes / les
bas
socks
G: -yer verbs
-yer verbs are irregular -er verbs. When y is part of the last syllable, it changes to i in order to keep the ay
sound. In the present indicative of -yer verbs, this affects all forms except nous and vous.
Payer
The verb payer translates to to pay.
Formation
In the present indicative, payer (and all other -yer verbs) is conjuagted as follows:
French Verb • Present Indicative •
payer to pay
(past participle - payé)
audio (upload)
Singular
first person
je paie jeuh pay I pay
Plural
nous payons noo pay oh we pay
second person tu paies too pay you pay vous payez voo pay yay you pay
il paie eel pay he pays
third person
ils paient
eel
elle paie ell pay she pays ou payent
on paie oh pay one pays
elles paient
ell
ou payent
they pay
(masc. or mixed)
they pay (fem.)
Other -yer Verbs
appuyer - to support
employer - to employ
essayer - to try
essuyer - to wipe
nettoyer - to clean
tutoyer - to address as tu, to call someone informally
G: Irregular Past Participles
Many of the verbs you have learned so far have irregular past participles.
avoir - eu
croire - cru
être - été
faire - fait
voir - vu
V: Practise Conversations
Let's practise some of these words and verbs in some everyday shopping talk:
1. À la boulangerie (At the bakery)
Bernard (le boulanger) : Bonjour madame
Camille (la cliente) : Bonjour monsieur
Bernard : Que voulez-vous ?
Camille : Je voudrais acheter une baguette, s'il vous plaît
Bernard : Ce sera tout ?
Camille : Non, je voudrais deux croissants aussi
Bernard : Très bien - ça fait deux euros, s'il vous plaît
Camille : Merci beaucoup
Useful vocabulary:
"Que voulez-vous ?" or "Que désirez-vous ?" - What would you like?
"Je voudrais..." - I would like...
"Ce sera tout ?" - Is that all?
"Ça fait deux euros" - That will be two euros
acheter (to buy).
2. Au marché (At the market)
Marie (la marchande) : Bonjour monsieur
Clément (le client) : Bonjour madame
Clément : Qu'est-ce que vous avez à vendre ?
Marie : J'ai un grand choix de fruits et légumes
Clément : Très bien. Est-ce que vous avez des cerises ?
Marie : Oui... elles coûtent deux euros le kilo
Clément : Bon, je voudrais trois kilos, s'il vous plaît
Marie : Très bien, monsieur. Alors, pour trois kilos il faut payer six euros, s'il vous plaît.
Useful vocabulary:
"Qu'est-ce que vous avez... ?" - What do you have?
"Un grand choix" - A large range
"Des cerises" - Some cherries
"Elles coûtent deux euros le kilo" - They (feminine) cost two euros per kilo
"Il faut" - One must/You need to
vendre (to sell) and payer (to pay).
Lesson 2.04 - Going Out
G: À and De
The preposition à can indicate a destination, a location, a characteristic, measurement, a point in time,
purpose, and several other things which will be covered later.
When le follows à, the à and le combine into au. Similarly, à and les combine into aux.
The preposition de can indicate an origin, contents, possession, cause, manner, and several other things
which will be covered later.
When le follows de, the de and le combine into du. Similarly, de and les combine into des.
V: Leisure Activites
Les loisirs refers to leisure activities.
le cinéma
cinema
la musique
music
le baladeur
walkman
une sortie
going out
un spectacle
a show
le théâtre
the theater
le repos
rest
le vacancier
a vacationer
la danse
dance
allumer/éteindre
to turn on/turn off
la télévision
television
le(la) téléspectateur(trice)
television
viewer
le sport
sport
G: Partir & Sortir
French Verb • Present Indicative •
audio (upload)
partir to leave
(past participle - parti(e)(s))
Singular
first person
je pars jeuh pahr I leave
Plural
nous partons noo partoh we leave
second person tu pars too pahr you leave vous partez voo pahrtay you leave
il part eel pahr he leaves
third person
ils partent eel part
they leave
(masc. or mixed)
elle part ell pahr she leaves
on part oh pahr one leaves elles partent ell part
they leave (fem.)
audio (upload)
French Verb • Present Indicative •
sortir to go out, to take out
(past participle - sorti(e)(s))
Singular
first person
je sors jeuh sore I go out
second person tu sors too sore you go out
il sort eel sore he goes out
third person elle sort ell sore she goes out
Plural
nous sortons noo sortoh we go out
vous sortez voo sortay you go out
ils sortent eel sort
on sort oh sore one goes out elles sortent ell sort
they go out
(masc. or mixed)
they go out (fem.)
Some other verbs use sortir and partir as stems.
repartir - to set out again
répartir - to distribute
V: Movies
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (upload)
Movies Les films
General
le film (domestique) (en vidéo) (domestic) movie (on video) V.O. (Version originale) unaltered
le film (étranger) (en DVD)
(foreign) movie (on DVD) les sous-titres
sub-titles
l'acteur (m)
actor
la vidéo
video
l'actrice (f)
actress
le DVD
DVD
louer
to rent
The Movie Theater
Film Genres
le cinéma
the (movie) theater
le dessin animé
cartoon
theater showing room
la salle du cinéma
le documentaire
documentary
lit: room of the the theater
la séance
showing
le film d’amour
love story
le guichet
ticket window
le film d’aventures
adventure movie
seat/place to sit
la place
le film d’horreur
horror film
1
le fauteuil
chair
coûter
jouer
1
to cost
to play
le film policier
police film
le film de science-fiction sci-fi film
Un fauteuil is the physical chair that one sits on. One would normally use "une place" whenever "a
seat" is used in English.
Prenez place ! - Take a seat! (very common expression. No article before place, you should not
say Prenez la place)
Les films sont fascinants! Allez-vous au cinéma? Pourquoi? Vous aimez les films? Pour demander quels
films jouent au cinéma, on dit Qu’est-ce qui joue au cinéma? . On achète les places au guichet, où
l'employé(e) les vend. On entre dans la salle du cinéma pour regarder un film. Quel est votre genre de film
préféré? Louez-vous des vidéos? des DVDs?.
G: -enir verbs
-enir verbs are irregularly conjugated (they do not count as regular -ir verbs).
Venir
The most common -enir verb is venir.
The verb venir is translated to to come.
When it means to come from, venir is used with the preposition de.
Nous venons du stade.
You can also use venir with a verb to state that you have recently accomplished an action. **Je viens
de finir mes devoirs (I've just finished my homework).
Formation
In the present indicative, venir (and all other -enir verbs) are conjuagted as follows:
French Verb • Present Indicative •
audio (upload)
venir to come
(past participle - venu(e)(s))
Singular
first person
je viens jeuh vee ehn I come
second person tu viens too vee ehn you come
il vient eel vee ehn he comes
third person elle vient ell vee ehn she comes
Plural
nous venons noo venn oh we come
vous venez voo vennay you come
ils viennent eel vee ehn
they come
(masc. or mixed)
on vient oh vee ehn one comes elles viennent ell vee ehn they come (fem.)
Other -enir Verbs
revenir - to come back, to return
devenir - to become
appartenir - to belong
contenir - to contain
détenir - to keep, to detain
retenir - to retain
se souvenir - to remember
soutenir - to support
tenir - to hold
-éxer Verbs
-éxer verbs are regular -er verbs, but are also stem changing.
Formation
French Verb • Present Indicative •
audio (upload)
suggérer to suggest
(past participle - suggéré)
Singular
first person
second
person
je suggère
jeuh soo
zjair
Plural
I suggest
nous
suggérons
noo soo
zjairoh
we suggest
tu suggères too soo zjair you suggest vous suggérez voo soo zjairay you suggest
il suggère eel soo zjair he suggests
third person elle suggère ell soo zjair she suggests
ils suggèrent eel soo zjair
on suggère oh soo zjair one suggests elles suggèrent ell soo zjair
they suggest
(masc. or mixed)
they suggest
(fem.)
Other -éxer Verbs
accélérer - to accelerate
célébrer - to celebrate
espérer - to hope
oblitérer - to obliterate
préférer - to prefer
sécher - to dry
Directions
Sometimes when you go out, you may get lost, or come across someone who is lost. This should help you
ask for and give directions.
Pardonnez-moi/Excusez-moi, mademoiselle/madame/monsieur. - Excuse me, Miss/Mrs/Mr.
Je suis perdu. - I am lost.
Je cherche... - I'm looking for...
La poste - the post office
La gare - the train station
Le supermarché - the supermarket
Le stade - the football stadium
Le camping - the camping grounds
La plage - the beach
Le parc - the park
Vous prenez... - You take...
la première rue - the first street
à gauche - to the left
à droite - to the right
tout droit - straight ahead
Merci beaucoup! - Thanks so much!
De rien. - It was nothing/No worries.
Lesson 2.05 - Transportation
G: -uire Verbs
-uire verbs are conjugated irregularly.
Formation
French Verb • Present Indicative •
audio (upload)
conduire to drive
(past participle - conduit)
Singular
first person
second
person
je conduis
jeuh
cohndwee
Plural
I drive
nous
conduisons
noo cohndweezoh we drive
tu conduis too cohndwee you drive vous conduisez voo cohndweezay you drive
il conduit eel cohndwee he drives
ils conduisent eel cohndweez
third person elle conduit ell cohndwee she drives
one
on conduit oh cohndwee
elles conduisent ell cohndweez
drives
they drive
(masc. or
mixed)
they drive
(fem.)
Other -uire Verbs
produire - to produce
traduire - to translate
reduire - to reduce
V: Driving
ouvrir to open
fermer to close
G: -rir Verbs
These verbs are conjugated irregularly, and normally follow the -er conjugation scheme. A common -rir verb
is ouvrir.
Formation
j'ouvre
tu ouvres
il ouvre
nous ouvrons
vous ouvrez
ils ouvrent
past participle: ouvert
Other Standard -rir verbs
In past participle form, -ir is replaced with -ert for these verbs.
couvrir - to cover
découvrir - to discover
offrir - to offer
souffrir - to suffer
-rir Verb Exceptions
Courir - To Run
je cours
tu cours
il court
nous courons
vous courez
ils courent
past participle: couru
Mourir - To Die
je meurs
tu meurs
il meurt
nous mourons
vous mourez
ils meurent
1
past participle: mort(e)(s)
1
Mourir is the only -ir verb that takes être as its helping verb in perfect tenses (and therefore agrees with the
subject as a past participle in a perfect tense).
Acquérir - To Acquire
j'acquiers
tu acquiers
il acquiert
nous acquérons
vous acquérez
ils acquièrent
past participle: acquis
V: Traffic Signs and Laws
G: Passé Composé with Être
Most verbs form the passé composé with avoir, however there are a small number of verbs that are always
conjugated with être. In a general case, these verbs indicate a change in state or position.
List of Verbs
French Grammar • Print version • audio (upload)
Perfect Past with Être Passé composé avec être
Verb
Example
aller
Je suis allé au cinéma.
I went to the cinema.
venir
Je suis venu en France.
I came to France.
arriver
Le train est arrivé.
The train has arrived.
partir
Elle est partie travailler.
She left to go to work.
rester
Je suis resté à la maison.
I stayed home.
retourner Il est retourné au restaurant. He returned to the restaurant.
tomber Je suis tombé dans la piscine. I fell into the pool.
naître
Je suis né en octobre.
I was born in october.
mourir Il est mort en 1917.
He died in 1917.
passer
Il est passé devant la maison. It happened in front of the house.
monter Je suis monté au sommet.
I climbed to the top.
descendre Il est descendu du train.
He got out of the train.
sortir
Je suis sorti avec mes amies. I went out with my friends.
entrer
Je suis entré dans ma chambre. I entered my room.
rentrer
Il est rentré tôt de l'école.
He came back early from school.
The verbs that take être can be easily remebered by the acronym MRS. DR VANDERTRAMP:
M
R
S
D
R
monté resté sorti
devenu revenu
V
A
N
D
E
R
T
R
A
M
P
venu
arrivé né
descendu entré
rentré
tombé retourné allé mort parti
Moreover, all the pronominal verbs (with se), like se cacher (to hide oneself) or se demander (to wonder),
are ALWAYS conjugated with être.
Direct Objects
One must know that these verbs take their conjugated avoir when they are immediately followed by a direct
object
For Example:
Je suis descendu with the direct object "mes bagages"
becomes:
J'ai descendu mes bagages.
Another example:
Je suis monté with the direct object "mes bagages"
becomes:
J'ai monté mes bagages.
Yet another example but with ils instead of Je:
Ils sont sortis with direct object "leur passeport"
becomes:
Ils ont sorti leur passeport.
Subject-Past Participle Agreement
When conjugating with être, the past participles of the above verbs must agree with the the subject of a
sentence in gender and plurality. Note that there is no agreement if these verbs are conjugated with avoir.
If the subject is masculine singular, there is no change in the past participle.
If the subject is feminine singular, an -e is added to the past participle.
If the subject is masculine plural, an -s is added to the past participle.
If the subject is feminine plural, an -es is added to the past participle.
J suis allé(e). Nous sommes allé(e)s.
Tu es allé(e). Vous êtes allé(e)(s).
Il est allé.
Ils sont allés.
Elle est allée. Elles sont allées.
V: Trains and Stations
Taking the Train
G: The Pronoun Y
Indirect Object Pronoun - to it, to them
The French pronoun y is used to replace an object of a prepositional phrase introduced by à.
Je réponds aux (à les) questions. - J'y réponds.
I respond to the questions. - I respond to them.
Note that lui and leur, and not y, are used when the object refers to a person or persons.
Replacement of Places - there
The French pronoun y replaces a prepositional phrase referring to a place that begins with any preposition
except de (for which en is used).
Les hommes vont en France. - Les hommes y vont.
The men go to France - The men go there.
Note that en, and not y is used when the preposition of the object is de.
Idioms
Ça y est! - It's Done!
J'y suis! - I get it!
V: Taking a Taxi
Taking a Taxi
Lesson 2.06 - Everyday Life
G: Dormir
Dormir, to sleep, is an irregular French verb.
French Verb • Present Indicative •
audio (upload)
dormir to sleep
(past participle - dormi)
Singular
first person
je dors jeuh door I sleep
Plural
nous dormons noo doormoh we sleep
second person tu dors too door you sleep vous dormez voo doormay you sleep
il dort eel door he sleeps
ils dorment eel dorm
they sleep
(masc. or mixed)
on dort oh door one sleeps elles dorment ell dorm
they sleep (fem.)
third person elle dort ell door she sleeps
V: Waking up and Getting Yourself Ready
se lever: to get up
se laver: to wash (oneself)
se raser : to shave
se doucher: to shower
se baigner: to bathe (oneself)
se brosser les cheveux/les dents: to brush one's hair/teeth
se peigner les cheveux: to comb one's hair
s'habiller: to dress (oneself)
If the subject is performing the action on him or herself, the verbs are reflexive. However, if the subject were
to act on someone else, the verb is no longer reflexive; instead the reflexive pronoun becomes a direct
object.
Je m'habille: I get (myself) dressed.
Je t'habille: I get you dressed.
In the passé composé, the participle must agree in gender and number with the subject.
Pierre s'est habillé.
Alice s'est habillée.
Georges et Martin se sont habillés.
Lisette et Rose se sont habillées.
Marc et Claire se sont habillés.
Je m'appelle Lucie, et je me suis levée à six heures.
Jean et Paul, vous vous êtes levés assez tard.
G: Pronominal Verbs
Pronominal verbs are verbs that, put simply, include pronouns. These pronouns are me, te, se, nous, and vous
and are used as either direct objects or indirect objects, depending on the verb that they modify. There are
three types of pronominal verbs: reflexive verbs, reciprocal verbs, and naturally pronominal verbs.
Reflexive Verbs
Reflexive verbs reflect the action on the subject.
Je me lave. - I wash myself.
Nous nous lavons. - We wash ourselves.
Ils se lavent. - They wash themselves.
Reflexive verbs can also be used as infinitives.
Je vais me laver. - I'm going to wash myself.
Je ne vais pas me laver. - I'm not going to wash myself.
Reciprocal Verbs
With reciprocal verbs, people perform actions to each other.
Nous nous aimons. - We like each other.
Naturally Pronominal Verbs
Some verbs are pronominal without performing a reflexive or reciprocal action. Tu te souviens? - You
remember?
V: Going to Work
V: At Work
travailler: to work
travailler pour: to work for (somebody)
G: Devoir
French Verb • Print version • audio (upload)
devoir to have to, to owe
past participle: dû
Singular
first person
je dois jeuh dwah I have to
Plural
nous devons noo dehvohn we have to
second person tu dois too dwah you have to vous devez voo dehvay you have to
il doit eel dwah he has to
third person elle doit ell dwah she has to
ils doivent eel dwahve
they have to
(masc. or mixed)
on doit ohn dwah one has to elles doivent ell dwahve they have to (fem.)
G: Falloir
falloir - to be necessary
il faut - it is necessary
il a fallu - it was necessary (passé composé)
il fallait - it was necessary (imparfait)
il faudra - it will be necessary
il faudrait - it would be necessary
The verb falloir differs from similar verbs such as avoir besoin de [faire quelque chose] (to need [to do
something]) and devoir (must, duty, owe). Falloir is always used with the impersonal il only in the 3rd
person singular, whereas devoir can be used with all subject pronouns in all tenses.
Falloir expresses general necessities, such as "To live, one must eat" or "To speak French well, one must
conjugate verbs correctly."
Devoir expresses more personally what someone must do; "I want to pass my French test, so I must study
verb conjugations."
Avoir besoin de [faire quelque chose] expresses need; "I need to study for my test, it's tomorrow" - "J'ai
besoin d'etudier pour mon examen, il est demain."
Lesson 2.07 - Rural Life
G: Suivre
French Verb • Print version • audio (upload)
suivre to follow
past participle: suivi
Singular
first person
Plural
je suis jeuh swee I follow
nous suivons noo sweevohn we follow
second person tu suis too swee you follow vous suivez voo sweevay you follow
il suit eel swee he follows
third person elle suit ell swee she follows
ils suivent eel sweeve
on suit ohn swee one follows elles suivent ell sweeve
they follow
(masc. or mized)
they follow (fem.)
G: Vivre
French Verb • Print version • audio (upload)
vivre to live
past participle: vécu [vaycoo]
Singular
first person
Plural
je vis jeuh vee I live
nous vivons noo veevohn we live
second person tu vis too vee you live vous vivez voo veevay you live
il vit eel vee he lives
third person elle vit ell vee she lives
ils vivent eel veeve
on vit ohn vee one lives elles vivent ell veeve
they live
(masc. or mized)
they live (fem.)
G: Naître
French Verb • Print version • audio (upload)
naître to be born
1
past participle: né(e)(s)
Singular
first person
je nais jeuh nay I am born
Plural
nous naissons noo nehssohn we are born
second person tu nais too nay you are born vous naissez voo nehssay you are born
il naît eel nay he is born
third person elle naît ell nay she is born
ils naissent eel nesse
on naît ohn nay one is born elles naissent ell nesse
1
they are born
(masc. or mized)
they are born (fem.)
Naître is the only -aître verb that takes être as its helping verb (and therefore agrees with the subject as a
past participle in perfect tenses).
G: Reflexive Verbs with Perfect Tenses
When proniminal verbs are conjugated in perfect tenses, être is used as the auxiliary verb.
Reflexive Verbs
In perfect tenses, the past participles agree with the direct object pronoun, but not the indirect object
pronoun, in gender and plurality. Therefore it would only agree when the reflexive pronoun is the direct
object. Also remember that the past participle does not agree with the direct object if it goes after the verb.
Elle s'est lavée. - She washed herself.
Nous nous sommes lavé(e)s. - We washed ourselves.
Elle s'est lavé les mains. - She washed her hands.
Nous nous sommes lavé les mains. - We washed our hands.
Reciprocal Verbs
Like reflexive verbs, the past participle of reciprocal verbs agrees in number and gender with the
direct object if it goes before the verb. It therefore agrees with all reciprocal pronouns that function as
direct objects.
Nous nous sommes aimé(e)s. - We liked each other.
The reciprocal pronoun can also function as an indirect object without a direct object pronoun.
Nous nous sommes parlé. - We spoke to each other.
Elles se sont téléphoné. - They called one another.
Vous vous êtes écrit souvent? - You wrote to each other often?
Naturally Pronominal Verbs
In perfect tenses, these verbs agree with the direct object if it goes before the verb. Otherwise, the past
participle agrees with the subject.
Elle s'est souvenue. - She remembered.
Le chien se couche. - The dog lies down.
Note that assis(e)(es), the past participle of s'asseoir (to sit), does not change in the masculine plural form.
Lesson 2.08 - Food and Drink
G: -ger Verbs
-ger verbs are regular -er verbs that are also stem changing. The most common -ger verb is manger. For
manger and all other regular -ger verbs, the stem change is adding an e after the g. This only applies in the
nous form. In this case, the change is made to preserve the soft g pronunciation rather than the hard g that
would be present if the e were not included.
Formation
French Verb • Print version • audio (upload)
manger to eat
past participle - mangé
Singular
first person
Plural
je mange jeuh mahnge I eat
second person tu manges too mahnge you eat
il mange eel mahnge he eats
third person elle mange ell mahnge she eats
nous mangeons noo vmahnge ohn we eat
vous mangez voo mahngay
we eat
ils mangent
they eat
(masc. or mized)
eel mahnge
on mange ohn mahnge one eats elles mangent ell mahnge
they eat (fem.)
Other -ger Verbs
changer - to change
exiger - to require
nager - to swim
soulager - to relieve
voyager - to travel
V: Food
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (upload)
Food La nourriture
les fruits - fruits
la banane
banana
la cerise
cherry
le citron
lemon
la fraise
strawberry
l'orange (f)
orange
la pomme
apple
le raisin
grape
le pamplemousse
grapefruit
la viande - meat
l'agneau (m)
lamb
les légumes - vegetables
la carotte
carrot
les épinards (m pl)
spinach
l'oignon (m)
onion
les petits pois (m pl)
peas
la pomme de terre
potato
la tomate
tomato
les asperges (f pl)
asparagus
les haricots (m pl)
beans
les fruits de mer (m pl) - shellfish, seafood
La coquille Saint-Jacques (f) scallop
la dinde
le jambon
turkey
le porc
le poulet
le boeuf
la saucisse
pork
chicken
beef
le crabe
crab
le poisson - fish
les anchois (m pl)
anchovies
le saumon
salmon
l'anguille (f)
eel
Other Foods
les produits laitiers - dairy products le croissant
le beurre
butter
les frites (f pl)
le fromage
cheese
la crêpe
le lait
milk
la mayonnaise
le yaourt/le yoghurt yogurt
la moutarde
le pain
le dessert - dessert
le bonbon
candy
la pâitsserie
le chocolat
chocolate
le beurre
le gâteau
cake
la tartine de pain beurré
la glace
ice cream
le poivre
la mousse
mousse
le riz
la tarte (aux pommes) (apple) pie
le sel
la glace (au chocolat) (chocolate) ice cream le sucre
la glace (à la vanille) (vanilla) ice cream la confiture
crescent roll
"French fries"
pancakes
mayonnaise
mustard
bread
pastry
butter
slice of buttered bread
pepper
rice
salt
sugar
jam
G: Boire
The verb boire is translated to to drink. It is irregularly conjugated (it does not count as a regular -re verb) as
follows:
French Verb • Print version • audio (upload)
boire to drink
past participle - bu
Singular
first person
je bois jeuh bwah I drink
Plural
nous buvons noo boovohn we drink
second person tu bois too bwah you drink vous buvez voo boovay you drink
il boit eel bwah he drinks
ils boivent eel bwahve
they drink
(masc. or mized)
on boit ohn bwah one drinks elles boivent ell bwahve
they drink (fem.)
third person elle boit ell bwah she drinks
V: Drinks
les boissons - drinks
la bière
beer
le café
coffee
le chocolat chaud hot chocolate
le coca
soda
la limonade
lemon soda
le citron pressé lemonade
l'eau (f)
water
le jus
juice
le jus d'orange orange juice
le jus de pomme apple juice
le jus de raisin grape juice
le jus de tomate tomato juice
le thé
tea
le vin
wine
G: Partitive Article
The partitive article de indicates, among other things, the word some. As learned earlier, de and le contract
(combine) into du, as de and les contract into des. Also, instead of du or de la, de l' is used in front of
vowels.
When speaking about food, the partitive article is used at some times while the definite article (le, la, les) is
used at other times, and the indefinite article (un, une) in yet another set of situations. In general "de" refers
to a part of food (a piece of pie) whereas the definite article (le) refers to a food in general (I like pie (in
general)). The indefinite article refers to an entire unit of a food (I would like a (whole) pie).
When speaking about preferences, use the definite article:
J'aime la glace.
I like ice cream.
Nous préférons le steak. We prefer steak.
Vous aimez les frites
You like French fries.
When speaking about eating or drinking an item, there are specific situations for the use of each article.
Def. art.
J'ai mangé la tarte.
Ind. art.
J'ai mangé une tarte.
Part. art.
specific/whole items
I ate the (whole) pie.
known quantity
I ate a pie.
unknown quantity
J'ai mangé de la tarte. I ate some pie.
In the negative construction, certain rules apply. As one has learned in a previous lesson, un or une changes
to de (meaning, in this context, any) in a negative construction. Similarly, du, de la, or des change to de in
negative constructions.
Nous avons mangé une tarte.
We ate a pie.
Nous n'avons pas mangé de tarte. We did not eat a pie/ We did not eat any pie.
Nous avons mangé de la tarte.
We ate some pie.
Nous n'avons pas mangé de tarte. We did not eat some pie/ We did not eat any pie.
Note : Now you should understand better how that "Quoi de neuf?"(what's new?) encountered in the very
first lesson was constructed... "Quoi de plus beau?!" (what is there prettier?)
G: En
To say 'some of it' without specifying the exact object, the pronoun 'en' can be used. Additionally, 'en' can
mean 'of it' when 'it' is not specified. For instance, instead of saying J'ai besoin d'argent, if the idea of
money has already been raised, it can be stated as 'J'en ai besoin'. This is because en replaces du, de la or des
when there the noun is not specifically mentioned in that sentence.
Like with 'me', 'te' and other pronouns, en (meaning 'some') comes before the verb.
Tu joues du piano? Non, je n'en joue pas
Do you play piano? No, I don't play it.
Vous prenez du poisson? Oui, j'en prends.
Are you having fish? Yes, I'm having some.
Vous avez commandé de l'eau? Oui, nous en avons
commandé.
Did you order some water? Yes, we ordered
some.
For more detailed information, see French Pronouns
G: Mettre
Formation
French Verb • Print version • audio (upload)
mettre to put
past participle - mis
Singular
first person je mets jeuh may I put
Plural
nous mettons noo mettohn we put
second person tu mets too may you put vous mettez voo mettay you put
il met eel may he puts
third person elle met ell may she puts
ils mettent eel met
on met ohn may one puts elles mettent ell met
Related Words
mettre - to put on, to turn on, to place
permettre - to allow
remettre - to put back
remettre en place - to set back into place
soumettre - to submit
they put
(masc. or mized)
they put (fem.)
se remettre - to recover from an illness
se remettre en route - to get back on the road
Idioms and Related Expressions
mettre au jour - to bring to light
mettre de l'argent de coté - to put money aside
mettre fin à - to put an end to
mettre la main à la pâte - to pitch in
mettre le contact - to start the car
mettre le couvert - to set the table
se mettre à table - to sit down to eat
se mettre d'accord - to agree
se mettre en forme - to get in shape
Lesson 2.09 - Dining
V: General Dining
French Vocabulary • Print version •
Dining Diner
Places
la cuisine
kitchen
la salle à manger dining room
le restaurant
restaurant
Meals
le repas
the meal
le petit-déjeuner breakfast
le déjeuner
lunch
le dîner
dinner
le goûter
snack
Food Stores
audio (upload)
Actions and Feelings
avoir faim
to be hungry
avoir soif
to be thirsty
manger
to eat
boire
to drink
prendre
to take
vouloir
to want
mettre le couvert to set the table
préparer un repas to prepare a meal
Quantity
la boucherie
butcher shop
la boulangerie
bakery
1
2
le gramme
le kilo(gramme) kilogran
le dépôt de pain a place that sells bread 2 le litre
la charcuterie
delicatessen
l'épicerie (f)
grocery
la crémerie
dairy store
gram
3
4
la poissonnerie seafood store
le marché
outdoor market
la pâtisserie
pastry shop
liter
5
la bouteille
bottle
la boîte
can
la livre
pack, pound
packet
pot
le paquet
le pot
6
Canadian and Belgian French has an off-by-one behaviour with meals : breakfast is called déjeuner, lunch is
called dîner and dinner is souper.
1. French butchers do not sell pork, pork products, nor horsemeat. For these products, go to a
charcuterie.
2. In France, bakeries only sell fresh bread. Places where they sell bread that is not fresh are called dépôt
de pain.
3. 'Charcuteries' sell things besides pork products, including pâte, salami, cold meats, salads, quiches
and pizzas.
4. An alternative to an 'épicerie' is an alimentation générale (a general foodstore).
5. -eille is pronounced ay
6. Do not confuse with le livre (book).
G: Vouloir & Pouvoir
The verb vouloir is translated to to want. It is irregularly conjugated (it does not count as a regular -ir verb)
as follows:
French Verb • Print version • audio (upload)
vouloir to want
past participle - voulu
Singular
first person
Plural
je veux jeuh veuh I want
nous voulons noo voolohn we want
second person tu veux too veuh you want vous voulez voo voolay you want
il veut eel veuh he wants
ils veulent eel veuhl
they want
(masc. or mized)
on veut ohn veuh one wants elles veulent ell veuhl
they want (fem.)
third person elle veut ell veuh she wants
Pouvoir is conjugated in a similar manner:
French Verb • Print version • audio (upload)
pouvoir to be able to
past participle - pu
Singular
first person je peux
second
person
jeuh
peuh
tu peux too peuh
I can/am able to
you can/are able
to
Plural
nous
pouvons
noo
poovohn
vous pouvez voo poovay you can/are able to
il peut eel peuh he can/is able to
third person
we can/are able to
ils peuvent eel peuhve
they can/are able to
(masc. or mized)
on peut ohn peuh one can/is able to elles peuvent ell peuhve
they can/are able to
(fem.)
elle
peut
ell peuh she can/is able to
V: Dining at a Restaurant
arriver
to arrive
la table occupée an occupied table
la table libre
a free table
trouver
to find
commander
to order
lunch
déjeuner
to eat lunch
peiti déjeuner breakfast
to dine
dîner
to eat dinner
désirer
to desire
le serveur
waiter
la serveuse
waitresse
la carte
menu
l'addition
check
le pourboire
laisser
je voudrais..
tip
to leave
I would like...
G: Servir
French Verb • Print version • audio (upload)
servir to serve
past participle: servi
Singular
first person
Plural
je sers jeuh sair I serve
nous servons noo sairvohn we serve
second person tu sers too sair you serve vous servez voo sairvay you serve
il sert eel sair he serves
ils servent eel sairve
they serve
(masc. or mized)
on sert ohn sair one serves elles servent ell sairve
they serve (fem.)
third person elle sert ell sair she serves
V: Ordering
G: -cer Verbs
-cer verbs are regular -er verbs, but are also stem changing. The most common -cer verb is commencer.
Formation
French Verb • Print version • audio (upload)
commencer to begin
past participle - commencé
Singular
first person je commence
jeuh coe
mahnce
Plural
I begin
nous
commençons
noo coe
mahnsohn
second
person
tu
too coe
voo coe
you begin vous commencez
mahnsay
commences mahnce
eel coe
he begins
il commence
mahnce
ils commencent eel coe mahnce
elle
she
third person commence ell coe mahnce begins
on commence
Other -cer Verbs
effacer - to erase
ohn coe
mahnce
one
begins
elles
commencent
ell coe mahnce
we begin
you begin
they begin
(masc. or
mized)
they begin
(fem.)
V: Silverware, Etc.
le couvert
cover
l'assiette (f) plate
le bol
bowl
la soucoupe saucer
le couteau
knife
la cuillère
spoon
la fourchette fork
la serviette
napkin
la nappe
tablecloth
la tasse
cup
le verre
glass
Lesson 2.10 - Communication
G: -aître Verbs
Formation
French Verb • Print version • audio (upload)
connaître to know (personally)
past participle: connu
Singular
first person
Plural
je connais jeuh cohnay I know
nous connaissons noo cohnehssohn we know
second person tu connais too cohnay you know vous connaissez voo cohnehssay you know
il connaît eel cohnay he knows
ils connaissent eel cohnesse
they know
(masc. or mixed)
on connaît ohn cohnay one knows elles connaissent ell cohnesse
they know (fem.)
third person elle connaît ell cohnay she knows
Other -aître verbs
apparaître - to appear
connaître - to know
disparaître - to disappear
1
naître - to be born
1
Naître has an irregular past participle (né) and takes être as its helping verb in perfect tenses.
G: Connaître & Savoir
Connaître is used to say that you know someone. Savoir is used to say that you know a fact or piece of
information.
French Verb • Print version • audio (upload)
savoir to know (as a fact)
past participle: su
Singular
first person
je sais jeuh say I know
Plural
nous savons noo sahvohn we know
second person tu sais too say you know vous savez voo sahvay you know
il sait eel say he knows
ils savent eel sahve
they know
(masc. or mized)
on sait ohn say one knows elles savent ell sahve
they know (fem.)
third person elle sait ell say she knows
V: Calling Others
Téléphoner (à) is used to say that you are calling (to) someone. In French, you call to someone, so the verb
is used with indirect, and not direct, objects.
Je téléphone à Jacques. - I'm calling Jacques.
G: Appeler
Appeler is used to say what your name is. Je m'appelle... literally means I call myself.., but in English you
would say My name is... Appeler is a regular -er verb, but, as you may have noticed, is also stem changing.
In the present indicative, it is conjuagted as follows:
French Verb • Print version • audio (upload)
appeler to call
past participle: appelé
Singular
first person
j' appelle jahhpell
Plural
I call
nous appelons newzahh pell ohn we call
second person tu appelles too ahhpell you call vous appelez voozahh pellay
il appelle eel ahhpell he calls
third person elle appelle ell ahhpell she calls
ils appellent eel ahhpell
on appelle ohn ahhpell one calls elles appellent ell ahhpell
you call
they call
(masc. or mized)
they call (fem.)
G: Dire
French Verb • Print version • audio (upload)
dire to say
past participle: dit
Singular
first person
je dis jeuh dee I say
Plural
nous disons noo deezohn we say
second person tu dis too dee you say vous dites voo deet
il dit eel dee he says
third person elle dit ell dee she says
ils disent eel deez
on dit ohn dee one says elles disent ell deez
V: Mail
le poste
le courier
le lettre
la boîte aux lettres
envoyer
recevoir
G: Envoyer & Recevoir
you say
they say
(masc. or mized)
they say (fem.)
French Verb • Print version • audio (upload)
envoyer to send
past participle: envoyé
Singular
first person
j' envoie jahnvwah
Plural
I send
nous envoyons newzahnvwahyohn we send
second person tu envoies too ahnvwah you send vous envoyez voozahnvwahyay you send
il envoie eel ahnvwah he sends
ils envoient eelzahnvwah
they send
(masc. or mized)
on envoie ohn ahnvwah one sends elles envoient ellzahnvwah
they send (fem.)
third person elle envoie ell ahnvwah she sends
French Verb • Print version • audio (upload)
recevoir to receive
past participle: reçu
Singular
first person
Plural
je reçois jeuh rehswah I receive
nous recevons newzay rehsevohn we receive
second person tu reçois too rehswah you receive vous recevez voo resehvay
il reçoit eel rehswah he receives
third person elle reçoit ell rehswah she receives
ils reçoivent eel rehswahve
on reçoit ohn rehswah one receives elles reçoivent ell rehswahve
V: Computers & the Internet
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (upload)
Technology La technologie
Computer Hardware
le hardware
hardware
l'ordinateur (m)
computer
l'écran (m)
monitor
le clavier
keyboard
la souris
l'imprimante (f)
le CD-ROM
mouse
printer
CD-ROM
la disquette
utiliser
floppy disk
Computer Use
to use
Computer Software
le software
software
l’information
information
le logiciel
software (program)
le programme
program
la programmation
programming (adj)
le document
document
le fichier
file
The Internet
aller sur Internet
to go on the Internet
le modem
modem
la connexion
connecter
taper (un texte)
to type (a text)
être connecté
sauvegarder (un fichier) to save (a file) le site
exécuter
to run, carry out l'e-mail (m)
connection
to connect
to be connected
site
e-mail
you receive
they receive
(masc. or mized)
they receive (fem.)
stocker (des données)
cliquer
allumer
éteindre
to store (data) naviguer (sur Internet) to navigate (the Internet)
to click
télécharger
to download
to turn on
transmettre
to transmit
to turn off
(to extinguish)
French fact: the name of the company Logitech comes from the French term logiciel technolgie.
LEVEL THREE
Level Three Lessons Contents
Lesson 3.01 - Vacations
Lesson 3.02 - Work
Lesson 3.03 - Health
Lesson 3.04 - Money
Lesson 3.05 - Youth
Lesson 3.06 - Adolescence
Lesson 3.07 - Ancient History
Lesson 3.08 - Revolution!
Lesson 3.09 - Modern France
Lesson 3.10 - Current Events
After having completed the second level of the Wikibooks French language course, you can graduate to the
third level. This is a much more rigorous presentation of the French language. Several verb tenses will be
introduced in this level, and there will now be more vocabulary sections in each lesson. But we didn't decide
to stop there! This level will include longer lectures about a lesson's subject and will introduce you to real
French literary works and news articles, such as Jean de La Fontaine's Fables
(http://fr.wikisource.org/wiki/Fables_de_La_Fontaine) . After you have completed this level, you can move
on to the next level. Also remember that if you would like to help develop this course, go to the lessons
planning page.
Formidable! - Intermediate French
01 Leçon 01 : Les vacances G: Geography Prepositions, Perfect Tenses Introduction, Simple Future of
Regular Verbs
Lesson 01 : Vacations
V: General Travelling, International Travelling, Nationalities
G: Irregular Past Participles Review, Conjugated Verb + Infinitive Review
02 Leçon 02 : Le travail
(Futur Proche, Faire Causitif)
V: Companies, Blue-collar, White-collar, Service, Government, The Office,
Lesson 02 : Work
Office Supplies
03 Leçon 03 : La santé
G: Simple Future of Irregular Verbs, Adverbs, Commands
V: Visiting the Doctor, Emergencies, Medecine, the Dentist, Healthcare
Lesson 03 : Health
04 Leçon 04 : L'argent
Lesson 04 : Money
G: Personal Pronouns Review, Present Conditional, Pronouns with
Commands
V: Forms of Money, Payment, Handling Money, Going to a Bank
05 Leçon 05 : Jeunesse
G: Imparfait, Possesive Pronouns, Stem Changing Verbs Review
Lesson 05 : Life as a
V: Children's Games and Toys, French Children's Poems, Songs, and Stories
Child
06 Leçon 06 : L'adolescence G: Imparfait vs. Passé Composé, Pronominal Verbs Review, Plus-Que-Parfait
Lesson 06 : Adolescence
V: Pop Culture, Mass Media, Part-Time Jobs
07
Leçon 07 : L'histoire
Antique
Lesson 07 : Ancient
History
G: Passé Simple of Regular Verbs, Interrogative Pronouns
V: Farming and Peasant Life, Noble Life, The King, The Rennaissance, The
Reformation
G: Passé Simple of Irregular Verbs, Relative Pronouns (Qui, Que, Dont)
V: Enlightenment, French Rev., Democracy, Napoleonic Era, Post-Napoleon
Lesson 08 : Revolution! France, Industrial Rev.
Leçon 09 : La France
09
moderne
G: Past Conditional, Comparative & Superlative, Asking Questions Review
V: The 20th Century, 20th Century Advancements and Changes, Modern War
Lesson 09 : Modern
France
10 Leçon 10 : L'actualité
G: Future Perfect, Demonstrative Pronouns, Stating If...
V: News, France's Role in Global Politics, European Union, Social Problems,
Lesson 10 : Current
Government, Politics
Events
08 Leçon 08 : Révolution!
Level Three Test and the answers.
Lesson 3.01 - Vacations
V: General Traveling
Audio: Ogg French native speaker (Kb)
General
il y a
l’aéroport (m.)
l’autobus (m.)
l’avion (m.)
les bagages
le billet
le métro
la poste
le taxi
le ticket
le train
la valise
la voiture
there is, there are
airport
bus
aircraft, airplane
baggage
ticket (for train, airplane)
subway, underground
post office
taxi
ticket (for bus, métro)
train
suitcase
car
Audio : French native speaker
Visiting Other Cities
1a Tu es d'où? (informal)
Where are you from?
1b D'où êtes-vous? (formal)
1c Je suis de... (d')
I am from...
V: Geography
Geography
Continents
the world le monde
l'Afrique (f)
l'Amérique du nord (f)
l'Amérique du sud (f)
l'Antarctique (f)
l'Asie (f)
l'Australie (f)
l'Europe (f)
Political Geography
a city
a village
a country
a state
une ville
un village
un pays
un état
Natural Geography
river
le fleuve
mountain la montagne
lake
le lac
ocean
l'océan (m)
Cardinal Directions
Oceans
l'Océan atlantique (m)
l'Océan glacial arctique (m)
l'Océan indien (m)
l'Océan pacifique (m)
north
south
east
west
le nord
le sud
l'est
l'ouest
Audio : French native speaker
Audio : French native speaker
G: Geography Prepositions
Cities
French native speaker
à is used to say in, at, to
Je vais à Paris. - I'm going to Paris
de is used to say from.
Je reviens de Paris. - I return from Paris.
cities that have articles as part of their names contract with the preposition if the city is masculine.
le Caire - Je vais au Caire. - Je reviens du Caire.
le Havre - Je vais au Havre. - Je reviens du Havre.
la Nouvelle-Orléans - Je vais à la Nouvelle-Orléans. - Je reviens de la Nouvelle-Orléans.
Feminine Regions, Countries, and Continents
Most geographical areas are feminine
Every French geographical area that ends in -e is feminine, with one or two exceptions.
Every continent is feminine.
en is used to say in, at, to for all feminine geographical areas except cities
Je vais en France. - I go to France.
de is used to say from for all feminine geographical areas except cities
Je reviens de France. - I return from France.
de is contracted to d' when followed by a vowel.
Je vais en Espagne. - Je reviens d' Espagne
Masculine Regions
all regions that do not end in a slient e are mascuiline
Audio : French native speaker
dans le is used to say in, at, to for most masculine regions, provinces, and states
Je vais dans le Limousin. - I'm going to Limousin.
du, a contraction of de + le, is used to say from for most regions, provinces, and states
Je reviens du Limousin. - I return from Limousin.
If a region is thought of or considered as its own sovereign state, au is used instead of dans le
Je vais au Québec. - Je reviens du Québec. (Note: This is for the province of Québec. For the
city of Québec, Je vais à Québec should be used. - Je reviens de Québec.)
Je vais au Texas. - Je reviens du Texas.
Masculine Countries Starting With a Consonant
all countries that do not end in a silent e are masculine
le Cambodge, le Mexique, le Zimbabwe, and le Mozambique are masculine
au is used to say in, at, to for masculine countries beginning with a consonant
Je vais au Portugal. - I'm going to Portugal.
du is used to say from for masculine countries beginning with a consonant
Je reviens du Portugal. - I return from Portugal.
Plural Countries
Audio : French native speaker
aux, a contraction of à + les, is used to say in, to, as if a plural article is part of the name of a country
Je vais aux États-Unis. - I'm going to the United States. (pronounced aytahzoohnee)
des, a contraction of de + les, is used to say from if a plural article is part of the name of a country
Je reviens des États-Unis. - I return from the United States.
Masculine Countries Starting With a Vowel
en is used to say in, at, to for all masculine countries beginning with a vowel
Je vais en Israël. - I'm going to Israel.
d' is used to say from for all masculine countries beginning with a vowel
Je reviens d' Israël. - I return from Israel.
Check For Understanding
Are all French countries ending in e feminine?
What geographical areas use the preposition dans le?
What prepositions do countries beginning with vowels use?
What prepositions does the city of Quebec use? ...the province of Quebec?
V: Airports and Airplanes
French Vocabulary • Print version •
Airports and Airplanes
l'aéroport (m)
le passeport
audio: One • Two (258 + 205 kb • help)
Les aéroports et les avions
The Airport
airport (pronounced
ahehrohpor)
passport
un chariot
a (shopping/baggage) cart
les arrivées (f pl)
arrivals
les départs (m pl)
departures
Baggage
les bagages (f pl)
baggage
les bagages à main
la livraison des
bagages
enregistrer (ses
bagages)
carry-on baggage
baggage claim
to check in (one's
baggage)
arriver (en avance/en retard)
to arrive (early/late)
The Terminal
l'aérogare
terminal
la compagnie (aérienne)
a(n airline) company
le billet
(d'avion/simple/aller-retour)
la classe tourisme
la première classe
passer à la douane
le contrôleur
le contrôle de sécurité
la porte
(plane/one-way/round trip)
ticket
coach
first class
to go through customs
security officer
security check
gate (also door)
embarquer
to board
V: Places
Audio : French native speaker
French Regions
Île-de-France
- Paris
Basse-Normandie
- Caen
Bourgogne
- Dijon
Bretagne
- Rennes
Audio : French native speaker
European Countries
la France
* Paris
la Belgique
* Bruxelles
le Portugal
* Lisbonne
l'Espagne
* Madrid
l'Italie
* Rome
la Grande-Bretagne
* Londres
l'Irlande
* Dublin
France
* Paris
Belgium
* Bruxelles
Portugal
* Lisbon
Spain
* Madrid
Italy
* Rome
Great Britain
* London
Ireland
* Dublin
The Airplane
l'avion (m)
plane
plane, machine,
l'appareil (m)
(body) system
décoller
to take off
le décollage
take-off
le vol
flight (also theft)
le pilote
l'hôtesse (de l'air)
(f)
le passager
atterrir
l'atterrissage (m)
pilot
flight attendant
passenger
to land
landing
le (grand-duché du) Luxembourg Luxembourg
* Luxembourg
* Luxembourg
les Pays-Bas
Netherlands
* Amsterdam
* Amsterdam
l'Allemagne
Germany
* Berlin
* Berlin
l'Autriche
Austria
* Vienne
* Vienna
la Suisse
Switzerland
* Berne
* Bern
La principauté de Monaco
Monaco
* Monaco
* Monaco
la Pologne
Poland
* Varsovie
* Warsaw
la République Tchèque
Czech Republic
* Prague
* Prague
la Slovaquie
Slovakia
* Bratislava
* Bratislava
la Hongrie
Hungary
* Budapest
* Budapest
la Bulgarie
Bulgaria
* Sofia
* Sofia
la Roumanie
Romania
* Bucarest
* Bucharest
la Grèce
Greece
* Athènes
* Athens
La principauté d'Andorre
Andorra
* Andorre-la-Vieille
* Andorra la Vella
la Moldavie
Moldova
* Chisinau
* Chişinău
la Biélorussie
Belarus
* Minsk
* Minsk
la Lituanie
Lithuania
* Vilnius
* Vilnius
la Lettonie
Latvia
* Riga
* Riga
l'Estonie
Estonia
* Tallinn
* Tallinn
la Finlande
Finland
* Helsinki
* Helsinki
la Suède
Sweden
* Stockholm
* Stockholm
la Norvège
Norway
* Oslo
* Oslo
la Russie
Russia
* Moscou
* Moscow
l'Ukraine
Ukraine
* Kiev
* Kiev
Nations of the World
More audio pronunciation: here
(http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/French_pronunciation/Names#Places) .
V: Nationalities
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio: One • Two • (v2 300kb) (250 + 234 +186 kb • help)
Nationalities Les nationalités
Masculine
allemand
américain
anglais
australien
belge
birman
britannique
cambodgien
canadien
chinois
coréen
écossais
espagnol
français
indien
indonésien
israëlien
italien
japonais
malaisien
mauricien
néerlandais
philippin
portugais
singapourien
suédois
suisse
thaïlandais
vénézuélien
vietnamien
Feminine
allemande
américaine
anglaise
australienne
belge
birmane
britannique
cambodgienne
canadienne
chinoise
coréenne
écossaise
espagnole
française
indienne
indonésienne
israëlienne
italienne
japonaise
malaisienne
mauricienne
néerlandaise
philippine
portugaise
singapourienne
suédoise
suisse
thaïlandaise
vénézuéliene
vietnamienne
English
German
American
English
Australian
Belgian
Burmese
British
Cambodian
Canadian
Chinese
Korean
Scottish
Spanish
French
Indian
Indonesian
Israeli
Italian
Japanese
Malaysian
Mauritian
Dutch
Filipino
Portuguese
Singaporean
Swedish
Swiss
Thai
Venezuelan
Vietnamese
Nationalities are not capitalized as often in French as they are in English. If you are referring to a person, as
in an Arab person or a Chinese person, the French equivalent is un Arabe or un Chinois. However, if you are
referring to the Arabic language or Chinese language, the French would not capitalize: l'arabe; le chinois. If
the nationality is used as an adjective, it is normally left uncapitalized; un livre chinois, un tapis arabe.+Ŀ
G: Perfect Tenses
You will be learning several new perfect tenses in this level. Review the grammar behind them. This time,
make sure you know all the rules.
The perfect tenses are also called the compound or composed tenses.
The perfect tenses are all composed of a conjugated auxillary verb and a fixed past participle.
Auxillary Verb Formation
The auxillary verb is always either avoir or être.
The tense of the verb depends upon the tense that avoir or être is conjugated in.
When the auxillary verb is conjugated in the passé composé, for example, the auxillary verb is
conjugated in the present indicative.
J'ai fini. - I have finished.
Past Participle Formation
-er verbs - replace -er with é
-ir verbs - replace -ir with i
-re verbs - replace -re with u
irregular verbs - must be memorized
Past Participle Agreement
Audio: French native speaker
The past participle must agree with the direct object of a clause in gender and plurality if the direct
object goes before the verb.
the direct object is masculine singular - no change
J'ai fini le jeu. - I have finished the game.
Je l'ai fini. - I have finished it.
the direct object is feminine singular - add an e to the past participle
J'ai fini la tâche. - I have finished the task.
Je l'ai finie. - I have finished it.
the direct object is masculine plural - add an s to the past participle.
J'ai fini les jeux. - I have finished the games.
Je les ai finis. - I have finished them.
the direct object is feminine plural - add an es to the past participle.
J'ai fini les tâches. - I have finished the tasks.
Je les ai finies. - I have finished them.
Avoir ou Être?
In most circumstances, the auxillary verb is avoir.
However, under certain situations, the auxillary verb is être.
This occurs when:
The verb is one of 16 special verbs that take être.
Note that when a direct object is used with these verbs, the auxillary verb becomes avoir.
The verb is reflexive.
That is, the subject of the verb is also its object.
List of Tenses
There are seven perfect tenses in French. These are:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Le passé composé (The Present Perfect)
Le plus-que-parfait de l'indicatif (The Pluperfect of the Indicative)
Le plus-que-parfait du subjonctif (The Pluperfect Subjunctive)
Le passé antérieur (The Past Anterior)
Le futur antérieur (The Future Anterior)
Le conditionnel passé (The Past Conditional)
Le passé du subjonctif (The Past Subjunctive)
G: Simple Future of Regular Verbs
There are three versions of the future tense in French, the futur simple the futur composé, and the futur
antérieur(future perfect). The futur composé is formed by inserting the present form of aller before the
infinitive, e.g. elle va réussir (she will pass, or she is going to pass) is the futur composé of elle réussit
To conjugate a verb in the futur simple, one takes the infinitive and appends the right form of avoir except
for nous and vous which takes -ons or -ez, as according to the table:
Audio: French native speaker
Subject
Add Ending Conjugated Verb
Je
-ai
Tu
-as
Il / Elle / On -a
Nous
-ons
Vous
-ez
Ils / Elles -ont
réussirai
réussiras
réussira
réussirons
réussirez
réussiront
Les vacances
Audio: French native speaker
Cet été, nous partirons en vacances au bord de la mer. Nous allons passer une semaine à Nice sur la côte
d'Azur. Nous partirons en voiture et il y aura certainement beaucoup de bouchons sur l'autoroute. Nous nous
baignerons le matin et je ferai des châteaux de sable avec mon fils. A midi nous mangerons puis nous ferons
une bonne sieste car il fera certainement très chaud. L'après-midi, nous irons visiter des expositions de
peintures ou alors nous irons dans des parc d'attractions. Vivement les vacances !
Lesson 3.02 - Work
G: Irregular Past Participles Review
Audio : french native speaker
Audio : french native speaker
avoir - eu (to have)
boire - bu (to drink)
conduire - conduit (to drive) (and all other -uire verbs)
connaître - connu (to know (personally))
courir - couru (to run)
croire - cru (to believe)
dire - dit (to say)
devoir - dû (to have to, to owe)
être - été (to be)
faire - fait (to do, to make)
falloir - fallu (to be necessary)
lire - lu (to read)
mettre - mis (to put (on)) (and all words adding prefixes to mettre)
ouvrir - ouvert (to open) (and most other -rir verbs)
pouvoir - pu (to be able to)
pleuvoir - plu (to rain)
prendre - pris (to take)
recevoir - reçu (to receive)
rire - ri (to laugh)
savoir - su (to know (as a fact))
sourire - souri (to smile)
suivre - suivi (to follow)
vivre - vécu (to live)
voir - vu (to see)
vouloir - voulu (to want)
G: Conjugated Verb + Infinitive Review
Formation
The formation of a conjugated verb+infinitive is the same in French as it is in English. You simply
conjugate the first verb, then put the infinitive. Examples follow.
j'aime tu aimes il/elle aime Nous aimons Vous aimez ils/elles aiement
Aimer
J'aime jouer au tennis (I like to play tennis).
J'aime lire le journal au lit (I like to read the newspaper in bed).
Vouloir
Je veux aller au centre commercial (I want to go to the mall).
However, when one uses vouloir to request something of someone else, one must use the subjunctive.
Je veux que tu fasses la vaisselle (I want you to do the dishes).
Pouvoir
Faire Causitif
Audio : french native speaker
The faire causitif is formed by conjugating faire and adding an infinitive.
Je le fais réparer. - I have it fixed.
Futur Proche
The future proche tense is formed by conjugating aller in the present indicative and adding an infinitive
Je vais aller. - I'm going to go.
Pronouns
Pronouns come before the verb they modify, which is not necessarily the first verb in a sentence
Je vais le voir. - I'm going to see it.
Negation
Either the conjugated verb or the infinitive can be negated, each meaning slightly different things.
Je n'aime pas marcher. - I don't like to run.
J'aime ne pas marcher. - I like to not run.
V: Private Employment
V: Government Occupations
V: The Office
V: Office Supplies
Le chômage
Audio : french native speaker
Avant j'avais un travail : je travaillais dans une banque. Mais la banque a fermé et je me suis retrouvé au
chômage. Je n'ai plus de travail et j'en cherche tous les jours. Je lis les petites annonces et j'envoie des lettres
de candidature. Je n'ai pas souvent de réponses. Mais aujourd'hui, j'ai obtenu un entretien d'embauche. Avec
un peu de chance, j'obtiendrai le travail...
Lesson 3.03 - Health
V: Illness
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (115 kb • help)
Illness La maladie
To ache
avoir mal au/à la/à l'/aux... to have a ...ache, to hurt avoir mal au ventre
to have a bellyache
avoir mal à la tête
to have a headache
avoir mal partout
to ache all over
avoir mal à l'oreille
to have an earache
avoir des maux de cœur to feel sick, nauseaus
avoir mal aux dents
to have a toothache
Actions
Sickness and Pain
être malade
to be sick
avoir la grippe
to have the flu
avoir de la fièvre
to have a fever
être enrhumé
to have a cold
éternuer
to sneeze
s'évanouir
saigner
tousser
vomir
to faint
to bleed
to cough
to throw up
G: Simple Future of Irregular Verbs
The simple future of irregular verbs, like the passé composé of many irregular verbs, must be memorized.
What makes this somewhat easy is that verbs with similar endings normally have similar future stems.
For example, the future stem of the verb venir is viendr-. Verbs like venir (devenir, revenir) have a very
similar stem (deviendr-, reviendr-).
G: Issuing Commands in French - l'impératif
The nous form commands are used to say "Let's...".
The subject is not used when giving a command.
Formation
Take away the ending and add on the following shown in the table.
French Grammar • Print version • audio (info •104 kb • help)
The Imperative L'impératif
-er Verbs
-ir Verbs
Subject Ending Verb Ending
Tu
-e
Parle!
-is
Verb
Finis!
-re Verbs
Ending
-s
Verb
Vends!
Nous -ons
Parlons! -issons Finissons! -ons
Vendons!
Vous -ez
Parlez! -issez
Vendez!
Affirmative
Finissez! -ez
Negative
The negative imperative is formed by placing the imperative between "ne" and "pas/jamais/rien/etcetera."
Ne parle pas! (Don't speak!)
Ne regarde jamais le soleil! (Never look at the sun!)
G: Adverbs
French adverbs, like their English counterparts, are used to modify adjectives, other adverbs, and verbs or
clauses. They do not display any inflection; that is, their form does not change to reflect their precise role,
nor any characteristics of what they modify.
Formation
In French, as in English, most adverbs are derived from adjectives. In most cases, this is done by adding the
suffix -ment ("-ly") to the adjective's feminine singular form. For example, the feminine singular form of
lent ("slow") is lente, so the corresponding adverb is lentement ("slowly"); similarly, heureux →
heureusement ("happy" → "happily").
As in English, however, the adjective stem is sometimes modified to accommodate the suffix: Audio :
Native French Speaker
If the adjective ends in an i, then -ment is added to the masculine singular (default) form, rather than to
the feminine singular form:
vrai → vraiment ("real" → "really")
poli → poliment ("polite" → "politely")
If the adjective ends in -ant or -ent, then the corresponding adverb ends in -amment or -emment,
respectively:
constant → constamment ("constant" → "constantly")
récent → récemment ("recent" → "recently")
Some adjectives make other changes:
précis → précisément ("precise" → "precisely")
gentil → gentiment ("nice" → "nicely")
Some adverbs are derived from adjectives in completely irregular fashions, not even using the suffix -ment:
bon → bien ("good" → "well")
mauvais → mal ("bad" → "badly")
meilleur → mieux ("better"-adjective → "better"-adverb)
pire → pis ("worse"-adjective → "worse"-adverb)
And, as in English, many common adverbs are not derived from adjectives at all:
ainsi ("thus" or "thusly")
Placement
The placement of French adverbs is almost the same as the placement of English adverbs. Audio : Native
French Speaker
An adverb that modifies an adjective or adverb comes before that adjective or adverb:
complètement vrai ("completely true")
pas possible ("not possible")
tellement discrètement ("so discreetly")
An adverb that modifies an Infinitive (verbal noun) generally comes after the infinitive:
marcher lentement ("to walk slowly")
But negative adverbs, such as pas ("not"), plus ("not any more"), and jamais come before the infinitive:
ne pas marcher ("not to walk")
An adverb that modifies a main verb or clause comes either after the verb, or before the clause:
Lentement il commença à marcher or Il commença lentement à marcher ("Slowly, he began to walk"
or "He began slowly to walk").
Note that, unlike in English, this is true even of negative adverbs:
Jamais je n'ai fait cela or Je n'ai jamais fait cela ("Never have I done that" or "I've never done that")
V: Visiting the Doctor
Audio : Native French Speaker
Le patient :
Je suis malade. (I am ill).
J'ai mal à la tête. (I have a headache).
J'ai de la fièvre. (I am fevrish)
J'ai mal au ventre.
Je vomis.
Je tousse. (I cough)
Le docteur
Comment allez-vous ?
Prenez de l'aspirine.
Je vais vous prescrire un médicament.
Prenez une cuillère de sirop matin, midi et soir
Il faut passer un "scanner"
Il faut passer des radios.
Il faut vous opérer.
V: Visiting the Dentist
Audio : Native French Speaker
J'ai mal aux dents.
Vous avez une carie.
Je dois procéder à une extraction. (Il va enlever la dent)
J'ai un appareil dentaire.
Je vais utiliser la roulette.
Ahhhhhhhhhh !
V: Healthcare
V: Emergencies
Audio : Native French Speaker
Je vais à l'hôpital.
C'est grave !
Je vais aux urgences.
J'ai eu un accident de voiture.
SAMU=Service Ambulancier Médical d'Urgence
En cas d'accident grave, il faut téléphoner au SAMU (15) ou aux pompiers (18) ou au 112.
V: Medicine
V: Body parts
Here is the vocabulary to speak about body parts :
Audio : Native French Speaker
Audio : Native French Speaker
French
La tête
Le corps
Le bras
La jambe
La poitrine
Le ventre
L'épaule (f)
Le coude
Le poignet
La main
Le doigt
Le genou
Le pied
L'orteil (m)
L'œil (m)
(pl. les yeux)
La bouche
La dent
Le nez
L'oreille (f)
Le cou
La langue
Les cheveux
L'ongle (m)
English
Head
Body
Arm
Leg
Chest
Belly
Shoulder
Elbow
Wrist
Hand
Finger
Knee
Foot
Toe
Eye
Mouth
Tooth
Nose
Ear
Neck
Tongue
Hair
Nail
Le poumon
L'estomac (m)
Le cœur
Le foie
L'intestin (m)
L'os (m)
Le crâne
Le muscle
Le cerveau
La rate
L'utérus (m)
Le nombril
Lung
Stomach
Heart
Liver
Intestine
Bone
Skull
Muscle
Brain
Spleen
Womb
Navel,
belly button
V: Body position
And here is the vocabulary for body positions :
French
English
Debout Standing
Assis
Seating
Couché Laying down
À genoux Kneeling
Accroupi Squatted
V: Common sentences
When you 'catch a cold' you 'attrapes un rhume'. When you're sick, tu es malade. When you wish to say that
parts of your body are sore, you say "J'ai mal au/à la/à l'/aux [body part] ...". Example: J'ai mal à la tete. (I
have a headache); J'ai mal aux dents (My teeth hurt).
E: 3.03 1 - Body Parts - Visual Memorization
Point to different parts of the body and recite its name in French par cœur.
Lesson 3.04 - Money
G: Personal Pronouns Review
Main article: w:French personal pronouns
Direct Objects
While the subject of a sentence initiates an action (the verb), the direct object is the one that is affected by
the action. A direct object pronoun is used to refer to the direct object of a previous sentence:
Pierre voit le cambrioleur. Pierre sees the burglar.
Pierre le voit.
Pierre sees him.
The following table shows the various types of direct object pronouns:
French me, m' te, t' le, l'
English me1
la, l' nous vous les
1
1
1
you him, it her, it us you them
Notes:
1
me, te, nous, and vous are also used as indirect objects to mean to me, to you, to us, and to you
respectively.
The pronoun form with an apostrophe is used before a vowel.
The direct object pronoun for nous and vous is the same as the subject.
When the direct object comes before a verb in a perfect tense, a tense that uses a past participle, the
direct object must agree in gender and plurality with the past participle. For example, in te phrase Je
les ai eus, or I had them, the past participle would be spelled eus if the direct object, les, was referring
to a masculine object, and eues if les is referring to a feminine object.
Indirect Objects
An indirect object is an object that would be asked for with To whom...? or From whom...?. It is called
indirect because it occurs usually together with a direct object which is affected directly by the action:
Il donne du pain à Pierre. The man gives some bread to Pierre.
Il lui donne du pain.
He gives bread to him.
The following table shows the various types of direct object pronouns:
French me, m' te, t'
lui
nous vous
leur
English to me1 to you1 to him, to her to us1 to you1 to them
Notes:
1
me, te, nous, and vous are also used as direct objects to mean me, you, us, and you respectively.
The pronoun form with an apostrophe is used before a vowel.
The indirect object pronoun for nous and vous is the same as the subject.
The indirect object pronouns do not agree with the past participle like the direct object pronouns do.
When me, te, nous, and vous are used in a perfect tense, the writer must decide whether they are used
as direct or indirect object pronouns. This is done by looking at the verb and seeing what type of
action is being performed.
The bread is given by the man (direct). Pierre gets the given apple (indirect).
The Pronoun Y
Indirect Object Pronoun - to it, to them
The French pronoun y is used to replace an object of a prepositional phrase introduced by à.
Je réponds aux questions. - J' y réponds.
I respond to the questions. - I respond to them.
Note that lui and leur, and not y, are used when the the object refers to a person or persons.
Replacement of Places - there
The French pronoun y replaces a prepositional phrase referring to a place that begins with any preoposition
except de (for which en is used).
Les hommes vont en France. - Les hommes y vont.
The men go to France - The men go there.
Note that en, and not y is used when the object is of the preposition de.
Idioms
Ça y est! - It's Done!
J'y suis! - I get it!
En
Note how we say Je veux du pain to say 'I want some bread' ? But what happens when we want to say 'I
want some' without specifying what we want? In these cases, we use the pronoun 'en'. As well, 'en' can mean
'of it' when 'it' is not specified. For instance, instead of saying J'ai besoin de l'argent, if the idea of money
has already been raised, we can just say 'J'en ai besoin'. This is because what en does is replace du, de la or
des when there is nothing after it.
Like with 'me', 'te' and other pronouns, en (meaning 'some') comes before the verb.
Tu joues du piano? Non, je n'en joue pas
Do you play piano? No, I don't play it.
Vous prenez du poisson? Oui, j'en prends.
Are you having fish? Yes, I'm having some.
Vous avez commandé de l'eau? Oui, nous en avons
commandé.
Did you order some water? Yes, we ordered
some.
G: Commands with Pronouns - L'impératif
When expressing positive commands, there are several rules one must remember when using object
pronouns. These are:
The pronouns are attached the the verb with a hyphen.
Retrouve-la. - Find it.
Me and Te become moi and toi.
Donnez-moi les vidéos. - Give me the videos.
Le, la, and les precede all other object pronouns.
Donnez-le-moi. - Give it to me.
G: Present Conditional
To conjugate a verb in the Conditional, one takes the infinitive and appends the same endings as when using
the imparfait, as according to the table:
Subject
Add Ending Conjugated Verb
Je
-ais
Tu
-ais
Il / Elle / On -ait
Nous
-ions
Vous
-iez
Ils / Elles -aient
réussirais
réussirais
réussirait
réussirions
réussiriez
réussiraient
V: Forms of Payment
V: Economics
V: Handling Money
saving, investing, etc
V: Going to a Bank
Lesson 3.05 - Youth
G: Imperfect - Imparfait
The imparfait is used to "set the tone" of a past situation. An example in English being: "We were singing
when Dad came home." It tells what was going on when a particular action or event occurred. In French, the
above example would be: "Nous chantions quand papa est rentré."
In order to conjugate the imperfect,
take the 1st person plural of the verb you want to conjugate:
French Verb • Print version • audio (upload)
jouer to play
singular
plural
first person
je joue
nous jouons
second person
tu joues
vous jouez
il joue
ils jouent
third person
Remove the -ons ending to find the stem, and add these endings:
subject ending
jouer
finir
attendre
(nous jouons) (nous finissons) (nous attendons)
je
-ais jouais
finissais
attendais
tu
-ais jouais
finissais
attendais
jouait
finissait
attendait
il/elle/on
-ait
nous
-ions jouions
finissions
attendions
vous
-iez jouiez
finissiez
attendiez
finissaient
attendaient
ils/elles -aient jouaient
Note: The only verb that has an irregular stem (one not derived from the nous form of the present
idicative) is être. The imperfect endings are added to ét___. Every other verb uses the nous form of the
present indicative as its root.
G: Possesive Pronouns
Possessive pronouns replace possessive article + noun sets.
French Grammar • Print version • audio: One • Two (238 + 232 kb • help)
Possesive Pronouns Les pronoms possesifs
mon copain ton copain son copain
notre copain votre copain leur copain
my friend your friend his/her friend our friend your friend their friend
le mien
le tien
le sien
le nôtre
le vôtre
le leur
mine
yours
his/hers
ours
yours
theirs
mes copains tes copains ses copains nos copains vos copains leurs copains
my friends your friends his/her friends our friends your friends their friends
les miens les tiens
les siens
les nôtres les vôtres
les leurs
mine
yours
his/hers
ours
yours
theirs
ma copine ta copine sa copine
notre copine votre copine leurs copine
my friend your friend his/her friend our friend your friend their friend
la mienne la tienne
la sienne
la nôtre
la vôtre
la leur
mine
yours
his/hers
ours
yours
theirs
mes copines tes copines ses copines nos copines vos copines leurs copines
my friends your friends his/her friends our friends your friends their friends
les miennes les tiennes les siennes les nôtres les vôtres
les leurs
mine
yours
his/hers
ours
yours
theirs
Vous avez votre voiture? - You have your car?
Oui, nous avons la nôtre. - Yes, we have ours.
À + a stress pronoun is used when the noun replaced is also the subject of the sentence. This usually occurs
in sentences with être.
Elle est ta voiture? - Is that your car?
Oui, elle est à moi. - Yes, it is mine.
G: Stem Changing Verbs Review
-exer Verbs
-exer are regular -er verbs, but also are stem changing. The stem change applies to all forms except nous and
vous. The stem change involves adding a grave accent ( ` ) over the e in the stem.
Tenses affected by this rule:
-éxer Verbs
Like -exer verbs, the accent aigu above the e ( é ) changes to an accent grave ( è ).
Tenses affected by this rule:
-yer Verbs
-yer verbs are regular -er verbs. However, when y is part of the last syllable, it changes to i in order to keep
the ay sound. In the present indicative of -yer verbs, this affects all forms except nous and vous.
Tenses affected by this rule:
appuyer
payer
Appeler
All forms except nous and vous have the l doubled.
Tenses affected by this rule:
-cer Verbs
The last c in the verb changes to ç in the nous form.
Tenses affected by this rule:
commencer
-ger Verbs
An e is added after the g in the nous form.
Tenses affected by this rule:
changer
manger
V: Children's Games and Toys
un hochet
un cheval de bois
une poupée
une dinette
un train électrique
des légos
un ours en peluche
une console de jeu (une nintendo, une gameboy, une ps2)
des jeux de société : le monopoly, le cluedo, la bonne paye
des "transformers"
V: The Carnival
See List of Party Words
V: French Children's Poems, Songs, and Stories
Petit Papa Noël
Petit Papa Noël
Quand tu descendras du ciel
Avec des jouets par milliers
N'oublies pas mes petits souliers
Mais avant de partir
Il faudra bien te couvrir
Dehors tu vas avoir si froid
C'est un peu à cause de moi
...
Lesson 3.06 - Adolescence
V: Pop Culture
General
un adolescent(m.)
teenager
un pré-adolescent(m.)
preteen
la paresse(f.)
lazyness
Faire l'école buissonnière
Skip classes
Flâner avec les copains
Hang out with friends
Flics
cops
policiers, gendarmes
police officers
(petit) copain(m.), (petite) copine(f.)
boyfriend, girlfriend
petit ami(m.), petite amie(f.)
boyfriend, girlfriend
faire du shopping (France), magasiner (Canada)
do some shopping
centre commercial(m.) (France), centre d'achats(m.)(Canada) shopping mall
puberté(f.)
puberty
G: Pronominal Verbs Review
Pronominal verbs are verbs that, put simply, include pronouns. These pronouns are me, te, se, nous, and vous
and are used as either direct objects or indirect objects, depending on the verb that they modify. When
proniminal verbs are conjugated in perfect tenses, être is used as the auxiliary verb. There are three types of
pronominal verbs: reflexive verbs, reciprocal verbs, and naturally pronominal verbs.
Reflexive Verbs
Reflexive verbs reflect the action on the subject.
Je me lave. - I wash myself.
Nous nous lavons. - We wash ourselves.
Ils se lavent. - They wash themselves.
Reflexive verbs can also be used as infinitives.
Je vais me laver. - I'm going to wash myself.
Either the conjugated verb or the infinitive can be negated each with slightly different meanings.
Je ne vais pas me laver. - I'm not going to wash myself.
In perfect tenses, the past participles agree with the direct object pronoun, but not the indirect object
pronoun, in gender and plurality. Therefore it would only agree when the reflexive pronoun is the direct
object. Also remember that the past participle does not agree with the direct object if it goes after the verb.
Elle s'est lavée. - She washes herself.
Nous nous sommes lavé(e)s. - We wash ourselves.
Elle s'est lavé les mains. - She washed her hands.
Nous nous sommes lavé les mains. - We washed our hands.
Reciprocal Verbs
With reciprocal verbs, people perform actions to each other.
Nous nous aimons. - We like each other.
Like reflexive verbs, the past participle of reciprocal verbs agrees in number and gender with the direct
object if it goes before the verb. It therefore agrees with all reciprocal pronouns that function as direct
objects.
Nous nous sommes aimé(e)s. - We liked each other.
The reciprocal pronoun can also function as an indirect object without a direct object pronoun.
Nous nous sommes parlé. - We spoke to each other.
Elles se sont téléphoné. - They called to one another.
Vous vous êtes écrit souvent? - You write to each other often?
Naturally Pronominal Verbs
Some verbs are pronominal without performing a reflexive or reciprocal action. Tu te souviens? - You
remember?
In perfect tenses, these verbs agree with the direct object if it goes before the verb. Otherwise, the past
participle agrees with the subject.
Elle s'est souvenue. - She remembered.
Some verbs have different meanings as pronominal verbs.
rendre - to return, to give back
se rendre (à) - to go (to)
G: Imparfait vs. Passé Composé
The difference between the passe compose and l'imparfait can be difficult to master. The imperfect is used
for past habitual actions (Quand j'etais petite, je jouais au foot.), to set the scene (C'etait samedi. La lune
brillait.). The passé composé, as well as the passé simple, are used to express punctual actions. (Hier, j'ai
joué à Colin Maillard. La lune a brillé pendant trois nuits). This does not mean that the action had to happen
over a very short time, but that it is understood as a single punctual event, now finished. The imparfait will
express a more general statement while the passé composé will express a more precise action.
Examples:
Les singes criaient violemment lors de ma visite du zoo When I visited the zoo, the monkeys were loud.
Lorsque je suis passé devant leur cage, les singes ont crié When I walked by their cage, the monkeys
violemment
shouted violently
G: Plus-Que-Parfait
The plus-que-parfait is used when there are two occurrences in the past and one wants to symbolise that one
occurrence happened before the other. In English, this is used in a phrase like "I had given him the toy
before he went to sleep." In this example, there are two past tenses, but they occur at different times. The
plus-que-parfait can be used to indicate the occurrence of one before the other. Essentially, the past before
the past.
In French, the plus-que-parfait is formed by conjugating the auxiliary verb in the imparfait and adding the
past participle. So to conjugate je mange (I eat) in the plus-que-parfait, one finds the appropriate auxiliary
verb (avoir), conjugates it (avais) and finds the past participle of manger (mangé). So, the conjugation of Je
mange in the plus-que-parfait becomes j'avais mangé or, in English, I had eaten.
Examples:
À ce moment, j'ai mangé le pain que tu m'avais
donné.
Tu m'avais déjà appelé, lorsque je suis parti.
At that moment, I ate the bread that you had given
me
When I left, you had already called me
General Examples
J'ai parlé français.
I spoke French (on one particular occasion).
Je parlais français.
I spoke French (during a period of time, and I don't speak French any more).
Nous avons réussi à l'examen. We passed the test.
Il a été mon ami.
He was my friend (and he is not my friend any more)
Il était mon ami lorsque...
He was my friend when . . .
Ils ont fait leurs devoirs.
They did their homework.
Il est venu.
He came (and I don't need to say when)
Il vint le lendemain.
He came the day after. (this is the passé simple)
Il venait tous les jours.
He came/used to come every day.
Il était déjà venu.
He had already come.
It should be noted that these examples are making use of all the possible past tenses; not just the
plus-que-parfait.
V: Mass Media
V: Part-Time Jobs
Lesson 3.07 - Ancient History
L'histoire de la France jusqu'en 1700.
G: Interrogative Pronouns
G: Passé Simple of Regular Verbs
Unlike English, there is a literary past tense, used when writing formally. This past tense is the passé simple.
It is relatively simple to predict when to use this tense: for every occurrence of the passé composé in
conversational French, one simply uses the passé simple in literary French. Note that the passé simple is not
a composed tense, and therefore does not have an auxiliary verb like the passé composé does.
Formation
To conjugate in this tense, one finds the stem and appends the following, as according to the table:
French Grammar • Print version • audio (upload)
The Simple Past Le passé simple
Subject
Je
Tu
Il
Nous
Vous
Ils
Ending
-ai
-as
-a
-âmes
-âtes
-èrent
Conjugated Verb
Je dansai.
Tu dansas.
Il dansa.
Nous dansâmes.
Vous dansâtes.
Ils dansèrent.
English
I danced.
You danced.
He danced.
We danced
You danced.
They danced.
Regular Normally-Irregular Verbs
The following verbs are irregular in the present indicative, but are regular in their passé simple stems.
Infinitive
Stem
Je...
-ir verbs
dormir dorm
dormis
partir
part
partis
sentir
sent
sentis
servir
serv
servis
sortir
sort
sortis
-rir Verbs
couvrir couvr
couvris
découvrir découvr découvris
offrir
offr
offris
ouvrir
ouvr
souffrir souffr
ouvris
souffris
-re Verbs
combattre combatt combattis
rompre romp
suivre
suiv
rompis
suivis
Exercises
Complétez les phrases suivantes en conjuguant les verbes au passé simple:
1. J'_____ (entrer) dans le tour.
2. Tout d'un coup, mon ami ____ (tomber).
3. Nous _________ (monter) l'éscalier.
4. Je _____ (dire) aux professeurs qu'il _______ (regarder) la télé.
5. Ils t'_______ (offrir) le plat, et tu le _______ (laisser) tomber.
V: Farming and Peasant Life
V: Noble Life
V: The King
V: The Renaissance
V: The Reformation
Lesson 3.08 - Revolution!
Déclaration des Droits de l'Homme et du Citoyen - Historical Text for this lesson.
G: Passé Simple of Irregular Verbs
Some passé simple stems are based off the past participle. Others must be memorized.
Ending Formation
je tu il nous vous ils
-is -is -it -îmes -îtes irent
je tu il nous vous ils
-in_ Endings
-ins -ins -int -înmes -întes inrent
je tu il nous vous ils
-u_ Endings
-us -us -ut -ûmes -ûtes urent
-i_ Endings
Irregular Verb List
French Grammar • Print version • audio (upload)
Simple Past Irregular Verbs Des verbes irréguliers du passé simple
Infinitive
Past
Part.
Stem
Passé simple
je
tu
il
nous
vous
ils
-i_ Endings
s'asseoir
assis
conduire
m'assis
t'assis
s'assit
nous assîmes vous assîtes s'assirent
conduis conduisis conduisis conduisit conduisîmes conduisîtes conduisirent
conquérir conquis
construire
conqu conquis
conquis
conquit
conquîmes
conquîtes
conquirent
construis construisis construisis construisit construisîmes construisîtes construisirent
craindre
dire
ass
craign craignis
craignit
craignîmes
craignîtes
craignirent
d
dis
dis
dit
dîmes
dîtes
dirent
faire
f
fis
fis
fit
fîmes
fîtes
firent
écrire
écriv
écrivis
écrivis
écrivit
écrivîmes
écrivîtes
écrivirent
mis
mis
mit
mîmes
mîtes
mirent
naquis
naquis
naquit
naquîmes
naquîtes
naquirent
peign peignis
peignis
peignit
peignîmes
peignîtes
peignirent
pris
prit
prîmes
prîtes
prirent
rejoignis
rejoignit rejoignîmes rejoignîtes rejoignirent
ris
ris
rit
rîmes
rîtes
rirent
souris
souris
sourit
sourîmes
sourîtes
sourirent
vainquis
vainquit
vainquîmes
vainquîtes
vainquirent
mettre
dit
craignis
mis
naître
naqu
peindre
prendre
m
pris
rejoindre
pr
rejoin rejoignis
rire
ri
r
sourire
souri
sour
vaincre
pris
vainqu vainquis
-in_ Endings
devenir
dev
tenir
venir
devins
devins
devin
devînmes
devîntes
devinrent
t
tins
tins
tint
tînmes
tîntes
tinrent
v
vins
vins
vint
vînmes
vîntes
vinrent
-u_ Endings
avoir
eu
e
eus
eus
eut
eûmes
eûtes
eurent
boire
bu
b
bus
bus
but
bûmes
bûtes
burent
conn
connus
connus
connut
connûmes
connûtes
connurent
courus
courus
courut
courûmes
courûtes
coururent
connaître connus
courir
couru
cour
croire
cru
cr
crus
crus
crut
crûmes
crûtes
crurent
devoir
dû
d
dus
dus
dut
dûmes
dûtes
durent
f
fus
fus
fut
fûmes
fûtes
furent
fallus
fallus
fallut
fallûmes
fallûtes
fallurent
lus
lus
lut
lûmes
lûtes
lurent
mourus
mourut
mourûmes
mourûtes
moururent
être
falloir
fallu
fall
lire
lut
l
mourir
mour mourus
plaire
plu
pl
plus
plus
plut
plûmes
plûtes
plurent
pleuvoir
plu
pl
=
=
plut
=
=
=
pouvoir
pu
p
pus
pus
put
pûmes
pûtes
purent
recevoir
reçu
reç
reçus
reçus
reçut
reçûmes
reçûtes
reçurent
savoir
su
s
sus
sus
sut
sûmes
sûtes
surent
valoir
valu
val
valus
valus
valut
valûmes
valûtes
valurent
vivre
vécu
véc
vécus
vécus
vécut
vécûmes
vécûtes
vécurent
vouloir
voulu
voul
voulus
voulus
voulut
voulûmes
voulûtes
voulurent
G: Relative Pronouns Qui and Que
Les pronoms relatifs qui et que
relative pronouns begin adjective clauses
the man that was here
the man that I saw
qui is the subject of the clause it introduces
Je vois l'homme qui l'a fait. - I see the man that did it.
L'homme qui l'a fait est ici. - The man that did it is here.
que is the direct object of the clause it introduces
Il est l'homme que j'ai vu. - He is the man that I have seen.
remember that in perfect tenses, the past participle agrees with the direct object in gender and plurality
if the direct object comes before the verb
Elles sont les femmes que j'ai vues. - They are the women that I have seen.
If que is followed by a vowel, it is shortened to qu'.
Il est l'homme qu'il a vu. - He is the man that he has seen.
qui is never shortened, even when followed by a vowel
qui and que can modify both people and things
Je vois la voiture qui est cassé. - I see the car that is broken.
qui and que can modify both masculine and feminine nouns
qui and que can modify both singular and plural nouns
in the phrases ce qui and ce que, which literally mean that which, but more naturally mean what, ce is
the noun
V: French Revolution
V: Democracy
V: The Napoleonic Era
V: Post-Napoleon France
V: The Industrial Revolution
V: The Enlightenment
Les Lumières
Jean-Jacques Rousseau Voltaire
Denis Diderot
Lesson 3.09 - Modern France
G: Past Conditional
The past conditional is fairly simple to form. It is used to express what you would have done if a certain
condition had been met (I would have gone to school).
To form the past conditional, you put the auxiliary verb into the conditional and add the past participle of the
verb like so: Je serais allé(e) à l'école, mais j'étais malade.
G: Comparative
French Grammar • Print version • audio (upload)
The Comparative Le Comparatif
Adjectives
Sub. + Verb Comparative
Adjective
Comparative Object
Je suis
plus
intelligent
que
toi.
I am
more
intelligent
than
you
Je suis
moins
intelligent
que
toi.
I am
less
intelligent
than
you
Je suis
aussi
intelligent
que
toi.
I am
as
intelligent
as
you.
Adverbs
Sub. + Verb Comparative
Je vois
plus/aussi/moins
I see
more
as
less
Adverb
Comparative Object
clairement
que
toi.
clearly
than
as
than
you.
Verbs
Sub.
Je
I
Verb
Comparative
Comparative Object
joue
plus/autant/moins
que
play
more
as much
less
than
as
than
toi.
you.
Nouns
Sub. + Verb Comparative
Je joue à
plus de
autant de
moins de
I play
more
as many
less/fewer
Noun
Comparative Object
jeux
que
toi
games
than
as
than
you.
G: Superlative
le/la/les + plus/moins + un adjectif
le/la/les + meilleur(e)(s)/mieux/pire
G: Asking Questions
Copy from French/Grammar/Sentences when complete.
V: The 20th Century
V: 20th Century Advancements and Changes
V: Modern War
Europaturm
Paris, France
La Tour Eiffel
Lesson 3.10 - Current Events
G: Future Perfect
In French, the future perfect tense is called the futur antérieur.
Formation
The future perfect is a perfect tense, and therefore consists of an auxiliary verb and a past participle. The
auxiliary verb, avoir or être, is conjugated in the future tense. All rules that apply to the passé composé and
other perfect tenses, such as certain verbs using être as an auxiliary verb, apply to the future perfect as well.
French Grammar • Print version • audio (upload)
The Future Perfect Le futur antérieur
parler
passer
Subject Avoir Conj. Past Part. Subject Être Conj. Past Part.
j'
aurai
parlé
je
serai
passé(e)
tu
auras
parlé
tu
seras
passé(e)
il
aura
parlé
il
sera
passé
elle
aura
parlé
elle
sera
passée
nous
aurons
parlé
nous
serons
passé(e)s
vous
aurez
parlé
vous
serez
passé(e)(s)
ils
auront
parlé
ils
seront
passés
elles
auront
parlé
elles
seront
passées
Use
Phrases constructed in the future perfect tense mean "will have ___ed" in both French and English. This
construction is used to say that before an event occurs, something else "will have" occurred by that time.
G: Demonstrative Pronouns
G: Stating If...
V: News
un quotidien
a daily newspaper
un hebdomadaire
a weekly magazine
l'actualité
news, current events
les nouvelles
news
les faits divers
local news items
se tenir informé(e) to stay informed
la une
the frontpage
V: France's Role in Global Politics
V: French Social Problems
le cambrioleur
burglar
un voleur
a thief
l'incendie (f.)
fire
le vandalisme
vandalism
l'acte de terrorisme (m.) or un attentat terrorism
la criminalité
crime
V: European Union
V: French Government
L'élection présidentielle :
Le président de la république est élu pour 5 ans au suffrage
universel direct. L'élection comporte 2 tours : au premier tour
la plupart des partis, petits ou grands, proposent un candidat. Il
existe aussi de nombreux candidats soutenus par aucun parti. Il
y a souvent entre 10 et 15 candidats au premier tour. Les 2
candidats arrivant en tête au premier tour s'affrontent lors du
deuxième tour. En général, il y a un candidat du PS et un
candidat de l'UMP au deuxième tour.
French government
En 2002, à la surprise générale, Jean-Marie Le Pen (FN) est
arrivé deuxième au premier tour devant Lionel Jospin (PS). Le
second tour a donc opposé Jacques Chirac (UMP) et
Jean-Marie Le Pen (FN). Jacques Chirac l'a largement emporté
avec 80% des voix.
Le Président de la République est le chef des armées et il
désigne le Premier Ministre.
L'Assemblée Nationale :
Les députés sont élus au suffrage universel direct à 2 tours.
Les députés peuvent renversé le gouvernement si la politique qu'il conduit ne leur convient pas.
Le Premier Ministre doit alors démissionner. Le Président de la République est donc obligé de
choisir un Premier Ministre ayant la majorité des députés à l'Assemblée Nationale.
L'Assemblée Nationale vote les lois proposées par le gouvernement.
Le sénat :
Il est élu au suffrage indirect : seul les maires et les autres élus peuvent voter pour les sénateurs. Les
sénateurs peuvent modifier certaines lois mais ont assez peu de pouvoir.
Questions
Combien de tours l'élection du président comporte-t-elle ?
Y a-t-il des candidats qui ne sont pas soutenus par un parti ?
Qui a gagné l'élection de 2002 au second tour ? Qui a perdu ?
V: French Politics
Quelques hommes politiques
File:Paul Biya.jpg
Le Parti Socialiste (PS) : Lionel Jospin, François Hollande, Ségolène
Royal, Jack Lang,....
L'UMP : Jacques Chirac (Président de la République), Dominique de
Villepin (Premier ministre), Nicolas Sarkozy
(ministre de l'Intérieur)
L'UDF : François Bayrou.
Le Parti Communiste Français (PCF) :
Marie-Georges Buffet
Les Verts : Dominique Voynet
Front national (FN) : Jean-Marie Le Pen (extrême
droite)
La ligue Communiste Révolutionnaire (LCR) :
Olivier Besancenot.
Lutte Ouvrière(LO) : Arlette Laguiller.
President of the Republic
Jacques Chirac on the right.
La politique en France
En France, les partis politiques sont de droite ou de
gauche.
à droite : l'UMP, l'UDF et le Front National
(FN).
à gauche : le PS, les Verts, le PCF, la LCR et
LO.
En 2005, le gouvernement est soutenu par l'UMP.
L'UDF et l'UMP sont actuellement fachés mais ils
ont souvent gouverné ensemble. Le FN est un parti
souvent classé à l'extrême-droite et certains
l'accusent de racisme. L'UMP et l'UDF refusent
tout contact avec le FN.
French political party division.
Les gouvernements de gauche sont composés de membres du Parti Socialiste, de quelques membres du PCF
et des Verts. La LCR et LO sont souvent classés à l'extrême gauche et refusent de participer à tout
gouvernement.
GRAMMAR
Grammar Contents
Information
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Adjectives
Adverbs
Grammatical Gender
Negation
Prepositions
Sentences
Tenses
Verbs
Un fleuve au pont de Sainte-Marguerite
Adjectives
Just like articles, French adjectives also have to match the nouns that they modify in gender and plurality.
Regular formation
Spelling
Most adjective changes occur in the following manner:
Feminine: add an -e to the masculine form
un garçon intéressant --> une fille intéressante
un ami amusant --> une amie amusante
un camion lent --> une voiture lente
Plural: add an -s to the singular form
un garçon intéressant --> des garçons intéressants
une fille intéressante --> des filles intéressantes
Pronunciation
Generally, the final consonant is pronounced only when it comes before an -e. Most adjectives, such as those
above, are affected by this rule.
Masculine Pronuciation: intéressan, amusan, len
Feminine Pronunciation: intéressant, amusant, lent
Irregular formation
Irregular plural formation
Examples
M Sing. --> M. Pl.
-->
Masc. Plural
-eau
un plafond bas
un gros porc
un homme
généreux
-x
un garçon furieux
-eaux un nouveau jeu
des plafonds bas
des gros porcs
des hommes
généreux
des garçons furieux
des nouveaux jeux
-al
-aux
des vents hivernaux
-s
No change
-x
Add x
Masc. Singular
-s
un vent hivernal
Notes
Exceptions: fatal (fatals),
final (finals) & naval
(navals)
Irregular feminine formation
Examples
Masc. --> Fem. Masculine --> Feminine
Notes
No change -e
-e
égoïste, populaire, sociable,
timide,
énergique, dynamique,
sympathique
* When the masc. form ends in an -e, there is
no change.
* The final consonant is pronounced on the
masc. form.
When an adjective has one of these endings,
the ending of
the feminine form is doubled. There is no
change of
pronunciation when changing from -el to -elle.
-il is pronounced "ee" (as in keen), while -ille
is similar, with a final yod (pronounced like
"ee" in keen with a "y" on the end: [ij] ).
-on is pronounced ohhn and -onne is
pronounced uhhne.
-en is pronounced euhn and -enne is
pronounced ehne.
-os is pronounced oh and -osse is pronounced
ohse.
-as is pronounced ah and -asse is pronounced
ahse.
-el
-elle cruel
cruelle
-il
-ille gentil
gentille
-on
-onne
bon
breton
bonne
bretonne
-en
-enne
ancien
parisien
ancienne
parisienne
-os
-osse gros
grosse
-as
-asse bas
basse
-c
change
-c
-che
blanc
franc
blanche
franche
-eur
change
-eur
-euse
accrocheur
prometteur
accrocheuse
prometteuse
-eux
change
-eux
-euse
furieux
généreux
furieuse
généreuse
-g
change
-g
-gue long
-if
change
-if
-ive
sportif
actif
sportive
active
étrangère
chère
-er is pronounced ay and -ère is pronounced
air, though exceptions such as "cher" exist in
which both forms are pronounced with an
ending similar to the word "air".
Final
Consonant
Doubled
-eux is pronounced euhh and -euse is
pronounced euhsse.
longue
er
change
-er
-ère
étranger
cher
-et
change
-et
-ète
inquiet
complet
inquiète
complète
-et is pronounced ay and -ète is pronounced
ette.
-ou
change
-ou /
-ol
-olle
fou, fol
mou, mol
folle
molle
-ol forms occur before a vowel or mute h.
Special rules
Adjectives that precede nouns
List
Adjectives that are used frequently before nouns. These are:
beau (belle)
joli(e)
nouveau (nouvelle)
vieux (vieille)
jeune +
bon(ne) +
gentil (gentille)
mauvais(e)
vilain(e)
grand(e) +
petit(e)
court(e) +
long(ue)
gros(se) +
large
haut(e)
affreux (affreuse)
dernier (dernière) +
méchant(e) +
meilleur(e)
pauvre
autre
+ sometimes placed after a noun, and may change in meaning
When these adjectives appear before an indefinite plural noun, they will change the article associated with it:
des garçons courageux / de beaux garçons
Changes in meaning
When grand goes before a noun, it means great. However, when it goes after the noun, it means tall.
Likewise, when pauvre goes before a noun, it means unfortunate. When it comes after the noun, it means
financially poor. This rule works most of the time, but be careful, "pauvre" can mean "financially poor" even
when used before the nouns.
Beau, nouveau, and vieux
These three adjectives behave differently when placed before a singular masculine noun starting with a
vowel or silent h:
Masc. Sing. Cons. Masc. Sing Vowel
Beau
un beau garçon
un bel individu
Nouveau un nouveau camion un nouvel ordre
Vieux un vieux camion
un vieil ordre
Masc. Plural
de beaux garçons
Fem. Sing. (all)
Fem. Plural
une belle fillette de belles fillettes
de nouveaux ordres une nouvelle idée de nouvelles idées
de vieux camions
une vieille idée
de vieilles idées
Possessive adjectives
In English, we say "her car" when the owner of the car is a woman and "his car" when the owner is a man. In
French, they say "sa voiture" even if the owner is a male. It is not the owner who determines the gender of
the possessive adjective but the object owned.
First person singular - mon, ma, mes
Second person singular (informal) - ton, ta, tes
Third person singular - son, sa, ses
First person plural - notre, notre, nos
Second person plural (and polite form) - votre, votre, vos
Third person plural - leur, leur, leurs
Note: Exception. When a feminine noun starts with a vowel or silent 'h', you should utilize "Mon" instead of
"Ma". Example:
Mon ami = ok
Ma amie = error!
Mon amie = ok.
Demonsrative adjectives
There are four adjectives that demonstrate a specific object:
Ce garçon (masculin)
Cet ami (masculin before vowel or silent h)
Cette fille (feminine)
Ces enfants (plural)
Adverbs
French adverbs, like their English counterparts, are used to modify adjectives, other adverbs, and verbs or
clauses. They do not display any inflection; that is, their form does not change to reflect their precise role,
nor any characteristics of what they modify.
Formation
In French, as in English, most adverbs are derived from adjectives. In most cases, this is done by adding the
suffix -ment ("-ly") to the adjective's feminine singular form. For example, the feminine singular form of
lent ("slow") is lente, so the corresponding adverb is lentement ("slowly"); similarly, heureux →
heureusement ("happy" → "happily").
As in English, however, the adjective stem is sometimes modified to accommodate the suffix:
If the adjective ends in an i, then -ment is added to the masculine singular (default) form, rather than to
the feminine singular form:
vrai → vraiment ("real" → "really")
poli → poliment ("polite" → "politely")
If the adjective ends in -ant or -ent, then the corresponding adverb ends in -amment or -emment,
respectively:
constant → constamment ("constant" → "constantly")
récent → récemment ("recent" → "recently")
Some adjectives make other changes:
précis → précisément ("precise" → "precisely")
gentil → gentiment ("nice" → "nicely")
Some adverbs are derived from adjectives in completely irregular fashions, not even using the suffix -ment:
bon → bien ("good" → "well")
mauvais → mal ("bad" → "badly")
meilleur → mieux ("better"-adjective → "better"-adverb)
pire → pire ("worse"-adjective → "worse"-adverb)
And, as in English, many common adverbs are not derived from adjectives at all:
ainsi ("thus" or "thusly")
Placement
The placement of French adverbs is almost the same as the placement of English adverbs.
An adverb that modifies an adjective or adverb comes before that adjective or adverb:
complètement vrai ("completely true")
pas possible ("not possible")
tellement discrètement ("so discreetly")
An adverb that modifies an Infinitive (verbal noun) generally comes after the infinitive:
marcher lentement ("to walk slowly")
But negative adverbs, such as pas ("not"), plus ("not any more"), and jamais come before the infinitive:
ne pas marcher ("not to walk")
An adverb that modifies a main verb or clause comes either after the verb, or before the clause:
Lentement il commença à marcher or Il commença lentement à marcher ("Slowly, he began to walk"
or "He began slowly to walk").
Note that, unlike in English, this is true even of negative adverbs:
Jamais je n'ai fait cela or Je n'ai jamais fait cela ("Never have I done that" or "I've never done that")
List of common adverbs
après
1. afterwards
On va au cinéma après
We'll go to the cinema afterwards
2. also a preposition
Grammatical Gender
Gender of nouns
In French, all nouns have a grammatical gender, that is, they are masculine or feminine for the purposes of
grammar only.
Most nouns that express entities with gender (people and animals) use both a feminine form and a masculine
form, for example, the two words for "actor" in French are acteur (m) and actrice (f).
The nouns that express entities without gender (e.g., objects and abstract concepts) have only one form. This
form can be masculine or feminine. For example, la voiture (the car) can only be feminine; le stylo (the pen)
can only be masculine.
There are some nouns that express entities with gender for which there is only one form, which is used
regardless of the actual gender of the entity, for example, the word for person; personne; is always feminine,
even if the person is male, and the word for teacher; professeur; is always masculine even if the teacher is
female.
With all that being said, there are three nouns in French where gender is altered when put in the plural form:
amour (un bel amour => des belles amours orgue délice
Examples
French Grammar • Print version • audio (info •113 kb • help)
Gender of Nouns Genre des Noms
Masculine
le cheval
the horse
le chien
the dog
le livre
the book
le bruit
the noise
Feminine
la colombe
the dove
la chemise
the shirt
la maison
the house
la liberté
liberty
Common Endings Used
With Masculine Nouns:
le fromage
-age
the cheese
le professeur
-r
the teacher
le chat
-t
the cat
le capitalisme
-isme
capitalism
Common Endings Used
With Feminine Nouns:
la boulangerie
-ie
the bakery
la nation
-ion
the nation
la fraternité
-ite/-ité
brotherhood
la balance
-nce
the scales
la fille
-nne
the girl
-mme
l’indienne
-lle
the Indian
Unfortunately, there are many exceptions in French which can only be learned. There are even words that
are spelled the same, but have a different meaning when masculine or feminine; for example, un livre (m)
means a book, but une livre (f) means a pound! Some words that appear to be masculine (like la photo,
which is actually short for la photographie) are in fact feminine, and vice versa. Then there are some that
just don't make sense; la foi is feminine and means a belief, whereas le foie means liver. To help overcome
this hurdle which many beginners find very difficult, be sure to learn the genders along with the words.
Definite and indefinite articles
The definite article
In English, the definite article is always “the”.
In French, the definite article is changed depending on the noun's:
1. Gender
2. Plurality
3. First letter of the word
There are three definite articles and an abbreviation. "Le" is used for masculine nouns, "La" is used for
feminine nouns, "Les" is used for plural nouns (both masculine or feminine), and "L' " is used when the
noun begins with a vowel or silent "h" (both masculine or feminine). It is similar to english, where "a"
changes to "an" before a vowel.
French Grammar • Print version • audio (info •78 kb • help)
The Definite Article L'article défini
feminine
la la fille
the daughter
singular
masculine
le le fils
the son
singular, starting with a vowel sound l’ l’enfant the child
les filles the daughters
the sons
plural
les les fils
les enfants the children
Note: Unlike English, the definite article is used to talk about something in a general sense, a general
statement or feeling about an idea or thing.
The indefinite article
In English, the indefinite articles are "a" and "an". "Some" is used as a plural article in English.
Again, indefinite articles in French take different forms depending on gender and plurality. The articles "Un"
and "une" literally mean "one" in French.
French Grammar • Print version • audio (info •55 kb • help)
The Indefinite Article L'article indéfini
feminine
une une fille
a daughter
singular
masculine
un un fils
a son
des filles some daughters
plural
des
1
some sons
des fils
1
"des fils" does mean "some sons" but is a homograph: it can also mean "some threads"
Also note that des, like les is used in French before plural nouns when no article is used in English. Let's
imagine you are looking at photographs in an album. In English, we would say "I am looking at
photographs." In French, you cannot say, "Je regarde photographies," you must tell which photographs you
are looking at using an article. If you were looking at a set of specific pictures, you would say "Je regarde les
photographies." ("I am looking at the photographs.") If you were just flipping through the album, looking at
nothing in particular, you would say, "Je regard des photographies." ("I am looking at some photographs.")
Subject pronouns
French has six different types of pronouns: the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd person singular and the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd
person plural.
French Grammar • Print version • audio (info •61 kb • help)
Subject Pronouns Les pronoms soumis
singular je
I
1st person
2nd person
3rd person
plural
singular
plural
singular
nous
tu
vous
il, elle, on
plural
ils, elles
we
you
you
he, she, one
they (masculine)
they (feminine)
When referring to more than one person in the 2nd person, “vous” must be used. When referring to a single
person, “vous” or “tu” may be used depending on the situation; see notes in lesson 1.
In addition to the nuances between vous and tu, as discussed in lesson 1, French pronouns carry meanings
that do not exist in English pronouns. The French third person "on" has several meanings, but most closely
matches the now archaic English "one". While in English, "One must be very careful in French grammar"
sounds old-fashioned, the French equivalent "On doit faire très attention à la grammaire française" is quite
acceptable. Also, while the third person plural "they" has no gender in English, the French equivalents "ils"
and "elles" do. However, when pronounced, they normally sound the same as "il" and "elle", so
distinguishing the difference requires understanding of the various conjugations of the verbs following the
pronoun. Also, if a group of people consists of both males and females, the male form is used, even if there
is only one male in a group of thousands of females.
In everyday language, “on” is used, instead of “nous”, to express “we”; the verb is always used in the 3rd
person singular. For example, to say "We (are) meeting at 7 o'clock", you could say either “On se rencontre
au cinéma à sept heures.” (colloquial) or “Nous nous rencontrons au cinéma à sept heures.” (formal). For
more, see the Wikipedia entry.
Negation
ne..pas
Simple negation is done by wrapping ne...pas around the verb.
Je ne vole pas. - I do not steal.
In a perfect tense, ne...pas wraps around the auxillary verb, not the participle.
Je n'ai pas volé. - I haven't stolen.
When an infinitive and conjugated verb are together, ne...pas usually wraps around the conjugated
verb.
Je ne veux pas voler. - I do not want to steal.
ne pas can also go directly in front of the infinitive for a different meaning.
Je veux ne pas voler. - I want not to steal.
ne goes before any pronoun relating to the verb it affects.
Je ne l'ai pas volé. - I did not steal it.
Nous ne nous aimons pas. - We do not love each other.
Other negative expressions
ne...aucun(e)
not any, none, no
ne...jamais
never
ne...ni...ni
neither...nor
ne...pas du tout not at all
ne...pas encore not yet
ne...personne
nobody
ne...plus
no longer
ne...guère
hardly
ne...que
only
ne...rien
nothing
ne...personne wraps around the entire verb set.
Je ne l'ai donné à personne. - I did not give it to anyone.
Je ne veux le donner à personne. - I do not want to give it to anybody.
ne...ni...ni requires two objects, either direct or indirect, and comes before them.
Je ne l'ai donné ni à mon frère, ni à ma sœur. - I gave it neither to my brother nor my sister.
Je ne peux voir ni mon frère ni ma sœur. - I am able to see neither my brother nor my sister.
In ne...aucun(e), aucun(e) goes before an object.
Il n'a aucun ami. Aucun. - He has no friend. None.
Il n'a aucune feuille de papier. Aucune. - He has no sheet of paper. None.
Il n'a qu'une feuille de papier. - He has only one piece of paper.
Je ne peux guère voir mon frère et ma sœur - I can hardly see my brother and sister.
Spoken French
Now, the 'ne' sometimes disappears when one speaks. However, it is always used in written French and for
formal conversations.
Je ne l'ai donné à personne (I didn't give it to anyone)
Je ne sais pas (I don't know)
Summary
To say not, never or other negative verbs you have to 'sandwich' the negative words around a verb.
Example:
Il n'y a pas de cinéma. (meaning: "There is not a cinema")
On ne peut jamais aller en boite. (meaning: "You can never go partying")
Il n' y a rien à faire ici. (meaning: "There is nothing to do here")
If " ne " is before a vowel then it changes to " n' ".
Prepositions
Common prepositions
Prepostion Translation
à
1. to
2. at
3. of
4. in
à côté de
next to,
besides
à l'intérieur
inside
de
après
avec
chez
dans
after
Example
Notes
-Expresses a report/ratio of place
(to), time (at),
Je vais à Paris. -- I am going to Paris.
possession (of or 's), means,
Je pars à cinq heures. -- I am leaving at five
manner, price.
C'est un ami à moi. -- This is a friend of
- Introduced a complement of
mine.
indirect object or a complement
C'est la voiture à John. -- This is John's car. of attribution, a complement of
the name or adjective.
Le chien est à côté du (du= de le) chat. The
Dog is next to the cat.
l'air à l'intérieur de la maison
Alternative: dedans (rarely used
the air inside the house
as a preposition)
On mange après avoir bu
We eat after we drink
Ils sont avec leurs familles. They are with
their Families.
at the home of Il est allé chez lui. He went home.
Les livres sont dans la bibliothèque. The
in
books are in the library.
Also an adverb.
with
de
1. of, from
2. about
derrière
behind
devant
in front of
Synonym: en
Also an indefinite artcle.
Contractions: du, des
IPA: /də/
Vos clés sont derrière votre lit. Your keys
are behind your bed.
Used mostly to indicate distance
in time or space.
Also a pronoun.
en
in
ici
here
Il est ici. He Is Here.
là
there
Où est-elle? Elle est là, dans cette
maison-là. Where is she? She is in that
house over there.
loin de
far
Le lycée est loin de la plage. The School is
far from the beach.
par
1. through
2. by, for
près de
near
La bibliothèque est près de la plage. The
Library is near the beach
pour
for
Ils l'ont fait pour toi. They made it for you. IPA: /pur/
sans
without
Elles veulent avoir une fête sans alcool.
They want to have a party without alcohol.
Also a noun: le par - (golf) par
La terre est sous le ciel. The Earth is under
the sky.
sous
under
sur
1. on
2. upon
3. on top of
4. above
La maison est sur la terre. The house is on
5. out of
top of the ground
6. sept sur dix
(seven out of
ten)
Synonyms: au-dessus de (above)
Antonyms: sous (below, under)
Antonyms: dessous,
au-dessous-de (below)
Also an adjective: m sing,
meaning sure
IPA: /syr/ (audio)
Pronouns
Subject pronouns
Singular
Plural
First person Second person Third person First person Second person Third person
(I)
(you)
(he, she, it)
(we, us)
(you)
(they)
Je
Tu, (Vous*)
Il, Elle, On**
Nous
Vous
Ils, Elles***
* Tu is informal and used only with well-known acquaintances. In case of unknown persons you have to use
the polite form Vous. A good example, to explain that is the following: If two business acquaintances meet
another, they say Vous. If they later fall in love, they say Tu. When unsure, it is better to say "vous." Also,
grammatically, even the singular form of "vous" behaves as though it were a plural, so even if you are
addressing only one person, you would still use verbal grammar consistent with addressing multiple people,
similar to English (as in "you are", "you [all] are", "they are.") Nevertheless, the adjectives or past participles
are declined according to the true number of the referring pronoun.
Examples, addressing one person:
Tu chantes - you sing (informal)
Vous chantez - you sing (polite) - (also, to address many persons)
Tu es grand - You are tall (informal)
Vous êtes grand - You are tall (polite, male)
Vous êtes grande - You are tall (polite, female)
Examples, addressing many persons:
Vous êtes grands - You are tall (informal or polite, male, many persons)
Vous êtes grandes - You are tall (informal or polite, female, many persons)
** - Il denotes masculine nouns, elle denotes feminine nouns, and on is for indeterminate subjects (see
below).
*** - Ils is used with all-male or mixed groups, elles is only used when all members of the group are female.
Examples:
Jack et Philipp parlent - Jack and Philipp speak
Ils parlent - They speak (all-male group)
Jack et Lucy parlent - Jack and Lucy speak
Ils parlent - They speak (mixed group)
Lucy et Dina parlent - Lucy and Dina speak
Elles parlent - They speak (all female group)
The pronoun on
The subject pronoun on is similar to the English personal pronoun one, except that it is not so formal, and is
more common. It has a number of uses:
It is used in the same ways as the English personal pronoun one:
It is used in expressing generalities: « C'est en forgeant qu'on devient forgeron. » ("It is by
blacksmithing that one becomes a blacksmith.")
It is the implicit subject for an infinitive that has no other implicit subject: « penser qu'on a
raison » ("to think that one is right," i.e. "to think oneself right").
Because of French's limited passive voice, it is often used as an empty subject when the agent is
unknown or unimportant: « On me l'a donné. » ("[On] gave it to me" or "I was given it" or "It was
given to me.")
It is used as a less formal substitute for the subject pronoun nous (we). In this case, note that even
though on always takes a third-person singular verb, it takes plural adjectives (« On est américains »,
"We're American"). Also, note that the other forms of nous (direct object, indirect object, and
disjunctive) are not replaced by forms of on unless on is the subject as well. (Hence, « Ils nous l'ont
donné », "They gave it to us," but « On se l'est donné », "We gave it to ourselves.")
It is not the number 1, and therefore is not used to mean "one of them." In French as in English,
numbers can be used as pronouns — « Deux sont entrés et un est ressorti »,
"Two went in and one came back out" — but the number 1 is un(e), not on.
On does not have ordinary direct- and indirect-object pronouns, only the reflexive pronoun se. Similarly, its
disjunctive-pronoun form, soi, is only used when on is the subject and soi refers to the same entity. The
pronoun quelqu'un ("someone") can fill some of the roles of on, in the same way that one and someone are
sometimes interchangeable in English.
me, te, nous, and vous
Direct and indirect object pronouns
Meanings
me - me, to me
te - you, to you (singular, informal)
lui - to him/her
nous - us, to us
vous - you, to you (plural, formal)
leur - to them
Place in sentences
These pronouns are placed before the verb that they modify
Je te vois. - I see you.
Je veux te voir. - I want to see you.
If a perfect tense is used, these pronouns go before the auxillary verb.
Je t'ai vu. - I saw you.
Direct object replacement
Il me voit. - He sees me.
Il te voit. - He sees you.
Il nous voit. - He sees us.
Il vous voit. - He sees you.
Indirect Object Replacement
Il m'appelle. - He calls to me.
Il te le jette. - He throws it to you.
Il nous le jette. - He throws it to us.
Il vous le jette. - He throws it to you.
l', le, la, and les
l', le, la, and les are pronouns which are used as direct objects and hence are called direct object pronouns. A
direct object is a noun that receives the action of a verb.
Il jette la boule. - He throws the ball.
In the above sentence la boule is the direct object.
You have learned earlier that names and regular nouns can be replaced by the subject pronouns (je, tu...).
Similarly, direct objects, such as "la boule", can be replaced by pronouns.
le - replaces a masculine singular direct object
la - replaces a feminine singular direct object
l' - replaces le and la if they come before a vowel
les - replaces plural direct objects, both masculine and feminine
The direct object pronouns come before the verb they are linked to.
Il la jette. - He throws it.
Il les jettes. - He throws them.
lui and leur
Indirect objects are prepositional phrases with the object of the preposition. An indirect object is a noun that
receives the action of a verb.
Il jette la boule à Jacques. - He throws the ball to Jack.
Il jette la boule à Marie. - He throws the ball to Mary.
Il jette la boule à Jacques et Marie. - He throws the ball to Jack and Mary.
Lui and leur are indirect object pronouns. They replace nouns referring to people and mean to him/her and to
them respectively.
lui - replaces a singular masculine or feminine indirect object referring to a human
leur - replaces a plural masculine or feminine indirect object referring to a human
An example follows:
Il lui jette la boule. - He throws the ball to him.
Il lui jette la boule. - He throws the ball to her.
Il leur jette la boule. - He throws the ball to them.
Whether lui means to him or to her is given by context.
In English, "He throws him the ball" is also said, and means the same thing.
When used with the direct object pronouns le, la, and les, lui and leur come after those pronouns.
Il la lui jette. - He throws it to him.
Note that while le, la, and les are used to replace people or inanimate objects, lui and leur are not used to
replace innanimate objects and things.
Also note that unlike le and la, which are shortened to l' when followed by a vowel, lui is never shortened
y
Indirect object pronoun - to it, to them
The French pronoun y is used to replace an object of a prepositional phrase introduced by a.
Je réponds aux questions. - J' y réponds.
I respond to the questions. - I respond to them.
Note that lui and leur, and not y, are used when the object refers to a person or persons.
Replacement of places - there
The French pronoun y replaces a prepositional phrase referring to a place that begins with any preposition
except de (for which en is used).
Les hommes vont en France. - Les hommes y vont.
The men go to France - The men go there.
Note that en, and not y is used when the object is of the preposition de.
Idioms
Ça y est! - It's done!
J'y suis! - I get it!
en
Replacement of a partitive construction
The pronoun en replaces a noun with a partitive article (l'article partitif: du, de la, de, des) at the front.
In this case En goes always with the singular, even if there are many items adressed.
Je veux du pain. => J'en veux. - I want some bread. => I want some.
Replacement of quantified nouns
If the quantity of the object is specified, "en" is used for the replacement of the noun.
Example: Il a acheté deux pommes. => Il en a acheté deux.
Note that no agreement is needed between the past participle (le participe passé) and the object (complément
d'objet direct).
Replacement of phrases with de
The pronoun en replaces prepositional phrases beginning with de if the object of the preposition is
referring to a thing or place.
Je viens de Paris. - I come from Paris.
J' en viens. - I come from it.
Note that stress pronouns, and not en are used if the object refers to a person or persons.
Pronoun order
Order chart
If a sentence uses no infinitive, the pronouns are embedded as follows:
Subject
Direct or Direct Obj Indirect
Pronoun Neg
Indirect Pronouns Objects
(or noun)
je
me
tu
le
te
il (elle)
la
ne nous
nous
l'
vous
vous
les
se (reflexive)
ils (elles)
lui
leur
Neg
y en
pas
conjugated
past
plus
verb
participle
etc...
If a sentence uses an infinitive, the pronouns are embedded as follows:
Subject
Pronoun Neg
(or noun)
Neg
Direct or Direct Obj Indirect
Indirect Pronouns Objects
je
me
tu
le
te
pas
conjugated
past
il (elle)
la
nous
plus
ne
verb
participle
nous
l'
vous
etc...
vous
les
se (reflexive)
ils (elles)
lui
leur
y en infinitive
Order rules
When a sentence uses the indirect object pronouns me, te, nous, and vous with the direct object
pronouns le, la, and les, me, te, nous, and vous go first.
Il me le donne. - He gave it to me.
When a sentence uses the indirect object pronouns lui and leur with the direct object pronouns le, la,
and l', le, la, and les go first.
Il le lui donne. - He gave it to him/her.
When y is used in the same sentence as other pronouns, y goes after all of them with the exception of
en.
Il m'emmène à Paris. - He takes me to Paris.
Il m'y emmène. - He takes me there.
Y in conjunction with en is only used in a few cases.
Il y en a. - There exist several ones.
Est-ce qu'il y a des pommes? (Oui,) il y en a. (No,) il n'y en a (pas/plus). - Are there any apples
(left)? Yes, there are. No, there aren't.
When there are two pronouns in a sentence, en always go last.
L'impératif
When expressing positive commands, there are several rules one must remember when using object
pronouns. Theses are:
The pronouns are attached to the verb with a hyphen.
Retrouve-la. - Find it.
Me and Te become moi and toi.
Donnez-moi les vidéos. - Give me the videos.
Le, la, and les precede all other object pronouns.
Donnez-le-moi. - Give it to me.
For the second person singular form, an "s" is added if the object (in the pronoun form) begins with a
vowel or "y".
Va au tableau. - Go to the blackboard. BUT Vas-y. - Go (there).
Vas-y. - Come on.
Possessive pronouns
Possessive pronouns replace possessive article + noun sets.
French Grammar • Print version • audio (upload)
Possessive Pronouns Les pronoms possesifs
mon copain ton copain son copain
notre copain votre copain leur copain
my friend your friend his/her friend our friend your friend their friend
le mien
le tien
le sien
le nôtre
le vôtre
le leur
mine
yours
his/hers
ours
yours
theirs
mes copains tes copains ses copains nos copains vos copains leurs copains
my friends your friends his/her friends our friends your friends their friends
les miens les tiens
les siens
les nôtres les vôtres
les leurs
mine
yours
his/hers
ours
yours
theirs
ma copine ta copine sa copine
notre copine votre copine leurs copine
my friend your friend his/her friend our friend your friend their friend
la mienne la tienne
la sienne
la nôtre
la vôtre
la leur
mine
yours
his/hers
ours
yours
theirs
mes copines tes copines ses copines nos copines vos copines leurs copines
my friends your friends his/her friends our friends your friends their friends
les leurs
les miennes les tiennes les siennes les nôtres les vôtres
mine
yours
his/hers
ours
yours
theirs
Vous avez votre voiture? - You have your car?
Oui, nous avons la nôtre. - Yes, we have ours.
À + a stress pronoun is used when the noun replaced is also the subject of the sentence. This usually occurs
in sentences with être.
Elle est ta voiture? - Is that your car?
Oui, elle est à moi. - Yes, it is mine.
Sentences
Subject - Verb - Direct object - Indirect object
If...
Si...
With present tense (le présent):
(1) Si + (le présent), (le futur simple)
Example: If you finish your homework, I'll give you some candies.
Si tu finis tes devoirs, je te donnerai des bonbons.
(2) Si + (le présent), (l'impératif)
Example: If you are cold, close the window.
Si tu as froid, ferme la fenêtre.
With imperfect (l'imparfait) past tense (to express hypothetical situations):
(3) Si + (l'imparfait), (le conditionnel)
Example: If I had a million dollars, I would buy a house.
Si j'avais un million de dollars, j'achèterais une maison.
With "plus-que-parfait" (also to express hypothetical situations):
(4) Si + (le plus-que-parfait), (le conditionnel passé)
Example: If I had known (or "had I known") computers were so useful, I would have taken a computer
course.
Si j'avais su que les ordinateurs étaient si utiles, j'aurais suivi un cours de l'informatique.
Interrogation
Formation
Intonation
As in English, raising the tone at the end of a sentence can turn it into a question.
Example:
Il aime les bonbons. He likes sweets.
Il aime les bonbons? Does he like sweets?
Est-ce que...
"Est-ce que" literally means "Is it that", understood as "Is it true that", and can be used to form questions. To
form a question with "Est-ce que...", attach "Est-ce que..." at the beginning of the sentence. Sometimes "que"
has to be modified to "qu'" for elision.
Example: Il aime ce film. => Est-ce qu'il aime ce film ?
(He likes this film. => Does he like this film?)
Inversion
This is considered to be the most formal way to ask a question out of the three.
(The indicative form of the following sentences will be placed in parentheses for comparison.)
To ask a question by inversion, simple invert the verb and the subject (the pronoun) and insert a hyphen (un
trait d'union) in between.
Example: Do you like apples? (You like apples.)
Aimes-tu les pommes ? (Tu aimes les pommes.)
In the case where the verb ends in a vowel while the subject starts with one, a "t" needs to be inserted to
avoid elision.
Example: Did she make the decision already? (She made the decision already.)
A-t-elle déjà pris la décision ? (Elle a déjà pris la décision.)
(Notice that for compound tense [les temps composés], only the avoir or être part is interchanged with the
subject.)
For third person plural (verbs ending in "ent"), there is no need to insert the "t".
Example: Are they buying a house? (They are buying a house.)
Achètent-ils une maison ? (Ils achètent une maison.)
If the subject is a noun instead of a pronoun, invert the verb and the pronoun that represents the subject.
Example: Did Marie choose this shirt? (Marie chose this shirt.)
'Marie a-t-elle choisi cette chemise ? (Marie a choisi cette chemise.)
For negative such as "ne...pas", the verb should be inserted in between:
Example: Didn't you eat the whole pizza? (You didn't eat the whole pizza.)
N'as-tu pas mangé la pizza entière ? (Tu n'as pas mangé la pizza entière.)
If there is a direct or indirect object (complément d'objet [in]direct), it goes before the verb.
Example: Have you been there? (You have been there.)
Y es-tu allé(e) ? (Tu y es allé(e).)
Question words
Où ? - Where?
Quand ? - When?
Pourquoi ? - Why?
Comment ? - How?
Quel/Quels/Quelle/Quelles ? - Which?
Qui ? - Who?
Combien ? - How much?
Quoi ? - What?
Commands
Main article: French/Grammar/Tenses/Imperative
Tenses
Verb tenses sorted by mood
Non-finite forms
Le participe présent (The Present Participle)
Le participe passé (The Past Participle)
Le Verbe Auxiliaire (The Auxiliary Verb)
L'infinitif (The Infinitive)
L'infinitif passé (The Past Infinitive)
L'indicatif (The indicative mood)
Simple tenses
Le présent de l'indicatif (The present indicative)
L'imparfait de l'indicatif (The imperfect)
Le passé simple (The past historic)
Le futur (The future)
Perfect tenses
Le passé composé (The present perfect)
Le plus-que-parfait de l'indicatif (The pluperfect of the indicative)
Le passé antérieur (The past anterior)
Le futur antérieur (The future anterior)
Other tenses
Le passé récent (The recent past)
Le futur proche (The near future)
Le subjonctif (The subjunctive mood)
Le subjonctif (The subjunctive)
L'imparfait du subjonctif (The imperfect subjunctive)
Le subjonctif passé (The past subjunctive)
Le plus-que-parfait du subjonctif (The pluperfect subjunctive)
L'impératif (The imperative mood)
L'impératif (The imperative)
L'impératif passé (The past imperative)
Le conditionnel (The conditional mood)
Le conditionnel (The conditional)
Le conditionnel passé (The past conditional)
Le deuxième forme du conditionnel passé (The second form of the past conditional)
Verb tenses sorted by type
Simple tenses
Le présent de l'indicatif (The present indicative)
L'imparfait de l'indicatif (The imperfect)
Le passé simple (The past historic)
Le futur (The future)
Le conditionnel (The conditional)
Le présent du subjonctif (The present subjunctive)
L'imparfait du subjonctif (The imperfect subjunctive)
Perfect tenses
Le passé composé (The present perfect)
Le plus-que-parfait de l'indicatif (The pluperfect of the indicative)
Le plus-que-parfait du subjonctif (The pluperfect of the subjunctive)
Le passé antérieur (The past anterior)
Le futur antérieur (The future anterior)
Le conditionnel passé (The conditional past)
Le passé du subjonctif (The subjunctive past)
Perfect tense components
Le participe présent (The present participle)
Le participe passé (The past participle)
Le verbe auxiliaire (The auxiliary verb)
Other tenses
Le passé récent (The near past)
Le futur proche (The near future)
L'Impératif (The imperative)
L'impératif passé (The past imperative)
Verb tenses sorted by time
Past
L'imparfait de l'indicatif (The imperfect)
Le passé simple (The past historic)
L'imparfait du subjonctif (The imperfect subjunctive)
Le passé composé (The present perfect)
Le plus-que-parfait de l'indicatif (The pluperfect of the indicative)
Le passé antérieur (The past anterior)
Le passé récent (The near past)
L'imparfait du subjonctif (The imperfect subjunctive)
Le subjonctif passé (The past subjunctive)
Le plus-que-parfait du subjonctif (The pluperfect subjunctive)
L'impératif passé (The past imperative)
Le conditionnel passé (The past conditional)
Le deuxième forme du conditionnel passé (The second form of the past conditional)
Present
Future
Verbs
Due to their specificity, minor verb pages are only included in French/Grammar/Print version.
Irregular verb conjugations
Verb negations
Pronominal verbs
Verb tenses
General notes
The masculine form and feminine form of the third person are conjugated in exactly the same manner.
Instead of mentioning both, only the masculine form will be used for the sake of brevity. One may
assume that il includes elle and ils includes elles unless the context clearly indicates otherwise.
In tables showing the endings or conjugations of verbs, an accent mark is shown without a letter below
it indicates that the accent mark is placed above the last letter of the stem.
Derivatives of a verb are conjugated in the same manner as that verb. For instance, devenir and
revenir follow the same patterns as venir. In this appendix, when the conjugation of the root verb is
given, it is assumed that the reader will know that derivative verbs are similarly conjugated.
The verb tenses here are organized by mood. The general uses of a particular mood will be covered in
the page linked to by the section heading.
Literary tenses, which are only used in formal writing, are in italics.
APPENDICES
()
Appendices
(discussion (http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Talk:French/Appendices) )
Dates, Time, and Numbers • Exercises • E-F dictionary • F-E dictionary • French authors • Hints and Common
Errors • French History • Nations of the World • Phrasebook • Pronunciation Index • Slang • Vocabulary Index •
Typing Characters • Verb Dictionary • Web Resources
Updates:
If a section is added or the name of an
existing section is changed, please update:
This page
The appendices header
The appendices footer
It is not necessary to update these versions if
only the sections within these main
appendices are altered.
Dates, Time, and Numbers
Le Midi d'Ossau dans les Pyrénées
Les jours de la semaine
The days of the week. [lay jzoor duh lah suhmen]
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (info •420 kb • help)
The Days of the Week. Les jours de la semaine.
#
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
French
lundi
mardi
mercredi
jeudi
vendredi
samedi
dimanche
Pronunciation
luhndee
mahrdee
maircruhdee
juhdee
vahndruhdee
sahmdee
deemahnsh
English
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Saturday
Sunday
Origin
Moon
Mars
Mercury
Jupiter
Venus
Saturn
Sun
The days of the week are not capitalized in French.
For phrases relating to the day of the week, see the phrasebook.
Les mois de l'année
The months of the year. [lay mwah duh lahnay]
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (info •561 kb • help)
The Months of the Year Les mois de l'année
#
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
French
janvier
février
mars
avril
mai
juin
juillet
août
septembre
octobre
novembre
décembre
Pron.
jzahnveeyay
fayvreeyay
mahrse
ahvrill
maye
jzwan
jzooeeyay
oot/oo
septahmbruh
oktuhbruh
novahmbruh
daysahmbruh
English
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
The months of the year are not capitalized in French.
For phrases relating to the months of the year, see the phrasebook
Les saisons
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (info •142 kb • help)
Seasons Les Saisons
la saison
le printemps
l'été (m)
l'automne (m)
l'hiver (m)
season
Spring
Summer
Autumn
Winter
Les nombres (adjectifs numéraux cardinaux et ordinaux)
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (info •337 kb • help)
Numbers Les nombres
Cardinal Numbers 001-019
# French Pron. English
000 zéro
zairo
zero
Ordinal Numbers 001-010
#
French
Cardinal Numbers 020 -
Pronunciation Abbr. English # French Pronunciation
020 vingt
vahn
prem me ay
vingt et
001 un
uhn
one
1st premier(ère)
1er
first
021
vahntay uh
(air)
un
002 deux
deuh
two
2nd deuxième deuhzee ehm 2ième second Numbers twenty-two to twentyconfigured in the form of vingt003 trois
trwah three
3rd troisième trawhzee ehm 3ième third
For example twenty-two is ving
004 quatre catr
four
4th quatrième catree ehm
4ième fourth 030 trente
trahnt
trente et
005 cinq
sank
five
5th cinquième sankee ehm
5ième fifth
031
trahntay uh
un
006 six
seese
six
6th sixième
seesee ehm
6ième sixth Numbers thrity-two to thirty-nin
configured in the form of trente007 sept
set
seven
7th septième
setee ehm
7ième seventh For example thrity-three is trent
008 huit
weet
eight
8th huitième
weetee ehm
8ième eighth 040 quarante cahrahnt
quarante cahrahntay
009 neuf
neuhf
nine
9th neuvième neuhvee ehm 9ième ninth 041
et un
uhn
Numbers forty-two to forty-nine
010 dix
deese
ten
10th dixième
deezee ehm
10ième tenth configured in the form of
quarante-[02-09].
For example forty-four is
011 onze
ohn
eleven
quarante-quatre.
012 douze dooz
tweleve
050 cinquante sankaunte
cinquante sankauntay
013 treize trehz
thirteen
051
et un
uhn
Numbers fifty-two to fifty-nine
014 quatorze catorz fourteen
configured in the form of
cinquante-[02-09].
015 quinze canz
fifteen
For example fifty-five is cinquan
016 seize
sehz
sixteen
060 soixante swahsahnt
soixante swahsahntay
017 dix-sept deeset seventeen
061
et un
uhn
Numbers sixty-two to sixty-nine
018 dix-huit deezweet eighteen
configured in the form of
soixante-[02-09].
019 dix-neuf deeznuf nineteen
For example sixty-six is soixant
This pattern changes slightly after the sixties:
Numbers seventy to seventy-nine are configured in the form of soixante-[10-19]. For example
seventy is soixante-dix (60-10), seventy-three is soixante-treize (60-13), and seventy-seven is
soixante-dix-sept (60-10-7).
Number eighty is configured in the form of quatre-vingts (4 - 20's) || catr vahn || eighty
Numbers eighty-one to ninty-nine are configured in the form of quatre-vingt-[01-19]. For
example eighty-one is quatre-vingt-un (4*20-one), ninty is quatre-vingt-dix (4*20-10), and
ninty-four is quatre-vingt-quatorze(4*20-14).
une dizaine (one ten)
une douzaine (one dozen)
cent
100
une centaine (one hundred)
[deux - neuf] cents 200-900
mille
1.000
un millier (one thousand)
(un) million
1.000.000
(un) milliard
1.000.000.000
For 70-79, it builds upon "soixante" but past that it builds upon a combination of terms for 80-99
Only the first (21,31,41,51,etc) have "et un"; but past this it is simply both words consecutively
(vingt-six, trente-trois, etc)
For 100-199, it looks much like this list already save that "cent" is added before the rest of the
number; this continues up to 1000 and onward.
L'heure
Time.
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (upload)
The Time L'heure
#
01
02
03
05
06
07
08
09
French
l'heure (f)
une demi-heure
le matin
le midi
l'après-midi (m)
le soir
le minuit
la journée
Pron.
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
English
time, (one) hour, o'clock
half-hour (half an hour)
morning
noon
afternoon
night
midnight
daytime
Use heure in between the hour and the minutes when telling the time, e.g., Il est cinq heures dix
Note that there is no "a.m." or "p.m." in French. Use du matin, de l'après midi, and du soir to
disambiguate a given time. "Il est sept heures du soir" makes it clear that it is 7 o'clock at night, and
not in the morning. Alternatively, you could use the 24-hour system: "Il est dix-neuf heures" has no
ambiguity; time is often expressed in this fashion, particularly in professional/commercial settings.
Midi and minuit can be used without an article when telling the time: "Il est midi." (It is noon.)
English - French Dictionary
See:
Lexilogos (http://www.lexilogos.com/index.htm) : all online French dictionaries
French dictionary (http://www.online-dictionary.biz/english/french)
French - English Dictionary
See:
The French wiktionary (http://fr.wiktionary.org)
Lexilogos (http://www.lexilogos.com/index.htm) : all online French dictionaries
French dictionary (http://www.online-dictionary.biz/english/french)
French Authors
Middle ages
Chrétien de Troyes (around 1135 - around 1183)
16th century
Francois Rabelais (around 1483 or 1494 – 1553)
Pierre de Ronsard (1524 – 1585)
Louise Labé (a.1526 - a.1565)
17th century
René Descartes (1596 - 1650)
Pierre Corneille (1606–1684)
Jean de La Fontaine (1621–1695)
Molière (1622–1673)
Blaise Pascal (1623–1662)
Charles Perrault (1628–1703)
Jean Racine (1639–1699)
18th century
Marivaux (1688–1763)
Montesquieu (1689–1755)
Voltaire (1694–1778)
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712 - 1778)
Denis Diderot (1713 - 1784)
Beaumarchais (1732 - 1799)
19th century
François-René de Chateaubriand (1768 - 1848)
Honoré de Balzac (1799 - 1850)
Victor Hugo (1802 - 1885)
Alexandre Dumas (1802 - 1870)
Prosper Mérimée (1803 - 1870)
George Sand (1804 - 1876)
Alfred de Musset (1810 - 1857)
Charles Baudelaire (1821 - 1867)
Gustave Flaubert (1821 - 1880)
Jules Verne (1828 - 1905)
Alphonse Daudet (1840 - 1897)
Emile Zola (1840 - 1902)
Paul Verlaine (1844 - 1896)
Henri Bergson (1859 - 1941)
Edmond Rostand (1868 - 1918)
20th century
Paul Claudel (1868 - 1955)
Marcel Proust (1871 - 1922)
Guillaume Apollinaire (1880 - 1918)
Jean Cocteau (1892 - 1963)
Louis-Ferdinand Céline (1894 - 1961)
Jean Giono (1895 - 1970)
Marcel Pagnol (1895 - 1974)
André Breton (1896 - 1966)
Jacques Prévert (1900 - 1977)
André Malraux (1901 - 1976)
Raymond Queneau (1903 - 1976)
Jean-Paul Sartre (1905 - 1980)
Robert Merle (1908 - 2004)
Nicolas Bouvier (1929 - 1998)
Georges Perec (1936 - 1982)
Antoine Marie Roger de Saint-Exupery (1900 - 1944)
Albert Camus (1913 – 1960)
Colette (1873 - 1954)
Anaïs Nin (1903-1977)
Simone de Beauvoir (1908 - 1986)
Links
List of French authors in the French Wikipedia.
French History
See: European History
For the history of this book, see that page.
History Part 1
(https://docs.google.com/a/cameronschools.org/Presentation?docid=dhdhf2r5_72gfw2wbhs&hl=en) History
Part 2 (https://docs.google.com/a/cameronschools.org/Presentation?docid=dhdhf2r5_128gsjdgdg6&hl=en)
[27] (https://docs.google.com/a/cameronschools.org/Presentation?docid=dhdhf2r5_72gfw2wbhs&hl=en)
Nations of the World
Les pays du monde (nations of the world)
A
French
English
l'Afghanistan (m)
Afghanistan
l'Afrique du Sud (f)
South Africa
l'Albanie (f)
Albania
l'Algérie (f)
Algeria
l'Allemagne (f)
Germany
Andorre (f)
Andorra
l'Angleterre (f)
England
l'Angola (f)
Angola
Antigua-et-Barbuda (m) Antigua and Barbuda
l'Arabie saoudite (f)
Saudi Arabia
l'Argentine (f)
Argentina
l'Arménie (f)
Armenia
Aruba
Aruba
l'Australie (f)
Australia
l'Autriche (f)
Austria
l'Azerbaïdjan (f)
Azerbaijan
B
French
English
les Bahamas (f) The Bahamas
le Bahreïn
Bahrain
le Bangladesh
Bangladesh
la Barbade
Barbados
la Belgique
Belgium
le Belize
Belize
le Bénin
Benin
le Bhoutan
Bhutan
la Biélorussie
Belarus
la Birmanie
Burma
la Bolivie
Bolivia
le Botswana
Botswana
le Brésil
Brazil
le Brunéi
Brunei
la Bulgarie
Bulgaria
le Burkina-Faso Burkina Faso
le Burundi
Burundi
C
French
English
le Cambodge
Cambodia
le Cameroun
Cameroon
le Canada
Canada
le Cap-Vert
Cape Verde
le Chili
Chile
la Chine
China
Chypre (f)
Cyprus
la Colombie
Columbia
les Comores (f)
Comores
le Congo
Congo
la Corée du Nord North Korea
la Corée du Sud South Korea
le Costa Rica
Costa Rica
la Côte d'Ivoire
Cote d'Ivoire
la Croatie
Croatia
Cuba
Cuba
D
French
English
le Danemark Denmark
Djibouti
Djibouti
la Dominique Dominica
E
French
English
l'Écosse (f)
Scotland
l'Égypte (f)
Egypt
les Émirats arabes unis (m) The United Arab Emirates
l'Équateur (m)
Equador
l'Érythrée (f)
Eritrea
l'Espagne (f)
Spain
l'Estonie (f)
Estonia
les États-Unis (m)
The United States
l'Éthiopie (f)
Ethiopia
F
French
English
les Fidji (f) Fiji
la Finlande Finland
la France
France
G
French
English
le Gabon
Gabon
la Gambie
Gambia
la Géorgie
Georgia
le Ghana
Ghana
la Grèce
Greece
la Grenade
Grenada
le Guatemala
Guatemala
la Republique de Guinée Guinea
la Guinée-Bissao
Guinea-Bissau
la Guinée-équatoriale
Equatorial Guinea
la Guyane
Guyana
I
French
l'Île Maurice (f)
English
Mauritius
les Îles Cook (f)
Cook Islands
les Îles Marshall (f) Marshall Islands
les Îles Salomon (f) Solomon Islands
l'Inde (f)
India
l'Indonésie (f)
Indonesia
l'Iran (m)
Iran
l'Iraq/l'Irak (m)
Iraq
l'Irlande (f)
Ireland
l'Islande (f)
Iceland
Israël (m)
Israel
l'Italie (f)
Italy
J
French
English
la Jamaïque Jamaica
le Japon
Japan
la Jordanie Jordan
K
French
English
le Kazakhstan Kazakhstan
le Kenya
Kenya
le Kirghizstan Kyrgyzstan
Kiribati (f)
Kiribati
le Koweït
Kuwait
L
French
English
le Laos
Laos
le Lesotho
Lesotho
la Lettonie
Latvia
le Liban
Lebanon
le Libéria
Liberia
la Libye
Libya
le Lichtenstein Lichtenstein
la Lituanie
Lithuania
le Luxembourg Luxembourg
M
French
la Macédoine
English
Macedonia
Madagascar (f) Madagascar
la Malaisie
Malaysia
le Malawi
Malawi
les Maldives (f) The Maldives
le Mali
Mali
Malte
Malta
le Maroc
Morocco
la Mauritanie
Mauritania
le Mexique
Mexico
la Micronésie
Micronesia
la Moldavie
Moldavia
Monaco
Monaco
la Mongolie
Mongolia
le Mozambique Mozambique
N
French
English
la Namibie
Namibia
la Nauru
Nauru
le Népal
Nepal
le Nicaragua
Nicaragua
le Niger
Niger
le Nigéria
Nigeria
la Norvège
Norway
la Nouvelle-Zélande New Zealand
O
French
Oman (m)
English
Oman
l'Ouganda (m) Uganda
l'Ouzbékistan Uzbekistan
P
French
English
le Pakistan
Pakistan
le Panama
Panama
la Papouasie-Nouvelle-Guinée Papua New Guinea
le Paraguay
Paraguay
les Pays-Bas (m)
The Netherlands
le Pays de Galles (m)
Wales
le Pérou
Peru
les Philippines (f)
The Philippines
la Pologne
Poland
la Polynésie française
French Polynesia
le Portugal
Portugal
Porto Rico
Puerto Rico
Q
French English
le Qatar Qatar
R
French
English
la République centrafricaine Central African Republic
la République dominicaine Dominican Republic
la République tchèque
Czech Republic
la Roumanie
Romania
le Royaume-Uni
The United Kingdom
la Russie
Russia
le Rwanda
Rwanda
S
French
English
Saint-Christophe-et-Niévès (m)
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Sainte-Lucie (f)
Saint Lucia
Saint-Marin (m)
San Marino
le Saint-Siège (le Vatican)
The Holy See (The Vatican)
Saint-Vincent-et-les-Grenadines (m) Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
le Salvador
El Salvador
les Samoa (f)
Samoa
Sao Tomé et Principe (m)
Sao Tomé and Principe
le Sénégal
Senegal
les Seychelles (f)
Seychelles
la Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
Singapour
Singapore
la Slovaquie
Slovakia
la Slovénie
Slovenia
la Somalie
Somalia
le Soudan
Sudan
le Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
la Suède
Sweden
la Suisse
Switzerland
le Surinam
Surinam
le Swaziland
Swaziland
la Syrie
Syria
T
French
English
le Tadjikistan (m) Tajikistan
la Tanzanie
Tanzania
le Tchad
Chad
la Thaïlande
Thailand
le Togo
Togo
les Tonga (f)
Tonga
Trinité-et-Tobago Trinidad and Tobago
la Tunisie
Tunisia
le Turkménistan
Turkmenistan
la Turquie
Turkey
Tuvalu
Tuvalu
U
French
l'Ukraine (f)
English
Ukraine
l'Uruguay (m) Uruguay
V
French
English
Vanuatu
Vanuatu
le Vatican
The Vatican
le Venezuela Venezuela
le Viêt-Nam Vietnam
W
[None]
X
[None]
Y
le Yémen
Yemen
la Yougoslavie (m) Yugoslavia
Z
French
la Zambie
English
Zambia
le Zimbabwe Zimbabwe
Phrasebook
TravelWiki phrase book (http://wikitravel.org/en/French_phrasebook)
Common Phrases
Literal
meaning
Translation Phrase
IPA
Pronunciation
French
français
/frɑ̃sɛ/
(“fraw(n)-SAY”)
hello
bonjour
/bɔ̃ʒuʁ/
(“boh(n)-ZHURE”)
good day
good-bye
au revoir
/o ʁəvwaʁ/
(“oh-reh-VWAR”)
to the
seeing-ag
please
s'il vous plaît
/sil vu plɛ/
(“seal voo PLAY”
)
thank you
merci
you're
welcome
je vous en prie, /ʒə vu zɑ̃ pʁi/
de rien
that one
cela
/səla/
(“suh-LAH”)
this one
ceci
/səsi/
(“suh-SEE”)
how much? combien
/kɔ̃bjɛ̃/
(“ko(n)m-BYEN”)
English
anglais
/ɑ̃glɛ/
(“ah(n)-GLAY”)
yes
oui
/wi/
(“wee”)
no
non
/nɔ̃/
(“noh(n)”)
/mɛʁsi/
if it pleas
you
(“mare-SEE”)
(“zhe voo zah(n)
pree”, “de ree
ah(n)”)
I beg you
it, (It's)
nothing
/paʁdɔ̃/
/ɛkskyze
sorry
pardon
excusez-moi
mwa/ ||(“pahr-DO(n)”)
(“ex-ku-zay-MWA”)
/ʒə nə kõpʁɑ̃ pa/
I don’t
Je ne
understand comprends pas
where's the Où sont les
toilet?
toilettes ?
generic
toast
Santé !
Tchin !
(familiar)
/u sɔ̃ le twalɛt/
/sɑ̃te/
(“zhe ne co(n)
m-pro(n) PAH”)
(“ooh so(n) lay
8
twa-LET”)
Where a
the toilet
Santé ! =
Health!
/ʧin/ ||(“sah(n)-TAY”)
(“cheen”)
Do you
speak
English?
Parlez-vous
anglais ?
Excuse me,
I don’t
speak
French very
well.
Pardonnez-moi, /paʁdɔne mwa mɛ ʒə nə paʁlə pa trɛ bjɛ̃ frɑ̃sɛ/
mais je ne parle
pas très bien
français
/paʁle vu ɑ̃glɛ/
V: Greetings
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (info •276 kb • help)
Greetings Les salutations
(“par-lay voo ah(n)
-GLAY”)
(par-dohn-ay
MWAH may zheu
neuh parl pah tray
byen frah(n)-SAY)
Pardon m
but I do
speak ve
well Fren
Salut
Hi./Bye.
(informal)
Bonjour
Hello
(more formal than salut) (all day)
Bonsoir
Good evening
Bonne nuit
Good night
bun nwee
Quoi de neuf ? What's up (about you)? (lit. what's new)
Pas grand-chose. Not much. (lit. no big-thing)
V: How are you?
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (info •311 kb • help)
How are you? Ça va?
Comment allez-vous? (formal),
Comment vas-tu? (informal),
How are you?
Comment ça va?/Ça va ? (informal)
I'm doing (very) well
Ça va (très) bien
(lit. It's going (very) well)
Oui, ça va.
Yes, it goes.
Très bien, merci.
Very well, thanks.
Pas mal.
Not Bad
pas si bien/pas très bien
not so well
(très) mal
(very) bad
Comme ci, comme ça.
So-So.
Désolé(e).
I'm sorry.
Et toi?
And you? (informal)
Et vous?
And you? (formal)
Titles
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (info •325 kb • help)
Titles Les titres
French
Abbr. Pronunciation English, Usage
Singular Monsieur
Plural Messieurs.
M.
Singular Madame
Plural Mesdames
M
me
Singular Mademoiselle
lle
M
Plural Mesdemoiselles
muhsyu
mehsyu
Mr., Sir.
Gentlemen.
mahdahmn
maydahm
Mrs., Ma'am.
Ladies
mahdmwoizell Miss, Young lady
maydmwahzell Young ladies
V: Courtesy
French Vocabulary • Print version •
audio (info •434 kb • help)
Courtesy La politesse
S'il te plaît.
(Lit: If you please.)
Please
S'il vous plaît.
(formal).
Thanks (a lot) Merci (beaucoup).
De rien.
(Lit: Of nothing.)
Pas de quoi.
(Lit: Not of what.) (No problem.)
You're welcome.
Je t'en prie.
shtahn pree (informal)
Je vous en prie
jzuh vooz ahn pree (formal)
V: Good-bye
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (info •202 kb • help)
Good-bye Au revoir
Salut.
Hi./Bye.
(informal)
Au revoir.
Good-bye.
ohrvwahr (ev not pronounced)
À demain.
See you tomorrow.
ah duhman (Lit: To/Until Tomorrow)
Au revoir, à demain. Bye, see you tomorrow.
À tout à l'heure.
See you (later today)! ah tootah luhr
À la prochaine.
See you (tomorrow)! ah lah proh shayn
À bientôt.
See you soon.
ah byantoe
Ciao
Bye.
chow (Italian)
V: Asking for the day/date/time
French Vocabulary • Print version • audio (info •612 kb • help)
Asking For The Day, Date, Time Demander le jour, la date, le temps
Asking for the day.
1a Aujourd'hui c'est quel jour? Today is what day?
ojzoordwee say kell jzoor
1b Aujourd'hui c'est [jour].
Today is [day].
2a Demain c'est quel jour
Tomorrow is what day? Duhman say kell jzoor
2b Demain c'est [jour].
Tomorrow is [day].
Asking for the date.
Quelle est la date
What is the date
3a
kell ay lah daht
(aujourd'hui)?
(today)?
3b C'est le [#] [month].
It's [month] [#].
Asking for the time.
4a Quelle heure est-il?
kell er ayteel
What hour/time is it?
4b Il est quelle heure?
eel ay kell er
5 Il est [nombre] heure(s).
It is [number] hours.
eelay [nombre] er
Physical and mental health
Reacting to events
Thanking
Complementing
(Dis)agreeing
Invitations
Meetings
Expressing opinions
Pronunciation Index
IPA pronunciation for Standard French
The following pronunciation guide using IPA symbols is for Standard French. Also known as
International French and Received Pronunciation (RP) French. Although it is considered snobbish by
some, it is generally understood by all French speakers.
IPA chart French vowels
Front
NR
R
i
y
Close-mid e
ø
Close
Central
NR
R
u
Open-mid ɛ ɛ̃ œ (œ̃)
Open
Back
a
o
ə
ɔ ɔ̃
(ɑ) ɑ̃
These tables based upon Wikipedia:French phonology
IPA chart French consonants
Bilabial
Labio- Dental1/ PalatoLabioLabioPalatal
Velar
Uvular
dental Alveolar alveolar
palatal
velar
Plosive
pb
td
Nasal
m
n
Fricative
f v
s z
kg
ɲ
ʃ ʒ
Approximant
Lateral
ŋ
j
ɥ
w
ʁ
l
Slang
Notes on how to use slang
Foreign speakers
It is important to note that, as a foreigner, your use of slang will often be received as cute or funny,
depending greatly upon your overall fluency in spoken French. To understand this, think about how it would
sound to you if a foreigner—with a strong accent and odd rhythm of speech—came up to you and said
"Dude, what a sketchy-ass hater that bizz-natch was, I totally was just like 'fuck off fo-sheezy'". Therefore,
no matter how much slang you use in your native language, limiting your use of slang in French
(proportionally to your level of fluency) will also limit how much you are patronised and giggled at by
native listeners.
Slang: consistency & style
To use slang efficiently, it is important to maintain a consistency of style. Mixing styles might sound like
saying: "Thy face, it is quite finely rawkin'".
Avoid vous unless a plural is necessary.
Avoid subject-verb inversion in questions. Use rather question formations where there is no inversion
or 'est-ce que', only the raised tone at the end of the sentence. When doing this with interrogatives
(qui, quand, comment, etc.), place them at the end of the sentence; i.e. "On va bouffer quand?"
Translating 'fuck'
The English-language term 'fuck' is exceptional as it can serve as noun, verb, adjective, exclamation, and
others. There is no such equivalent usage of any word in the French language. Therefore the translation of
'fuck' into French depends on the corresponding part of speech.
Examples
noun
"He's a great fuck" = "C'est un bon coup"
"He is such a fuck(er)" = "C'est un pauvre type/enfoiré/enculé/connard/salaud" (insert any insult)
"He's such a fuck-up" = "C'est un pauvre con/un raté/un loser"
verb
sexual: baiser, niquer, coucher avec ; insulting: foutre, enculer
"I fucked up on my French test" = "J'ai foiré/raté mon examen de français"
"I fucked (up) my car" = "J'ai niqué ma bagnole"
"He fucked me over" = "Il m'a planté"
"I fucked your mother/mum/mam/mom" = "J'ai baisé/niqué ta mère"
"Fuck off" = "Va chier!", "Fous le camp" (see the verb 'Foutre')
"Fuck you"/"Go fuck yourself" = "Va te faire foutre/enculer" "VA niquer ta mère"
adjective
"This is fucking awful" = "Putain, ça craint"/"C'est bordelique"/"C'est de la merde"
"I am so fucked-up" = "J'suis barré/perché" (mental state); "J'suis totalement bourré(e)" (drunk);
"J'suis défoncé(e)" (high[marijuana])
adverb
"I am trying to fucking work here" = "J'essaie de bosser putain"
exclamation
"Fuck!" = "Merde !" ; "Putain !" ; "Bordel !"
n.b.: these can also be compounded in French, i.e., "Putain de merde !" "Putain de bordel de merde"
(for stringing these together, see the scene in the film Matrix Reloaded with the Frenchman in the
restaurant)
Glossary
Notes on Pronunciation:
*To feel how R should be pronounced, gargle with water, then try gargling without water.
That is what your throat should be doing when pronouncing the R.
*The U is hardest for English speakers. The back of the throat should be stretched out as if you see
a mouse and are saying "eee!", but the lips should be in a tight circle as if you are saying "ooo".
Audio1 Audio2 Audio3 Audio4
Abruti(e)
n., A retard, an idiot
ah-BROO-tee
Accro
n., addict
ack-RO
Ado
n., teen; short for 'adolescent'
AH-doh
Apéro
n., Short for apéritif.
ah-PAIR-roh
Appart'
n., flat or apartment; short for 'appartement'
ah-PARRT
Aprèm'
n., Short for après-midi.
ah-PRIm
Bagnole
n., Slang for 'car'
ban-YOLE
Bahut
n., Slang for 'high school' (formerly for 'factory')
Barj' or Barjot
adj., crazy
n., a crazy person
BARge
BAHR-joe
Bander
v., to become erect, to get a hard-on
BAHN-day
Ben
interj. for 'well'. often used at the beginning of a phrase, and followed by "ouais" or "non"
Baañ ('baa' like the sound a sheep makes with a nasalized sound at the end)
Bite
n., dick
bEEt
Blaireau
n., litt. 'badger', Loser
bl-AIR-roh
Le Bled
n., the boondocks
blED
Boule
n., litt. 'ball'. Synonym for 'tête', or 'head' in its slang usage; a rough equivalent in English would be
'face' rather than 'head', i.e.:
"Ta boule me manque" = "I miss seeing your sweet face"
Can also mean "balls" (as in testicles) or "arse"/"ass", as in "J'aime Trop Ton Boule" (I Want Your
Ass), a song by by French Rapper Fatal Bazooka
bOOL
Bouffer
v., to eat
n., la bouffe, food
BOOF-fay
Bosser
v., to work
boss-SAY
Boulot
n., job
bOOL-oh
Se Branler
v., to masturbate (lit. to wobble)
suh BRAhn-lay
Ça a été
exp., it went well; also a question "Ta présentation, ça a été ?" = "How'd your presentation go?" ;
Answers to this question: "Ouais, ça a été" (Yes, it went well) / "Pas du tout" (Not at all)
saw ah AY-TAY
Chaud lapin
n., Sex maniac (lit. hot rabbit)
show lah-PAÑ
Les Chiottes
n, The loo
SEE-ott
Cinoche
n., A night at the movies
SEE-noh-sh
La cité
n., ghetto
see-TAY
Con
adj., stupid "J'ai été con quand j'ai décidé de sortir" = "I was dumb when I decided to go out"
n., litt. 'cunt' (as used in UK English); "Quel con" = "What an idiot"
exp. "à la con", stupid, in a stupid way. "J'ai cet examen à la con" = "I have this stupid test"
cohÑ
Crever
v., to burst or explode; to die, 'to kick the bucket'
adj., crevé(e), exhausted. As in "Je suis crevé(e)" = "I'm exhausted"
n., la crève, a cold, the flu. exp.: "J'ai la crève".
creh-vay
lah crehve
Débile
n. or adj. slang for "stupid"
DAY-beel
Dirlo
n. Colloquial word meaning 'headmaster'.
dear-loh
Enculer
v. To fuck, to bugger.
Equivalent to "fuck in the arse" ("cul"="arse"). Widely used under the form "va te faire enculer" (litt.
"go to get fucked in the arse", in UK English "go and get fucked in the arse") which stands for "fuck
off".
Also, "enculé" is the participle turned into a substantive, and means "bastard" or "arsehole".
exp. : "enculer des mouches" (litt. "to fuck flies in the arse") means "to nit-pick".
eñ-CU-lay
La fac
n., college or university; short for 'faculté'
fack
Faire la tête
exp., to pout. Synonyms: 'bouder'(to brood); "faire la gueule".
fer lah tet
Foutre
n. Sperm.
v. Vulgar equivalent of the verb 'faire'; to do or to make. Commonly employed in vulgar/familiar
expressions such as:
"Va te faire foutre" = "Go get fucked/Go fuck yourself"
"J'en ai rien à foutre/battre" = "I don't care"
"J'ai rien à foutre (ici, avec toi)" = "I have nothing to do (here, with you)"
FOO-truh
Hyper
adj., 'very', 'really' ; "Je suis hyper triste" = "I'm really sad"
EE-pair
Kiffer
v. Colloquial word meaning 'to like' from arabic noun 'kif' meaning 'cannabis', . Sometimes used under
the form faire kiffer, e.g Tu me fais trop kiffer.
keef-ay
Génial
adj. Colloquial word meaning "genius" (as used in UK English), "great", "brilliant", "sensational" or
"awesome"
j-knee-al
Grave
adj. litt. "severe", roughly means "stupid" e.g "mes parents sont graves" (my parents are stupid)
adv. roughly meaning "a lot" or "really" e.g "je la kiffe grave!" (I really like her). When used with a
predicate, it can be placed before or after it. e.g "il est débile grave, lui!" or "il est grave débile, lui!"
(he's really stupid)
grah-ve
Gueule
n., slang for 'mouth' or 'face'. It can be used in "Ta gueule!" which can be translated into 'Shut
up!'/'Shut your face!'.
gull
Gueuler
v., slang. Means 'to shout'. e.g. 'Arrête de me gueuler dessus' could be translated into 'Stop shouting at
me'.
Exists also engueuler, slang for 'to reprimand'.
guh-lay ; oñ-guh-lay
MacDo
Short for MacDonald's.
mack-doh
Merde
n., excl., translated as 'shit', merde is not seen as vulgar as 'shit'. That is to say, adults use it often, as
well as the youth. It can also mean 'rubbish', for example 'Ce repas, c'est de la merde', or 'The meal is
crap'
This word has produced the phrase «le mot de cinq lettres», an exact transcribed meaning of the
English phase "four-letter word".
maRed / with emphasis or in exclamation: mare-DUH
N'importe quoi
exp., 'whatever'
n., bullshit as in "C'est du n'importe quoi, ce qu'il dit"
nahm-poRt-UH-kwah
Niquer
v. Slang for 'to have sexual intercourse'. Often used in insults such as 'Nique ta mère' (Fuck your
mother), sometimes reduced to 'Ta mère!'. Metaphorically, slang for 'to break' or 'to be great'.
'Je vais te niquer la gueule (vulgaire)' : je vais me battre contre toi !
e.g. 'Cette porte est niquée.' (This door is out of order.)
'Ce jeu nique tout.' (This game is great.)
NEEK-ay
Ouais
'yeah' (as opposed to "oui" = "yes")
waay
Putain
n., excl. Roughly equivalent to 'merde' when used as an exclamation. As a name, old form for 'pute'
(whore). 'Putain' is the closest equivalent to the English 'fuck' (see note on 'fuck').
pew-tAÑ
Super
adj., 'very', 'really' ; "Je suis super content" = "I'm really happy"
soup-air
Taff
n. work, job, task
taff
Truc
n. Stuff
trew-uhk
Tronche
n. Colloquial word meaning 'face'.
TRon-shuh
Vachement
adj., France, slang. Literally "cowly", vachement is a synonym for "very", and can be translated in
some cases for the English adjective 'quite'. For instance - 'Il est vachement idiot' could be translated
as 'He is quite stupid'.
Whilst on the subject of 'vache', a popular French phrase is 'la vache!' which, as an exclamation,
means 'damn!' or 'darn!'. For example - 'tu as perdu!' could be greeted with 'la vache!' or 'mince!' or
other such expressions of discontent.
It can however be used sometimes as an exclamation of surprise or amazement 'la vache! c'est genial
ce truc'
vah-shuh; vah-shuh-MAWÑ
Zinzin
n. Colloquial word meaning 'crazy'.
Verlan
Verlan is roughly similar to English Pig Latin, in that certain words are split in half, and the two
componenents switch positions, but do not necessarily retain all letters (due to French pronunciation
patterns). For example, if you have word [12], in verlan it will become [2-1]. The word verlan is in itself an
example of this; it comes from the word l'envers (meaning 'backwards'). Verlan is, unlike Pig Latin, quite
commonly used among young adults and even adults. Common verlan expressions include:
Beur ou rebeu
n., A person of Arab descent. from arabe. ('Beur' is so commonly used that it now has its own Verlan
form, 'reub').
Chelou
adj., Fishy, shady, suspicious. from louche.
Ienche
n., Dog. from "chien". "Les ienches, ca me fait flipper." (Pronounced "ee-ansh")
Keuf
Policeman (not polite) from flic "Il est chelou ce mec ! j'vais le balancer aux keufs."
Kem
n., man, guy, dude, from mec.
Meuf
n., Woman, chick, girl. from femme.
Ouf
adj., Crazy, ridiculous. from fou. Used commonly in the expression "c'est un truc de ouf" ("that is
some crazy shit").
Relou
adj., Not funny, difficult, something that sucks. from lourd, heavy. (the d is dropped in Verlan because
the final d does not pronounce in lourd).
Ripou
adj., Rotten, awful, gross. from pourri
Ripou = un policier qui commet des actes graves illégaux
pl : des ripoux
Teuf
n., Party. from fête.
Venère
adj., aggravated, angry, pissed off. from enervé(e).
Common chat abbreviations
There are two general guidelines:
é can be susbstituted for all homophonic equivalents including "-ais", "-ait", "-es" (such as in the
articles les and des), the conjunction "et" (and), and the verb "est" (third person sing. conjugation of
être, "to be").
words that end in a silent -s commonly drop this s: such as pas (pa), and vois (voi).
biz
n., bisous, "kisses".
c
subj+verb, c'est, "it is".
ct
subj+verb, c'était, "it was"; imparfait (past) conjugation of c'est.
dc
conj., donc, "therefore, so".
dsl
adj., désolé(e), "sorry".
fok
exp., il faut que, "it is necessary".
ke
interr. and relative pronoun, que, "that".
ki
interr. and rel. pron., qui, "that" or "which".
koi
interrogative, quoi, "what"; also seen in pourkoi, "why".
mdr
exp., mort(e) de rire, "laughing myself to death", (equivalent of lol, laughing out loud).
mé
conj., mais, "but".
pr
prep., pour, "for".
ptdr
exp., peté(e) de rire, "bursting with laughter", (equivalent of lol, laughing out loud). stronger than
mdr.
tt
adj., tout(e), "all"; also seen in the expression tout le monde.
nrv
adj. enervé(e), pissed off, angry, aggravated.
Solutions to Exercises
Creating exercises
When creating new exercises:
Namescheme: E: [Level].[Lesson] # - [Subject] - [Title]
Example: E: 2.01 1 - School Vocabulary - Complétez
Example: E: 2.01 2 - Passé Composé - English to French
Add the following to both the lesson where the exercise goes and the appropriate section on this page.
Replace [...] with the specified lesson info.
{{French Exercises|[namescheme]|
[the exercise text]
|
[the exercise solution text]
}}
Example:
{{French Exercises|E: 2.01 1 - School Vocabulary - Complétez|
* On lève la _____.
|
* On lève la ''main''.
}}
Lesson exercises
Introductory lessons
Level One lessons
Level Two lessons
Level Three lessons
Vocabulary Index
Common French words by category
Typing Characters
International keyboard configuration
Commonly one memorises the alt-number code for inserting non-English characters (below), but there is a
much better method. One can change their keyboard configuration from their previous setting to a US
(Qwerty) International setting. See http://www.starr.net/kbh for more information.
In Windows XP:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Start -> Settings -> Control Panel
Regional and Language Options
Languages -> Details ...
Click Add.
Under Input language, choose your native language.
Under Keyboard layout/IME, choose United States-International.
Now to form accents, you prefix the letter with either ` ' " ~ or ^ So, to get è, one types ` and then e. To get
Ë, one types " and then E.
These are
ù Alt+151
û Alt+150
ü Alt+129
The right
examples of the alt-number code method:
or Alt+0249
or Alt+0251
or Alt+0252
Alt key may be required.
JLG extended keyboard layout for US
You can download the JLG Extended Keyboard Layout for US (freeware) on http://www.jlg-utilities.com.
This layout does not modify the normal US Layout, but extends it. Thus the punctuation characters (', ", ^,
etc.) are not dead keys and does not perturb the common user. Thousand of Unicode characters can be
reached, included the French characters, generally with intuitive combinations, for instance:
é = CTRL + ' then e
à = CTRL + ` then a
Î = CTRL + ^ then I
œ = ALTGR + o then e
« = ALTGR + [
» = ALTGR + ]
etc.
In Mac OS X
You could change your keyboard layout in System Preferences->International->Input Menu or with the
default qwerty keyboard layout you can use meta keys to create the accents. For instance if you want to
create an "`" accent you would press option+` then press the vowel you want to appear under the letter to
create à, è, ì, ò, or ù. The keystrokes for the diffent accents are...
option
option
option
option
+
+
+
+
"`"
"e"
"i"
"u"
=
=
=
=
`
´
ˆ
¨
Copy & paste
This method can be useful if you are just writing a short text (for example an e-mail) and don't have a
computer where you can/want change language settings. Just try to pull up a web page or a document that
contains the special characters and paste them into your text. For longer texts, however, this can become
quite tedious.
Search & replace
If you are working with a text editor you have the option to search for text and replace it with other text.
This feature can be used to 'type' special characters. The idea is to mark a character for becoming a special
character, for example typing ~a when you mean à. After you have written your text you replace marked
characters (the ~a) with special characters (the à). Of course you have to either type in the Alt number code
or paste the character, but the point is that you only have to do it once for the whole text and not for every
single à that you want to type.
Unix and the Compose key
If you are using Ubuntu Linux with Gnome you select the Compose key from System: Preferences:
Keyboard then Layouts: Layout Options: Compose key position. You can select one of Right Alt key, Left
Win-key, Right Win-key, Menu key, Right Ctrl key or Caps Lock key (for a USA keyboard layout). The
Keyboard preferences dialog has an area you can use to test the settings. See below for how to use the
Compose key. Ubuntu with a different window manager, such as KDE should have a similar keyboard
preferences utility.
If you are using Unix or a derivative operating system (such as Linux) with XFree86, you can define a
compose key by opening a terminal window and typing:
To use the
xmodmap -e
To use the
xmodmap -e
To use the
xmodmap -e
Windows menu key (between the right Windows key and right Ctrl key:
"keysym Menu = Multi_key"
right Windows key:
"keysym R_Meta = Multi_key"
right Alt key:
"keysym Alt_Gr = Multi_key"
To use the Compose key, press and release the Compose key, then type two characters. Combinations useful
for typing in French follow:
à Compose + a + `
â Compose + a + ^
ä Compose + a + "
ç Compose + c + ,
è
é
ê
ë
É
Compose
Compose
Compose
Compose
Compose
+
+
+
+
+
e
e
e
e
E
+
+
+
+
+
`
'
^
"
'
î Compose + i + ^
ï Compose + i + "
ô Compose + o + ^
ö Compose + o + "
ù Compose + u + `
û Compose + u + ^
ü Compose + u + "
Web Resources
Link collections
Wikipedia French language external links - Dozens of valuable links.
Translators
Google Translator (http://www.google.com/language_tools)
Babelfish Translation (http://babelfish.altavista.digital.com/babelfish/tr?) : A translation website
Google Toolbar (http://toolbar.google.com/) - automatic translate on mouseover of a word (English to
French only)
Learning French
Online French Help (http://www.onlinefrenchhelp.com/)
About.com French Language (http://french.about.com/)
Target Language (http://www.targetlanguage.co.uk/)
Anne Fox (http://www.homestead.com/Anne_Fox/LearningFrench.html)
BBC (http://www.bbc.co.uk/languages/french/index.shtml)
The Mixxer (http://www.language-exchanges.org) Find a native French speaker for a language
exchange via Skype (http://www.skype.com)
Jump-Gate (http://www.jump-gate.com/languages/french/)
University of Adelaide (http://www.library.adelaide.edu.au/guide/hum/french/learning.html) ,
Australia
French Language Learning Software (http://www.claritaslux.com)
Free Online French Tutorial (http://www.ielanguages.com/french.html)
BBC Bitesize grammar
(http://www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/education/bitesize/standard/other/sos/french/grammar/index.shtml)
Free resources for language learners (http://loquela-education.net) - Practice speaking french online
with ausio forums.
TravelWiki Phrasebook (http://wikitravel.org/en/French_phrasebook)
Orbis Latinus French (http://www.orbilat.com/Languages/French/index.html)
MIT French I Assignments
(http://ocw.mit.edu/OcwWeb/Foreign-Languages-and-Literatures/21F-301Fall-2004/Assignments/index.htm
MIT French II Assignments
(http://ocw.mit.edu/OcwWeb/Foreign-Languages-and-Literatures/21F-302Fall-2004/Assignments/index.htm
Useful information on the French language can be found on the site of tv5 (www.tv5.org)
(http://www.tv5.org/TV5Site/lf/langue_francaise.php) - Dictionnaire de langue francaise, Dictionnaire
de synonymes, Conjugaisons, Dictionnaire anglais/francais, Dictionnaire francais/anglais, and lots
more!
Informal French & Slang - with sound (http://www.ielanguages.com/frenchslang.html)
FancyFrench (http://fancyfrench.mypodcast.com) - Established method for learning French, with a
free online .pdf textbook to accompany the free podcast lessons.
French grammar
Portail lettres (http://www.portail.lettres.net/j__grammaire_et_orthographe.htm)
Verbs : Grammar - Online French Help (http://www.onlinefrenchhelp.com/grammar/verb)
Clo7 (http://membres.lycos.fr/clo7/)
French grammar lessons (http://french.about.com/library/weekly/bltopicsub-g.htm)
Exercises on French grammar (Dr. Meul Etienne) (http://www.etienne-meul.be/)
Online verb conjugator (http://humanities.uchicago.edu/orgs/ARTFL/forms_unrest/inflect.query.html)
Dictionaries
Lexilogos (http://www.lexilogos.com/index.htm) : all online French dictionaries
French dictionary (http://www.online-dictionary.biz/english/french)
French culture
Online A-Z dictionary of modern France (http://about-france.com/dictionary/)
Le portail de la culture (http://www.culture.fr/Groups/accueil/home_fr)
Cortland (http://www.cortland.edu/flteach/civ/)
Ambassade de France en Nouvelle-Zélande (http://www.france.net.nz/)
Travel in France
Ministère des Affaires Etrangères français
(http://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/thema/dossier.asp?DOS=ETRANGERS)
About-France.com - travel and general interest guide to France (http://about-france.com)
TravelWiki (http://wikitravel.org/en/France)
French administration
Le portail de l'administration (http://www.service-public.gouv.fr)
Associated Wikimedia for French language
Commons
Category
Images
Wikipedia
Article
Encyclopedia
Wikiquote
Article
Quotes
Wiktionary
Definition
Dictionary
Associated Wikimedia for France
Commons
Category
Images
Wikinews
Portal
Category
News
Wikipedia
Article
Portal
Encyclopedia
Wikisource
Category
Texts
TEXTS
Contents
Texts Information
1. Fables de La Fontaine
2. National Anthems
Due to the story's length, Le Petit Prince is only included in French/Texts/Print version.
1. Uncategorized Texts
2. Wikinews
Texts Information
Uncategorized Texts
Déclaration des Droits de l'Homme et du Citoyen de 1789
Featured Text
La Marseillaise
L'hymne national de France.
The national anthem of France.
Wiktionary
Definition
Appendix
Dictionary
(edit template (http://en.wikibooks.org/w/wiki.phtml?title=Template:French_Texts_Footer&action=edit) )
Texts
(discussion (http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Talk:French/Texts) )
Fables de La Fontaine par Jean de La Fontaine • National Anthems • Miscellaneous • Wikinews
FABLES DE LA FONTAINE
Information
Featured Fable
La Cigale et la Fourmi
The Cicada and the Ant.
A tale with the moral of hard work.
La Cigale et la Fourmi
Vocabulary
The Fable
En français
La Cigale, ayant chanté
Tout l'été,
Se trouva fort dépourvue
Quand la bise fut venue:
Pas un seul petit morceau
De mouche ou de vermisseau.
Elle alla crier famine
Chez la Fourmi sa voisine,
La priant de lui prêter
Quelque grain pour subsister
Jusqu’à la saison nouvelle.
« Je vous paierai, lui dit-elle,
Avant l’Août, foi d’animal,
Intérêt et principal. »
La Fourmi n’est pas prêteuse:
C’est là son moindre défaut.
« Que faisiez-vous au temps chaud ?
In English
[show ▼]
Dit-elle à cette emprunteuse.
— Nuit et jour à tout venant
Je chantais, ne vous déplaise.
— Vous chantiez ? J’en suis fort aise.
Eh bien ! Dansez maintenant. »
Questions
Le Corbeau et le Renard
Vocabulary
The Fable
En français
Maître Corbeau, sur un arbre perché,
Tenait dans son bec un fromage.
Maître Renard, par l’odeur alléché,
Lui tint à peu près ce langage :
« Hé ! bonjour, Monsieur du Corbeau.
Que vous êtes joli ! que vous me semblez beau !
Sans mentir, si votre ramage
Se rapporte à votre plumage,
Vous êtes le Phénix des hôtes de ces bois. »
A ces mots le Corbeau ne se sent pas de joie ;
Et pour montrer sa belle voix,
Il ouvre un large bec, laisse tomber sa proie.
Le Renard s’en saisit, et dit : « Mon bon Monsieur,
Apprenez que tout flatteur
Vit aux dépens de celui qui l’écoute :
Cette leçon vaut bien un fromage, sans doute. »
Le Corbeau, honteux et confus,
Jura, mais un peu tard, qu’on ne l’y prendrait plus.
Questions
Les Deux Mulets
Vocabulary
The Fable
Deux mulets cheminaient, l’un d’avoine chargé,
In English
[show ▼]
L’autre portant l’argent de la gabelle
Celui-ci, glorieux d’une charge si belle,
N’eût voulu pour beaucoup en être soulagé.
Il marchait d’un pas relevé,
Et faisait sonner sa sonnette :
Quand, l’ennemi se présentant,
Comme il en voulait à l’argent,
Sur le mulet du fisc une troupe se jette,
Le saisit au frein et l’arrête.
Le mulet, en se défendant,
Se sent percé de coups ; il gémit, il soupire.
Est-ce donc là, dit-il, ce qu’on m’avait promis ?
Ce mulet qui me suit du danger se retire ;
Et moi j’y tombe et je péris !
— Ami, lui dit son camarade,
Il n’est pas toujours bon d’avoir un haut emploi :
Si tu n’avais servi qu’un meunier, comme moi,
Tu ne serais pas si malade.
Questions
NATIONAL ANTHEMS
Information
Featured National Anthem
La Marseillaise
L'hymne national de France.
The national anthem of France.
(edit template (http://en.wikibooks.org/w/wiki.phtml?title=Template:French/Texts/National_anthems/Footer&action=edit) )
National
(discussion (http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Talk:French/Texts/National_anthems) )
Anthems
L'Aube Nouvelle (Benin) • La Brabançonne (Belgium) Le Cantique suisse (Switzerland) La Marseillaise (France) O Canada
(Canada)
La Marseillaise
Introduction
Main article: w:La Marseillaise
How To Read The Anthem
You will not get much out of the anthem if you skim through it or only know the meanings of half the
words. There are two ways you can read it. The first is to read the French text and English translation below.
The second way will lead to a greater understanding of the anthem, but is more time consuming. Read a line,
look up (http://translate.google.com/translate_t) words you don't know, then continue on to the next line.
When you finish reading a verse, you should reread both in French and English to make sure you understand
both the overall picture and each line. It may be necessary to repeat this several times. After reading the
entire anthem once, quickly read it a second time. You should be able to reread it in no time at all. If you
find yourself having trouble rereading the anthem, read it a third time until you are comfortable reading it.
Vocabulary
la Patrie fatherland
le citoyen citizen
The Anthem
French lyrics
English Translation
I.
Allons enfants de la Patrie
Le jour de gloire est arrivé !
Contre nous de la tyrannie
L'étendard sanglant est levé (bis)
Entendez-vous dans nos campagnes
Mugir ces féroces soldats ?
Ils viennent jusque dans vos bras.
Égorger vos fils, vos compagnes !
Verse I
[show ▼]
Refrain
[show ▼]
Verse II
[show ▼]
Refrain :
Aux armes citoyens
Formez vos bataillons
Marchons, marchons
Qu'un sang impur
Abreuve nos sillons
II.
Que veut cette horde d'esclaves
De traîtres, de rois conjurés ?
Pour qui ces ignobles entraves
Ces fers dès longtemps préparés ? (bis)
Français, pour nous, ah ! quel outrage
Quels transports il doit exciter ?
C'est nous qu'on ose méditer
De rendre à l'antique esclavage !
(refrain)
French
[show ▼]
English
[show ▼]
Verse III
[show ▼]
English
[show ▼]
Verse IV
[show ▼]
English
[show ▼]
Verse V
[show ▼]
English
[show ▼]
III.
Quoi ces cohortes étrangères !
Feraient la loi dans nos foyers !
Quoi ! ces phalanges mercenaires
Terrasseraient nos fils guerriers ! (bis)
Grand Dieu ! par des mains enchaînées
Nos fronts sous le joug se ploieraient
De vils despotes deviendraient
Les maîtres des destinées.
(refrain)
French
[show ▼]
IV.
Tremblez, tyrans et vous perfides
L'opprobre de tous les partis
Tremblez ! vos projets parricides
Vont enfin recevoir leurs prix ! (bis)
Tout est soldat pour vous combattre
S'ils tombent, nos jeunes héros
La France en produit de nouveaux,
Contre vous tout prêts à se battre.
(refrain)
French
[show ▼]
V
Français, en guerriers magnanimes
Portez ou retenez vos coups !
Épargnez ces tristes victimes
À regret s'armant contre nous (bis)
Mais ces despotes sanguinaires
Mais ces complices de Bouillé
Tous ces tigres qui, sans pitié
Déchirent le sein de leur mère !
(refrain)
French
[show ▼]
VI.
(1) The sentence (in French) is inverted, the non-literal translation is : "The bloody banner of tyranny is
raised against/before
it may be also "Protect us against tyranny, The bloody banner is raised"
Amour sacré deus"
la but
Patrie
Conduis,
soutiens
nos bras
vengeurs
(2) Here
and in the
next line,
this is
often sung as "nos" ("our") rather than "vos" ("your"); "vos" remains
official.Liberté, Liberté chérie
[show ▼]
Verse VI
Combats
avec
tes
défenseurs
!
(bis)
(3) "la carrière" ("the career"), that is, of being in the army.
Sous nos drapeaux, que la victoire
Accoure à tes mâles accents
Questions
Que tes ennemis expirants
Voient ton triomphe et notre gloire !
UNCATEGORIZED TEXTS
Déclaration des Droits de l'Homme et du Citoyen
Introduction and context
Main article: w:Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
Déclaration des Droits de l'Homme et du Citoyen de 1789
(http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/D%C3%A9claration_des_Droits_de_l%27Homme_et_du_Citoyen_de_1789)
Vocabulary
un droit - a right
Text introduction
Déclaration des Droits de l'Homme et du Citoyen
Adoptée par l'Assemblée constituante du 20 au 26 août 1789, acceptée par le roi le 5 octobre 1789
Les représentants du peuple français, constitués en Assemblée nationale, considérant que l'ignorance, l'oubli
ou le mépris des droits de l'homme sont les seules causes des malheurs publics et de la corruption des
gouvernements, ont résolu d'exposer, dans une Déclaration solennelle, les droits naturels, inaliénables et
sacrés de l'homme, afin que cette Déclaration, constamment présente à tous les membres du corps social,
leur rappelle sans cesse leurs droits et leurs devoirs; afin que les actes du pouvoir législatif, et ceux du
pouvoir exécutif pouvant à chaque instant être comparés avec le but de toute institution politique, en soient
plus respectés; afin que les réclamations des citoyens, fondées désormais sur des principes simples et
incontestables, tournent toujours au maintien de la Constitution et au bonheur de tous.
Questions
Text Declaration of Rights
En conséquence, l'Assemblée nationale reconnaît et déclare, en présence et sous les auspices de l'Être
suprême, les droits suivants de l'homme et du citoyen:
Article premier - Les hommes naissent et demeurent libres et égaux en droits. Les distinctions sociales
ne peuvent être fondées que sur l'utilité commune.
Article II - Le but de toute association politique est la conservation des droits naturels et
imprescriptibles de l'homme. Ces droits sont la liberté, la propriété, la sûreté, et la résistance à
l'oppression.
Article III - Le principe de toute souveraineté réside essentiellement dans la nation. Nul corps, nul
individu ne peut exercer d'autorité qui n'en émane expressément.
Article IV - La liberté consiste à faire tout ce qui ne nuit pas à autrui: ainsi l'exercice des droits
naturels de chaque homme n'a de bornes que celles qui assurent aux autres membres de la société la
jouissance de ces mêmes droits. Ces bornes ne peuvent être déterminées que par la loi.
Article V - La loi n'a le droit de défendre que les actions nuisibles à la société. Tout ce qui n'est pas
défendu par la loi ne peut être empêché, et nul ne peut être contraint à faire ce qu'elle n'ordonne pas.
Article VI - La loi est l'expression de la volonté générale. Tous les citoyens ont droit de concourir
personnellement, ou par leurs représentants, à sa formation. Elle doit être la même pour tous, soit
qu'elle protège, soit qu'elle punisse. Tous les citoyens, étant égaux à ses yeux, sont également
admissibles à toutes dignités, places et emplois publics, selon leurs capacités et sans autre distinction
que celle de leurs vertus et de leurs talents.
Article VII - Nul homme ne peut être accusé, arrêté ni détenu que dans les cas déterminés par la loi, et
selon les formes qu'elle a prescrites. Ceux qui sollicitent, expédient, exécutent ou font exécuter des
ordres arbitraires, doivent être punis; mais tout citoyen appelé ou saisi en vertu de la loi doit obéir à
l'instant; il se rend coupable par la résistance.
Article VIII - La loi ne doit établir que des peines strictement et évidemment nécessaires, et nul ne
peut être puni qu'en vertu d'une loi établie et promulguée antérieurement au délit et légalement
appliquée.
Article IX - Tout homme étant présumé innocent jusqu'à ce qu'il ait été déclaré coupable, s'il est jugé
indispensable de l'arrêter, toute rigueur qui ne sera pas nécessaire pour s'assurer de sa personne doit
être sévèrement réprimée par la loi.
Article X - Nul ne doit être inquiété pour ses opinions, même religieuses, pourvu que leur
manifestation ne trouble pas l'ordre public établi par la loi.
Article XI - La libre communication des pensées et des opinions est un des droits les plus précieux de
l'homme: tout citoyen peut donc parler, écrire, imprimer librement, sauf à répondre de l'abus de cette
liberté, dans les cas déterminés par la loi.
Article XII - La garantie des droits de l'homme et du citoyen nécessite une force publique: cette force
est donc instituée pour l'avantage de tous et non pour l'utilité particulière de ceux auxquels elle est
confiée.
Article XIII - Pour l'entretien de la force publique et pour les dépenses d'administration, une
contribution commune est indispensable. Elle doit être également répartie entre tous les citoyens, en
raison de leurs facultés.
Article XIV - Chaque citoyen a le droit, par lui-même ou par ses représentants, de constater la
nécessité de la contribution publique, de la consentir librement, d'en suivre l'emploi et d'en déterminer
la quotité, l'assiette, le recouvrement et la durée.
Article XV - La société a le droit de demander compte à tout agent public de son administration.
Article XVI - Toute société dans laquelle la garantie des droits n'est pas assurée, ni la séparation des
pouvoirs déterminée, n'a pas de Constitution.
Article XVII - La propriété étant un droit inviolable et sacré, nul ne peut en être privé, si ce n'est
lorsque la nécessité publique, légalement constatée, l'exige évidemment, et sous la condition d'une
juste et préalable indemnité.
Questions
WIKINEWS
Information
Featured News Piece
Fire
(audio)
()
Wikinews (discussion (http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Talk:French/Texts/Wikinews) )
Fire
Fire
From wikinews:fr:Premier incendie de l'été en région PACA/Brève
Vocabulary
brûler
to burn
l'incendie fire
The News Story
audio
30 juin 2005. – Une centaine d'hectares de forêt a brûlé jeudi après-midi en région Provence-Alpes-Côte
d'Azur.Le Centre opérationnel départemental d'incendie et de secours du Var a déclaré que le terrain était
« très difficile d'accès en raison de la densité de la végétation ».
Toutefois, avec l'aide d'importants moyens (huit avions, et deux hélicoptères), les pompiers espèrent
maitriser l'incendie avant la nuit bien que le feu soit attisé par un vent d'ouest. Les raisons de l'incendie
restent inconnues, une enquète est ouverte.
Ce premier feu de forêt de l'été fait craindre une situation difficile pour les pompiers : les spécialistes
craignent une situation similaire à celle de l'été 2003 lors duquel plusieurs centaines d'hectares du massif des
Maures avaient été ravagés.
Q&A
Welcome to the French Questions and Answers page.
Feel free to post any questions you have while learning or encountering French. Please sign and date
your entries by inserting -- ~~~~ at the end.
If you have questions about this book, post them on the French discussion page.
Ask a question!
(http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=French/Q%26A&action=edit&section=new
Translation and Meaning
I need to know what the SLANG word in English for the French term feutre means.
Un Feutre= a felt-tipped pen, ie. a texta colour
As far as I know there is no slang word for felt-tipped pen. You just have to say felt-tipped pen.
71.106.251.220 (talk)
Level
How do I know what level I'm on? Is there any sort of placement test?
You can easily find placement tests online and at various Colleges' and Universities' Websites online
(http://www.google.com/search?q=french+placement+test&sourceid=navclient-ff&ie=UTF-8&rlz=1B3GGGL
. Otherwise, the general rule of thumb is one year in a language course is one level.
--Fruitblender 23:06, 7 November 2007 (UTC)
exercise on le futur anterior
Here (http://globegate.utm.edu/french/globegate_mirror/gramm.html) is a list of exercises by topic.
--Fruitblender 23:06, 7 November 2007 (UTC)
In French How do I Make a sentence Imperative?
The imperative is used in tu, nous and vous forms; the nous and vous forms are the same as the
indicative in both regular and irregular verbs (except the 3 irregulars shown below). The tu form is
also the same unless it comes from an infinitive that ends in -er, in which case the tu form would drop
the 's' (eg: parles becomes parle).
The infinitive can also be used as the imperative, but only for impersonal commands, eg: mettre la
ceinture.
--Fruitblender 23:06, 7 November 2007 (UTC)
gender
what we call turkey or turque as feminine or masculine
hello
explain passe compose tense
In English, verbs conjugated in the passé composé literally mean have/has ____ed. While there is a
simple past tense in French, it is only used in formal writing, so verbs conjugated in the passé
composé can also be used to mean the English simple tense.
For example, the passé composé form of parler (to speak), [avoir] parlé, literally mean has/have
spoken, but also means spoke. In French, the passé composé covers "I ate", "I did eat" and "I have
eaten" - J'ai mangé.
Usage
You use the passé composé when you want to express that:
Something has been completed in the past.
Something was done a certain amount of times in the past. (if the something was ongoing,
the imparfait should be used)
A series of somethings was completed in the past.
If you want to know how to form it, you'll have to look it up. There are a lot of rules, and they are
easily listed elsewhere (like in the Wikibook).
--Fruitblender 22:43, 7 November 2007 (UTC)
Verbs used as adjectives or nouns
How do you tanslate English "verbals" into French? I am confused about both:
Verbs used as adjectives (in English they would be called "participles")
ex: I see the singing girl.
Verbs used as nouns (in English they would be called "gerunds")
ex: Singing is fun.
Thanks for your help, FerralMoonrender (talk) 20:47, 14 July 2008 (UTC)
Hi.
Verbs used as adjectives are generally translated to qui + verb (conjugated). In your example, a
French would say "Je vois la fille qui chante".
Verbs used as nouns would be translated to the infinitive form of the verb. In your example, we
would say "Chanter est amusant".
I hope I answered your question. --AurélieM (talk) 00:36, 21 July 2008 (UTC)
Merci beaucoup! FerralMoonrender (talk) 06:53, 3 August 2008 (UTC)
Çava
Passé composé - Reflexive Verbs vs. Verbs with Preceding Object
Pronouns
Is the auxillary verb "être" used both with reflexive and preceding object pronouns?
Je me SUIS parlé.
Il m'EST parlé. (--> Should it be "Il m'A parlé", since, in this case, it's not a reflexive pronoun?)
Passé composé - Irregular verbs or intransite verbs
Is the auxillary verb "être" used, in the special cases, with irregular or intransite verbs?
Use of Fingers
I need to know what is different about the use of the fingers in France compared to the use of fingers in
America. I already know about using the thumb to begin counting, but what makes that so much better than
starting with the index finger? This is for a 6th graders report in French, please! Any assistance would be
appreciated, links, etc.
what is the translation of good morning im zirenithee basa presenting the country of france in french
language?
ABOUT THE BOOK
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