HTA Systematic review of endoscopic sinus surgery for nasal polyps K Dalziel

Document technical information

Format pdf
Size 736.4 kB
First found Jun 9, 2017

Document content analysis

Language
English
Type
not defined
Concepts
no text concepts found

Persons

Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci

wikipedia, lookup

William Russell Grace
William Russell Grace

wikipedia, lookup

Organizations

Places

Transcript

Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Systematic review of endoscopic sinus
surgery for nasal polyps
K Dalziel
K Stein
A Round
R Garside
P Royle
Health Technology Assessment
NHS R&D HTA Programme
HTA
HTA
How to obtain copies of this and other HTA Programme reports.
An electronic version of this publication, in Adobe Acrobat format, is available for downloading free of
charge for personal use from the HTA website (http://www.hta.ac.uk). A fully searchable CD-ROM is
also available (see below).
Printed copies of HTA monographs cost £20 each (post and packing free in the UK) to both public and
private sector purchasers from our Despatch Agents.
Non-UK purchasers will have to pay a small fee for post and packing. For European countries the cost is
£2 per monograph and for the rest of the world £3 per monograph.
You can order HTA monographs from our Despatch Agents:
– fax (with credit card or official purchase order)
– post (with credit card or official purchase order or cheque)
– phone during office hours (credit card only).
Additionally the HTA website allows you either to pay securely by credit card or to print out your
order and then post or fax it.
Contact details are as follows:
HTA Despatch
c/o Direct Mail Works Ltd
4 Oakwood Business Centre
Downley, HAVANT PO9 2NP, UK
Email: [email protected]
Tel: 02392 492 000
Fax: 02392 478 555
Fax from outside the UK: +44 2392 478 555
NHS libraries can subscribe free of charge. Public libraries can subscribe at a very reduced cost of
£100 for each volume (normally comprising 30–40 titles). The commercial subscription rate is £300
per volume. Please see our website for details. Subscriptions can only be purchased for the current or
forthcoming volume.
Payment methods
Paying by cheque
If you pay by cheque, the cheque must be in pounds sterling, made payable to Direct Mail Works Ltd
and drawn on a bank with a UK address.
Paying by credit card
The following cards are accepted by phone, fax, post or via the website ordering pages: Delta, Eurocard,
Mastercard, Solo, Switch and Visa. We advise against sending credit card details in a plain email.
Paying by official purchase order
You can post or fax these, but they must be from public bodies (i.e. NHS or universities) within the UK.
We cannot at present accept purchase orders from commercial companies or from outside the UK.
How do I get a copy of HTA on CD?
Please use the form on the HTA website (www.hta.ac.uk/htacd.htm). Or contact Direct Mail Works (see
contact details above) by email, post, fax or phone. HTA on CD is currently free of charge worldwide.
The website also provides information about the HTA Programme and lists the membership of the various
committees.
Systematic review of endoscopic sinus
surgery for nasal polyps
K Dalziel1
K Stein1*
A Round1
R Garside1
P Royle2
1
2
Peninsula Technology Assessment Group, Exeter, UK
Southampton Health Technology Assessment Centre, University of
Southampton, UK
* Corresponding author
Declared competing interests of authors: Kim Dalziel, Ken Stein, Ali Round,
Ruth Garside and Pam Royle have no pecuniary relationship with companies making or
profiting from the use of endoscopic sinus surgery.
Published August 2003
This report should be referenced as follows:
Dalziel K, Stein K, Round A, Garside R, Royle P. Systematic review of endoscopic sinus
surgery for nasal polyps. Health Technol Assess 2003; 7(17).
Health Technology Assessment is indexed in Index Medicus/MEDLINE and Excerpta Medica/
EMBASE.
NHS R&D HTA Programme
T
he NHS R&D Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Programme was set up in 1993 to ensure
that high-quality research information on the costs, effectiveness and broader impact of health
technologies is produced in the most efficient way for those who use, manage and provide care
in the NHS.
The research reported in this monograph was commissioned by the HTA Programme and funded as
project number 01/34/01. Technology assessment reports are completed in a limited time to inform
decisions in key areas by bringing together evidence on the use of the technology concerned.
The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the
HTA Programme or the Department of Health. The editors wish to emphasise that funding and
publication of this research by the NHS should not be taken as implicit support for any
recommendations made by the authors.
Criteria for inclusion in the HTA monograph series
Reports are published in the HTA monograph series if (1) they have resulted from work
commissioned for the HTA Programme, and (2) they are of a sufficiently high scientific quality
as assessed by the referees and editors.
Reviews in Health Technology Assessment are termed ‘systematic’ when the account of the search,
appraisal and synthesis methods (to minimise biases and random errors) would, in theory, permit
the replication of the review by others.
HTA Programme Director:
Series Editors:
Managing Editors:
Professor Kent Woods
Professor Andrew Stevens, Dr Ken Stein, Professor John Gabbay,
Dr Ruairidh Milne, Dr Chris Hyde and Dr Rob Riemsma
Sally Bailey and Sarah Llewellyn Lloyd
The editors and publisher have tried to ensure the accuracy of this report but do not accept liability
for damages or losses arising from material published in this report.
ISSN 1366-5278
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003
This monograph may be freely reproduced for the purposes of private research and study and may be included in professional journals
provided that suitable acknowledgement is made and the reproduction is not associated with any form of advertising.
Applications for commercial reproduction should be addressed to HMSO,The Copyright Unit, St Clements House,
2–16 Colegate, Norwich, NR3 1BQ.
Published by Gray Publishing, Tunbridge Wells, Kent, on behalf of NCCHTA.
Printed on acid-free paper in the UK by St Edmundsbury Press Ltd, Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk.
O2
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Abstract
Systematic review of endoscopic sinus surgery for nasal polyps
K Dalziel,1 K Stein,1* A Round,1 R Garside1 and P Royle2
1
Peninsula Technology Assessment Group, Exeter, UK
Southampton Health Technology Assessment Centre, University of Southampton, UK
* Corresponding author
2
Objectives: To provide a systematic review of the
clinical effectiveness of endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS)
for the removal of nasal polyps.
Data sources: Searches of electronic databases,
websites and reference lists were made to identify
relevant studies.
Review methods: An extensive search was performed
to identify all articles where FESS is used for the
excision of nasal polyps. Two reviewers independently
screened articles for inclusion according to predefined
criteria. Comparative studies were included if they
were primary research, focused on FESS for the
removal of nasal polyps, reported patient relevant
outcomes and were published in English. In addition,
case series studies were included if they met the above
criteria and enrolled more than 50 patients with polyps.
Data were then extracted by one reviewer and
checked by a second. A structured form was used to
assess the internal and external validity of included
studies. Comparative data were reported where
available. Excluded case series and case reports were
grouped and described. A group of nine ear, nose and
throat (ENT) experts were selected, then using the
literature and their own experience, they generated a
list of priority research questions. Existing economic
evaluations were sought and described.
Results: Of the 33 studies included, the randomised
controlled trials and controlled trials reported overall
symptomatic improvement that ranged from 78 to
88% for FESS compared with 43 to 84% for similar
techniques (including polypectomy, Caldwell–Luc and
intranasal ethmoidectomy). Disease recurrence was
8% for FESS compared with 14% for Caldwell–Luc
and polyp recurrence was 28% for endoscopic
ethmoidectomy compared with 35% for polypectomy.
Revision surgery was reported in one study only and
was the same for FESS and Caldwell–Luc procedures.
Percentage of overall complications was reported in
only one comparative study and was 1.4% for FESS
compared with 0.8% for conventional procedures. The
case series studies reported overall symptomatic
improvement for patients with nasal polyps ranging
from 37 to 99% (median 89%). For the mixed patient
groups (with and without polypoid disease) overall
symptomatic improvement ranged from 40 to 98%
(median 88%). Total complications in the case series
studies ranged from 22.4 to 0.3% (median 6%).
Conclusions: The majority of studies report that
symptoms improve following FESS with relatively few
complications; however, only a small proportion of
evidence is comparative. Results from non-comparative
studies do not inform the choices that need to be made
by ENT surgeons and commissioners. Health
economics data are also lacking and therefore cannot
inform these decisions. FESS may offer some
advantages in effectiveness over comparative
techniques, but there is enormous variation in the
range of results reported and there are severe
methodological limitations. There is a clear need for
quality-controlled trials in order to answer questions
regarding the effectiveness of FESS. A number of
priority research questions from a selection
of ENT surgeons within the UK are identified and
presented.
iii
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Contents
Glossary and list of abbreviations .............
vii
Executive summary ....................................
xi
1 Aim of the review ......................................
1
2 Background ................................................
Description of underlying health
problem ......................................................
Current service provision ...........................
Description of the intervention .................
3
3 Methods .....................................................
Systematic review – effectiveness of
FESS ...........................................................
Future research priorities ...........................
Economic evaluation ..................................
3
5
6
11
11
12
13
4 Results ........................................................
Systematic review – effectiveness of
FESS ...........................................................
Future research priorities ...........................
Economic evaluation of FESS ....................
15
15
56
62
5 Discussion and conclusion .........................
Implications for other parties ....................
Factors relevant to the NHS .......................
Discussion ...................................................
Need for further research ..........................
Conclusions ................................................
67
67
67
67
69
69
Acknowledgements ....................................
71
References ..................................................
73
Appendix 1 Research protocol for functional
endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) for nasal
polyps ......................................................... 79
Appendix 2 Search strategy ......................
83
Appendix 3 Excluded studies ....................
85
Appendix 4 Data extraction tables –
randomised controlled trials ......................
87
Appendix 5 Data extraction tables –
non-randomised comparative
studies .........................................................
91
Appendix 6 Data extraction tables – case
series studies where all patients have nasal
polyps .........................................................
95
Appendix 7 Data extraction tables – case
series studies with mixed patients (polyps
and non-polyps) but results reported
separately ................................................... 101
Appendix 8 Data extraction tables – case
series studies with mixed patients (polyps
and non-polyps) but results not reported
separately ................................................... 117
Appendix 9 Charts illustrating possible
confounding factors for the main outcome
(symptom improvement) for patients with
polyps ......................................................... 125
Appendix 10 Charts illustrating
possible confounding factors for
the main outcome (symptom
improvement) for mixed patients
(with and without polyps) .......................... 129
Appendix 11 Citations and abstracts of
subgroups (specific patients, polyps or
techniques/technology) for FESS and the
excision of nasal polyps .............................. 133
Health Technology and Assessment reports
published to date ....................................... 161
Health Technology and Assessment
Programme ................................................ 169
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Glossary and list of abbreviations
Glossary
Anosmia The absence of the sense of smell.
treat disorders. It is equipped with lenses and a
light source and can be flexible or rigid.
Atypia State of not being typical.
Bilateral Having two sides, or pertaining to
both sides.
Endoscopy Examination of a body cavity
using an endoscope in order to diagnose or
treat a disorder in the cavity.
Bulla ethmoidalis The prominence on the
lateral wall of the nose made by the anterior
ethmoidal cells.
Eosinophilia syndrome The formation and
accumulation of an abnormally large number
of eosinophils in the blood.
Choncha bullosa Pneumatisation of the
vertical attachment of the middle turbinate.
Eosinophils A type of leucocyte-containing
eosin-staining granules. Although the activity
of eosinophils is not entirely clear, they are
known to destroy parasitic organisms and play
a major role in allergic reactions. They also
secrete chemical mediators that can cause
bronchoconstriction in asthma. Eosinophils
make up 1–3% of a normal total white blood
cell count.
Churg–Strauss syndrome A condition
characterised by a systemic vasculitis,
eosinophilia and granuloma formation. Nasal
polyps and asthma are frequently found.
Ciliary dyskinesia An inherited condition in
which there is poor motility of the cilia of the
respiratory epithelium.
Ciliated Having cilia (microtubular, hair-like
structures that cover the cells of certain tissues,
such as the epithelium lining the lungs, and
help those cells sweep away fluids or particles).
Columnar epithelium Epithelium formed of a
single layer of prismatic cells taller than they
are wide.
Congenital Existing at, and usually before,
birth, referring to conditions that are present
at birth, regardless of their causation.
Cytokines Non-antibody proteins secreted by
inflammatory leucocytes and some nonleucocytic cells, that act as intercellular
mediators. They differ from classical hormones
in that they are produced by a number of tissue
or cell types rather than by specialised glands.
They generally act locally.
Endoscope A tube-shaped instrument inserted
into a cavity of the body to investigate and
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
Epistaxis Nosebleed; haemorrhage from the
nose.
Epithelium The covering of internal and
external surfaces of the body, including the
lining of vessels and other small cavities.
Epithelium is classified into types on the basis
of the number of layers deep and the shape of
the superficial cells.
Ethmoid The ethmoid bone, a bone of
complicated structure through which the
olfactory nerves pass out of the cranium and
over which they are largely distributed.
Fibroblasts Connective tissue cells which
differentiate into chondroblasts, collagenoblasts
and osteoblasts.
Goblet cells Cell of the epithelial lining of the
respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts that
secretes mucus and has a very well developed
Golgi apparatus.
continued
vii
Glossary and list of abbreviations
Glossary continued
Haematoma A localised collection of blood,
usually clotted, in an organ, space or tissue,
due to a break in the wall of a blood vessel.
cranial bones. They vary in size and form in
different individuals and are lined by the
ciliated mucous membranes.
Hyperplasia The abnormal multiplication or
increase in the number of normal cells in
normal arrangement in a tissue.
Patency The state of being freely open or
exposed.
Hyposmia Diminished sense of smell.
Lymphocytes White blood cells that fight
infection and disease.
Mast cells Resident cell of connective tissue
that contains many granules rich in histamine
and heparin sulphate.
Maxillary sinus An air-filled cavity within the
maxilla (bone that forms the face and upper
jaw). The maxillary sinus is located just below
the bony prominence of the cheek.
Microdebrider A powered instrument used for
the removal of tissue comprising a cutting
blade, suction and irrigation.
Middle turbinate The middle thin, bony plate
that is part of the ethmoidal labyrinth. It
projects from the lateral wall of the nasal cavity
and separates the superior meatus from the
middle meatus. Also called middle nasal
choncha.
Mucosa A mucous membrane which is the
lubricated inner lining of the mouth, nasal
passages, any membrane or lining which
contains mucus-secreting glands.
Neoplastic Pertaining to or like a neoplasm
(new and abnormal growth, may be benign or
cancerous).
Normosmia Normal sense of smell.
Oedematous The state of having abnormally
large amounts of fluid in the intercellular tissue
spaces of the body.
Ostium An opening or a passageway.
viii
Paranasal sinuses Air-filled extensions of the
respiratory part of the nasal cavity into the
frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid, and maxillary
Polyp Soft jelly-like structures that are
attached by a stalk to the surface from which
they arise. The usual structure is that of a fine
fibrous core covered with epithelium
resembling that of the surrounding surface.
Polyposis The presence of a crop or large
number of polyps.
Pseudostratified An epithelium that gives a
superficial appearance of being stratified
because the cell nuclei are at different levels,
but in which all cells reach the basement
membrane, hence it is classed as a simple
epithelium.
Rhinitis Inflammation of the nose
characterised by sneezing attacks, nasal
discharge or nasal congestion. Rhinitis can be
seasonal (intermittent) or perennial (persistent)
and may be divided into mild or
moderate/severe.
Rhinosinusitis Inflammation of nose and
sinuses. Most cases occur as a result of infection
spreading to the sinuses from the nose along
the passages that drain mucus secreted by the
linings of the sinuses to the nose.
Samter’s triad A condition in which a person
suffers from nasal polyps, aspirin intolerance
and asthma.
Seromucinous glands A gland in which some
of the secretory cells are serous and some
mucous, a gland whose cells secrete a fluid
intermediate between a watery and a viscous
mucoid substance.
Sphenoethmoid Of or pertaining to both the
sphenoidal and the ethmoidal regions of the
skull.
continued
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Glossary continued
Sphenoid The sphenoid bone, an irregularly
shaped bone in front of the occipital in the
base of the skull. It is composed of several
foetal bones which become united in the adult.
Stenosis Narrowing or stricture of a duct or
canal.
Stroma Applies to the tissue which forms a
covering and framework of an organ.
Submucosa A layer of connective tissue
beneath a mucous membrane.
Synechiae Small strands of fibrous tissue or
adhesions usually between the middle turbinate
and the lateral wall.
Uncinate process A small crescent-shaped
piece of ethmoid bone found in the anterior
middle meatus.
Young syndrome Obstructive azoospermia
(the absence of mature male germ cells in the
semen or failure of formation of mature male
germ cells) and chronic sinopulmonary
infections.
List of abbreviations
AFS
allergic fungal sinusitis
ASA
aspirin-sensitive asthma
BAWO
bilateral antral washout
BINA
bilateral intranasal antrostomy
CAS
computer-aided surgery
CF
cystic fibrosis
CIA
Confidence Interval Analysis
CL
Caldwell–Luc
CRD
Centre for Reviews and
Dissemination
HIV
human immunodeficiency
virus
HRG
Healthcare Resource Group
ICD-10
International Classification of
Diseases and Health Related
Problems (10th Revision) system
for coding diagnoses
IL-5
interleukin-5
ITT
intention-to-treat
NEN
Nicolet electronic navigation
NICE
National Institute of Clinical
Excellence
MRI
magnetic resonance imaging
OPSC4
Office of Population and Censuses
(4th Revision) system for coding
operations and treatments
CSF
cerebrospinal fluid
CT
computed tomography
ENT
ear, nose and throat
ESS
endoscopic sinus surgery
FESS
functional endoscopic sinus surgery
RCT
randomised controlled trial
HES
hospital episode statistics
YAG
yttrium aluminium garnet
All abbreviations that have been used in this report are listed here unless the abbreviation is well known (e.g. NHS), or
it has been used only once, or it is a non-standard abbreviation used only in figures/tables/appendices in which case
the abbreviation is defined in the figure legend or at the end of the table.
ix
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Executive summary
Background
Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) is a
minimally invasive technique that uses an
endoscope to improve ventilation and drainage in
addition to polyp removal. The extent of surgery
varies according to the extent of disease and
surgeon’s individual practice. This technique has
been used for more than a decade in treating sinonasal conditions. Advantages are claimed over
conventional surgery: permitting a better view of
the surgical field, a more precise and thorough
clearance of the inflammatory change, fewer
complications and lower recurrence rates.
Nasal polyp growths are round, soft, semitranslucent, pale or yellow glistening structures
that originate from any part of the nasal mucosa
or paranasal sinuses (although most commonly
from the ethmoid or middle meatus regions).
Polyp development has been linked to chronic
inflammation, allergy, autonomic nervous system
dysfunction and genetic predisposition.
It has been estimated that 0.2–1% of adults in the
UK will have nasal polyps at some time during
their life. The English Department of Health
report that 12,312 patients were admitted to
hospital with a primary diagnosis of nasal polyps
from 1 April 2000 to 31 March 2001. The
frequency of polyps increases with age until 59
years and polyps are more frequent in males than
females. Nasal polyps are associated with many
different disease states and it is rare to find them
alone.
Objectives
To provide a systematic review of the clinical
effectiveness of endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) for
the removal of nasal polyps.
Methods
A systematic review of the literature was
undertaken. Searches of electronic databases,
websites and reference lists were made to identify
relevant studies. Comparative studies were
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
included if they were primary research, focused on
FESS for the removal of nasal polyps, reported
patient relevant outcomes and were published in
English. In addition, case series studies were
included if they met the above criteria and
enrolled more than 50 patients with polyps.
The titles and abstracts of studies, and then full
text articles, were screened independently by two
reviewers for inclusion. Using a structured form,
the quality (internal and external validity) of the
included studies was assessed by one reviewer and
checked by a second reviewer.
Owing to the lack of homogeneous randomised
controlled trials (RCTs) we have not performed
meta-analysis. We have, however, provided
comparative data where available. The assessment
includes all patient-relevant outcome measures
reported by the studies.
Results
Thirty-three studies were included, three RCTs,
three non-RCTs and 27 case series studies. The
RCTs and controlled trials reported overall
symptomatic improvement that ranged from 78 to
88% for FESS compared with 43 to 84% for
comparative techniques (including polypectomy,
Caldwell–Luc and intranasal ethmoidectomy).
Disease recurrence was 8% for FESS compared
with 14% for Caldwell–Luc and polyp recurrence
was 28% for endoscopic ethmoidectomy compared
with 35% for polypectomy. Revision surgery was
reported in one study only and was the same for
FESS and Caldwell–Luc procedures. Percentage of
overall complications was reported in only one
comparative study and was 1.4% for FESS
compared with 0.8% for conventional procedures.
The case series studies reported overall
symptomatic improvement for patients with nasal
polyps ranging from 37 to 99% (median 89%). For
the mixed patient groups (with and without
polypoid disease) overall symptomatic
improvement ranged from 40 to 98% (median
88%). Total complications in the case series studies
ranged from 22.4 to 0.3% (median 6%).
xi
Executive summary
Conclusions
We have identified large amounts of data on FESS.
The majority of studies report that people’s
symptoms improve following FESS with relatively
few complications; however, only a small
proportion of evidence is comparative. Results
from non-comparative studies do not inform the
choices that need to be made by ear, nose and
throat (ENT) surgeons and commissioners. Health
economics data are also lacking and therefore
cannot inform these decisions.
xii
FESS may offer some advantages in effectiveness
over comparator techniques, but there is
enormous variation in the range of results
reported and there are severe methodological
limitations. There is a clear need for qualitycontrolled trials in order to answer questions
regarding the effectiveness of FESS. We have
identified and presented a number of priority
research questions from a selection of ENT
surgeons within the UK.
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Chapter 1
Aim of the review
he aim of the review is to provide a systematic
review of the clinical effectiveness of
endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) for the removal of
nasal polyps. The review focuses on only one
T
possible method of managing nasal polyps, which
is through functional endoscopic sinus surgery
(FESS).
1
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Chapter 2
Background
Description of underlying health
problem
●
Definition of nasal polyps and
anatomy
●
Nasal polyps are round, soft, semi-translucent,
pale or yellow glistening swellings that originate
from any part of the nasal mucosa or paranasal
sinuses.1 They are the most common mass lesions
encountered in the nose.2 Polyp development has
been linked to chronic inflammation, allergy,
autonomic nervous system dysfunction and genetic
predisposition.3
Frequent recurrence is a characteristic of nasal
polyps that has a great impact on patients.
Following surgery to remove nasal polyps
recurrence rates of up to 40% have been reported
and it appears that a higher recurrence rate is
associated with allergic disease and aspirin
intolerance.4
Polyps are usually bilateral and are found in the
maxillary, ethmoidal and sphenoidal regions.
Although they can originate from any part of the
nasal mucosa or paranasal sinuses, polyps
generally arise from the ethmoid and middle
meatus regions (see Figure 1).4 Polyp disease is
commonly graded as follows:5
Polyps have been associated with conditions that
lead to chronic inflammation in the nasal cavity,
including the following:3
Aetiology
●
●
●
●
●
●
Grade 0: no polyps
Grade 1: polyps confined to middle meatus
●
●
●
●
●
●
Superior
nasal concha
Superior
meatus
●
Sphenoethmoidal redess
and higher nasal concha
Frontal sinus
Spenoidal
sinus
Atrium of
middle
meatus
Middle nasal
concha
Inferior
nasal
concha
Auditory
tube
Vestibule
Soft
palate
Middle
meatus
Inferior
meatus
Maxilla
Uvula
Tongue
Mandible
Pharynx
FIGURE 1 Lateral view of the nasal cavity showing turbinates.
Reproduced with permission © 1999 A&C Black (Publishers)
Limited.
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
Grade 2: polyps below the level of the middle
meatus but not causing total
obstruction
Grade 3: polyps causing total obstruction.
bronchial asthma
cystic fibrosis
allergic rhinitis
allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS)
ciliary dyskinesia
aspirin intolerance
alcohol intolerance
Churg–Strauss syndrome
Young syndrome
non-allergic rhinitis with eosinophilia
syndrome
immune deficiency (congenital and
acquired).
For a more detailed discussion of aetiology of
nasal polyps, refer to the most recent edition of
Scott-Brown’s Otolaryngology.6
Pathogenesis
The pathogenesis of nasal polyps is not fully
understood. A range of genetic, anatomical,
inflammatory, neurovascular and histological
factors have been suggested as being important.3,4
There may be a genetic disposition to develop
nasal polyps; 14% of those presenting with polyps
in one study had a family history of the
condition.7 Some of the diseases associated
with polyps are genetic in origin (e.g. cystic
fibrosis).
It is possible that mucosal reactions explain some
of the pathogenesis of polyps. These reactions
3
Background
could lead to polyp formation and may be
triggered by allergy, infection or inflammatory
mediators.4 Eosinophils are the most common
type of inflammatory cell present in polyps. They
release mediators (such as cytokines) which
regulate the inflammatory response. It is thought
that eosinophils are therefore important in the
development of nasal polyps.3 The mediators
appear to play different roles in different disease
states.
Alteration in the mucous glands is another factor
that may lead to the development of nasal polyps
through a break in the epithelium followed by
bulging of the submucosa through to polyp
development.4
Another theory is that neurovascular changes may
contribute to polyp formation although less work
has been conducted in this area. Lack of blood
flow into the sinus region may limit the transport
of waste compounds which may stimulate polyp
growth or the loss of autonomic control due to
poor nerve supply.4
None of these theories fully accounts for the
development of nasal polyps in all circumstances.
For a more detailed discussion of the pathogenesis
of nasal polyps, refer to the most recent edition of
Scott-Brown’s Otolaryngology.6
Histopathology
The normal epithelium of the nasal cavity is
pseudostratified, columnar and ciliated respiratory
epithelium. The surface epithelium in the sinuses
is thinner, less specialised and contains fewer cilia
and goblet cells than the surface in the nasal
cavity. Four main histological types can be
identified in nasal polyps:4
3. Polyp with hyperplasia of seromucinous glands.
These polyps are seen in less than 5% of all cases.
The main feature is numerous glands and ducts.
4. Polyp with stromal atypia. A very rare type of
polyp that may be mistaken for a neoplasm. Stromal
cells are abnormal or atypical in appearance, but
lack signs of neoplastic cell division.
Epidemiology
It has been estimated that 0.2–1% of adults in the
UK will have nasal polyps at some time during
their life.8 Incidence increases with age until 59
years and polyps are more frequent in males than
females. Nasal polyps are associated with many
different diseases. Table 1 presents the frequency of
nasal polyps recorded in various disease states.4
Nasal polyps are rare in children unless associated
with cystic fibrosis. Polyps are more frequently
seen in adults with non-allergic than allergic
disease.3
Quality of life/burden of disease
Nasal polyps are not associated with increased
mortality, but may have an impact on quality of
life. Small polyps may not result in symptoms.
Symptoms include nasal obstruction, anosmia (loss
of smell), loss of taste, headaches, snoring,
postnasal drainage and sneezing.4 A study by
Radenne and colleagues9 reported that nasal
polyps were associated with a greater reduction in
quality of life (as measured by the generic SF-36
questionnaire) than perennial allergic rhinitis
( p < 0.05). Quality of life was lowest in patients
with nasal polyps associated with asthma
( p < 0.05).
Studies have also demonstrated reduced quality of
1. Oedematous, eosinophilic, ‘allergic’. The most
common type of polyps accounting for around
85% of all cases. It is characterised by oedematous
stroma, an increase in the normal number of
goblet cells, an excess number of eosinophils and
mast cells in the stroma and a thickened basement
membrane.
4
2. Chronic inflammation polyp. This type of
polyp represents less than 10% of all nasal polyps.
It is characterised by an absence of oedema of the
stroma and the lack of increase in the number of
goblet cells. The thickening of the basement
membrane is not as pronounced. Signs of
inflammatory response may be present although
lymphocytes predominate. The stroma contains
fibroblasts.
TABLE 1 Diseases associated with nasal polyps
Disease
Aspirin intolerance
Adult asthma
Non-allergic asthma
Allergic asthma
Chronic rhinosinusitis
Non-allergic rhinitis
Allergic rhinitis
Childhood asthma/rhinitis
Cystic fibrosis
Churg–Strauss syndrome
Allergic fungal sinusitis
Percentage of people
with disease who also
have nasal polyps
36
7
13
5
2
5
1.5
0.1
20
50
85
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Current service provision
life for conditions associated with nasal polyps
such as chronic rhinosinusitis,10,11 AFS12 and
frontal sinusitis.13
The successful management of nasal polyps is
centred on early identification, accurate diagnosis
and first-line medical treatment.
Radenne and colleagues reported that in patients
with nasal polyps medical treatment or surgery
significantly improved quality of life at 10-month
follow-up.9 Other studies have investigated the
effect on quality of life for patients undergoing
FESS although not specifically in patients with
nasal polyps. These studies also report significant
postoperative improvement in quality of life.9,11–16
The English Department of Health reports
Hospital Episode Statistics based on inpatient data
for the years 2000–1 (1 April–31 March).17
Table 2 summarises hospital admissions for nasal
polyps.
Using Office for National Statistics 2001
population data,18 the annual hospital admission
rate for nasal polyps is 0.02%. In other words, two
people in 10,000 of the general population in
England were admitted to hospital with a primary
diagnosis of nasal polyps in 2000–1.
The Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-20 (SNOT-20) is a
disease-based questionnaire that has been used to
assess quality of life in patients undergoing FESS
and assesses outcomes such as nasal
discharge/sneezing, dizziness/ear pain and
difficulty sleeping or fatigue.14 No studies of FESS
for the excision of nasal polyps were identified
that used generic or preference based quality of
life measures.
Figure 2 shows the age distributions of people
admitted to hospital for nasal polyps from 2000–1.
It should be noted that these statistics will
underestimate the total number of patients with
nasal polyps as some will present with concurrent
conditions and others will be seen only as
outpatients.
Summary: description of the health
problem
●
●
●
●
●
Nasal polyps originate from any part of the
nasal mucosa or paranasal sinuses.
Polyps are associated with conditions leading to
chronic inflammation of the nasal cavity.
A range of genetic, anatomical, inflammatory,
allergy-related, neurovascular and histological
factors may explain the development of polyps.
It has been estimated that 0.2–1% of UK adults
will experience nasal polyps during their
lifetime.
Nasal polyps have been shown to reduce quality
of life.
Number of patients admitted
with nasal polyps
9000
TABLE 2 Hospital episode statistics for primary diagnosis of
nasal polyps (2000–1)
Nasal polyps ( J33)
Finished consultant episodes
Hospital admission
Number of males admitted (%)
Mean length of stay
Mean age
Day cases
Bed days
12,349
12,312
8384 (68)
1.3 days
52
2283
13,109
7954
8000
7000
6000
5000
3361
4000
3000
2000
1000
820
213
0
0–14
15–59
60–74
75+
Age of patients (years)
FIGURE 2 Age distribution of patients admitted to hospital with primary diagnosis of nasal polyps (2000–1)
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
5
Background
There is considerable variation in how aggressively
polyps are treated medically (administration of oral
or topical steroids) before surgery is considered,
and in the extent of surgery performed.
procedures that open areas within the sinuses to
improve ventilation and mucociliary clearance
which may be performed for various sinuses
diseases with or without polyps’.
Summary: current service provision
Increasing numbers of procedures are now being
performed with an endoscope within the sinus
region, not all of which are functional. Functional
surgery may also be performed without an
endoscope using other methods of illumination
and imaging. Increasingly there is a wider field of
surgery referred to as functional sinus surgery, and
one way of performing it is with an endoscope.
●
●
●
Two people in 10,000 of the general population
in England were admitted to hospital with a
primary diagnosis of nasal polyps in 2000–1.
The most common age group of people
admitted with nasal polyps is 15–59 years.
There is considerable variation in current
preoperative management of people with nasal
polyps.
Description of the intervention
FESS
Definition of FESS
FESS is a minimally invasive technique that was
introduced in the 1960s by Professors Messerklinger
and Wigand. It was popularised in Europe by
Stammberger and in North America by Kennedy.19
FESS is distinct from other procedures as it
involves the use of an endoscope to improve
ventilation and nasociliary clearance of mucus in
addition to polyp removal. FESS aims not only to
remove the polyp but also to enlarge the maxillary
sinus ostium or perform ethmoidectomy with the
intention of reducing recurrence rates. The extent
of surgery varies from widening the maxillary
antrum through to radical clearance of the entire
sinuses. It therefore involves not just the removal
of a polyp, but opening the thin bony lamella of
the sinuses (e.g. ethmoid). The technique has been
used since the 1970s in treating a variety of sinus
conditions, including nasal polyps.
Terminology has also changed over time and there
is considerable variation in use of the terms FESS
and ESS in the literature and in practice. The term
‘functional’ was originally applied to endoscopic
sinus surgery to indicate that it improved
mucociliary clearance or ‘functioning’ in the sinus.
The same procedure has also simply been referred
to as endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) or endoscopic
polypectomy. Terms may vary depending on the
patient group under consideration. When we
discuss results from included studies we retain
their original nomenclature for the procedure.
6
While there is considerable debate over the use of
the term FESS, we have chosen to use it in this
review as it is the most frequently used in the
existing literature, and define it as: ‘endoscopic
FESS claims advantages over conventional surgery:
permitting a better view of the surgical field, a
more precise and thorough clearance of the
inflammatory change, fewer complications and
lower recurrence rates.20 It should be noted that
the endoscope has a wide variety of other uses in
ear, nose and throat (ENT) surgery, aside from
FESS and removal of polyps.
FESS may be performed under local or general
anaesthesia, in an outpatient or inpatient setting
depending on the complexity of the procedure.
FESS is usually performed under general
anaesthesia in the UK. An ENT surgeon, an
anaesthetist and nursing assistance are required.
The majority of procedures are bilateral.
The following is a brief description of some of the
more common FESS techniques. The
Messerklinger/Stammberger and Wigand
techniques are most commonly used in the UK
(with the Yankauer technique virtually unheard of).
Messerklinger/Stammberger
This technique was developed largely for the
treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis. The aim is to
clear diseased ethmoid clefts and compartments
and to re-establish ventilation and drainage. The
technique involves a stepwise, individualised
operation (based on diagnosis) ranging from
isolated opening of the ethmoid to a total
sphenoidectomy. In the majority of cases resection
of the uncinate process is performed, which allows
entry into the anterior ethmoid. The procedure
was originally designed to be performed under
local anaesthesia.21
Wigand
This technique was developed mainly for the
treatment of nasal polyposis. The procedure
begins with a partial resection of the posterior
ethmoid, opening the sphenoid sinus. Following
this the inferior surface of the anterior skill base is
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
followed and the ethmoid opened (from posterior
to anterior). Next the frontal sinus is exposed from
below, and then fenestration of the maxillary
antrum with preservation of the mucosal lining is
carried out.22 The distinction between this
technique and that of Messerklinger/Stammberger
has become blurred and the techniques are now
considered by many to be equivalent.
Yankauer
This procedure is not well known and not used in
the UK but has been used in a study identified in
the literature. It is usually performed under local
anaesthesia. After completing this operation the
entire ethmoidal labyrinth, sphenoid and
maxillary sinuses are open.23
Comparative techniques
There are a variety of techniques that may be used
instead of FESS, although there is no one
procedure that could be considered the most
relevant alternative in all cases of nasal
polyps/sinus disease for all surgeons.
Simple polypectomy
This technique involves the removal of polyps
generally using a snare.4 The procedure is
generally conservative removing polyps from the
nasal cavity and may be performed with or without
an endoscope.
Intranasal ethmoidectomy
This procedure involves opening and ventilating
the ethmoids by entering though the nasal cavity
without the use of an endoscope.
Caldwell–Luc
This technique was mainly designed for treating
chronic maxillary sinusitis. It involves entering the
sinuses via a transantral approach (below the
upper lip), anterior maxillary fenestration,
complete mucosal removal and inferior meatal
antrostomy. The operation may be carried out
using an endoscope.4 Caldwell–Luc (CL) may be
an appropriate comparative technique for people
whose polyp disease co-exists with maxillary
sinusitis, but it is not an appropriate comparative
technique for all people with polyps or sinus
disease.
Diagnosis and prior therapy
The decision to perform FESS is based on patient
history, physical examination, a trial with medical
treatment and a computed tomography (CT)
scan.20 Patient history includes documentation of
nasal obstruction, facial pain, headache, postnasal
drip, recurrent infection, nasal bleeding, loss of
smell, previous allergy, bronchial asthma and
previous nasal surgery. The physical examination
should include anterior rhinoscopy with inspection
of nasal mucosa, turbinates, middle meatus,
allergy and infection.4 Small polyps may be
asymptomatic and identified only during physical
examination. Patients should receive appropriate
medical therapy with antibiotics and/or oral or
topical steroids before surgical intervention. The
Royal College of Surgeons of England has
suggested a period of 6–8 weeks of medical
therapy.5
Patients may be assessed prior to surgery using CT
scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans or
plain X-rays. Patients are mostly assessed with a
CT scan to determine suitability for surgery and to
permit more extensive operative planning. The
CT scan allows the extent of disease to be defined
and allows location of important related structures
such as the internal carotid artery.
Patient selection
There is variation in which patients are selected
for which procedures. It is outside the scope of
this review to perform research to investigate
current practices. We are aware that the following
factors may contribute to patient selection for
FESS:
●
●
●
●
failed medical treatment (although the
definition varies in the literature)
extent of disease and symptoms (including
information obtained from CT scans)
surgical preferences
patient preferences.
Disease staging/severity scoring
Transantral ethmoidectomy
Involves approaching ethmoids via a CL combined
with an intranasal approach.4
The Lund–MacKay staging system has been used
for some time for the quantification of
inflammatory disease before surgical intervention.
It is simple enough for use in routine clinical
practice and is based on a numeric score derived
from the CT scan.24 The system works by
recording demographic information along with
the following nasal classification:
External fronto-ethmo-sphenoidectomy
This procedure involves entering the frontal
sinuses or sphenoid from outside of the face.
1. chronic rhinosinusitis
2. acute recurrent rhinosinusitis
3. nasal polyposis
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
7
Background
4. miscellaneous [including frontoethmoidal
mucoceles, repair of cerebrospinal fluid (CFS)
leaks, orbital decompression,
dacryocystorhinostomy and other extended
applications of FESS].
The CT scan is examined and each sinus group
(maxillary, frontal, sphenoidal, anterior and
posterior ethmoidal) is assigned the following
grades:
●
●
●
0 – no abnormality
1 – partial opacification
2 – total opacification.
The ostiomeatal complex is scored as not
obstructed (0) or obstructed (2). A total score from
0 to 24 is obtained and each side can be scored
separately.
Variation in FESS techniques
Endoscopic sinus surgery may be categorised
according to four main characteristics:5
1.
2.
3.
4.
approach
instrumentation
removal techniques
extensiveness of surgery.
We discuss endoscopic sinus surgery along each of
these dimensions in the remainder of this chapter.
●
lasers: capable of producing immense heat
when focused at close range and may be used to
remove polyps;
debriders: a microdebrider is an automated
instrument that can be used to remove polyps
and the residue.
Most commonly forceps, curettes and snares are
used, although debriders and lasers may be useful
in specific cases such as diffuse polyposis or
patients with bleeding disorders.
Extensiveness of surgery
There is variation in the extent of sinus
enlargement and clearance that is performed.
Partly this is due to the severity, location and
recurrence of underlying disease. Variations in
surgery are also due to the philosophy of the
individual surgeon (i.e. how radical is their
approach). The following types of procedures may
be performed as part of sinus surgery5 (for
location/anatomy refer to Figure 1):
●
●
●
●
nasal polypectomy: simply removal of the
polyps (not defined as FESS);
maxillary sinus surgery: involves opening the
maxillary sinus;
middle meatus antrostomy: involves creating an
opening in the middle meatus;
interior meatus antrostomy: involves creating an
opening in the interior meatus;
uncinectomy: involves creating an opening by
removing part or all of the uncinate process;
ethmoid sinus surgery to the bulla;
anterior ethmoid sinus surgery;
posterior ethmoid sinus surgery;
sphenoid sinus surgery.
Approach
There are four main approaches used in sinus
surgery; sublabial, intranasal, external and
transantral.5 Intranasal surgery is the approach
used in FESS for the excision of nasal polyps and
involves access to the sinuses via the nasal cavity.
●
Illumination
All FESS procedures must involve the use of a
standard rigid ENT endoscope.
The most common Messerklinger/Stammberger
technique is progressive, that is, it involves
advancing, systematically, deeper into the sinuses.
The surgery may be terminated at any of these
stages.
Removal techniques
A standard ENT surgeons’ instrument set is
required, often along with a monitor used to view
the endoscopic images. In FESS for nasal polyps
the following instruments may be used:
●
●
●
●
8
●
forceps: delicate instrument used to either
grasp or cut though polyps or nasal mucosa;
curettes: a spoon-shaped instrument with a
sharp edge;
snare: an instrument, consisting usually of a
wireloop or noose, for removing polyps, by
avulsion;
diathermy: electrosurgical procedure (heating of
body tissues) used to ablate polyps;
●
●
●
●
Frontal sinus surgery does not involve progression
through all of the previously mentioned areas, but
involves exposing the fronto-nasal recess (via the
uncinate process).25
Concurrent procedures may be performed. These
are not directly related to the removal or
prevention of nasal polyps but are sometimes
performed during the same operation and
include:5
●
middle turbinate surgery (excluding simple
medialisation)
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
●
●
inferior turbinate surgery
nasal septum surgery.
Summary: description of the
intervention
●
Studies report considerable variation in the extent
of surgery, ranging from a simple polypectomy
through to complete fronto-ethmo-sphenoectomy.
Mostly, the extent of surgery is reported as
depending on the profile of the individual patient
and studies therefore report a mixture of
procedures.
●
●
The most common FESS techniques are
Messerklinger/Stammberger and Wigand.
We define ESS/FESS as an intranasal procedure
involving the endoscope to improve ventilation
and drainage in addition to polyp removal.
Severity, location and recurrence of polyps
along with the surgeon’s ‘philosophy’ influence
the extent of sinus enlargement and clearance
that is performed.
9
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Chapter 3
Methods
ethods for reviewing the effectiveness of
FESS were specified a priori and are outlined
in the research protocol (see Appendix 1). This
section provides a description of the methods used
to perform a systematic review of the effectiveness
of FESS (next section) and our use of the smaller
excluded studies to inform future research
priorities (subsequent section).
M
All comparative studies were included that met the
following criteria:
●
●
●
●
Systematic review – effectiveness
of FESS
●
Search strategy
A search was conducted to identify all studies where
FESS is used to excise nasal polyps. No restrictions
were made on date of publication or study type.
The search was restricted to English language
publications. The search strategy, search terms,
databases and websites searched are reported in
Appendix 2. Bibliographies of included studies
were searched for relevant articles, and the external
advisory group identified further key references.
Inclusion and exclusion criteria
Studies that were identified through the search
described above were assessed for inclusion in two
steps. First the titles and abstracts of studies were
screened independently by two reviewers (KD and
KS) for inclusion. Then two reviewers (KD and KS)
examined the full-text articles of the included
abstracts. At each step disagreement was resolved
by consensus. Decisions regarding inclusion were
made independent of data extraction and prior to
detailed examination of the results. In the case
that duplicate publications were identified, the
most recent, complete report was included.
The following exclusion criteria were applied:
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
narrative reviews;
reviews that were more than 5 years old or not
focusing on the question;
editorials;
case studies/reports (single);
expert opinion papers;
animal models;
preclinical or biological studies;
studies assessing only the pathology or histology
of the polyp.
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
●
compared FESS with conventional procedures;
surgery was for the excision of nasal polyps;
adequate description of the patient population
(i.e. we were able to determine the surgical
indications and how many patients had
polyps);
structured in a way that enabled the results of
nasal polyp excision to be isolated from
procedures for other conditions (e.g. tumours);
patient-relevant outcomes reported (i.e. studies
that only reported histological appearance of
polyps, mean blood loss or duration of surgery
were excluded);
FESS used for therapy (not just diagnosis).
In addition to comparative studies case series,
studies were also included if they met the
following criteria:
●
●
●
●
●
focused on FESS for the excision of nasal
polyps;
provided an adequate description of the patient
population;
structured in a way that enabled the results of
nasal polyp excision to be isolated from
procedures for other conditions (e.g. tumours);
patient-relevant outcomes reported;
contained more than 50 patients with nasal
polyps (an arbitrary cut-off in order to
reasonably limit the number of included cases).
Data extraction strategy
Data extraction of the included full-text articles
was performed by one reviewer (KD) and checked
by a second reviewer (RG). Any disagreements
were resolved by consensus. In addition to
presenting the results given by the studies, we
calculated results based on intention-to-treat (ITT)
(from the original data where available) and
present these figures in the main tables of the
report.
Quality assessment strategy
Using a structured form the quality of the included
studies was assessed by one reviewer and checked
by a second reviewer. For each comparative study
the following were assessed.
11
Methods
Internal validity
● sample size;
● selection bias (allocation strategies, eligibility
criteria, similarity of groups at baseline);
● performance bias (same intervention and
similar concurrent therapies for both groups);
● detection bias (blinding procedures);
● attrition bias (ITT analyses, drop-outs, loss to
follow-up).
meta-analysis. We have, however, reported
comparative data from randomised and nonrandomised studies where available.
External validity
● generalisability (low = no description of exclusion
criteria, poor description of patient group;
medium = description of exclusion criteria and
patient group; high = detailed description of
exclusion criteria and patient group);
● patient characteristics (in order to determine the
kind of patients to whom the results will apply);
● usual care setting (in order to assess possible
replication);
● standard treatment regime (outlines the
treatments to which the results will apply);
● standard treatment outcomes measured
(patient-relevant outcomes will be of relevance
to patients);
● length of follow-up (determines timing of
expected future results).
Symptomatic improvement was chosen as the
primary outcome measure. Revision rates,
recurrence/residual disease and complications are
also reported in detail. The results of studies are
grouped as follows:
For case series studies the following were
considered.
Internal validity
● sample size;
● selection bias (prospective study design,
consecutive enrolment of patients, eligibility
criteria);
● performance bias (same intervention and
concurrent therapies for all patients);
● attrition bias (ITT analyses, drop-outs, loss to
follow-up).
This assessment includes all patient-relevant
outcome measures reported in the studies. We
have not included a comparison of case series for
conventional polypectomy owing to the
heterogeneity in the populations studied.
1. RCTs
2. non-randomised comparative studies
3. case series studies:
(a) studies in which all patients have polyps
(b) studies in which there were mixed patient
groups with results reported separately for
polyps
(c) studies in which there were mixed patient
groups with results not reported separately
for polyps.
When 95% confidence intervals were not reported,
they have been calculated using the Confidence
Interval Analysis (CIA) program.26
Summary: methods of systematic
review
●
●
●
●
External validity
● generalisability (low = no description of exclusion
criteria, poor description of patient group;
medium = description of exclusion criteria and
patient group; high = detailed description of
exclusion criteria and patient group);
● patient characteristics;
● usual care setting;
● standard surgical regime;
● standard treatment outcomes measured (patient
relevant);
● length of follow-up.
Methods of analysis
12
Owing to the lack of homogeneous randomised
controlled trials (RCTs), we have not performed
●
An extensive search was performed to identify
all articles where FESS is used for the excision
of nasal polyps.
Two reviewers independently screened articles
for inclusion according to predefined criteria.
Data were extracted by one reviewer and
checked by a second.
A structured form was used to assess the
internal and external validity of included
studies.
Comparative data were reported where
available.
Future research priorities
Different types of patients may need FESS for
nasal polyps, there are different types of polyps
and there are variations in technology and the
FESS procedure itself. FESS is a continually
emerging technology and many of the studies
exploring these subgroups are small case series
that were excluded from the systematic review
described above. It was thought that the smaller
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
all seven votes but were not permitted to use
more than seven. This technique has not been
validated but is similar to how the National
Health Technology Assessment Programme
assesses priorities in its expert advising panels.
and more recent case series studies may provide
insight into current uncertainties in the field.
This section uses the case series and case reports
that were excluded from the systematic review
along with expert opinion to inform future
research priorities in this area.
Data presentation
The excluded case series and case reports on FESS
for nasal polyps were grouped according to patient
groups, types of polyps or techniques/technologies.
For each of the subgroups we present a descriptive
summary of the available primary research. The
citation and abstract of each study are presented
in a summary table (Appendix 11).
Selection of experts
We selected a group of nine consultant ENT
surgeons (five of whom were also part of our
expert advisory group) and asked them to
participate in this exercise. The additional
surgeons were selected from the Clinical Practice
Advisory Group of the British Association of
Otorhinolaryngologists and Head and Neck
Surgeons. All surgeons who were invited to
participate agreed to be involved.
Generation of future priorities
We sought the views of the group of experts on the
most pressing areas of uncertainty in the use of
FESS in two steps:
1. The group were presented with the summary of
the primary research that had been excluded
from the systematic review. In their role as
opinion leaders they were asked to assess the
literature, reflect on their experience and to
generate a list of research questions that were
their highest priority in the area of FESS for
nasal polyps.
2. Using these questions from the experts we
compiled a list of future research priorities for
FESS and nasal polyps. We then recirculated
this list asking the external advisory group to
indicate the relative importance of these areas
of enquiry. They were given a total of seven
votes/points which they could use to indicate
their preferences about the research agenda for
FESS. They could allocate the votes however
they liked (i.e. allocating seven points to one
question, one each to seven questions or any
combination). Participants did not have to use
The results of this prioritising exercise are
presented in the future research priorities section
in Chapter 4.
Economic evaluation
Existing economic evaluations of FESS for the
excision of nasal polyps were sought through the
search strategy outlined in Appendix 2. Our
search included sources of information on current
research being carried out on FESS. Results are
reported in the future research priorities
section in Chapter 4.
We did not attempt to model cost-effectiveness or
cost-utility owing to the paucity of available
effectiveness data, in particular the lack of direct
comparisons of FESS with conventional surgery.
Cost data for ESS are, however, provided.
We estimated possible resource use associated with
FESS through contact with a manufacturer of
FESS instruments (Karl Stortz Endoscopy UK Ltd)
and by examination of relevant Healthcare
Resource Groups (HRGs). Possible training costs
and operating times were obtained from Internet
searches and the expert advisory group. Estimates
of the percentage of day case procedures, amount
of revision surgery/follow-up and complication
rates were obtained from the literature.
Summary: methods for generation of
future research priorities and
economic evaluation
●
●
●
●
●
●
Excluded case series and case reports were
grouped and described.
A group of nine ENT experts were selected.
Using the literature and their own experience,
the experts generated a list of priority research
questions.
Experts assigned votes to the compiled list of
research priority questions.
Existing economic evaluations were sought and
described.
Cost data for FESS are provided.
13
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Chapter 4
Results
The results chapter is organised as follows:
●
●
●
Systematic review – effectiveness of FESS:
– studies identified
– quality assessment
– assessment of effectiveness.
Future research priorities:
– studies excluded from systematic review
– description of studies
– future research priorities
– research in progress.
Economic evaluation of FESS:
– existing economic studies
– cost description.
Systematic review – effectiveness
of FESS
Studies identified
The search identified a total of 444 articles, 33 of
which were included after completing the selection
process. The flow chart in Figure 3 illustrates the
inclusion process. A list of the full-text articles
inspected and excluded (along with reasons) is
given in Appendix 3.
The study designs of the 33 articles identified for
inclusion are shown in Table 3.
The study characteristics of the included studies
are presented in Tables 4–6.
Publication date/country and sample size
The studies were published between 1978 and
2001. Most studies were conducted in the USA
(n = 12)23,25,27–36 or Europe (UK 2,37,38 Norway
1,39 Denmark 1,40 France 1,41 Spain 1,42 Austria
2,21,43 Finland 1,44 Turkey 1,45 The Netherlands
146 and Germany 3).22,47,48 Further studies were
conducted in the following countries: Canada,49
India,50,51 Slovenia52 and Taiwan.53 Two studies
were conducted across more than one country as
follows: Germany and India,54 and the USA,
France and Canada.55 The number of people
included in each study ranged from 40 to 2523,
with a median of 210.
Indications for surgery
The indications for surgery varied widely between
studies. In seven studies all of the included patients
had nasal polyps,22,41,46,51,52,54,55 in 16 studies the
included patients had a variety of polypoid and
non-polypoid disease with the results reported
separately for each,23,25,29–34,38–40,42,43,49,50,53 and in
a further 10 studies patients had a mixture of
disease and results for polypoid and nonpolypoid disease were not reported
separately.21,27,28,35–37,44,45,47,48
Age and gender of participants
The included study participants varied in age from
2 to 92 years, with a median age across studies of
44 years. One study was conducted in children
only,43 eight in adults only,29,31,33,41,45,49,51,55
15 included a mixture of children and
adults25,27,30,34–37,39,40,44,46,48,50,53 and 10
did not report the age of study
participants.21–23,28,32,38,42,47,52,54 The male-tofemale ratio was reported in
17 studies.31,33,34,36,37,39–41,43–45,48–51,53,55 The
proportion of males included in the studies
ranged from 19 to 70% with a median of 51%.
Nineteen studies25,28,31,32,34,35,39–45,47,51–55 reported
the percentage of patients with bilateral disease
ranging from 42 to 100% with a median of 78%.
Duration of symptoms and previous surgery
The average duration of symptoms prior to
surgery was reported in five studies39–41,48,50 and
ranged from 6 months to 14 years with a median
of 9 months. The percentage of patients who had
previous sinus surgery was reported in 17 studies
with a median of 25%.25,28–33,35,36,39–42,44,48–50 One
study enrolled only patients who had previous
sinus surgery33 and two studies did not include
any patients who had previous surgery.28,48
Length of follow-up and anaesthesia
Average length of follow-up was reported in
16 studies23,25,28–35,38–41,50,51 and ranged from 6 to
42 months with a median of 17 months. Ten
studies32,36–38,40,42,43,50,51,53 reported the percentage
of patients who had the procedure performed
under general anaesthesia (as opposed to local
15
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
Results
Identified on searching
n = 444
Excluded n = 358
Narrative reviews/editorials/opinions n = 80
Case studies/reports n = 6
Not nasal polyps n = 34
Not patient-relevant outcomes n = 23
FESS for diagnosis only n = 36
Not FESS n = 54
Less than 50 patients with polyps n = 95
Other n = 30 (anaesthetic 2, complications only 9,
force of penetration 1, device/technique 2,
medical therapy 8, postoperative care 6,
water lavage 1, survey of clinicians 1)
Abstracts inspected
n = 444
Full text articles retrieved
n = 86
Full-text articles inspected
n = 86
Excluded n = 53
Narrative reviews/editorials/opinions n = 14
Not nasal polyps n = 5
Not patient relevant outcomes n = 4
Not FESS n = 6
Less than 50 patients with polyps n = 18
Other n = 4 (duplicate publications 3,
outdated reviews 2, identified as non-English 1)
Articles for appraisal and
data extraction
n = 33
FIGURE 3 Flowchart showing inclusion/selection process
TABLE 3 Study design of the included articles
Study design
Randomised controlled trials
Non-randomised comparative studies
Case series
Total
No. of
studies included
3
3
27
33
anaesthesia) and values ranged from 0 to 100%
with a median of 56%.
16
Postoperative interventions
Fifteen of the included studies failed to provide
details of postoperative management. Postoperative
topical steroids were reportedly used in 12 studies
and systemic steroids in two studies. Oral
prednisone was administered postoperatively to
patients in one study. Very few details regarding
dose and duration of treatment were provided.
Some studies specified the types of steroids used,
which included budesonide, beclomethasone and
prednisolone.
Summary: characteristics of included
studies
● Thirty-three studies (six comparative) were
included in the review.
● Studies were published between 1978 and 2001,
mostly in the USA and Europe with a median
sample size of 210.
● Seven studies only included patients with polyps
and 26 included patients with a variety of
disease including polyps.
● Median of participants was 44 years and
median proportion of males was 51%.
● Median duration of symptoms prior to surgery
was 9 months and median percentage of
previous surgery was 25%.
● Median follow-up from studies was 17 months.
● Approximately half of the studies provide
some details of postoperative medical
management.
Quality assessment
Randomised controlled studies
The quality assessment of the three RCTs is
summarised in Table 7.
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
TABLE 4 Characteristics of included randomised controlled trials including technique and patient groups
Author/
date
No. of
Country
patients
(no. with
polyps)
Kurent and
Zargi, 199852
Intervention
Slovenia
20 (20)
20 (20)
Penttilä
et al., 199744
Venkatachalam
and Bhat, 199851
25 (25)
25 (25)
Surgical indications Average age Male:female Duration of Previous
in years
ratio
symptoms surgery
(range)
(% male)
in years
(%)
(range)
Mean length
of follow-up
in months
(range)
Not stated
Massive bilateral
nasal polyposis
–
Not stated
Rhinogenous chronic
maxillary sinusitis
–
–
–
–
Endoscopic polypectomy
Endoscopic ethmoidectomy
Finland
75 (52)
75 (45)
General
anaesthesia
(%)
FESS
CL
India
(New Delhi)
FESS
Conventional procedures
Nasal polyposis
–
47 (16–84)
48 (14–88)
30:45 (40)
36:39 (48)
20–39
35:15 (70)
18/75 (24) Maximum 108
20/75 (27) Maximum 108
(0.5–3)
–
17 (6–30)
0
–
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
17
Results
TABLE 5 Characteristics of included non-randomised comparative studies including technique and patient groups
Author/
date
No. of
Country
patients
(no. with
polyps)
Harkness et al.,
199737
UK
1459
Jankowski et al.,
199741
Surgical indications Average age Male:female Duration of Previous
in years
ratio
symptoms surgery
(range)
(% male)
in years
(%)
(range)
94
Chronic rhinosinusitis 45 (2–89)
46%
Polyposis 37%
Recurrent sinusitis 10%
Miscellaneous 7%
–
Diffuse nasal polyposis
100%
Functional ethmoidectomy
Radical ethmoidectomy
(nasalisation)
Turkey
50 (14)
50 (8)
–
Maximum 6
–
Ünlü et al.,
199445
56:44 (56)
Mean length
of follow-up
in months
(range)
Maximum 6
France
37 (37)
39 (39)
18
General
anaesthesia
(%)
Conventional surgery
(including sphenoid drainage,
BAWO, frontal drainage,
polypectomy, external
approaches, BINA)a
FESS
1064
a
Intervention
44 (26–65)
47 (28–71)
–
–
ESS
CL
BAWO = bilateral antral washout; BINA = bilateral intranasal antrostomy.
20:9 (69)
24:10 (71)
Chronic/recurring
acute rhinosinusitis
36 (18–68)
40 (18–65)
20:20 (50)
20:17 (54)
10.4 (1–40)
13.7 (2–40)
15/29 (52) 24 (18–31)
24/34 (71) 34 (32–36)
–
–
–
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
TABLE 6 Characteristics of included case series studies including technique and patient groups
Author/
date
No. of
Country
patients
(no. with
polyps)
Intervention
General
Surgical indications
anaesthesia
(%)
Average
age in
years
(range)
Male:female Duration of Previous
ratio
symptoms surgery
(% male)
in years
(%)
(range)
Mean length
of follow-up
in months
(range)
1. Studies in which all patients had polyps
Klossek et al.,
199755
50 (50)
USA,
France,
Canada
Total sphenoethmoidectomy –
Stoop et al.,
199246
72 (72)
The
Endoscopic sinus surgery
Netherlands
–
Nasal polyposis
involving all sinuses
100%
47 (18–66) 27:23 (54)
–
–
Minimum 36
Nasal polyps
(extensive polyposis
44%)
44 (16–72) –
–
–
(6–12)
Weber et al.,
199754
325 (325) Germany
and India
Endonasal microendoscopic –
pansinusoperation
(described at Hospital Fulda,
Germany)
Bilateral chronic
polypoid ethmoid
sinusitis 100%
–
–
–
–
(10–120)
Wigand and
Hosemann,
198922
220 (220) Germany
Endoscopic ethmoidectomy
Nasal polyposis 100%
–
–
–
–
–
(2–79)
25:105 (19)
12
18/92 (20) 41
–
2. Studies in which there were mixed patient groups with results reported separately for polyposis
Danielsen and
230 (92)
Olofsson 199639
Norway
ESS, Messerklinger
technique
–
Sinusitis 39%
Nasal polyposis 40%
Friedman et al., 200 (68)
200025
USA
Endoscopic frontal sinus
surgery
–
Persistent chronic
41 (14–76) –
sinusitis 100% (polyposis
34%)
–
59/200 (20) 12 (6–31)
Jacobs 199729
112 (51)
USA
Endoscopic ethmoidectomy, –
modified Messerklinger
approach
Diffuse sinonasal
(17–72)
polyposis 27%
Middle meatal polyposis 19%
Encroaching cells 19%
Hyperplastic sinusitis 13%
Frontal recess stenosis 9%
Frontal mucocele 4%
–
32/112 (29) 16 (6–42)
Jakobsen and
Svendstrup,
200040
237 (146) Denmark
FESS, Stammberger
approach
Chronic infectious
sinusitis 38%
Nasal polyps/polyposis
62%
9.3 (1–50)
24/237 (10) 12
100
–
46 (11–92) 141:96 (59)
continued
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
19
Results
TABLE 6 Characteristics of included case series studies including technique and patient groups (cont’d)
Author/
date
No. of
Country
patients
(no. with
polyps)
Intervention
General
Surgical indications
anaesthesia
(%)
Jiang and Hsu
200153
1112 (499) Taiwan
ESS, opening at least one
sinus
41
Male:female Duration of Previous
ratio
symptoms surgery
(% male)
in years
(%)
(range)
Mean length
of follow-up
in months
(range)
Chronic sinusitis 51%
(5–84)
Nasal polyps 46%
Antrochoanal polyps 3%
695:417 (62) –
–
(7–126)
Sphenoethmoidectomy,
–
modified Yankauer approach
(marsupialisation)
Chronic hyperplastic
–
rhinosinusitis
Recurrent nasal polyposis
Sinobronchial syndrome
Recurrent purulent
pansinusitis
–
–
–
14 (6–30)
EES with laser
–
Non-polypoid disease
41%
Middle meatal polyposis
31%
Diffuse polyposis 28%
–
–
85/120 (71) 18 (3–51)
ESS, modified Yankauer
technique
–
–
36/90 (40) 42 (2–14)
FESS, modified
Messerklinger approach,
some with laser
17
Focal 23%
49 (21–81) 60:30 (67)
Pansinusitis 10%
Panpolyposis 27%
Asthma/polyps 32%
Asthma/sinusitis 8%
Sinonasal polyposis 52% –
–
Chronic sinusitis 48%
–
13/250 (5) 17 (12–42)
Lund and
650 (306) UK
MacKay, 199438
ESS (functional for chronic
and acute sinusitis)
97
Chronic rhinosinusitis
51%
Gross polyposis 47%
Acute recurrent
rhinosinusitis 2%
Massegur et al., 250 (203) Spain
199542
ESS, modified Messerklinger 56
and Stammberger technique
Katsantonis
et al., 199423
972 (?)
USA
Kennedy,
199230
120 (71) USA
Lawson 199131
90 (53) USA
Levine, 199032
250 (131) USA
Average
age in
years
(range)
(15–77)
–
–
–
–
6
Antrochoanal polyps
–
12%
Polyposis/ASAa 25%
Polyposis/non-ASA 45%
Chronic suppurative
sinusitis 14%
–
–
58/250 (23) (12–48)
continued
20
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
TABLE 6 Characteristics of included case series studies including technique and patient groups (cont’d)
Author/
date
No. of
Country
patients
(no. with
polyps)
Intervention
General
Surgical indications
anaesthesia
(%)
Average
age in
years
(range)
Male:female Duration of Previous
ratio
symptoms surgery
(% male)
in years
(%)
(range)
Mean length
of follow-up
in months
(range)
Mucoceles 3%
Schwannoma 0.4%
Aspergillomas 2%
Moses et al.,
199833
90 (50)
USA
ESS (revision)
Nishioka et al.,
199434
283 (48–
51% of
sides)
USA
Sobol et al.,
199849
393 (185) Canada
–
Polyposis 56%
42 (20–77) 36:54 (40)
–
FESS, modified
–
Messerklinger approach and
partial middle turbinectomy
Chronic sinusitis 100%
44 (4–83)
FESS using standard
–
technique, including anterior
and posterior ethmoidectomies
Chronic sinusitis 100%
(Polyposis 47%)
45 (17–77) 195:198 (50) –
161:122 (57) –
90/90 (100) 23 (8–44)
–
15 (1–44)
125/393
(32)
Maximum 12
Venkatachalam 210 (66)
and Bhat, 199950
India
(New
Delhi)
FESS, Messerklinger
approach
0
Chronic hyperplastic
31–40
sinusitis 100%
(7–66)
(ethmoidal polyps 13%,
antrochoanal polyps 19%)
122:88
(58)
0.5–2
(0.5–25)
39/210 (19) 18 (9–33)
Wolf et al.,
199543
Austria
ESS, Messerklinger and
Stammberger approach
55
Chronic recurring
sinusitis 57%
Chronic recurring
sinusitis/diffuse
polyps/antrochoanal
polyps 42%
59:65 (48)
–
–
–
–
–
–
Maximum 36
0.9
0
–
124 (53)
12 (3–16)
3. Studies in which there were mixed patient groups with results not reported separately for polyposis
Davis et al.,
199127
200 (147) USA
FESS, Messerklinger
approach
–
Chronic sinusitis 26%
Chronic sinusitis and
polyps 74%
Delank and
Stoll, 199848
115 (89)
FESS, Wigand approach
–
No polyps 23%
44 (14–79) 63:52 (55)
Polyps near middle
turbinate 25%
Polyps within upper/middle
meatus 40%
Total blockage by polyps 12%
Germany
(4–83)
continued
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
21
Results
TABLE 6 Characteristics of included case series studies including technique and patient groups (cont’d)
Author/
date
No. of
Country
patients
(no. with
polyps)
Intervention
General
Surgical indications
anaesthesia
(%)
Average
age in
years
(range)
Male:female Duration of Previous
ratio
symptoms surgery
(% male)
in years
(%)
(range)
Mean length
of follow-up
in months
(range)
10 (6–18)
Friedman et al., 500 (136) USA
200028
ESS and middle turbinate
–
medialisation (microdebrider)
Persistent chronic
sinusitis 73%
Polyposis 27%
–
–
–
0
Park et al.,
199835
FESS, removing uncinate
process, bulla ethmoidalis
and anterior ethmoid cells
–
Chronic sinusitis or
recurrent acute sinusitis
100%
(nasal polyposis 73%)
50 (6–81)
–
–
44/79 (56) 19 (12–108)
Schaefer, 199836 509 (139) USA
Endoscopic intranasal
ethmoidectomy and middle
meatus antrostomy/
sphenoidotomy/frontal
sinostomy
99.6
Symptomatic sinusitis
42 (12–84) 261:248 (51) –
63%
Polyps ± sinusitis 27%
Orbital abscess/sinusitis
1%
Thyroid eye disease 8%
AFS 2%
252/509
(50)
(1–60)
Stammberger
and Posawetz,
199021
500 (246) Austria
FESS, Messerklinger
approach
–
Massive nasal polyposis
49%
–
–
–
–
Maximum 120
Wigand et al.,
197847
315 (?)
Endonasal sinus surgery
with endoscopic control
(including maxillary sinus
or ethmoidectomy),
Wigand technique
–
Chronic sinusitis and
severe polyposis 76%
Chronic ethmoiditis
mostly severe polyposis
24%
–
–
–
–
(3–6)
a
22
79 (58)
USA
Germany
ASA, aspirin-sensitive asthma.
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
TABLE 7 Methodological characteristics of included randomised controlled trials
Author/
date
No. of
patients
(no. with
polyps)
Adequate Blinding Comparability Same
Loss to
Sample
ITT
allocation
of groups
intervention follow-up size
to groups
to all
(%)
calculation
patients
Generalisability Main
InterConflicts
outcome
centre
of interest
measured
variability
independently
Kurent and
Zargi, 199852
40 (40)
No
No
Yes
Uncertain
13
No
No
Low
No
Not
applicable
None
stated
Penttilä et al.,
199744
150 (97)
No
No
Uncertain
Uncertain
15
No
No
Low
No
Not
applicable
None
stated
Venkatachalam
and Bhat,
199851
50 (50)
Uncertain
No
Uncertain
No
4
No
Yes
Low
Uncertain
Not
applicable
None
stated
TABLE 8 Methodological characteristics of included non-randomised comparative studies
Author/
date
No. of
patients
(no. with
polyps)
Allocation Blinding Comparability Same
Loss to
Sample
ITT
to groups
of groups
intervention follow-up size
to all
(%)
calculation
patients
Generalisability Main
InterConflicts
outcome
centre
of interest
measured
variability
independently
Harkness et al., 2523 (946) Nonrandom
199737
No
Uncertain
Uncertain
Uncertain No
Not
Low
applicable
No
Not
assessed
None
Jankowski et al.,
199741
Ünlü et al.,
199445
76 (76)
Nonrandom
No
No
Uncertain
18
No
No
Medium
Yes
Not
applicable
None
stated
100 (22)
Nonrandom
No
Uncertain
Uncertain
23
No
No
Low
No
Not
applicable
None
stated
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
23
Results
Internal validity
Sample size. Kurent and Zargi52 randomised 20
people to endoscopic polypectomy and 20 to
endoscopic ethmoidectomy. Penttilä and
colleagues44 enrolled a total of 150 people with
chronic maxillary sinusitis and randomised 75 to
FESS and 75 to CL. Venkatachalam and Bhat51
enrolled a total of 50 patients and randomised 25
to FESS and 25 to conventional procedures.
No sample size or power calculations were
performed prior to commencing these RCTs.
Kurent and Zargi52 did not have sufficient power
to detect a significant result (power of 50% requires
between 162 and 675 in each group, or in other
words there is only a 50% chance of declaring
their observed difference as significant even if they
had between 162 and 675 in each study group).
Penttilä and colleagues44 had power of 95% to
detect a significant result (>63 in each group was
required). Venkatachalam and Bhat51 had less than
50% power to detect a significant result based on
their reported difference between the two groups
for their main outcome (for the given difference
power of 50% requires 37 people in each group,
or in other words there is only a 50% chance of
declaring their observed difference as significant
with 37 people in each arm of the study).
Selection bias. The Kurent and Zargi study52 was
probably not truly random or secure as they
describe their allocation to groups as ‘alternative’.
Penttilä and colleagues44 describe their
randomisation process as involving lots of equal
numbers being drawn, a list being created and
patients being put on the list in order of
recruitment. We are unable to assess if allocation
to groups was truly random, and it appears not to
be secure. Venkatachalam and Bhat51 failed to
provide details of randomisation or security.
24
extent of underlying disease. It is important,
however, that the surgical strategy or philosophy is
clearly outlined and that a rationale is provided
for the variations of the procedure. Kurent and
Zargi52 fail to provide details of endoscopic
polypectomy or ethmoidectomy and it is possible
that the interventions varied between patients and
surgeons. Penttilä and colleagues44 provide few
details of the intervention and comparison, only
that FESS involved middle meatal antrostomy and
that CL involved inferior meatal antrostomy. It is
likely that the intervention varied. Venkatachalam
and Bhat51 provide few details of FESS and report
that conventional procedures included a variety of
other techniques. There is a high potential for
performance bias as procedures were not standard
across patients, with the conventional procedures
group being particularly variable.
In addition, postoperative management varied
across studies and is another source of potential
performance bias. Kurent and Zargi52 report the
use of topical steroids and saline physiological
solution; Penttilä and colleagues44 report the use
of nasal suction cleaning and antral irrigation; and
Venkatachalam and Bhat51 report using steroid
nasal spray (bedesonide), two puffs twice a day for
6 months.
Detection bias. Blinding is difficult to achieve with
surgical interventions. It is possible, however, to
blind those assessing/recording outcomes and
analysing data. None of the three RCTs44,51,52
report blinding any of these parties.
The Kurent and Zargi study groups were similar
for age, sex, duration of symptoms and presence
of asthma and allergy.52 In the study by Penttilä
and colleagues,44 the FESS and CL groups were
similar for age, sex and previous surgery but more
people in the FESS group had bilateral disease.
Venkatachalam and Bhat51 failed to provide
baseline characteristics of their FESS and
conventional procedures groups. The latter two
studies are prone to bias owing to inadequate
randomisation and possible incomparability of the
two study groups.
Attrition bias. Kurent and Zargi52 report that at a
maximum of 36 months follow-up, 15% of patients
were lost from the polypectomy group and 10%
from the ethmoidectomy group. Penttilä and
colleagues44 report that at 12 months follow-up,
5% in the CL group and 4% in the FESS group
were lost. At 5–9 years follow-up, 15% in the CL
group and 12% in the FESS group were lost.
Venkatachalam and Bhat51 report that 4% were
lost to follow-up in each of the FESS and
conventional procedures groups. Venkatachalam
and Bhat51 were the only authors to perform their
analysis on an ITT basis. This may have
introduced bias in the other two trials as patients
who dropped out of the study may have differed
from those who remained (e.g. they may have had
more negative or more positive outcomes and
differed according to intervention).
Performance bias. Sinus surgery is a difficult
procedure to standardise as, in most cases, the
extent of surgery performed is influenced by the
External validity
The generalisability (as rated by reviewers KD and
RG; see the quality assessment strategy section on
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
pp. 11–12) of all three RCTs was classified as low.
The study by Kurent and Zargi52 contained few
details regarding the procedure, patients’
characteristics and exclusion criteria. The study by
Penttilä and colleagues44 contained few details of
the procedure performed and the limited patients
to which the CL comparator may apply. The study
by Venkatachalam and Bhat51 did not provide
exclusion criteria and details of patients’
characteristics and procedures were sparse.
Kurent and Zargi52 did not provide details of age
and sex, but the other two RCTs did. Penttilä and
colleagues44 provided a breakdown of age and sex
for each study group, along with the percentage of
patients who had undergone previous surgery. The
Venkatachalam study51 reported average duration
of symptoms.
No details of setting were provided and only the
Venkatachalam study51 provided details of
anaesthesia, thus limiting generalisability.
Penttilä and colleagues44 assessed symptomatic
improvement using a postoperative interview that
was not independent. Venkatachalam and Bhat51
did not provide details of how outcomes were
assessed so we are uncertain if they were
independent. Kurent and Zargi52 only reported
polyp recurrence that was measured at endoscopic
follow-up.
Outcomes in a patient group where disease is
frequently recurrent depend on the length of
follow-up. A longer follow-up period will give
more detail as to the results that could be
realistically expected in a similar patient group
over time. Follow-up was a maximum of 36
months in the study by Kurent and Zargi.52 Followup occurred 1 year after surgery and again
between 5 and 9 years in the Penttilä study.44
Patients in the Venkatachalam study51 were
followed for a mean of 16.5 months (range 6–30
months).
Non-randomised comparative studies
The quality assessment of the three nonrandomised comparative studies is summarised in
Table 8.
Internal validity
Sample size. The Harkness study37 enrolled a total
of 2523 patients; 1064 received FESS and 1459
received conventional procedures (including
sphenoid sinus drainage, BAWO, frontal sinus
drainage, nasal polypectomy, external
ethmoidectomy, intra-ethmoidectomy, CL and
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
BINA). Jankowski and colleagues41 studied a total of
76 patients; 37 received functional ethmoidectomy
and 39 received radical nasalisation. Ünlü and
colleagues45 studied a total of 100 patients; 50
received ESS and 50 received CL.
No sample size or power calculations were
performed prior to commencing any of these
studies. Retrospectively, given the observed results,
Harkness and colleagues37 had power of 85% to
detect a 5% difference between groups (>1036
people were required in each group). Jankowski
and colleagues41 had power of 80% to detect a
significant difference (>36 people were required
in each group) and Ünlü and colleagues45 had
power of 99% to detect a significant difference
between the groups (>48 people were required in
each group).
Selection bias. All three studies were historical (i.e.
selected and analysed results for patients who had
previously had the procedure), so patients were
allocated to groups based purely on factors such as
severity of disease or current practice of the
department, which may also affect outcomes.
None of the studies stated that the patients were
consecutively enrolled.
Harkness and colleagues37 provide no details of
the baseline characteristics of the two study
groups, so we are unable to determine if they were
comparable. Jankowski and colleagues41 report
that their two groups were similar for age, sex and
duration of symptoms, although there were more
patients with polyps in the functional
ethmoidectomy group and more asthma and prior
surgery in the nasalisation group. Both studies are
prone to bias due to the incompatibility or
possible incomparability of the two study groups.
Ünlü and colleagues45 report that their study
groups were similar for age, sex, presence of
allergy and asthma, but report that a longer
period of time had passed between surgery and
evaluation for CL patients and that there was
more bilateral disease for ESS patients. The
researchers excluded patients with a mucocele or
who had undergone ESS following CL.
Performance bias. Harkness and colleagues37 report
few details of what is meant by ‘FESS’. It is possible
that the procedure varied with different surgeons
and centres that participated in the study, thus
introducing the possibility of performance bias.
Jankowski and colleagues41 report a more detailed
description of the procedures used. The
nasalisation procedure was standardised and the
25
Results
ethmoidectomy procedure varied according to
extent of disease. Both procedures were performed
by single surgeons, which lessens the possibility of
performance bias but increases the possibility of
operator variation. In this study the surgeon
performing radical nasalisation had 4 years
experience, while the surgeon performing
functional ethmoidectomy had shorter experience.
Although Ünlü and colleagues45 report some details
of the procedures, it is possible that practices
varied over the 7-year study inclusion period.
Postoperative interventions were not reported for
any of the three non-randomised trials. If
postoperative therapies differed for each study
group, then a further bias would be introduced.
Detection bias. None of the studies report blinding
any parties.
Attrition bias. Harkness and colleagues37 report no
loss to follow-up, mainly owing to the historical
nature of their study design. Jankowski and
colleagues41 report that at 24 months follow-up
13% in the nasalisation group and 22% in the
ethmoidectomy group were lost. Ünlü and
colleagues45 reported that 23% of patients did not
return to be evaluated. Jankowski and colleagues41
and Ünlü and colleagues45 did not perform their
analysis on an ITT basis, nor did they compare
those who dropped out with those who remained
in the study. This may have introduced bias as the
outcomes for patients who dropped out of the
study may have differed for those who remained.
External validity
The generalisability (as rated by reviewers KD and
RG, see the quality assessment strategy section on
pp. 11–12) of the study by Harkness and
colleagues37 was classified as low owing to the lack
of exclusion criteria and the lack of procedural
details. The generalisability of the study by
Jankowski and colleagues41 was classified as
medium as there was a good description of the
procedures performed and patients were
described, although exclusion criteria were
omitted. The generalisability of the Ünlü study45
was classified as low owing to the lack of details
about the procedures performed and uncertainty
surrounding the generalisability of CL results.
26
Each study provided details of age and sex.
Jankowski and colleagues41 and Ünlü and
colleagues45 provided a breakdown of age and
sex for each study group. Only Jankowski and
colleagues41 provided a description of duration of
symptoms and previous surgery.
Harkness and colleagues37 performed 18% of their
procedures as day cases and 6.5% under local
anaesthesia. No details of setting and type of
anaesthesia were provided for the other two
studies.41,45 This has implications for replicating
the study.
The surgical technique was well described in the
study by Jankowski and colleagues.41 The
nasalisation technique was standardised
although the ethmoidectomy technique varies
systematically with extent of disease. Harkness
and colleagues37 and Ünlü and colleagues45
failed to provide detailed descriptions of the
techniques used in their studies. The study by
Harkness and colleagues37 was conducted across
more than one site, which introduces further
variability. No assessments of inter-centre
variability were made.
Harkness and colleagues37 relied on consultant
ENT surgeon assessment to measure their main
outcome, which was symptomatic improvement.
This introduces a measurement bias as the
outcome was not measured independently.
Jankowski and colleagues41 assessed the main
outcome of ‘functional benefit of surgery’
using a questionnaire which included a
10-point visual analogue scale, which is a more
objective assessment. Ünlü and colleagues45
did not report the method used to assess
outcomes, although it is unlikely to have been
independent.
Harkness and colleagues37 followed patients for a
maximum of 6 months, Jankowski and
colleagues41 followed patients for a mean of
34 months (nasalisation group) and 24 months
(ethmoidectomy group) and Ünlü and colleagues45
followed patients for a median of 18 months (CL
group) and 13 months (ESS group). Where followup was variable, survival analysis would be a more
appropriate method of analysis.
Case series studies
Case series studies are highly prone to a number
of potential biases and the direction of effect in
each case is unknown. Their principle limitation is
the absence of an appropriate control group,
severely restricting the ability of such studies to
give an estimate of the true effects of treatment.
The quality assessment of the case series studies is
summarised in Table 9.
Internal validity
Sample size. We arbitrarily excluded studies with
less than 50 patients with nasal polyps (see the
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
TABLE 9 Methodological characteristics of included case series studies
Author/
date
No. of
patients
(no. with
polyps)
Prospective
1. Studies in which all patients had polyps
50 (50)
Yes
Klossek et al., 199755
Stoop et al., 1992
46
Weber et al., 1997
54
Wigand and
Hosemann, 198922
Consecutive Same
patients
intervention
to all
patients
Loss to
ITT
follow-up
(%)
Generalisability
Main
Interoutcome
centre
measured
variability
independently
Conflicts
of interest
Uncertain
Yes
0
Not applicable
Low
Yes
Not assessed None stated
Not applicable
Low
Uncertain
Not applicable No
72 (72)
Yes
Uncertain
Uncertain
0
325 (325)
No
Yes
Uncertain
52
No
Low
No
Not assessed None stated
220 (220)
Uncertain
Uncertain
No
Uncertain
Uncertain
Low
No
Not applicable None stated
Low
Yes
Not applicable Yes
Not applicable
Medium
Uncertain
Not applicable None stated
2. Studies in which there were mixed patient groups with results reported separately for polyposis
Danielsen and
230 (92)
Yes
Uncertain
No
6
No
Olofsson, 199639
Friedman et al.,
200025
200 (68)
No
Yes
No
0
Jacobs, 199729
112 (51)
No
Uncertain
No
10
No
Medium
Uncertain
Not applicable None stated
Jakobsen and
Svendstrup, 200040
237 (146)
Yes
Yes
No
3
No
Low
Uncertain
Not applicable None stated
Jiang and Hsu, 200153 1112 (499)
No
No
No
39
No
Low
Yes
Not applicable None stated
Katsantonis et al.,
199423
972 (?)
No
No
No
Uncertain
Uncertain
Low
No
Not assessed None stated
Kennedy, 199230
120 (71)
Uncertain
Uncertain
No
Uncertain
Uncertain
Medium
Yes
Not assessed None stated
90 (53)
Yes
No
Uncertain
Uncertain
Uncertain
Medium
Uncertain
Not applicable None stated
Levine, 1990
250 (131)
No
Uncertain
No
12
No
Low
Uncertain
Not applicable None stated
Lund and MacKay,
199438
650 (306)
No
Uncertain
No
0
Not applicable
Low
Uncertain
Not applicable None stated
Massegur et al.,
199542
250 (203)
No
Uncertain
No
0
Not applicable
Low
Yes
Not applicable None stated
31
Lawson, 1991
32
Moses et al., 199833
Nishioka et al.,
199434
90 (50)
283 (48–
51% sides)
No
No
Uncertain
0
Not applicable
Low
No
Not applicable None stated
Uncertain
Yes
Uncertain
0
Not applicable
Medium
No
Not assessed None stated
continued
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
27
Results
TABLE 9 Methodological characteristics of included case series studies (cont’d)
Author/
date
No. of
patients
(no. with
polyps)
Prospective
Consecutive Same
patients
intervention
to all
patients
Loss to
ITT
follow-up
(%)
Generalisability
Main
Interoutcome
centre
measured
variability
independently
Sobol et al., 199849
393 (185)
No
Uncertain
No
32
No
Low
No
Not applicable None stated
Venkatachalam and
Bhat, 199950
210 (66)
Uncertain
Uncertain
No
4
No
Low
Uncertain
Not applicable None stated
Wolf et al., 199543
124 (53)
No
Uncertain
No
43
No
Low
Yes
Not applicable None stated
Yes
Not assessed None stated
3. Studies in which there were mixed patient groups with results not reported separately for polyposis
200 (147)
Yes
Yes
No
42
No
Medium
Davis et al., 199127
Conflicts
of interest
Delank and Stoll,
199848
115 (89)
Yes
Uncertain
No
0
Not applicable
Medium
Yes
Not applicable None stated
Friedman et al.,
200028
500 (136)
No
Uncertain
Uncertain
0
Not applicable
Medium
No
Not applicable None stated
79 (58)
No
No
No
0
Not applicable
Medium
Yes
Not applicable None stated
Schaefer, 1998
509 (139)
No
No
No
0
Not applicable
Medium
No
Not applicable None stated
Stammberger and
Posawetz, 199021
500 (246)
No
No
No
Uncertain
Low
Yes
Not applicable None stated
No
Yes
Uncertain
Not applicable
Low
Uncertain
Not applicable None stated
Park et al., 199835
36
Wigand et al., 197847 315 (?)
28
Uncertain
0
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
inclusion and exclusion criteria section on
pp. 11), so the range of sample sizes of the
included studies was 50–1112. The median sample
size of the included case series studies was 230.
Selection bias. Case series studies are highly prone
to selection bias (the selection of an atypical group
or a group where outcomes are related to baseline
characteristics). A prospective study design may
reduce the potential for selection bias when
inclusion criteria are defined a priori.
The relative importance of prospective and
consecutive enrolment is uncertain, although both
characteristics are likely to reduce selection bias.
Of the included case series studies seven had
prospective study design,27,31,39,40,46,48,55 16 were
retrospective21,23,25,28,29,32,33,35,36,38,42,43,47,49,53,54
and four provided insufficient details to
assess.22,30,34,50
Six case series studies enrolled consecutive
patients.25,27,34,40,47,54 Seven studies did not select
consecutive patients21,23,31,33,35,36,53 and the
remaining 14 studies did not report sufficient
details to assess.22,28–30,32,38,39,42,43,46,48–50,55
Performance bias. It is difficult to standardise
interventions in surgery. The nature of sinus
disease means that in many cases the extent of
surgery will depend on the severity of disease.
Only the case series study by Klossek and
colleagues55 applied the same intervention to all
patients. In this study the same surgeon
performed a bilateral total sphenoethmoidectomy
with wide middle antrostomies and frontal
irrigation on all patients. In all other studies
surgery varied between patients. Studies differed
in the details of the surgical technique that were
provided.
Studies also varied in the concurrent therapies
provided to patients. Postoperative steroid use was
reported in 14 studies.21,27,29,30,32,34,35,38,39,42,43,46,54,55
Attrition bias. Loss to follow-up is an important
source of bias as patients who drop out of the
series may differ systematically from those who
remain. Of the 27 included case series studies, 12
reported no loss to follow-up.25,28,33–36,38,42,46–48,55
In the remaining 15 studies loss to follow-up was
reported in 10 studies27,29,32,39,40,43,49,50,53,54 and
ranged from 3 to 52%, that is, four out of six
prospective studies and three out of six
consecutive studies had loss to follow-up. None of
the studies that reported loss to follow-up reported
their results on an ITT basis.
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
External validity
Generalisability was categorised as low in 17
studies21–23,32,33,38–40,42,43,46,47,49,50,53–55 and
medium in 1025,27–31,34–36,48 (for details of
classification, see the quality assessment strategy
section pp. 11–12).
Patients’ characteristics are important in
determining to whom the results of a study will
apply. Thirteen case series studies25,31,33–36,40,43,46,
48–50,55
provided details of participants’ average
age and 12 studies31,33,34,36,39,40,43,48–50,53,55
reported the gender of participants. Fifteen case
series studies25,28–33,35,36,39,40,42,48–50 stated the
percentage of patients who had had previous
surgery and four39,40,48,50 presented the duration
of previous symptoms for the included patients.
Only the case series study by Danielson and
Olofsson39 reported the setting in which their
procedures took place, namely day-care outpatients
for 91% of patients. Eight studies32,38,40,42,43,50,53
reported the percentage of procedures that were
performed under general anaesthetic (as opposed
to local anaesthesia).
The type of surgical regime varied widely between
studies. Ten studies reported using the
Messerklinger technique, Stammberger technique
or modified variations.21,27,29,32,34,39,40,42,43,50 The
Yankauer technique was used in two studies23,31
and the Wigand technique in two others.47,48 One
study performed only sphenoidectomies55 and
another only frontal sinus surgery.25 Some studies
reported using a microdebrider and some used a
laser. Some studies failed to provide a clear
description of their FESS technique.
Six of the 25 included case series studies were
performed across more than one site.22,23,27,30,34,55
This introduces further possible variation in how
the procedure was performed and therefore
lessens generalisability. None of these six studies
assessed inter-centre variability.
All case series studies reported patient relevant
outcomes (see the inclusion and exclusion
criteria section on p. 11). In 10 of the 25
studies the main outcome was measured
independently.21,27,30,35,39,42,43,48,53,55
The average length of follow-up was reported in
14 case series studies23,25,28–35,38–40,50 and
ranged from 6 to 42 months. A further 10
studies21,27,36,42,46,47,49,53–55 reported a maximum
length of follow-up or a range and three studies
failed to report a follow-up period.22,43,48
29
Results
Summary: quality of included studies
● RCTs: the main threats to internal validity were
limited study power (two studies), inadequate
randomisation (three studies), baseline
differences of study groups (two studies),
variation in intervention applied (three studies)
and loss to follow-up (three studies).
● Non-randomised comparative studies: the main
threats to internal validity were non-random
allocation to groups (three studies), baseline
differences of study groups (three studies),
variation in intervention applied (three studies)
and loss to follow-up (two studies).
● Case series: the main threats to internal validity
were lack of control group, susceptibility to
selection bias, variation in intervention applied
and loss to follow-up (15 studies).
● All study types: the main threats to external
validity were low generalisability to UK setting,
non-independent assessment of outcomes and
variable length of follow-up.
Assessment of effectiveness
Reporting of outcomes
Complications were reported by all studies except
two RCTs,51,52 one comparative study45 and four
case series studies.33,46-48 Symptomatic
improvement was reported in all studies except
one RCT52 and seven case series.23,33,34,36,43,46,48
Other outcomes varied widely in the extent to
which they were reported by the included studies.
A summary of all outcomes and the frequency
with which they were reported is presented in
Table 10.
Outcomes are reported in detail for those
considered most relevant to patients (according to
clinical opinion of our expert advisory group) and
for those reported by the greatest number of
studies.
Symptomatic improvement
Symptomatic assessment was classified as greatly
improved, improved, same or worse. The results
are presented separately for each study design and
separately for patients with nasal polyps versus
mixed patient groups (those with and without
polyps). The results for symptomatic improvement
are reported in Tables 11–13. Some of the studies
had significant loss to follow-up. We have
calculated and reported outcomes based on ITT
and have presented the ITT results in the tables.
On inspection, the ITT results seem to overcompensate for potential bias by assigning all
patients that were lost to follow-up a negative
outcome (results calculated on ITT basis cluster
around 30–40% whereas studies without loss to
follow-up cluster around 70–90% for symptom
improvement). For these reasons, the results
described below are not based on ITT analysis.
Randomised controlled trials
Kurent and Zargi52 did not report symptomatic
improvement. Penttilä and colleagues44 reported
that for those undergoing ESS, 78% showed
improved symptoms and 4% were the same. In
those undergoing CL, 51% were improved (i.e.
difference of 27%, 95% CI 2 to 59%), 14% were
the same and 6% were worse. Overall symptomatic
TABLE 10 Number of studies that reported main outcomes broken down by study design
Outcome reported
30
Symptomatic improvement
Recurrence of polyps/disease
Revision surgery
Residual disease
Complications
Sense of smell
Patency
Nasal blockage/obstruction
Surgical success
Normal mucosa
Additional medical management
Patient satisfaction
Mean blood loss
Synechiae formation
Stenosis
Hospitalisation
Randomised controlled trials
(n = 3)
Non-randomised
comparative studies
(n = 3)
Case series studies
(n = 27)
2
1
1
–
2
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
3
–
1
1
2
1
1
1
–
–
1
–
–
–
–
–
20
12
10
4
23
6
6
5
5
4
3
3
1
3
1
1
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
TABLE 11 Summary of symptomatic improvement in randomised controlled trials
Author/date
Kurent and Zargi, 199852
Penttilä et al., 199744
Venkatachalam and Bhat,
199851
Study group
Results for patients with polyps only (%) (ITT %)
Results for mixed group of patients (%) (ITT %)
No. of
patients
(no. with
polyps)
Greatly
improved
Improved
symptoms
Symptoms
the same
Symptoms
worse
Greatly
improved
Improved
symptoms
Symptoms Symptoms
the same
worse
Endoscopic
ethmoidectomy
Endoscopic
polypectomy
20 (20)
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
20 (20)
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
FES
75 (52)
–
–
–
–
78 (75 ITT) –
CL
75 (45)
–
–
–
–
51 (48 ITT) –
FESS
Conventional
procedures
25 (25)
25 (25)
(72 ITT)
(48 ITT)
(16 ITT)
(36 ITT)
(8 ITT)
(12 ITT)
–
–
4 (4 ITT)
–
14 (13 ITT) 6 (5 ITT)
TABLE 12 Summary of symptomatic improvement in non-randomised comparative studies
Author/date
Harkness et al., 199737
Jankowski et al., 199741
Ünlü et al., 199445
Study group
Conventional
procedures
FESS
Results for patients with polyps only (%) (ITT %)
Results for mixed group of patients (%) (ITT %)
No. of
patients
(no. with
polyps)
Greatly
improved
Improved
symptoms
Symptoms
the same
Symptoms
worse
Greatly
improved
Improved
symptoms
Symptoms Symptoms
the same
worse
1459 (715)
–
82
–
–
–
–
–
–
1064 (234)
–
82
–
–
–
–
–
–
Functional
ethmoidectomy
Radical nasalisation
37 (37)
10 (8 ITT)
62 (49 ITT)
21 (16 ITT)
7 (5 ITT)
39 (39)
48 (41 ITT)
52 (44 ITT)
0
0
ESS
50 (14)
–
–
–
–
CL
50 (8)
–
–
–
–
55 (44 ITT) 30 (24 ITT)
8 (6 ITT)
8 (6 ITT)
0
35 (26 ITT) 35 (26 ITT) 8 (6 ITT)
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
31
Results
TABLE 13 Summary of symptomatic improvement in case series studies
Author/date
No. of
patients
(no. with
polyps)
1. Studies in which all patients had polyps
50 (50)
Klossek et al., 199755
72 (72)
Stoop et al., 199246
54
Weber et al., 1997
325 (325)
Wigand and Hosemann, 198922
220 (220)
Results for patients with polyps only (%) (% ITT)
Greatly
improved
Improved
symptoms
Symptoms
the same
Symptoms
worse
–
–
23 (12 ITT)
24
96
–
66 (34 ITT)
58
–
–
–
–
2 (1 ITT)
6
9 (5 ITT)
12
2. Studies in which there were mixed patient groups with results reported separately for polyposis
230 (92)
33
27
20
0
Danielsen and Olofsson 199639
200 (68)
–
–
–
–
Friedman et al., 200025
Jacobs, 199729
Jakobsen and Svendstrup, 200040
Jiang and Hsu, 200153
Katsantonis et al., 199423
Kennedy, 199230
Lawson 199131
Levine, 199032
Lund and MacKay, 199438
Massegur et al., 199542
Moses et al., 199833
Nishioka et al., 199434
Sobol et al., 199849
Venkatachalam and Bhat, 1999
Wolf et al., 199543
50
112 (51)
237 (146)
1112 (499 surgeries)
73
50 (49 ITT)
6
procedures
972 (?)
–
120 (71)
87
90 (53)
–
250 (131)
–
650 (306)
–
250 (203)
73
90 (50)
–
283 (48–51% of sides) –
393 (185)
–
210 (66)
–
124 (53)
–
18
43 (42 ITT)
31
procedures
–
11
64
–
–
20
–
–
–
–
–
10
8 (8 ITT)
5
procedures
–
1
–
–
–
7
–
–
–
–
–
0
0
1
procedure
–
0
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Results for mixed group of patients (%) (% ITT)
Greatly
improved
Improved
symptoms
Symptoms Symptoms
the same
worse
25 (24 ITT) 15 (15 ITT)
76
16
10 (10 ITT) 0
8
1
69 (63 ITT)
45 (43 ITT)
12
procedures
–
85
–
–
9
74
–
–
–
70
–
16 (14 ITT)
11 (11 ITT)
16
procedures
–
0
0.4 (0.4 ITT)
6
procedures
–
3
–
16 (14 ITT)
11
9
–
–
0
–
1 (1 ITT)
2
0
–
–
15 (13 ITT)
44 (43 ITT)
66
procedures
–
13
73
–
78
16
–
–
70 (47 ITT)
19
–
30 (21 ITT) –
7
–
–
–
continued
32
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
TABLE 13 Summary of symptomatic improvement in case series studies (cont’d)
Author/date
No. of
patients
(no. with
polyps)
Results for patients with polyps only (%) (% ITT)
Greatly
improved
Improved
symptoms
Symptoms
the same
Symptoms
worse
3. Studies in which there were mixed patient groups with results not reported separately for polyposis
200 (147)
Davis et al., 199127
Delank and Stoll, 199848
115 (89)
500 (136)
Friedman et al., 200028
35
Park et al., 1998
79 (58)
Schaefer, 199836
509 (139)
Stammberger and Posawetz,
500 (246)
199021
47
Wigand et al., 1978
315 (?)
Results for mixed group of patients (%) (% ITT)
Greatly
improved
Improved
symptoms
Symptoms Symptoms
the same
worse
–
–
78
–
–
96 (33 ITT)
–
14
86
–
–
–
7
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
85
76
10
–
5
–
–
–
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
33
Results
Study
Risk ratio
(95% CI)
Relative size of data
point
Venkatachalam (RCT)
1.17 (0.87 to 1.57)
1.6
Penttilä (RCT)
1.53 (1.18 to 1.99)
3.2
Harkness (non-RCT)
1.00 (0.96 to 1.04)
90.3
Ünlü (non-RCT)
1.97 (1.33 to 2.91)
1.5
Jankowski (non-RCT)
0.73 (0.60 to 0.89)
3.4
Favours comparator
1
Favours FESS
FIGURE 4 Forest plot showing symptomatic improvement for RCTs and non-randomised comparative studies
improvement was 78% for the FESS group and
51% for the CL group (i.e. difference of 27%, 95%
CI 12 to 42%).
Venkatachalam and Bhat51 reported their results
based on ITT. All enrolled patients had nasal
polyps. For those randomised to FESS, 72%
reported marked symptomatic improvement, 16%
improvement and 8% the same. In comparison, of
those randomised to conventional procedures 28%
reported marked improvement, 36% improvement
and 12% the same. Overall symptomatic
improvement was 84% for the FESS group
compared with 72% for conventional procedures
(i.e. difference of 12%, 95% CI –11 to 35%).
34
Non-randomised comparative studies
Harkness and colleagues37 reported exactly the
same percentage of patients with improved
symptoms (82%) for both conventional procedures
and FESS groups (i.e. difference of 0.02%, 95% CI
–3 to 3%). Jankowski and colleagues41 reported
more favourable results for radical nasalisation
compared with functional ethmoidectomy, with
41% of patients being greatly improved compared
with 8% (i.e. difference 27%, 95% CI 13 to 41%).
The overall functional benefit of surgery as
measured by the mean visual analogue scale score
was statistically significantly greater in the
nasalisation group (8.8 ± 0.22) than in the
ethmoidectomy group (5.92 ± 0.64; p = 0.0001).
Ünlü and colleagues45 reported that those
undergoing ESS experienced great symptomatic
improvement in 55% of cases, improvement in
30% and 8% remained the same. In comparison,
those undergoing CL reported great improvement
in 8% of cases, improvement in 35%, the same in
35% and worse in 8%. Overall symptomatic
improvement was 85% for the FESS group and
43% for the CL group (i.e. difference of 42%,
95% CI 22 to 61%).
Figure 4 illustrates the overall symptomatic
improvement for the RCTs and non-randomised
comparative studies. The size of each data point
represents the sample size of the study. It can be
seen that one RCT and one non-RCT cross the
line representing no difference between the
groups and that one RCT and one nonrandomised study favour FESS. The Jankowski
study favours radical FESS compared with
conventional FESS. Overall there is lack of
agreement between the studies as to whether FESS
is statistically significantly more effective in
improving symptoms than comparative techniques
from the included comparative studies. It should
be noted that study results have not been
statistically combined owing to the heterogeneity
of studies and the fact that they are not all
randomised trials.
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Case series studies
When considering only the results of the patients
with nasal polyps, the percentage of symptoms
being greatly improved ranged from 6 to 87% and
the percentage who were improved ranged from
11 to 96% (Table 13). On combining these
categories, the range of percentages for patients
with nasal polyps showing overall improvement
was 37–99%. The median of the average
improvement for all the studies that reported this
outcome for patients with nasal polyps was 89%.
●
For the mixed group of patients (those with and
without nasal polyps), the percentage of symptoms
being greatly improved ranged from 9 to 85% and
the percentage who were slightly improved ranged
from 10 to 96% (Table 13). On combining these
two categories the range of overall improvement
for the mixed patient groups was 40–98%. The
median of the average improvement for all the
studies that reported this outcome for mixed
patients was 88%.
●
The study by Friedman and colleagues25 had mixed
patients (polyp and non-polypoid) and focused on
frontal sinus surgery. They reported that 92% of
patients showed improvement, 8% remained the
same and 1% were worse following surgery.
Exploration of potential confounders
There are a number of factors which may
influence the results obtained for symptomatic
improvement, such as severity of underlying
disease, length of follow-up, method of assessing
improvement, time since surgery, loss to follow-up,
sample size, publication date, concurrent
therapies, extent of previous surgery, method of
selecting patients and study design. We explored
some of these factors by producing scatterplots of
symptomatic improvement and various potential
confounding factors to assess relationships
(Appendices 9 and 10). Data have been included
from RCTs, comparative studies and case series
studies where available. We explored factors
separately for results for patients with polyps and
for mixed patient results.
For patients with polyps we conclude the
following:
●
●
Studies that were not conducted prospectively
reported greater symptomatic improvement
than studies that were conducted prospectively
(suggesting potential bias).
No clear relationship between percentage
improvement in symptoms and whether
patients were enrolled consecutively.
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
●
●
●
●
No clear difference in percentage improvement
according to whether outcomes were assessed
independently.
The longer patients were followed up, less
percentage improvement in symptoms was
found (suggesting that improvement may be
short-lived).
No clear relationship between percentage
improvement in symptoms and percentage loss
to follow-up.
No clear relationship between sample size and
percentage improvement in symptoms.
No clear relationship between the percentage of
patients who had had previous surgery and the
percentage improvement in symptoms.
Studies published more recently reported
higher percentage improvement in symptoms
(may be related to improved technique due to
greater experience).
For mixed patient groups (with and without
polyps) we conclude the following:
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
Studies that were not conducted prospectively
reported greater symptomatic improvement
than studies that were conducted prospectively
(suggesting potential bias).
No clear relationship between percentage
improvement in symptoms and whether
patients were enrolled consecutively.
No clear relationship between percentage
improvement in symptoms and whether
outcomes were measured independently.
The longer patients were followed up, the
greater the percentage improvement in
symptoms.
No clear relationship between percentage
improvement in symptoms and percentage loss
to follow-up.
No clear relationship between percentage
improvement in symptoms and sample size.
The greater the percentage of previous surgery
the higher percentage of symptom improvement.
No clear relationship between percentage
improvement in symptoms and date of
publication.
Overall, our exploration provided few answers as
to the potential confounders that may influence
the main outcome of symptomatic improvement.
Even when a trend was identified, it was usually
weak and data points were spread over a wide
range. Some trends for the same variable (e.g.
average length of follow-up) were in the opposite
direction for the polyp and mixed groups, further
demonstrating the unreliability of the data. Some
of the charts have a limited number of data points
35
Results
and may not be sufficient to accurately detect a
trend. It is likely that a number of these factors
have a cumulative effect and the direction of bias
will vary. From the data and studies available we
are unable to determine the likely overall direction
or magnitude of bias.
Summary: results for symptomatic improvement
● Comparative studies: three studies reported
greater symptomatic improvement for FESS
than comparative techniques (two statistically
significant), one study reported no difference
and one reported that radical nasalisation
showed greater improvement than conventional
ethmoidectomy.
● Case series: for patients with polyps
symptomatic, improvement ranged from 37 to
99%, median 89%.
● Case series: for patients with mixed disease
(with and without polyps), symptomatic
improvement ranged from 40 to 98%, median
88%.
● Potential confounders include prospective study
design, length of follow-up and publication date.
● We are unable to determine the likely overall
direction or magnitude of bias.
Recurrence of polyps/disease
Tables 14, 15 and 16 report results for the included
randomised trials, comparative and case series
studies, respectively. Polyp/disease recurrence
refers to disease or polyps returning after surgical
treatment. For studies in which patients had nasal
polyps, this outcome related strictly to the
recurrence of polyps, whereas for those with mixed
disease, this outcome referred to the recurrence of
polyps or sinus disease (depending on the original
indication).
Randomised controlled trials
Kurent and Zargi52 report 35% polyp recurrence
in the polypectomy group compared with 28% in
the ethmoidectomy group (i.e. difference of 8%,
95% CI –23 to 38%). Neither Penttilä and
colleagues44 nor Venkatachalam and Bhat51 report
disease recurrence.
Non-randomised comparative studies
Neither Harkness and colleagues37 nor Jankowski
and colleagues41 report disease recurrence in their
studies. Ünlü and colleagues45 report disease
recurrence in 14% of the CL group and in 8% of
the ESS group (i.e. difference of 6%, 95% CI –8 to
20%) with length of follow-up not reported.
36
Figure 5 illustrates disease recurrence for the RCTs
and non-randomised comparative studies that
reported this outcome. The size of each data
point represents the sample size of the study.
Both studies indicate more recurrence of disease
for comparison groups but both cross the line,
indicating no statistically significant difference
between groups. It should be noted that study
results have not been statistically combined
owing to the heterogeneity of studies and the
fact that they are not both randomised trials.
Case series studies
For the studies that reported the results for
patients with nasal polyps alone, 13 reported
polyp recurrence (Table 16). The percentage of
patients that experienced polyp recurrence within
the study periods ranged from 8 to 66% (median
from the studies was 25%).
In case series studies with mixed patient groups,
disease recurrence varied from 4 to 33% with a
median of 22% (Table 16). Kennedy30 reports 4%
recurrence (mean follow-up 18 months),
Massegur and colleagues42 report 16% recurrence
(follow-up 1–4 years), Wolf and colleagues43
studied children only and report 16% recurrence
(follow-up not stated), the Danielson and
Olofsson39 and Lawson31 studies both report 27%
recurrence (mean follow-up 41 and 42 months,
respectively) and Moses and colleagues33 studied
only patients who had previous sinus surgery and
report 33% recurrence (mean follow-up
23 months).
Klossek and colleagues55 report a range of
recurrence from 3 to 49% after performing total
sphenoidectomy. Two studies22,54 report results
separately for the ethmoid, maxillary and
sphenoid regions. Weber and colleagues54 report
polyp recurrence rates of 25% in the ethmoid and
13% in the sphenoid. Wigand and Hosemann22
report 18% polyp recurrence in the ethmoid, 1%
in maxillary region and zero in the sphenoid.
Where follow-up was variable, survival analysis
would be a more appropriate method of
analysis.
We explored the potential relationship between
length of follow-up and polyp recurrence for all
studies (Figure 6). Polyp recurrence varies with
the length of time for which patients are
followed. The longer patients are followed, the
higher is the percentage of polyp recurrence.
There are few data points but the trend line
suggests that, as may be expected, there is a
relationship between length of follow-up
reported by studies and reported disease
recurrence.
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
TABLE 14 Recurrence rates, revision surgery and residual disease for randomised controlled studies
Author/date
Kurent and Zargi, 199852
Penttilä et al., 199744
Venkatachalam and Bhat,
199851
Study groups
No. of
patients
(no. with
polyps)
Results for patients with polyps only (%) (% ITT)
Endoscopic
ethmoidectomy
Endoscopic
polypectomy
Polyp
recurrence
(%)
Revision
surgery
(%)
Residual
disease
(%)
28 (25 ITT)
–
–
35 (30 ITT)
–
–
Results for mixed group of patients (%) (% ITT)
Disease
recurrence
(%)
Revision
surgery
(%)
Residual
disease
(%)
FES
75 (52)
–
–
–
–
21 (19 ITT)
–
CL
75 (45)
–
–
–
–
21 (17 ITT)
–
FESS
Conventional
techniques
25 (25)
25 (25)
–
–
–
–
–
–
TABLE 15 Recurrence rates, revision surgery and residual disease for non-randomised comparative studies
Author/date
Harkness et al., 199737
Jankowski et al., 199741
Ünlü et al., 199445
Study groups
No. of
patients
(no. with
polyps)
Results for patients with polyps only (%) (% ITT)
Results for mixed group of patients (%) (% ITT)
Polyp
recurrence
(%)
Revision
surgery
(%)
Residual
disease
(%)
Disease
recurrence
(%)
Revision
surgery
(%)
Residual
disease
(%)
1459 (715)
–
–
–
–
–
–
1064 (234)
–
–
–
–
–
–
37 (37)
–
14 (11 ITT)
–
39 (39)
–
6 (5 ITT)
–
ESS
50 (14)
–
–
–
8 (6 ITT)
–
–
CL
50 (8)
–
–
–
14 (10 ITT)
–
–
Conventional
procedures
FESS
Functional
ethmoidectomy
Radical
Nasalisation
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
37
Results
TABLE 16 Recurrence rates, revision surgery and residual disease for case series studies
Author/date
No. of
patients
(no. with
polyps)
1. Studies in which all patients had polyps
50 (50)
Klossek et al., 199755
72 (72)
Stoop et al., 199246
Weber et al., 199754
325 (325)
Wigand and Hosemann, 198922
220 (220)
Results for patients with polyps only
Polyp
recurrence
(%)
Revision
surgery
(%)
Residual
disease
(%)
3–49
50 (at 6 months)
56 (at 12 months)
25 ethmoid
13 maxillary
18 ethmoid
1 maxillary
0 sphenoid
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
2. Studies in which there were mixed patient groups with results reported separately for polyposis
230 (92)
66
–
–
Danielsen and Olofsson 199639
25
200 (68)
–
–
–
Friedman et al., 2000
112 (51)
–
–
75 sides
Jacobs, 199729
237 (146)
28
10
–
Jakobsen and Svendstrup, 200040
1112 (499 surgeries)
–
–
–
Jiang and Hsu, 200153
972 (?)
–
–
12
Katsantonis et al., 199423
30
120 (71)
8 sides
–
59 sides
Kennedy, 1992
90 (53)
36
–
–
Lawson, 199131
250 (131)
12 (11 ITT)
–
–
Levine, 199032
38
650 (306)
–
–
–
Lund and MacKay, 1994
250 (203)
15
6
–
Massegur et al., 199542
90 (50)
–
42
–
Moses et al., 199833
34
283 (48–51% of sides) 22 (11 ITT)
–
–
Nishioka et al., 1994
393 (185)
8
–
–
Sobol et al., 199849
210 (66)
(7 ITT)
–
–
Venkatachalam and Bhat, 199950
125 (53)
–
34
–
Wolf et al., 199543
Results for mixed group of patients
Disease
recurrence
(%)
Revision
surgery
(%)
Residual
disease
(%)
27
–
–
–
–
–
4
27
–
–
16
33
–
–
–
16
6
6
–
–
–
9
–
59 sides
–
–
–
–
–
4
3
–
45 sides
–
18 (16 ITT)
–
6
–
–
4
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
continued
38
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
TABLE 16 Recurrence rates, revision surgery and residual disease for case series studies (cont’d)
Author/date
No. of
patients
(no. with
polyps)
Results for patients with polyps only
Polyp
recurrence
(%)
Revision
surgery
(%)
Residual
disease
(%)
3. Studies in which there were mixed patient groups with results not reported separately for polyposis
200 (147)
Davis et al., 199127
Delank and Stoll, 199848
115 (89)
28
Friedman et al., 2000
500 (136)
Park et al., 199835
79 (58)
Schaefer, 199836
509 (139)
21
Stammberger and Posawetz, 1990 500 (246)
Wigand et al., 197847
315 (?)
Results for mixed group of patients
Disease
recurrence
(%)
Revision
surgery
(%)
Residual
disease
(%)
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
3
–
5
–
–
–
–
–
–
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
39
Results
Study
Risk ratio
(95% CI)
Relative size of data
point
Kurent (RCT)
0.79 (0.29 to 2.11)
54.3
Ünlü (non-RCT)
0.56 (0.14 to 2.16)
45.7
More recurrence for comparator
1
More recurrence for FESS
FIGURE 5 Forest plot showing disease recurrence for RCTs and non-randomised comparative studies
70
FESS
Other
60
Polyp recurrence (%)
Linear (FESS)
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
10
20
30
Length of follow-up (months)
FIGURE 6 Relationship between polyp recurrence and length of follow-up
40
40
50
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Summary: results for recurrence of
polyps/disease
● Comparative studies: two studies reported more
recurrence for comparative techniques than for
FESS (although neither was statistically
significant).
● Case series: for patients with polyps recurrence
ranged from 8 to 66%, median 25%.
● Case series: for patients with mixed disease
(with and without polyps), recurrence ranged
from 4 to 33%, median 22%.
● As would be expected, more recurrence was
reported for studies that followed patients for a
longer period (significance not tested).
Residual disease
Residual disease refers to disease that has not been
removed or has been missed during the FESS
procedure (i.e. disease is still present following
surgery).
Randomised controlled trials
The studies by Kurent and Zargi,52 Penttilä and
colleagues44 and Venkatachalam and Bhat51 did
not report residual disease.
Non-randomised comparative studies
Neither the Harkness,37 Jankowski41 nor Ünlü
studies45 reported residual disease.
Case series studies
Residual disease was reported in three studies with
patients who had polyps. Jacobs29 reported
residual disease for 75% of sides that were
operated on, Kennedy30 reported that 59% of
sides operated on had residual disease and
Katsantonis and colleagues23 reported that 12% of
patients had residual disease.
Residual disease was reported by three studies with
mixed patients groups (patients with and without
polyps). Jacobs29 reported residual disease in 59%
of sides, Kennedy30 in 45% of sides and Levine32
in 18% of patients.
Summary: results for residual disease
● Comparative studies: no studies reported this
outcome.
● Case series: residual disease ranged from 12 to
75% of sides.
Revision surgery
Revision surgery refers to patients requiring a
further sinus procedure to address symptoms some
time after their initial procedure. Revision surgery
does not refer to patients requiring a second
procedure to rectify or complete the original FESS
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
procedure (e.g. surgery being stopped owing to
excessive bleeding and rescheduled for a future
date).
Randomised controlled trials
Kurent and Zargi52 and Venkatachalam and Bhat51
did not report the percentage of people requiring
revision surgery. Penttilä and colleagues44 reported
that 21% of patients in each of the FESS and CL
groups required revision surgery (i.e. difference of
0.2%, 95% CI –14 to 14%) with maximum length
of follow-up 108 months.
Non-randomised comparative studies
The studies by Harkness and colleagues37 and
Ünlü and colleagues45 did not report revision
surgery. Jankowski and colleagues41 reported that
14% of patients receiving functional
ethmoidectomy (average follow-up 24 months)
required revision surgery compared with 6% in the
nasalisation group with average follow-up 34
months (i.e. difference of 8%, 95% CI –7 to 23%).
Figure 7 illustrates revision surgery for the RCTs
and non-randomised comparative studies that
reported this outcome. The size of each data point
represents the sample size of the study. Both
studies indicate more revision surgery for
comparison groups but both cross the line,
indicating no statistically significant difference
between groups. It should be noted that the
comparison group for the Jankowski study is
radical nasalisation. The study results have not
been statistically combined owing to the
heterogeneity of studies and the fact that they are
not both randomised trials.
Case series studies
Four studies reported the percentage of patients
requiring revision surgery for patients with polyps.
Massegur and colleagues42 report 6% revision
(follow-up 1–4 years) and Jakobsen and
Svendstrup40 10% (follow-up 1 year). Moses and
colleagues33 studied only patients who had
previous sinus surgery and report 42% of patients
required revision surgery (average follow-up 23
months) and Wolf and colleagues43 studied
revision in children undergoing ESS and report
rates of 34% (follow-up not stated).
Nine studies reported the percentage of mixed
patients (polyps and non-polyps) who underwent
revision surgery (average follow-up 12 months,
range 6–41 months). The study results ranged
from 3 to 9%, with a median percentage of 5%.
Friedman and colleagues25 report that 6% of
patients undergoing frontal sinus surgery required
41
Results
Study
Risk ratio
(95% CI)
Relative size of data
point
Penttilä (RCT)
1.01 (0.52 to 1.98)
87.9
Jankowski (non-RCT)
2.34 (0.46 to 11.89)
12.1
More revision for comparator
1
More revision for FESS
FIGURE 7 Forest plot showing revision surgery for RCTs and non-randomised comparative studies
revision surgery within the mean follow-up period
of 12 months.
Summary: results for revision surgery
● Comparative studies: one study reported no
difference between FESS and the comparative
technique, another reported that the functional
ethmoidectomy group required more revision
than the nasalisation group (although not
statistically significant).
● Case series: for patients with polyps, revision
ranged from 6 to 42%, median 22%.
● Case series: for patients with mixed disease
(with and without polyps), revision ranged from
3 to 9%, median 5%.
Other outcomes
There were a number of other patient-relevant
outcomes that were reported in relatively few
studies. These have not been summarised in tables
but results are described below.
42
similar scores preoperatively (a higher score
indicates better sense of smell with 10 representing
a normal-functioning nose). Improvement in sense
of smell was similar in both groups 6 months after
surgery. At 24 months the mean visual analogue
score (for sense of smell) for the ethmoidectomy
group was 4.23 ± 1.01 compared with 6.57 ± 0.69
for the nasalisation group. Olfaction improvement
was steady in the nasalisation group but decreased
rapidly after 6 months in the ethmoidectomy
group.
Klossek and colleagues55 reported that
preoperatively 100% of their sample had anosmia
for at least 6 months per year. At 3 months followup 70% of patients reported marked improvement
in the symptom anosmia, at 1-year follow-up 60%
maintained marked improvement and at 3 years
follow-up 58% reported marked improvement in
anosmia.
Sense of smell
Pre- and postoperative anosmia/smell disturbance
is summarised in Figure 8.
Anosmia was reported by 48% of patients with
nasal polyps/polyposis preoperatively compared
with 21% at 1-year postoperative follow-up in a
study by Jakobsen and Svendstrup.40
Jankowski and colleagues41 compared sense of
smell in patients undergoing ethmoidectomy with
those undergoing nasalisation. Both groups had
After a mean follow-up of 17 months, 3% of
patients reporting having anosmia compared with
16% prior to surgery in a study by Levine.32
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
100
% Anosmia/smell disturbance
100
90
80
72
70
60
48
50
38
40
30
30
Preoperative
Postoperative
31
21
20
23
16
10
11
5
3
al.
k
Pa
r
an
D
ela
nk
et
ol
St
d
ac
M
d
an
nd
Lu
35
l 48
8
Ka
y3
e 32
vin
Le
Jak
ob
se
n
an
d
Kl
Sv
os
se
en
k
ds
et
tru
al.
55
p 40
0
FIGURE 8 Summary of pre- and postoperative anosmia/smell disturbance
Lund and MacKay38 report that 23% of patients
had preoperative symptoms involving smell. Six
months after ESS 79% of patients reported
improved smell, 12% reported being cured, 21%
reported being the same and none reported that
they were worse.
Olfactory function was the focus of a study by
Delank and Stoll.48 Olfaction was measured by
self-rating questionnaires and olfactory tests.
Preoperatively, olfactory tests found anosmia
(absence of smell) in 31% of patients, hyposmia
(diminished smell) in 52% and normosmia
(normal smell) in 17% (preoperative self-ratings
reported smell to be normal in 42% of patients,
reduced in 34% and absent in 24%). Following
FESS (length of follow-up not reported) olfactory
tests found anosmia in 11% of patients,
hyposmia in 57% and normosmia in 31%.
Improvement occurred for 70% of hyposmic or
anosmic patients. Postoperative improvement was
greatest for the patients who were originally
hyposmic. Normosmia was achieved in 25% of
patients who were hyposmic prior to surgery and
in 5% of patients who were anosmic prior to
surgery. Olfaction worsened following 8% of FESS
procedures. The extent of sinus disease/degree of
polyposis correlated with olfactory dysfunction.
Smell disturbance was reported in 72% of patients
preoperatively in a study by Park and colleagues35
compared with 38% (average follow-up 19 months)
following FESS ( p < 0.0001).
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
All studies that reported sense of smell stated
overall postoperative improvement compared with
preoperative symptoms. The range of
improvement compared with preoperative scores
ranged from 13 to 91% with a median of 31%
(follow-up ranged from an average of 3 to 19
months, median 12 months).
Nasal obstruction
Pre- and postoperative nasal obstruction is
summarised in Figure 9.
Harkness and colleagues37 reported that 70% of
patients undergoing conventional surgery were
asymptomatic or improved at 6 months for the
symptom of nasal obstruction, compared with 84%
of patients undergoing FESS.
Klossek and colleagues55 reported that 50% of
patients had bilateral nasal obstruction
preoperatively. At 3 months follow-up 100% had
shown marked improvement in nasal obstruction,
at 1 year 92% still showed marked improvement
and by 3 years follow-up 92% had maintained
marked improvement.
After a mean follow-up of 17 months 3% of
patients had nasal obstruction, compared with
32% prior to surgery in a study by Levine.32
Lund and MacKay38 reported that 70% of patients
had nasal blockage prior to surgery. Six months
after ESS 92% were improved (23% were cured),
6% were the same and 2% were worse.
43
Results
100
90
% Nasal obstruction
80
70
60
Preoperative
Postoperative
50
40
30
20
10
0
Klossek et al.55
Levine32
Lund and MacKay38 Wolf et al.43
Park et al.35
Patency rate (%)
FIGURE 9 Summary of pre- and postoperative nasal obstruction
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
87
90
Ünlü
et al.45
Friedman
et al. (frontal
sinus)25
100
97
Klossek
et al.55
Kennedy30
93
93
94
Jacobs29
Nishioka
et al.34
Davis
et al.27
57
Penttilä
et al.44
FIGURE 10 Summary of patency rates
Nasal obstruction was seen preoperatively in 51%
of children in a study by Wolf and colleagues.43
Nasal obstruction was completely relieved
following ESS in 31% of children, improved in
57%, no different in 10% and worse in 2% (followup period not stated).
Nasal congestion was 95% prior to FESS and 40%
( p < 0.0001) following surgery (average follow-up
19 months) in a study by Park and colleagues.35
44
All studies that recorded nasal obstruction
symptoms reported postoperative improvement
following FESS. Overall improvement in nasal
congestion postoperatively compared with
preoperative symptoms ranged from 29 to 100%
with a median of 72% (follow-up ranged from 3 to
19 months, median 17 months).
Patency
Patency refers to the openness of various areas
within the sinuses and overall rates are summarised
in Figure 10.
The randomised study by Penttilä and colleagues44
reported that after a maximum of 108 months
follow-up the middle meatus was open in 19% of
the CL group and in 57% of the FESS group. The
inferior middle meatal windows were fully patent in
48% of the CL group and 67% in the FESS group.
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
TABLE 17 Summary of rate of complications from randomised controlled trials
Author/date
Study group
No. of
Total
Major
Minor
patients (no. complications complications complications
with polyps)
(%)
(%)
(%)
Kurent and Zargi, 199852
Endoscopic ethmoidectomy
Endoscopic polypectomy
20 (20)
20 (20)
–
–
–
–
–
–
Penttilä et al., 199744
FES
CL
75 (52)
75 (45)
–
–
0
0
–
–
Venkatachalam and Bhat,
199851
FESS
25 (25)
–
–
–
Conventional techniques
25 (25)
–
–
–
In the comparative study by Ünlü and colleagues,45
patency of the maxillary sinus windows was
reported in 58% of CL sides and in 87% of ESS
sides ( p 0.05).
The study by Friedman and colleagues25 assessed
frontal sinus patency using transillumination and
found that 90% of all frontal sinuses were patent
postoperatively (mean follow-up 12 months). In
the patients with polypoid disease, postoperative
patency was also 90%.
Klossek and colleagues55 reported that at
postoperative 3 years follow-up the middle meatal
antrostomies had an overall patency rate of
100%.
The overall postoperative patency rate for the
middle meatal antrostomies in a study by
Kennedy30 was 97% (mean follow-up 18 months).
Jacobs29 reports that postoperatively in his study
the middle meatal antrostomies had an overall
patency of 93% (follow-up 16 months).
Middle meatal patency for patients was 94% in
the non-allergic group and 92% for the allergic
group postoperatively in a study by Nishioka and
colleagues34 (mean follow-up 15 months).
Davis and colleagues27 report that during
follow-up to 36 months patency of the surgical
meatus overall was 94%. The cumulative actual
patency rate up to 36 months was 88% for all
sides. For patients with nasal polyps patency
was 91%.
Overall postoperative patency ranged from 57 to
100% with a median of 93% (follow-up ranged
from 12 to 36 months, median 17 months).
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
Summary: results for other outcomes
Improved sense of smell decreased rapidly after
6 months in the ethmoidectomy group
compared with nasalisation in one comparative
study. Overall improvement compared with
preoperative scores ranged from 13 to 91% with
a median of 31% (six studies).
● Improvement in nasal obstruction postoperatively
(compared with preoperative scores) ranged
from 29 to 100% with a median of 72% (six
studies).
● Overall postoperative patency from the studies
ranged from 57 to 100% with a median of 93%
(seven studies).
●
Complications
There are a number of potential complications
with FESS. The frequency of various complications
varies between FESS and some comparative
techniques. Nasal polyps by their nature tend to
develop close to the orbit and anterior cranial
fossa. Revision surgery for nasal polyps comes with
additional risks as important anatomical
landmarks may have been previously removed.
Randomised controlled studies
Total reported complications and major and
minor complications are summarised in Table 17.
Kurent and Zargi52 and Venkatachalam and Bhat51
did not report complications, and Penttilä and
colleagues44 reported that there were no major
complications in either the FESS or CL groups.
Non-randomised comparative studies
Total complications and major and minor
complications are summarised in Table 18. Harkness
and colleagues37 reported a complication rate of
0.8% for conventional procedures compared with
1.4% for FESS. Jankowski and colleagues41
reported no complications for the functional
45
Results
TABLE 18 Summary of rate of complications from non-randomised comparative studies
Author/date
Study group
No. of
Total
Major
Minor
patients (no. complications complications complications
with polyps)
(%)
(%)
(%)
Harkness et al., 199737
Conventional procedures
FESS
1459
1064
0.8
1.4
–
–
–
–
Jankowski et al., 199741
Functional ethmoidectomy
Radical nasalisation
37 (37)
39 (39)
–
7.7
–
–
–
–
Ünlü et al., 199445
ESS
CL
50 (14)
50 (8)
–
–
–
–
–
–
TABLE 19 Summary of complication rates from case series studies
Author/date
No. of patients
(no. with polyps)
1. Studies in which all patients had polyps
Klossek et al., 199755
50 (50)
46
Stoop et al., 1992
Weber et al., 199754
Wigand and Hosemann, 198922
72 (72)
325 (325)
220 (220)
Total
complications
(%)
–
–
6.0 (650 patients)
4.3 (600 patients)
Major
complications
(%)
0
–
–
0
Minor
complications
(%)
–
–
–
4.3 (600 patients)
2. Studies in which there were mixed patient groups with results reported separately for polyposis
230 (92)
1.7
–
–
Danielsen and Olofsson, 199639
Friedman et al., 200025
200 (68)
9.0
1.5
7.5
29
Jacobs, 1997
112 (51)
4.5
0
4.5
Jakobsen and Svendstrup, 200040
237 (146)
22.4
–
–
Jiang and Hsu, 200153
1112 (499),
9.9 (procedures)
–
–
1227 procedures
972 (?)
1.2
0.1
1.1
Katsantonis et al., 199423
30
Kennedy, 1992
120 (71)
0.8
0
–
Lawson, 199131
90 (53)
1.1 (1077 patients)
–
–
Levine, 199032
250 (131)
9.2
–
–
Lund and MacKay, 199438
650 (306)
0.3
–
–
Massegur et al., 199542
250 (203)
11.6
–
–
33
Moses et al., 1998
90 (50)
–
–
–
Nishioka et al., 199434
283 (48–51%
20.8
–
20.8
of sides)
393 (185)
1.0
–
–
Sobol et al., 199849
Venkatachalam and Bhat, 199950
210 (66)
15.2
1.0
14.3
43
Wolf et al., 1995
125 (53)
–
0
–
46
3. Studies in which there were mixed patient groups with results not reported separately for polyposis
200 (103)
13.5
0
13.5
Davis et al., 199127
Delank and Stoll, 199848
115 (89)
–
–
–
Friedman et al., 200028
500 (136)
2.8
0.2
2.6
Park et al., 199835
79 (58)
7.6
–
–
Schaefer, 199836
509 (139)
1.0
–
–
21
Stammberger and Posawetz, 1990
500 (246)
18.6
–
–
Wigand et al., 197847
315 (?)
–
–
–
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
ethmoidectomy group and 7.7% for the radical
nasalisation group. Neither study gave a
breakdown of the percentage of complications that
were classified as major or minor. Ünlü and
colleagues45 did not report complications.
Case series studies
Total complications and major and minor
complications from the included case series studies
are summarised in Table 19. All but four
studies33,46–48 reported complications. The total
percentage of complications ranged from 0.3 to
22.4%; however, there was much variability in the
severity of complications reported. The median
from the studies for total complications was 6%.
Some studies categorised complications as major
and minor, with 10 studies reporting major
complications22,23,25,27–30,43,50,55 which ranged from
0 to 1.5% with a median of zero, and eight studies
reporting minor complications22,23,25,27–29,34,50
which ranged from 1.1 to 20.8% with a median
of 6%.
Complications in patients with polyps
Few studies reported complications separately for
patients with polyps. Four studies enrolled only
patients with polyps. Klossek and colleagues55
reported that no major complications were
encountered. Weber and colleagues54 reported a
complication rate of 6%. Wigand and Hosemann22
reported 4.3% complications, which were all
minor. Stoop and colleagues46 failed to report
complications.
The study by Danielson and Olofsson39 enrolled a
mixed group of people with and without polyps
but reported complications separately for those
with polyps. They reported that 3.3% of people
with polyps experienced postoperative scarring.
Haemorrhagic complications
Haemorrhagic complications for included studies
are presented in Table 20. One randomised trial,51
one comparative study37 and eight case series
studies25,28,29,31,35,39,40,50 reported haemorrhage or
bleeding (primary or secondary). Venkatachalam
and Bhat51 reported 12% bleeding in the FESS
group compared with 8% in the conventional
procedures group. Harkness and colleagues37
reported 0.07% haemorrhage in the conventional
procedures group compared with 0.2% in the
FESS group. The range for bleeding from case
series studies was 0.2–21.1% with a median of
2.5%. Severe bleeding or bleeding requiring
packing or readmission was reported by three case
series studies21,32,54 and percentages were 1.2, 2.2
and 4.6%, respectively. Blood transfusion was
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
reported in five case series studies21,27,53–55 and
ranged from 0 to 3.7% with a median of 0.2%.
Harkness and colleagues37 report that the
percentage of eye ecchymoses/periorbital
bruising/periorbital ecchymoses was 0.1% in the
group undergoing conventional procedures
compared with 0.2% in the group undergoing
FESS. Four case series studies29,32,40,43 reported
eye ecchymoses/periorbital bruising/periorbital
ecchymoses and the percentages ranged from 0 to
1.2% with a median of 0.5%.
The randomised trial by Venkatachalam and
Bhat51 reported no orbital haematomas in the
FESS group and 8% in the conventional
procedures group. Four case series studies23,31,38,43
reported on orbital haematomas, which ranged
from 0 to 0.2% with a median of 0.2%.
Sphenopalatine haemorrhage was only reported in
the comparative study by Harkness and
colleagues37 and a rate of 0.09% was noted in the
FESS group (but not for conventional procedures).
Epistaxis was reported by five case series
studies23,36,42,53,55 and ranged from 0 to 2.4% with
a median of 0.6%.
Four case series studies25,28,36,42 reported preseptal
haemorrhage (into eyelid)/palpebral haematoma/
septal haematoma, which ranged from 0.2 to 2%
with a median of 1.5%.
Infection complications
The reports of infection from the included studies
are summarised in Table 21. Wound infection was
reported for 16% of FESS procedures and 28% of
conventional procedures in the randomised trial
by Venkatachalam and Bhat.51 Infection
complications were not reported in other
comparative studies. The study by Lund and
MacKay38 reported no cases of meningitis. Sobol
and colleagues49 reported 0.3% meningitis and
0.5% orbital cellulitis. Wigand and Hosemann22
reported complications based on a group of 600
people undergoing sinus surgery and reported a
rate of 0.5% for meningitis.
Intranasal complications
Intranasal complications for included studies are
presented in Table 22. Middle meatal
stenosis/closure/partial closure was reported by
three case series studies32,34,42 with rates of 6.8, 4.0
and 6.7%, respectively. Stammberger and
Posawetz21 were the only authors to report
maxillary sinus ostium stenosis at a rate of 1.6%.
47
Results
TABLE 20 Results from studies that reported haemorrhage complications
Author/date
No. of patients
Eye ecchymoses/
(no. with polyps) periorbital
bruising/
periorbital
ecchymoses
Orbital
Sphenopalatine Haemorrhage/ Epistaxis
bleeding
haematomas haemorrhage
(primary or
secondary)/
persistent
bleeding/
annoying
bleeding
Preseptal
Blood
haemorrhage/ transfusion
palpebral
haematoma/
septal
haematoma
Bleeding
requiring
packing/
severe
bleeding/
bleeding
requiring
readmission
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0
–
Randomised controlled trials
Venkatachalam and Bhat,
199851
FESS
25 (25)
Conventional procedures 25 (25)
–
–
0
8
–
–
Non-randomised comparative studies
Harkness et al., 199737
Conventional procedures 1459
FESS
1064
0.1
0.2
–
–
–
0.09
0.07
0.2
230 (92)
–
–
–
4.3
200 (103)
200 (68)
500 (136)
112 (51)
–
–
–
0.9
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
2.5
1.6
0.9
–
–
–
2.0
1.0
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
237 (146)
0
–
–
21.1
–
–
–
–
1112 (499),
1227 procedures
972 (?)
50 (50)
90 (53)
250 (131)
650 (306)
250 (203)
–
–
–
–
2.1
–
(procedures)
2.4
–
–
–
–
1.2
–
–
0.1
–
0.2
–
0.2
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0.2
0
–
–
–
0
–
–
–
–
–
2.4
–
–
–
2.0
–
–
–
1.2
–
–
–
–
Case series studies
Danielsen and Olofsson,
199639
Davis et al., 199127
Friedman et al., 2000
25
Friedman et al., 200028
Jacobs, 199729
Jakobsen and Svendstrup,
200040
Jiang and Hsu, 200153
Katsantonis et al., 199423
Klossek et al., 199755
Lawson, 199131
Levine, 199032
Lund and MacKay, 199438
Massegur et al., 1995
42
12
8
0.2
–
–
–
continued
48
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
TABLE 20 Results from studies that reported haemorrhage complications (cont’d)
Author/date
No. of patients
Eye ecchymoses/
(no. with polyps) periorbital
bruising/
periorbital
ecchymoses
Orbital
Sphenopalatine Haemorrhage/ Epistaxis
bleeding
haematomas haemorrhage
(primary or
secondary)/
persistent
bleeding/
annoying
bleeding
Preseptal
Blood
haemorrhage/ transfusion
palpebral
haematoma/
septal
haematoma
Bleeding
requiring
packing/
severe
bleeding/
bleeding
requiring
readmission
Park et al., 199835
79 (58)
509 (139)
–
–
–
–
–
–
2.5
–
–
0.6
–
0.2
–
–
–
–
500 (246)
–
–
–
–
–
–
0.2
2.2
210 (66)
–
–
–
5.7
–
–
–
–
325 (325)
125 (53)
–
0
–
0
–
–
–
–
–
–
3.7
4.6
–
–
–
–
Schaefer, 199836
Stammberger and
Posawetz, 199021
Venkatachalam and Bhat,
199950
Weber et al., 199754
Wolf et al., 1995
43
TABLE 21 Results from studies that reported infection complications
Author/date
No. of patients (no. with polyps)
Randomised controlled trials
Venkatachalam and Bhat, 199851
FESS
Conventional procedures
25 (25)
25 (25)
Case series studies
Lund and MacKay, 199438
Sobol et al., 199849
Wigand and Hosemann, 198922
650 (306)
393 (185)
220 (220)
Meningitis
–
–
0
0.3
0.5 (600 patients)
Wound infection
Orbital cellulitis
16
28
–
–
–
0.5
–
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
49
Results
TABLE 22 Results from studies that report intranasal complications
Author/date
Synechiae
formation
Middle
meatal
stenosis/
closure/partial
closure
Maxillary
sinus ostium
stenosis
Loss of
Obstruction
olfactory of lacriminal
sensation duct
Lamina
papyracea/
perforation
of lamina
papyracea
Crusting
Septal
Middle
perforation turbinate
lateralisation
Randomised controlled trials
Venkatachalam and Bhat,
199851
FESS
25 (25)
Conventional procedures
25 (25)
20
52
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
4
8
–
–
–
–
–
–
Non-randomised comparative studies
Harkness et al., 199737
Conventional procedures 1459
FESS
1064
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0.07
–
0.07
–
0.07
–
230 (92)
–
–
–
–
–
2.6
–
–
–
200 (103)
200 (68)
972 (?)
250 (131)
250 (203)
283 (48–51%
sides)
500 (246)
10
–
–
–
–
14.1
–
–
–
6.8
4.0
6.7
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0.4
–
–
–
–
3.0
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
8.0
–
1.6
–
–
1.8
–
–
–
210 (66)
8.6
–
–
–
–
1.0
–
–
–
220 (220)
–
–
–
3.0 (600
patients)
0.5 (600
patients)
–
–
–
–
Case series studies
Danielsen and Olofsson,
199639
Davis et al., 199127
Friedman et al., 200025
Katsantonis et al., 199423
Levine et al., 199032
Massegur et al., 199542
Nishioka et al., 199434
Stammberger and
Posawetz, 199021
Venkatachalam and Bhat,
199950
Wigand and Hosemann,
198922
50
No. of
patients (no.
with polyps)
–
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Middle turbinate lateralisation was reported in the
study by Harkness and colleagues37 and was found
in 0.07% of the conventional procedures group
(but not for FESS). Friedman and colleagues25
reported 3.0% middle turbinate lateralisation in
their case series study of frontal sinus surgery.
Obstruction of the lacrimal duct was reported in
0.5% of 600 patients in the study by Wigand and
Hosemann.22
Lamina papyracea/perforation of lamina
papyracea was reported in 4% of the FESS group
and 8% of the conventional procedures group in
the randomised trial by Venkatachalam and
Bhat.51 It was also reported by three case series
studies and rates were 2.6,39 1.821 and 1.0%.50
Septal perforation was recorded for 0.07% of
people in the conventional procedures group in
the study by Harkness and colleagues (but not for
FESS).
Loss of olfactory sensation was reported for 3.0%
of people undergoing sinus surgery in the study by
Wigand and Hosemann.22 Harkness and
colleagues37 reported that 0.07% of people in the
conventional procedures group experienced
postoperative crusting (but not for FESS), as did
0.4% in the case series study by Katsantonis and
colleagues.23
Venkatachalam and Bhat51 reported 20%
synechiae formation in the FESS group compared
with 52% in the conventional procedures group.
Synechiae formation was reported by four case
series studies21,27,34,50 and ranged from 8.0 to
14.1%, with a median of 9.3%.
Orbital/ocular complications
A range of orbital and ocular injuries were
reported in the studies and are summarised in
Table 23. Periorbital/orbital fat exposure was
reported by Harkness and colleagues37 and was
0.07% for the conventional procedures group
compared with 0.5% for the FESS group. A further
six case series studies25,27,29,40,43,53 reported fat
exposure and ranged from no patients to 3.6% of
procedures, with a median of 2.1%.
Orbital emphysema was reported in 0.09% of
people in the FESS group of the comparative
study by Harkness and colleagues (but not for
conventional procedures).37 Studies by Jakobsen
and Svendstrup40 and Wolf and colleagues43 each
reported no cases or orbital emphysema.
Periorbital ecchymosis and emphysema were
reported in no cases by Wolf and colleagues43 and
in 0.3% of procedures by Lawson.31
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
Diplopia or temporary diplopia was reported in
0.07% of the conventional procedures group (but
not for FESS) in the comparative study by
Harkness and colleagues.37 In five case series
studies27,28,35,42,53 diplopia ranged between 0 and
1.3% (median 0.3%). Nasolacriminal duct injury
was reported in two studies, occurring in 0.5% of
procedures by Jiang and Hsu53 and among 1.3%
of people by Park and colleagues.35 Stammberger
and Posawetz21 were the only authors to report
orbital penetration, which occurred in 1.8% of
those undergoing sinus surgery.
Weber and colleagues54 reported that lesion of the
periorbit occurred in 1.4% of 650 people
undergoing sinus surgery. Epiphora was reported
in three case series studies27,31,42 with rates of 0.5,
0.8 and 0.2% of procedures, respectively.
Katsantonis and colleagues23 were the only
authors to report periorbital oedema, which
occurred in 0.1% of people.
Pharyngeal/mouth complications
Few studies reported pharyngeal or mouth injuries
(Table 24). Hypesthesis of teeth, lip or cheek was
reported for 49% in the CL group compared with
3% in the FESS group by Penttilä and colleagues.44
Harkness and colleagues37 reported no cases of
numbness of teeth or lips in the conventional
procedures group compared with 0.2% in the
FESS group. The same study reported 0.09%
sphenopalatine adhesions and 0.09% palatal
ulceration in the FESS group (but not for
conventional procedures). Weber and colleagues54
reported that 0.3% of people who underwent
FESS experienced numbness of teeth or upperlip.
Intracranial complications
Cases of intracranial injury are summarised in
Table 25. Venkatachalam and Bhat51 in their
randomised trial reported no cases of CSF
rhinorrhea in either the FESS or conventional
procedures groups. Twelve case series
studies27,28,22,31,35,36,38,42,43,49,53,54 reported CFS
leak, which ranged from 0 to 2.3%, with a median
of 0.3%. Jiang and Hsu53 reported dural exposure
in 0.2% of procedures they performed. Weber and
colleagues54 reported that 0.3% of people
undergoing ESS experienced injury of the internal
carotid artery.
Systemic complications
Systemic complications were reported in four
studies23,30,35,42 and are summarised in Table 26.
No systemic complications were reported in the
comparative studies. Mild bronchospasm was
reported in the Katsantonis,23 Kennedy30 and
51
Results
TABLE 23 Results from studies that report orbital/ocular complications
Author/date
No. of
patients (no.
with polyps)
Periorbital/ Orbital
Periorbital
Diplopia/
Nasolacriminal Orbital
Lesion of
orbital fat emphysema ecchymosis temporary duct injury
penetration periorbit
exposure
and
diplopia
emphysema
Epiphora
Periorbital
oedema
0.07
0.5
–
0.09
–
–
0.07
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
200 (103)
200 (68)
500 (136)
112 (51)
3.0
1.5
–
2.7
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0
–
0
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0.5
–
–
–
–
–
–
237 (146)
0
0
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
3.6
–
(procedures)
–
–
–
–
–
0.3
0.5 (procedures) –
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0.1
–
–
0.8
1.3
–
1.3
–
–
–
–
0.2 (1077 –
procedures)
0.8
–
–
–
Non-randomised comparative studies
Harkness et al., 199737
Conventional procedures
1459
FESS
1064
Case series studies
Davis et al., 199127
Friedman et al., 200025
Friedman et al., 200028
Jacobs, 199729
Jakobsen and Svendstrup,
200040
Jiang and Hsu, 200153
Katsantonis et al., 199423
Lawson, 199131
1112 (499),
1227 procedures
972 (?)
90 (53)
–
Massegur et al., 199542
Park et al., 199835
Stammberger and Posawetz,
199021
Weber et al., 199754
250 (203)
79 (58)
–
–
–
–
–
0.3 (1077
procedures)
–
–
500 (246)
–
–
–
–
–
1.8
–
–
–
325 (325)
–
–
–
–
–
–
1.4 (650
patients)
–
–
Wolf et al., 199543
125 (53)
0
0
0
–
–
–
–
–
–
52
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
TABLE 24 Results from studies that report pharyngeal/mouth complications
Author/date
Randomised controlled trial
Penttilä et al., 199744
FESS
CL
Non-randomised comparative studies
Harkness et al., 199737
Conventional procedures
FESS
Case series studies
Weber et al., 199754
No. of patients
(no. with polyps)
75 (52)
75 (45)
1459
1064
325 (325)
Palatal ulceration
Sphenopalatine adhesions
Numbness of teeth or lips/cheek
–
–
–
–
3
49
–
0.09
–
0.09
0
0.2
–
–
0.3 (650 patients)
TABLE 25 Results from studies that report intracranial complications
Author/date
Randomised controlled trials
Venkatachalam and Bhat, 199851
FESS
Conventional procedures
Case series studies
Davis et al., 199127
Friedman et al., 200028
Jiang and Hsu, 200153
Lawson, 199131
Lund and MacKay, 199438
Massegur et al., 199542
Park et al., 199835
Schaefer, 199836
Sobol et al., 199849
Weber et al., 199754
Wigand and Hosemann, 198922
Wolf et al., 199543
No. of patients
(no. with polyps)
25 (25)
25 (25)
200 (103)
500 (136)
1112 (499), 1227 procedures
90 (53)
650 (306)
250 (203)
79 (58)
509 (139)
393 (185)
325 (325)
220 (220)
125 (53)
CSF leaks/CFS rhinorrhea
Dural exposure
Injury of internal carotid artery
0
0
–
–
–
–
0
0.2
0.2 (procedures)
0.3
0.2
0.4
1.3
0.2
0.3
2.3 (650 patients)
0.3 (600 patients)
0
–
–
0.2 (procedures)
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0.3 (650 patients)
–
–
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
53
Results
TABLE 26 Results from studies that report systemic complications
Author/date
Case series studies
Katsantonis et al., 199423
30
Kennedy, 1992
Massegur et al., 199542
Park et al., 199835
No. of patients (no. with polyps)
Mild bronchospasm/asthma attack
Cardiac arrest
Cardiac ischaemia
972 (?)
120 (71)
250 (203)
79 (58)
0.4
0.8
0.8
–
–
–
0.4
–
–
–
–
1.3
TABLE 27 Results from studies that report non-specific or other complications
Author/date
Postoperative
headache
Pain
Unremoved
nasal pack/
sponge
Repeat
surgery
required
Cheek
oedema
Atrophic
rhinitis
Unspecified
Anosmia
Soft tissue
infiltration
–
–
4
76
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Non-randomised comparative studies
Harkness et al., 199737
Conventional procedures 1459
FESS
1064
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0.07
–
–
–
0.07
–
0.07
–
–
–
Jankowski et al., 199741
Functional ethmoidectomy
Radical nasalisation
–
7.7
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0.7
(procedures)
0.08
(procedures)
–
–
0.08
–
(procedures)
–
–
–
–
0.2
2.0
–
–
–
1.8
Randomised controlled trial
Penttilä et al., 199744
FESS
CL
Case series studies
Jiang and Hsu, 200153
Stammberger and Posawetz,
199021
54
No. of
patients
(no. with
polyps)
75 (52)
75 (45)
37 (37)
39 (39)
1112 (499),
1227 procedures
500 (246)
–
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
25
Revision surgery (%)
20
15
FESS
Other
Linear (FESS)
10
5
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
Complications (%)
FIGURE 11 Relationship between rate of complications and revision surgery
Massegur42 studies and the rates were 0.4, 0.8 and
0.8%, respectively. Massegur and colleagues42
reported that 0.4% of people undergoing ESS
experienced cardiac arrest, although they did not
explain whether the arrest was caused by the ESS
procedure. Park and colleagues35 reported that
1.3% of people undergoing ESS experienced
cardiac ischaemia.
Non-specific or other complications
A variety of non-specific and other complications
are presented in Table 27. Jankowski and
colleagues41 report that 7.7% of people
undergoing radical nasalisation experienced
postoperative headache and that no cases were
reported in the functional ethmoidectomy group.
Cheek pain/tenderness was 76% for the CL group
and 4% for the FESS group in a study by Penttilä
and colleagues.44
Pain was reported for 0.7% of procedures in the
study by Jiang and Hsu.53 In the same study an
unremoved nasal pack or sponge was reported for
0.08% of procedures. An unremoved nasal pack or
sponge was also reported in 0.2% of people in a
study by Stammberger and Posawetz.21
Repeat surgery to complete the procedure was
required for 0.2% of people undergoing ESS in
the study by Stammberger and Posawetz. Harkness
and colleagues37 reported that 0.07% of the
conventional procedures group had cheek
oedema, 0.07% had unspecified complications and
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
0.07% had anosmia. Jiang and Hsu53 reported
atrophic rhinitis for 0.08% of procedures and
Stammberger and Posawetz21 soft tissue infiltration
for 1.8% of people.
We explored the relationship between
complication rates and rates of revision surgery as
it is often felt that revision surgery is more risky
owing to the removal of landmarks within the
sinuses (Figure 11). The trendline suggests a
relationship between increasing rates of
complications and revision surgery, although there
are few data points and the relationship may not
be statistically significant.
Summary: results for complications
● Comparative studies: reported more complications
for FESS than comparative techniques (one
study) and more complications for nasalisation
than ethmoidectomy (one study).
● Case series: total complications ranged from 0.3
to 22.4% with a median of 6% (23 studies).
● Haemorrhage was reported in 18 studies and
ranged from 0 to 21%, median 0.9%.
● Infection complications were reported in four
studies and ranged from 0 to 16%, median
0.5%.
● Intranasal complications were reported in 12
studies and ranged from 0.4 to 20%, median
3.5%.
● Orbital/ocular complications were reported in
11 studies and ranged from 0 to 3.6%, median
0.4%.
55
Results
TABLE 28 Number and type of studies identified for each subgroup of the assessment
No. of
No. of case
non-randomised series studies
comparative
identified
studies identified
Specific patient groups
Allergic fungal sinusitis
Allergy
Aspirin intolerance/ASA/Samter’s triad
Asthma
Children
Cystic fibrosis (CF)
Other patient groups
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
3
1
1
4
12
10
2
2
0
1
0
0
0
2
0
1
1
1
2a
1
0
5
2
3
5
14
12
4
Specific types of polyps
Antrochoanal polyps
Sphenochoanal polyps
0
0
10
1
1
6
4
0
15
7
Specific techniques/technology
Computer-aided surgery (CAS)
Frontal sinus surgery
Intra-operative imaging
Laser-assisted surgery
Microdebriders
Microscopic surgery
Other techniques/concurrent surgery
Revision surgery
Sphenoid surgery
Total
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
3
2
4
3
4
2
3
5
1
5
76
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
12
3
0
1
5
1
1
1
0
0
22
6
4
4
9
3
4
7
1
5
110
a
●
●
●
●
●
One publication was a review article.
Pharyngeal/mouth complications were reported
in three studies and ranged from 0 to 3% for
FESS.
Intracranial complications were reported in 10
studies and ranged from 0 to 2.3%, median
0.2%.
Systemic complications were reported in four
studies and ranged from 0.4 to 1.3%, median
0.8%.
Non-specific/other complications were reported
in five studies and ranged from 0.1 to 4%,
median 0.7% for FESS.
There was a relationship between increasing
rates of complications and revision surgery
(although not statistically tested).
Future research priorities
Studies excluded from systematic
review
56
No. of case Unknown/other Total no.
reports
study design of studies
identified
A total of 110 articles have been described that
were excluded from the systematic review on the
basis of study sample size (or number of patients
with polyps). In contrast to the included studies,
which examined FESS in general terms, these
studies focused on aspects of FESS or specific
patient groups, which in part, accounts for this
smaller size. These studies all focus on FESS for
nasal polyps and are categorised as a specific
subgroup of FESS for nasal polyps (a specific
patient group, type of polyp or technique/
technology; Table 28).
Description of studies
The citations and abstracts of these articles are
presented by subgroup and can be found in
Appendix 11. Eighteen subgroups, broken down
under the headings ‘specific patient groups’,
‘specific types of polyps’ and ‘specific
techniques/technologies’, are presented.
Specific patient groups
Allergic fungal sinusitis
We identified five primary research articles that
focused on AFS. Three of these were case series56–58
and two were case reports.59,60 Studies were
published between 1994 and 1999. The study
sample sizes ranged from 1 to 26. Kinsella and
colleagues56 reported follow-up for the majority of
patients at 6 months and Kupferberg and Bent57
reported mean follow-up of 14.5 months.
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Allergy
Two studies focused on FESS for removal of nasal
polyps associated with allergy, one was of unknown
study design61 and Nishioka and colleagues34
reported the results of their case series, which
included 72 patients with allergy undergoing
FESS.
Aspirin intolerance/ASA/Samter’s triad
A study by Hosemann62 of unknown design
reported on surgery for nasal polyps in patients
with aspirin intolerance or Samter’s triad, as did
one case report by Amar and colleagues63 and one
case series study by Dias and Biedlingmaier.64 The
studies were published in 2000, 2000 and 1997,
respectively. The case series study included 18
patients with Samter’s triad and 22 with chronic
rhinosinusitis who had undergone ESS.
Asthma
Five studies were identified that assessed FESS in
patients with asthma, four of which were case
series31,35,65,66 and one of unknown study design.67
Studies were published between 1991 and 1999.
The study sample sizes ranged from 43 to 90
patients. The studies by Dinis and Gomes65 and
Dunlop and colleagues66 each followed patients
for 1 year. Lawson31 followed patients for an
average of 3.5 years and the other studies did not
report length of follow-up.
Children
Twelve case series studies,43,68–78 a review article79
and a study of unknown design80 were identified
that focused on ESS for children. Publication dates
ranged from 1994 to 2000. The review by Hebert
and Bent79 has been assessed by the Centre for
Reviews and Dissemination (CRD) reviewers and
presents a review of the literature (nine studies
identified) for FESS in children up until 1996
and was published in 1998. The study by Jiang
and Hsu72 compares the results for 104 children
with those for 1008 adults undergoing FESS.
The number of patients included in the case series
studies ranged from 4 to 173. The children in the
studies had a range of the following conditions:
nasal polyps, allergy, antrochoanal polyps, cystic
fibrosis, acute rhinosinusitis, asthma, rhinosinusitis
and sphenochoanal polyps. The studies by Bolt
and colleagues,69 Triglia,77 Venkatachalam78 and
Stankiewicz76 reported mean follow-up periods of
2+ years, 3.7 years, 18.3 months and 3.5 years,
respectively. Manning and colleagues73 reported a
12-month follow-up. None of the other studies
reported the length of follow-up.
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
Cystic fibrosis
A total of 12 studies were identified of endoscopic
sinus surgery for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). A
study by Moss and King81 compared ESS in
conjunction with serial antimicrobial lavage (n =
32) with ESS alone (n = 19). Ten studies were case
series studies82–91 with sample sizes ranging from 15
to 248 patients. A further study was of unknown
study design.92 The studies were published between
1989 and 2001 and one study remains unpublished.
Four of the studies were conducted in children,
two in adults and two in a combination of adults
and children, with the other studies not stating the
age of the participants.
Other patient groups
A number of studies reported on a single unique
patient group. Jiang and Hsu53 report a series of
171 geriatric patients, Rossie and colleagues93 a
series of five patients with HIV, Ku and colleagues94
two cases of extranodal Rosai–Dorfman disease and
Emery and colleagues95 a case of Schizophyllum
commune sinusitis. The studies were published
between 1995 and 2001. No follow-up periods were
reported.
Specific types of polyps
Antrochoanal polyps
A total of 15 studies were identified that specifically
reported on ESS for antrochoanal polyps and their
study designs were as follows: 10 case series
studies,96–105 one case report106 and four studies of
unknown design.107–110 Studies were published
between 1990 and 2001.
The study sample sizes ranged from 1 to 33
patients. The period of follow-up was reported in
seven studies and ranged from a minimum of 8 to
almost 27 years.
Sphenochoanal polyps
Seven studies were identified that were primary
research of sphenochoanal polyps; six of these are
case reports111–116 and one is a case series study.117
The studies were published between 1995 and
2001. The six case reports each present results for
one or two patients. The case series study by Sethi
and colleagues117 presents results for six patients
who had sphenoethmoid recess polyps. No followup period was specified.
Specific techniques/technologies
Computer-aided surgery
Six studies reported on computer-assisted FESS
procedures. A study by Caversaccio and
colleagues118 compared a frameless optical
57
Results
computer-aided surgery (CAS) system for revision
endoscopic surgery (n = 25) with the results of a
group of patients who underwent ESS without
CAS (n = 10). Gibbons and colleagues119
presented a cost analysis of computer-aided FESS
compared with conventional FESS. Olsen and
Citardi120 presented the results of using CAS in
FESS for a series of 61 patients. The Nicolet
electronic navigation (NEN) system was used in 20
patients who underwent microendoscopic surgery
in a study by Sedlmaier and colleagues.121 The
remaining two studies are of unknown
design.122,123 Studies on CAS were published
between 1994 and 2001. The length of patient
follow-up was not reported.
Frontal sinus surgery
Four case series studies reported results for frontal
sinus surgery.25,124–126 The studies were published
between 1990 and 2001 and the number of
patients included in each study ranged from 15 to
200. Average length of follow-up was 12.2 months
in the study by Friedman and colleagues25 and was
not reported in the other studies. None of the
studies specifically state that the surgery was for
nasal polyps but rather that it was for frontal sinus
disease in general.
Intra-operative imaging
Four studies reported on ESS techniques involving
intra-operative imaging. The study by Cartellieri
compared ESS using an intraoperative CT
scanning procedure updating the threedimensional navigation system (n = 6) with
conventional ESS.127 Two case series studies
(n = 90128 and 12129) and one study of unknown
design were also identified.130 The studies were
published between 1992 and 2000. The
technology involved use of the ISG Viewing
Wand intraoperative three-dimensional
navigation device in the Freysinger study128 and
a vertically open intraoperative MRI system in
the Hsu study.129 No follow-up periods were
reported.
58
Laser-assisted surgery
A total of nine primary studies were identified that
reported the use of laser-assisted ESS. Four studies
were case series131–134 and five were of unknown
study design.135–139 The following types of lasers
were used: functional aqualaser [yttrium
aluminium garnet (YAG)],133,137 neodymium (Nd)
YAG laser,134,136 holmium (Ho) YAG laser131,138
and the KTP/532 laser.132,135 The studies were
published between 1989 and 1999. The sample
sizes in these studies ranged from 37 to over 2000.
The main patient groups included in these studies
were nasal polyposis and chronic rhinosinusitis.
Westhofen and colleagues134 followed patients for
more than 6 months and the other studies did not
report length of follow-up.
Microdebriders
A case series study by Ikui140 specifically reports
on the use of microdebriders in endoscopic sinus
surgery. In addition, a study by Hamels and
colleagues141 was also identified although it is of
unknown design. The studies were published in
1999 and 1997, respectively. The Ikui study
included five children and the study by Hamels
and colleagues did not report the number of
patients studied. Neither study reported length of
follow-up.
Microscopic surgery
Microscopic surgery was reported in four studies,
three of which were case series54,142,143 and the
other of unknown study design.144 The patients
included those with severe diffuse polyposis,
chronic polypoid rhinosinusitis and chronic
rhinosinusitis. The studies were published between
1990 and 2000. The studies by Ohnishi142 and
Weber and colleagues54 included 30 and 170
patients, respectively. The follow-up period in the
retrospective study by Weber and colleagues
ranged from 20 months to 10 years after the
initial surgery.
Other techniques/concurrent surgery
A number of studies reported on a single unique
technique or type of surgery performed
concurrent with ESS. Burgess and colleagues145
compared teleproctored ESS (n = 45) with
conventional surgical instruction to trainees
(n = 42). Fortune and Duncavage146 performed
partial middle turbinate resection as an adjunct to
ESS in 155 patients. Mendelsohn147 combined
rhinoseptoplasty with sinus surgery in a series of
74 patients. Vanclooster148 combined endoscopic
septal spur resection with ESS in 40 patients.
el Guindy149 evaluated an endoscopic trans-septal
approach of vidian neurectomy in 11 patients and
el Shazly150 performed endoscopic vidian
neurectomy in 12 patients. In addition, a study by
Gross was of unknown study design.151 The studies
were published between 1991 and 2002.
Revision surgery
One case series study was identified that focused
on revision endoscopic surgery. The study by
Wreesmann and colleagues152 was published in
2001 and included 82 patients with chronic
rhinosinusitis/polyposis. No follow-up period was
specified.
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
TABLE 29 List of future research questions generated by experts
Question
1. Extent of FESS
What are the long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of FESS versus simple polypectomy?
What are the long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of FESS versus conventional (non-endoscopic)
ethmoidectomy?
What are the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of extensive FESS (i.e. including anterior/posterior ethmoidectomy)
compared with conservative FESS (middle meatus/uncinectomy) for sinus disease (chronic rhinosinusitis and/or nasal
polyps)?
What are the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of combinations of surgical management (varying extensiveness) and
medical management (varying drugs, doses and length of treatment)?
What are the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of FESS compared with medical treatment alone in the management of
nasal polyposis?
2. Use of accessory technologies
What are the effectiveness (including safety) and cost-effectiveness of microdebriders in FESS for sinus disease compared
with conventional equipment?
What are the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the use of intra-operative computer/image-guided FESS for sinus
disease?
What are the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of medical treatment (antibiotic sprays, steroids, drops and cleaning)
following FESS?
What is optimal preoperative medical treatment before FESS is considered?
What are the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of aspirin desensitisation following FESS?
3. Specific patient groups
What are the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of FESS for people with sinus problems and AFS?
What are the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of FESS for people with sinus problems and cystic fibrosis?
What are the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of FESS for people with sinus problems and Samter’s triad?
What are the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of FESS for people with sinus problems and asthma?
What are the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of FESS for people with frontal sinus problems?
4. Aetiology
What is the role of fungal infections in the development and recurrence of nasal polyposis?
5. Imaging
What is the relationship between CT images and clinical outcomes?
What is the relationship between CT images and the surgical procedure performed?
What are the long-term effects of CT scan radiation in people with sinus disease?
Sphenoid surgery
Sphenoid surgery was reported in five primary
studies, all of which are case series.23,55,153–155 The
studies were published between 1990 and 1997
and sample sizes ranged from 12 to nearly 2000.
Sphenoethmoidectomies were performed in three
studies and sphenoidotomies in two. Mean followup was 26 months in the study by Gilain and
colleagues154 and follow-up was 2–3 years in the
Klossek study.55
Future research priorities
The group of expert ENT surgeons used the
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
summary of existing evidence combined with
clinical experience to generate future research
questions (Table 29). The following list of potential
research priorities for FESS has been developed
from the list of initial questions posed by selected
ENT surgeons.
Several methodological issues were uncontentious:
●
Outcomes should be measured after a sufficient
period from the intervention to be able to draw
conclusions on the risk of relapse and revision
following surgery.
59
Results
TABLE 30 Future research questions in order from highest vote assigned to lowest
Future research question
●
●
●
60
Total points
assigned
What are the long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of FESS versus simple polypectomy?
13
What are the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of FESS compared with medical treatment alone in the
management of nasal polyposis?
10
What is optimal preoperative medical treatment before FESS is considered?
7
What is the role of fungal infections in the development and recurrence of nasal polyposis?
7
What are the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of extensive FESS (i.e. including anterior/posterior
ethmoidectomy) compared with conservative FESS (middle meatus/uncinectomy) for sinus disease (chronic
rhinosinusitis and/or nasal polyps)?
6
What are the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of medical treatment (antibiotic sprays, steroids, drops and
cleaning) following FESS?
5
What are the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the use of intra-operative computer/image guided FESS
for sinus disease?
3
What are the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of FESS for people with sinus problems and asthma?
3
What are the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of combinations of surgical management (varying
extensiveness) and medical management (varying drugs, doses and length of treatment)?
2
What are the relationship between CT images and the surgical procedure performed?
2
What are the long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of FESS versus conventional (non-endoscopic)
ethmoidectomy?
1
What are the relationship between CT images and clinical outcomes?
1
What are the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of aspirin desensitisation following FESS?
1
What are the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of FESS for people with sinus problems and Samter's triad?
1
What are the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of FESS for people with frontal sinus problems?
0
What are the effectiveness (including safety) and cost-effectiveness of microdebriders in FESS for sinus
disease compared with conventional equipment?
0
What are the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of FESS for people with sinus problems and AFS?
0
What are the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of FESS for people with sinus problems and CF?
0
What are the long-term effects of CT scan radiation in people with sinus disease?
0
Cost-effectiveness should be addressed in future
research into FESS.
Patient groups should include people with sinus
disease but be powered to demonstrate
differences according to whether the
predominant picture is polyps or chronic
rhinosinusitis.
Outcomes should include, at least, symptomatic
improvement, complications and quality of life.
All nine ENT experts who agreed to participate
provided their future research priority votes
(although one expert only used six out of the
seven available votes). The results of the ranking
exercise and questions are presented in Table 30 in
order from highest vote assigned to lowest.
Research in progress
We identified five studies of FESS currently in
progress (Table 31). These studies will provide
valuable information and may fill some of the
gaps in the evidence base that this review has
identified.
The National Sino-Nasal Surgery Cohort Study
will provide useful local information in a large
number of patients. It will provide extensive
outcomes (such as extensiveness of surgery and
Sino-Nasal Outcome Test scores) that have not
been reported elsewhere.
The RCT by Ragab (see Table 31) will also provide
useful insight into the questions posed in the
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
TABLE 31 Summary of FESS research in progress
Study/question
Authors
Organisation
National Sino-Nasal Surgery
Cohort Study
Royal College 162 NHS Trusts
of Surgeons
in England and
Wales
Expected
completion date
Study design
Patients
Methodology
All patients over
15 years of age
listed for primary
sinus surgery or
surgery for simple
nasal polyposis
Extensive information on pre- and postoperative
care. The procedure and imaging one being
collected along with the following outcomes: length
of stay, adverse events, sino-nasal symptoms,
activities of daily living, health service utilisation,
medication use and patient satisfaction. Risk
adjustment of outcomes will be carried out to take
into account the influence of case mix. The main
case mix variable will be the preoperative SinoNasal Outcome Test score. Other important casemix variables will be (i) co-existing medical
conditions, (ii) disease staging scores and (iii) patient
sociodemographic variables.
Comparison of risk-adjusted outcomes will be made
(i) between Trusts and (ii) between individual
surgeons. Analyses will take account of the
‘hierarchy of care’ wherever possible.
Not stated
Those with
chronic
rhinosinusitis
undergoing ESS
Long-term follow-up (4 years)
June 2002.
Multi-centre
Preliminary results
prospective
presented to the
cohort study
British Association of
Otorhinolaryngologists
and Head and Neck
Surgeons
Long-term effect of ESS for
Prof. V Lund
chronic rhinosinusitis (does
ESS improve clinical/objective
parameters in the long term?)
Royal Free
Hampstead NHS
Trust
The role of FESS after
heart–lung transplant in CF
patients
Mr Peter
Clarke
Southampton
December 1999
General
Hospital (part of a
multi-centre study)
Not stated
CF patients who
had undergone
heart–lung
transplant
Not stated
Xomed sling-shot versus
conventional endoscopic
surgery for nasal polyps
Mr Grant
Bates
Radcliffe
January 1999
Infirmary, Oxford
Not stated
Patients with
nasal polyps
Not stated
University of
London
Prospective
randomised
comparative
trial
Patients with
chronic
rhinosinusitis and
nasal polyposis
Not stated
Evaluation of the medical and Dr S Ragab
surgical treatment of chronic
rhinosinusitis and nasal
polyposis and its effect upon
the lower airways
May 1999
MD thesis submitted
May 2002
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
61
Results
future research priorities section of this report (see
previous section), that of medical compared with
surgical intervention.
Summary: future research priorities
● A total of 110 articles that were excluded from
the systematic review have been categorised into
18 subgroups and described.
● Using the literature and their own experience, a
group of ENT experts generated a list of 19
future research questions.
● Experts assigned votes to these questions and
the highest votes were assigned to the following
research question: What are the long-term
effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of FESS
versus simple polypectomy?
● Five studies currently in progress were identified
and described. These studies will address some
of the questions posed.
professionals who chose to use the guideline
compared with those who chose not to use it on an
individual patient. This leads to a number of
potential biases as the two groups may have differed
in many ways other than the practice guideline
and these differences could impact on costs. It is
unclear whether the difference in cost was ‘caused’
by the guideline or by other factors. A number of
relevant costs were omitted, such as overhead
costs, cost of complications and complications
avoided and costs to the patients. The amount
charged to patients or third-party payers was used,
but this may not be an accurate reflection of the
actual costs incurred. Likewise, the cost obtained
from the hospital database is unlikely to be
reflective of exact costs owing to the problems
inherent with such costing systems. Incremental
analyses were not performed. No allowance for
uncertainty was made in the estimates.
Gibbons and colleagues reported that computerassisted FESS was 6.7% more expensive than
conventional FESS and that the difference was
statistically significant ( p = 0.01).
Economic evaluation of FESS
Existing economic studies
The search strategy identified no economic
evaluations that compare FESS with simple
polypectomy or any other conventional surgery.
The only two economic studies of FESS that were
identified are peripheral but are described below.
A study by Gibbons and colleagues119 compared
the cost of computer-aided FESS with
conventional FESS and a study by Stewart and
colleagues156 compared the cost of ESS with a
practice guideline to ESS without a practice
guideline.
Both studies are basic cost analyses in that they
provide the comparative costs of the alternative
groups. They were both conducted in the USA.
The results of the Stewart study are presented in
Table 32.
The Stewart study compared hospital costs and
charges for patients undergoing ESS. The study
did not link the costs of the guideline to patient
outcomes. The viewpoint of the study was the
hospital. The two groups were self-selected health
The cost analysis in the Gibbons study compared
the cost of staff time (based on operative time),
cost of the disposable headset, suction and
aspirator, cost of the CAS system, CT reformatting
and a hospital-shared resource fee for computerassisted FESS compared with conventional FESS.
The study did not consider the benefits or effects
of the procedure and did not link effectiveness
and costs. The viewpoint of the study was the
hospital. The two groups were historical groups
and the study is therefore subject to biases. It is
possible that there were differences other than the
equipment used during the two different study
periods and that these differences may also have
affected costs. Costs were incurred during
different time periods but were not adjusted for
differential timing. The costs of the procedure
were considered, but costs associated with
postoperative care, cost of complications and
inpatient stays were omitted. It is uncertain what
method was used to value the shared resource cost.
No allowance was made for uncertainty.
Table 32 Costs of endoscopic surgery with and without a practice guideline
Stewart et al., 1997
ESS with practice guideline
ESS without practice guideline
62
Median total costs (US$)
Median total charges (US$)
2479
2985
3174
3730
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Cost description
Direct costs associated with FESS
Equipment
Table 33 contains a list of costs associated with
various telescopes that may be used in endoscopic
surgery. Table 34 contains the list of a standard
ENT equipment set from Storz (Karl Storz
Endoscopy UK Ltd) that would be required to
perform FESS by many ENT surgeons. Table 35
contains the list of extra equipment that may be
required to perform FESS from Storz. Table 36
contains the cost of a microdebrider that may be
required to perform FESS from Storz. All costs
were current in May 2002.
In addition, the following standard ENT
equipment may be required but for which we were
unable to obtain costs: Grunwald turbinate forceps,
dressing scissors 12.5 cm, Tilley nasal dressing
forceps, Zoellner suction tube fenestrated with
stilette 178 mm, Yankauer suction tube, Portex
connection Code 633, 40 cm length of silicone
tubing 6 mm bore × 2 mm, Rowbotham suction
tube, receiver, blue Gallipots 60 ml, beaker 50 ml,
Backhaus towel clips, serrated clip, Code D bag.
In addition, a drum elevator may also be required,
for which we were unable to obtain a cost.
Additional shaver blades may also be required with
concave, oblique and or smooth cutting edges.
Each of these blades costs £383.
Further disposable equipment and consumables
may also be required although costs for these have
not been described.
TABLE 33 Cost of telescopes that may be used in FESS
Telescopes
Telescope 18 cm long, 4 mm, 0°
Telescope 18 cm long, 4 mm, 30°
Telescope 18 cm long, 4 mm, 45°
Telescope 18 cm long, 4 mm, 70°
Cost (£)
1733
1838
1796
1838
TABLE 34 Standard ENT equipment and costs
Equipment (each)
Sickle knife, sharp
Sickle knife, blunt
Freer elevator, sharp edge 19 cm
Halle antrum curette, size 2
J curette
Nasal scissors, right
Nasal scissors, left
Blakesley–Wilde forceps 0
Blakesley–Wilde forceps 1
Blakesley–Wilde forceps up 1
Right-angled ethmoid forceps
Antrum punch, right
Antrum punch, left
Paediatric forceps, straight
Paediatric forceps, up
Round endoscope handle
Eiken suction, straight
Eiken suction, curved
Giraffe forceps, 70°
Killian nasal speculae, 5 cm
Killian nasal speculae, 6 cm
Killian nasal speculae, 7.5 cm
Hill elevator
Thudichum nasal speculum, No. 6
Zoellner suction tube, plain with stilette,
178 mm
Total
Cost (£)
55
55
30
49
90
383
383
200
200
233
288
362
362
238
271
65
20
20
379
124
124
124
53
29
22
4159
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
TABLE 35 Extra FESS equipment and costs
Equipment (each)
Antrum curette
J curette
Frontal sinus curette
Frontal sinus curette
Probe, double-ended
Blakesley nasal forceps
Strupel forcep
Biopsy grasping forceps
Heuwieser antrum grasping forceps
Grunwald–Henkel nasal forceps
Blakesley nasal forceps
Stammberger antrum punch
Stammberger antrum punch
Stammberger antrum punch
Stammberger antrum punch
Stammberger antrum punch
Beyer antrum punch
Belucci scissors
Stortz suction tube
Backward handle instruments
Total
Cost (£)
49
90
49
49
46
360
338
284
300
332
329
466
466
427
427
470
404
265
95
362
5608
TABLE 36 Cost of microdebrider for FESS
Equipment
Cost (£)
Sinus shaver, complete with control unit,
foot switch and angled handpiece
5952
Shaver blade, autoclavable, with serrated
cutting edge, 4 mm, length 12 cm
383
Total
6335
63
Results
TABLE 37 Southampton General Hospital numbers for FESS and costs
HRG HRG description
Relevant
OPCS4
code
OPCS4 code description
Activity 2000–1
Day case
Elective
FCE
C02
Nose procedures Category 1
C12
Nose procedures Category 2
C22
Nose procedures Category 3
C32
Nose procedures Category 4
C42
Nose procedures Category 5
C32
Nose procedures Category 4
C42
C06
Nose procedures Category 5
Mouth, head neck/ear dx –
Cat 1 >70
Mouth, head neck/ear dx –
Cat 1 <70
C07
E085
Removal of foreign body from
cavity of nose
E082
Extirpation of lesion of internal
nose nec
E081
Nasal polypectomy
E084
Divis adhesions internal nose
E088
Other operation on internal
nose OS
E089
Close perforation of septum of
nose
No relevant –
OPCS codes
E083
Correction of congenital atresia
of choana
E142
Intranasal ethmoidectomy
E149
Operation on frontal sinus NOS
E148
Operation on frontal sinus OS
E146
J330
Trephine of frontal sinus
Polyp of nasal activity
J330
Polyp of nasal activity
Cost per FCE (£)
Emergency
Bed days FCE
Day case Elective
Emergency
Bed days
0
6
6
10
10
457
414
438
11
2
4
0
0
237
237
372
35
0
6
54
4
6
92
4
7
0
0
4
0
0
6
279
279
279
288
288
288
380
380
380
0
5
6
0
0
279
288
380
0
0
0
332
348
430
0
–
1
0
0
0
0
300
400
569
0
2
1
0
47
35
8
0
76
55
13
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
332
332
332
300
348
348
348
400
430
430
430
569
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
FCE, finished consultant episode.
TABLE 38 Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital costs of FESS
HRG HRG description
OPCS4 code
OPCS4 description
C22
C32
E088
E142
Other operation on internal nose OS
Intranasal ethmoidectomy
64
Nose procedures Category 3
Nose procedures Category 4
Elective cost (£)
National average (£)
598
808
781
968
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Depreciation of equipment
It must be taken into consideration that ENT
equipment including the microdebrider have a
limited life. Annual costs will therefore include an
depreciation rate for the equipment used.
Healthcare Resource Groups
HRGs are problematic when used to determine
the costs of a procedure. FESS does not have its
own Office of Population and Censuses (4th
Revision) (OPCS4) code, nor does it fit neatly
within HRGs. A number of different codes are
used for FESS depending on the extensiveness of
the surgery and the area of focus.
It is difficult to separate out procedures used with
an endoscope as these are usually coded using a
secondary code assigned by local units which in
some cases may only be recorded in patients’
notes. The figures presented in Table 37 are an
example of how many FESS procedures were
performed at the Southampton Trust 2000–1 and
will be an overestimate as they also include nonendoscopic procedures. The code J33 is used for a
primary diagnosis of nasal polyps but these may or
may not be managed surgically. The code J33
maps onto the HRGs C06 and C07 which were not
used at all in 2000–1 at Southampton General
Hospital. Table 38 provides costs from the Royal
Devon and Exeter Hospital for 2000–1 compared
with the national average taking the HRGs used
for FESS. Once again these codes will also include
other procedures and it is likely that different
hospitals will vary in how they code FESS.
It is not possible to calculate the overall costs to the
NHS as we are unable to obtain accurate figures
for the number of FESS procedures performed for
the excision of nasal polyps.
Operating time
The time taken to perform an FESS operation varies
according to the patients’ characteristics, extent of
disease, experience of the surgeon and how
meticulous surgeons are in polyp removal. Average
time for one UK surgeon is 46 minutes based on a
cohort of whom half had polyps [V Lund, Royal
National Throat, Nose and Ear Hospital (Royal Free
Hospital), London, personal communication, 2002].
Other costs associated with FESS
Extra staff
It is not expected that FESS will incur any
additional staffing costs.
Training
There may be extra costs associated with training
surgeons in the use of FESS. These costs will vary
depending on the amount and level of training
required and the sources used, for example,
internal training versus external courses.
Table 39 provides a summary of a selection of
available courses (and associated costs) available in
the UK that may assist in training for FESS. This
table does not list all available courses but
provides a general guide of costs involved in
training.
Potential savings associated with FESS
Percentage day case
FESS may be associated with a high percentage of
day-case procedures. Although exact figures are
not available to us, it seems that procedures in the
UK are either performed as day cases or with
short hospital admissions. This has the potential
for cost savings associated with a shorter hospital
stay and lower accommodation costs than for
comparative techniques.
TABLE 39 Summary of some available training courses for FESS
Course title
Organisation
Appropriate participants
Cost (£)
Endoscopic Sinus Anatomy
Workshop (1 day)
Royal College of Surgeons of
England
550
An Endoscopic Approach to
Rhinosinusitis (4 days)
Institute of Laryngology and
Otology
Advanced Endoscopic Surgery –
Practical course (5 days)
Functional Endoscopic Sinus
Surgery Course and KTP/532
Workshop (4 days)
Basic Endoscopic Nasal and Sinus
Surgery (2 day)
University of Dundee
Surgeons with minimum of
1 year ENT training,
HST years 2–4
Surgeons with minimum
1 year ENT training,
HST years 2–4
Not stated
Tyrone County Hospital,
Omaha, Northern Ireland
Not stated
University of Dundee
Otorhinolaryngology trainees
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
595 (330 without
anatomical dissection)
1400 plus
accommodation costs
FESS course 300
KTP/532 270
Total 570
450 plus
accommodation costs
65
Results
These figures are likely to vary between countries,
institutions and surgeons. For example, the study
by Danielsen and Olofsson39 in Norway reported
that 91% of procedures were performed on a daycare outpatient basis, whereas Harkness and
colleagues37 in a UK study reported that 18% of
all procedures were performed as day cases.
Less revisions/follow-up
Few data are available to indicate that patients
undergoing FESS require more or less follow-up/
revision surgery than patients undergoing
comparative techniques. Park and colleagues35
reported that hospitalisations and emergency visits
decreased significantly following FESS in
asthmatic patients ( p < 0.05). The only
comparative data for revision surgery did not
indicate that FESS was associated with less revision
surgery. We are unable to determine from the
present evidence the potential costs or cost savings
associated with follow-up and revision surgery.
Fewer complications
Evidence is not sufficient to conclude that FESS is
associated with fewer complications than
66
comparative techniques. If, however, it does
provide a clear view of the anatomical landmarks
and leads to fewer complications, then this would
represent a cost saving.
Summary: economic evaluation
●
●
●
●
●
Economic evaluations of a practice guideline for
FESS and computer-assisted FESS compared
with conventional FESS were identified and
discussed.
Costs of an endoscope range from £1733 to
£1838, costs of ‘typical’ ENT equipment may be
around £4160, specific equipment for FESS may
cost approximately £5600 and a microdebrider
may cost around £6300. Depreciation must also
be considered.
Using HRG codes the cost of FESS may
range between £237 (day case) and £968
(elective).
It is not expected that extra staff costs will be
incurred, but available training courses range in
price from £450 to £1400.
Potential savings may be realised if FESS results
in a greater percentage of day-case procedures,
less revision/follow-up or fewer complications.
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Chapter 5
Discussion and conclusion
Implications for other parties
The implications of this review are difficult to
determine owing to the poor quality of evidence
identified and the lack of economic analysis. Nasal
polyps, relative to other chronic conditions, do not
place a significant burden on carers. The impact
of polyposis, and its treatment, on employment
appears unknown.
Factors relevant to the NHS
The FESS procedure offers potential benefits to
the NHS. The endoscopes and standard ENT
equipment are already available in most, if not all,
ENT units across the country so there are limited
incremental costs associated with performing the
procedure. It offers a clearer view of the sinuses
during the procedure and so may also be
associated with shorter operating times, shorter
length of hospital stays and fewer complications
(although present results are variable). If realised,
the potential benefits of ESS could impact on the
health system as a whole and patients. However,
the current evidence base is, in the authors’
opinion, insufficiently robust to provide a clear
guide to policy.
The difficulty locating accurate cost data for FESS
is a result of the inconsistencies in hospital coding
of the procedure. It would be helpful if authorities
worked to clarify the coding of this procedure.
most institutions. The benefits of an enhanced
view of the sinuses during surgery is one of the
benefits claimed for FESS. From published
studies it appears that the majority of patients
do benefit from FESS with relatively few
complications. There has, however, been little
comparative evidence published on the
effectiveness and safety of FESS for nasal polyps.
It is striking that out of 33 studies including
11,147 patients, only 240 patients were enrolled
in RCTs.
Limitations of included studies
Evidence for the effectiveness of FESS in removing
nasal polyps comes from three RCTs, three nonrandomised comparative studies and 27 case series
studies. Comparative studies have compared FESS
with conventional procedures and CL and have
also compared radical nasalisation with functional
ethmoidectomy.
While acknowledging that RCTs are difficult to
perform, they are important as they are
associated with fewer threats to internal validity
when well conducted. They are potentially the
best tool for answering questions of effectiveness.
The three RCTs identified in this review
were, however, subject to a number of major
threats to validity, which are summarised as
follows:
●
●
●
FESS existed in practice without high-quality
comparative evidence of effectiveness. The
weaknesses of the evidence base are such that
policy makers, we believe, are not currently in a
position to develop evidence-based policy on the
further diffusion of FESS or guidelines on its place
in the management of chronic rhinosinusitis or
polyposis. If such decisions are to be made, they
will be based on factors other than clinical and
cost-effectiveness evidence.
Discussion
The endoscope has been used for over 20 years
in sinus surgery and is standard equipment in
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
●
●
●
●
inadequate randomisation processes
lack of blinding
possible incomparability of groups at baseline
variations in the intervention given to patients
loss to follow-up
potentially inadequate sample sizes
outcome measurement that was not objective or
independently measured.
The RCTs were of limited generalisability to the
UK setting. For these reasons, the review also
considered non-randomised controlled studies and
case series studies. The three additional controlled
studies were larger and one was conducted in the
UK. There were still, however, major threats to
validity, as follows:
●
●
non-random allocation to groups
lack of blinding
67
Discussion and conclusion
●
●
●
●
●
possible incomparability of groups at baseline
variations in the intervention given to patients
significant loss to follow-up and no ITT analysis
outcome measurement that was not objective or
independently measured
inter-centre variability not assessed.
The generalisability of some of these studies was
also low owing to poorly defined patient groups
and the use of comparators that do not represent
current practice. Case series provide a vast amount
of data in a wide range of patient groups, using a
range of variations of the procedure. They provide
some insight into the efficacy of FESS, based on
the assumption that improvement in the absence
of surgery is unlikely. However, they do not assist
surgeons or patients in deciding which surgical
alternative is likely to be most effective. In
addition to the intrinsic methodological problem
of absence of controls, the case series reported in
this review had the following threats to validity:
●
●
●
●
●
many were retrospective
many did not enroll consecutive patients
there was variation in the interventions given to
patients
many had significant loss to follow-up
many did not independently assess outcomes.
In addition, many of the case series had poor
external validity with poorly defined patient
groups, lack of inclusion and exclusion criteria
and little or no description of the intervention.
All included studies lacked long-term follow-up
data and detailed descriptions of postoperative
medical therapy. There are also problems
associated with the outcome measures reported by
the included studies. Studies varied in how they
defined and assessed outcomes, whether outcome
measurement was objective and independent and
in timing of follow-up. No relevant health
economic studies were identified, which constrains
the ability of health policy makers in considering
the place of FESS relative to other demands on
the limited NHS resources.
Results of systematic review
68
The RCTs and controlled trials reported overall
symptomatic improvement (reported in five
studies) that ranged from 78 to 88% for FESS
compared with 43–84% for comparative
techniques. Disease recurrence was 8% for FESS
compared with 14% for CL, and polyp recurrence
was 28% for endoscopic ethmoidectomy compared
with 35% for polypectomy. Revision surgery
(reported in only one study) was the same for
FESS and CL. The percentage of overall
complications (reported in only one study) was
1.4% for FESS compared with 0.8% for
conventional procedures.
The case series studies reported overall
symptomatic improvement for patients with nasal
polyps that ranged from 37 to 99% (median 89%).
For the mixed patient groups (with and without
polypoid disease) overall symptomatic
improvement ranged from 40 to 98% (median
88%). Total complications in the case series studies
ranged from 22.4 to 0.3% (median 6%).
Improved sense of smell decreased rapidly after 6
months in the ethmoidectomy group compared
with nasalisation in one comparative study. Overall
improvement compared with preoperative scores
ranged from 13 to 91% with a median of 31% (six
studies). Improvement in nasal obstruction
postoperatively (compared with preoperative
scores) ranged from 29 to 100% with a median of
72% (six studies). Overall postoperative patency
ranged from 57 to 100% with a median of 93%
(seven studies).
Assumptions, limitations and
uncertainties of this review
The scope of this assessment was limited to one
possible treatment for nasal polyps (FESS), and
only one possible application of ESS (nasal
polyps). There are a number of important
treatment options for a person with nasal polyps
which include medical management and different
surgical techniques. Although we have identified
concurrent medical management that was
reported in the included studies, this is not a full
description, and issues surrounding the
interactions between medical and surgical
management have not been dealt with in this
assessment. Likewise, FESS is used across a
spectrum of sinus disease, in which polyposis is
only one manifestation. The generalisability of this
assessment is therefore limited to FESS for nasal
polyps.
This review only included English studies and so
may not be representative of the entire literature
available. However, we have included a number of
studies conducted in non-English-speaking
countries. It is possible that some case series may
have been missed using the search strategy we
have outlined as it is difficult to identify all of
these studies. However, given the limited ability of
this study design to answer the question, we do
not believe that any omissions would have a
significant effect on our conclusions.
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Appraisal of case series studies is difficult owing to
the lack of information as to which characteristics
are most important. The relative importance of
study characteristics such as prospective design,
consecutive selection and sample size is unknown
so we were unable to make overall comments
about the relative quality of the case series studies
and to indicate which of the wide range of possible
effects shown might be most valid within the
constraints of the case series design.
We have not attempted an economic analysis
owing to the lack of comparative effectiveness data
to enable such an analysis to be performed.
Need for further research
There is a pressing need for high-quality, local,
long-term comparative evidence in the area of
FESS. Our review has highlighted a number of
uncertainties and has ranked future research
questions.
It should be noted that our attempts to prioritise
future research questions are the opinions of a
small number of ENT surgeons within the UK.
One of the future research priorities listed by
surgeons was a comparison of medical and surgical
interventions for nasal polyps. We identified one
existing study by Blomqvist and colleagues157 that
addresses this question, although it was outside
the scope of the assessment. Some of the future
research questions raised are outside of the scope
of this review and therefore relevant literature may
already exist.
We have identified important unanswered
questions regarding the effectiveness of FESS for
nasal polyps. Studies currently under way will
answer some of these questions, but there remains
a need for comparative evidence (particularly
RCTs) in the area of FESS for nasal polyps in
order to inform current practice and policy.
Conclusions
Although a large amount of data is available on
FESS, only a tiny proportion has come from
randomised or otherwise controlled studies. The
results of the studies examined suggest that FESS
does improve overall and specific symptoms,
although the comparative effectiveness of FESS
over available alternatives remains unclear. There
is therefore some poor-quality evidence for the
efficacy of FESS but no robust evidence base on
which to judge clinical effectiveness.
This review has focused only on surgery for the
excision of nasal polyps. However, it is clear that
this represents part of a spectrum of sinus disease
for which many surgeons consider FESS
appropriate. Future research should therefore
consider the place of FESS in polyp and nonpolypoid sinus disease and address the key
question of cost-effectiveness.
69
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Acknowledgements
e acknowledge Mr Adrian Drake-Lee,
Mr Tristam Lesser, Mr Gerald McGarry,
Mr Andrew Swift and Mr Ray Rivron (in addition
to the expert advisory group) for their
involvement in setting future research priorities.
W
Contributions of authors
Kim Dalziel drafted the protocol and contributed
to all sections of the report and drafted the final
manuscript. Ken Stein was involved in conception
and protocol, supervised the overall process,
assessed studies for inclusion/exclusion and edited
the manuscript. Ali Round commented on the
protocol and edited the final draft. Ruth Garside
carried out data extraction. Pam Royle carried out
all searches and applied inclusion criteria and
commented on the draft report.
Expert advisory group
Mr Robert Slack, Consultant in ENT, Royal United
Hospital, Bath
Professor Valerie Lund, Professor of ENT Surgery,
Royal National Throat, Nose and Ear Hospital
(Royal Free Hospital), London
Dr John Browne, Royal College of Surgeons
Mr Ian MacKay, Consultant in ENT, Charing
Cross, Westminster and Royal Brompton
Hospitals, London
Mr Dick Garth, Consultant in ENT, Royal Devon
and Exeter Hospital.
71
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
References
16.
Winstead W, Barnett SN. Impact of endoscopic
sinus surgery on global health perception: an
outcomes study. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
1998;119:486–91.
17.
Department of Health (England). Hospital
inpatient data – based on hospital episode
statistics 2000–2001. URL: http://www.doh.gov.uk
(accessed 12 March 2002).
18.
Department of Health. Compendium of clinical
and health indicators 2000. London: Office for
National Statistics; 2001.
19.
Groves K, editor. Scott-Brown’s otolaryngology. 5th
ed. London: Butterworth Heinemann; 1988.
Fageeh NA, Pelsusa EO, Quarrington A.
Functional endoscopic sinus surgery: University of
Ottawa experience and an overview. Ann Saudi Med
1996;166(Br95–180).
20.
Greisner WA, Settipane GA. Hereditary factor for
nasal polyps. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1995;95:205.
Slack R, Bates G. Functional endoscopic sinus
surgery. Am Fam Phys 1998;58:707–18.
21.
Stammberger H, Posawetz W. Functional
endoscopic sinus surgery. Concept, indications and
results of the Messerklinger technique. Eur Arch
Otorhinolaryngol 1990;247:63–76.
22.
Wigand ME, Hosemann W. Microsurgical treatment
of recurrent nasal polyposis. Rhinol Suppl 1989;
825–9.
23.
Katsantonis GP, Friedman WH, Bruns M.
Intranasal sphenoethmoidectomy: an evolution of
technique. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1994;
111:781–6.
1.
Kumar P, Clark M. Clinical medicine. London:
W.B. Saunders; 2001.
2.
Bernstein JM. Nasal polyps: finding the cause,
determining treatment. J Respir Dis 1997;18:9–856.
3.
McClay JE. Nasal polyps. eMed J 2001;2(12).
www.emedecine.com/ped/topic1550.htm
4.
Settipane GA, Lund VJ, Bernstein JM, Tos M. Nasal
polpys: epidemiology, pathogenesis and treatment.
Rhode Island: Oceanside Publications, 1997.
5.
6.
7.
The Royal College of Surgeons of England.
National comparative audit of surgery for nasal
polyposis and rhinosinusitis in England and Wales
[protocol]. London: The Royal College of
Surgeons of England; 2002.
8.
Drake-Lee A. Nasal polyps. In Mygin N, Naclerio
RM, editors. Allergic and non-allergic rhinitis.
Copenhagen: Munksgaard; 1993.
9.
Radenne F, Lamblin C, Vandezande LM, TillieLeblond I, Darras J, Tonnel AB, et al. Quality of
life in nasal polyposis. J Allergy Clin Immunol
1999;104:79–84.
10.
Cunningham JM, Chiu EJ, Landgraf JM, Gliklich
RE. The health impact of chronic recurrent
rhinosinusitis in children. Arch Otolaryngol Head
Neck Surg 2000;126:1363–8.
24.
11.
Damm M, Quante G, Jungehuelsing M, Stennert
E. Impact of functional endoscopic sinus surgery
on symptoms and quality of life in chronic
rhinosinusitis. Laryngoscope 2002;112:310–5.
Lund VJ, Kennedy DW. Staging for rhinosinusitis.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1997;117(3 Pt 2):S35–40.
25.
Folker RJ, Marple BF, Mabry RL, Mabry CS.
Treatment of allergic fungal sinusitis: a
comparison trial of postoperative immunotherapy
with specific fungal antigens. Laryngoscope
1998;108(11 Pt 1):1623–7.
Friedman M, Landsberg R, Schults RA, Tanyeri H,
Caldarelli DD. Frontal sinus surgery: endoscopic
technique and preliminary results. Am J Rhinol
2000;14:393–403.
26.
Gardener SB, Winter PD, Gardener MJ.
Confidence interval analysis (CIA). [1.0]. London:
British Medical Journal; 1989.
27.
Davis WE, Templer JW, Lamear WR, Davis WE,
Craig SB. Middle meatus anstrostomy: patency
rates and risk factors. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
1991;104:467–72.
28.
Friedman M, Landsberg R, Tanyeri H. Middle
turbinate medialization and preservation in
endoscopic sinus surgery. Otolaryngol Head Neck
Surg 2000;123(1 Pt 1):76–80.
29.
Jacobs JB. 100 years of frontal sinus surgery.
Laryngoscope 1997;107(11 Pt 2):1–36.
12.
13.
Metson R, Gliklich RE. Clinical outcome of
endoscopic surgery for frontal sinusitis. Arch
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1998;124:1090–6.
14.
Jones ML, Piccirillo JF, Haiduk A, Thawley SE.
Functional endoscopic sinus surgery: do ratings of
appropriateness predict patient outcomes? Am J
Rhinol 1998;12:249–55.
15.
Rosenfeld RM. Pilot study of outcomes in pediatric
rhinosinusitis. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
1995;121:729–36.
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
73
References
30.
Kennedy DW. Prognostic factors, outcomes and
staging in ethmoid sinus surgery. Laryngoscope
1992;102(12 Pt 2 Suppl 57):1–18.
31.
Lawson W. The intranasal ethmoidectomy – an
experience with 1,077 procedures. Laryngoscope
1991;101:367–71.
32.
Levine HL. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery:
evaluation, surgery, and follow-up of 250 patients.
Laryngoscope 1990;100:79–84.
33.
Moses RL, Cornetta A, Atkins JPJ, Roth M, Rosen
MR, Keane WM. Revision endoscopic sinus surgery:
the Thomas Jefferson University experience. Ear
Nose Throat J 1998;77:190,193–202.
34.
Nishioka GJ, Cook PR, Davis WE, McKinsey JP.
Immunotherapy in patients undergoing functional
endoscopic sinus surgery. Otolaryngol Head Neck
Surg 1994;110:406–12.
46.
Stoop AE, van der Heijden HA, Biewenga J, van
der Baan S. Clinical aspects and distribution of
immunologically active cells in the nasal mucosa of
patients with nasal polyps after endoscopic sinus
surgery and treatment with topical corticosteroids.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 1992;249:313–7.
47.
Wigand ME, Steiner W, Jaumann MP. Endonasal
sinus surgery with endoscopical control: from
radical operation to rehabilitation of the mucosa.
Endoscopy 1978;10:255–60.
48.
Delank KW, Stoll W. Olfactory function after
functional endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic
sinusitis. Rhinology 1998;36:15–19.
49.
Sobol SE, Wright ED, Frenkiel S. One-year
outcome analysis of functional endoscopic sinus
surgery for chronic sinusitis. J Otolaryngol
1998;27:252–7.
50.
Venkatachalam VP, Bhat A. Functional endoscopic
sinus surgery – a newer surgical concept in the
management of chronic sinusitis. Indian J
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1999;52:13–16.
35.
Park AH, Lau J, Stankiewicz J, Chow J . The role
of functional endoscopic sinus surgery in asthmatic
patients. J Otolaryngol 1998;27:275–80.
36.
Schaefer SD. An anatomic approach to endoscopic
intranasal ethmoidectomy. Laryngoscope 1998;
108(11 Pt 1):1628–34.
37.
Harkness P, Brown P, Fowler S, Topham J. A
national audit of sinus surgery. Results of the Royal
College of Surgeons of England comparative audit
of ENT surgery. Clin Otolaryngol 1997;22:147–51.
51.
Venkatachalam VP, Bhat A. Comparative
evaluation of endoscopic and conventional surgical
techniques in the management of nasal polyposis.
JK Pract 1998;5:295–9.
38.
Lund VJ, MacKay IS. Outcome assessment of
endoscopic sinus surgery. J R Soc Med 1994;
87:70–2.
52.
39.
Danielsen A, Olofsson J. Endoscopic endonasal
sinus surgery. A long-term follow-up study. Acta
Otolaryngol 1996;116(4):611–19.
Kurent Z, Zargi M. Endoscopic polypectomy vs.
endoscopic ethmoidectomy in combined treatment
of massive bilateral nasal polyposis. In ERS &
ISIAN Meeting ’98. 1998. pp. 187–90.
53.
Jakobsen J, Svendstrup F. Functional endoscopic
sinus surgery in chronic sinusitis – a series of 237
consecutively operated patients. Acta Otolaryngol
Suppl 2000;543:158–61.
Jiang RS, Hsu CY. Endoscopic sinus surgery for
the treatment of chronic sinusitis in geriatric
patients. Ear Nose Throat J 2001;80:230–2.
54.
Jankowski R, Pigret D, Decroocq F. Comparison of
functional results after ethmoidectomy and
nasalization for diffuse and severe nasal polyposis.
Acta Otolaryngol 1997;117:601–8.
Weber R, Draf W, Keerl R, Schick B, Saha A.
Endonasal microendoscopic pansinusoperation in
chronic sinusitis. II. Results and complications.
Am J Otolaryngol 1997;18:247–53.
55.
Klossek JM, Peloquin L, Friedman WH, Ferrier JC,
Fontanel JP. Diffuse nasal polyposis: postoperative
long-term results after endoscopic sinus surgery
and frontal irrigation. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
1997;117:355–61.
56.
Kinsella JB, Bradfield JJ, Gourley WK, Calhoun
KH, Rassekh CH. Allergic fungal sinusitis. Clin
Otolaryngol 1996;21:389–92.
57.
Kupferberg SB, Bent JP. Allergic fungal sinusitis in
the pediatric population. Arch Otolaryngol Head
Neck Surg 1996;122:1381–4.
58.
Kupferberg SB, Bent JP, Kuhn FA. Prognosis for
allergic fungal sinusitis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
1997;117:35–41.
59.
Fryen A, Mayser P, Glanz H, Fussle R, Breithaupt
H, de Hoog GS. Allergic fungal sinusitis caused by
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
74
patients with sinusitis after endoscopic sinus surgery
and Caldwell–Luc operation: a comparative study.
J Otolaryngol 1994;23:197–203.
45.
Massegur H, Adema JM, Lluansi J, Fabra JM,
Montserrat JM. Endoscopic sinus surgery in
sinusitis. Rhinology 1995;33:89–92.
Wolf G, Greistorfer K, Jebeles JA. The endoscopic
endonasal surgical technique in the treatment of
chronic recurring sinusitis in children. Rhinology
1995;33:97–103.
Penttilä M, Rautiainen M, Pukander J, Kataja M.
Functional vs. radical maxillary surgery. Failures
after functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Acta
Otolaryngol Suppl 1997;(529):173–6.
Ünlü HH, Caylan R, Nalca Y, Akyar S. An
endoscopic and tomographic evaluation of
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Bipolaris (Drechslera) hawaiiensis. Euro Arch
Otolaryngol 1999;256:330–4.
European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological
Societies Eufos. 2nd Vol. 1996. pp. 107–10.
60.
Roth M. Should oral steroids be the primary
treatment for allergic fungal sinusitis? Ear Nose
Throat J 1994;73(12):928–30.
76.
Stankiewicz JA. Pediatric endoscopic nasal and
sinus surgery. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
1995;113:204–10.
61.
Endoscopic sinus surgery: sinonasal polyposis and
allergy. Ear Nose Throat J 1993;72:544, 547–50,
553-4.
77.
Triglia JM. Nasal polyposis in children. Pediatr
Pulmonol Suppl 1997;16:288.
78.
62.
Hosemann W. Surgical treatment of nasal
polyposis in patients with aspirin intolerance.
Thorax 2000;55:S87–90.
Venkatachalam VP. Functional endoscopic sinus
surgery in children. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck
Surg 1999;51:28–31.
79.
Hebert RL, Bent JP. Meta-analysis of outcomes of
pediatric functional endoscopic sinus surgery.
Laryngoscope 1998;108:796–9.
80.
Lund VJ. Bacterial sinusitis – etiology and surgical
management. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1994;13:S58–63.
81.
Moss RB, King VV. Management of sinusitis in
cystic fibrosis by endoscopic surgery and serial
antimicrobial lavage. Reduction in recurrence
requiring surgery. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
1995;121:566–72.
82.
Albritton FD, Kingdom TT. Endoscopic sinus
surgery in patients with cystic fibrosis: an analysis
of complications. Am J Rhinol 2000;14:379–85.
83.
Brihaye P, Jorissen M, Clement PA. Chronic
rhinosinusitis in cystic fibrosis (mucoviscidosis).
Acta Otorhinolaryngol Belg 1997;51:323–37.
63.
Amar YG, Frenkiel S, Sobol SE. Outcome analysis
of endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic sinusitis in
patients having Samter’s triad. J Otolaryngol
2000;29:7–12.
64.
Dias MA, Biedlingmaier JF. Ketorlac-induced
status asthmaticus after endoscopic sinus surgery
in a patient with Samter’s triad. Otolaryngol Head
Neck Surg 1997;117:S176–8.
65.
Dinis PB, Gomes A. Sinusitis and asthma: how do
they interrelate in sinus surgery? Am J Rhinol
1997;11:421–8.
66.
Dunlop G, Scadding GK, Lund VJ. The effect of
endoscopic sinus surgery on asthma: management
of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal
polyposis, and asthma. Am J Rhinol 1999;13:261–5.
67.
Lund VJ. The effect of sinonasal surgery on
asthma. Allergy 1999;54:141–5.
84.
Cuyler JP, Monaghan AJ. Cystic fibrosis and
sinusitis. J Otolaryngol 1989;18:173–5.
68.
Al Ammar AY, Tewfik TL, Mazer BD, Manoukian
JJ. Nasal polyps in children. Can J Allerg Clin Imm
2000;5:123–8.
85.
69.
Bolt RJ, de Vries N, Middelweerd RJ. Endoscopic
sinus surgery for nasal polyps in children: results.
Rhinology 1995;33:148–51.
Duplechain JK, White JA, Miller RH. Pediatric
sinusitis. The role of endoscopic sinus surgery in
cystic fibrosis and other forms of sinonasal disease.
Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1991;117:422–6.
86.
Dutt SN, Haider AA, Stewart M, Chen J, Morrissey
SMC. Outcome analysis of functional endoscopic
sinonasal surgery for paediatric rhinosinusitis using
the Lund–Mackay–Kennedy scoring system. Indian
J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1999;51(3):16–20.
Halvorson DJ, Dupree JR, Porubsky ES.
Management of chronic sinusitis in the adult cystic
fibrosis patient. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol
1998;107(11 Pt 1):946–52.
87.
71.
Gordts F, Clement PA. Unusual choanal polyps.
Acta Otorhinolaryngol Belg 1997;51:177–80.
Jones JW, Parsons DS, Cuyler JP. The results of
functional endoscopic sinus (FES) surgery on the
symptoms of patients with cystic fibrosis. Int J
Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 1993;28:25–32.
88.
72.
Jiang RS, Hsu CY. Functional endoscopic sinus
surgery in children and adults. Ann Otol Rhinol
Laryngol 2000;109(12 Pt 1):1113–16.
Kerrebijn JD, Poublon RM, Overbeek SE. Nasal
and paranasal disease in adult cystic fibrosis
patients. Eur Respir J 1992;5:1239–42.
89.
Manning SC, Wasserman Rl, Silver R, Phillips Dl.
Results of endoscopic sinus surgery in pediatric
patients with chronic sinusitis and asthma. Arch
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1994;120:1142–5.
Madonna D, Isaacson G, Rosenfeld RM, Panitch
H. Effect of sinus surgery on pulmonary function
in patients with cystic fibrosis. Laryngoscope
1997;107:328–31.
90.
Rosbe KW, Jones DT, Rahbar R, Lahiri T,
Auerbach AD. Endoscopic sinus surgery in cystic
fibrosis: do patients benefit from surgery? Int J
Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2001;61:113–19.
91.
Rowe-Jones JM, Mackay IS. Endoscopic sinus
surgery in the treatment of cystic fibrosis with nasal
polyposis. Laryngoscope 1996;106(12 Pt 1):1540–4.
70.
73.
74.
Risavi R, Klapan I, Handzic-Cuk J, Barcan T. Our
experience with FESS in children. Int J Pediatr
Otorhinolaryngol 1998;43:271–5.
75.
Slapak I. Indications for endonasal surgery in
children. In 3rd European Congress of the
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
75
References
92.
Clarke P. The role of functional endoscopic sinus
surgery (FESS) after heart lung transplant in cystic
fibrosis patients. Southampton: Southampton
General Hospital; 1999.
93.
Rossi RM, Wanke C, Federman M. Microsporidian
sinusitis in patients with the acquired
immunodeficiency syndrome. Laryngoscope
1996;106(8):966–71.
94.
Ku PKM, Tong MCF, Leung CY, Pak MW, van
Hasselt CA. Nasal manifestation of extranodal
Rosai–Dorfman disease – diagnosis and
management. J Laryngol Otol 1999;113:275–80.
95.
Emery BE, Oberle AD, Abreo F, Day TA, Stucker
FJ. Schizophyllum commune sinusitis – a casereport and radiologic findings. Am J Rhinol
1995;9:149–54.
96.
Aktas D, Yetiser S, Gerek M, Kurnaz A, Can C,
Kahramanyol M. Antrochoanal polyps: analysis of
16 cases. Rhinology 1998;36:81–5.
97.
Basak S, Karaman CZ, Akdilli A, Metin KK.
Surgical approaches to antrochoanal polyps in
children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 1998;
46:197–205.
98.
99.
Cook PR, Davis WE, McDonald R, McKinsey JP.
Antrochoanal polyposis: a review of 33 cases. Ear
Nose Throat J 1993;72:401–10.
el Guindy A, Mansour MH. The role of transcanine
surgery in antrochoanal polyps. J Laryngol Otol
1994;108:1055–7.
100. Gerek M, Yetiser S, Dundar A, Ozkaptan Y.
Transnasal and transcanine endoscopy in
management of antrochoanal polyp. In Sydney ’97
– XVI World Congress of Otorhinolaryngology
Head and Neck Surgery. Tomes 1 and 2. 1996.
pp. 1499–503.
101. Hong SK, Min YG, Kim CN, Byun SW. Endoscopic
removal of the antral portion of antrochoanal
polyp by powered instrumentation. Laryngoscope
2001;111:1774–8.
102. Kamel R. Endoscopic transnasal surgery in
antrochoanal polyp. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck
Surg 1990;116:841–3.
103. Loury MC, Hinkley DK, Wong W. Endoscopic
transnasal antrochoanal polypectomy: an
alternative to the transantral approach. South Med
J 1993;86:18–22.
104. Orvidas LJ, Beatty CW, Weaver AL. Antrochoanal
polyps in children. Am J Rhinol 2001;15:321–5.
105. Raji A, Essaadi M, Detsouli M, Chekkoury IA,
Benchakroun. The antrochoanal polyp. Acta
Otorhinolaryngol Belg 2000;54:473–8.
76
106. Myatt HM, Cabrera M. Bilateral antrochonanal
polyps in a child: a case report. J Laryngol Otol
1996;110:272–4.
107. Woolley AL, Clary RA, Lusk RP. Antrochoanal
polyps in children. Am J Otolaryngol Head Neck Med
Surg 1996;17:368–73.
108. Deka RC. Antrochoanal polyp: Its pathogenesis
origin and management by functional endonasal
endoscopic surgery. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck
Surg 1999;51:33–5.
109. Sato K, Nakashima T. Endoscopic sinus surgery for
chronic sinusitis with antrochoanal polyp.
Laryngoscope 2000;110:1581–3.
110. Vleming M, de Vries N. Endoscopic sinus surgery
for antrochoanal polyps. Rhinology 1991;29:77–8.
111. Crampette L, Mondain M, Rombaux P.
Sphenochoanal polyp in children. Diagnosis and
treatment. Rhinology 1995;33:43–5.
112. Dadas B, Yilmaz O, Vural C, Calis AB, Turgut S.
Choanal polyp of sphenoidal origin. Eur Arch
Otorhinolaryngol 2000;257:379–81.
113. Eloy P, Evrard I, Bertrand B, Delos M. Choanal
polyp of sphenoidal origin. Report of two cases.
Acta Otorhinolaryngol Belg 1996;50:183–9.
114. Ileri F, Koybasioglu A, Uslu S. Clinical
presentation of a sphenochoanal polyp. Eur Arch
Otorhinolaryngol 1998;255:138–9.
115. Soh KB, Tan KK. Sphenochoanal polyps in
Singapore: diagnosis and current management.
Singapore Med J 2000;41:184–7.
116. Tosun F, Yetiser S, Akcam T, Ozkaptan Y.
Sphenochoanal polyp: endoscopic surgery. Int J
Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2001;58:87–90.
117. Sethi DS, Lau DP, Chee LW, Chong V. Isolated
sphenoethmoid recess polyps. J Laryngol Otol
1998;112:660–3.
118. Caversaccio M, Bachler R, Ladrach K, Schroth G,
Nolte LP, Hausler R. Frameless computer-aided
surgery system for revision endoscopic sinus
surgery. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2000;
122:808–13.
119. Gibbons MD, Gunn CG, Niwas S, Sillers MJ. Cost
analysis of computer-aided endoscopic sinus
surgery. Am J Rhinol 2001;15:71–5.
120. Olson G, Citardi MJ. Image-guided functional
endoscopic sinus surgery. Otolaryngol Head Neck
Surg 2000;123:188–94.
121. Sedlmaier B, Schleich A, Hoell T, Ohnesorge I,
Jovanovic S. NEN–ENT navigation system – First
clinical application. In 4th European Congress of
Oto-Rhino-Laryngology Head and Neck Surgery.
Vols 1 and 2. 2000. pp. 1247–51.
122. Anon JB, Lipman SP, Oppenheim D, Halt RA.
Computer-assisted endoscopic sinus surgery.
Laryngoscope 1994;104:901–5.
123. Gunkel AR, Freysinger W, Thumfart WF,
Pototschnig C. Complete sphenoethmoidectomy
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
and computer-assisted surgery. Acta
Otorhinolaryngol Belg 49:257.
139. Zickefoose S. Nasal surgery. Using lasers with
endoscopy surgery. AORN J 1989;50:979–88.
124. Iro H, Zenk J. A new device for frontal sinus
endoscopy: first clinical report. Otolaryngol Head
Neck Surg 2001;125:613–16.
140. Ikui A. Dilatation of accessory ostium of maxillary
sinus on endoscopic sinus surgery for pediatric
sinusitis. Jibi Inkoka Tokeibu Geka 1999;71:543–6.
125. Moriyama H, Fukami M, Yanagi K, Ohtori N,
Kaneta K. Endoscopic endonasal treatment of
ostium of the frontal sinus and the results of
endoscopic surgery. Am J Rhinol 1994;8:67–70.
141. Hamels K, Morre TD, Clement PA. The hummer,
shaver or microdebrider. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Belg
1997;51:89–91.
126. Schaefer SD, Close LG. Endoscopic management
of frontal sinus disease. Laryngoscope 1990;100
(2 Pt 1):155–60.
127. Cartellieri VF. Endoscopic sinus surgery using
intraoperative computed tomography imaging for
updating a three-dimensional navigation system.
Laryngoscope 2000;110(2 Pt 1):292–6.
128. Freysinger W. Three-dimensional navigation in
otorhinolaryngological surgery with the viewing
wand. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1998;107
(11 Pt 1):953–8.
129. Hsu L, Fried MP, Jolesz FA. MR-guided
endoscopic sinus surgery. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
1998;19:1235–40.
130. Zlomaniec J, Czerwonka R, Bryc S. Nasal–sinusal
polyps in the picture of combined radiological–
endoscopic technique. Ann Univ Mariae Curie
Sklodowska [Med] 1992;47:137–40.
131. Gleich LL, Rebeiz EE, Pankratov MM, Shapshay
SM. The holmium:YAG laser-assisted
otolaryngologic procedures. Arch Otolaryngol Head
Neck Surg 1995;121:1162–6.
142. Ohnishi T. Endoscopic endonasal microsurgery of
the ethmoid sinus. Jibi Inkoka Tokeibu Geka 1990;
62:343–9.
143. Teatini GP, Stomeo F, Bozzo C. Transnasal
sinusectomy with combined microscopic and
endoscopic technique. J Laryngol Otol 1991;
105:635–7.
144. Venkatachalam VP. Role of microrhinoscopic sinus
surgery in chronic sinusitis: initial results. Ind J
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2000;52:219–22.
145. Burgess LPA, Syms MJ, Holtel MR, BirkmirePeters DP, Johnson RE, Ramsey MJ. Telemedicine:
teleproctored endoscopic sinus surgery.
Laryngoscope 2002;112:216–19.
146. Fortune DS, Duncavage JA. Incidence of frontal
sinusitis following partial middle turbinectomy.
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1998;107:447–53.
147. Mendelsohn M. Simultaneous rhinoseptoplasty
and FESS. Aust J Otolaryngol 2001;4:118–19.
148. Vanclooster C. Endoscopic septel spur resection in
combination with endoscopic sinus surgery. Acta
Otorhinolaryngol Belg 1998;52:335–9.
132. Ikeda K, Takasaka T. Endoscopic laser sinus
surgery using KTP/532 laser. Lasers Med Sci 1996;
11:133–8.
149. el Guindy A. Endoscopic transseptal vidian
neurectomy. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
1994;120:1347–51.
133. Schuman DM, Pineyro R. Functional Aqualaser
sinuscopy: a safe technique for the treatment of
severe nasal polyposis. J Clin Laser Med Surg
1994;12:333–7.
150. el Shazly MA. Endoscopic surgery of the vidian
nerve. Preliminary report. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol
1991;100:536–9.
134. Westhofen M, Ilgner J, Handt S. The neodymium:
YAG laser in postoperative follow-up after
endonasal pansinus operation. In Laser Florence
’99: a window on the laser medicine world
1999;1(37):218–21.
135. Levine HL. Lasers and endoscopic rhinologic
surgery. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 1989;22:739–48.
136. Ohyama M. Laser polypectomy. Rhinol Suppl 1989;
8:35–43.
137. Schuman DM, Pineyro R. Functional Aqualaser?
sinuscopy for nasal polyposis. Clin Laser Mon 1994;
12:23–6.
138. Shapshay SM, Rebeiz EE, Pankratov MM.
Holmium:yttrium aluminum garnet laser-assisted
endoscopic sinus surgery: clinical experience.
Laryngoscope 1992;102:1177–80.
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
151. Gross WE. Soft-tissue shavers in functional
endoscopic sinus surgery (standard technique).
Otolaryngol Clin North Am 1997;30:435–41.
152. Wreesmann VB, Fokkens WJ, Knegt PP. Refractory
chronic sinusitis: evaluation of symptom
improvement after Denker’s procedure. Otolaryngol
Head Neck Surg 2001;125:495–500.
153. Friedman WH, Katsantonis GP. Intranasal and
transantral ethmoidectomy: a 20-year experience.
Laryngoscope 1990;100:343–8.
154. Gilain L, Aidan D, Coste A, Peynegre R.
Functional endoscopic sinus surgery for isolated
sphenoid sinus disease. Head Neck 1994;
16:433–7.
155. Hadar T. Isolated sphenoid sinus changes – history,
CT and endoscopic findings. J Laryngol Otol 1996;
110:850–3.
77
References
156. Stewart MG, Hillman EJ, Donovan DT, Tanli SH.
The effects of a practice guideline on endoscopic
sinus surgery at an academic center. Am J Rhinol
1997;11:161–5.
78
157. Blomqvist EH, Lundblad L, Anggard A,
Haraldsson PO, Stjarne P. A randomized
controlled study evaluating medical treatment
versus surgical treatment in addition to medical
treatment of nasal polyposis. J Allerg Clin Immunol
2001;107:224–8.
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Appendix 1
Research protocol for functional endoscopic
sinus surgery (FESS) for nasal polyps
Protocol: functional endoscopic
sinus surgery versus traditional
methods for nasal polyps
This protocol is provisional and subject to
change.
Details of review team
Ms Kim Dalziel, Research Fellow (LEAD),
Peninsula Technology Assessment Group. Dr Ken
Stein, Senior Lecturer in Public Health, Peninsula
Technology Assessment Group. Dr Ali Round,
Senior Lecturer in Public Health, Peninsula
Technology Assessment Group. Ms Ruth Garside,
Research Fellow, Peninsula Technology Assessment
Group. Dr Pam Royle, Senior Researcher
Information Science, Southampton Health
Technology Assessment.
Address for correspondence
Dean Clarke House
Southernhay East
Exeter EX1 1PQ
Tel: 01392 207817
Fax: 01392 687134
Email: [email protected]
Full title of research question
What is the clinical effectiveness of FESS
compared with traditional methods for the
excision of nasal polyps in patients requiring
surgery, in terms of improvement in symptoms,
patient satisfaction, complication rates and
recurrence rates?
Clarification of research question and
scope
Polyps may occur in the context of chronic
rhinosinusitis but the degree of polyposis may be
unrelated to severity of rhinosinusitis. A spectrum
of disease exists between chronic rhinosinusitis
without significant polypoid disease through to
extensive polyposis without symptoms of
rhinosinusitis. The focus of this assessment is on
disease involving a significant polyp element.
FESS is distinct from polypectomy in that FESS
procedures are carried out to improve ventilation
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
and drainage in addition to polyp removal (e.g.
widening the maxillary antrum or
ethmoidectomy).
Nasal polyps are not associated with increased
mortality but do reduce quality of life. Morbidity is
usually associated with nasal obstruction, anosmia,
chronic rhinosinusitis, headaches, snoring and
postnasal drainage. Polyps frequently recur despite
medical or surgical intervention.
Oral and topical steroids are the first-line
treatments for nasal polyps. Surgical intervention
is required when medical therapy fails to control
symptoms, when the patient is not suitable for oral
steroids, when total nasal obstruction occurs or
when there is persistent infection or complications.
Conventional non-endoscopic polypectomy is a
technique that has been used to excise nasal
polyps. It involves removal of polyps under direct
vision and illumination. FESS is a minimally
invasive technique that has been used for more
than a decade in treating nasal polyps. FESS aims
not only to remove the polyp but also to improve
sinus drainage and ventilation, which may
decrease recurrence rates. Advantages are claimed
over conventional surgery: permitting a better
view of the surgical field, fewer complications and
lower recurrence rates. ENT specialists, aside from
removal of polyps, use endoscopes for a variety of
procedures.
While FESS is a widely used procedure for nasal
polyps there are no RCTs and very few
comparisons with conventional surgery. From a
preliminary search and perusal of the literature, it
appears that many studies of FESS technology
were published in the early to mid-1990s.
We propose two major parts to this review, first a
systematic review of the best available evidence
regarding the effectiveness of FESS and second a
description of the numerous smaller case series
studies that deal with specific patient subgroups,
different types of polyps and variations of the
technology.
79
Appendix 1
Systematic appraisal of the best available
evidence of FESS for nasal polyps
From preliminary searches no RCTs were
identified, therefore comparative studies and case
series will be evaluated. Preliminary searches have
identified only two studies that directly compare
FESS with conventional surgery. Direct
comparisons of FESS with conventional nonendoscopic polypectomy will be made where
possible.
Preliminary searches have identified a further 67
primary studies that are potentially relevant to the
question. When case series are presented we will
not attempt to make indirect comparisons between
FESS and other techniques owing to expected
heterogeneity in patient groups studied and in
types of polyps. An indirect comparison of two sets
of case series is not likely to be useful unless the
underlying populations are similar.
We are also aware of a large national sinonasal
audit (prospective cohort study) currently being
undertaken in England by the Royal College of
Surgeons. The objective of the audit is to compare
the outcomes of all surgeons and surgical units in
England and Wales carrying out surgery to relieve
symptoms associated with rhinosinusitis and nasal
polyposis. The main outcome of the study is total
symptom score. Data are being collected from
patients, surgeons and pathology departments.
The study involves 3000 patients and is currently
in data collection/analysis stages. We will explore
the possibility of the cohort study informing this
assessment.
The population of interest for this assessment will
include all people with nasal polyps requiring
surgery. The following outcomes will be
considered:
●
●
●
●
●
●
improvement in symptoms
patient satisfaction
complication rates
recurrence rates
health service utilisation
quality of life.
All relevant comparative studies will be included.
Among case series, we will include only the bestquality studies. The inclusion criteria for case
series studies will be as follows:
●
●
80
●
studies with more than 50 patients with nasal
polyps
studies with prospective data collection
studies with consecutively enrolled patients
●
●
●
adequate description of the patient population
publications structured in a way that enables the
results of nasal polyp excision to be isolated
from procedures for other conditions (e.g.
tumours)
patient relevant outcomes reported.
The results of the included studies will be presented
overall and for subgroups where appropriate.
Description of smaller case series studies of
specific subgroups
A preliminary review of the literature suggests that
there are different types of patients who require
FESS surgery for nasal polyps, there are different
types of polyps and there are variations in
technology and the FESS procedure itself. FESS is
an emerging field and many of the studies
exploring these subgroups are small case series
that will not be included in the systematic
appraisal described above. Some of these
subgroups will be present in the literature only as
a small group within a larger study. This part of
the assessment will describe these primary studies.
Examples of the types of subgroups present in the
literature include:
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
nasal polyps in children
nasal polyps in those with asthma
nasal polyps in those with CF
antrochoanal/choanal/sphenochoanal polyps
FESS in those with allergic disease
FESS with microdebrider
FESS with microscope.
For each of the subgroups we will present a
descriptive summary of the available primary
research. We will not limit inclusion by study
quality or size. As a follow-up from this description
of the available research on subgroups, we will
present the evidence to the expert advisory group
in writing or via email. We will seek their views on
the most pressing areas of uncertainty in the use
of FESS to inform the future research section of
the assessment.
This feedback from the external advisory group
will, not be a formal methodological exercise or
comprise a piece of stand-alone work. The group’s
role will be that of consultation, advice, clinical
input and methodological guidance, which is the
same role they play for the majority of
assessments.
The group in their role as opinion leaders will be
asked to identify any additional uncertainties in
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
the area of FESS for nasal polyps that have not
been identified through the literature search and
description of research of subgroups. From these
combined identified uncertainties we will compile
a list of future research priorities for FESS and
nasal polyps; we will then recirculate this list
asking the external advisory group to rank the
research priorities by assigning votes to their
highest priorities.
The results of this prioritising exercise will then be
presented in the future research section of the
assessment.
Report methods
Search strategy
● computerised databases including Medline,
Embase, PubMed (previous 6 months), the
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the
Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, the NHS
CRD databases (DARE, NHS EED and HTA
database), Science Citation Index, Web of
Science Proceedings, BIOSIS, Conference
Proceedings Index, British Library Catalogue;
● bibliographies;
● contacting research groups and industry;
● trial registers, including the National Research
Register, the Early Warning System, Current
Controlled Trials, Controlled Trials.com,
ClinicalTrials.gov.
In addition the following websites will be searched:
●
●
SERNIP: http://www.aomrc.org.uk/sernip.htm
Medical Devices Agency: http://www.medicaldevices.gov.uk/.
Searches will be limited to English language only.
Reports published only as meeting abstracts will
be excluded.
●
●
narrative reviews, editorials, opinions
studies where surgery was not endoscopic.
Data extraction strategy
Data will be extracted by one researcher and
checked by a second researcher.
Quality assessment strategy
Studies identified will be assessed for quality using
individual components of methodological quality,
for case series studies or randomised studies, taken
from the CRD report of systematic reviews No. 4
(4 March 2001). Assessment will be made by one
researcher and checked by a second. An extensive
appraisal of the quality of case series/case report
studies will not be provided for each individual
study; instead a generic description of the biases
inherent in these study designs will be presented.
Methods of analysis/synthesis
Meta-analysis will not be performed as suitable
RCTs are not available. The results of the
controlled trials, comparative studies or case series
studies will be summarised and described.
Methods for estimating qualify of life, costs and
cost-effectiveness and/or cost/quality-adjusted
life-years
Cost-effectiveness and cost utility will only be
calculated if results from a RCT are available,
which is unlikely. Cost-effectiveness and utility
evaluations are unlikely to be appropriate owing to
the paucity of direct comparisons of FESS with
conventional surgery. Comparative cost data of
FESS and non-endoscopic polypectomy will be
provided to allow an assessment of the costs of
providing FESS in addition to other ENT services.
Handling the company submission(s)
Not applicable.
Inclusion criteria
In the absence of RCTs comparing functional
endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) and traditional
surgery for the removal of nasal polyps, we will
include controlled trials, comparative studies or
case series studies reporting the effectiveness of
FESS for the removal of nasal polyps.
Project management
Exclusion criteria
● animal models
● preclinical and biological studies
● endoscopy used solely to diagnose nasal
polyps
● studies of medical treatment for nasal polyps
● studies assessing the pathology of the nasal
polyp
Competing Interests
None.
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
Timetable/milestones
Submission of:
Draft protocol:
Finalised protocol:
Progress report:
Draft final report:
22 February 2002
15 March 2002
10 May 2002
26 July 2002
External reviewers
Expert advisory group
A group is currently being formed. This group will
act as an expert resource to guide the progress of
the review. This group will be separate to the peer
81
Appendix 1
review group. The people we are approaching to
be members of the group are:
●
●
●
●
●
82
Mr Robert Slack, Consultant in ENT, Royal
United Hospital, Bath
Prof. Valerie Lund, Professor of ENT Surgery,
The Royal National Throat, Nose and Ear
Hospital, London
Mr John Topham, Consultant in ENT, Worthing
Hospital
Mr John Browne, Royal College of Surgeons,
London
Mr Ian MacKay, Consultant in ENT, London
Peer review
The rapid review will be subject to external peer
review by at least two experts. These reviewers will
be chosen according to academic seniority and
content expertise and will be agreed with
NCCHTA. We will obtain independent
methodological review from other members of
InterTASC. Comments from external reviewers
and our responses to these will be made available
to NCCHTA in strict confidence for editorial
review and approval.
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Appendix 2
Search strategy
Sources of information, including
databases searched and search
terms used
All searches were limited to English language only.
Full details of all searches are available on request.
Clinical effectiveness searches
Cochrane Library (all sections), issue 2,
2002
#1
#2
#3
#4
#5
#6
#7
(ENDOSCOPIC near SURGERY)
ENDOSCOPY*:ME
(NASAL next POLYP*)
(#1 or #2)
(ESS or FESS)
(#4 or #5)
(#3 and #6).
MEDLINE (WebSPIRS), 1966–2002/4
((‘Nasal-Polyps’/all subheadings in MIME,MJME)
and (explode ‘Endoscopy-’/all subheadings in
MIME,MJME)) or ((fess or ess or (endoscop* near
surg*)) and (polyp* and (nasal or nose or
sinus*))).
PubMed, records added from 9/2/02 to
9/5/02
(polyps OR polyp OR polyposis) AND (endoscop*
OR fess OR ess).
Embase (WebSPIRS), 1980–2002/3
((‘nose-polyp’/all subheadings) and (explode
‘endoscopy-’/all subheadings)) or ((polyp* with
(nose or nasal or sinus*)) and (fess or ess or
(endoscop* near surg*))).
Science Citation Index,
1981–19/5/2002
(endoscop* same surg*) and polyp* and (nasal or
nose or sinus).
CINAHL(WebSPIRS),
1982–2002/2
endoscopic sinus surgery or fess or ess.
DARE (web version), 9/5/2002
1. endoscop$ and surg$ and sinus
2. endoscop$ and surg$ and nasal
3. endoscop$ and surg$ and polyp$.
HTA Database (web version),
9/5/2002
1. endoscop$ and surg$ and sinus
2. endoscop$ and surg$ and nasal
3. endoscop$ and surg$ and polyp.
National Research Register, issue 1,
2002
#1
#2
#3
#4
#5
#6
#7
(ENDOSCOPIC near SURGERY)
ENDOSCOPY*:ME
(NASAL next POLYP*)
(#1 or #2)
(ESS or FESS)
(#4 or #5)
(#3 and #6).
HMIC (Health Management
Information Consortium) databases
(WebSPIRS), entire database searched
on 9/5/2002
endoscopic sinus surgery or fess or ess.
British Library Catalogue, searched
March 2002
endoscopic sinus surgery.
Current Controlled Trials, searched
on 9/5/2002
endoscopic sinus surgery.
Clinical Trials.gov, searched on
9/5/2002
endoscopic sinus surgery.
Web of Science Proceedings,
1981–19/5/2002:
Proceedings – FirstSearch,
1993–9/5/2002
(endoscop* same surg*) and polyp* and (nasal or
nose or sinus).
endoscopic sinus surgery.
BIOSIS, 1985–19/5/2002
SERNIP web page, searched on
9/5/2002
((endoscop* and surg* and sinus)) and (polyp*).
endoscopic sinus surgery.
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
83
Appendix 2
Medical Devices Agency web pages,
searched on 9/5/2002
endoscopic sinus surgery.
Cost-effectiveness and quality of
life searches
MEDLINE (WebSPIRS), 1966–2002/4
(((explode ‘Health-Care-Costs’/all subheadings in
MIME,MJME) or (explode ‘Economics-’/all
subheadings in MIME,MJME) or (‘QualityAdjusted-Life-Years’/all subheadings in
MIME,MJME) or (qaly or (quality near3 life)) or
(cost* or economic*)) and (((explode ‘Endoscopy-’/
all subheadings in MIME,MJME) and (sinus or
nasal)) or (fess or ess) or ((endoscop* near surg*)
and (sinus or nasal or polyp*)))) or (((explode
‘Health-Care-Costs’/all subheadings in
MIME,MJME) or (explode ‘Economics-’/all
subheadings in MIME,MJME) or (‘QualityAdjusted-Life-Years’/all subheadings in
MIME,MJME) or (qaly or (quality near3 life)) or
(cost* or economic*)) and (((nasal or nose or
sinus) near polyp*) or (‘Nasal-Polyps’/all
subheadings in MIME,MJME))).
PubMED, records added from 9/2/02
to 9/5/02
NHS EED (web version), 9/5/2002
1. endoscop$ and surg$ and sinus
2. endoscop$ and surg$ and nasal
3. endoscop$ and surg$ and polyp.
EconLit (WebSPIRS), 1969–2002/3
endoscopic sinus surgery or fess or ess.
Epidemiology searches
Medline, 1966–2002/11 and Embase,
1981–2002/1
nasal polyp* and (epidemiology or incidence or
prevalence).
Hospital Inpatient Data – based on
Hospital Episode Statistics (HES)
(web version) 2000–1
ICD-10 [International Classification of Diseases
and Health Related Problems (10th Revision)]
code J33 Nasal Polyp and OPCS4 code E01–E17.
1. (nasal AND (polyps OR polypo* OR polyp))
AND (cost OR costs OR economic* OR
quality).
2. (endoscop* AND sinus AND surgery) AND
(cost OR costs OR economic* OR quality).
Additional searching
Embase (WebSPIRS), 1980–2002/3
All references to articles for which full papers were
retrieved were checked to ensure that no eligible
studies had been missed.
(((explode ‘health-economics’/all subheadings) or
(explode ‘cost-’/all subheadings) or (‘qualityadjusted-life-year’/all subheadings) or (qaly or
(quality near3 life)) or (cost* or economic*)) and
(((explode ‘endoscopy-’/all subheadings) and (nasal
or nose or sinus*)) or (fess or ess) or ((endoscop*
near surg*) and (sinus* or nasal or polyp*)))) or
84
(((explode ‘health-economics’/all subheadings) or
(explode ‘cost-’/all subheadings) or (‘qualityadjusted-life-year’/all subheadings) or (qaly or
(quality near3 life)) or (cost* or economic*)) and
((‘nose-polyp’/all subheadings) or ((nasal or nose
or sinus*) near polyp*))).
Bibliographies
Industry submissions
Industry submission to the National Institute of
Clinical Excellence (NICE) were examined for any
further studies that met the inclusion criteria.
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Appendix 3
Excluded studies
Anon. Endoscopic sinus surgery: sinonasal polyposis
and allergy. Ear Nose Throat J 1993;72:544,547–4.
[Narrative review/opinion]
Blomqvist EH, Lundblad L, Anggard A, Haraldsson PO,
Stjarne P. A randomized controlled study evaluating
medical treatment versus surgical treatment in
addition to medical treatment of nasal polyposis.
J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001;107:224–8. [<50 patients
with polyps]
Burgess LPA, Syms MJ, Holtel MR, Birkmire-Peters DP,
Johnson RE, Ramsey MJ. telemedicine: teleproctored
endoscopic sinus surgery. Laryngoscope 2002;
112:216–19. [FESS not main focus]
Corey JP, Bumsted R, Panje W, Namon A. Orbital
complications in functional endoscopic sinus surgery.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1993;109:814–20.
[Narrative review/opinion]
Cuyler JP, Monaghan AJ. Cystic fibrosis and sinusitis.
J Otolaryngol 1989;18:173–5. [<50 patients with
polyps]
Danielsen A. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery on a
day case out-patient basis. Clin Otolaryngol
1992;17:473–7. [<50 patients with polyps]
Dinis PB,.Gomes A. Sinusitis and asthma: how do they
interrelate in sinus surgery? Am J Rhinol. 1997;
11:421–8. [<50 patients with polyps]
Drake-Lee A. Magical numbers and the treatment of
nasal polyps. Clin Otolaryngol 1996;21:193–7.
[Narrative review/opinion]
Duplechain JK, White JA, Miller RH. Pediatric sinusitis.
The role of endoscopic sinus surgery in cystic fibrosis
and other forms of sinonasal disease. Arch Otolaryngol
Head Neck Surg 1991;117:422–6. [Narrative
review/opinion]
Fang SY. Normalization of maxillary sinus mucosa after
FESS. A prospective study of chronic sinusitis with
nasal polyps. Rhinology 1994;32:137–40. [Not patientrelevant outcomes]
Forsgren K, Fukami M, Penttilä M, Kumlien J, Stierna P.
Endoscopic and Caldwell–Luc approaches in chronic
maxillary sinusitis: a comparative histopathologic
study on preoperative and postoperative mucosal
morphology. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol
1995;104:350–7. [Not patient-relevant outcomes]
Fortune DS, Duncavage JA. Incidence of frontal sinusitis
following partial middle turbinectomy. Ann Otol Rhinol
Laryngol. 1998;107:447–53. [<50 patients with
polyps]
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
Franzen G, Klausen OG. Postoperative evaluation of
functional endoscopic sinus surgery with computed
tomography. Clin Otolaryngol 1994;19:332–9. [<50
patients with polyps]
Freysinger W. Three-dimensional navigation in
otorhinolaryngological surgery with the viewing wand.
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1998;107:953–8. [Not
patient-relevant outcomes]
Frisch T, Arndal H, Fons M. Outcome for the first 85
patients treated with the functional endoscopic sinus
surgery technique. Rhinology 1995;33:236–9. [<50
patients with polyps]
Gross WE. Soft-tissue shavers in functional endoscopic
sinus surgery (standard technique). Otolaryngol Clin N
Am 1997;30:435–41. [Narrative review/opinion]
Hamels K, Morre TD, Clement PA. The hummer,
shaver or microdebrider. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Belg
1997;51:89–91. [Narrative review/opinion]
Hebert RL, Bent JP. Meta-analysis of outcomes of
pediatric functional endoscopic sinus surgery.
Laryngoscope 1998;108:796–9. [Outdated review]
Hosemann W, Goertzen W, Wohlleben R, Wolf S,
Wigand M. Olfaction after endoscopic endonasal
ethmoidectomy. Am J Rhinol 1993;7:11–15. [Nasal
polyps not main focus]
Hosemann W, Gode U, Wagner W. Epidemiology,
pathophysiology of nasal polyposis, and spectrum of
endonasal sinus surgery. Am J Otolaryngol
1994;15:85–98. [Narrative review/opinion]
Hosemann W, Kuhnel T, Held P, Wagner W, Felderhoff
A. Endonasal frontal sinusotomy in surgical
management of chronic sinusitis: a critical evaluation.
Am J Rhinol 1997;11:1–9. [Narrative review/opinion]
Ikeda K, Takasaka T. Endoscopic laser sinus surgery
using KTP/532 laser. Lasers Med Sci 1996;11:133–8.
[Nasal polyps not main focus]
Jiang RS, Hsu CY. Endoscopic sinus surgery: analysis of
1500 cases. J Taiwan Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
1999;34:292–7. [Duplicate publication]
Jiang RS, Hsu CY. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery
in children and adults. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol
2000;109:1113–16. [Duplicate publication]
Ki HH, Sam HK, Sang SJ. The assessment of nasality
with a nasometer and sound spectrography in
patients with nasal polyposis. Otolaryngol Head Neck
Surg 1997;117:343–8. [Not patient-relevant outcomes]
Loebe LP. Indications for surgical therapy of the
paranasal sinuses by means of endoscopical and
microscopical endonasal and external approaches a
85
Appendix 3
critical intermediate review. HNO 1991;39:233–5.
[Non-English]
Lund VJ. Bacterial sinusitis – etiology and surgical
management. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1994;13:S58–63.
[Narrative review/opinion]
Lund VJ. The effect of sinonasal surgery on asthma.
Allergy 1999;54:141–5. [Narrative review/opinion]
Lund VJ. Evidence-based surgery in chronic
rhinosinusitis. Acta Oto-Laryngol 2001;121:5–9.
[Narrative review/opinion]
Maran AG. Endoscopic sinus surgery. Eur Arch
Otorhinolaryngol 1994;251:309–18. [Narrative
review/opinion]
Schaitkin B, May M, Shapiro A, Fucci M, Mester SJ.
Endoscopic sinus surgery: 4-year follow-up on the first
100 patients. Laryngoscope 1993;103:1117–20. [<50
patients with polyps]
Shapshay SM, Rebeiz EE, Pankratov MM.
Holmium:yttrium aluminum garnet laser-assisted
endoscopic sinus surgery: clinical experience.
Laryngoscope 1992;102:1177–80. [<50 patients with
polyps]
Matthews BL, Smith LE, Jones R, Miller C,
Brookschmidt JK. Endoscopic sinus surgery: outcome
in 155 cases. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
1991;104:244–6. [Nasal polyps not main focus]
Sipila J, Antila J, Suonpaa J. Pre- and postoperative
evaluation of patients with nasal obstruction
undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery. Eur Arch
Otorhinolaryngol 1996;253:237–9. [<50 patients with
polyps]
Mendelsohn M. Simultaneous rhinoseptoplasty and fess.
Aust J Otolaryngol 2001;4:118–19. [<50 patients with
polyps]
Stankiewicz JA. Pediatric endoscopic nasal and sinus
surgery. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1995;113:204–10.
[<50 patients with polyps]
Moriyama H, Yanagi K, Ohtori N, Fukami M.
Evaluation of endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic
sinusitis: postoperative erythromycin therapy.
Rhinology 1995;33:166–70. [FESS not main focus]
Stevens HE, Blair NJ. Intranasal sphenoethmoidectomy:
10-year experience and literature review. J Otolaryngol
1988;17:254–9. [FESS not main focus]
Penttilä M. Endoscopic findings after functional and
radical sinus surgery – a prospective randomized
study. Am J Rhinol 1994;8:71–6. [Duplicate
publication]
Rice DH. Endoscopic sinus surgery: results at 2-year
follow-up. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1989;101:476–9.
[<50 patients with polyps]
Rice DH. Endoscopic sinus surgery. Otolaryngol Head
Neck Surg 1994;111:100–10. [Narrative
reviews/opinions]
Rosbe KW, Jones DT, Rahbar R, Lahiri T, Auerbach AD.
Endoscopic sinus surgery in cystic fibrosis: do patients
benefit from surgery? Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol
2001;61:113–19. [Nasal polyps not main focus]
Roth Y, Shoshan JB, Kronenberg J. Functional
endoscopic sinus surgery: experience with the first
100 patients. Int Surg 1995;80:278–9. [<50 patients
with polyps]
Ryan RM, Whittet HB, Norval C, Marks NJ. Minimal
follow-up after functional endoscopic sinus surgery.
Does it affect outcome? Rhinology 1996;34:44–5. [<50
patients with polyps]
Sato K, Nakashima T. Endoscopic sinus surgery for
chronic sinusitis with antrochoanal polyp. Laryngoscope
2000;110:1581–3. [<50 patients with polyps]
86
Schaefer SD, Manning S, Close LG. Endoscopic
paranasal sinus surgery: indications and
considerations. Laryngoscope 1989;99:1–5. [<50
patients with polyps]
Stewart MG, Hillman EJ, Donovan DT, Tanli SH. The
effects of a practice guideline on endoscopic sinus
surgery at an academic center. Am J Rhinol
1997;11:161–5. [FESS not main focus]
Terris MH, Davidson TM. Review of published results
for endoscopic sinus surgery. Ear Nose Throat J
1994;73:574–80. [Outdated review]
Toffel PH. Simultaneous secure endoscopic sinus
surgery and rhinoplasty. Ear Nose Throat J
1994;73:554–60, 565. [Nasal polyps not main focus]
Varghese G, Murthy PSN. Nasal endoscope and you.
Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1999;51:84–9.
[Narrative review/opinion]
Vleming M, de Vries N. Endoscopic sinus surgery for
antrochoanal polyps. Rhinology 1991;29:77–8. [<50
patients with polyps]
Westhofen M, Ilgner J, Handt S. The neodymium:YAG
laser in postoperative follow-up after endonasal
pansinus operation. Laser Florence ’99: a Window on the
Laser Medicine World 1999;1:218–21. [FESS not main
focus]
Wreesmann VB, Fokkens WJ, Knegt PP. Refractory
chronic sinusitis: evaluation of symptom improvement
after Denker’s procedure. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
2001;125:495–500. [FESS not main focus]
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Appendix 4
Data extraction tables – randomised
controlled trials
Reference and
design
Intervention
Kurent and Zargi
199852
Treatment: endoscopic
Total number of patients:
polypectomy and endoscopic ethmoidectomy = 20
ethmoidectomy
polypectomy = 20
Primary and secondary outcome
measures used: polyp recurrence,
success
Postoperative interventions
used: topical steroids and
saline physiological solution
Method of assessing outcomes: polyp
recurrence measured at endoscopic
follow-up
Slovenia
Study design:
randomised
controlled trial
Setting/type of anaesthesia:
not stated
Subjects
Outcome measures
Indications for surgery: massive
bilateral nasal polyposis
Exclusion criteria: none stated
Participant characteristics: the
two groups were similar for age,
sex, presence of asthma, allergy
and duration of symptoms
Length of follow-up: for 3 years
Bilateral disease/surgery: 100%
Results
Eleven out of 20 (55%) patients in the
polypectomy group had no endoscopic evidence of
polyp recurrence at follow-up, in six (30%) nasal
polyposis reappeared and three (15%) patients
were lost to follow-up. In the ethmoidectomy
group there were no endoscopic signs of polyp
recurrence in 13/20 (65%) patients, there were five
(25%) cases of recidivant polyposis and two (10%)
patients were lost to follow-up.
Complications were not stated.
Methodological comments
●
●
●
Allocation to treatment groups random and
secure: probably not random or secure, ‘patients
were alternatively placed into two groups’.
Blinding: no.
Comparability of treatment groups: yes for age,
sex, duration of symptoms and presence of
asthma and allergy.
●
●
●
●
All patients given same intervention?:
uncertain, no detailed description of the
procedures is provided.
Loss to follow-up?: yes 3/20 (15%) in
polypectomy group and 2/20 (10%) in
ethmoidectomy group.
Sample size: no power calculations were
reported.
Method of data analysis: groups compared
using Fisher’s exact test; only one arm was
reported based on ITT.
General comments
●
●
●
●
Generalisability: low, cannot determine details
of procedures. Exclusion criteria and patients’
characteristics not provided.
Main outcome measured independently: no.
Inter-centre variability: not applicable.
Conflicts of interest: none stated.
87
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
Appendix 4
Reference and
design
Intervention
Subjects
Outcome measures
Penttilä et al.,
199744
Treatment: Functional
middle meatal
antrostomy (FESS) or
radical CL operation
with inferior meatal
antrostomy
Total number of patients:
FESS = 75
CL = 75
Primary and secondary outcome
measures used: Improvement
in symptoms, revision surgery,
patency, complications
Finland
Study design:
Randomised
controlled trial
Indications for surgery: Rhinogenous chronic
maxillary sinusitis (52 FESS patients had
polyps and 45 CL patients)
Method of assessing outcomes:
Patients rated symptomatic
Postoperative
improvement in an interview
Exclusion criteria: Patients whose disease had
interventions used:
as asymptomatic, distinct
not lasted at least 3 months despite active
Nasal suction, cleaning,
improvement, slight
treatment with repeated antral irrigations and
antral irrigation
improvement, unchanged or
antimicrobial therapy were excluded
worse postoperatively
Setting/type of
Participant characteristics: Average age of
anaesthesia: Not stated
Length of follow-up: At 1 year
patients was 48 years (range 14–88) in the
and again 5–9 years after
CL group and 47 years (range 16–84) in the
surgery
FESS group. The male:female ratio was 36:39
in the CL group and 30:45 for FESS. 20/75
(27%) in the CL group had prior surgery and
18/75 (24%) in the FESS group. Duration of
symptoms was not reported. 27% of the CL
group and 25% of the FEES group had
asthma, 17% and 14% of patients had ASA
intolerance, respectively
Bilateral disease/surgery: 40/75 (53%) in the
the CL group and 60/75 (80%) in the FESS
group
Results
Following surgery 36/71 (51%) of the CL group
and 56/72 (78%) of the FESS group reported no
symptoms or distinct improvement in their global
symptoms. After 5–9 years 50/62 (81%) in the CL
group and 50/66 (76%) in the FESS group were
asymptomatic or distinctly improved. 10/71 (14%)
CL patients reported no benefit at 1-year followup, as did 3/72 (4%) in the FESS group. After 5–9
years 6/62 (10%) CL patients and 5/66 (8%) FESS
patients reported no benefit.
Revision surgery occurred for 13/62 (21%) in the
CL group and 14/66 (21%) in the FESS group
during the 7–9-year follow-up period.
●
●
●
●
●
●
At follow-up the middle meatus was open in 19%
of the CL and 57% of FESS operations.
88
General comments
There were no major complications in either
group.
●
Methodological comments
●
●
Allocation to treatment groups random and
secure: possibly random but not secure ‘lots of
equal numbers were drawn and a list was
created, patients were put on the list in order of
recruitment’.
Blinding: no.
Comparability of treatment groups: uncertain,
similar for age, sex and prior surgery. More of
the FESS group had bilateral disease.
All patients given same intervention?:
uncertain, no detailed description of the
procedures is provided.
Loss to follow-up?: yes, 7/150 patients were lost
at 1-year follow-up and 22/150 were lost at
5–9-year follow-up. Some of these were lost due
to death.
Sample size: no power calculations were
reported.
Method of data analysis: descriptive statistics
only.
●
●
Generalisability: low, cannot determine details
of procedures, and CL only applies to patients
who had specific indications.
Main outcome measured independently: no.
Inter-centre variability: not applicable.
Conflicts of interest: none stated.
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Reference and
design
Intervention
Subjects
Outcome measures
Venkatachalam and
Bhat, 199851
Treatment: FESS using
Messerklinger technique.
Conventional procedures
included simple polypectomy
with (5) or without CL (13),
intranasal ethmoidectomy (4),
external ethmoidectomy (2)
Total number of patients:
FESS = 25
Conventional techniques = 25
Primary and secondary outcome
measures used: Complications, relief
of symptoms
Indications for surgery: Nasal
polyposis
Postoperative interventions
used: Steroid nasal spray
(budesonide) 2 puffs twice a
day for 6 months
Method of assessing outcomes:
Response to treatment was graded
as complete (90–100% relief), good
(75–90% relief), fair (50–75% relief)
and poor/no response (<50% relief)
Participant characteristics: Most
patients were in the age group
Length of follow-up: Mean follow-up
20–39 years. The male:female
16.5 months (range 6–30)
ratio was 35:15. The duration of
symptoms varied from 6 to 36
months. Prior surgery was not
reported
New Delhi
Study design:
Randomised
controlled trial
Setting/type of anaesthesia:
FESS 100% local.
Conventional procedures
local or general
Exclusion criteria: Not stated
Bilateral disease/surgery:14/25
(56%) in the FESS group were
bilateral and 11/25 (44%) in the
conventional procedures group
Results
●
In the FESS group 18/25 (72%) showed complete
relief of symptoms, 3/25 (12%) good response,
1/25 (4%) fair response and 2/25 (8%) patients had
no relief of symptoms. In the conventional
procedures group 12/25 (48%) showed complete
response 6/25 (24%) had good response, 3/25
(12%) had fair response and 3/25 (12%) had no
relief of symptoms.
●
The following complications were recorded for the
FESS group: bleeding 3/25 (12%), synechia 5/25
(20%), wound infection 4/25 (16%), orbital
haematoma 0, CSF rhinorrhoea 0, loss of vision 0,
lamina papyracea damage 1/25 (4%). In
comparison the following complications were
noted for the conventional procedures: bleeding
2/25 (8%), synechia 13/25 (52%), wound infection
7/25 (28%), orbital haematoma 2/25 (8%), CSF
rhinorrhea 0, loss of vision 0 and lamina
papyracea damage 2/25 (8%).
●
●
●
●
General comments
●
●
●
Methodological comments
●
Blinding: no.
Comparability of treatment groups: uncertain,
characteristics of each group are not provided.
All patients given same intervention?: no,
extent of surgery varied according to severity of
disease.
Loss to follow-up?: Yes, 2/50 (4%) patients (one
from each group).
Sample size: no power calculations were
reported. Possible that study did not have
sufficient power to detect a difference between
groups.
Method of data analysis: results reported on
ITT basis.
●
Generalisability: low, inclusion/exclusion criteria
are not provided and patient characteristics are
sparse.
Main outcome measured independently:
uncertain.
Inter-centre variability: not applicable.
Conflicts of interest: none stated.
Allocation to treatment groups random and
secure: uncertain, details not provided.
89
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Appendix 5
Data extraction tables – non-randomised
comparative studies
Reference and
design
Intervention
Subjects
Outcome measures
Harkness et al.,
199737
UK
Study design:
Comparative
(historical)
Treatment: FESS compared with
conventional procedures (including
sphenoid sinus drainage, BAWO,
frontal sinus drainage, nasal
polypectomy, external
ethmoidectomy, intraethmoidectomy, CL and BINA)
Postoperative interventions used:
None stated. Postoperative steroid
use not stated
Setting/type of anaesthesia: 18% of
all procedures were day cases.
6.5% of surgery was performed
under local anaesthesia
Total number of patients:
FESS = 1064
Conventional procedures = 1459
Indications for surgery: 46% of patients
had chronic rhinosinusitis, 37%
polyposis, 10% recurrent sinusitis and
7% miscellaneous
Exclusion criteria: None stated
Participant characteristics: Average age of
patients was 45 years (range 2–89) and
the male:female ratio was 56:44.
Duration of symptoms and number of
previous sinus procedures were not
reported
Bilateral disease/surgery: Not stated
Primary and secondary
outcome measures
used: Complications
and relief of symptoms
Method of assessing
outcomes: ENT
surgeon record of
surgical outcomes at
follow-up visit
Length of follow-up:
Maximum of 6 months
Results
Methodological comments
Percentage of patients asymptomatic/improved at
6 months was as follows:
●
●
Primary symptom
Blockage
Pain
Discharge
Polyposis
Conventional
FESS
70
47
47
82
84
75
76
82
Patients diagnosed with nasal polyps reported
symptomatic improvements whether having
conventional or functional endoscopic surgery.
Complication rates were 0.75% for conventional
surgery and 1.41% for FESS. For FESS the following
complications were noted: numbness of upper
teeth (n = 2), periorbital bruising (n = 2), orbital
fat exposure (n = 5) and single complications such
as orbital emphysema, secondary haemorrhage,
palatal ulceration, sphenopalatine haemorrhage,
sphenopalatine adhesions and primary
haemorrhage. For conventional surgery the
following complications were reported: exposure of
periorbital fat (n = 1), periorbital bruising (n = 2),
cheek oedema (n = 1), dental infection (n = 1),
diplopia (n = 1), anosmia (n = 1), septal perforation
(n = 1), secondary haemorrhage (n = 1), nasal
crusting (n = 1) plus one unspecified complication.
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
●
●
●
●
●
Allocation to treatment groups: historical study,
not randomised.
Blinding: no.
Comparability of treatment groups: uncertain,
no details of baseline characteristics are given.
All patients given same intervention?:
uncertain, no detailed description of what is
meant by the term FESS in each institution is
provided, many different centres and surgeons
were performing the procedure so it is highly
likely that it varied.
Loss to follow-up?: no, owing to retrospective
nature of study.
Sample size: No power calculations were
reported although sample appears adequate.
Method of data analysis: descriptive statistics
only.
General comments
●
●
●
●
Generalisability: low, inclusion and exclusion
criteria were not defined. Cannot determine
characteristics of patients or details of
procedures.
Main outcome measured independently: no.
Inter-centre variability: not assessed; this is a
large potential source of bias.
Conflicts of interest: funded by UK Department
of Health.
91
Appendix 5
Reference and
design
Intervention
Jankowski et al.,
199741
Treatment: Functional
Total number of patients:
ethmoidectomy compared to 37 functional ethmoidectomy
radical ethmoidectomy
39 radical nasalisation
(nasalisation)
Indication for surgery: Diffuse
Postoperative interventions
nasal polyposis
used: All patients received
Exclusion criteria: None stated
postoperative steroid spray
Participant characteristics:
(600 µg beclomethasone/
Functional ethmoidectomy group
day) and a single dose of
average age 44 years (range
depot corticosteroid
intramuscularly the day after 26–65), male:female ratio 20:9,
mean duration of symptoms 10.4
surgery
years (range 1–40), previous
Setting/type of anaesthesia:
surgery 15/29. For the
Not stated
nasalisation group average age
47.2 years (range 28–71), male
to female ratio 24:10, mean
duration of symptoms 13.7 years
(range 2–40), previous surgery
24/34.
France
Study design:
Retrospective
comparative
Subjects
Outcome measures
Primary and secondary outcome
measures used: Nasal functional
benefit, sense of smell, asthma
symptoms, postoperative steroid
use, revision surgery and
complications
Method of assessing outcomes: Benefit
and smell were measured on a
questionnaire including a 10-point
visual analogue scale posted to
patients (0 = no functional
improvement and 10 = recovered a
normally functioning nose)
Length of follow-up: Mean 34 months
(range 32–36) for nasalisation group
and 24 months (range 18–31) for the
functional ethmoidectomy group
Bilateral disease/surgery: 100%
Results
Overall functional benefit of surgery mean visual
analogue scale score was 8.8 ± 0.22 in the
nasalisation group compared with 5.92 ± 0.64 in
the ethmoidectomy group ( p = 0.0001). In the
nasalisation group 16/33 patients reported
regaining a normally functioning nose compared
with 3/29 in the ethmoidectomy group. In the
nasalisation group 31/34 patients compared with
23/29 in the ethmoidectomy group reported
having a decreased sense of smell. Asthma showed
greater improvement at 24 months in the
nasalisation than the ethmoidectomy group
( p = 0.04). In patients with nasal polyposis there
was no difference between groups in terms of
steroid use. In the nasalisation group 2/34 patients
and 4/29 in the ethmoidectomy group required
revision surgery within 2 years.
No intra-operative complications were reported
for either group. Three patients in the nasalisation
group experienced severe postoperative
headaches.
●
●
●
●
●
General comments
●
Methodological comments
●
●
92
Allocation to treatment groups: historical study,
non-randomised.
Blinding: no.
Comparability of treatment groups: similar for
age, sex and duration of symptoms. More
polyps in the functional ethmoidectomy group,
more asthma and prior surgery in the
nasalisation group. Patients were enrolled in
different time periods.
All patients given same intervention?: no, the
nasalisation procedure was standardised,
whereas the ethmoidectomy procedure varied
according to extent of disease. Both procedures
were performed by single surgeons.
Loss to follow-up?: yes, 5/34 patients in the
nasalisation group and 12/29 were not
accounted for at 24 months follow-up.
Sample size: no power calculations were
reported.
Method of data analysis: chi-squared or Fisher’s
exact test to compare proportions and
Mann–Whitney U-test to compare means. No
ITT performed.
●
●
●
Generalisability: medium, details of patient
group and procedures are provided, but few
data were available regarding exclusion criteria.
Main outcome measured independently: yes.
Inter-centre variability: not applicable.
Conflicts of interest: none stated.
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Reference and
design
Intervention
Subjects
Ünlü et al., 199445
Treatment: ESS
(Messerklinger techniques
preserving maxillary sinus
mucosa where possible and
middle meatal antrostomy
performed). CL (maxillary
sinus mucosa removed and
inferior metal antrostomy
opened)
Total number of patients:
ESS = 50
CL = 50
Turkey
Study design:
Retrospective
comparative
Postoperative interventions
used: None stated
Setting/type of anaesthesia:
Not stated
Outcome measures
Primary and secondary outcome
measures used: Patency,
postoperative relief of
symptoms, recurrent residual
Indication for surgery: Chronic/recurring
infection, postoperative
acute rhinosinusitis (8/37 in CL group
sequelae
with polyps and 14/40 in ESS group
with polyps)
Method of assessing outcomes:
Follow-up endoscopy; method
Exclusion criteria: Patients either with a
for assessing symptom
mucocele or who had undergone ESS
improvement not stated
following CL were excluded
Length of follow-up: Median CL
Participant characteristics: Average age
18 months (range 5–62) and
of patients was 40 years (range 18–65)
median ESS 13 months (range
in the ESS group. The male:female
3–36)
ratio was 20:17 in the CL group and
20:20 for ESS. Duration of symptoms
and number of previous sinus surgery
procedures were not reported
Bilateral disease/surgery: 13/37 (35%)
for the CL group and 20/40 (50%) for
ESS
Results
Total improvement in symptoms for the CL group
was 16/37 (43%) and 34/40 (85%) for the ESS
group. Marked improvement occurred in 3/37
(8%) of the CL group compared to 22/40 (55%) in
the ESS group. Mild improvement occurred for
13/37 (35%) in the CL group and 12/40 (30%) in
the ESS group. There was no change in symptoms
for 13/37 (35%) in the CL group and 3/40 (8%) in
the ESS group. Symptoms were worse following
surgery for 3/37 (8%) in the CL group and none in
the ESS group.
Recurrence of disease occurred for 5/37 (14%) of
the CL group and 3/40 (8%) of the ESS group.
Patency of the middle/inferior meatus occurred in
24/50 (48%) of CL sides and 52/60 (87%) ESS
sides.
Methodological comments
●
●
●
Allocation to treatment groups: historical study,
non-randomised, although retrospective cases
were randomly selected.
Blinding: no.
Comparability of treatment groups: uncertain,
similar for age, sex presence of allergy and
●
●
●
●
asthma. A significantly longer period had passes
since surgery to time of evaluation for the CL
group. More ESS patients had bilateral
disease/procedure.
All patients given same intervention?: no,
details of the procedure were not provided. It is
likely that procedures varied during the 7-year
study inclusion period.
Loss to follow-up?: yes, 23/100 (23%) did not
return to be evaluated.
Sample size: no power calculations were
reported. It is possible that study did not have
sufficient power to detect a difference between
groups.
Method of data analysis: groups were compared
using Fisher’s exact test, chi-squared test and
t-tests for unpaired groups.
General comments
●
●
●
●
Generalisability: low, inclusion and exclusion
criteria were not defined. Cannot determine
details of procedures. The results of the CL
procedure are of limited generalisability.
Main outcome measured independently: no.
Inter-centre variability: not applicable.
Conflicts of interest: none stated.
93
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Appendix 6
Data extraction tables – case series studies
where all patients have nasal polyps
Reference and
design
Intervention
Subjects
Klossek et al.,
199755
Treatment: Bilateral total
sphenoethmoidectomy with
wide middle antrostomies
and frontal irrigation
Total number of patients: 50
USA, France and
Canada
Study design: Case
series
Outcome measures
Primary and secondary outcome
measures used: Improvement in
Indication for surgery: Extensive
symptoms, complications,
nasal polyposis with hyperplastic
medication use, polyp recurrence
disease involving all sinuses and
Postoperative interventions
no response to therapy (stage 4) Method of assessing outcomes:
used: Topical steroids 2× daily
Clinical symptoms were recorded at
Exclusion criteria: Not stated
(4 mg prednisolone), longeach follow-up visit by a subjective
term topical beclomethasone Participant characteristics: mean questionnaire. Improvement scales
age 46.7 years (range 18–66),
2× daily
were classified as no improvement,
male:female ratio 27:23.
mild improvement and marked
Setting/type of anaesthesia:
Duration of symptoms and
improvement. Endoscopic
Not stated
previous surgery were not
examination
reported. 12/50 patients had
Length of follow-up: For at least 3
asthma alone, 14 had ASA triad
years
and 21 had asthma and allergy
Bilateral disease/surgery: 100%
Results
Overall, 96% of patients reported an improvement
in symptoms at the time of their final follow-up
visit. At 3-year follow-up 46/50 were free of nasal
obstruction, 39/50 retained sense of smell, 14/48
were free of post-nasal discharge. Sixteen of 47
patients with asthma had reductions in their
medical therapy for asthma. Polyps recurred in 3%
of posterior ethmoids, 23% of anterior ethmoids
and 49% of frontal recesses.
●
●
●
General comments
●
No major complications were encountered.
Methodological comments
●
●
Prospective?: yes.
Consecutive patients enrolled?: uncertain.
All patients given same intervention?: yes, same
surgeon performed all surgeries, all patients
received same procedure.
Loss to follow-up?: no, three patients who
received frontal surgery were not able to be
reported on objectively as they had a unilateral
absence of a frontal sinus.
Method of data analysis: descriptive data only.
●
●
●
Generalisability: low, no exclusion/inclusion
criteria provided, only generalisable to patients
with extensive nasal polyposis (stage 4).
Main outcome measured independently: yes.
Inter-centre variability: not assessed.
Conflicts of interest: none stated.
95
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
Appendix 6
Reference and
design
Intervention
Stoop et al., 199246 Treatment: Endoscopic sinus
surgery
The Netherlands
Postoperative interventions
Study design: Case
used: Topical corticosteroids
series
(budesonide 400 µg daily)
Setting/type of anaesthesia:
Not stated
Subjects
Outcome measures
Total number of patients: 72
Primary and secondary outcome
measures used: Polyp recurrence
Indication for surgery: Nasal
polyps (extensive polyposis 44%) Method of assessing outcomes: Not
stated
Exclusion criteria: Not stated
Length of follow-up: 6–12 months
Participant characteristics: mean
age 44 years (range 16–72).
Male:female ratio, duration of
symptoms and previous surgery
were not reported. 28% had
allergy, 44% asthma/bronchitis/
emphysema, allergy and asthma
18%
Bilateral disease/surgery: Not
stated
Results
●
Polyp recurrence at 6 months was 36/72 (50%) of
patients, and at 12 months was 40/72 (56%). Only
in patients with extensive polyposis and an IgEmediated allergy a significantly higher recurrence
rate was found at 1 year (9/11, 82%) compared to
the remaining group (combinations of polyposis,
allergy and asthma; p = 0.05).
●
General comments
●
●
●
Methodological comments
●
●
●
96
Prospective?: yes.
Consecutive patients enrolled?: uncertain.
All patients given same intervention?:
uncertain, no details of procedure are provided.
Loss to follow-up?: no for clinical data.
Method of data analysis: descriptive data only.
●
Generalisability: low, no exclusion/inclusion
criteria provided.
Main outcome measured independently:
uncertain.
Inter-centre variability: not applicable.
Conflicts of interest: no, funded by Dutch
Asthma Foundation.
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Reference and
design
Intervention
Subjects
Outcome measures
Ünlü et al., 199445
Treatment: ESS
(Messerklinger technique
preserving maxillary sinus
mucosa where possible and
middle meatal antrostomy
performed) and CL
(maxillary sinus mucosa
removed and inferior meatal
antrostomy opened)
Total number of patients:
ESS = 50
CL = 50
Primary and secondary outcome
measures used: Patency,
postoperative relief of symptoms,
recurrent residual infection,
postoperative sequelae
Turkey
Study design:
Retrospective
comparative study
Postoperative interventions
used: None stated.
Setting/type of anaesthesia:
Not stated
Indications for surgery:
Chronic/recurring acute
rhinosinusitis (8/37 in CL group
with polyps and 14/40 in ESS
group with polyps)
Exclusion criteria: Patients either
with a mucocele or who had
undergone ESS following CL
were excluded
Method of assessing outcomes:
Follow-up endoscopy, method for
assessing symptom improvement not
stated
Length of follow-up: Not stated
Participant characteristics:
Average age of patients was 40
years (range 18–65) in the CL
group and 36 years (range
18–68) in the ESS group. The
male:female ratio was 20:17 in
the CL group and 20:20 for ESS.
Duration of symptoms and
number of previous sinus
procedures were not reported
Bilateral disease/surgery: 13/37
(35%) for CL group and 20/40
(50%) for ESS group
Results
Total improvement in symptoms for the CL group
was 16/37 (43%) and for the ESS group 34/40
(85%). Marked improvement occurred in 3/37
(8%) of CL patients compared with 22/40 (55%) in
the ESS group. Mild improvement occurred for
13/37 (35%) in the CL group and 12/40 (30%) in
the ESS group. There was no change in symptoms
for 13/37 (35%) in the CL group and 3/40 (8%) in
the ESS group. Symptoms were worse following
surgery for 3/37 (8%) in the CL group and 0 in the
ESS group.
●
●
●
●
Recurrence of disease occurred for 5/37 (14%) of
the CL group and 3/40 (8%) of the ESS group.
Patency of the middle/inferior meatus occurred in
24/50 (48%) CL sides and 52/60 (87%) ESS sides.
General comments
●
Methodological comments
●
●
●
Allocation to treatment groups: historical study,
patients not randomised to groups, although
retrospective cases were selected randomly.
Blinding: no.
Comparability of treatment groups: yes for age,
sex, presence of allergy and asthma. A
significantly longer period had passed since
surgery to the time of evaluation for patients
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
who underwent CL. More patients in the ESS
group had bilateral disease/procedure.
All patients given same intervention?:
uncertain, no details of the procedure were
provided. It is likely that procedures varied
during the 7-year inclusion period.
Loss to follow-up?: no, owing to retrospective
nature of study.
Sample size: no power calculations were
reported. It is possible that the study did not
have sufficient power to detect a difference
between groups.
Method of data analysis: groups were compared
using Fisher’s exact test, chi-squared test and
t-tests for unpaired groups.
●
●
●
Generalisability: low, inclusion and exclusion
criteria were not defined. Cannot determine
details of procedures. The results of the CL
procedure are only generalisable to patients for
whom this procedure is indicated.
Main outcome measured independently:
uncertain.
Inter-centre variability: not applicable.
Conflicts of interest: none stated.
97
Appendix 6
Reference and
design
Intervention
Subjects
Outcome measures
Weber et al.,
199754
Treatment: Endonasal
microendoscopic pansinus
operation (method
previously described at
Hospital Fulda, Germany)
Total number of patients: 325
Primary and secondary outcome
measures used: Improvement in
symptoms, success, complications
Germany and India
Study design: Case
series
Postoperative interventions
used: Patients received
2 × 50 µg budesonide
(topical steroid) for several
months postoperatively
Indication for surgery: Bilateral
chronic polypoid ethmoid
sinusitis
Method of assessing outcomes:
Standard patient interview and
postoperative endoscopic
Participant characteristics: age,
examination (questionnaire was sent
sex, duration of symptoms and
to patients who failed to attend
previous surgery were not stated follow-up)
Exclusion criteria: None stated
Bilateral disease/surgery: 100%
Setting/type of anaesthesia:
Not stated
Results
Methodological comments
Eighty-nine per cent of patients stated
improvement or complete freedom from
complaints, 9% reported being unchanged and
2% reported impairment. The maxillary sinus
antrostomies appeared open endoscopically in
69% of patients followed up. Recurrently polyposis
in the ethmoid region was present on endoscopic
follow-up in 25% of patients, and 13% in the
maxillary sinus mucosa. An overall success rate of
92% was obtained from endoscopic follow-up and
subjective assessments.
●
●
●
●
●
Prospective?: no.
Consecutive patients enrolled? yes.
All patients given same intervention?:
uncertain, study involved 15 surgeons and two
centres.
Loss to follow-up?: yes, 155 patients did not
attend follow-up, of whom 22 returned their
questionnaires.
Method of data analysis: descriptive results only.
General comments
●
Of the 325 patients, severe bleeding arose in 30
cases and 12 patients required packed erythrocyte
concentrate transfusion. In 650 operations, 2.3%
had CSF leak, 1.4% lesion of periorbit, 0.8%
numbness of teeth or lips, 3.7% blood transfusion
and 0.3% had injury of internal carotid artery.
98
Length of follow-up: 20 months to
10 years
●
●
●
Generalisability: low, inclusion and exclusion
criteria were not defined.
Main outcome measured independently: no,
except for patients who failed to attend
follow-up.
Inter-centre variability: not assessed.
Conflicts of interest: none stated.
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Reference and
design
Intervention
Subjects
Outcome measures
Wigand and
Hosemann, 198922
Treatment: Endoscopic
ethmoidectomy (4 types,
exposure of ostio-meatal
complex, anterior or
posterior partial
ethmoidectomy and
complete ethmoidectomy)
Total number of patients: 220
Primary and secondary outcome
measures used: Subjective relief of
symptoms and morphological
recovery, complications
Germany
Study design: Case
series
Postoperative interventions
used: Not stated
Setting/type of anaesthesia:
Not stated
Indication for surgery: Nasal
polyposis
Exclusion criteria: Not stated
Method of assessing outcomes:
Participant characteristics: age,
Surgeon assessment
sex, duration of symptoms and
Length of follow-up: Not stated
previous surgery were not stated
Bilateral disease/surgery: Not
stated
Results
Methodological comments
According to subjective evaluation there was
complete success in 53/220 patients, successful
treatment in 54/220, improvement in 73, no
definite improvement in 27 and failure in 13.
Endoscopic evaluations revealed normal aspects in
88/168 ethmoid procedures, 123/129 sphenoid
procedures and 119/165 maxillary sinus
procedures. Recurrent polyposis was present on
postoperative endoscopic examination in 30/168
ethmoid procedures, 2/165 maxillary sinus
procedures and no sphenoid procedures.
●
A series of 600 ethmoidectomies were available for
the examination of complications. No major
complications were encountered. A total of 3% of
patients experienced loss of olfactory sensation,
0.3% CSF leak, 0.5% obstruction of lacriminal
duct and 0.5% postoperative meningitis.
●
●
●
●
●
Prospective?: uncertain.
Consecutive patients enrolled?: uncertain.
All patients given same intervention?: no,
extent of surgery varied according to severity of
disease.
Loss to follow-up?: uncertain.
Method of data analysis: descriptive data only.
General comments
●
●
●
Generalisability: low, no exclusion criteria were
reported. Only generalisable to patients with
nasal polyps.
Main outcome measured independently: no.
Inter-centre variability: not applicable.
Conflicts of interest: none stated.
99
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Appendix 7
Data extraction tables – case series studies with
mixed patients (polyps and non-polyps) but
results reported separately
Reference and
design
Intervention
Danielson and
Olofsson, 199639
Treatment: Endoscopic
Total number of patients: 230
endonasal surgery exclusively
Indications for surgery: Patients
based upon Messerklinger
with nasal/paranasal complaints
method
remitted for further treatment.
Postoperative interventions
39% sinusitis, 40% nasal
used: 60% of patients
polyposis
received steroid treatment
Exclusion criteria: None stated
postoperatively
Participant characteristics: Age
Setting/type of anaesthesia:
ranged 2–79 years, male: female
91% of patients were
ratio 125:105, 18/92 patients
operated on a day-care
with polyps had previous
outpatient basis
12 years surgery and mean
symptom period
Norway
Study design: Case
series
Subjects
Outcome measures
Primary and secondary outcome
measures used: Complications,
symptom score, mucosa properties
and recurrent polyps.
Method of assessing outcomes:
Subjective assessment by surgeon at
postoperative follow-up
consultations. Examination including
endoscopy. Follow-up questionnaire
where patients rated symptoms
(1 = absence of symptoms and
5 = worsened condition)
Length of follow-up: Mean follow-up
3 years 5 months
Bilateral disease/surgery: 42%
Results
Ninety-two patients were included in group 2, the
patients with nasal polyposis. These patients were
further classified into three stages; (1) polyps
visible in the middle meatus; (2) polyps
protruding from the middle meatus; and (3) large
polypoid masses occluding the nasal cavity. After
mean follow-up of 3 years 5 months, 3/18 in stage
1, 7/30 in stage 2 and 20/44 in stage 3 had
improved. On endoscopic follow-up, 8/18 in stage
1, 5/30 in stage 2 and 0/44 in stage 3 showed a
normal mucosa. 30/92 patients with polyps
improved, 25 slightly improved, 18 were
unchanged and none were worse.
The following peroperative complications
occurred: profuse bleeding (8/92) and perforation
of the papyraceous lamina (4/92). Postoperative
complications included 3/18 stage 1 patients with
scarring. Persisting polyps according to endoscopy
occurred in 5/18 stage 1, 12/30 stage 2 and 28/44
stage 3 patients. In all patients 10/230
experienced profuse bleeding and 6/230
perforation of papyraceous.
Methodological comments
●
●
●
●
●
Prospective?: yes.
Consecutive patients enrolled?: uncertain.
All patients given same intervention?: yes.
Loss to follow-up?: yes. At final follow-up
216/230 answered questionnaire plus attended
examination, 10 answered questionnaire only
and four had died.
Method of data analysis: descriptive statistics
only, no ITT performed.
General comments
●
●
●
●
Generalisability: low, details of inclusion and
exclusion criteria were not provided.
Main outcome measured independently: yes.
Inter-centre variability: not applicable.
Conflicts of interest: supported by Glaxo and
Syntex, Norway.
101
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
Appendix 7
Reference and
design
Intervention
Subjects
Outcome measures
Friedman et al.,
200025
Treatment: Frontal sinus
surgery with endoscope
Total number of patients: 200
USA
Postoperative interventions
used: None stated
Primary and secondary outcome
measures used: Patency,
complications, improvement in
symptoms, revision surgery
Study design: Case
series
Setting/type of anaesthesia:
Not reported
Indication for surgery: Persistent
chronic sinusitis. Polyposis in
68/200 patients
Exclusion criteria: Patients with
prior ethmoidectomy were
included and patients with prior
frontal sinus surgery were
excluded
Participant characteristics: Mean
age 41 years (range 14–76) and
30/200 had undergone previous
surgery. Gender and duration of
symptoms were not reported
Method of assessing outcomes:
Follow-up endoscopic examination
with transillumination. Patient
reports of improvement at follow-up
(significant improvement, some
improvement, little or no
improvement, worsening)
Length of follow-up: Mean 12.2
months (range 6–30.5)
Bilateral disease/surgery: 49%
Results
Methodological comments
Postoperative assessment of patency by placing a
flexible endoscope below the frontal ostium
showed positive illumination in 68/200 frontal
sinuses. In patients with polypoid disease, 61/68
showed positive illumination. There were 151/200
patients who reported significant improvement, 31
reported some improvement, 16 reported little or
no improvement and two felt worse after surgery.
Eleven of 298 patients required revision surgery.
●
●
●
●
●
General comments
●
Three patients had periorbital fat exposure
intraoperatively. Minor complications included
symptomatic middle turbinate lateralisation (6),
postoperative bleeding (5) and septal haematoma
(4). No major complications were reported.
●
●
●
102
Prospective?: no.
Consecutive patients enrolled?: yes.
All patients given same intervention?: no, two
separate techniques are described for different
stages of disease.
Loss to follow-up?: no.
Method of data analysis: descriptive data only.
Generalisability: medium, results are only
generalisable to patients undergoing frontal
surgery and are not generalisable to revision
frontal surgery.
Main outcome measured independently:
uncertain.
Inter-centre variability: not applicable.
Conflicts of interest: none stated.
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Reference and
design
Intervention
Subjects
Jacobs, 199729
Treatment: Endoscopic
ethmoidectomy with frontal
sinusotomies, using modified
Messerklinger approach
Total number of patients: 112
USA
Study design: Case
series
Postoperative interventions
used: Steroid nasal inhaler
was used for 5 days
postoperatively
Setting/type of anaesthesia:
Setting not stated, usually
general anaesthesia
Outcome measures
Primary and secondary outcome
measures used: Improved symptoms,
Indications for surgery: 30 patients
residual disease, patency,
with diffuse sinonasal polyposis,
complications
21 with middle meatal polyposis,
21 with encroaching cells, 15
Method of assessing outcomes:
hyperplastic sinusitis, 10 frontal Routine examinations including
recess stenosis and 4 frontal
endoscopic examination at 6 months.
mucocele
Patients self-rating of improvement
in symptoms (interview) on a scale
Exclusion criteria: Excluded
of significant, some, none or worse.
patients without a minimum of
6 months follow-up or if they
Length of follow-up: Mean follow-up
had less than 6 postoperative
16 months (range 6–42)
endoscopic evaluations
Participant characteristics: Age
range 17–72 years. 32/112 had
undergone previous surgery.
Gender and duration of
symptoms were not reported
Bilateral disease/surgery: Not
stated
Results
Methodological comments
In the 51 patients with polyps 37 reported
significant improvement in symptoms at the time
of final follow-up, nine reported some
improvements, and five reported little or no
improvement. No patients felt that they were
worse after surgery. For the 51 patients with polyps
there were 81 operative sites of which 61 were
abnormal due to the presence of residual disease
at follow-up. Patency to the ostium was present
postoperatively at 24 of 61 surgical sites. Overall
70/101 patients reported significant improvement,
15/101 some improvement and 16/101 no
improvement.
●
No major complications are reported in the study.
One patient experienced persistent postoperative
bleeding, one developed brief periorbital
ecchymoses and three patients had preorbital fat
exposure but no adverse effects.
●
●
●
●
Prospective?: no.
Consecutive patients enrolled?: uncertain.
All patients given same intervention?: no,
extent of surgery varied depending on extent of
disease.
Loss to follow-up?: yes, 11/112 were lost to
follow-up.
Method of data analysis: differences between
groups assessed using chi-squared test with
α = 0.05, no ITT performed.
General comments
●
●
●
●
Generalisability: medium, results are only
generalisable to patients undergoing
combination ethmoidectomy and frontal
sinusotomy. Details of inclusion criteria not
provided in detail.
Main outcome measured independently:
uncertain.
Inter-centre variability: not applicable.
Conflicts of interest: none stated.
103
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
Appendix 7
Reference and
design
Intervention
Subjects
Outcome measures
Jakobsen and
Svendstrup, 200040
Treatment: Functional
endoscopic sinus surgery
(according to principles
described by Stammberger)
Total number of patients: 237
Primary and secondary outcome
measures used: Improvement in
symptoms, polyp recurrence,
complications, revision surgery
Denmark
Study design: Case
series
Postoperative interventions
used: No postoperative
treatment stated
Setting/type of anaesthesia:
All patients received general
anaesthetic
Indications for surgery: Chronic
infectious sinusitis (n = 91),
varying degrees of nasal
polyps/polyposis (n = 146)
Exclusion criteria: Not stated
Participant characteristics:
male:female ratio 141:96,
average age 45.7 years (range
11–92). 24/237 patients had
previous nasal surgery. Average
duration of symptoms 9.3 years
(range 1–50)
Method of assessing outcomes:
Patients were asked about general
impression of symptoms at follow-up
such as lack of symptoms,
improvement, no improvement or
worsening
Length of follow-up: 1 year
Bilateral disease/surgery: 80%
104
Results
Methodological comments
Marked subjective improvement was seen in
patients with nasal polyps postoperatively for the
following symptoms: stenosis, anosmia, secretion,
maxillary pain, frontal pain and headache.
Recurrence of polyps was seen in 28% and
synechia in 20% of patients. Objective
improvement postoperatively was noted for nasal
stenosis, nasal discharge, polyps and pain. At 1year follow-up the overall number of patients
symptom free was 103/231, 102/231 felt better,
25/231 were unchanged and one patient felt worse
according to self-reports. At 1-year follow-up 43%
of nasal polyp patients reported having improved
symptoms, 50% reported being symptomless and
8% reported being unchanged. There were 21/237
patients requiring revision surgery.
●
Annoying bleeding was reported in 50/237 (21%)
of patients and rhinoliquorrhoe in 3/237 patients.
No significant operative complications regarding
orbita or the optic nerve were noted.
●
●
●
●
●
Prospective?: yes.
Consecutive patients enrolled?: yes.
All patients given same intervention?:
uncertain, extent of surgery varied with severity.
The minimum necessary surgical intervention
was undertaken to create ventilation and
drainage of affected sinuses.
All patients accounted for?: yes, 6/237 patients
were lost to follow-up.
Method of data analysis: only descriptive
statistics reported, no ITT performed.
General comments
●
●
●
Generalisability: low, difficult to determine
severity of disease and exact extent of surgery.
Main outcome measured independently:
uncertain.
Inter-centre variability: not applicable.
Conflicts of interest: not stated.
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Reference and
design
Intervention
Jiang and Hsu,
200153
Treatment: ESS involving an
Total number of patients: 1112
operation on or via at least
(GESS 171 aged 65 plus year,
one sinus with an endoscope FESS 837 aged 17–64 and PESS
104 aged 16 or younger)
Postoperative interventions
used: Not stated
Indication for surgery: Chronic
sinusitis, 628/1227 surgeries for
Setting/type of anaesthesia:
no polyps, 562/1227 surgeries
726/1227 (59%) were
for polyps, 37/1227 surgeries for
performed under local
choanal polyps
anaesthetic
Exclusion criteria: None stated
Taiwan
Study design: Case
series
Subjects
Outcome measures
Primary and secondary outcome
measures used: Complications,
improved symptoms
Method of assessing outcomes: File
review and questionnaire (improved
or unimproved symptoms)
Length of follow-up: For patients with
nasal polyps (n = 248) from 7 to 126
months
Participant characteristics: Overall
mean age for children of 12.6
years and adults 43.4 (range
5–84), male:female ratio
695:417, duration of symptoms
and previous surgery not
reported
Bilateral disease/surgery: 78%
Results
GESS (aged 65 plus years)
For 14/97 procedures for nasal polyps no symptoms
were reported postoperatively, 29 had improved,
three were unchanged and two reported that they
had worsened. For the two GESS procedures for
antrochoanal polyps (where answers to the survey
were available) both reported that their symptoms
had improved.
Complications occurred for 121/1227 procedures.
Orbital fat extrusion in 37 procedures and
periorbital exposure in seven, blood transfusion in
27 and epistaxis in 26. Surgery was halted owing
to pain in eight procedures, nasolacriminal duct
injury in six, dural exposure in two, CSF leak in
three, diplopia in three, atrophic rhinitis in one
and unremoved nasal pack in one.
FESS (aged 17–64)
For 16/418 procedures for nasal polyps no
symptoms were reported postoperatively, 129 had
improved, 25 were unchanged and seven reported
that they had worsened. Of the nine FESS
procedures for antrochoanal polyps (where
answers to the survey were available) two reported
no symptoms, six had improved and one reported
that they had worsened.
Methodological comments
●
●
●
●
●
PESS (aged 16 years or younger)
For 3/47 procedures for nasal polyps no symptoms
were reported postoperatively, 16 had improved,
two were unchanged and one reported that they
had worsened. Of the seven PESS procedures for
antrochoanal polyps (where answers to the survey
were available) one reported no symptoms and
five had improved.
Prospective?: no.
Consecutive patients enrolled?: no.
All patients given same intervention?: no,
unlikely that same surgeon performed all
procedures, extent of surgery varied with
severity of disease.
Loss to follow-up?: yes, 1112 questionnaires
were sent to patients and 547 were returned.
Method of data analysis: descriptive analysis
only.
General comments
●
●
●
●
Generalisability: low, exclusion criteria were not
stated.
Main outcome measured independently: yes.
Inter-centre variability: not applicable.
Conflicts of interest: none stated.
105
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
Appendix 7
Reference and
design
Intervention
Subjects
Outcome measures
Katsantonis et al.,
199423
Treatment: Modified
Yankauer
sphenoethmoidectomy
technique (marsupialisation:
removal of middle turbinate,
complete extirpation of
anterior ethmoid cells and an
extended middle meatal
maxillary antrostomy)
Total number of patients: 972
Primary and secondary outcome
measures used: Recurrent rates,
complications
USA
Study design: Case
series
Postoperative interventions
used: Not stated
Setting/type of anaesthesia:
Usually local anaesthesia
Indication for surgery: Chronic
hyperplastic rhinosinusitis,
recurrent nasal polyposis,
sinobronchial syndrome, and
recurrent purulent pansinusitis
Exclusion criteria: Not stated
Method of assessing outcomes:
Follow-up examination
Length of follow-up: 6–30 months,
mean 14 months
Participant characteristics: Age,
sex, duration of symptoms and
previous surgery were not
stated. 260/972 patients were
asthmatics
Bilateral disease/surgery: Not
stated
Results
Methodological comments
Results are provided for the following stages:
(1) single focus disease; (2) multifocal but not
contiguous; (3) complete and contiguous
opacification of the ethmoid with or without
maxillary, frontal and sphenoid sinus involvement;
partially responsive to medication and
(4) contiguous disease-associated demineralisation
of ethmoidal cells septi and or massive
involvement of all paranasal sinuses; nonresponsive to medication.
●
Recurrence rates for stage 2 were 30/512, stage 3
44/270 and stage 4 46/190 patients.
General comments
There was one major complication which was an
orbital haematoma and there were 11 minor
complications which included asthma (4),
periorbital oedema (1), epistaxis (2) and
crusting (4).
106
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
Prospective?: no.
Consecutive patients enrolled?: no, not all
patients were followed up.
All patients given same intervention?: no,
extent of surgery depended on severity of
disease.
Loss to follow-up?: uncertain, not all patients
undergoing procedure were included in study
(only 972/1085 patients).
Method of data analysis: descriptive results only.
Generalisability: low, owing to lack of exclusion
criteria. Results are only generalisable to
patients undergoing sphenoethmoidectomy
procedures.
Main outcome measured independently: no.
Inter-centre variability: not assessed.
Conflicts of interest: none stated.
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Reference and
design
Intervention
Kennedy, 199230
Treatment: Endoscopic
Total number of patients: 120
ethmoid surgery. In some
Indication for surgery: Noncases a KTP/532 or
polypoid disease (49/120),
holmium:YAG laser was used
middle meatal polyposis (37/120)
Postoperative interventions
and diffuse polyposis (34/120)
used: Polypoid patients
Exclusion criteria: Patients were
restarting oral prednisone
excluded if they did not return
prior to surgery had this
for follow-up examination
treatment tapered
Participant characteristics: Age
postoperatively
range 15–77 years and 85/120
Setting/type of anaesthesia:
patients had undergone previous
Almost all procedures were
surgery. Gender and duration of
performed under local
symptoms were not stated
anaesthesia
Bilateral disease/surgery: Not
stated
USA
Study design: Case
series
Subjects
Outcome measures
Results
An improvement in symptoms was reported in
97.5% of patients at the time of the final follow-up
examination (85% marked improvement, 12.5%
mild improvement, 2.5% no improvement or
worse). Forty-five per cent of operated sides were
abnormal on follow-up with endoscopy. Evidence
of residual or recurrent polyposis was seen in 5%
of the cavities operated on at final examination.
Five of 120 patients underwent residual ethmoid
surgery.
No major complications were encountered. One
patient developed mild bronchospasm during the
procedure but this did not require termination.
Methodological comments
●
●
●
Prospective?: data collection was both
retrospective and prospective.
Consecutive patients enrolled?: uncertain.
All patients given same intervention?: no,
extent of surgery varied according to extent of
●
●
Primary and secondary outcome
measures used: Improvement in
symptoms, healing of nasal cavity,
revision surgery
Method of assessing outcomes:
Follow-up nasal endoscopy, patient
postoperative questionnaire asking
them to scale their overall
improvement and improvement for
specific symptoms (either posted or
given at follow-up) as no
improvement (25%), mild
improvement (25–50%), marked
improvement (>50%)
Length of follow-up: Mean period of
endoscopic follow-up was 18
months (range 3–51)
disease, in some cases a laser was used.
Adjunctive medical therapy also varied
according to extent of disease.
Loss to follow-up?: yes, patients who were
excluded because they did not return for followup did not differ significantly in their subjective
symptom improvement scores from those who
did return.
Method of data analysis: the retrospective
patients did not differ significantly from the
prospective patients in their subjective symptom
improvement scores. Results were descriptive,
odds ratios and chi-squared values were
provided.
General comments
●
●
●
●
Generalisability: medium, few details of
exclusion/inclusion criteria provided.
Main outcome measured independently: yes.
Inter-centre variability: not assessed, some
patient data were collected in Egypt.
Conflicts of interest: none stated.
107
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
Appendix 7
Reference and
design
Intervention
Lawson, 199131
Treatment: Conventional
Total number of patients: 90
intranasal ethmoidectomy
Indication for surgery: Focal (21),
with endoscope, modification
pansinusitis (9), panpolyposis
of Yankauer technique
(24), asthma/sinusitis (7),
Postoperative interventions
asthma/polyps (29)
used: Steroid use not
Exclusion criteria: Patients who
reported postoperatively
could not be reached by mail or
Setting/type of anaesthesia:
telephone to participate in
Local or general anaesthesia follow-up
USA
Study design: Case
series
Subjects
Outcome measures
Participant characteristics: mean
age 48.8 years (range 21–81),
male:female ratio 60:30 and
36/90 patients had previous
surgery. Duration of symptoms
was not reported
Primary and secondary outcome
measures used: Surgical success,
disease recurrence, improved
symptoms, complications
Method of assessing outcomes:
Follow-up examination by surgeon.
Patient rating of improvement of
symptoms at follow-up (improved,
unchanged or worse)
Length of follow-up: mean 42 months
(range 2–14 years)
Bilateral disease/surgery: 79%
Results
Success rate 73%: focal disease 90%, diffuse
sinusitis 100%, pansinusitis and asthma 57%,
asthmatics and panpolyposis 48%. Recurrence
rates for asthma–aspirin sensitivity–nasal polyp
triad were 44%. Of those with asthma, 33%
reported improved symptoms after surgery, 66%
unchanged and 10% worse. Nineteen of 90
experienced recurrent polyp disease.
Complications of 1077 procedures included CSF
leaks (3), orbital haematomas (2), periorbital
ecchymosis and emphysema (3), haemorrhages
(2), epiphora (2). Overall incidence of
complications: 1.1%.
Methodological comments
●
●
108
Prospective?: yes, for follow-up questionnaire.
Consecutive patients enrolled?: no.
●
●
●
All patients given same intervention?:
uncertain, the study selects patients who
underwent surgery retrospectively so technique
is likely to have varied, dependent on disease
location and severity.
Loss to follow-up?: uncertain, only 90 of the
1077 procedures performed were able to be
followed up and included in the study.
Method of data analysis: no ITT performed,
and there was significant loss to follow-up.
General comments
●
●
●
●
Generalisability: medium, owing to only a small
proportion of the sample being followed.
Main outcome measured independently:
uncertain.
Inter-centre variability: not applicable.
Conflicts of interest: none stated.
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Reference and
design
Intervention
Subjects
Outcome measures
Levine, 199032
Treatment: FESS modified
Messerklinger technique,
some patients with massive
polyps had them debulked
with a KTP/532 laser
Total number of patients: 250
Primary and secondary outcome
measures used: Improvement in
symptoms, mean blood loss,
complications, polyp recurrence,
revision surgery
USA
Study design: Case
series
Postoperative interventions
used: Aqueous
beclomethasone nasal spray
for postoperative polypoid
changes without crusts
Setting/type of anaesthesia:
208/250 under local
anaesthesia
Indication for surgery: Sinonasal
polyposis (131), chronic sinusitis
(119)
Exclusion criteria: None stated
Participant characteristics: Age,
sex and duration of symptoms
were not reported. 13/250 had
had previous surgery.
Method of assessing outcomes:
Symptoms by asking patients,
surgeon assessments
Length of follow-up: From 12 to 42
months (mean 17)
Bilateral disease/surgery: 83%
Results
Methodological comments
Ten patients underwent revision surgery. Thirtynine of 221 patients felt that their surgery was a
failure and that symptoms were no better. Three
felt worse after surgery. Eighteen of 221 patients
had persistent symptomatic polyps and 21/221
had asymptomatic polyps post-surgery.
Considering only the patients with an original
diagnosis of polyps, 101/115 were successfully
treated.
●
Mean blood loss was 65 ml (range 25–200 ml).
Three patients were readmitted to hospital within
10 days of FESS for bleeding. Three patients
developed unilateral eye ecchymoses and 17
developed symptomatic middle meatal stenosis.
General comments
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
Prospective?: no.
Consecutive patients enrolled?: uncertain.
All patients given same intervention?: no, same
surgeon did perform all procedures but surgery
varied according to extent of disease.
Loss to follow-up?: yes, 221/250 patients were
followed postoperatively.
Method of data analysis: no ITT performed.
Results were descriptive only.
Generalisability: low, no exclusion criteria given.
Main outcome measured independently:
uncertain.
Inter-centre variability: not applicable.
Conflicts of interest: none stated.
109
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
Appendix 7
Reference and
design
Intervention
Subjects
Outcome measures
Lund and MacKay,
199438
Treatment: Endoscopic sinus
surgery (functional for
chronic and acute sinusitis)
Total number of patients: 650
Primary and secondary outcome
measures used: improvement in
symptoms, revision surgery,
complications
UK
Study design: Case
series
Indications for surgery: Chronic
rhinosinusitis (51%), gross
Postoperative interventions
polyposis (47%) and acute
used: Postoperative intranasal recurrent rhinosinusitis (2%)
steroids for all and oral
Exclusion criteria: Those included
steroid therapy for polyp
had similar surgery and were
patients, antibiotics
available for 6-month follow-up
Setting/type of anaesthesia:
Participant characteristics: Age,
General anaesthesia 97%
sex, duration of symptoms and
previous surgery were not
reported
Method of assessing outcomes: Patient
rating of symptoms at 6 months
follow-up as cured, improved, the
same or worse. Surgeons assessment
and follow-up endoscopy
Length of follow-up: 6 months
Bilateral disease/surgery: Not
stated
Results
After 6 months, 78% of patients reported that they
had improved, 9% that they were cured, 11%
unchanged and 2% worse. There was no difference
between patients with chronic rhinosinusitis and
diffuse polyposis. 3% of patients underwent
revision surgery within 6 months.
●
●
●
General comments
●
Of the 650 patients, one developed a CSF leak
and one an orbital haematoma. No cases of
diplopia, blindness, meningitis or death were
noted.
●
●
●
Methodological comments
●
●
110
Prospective?: no.
Consecutive patients enrolled?: uncertain.
All patients given same intervention?: no,
extent of surgery varied with extent of disease.
Loss to follow-up?: no.
Method of data analysis: Descriptive results
only.
Generalisability: low, unclear exclusion and
inclusion criteria.
Main outcome measured independently:
uncertain.
Inter-centre variability: not applicable.
Conflicts of interest: none stated.
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Reference and
design
Intervention
Subjects
Outcome measures
Massegur et al.,
199542
Treatment: Endoscopic
ethmoidal surgery (modified
Messerklinger and
Stammberger technique)
Total number of patients: 250
Primary and secondary outcome
measures used: Disease recurrence,
improvement, revision surgery,
complications
Spain
Study design: Case
series
Postoperative interventions
used: Postoperative saline
rinse, beclomethasone or
budesonide spray 2× daily
Setting/type of anaesthesia:
30 general anaesthetic, 110
sedated + local anaesthetic,
110 general and topical
Indications for surgery:
29 antrochoanal polyps,
62 polyposis and ASA sensitivity,
112 polyposis non-ASA,
34 chronic suppurative sinusitis,
7 mucoceles, 1 schwannoma and
5 aspergillomas
Exclusion criteria: None stated
Participant characteristics: Age,
sex and duration of symptoms
were not reported. 58/250
patients had had previous
surgery
Method of assessing outcomes:
Postoperative patient questionnaire
containing subjective assessment of
nasal obstruction, smell and
discharge along with objective
assessment of recurrence, synechia
and patency. Follow-up endoscopy
Length of follow-up: Minimum 1 year,
maximum 4 years
Bilateral disease/surgery: 70%
Results
Methodological comments
Marked improvement was noted in 93% of
patients with antrochoanal polyps, 48% with ASA
polyps, 65% polyps and asthma and 90% polyps
without asthma. Fourteen of 250 patients required
revision surgery.
●
●
●
●
The following complications occurred:
postoperative epistaxis (6 patients), temporary
diplopia (2), palpebral haematomas (5), asthma
attacks (2), epiphora (2), CFS leak (1), cardiac
arrest (1), partial closures of middle meatal
antrostomy (10).
●
Prospective?: no.
Consecutive patients enrolled?: uncertain.
All patients given same intervention?: no,
surgical procedure varied according to
indication and extent of disease.
Loss to follow-up?: no.
Method of data analysis: descriptive statistics
only.
General comments
●
●
●
●
Generalisability: low, exclusion criteria were not
defined.
Main outcome measured independently: yes.
Inter-centre variability: not applicable.
Conflicts of interest: none stated.
111
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
Appendix 7
Reference and
design
Intervention
Moses et al., 199833 Treatment: FESS revision
surgery
USA
Postoperative interventions
Study design: Case
used: Not stated
series
Setting/type of anaesthesia:
Not stated
Subjects
Outcome measures
Total number of patients: 90
Primary and secondary outcome
measures used: Success, additional
surgery required, complications
Indication for surgery: Polyposis
(50)
Exclusion criteria: Patients with
sinonasal or skull base cancer,
inverting papilloma or traumarelated conditions were
excluded
Method of assessing outcomes:
Standard postoperative follow-up
Length of follow-up: Patients were
followed for a mean of 22.8 months
(range 8–44)
Participant characteristics: Median
age 42 years (range 20–77),
male:female ratio 36:54, all
patients had had previous FESS
surgery, median interval since
previous surgery 19 months.
35/90 patients had asthma, 33/90
had allergy, 37/90 had frontal
sinus disease
Bilateral disease/surgery: Not
stated
Results
Sixty of 90 patients were successfully treated with a
single procedure; 30/90 patients required
additional sinus surgery. Of the 50 patients with
polyps, 21 were failures (required further sinus
surgery).
Complications consisted of one CSF leak.
●
●
General comments
●
Methodological comments
●
●
●
112
Prospective?: no.
Consecutive patients enrolled?: no, only
revision FESS procedures were selected from
the series to report.
All patients given same intervention?:
uncertain, three surgeons performed all
procedures, although it is likely that extent of
surgery varied with severity of disease.
Loss to follow-up?: no.
Method of data analysis: chi-squared analysis to
determine the significant of clinical parameters.
●
●
●
Generalisability: low, results are only
generalisable to patients who have already had
previous sinus surgery, unclear description of
patient group.
Main outcome measured independently: no.
Inter-centre variability: not applicable.
Conflicts of interest: none stated.
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Reference and
design
Intervention
Nishioka et al.,
199434
Treatment: FESS modification Total number of patients: 283
of Messerklinger technique,
Indication for surgery: Chronic
with liberal use of a partial
sinusitis. Polyps were present in
middle turbinectomy
47.5% of sides for the nonPostoperative interventions
allergic group and 50.8% of sides
used: Intranasal steroids for
for allergic patients
at least 6 months
Exclusion criteria: Patients with
Setting/type of anaesthesia:
cystic fibrosis and immotile-cilia
Not stated
syndrome were excluded.
USA
Study design: Case
series
Subjects
Outcome measures
Primary and secondary outcome
measures used: Patency, synechiae
formation, polyp recurrence
Method of assessing outcomes:
Surgeon assessment
Length of follow-up: Mean follow-up
14.9 months (range 0.75–44.3)
Participant characteristics: Mean
age 44 years (range 4–83),
male:female ratio 161:122.
Duration of symptoms and
previous surgery were not
reported. 211/283 patients were
non-allergic, 72/283 had allergy,
5 of the allergic patients had ASA
triad
Bilateral disease/surgery: 86%
Results
●
The rate of middle meatotomy closure was 13/211
non-allergic patients and 6/72 allergic patients.
Synechiae formed in 31/211 non-allergic patients
and 9/72 allergic patients. The prevalence of polyp
recurrence in non-allergic patients was 17/101 and
in allergic patients 14/39.
●
Methodological comments
●
●
●
●
Prospective?: uncertain.
Consecutive patients enrolled?: yes.
All patients given same intervention?: uncertain
if same surgeon performed all procedures, if
standard procedure changed over time and if
extent of surgery was dependent on severity of
disease.
Loss to follow-up?: no.
Method of data analysis: no confidence intervals
were given. Likelihood ratios were calculated,
chi-squared for differences ( p < 0.05), direct
comparison of seasonal versus perennial allergic
groups by Fisher’s exact test.
General comments
●
●
●
Generalisability: medium, results would not be
generalisable to patients with cystic fibrosis or
immotile-cilia syndrome.
Main outcome measured independently: no.
Inter-centre variability: not assessed.
Conflicts of interest: none stated.
113
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
Appendix 7
Reference and
design
Intervention
Subjects
Outcome measures
Sobol et al., 199849
Treatment: FESS performed
using a standard technique
by addressing the
obstruction at the
osteomeatal complex.
Anterior and posterior
ethmoidectomies were
performed in all cases.
Microdebrider used in some
cases
Total number of patients: 393
Primary and secondary outcome
measures used: Complications,
success, revision surgery
Canada
Study design: Case
series
Postoperative interventions
used: Not stated
Setting/type of anaesthesia:
Not stated
Indication for surgery: All patients
had chronic sinusitis, 185/393
(47%) with polyposis
Exclusion criteria: Not stated
Method of assessing outcomes: Chart
review, physician follow-up
assessment and telephone follow-up.
Patient report was obtained at 6and 12-month postoperative followups
Participant characteristics: Mean
age 45 years (range 17–77),
male:female ratio 195:198 and
31.9% had had previous surgery.
Length of follow-up: Follow-up at
History of asthma in 29.5%,
6 months for 344 patients and at
aspirin sensitivity 10.9% and
12 months for 267 patients
allergy in 34.6%. Duration of
symptoms not reported
Bilateral disease/surgery: Not
stated
Results
Sixteen of 393 patients required revision surgery
within 1 year. At 6 months follow-up, 277/344
patients reported a positive outcome and 67/344
reported a negative outcome. At 12 months followup, 186/267 reported a positive outcome and
81/267 a negative outcome.
Complications occurred in 4/393 patients: CSF
leak (1), orbital cellulitis (2) and bacterial
meningitis (1).
Methodological comments
●
●
114
Prospective?: no.
Consecutive patients enrolled?: uncertain.
●
●
●
All patients given same intervention?: no,
extent of surgery varied with disease severity.
Loss to follow-up?: yes, 33/393 (8.4%) were lost
to follow-up, 49/393 failed to attend 6-month
follow-up and 126/393 failed to attend 12month follow-up.
Method of data analysis: chi-squared analysis
was performed ( p = 0.05). No ITT performed.
General comments
●
●
●
●
Generalisability: low, no exclusion criteria were
provided.
Main outcome measured independently: no.
Inter-centre variability: not applicable.
Conflicts of interest: none stated.
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Reference and
design
Intervention
Subjects
Outcome measures
Venkatachalam and
Bhat, 1999–200050
Treatment: FESS, classical
Messerklinger technique
Total number of patients: 210
New Delhi
Postoperative interventions
used: Not stated
Primary and secondary outcome
measures used: Complications,
improvement in symptoms
Study design: Case
series
Setting/type of anaesthesia:
Local anaesthesia
Indication for surgery: Chronic
hyperplastic sinusitis, 27 with
ethmoidal polyps and 39 with
antrochoanal polyps
Exclusion criteria: None stated
Participant characteristics:
majority were aged 31–40 years
(range 7–66), male:female ratio
122:88, duration of symptoms
was most commonly 6–24
months (range 6 months–25
years), 39/210 had previous
surgery
Method of assessing outcomes:
Unclear, physician assessment.
Complete relief 90–100%
betterment, partial relief 50–90%
betterment and poor <50%
betterment
Length of follow-up: 9–33 months
(mean 18.3 months)
Bilateral disease/surgery: Not
stated
Results
There was complete relief of symptoms in 147/210
patients, 39/210 had partial relief and 15/210 had
poor/no relief. Of those patients with partial relief,
14/39 had recurrence of polyps identified during
follow-up.
The only major complications were injury to the
lamina papyracea in two patients. Minor
complications included bleeding in 12 patients
and postoperative synechia in 18 patients.
Methodological comments
●
●
Prospective?: uncertain.
Consecutive patients enrolled?: uncertain.
●
●
●
All patients given same intervention?: no,
extent of surgery varied with disease severity.
Loss to follow-up?: yes, 9/210 were lost to
follow-up.
Method of data analysis: descriptive data only,
no ITT performed.
General comments
●
●
●
●
Generalisability: low, no exclusion criteria
reported.
Main outcome measured independently:
uncertain.
Inter-centre variability: not applicable.
Conflicts of interest: none stated.
115
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
Appendix 7
Reference and
design
Intervention
Subjects
Outcome measures
Wolf et al., 199543
Treatment: Endoscopic
endonasal sinus surgery (as
described by Messerklinger
and Stammberger)
Total number of patients: 124
Primary and secondary outcome
measures used: Success relieving
symptoms, recurrence and
complications
Austria
Study design: Case
series
Postoperative interventions
used: Antibiotics and topical
corticosteroids
Setting/type of anaesthesia:
45% local anaesthesia
Indications for surgery: Chronic
recurring sinusitis (n = 71),
chronic recurring sinusitis with
diffuse polyposis and/or
antrochoanal polyps (n = 53)
Exclusion criteria: Only children
were included
Participant characteristics: mean
age 12 years (range 3–16) and
male:female ratio 59:65.
Duration of symptoms was not
reported. 14/124 children had
had previous adenoidectomy
Method of assessing outcomes: Chart
review and questionnaire sent to
patients (attempted to determine
surgical success and relief of specific
symptoms)
Length of follow-up: Not stated
Bilateral disease/surgery: 63%
Results
Of the patients who returned the questionnaire
(n = 71), 53% noted complete resolution of
rhinorrhoea, 40% improved, 3% no difference and
3% worse. The sensations of nasal obstruction
were completely relieved in 31%, improved in
57%, no difference in 10% and worsened in 2%.
Recurrent infections were eliminated in 48%,
decreased in 43%, no change in 7% and increased
in 2%. Headache was relieved in 41%, improved in
44% and not changed in 15%. Pulmonary
symptoms were relieved in 50%, improved in 8%,
not significantly changed in 42% and worsened in
no patients. Persistent cough was relieved in 45%,
improved in 27% and no change in 27%. Twentyone of 124 had revision surgery of which 18/53
were for polyps.
Overall 41% were very satisfied, 46% satisfied, 13%
dissatisfied. Reoperation was necessary in 16% of
patients.
116
Problems encountered during surgery included
anatomical problems (n = 21), diffuse bleeding
(n = 13), pain (n = 1).
Methodological comments
●
●
●
●
●
Prospective?: no.
Consecutive patients enrolled?: uncertain.
All patients given same intervention?: no,
extent of surgery was determined by radiology
and intra-operative findings.
Loss to follow-up?: yes, response rate on the
questionnaire was 57%.
Method of data analysis: descriptive statistics
only.
General comments
●
●
●
●
Generalisability: low, no details of exclusion
criteria, generalisable only to children.
Main outcome measured independently: yes.
Inter-centre variability: not applicable.
Conflicts of interest: none stated.
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Appendix 8
Data extraction tables – case series studies with
mixed patients (polyps and non-polyps)
but results not reported separately
Reference and
design
Intervention
Subjects
Outcome measures
Davis et al., 199127
Treatment: FESS,
Messerklinger technique with
minor variations (partial
middle turbinectomy ±
septoplasty liberally
performed)
Total number of patients: 200
Primary and secondary outcome
measures used: Improvement in
symptoms, patient satisfaction,
complications, patency
USA
Study design: Case
series
Postoperative interventions
used: Topical steroids on
polypoid tissue, antibiotics
(oral and topical), steroid
nasal spray for <3 months
Indication for surgery: Chronic
sinusitis (200), chronic sinusitis
with polyps (103/200), chronic
sinusitis with polyps and allergy
(44/200)
Exclusion criteria: Patients with
CF and other syndromes were
excluded
Participant characteristics: age
range 4–83 years, sex, duration
Setting/type of anaesthesia:
of symptoms and previous
Inpatient or outpatient. Local
surgery not reported
or general anaesthesia
Bilateral disease/surgery: Not
stated
Results
Patency of the surgical meatus overall was 93.55%;
for those patients followed up to 3 years, patency
was 87.5%. Of the patients with polyps, 9.7%
(10/147) have closed. Of questionnaire responders
65/68 (96%) were improved or asymptomatic
1 year after their procedure; 61/68 (90%) would
undergo the procedure again. Sixteen of 147
polyp patients failed, 20/178 of all patients failed.
No major complications occurred. Minor
complications included periorbital fat
identification (6 patients), epiphora (1) and
synechiae formation (20).
●
●
●
●
●
Prospective?: yes.
Consecutive patients enrolled?: yes.
All patients given same intervention?: no,
extent of surgery varied with disease severity.
Length of follow-up: Up to 36 months
Loss to follow-up?: yes, 22/200 (11%) failed to
return for 3-month follow-up and were
eliminated from analysis. There were 116/200
(58%) patients who responded to questionnaire.
Method of data analysis: no ITT analysis
performed. The differences between groups
were assessed using z-tests of two means and
chi-squared.
General comments
●
●
Methodological comments
Method of assessing outcomes:
Surgeon assessment, patient
questionnaires asked patients if they
were asymptomatic, the same,
better or worse.
●
●
Generalisability: medium, cannot be generalised
to patients with CF or other syndromes. Details
of patients’ characteristics in this study were
sparse.
Main outcome measured independently: yes.
Inter-centre variability: not assessed, two
separate centres contributed patients.
Conflicts of interest: none stated.
117
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
Appendix 8
Reference and
design
Intervention
Subjects
Outcome measures
Delank and Stoll,
199848
Treatment: Bilateral FESS
according to methods
published by Wigand
Total number of patients: 115
Primary and secondary outcome
measures used: Olfaction
Germany
Study design: Case
series
Postoperative interventions
used: None stated
Setting/type of anaesthesia:
Not stated
Indication for surgery: Group A,
no endonasal polyps, slight
hypertrophy of turbinates (26);
group B, polyps restricted to
area between middles turbinate
and lateral nasal wall (29); group
C, polyps within the middle and
upper meatuses (46); group D,
subtotal or total blockage of the
nose by polyps (14)
Method of assessing outcomes:
Olfactory tests (psychophysical
methods, qualitative and
quantitative), patient questionnaire
assessing ability to taste and smell
Length of follow-up: Not stated
Exclusion criteria: Patients with
unilateral sinusitis and or
previous sinus surgery were
excluded. Patients with an
established allergy or history of
allergic rhinosinusitis were
excluded
Participant characteristics:
Average age 44 years (range
14–79), male:female ratio 63:52,
duration of olfactory dysfunction
average 10.5 months, patients
had had no previous sinus
surgery
Bilateral disease/surgery: Not
stated
Results
After FESS, improvements in the olfactory
threshold and or the olfactory discriminations
occurred in 70% (67/96) of anosmic or hyposmic
patients. Twenty per cent of patients achieved
postoperative normosmia. Hyposmic patients had
increased smell sensitivity in 38/60 (63%) of cases.
Improvement was most evident in groups A and B
(milder disease) with 18/25 benefiting from FESS.
Olfaction decreased postoperatively in 9/115 (8%)
patients.
Methodological comments
●
●
118
Prospective?: yes.
Consecutive patients enrolled?: uncertain.
●
●
●
All patients given same intervention?: no,
extent of surgery varied with extent of disease.
Not sure if all procedures were performed by
same surgeon.
Loss to follow-up?: no.
Method of data analysis: analysis was descriptive
only.
General comments
●
●
●
●
Generalisability: medium, results may not be
generalisable to those with unilateral disease,
allergy or previous surgery.
Main outcome measured independently: yes.
Inter-centre variability: not applicable.
Conflicts of interest: none stated.
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Reference and
design
Intervention
Subjects
Outcome measures
Friedman et al.,
200028
Treatment: ESS plus middle
turbinate medialisation.
Almost entirely using a
microdebrider
Total number of patients: 500
Primary and secondary outcome
measures used: Improvement in
symptoms, synechiae formation,
complications
USA
Study design: Case
series
Postoperative interventions
used: None stated
Setting/type of anaesthesia:
Not stated
Indication for surgery: Persistent
chronic sinusitis (364) or
polyposis (136)
Exclusion criteria: Patients who
had had previous endonasal
surgery were excluded
Participant characteristics: Age,
sex and duration of symptoms
were not reported. No patients
had had previous surgery
Method of assessing outcomes:
Patients were asked if their condition
had significantly improved, improved
somewhat, had not improved or was
worse. Endoscopic follow-up
Length of follow-up: Mean 10 months
(range 6–18)
Bilateral disease/surgery: 43%
Results
After surgery 390/500 patients reported significant
improvement, 72 reported some improvement, 34
noted little or no improvement and four felt worse
following surgery. After surgery 93% of patients
had middle turbinate medialisation with a welldefined synechia between the septum and middle
turbinate 4 weeks after surgery. Lateral synechiae
did not develop in 88% of patients.
One major complication occurred (CSF leakage).
The following minor complications occurred
postoperative bleeding (8) and septal haematoma
(5). Lateral synechia formation also occurred,
although numbers not given.
●
●
●
General comments
●
●
●
Methodological comments
●
●
All patients given same intervention?: uncertain
if all procedures were performed by a single
surgeon. It is likely that the extent of surgery
varied with disease severity.
Loss to follow-up?: no, owing to retrospective
design.
Method of data analysis: descriptive analysis
only.
●
Generalisability: medium, not generalisable to
patients who have undergone previous surgery,
may only be generalisable to patients
undergoing ESS with use of a debrider.
Main outcome measured independently: no.
Inter-centre variability: not applicable.
Conflicts of interest: none stated.
Prospective?: no.
Consecutive patients enrolled?: uncertain.
119
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
Appendix 8
Reference and
design
Intervention
Subjects
Outcome measures
Park et al., 199835
Treatment: FESS, in most
cases removing the uncinate
process, bulla ethmoidalis
and anterior ethmoid cells
Total number of patients: 79
Primary and secondary outcome
measures used: Complications,
improvement in symptoms,
hospitalisation and medication use
USA
Study design: Case
series
Indication for surgery: Medically
resistant chronic sinusitis or
recurrent acute sinusitis. 58/79
(73%) had obstructing nasal
polyposis
Postoperative interventions
used: Systemic steroids for
2 days post-surgery, 3 or
Exclusion criteria: Patients
more antibiotics for 3 weeks
without asthma
or more in most patients
Participant characteristics:
Setting/type of anaesthesia:
Average age 50 years (range
Not stated
6–81). Sex and duration of
symptoms were not reported.
56% of patients had had
previous sinus surgery. All
patients had asthma, 47%
Samter’s triad
Method of assessing outcomes: Patient
questionnaire, telephone contacts,
clinic evaluations and review of
medical records
Length of follow-up: Average followup 19 months (range 12–108)
Bilateral disease/surgery: Nearly
100%
Results
Methodological comments
Of 79 patients, 68 stated that FESS improved their
sinus symptoms. There was a statistically
significant improvement in the following
symptoms: nasal congestion, nasal drainage, postnasal drip, fever, bad breath, headaches, cough,
taste and smell disturbance ( p < 0.05). Congestion
in the ears and visual disturbances did not
significantly improve after surgery. There were
75% of patients who stated that they still had
persistent sinus symptoms after surgery. In
patients who stated that their sinusitis worsened
their asthma, 80% reported improvement after
FESS. Hospitalisations, emergency room visits,
and corticosteroid use all decreased following
surgery ( p < 0.05).
●
●
●
●
●
General comments
●
●
●
●
The following complications were reported:
haemorrhage (2), cardiac ischaemia (1),
nasocriminal duct injury (1), CSF leak (1) and
diplopia (1).
120
Prospective?: no.
Consecutive patients enrolled?: no.
All patients given same intervention?: no,
extent of surgery depended on severity of
disease.
Loss to follow-up?: no.
Method of data analysis: pre- and post-scores
were compared using chi-squared analysis
( p < 0.05).
Generalisability: medium, results may not be
generalisable to patients without asthma.
Main outcome measured independently: yes.
Inter-centre variability: not applicable.
Conflicts of interest: none stated.
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Reference and
design
Intervention
Subjects
Outcome measures
Schaefer, 199836
Treatment: Endoscopic
intranasal ethmoidectomy
and middle meatus
antrostomy/sphenoidotomy/
frontal sinostomy. Associated
procedures were
septoplasty, orbital
decompression and drainage
of orbital abscess
Total number of patients: 509
Primary and secondary outcome
measures used: Revision surgery,
complications
USA
Study design: Case
series
Indications for surgery:
Symptomatic sinusitis (n = 322),
polyps with or without sinusitis Method of assessing outcomes:
(n = 139) orbital abscess
Surgeon reports
secondary to sinusitis (n = 7),
Length of follow-up: 5 years
thyroid eye disease (n = 41),
allergic fungal sinusitis (n = 10)
Exclusion criteria: Procedure
must be ethmoidectomy
performed by author in manner
Setting/type of anaesthesia:
described by report with
2 patients underwent surgery complications known. Patients
with local anaesthesia.
must have failed medical
treatment
Postoperative interventions
used: Not stated
Participant characteristics: Median
age 42 years (range 12–84),
male:female ratio 261:248,
49.5% of patients had had
previous surgery. Duration of
symptoms not reported.
Bilateral disease/surgery: Not
stated
Results
●
Fifteen (2.9%) patients underwent revision surgery.
Complications consisted of three epistaxis, one
preseptal eyelid haemorrhage and one needle
puncture of the ethmoid dura resulting in CSF
drainage.
●
●
General comments
●
Methodological comments
●
●
Prospective?: no.
Consecutive patients enrolled?: no.
All patients given same intervention?: no,
procedure varied according to extent of disease
and need for associated procedures.
Loss to follow-up?: no
Method of data analysis: descriptive data only.
●
●
●
Generalisability: medium.
Main outcome measured independently: no.
Inter-centre variability: not applicable.
Conflicts of interest: none stated.
121
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
Appendix 8
Reference and
design
Intervention
Subjects
Outcome measures
Stammberger and
Posawetz, 199021
Treatment: FESS,
Messerklinger technique
Total number of patients: 500
Austria
Postoperative interventions
used: Removing
postoperative crusts under
endoscopic control, topical
cortisone used in special
cases
Primary and secondary outcome
measures used: Improvement in
symptoms, synechiae formation,
complications
Study design: Case
series
Setting/type of anaesthesia:
Not stated
Indication for surgery: 246/500
massive nasal polyposis
Exclusion criteria: None stated
Participant characteristics: age,
sex and duration of symptoms,
were not reported. Many
patients had had previous
surgery
Bilateral disease/surgery: Not
stated
Results
Of the patients where headache was the only
leading symptom, 88% reported that their
problem had completely disappeared or had
become considerably better. Of 500 patients, 425
reported that after FESS improvement in their
symptoms was very good or good, 30/500 reported
improvement was fair, 21/500 reported
improvement was moderate and 23/500 reported
no improvement or bad.
Eight per cent of all patients experienced
synechiae formation. Eight of 500 patients
experienced stenoses of an enlarged maxillary
sinus ostium, nine patients had lesions of the
lamina papyracea, 12 had intra- or postoperative
bleeding requiring packing, one patient required a
blood transfusion. Ten cases of repeat surgery were
required to finish the procedure. In one case a
sponge inserted to prevent lesions was forgotten
for several months and caused the patient
122
Method of assessing outcomes: Patient
questionnaire asking about degree of
improvement and duration. Surgeon
assessment
Length of follow-up: Retrospective
period of 10 years, mean follow-up
not reported
considerable problems. There were nine cases of
orbital penetration and five soft tissue infiltrations
after sinoscopy.
Methodological comments
●
●
●
●
●
Prospective?: no.
Consecutive patients enrolled?: no.
All patients given same intervention?: no,
unlikely that same surgeon performed all
procedures and extent of surgery varied with
disease severity.
Loss to follow-up?: uncertain.
Method of data analysis: very few point
estimates were provided.
General comments
●
●
●
●
Generalisability: low, no clear exclusion criteria
provided.
Main outcome measured independently: yes.
Inter-centre variability: not applicable.
Conflicts of interest: none stated.
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Reference and
design
Intervention
Subjects
Wigand et al.,
197847
Treatment: Endonasal sinus
surgery with endoscopic
control (including maxillary
sinus or ethmoidectomy).
Wigand technique
Total number of patients: 315
Germany
Study design: Case
series
Outcome measures
Primary and secondary outcome
measures used: Improvement in
Indication for surgery: 239 chronic
symptoms, postoperative complaints,
sinusitis including severe
revision surgery
polyposis, 76 chronic
ethmoiditis, mostly severe
Method of assessing outcomes: Not
polyposis
stated
Postoperative interventions
used: Scrupulous cleaning and
Exclusion criteria: None stated
mucosal treatment over
Participant characteristics: Age,
many weeks
sex, duration of symptoms and
Setting/type of anaesthesia:
previous surgery were not
Not stated
reported
Length of follow-up: 3–6 months
Bilateral disease/surgery: 43%
Results
Methodological comments
Of the 239 chronic sinusitis patients who
underwent endonasal operations of a maxillary
sinus, 12 (5%) revision procedures were necessary.
A total of 196/239 patients lost their symptoms
after 3 months. Of the 76 patients with chronic
ethmoiditis undergoing ethmoidectomy there was
success in 43 (57%); after 6 months the
improvement rate was 62/76 (82%).
●
Intermediate and long-range postoperative
complaints were absent in comparison with what
has been found with CL and radical transfrontal
ethmoidectomy. There was avoidance of mutilating
defects and scar formation at the facial walls of the
sinuses.
●
●
●
●
●
Prospective?: no.
Consecutive patients enrolled?: yes.
All patients given same intervention?:
uncertain.
Loss to follow-up?: no.
Method of data analysis: only descriptive data
provided.
General comments
●
●
●
Generalisability: low, no clear exclusion criteria
provided.
Main outcome measured independently:
uncertain.
Inter-centre variability: not applicable.
Conflicts of interest: none stated.
123
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Appendix 9
Charts illustrating possible confounding factors
for the main outcome (symptom improvement)
for patients with polyps
100
90
Symptom improvement (%)
80
70
60
FESS
Other
Linear (FESS)
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Loss to follow-up (%)
Percentage symptom improvement after FESS for polyps and percentage loss to follow-up
100
90
Symptom improvement (%)
80
70
60
FESS
Other
Linear (FESS)
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
Sample size
Percentage symptom improvement after FESS for polyps and sample size
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
125
Appendix 9
100
90
Symptom improvement (%)
80
70
60
FESS
Other
Linear (FESS)
50
40
30
20
10
0
1975
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
2005
Date of publication
Percentage symptom improvement after FESS for polyps and date of publication
100
90
Symptom improvement (%)
80
70
60
FESS
Other
Linear (FESS)
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
10
20
30
40
Median length of follow-up (months)
Percentage symptom improvement after FESS for polyps and median length of follow-up
126
50
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
100
90
Symptom improvement (%)
80
70
60
FESS
Other
Linear (FESS)
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Previous surgery (%)
Percentage symptom improvement after FESS for polyps and percentage of patients undergoing previous surgery
100
90
Symptom improvement (%)
80
70
60
FESS
Other
50
40
30
20
10
0
No
Yes
Prospective measurement
Uncertain
Percentage symptom improvement after FESS for polyps and prospective study design
127
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
Appendix 9
100
90
Symptom improvement (%)
80
70
60
FESS
Other
50
40
30
20
10
0
No
Yes
Uncertain
Consecutive recruitment
Percentage symptom improvement after FESS for polyps and consecutive selection of patients
100
90
Symptom improvement (%)
80
70
60
FESS
Other
50
40
30
20
10
0
No
Yes
Independent measurement
Uncertain
Percentage symptom improvement after FESS for polyps and independent assessment of outcomes
128
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Appendix 10
Charts illustrating possible confounding factors
for the main outcome (symptom improvement)
for mixed patients (with and without polyps)
100
90
Symptom improvement (%)
80
70
60
FESS
Other
Linear (FESS)
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
Loss to follow-up (%)
Percentage symptom improvement after FESS and percentage loss to follow-up
100
90
Symptom improvement (%)
80
70
60
FESS
Other
Linear (FESS)
50
40
30
20
10
0
10
0
20
0
30
0
40
0
50
0
60
0
70
0
80
0
90
0
10
00
11
00
12
00
13
00
14
00
15
00
0
Sample size
Percentage symptom improvement after FESS and sample size
129
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
Appendix 10
100
90
Symptom improvement (%)
80
70
60
FESS
Other
Linear (FESS)
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Length of follow-up (months)
Percentage symptom improvement after FESS and median length of follow-up
100
90
Symptom improvement (%)
80
70
60
FESS
Other
Linear (FESS)
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Previous surgery (%)
Percentage symptom improvement after FESS and percentage of patients who had undergone previous surgery
130
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
100
Symptom improvement (%)
90
80
70
FESS
Other
Linear (FESS)
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1975
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
2005
Date of publication
Percentage symptom improvement after FESS and date of publication
100
Symptom improvement (%)
90
80
70
60
FESS
Other
50
40
30
20
10
0
No
Yes
Uncertain
Prospective data collection
Percentage symptom improvement after FESS and prospective study design
131
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
Appendix 10
100
90
Symptom improvement (%)
80
70
60
FESS
Other
50
40
30
20
10
0
No
Yes
Uncertain
Consecutive enrollment
Percentage symptom improvement after FESS and consecutive selection of patients
100
90
Symptom improvement (%)
80
70
60
FESS
Other
50
40
30
20
10
0
No
Yes
Uncertain
Independent assessment of symptoms
Percentage symptom improvement after FESS and independent assessment of outcomes
132
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Appendix 11
Citations and abstracts of subgroups (specific
patients, polyps or techniques/technology) for
FESS and the excision of nasal polyps
Functional endoscopic sinus surgery subgroups
Specific patient groups
Allergic fungal sinusitis
Kinsella JB, Bradfield JJ, Gourley WK, Calhoun KH, Rassekh CH. Allergic fungal sinusitis.
Clin Otolaryngol 1996;21:389–92.
Abstract: Allergic fungal sinusitis is a non-invasive disease, first described in the early 1980s.
We review our experience with 25 patients treated at the University of Texas Medical
Branch, Galveston. All patients were treated surgically, using endoscopic techniques in 17 and
combined endoscopic and external procedures in eight. Histological evidence of tissue
invasion was absent in all 25 patients, in spite of extensive destruction of the skull base in
four. Dematiaceous fungi were the most common cultural isolate. Fifteen patients were
available for more than 6 months postoperative follow-up. None of the eight patients who
developed recurrent disease had been treated with postoperative systemic steroids. Four of
the seven patients who remained disease-free had received steroids. Clinical trials to test the
efficacy of systemic steroids in the prevention of disease recurrence are clearly warranted.
Description of subgroup
Allergic fungal sinusitis
Kupferberg SB, Bent JP, Kuhn FA. Prognosis for allergic fungal sinusitis. Otolaryngol Head
Neck Surg 1997;117:35–41.
Abstract: Allergic fungal sinusitis is a recently described clinical entity that has gained
increased attention as a cause of chronic sinusitis. The diagnosis can be established by
demonstrating (1) type I hypersensitivity confirmed by history, skin tests or serology; (2) nasal
polyposis; (3) characteristic CT scan; (4) eosinophilic mucus without fungal invasion into sinus
tissue; and (5) positive fungal stain of sinus contents removed intraoperatively or during office
endoscopy. The exact pathogenesis of allergic fungal sinusitis remains controversial, and no
treatment modality has proved to be consistently effective. Several reports during the last
decade have suggested that allergic fungal sinusitis recurs more frequently than chronic
bacterial sinusitis, but no studies have specifically addressed the prognosis of allergic fungal
sinusitis. During the past two and a half years, we have treated 26 patients with allergic fungal
sinusitis. The treatment always included functional endoscopic sinus surgery, topical nasal
steroids, postoperative nasal saline irrigations and endoscopic cleaning in the office. Adjuvant
medical therapy included systemic steroids, oral antifungals, a combination of systemic
steroids and oral antifungals, or in some cases, no additional treatment. Outcome was graded
subjectively as improved, unchanged or worse. Mean follow-up was 14.5 months. Twentytwo of 26 patients were improved. In reviewing postoperative outcomes, we observed
endoscopic recurrent disease that generally preceded patient symptoms. Consequently, we
developed an endoscopic staging system to record postoperative clinical status. Use of this
staging system allowed evaluation of various treatments and enabled classification of patient
outcome. Nineteen of 24 patients examined with extensive follow-up had objective signs of
recurrent disease. It appears that this is a chronic disease characterized by physical signs that
appear before the return of subjective clinical symptoms.
Allergic fungal sinusitis
Roth M. Should oral steroids be the primary treatment for allergic fungal sinusitis? Ear Nose
Throat J 1994;73:928–30.
Abstract: A case of allergic fungal sinusitis successfully controlled with oral corticosteroids
followed by endoscopic sinus surgery is presented. The clinical diagnosis of AFS is
emphasized. Endoscopic sinus surgery is preferable to open sinus techniques since the
underlying mucosal disease is reversible. A prospective study is needed to determine the
most appropriate treatment for this unique clinical disorder. DEM: chronic-sinusitis-diagnosis;
chronic-sinusitis-drug-therapy; chronic-sinusitis-surgery; nose-polyp-diagnosis. DER: adult-;
article-; case-report; endoscopic-surgery; ethmoidectomy-; human-; male-; mycosisdiagnosis; -oral-drug-administration; -topical-drug-administration. DRM: prednisone-drugtherapy; steroid-drug-therapy.
Allergic fungal sinusitis
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
133
Appendix 11
Fryen A, Mayser P, Glanz H, Fussle R, Breithaupt H, de Hoog GS. Allergic fungal sinusitis
caused by Bipolaris (Drechslera) hawaiiensis. Eur Arch Oto-Rhino-Laryngol 1999;256:330–4.
Abstract: Depending on the aggressiveness of the pathogen and a patient’s
immunocompetence, fungal polypoid pansinusitis or allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) may be a
life-threatening disease. Apart from the clinical findings, its diagnosis is based on the
demonstration of mucinous material with abundant eosinophils in the paranasal sinuses
(indicating an allergic process), cultivation of the causative pathogen and immunocompetence
of the patient. In a 20-year-old immigrant Sudanese woman, AFS due to Bipolaris (Drechslera)
hawaiiensis was diagnosed. Because of intracranial extension, the disease had led to erosion
of the cranial base and orbit with amaurosis on the right side and focal epilepsy. In addition to
endonasal microsurgical pansinus operations, local irrigation therapy with amphothericin B
was accompanied by systemic treatment with itraconazole after in vitro cultivation of the
pathogen and determination of its sensitivities. Interdisciplinary management included a
combination of endonasal surgery with debridement of infected tissues and wide drainage of
the sinuses without removal of skull bone or the dural lesion in addition to specific
antimycotic treatment. Injury to adjacent anatomical structures must be avoided in any case
to prevent systemic or possibly lethal dissemination of infection.
Allergic fungal sinusitis
Kupferberg SB, Bent JP. Allergic fungal sinusitis in the pediatric population. Arch Otolaryngol
Head Neck Surg 1996;122:1381–4.
Abstract: Objective: To determine the optimal treatment in paediatric patients with allergic
fungal sinusitis (AFS). Design: A retrospective review of 10 patients diagnosed as having AFS.
Setting: Academic tertiary medical centre. Patients: Paediatric patients who fulfilled 5 criteria
necessary for diagnosis of AFS: (1) type 1 hypersensitivity; (2) nasal polyposis; (3)
characteristic computed tomographic scan; (4) histological evidence of eosinophilic mucus
without evidence of fungal invasion into sinus tissue; and (5) a positive fungal stain or culture
of sinus contents. Treatment: All patients were treated with functional endoscopic sinus
surgery with removal of fungal debris. Adjuvant therapy included nasal irrigations,
postoperative endoscopic cleanings and systemic corticosteroids in 9 of 10 patients. Mean
outcome measure: Clinical disease monitored endoscopically by means of an objective
staging system. Results: Five patients were without disease (stage 0), 1 had allergic mucin and
mucosal oedema (stage I), 1 had allergic mucin and polypoid oedema (stage II), and 3 had
polyps and/or fungal debris (stage III). Conclusions: The treatment and prognosis of paediatric
AFS are similar to those of adult AFS. However, systemic corticosteroids should be weaned
aggressively in children to minimize complications, particularly long-term growth retardation.
Allergic fungal sinusitis in
children
Allergy
Endoscopic sinus surgery: sinonasal polyposis and allergy. Ear Nose Throat J 1993;72:544,
547–4.
Nishioka GJ, Cook PR, Davis WE, McKinsey JP. Immunotherapy in patients undergoing
functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1994;110:406–12.
Abstract: A total of 283 consecutive patients with chronic sinusitis underwent functional
endoscopic sinus surgery. There were 72 allergic patients and 211 nonallergic patients. Data
were collected on the effect of immunotherapy on middle meatotomy patency, synechiae
formation and recurrent polyps in allergic patients. Data supported the following conclusions:
(1) Immunotherapy given either before or after surgery does not statistically influence middle
meatotomy patency, synechiae formation, or recurrence of polyps after functional
endoscopic sinus surgery. However, the data do suggest, for all three outcome parameters,
that allergic patients who undergo immunotherapy do better than those who do not undergo
immunotherapy and, with the exception of recurrent polyps, do as well as nonallergic
patients. (2) The prevalence of preoperative polyps is the same for allergic and nonallergic
patients in this study, but polyp recurrence is higher in allergic patients. (3) Approximately
40% of allergic patients who began preoperative immunotherapy stopped immunotherapy
after surgery because their allergic symptoms resolved or were minimal. A comment
regarding this observation is provided.
ASA/aspirin intolerance/Samter’s triad
Hosemann W. Surgical treatment of nasal polyposis in patients with aspirin intolerance.
Thorax 2000;55:S87–S90.
Amar YG, Frenkiel S, Sobol SE. Outcome analysis of endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic
sinusitis in patients having Samter’s triad. J Otolaryngol 2000;29:7–12.
134
Allergy
Allergy
Aspirin intolerance
Samter’s triad
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Abstract: A study was conducted to assess outcome analysis in acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) triad
patients after endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). The control group consisted of patients with
chronic sinusitis, with or without asthma, who had also undergone ESS. The study group
contained 18 patients with the classic triad who were compared with 22 controls. The study
was conducted in retrospective fashion highlighting clinical presentation, radiologic evaluation,
surgical findings, and recurrence rate of nasal polyps. Although both groups had a relatively
similar age of onset of symptoms, the symptomatic picture was different in the two groups.
Radiologic evaluation of the nose and paranasal sinuses revealed more extensive involvement
of the sinuses in ASA triad patients. Furthermore, ASA triad patients underwent a greater
number of repeat operations. This review suggests that ASA triad patients respond less well
to surgical intervention and that other treatment modalities should perhaps be explored.
Dias MA, Biedlingmaier JF. Ketorlac-induced status asthmaticus after endoscopic sinus surgery
in a patient with Samter’s triad. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1997;117:S176–S178.
Samter’s triad
Asthma
Dinis PB, Gomes A. Sinusitis and asthma: how do they interrelate in sinus surgery? Am J Rhinol. Asthma
1997;11:421–8.
Abstract: Sinusitis has been suspected to be etiopathogenically linked to bronchial asthma.
Asthma, on the other hand, has been reported to affect negatively the outcome of sinus
surgery. The purpose of this study is to elucidate how sinusitis and asthma clinically
interrelate, in a group of asthmatic subjects undergoing surgical interventions on the sinuses.
A total of 43 asthmatic patients, selected for functional endoscopic sinus surgery,
preoperatively had their sinus disease staged and their lung function tested, and were
evaluated for allergy and aspirin sensitivity. One year after surgery the surgical results were
analysed, lung function was re-assessed and patients’ clinical status addressed through a
questionnaire; and 93 nonasthmatic patients, whose functional endoscopic sinus surgery was
contemporaneous, were used as a control group for the surgical results. Asthma was a
critical factor negatively affecting the outcome of sinus surgery. On the other hand, sinus
disease extension did not correlate with asthma severity at any stage. Sinus surgery, despite
being capable of improving asthma, ultimately failed to produce significant change in lung
function scores. Furthermore, consistent good surgical results on the nose did not come
across as a critical issue for postoperative asthma improvement. We concluded that, if the
surgical intervention on the sinuses was found to be able clinically to benefit asthma evolution,
other evidence does not seem to support a causative relationship between sinusitis and
asthma. Instead, since asthma was shown to affect sinus disease severity significantly, their
association apparently reflects a systemic inflammatory process of the respiratory mucosa.
Dunlop G, Scadding GK, Lund VJ. The effect of endoscopic sinus surgery on asthma:
management of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyposis, and asthma. Am J Rhinol.
1999;13:261–5.
Abstract: We attempted to determine the efficacy of endoscopic sinus surgery in adult
patients with asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis or nasal polyposis. Fifty asthmatic patients
from 17 to 74 years of age with a history of either chronic rhinosinusitis or nasal polyposis
were examined. Sinonasal disease was confirmed endoscopically and with computerized
tomography, and all had failed aggressive medical management of their sinonasal disease
before undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery performed by the same surgeon in all cases. The
following were compared for 12 months: preoperative and postoperative overall asthma
control, peak flow measurements, asthma medication requirements, including the use of oral
steroids, and hospitalizations for asthma. Twenty patients felt that their asthma control had
improved postoperatively. Twenty per cent used less steroid inhaler, and 28% less
bronchodilator inhaler. Of those 23 patients measuring peak flows, seven achieved higher
levels and seven noted fewer dips and swings. Significant reductions in oral steroid
requirements ( p < 0.001) and hospitalization for asthma ( p < 0.025) were also recorded
postoperatively. Irrespective of whether the patient had chronic rhinosinusitis or nasal
polyposis, both groups improved postoperatively. The commonest symptoms experienced by
the group as a whole and by the nasal polyposis patients were hyposmia and nasal
obstruction. Postnasal discharge and headache were more important in the chronic
rhinosinusitis group. Mean visual analog scores improved for all symptoms; in particular for
nasal obstruction and sense of smell. Aggressive management of sinonasal pathology can
improve asthma status. No major differences were recorded for outcomes when comparing
patients with chronic rhinosinusitis or nasal polyposis; in particular there was no evidence for
a worsening of asthma after nasal polypectomy.
Asthma
135
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
Appendix 11
Park AH, Lau J, Stankiewicz J, Chow J. The role of functional endoscopic sinus surgery in
asthmatic patients. J Otolaryngol 1998;27:275–80.
Abstract: Objective: This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of FESS (functional
endoscopic sinus surgery) on sinus and asthma symptoms. Method: Seventy-nine patients
with asthma and medically unresponsive sinusitis were evaluated. Maximal medical therapy
was attempted to relieve both sinus and asthma symptoms. The surgical procedures involved
standard FESS techniques. Fifty-six percent of patients had undergone a sinus procedure
prior to the FESS. Nasal polyposis was noted in 73% of the group. The majority of patients
had pansinusitis. Results: Eighty-six percent of patients stated that FESS improved their
sinusitis. Nine of 11 sinus symptoms recorded preoperatively diminished significantly
( p < 0.05) following surgery. Eighty percent of patients noted improvement of their asthma
following FESS. The factors associated with treatment failure and the unique characteristics
of this disease process were evaluated. Conclusions: FESS is a viable option in the treatment
of asthma when medical therapy fails.
Asthma
Lawson W. The intranasal ethmoidectomy – an experience with 1077 procedures.
Laryngoscope 1991;101:367–71.
Abstract: A series of 1077 intranasal ethmoidectomies (825 with sphenoid sinusotomies) was
performed in 600 patients over a 15-year period at The Mount Sinai Medical Center. The
technique is a modification of the classical operation originally proposed by Yankauer. The rate
of significant complications was 1.1%. A subset of 90 patients underwent 166 procedures and
were followed an average of 3.5 years. The patients were analysed according to whether the
disease was focal or diffuse, infectious or polypoid, and whether asthma was present. The
surgical success rate was 88% in nonasthmatics, but dropped to 50% in asthmatic patients
despite total sphenoethmoidectomy. This underscores the importance of this condition as a
biological modifier of surgical prognosis. Accordingly, a system of classification of sinus
diseases is proposed based upon disease extent and type and whether asthma is present.
Asthma
Lund VJ. The effect of sinonasal surgery on asthma. Allergy 1999;54:141–5.
Asthma
Children
Bolt RJ, de Vries N, Middelweerd RJ. Endoscopic sinus surgery for nasal polyps in children:
results. Rhinology 1995;33:148–51.
Abstract: Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) was performed on 21 children with
nasal polyps, who had a total of 34 operations, on 65 sides. Retrospectively, we reviewed the
preoperative symptoms, preoperative findings and results of FESS. The diagnoses were made
with anterior rhinoscopy and CT scan. Allergy could be confirmed in 24%. Half of the
children (52%) had been previously operated on because of nasal polyps. They had more
recurrences and worse results than children who underwent primary FESS. The subjective
results were good in 77% with a mean follow-up of more than two years. However, a poor
correlation between subjective and objective results was noted. Minor complications were
seen in 9.2% of 65 sides operated on. The specific advantages of FESS in children are
discussed.
Jiang RS, Hsu CY. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery in children and adults. Ann Otol Rhinol
Laryngol 2000;109:1113–16.
Abstract: Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) has become a popular procedure for
the treatment of adults with chronic sinusitis. Recently, it has also been applied in the
pediatric population. It has been used to treat chronic sinusitis in our department since April
1988. As of March 1998, 1112 patients were available for analysis by file and questionnaire
review. Of the 1112 patients, 104 patients (9.4%) who were 16 years of age or younger at
the time they first underwent FESS in our department were included in the paediatric
endoscopic sinus surgery (PESS) group. The other 1008 patients (90.6%) were included in
the ordinary FESS group. In total, 121 PESS and 1106 (adult) FESS operations were
performed on these patients. Operative complications occurred in 5 PESS operations (4.1%)
and 116 FESS operations (10.5%). The postoperative improvement rate was 84% in PESS
and 77.1% in FESS. We conclude that PESS can be applied to treat chronic sinusitis
effectively in the pediatric population and with less morbidity than FESS.
Children
Children
Risavi R, Klapan I, Handzic-Cuk J, Barcan T. Our experience with FESS in children. Int J Pediatr Children
Otorhinolaryngol 1998;43:271–5.
Abstract: Between 1993 and 1996 we operated on 50 children with one of the following
surgical indications: 17 children with a complication of acute rhinosinusitis and the
136
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
propagation of the process towards the orbit (periorbitis), six children with an ethmoid and
sphenoid foreign body (shrapnels shells), 11 children with an antrochoanal polyp, four
children with nasal polyposis in cystic fibrosis and 12 children with chronic rhinosinusitis after
2–4 acute reinfections. The surgery was done under endotracheal anesthesia with
hypotension. CT axial and coronal tomograms were done during the preoperative treatment.
During the 2 weeks preoperative treatment, the patients with polyposis and antrochoanal
polyps were treated with 4–8 mg of cortisone per os or i.m., and also with fluticasone
propionate 100 mg twice a day and antibiotics in chronic and acute rhinosinusitis. The
children’s age was between 7 and 15 years. In the patients with nasal polyposis and
antrochoanal polyps (n = 15) postoperatively, we had four cases of synechiae, recurrent
polyposis in two and antrochoanal polyps in two cases.
Triglia JM, Nicollas R. Nasal and sinus polyposis in children. Laryngoscope 1997;107:963–6.
Abstract: Nasal and sinus polyposis in the pediatric population is uncommon and its etiology
is unclear. In this 11-year retrospective study, the authors describe the aetiologic features and
evaluate the effectiveness of endoscopic sinus surgery in 46 children. Patients were divided
into three groups according to whether nasal and sinus polyposis was isolated (n = 14), or
associated with either asthma (n = 5) or cystic fibrosis (n = 27). An allergy was present in
10% of patients with isolated polyposis, 80% of patients with polyposis associated with
asthma and 22% of patients with polyposis associated with cystic fibrosis. The indications for
surgery were disabling symptoms, especially chronic nasal obstruction, rhinorrhea, mouth
breathing and failure to respond to medical treatment. No surgical complications were
encountered. Most patients reported improvement in quality of life with reduction of nasal
obstruction in 83% of cases and rhinorrhea in 61%. Minor asymptomatic recurrence (i.e. a
few micropolyps localized on the roof of the ethmoid cavity) was observed in 24% of the
cases in this series, and major recurrence with the same functional symptoms as before
surgery in 12%. However, recurrences were higher in patients with cystic fibrosis, because
minor recurrence with no clinical manifestation was observed in 32% of these cases and
major recurrence in 16%. Endoscopic sinus surgery must be decided in collaboration with
the paediatric and pulmonary physicians, and must be performed skillfully. With a mean
follow-up of 3.7 years, results in this series are encouraging.
Children
Wolf G, Greistorfer K, Jebeles JA. The endoscopic endonasal surgical technique in the
treatment of chronic recurring sinusitis in children. Rhinology 1995;33:97–103.
Abstract: Chronic recurring sinusitis (CRS) is a difficult diagnosis to make in the paediatric
patient. However, increased awareness by physicians and improved technology are
contributing to an increasing frequency of this diagnosis. Children with their immature
development of the paranasal sinuses and immunological systems present special problems in
the treatment of CRS. Concern must be given to potential alteration of the development of
the paranasal sinus system and tooth buds in the maxilla by a surgical procedure in children.
Various surgical procedures have been recommended in the past in the treatment of CRS
failing medical management. A review of 124 paediatric patients undergoing endoscopic
endonasal sinus surgery using the technique of Messerklinger and Stammberger in the
treatment of CRS over an 11-year period is presented. A detailed questionnaire regarding
patients’ satisfaction and symptomatic relief has been sent to all patients. The results indicate
a successful outcome from this technique and a high level of patient satisfaction. No
complications such as CSF leak or orbital injury have been encountered, and no evidence of
altered facial growth and development has been noted. We find the endoscopic endonasal
technique to be a safe and effective method in the treatment of children with CRS failing
medical management.
Children
Al Ammar AY, Tewfik TL, Mazer BD, Manoukian JJ. Nasal polyps in children. Can J Allergy Clin
Immunol 2000;5:123–8.
Abstract: Objective: In this study, patients with nasal polyps (NP) were divided into three
groups: patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), patients with clinically isolated NP, and patients with
antro-choanal (AC) polyps. Our objective was to compare these three groups and evaluate
our management and outcomes in terms of current pediatric literature. Design: This was a
retrospective study of 35 children diagnosed with NP between October 1988 and
September 1998 in the otolaryngology department of a tertiary-care center. Methods:
Patients were studied with respect to their sex, age, associated systemic pathology,
symptoms, association with allergy and bronchial asthma, response to medical and surgical
treatment, and recurrence rate. Results: The most common pathology associated with NP
was found to be CF. NP in children with CF were generally more aggressive and more
Children
137
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
Appendix 11
resistant to medical and surgical treatment than were isolated NP or AC polyps. Allergy and
bronchial asthma were associated with isolated NP more than with CF or AC polyps.
Conclusion: The etiology and pathogenesis of NP are not fully understood. Studying NP with
respect to their associated systemic pathology, rather than studying them as a single entity,
could facilitate understanding of their natural history and may improve treatment results.
Surgery remains the best treatment modality for NP, with endoscopic sinus surgery the
surgical procedure resulting in the lowest recurrence rate. DEM: nose-polyp-surgery. DER:
disease-association; cystic-fibrosis; asthma-; allergy-; endoscopic-surgery; human-; male-;
female-; clinical-article; child-; adult-; article-.
138
Dutt SN, Haider AA, Stewart M, Chen J, Morrissey SMC. Outcome analysis of functional
endoscopic sinonasal surgery for paediatric rhinosinusitis using the Lund–Mackay–Kennedy
scoring system. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1999;51:16–20.
Abstract: There are very few indications for surgical management of chronic rhinosinusitis in
children. This has been partly due to the fact that the definition of what qualifies as
recalcitrant sinusitis in children is still obscure. There is also significant evidence in literature
that surgery, especially radical surgery, on the nose and sinuses in children would result in
some interference with the growth of the facio-maxillary skeleton. The advent of functional
endoscopic sino-nasal surgery (FESS) in recent years has changed the philosophy of surgery
for paediatric rhinosinusitis and has proven to be an effective choice of management in
difficult cases. We present here our experience and preliminary results with the use of FESS
in nine children with sinonasal disorders including cystic fibrosis. The usefulness of the
recently described Lund–Mackay–Kennedy scoring system for chronic rhinosinusitis in terms
of symptom score, radiological score, endoscopic score and surgical score has been
demonstrated. DEM: rhinosinusitis-surgery; scoring-system; endoscopic-surgery. DER:
clinical-article; human-; child-; adolescent-; male-; female-; cystic-fibrosis; nose-polyp;
asthma-; treatment-outcome; article-.
Children
Venkatachalam VP. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery in children. Indian J Otolaryngol Head
Neck Surg 1999;51:28–31.
Abstract: Functional endoscopic sinus surgery which has been introduced in Europe by
Messerklinger and Stammberger and later on in the United States by Kennedy, has now
become a standard modality of treatment for sinus diseases in our country. However, most of
the work reported from our country pertains to adult population. In this paper, we present
our experience in 30 children who underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery over the
past four years. The age of the patients varied from 7 to 14 years. All the patients tolerated
the procedure well and there was no major complication. Follow-up period varied from 9 to
39 months with a mean follow-up of 18.3 months. Out of 30 patients, 27 patients were
available for long term assessment of results. 18 patients (66.67%) reported complete
improvement of symptoms, while 6 patients (22.22%) had partial improvement. 3 patients
(11.11%) showed no improvement. The results of this small series reveal that functional
endoscopic sinus surgery has a definite role in the treatment of sinus disease in children.
DEM: endoscopic-surgery; sinusitis-surgery. DER: human-; clinical-article; child-; male-;
female-; maxilla-sinusitis; paranasal-sinusitis; endoscopic-polypectomy; ethmoidectomy-;
nose-polyp; article-.
Children
Lund VJ. Bacterial sinusitis – etiology and surgical-management. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1994;
13:S58–S63. Ref ID: 554.
Children
Manning SC, Wasserman Rl, Silver R, Phillips Dl. Results of endoscopic sinus surgery
In pediatric patients with chronic sinusitis and asthma. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
1994;120:1142–5.
Abstract: Objective: To determine the efficacy of endoscopic sinus surgery in paediatric
patients with chronic sinusitis and asthma. Setting: Patients were selected from the tertiary
care practice of a pediatric pulmonologist (R.S.) and immunologist (R.L.W.); all underwent
sinus surgery at Children’s Medical Center at Dallas (Tex). Patients: Fourteen pediatric
patients aged 3.5 to 13 years with severe asthma requiring at least intermittent systemic
steroid therapy. All patients had a history of sinusitis aggravating asthma and all had computed
tomographic evidence of chronic sinus disease. Intervention: All patients underwent
endoscopic sinus surgery consisting of bilateral total ethmoidectomies and middle meatus
antrostomies at a minimum. Main outcome measures: The period 12 months prior to surgery
was compared with 12 months postoperatively with regard to total hospitalization days for
asthma treatment, number of school days missed, pulmonary function test results and
Children
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
systemic glucocorticoid medication requirements. Symptom scores for asthma and sinusitis
were assessed via parental questionnaire both preoperatively and postoperatively. Results:
No significant difference was found for pulmonary function test results. Eleven of 14 patients
demonstrated a significant reduction in hospitalization and school days missed. Twelve of 14
patients experienced a reduction in glucocorticoid requirements. Eleven of 14 and 13 of 14
patients experienced a significant improvement in asthma and sinusitis symptom scores.
Conclusion: Endoscopic sinus surgery was effective in reducing sinusitis and improving the
overall management of asthma in a majority of study patients.
Slapak I. Indications for endonasal surgery in children. 3rd European Congress of the European
Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies Eufos, 2nd Vol 1996;107–10.
Abstract: In 1991–1995 173 children were treated by endonasal endoscopic surgery at the
Paediatric ENT Clinic in Brno, 108 boys and 65 girls, age 2 to 19 years were operated. The
majority of children were 10–14 years old. The most common indications for endonasal
surgery were: 49 cases of a cyst in the maxillary sinus, 35 cases of recurrent sinusitis, 48
cases of nasal polyps.Endonasal surgery was also carried out for less common causes: choanal
atresia (7×), orbitocellulitis with orbital abscess (4×), dacryocystitis (1×), cyst of sphenoidal
cavity (2×). It was operated: sinoscopy of maxillary sinus 116×, nasal polyps extraction 50×,
antrostomy 56×, drenage of orbita absces 4×. The work discusses diagnostic and
therapeutical procedures carried out in these diagnoses and therapeutic results.
Children
Hebert RL, Bent JP. Meta-analysis of outcomes of pediatric functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Children
Laryngoscope 1998;108:796–9.
This record is a structured abstract written by CRD reviewers. The original has met a set of
quality criteria. Since September 1996 abstracts have been sent to authors for comment.
Additional factual information is incorporated into the record. Noted as (A: …).
Authors’ objectives
To assess the effectiveness and safety of paediatric functional endoscopic sinus surgery.
Type of intervention
Treatment.
Specific interventions included in the review
Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) usually consisted of middle meatal antrostomy
and anterior ethmoidectomy with some patients requiring complete ethmoidectomy. Other
procedures included frontal recess and sphenoid sinusotomy. A second procedure was
frequently done, two to three weeks after surgery for removal of splints or biological debris.
Participants included in the review
Children aged from 11 months to 18 years with continued symptoms of chronic sinusitis
(nasal obstruction, nasal discharge, cough, headache) despite appropriate medical therapy,
and confirmed by abnormal paranasal sinus computed tomography scans were included.
Children with underlying medical problems such as cystic fibrosis, immunodeficiencies and
asthma were included in 4 out of 8 published articles.
Outcomes assessed in the review
Positive outcomes assessed included the following: ‘improved’ defined as met expectations,
improved, satisfied, improved quality of life; ‘much improved’ defined as exceeded
expectations, greatly improved, very satisfied, disease free, cure; and ‘other’ including would
recommend FESS to other patients or would allow repeat surgery if needed. Ascertainment
of outcome was measured by follow-up care giver questionnaire or telephone survey or
chart review.
Study designs of evaluations included in the review
Published and unpublished series of children undergoing FESS that scored more than 50
points on defined validity criteria were included. Average length of follow-up was 3.7 years.
Eight retrospective and one prospective series were included.
What sources were searched to identify primary studies?
English language studies were sought in the MEDLINE database (1986 to 1996) by crossreferencing the key words: ‘pediatric’; ‘sinusitis’; ‘functional endoscopic sinus surgery’;
‘endoscopic sinus surgery’; and ‘FESS’. Bibliographies of all included and excluded studies
were scanned. Unpublished data were obtained from a retrospective review of patients
under 18 years of age undergoing FESS from 1991 to 1996 at the authors’ institution.
Criteria on which the validity (or quality) of studies was assessed
Identified studies were scored using the following criteria: length of follow-up; retrospective
vs prospective; sample size; and separate reporting of outcome for chronically ill patients. A
total of 30 points was given to each of the following categories: follow-up; sample size; and
addressing underlying disease. The total score possible was 100.
139
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
Appendix 11
How were decisions on the relevance of primary studies made?
Listings were reviewed by two authors independently and abstracts considered relevant
selected. Methods sections of 23 full-length articles were blindly reviewed by one author for
inclusion.
Identified studies scored on validity criteria. Only studies scoring >50 points on validity
criteria were included.
How were judgements of validity (or quality) made?
The authors do not state how the papers were assessed for validity, or how many of the
authors performed the validity assessment.
How were the data extracted from primary studies?
The authors do not state how the data were extracted for the review, or how many of the
authors performed the data extraction.
Number of studies included in the review
9 studies, including 8 published (832 children) and 1 unpublished series (50 children), were
included (882 children).
How were the studies combined?
An overall average positive response rate was calculated.
How were differences between studies investigated?
The chi-squared test and Fisher’s exact test were used to compare the average positive
outcome of the published and the unpublished articles. Sub-group analysis was conducted for
children with cystic fibrosis and for studies that had excluded this group of children.
Results of the review
The unpublished series excluded children with significant underlying medical diseases and
included children with asthma. One prospective series was found.
Positive outcome for FESS: overall combined average for positive outcome = 88.7%. Rates
in published series ranged from 77% to 100% with an average of 88.4%; rate in the
unpublished series was 92% (95% CI: 81%, 98%). No statistically significant difference was
shown between published and unpublished series using chi-squared test (p = 0.38, power =
0.51) or Fisher’s exact test ( p = 0.646, power = 0.12). Positive outcome in children with
cystic fibrosis or immunodeficiency (2 published series): rates reported as 0% and 57%.
Reported that these patients required multiple procedures. Studies that excluded children
with cystic fibrosis or immunodeficiency (2 published series with 62 children and 1
unpublished series with 50 children): published series rate = 89% and 86%; unpublished
series rates = 92%.
Major complications (4 series, 690 children): 4 children (0.6%), including 2 with meningitis.
Most studies did not report frequency of complications such as synechia or easily controlled
epistaxis. 3 published and the unpublished data reported no major complications. Two studies
did not report complications. No reports of blindness, cerebrospinal fluid leaks or intracranial
bleeds were found.
Was any cost information reported?
No.
Authors’ conclusions
Paediatric functional endoscopic sinus surgery is a safe and effective treatment for chronic
sinusitis that is refractory to medical treatment.
CRD commentary
The aims and inclusion criteria were stated. Unpublished data were included though no
systematic attempts were made to identify unpublished data. Methods used to assess validity
were described.
The discussion included mention of some limitations of the primary studies including
retrospective studies, the lack of consistent use of an objective measure of outcome, small
sample size and the lack of differentiation in the series of outcome based on significant
underlying disease.
By limiting the literature search to English language studies identified in MEDLINE, other
relevant studies may have been omitted. No details were given of methods used to extract
data. Consideration could have been given to including all relevant studies and then assessing
the influence of study quality on the outcomes.
Fuller details of the included studies would have been helpful such as methods of evaluation
of outcome, drop-out rates and methods used to select patients. It was not clear how dropouts were treated in the analysis. Heterogeneity was not assessed though some investigation
of factors that may influence outcome was undertaken. In the unpublished series only 45%
of children undergoing FESS were included in the analysis and it is not clear how
representative the subjects in other series were of children undergoing this procedure.
140
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Some assessment of how representative the sample is would be helpful in assessing the
relevance of the results to all children undergoing this procedure.
What are the implications of the review?
Clinical: paediatric FESS is an effective and safe procedure.
Research: the authors consider that more long-term standardised prospective studies are
required.
Subject index terms
Subject indexing assigned by NLM: Endoscopy/mt (methods); Sinusitis/su (surgery);
Adolescence; Child; Child, -Preschool; Follow-Up-Studies; Infant; Retrospective-Studies
Country code
United States
Address for correspondence
Dr R L Hebert II, 2403 Seminole Road, Augusta, GA 30904, USA.
E-mail:[email protected]
Copyright: University of York, 2000.
Produced by the NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, University of York.
Copyright: University of York.
Record number and entry date:
981077 31082000.
Stankiewicz JA. Pediatric endoscopic nasal and sinus surgery. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
1995;113:204–10.
Abstract: A total of 83 children and teenagers underwent endoscopic nasal and sinus surgery.
Six patients had surgery for choanal atresia (4) and adenoid hypertrophy (2) and will only be
briefly mentioned. Seventy-seven children and teenagers underwent endoscopic sinus surgery
for acute and chronic sinusitis, choanal polyposis, and nasal polyposis with a minimum 2-year
follow-up. One hundred and thirty-three ethmoidectomies, 37 sphenoidotomies and 119
maxillary antrostomies were performed. Subjective evaluation of the sinus surgery patients
indicated that 38% of patients were cured and 55% improved during an average of 3.5 years
of follow-up. The number cured and number improved are lower and higher, respectively,
than in other reports of results because of the longer follow-up and patient selection. In
addition, objective data were obtained on 34 patients with a second- or third-look procedure
2 weeks to 2 months after surgery. These examinations found significant granulation tissue,
and almost 50% of patients had at least one maxillary ostia closed. Long-term objective
results, however, are not available to determine whether the ostia remained closed.
Problems with healing in children’s endoscopic sinus surgery are unpredictable compared
with those in adult surgery because postoperative debridement and examination are often
difficult to perform, thus allowing tissue to heal without control. In this series, other factors
such as the increased risks of cystic fibrosis, allergy, and immunodeficiency were also more
prevalent and compromised healing [Abstract truncated at 250 words].
Children
Gordts F, Clement PA. Unusual choanal polyps. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Belg 1997;51:177–80.
Abstract: Four children with choanal polyps are presented. Their age and/or the site of origin
of the polyps are unusual. At the time of diagnosis, the two boys were respectively 3 years 9
months and 4 years 6 months. The two girls were aged 9 and 10. In one of the patients the
polyp originated from the sphenoidal sinus, in another from the inferior turbinate. The age of
the child complicates diagnosis, endoscopic sinus surgery and postoperative care.
Children
Cystic fibrosis
Rosbe KW, Jones DT, Rahbar R, Lahiri T, Auerbach AD. Endoscopic sinus surgery in cystic
fibrosis: do patients benefit from surgery? Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2001;61:113–19.
Abstract: Objective: To examine the effects of endoscopic sinus surgery on the pulmonary
status of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients through the objective parameters of steroid use,
pulmonary function tests (PFTs), and inpatient hospital days (IHDs). Methods: Retrospective
chart review of all patients with CF who underwent endoscopic sinus surgery from 1993 to
1999 at a tertiary care children’s hospital. Preoperative pulmonary function, inhaler and
steroid use, and IHDs were compared to postoperative parameters within a 1-year period.
Results: Sixty-six patients, including eight lung transplant patients, underwent a total of 112
endoscopic sinus surgery procedures; 25 patients underwent more than one procedure.
Patients were taking oral steroids preoperatively in 28% of procedures and inhaled steroids
in 40%. Postoperatively, there was no statistically significant change in oral or inhaled steroid
use, or in postoperative pulmonary function. If the index hospitalisation, which was often for
reasons not related to sinus disease, was considered part of the preoperative time period,
Cystic fibrosis
141
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
Appendix 11
endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) was noted to result in a marked reduction (9.5 days
(adjusted), p = 0.001) in hospital days during the subsequent 6 months. If the date of the
procedure alone was used to define pre- and postoperative time periods, the reduction in
postoperative days was more modest and not statistically significant [3.5 days (adjusted), p =
0.21]. Conclusions: Although we found no statistically significant difference in PFTs, or steroid
requirements following ESS, ESS may have resulted in a reduced need for hospitalization in
the 6 months following the procedure. Future prospective studies in a larger number of
patients and using more detailed outcome measures are needed to better evaluate the
effects of endoscopic sinus surgery in pediatric patients with CF. © 2001 Elsevier Science
Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
142
Albritton FD, Kingdom TT. Endoscopic sinus surgery in patients with cystic fibrosis: an
analysis of complications. Am J Rhinol 2000;14:379–85.
Abstract: The application of endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) for the management of paranasal
sinus disease in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) has been well described. Due to underlying
medical issues such as acquired coagulopathies and advanced pulmonary disease,
perioperative morbidity is assumed to be higher in this group. The incidence and type of
complications associated with CF patients undergoing ESS has not been previously described.
We reviewed 52 consecutive endoscopic procedures in 41 patients with CF performed by a
single surgeon over a 34-month period. This review focused on perioperative and
postoperative complications. Additional clinical data gathered included estimated blood loss,
length of procedure, coagulation laboratory studies, the presence of nasal polyposis, the use
of nasal packing, pulmonary function status and average hospitalization time. A total of six
complications were identified – four immediate and two delayed. The perioperative or
immediate complications included two cases of epistaxis, one case of periorbital ecchymosis,
and one case of pulmonary haemorrhage. Delayed complications include one case of epistaxis
and one case of intranasal scarring. In two of these six patients, length of hospitalization was
prolonged for management of the associated complications. No study has specifically
addressed complications of ESS in the CF patient. Our review demonstrates a complication
rate of 11.5%, which compares favourably with the non-CF ESS complication rates of
0–17% reported in the literature. Critical to successful management of these patients is
coordinated care delivered by the paediatrician or internist, the pulmonary specialist, the
anaesthesia team and the otolaryngologist. In addition to a review of current literature, we
discuss the overall management approach adopted at our institution and highlight elements
thought to minimize morbidity.
CF
Brihaye P, Jorissen M, Clement PA. Chronic rhinosinusitis in cystic fibrosis (mucoviscidosis).
Acta Otorhinolaryngol Belg 1997;51:323–37.
Abstract: The authors present two clinical studies performed in the ENT departments of two
Belgian Universities. A total of 248 patients with mucoviscidosis (cystic fibrosis, CF) were
assessed by means of nasal endoscopy. One hundred and eighteen underwent computed
tomography of the paranasal sinuses (CT) and 55 were endoscopically operated. This
allowed the observation of different clinical patterns of rhinosinusitis: mucopyosinusitis
(pseudomucocele) of the maxillary antrum with bulging of the lateral nasal wall (LNW), nasal
polyposis with erosion of the LNW and chronic purulent rhinosinusitis with an isolated
prominent uncinate process. The treatment of those patients could be tailored to the
individual clinical pattern. Medical therapy consisted of systemic antibiotics and topical drugs
delivered by sprays or by lavages with a nose can. Surgery was mainly aimed at removing the
massive polyposis when it interfered with the daily life activities. The use of the endoscope
enabled more extensive procedures to be performed safely resulting in a lower recurrence
rate. In patients with chronic rhinosinusitis without polyposis, yet presenting ostiomeatal
obstruction, a limited and more functional endoscopic surgery was indicated in order to
restore some drainage and to improve the penetration of topical drugs into the affected
sinus. A short addendum presents two studies: one about genetics and the other about
prevalence of middle ear disease in CF. The first concluded that no clear correlation was
found between DF508 (the most common CF mutation) and nasal polyposis. The second
revealed that in contrast with the extremely high prevalence of sinus problems, there was no
clear evidence of an increased prevalence of middle ear disease in CF.
CF
Cuyler JP, Monaghan AJ. Cystic fibrosis and sinusitis. J Otolaryngol 1989;18:173–5.
Abstract: Children from the University of Alberta Cystic Fibrosis Clinic were evaluated for
nasal polyposis and sinusitis. The results of office examination, coronal CT scanning and
functional endoscopic sinus surgery are compared. Sinonasal disease was found to be
CF
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
ubiquitous in children with cystic fibrosis evaluated with coronal CT scanning. Coronal CT
scanning was found to be an accurate predictor of sinonasal disease, and useful for defining
the complex anatomy of this region. Outpatient endoscopic sinus surgery, after pre-op
assessment by a paediatric pulmonologist, was found to be a safe procedure, with lesser
morbidity than conventional sinus surgery.
Duplechain JK, White JA, Miller RH. Pediatric sinusitis. The role of endoscopic sinus surgery
in cystic fibrosis and other forms of sinonasal disease. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1991;
117:422–6.
Abstract: Functional endoscopic sinus surgery has altered the surgical treatment of sinus
disease in adults. We report our experience with functional endoscopic sinus surgery in the
paediatric population. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery was safe and effective and
compared favourably with traditional surgery with regard to operative time, blood loss and
parental opinion.
CF
Halvorson DJ, Dupree JR, Porubsky ES. Management of chronic sinusitis in the adult cystic
fibrosis patient. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1998;107:946–52.
Ref ID: 68
Abstract: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disorder affecting exocrine gland
function. Although CF was formerly a deadly disease of infants and children, recent
improvements in antibiotics, nutritional therapy and supportive care have extended the
median survival to adulthood. Patients with CF often present with sinusitis and nasal
polyposis in addition to recurrent pulmonary infections. Although the effectiveness of
endoscopic sinus surgery in children with CF has been documented, the treatment guidelines
and efficacy in the adult CF patient are unknown. We present a series of 16 adult patients
with CF and chronic sinusitis. The majority of patients presented with nasal polyposis and
concomitant pulmonary complications. Endoscopic findings are reviewed, with an emphasis
on improving pulmonary function following endoscopic sinus surgery. Preliminary findings
suggest that endoscopic sinus surgery improves symptoms of sinusitis and exercise tolerance
and may delay the progressive respiratory failure that often affects the adult CF patient.
CF
Jones JW, Parsons DS, Cuyler JP. The results of functional endoscopic sinus (FES) surgery on
the symptoms of patients with cystic fibrosis. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 1993;28:25–32.
Abstract: The relationship between cystic fibrosis (CF) and sinus disease has been
appreciated since at least 1959. Unfortunately the standard methods used to treat sinus
disease have been very unrewarding in the CF patients. We evaluated the long-term results
achieved on 17 patients with CF that underwent FES surgery between July 1988 and January
1991. This group consisted of 16 paediatric and 1 adult patients with previously diagnosed
CF, documented chronic sinus disease and nasal polyposis that had failed long-term maximal
medical management. The patients, or their parents, were contacted and asked to rate the
severity and frequency of their symptoms associated with chronic sinus disease, pre- and
postoperatively. The specific symptoms evaluated were nasal obstruction, nasal discharge,
postnasal drip, halitosis and cough. In addition, we attempted to measure the number of
hospitalizations and the presence and frequency of headaches. We were able to show that,
while there was no change in the relative health of patients as measured by the number of
hospitalizations, there was a significant improvement in the quality of life. There was a
marked decline in the frequency of nasal obstruction, nasal discharge and postnasal drip and a
high level of patient satisfaction with the procedure. No changes were seen in the frequency
or nature of the cough, halitosis or headache.
CF
Kerrebijn JD, Poublon RM, Overbeek SE. Nasal and paranasal disease in adult cystic fibrosis
patients. Eur Respir J 1992;5:1239–42.
Abstract: Children with cystic fibrosis frequently have nasal polyps and sinusitis. This study
addresses (para-) nasal disease in 39 adult cystic fibrosis patients. Fifteen patients (39%) had
recently had serious nasal symptoms and 26% sinusitis. Seventeen (44%) had nasal polyposis.
Almost all sinus radiographs taken showed opacification, which was unrelated to symptoms.
Polypectomies and antral irrigations were usually ineffective, whilst more extensive surgery
generally gave better results. It is concluded that a substantial number of adult cystic fibrosis
patients frequently have upper airway symptoms. Sinus radiographs have little or no
diagnostic value. Treatment of (para-) nasal disease in cystic fibrosis patients can be difficult; a
guideline for treatment is suggested, calling for simple interventions coupled with intranasal
steroids and nasal irrigation in early disease and for endoscopic to radical sinus surgery in
recurrent advanced disease.
CF
143
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
Appendix 11
144
Madonna D, Isaacson G, Rosenfeld RM, Panitch H. Effect of sinus surgery on pulmonary
function in patients with cystic fibrosis. Laryngoscope 1997;107:328–31.
Abstract: The impact of sinus surgery on the pulmonary status of cystic fibrosis patients is
unknown. This retrospective study reviewed the charts of the cystic fibrosis patients
presenting to our institution’s cystic fibrosis centre with nasal obstruction, recurrent sinusitis
and nasal polyposis. This group subsequently underwent endoscopic ethmoidectomy and
antrostomy. Fourteen of the 15 patients, ages 5–24 years, received preoperative and
postoperative pulmonary function testing obtained by spirometry. The data were compiled
and analysed statistically. Our results suggested no significant improvement in the pulmonary
function of cystic fibrosis patients after sinus surgery.
CF
Moss RB, King VV. Management of sinusitis in cystic fibrosis by endoscopic surgery and serial
antimicrobial lavage. Reduction in recurrence requiring surgery. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck
Surg 1995;121:566–72.
Abstract: Objective: An effective treatment programme for refractory chronic sinusitis in
patients with cystic fibrosis has not been achieved. We developed a long-term management
approach by combining endoscopic surgery with serial antimicrobial lavage (ESSAL). Design:
In a before and after trial, results of ESSAL in 32 patients were compared with those of
conventional sinus surgery without serial antimicrobial lavage in 19 patients. At least 1 year
follow-up was available in all but one patient. Setting and patients: Patients attending the
Stanford (Calif) Cystic Fibrosis Center were consecutively referred for otolaryngologic
evaluation for symptoms and signs of refractory sinusitis. Those subjects who were evaluated
before 1990 were treated conventionally and afterward by ESSAL. Intervention:
Conventionally treated patients underwent one or more of the following procedures:
polypectomy, ethmoidectomy, antrostomy or Caldwell–Luc operation. The ESSAL approach
incorporated preoperative rhinosinuscopy and computed tomography, endoscopic surgery, a
postoperative course of antral antimicrobial lavage and monthly maintenance antimicrobial
lavage via brief antral catheterization. Main outcome measure: Intensity and frequency of
sinus surgery after initial presentation. Results: The two groups were similar demographically
and in clinical presentation, including the presence of nasal polyposis in 34% and 42%,
respectively. The ESSAL group had fewer operations per patient, Caldwell–Luc procedures
and a decrease in repeated surgery at 1-year (10% vs 47%) and 2-year (22% vs 72%)
follow-ups. Conclusion: The ESSAL is a successful approach to treatment of sinusitis in cystic
fibrosis that reduces recurrence requiring further surgery for at least 2 years.
CF
RoweJones JM, Mackay IS. Endoscopic sinus surgery in the treatment of cystic fibrosis with
nasal polyposis. Laryngoscope 1996;106:1540–4.
Abstract: We have performed endoscopic sinus surgery on 46 patients with chronic, polypoid
rhinosinusitis since 1989. Follow-up ranged from 1 month to 6 years (mean, 28.2 months).
Overall, our patients had a 50% chance either of their symptoms returning to preoperative
severity or of undergoing a second endoscopic sinus procedure, by 18 to 24 months of
postoperative follow-up. Patients with predominantly infective symptoms of mucopurulent
rhinorrhea and pain had a significantly better outcome than those with predominantly nasal
blockage. The chance of the former group of patients suffering symptom deterioration back
to the preoperative state or undergoing a second endoscopic sinus operation was 37% of
that of the latter group. The extent of disease on computed tomography scan had no relation
to outcome.
CF
TI:The role of functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) after heart lung transplant in
cystic fibrosis patients
PI:N0231084810
SD:01/01/1994
ED:31/12/1999
MC:[This project is part of a multi-centre study]
AU:Mr Peter Clark
AD:ENT/OMF, Southampton General Hospital, Tremona Road, Southampton, SO16 6YD,
United Kingdom
MR:To evaluate FESS
ST:Complete
F1:Funding organisation name: NO FUNDING
F4:Funding organisation name: No Funding
F5:Funding reference number: N/A
CF
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
PK:CYSTIC-FIBROSIS Q-surgery; HEART-LUNG-TRANSPLANTATION Q-methods;
ENDOSCOPY
SK:HUMAN
PR:Southampton University Hospitals NHS Trust
RE:South East Regional Office.
Other patient groups
Jiang RS, Hsu CY. Endoscopic sinus surgery for the treatment of chronic sinusitis in geriatric
patients. Ear Nose Throat J 2001;80:230–2.
Abstract: Although endoscopic sinus surgery is a well-documented procedure for the
treatment of chronic sinusitis in children and adults, no study has been conducted to
specifically investigate its application in a geriatric population. We undertook to fill this void
by analysing the records of 1112 patients who had undergone endoscopic sinus surgery for
chronic sinusitis in our department between April 1988 and March 1998. We categorized
these patients by age. There were 171 patients (15.4%) in the geriatric group (age: 65 yr),
837 patients (75.3%) in the adult group (age: 17 to 64), and 104 patients (9.4%) in the
paediatric group (age: 16 yr). We found that the geriatric group experienced a
disproportionately larger share of operative complications, but most of them were minor.
Outcomes were similar in all three groups. We conclude that endoscopic sinus surgery is a
safe and effective treatment for older patients with chronic sinusitis. DEM: chronic-sinusitissurgery; chronic-sinusitis-therapy; geriatric-patient; endoscopic-surgery; nose-polyp-diagnosis;
nose-polyp-surgery. DER: chronic-disease; aging-; documentation-; surgical-technique; safety-;
treatment-indication; antibiotic-therapy; questionnaire-; patient-care; treatment-outcome;
human-; male-; female-; major-clinical-study; adolescent-; aged-; child-; adult-; article-.
Geriatric patients
Rossi RM, Wanke C, Federman M. Microsporidian sinusitis in patients with the acquired
immunodeficiency syndrome. Laryngoscope 1996;106:966–71.
Abstract: Sinusitis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection usually
arises from the same organisms that are infective in the nonimmunosuppressed population.
The authors of this article report that optimal antimicrobial treatment and functional
endoscopic sinus surgery failed to eradicate sinonasal disease in three of five patients with
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and refractory sinusitis. The sinonasal disease
was manifested by congested, edematous and polypoid mucosa, often with a superimposed
bacterial infection from ostial obstruction. After tissue was sent for electron microscopy
(EM), the patients were eventually diagnosed with microsporidiosis of the sinonasal cavities.
Microsporidia are obligate intracellular protozoans that have been seen in AIDS patients with
diarrhoea. These protozoans have only recently been identified in sinonasal tissue.
Microsporidia are often missed on routine histopathology. The authors present case reports
on their five AIDS patients with refractory sinusitis. The management of refractory sinusitis in
the HIV-infected population, including mandatory EM of sinonasal tissue, is also discussed.
HIV
Ku PKM, Tong MCF, Leung CY, Pak MW, van Hasselt CA. Nasal manifestation of extranodal
Rosai–Dorfman disease – diagnosis and management. J Laryngol Otol 1999;113:275–80.
Abstract: Two cases of Rosai–Dorfman disease with polypoid nasal infiltration mimicking nasal
tuberculosis and malignant lymphoma are reported. This rare benign disease was first
described by Rosai and Dorfman in 1969 and is characterized by histiocytic proliferation. It is
seldom considered in the differential diagnosis of granulomatous diseases due to its rarity and
histological similarity to other diseases. Extranodal manifestations of this disease are
uncommon. Although no specific treatment can guarantee a sustained remission of this
disease, surgery for loco-regional lesions can result in long-term symptomatic control and
restoration of function. Both patients underwent endoscopic resection of the nasal polypoid
lesions and have subsequently been free of recurrence. Loco-regional infiltration of the nasal
cavity by Rosai–Dorfman disease is effectively managed by endoscopic resection.
Extranodal Rosai–Dorfman
disease
Emery BE, Oberle AD, Abreo F, Day TA, Stucker FJ. Schizophyllum commune sinusitis – a
case-report and radiologic findings. Am J Rhinol 1995;9:149–54.
Abstract: Chronic sinusitis is now considered the most common chronic disease seen in this
country. The infections are commonly polymicrobial and include aerobes and anaerobes.
Fungal sinusitis accounts for up to 10% of cases of chronic sinusitis, and the disease ranges
from allergic fungal sinusitis through fungus balls to invasive fungal sinus disease. We report
the case of a 19-year-old black female with nasal obstruction, clear rhinorrhea and nasal
polyps. She underwent endoscopic sinus surgery after medical management failed to
eradicate her symptoms. Cultures from her paranasal sinuses grew S. commune, a
Schizophyllum-commune
sinusitis
145
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
Appendix 11
mushroom, a member of the Basidiomycetes. There have been four prior reports of
S. commune sinusitis described in the literature. Presented is a review of the literature, a
description of the histologic, mycologic and radiologic findings and suggested treatment. The
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings are presented here for the first time.
Specific types of polyps
Antrochoanal polyps
Cook PR, Davis WE, McDonald R, McKinsey JP. Antrochoanal polyposis: a review of 33 cases.
Ear Nose Throat J 1993;72:401–10.
Abstract: We report on a series of 33 consecutive cases of antrochoanal polyp (ACP) treated
by endoscopic sinus surgery over a five-year period. All but one patient was treated by
endoscopic sinus surgery alone. This method of treatment was quite effective for ACPs.
These 33 patients represent 22.3% of all nasal polyp patients on whom we operated during
the same period. This incidence of ACP is greater than that generally reported in the
literature. Some authors have attempted to distinguish ACPs from common nasal polyps
primarily on the basis of morphology, histology, and the clinical behavior of the ACPs. In our
series, a multivariate analysis, including histopathologic correlation, did not support the
notion that ACPs are clearly distinct from common nasal polyps. Some interesting differences
between the polyp groups did, however, become evident in our data analysis. Generally,
ACPs are not thought to be associated with allergic disease; however, in our series we found
the association of allergic disease with ACPs to be statistically significant (chi-squared =
4.575, p < 0.05).
146
Antrochoanal
Aktas D, Yetiser S, Gerek M, Kurnaz A, Can C, Kahramanyol M. Antrochoanal polyps:
analysis of 16 cases. Rhinology 1998;36:81–5.
Abstract: Antrochoanal polyps are rare lesions. Several surgical techniques have been
reported to provide complete cure of the disease. However, inadequate treatment may
result in a high rate of recurrences. The aetiological as well as predisposing factors are not
well understood. We present a literature review and discuss the clinical, pathological and
histological features of 16 patients with antrochoanal polyps, who have been surgically
treated by either an endoscopical or conventional approach. It has been found that allergy
has no role in the aetiology of antrochoanal polyps. However, the majority of the patients
have sinonasal disease. The most common preoperative radiological finding is the mucocoelelike appearance, which has also been confirmed in surgery. It is remarkable that antrochoanal
polyps have recurred in 4 out of 8 patients, who underwent simple intranasal polypectomy
and inferior turbinectomy. As compared to conventional technique, the endoscopic approach
proves to be superior.
Antochoanal polyps
el Guindy A, Mansour MH. The role of transcanine surgery in antrochoanal polyps.
J Laryngol Otol 1994;108:1055–7.
Abstract: During a period of two years, 24 cases of antrochoanal polyps were diagnosed by
clinical examination, nasal endoscopy and computerized tomography. Surgery started with
endoscopic transnasal removal of the polyp. Every attempt was made to remove the antral
portion of the polyp through the wide ostium. Then transcanine sinuscopy was performed.
Remnants of the polyp were detected and removed in five cases. One or more other cysts
were found and extirpated in 11 cases. Endoscopic follow-up for 18 months to three years
revealed no recurrence. It is recommended that endoscopic middle meatal surgery should be
combined with transcanine sinuscopy to ensure complete removal of antrochoanal polyps
Antochoanal polyps
Basak S, Karaman CZ, Akdilli A, Metin KK. Surgical approaches to antrochoanal polyps in
children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 1998;46:197–205.
Abstract: Antrochoanal polyps (ACP) represent 4–6% of all nasal polyps in the general
population, but this proportion increases to 33% in the paediatric group. The aim of this
study is to discuss clinical and radiological findings, and some different surgical approaches
with their results in the paediatric patients. This study consists of eight children with ACP
diagnosed by means of clinical examination, nasal endoscopy and computed tomography. One
patient was treated only with simple polypectomy. In five patients, transcanine sinuscopy (TS)
was added to functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Four of the patients underwent anterior
ethmoidectomy and uncinectomy. Middle meatal antrostomy was applied to two of them. No
recurrence was encountered within 5–30 months. The decision for the appropriate type of
surgery for ACP is influenced by factors such as patient’s age, other accompanying sinus
pathologies, recurrence after previous surgery, and the possibility of total excision. In patients
carrying the risk of recurrence, it is especially important to remove the polyp completely and
Antrochoanal in children
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
manage other sinus pathologies, as well as avoiding an unnecessarily expanded operation. In
selected patients, we believe that TS may be adequate in totally removing ACP.
Hong SK, Min YG, Kim CN, Byun SW. Endoscopic removal of the antral portion of
antrochoanal polyp by powered instrumentation. Laryngoscope 2001;111:1774–8.
Abstract: Objectives: To introduce a new surgical technique for endoscopic removal of the
antral portion of antrochoanal polyp (ACP) by powered instrumentation and to determine its
efficacy by measures of relevant patient outcome. Study design: Prospective study in 28
patients undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery for ACP by our surgical technique. Methods:
Improvements of clinical symptoms and endoscopic and computed tomographic findings
were evaluated postoperatively with a follow-up period ranging from 12 to 52 months. All
symptom scores on a 100-mm visual analogue scale before operation were compared with
those at the last visit after operation. Postoperative endoscopic and computed tomographic
findings were graded using a three-point scale ranging from 0 to 2. In surgical technique, the
antral portion of ACP was identified through the enlarged ostium under intranasal endoscopy
and removed by a blade of powered instrumentation that was inserted through the canine
fossa. Results: Symptom scores were all significantly reduced postoperatively. All but one
patient showed improvement in clinical symptoms and endoscopic and computed
tomographic findings during the follow-up period. There were no major complications
specific to this technique. Conclusion: Our technique provides an attractive alternative to
other methods for removing the antral portion of an ACP and is associated with excellent
outcomes and minimal morbidities.
Antrochoanal polyp by
powered instrumentation
Kamel R. Endoscopic transnasal surgery in antrochoanal polyp. Arch Otolaryngol Head
Neck Surg 1990;116:841–3.
Abstract: The current treatment of antrochoanal polyp is simple avulsion of the nasal part
with or without removal of the antral part. The antral part is removed through a
Caldwell–Luc antrostomy, inferior meatal antrostomy, or middle meatal antrostomy. In this
study, endoscopic surgery was performed in 22 cases of antrochoanal polyps where the
antral part was removed through the middle meatus. Two new instruments were designed to
help complete removal of the antral part of the polyp through the maxillary ostium. Some
points of controversy concerning the antrochoanal polyp are discussed according to the
diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic findings. Endoscopic follow-up of these cases for
periods ranging between 6 and 30 months, with an average of 20 months, showed no
recurrence. It was concluded that endoscopic surgery of the antrochoanal polyp through the
middle meatus could be performed as an outpatient procedure, and is safe and reliable.
Antrochoanal polyp
Raji A, Essaadi M, Detsouli M, Chekkoury IA, Benchakroun. The antrochoanal polyp.
Acta Otorhinolaryngol Belg 2000;54:473–8.
Abstract: The antrochoanal polyp is a particular pathology of nasal fossae and sinuses. Since
the first description made by Killian, several pathogenic mechanisms and surgical techniques
have been reported. The polyp exeresis is classically made using the Caldwell–Luc approach.
The aim of our study is to lay stress on the interest of endonasal surgery compared to other
surgical procedures. Between 1996 and 1998, we operated on 12 cases by endonasal
approach. Diagnosis is made upon clinical, CT-scan and pathological data. In all cases, an
extended middle meatotomy is performed. In 3 cases, it is associated with an inferior
meatotomy. The polyp pedicle is systematically coagulated at level of its maxillary
implantation area. No recurrence, nor operative complication are noted. The average followup is 12 months.
Antrochoanal polyp
Sato K, Nakashima T. Endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic sinusitis with antrochoanal polyp.
Laryngoscope 2000;110:1581–3.
Ref ID: 149
Antrochoanal polyp
Gerek M, Yetiser S, Dundar A, Ozkaptan Y. Transnasal and transcanine endoscopy in
management of antrochoanal polyp. Sydney ’97 – XVI World Congress of Otorhinolaryngology
Head and Neck Surgery, Tomes 1 and 2 1996;1499–503.
Abstract: Different surgical methods have been in practice in the management of the
antrochoanal polyp. In the last three years, 15 cases of huge anthrochonal polyps extending
to nasopharynx were diagnosed by clinical examination, nasal endoscopy, computerized
tomograpy. The diagnosis of anthrochonal polyp was confirmed by histopathologic
examination of the surgical material. Endoscopic sinus surgery was used in the removal of
anthrochonal polyps through middle meatal antrostomy and the greater portions were
Antrochoanal polyp
147
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
Appendix 11
removed by forceps orally. By opening a wide middle meatal antrostomy and by performing
transcanine sinoscopy, all the detected remnants of the polyps were removed carefully. In 11
of the cases, one or more cystic lesions were accompanied to anthrochonal polyps in
maxillary sinus and they were also removed. In the follow-up period of at least 8 months, no
recurrence was observed. It is advised that combination of sinoscopy and transnasal
endoscopy will be the excellent surgical option in the management of anthrochonal polyps.
Loury MC, Hinkley DK, Wong W. Endoscopic transnasal antrochoanal polypectomy: an
alternative to the transantral approach. South Med J 1993;86:18–22.
Abstract: The use of functional endoscopic sinus surgery has been limited typically to
management of chronic sinusitis, nasal polyposis and recurrent acute sinusitis. Antrochoanal
polyps (ACPs) traditionally have been resected using a Caldwell–Luc sinusotomy. We used
the endoscopic approach, however, in the treatment of five cases of ACP. There was
recurrence in one case, but the polyp was successfully removed endoscopically. In the other
four cases there has been no evidence of recurrence at a maximum follow-up of 24 months.
We believe that transnasal endoscopic antrochoanal polypectomy is an excellent surgical
option; there is significantly less postoperative morbidity than with the transantral approach,
and rates of complete cure are similar.
Antrochoanal polyps
Deka RC. Antrochoanal polyp: its pathogenesis origin and management by functional
endonasal endoscopic surgery. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surgery 1999;51:33–5.
Antrochoanal polyps
Orvidas LJ, Beatty CW, Weaver AL. Antrochoanal polyps in children. Am J Rhinol 2001;
15:321–5.
Abstract: Although relatively rare, antrochoanal polyps represent one of the most common
types of polyp diagnosed in children without cystic fibrosis. In an attempt to better define this
entity and discuss treatment options, the histories and operative reports of all 25 children
(aged 17 years and younger) diagnosed with an antrochoanal polyp between 1970 and 1997
at our institution were reviewed. All 25 children complained of nasal obstruction on
presentation; other presenting symptoms included rhinorrhea (48%), snoring (36%), and
mouth breathing (32%). All 25 patients were noted to have a mass in the nose on
examination, and 16 (64%) also had a mass noted in the nasopharynx. All but 1 patient
underwent surgical removal of the polyp: intranasal avulsion only, 2 patients; Caldwell–Luc
procedures, 10 patients; intranasal procedures, 8 patients; and endoscopic procedures, 4
patients. Mean time to first recurrence was 44.5 months. Seven patients (29%) who
underwent excision at our institution experienced recurrence, 3 after endoscopic procedures
and 4 after intranasal procedures (with or without Caldwell–Luc; 1 of these patients had a
second recurrence), Complications were unusual and included bleeding after pack removal
(8.3%) and facial paresthesias (10%). Follow-up ranged from 2 days to almost 27 years and
was aided by telephone interviews. We conclude that surgical treatment of these lesions is
safe and effective. Endoscopic removal may result in a higher recurrence rate.
Antrochoanal polyps
Myatt HM, Cabrera M. Bilateral antrochonanal polyps in a child: a case report. J Laryngol Otol
1996;110:272–4.
Abstract: In this paper we present the first ever reported case of simultaneously occurring
bilateral antrochoanal polyps in a fit 12-year-old child. The antrochoanal polyps (ACP) were
removed using functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) which achieved complete cure.
Histological analysis of the polyps showed them to be of benign inflammatory origin.
Antrochoanal polyps in
a child
Woolley AL, Clary RA, Lusk RP. Antrochoanal polyps in children. Am J Otolaryngol Head
Neck Med Surg 1996;17:368–73.
Antrochoanal polyps in
children
Vleming M, de Vries N. Endoscopic sinus surgery for antrochoanal polyps. Rhinology 1991;
29:77–8.
Antrochonal polyps
Sphenochoanal polyp
Soh KB, Tan KK. Sphenochoanal polyps in Singapore: diagnosis and current management.
Singapore Med J 2000;41:184–7.
Abstract: Sphenochoanal polyp is a rare form of choanal polyp. If unrecognised, they can be
mistaken for an antrochoanal polyp. This will result in unnecessary exploration of the
maxillary sinus, and a failure to remove the sphenoidal component of the sphenochoanal
polyp. Adequate preoperative evaluation with computed tomography or magnetic resonance
is mandatory to ascertain the correct diagnosis, and to facilitate the planning of the
148
Sphenochoanal polyps
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
appropriate surgical procedure. We present two patients with sphenochoanal polyp and a
review of the literature.
Crampette L, Mondain M, Rombaux P. Sphenochoanal polyp in children. Diagnosis and
treatment. Rhinology 1995;33:43–5.
Abstract: Two cases of sphenochoanal polyp (SCP) in children are reported. SCPs originate in
the sphenoid sinus cavity, and extend into the choanal via the ostium. Symptoms associated
with the syndrome include nasal blockage and headaches. Endoscopical examination reveals
the presence of a choanal polyp, and the sphenoid origin of the polyp can be determined by
CT scan. In cases where the middle meatus is obstructed, an opacity of the maxillary sinus is
often observed. SCPs cannot be distinguished from antrochoanal polyp (ACP) by histological
means. The treatment of the SCPs involves surgical removal and enlargement of the
sphenoid sinus ostium. Ignorance surrounding the existence and the treatment of this
syndrome may result in insufficient treatment and the consequent recurrence of the disorder.
Sphenochoanal polyp in
children
Eloy P, Evrard I, Bertrand B, Delos M. Choanal polyp of sphenoidal origin. Report of two
cases. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Belg 1996;50:183–9.
Abstract: Clinical presentation and imaging of two cases of choanal polyp extruding from the
sphenoid sinus are presented. The clinical, radiological and pathological features of the
choanal polyp are reviewed. The major role of radical endoscopic sinus surgery consisting of
a complete removal of the polyp and of its insertion into the paranasal sinus cavity is
emphasized.
Sphenochonal polyp
Dadas B, Yilmaz O, Vural C, Calis AB, Turgut S. Choanal polyp of sphenoidal origin.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2000;257:379–81.
Abstract: Sphenochoanal polyp is a rare entity which originates in the sphenoid sinus cavity
and extends into the choana via the ostium. It presents in a similar manner to the more
common antrochoanal polyp. Radiological examination is necessary to differentiate between
these two types. We present a case of sphenochoanal polyp and review the clinical,
radiological and pathological features. The role of endoscopic sinus surgery is emphasised.
Sphenochoanal polp
Tosun F, Yetiser S, Akcam T, Ozkaptan Y. Sphenochoanal polyp: endoscopic surgery.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2001;58:87–90.
Abstract: Sphenochoanal polyp is a rare entity originating from sphenoid sinus. It may be
confused with antrochoanal polyp on anterior rhinoscopy because of its similar appearance.
Computerized tomography and nasal endoscopy have contributed to an increase of accuracy
in the diagnosis of these masses. Simple polypectomy that leaves some part of the polyp
inside the sphenoid sinus carries a high risk of recurrence. Destructive external approaches
to gain access to the sphenoid sinus are also not advisable in children for a benign disease.
We present two cases of sphenochoanal polyps in two children that were operated by
endonasal endoscopic approach. They were free of symptoms after surgery. No
complications and recurrences were observed at 28 and 18 months of follow-up periods
respectively.
Sphenochoanal polyp
Ileri F, Koybasioglu A, Uslu S. Clinical presentation of a sphenochoanal polyp. Eur Arch
Oto-Rhino-Laryngol 1998;255:138–9.
Abstract: Although choanal polyps frequently arise from the maxillary sinus, a choanal polyp
originating from the sphenoid sinus is a rare entity. In this report, an unusual case of a large
choanal polyp taking origin from the sphenoid sinus is presented. The reasons for its
development and methods of management are discussed.
Sphenochoanal polyp
Sethi DS, Lau DP, Chee LW, Chong V. Isolated sphenoethmoid recess polyps. J Laryngol Otol
1998;112:660–3.
Abstract: Isolated sphenoethmoid recess (SER) polyps are rare. They usually arise from the
sphenoid sinus. We report six patients with SER polyps as the only abnormal clinical finding at
initial presentation. All cases were investigated with outpatient biopsy and computed
tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Preoperative histology revealed
three cases of inflammatory disease, two cases with inverted papilloma, and one case of an
ectopic pituitary adenoma arising from the sphenoid sinus. One of the inflammatory polyps
arose directly from the mucosa around the sphenoid ostium. The other five cases involved
the sphenoid sinus. Except for the ectopic pituitary adenoma all the polyps were managed by
transnasal endoscopic surgery. We emphasize that isolated SER polyps may signify existing
sphenoid pathology and a preoperative biopsy is valuable for planning surgery.
Sphenoethmoid recess
polyps
149
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
Appendix 11
Specific techniques/technologies
Computer aided surgery
Caversaccio M, Bachler R, Ladrach K, Schroth G, Nolte LP, Hausler R. Frameless
computer-aided surgery system for revision endoscopic sinus surgery. Otolaryngol Head
Neck Surg 2000;122:808–13.
Abstract: To increase the intraoperative safety factor and to acquire anatomic assistance
during revision endoscopic sinus surgery (RESS), we used an optical computer-aided surgery
(CAS) system that we developed collaboratively in Bern, Switzerland. During 1 year, 25
RESSs were performed with CAS: recurrent polyposis (n = 20), recurrent frontal recess
stenosis (n = 3) and recurrent frontal recess stenosis with mucocele (n = 2). These patients
were compared with a control group of 10 patients undergoing RESS without CAS. The
same surgeon (M.C.) performed all operations, and there were no minor or major
complications in either group. The clinical inaccuracy of our system is between 0.5 and 2 mm
with paired-point and surface matching. The navigation system is an important aid to
surgeons in identifying anatomic landmarks that are typically difficult to visualize in this type
of surgery, thus reducing the stress placed on the surgeon.
150
Computer aided
Gibbons MD, Gunn CG, Niwas S, Sillers MJ. Cost analysis of computer-aided endoscopic
sinus surgery. Am J Rhinol 2001;15:71–5.
This study has been evaluated by a health economist for CRD. In due course a structured
abstract will be written for this record, and, in the meantime, this provisional record has
been loaded for information purposes.If you would like us to prioritise the writing of this
abstract and you would like to receive an early copy, please contact the NHS Centre for
Reviews and Dissemination (tel: (+44)-1904-434560 or e-mail: [email protected]) quoting the
Accession Number of this record.
Economic analysis
Conclusions, commentary and implications
Subject index terms
Subject indexing assigned by NLM:
Alabama; Chronic-Disease; Cost-Benefit-Analysis; Endoscopy/ec (economics); Endoscopy/mt
(methods); Human; Otorhinolaryngologic-Surgical-Procedures/ec (economics);
Otorhinolaryngologic-Surgical-Procedures/mt (methods); Retrospective-Studies; Rhinitis/ec
(economics); Rhinitis/su (surgery); Sinusitis/ec (economics); Sinusitis/su (surgery); Therapy,Computer-Assisted/ec (economics)
Country code
USA
Address for correspondence
Dr M J Sillers, Department of Surgery, Division of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery,
The University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1501 5th Ave, South Birmingham, AL 35233, USA.
Produced by the NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, University of York.
Copyright: University of York.
Record number and entry date:
20011018 30052001.
Computer aided
Anon JB, Lipman SP, Oppenheim D, Halt RA. Computer-assisted endoscopic sinus surgery.
Laryngoscope 1994;104:901–5.
Computer assisted
Gunkel AR, Freysinger W, Thumfart WF, Pototschnig C. Complete sphenoethmoidectomy
and computer-assisted surgery. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Belg 49:257.
Computer assisted
Olson G, Citardi MJ. Image-guided functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Otolaryngol Head
Neck Surg 2000;123:188–94.
Abstract: Introduction: Computer-aided surgery (CAS) technology in functional endoscopic
sinus surgery (FESS) has engendered considerable discussion. Objective: The goals of this
study were to describe CAS preoperative planning (software-based CT image analysis) and
to develop intraoperative CAS strategies for endoscopic sinus surgery. Study design: Between
October 1, 1997, and December 31, 1998, the StealthStation (Sofamor Danek, Memphis,
TN) was used in 61 FESS cases, and a retrospective review of the findings was performed.
The indication for surgery in all instances was chronic rhinosinusitis refractory to medical
management. The StealthStation was used to review all CT scans before surgery. Anatomic
fiducial registration supplemented by contour mapping was used. Results: Localization
accuracy was estimated to be within 2 mm or better. The StealthStation was used for both
CT image review and intraoperative localization. CAS was useful in the frontal recess,
Computer assisted
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
sphenoethmoid region, posterior ethmoid system, and skull base area. CAS was deemed
helpful in situations where the surgical anatomy was altered by previous surgery and
extensive inflammatory disease (polyposis, fungal sinusitis, and pansinusitis). Conclusion: The
paradigm of image-guided FESS surgery, which integrates CAS into FESS, will serve to
increase surgical effectiveness and decrease surgical morbidity.
Sedlmaier B, Schleich A, Hoell T, Ohnesorge I, Jovanovic S. NEN-ENT navigation system –
first clinical application. 4th European Congress of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology Head and Neck
Surgery, Vols 1 and 2 2000;1247–51.
Abstract: Intraoperative computer navigation will soon play an important role in ENT skull
base procedures. The NEN navigational system was used in 20 patients who underwent
microendoscopic surgery for polypoid rhinosinusitis. Preoperative imaging data consisted of
an axially oriented spiral CT scan resulting in a slice thickness of 1 mm. Data acquired during
clinical application was used to optimize navigation accuracy by improving the selection of
marker positions, avoiding ferromagnetic materials in surgical instruments and developing a
sensor fixed to the upper jaw for tracking patient head movements. Thus it was possible to
improve navigation accuracy from 3.5 mm to 1.5 mm in the plane of the sphenoid bone.
Precise computer guided navigation will be an indispensible tool in difficult cases of skull base
surgery in the future. For routine procedures such as microendoscopic endonasal sinus
surgery, the systems have to be cost-effective and easy to operate.
Frontal sinus surgery
Iro H, Zenk J. A new device for frontal sinus endoscopy: first clinical report. Otolaryngol
Head Neck Surg 2001;125:613–16.
Abstract: Objective: Endoscopically or microscopically controlled paranasal sinus surgery
currently represents the state of the art. For anatomic reasons the ostium of the frontal sinus
and the frontal sinus itself are difficult to observe. Flexible endoscopes are often difficult to
implement and do not provide enough light intensity to visualize all parts of the frontal sinus.
Materials and methods: A specially curved rigid endoscope with a working channel of 1.5 mm
that allows passage into the frontal sinus has been developed to manage this problem. The
system was used on 15 patients during paranasal sinus surgery to evaluate possible indications
and its clinical usefulness. Results: The endoscope could be introduced into the frontal sinus
after an ethmoidectomy had been performed in all of the patients. The anatomy of the sinus
could be visualized with sufficient light intensity in 14 patients. The shadowing of the frontal
sinus seen in CT was not due to polyps of the mucosa of the frontal sinus in all cases, but
rather due to secretion with otherwise normal mucosa. In the cases with polyps, it was
necessary to irrigate with saline solution to prevent the buoyant polyps from collapsing over
the endoscope. The following specific indications for this endoscopic version were
established during this first test: intraoperative and postoperative control of the frontal sinus,
clinical evaluation of tumour growth into the frontal sinus, biopsies within the frontal sinus,
and evaluation of fractures. Conclusion: The new device provides further insight within the
field.
Moriyama H, Fukami M, Yanagi K, Ohtori N, Kaneta K. Endoscopic endonasal treatment of
ostium of the frontal sinus and the results of endoscopic surgery. Am J Rhinol 1994;8:67–70.
Abstract: We discuss a procedure for opening the nasofrontal duct and the postoperative
findings in endoscopic endonasal surgery. The route of the anterior ethmoidal artery was also
studied. The subjects of this study were 57 patients (105 sides) who had frontal sinus disease.
The patients all underwent surgery for chronic sinusitis between 1990 and 1992. Patients
undergoing revision surgery were excluded. All patients were operated on by the same
surgeon. In each patient, following anterior and posterior ethmoidectomy, the frontal sinus
ostial region was opened using a 70 endoscope, while carefully monitoring the anterior
ethmoidal artery. The agger nasi was left intact. The cells around the ostium were opened
using a curved suction tip and upward bent forceps, and the lamellae were removed to
achieve the greatest possible communication with the frontal sinus. In 77 sides (73.4%), the
communication between the frontal and ethmoidal sinuses was well maintained. The ostium
was patent with edematous mucosa in 18 sides (17.1%). The opened ostium could not be
confirmed due to presence of polyp, etc., in 10 sides (9.5%). During surgery, the route of
the anterior ethmoidal artery was confirmed in 70.8%, and of these cases, it was located
anterior to the third ground lamella in about 50%. DEM: chronic-sinusitis-surgery; frontalsinus. DER: anesthesia-; article-; endoscopic-surgery; follow-up; human-; major-clinical-study;
postoperative-infection-prevention; postoperative-infection-drug-therapy; technique-. DRR:
erythromycin-; macrolide-.
Computer navigation
Frontal sinus
Frontal sinus
151
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
Appendix 11
Schaefer SD, Close LG. Endoscopic management of frontal sinus disease. Laryngoscope
1990;100:155–60.
Abstract: Depending on the pathologic process, the treatment of frontal sinus disease has
consisted of obliteration or ablation of the sinus, or restoration of drainage into the nose.
Intranasal endoscopic enlargement of the frontal recess and ostium, and removal of disease
from the medial aspect of the frontal sinus offers a minimally invasive alternative to previous
operations in selected patients. To better understand the indications, limitations, and
potential problems with this operation, our experience with endoscopic frontal sinustomy in
36 patients over a 30-month period is reported. During the follow-up period, 21 patients had
complete resolution of all symptoms, 11 patients were improved but had at least one
episode of sinusitis or headache postoperatively, and 3 patients were worse, 2 of whom
required frontal sinus obliteration for control of disease. Although endoscopic frontal
sinusotomy appears to be a useful alternative to traditional frontal sinus procedures in
selected patients, the reader is cautioned that such surgery is technically difficult and has not
yet stood the test of time required of any frontal sinus operation.
Frontal sinus disease
Friedman M, Landsberg R, Schults RA, Tanyeri H, Caldarelli DD. Frontal sinus surgery:
endoscopic technique and preliminary results. Am J Rhinol 2000;14:393–403.
Abstract: Endoscopic frontal sinus surgery, once the last frontier in the evolution of
endoscopic sinus surgery, is considered difficult, risky to the patient and likely to result in a
high failure rate. We clarify the surgical anatomy for frontal sinus surgery that, based on a
review of our data, provides safe and predictable access to the frontal sinus. We studied 200
consecutive patients with respect to indications, endoscopic and radiographic findings, results
and complications. The study will describe the technique in detail, including the following
points: (1) computed tomography identification of the superior attachment of the uncinate
process; (2) complete removal of the uncinate process, including its superior attachments, by
using the microdebrider; (3) removal of the agger nasi cell, if present; and (4) verification of
an open frontal sinus by a transillumination or image-guided system. Postoperative
assessment of patients’ symptoms and the confirmation of a patent frontal sinus by office
endoscopy and transillumination indicated a 90% patency for short-term follow-up (average
12.2 months). There were no major complications. Postoperative complications included
frontal recess stenosis, polypoid mucosa occluding the frontal recess and middle turbinate
lateralization. All of these situations may lead to recurrence of infection and symptoms. Indepth understanding of anatomic variations of the uncinate process and precise surgical
removal of its superior attachments provide surgical access to the frontal sinus that is based
on the natural ostia and is, therefore, more likely to remain patent.
Frontal sinus surgery
Intra-operative imaging
Freysinger W. Three-dimensional navigation in otorhinolaryngological surgery with the
viewing wand. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1998;107:953–8.
Abstract: We report our experiences with the ISG Viewing Wand intraoperative
3-dimensional navigation device in endonasal endoscopic procedures of the paranasal sinuses,
anterior skull base and petrous bone. In the last 12 months we have routinely used the wand
in 90 patients for treatment of polyposis nasi, for biopsies and removal of tumors in the nasal
cavity and at the frontal skull base, for endocrine ophthalmopathy, and in 1 case for
cholesteatoma. We present our computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and
clinical protocols that allow a precise routine use of the Viewing Wand. In all cases, the
system was extremely helpful for intraoperative localisation and helped to optimise surgery.
Cartellieri, and V, F-. Endoscopic sinus surgery using intraoperative computed tomography
imaging for updating a three-dimensional navigation system. Laryngoscope 2000;110:292–6.
Abstract: Objectives: The use of three-dimensional navigation systems provides information
on the structures surrounding the field of operation and thereby reduces the risk of
iatrogenic damage. The computed tomography (CT) data conventionally used are provided
by preoperative scanning procedures, which means that tissue changes coming about during
surgery are not seen on the screen. An intraoperative CT scanning procedure being able to
update the CT data could provide a solution. Study design: Endoscopic sinus operations using
an intraoperative CT updating the three-dimensional navigation system were performed on
six persons to find out whether the above is true. Methods: Different parameters, advantages
and disadvantages in the cases of these six patients were compared with a group of 22
patients who underwent conventional endoscopic sinus surgery with different threedimensional navigation systems without updating the CT data set. Results: The intraoperative
CT for updating the three-dimensional navigation system provides useful information for the
152
3D navigation
Intraoperative CT
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
surgeon. Conclusion: Balancing its advantages against its disadvantages, the updating of the
CT data set with intraoperative CT cannot be recommended for conventional standard
endoscopic sinus surgery.
Hsu L, Fried MP, Jolesz FA. MR-guided endoscopic sinus surgery. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
1998;19:1235–40.
Abstract: We describe an interactive, intraoperative imaging-guided method for performing
endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) within a vertically open MR system. The procedure was
performed with intraoperative imaging using a 0.5-T magnet with a 56-cm vertical gap.
Interactive control of imaging planes was accomplished by optical tracking with two infrared
light-emitting diodes mounted on an aspirator probe. The probe’s position defined the
location of the orthogonal imaging planes. Twelve patients with varying degrees of sinus
disease underwent ESS with MR imaging guidance. Patients had acute and chronic sinusitis,
nasal polyposis causing airway obstruction or tumor requiring tissue biopsy. All procedures
were performed with the patients under general anaesthesia. The integration of endoscopy
with optical tracking and intraoperative interactive imaging allowed localisation of anatomic
landmarks during ESS. No complications were encountered.
MRI system
Zlomaniec J, Czerwonka R, Bryc S. Nasal–sinusal polyps in the picture of combined
radiological–endoscopic technique. Ann Univ Mariae Curie Sklodowska [Med] 1992;47:137–40.
Radiological endoscopic
technique
Lasers
Schuman DM, Pineyro R. Functional Aqualaser sinuscopy: a safe technique for the treatment
of severe nasal polyposis. J Clin Laser Med Surg 1994;12:333–7.
Abstract: All degrees of sinonasal polyposis now can be surgically treated with minimal
bleeding, no packing and no vasoconstrictors. The Aqualaser technique uses warmed isotonic
irrigation to produce vasoconstriction of the mucosa and to clear the field of debris and
secretions. This results in an improvement in visualization of the anatomical landmarks and of
the pathologic process(es) present. The contact YAG laser is used as a heating element. This
laserized water results in cooking of the polyps (controlling the bleeding) prior to gently
coddling away the abnormal tissues with Aquadissection (warm water dissection). The
instrumentation used and the technique is explained. Over 2000 procedures were reviewed
resulting in no major ocular or intracranial complications.
Aqualaser
Schuman DM, Pineyro R. Functional Aqualaser sinuscopy for nasal polyposis. Clin Laser Mon
1994;12:23–6.
Aqualaser
Westhofen M, Ilgner J, Handt S. The neodymium:YAG laser in postoperative follow-up
after endonasal pansinus operation. Laser Florence ’99: A Window on the Laser Medicine World
1999;1:218–21.
Abstract: Microscopic and endoscopic surgery are the current widely accepted state of the
art for the treatment of chronic polypoid sinusitis. Postoperative recurrence of the disease is
reported in 12–25% of the patients. Revision surgery mostly requires similar surgical
techniques. Therefore, modifications of the primary microsurgical technique were worked
out to allow wide endoscopic accessibility postoperatively. Nd:YAG laser surgical tools for
the endoscopic application of laser fibres were developed for minimal invasive revision
surgery. Applicators for proper fiber positioning within the paranasal sinuses were
constructed. Meanwhile n = 92 patients are treated over a period of two years. 90% of the
patients with recurrence are free of symptoms and pathological findings for more than six
months. Among two treated patients two developed hyposensitivity of the pterygopalatine
nerve for two and six months respectively. No further complications were seen. The new
endoscopic laser surgery of the paranasal sinuses reveals a reduction of sinus disease
recurrence in 90% of the patients.
Laser
Gleich LL, Rebeiz EE, Pankratov MM, Shapshay SM. The holmium:YAG laser-assisted
otolaryngologic procedures. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1995;121:1162–6.
Abstract: Objective: To determine the effectiveness of the holmium:YAG (Ho:YAG) laser in
otolaryngologic procedures that necessitate the ablation of osseous and soft tissue.
Design: Case series. Setting: Lahey Clinic, Burlington, Mass. Patients: Consecutive series of
37 patients; 29 with chronic sinusitis, five with chronic dacryocystitis, one with recurrent
choanal stenosis, one with tracheopathia osteoplastica, and one with a sphenoid sinus
mucocele. Intervention: The Ho:YAG laser was used to assist in 37 procedures, including
endoscopic sinus surgery, dacryocystorhinostomy, treatment of choanal stenosis, ablation of
Laser assisted
153
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
Appendix 11
obstructive tracheopathia osteoplastica, and removal of a sphenoid sinus mucocele. Main
outcome measures: Postsurgical success and complications, satisfaction of the patients, and
the ability of the laser to remove tissue. Results: Complications occurred in eight patients:
intranasal or ethmoid scarring (four), persistent polyps (one), bleeding (one), stent
dislodgment (one) and tracheitis (one). Three patients required revision surgery. None of the
complications were related to use of the laser, although the laser may produce increased
scarring. The laser was effective for osseous and soft-tissue ablation, but its usefulness was
limited for hemostasis. Conclusions: The Ho:YAG laser can be used in otolaryngologic
procedures when surgical access is difficult or when controlled, precise ablation of osseous
tissue is necessary.
Levine HL. Lasers and endoscopic rhinologic surgery. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 1989;
22:739–48.
Abstract: Lasers are playing a more important role in rhinologic surgery. A new laser, the
KTP/532, provides flexible fibers that can be combined with nasal endoscopes to reach the
recesses and spaces of the nasal cavity. It can deal effectively with turbinate dysfunction,
bleeding disorders, polyps, and scarring. The author’s experience with the use of this laser is
described.
Laser assisted
Ohyama M. Laser polypectomy. Rhinol Suppl 1989;8:35–43.
Abstract: The contact Nd:YAG laser technique in endonasal surgery is presented as a new
therapeutic tool. The clinical experience in cases with recurrent polyposis is presented. The
therapeutic results are evaluated. Although patients with nasal polyposis remain to be treated
on an individual basis, due to the multifactorial etiopathogenesis of this disorder, the initial
results with this new surgical procedure are promising.
Laser assisted
Shapshay SM, Rebeiz EE, Pankratov MM. Holmium:yttrium aluminum garnet laser-assisted
endoscopic sinus surgery: clinical experience. Laryngoscope 1992;102:1177–80.
Laser assisted
Zickefoose S. Nasal surgery. Using lasers with endoscopy surgery. AORN J 1989;50:979–88.
Lasers
Ikeda K, Takasaka T. Endoscopic laser sinus surgery using KTP/532 laser. Lasers Med Sci
1996;11:133–8.
Abstract: KTP/532 lasers have been used in a variety of medical applications since 1986. The
authors have explored this relatively new wavelength in Japan in the field of rhinology, and
report new aspects of KTP/532 laser application in endoscopic sinus surgery on the basis of
confirmatory and subjective methods. Eighty patients with chronic sinusitis and mucoceles
received KTP/532 laser endoscopic sinus surgery. The KTP/532 laser demonstrated excellent
results showing reduction of postoperative polyps and granulation tissues around the
enlarged maxillary sinus ostium. In addition, patients with chronic sinusitis demonstrated
enhanced healing of the polypoid degeneration of the maxillary sinus. However, no significant
improvement in the postoperative care was observed in the enlarged opening of mucoceles.
It is concluded that the KTP/532 laser is a promising tool for endoscopic sinus surgery. DEM:
chronic-sinusitis-surgery; endoscopic-surgery; laser-surgery; mucocele-surgery; treatmentoutcome. DER: adolescent-; adult-; aged-; article-; female-; granulation-tissue; human-;
japan-; major-clinical-study; male-; maxillary-sinus; nose-polyp-prevention; nose-polypcomplication; otorhinolaryngology-; postoperative-complication; priority-journal; school-child.
Lasers
Microdebriders
Hamels K, Morre TD, Clement PA. The hummer, shaver or microdebrider.
Acta Otorhinolaryngol Belg 1997;51:89–91.
Abstract: The major goal in functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) is the precise and
delicate removal of diseased tissue in order to prevent trauma to healthy mucosa, bleeding
and scar formation. One of the advantages in this field is the use of the microdebrider. The
authors describe the use of this instrument, as well as their own experience for nasal
polypectomy, prior to the FESS procedure.
Ikui A. Dilatation of accessory ostium of maxillary sinus on endoscopic sinus surgery for
pediatric sinusitis. Jibi Inkoka Tokeibu Geka 1999;71:543–6.
Abstract: Five patients under eight years old with pediatric sinusitis after failing of
conservative therapy were treated by Hummer Microdebrider System (Stryker Corp, USA)
during endoscopic sinus surgery. Following nasal polypectomy, dilatation of the accessory
ostium of maxillary sinus was performed by this system that was not harmful to the nasal and
154
Microdebrider
Microdebrider
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
paranasal bony structures, such as nasal turbinates, nasal septum or uncinate process.
Subjective symptoms and CT findings were markedly improved in all cases. This method is
appropriate for paediatric sinusitis patients to maintain normal morphology of developing
sinuses because of no bony partition removal.
Microscopic surgery
Teatini GP, Stomeo F, Bozzo C. Transnasal sinusectomy with combined microscopic and
endoscopic technique. J Laryngol Otol 1991;105:635–7.
Abstract: Severe, diffuse polyposis can be adequately treated through a transnasal approach
which combines microscopic and endoscopic surgery. The operating microscope is used to
perform ethmoidectomy, usually from the front to the back, and to open the sphenoid sinus
and the antral window. The telescopes allow the sphenoid and maxillary sinuses to be
cleaned under direct view control as well as enabling good drainage to be performed from
the frontal sinuses. The results from 22 consecutive patients were good, with a very low rate
of minor postoperative complications.
Microscope
Ohnishi T. Endoscopic endonasal microsurgery of the ethmoid sinus. Jibi Inkoka Tokeibu Geka
1990;62:343–9.
Abstract: The authors describe a method of radical ethmoidectomy be means of endoscopic
microsurgery. In conventional surgical treatment of chronic sinusitis with diffuse nasal
polyposis one of the major causes of failure has been uncertain surgical resection of local
diseases, where hidden diseases have often been left unremoved at the critical areas such as
the naso-frontal duct and fontanel areas. The authors described a step-by-step surgical
technique of microscopic ethmoidectomy under endoscopic control. Meticulous removal of
sinus diseases and restoration of functional anatomy of the sinuses under endoscopic
magnification enabled an ethmoidectomy of microscopic level. The results of this surgical
technique in 30 patients revealed an improvement rate of 80 to 90% of the cases in both
subjective and objective findings.
Microsurgery
Weber R, Draf W, Keerl R, Schick B, Saha A . Endonasal microendoscopic pansinusoperation
in chronic sinusitis. II. Results and complications. Am J Otolaryngol 1997;18:247–53.
Abstract: Purpose: We evaluated the long-term results and complications of endonasal
pansinusoperation in chronic polypoid sinusitis. Patients and methods: In a retrospective
study, 170 patients were followed-up for 20 months to 10 years after bilateral endonasal
microendoscopic pansinus surgery or ethmoidectomy. The follow-up consisted of a
standardized questionnaire and clinical examination with the flexible endoscope. Results: We
found that 85.6% of the ethmoid cell systems, 69.4% of maxillary sinuses and 37.5% of
frontal sinuses could be visualized endoscopically. The ethmoid mucosa was normal in 56%
and thickened in 19%. Recurrent polyps were found in 25%. The evaluation – as per the
graduation of results defined by us as a combination of examination findings and subjective
assessment of the operative result – resulted in an operative success of 92%. Two studies
dealing with the frequency of complications showed injury to the dura in 2.3% to 2.55% and
periorbital injury without permanent sequelae in 1.4% to 3.4%. Because of two cases of
bleeding from the internal carotid artery, the problems of vascular complications in particular
will be thoroughly discussed. Conclusion: More than 90% of patients with chronic polypoid
sinusitis gain long-term satisfying results after endonasal ethmoidectomy with microscope and
endoscope. For minimizing the risk of injury of the optic nerve or the internal carotid artery
preoperative, computed tomography is necessary. A special training programme is
recommended.
Microendoscopic
Venkatachalam VP. Role of microrhinoscopic sinus surgery in chronic sinusitis: initial results.
Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2000;52:219–22.
Abstract: Chronic sinusitis with/without polyposis account for the majority of nasal pathology.
The advent of functional sinus surgery has led to a better understanding of the complex
anatomy of the paranasal sinuses and the surrounding vital structures. The application of
surgical principle and technique of functional endoscopic sinus surgery to another approach
for regional pathology using operating microscope has enabled us to significantly refine this
technique of treatment of sinus pathology namely microrhinoscopic sinus surgery (MRSS). In
this paper the technique as well as the initial results of the microrhinoscopic sinus surgery
(MRSS) is discussed with its advantages. DEM: chronic-sinusitis-surgery; chronic-sinusitisdiagnosis; chronic-sinusitis-drug-therapy. DER: human-; clinical-article; human-tissue; clinicaltrial; adult-; female-; male-; bleeding-complication; bleeding-therapy; paranasal-sinus;
microrhinoscopic-sinus-surgery; surgical-technique; ethmoid-sinus; maxillary-sinus;
Microrhinoscopic surgery
155
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
Appendix 11
ethmoidectomy-; endoscopic-surgery; treatment-outcome; computer-assisted-tomography;
polyposis-surgery; polyposis-drug-therapy; postoperative-care; article-. DRR:
antiinflammatory-agent-drug-therapy.
Other techniques/concurrent surgery
Fortune DS, Duncavage JA. Incidence of frontal sinusitis following partial middle turbinectomy. Partial middle turbinectomy
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1998;107:447–53.
Abstract: The role of partial middle turbinate resection as an adjunct to endoscopic sinus
surgery is controversial. Recent literature suggests that middle turbinate resection may have a
detrimental effect on the frontal sinus. A retrospective analysis of 155 consecutive patients
undergoing partial middle turbinate resection utilizing the technique of the senior author
(J.A.D.) for either sinusitis or nasal obstruction was conducted. The data reveal a low rate of
frontal sinusitis following partial middle turbinectomy (10%). None of the patients
undergoing partial middle turbinectomy for nasal obstruction developed frontal sinusitis
postoperatively. No major complications were encountered. Frontal sinusitis following middle
turbinectomy was often associated with preoperative comorbidity such as asthma, nasal
polyps, severe disease score on computed tomography or diseased middle turbinates. The
authors conclude that partial middle turbinectomy for treatment of sinusitis and nasal
obstruction has a low incidence of postoperative frontal sinusitis. Development of frontal
sinusitis may be predictable on the basis of several comorbid factors.
156
Friedman M, Landsberg R, Tanyeri H. Middle turbinate medialization and preservation in
endoscopic sinus surgery. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2000;123:76–80.
Abstract: Objective/Hypothesis: Lateral synechia formation between the middle turbinate
(MT) and the lateral nasal wall is the most common complication of endoscopic sinus surgery.
In an attempt to prevent this complication, a simple technique to preserve and medialize the
MT was studied. Methods: Five hundred patients underwent endoscopic sinus surgery with
MT medialization and preservation. The caudal end of the MT and the opposing septal
mucosa were abraded with a microdebrider for controlled synechia formation in an attempt
to avoid lateralization of the MT. Follow-up ranged from 6 to 18 months, with a mean
follow-up of 10 months. Results: Ninety-three percent of the patients had successful MT
medialization with a well-defined synechia between the septum and the MT. Conclusions: MT
medialization with a microdebrider is simple, is reliable, and should be considered an
alternative to turbinate resection or to other turbinate medialization techniques.
Middle turbinate
medialization
Mendelsohn M. Simultaneous rhinoseptoplasty and fess. Aust J Otolaryngol 2001;4:118–19.
Abstract: Combining rhinoseptoplasty with sinus surgery has been performed increasingly
over the last decade. This review summarises a case series of 74 patients who underwent
simultaneous rhinoseptoplasty and sinus surgery. Provided cases are selected appropriately,
the complication rate when performed together was no greater than performing the
procedures individually. Patients were excluded if there was severe polyposis, difficult
revision sinus disease, severe infection, immunocompromise or the need for complex
rhinoseptoplasty reconstruction. The development of orbital ecchymoses requires careful
monitoring to exclude an intraorbital complication. DEM: nose-septum-reconstruction;
paranasal-sinus. DER: human-; major-clinical-study; clinical-trial; female-; male-; adult-;
surgical-technique; prospective-study; surgical-approach; postoperative-complication;
disease-severity; polyposis-; paranasal-sinus-disease-surgery; paranasal-sinus-disease-diseasemanagement; infection-; immune-deficiency; ecchymosis-complication; patient-monitoring;
disease-classification; patient-satisfaction; treatment-outcome; safety-; article-.
Rhinoseptoplasty
Vanclooster C. Endoscopic septel spur resection in combination with endoscopic sinus
surgery. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Belg 1998;52:335–9.
Abstract: To assess the possibilities and limitations of endoscopic septal spur resection in
combination with endoscopic sinus surgery, 40 consecutive patients were prospectively
evaluated. All patients suffered from chronic sinusitis and presented with a posterior septal
spur. The spur resection was mainly done because of impaction on the middle meatus and
was in general performed after the sinus procedure, if technically possible. Although not
completely painless, the septal spur resection could be easily performed under local
anaesthesia. The procedure took on average less than 5 minutes. The immediate
postoperative period was always uneventful and no septal perforations were recorded at six
weeks. There were no late complications. In conclusion, endoscopic resection of a septal
spur can be performed safely in combination with endoscopic sinus surgery and contributes
with minimal additional morbidity to the surgical success.
Septal spur resection
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Gross WE. Soft-tissue shavers in functional endoscopic sinus surgery (standard technique).
Otolaryngol Clin North Am 1997;30:435–41.
Soft tissue shavers
Burgess LPA, Syms MJ, Holtel MR, Birkmire-Peters DP, Johnson RE, Ramsey MJ.
Telemedicine: teleproctored endoscopic sinus surgery. Laryngoscope 2002;112:216–19.
Abstract: Objective/hypothesis: Teleproctored surgery projects a surgeon’s expertise to
remote locations. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility
of this technique as compared with the current standard of care. Study design: Prospective.
Methods: A study was conducted in a residency training programme comparing
conventionally proctored endoscopic sinus surgery cases with teleproctored cases, with the
faculty surgeon supervising through audiovisual teleconferencing (VTC) in a control room 15
seconds from the operating room. Results: Forty-two control patients (83 sides) and 45
teleproctored patients (83 sides) were evaluated. There were no internal differences
between groups regarding extent of polypoid disease, revision status, procedures per case,
degree of difficulty, general or local anaesthesia or microdebrider use. There were no cases
of visual disturbance, orbital ecchymosis or haematoma or cerebrospinal fluid leak. Orbital fat
herniation and blood loss were equal between groups. Three teleproctored cases required
faculty intervention: two for surgical difficulty, one for VTC problems. Teleproctored cases
took 3.87 minutes longer per side (28.54 vs. 24.67 minutes, p < 0.024), a 16% increase.
This was thought to be a result of nuances of VTC proctoring. Residents had a positive
learning experience, with nearly full control of the operating suite combined with remote
supervision through telepresence. Faculty thought such supervision was safe but had
concerns regarding personal skills maintenance. Conclusions: Teleproctored endoscopic sinus
surgery can be safely performed on selected cases with an acceptable increase in time.
Teleproctored surgery with remote sites may continue to be safely investigated.
Incorporating remote supervision through telepresence into the curriculum of surgical
residency training requires further study.
Teleproctored
el Guindy A. Endoscopic transseptal vidian neurectomy. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
1994;120:1347–51.
Abstract: Objective: Evaluation of the endoscopic transseptal approach of vidian neurectomy.
Design: A case series, with a follow-up of 12 to 24 months. Setting: A referral centre.
Patients: A consecutive sample of 11 adult patients with resistant vasomotor rhinitis: eight
with severe rhinorrhea and three with recurrent nasal polyposis. All patients had a negative
history of allergy and negative skin tests. All patients completed the study. Intervention: The
rigid nasal endoscope was used through a transseptal approach to reach the sphenopalatine
foramen and to cut the vidian nerve. Main outcome measures: Intraoperative identification
and cutting of the vidian nerve under direct endoscopic vision. Postoperative evaluation of
rhinorrhea, sneezing and recurrent disease. Results: The vidian nerve was identified and
sectioned bilaterally in all cases. Immediate and complete cessation of rhinorrhea uniformly
occurred. Paroxysms of sneezing were vastly reduced. No recurrence was detected, except
in one case. Three patients complained of dry eyes, but they had symptomatic relief with
artificial teardrops. Conclusion: The technique of endoscopic transseptal vidian neurectomy is
a minor surgical procedure with high efficacy and minimal postoperative morbidity. More
cases and longer follow-up are necessary to provide long-term results.
Transeptal vidian
neurectomy
el Shazly MA. Endoscopic surgery of the vidian nerve. Preliminary report. Ann Otol Rhinol
Laryngol 1991;100:536–9.
Abstract: The anatomy, surgical technique and difficulties of endoscopic vidian neurectomy
are described. The procedure was carried out on 12 patients: 8 had resistant secretomotor
rhinopathy and 4 had recurrent nasal polyposis. This technique is a minor surgical procedure
with symptomatic relief and minimal postoperative morbidity.
Vidian neurectomy
Revision surgery
Wreesmann VB, Fokkens WJ, Knegt PP. Refractory chronic sinusitis: evaluation of symptom
improvement after Denker’s procedure. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2001;125:495–500.
Abstract: Objectives: Although there is ample literature describing various aspects of
functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) in relationship to its success rates, very little has
been reported regarding possibilities in case of recurrent failure. We investigated subjective
results of Denker’s procedure used as a last resort for refractory chronic
rhinosinusitis/polyposis. Study design and setting: A retrospective questionnaire-based study
of 82 patients who underwent Denker’s procedure between 1986 and 1997 at the Erasmus
University Medical Center, The Netherlands, was conducted. Results: Eighty-four percent of
Recurrent surgery
157
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
Appendix 11
patients reported reduction of overall symptomatology. A significant reduction of nasal
obstruction, headache, feeling of fullness, post-nasal drip, rhinorrhoea, facial pain, dental pain,
and coughing was reported. In addition, symptoms of lower airway inflammation did improve
significantly in asthmatic patients. Conclusions: These data suggest that radical surgery using
Denker’s approach should be considered in selected cases after recurrent failure of
functional sinus surgery. Significance: A prospective study is warranted to validate this
approach for refractory chronic rhinosinusitis.
Sphenoid surgery
Friedman WH, Katsantonis GP. Intranasal and transantral ethmoidectomy: a 20-year
experience. Laryngoscope 1990;100:343–8.
Abstract: Ethmoidectomy is an operation that has engendered controversy concerning the
best route of surgical access. The purpose of this study was to present the results of the
authors’ experience in more than 1300 intranasal sphenoethmoidectomies and transantral
sphenoethmoidectomies performed over a 20-year period. The authors contend that the
most effective ethmoidectomy is the most complete ethmoidectomy and have previously
presented a case for ethmoid marsupialization. Polyp recurrence rates of less than 20% and a
major complication rate of less than 1% were reported in this study.
158
Sphenoethmoidectomy
Gilain L, Aidan D, Coste A, Peynegre R. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery for isolated
sphenoid sinus disease. Head Neck 1994;16:433–7.
Abstract: Background: This article reviews 12 cases of isolated sphenoid sinus disease:
chronic inflammatory sinusitis (7), mucoceles (2), aspergillus lesions (2), and isolated polyp
(1). Methods: Criteria for diagnosis were based on clinical symptoms, nasal endoscopic
evaluation and computed tomography (CT). Magnetic resonance imaging was used only in
cases of bone erosion and when patients presented with vision problems. All patients were
treated by functional endoscopic sphenoidotomy. Any postoperative complications were
noted. Conclusion: The reported good results, on the basis of regression of functional
symptoms and with nasal endoscopic and CT evaluation, suggest that intranasal
sphenoidotomy under endoscopic control is a safe and effective method of treatment of
nonmalignant isolated sphenoid disease. The mean follow-up is 26 months.
Sphenoidotomy
Hadar T. Isolated sphenoid sinus changes – history, CT and endoscopic finding.
J Laryngol Otol 1996;110:850–3.
Abstract: This study reviews the records of 21 patients with isolated sphenoid sinus disease
who were treated by rigid endoscopic sphenoidotomy at the Nose and Sinus Unit,
Department of Otolaryngology of Beilinson Medical Center, Israel. Diagnosis was made on
the basis of history, rigid nasal endoscopy and computed tomography (CT) scan. The most
frequent symptom was headache; no instances of ‘pathognomonic’ headache were found.
Sphenoidotomy was performed through the area of the natural ostium. The pathological
finding was infection in 11 patients, cyst in four patients, polyps in three patients, mucocoele
in two and inverted papilloma in one patient. Surgical results were very good. Endoscopic
sphenoidotomy proved to be safe, with minimal blood loss, reduced operating time,
decreased morbidity and short postoperative hospitalization.
Sphenoidotomy
Katsantonis GP, Friedman WH, Bruns M. Intranasal sphenoethmoidectomy: an evolution
of technique. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1994;111:781–6.
Abstract: Intranasal sphenoethmoidectomy was originally used primarily for the provision of
adequate drainage of acute and subacute bacterial sinusitis. However, the spectrum of
inflammatory sinus disease has changed dramatically since the popularization of broadspectrum antibiotics, and chronic hyperplastic rhinosinusitis has replaced acute sinusitis as the
primary indication for ethmoidectomy. In such cases total or almost total disease removal is
crucial to providing long-term drainage and ventilation. We describe several modifications of
the Yankauer sphenoethmoidectomy technique that enable the sinus surgeon to provide
clearance of disease and excellent drainage for all sinuses by complete marsupialization of the
sphenoid, ethmoid and maxillary sinuses. These modifications include (1) complete rather
than partial removal of the middle turbinate, (2) extended middle meatal antrostomy with
palatine bone resection to the pterygoid process with delineation of the inferior and medial
orbital wall and (3) introduction of operative endoscopes as adjunctive tools in areas
inaccessible to conventional visualization. The current technique and results in nearly 2000
procedures are described.
Sphenoethmoidectomy
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Klossek JM, Peloquin L, Friedman WH, Ferrier JC, Fontanel JP. Diffuse nasal polyposis:
postoperative long-term results after endoscopic sinus surgery and frontal irrigation.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1997;117:355–61.
Abstract: Diffuse nasal polyposis remains a challenge despite recent improvements in
endonasal surgery. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the results after a radical
complete sphenoethmoidectomy with peroperative and postoperative frontal irrigation in
cases of diffuse nasal polyposis. In this prospective study, we include 50 consecutive patients
with diffuse nasal polyposis suffering from nasal obstruction, anosmia and other symptoms of
chronic sinusitis. All patients were refractory to medical therapy. In each patient an
endoscopic complete sphenoethmoidectomy including total excision of all diseased ethmoid
mucosa was performed. Preoperative and postoperative frontal irrigation was performed
systematically. The patients were followed closely with serial endoscopic examination, and
CT scanning was performed between 2 and 3 years after surgery. There were no
complications. Thirty-nine of the 50 patients regained satisfactory olfaction. Partial nasal
obstruction persisted in four of the 50 patients. Endoscopically, polyp recurrence was noted
in 3% of posterior ethmoids, 23% of anterior ethmoids and 50% of frontal recesses. We
conclude that in cases of refractory and extensive nasal polyposis, a total
sphenoethmoidectomy with perioperative frontal irrigation followed by long-term
postoperative topical steroid therapy provides excellent improvement or cure with safety
and reliability.
Sphenoethmoidectomy
159
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Health Technology Assessment
Programme
Members
Chair,
Professor Kent Woods,
Director, NHS HTA Programme
& Professor of Therapeutics,
University of Leicester
Members
Programme Director,
Professor Kent Woods, Director,
NHS HTA Programme,
Department of Medicine and
Therapeutics, Leicester Royal
Infirmary, Robert Kilpatrick
Clinical Sciences Building,
Leicester
Chair,
Professor Shah Ebrahim,
Professor in Epidemiology of
Ageing, Department of Social
Medicine, University of Bristol,
Canynge Hall, Whiteladies
Road, Bristol
Deputy Chair,
Professor Jenny Hewison,
Professor of Health Care
Psychology, Academic Unit of
Psychiatry and Behavioural
Sciences, University of Leeds
School of Medicine, Leeds
Professor Douglas Altman,
Professor of Statistics in
Medicine, Centre for Statistics
in Medicine, Oxford University,
Institute of Health Sciences,
Cancer Research UK Medical
Statistics Group, Headington,
Oxford
Professor John Bond, Professor
of Health Services Research,
Centre for Health Services
Research, University of
Newcastle, School of Health
Sciences, Newcastle upon Tyne
Prioritisation Strategy Group
Professor Bruce Campbell,
Consultant Vascular & General
Surgeon, Royal Devon & Exeter
Hospital
Dr John Reynolds, Clinical
Director, Acute General
Medicine SDU, Radcliffe
Hospital, Oxford
Professor Shah Ebrahim,
Professor in Epidemiology
of Ageing, University of
Bristol
Dr Ron Zimmern, Director,
Public Health Genetics Unit,
Strangeways Research
Laboratories, Cambridge
HTA Commissioning Board
Professor John Brazier, Director
of Health Economics, Sheffield
Health Economics Group,
School of Health & Related
Research, University of
Sheffield, ScHARR Regent
Court, Sheffield
Dr Andrew Briggs, Public
Health Career Scientist, Health
Economics Research Centre,
University of Oxford, Institute
of Health Sciences, Oxford
Dr Christine Clark, Medical
Writer & Consultant Pharmacist,
Cloudside, Rossendale, Lancs
and
Principal Research Fellow,
Clinical Therapeutics in the
School of Pharmacy, Bradford
University, Bradford
Professor Nicky Cullum,
Director of Centre for Evidence
Based Nursing, Department of
Health Sciences, University of
York, Research Section,
Seebohm Rowntree Building,
Heslington, York
Dr Andrew Farmer, Senior
Lecturer in General Practice,
Department of Primary Health
Care, University of Oxford,
Institute of Health Sciences,
Headington, Oxford
Professor Fiona J Gilbert,
Professor of Radiology,
Department of Radiology,
University of Aberdeen, Lilian
Sutton Building, Foresterhill,
Aberdeen
Professor Adrian Grant,
Director, Health Services
Research Unit, University of
Aberdeen, Drew Kay Wing,
Polwarth Building, Foresterhill,
Aberdeen
Professor Alastair Gray, Director,
Health Economics Research
Centre, University of Oxford,
Institute of Health Sciences,
Headington, Oxford
Professor Mark Haggard,
Director, MRC ESS Team, CBU
Elsworth House, Addenbrooke’s
Hospital, Cambridge
Professor F D Richard Hobbs,
Professor of Primary Care &
General Practice, Department of
Primary Care & General
Practice, University of
Birmingham, Primary Care and
Clinical Sciences Building,
Edgbaston, Birmingham
Professor Peter Jones, Head of
Department, University
Department of Psychiatry,
University of Cambridge,
Addenbrooke's Hospital,
Cambridge
Professor Sallie Lamb, Research
Professor in Physiotherapy/CoDirector, Interdisciplinary
Research Centre in Health,
Coventry University, Coventry
Professor David Neal, Professor
of Surgical Oncology, Oncology
Centre, Addenbrooke's Hospital,
Cambridge
Professor Tim Peters, Professor
of Primary Care Health Services
Research, Division of Primary
Health Care, University of
Bristol, Cotham House, Cotham
Hill, Bristol
Professor Ian Roberts, Professor
of Epidemiology & Public
Health, Intervention Research
Unit, London School of
Hygiene and Tropical Medicine,
London
Professor Peter Sandercock,
Professor of Medical Neurology,
Department of Clinical
Neurosciences, University of
Edinburgh, Western General
Hospital NHS Trust, Bramwell
Dott Building, Edinburgh
Professor Martin Severs,
Professor in Elderly Health
Care, Portsmouth Institute of
Medicine, Health & Social Care,
St George’s Building,
Portsmouth
Dr Jonathan Shapiro, Senior
Fellow, Health Services
Management Centre, Park
House, Birmingham
Dr Donna Lamping, Senior
Lecturer, Health Services
Research Unit, Public Health
and Policy, London School of
Hygiene and Tropical Medicine,
London
169
Current and past membership details of all HTA ‘committees’ are available from the HTA website (www.ncchta.org)
© Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2003. All rights reserved.
Health Technology Assessment Programme
Members
Diagnostic Technologies & Screening Panel
Chair,
Dr Ron Zimmern, Director of
the Public Health Genetics Unit,
Strangeways Research
Laboratories, Cambridge
Dr Paul Cockcroft, Consultant
Medical Microbiologist/
Laboratory Director, Public
Health Laboratory,
St Mary’s Hospital,
Portsmouth
Professor Adrian K Dixon,
Professor of Radiology,
Addenbrooke’s Hospital,
Cambridge
Members
Chair,
Dr John Reynolds, Clinical
Director, Acute General
Medicine SDU, Oxford
Radcliffe Hospital
Professor Tony Avery, Professor
of Primary Health Care,
University of Nottingham
Professor Iain T Cameron,
Professor of Obstetrics &
Gynaecology, University of
Southampton
Mr Peter Cardy, Chief
Executive, Macmillan Cancer
Relief, London
Dr David Elliman, Consultant in
Community Child Health,
London
Mr Tam Fry, Honorary
Chairman, Child Growth
Foundation, London
Mr Tony Tester, Chief Officer,
South Bedfordshire Community
Health Council, Luton
Dr Andrew Farmer, Senior
Lecturer in General Practice,
Institute of Health Sciences,
University of Oxford
Dr Susanne M Ludgate, Medical
Director, Medical Devices
Agency, London
Dr Andrew Walker, Senior
Lecturer in Health Economics,
University of Glasgow
Dr William Rosenberg, Senior
Lecturer and Consultant in
Medicine, University of
Southampton
Professor Martin J Whittle,
Head of Division of
Reproductive & Child Health,
University of Birmingham
Dr Karen N Foster, Clinical
Lecturer, Dept of General
Practice & Primary Care,
University of Aberdeen
Professor Jane Franklyn,
Professor of Medicine,
University of Birmingham
Dr Susan Schonfield, CPHM
Specialised Services
Commissioning, Croydon
Primary Care Trust
Professor Antony J Franks,
Deputy Medical Director, The
Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS
Trust
Dr Margaret Somerville,
Director of Public Health,
Teignbridge Primary Care Trust,
Devon
Dr Dennis Wright, Consultant
Biochemist & Clinical Director,
Pathology & The Kennedy
Galton Centre, Northwick Park
& St Mark’s Hospitals, Harrow
Pharmaceuticals Panel
Dr Christopher Cates, GP and
Cochrane Editor, Bushey Health
Centre, Bushey, Herts.
Mrs Sharon Hart, Managing
Editor, Drug & Therapeutics
Bulletin, London
Dr Ken Stein, Senior Lecturer in
Public Health, University of
Exeter
Mr Charles Dobson, Special
Projects Adviser, Department of
Health
Dr Christine Hine, Consultant in
Public Health Medicine,
Bristol South & West Primary
Care Trust
Professor Terence Stephenson,
Professor of Child Health,
University of Nottingham
Dr Robin Ferner, Consultant
Physician and Director, West
Midlands Centre for Adverse
Drug Reactions, City Hospital
NHS Trust, Birmingham
Dr Karen A Fitzgerald,
Pharmaceutical Adviser, Bro Taf
Health Authority, Cardiff
Professor Alastair Gray,
Professor of Health Economics,
Institute of Health Sciences,
University of Oxford
Professor Robert Peveler,
Professor of Liaison Psychiatry,
Royal South Hants Hospital,
Southampton
Dr Frances Rotblat, CPMP
Delegate, Medicines Control
Agency, London
Dr Richard Tiner, Medical
Director, Association of the
British Pharmaceutical Industry,
London
Professor Dame Jenifer WilsonBarnett, Head of Florence
Nightingale School of Nursing
& Midwifery, King’s College,
London
Mrs Katrina Simister, New
Products Manager, National
Prescribing Centre, Liverpool
170
Current and past membership details of all HTA ‘committees’ are available from the HTA website (www.ncchta.org)
Health Technology Assessment 2003; Vol. 7: No. 17
Members
Chair,
Professor Bruce Campbell,
Consultant Vascular and
General Surgeon, Royal Devon
& Exeter Hospital
Dr Mahmood Adil, Head of
Clinical Support & Health
Protection, Directorate of
Health and Social Care (North),
Department of Health,
Manchester
Professor John Bond, Head of
Centre for Health Services
Research, University of
Newcastle upon Tyne
Therapeutic Procedures Panel
Mr Michael Clancy, Consultant
in A & E Medicine,
Southampton General Hospital
Dr Carl E Counsell, Senior
Lecturer in Neurology,
University of Aberdeen
Dr Keith Dodd, Consultant
Paediatrician, Derbyshire
Children’s Hospital, Derby
Professor Gene Feder, Professor
of Primary Care R&D, Barts &
the London, Queen Mary’s
School of Medicine and
Dentistry, University of London
Ms Bec Hanley, Freelance
Consumer Advocate,
Hurstpierpoint, West Sussex
Professor Alan Horwich,
Director of Clinical R&D, The
Institute of Cancer Research,
London
Dr Phillip Leech, Principal
Medical Officer for Primary
Care, Department of Health,
London
Mr George Levvy, Chief
Executive, Motor Neurone
Disease Association,
Northampton
Professor James Lindesay,
Professor of Psychiatry for the
Elderly, University of Leicester
Dr John C Pounsford,
Consultant Physician, North
Bristol NHS Trust
Professor Mark Sculpher,
Professor of Health Economics,
Institute for Research in the
Social Services, University of
York
Dr L David Smith, Consultant
Cardiologist, Royal Devon &
Exeter Hospital
Professor Norman Waugh,
Professor of Public Health,
University of Aberdeen
Dr Mike McGovern, Senior
Medical Officer, Heart Team,
Department of Health, London
171
Current and past membership details of all HTA ‘committees’ are available from the HTA website (www.ncchta.org)
Health Technology Assessment Programme
Members
Mr Gordon Aylward,
Chief Executive,
Association of British HealthCare Industries, London
Ms Judith Brodie,
Head of Cancer Support
Service, Cancer BACUP, London
Mr Shaun Brogan,
Chief Executive, Ridgeway
Primary Care Group, Aylesbury,
Bucks
Ms Tracy Bury,
Project Manager, World
Confederation for Physical
Therapy, London
Mr John A Cairns,
Professor of Health Economics,
Health Economics Research
Unit, University of Aberdeen
Professor Howard Stephen Cuckle,
Professor of Reproductive
Epidemiology, Department of
Paediatrics, Obstetrics &
Gynaecology, University of
Leeds
Professor Nicky Cullum,
Director of Centre for Evidence
Based Nursing, University of York
Dr Katherine Darton,
Information Unit, MIND – The
Mental Health Charity, London
Professor Carol Dezateux,
Professor of Paediatric
Epidemiology, London
Professor Martin Eccles,
Professor of Clinical
Effectiveness, Centre for Health
Services Research, University of
Newcastle upon Tyne
Expert Advisory Network
Professor Pam Enderby,
Professor of Community
Rehabilitation, Institute of
General Practice and Primary
Care, University of Sheffield
Mr Leonard R Fenwick,
Chief Executive, Newcastle
upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Trust
Professor David Field,
Professor of Neonatal Medicine,
Child Health, The Leicester
Royal Infirmary NHS Trust
Mrs Gillian Fletcher,
Antenatal Teacher & Tutor and
President, National Childbirth
Trust, Henfield, West Sussex
Ms Grace Gibbs,
Deputy Chief Executive,
Director for Nursing, Midwifery
& Clinical Support Servs., West
Middlesex University Hospital,
Isleworth, Middlesex
Dr Neville Goodman,
Consultant Anaesthetist,
Southmead Hospital, Bristol
Professor Robert E Hawkins,
CRC Professor and Director of
Medical Oncology, Christie CRC
Research Centre, Christie
Hospital NHS Trust, Manchester
Professor F D Richard Hobbs,
Professor of Primary Care &
General Practice, Department of
Primary Care & General
Practice, University of
Birmingham
Professor Allen Hutchinson,
Director of Public Health &
Deputy Dean of ScHARR,
Department of Public Health,
University of Sheffield
Professor Jon Nicholl,
Director of Medical Care
Research Unit, School of Health
and Related Research,
University of Sheffield
Professor Rajan Madhok,
Medical Director & Director of
Public Health, Directorate of
Clinical Strategy & Public
Health, North & East Yorkshire
& Northern Lincolnshire Health
Authority, York
Mrs Julietta Patnick,
National Co-ordinator, NHS
Cancer Screening Programmes,
Sheffield
Professor David Mant,
Professor of General Practice,
Department of Primary Care,
University of Oxford
Professor Alexander Markham,
Director, Molecular Medicine
Unit, St James’s University
Hospital, Leeds
Dr Chris McCall,
General Practitioner, The
Hadleigh Practice, Castle
Mullen, Dorset
Professor Alistair McGuire,
Professor of Health Economics,
London School of Economics
Dr Peter Moore,
Freelance Science Writer,
Ashtead, Surrey
Dr Andrew Mortimore,
Consultant in Public Health
Medicine, Southampton City
Primary Care Trust
Professor Chris Price,
Visiting Chair – Oxford, Clinical
Research, Bayer Diagnostics
Europe, Cirencester
Ms Marianne Rigge,
Director, College of Health,
London
Professor Sarah Stewart-Brown,
Director HSRU/Honorary
Consultant in PH Medicine,
Department of Public Health,
University of Oxford
Professor Ala Szczepura,
Professor of Health Service
Research, Centre for Health
Services Studies, University of
Warwick
Dr Ross Taylor,
Senior Lecturer, Department of
General Practice and Primary
Care, University of Aberdeen
Mrs Joan Webster,
Consumer member, HTA –
Expert Advisory Network
Dr Sue Moss,
Associate Director, Cancer
Screening Evaluation Unit,
Institute of Cancer Research,
Sutton, Surrey
172
Current and past membership details of all HTA ‘committees’ are available from the HTA website (www.ncchta.org)
Feedback
The HTA Programme and the authors would like to know
your views about this report.
The Correspondence Page on the HTA website
(http://www.ncchta.org) is a convenient way to publish
your comments. If you prefer, you can send your comments
to the address below, telling us whether you would like
us to transfer them to the website.
We look forward to hearing from you.
The National Coordinating Centre for Health Technology Assessment,
Mailpoint 728, Boldrewood,
University of Southampton,
Southampton, SO16 7PX, UK.
Fax: +44 (0) 23 8059 5639
Email: [email protected]
http://www.ncchta.org
ISSN 1366-5278

Similar documents

×

Report this document