The Mastocytosis Chronicles Mast Cell Disorders: Mastocytosis and Mast Cell Activation Syndromes

Document technical information

Format pdf
Size 1.9 MB
First found Jun 9, 2017

Document content analysis

Language
English
Type
not defined
Concepts
no text concepts found

Persons

Organizations

Places

Transcript

RESEARCH + EDUCATION + ADVOCACY
The Mastocytosis Chronicles
T H E M A S T O C Y T O S I S S O C I E T Y S P E C I A L E D I T I O N N E W S L E T T E R F O R H E A LT H C A R E P R O F E S S I O N A L S 2 0 1 4
What’s Inside...
Mastocytosis Explained ..............01, 03-09
TMS Board of Directors.......................... 02
Mast Cell Disorder Committee............10,11
TMS Research Article............................ 11
Pediatric Fact Sheet.......................... 12,13
History of TMS....................................... 14
Emergency Care Brochure.................15,16
Visual Guide to Skin Manifestations... 17-20
Systemic Mastocytosis Brochure....... 21,22
TMS Annual Conference Order Form...... 23
Medical & Research Centers............. 24,25
Medical Advisory Board
Contact Info...................................... 26,27
Printed Material Order Forms............ 28,29
Medical Resources.......................... 30, 31
Support Groups..................................... 33
Membership Application.................. 34, 35
Mast Cell Disorders: Mastocytosis
and Mast Cell Activation Syndromes
By Valerie Slee, RN, BSN and Susan Jennings, PhD
Overview
Mast cell disorders can cause
tremendous suffering and disability
due to symptomatology from daily
mast cell (MC) mediator release,
and/or symptoms arising from
infiltration and accumulation of
mast cells in major organ systems.
The two major forms of mast cell
disorders are mastocytosis and mast Mast Cell photo provided
cell activation syndromes (MCAS), By Mariana Castells, MD, PhD
although it is important to note that
the process of mast cell activation can occur with both mastocytosis and with
MCAS.1 Although systemic mastocytosis is a rare disease,2 those suffering
with MCAS have recently been increasingly recognized and diagnosed. As a
result, patients with MCAS appear to represent a growing proportion of the
mast cell disorder patient population.3, 4
MASTOCYTOSIS
Definition
© 2014 The Mastocytosis Society Inc.
All rights reserved
Mastocytosis has been defined in the literature as an abnormal accumulation
of mast cells in one or more organ systems. Broadly separated into two
categories – cutaneous mastocytosis (CM) and systemic mastocytosis
(SM), the disease occurs in both children and adults. CM is considered
a benign skin disease representing the majority of pediatric cases. In
67-80% of pediatric cases seen, resolution will occur before or during
puberty.5, 6 In pediatric cases, symptoms of mast cell mediator release
may occur systemically as a result of mast cell mediators released from
skin lesions. This, however, does not necessarily indicate systemic
disease. The incidence of systemic disease in children was previously
unknown, but has now been proven to exist in some cases.5, 6 The
majority of adult patients are diagnosed with systemic disease. Skin
involvement, typically urticaria pigmentosa, is common in adult patients
and can provide an important clue to accurate diagnosis.7
… Continued on page 3
Board of Directors
Valerie M. Slee RN, BSN: Chair
Liaison Medical Advisory Board
Patient Referral Coordinator
[email protected]
Rita Barlow: Vice Chair
Patient Support and Advocacy
[email protected]
Jim McKee: Treasurer
[email protected]
Celeste Thomason: Secretary
[email protected]
Michele Kress: Director
[email protected]
Mishele Cunningham, RN, BSN, PHN:
Education and Medical Conference Chair
Patient Referral Coordinator
[email protected]
Patricia Beggiato: Fundraising Chair
[email protected]
Committees
Special Edition Chronicles
John Gilligan, Publisher/Design
Susan Jennings, Phd
Valerie Slee, RN, BSN
Mishele Cunningham RN, BSN, PHN
Drug Shortage
[email protected]
Valerie M. Slee, RN, B.S.N., Co-Chair
Emily Menard, B.A. Co-Chair
Fundraising
[email protected]
Patricia Beggiato, Chair
Pediatrics
[email protected]
Kelli Foster, Co-Chair
Kolleen Barlow, Co-Chair
Special Edition
For Health Care Professionals
The Mastocytosis Chronicles are distributed to the members of the
Mastocytosis Society, Inc. on a quarterly basis, in early February, May,
August, and mid-to late November.
This special edition of The Mastocytosis Chronicles has been published
specifically for physicians and healthe care professionals. This edtion
contains diagnostic and treatment protocols for mastocytosis and mast
cell activation disorders, locations of mast cell treatment centers,
physician contact information, documentation of research articles,
and other pertinent information. For additional information visit www.
tmsforacure.org.
The Mastocytosis Society, Inc. Mission
The Mastocytosis Society, Inc. 501 (c) 3 is a nonprofit organization
dedicated to supporting patients affected by Mastocytosis or Mast
Cell Activation Disorders, as well as their families, caregivers, and
physicians through research, education, and advocacy.
TMS Medical Advisory Board
Lawrence B. Afrin, M.D.
Cem Akin, M.D., Ph.D
Iván Alvarez-Twose, M.D.
Philip Askenase, M.D.
K. Frank Austen, M.D.*
Joseph Butterfield, M.D.
Mariana Castells, M.D., Ph.D.
Luis Escribano, M.D., Ph.D
Jason Gotlib, M.D., M.S.
Norton J. Greenberger, M.D.
Richard Horan, M.D.
Nicholas Kounis, M.D., Ph.D.
Philip B. Miner Jr., M.D
Larry Schwartz, M.D., Ph.D.
Peter Valent, M.D.
Theoharis Theoharides, M.D., Ph.D.
Srdan Verstovsek, M.D., Ph.D.
Catherine R Weiler, M.D., Ph.D
*Honorary Board Member
We thank each of these doctors for their time, caring, and expertise.
Research
[email protected]
Susan Jennings, PhD, Co-Chair
Nancy Russelll, DrPH, Co-Chair
TMS is proud to be a Lay Organization member of The American
Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI)
MPN Advocacy Committee
[email protected]
Jennifer Dratch, Chair
Valerie Slee, Board Liason
The Mastocytosis Society is a long standing member of the
National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD)
2 | The Mastocytosis Chronicles
Mast Cell Disorders
…continued from page 1
Diagnosis and Classification
CM is diagnosed by the presence of typical skin lesions
and a positive skin biopsy demonstrating characteristic
clusters of mast cells. The preferred method of
diagnosing SM is via bone marrow (BM) biopsy. The
World Health Organization (WHO) has established
criteria for diagnosing SM, summarized8 as follows:
Major ª: Multifocal dense infiltrates of mast
cells (MCs) (> 15 MCs in aggregate) in
tryptase stained biopsy sections of the bone
marrow or other extracutaneous organ Minorª:
•
More than 25% of MCs in bone marrow or
other extracutaneous organ(s) show abnormal
morphology (i.e. are atypical MC type 1 or are
spindle–shaped MCs) in multifocal lesions in
histologic examination
• KIT mutation at codon 816b in extracutaneous
organ(s) (in most cases bone marrow cells are
examined)
• KIT+MCs in bone marrow show aberrant expression
of CD2 and/or CD25
• Serum total tryptase > 20 ng/mL (does not count
in patients who have ANHMD-type disease.)
Abbreviation Key:
KIT: KIT tyrosine kinase receptor; MC(s): Mast cells;
AHNMD: associated (clonal) hematologic non-mast cell
lineage disease.
ª
If at least one major criterion and one minor
criterion OR at least three minor criteria are
fulfilled, the diagnosis of systemic mastocytosis
can be established.
b
Activating mutations at codon 816, in most cases,
KIT D816V.
Diagnostic techniques differentiate mastocytosis into
the following categories:
CUTANEOUS MASTOCYTOSIS
This category includes maculopapular cutaneous
mastocytosis/urticaria pigmentosa (UP), telangiectasia
macularis eruptiva perstans (TMEP), diffuse cutaneous
mastocytosis (DCM), and solitary mastocytoma.9 Most
cases of pediatric mastocytosis fall into one of these
categories and may or may not include symptoms of
systemic mast cell activation as a result of mediators
released from the skin (see Pediatric Mast Cell Disorders
Fact Sheet in this issue). It should be noted that the term
“UP” encompasses a variety of clinical manifestations.
In children, some of these varieties will fade away, some
of will develop into indolent systemic mastocytosis and
some will evolve into a newly described entity called
well-differentiated systemic mastocytosis.5
SYSTEMIC MASTOCYTOSIS
Systemic mastocytosis consists of a group of rare,
heterogeneous disorders involving growth and accumulation
of abnormal mast cells in one or multiple extracutaneous
organ systems (Table 1). Standard technique can be used to
obtain an iliac crest bone marrow (BM) biopsy and aspirate
smear for diagnosis. Aspirated BM should be allocated for
flow cytometry to assess for the presence of mast cells
with aberrant phenotype (i.e., co-expression of CD25).
Immunohistochemistry for KIT, mast cell tryptase, and
CD25 should be performed on sections of the biopsy.10-14
TABLE 1.
Major Variants of Systemic Mastocytosis15
ISM (Indolent systemic mastocytosis)
WHO criteria for SM met, MC burden low, +/- skin
lesions, no C findings, no evidence of AHNMD
• Bone marrow mastocytosis: ISM with BM
involvement, but no skin lesions
• Smoldering SM: ISM, typically with skin lesions,
with 2 or more B findings, but no C findings.
SM-AHNMD (SM with associated clonal hematologic
non mast cell lineage disease)*
Meets criteria for SM and also criteria for an AHNMD
(MDS, MPN, MDS/MPN, AML), or other WHOdefined myeloid hematologic neoplasm, +/- skin
lesions.
ASM (Aggressive systemic mastocytosis)
Meets criteria for SM with one or more C findings.
No evidence of MCL, +/- skin lesions.
MCL (Mast Cell Leukemia)
Meets criteria for SM. BM biopsy shows a diffuse
infiltration, usually compact, by atypical, immature
MCs. BM aspirate smears show 20% or more MCs.
Typical MCL: MC comprise 10% or more of peripheral
blood white cells. Aleukemic MCL: < 10% of peripheral
blood white cells are MCs. Usually without skin lesions.
*A lymphoproliferative disorder or plasma cell dyscrasia may rarely be diagnosed with SM.
BM: bone marrow
… Continued on page 4
Special Edition 2014 | 3
Mast Cell Disorders
…continued from page 3
TABLE 2.
B and C Findings15
B Findings
BM biopsy showing > 30% infiltration by MCs
(focal, dense aggregates) and serum total tryptase
level > 200 ng/mL
Myeloproliferation or signs of dysplasia in non–
MC lineage(s), no prominent cytopenias; criteria
for AHNMD not met
Hepatomegaly and/or splenomegaly on palpation
without impairment of organ function and/or
lymphadenopathy on palpation/imaging (> 2 cm)
C Findings*
Cytopenia(s): ANC < 1 x 109/L, Hb < 10 g/dL, or
platelets < 100 x 109/L
Hepatomegaly on palpation with impairment of
liver function, ascites, and/or portal hypertension
Skeletal lesions: osteolyses and/or pathologic fractures
Palpable splenomegaly with hypersplenism
Malabsorption with weight loss from gastrointestinal
tract MC infiltrates
* Must be attributable to the MC infiltrate.
Indolent Systemic Mastocytosis
The majority of adult patients fit into this category,
fulfilling the criteria for indolent systemic mastocytosis
(ISM).9, 11, 16, 17 The bone marrow, gastrointestinal
tract, skeletal system, nervous system and skin may
be affected. Some patients may have enlarged livers
and spleens and lymphadenopathy. Mediator-related
symptoms are common, but the grade of bone marrow
infiltration is low (usually less than 5 percent) with the
bone marrow fulfilling the criteria for SM and 80-90% of
the patients exhibiting a positive D816V KIT mutation.
In most patients the serum tryptase concentration
exceeds 20 ng/mL, but a normal level of tryptase
does not rule out either mastocytosis or another mast
cell activation disorder. Treatment usually includes
mediator-targeting drugs, including antihistamines,
but does not usually require cytoreductive agents,
although there are exceptions.
Isolated bone marrow mastocytosis (BMM) and
smoldering systemic mastocytosis (SSM) are variants
of indolent SM17. BMM is characterized by the absence
of skin lesions, lack of multiorgan involvement, and
4 | The Mastocytosis Chronicles
an increased incidence of anaphylaxis.18 In SSM, two
or more B findings (Table 2) are found and there is a
greater possibility that the disease will progress to a
more aggressive variant.
Well differentiated SM (WDSM), first described in
200419, is reported in the literature as a form of
systemic mastocytosis that fulfills the major criterion
for SM and continues to be studied by researchers.5, 6
A relatively frequent form of mastocytosis in children,
it usually has a pediatric onset, nodular or plaque skin
lesions, possibly extensive, severe mast cell symptoms
and goes into adulthood in a low percentage of cases.
The mast cells do not have the CD25 marker that is
part of the minor WHO criterion for SM and roughly
90% of WDSM patients don’t have the c-kit D816V
marker or other exon 17 c-kit mutations. Bone marrow
analysis identifies mast cells in WDSM patients as
notably large, round, mature appearing mast cells with
the absence of the spindle-shape mast cells typically
seen in SM.5 Baseline serum tryptase levels in these
patients are usually lower than what is frequently
detected in SM except in a variable percentage of
children at onset. Imatinib mesylate has been used
in some patients with severe cases of WDSM, since
these patients do not usually carry the c-kit D816V
mutation, which causes resistance to imatinib.20
Systemic Mastocytosis with Associated Clonal
Hematologic Non-Mast Cell Lineage Disease (AHNMD)
These patients fit the criteria for SM and they fit the
WHO criteria for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS),
myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN), MDS/MPN, or
acute myeloid leukemia (AML), with or without skin
lesions.15, 21, 22
Aggressive Systemic Mastocytosis
In this rare variant, aggressive systemic mastocytosis
(ASM) patients fit the criteria for SM, and their bone
marrow biopsy reveals abnormal blood cell formation
that does not fit WHO criteria for an AHNMD, as listed
above.15
Mast Cell Leukemia
In this rare variant, mast cell leukemia (MCL) patients
fit the criteria for SM, and a bone marrow aspirate
smear shows that 20% or more of the cells are mast
cells, or 10% or more mast cells are seen in circulating
blood.15, 23 The mast cells have malignant features.
Prognosis is poor, although life expectancy has been
extended, in some cases, beyond 2 months, due to
advances in cytoreductive therapy.
Mast Cell Sarcoma
Mast cell sarcoma is a rare tumor and prognosis is
generally very poor. Pathological examination of the
tumor has shown it to be highly malignant with an
aggressive growth pattern.24, 25 Patients with this tumor
do not fulfill the criteria for SM. The imatinib mesylateresistant KIT D816V mutation has not been found in
reported mast cell sarcomas, such that use of imatinib
has been attempted in some patients.25
Diagnostic Workup for Aggressive Variants or
Associated Hematological Disorder10, 15, 26
When aggressive disease or an associated hematological
disorder is suspected, further evaluation of the patient
may include:
1. Comprehensive bloodwork;
2. X-ray or CT scan of the chest, looking for evidence
of significantly enlarged lymph nodes (greater than 2
cm in diameter);
3. X-ray or nuclear medicine bone scan of the skeletal
system, looking for osteoporosis, osteosclerosis, or
areas where calcium has been completely lost from
bone;
4. CT scan or ultrasound of the abdomen, looking for
enlarged liver or spleen, enlarged lymph nodes, or the
collection of fluid;
5. Endoscopy/colonoscopy and biopsy of the
gastrointestinal tract, looking for evidence of mast
cell infiltration, ulcers, or areas of bleeding. Mast cell
infiltration can be identified by aggregates of 15 or
more abnormal mast cells, or sheets of mast cells.
Abnormal mast cells can be identified by the presence
of CD25 on these cells.27 Other tests may be done, as
indicated, if there is a suspected hematologic disorder
or to evaluate the individual patient’s symptoms. By
contrast, further testing should be kept to a minimum
when the disease seems to be confined to the skin, and
in most pediatric cases.
Mast Cell Activation and Triggers
Mast cells can be activated through both IgE and
non-IgE-related mechanisms, resulting in the release
of mediators, such as tryptase, histamine, heparin,
leukotrienes and prostaglandins.28 Triggers of mediator
release may include: heat; cold; temperature change;
foods; medications, esp. antibiotics and opioid
narcotics; alcohol; friction; environmental, emotional,
or physical stress; perfumes/odors; viral/bacterial/
fungal infections; venoms; and fatigue. Mast cell
activation can occur along with, or independent of, any
form of mastocytosis.
Mast Cell Mediator Symptoms
The myriad symptoms patients experience during
mast cell activation/degranulation can wreak havoc on
patients on a daily basis, and multiple organ systems,
including pulmonary, cardiovascular, dermatologic,
gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, and neurologic can
be involved.3, 4, 28-32 Symptoms may include, but are
not limited to: flushing of the face, neck, and chest;
headache; tachycardia and chest pain; abdominal pain,
bloating, GERD, diarrhea, vomiting; uterine cramps or
bleeding; rashes, including UP, TMEP; bone/muscle
pain, osteosclerosis, osteopenia, osteoporosis; itching,
+/- rash; blood pressure instability; brain fog, cognitive
dysfunction; anxiety/depression; lightheadedness,
syncope; and anaphylaxis. These symptoms may
appear as acute (as in anaphylaxis) or as chronic
conditions. It should be noted that the manifestation
of anaphylaxis or similar symptoms among infants and
preschoolers may be more difficult to identify.
Treatment of Mediator Release Symptoms
Treatment of mastocytosis depends on the symptoms
and the classification of disease.6, 9, 33 Symptoms
of mediator release are treated with H1 and H2
antihistamines, mast cell stabilizers, leukotriene
inhibitors, and possibly aspirin (under direct supervision
of a physician). All mast cell disease patients should
carry two doses of injectable epinephrine unless
otherwise contraindicated (Glucagon may need to be
administered for patients on beta-blockers). Patients
should also be instructed on how to self-administer
epinephrine while in a recumbent position, to maximize
rapid absorption of the drug.
Perioperative Management
While the incidence of hypersensitivity to anesthesia
and surgical procedures in patients with mast cell
disorders is unknown, various non-specific triggers
in the perioperative setting may cause mast cell
… Continued on page 6
Special Edition 2014 | 5
Mast Cell Disorders
…continued from page 5
degranulation, and thus immediate hypersensitivity.
Therefore, the goal of all perioperative management
is prevention of mast cell mediator release. This can
be accomplished by careful history taking, excellent
communication between the anesthesia and surgical
staff, avoidance of all known and potential triggers of
mediator release, and careful attention to management
of perioperative mast cell degranulation and/or
cardiovascular changes.34 Although perioperative
complications due to mast cell mediator release
in children with mastocytosis are rare, they are not
unknown.6 Measures to prevent triggering mast cell
degranulation in adults and children should be utilized
whenever possible.
Prevention also includes perioperative antianxiety
medications to avoid precipitating mast cell
degranulation; maintenance of a steady environmental
temperature throughout the entire surgical experience;
minimizing friction and mechanical trauma (i.e. tape,
tourniquet use, etc.) near mastocytosis skin lesions;
careful positioning of the patient, being mindful of
possible osteoporosis or osteolysis; avoiding histamine
releasing drugs such as atracruium and mivacurium;
aggressive treatment of pain, which is a potent mast
cell degranulator, including forms of opioids which are
known to be acceptable (i.e. fentanyl); use of H1 and
H2 receptor antagonists to maintain mast cell stability
until surgery.34
Ring and Messmer have developed a grading scale34, 35
to describe clinical severity of perioperative immediate
hypersensitivity in mastocytosis:
Usually non-life threatening
Grade I: Mucocutaneous signs and symptoms only
Grade II: Mild mucocutaneous signs, features which
may be associated with cardiovascular and respiratory
changes.
Life-Threatening
Grade III: Cardiovascular collapse which may be
associated with mucocutaneous and/or gastrointestinal
signs, and/or bronchospasm.
Grade IV: Cardiac arrest
6 | The Mastocytosis Chronicles
Specific management of a mast cell degranulation
event in patients with mast cell disorders include
stopping any suspicious drug being administered,
discontinuation of anesthetic agents likely to cause
vasodilation and negative muscular contractility, if
possible, and early administration of epinephrine for
Grade III and Grade IV reactions along with 100%
oxygen and large volume fluid support.
With these measures, patients with mast cell disorders
can be prepared for surgery with a plan that includes
preventing mast cell degranulation by identification of
possible triggers, rapid recognition of degranulation
when it does occur and immediate appropriate
intervention.
Advanced Disease Considerations
and Treatment
Advanced disease symptoms may include: anemia,
thrombocytopenia,
ascites,
bone
fractures,
gastrointestinal abnormalities, and enlargement of
the liver, spleen, and lymph nodes, which ultimately
can lead to organ failure and early death. Therapies
of limited effectiveness exist for advanced SM, but
promising new treatments are being developed.
Prominent among these are tyrosine kinase inhibitors
(TKIs) targeting the KIT kinase36, 37 (e.g., midostaurin36).
Imatinib is approved therapy for adult ASM patients
lacking the KIT D816V mutation or if mutation status
is unknown. Standard therapies for ASM are interferon
and the chemotherapeutic agent cladribine, employed
with antimediator therapy to reduce disease burden
and control symptoms. In patients with SM-AHNMD,
therapy selection usually depends on the associated
disease, which is commonly more aggressive than the
SM part. MCL requires a polychemotherapy approach.
Prognosis
All patients with mastocytosis are at increased risk
for anaphylaxis and potentially a poor outcome. The
prognosis of mastocytosis depends on the specific
classification of disease.17 The prognosis for cutaneous
mastocytosis and indolent mastocytosis is good. Most
patients with SM have ISM. ISM patients have preserved
organ function and their survival is comparable to that
of the general population. Patients with smoldering
SM may have an increased risk of developing disease
transformation to aggressive forms of SM. Survival
of patients with more advanced SM is significantly
shorter than that of the overall population and is
affected by disease subtype, with median survival of
41 months for patients with ASM, 24 months for SMAHNMD, and 2 months for MCL. Patients with ASM
suffer debilitating symptoms and have signs of organ
dysfunction (C-findings; Table 2). In patients with
SM-AHNMD, prognosis can differ depending on the
particular myeloproliferative neoplasm.
MAST CELL ACTIVATION SYNDROME
Definition
Existence of a subset of mast cell disorder patients
who experience episodes of mast cell activation
without detectable evidence of a proliferative mast cell
disorder was postulated over 20 years ago.38, 39 Over
the last two decades, with development of improved
methodology for identification of abnormal mast
cells40-43, it became apparent that there were patients
who exhibited symptoms of mast cell mediator release
who did not fulfill the criteria for SM.44, 45 Thus began
the evolution of discussions about other forms of
mast cell disorders, both clonal and nonclonal, which
became known as Mast Cell Activation Syndromes
(MCAS).46, 47
Diagnosis and Proposed Classification
Recognition by specialist physicians of the importance
of mast cell activation in disease led to an international
Mast Cell Disorders Working Conference emphasizing
this topic in September of 2010.
Consensus
statements were published regarding classification of
and diagnostic criteria for mast cell disorders,1 where
mast cell activation plays a prominent role.
As previously stated, mediators produced by mast cells
have a considerable effect on specific symptomatology.
Symptoms, including, but not limited to flushing,
pruritis, urticaria, headache, gastrointestinal symptoms
(including diarrhea, nausea, vomiting abdominal pain,
bloating, gastroesophageal reflux), and hypotension,
allow a patient to meet the first of three required
co-criterion for systemic mast cell activation when
the patient exhibits symptoms involving two or more
organ systems in parallel, which are “recurrent or
permanent, cannot be explained by other known
disorders/conditions (other than mast cell activation),
and require a therapeutic intervention.”1
The second required co-criterion for systemic mast
cell activation depends on documentation that mast
cells are directly involved in the symptomatology.
An increase in the serum level of tryptase, above
baseline and within a narrow (generally accepted as
one to two hour) window of time after a symptomatic
episode, is proposed as the preferred method for
providing evidence of mast cell involvement according
to these criteria.1, 48, 49 The consensus article provides
a method for calculating the required minimum rise
in serum tryptase.1 Consensus members also agreed
that when serum tryptase evaluation is not available
or when the tryptase level does not rise sufficiently to
meet the required increase for the co-criterion, other
mediator tests could suffice. A rise in urinary n-methyl
histamine, prostaglandin-D2, or its metabolite,
11β-prostaglandin-F2α (24-hour urine test for any of the
three), is considered an alternative for the co-criterion
related to a requirement for a mast cell mediator level
rise during a systemic mast cell activation event.1
Finally, the third co-criterion requires a response (based
on response criteria10) to medications that inhibit the
action of histamine.1 In addition, a “complete or
major” response to drugs that inhibit other mediators
produced by mast cells or block mast cell mediator
release can be regarded as fulfillment of the third cocriterion for MCAS.
PRIMARY MCAS
Primary MCAS results from a clonal population
of mast cells and may be due to mastocytosis or
monoclonal Mast Cell Activation Syndrome (MMAS).
Primary MCAS with mastocytosis can be diagnosed if
the patient has symptoms of mast cell activation and
fulfills the WHO criteria for mastocytosis. MMAS is a
new, distinct disease50 characterized by the presence
of abnormal mast cells and fulfillment of criteria for
mast cell activation, but where sufficient criteria for a
diagnosis of mastocytosis are not identified.1, 3, 10, 32, 44,
45, 50-52
SECONDARY MCAS
Secondary MCAS1, 3, 32, 53 is diagnosed when mast cell
activation occurs as an indirect result of another disease
or condition. Physician awareness of the presence
of secondary MCAS will allow for more appropriate
mast cell activation-targeted treatments, in addition to
primary disease-related medications, to be provided. In
addition to the widespread example of atopy as a cause
… Continued on page 8
Special Edition 2014 | 7
Mast Cell Disorders
…continued from page 7
of secondary MCAS, other diseases that can cause
secondary MCAS have been reviewed in the literature.1,
3, 53
IDIOPATHIC MCAS
Idiopathic MCAS is proposed as a final diagnosis
after proposed mast cell activation criteria have been
fulfilled and a thorough evaluation has excluded the
possibility of another known underlying cause for this
activation.1, 54 Idiopathic MCAS is therefore nonclonal,
with regard to current diagnostic capabilities related
to mast cell analyses, and has been presented and
discussed in the literature by a variety of mast cell
disorder specialists.1, 3, 32, 50, 53-55 Review of other
causes of MCAS to aid physicians in evaluation for the
exclusionary diagnosis of idiopathic MCAS have also
been provided.1, 3, 50
Triggers, Symptoms, Perioperative Management and
Treatment of MCAS
MCAS, in all of its forms, can cause tremendous
suffering and disability due to symptomatology from
daily mast cell mediator release. The triggers, symptoms
and treatment of MCAS are similar to those listed
above for mastocytosis symptoms related to mast cell
activation and mediator release.50, 54, 56 Perioperative
management, as listed above for mastocytosis, should
also be a consideration.
Additional Considerations for MCAS
It is recognized by researchers that current diagnostic
methods for capturing a rise in mast cell mediators
after a symptomatic episode are not ideal.54, 57, 58 Some
patients who present with typical and recurrent signs
and symptoms of mast cell activation do not present
with elevated levels of mediators for which we are
currently able to test. Non-specialist physicians may
most commonly use serum tryptase levels to exclude
a mast cell disorder. However, some MCAS specialists
have indicated that tryptase rises are not seen as often
in patients with certain forms of MCAS, and that other
changes in bloodwork and urine tests can sometimes
be more reliable.55, 57 Additionally, there is a very narrow
window of time (1-2 hours after symptoms begin) during
which to obtain a serum tryptase test to indicate mast
cell activation,1 such that obtaining laboratory evidence
of the event can prove difficult in many circumstances.
Cardet et al. suggest that, despite lack of proof of
8 | The Mastocytosis Chronicles
elevated mast cell mediators, a response to mast cell
or mast cell mediator blockers should be determined in
such patients.54 If a patient responds well to treatment,
a diagnosis of idiopathic MCAS remains open for
consideration, as long as other diagnoses continue to be
considered.
Dr. Afrin notes that even the co-criterion requiring a
response to mast cell targeted therapy can be lacking
in some patients. In his experience with more than 300
MCAS patients, diagnostics are not always useful for
guiding specific choices for anti-mediator therapy, such
that multiple mast cell (or mast cell mediator) blocking
therapies must be tried before successful symptom
resolution is attained.4 Also, in recent work by Picard et
al., it is reported that only one third of MCAS patients
experience a complete resolution with treatment. One
third have a major response and another third have a
minor response, and a combination of drugs is usually
required to achieve control of symptoms.50
Prognosis
All patients with MCAS are at increased risk for
anaphylaxis and a potentially poor outcome. Prognosis
will likely depend on the type of MCAS. As MMAS is
a newly described entity, no long-term prognostic data
is available. The long-term prognosis for patients with
idiopathic MCAS is similarly unknown. For secondary
MCAS, the prognosis likely depends on the primary
condition causing the MCAS.
CONCLUSIONS
Recognition of mast cell disorders can be difficult
due to the many possible presentations, often leading
to deferment of proper diagnosis and treatment.4, 26,
50, 55, 59
In addition, due to the broad range of signs
and symptoms, patients with mast cell disorders may
be misdiagnosed.1, 4, 11 Awareness of the existence of
mastocytosis and mast cell activation syndromes can
help physicians recognize potential mast cell disorder
patients for further evaluation,50 provide for more
accurate diagnoses and would allow for more rapid and
effective treatment allocation.
References
1. Valent P, Akin C, Arock M, Brockow K, Butterfield JH, Carter MC, et al. Definitions,
criteria and global classification of mast cell disorders with special reference to mast cell
activation syndromes: a consensus proposal. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2012;157(3):21525.
2. Horny HP, Sotlar K, Valent P, Hartmann K. Mastocytosis: a disease of the hematopoietic
stem cell. Deutsches Arzteblatt international. 2008 Oct;105(40):686-92.
3. Akin C, Valent P, Metcalfe DD. Mast cell activation syndrome: proposed diagnostic criteria. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010 Dec;126(6):1099-104 e4.
4. Afrin LB. Presentation, diagnosis and management of mast cell activation syndrome. In:
Murray DB, editor. Mast cells: phenotypic features, biological functions and role in immunity. Hauppauge: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.; 2013. p. 155-232.
5. Torrelo A, Alvarez-Twose I, Escribano L. Childhood mastocytosis. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2012
Aug;24(4):480-6.
6. Fried AJ, Akin C. Primary mast cell disorders in children. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2013
Dec;13(6):693-701.
7. Berezowska S, Flaig MJ, Rueff F, Walz C, Haferlach T, Krokowski M, et al. Adult-onset
mastocytosis in the skin is highly suggestive of systemic mastocytosis. Mod Pathol. 2014
Jan;27(1):19-29.
8. Valent P. Diagnostic evaluation and classification of mastocytosis. Immunol Allergy Clin
North Am. 2006 Aug;26(3):515-34.
9. Carter MC, Metcalfe DD, Komarow HD. Mastocytosis. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am.
2014 Feb;34(1):181-96.
10.Valent P, Akin C, Escribano L, Fodinger M, Hartmann K, Brockow K, et al. Standards and
standardization in mastocytosis: consensus statements on diagnostics, treatment recommendations and response criteria. Eur J Clin Invest. 2007 Jun;37(6):435-53.
11. Alvarez-Twose I, Morgado JM, Sanchez-Munoz L, Garcia-Montero A, Mollejo M, Orfao
A, et al. Current state of biology and diagnosis of clonal mast cell diseases in adults. Int J
Lab Hematol. 2012 Oct;34(5):445-60.
12. Horny HP, Sotlar K, Valent P. Mastocytosis: state of the art. Pathobiology.
2007;74(2):121-32.
13.Horny HP, Valent P. Diagnosis of mastocytosis: general histopathological aspects,
morphological criteria, and immunohistochemical findings. Leuk Res. [Review]. 2001
Jul;25(7):543-51.
14.Escribano L, Garcia Montero AC, Nunez R, Orfao A. Flow cytometric analysis of normal
and neoplastic mast cells: role in diagnosis and follow-up of mast cell disease. Immunol
Allerg y Clin North Am. 2006 Aug;26(3):535-47.
15.Gotlib J, Pardanani A, Akin C, Reiter A, George T, Hermine O, et al. International
Working Group-Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Research and Treatment (IWG-MRT) &
European Competence Network on Mastocytosis (ECNM) consensus response criteria in
advanced systemic mastocytosis. Blood. 2013 Mar 28;121(13):2393-401.
16.Valent P. Mastocytosis: a paradigmatic example of a rare disease with complex biology
and pathology. Am J Cancer Res. 2013;3(2):159-72.
17.Pardanani A. Systemic mastocytosis in adults: 2013 update on diagnosis, risk stratification, and management. Am J Hematol. 2013 May 30.
18.Zanotti R, Bonadonna P, Bonifacio M, Artuso A, Schena D, Rossini M, et al. Isolated
bone marrow mastocytosis: an underestimated subvariant of indolent systemic mastocytosis. Haematologica. 2011 Mar;96(3):482-4.
19.Akin C, Fumo G, Yavuz AS, Lipsky PE, Neckers L, Metcalfe DD. A novel form of mastocytosis associated with a transmembrane c-kit mutation and response to imatinib. Blood.
2004 Apr 15;103(8):3222-5.
20.Alvarez-Twose I, Gonzalez P, Morgado JM, Jara-Acevedo M, Sanchez-Munoz L, Matito
A, et al. Complete response after imatinib mesylate therapy in a patient with well-differentiated systemic mastocytosis. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Apr 20;30(12):e126-9.
21.Stoecker MM, Wang E. Systemic mastocytosis with associated clonal hematologic
nonmast cell lineage disease: a clinicopathologic review. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2012
Jul;136(7):832-8.
22.Wang SA, Hutchinson L, Tang G, Chen SS, Miron PM, Huh YO, et al. Systemic mastocytosis with associated clonal hematological non-mast cell lineage disease: clinical significance and comparison of chomosomal abnormalities in SM and AHNMD components.
Am J Hematol. 2013 Mar;88(3):219-24.
23.Georgin-Lavialle S, Lhermitte L, Dubreuil P, Chandesris MO, Hermine O, Damaj G. Mast
cell leukemia. Blood. 2013 Feb 21;121(8):1285-95.
24.Georgin-Lavialle S, Aguilar C, Guieze R, Lhermitte L, Bruneau J, Fraitag S, et al. Mast
cell sarcoma: a rare and aggressive entity--report of two cases and review of the literature.
J Clin Oncol. 2013 Feb 20;31(6):e90-7.
25.Ryan RJ, Akin C, Castells M, Wills M, Selig MK, Nielsen GP, et al. Mast cell sarcoma: a
rare and potentially under-recognized diagnostic entity with specific therapeutic implications. Mod Pathol. 2013 Apr;26(4):533-43.
26.Lim KH, Tefferi A, Lasho TL, Finke C, Patnaik M, Butterfield JH, et al. Systemic mastocytosis in 342 consecutive adults: survival studies and prognostic factors. Blood. 2009
Jun 4;113(23):5727-36.
27.Hahn HP, Hornick JL. Immunoreactivity for CD25 in gastrointestinal mucosal mast cells
is specific for systemic mastocytosis. Am J Surg Pathol. 2007 Nov;31(11):1669-76.
28.Castells M. Mast cell mediators in allergic inflammation and mastocytosis. Immunology
and allergy clinics of North America. 2006 Aug;26(3):465-85.
29.Escribano L, Akin C, Castells M, Orfao A, Metcalfe DD. Mastocytosis: current concepts
in diagnosis and treatment. Ann Hematol. 2002 Dec;81(12):677-90.
30.Castells M, Austen KF. Mastocytosis: mediator-related signs and symptoms. Int Arch
Allergy Immunol. 2002 Feb;127(2):147-52.
31.Butterfield JH, Weiler CR. Prevention of mast cell activation disorder-associated clinical sequelae of excessive prostaglandin D(2) production. Int Arch Allergy Immunol.
2008;147(4):338-43.
32.Akin C, Metcalfe DD. Mastocytosis and mast cell activation syndromes presenting as
anaphylaxis. In: Castells MC, editor. Anaphylaxis and hypersensitivity reactions. New
York: Humana Press; 2011. p. 245-56.
33.Cardet JC, Akin C, Lee MJ. Mastocytosis: update on pharmacotherapy and future directions. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2013 Oct;14(15):2033-45.
34.Dewachter P, Castells MC, Hepner DL, Mouton-Faivre C. Perioperative Management of
Patients with Mastocytosis. Anesthesiology. 2013 Oct 16.
35.Dewachter P, Mouton-Faivre C, Cazalaa JB, Carli P, Lortholary O, Hermine O. [Mastocytosis and anaesthesia]. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim. 2009 Jan;28(1):61-73.
36.Verstovsek S. Advanced systemic mastocytosis: the impact of KIT mutations in diagnosis,
treatment, and progression. Eur J Haematol. 2013 Feb;90(2):89-98.
37.Ustun C, DeRemer DL, Akin C. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the treatment of systemic
mastocytosis. Leuk Res. 2011 Sep;35(9):1143-52.
38.Roberts LJ, 2nd, Oates JA. Biochemical diagnosis of systemic mast cell disorders. J
Invest Dermatol. 1991 Mar;96(3):19S-24S; discussion S-5S.
39.Metcalfe DD. Classification and diagnosis of mastocytosis: current status. J Invest Dermatol. 1991 Mar;96(3):2S-4S.
40.Nagata H, Worobec AS, Oh CK, Chowdhury BA, Tannenbaum S, Suzuki Y, et al.
Identification of a point mutation in the catalytic domain of the protooncogene c-kit in
peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients who have mastocytosis with an associated
hematologic disorder. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Nov 7;92(23):10560-4.
41.Longley BJ, Tyrrell L, Lu SZ, Ma YS, Langley K, Ding TG, et al. Somatic c-KIT activating mutation in urticaria pigmentosa and aggressive mastocytosis: establishment of
clonality in a human mast cell neoplasm. Nat Genet. 1996 Mar;12(3):312-4.
42.Escribano L, Orfao A, Diaz-Agustin B, Villarrubia J, Cervero C, Lopez A, et al. Indolent
systemic mast cell disease in adults: immunophenotypic characterization of bone marrow
mast cells and its diagnostic implications. Blood. 1998 Apr 15;91(8):2731-6.
43.Horny HP. Mastocytosis: an unusual clonal disorder of bone marrow-derived hematopoietic progenitor cells. Am J Clin Pathol. 2009 Sep;132(3):438-47.
44.Sonneck K, Florian S, Mullauer L, Wimazal F, Fodinger M, Sperr WR, et al. Diagnostic and subdiagnostic accumulation of mast cells in the bone marrow of patients with
anaphylaxis: monoclonal mast cell activation syndrome. Int Arch Allergy Immunol.
2007;142(2):158-64.
45.Akin C, Scott LM, Kocabas CN, Kushnir-Sukhov N, Brittain E, Noel P, et al. Demonstration of an aberrant mast-cell population with clonal markers in a subset of patients with
“idiopathic” anaphylaxis. Blood. 2007 Oct 1;110(7):2331-3.
46.Horny HP, Sotlar K, Valent P. Evaluation of mast cell activation syndromes: impact of
pathology and immunohistology. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2012;159(1):1-5.
47.Valent P. Mast cell activation syndromes: definition and classification. Allergy. 2013
Apr;68(4):417-24.
48.Schwartz LB, Sakai K, Bradford TR, Ren S, Zweiman B, Worobec AS, et al. The
alpha form of human tryptase is the predominant type present in blood at baseline in
normal subjects and is elevated in those with systemic mastocytosis. J Clin Invest. 1995
Dec;96(6):2702-10.
49.Schwartz LB, Irani AM. Serum tryptase and the laboratory diagnosis of systemic mastocytosis. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2000 Jun;14(3):641-57.
50.Picard M, Giavina-Bianchi P, Mezzano V, Castells M. Expanding spectrum of mast cell
activation disorders: monoclonal and idiopathic mast cell activation syndromes. Clin
Ther. 2013 May;35(5):548-62.
51.Bonadonna P, Perbellini O, Passalacqua G, Caruso B, Colarossi S, Dal Fior D, et al.
Clonal mast cell disorders in patients with systemic reactions to Hymenoptera stings and
increased serum tryptase levels. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 2009
Mar;123(3):680-6.
52.Alvarez-Twose I, Gonzalez de Olano D, Sanchez-Munoz L, Matito A, Esteban-Lopez MI,
Vega A, et al. Clinical, biological, and molecular characteristics of clonal mast cell disorders presenting with systemic mast cell activation symptoms. J Allergy Clin Immunol.
2010 Jun;125(6):1269-78 e2.
53.Valent P, Horny HP, Triggiani M, Arock M. Clinical and laboratory parameters of mast
cell activation as basis for the formulation of diagnostic criteria. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2011;156(2):119-27.
54.Cardet JC, Castells MC, Hamilton MJ. Immunology and clinical manifestations of nonclonal mast cell activation syndrome. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2013 Feb;13(1):10-8.
55.Hamilton MJ, Hornick JL, Akin C, Castells MC, Greenberger NJ. Mast cell activation
syndrome: a newly recognized disorder with systemic clinical manifestations. J Allergy
Clin Immunol. 2011 Jul;128(1):147-52 e2.
56.Lee MJ, Akin C. Mast cell activation syndromes. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2013
Jul;111(1):5-8.
57.Molderings GJ, Brettner S, Homann J, Afrin LB. Mast cell activation disease: a concise
practical guide for diagnostic workup and therapeutic options. J Hematol Oncol.
2011;4:10.
58.Afrin LB. Polycythemia from mast cell activation syndrome: lessons learned. Am J Med
Sci. 2011 Jul;342(1):44-9.
59.Jennings S, Russell N, Jennings B, Slee V, Sterling L, Castells M, et al. The Mastocytosis
Society Survey on Mast Cell Disorders: Patient Experiences and Perceptions. J Allergy
Clin Immunol Pract. 2014;2(1):70-6.
Special Edition 2014 | 9
Mast Cell Disorder (MCD) Committee Meeting Overview
American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI) Annual Meeting
February 24, 2013, 7-8 am, San Antonio, TX
Present
Dean D. Metcalfe, MD, FAAAAI (Outgoing Chair)
Arnold Kirshenbaum, MD, FAAAAI
Joseph H. Butterfield, MD, FAAAAI (Incoming Chair)
Patrizia Bonadonna, MD, CME
Melody C. Carter, MD (Incoming Vice Chair)
Fred H. Hsieh, MD
Cem Akin, MD, PhD, FAAAAI
Harissios Vliagoftis, MD
Brett V. Kettelhut, MD, FAAAAI
Valerie Slee, RN, BSN (TMS)
Mariana C. Castells, MD, PhD, FAAAAI
Susan Jennings, PhD (TMS)
Charity C. Fox, MD, FAAAAI
Staff: Mari Durán
Committee Purpose Statement
Promote research, training and education in mastocytosis
and related disorders including abnormalities of mast
cell activation
Mastocytosis Symposium and Consensus Meeting
Dr. Akin reported on the October 2012 Mastocytosis
Symposium and International Consensus Meeting,
hosted in Boston, MA by the Brigham and Women’s
Hospital Mastocytosis Center and supported by the
AAAAI. The meeting was wonderful and well attended.
Several changes were made to the mastocytosis criteria
and a draft document is in preparation.
Catherine Randa Weiler, MD, PhD, FAAAAI
distributed to all attendees of the 2013 AAAAI
Annual Meeting (a collaboration with the AAAAI
Mast Cell Disorders Committee that was proposed at
this committee’s 2012 meeting)
• Work to establish a TMS physician-referral database
•P
reliminary research into options for a mast cell
disorder patient database
•P
lans for TMS to develop educational literature
for aggressive mast cell disease and to distribute
that literature at the 2013 American Society of
Hematology Annual Meeting
•W
ork on the TMS Annual Conference, to be held in
Greenville, SC in September 2013
List of Medications that Pose an Increased Risk to
Mast Cell Disorder Patients
A 2012 committee project, chaired by Dr. Carter, to
develop a list of medications that pose an increased
risk of adverse reactions in mast cell disorder patients
was discussed further. The committee is continuing to
work on this project.
Ms. Slee also noted that parents of some pediatric
patients have been reporting certain severe symptoms,
not discussed in the literature, that have been
experienced by their children. Dr. Jennings provided
the committee with preliminary data related to pediatric
symptoms, obtained from the 2010 TMS Mast Cell
Disorders Patient Survey.
The Mastocytosis Society, Inc. (TMS)
Valerie Slee, Chair, TMS Board of Directors, announced
plans for a TMS/AAAAI co-funded mast cell disorders
research grant. Dr. Akin noted that this grant was
approved by the AAAAI and that information regarding
the grant would be available soon. Ms. Slee also
announced a pediatric mast cell disorders research
grant co-funded by TMS and Mastokids. Both offerings
are $60,000 grants. [January 2014 update: both 2013
grant offerings are now closed.]
Mast Cell Disorder Patient Registry
Dr. Jennings noted that TMS is interested in helping
establish a mast cell disorder patient database, but
efforts into identifying a funding source will be limited
until decisions are made for registry characteristics.
Various considerations regarding such a database were
discussed during the committee meeting and it was
suggested that information on different options be
accumulated for the committee to review in the future.
Ms. Slee also distributed a list of 2013 TMS initiatives
to the committee, which included:
•D
evelopment of a laminated Mastocytosis and
Mast Cell Activation Syndrome Information card,
10 | The Mastocytosis Chronicles
Tenth Edition of the International Classification of
Diseases-Clinical Manifestation code set (ICD-10-CM)
for Mast Cell Activation Syndromes (MCAS)
The committee discussed the need to create ICD-10-CM
codes for mast cell activation syndromes and agreed
that this project should be a priority for the committee.
Members of the committee also noted that ICD-10-CM
codes for mastocytosis needed updating. Ms. Slee
said that TMS had already begun work on a document
to propose new codes for MCAS. Drs. Catherine Weiler
and Arnold Kirshenbaum agreed to work with TMS on
this project, and co-chair the ICD-10-CM MCAS code
project for the AAAAI Mast Cell Disorders Committee.
Dr. Jennings will chair the project for TMS. [January
2014 update: An ICD-10-CM MCAS code proposal was
developed as a collaboration between the AAAAI Mast
Cell Disorders Committee and TMS, and was submitted
on behalf of the AAAAI and TMS to The National Center
for Health Statistics (housed at the Center for Disease
Control and Prevention) in January 2014.]
AAAAI Annual Meeting Programming
The committee discussed mast cell disorder-related
programming for the (current) 2013 meeting and also
plans for the 2014 AAAAI Annual Meeting. Dr. Carter
indicated a need for a mast cell activation syndrome
session, including what tests doctors should order.
Mast Cell Disorder Committee Focus for the Next
Year (2013-2014)
• Propose ICD-10-CM codes for MCAS
•D
evelop a list of anesthetic drugs that pose a high risk
for adverse reactions in mast cell disorder patients
• Research options for a mast cell disorder patient registry
Respectfully submitted,
Valerie Slee, RN, BSN, TMS Chair
Susan Jennings, PhD, TMS Research Committee, Co-Chair
The Mastocytosis Society Survey on Mast Cell Disorders:
Patient Experiences and Perceptions
Susan Jennings, PhD, Nancy Russell,
Dr PH, Blair Jennings, BS, Valerie Slee,
RN, BSN, Lisa Sterling, BS, Mariana
Castells, MD, PhD, Peter Valent, MD
and Cem Akin, MD, PhD
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2014;2(1):70-6.
The Mastocytosis Society, Inc. (TMS)
is happy to announce publication of
the first set of results from the 2010
Mast Cell Disorder Patient Survey
in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical
Immunology: In Practice. The article
and its online repository (containing
additional data and the original survey
questionnaire) are available free
to the public through the journal’s
website
(www.jaci-inpractice.org).
The authors are currently preparing
a second TMS Survey report,
focusing on clinical experiences, comorbidities and additional concerns.
Background
In December of 2009, Dr. Cem
Akin of Harvard Medical School and
Brigham and Women’s Hospital
contacted TMS about a unique
opportunity for patients to provide
input into the establishment and/
or revision of the diagnostic criteria
for mastocytosis and the disorders
of mast cell activation. He asked
TMS to create a survey, based
on a series of questions originally
provided by Dr. Peter Valent of
the Medical University of Vienna.
Patients in Europe were invited to
do a similar survey based on the
same questions.
through the TMS website between
April 15 and May 24, 2010.
A web-based survey was designed
and implemented by TMS. Patients
of all ages, or caregivers on the
patients’ behalf, living in or outside
the United States (U.S.), with
cutaneous or systemic mastocytosis,
mast cell activation syndrome or any
other suspected mast cell disorder,
were invited to complete the survey
whether or not they were members
of TMS. The survey was posted
The TMS Patient Survey provides an
example of patients and specialists
working together to learn from the
experiences and perceptions of
people coping with rare disorders.
Survey results provide useful
information
for
non-specialist
clinicians who treat or collaborate in
the treatment of these patients and
for patients to review experiences
of others with mast cell disorders.
Information collected included
survey respondents’ demographics,
diagnoses, symptoms, medications,
comorbid conditions, clinical and
laboratory tests, allergies, triggers
of mast cell symptoms, dietary
concerns, occurrence of mast cell
disease in their families, its impact
on their lives and their perceptions
of mast cell related care in the
United States.
Special Edition 2014 | 11
The Mastocytosis Society
Pediatric Mast Cell Disorders Fact Sheet
By, Valerie Slee RN, BSN, and Mishele Cunningham RN, BSN, PHN
Pediatric mast cell disorders, a group of rare diseases,
are characterized by either the presence of too many
mast cells in the skin or other tissues (pediatric
mastocytosis) , or recurrent symptoms arising from
release of mast cell mediators in two or more organ
systems, in parallel (mast cell activation syndrome,
MCAS). Mast cells are instrumental in mediating
anaphylaxis, and children with mast cell disorders are
at higher risk to develop both provoked and unprovoked
episodes of anaphylaxis. A child whose disease appears
to be confined to the skin may still exhibit systemic
symptoms due to mast cell degranulation and mediator
release.1 Symptoms common to pediatric mastocytosis
and MCAS include flushing of the face and neck,
dermatographism, gastrointestinal complaints such as
diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, gastroesophageal
reflux (GERD), pruritis, dyspnea, headache, lethargy,
fatigue, and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Many children
may not complain of specific symptoms, may not be
able to identify or localize a symptom, or may have
every symptom, while others may have very few or none.
Age of Onset:
• Pediatric mastocytosis is commonly diagnosed
prior to age two.
–D
isease is seen in both males and females
equally.2
– No race has been found to be predominant.2
• P
ediatric mast cell activation syndrome
can be diagnosed at any age.
Presentation:
• In 90% of the cases, the typical presentation involves
cutaneous manifestations (skin lesions).
These may include:
Solitary or multiple Mastocytomas
Urticaria Pigmentosa/Maculopapular Cutaneous
Mastocytosis (UP)
•R
ed maculopapular lesions tend to wheal
when scratched (positive Darier’s sign)
•B
lister formation can occur with rubbing
or stroking of lesion and is associated with
pruritis2
•E
ncompasses several clinical entities with
different outcomes, including: pitted melanotic
macules, reddish brown telangiectatic
macules, lightly pigmented papules, brownish
papules, and small nodules
Diffuse Cutaneous Mastocytosis (DCM)
•S
kin thickened, hyperpigmented and diffusely
infiltrated; can involve up to 100% of the skin
with the central area, head and scalp heavily
affected
• Can appear at birth or early infancy
•B
listers, some of which are hemorrhagic;
bullae are present and dermatographism may
be prominent
• Flushing is a common symptom
•T
ryptase may be elevated due to increased
mast cell burden in the skin, and can be
indicative of well differentiated systemic
mastocytosis
Possible Symptoms
• Itching
• Flushing
• Darier’s Sign and dermatographism
• Abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, bloating, colic
in infants, GERD
• Bone and joint pain
• Usually present at birth
• Headache
•S
olitary, elevated lesion which usually resolves
during childhood
• Fatigue
•M
ultiple mastocytomas may evolve into adult
well differentiated systemic mastocytosis
(WDSM)1
• Anaphylaxis
12 | The Mastocytosis Chronicles
•N
europsychiatric symptoms, such as: brain fog,
ADD/ADHD, behavioral issues, seizures
Guidelines for Acquiring a Diagnosis:
• Completion of a thorough patient history
•C
areful skin examination and biopsy of lesions
with mast cell stains (hematoxylin, eosin, giemsa
stains) and immunohistochemistry for tryptase
and kit
- Oral cromolyn sodium
- Ketotifen
• Injectable epinephrine
- Auvi Q- talking epi-pen
- Epi-pen- auto injectors
•A
cquisition of labs including complete blood
count, peripheral smear, serum chemistry, serum
tryptase and liver function tests
• Topical treatments
•E
xam of liver and spleen for hepatosplenomegaly
by ultrasound or scan
•A
ny other exam relevant to individual symptoms
(endoscopy, colonoscopy, bone scan, etc.)
•N
o chemotherapy is indicated in cutaneous or
indolent systemic disease in children, unless
indicators of progression to aggressive disease
are identified
•B
one marrow biopsy and aspirate with flow
cytometry, only if clinical suspicion of systemic
or progressive disease:
Prognosis:
• Benign course will be seen in approximately
70% of patients.1
- a
bnormal
peripheral
blood
counts,
organomegaly, significant lymphadenopathy,
severe recurrent systemic mast cell mediatorrelated symptoms, persistent high tryptase,
persistence of disease into adulthood2, 3
•A
pproximately 30% of pediatric mastocytosis
cases persist into adulthood.1
Triggers to avoid:
• Changes in temperature, heat and cold
• Friction or pressure on the skin
•S
pecific foods- very individualized but may
include shellfish, high histamine foods such
as left-overs, salicylate-containing foods, nuts,
peanuts and other potential allergens
•M
edications, which can be problematic, include:
opioid narcotics, alcohol as an additive, IV
vancomycin, neomycin, benzocaine, anticholinergics, and certain anesthetics. See the
TMS website for further lists: www.tmsforacure.org
• Insect bites and stings, jellyfish, snake and fire
ant venoms
• Physical, emotional or environmental stressors
• Perfumes, odors and chemical exposures
Treatment Guidelines:
• Avoidance of triggers
• H1 and H2 antihistamines
-H
1- loratadine, cetirizine, desloratadine,
diphenhydramine, hydroxyzine, fexofenadine,
chlorpheniramine maleate, doxepin
-H
2- ranitidine, cimetidine, famotidine
• Leukotriene inhibitors
- Montelukast, zileuton, zafirlukast
• UVA/UVB Photolight therapy
- Mast cell stabilizers
- Steroid creams
- Cromolyn Sodium Cream 1%-5%
•C
hildren with extensive bullous lesions appear
to be at increased risk of shock or sudden death
from anaphylaxis.4
•C
hildren with widespread skin lesions (UP &
DCM) are at increased risk for severe systemic
reaction due to potential mast cell mediator
release from affected skin.4
Support Services:
• The Mastocytosis Society is a 501 (c) 3, nonprofit
organization dedicated to supporting patients
affected by Mastocytosis or Mast Cell Activation
Disorders, as well as their families, caregivers,
and physicians through research, education and
advocacy.
•T
he Mastocytosis Society coordinates support
groups in nearly every state. Please visit our
website at www.tmsforacure.org.
•M
astokids.org is a site where parents and
caregivers of children with mastocytosis or mast
cell disease can come to learn, find support,
and discover a safe environment to interact with
other families.
References:
1. Torrelo A, Alvarez-Twose I, Escribano L. Childhood mastocytosis. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2012
Aug;24(4):480-6.
2. Castells M, Metcalfe DD, Escribano L. Diagnosis and treatment of cutaneous mastocytosis
in children: practical recommendations. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2011 Aug 1;12(4):259-70.
3. Fried AJ, Akin C. Primary mast cell disorders in children. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2013
Dec;13(6):693-701.
4. Alvarez-Twose I, Vano-Galvan S, Sanchez-Munoz L, Morgado JM, Matito A, Torrelo A, et
al. Increased serum baseline tryptase levels and extensive skin involvement are predictors
for the severity of mast cell activation episodes in children with mastocytosis. Allergy.
2012 Jun;67(6):813-21.
Pediatric Mastocytosis Fact Sheet
Copyright © 2014 The Mastocytosis Society, Inc. All rights reserved.
Special Edition 2014 | 13
Mission and History of TMS
Mission: The Mastocytosis Society, Inc. is a 501(c)3 nonprofit organization dedicated to supporting patients
affected by Mastocytosis or Mast Cell Activation Disorders as well as their families, caregivers, and physicians
through research, education, and advocacy.
History: The Mastocytosis Society, Inc. (TMS) was founded in 1995 by Bill Abbottsmith, Linda Buchheit, Olive
Clayson, Iris Dissinger, Bill Hingst, and Joe Palk. At that time very little was known about Mastocytosis, so these
pioneering individuals sought to fill a massive void with some answers to their multitude of questions about this
rare disease. They found one another through NORD, sheer determination and extensive research.
The first support group meeting was held in Baltimore at the Inner Harbor in 1994 and was attended by Linda
Buchheit and Bill Hingst. The second meeting was held the following year at Linda Buchheit’s home in Ohio.
Fourteen members attended that year. Little did they know how fruitful their efforts would be and what a lifeline
they would become as more and more patients joined each year!
Until 1990 many patients diagnosed with Mastocytosis were given a very grim prognosis. Up until that time,
Mastocytosis was not often considered when physicians were making a differential diagnosis, and many cases
were completely missed resulting in patient death. At that point, signs of the disease were then discovered on
autopsy; however, because so little was known about Mastocytosis, it was presumed that Mastocytosis was one
of the causes of death when in fact the patient had often died of other causes, and the Mastocytosis was an
incidental finding! On the other hand, more advanced cases of aggressive Mastocytosis were also recognized
during post-mortem exams, leading pathologists to identify all forms of Mastocytosis as having a high associated
mortality rate. Fortunately, that prognosis has improved as more patients are diagnosed and treated sooner, and
more physicians research and treat this disease. Today, we know that pediatric patients have greater than a 75%
chance of outgrowing their disease at or before puberty, and adults with indolent systemic mastocytosis can have
a near normal life expectancy if they avoid triggers and take their medication!
Founding Members: Today’s accomplishments are built on the foundations laid by the early volunteers, and we are
grateful for their efforts. TMS is where it is today because of the seeds that they planted in 1994 and in the early
years. Below are some of the earliest members, but there have been many more champions who have served
their fellow patients and families affected by mastocytosis and mast cell activation disorders by volunteering for
TMS. We salute you!
Past Board Members: THANK YOU to all of our past board members as they are our strong foundation for all the
wonderful and exciting things happening now and in the future for TMS!
Linda Buchheit
Iris Dissinger
Ruth Sampson
Jane Clark
Juanita Anderson Emily Tidball
Cindra Carey
Joan Passmore
Erin Cunia
Lisa Sterling
Sandra Frost
William Hingst
Bill Abbottsmith
Joyce McEntire
Kathy Favorite Marcia Gordon
Diana Coleman
Michael Zorska
Emily Menard
Regina Rentz Ethan McGraw-Bordeaux
14 | The Mastocytosis Chronicles
Joseph Palk
Jessica Hobart
Margaret Thomas
Mishele Cunningham
Denise Baun
Candace VanAuken
Deborah Wallack Lisa Kenny Wanda Hermann
Janice Chiappone
Elizabeth Punsalan
Olive Clayson
Stephanie Shaw
Kristin Forest
Regis Park
Susan Manchester
Len Levenda
Jody Bachiman
Rachael Zinman
Bill Richers
6.
5.
4.
3.
2.
1.
Any blockers or drugs that interfere with
epinephrine or that contribute to histamine
release should be withheld.
If the patient’s symptoms flare after the
initial reaction is treated, check all
parenteral medications to make sure that
none of them contain alcohol or
preservatives.
Control the patient’s environmental
temperature and stress to avoid setting off a
mast cell reaction again.
Additional doses of H 1 and H2 antihistamines
may be needed to control itching,
abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea and
bloating even after acute anaphylaxis has
responded to treatment.
Mast cell activation symptoms can quickly
disintegrate into anaphylaxis, and simple
symptoms should never be overlooked nor
should treatment be delayed.
Mastocytosis patients may have
individualized drug sensitivities and
symptoms of anaphylaxis that are atypical.
Precautions for mastocytosis
7.
If emergency surgery is needed,
mastocytosis patients should receive H 1 and
H2 antihistamines, steroids, mast cell
stabilizers and leukotriene blockers
preoperatively.
What else should I know?
Triggers are unique to each patient. If a patient
tells you that a certain drug, substance or
environmental factor is a mast cell trigger for
them, believe the patient even if it does not
seem plausible.
References
Emergency Care
For
Mast Cell Disease Patients
Akin, C. Mast cells and mastocytosis. In: Akin, C, ed.
ImmunolAllergy Clin N America. 2006; 26 (3): 465-476,
487-504, 515-529, 541, 549-566.
Akin,C. Valent, P. Metcalfe, DD. Mast cell activation
syndrome: proposed diagnostic criteria. J.Allergy Clin
Immunol. 2010; 126(6): 1099-1104.
The Mastocytosis Society, Inc.
advocacy
www.tmsforacure.org
education
Patients with mast cell disorders are more likely
to experience anaphylaxis than the general
population (approximately 33%) which can be
unprovoked or triggered by varied stimuli
including hymenoptera venom, medication,
physical or emotional stress. Additionally, 65%
of their anaphylactic episodes are severe.
Mast cell diseases are disorders of mast cell
proliferation (mastocytosis) and activation
(MCAD) affecting children and adults. Mastocytosis can affect skin and internal organs such
as the bone marrow, GI tract, liver and spleen.
Most patients with mastocytosis have cutaneous or indolent (benign) systemic forms, but
aggressive disease (similar to malignancy) may
have hematologic disorders. Mast cell patients
may have unpredictable symptoms that require
anti-mediator therapy. Diagnosis of mastocytosis is confirmed by a bone marrow or skin
biopsy. MCAD patients do not fulfill all criteria
for mastocytosis but exhibit symptoms, may or
may not have increased measurable mast cell
mediators (commonly tryptase, histamine or its
metabolites) during or shortly after an attack
and do respond to anti-mediator therapy.
What are mast cell diseases ?
research
Brockow, K, Jofer, J, Ring, J. Anaphylaxis in patients with
mastocytosis – a prospective study on prevalence,
severity, and trigger factors in 121 patients. J Allergy Clin
Immunol. 2010; 117 (2): X307.
Castells, MC. Anaphylaxis and Hypersensitivity Reactions.
Springer; 2011
Gotlib, J. On being metachromatic: mystique and
misunderstanding mastocytosis. Am J Hematol, 2009; 84:
779-781.
Hamilton, MJ. Hornick, JL. Akin, C. Castells, MC.
Greenberger, NJ. Mast cell activation syndrome: a newly
recognized disorder with systemic clinical manifestations.
J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011 128(1):147-152.
Lieberman, et al. The diagnosis and management of
anaphylaxis practice parameter: 2010 update. J Allergy
Clin Immunol. 2010: 126;477-480e42.
Norred, CL. Anesthetic-induced anaphylaxis. AANA J.
2012:April, in press.
Simons, EF, et al. World Allergy Organizationanaphylaxis
guidelines: summary. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011:
127;587-593.
Simons, EF, et al. World Allergy Organizationanaphylaxis
guidelines: summary. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011:
127;587-593. imons, EF, et al.
World Allergy
The
Mastocytosis Society, Inc.©2011.
Organization
anaphylaxis
guidelines: summary. J
www.tmsforacure.org
All
rights reserved.
Allergy
Clin
Immunol. 2011:127;587-593.
P.O.
Box
129
Hastings, NE 68902
Informational Calls:
(909) 20MASTO or
(909) 206-2786
Urgent Calls:
(508) 842-3080
Fax: (508) 842-2051
ure.org
Anaphylaxis treatment requires teamwork to start 2
IVs (16-18G) to administer fluids rapidly. Place the
patient in Trendelenberg position continuously.
Call for Help
Grade IV: Pulseless electrical activity (PEA) or
cardiac arrest.
Grade III: Profound hypotension, bradycardia or
tachycardia, cardiovascular collapse, confusion,
bronchospasm, hypoxia (SaO2 <92) and GI distress
Grade II: Cutaneous signs, and hypotension,
tachycardia, presyncope, dyspnea or GI distress.
Grade I: Cutaneous signs such as hives or rash.
Anaphylaxis symptoms can occur on a continuum:
Anaphylaxis Severity
Analgesics : Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory
drugs. AVOID morphine or codeine
derivatives.
Anesthetics : Ester local anesthetics.
Antibiotics: Amphoteracin or polymyxin B.
AVOID vancomycin.
Cardiovascular : - and -adrenergic receptor
blockers.
Muscle Relaxants : Atracurium, rocuronium or
succinylcholine.
Preservatives: Ethanol or other alcohol
solutions or metabisulfites.
Other : Dextran, dextromethorphan, quinine.
Drugs to Administer with Caution
Avoid administering sensitive drugs to mastocytosis
patients. The most common triggers for mast cell
disease patients are foods (23%), insect venom
(21%), drugs (14%) and alcohol (14%).
Avoid Triggers
Corticosteroids: Hydrocortisone 0.5-1 mg/kg IV
initially, then 2.5 mg/kg every 4-6 hours.
12.5-50 mg).
H2 blockers: Ranitidine 1 mg/kg IV/IM (pediatric IV:
H1 blockers: Diphenhydramine 1-2 mg/kg or 25-50
mg IV/IM/PO (under age 12: 12.5-25 mg) or
Hydroxyzine 25-100 mg IV/IM or 25 mg PO every 2-4
hours (pediatric: 12.5-25 mg).
Terbutalin e: 250-500 mcg subcutaneous.
Ipratropium : 500 mcg in 2.5 ml NS nebulized.
Albuterol: 2.5-5 mg in 3 ml NS nebulized or 100-200
mcg IV.
Drugs for bronchospasm or angioedema include:
If the patient has hypoxia, myocardial ischemia, or
needs epinephrine or agonists he or she could
need 100% O2 or intubation and ventilation.
Bronchospasm and Angioedema
If no IV has been started ,
epinephrine should be given rapidly by
IM injection (vastus lateralis )
or endotracheal tube. The dose is 0.3ml
of 1 mg/ml solution repeat X3 at 5 min
intervals for systolic BP <90 mmHg.
Grade IV: 1-3 mg to 3-5 mg IV Q 3 min;
4-10 mcg/min infused.
and a member of
the National Organization
of Rare Disorders.
TMS is a Lay Organization member of the American
Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology
Anaphylaxis can reoccur for 72 hours. An ICU bed &
ventilator and continued treatment with
vasopressors, H1& H2 blockers, or corticosteroids
may be needed. Laboratory tests including serum
tryptase, specific IgE assay and urine N-methyl
histamine should be monitored after anaphylaxis.
Record events and consult an immunologist.
Continuation of Care
Glucagon 1-5 mg or 20-30 mcg/kg IV for
unresponsiveness or blockade; infusion: 5-15
mcg/min IV.
Norepinephrine 0.05 mcg/kg/min IV.
Dopamine 400 mg/500 cc NS at 2-20 mg/kg/min IV.
Vasopressin 1-2 U IV.
Hetastarch 500cc IV .
NS 5-10 cc/kg in 5 min, up to 30cc/kg IV.
Because anaphylaxis can cause rapid profound
vasodilation, hypotension should be treated with:
Hypotension
PEA or arrest should be treated with IV fluids and
CPR/ACLS with epinephrine up to 1-3 mg/ 3-5 min.
IV/IM, vasopressin 40 U IV, or atropine 0.4-1 mg IV.
Grade III: 100-200 mcg IV Q 1-2 min; 1-4 mcg/min
infused.
Grade II: 10-20 mcg IV.
Grade I: None.
Epinephrine may be titrated according to the
severity of anaphylaxis symptoms:
Tachycardia should be treated first with IV fluids
then ACLS protocols should be followed.
Cardiac Arrhythmias
Bradycardia should also be treated with IV fluids
prior to ACLS protocols with atropine 0.4-1 mg IV,
followed by dopamine 400 mg in 500 cc NS at 2-20
mg/kg/min IV, or epinephrine 1:1000, 0.1-0.3 mg (in
10ml NS IV). Cardiac pacing may be indicated for
severe unresponsive bradycardia.
Epinephrine
Reassess the diagnosis and monitor EKG, SaO 2 and
ABGs. CPR /ACLS may be necessary. Draw a serum
tryptase level at 30-120" after symptom onset.
Visual Guide to Diagnosing Mastocytosis
The following pages are a photo journal of examples
of how mastocytosis can present. While cutaneous
mastocytosis can include maculopapular cutaneous
mastocytosis/urticaria pigmentosa (UP), telangiectasia
macularis eruptiva perstans (TMEP), diffuse cutaneous
mastocytosis (DCM), and solitary mastocytoma, skin
manifestations can occur in mast cell activation
syndrome (MCAS) and systemic mastocytosis (SM)
patients as well.
Pediatric Mastocytosis
Most cases of pediatric mastocytosis fall into one of
these categories and may or may not include symptoms
of systemic mast cell activation as a result of mediators
released from the skin (see Pediatric Mast Cell Disor­
ders Fact Sheet in this issue). It should be noted that
the term “UP” encompasses a variety of clinical mani­
festations. In children, some of these varieties will fade
away, some of will develop into indolent systemic mas­
tocytosis and some will evolve into a newly described
entity called well-differentiated systemic mastocytosis.
Pic. 1- Female adult smoldering systemic mastocytosis and
urticaria pigmentosa
Pic. 2- Female adult athlete hives and urticaria pigmentosa
Pic. 3- Female child with systemic mastocytosis and
urticaria pigmentosa
Pic. 4- Female child with mastycotyma on shoulder
Special Edition 2014 | 17
Pic. 7- Female adult with smoldering systemic
mastocytosis, urticaria pigmentosa during a flare.
Pic. 5- Female adult with indolent systemic mastocytosis
and confluent urticaria pigmentosa
Pic. 6- Male child with systemic mastocytosis and
mystery rashes
18 | The Mastocytosis Chronicles
Pic. 8- Male child with urticaria pigmentosa
Pic. 9- Male child with systemic mastocytosis during flare
causing blisters.
Picture 10- Male child with mast cell activation syndrome,
during flushing episode.
Picture 11- Male child with urticaria pigmentosa
Special Edition 2014 | 19
Pic. 13- Solitary mastocytoma normal and inflamed
Pic. 12- Adult female with urticaria pigmentosa during
a flare.
Pic. 15- Female with idiopathic anaphylaxis, and
dermatagraphism
Thank You!!!
TMS would like to thank all the people who sent in
images of mast cell disease. Education is one of our
primary goals. Sharing these images with our members
and medical professionals will help doctors better
recognize mast cell disease.
Pic. 14- Female child with urticaria pigmentosa
20 | The Mastocytosis Chronicles
MC ACTIVATION AND TRIGGERS
Mast cells release mediators, including tryptase,
histamine, heparin, prostaglandins and leukotrienes, which
result in the myriad symptoms patients experience during
mast cell activation/degranulation. Triggers of mediator
release may include: heat; cold; temperature change;
foods; medications, esp. antibiotics and opioid narcotics;
alcohol; friction; environmental, emotional, or physical
stress; perfumes/odors; viral/bacterial/fungal infections;
venoms; and fatigue. Mast cell activation can occur along
with, or independent of, any form of mastocytosis.
MC MEDIATOR SYMPTOMS AND THERAPY
Symptoms may include: flushing of the face, neck, and
chest; headache; tachycardia and chest pain; abdominal
pain, bloating, GERD, diarrhea, vomiting; rashes,
including urticaria pigmentosa (UP), telangiectasia
macularis eruptiva perstans (TMEP); bone/muscle pain,
osteosclerosis, osteopenia, osteoporosis; itching, +/- rash;
blood pressure instability; brain fog, cognitive dysfunction;
anxiety/depression; lightheadedness, syncope; and
anaphylaxis. Symptoms of mediator release are treated
with H1 and H2 antihistamines, mast cell stabilizers,
leukotriene inhibitors, and possibly aspirin (under direct
supervision of a physician). All mast cell disease patients
should carry two doses of injectable epinephrine unless
otherwise contraindicated (Glucagon may need to be
administered for patients on beta-blockers).
ADVANCED DISEASE CONSIDERATIONS
Advanced disease symptoms may include: anemia,
thrombocytopenia, ascites, bone fractures, gastrointestinal
abnormalities, and enlargement of the liver, spleen,
and lymph nodes, which ultimately lead to organ failure
and early death. Therapies of limited effectiveness exist
for advanced SM, but promising new treatments are
being developed. Prominent among these are tyrosine
kinase inhibitors (TKIs) targeting the KIT kinase (e.g.,
midostaurin6). Imatinib is approved therapy for adult ASM
patients lacking the KIT D816V mutation or if mutation
status is unknown. Standard therapies for ASM are
interferon and the chemotherapeutic agent cladribine,
employed with antimediator therapy to reduce disease
burden and control symptoms. In patients with SM-AHNMD,
therapy selection usually depends on the associated
disease, which is commonly more aggressive than the SM
part. MCL requires a polychemotherapy approach.
REFFERENCES
1. Gotlib J, Pardanani A, Akin C, Reiter A, George T, Hermine O, et al. International Working
Group-Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Research and Treatment (IWG-MRT) & European
Competence Network on Mastocytosis (ECNM) consensus response criteria in advanced
systemic mastocytosis. Blood. 2013 Mar 28;121(13):2393-401.
2. Pardanani A, Lim KH, Lasho TL, Finke C, McClure RF, Li CY, et al. Prognostically relevant
breakdown of 123 patients with systemic mastocytosis associated with other myeloid
malignancies. Blood. 2009 Oct 29;114(18):3769-72.
3. Lim KH, Tefferi A, Lasho TL, Finke C, Patnaik M, Butterfield JH, et al. Systemic
mastocytosis in 342 consecutive adults: survival studies and prognostic factors. Blood.
2009 Jun 4;113(23):5727-36.
4. Pardanani A. Systemic mastocytosis in adults: 2012 Update on diagnosis, risk
stratification, and management. Am J Hematol. 2012 Apr;87(4):401-11.
5. Valent P, Akin C, Arock M, Brockow K, Butterfield JH, Carter MC, et al. Definitions, criteria
and global classification of mast cell disorders with special reference to mast cell
activation syndromes: a consensus proposal. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2012;157(3):215-25.
6. Verstovsek S. Advanced systemic mastocytosis: the impact of KIT mutations in diagnosis,
treatment, and progression. Eur J Haematol. 2013 Feb;90(2):89-98.
7. Ustun C, DeRemer DL, Akin C. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the treatment of systemic
mastocytosis. Leuk Res. 2011 Sep;35(9):1143-52.
8. Horny HP, Sotlar K, Valent P. Mastocytosis: state of the art. Pathobiology. 2007;74(2):121-32.
9. Horny HP, Valent P. Diagnosis of mastocytosis: general histopathological aspects,
morphological criteria, and immunohistochemical findings. Leuk Res. 2001 Jul;25(7):543-51.
MISSION STATEMENT
The Mastocytosis Society, Inc. is a nonprofit organization
dedicated to supporting patients affected by Mastocytosis
or Mast Cell Activation Disorders as well as their families,
caregivers, and physicians through research, education and
advocacy.
ORGANIZATION AND SUPPORT
The Mastocytosis Society, Inc. (TMS) is a 501(c)3 organization
lead by volunteers and guided by an expert medical advisory
board. As defined in the mission statement, TMS provides
support to patients, families, caregivers and physicians through
research, education and advocacy. TMS welcomes mast cell
disorder patients of all ages. Anyone affected by or interested in
learning about mast cell disorders is encouraged to join.
tmsforacure.org
[email protected]
The Mastocytosis Society, Inc. 501 3 c
P.O. Box 129
Hastings, NE 68902-0129
Copyright @ 2013 The Mastocytosis Society, Inc.
Systemic
Mastocytosis
Including
Indolent &
Aggressive
Variants
RESEARCH + EDUCATION + ADVOCACY
THE MASTOCYTOSIS SOCIETY
tmsforacure.org
1
Standard technique can be used to obtain an iliac crest
bone marrow (BM) biopsy and aspirate smear for diagnosis.
Aspirated BM should be allocated for flow cytometry to assess
for the presence of mast cells with aberrant phenotype (i.e.,
co-expression of CD25). Immunohistochemistry for KIT,
MC tryptase, and CD25 should be performed on sections of
the biopsy.
Serum total tryptase is persistently > 20 ng/mL (not valid if there is an associated clonal
myeloid disorder).
MCs in BM, blood, or other extracutaneous organs express CD2 and/or CD25, plus normal
MC markers.
Activating KIT mutation at codon 816 is found in extracutaneous organ(s).
> 25% of MCs in BM or other extracutaneous organ(s) display abnormal morphology
(spindle shape typical).
MINOR CRITERIA
Multifocal dense infiltrates of MCs (> 15 MCs in aggregates) are detected in sections of
BM and/or other extracutaneous organ(s).
MAJOR CRITERION
SM diagnosis requires at least one major and one minor criteria OR at least three minor
criteria be fulfilled.
TABLE 1. World Health Organization Diagnostic Criteria for Systemic Mastocytosis
organ systems (Table 1).
cells (MCs) in one or multiple extracutaneous
growth and accumulation of abnormal mast
of rare, heterogeneous disorders involving
Systemic mastocytosis (SM) consists of a group
Systemic
Mastocytosis
Overview
Thank you to Srdan Verstosek, MD, PhD, MD Anderson Cancer Center and Jason Hornick, MD,
PhD,The Boston Center of Excellence for Mastocytosis at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and
Dana Farber Cancer Institute for their contributions to this brochure.TMS Research Committee.
*A lymphoproliferative disorder or plasma cell dyscrasia may rarely be diagnosed with SM.
Typical MCL: MC comprise 10% or more of peripheral blood white cells. Aleukemic MCL:
< 10% of peripheral blood white cells are MCs. Usually without skin lesions.
Meets criteria for SM. BM biopsy shows a diffuse infiltration, usually compact,
by atypical, immature MCs. BM aspirate smears show 20% or more MCs.
MCL (MAST CELL LEUKEMIA)
Meets criteria for SM with one or more C findings. No evidence of MCL, +/- skin lesions.
ASM (AGGRESSIVE SYSTEMIC MASTOCYTOSIS)
Meets criteria for SM and also criteria for an AHNMD (MDS, MPN, MDS/MPN, AML),
or other WHO-defined myeloid hematologic neoplasm, +/- skin lesions.
SM-AHNMD (SM WITH ASSOCIATED CLONAL HEMATOLOGIC NON MAST CELL
LINEAGE DISEASE)*
Smoldering SM: ISM, typically with skin lesions, with 2 or more B findings, but no
C findings.
Bone marrow mastocytosis: ISM with BM involvement, but no skin lesions
WHO criteria for SM met, MC burden low, +/- skin lesions, no C findings, no evidence
of AHNMD
ISM (INDOLENT SYSTEMIC MASTOCYTOSIS)
TABLE 2. Major Variants of Systemic Mastocytosis1
Patients who exhibit symptoms of mast cell mediator release
who do not fulfill criteria for SM may have mast cell activation
syndrome (MCAS), clonal or non-clonal.5 Forms of mastocytosis
include, but are not limited to, cutaneous mastocytosis (CM)
and variants of systemic mastocytosis (Table 2). Pediatric
mastocytosis is primarily a cutaneous disease (may include
symptoms of mast cell activation), but 25-30% may go on to
have some form of systemic disease in adulthood.
* Must be attributable to the MC infiltrate.
Malabsorption with weight loss from gastrointestinal tract MC infiltrates
Palpable splenomegaly with hypersplenism
Skeletal lesions: osteolyses and/or pathologic fractures
Hepatomegaly on palpation with impairment of liver function, ascites, and/or
portal hypertension
Cytopenia(s): ANC < 1 x 109/L, Hb < 10 g/dL, or platelets < 100 x 109/L
C FINDINGS*
Hepatomegaly and/or splenomegaly on palpation without impairment of organ
function and/or lymphadenopathy on palpation/imaging (> 2 cm)
Myeloproliferation or signs of dysplasia in non–MC lineage(s), no prominent
cytopenias; criteria for AHNMD not met
BM biopsy showing > 30% infiltration by MCs (focal, dense aggregates) and
serum total tryptase level > 200 ng/mL
B FINDINGS
TABLE 3. B and C Findings1
PROGNOSIS
Most patients with SM have ISM. ISM patients have
preserved organ function and their survival is
comparable to that of the general population. Patients
with smoldering SM may have an increased risk of
developing disease transformation to aggressive forms
of SM. Survival of patients with more advanced SM is
significantly shorter than that of the overall population
and is affected by disease subtype, with median survival
of 41 months for patients with ASM, 24 months for
SM-AHNMD, and 2 months for MCL. Patients with
ASM suffer debilitating symptoms and have signs of
organ dysfunction (C-findings; Table 3). In patients with
SM-AHNMD, prognosis can differ depending on the
subgroup: in one study of patients with SM-AHNMD,
the SM-myeloproliferative neoplasm, SM-chronic
myelomonocytic leukemia, SM-myelodysplastic
syndrome, and SM-acute leukemia subgroups were
associated with median survivals of 31, 15, 13, and 11
months, respectively.2
TMS ANNUAL CONFERENCE DVD ORDER FORM
Shipping Information (please type or print):
Name:
Address:
City:
Country:
Zip:
State:
Phone:
Order information:
Description
E-mail:
Quantity
Price
2013 - Pre-order complete set
60.00
2012 - 5 DVD set
60.00
2011 - 3 DVD set
25.00
2010 - 4 DVD set
25.00
2009 - 4 DVD set
25.00
2008 - 4 DVD set
25.00
2007 - 4 DVD set
25.00
2006 - 4 DVD set
25.00
2005-2007 - 4 DVD set (3 years)
65.00
Please choose your payment method:
 Check or money order
 Credit card or PayPal™
Total
Add $20 for International
shipping or $6.00 for
domestic shipping
Total Amount Due
Proceeds of the sale of the DVD will go into the general fund of The Mastocystosis Society.
Make check or money order payable to The Mastocytosis Society or TMS, and mail to:
The Mastocytosis Society, c/o Treasurer, P.O. Box 129 Hastings, NE 68902.
To pay online with credit card or PayPal™, click on the appropriate Add to Cart button(s) at
.
www.tmsforacure.org/store. The list of previous years’ conference material can be found on our
website.
18
the mastocytosis chronicle s
Special Edition 2014 | 23
Medical & Research Centers that Treat
Patients with Mast Cell Diseases
Please note carefully any clarification of what each center specialize in. For example, some centers only treat patients with
biopsy confirmed systemic mastocytosis, some centers only treat aggressive or malignant disease, some treat only adults or
children, and many also treat mast cell activation disorders. All centers listed can do the entire work up including evaluation,
physical exam, mediator testing and bone marrow biopsy with flow cytometry and appropriate stains for c-kit D816V mutation,
tryptase, and expression of CD2 and CD25 antigen markers. Please be very clear when making your appointment to ask what
you can expect to occur during your visit.
United States of America
California
Stanford Cancer Center
875 Blake Wilbur Drive, Room 2327B
Stanford, CA 94305-5821
Contact: Jason Gotlib, MD, MS
Associate Professor of Medicine
(Hematology) Director, Stanford
Hematology Fellowship Program
Director, MPN Center
Stanford Cancer Institute
875 Blake Wilbur Drive, Room 2324
Stanford, CA 94305-5821
Phone: 650-725-0744
Fax: 650-724-5203
Email: [email protected]
Specialization: Biopsy proven only;
proven only; including systemic
mastocytosis (SM) only, aggressive SM
and mast cell leukemia. Adults and
pediatric.
Diagnostic, treatment, and research.
Bone marrow biopsies. Also adult
idiopathic anaphylaxis.
_________________________________
Massachusetts
Center of Excellence for Masatocytosis
(and Mast Cell Activation Disorders)
at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and
Dana Farber Cancer Institute
Brigham and Women’s Hospital
850 Boylston St. Suite 450
Chestnut Hill, MA 02467
including systemic mastocytosis
(SM) only, aggressive SM and mast
cell leukemia. Adults. Diagnostic,
treatment, and research.
_________________________________
Director: Cem Akin, MD, PhD
Maryland
Email: [email protected]
Phone: 617-732-9850
Fax: 617-731-2748
National Institutes of Health: National
Institute of Allergy and Infectious
Diseases
NIH, NIAID
Building 10, Room 11C
10 Center Drive - MSC1881 Bethesda,
MD 2
Contact: Dean D. Metcalfe, MD, Chief,
Laboratory of Allergic Diseases
Email: [email protected]
Phone: 301-496-2165
Fax: 301-480-8
Contact: Melody Carter, MD, Pediatrics
Email: [email protected]
Specialization: Referrals only. Biopsy
24 | The Mastocytosis Chronicles
Email: [email protected]
Phone: 617-732-9850
Fax: 617-731-2748
Associate Director: Mariana Castells,
MD, PhD
Specialization: All mast cell related
diseases including mast cell activation
disorder. Adults and pediatric.
Diagnostic, treatment, and research.
Can arrange bone marrow biopsies.
_________________________________
Tufts University School of Medicine
136 Harrison Avenue
Boston, MA 02111
Contact: Theoharis Theoharides, MD,
PhD, Professor of Pharm. and Internal
Medicine
Email:[email protected]
Phone: 617-636-6866
Fax: 617-636-2456
_________________________________
Minnesota
Mayo Clinic – Allergy Department
W15-B Mayo Clinic
200 SW 1st St.
Rochester, MN 55905
Contact: Joseph Butterfield, MD
Email: butter [email protected]
Contact: Norton J. Greenberger, MD, GI
Contact: Catherine Weiler, MD
Email: [email protected]
Email: [email protected]
Phone: 617-732-6389
Fax: 617-264-5277
Phone: 507-284-9077
Fax: 507-284-0902
Mayo Clinic - Hematology Department
Contact: Richard Horan, MD
Email: [email protected]
Phone: 617-732-9850
Fax: 617-731-2748
Contact: Ayalew Tefferi, MD and
Contact: Daniel DeAngelo, MD, PhD
Email: [email protected]
Phone: 617-632-6028
Address: DFCI, 450 Brookline Ave.,
Dana D1B30 Boston, MA 02215
Animesh Pardanani M.B.B.S., PhD
Phone: (507) 284-5363
Specialization: All mast cell related
diseases including mast cell activation
disorder. Adults and pediatric.
Diagnostic, bone marrow biopsy,
treatment, and research.
_________________________________
Ohio
University of Cincinnati and
Bernstein Allergy Group and Research
Center
8444 Winton Rd.
Cincinnati, OH 45231
(SM) only, aggressive SM and mast
cell leukemia. Adults. Diagnostic,
treatment, and research.
Europe
(Active Centers)
_________________________________
_________________________________
Medical U niversity of Vienna
Denmark
Utah
Austria
Odense University Hospital
Contact: Dr. Jonathan Bernstein, MD
Email: [email protected]
The University of Utah School of
Medicine Department of Internal
Medicine Hematology Division
Phone: 513-931-0775
Fax: 513-981-0779
30 N 1900 E, Room 5C402
Salt Lake City, UT 84132
Specialization: All mast cell related
diseases including mast cell activation
disorder. Adults and pediatric.
Diagnostic, treatment, and research.
Can arrange bone marrow biopsies.
Private family practice.
Contact: Michael Deininger, MD, PhD
_________________________________
_________________________________
Oklahoma
Virginia
Italy
University of Oklahoma,
College of Medicine,
1000 North Lincoln Blvd., Suite 210,
Oklahoma City, OK 73104
Virginia Commonwealth University
University of Naples
P.O. Box 980263
The Netherlands
1250 East Marshall St.
Richmond, VA 23298
University Hospital Groningen Poland
Contact: Philip B. Miner Jr., MD,
Clinical Professor of Medicine,
President and Medical Director,
Oklahoma Foundation for Digestive
Research
Contact: Dr. Larry Schwartz, MD, PhD
Internal Medicine: Rheumatology,
Allergy, and Immunology
University of GdaDsk
Email: [email protected]
Phone: 405-271-4644
Fax: 405-271-3296
_________________________________
Texas
MD Anderson Cancer Center
1515 Holcombe Blvd, Unit 428
Houston, TX 77030
Contact: Srdan Verstovsek, MD,
PhD Associate Professor, Leukemia
Department
Email: [email protected]
Phone: 713-792-7305
Fax: 713-794-4297
Phone: 801-585-3229
Email: [email protected]
Specialization: Bone marrow biopsy
confirmed mastocytosis aggressive
disease and mast cell leukemia.
France
Association Française pour les
Initiatives de Recherches sur le
Mastocyte et les Mastocytoses
(AFIRMM)
Germany
University of Berlin
University of Cologne
Technical University Munich LudwigMaximilians-University Munich
Greece
University Hospital of Athens - Attikon
Email: [email protected]
Phone: 804-828-9685
Fax: 804-828-0283
Specialization: All mast cell related
diseases including mast cell activation
disorder. Adults and pediatric.
Diagnostic, treatment, and research.
Can arrange bone marrow biopsies.
Poland
Portugal
University of Porto
Spain
Centro de Estudios de Mastocitosis de
Castilla a Mancha (CLMAst)
Sweden
Karolinska University Hospital,
Stockholm
Switzerland
Kantonsspital Aarau, Aarau
Turkey
University of Istanbul
United Kingdom
Guy's and St. Thomas' Trust - London
Note: For additional current information on
specialties and contacts within each European
center visit www.ecnm.com
Specialization: Systemic mastocytosis
Special Edition 2014 | 25
Medical Advisory Board
Contact Information
The Mastocytosis Society, Inc. is a nonprofit volunteer organization guided by a board of medical advisors who donate
their time and expertise in support of the TMS mission. They have graciously agreed to act as a point of contact for other
physicians and health care providers needing additional information about mastocytosis and mast cell activation disorders.
Lawrence B. Afrin, MD
Medical University of South Carolina
Division of Hematology/Oncology
Associate Professor of Medicine
Division of Hematology/Oncology,
CSB903, MSC635
Medical University of South Carolina
96 Jonathan Lucas St.
Charleston, SC 29425-6350
Email: [email protected]
Clinical inquiries:
Phone - 843-792-9300
Non-clinical inquiries:
Phone -843-792-4271
Cem Akin, MD, PhD
Brigham and Women’s Hospital Allergy
and Clinical Immunology
850 Boylston Street, Suite 540
Chestnut Hill, MA 02467
Email: [email protected]
Phone: 617-732-9850
Fax: 617-731-2748
Philip Askenase, MD,
Chief Section of Allergy and Clinical
Immunology
Joseph Butterfield, MD
Department of Internal Medicine Yale
University School of Medicine
Phone: 507-284-9077
Fax: 507-284-0902
333 Cedar Street
New Haven CT 06520
Mariana Castells, MD, PhD
Email: [email protected]
Phone: 203-785-4143
Fax: 203-785-3229
K. Frank Austen, MD (Honorary)
W15-B Mayo Clinic 200 SW 1st Street
Rochester, MN 55905
Brigham and Women’s Hospital Allergy
and Clinical Immunology
850 Boylston Street, Suite 540
Chestnut Hill, MA 02467
Astra Zeneca Professor of Respiratory
and Inflammatory Diseases
Email: [email protected] Phone:
617-732-9850
Fax: 617-731-2748
Department of Medicine Brigham and
Women’s Hospital
Luis Escribano, MD, PhD,
Smith Building, Room 638
One Jimmy Fund Way
Boston, MA 02115
Director Centro de Estudios de
Mastocitosis de Cas- tilla la Mancha
(CLMast)
Email: [email protected]
Phone: 617-525-1300
Fax: 617-525-1310
Hospital Virgen del Valle Carretera de
Cobisa s/n Toledo E-45071 Spain
E-mail: [email protected]
[email protected]
Phone: +34-925269335
Jason Gotlib, MD, MS
Associate Professor of Medicine
(Hematology) Director, Stanford
Hematology Fellowship Program
Director, MPN Center
Stanford Cancer Institute
875 Blake Wilbur Drive, Room 2324
Stanford, CA 94305-5821
Email: [email protected]
Phone: 650-725-0744
Fax: 650-724-5203
26 | The Mastocytosis Chronicles
Norton J. Greenberger, MD
Larry Schwartz, MD, PhD
Srdan Verstovsek, MD, PhD
Clinical Professor of Medicine/
Gastroenterology
Internal Medicine: Rheumatology,
Allergy, and Immunology
Associate Professor
Leukemia Department
Harvard Medical School
Senior Physician
Virginia Commonwealth University
P.O. Box 980263
1250 East Marshall Street Richmond,
VA 23298
MD Anderson Cancer Center 1515
Holcombe Blvd, Unit 428
Houston, TX 77030
Brigham and Women’s Hospital
75 Francis Street
Boston, MA 02115
Email: [email protected]
Phone: 617-732-6389
Fax: 617-264-5277
Richard Horan, MD
Brigham and Women’s Hospital Allergy
and Clinical Immunology
Email: [email protected]
Phone: 804-828-9685
Fax: 804-828-0283
Catherine Weiler, MD, PhD
Theoharis Theoarides, MD, PhD
Professor of Pharmacology and
Internal Medicine
850 Boylston Street, Suite 540
Chestnut Hill, MA 02467
Tufts University Schol of Medicine
136 Harrison Avenue
Boston, MA 02111
Email: [email protected]
Phone: 617-732-9850
Fax: 617-731-2748
Phone: 617-636-6866
Fax: 617-636-2456
Email: [email protected]
Nicholas Kounis, MD, PhD
Ivan Alvarez-Twose, MD
Patras Highest Institute of Education
and Technology
Staff Physician and Clinical
Coordinator Instituto de Estudios de
Mastocitosis de Castilla La Mancha
(CL Mast)
Professor of Medicine in Cardiology
Department of Medical Sciences
7 Aratou St.
Queen Olgas Square
Patras 26221, Greece
Email: [email protected]
Phone: +302610279579
Fax: +302610279579
Philip B. Miner Jr., MD
Assistant Professor of Medicine
Division of Allergy Department
of Medicine
200 SW 1st Street
Rochester, MN 55905
Email: [email protected]
Phone: 507-284-9077
Fax: 507-284-0902
Toledo, Spain
Phone: 0034-615-653-157
Email: [email protected]
Peter Valent, MD
Department of Internal Medicine I
Division of Hematology and
Hemostaseology
Oklahoma Foundation for
Digestive Research
University of Vienna
Währinger Gürtel 18-20
A-1090 Vienna, Austria
Clinical Professor of Medicine
University of Oklahoma, College
of Medicine
Email: [email protected]
Phone:+43-1 40400-5488 or -6086
Fax:+43 1 40400 4030
President and Medical Director
Email: [email protected]
Phone: 713-792-7305
Fax: 713-794-4297
1000 North Lincoln Blvd., Suite 210
Oklahoma City, OK 73104
Email: [email protected]
Phone: 405-205-1689
Fax: 405-271-3296
Special Edition 2014 | 27
The Mastocytosis Society Printed Materials
Mastocytosis and mast cell activation disorders are complicated and not well known diseases. To help educate
and spread awareness, The Mastocytosis Society, Inc. (TMS) is pleased to offer informational material to
physicians and patients.
Tri-fold Informational Brochure
Symptoms, diagnosis and treatement of mast cell disorders.
Card and Brochure Dimensions:
Infant, Pediatric, Generic Business...............2" x 3.5"
Mast Cell Patient and Emergency ...................3" x 4"
Informational Brochure, Tri-fold ................. 8.5" x 11"
Imagess not to scale
28 | The Mastocytosis Chronicles
Mast Cell Patient Emergency Card
Pediatric Card
Mast Cell Patient Card
Infant Card
Generic Business Card
Ordering Information
TMS printed material will be provided free of charge to medical personnel, members and non-members.
Donations are gladly accepted. When requesting material, please include the following:
Name_________________________________________
Tri-fold Informational Brochures
❍ Emergency Care For Mast Cell Disease Patients
Address________________________________________
❍ Systemic Mastocytosis Including Indolent &
Aggressive Variants
City ___________________________________________
State ___________________ Zip___________________
Phone _________________________________________
Email__________________________________________
❍ Mastocytosis and Mast Cell Activation Disorders
Cards
❍ Pediatric Card
❍ Infant Card
❍ Generic Business Cards
❍ Mast Cell Patient Emergency Card
❍ Mast Cell Patient Card
Special Edition 2014 | 29
MEDICAL RESOURCES:
Mastocytosis and Mast Cell Activation Syndromes
International Consensus Statements and WHO Criteria 1-6
Reviews and Expert Opinions
7-20
Laboratory Tests, Pathology, Immunohistology and
Flow Cytometry 10, 12, 13, 16, 21-24
Pre-Medication Prior to Dental Work, Diagnostic
Testing or Surgical Procedures 9, 25, 26
Therapy
8, 9, 14-16, 27-29
The Mastocytosis Society Survey on Mast Cell
Disorders 30
1. Gotlib J, Pardanani A, Akin C, Reiter A, George
T, Hermine O, et al. International Working GroupMyeloproliferative Neoplasms Research and
Treatment (IWG-MRT) & European Competence
Network on Mastocytosis (ECNM) consensus
response
criteria
in
advanced
systemic
mastocytosis. Blood. 2013 Mar 28;121(13):2393401.
2. Valent P, Akin C, Arock M, Brockow K, Butterfield
JH, Carter MC, et al. Definitions, criteria and global
classification of mast cell disorders with special
reference to mast cell activation syndromes: a
consensus proposal. Int Arch Allergy Immunol.
2012;157(3):215-25.
3. Horny HP, Akin C, Metcalfe DD, Escribano L,
Bennett JM, Valent P, et al. Mastocytosis (mast
cell disease) Swerdlow SH, Campo E, Harris
NL, Jaffe ES, Pileri SA, Stein H, et al., editors.
World Health Organization (WHO) Classification
of Tumours. Pathology and Genetics. Tumours
of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. Lyon:
IARC Press; 2008.
4. Valent P, Akin C, Escribano L, Fodinger M,
Hartmann K, Brockow K, et al. Standards and
standardization in mastocytosis: consensus
statements
on
diagnostics,
treatment
recommendations and response criteria. Eur J Clin
Invest. 2007 Jun;37(6):435-53.
30 | The Mastocytosis Chronicles
5. Valent P, Horny H-P, Li CY, Longley JB, Metcalfe
DD, Parwaresch RM, et al. Mastocytosis. Jaffe
ES, Harris NL, Stein H, Vardiman JW, editors.
World Health Organization (WHO) Classification
of Tumours. Pathology and Genetics. Tumours
of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. Lyon:
IARC Press; 2001.
6. Valent P, Horny HP, Escribano L, Longley BJ,
Li CY, Schwartz LB, et al. Diagnostic criteria
and classification of mastocytosis: a consensus
proposal. Leuk Res. 2001 Jul;25(7):603-25.
7. Valent P. Mastocytosis: a paradigmatic example of
a rare disease with complex biology and pathology.
Am J Cancer Res. 2013;3(2):159-72.
8. Carter MC, Metcalfe DD, Komarow HD.
Mastocytosis. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am.
2014 Feb;34(1):181-96.
9. Fried AJ, Akin C. Primary mast cell disorders
in children. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2013
Dec;13(6):693-701.
10.
Torrelo A, Alvarez-Twose I, Escribano L.
Childhood mastocytosis. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2012
Aug;24(4):480-6.
11.Pardanani A. Systemic mastocytosis in adults:
2013 update on diagnosis, risk stratification, and
management. Am J Hematol. 2013 May 30.
12.
Alvarez-Twose I, Morgado JM, Sanchez-Munoz
L, Garcia-Montero A, Mollejo M, Orfao A, et al.
Current state of biology and diagnosis of clonal
mast cell diseases in adults. Int J Lab Hematol.
2012 Oct;34(5):445-60.
13.Valent P. Mast cell activation syndromes: definition
and classification. Allergy. 2013 Apr;68(4):417-24.
14.Lee MJ, Akin C. Mast cell activation syndromes.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2013 Jul;111(1):5-8.
22.Horny HP, Sotlar K, Valent P. Mastocytosis: state
of the art. Pathobiology. 2007;74(2):121-32.
15.
Picard M, Giavina-Bianchi P, Mezzano V,
Castells M. Expanding spectrum of mast cell
activation disorders: monoclonal and idiopathic
mast cell activation syndromes. Clin Ther. 2013
May;35(5):548-62.
23.Horny HP, Valent P. Diagnosis of mastocytosis:
general histopathological aspects, morphological
criteria, and immunohistochemical findings. Leuk
Res. [Review]. 2001 Jul;25(7):543-51.
16.Cardet JC, Castells MC, Hamilton MJ. Immunology
and clinical manifestations of non-clonal mast cell
activation syndrome. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep.
2013 Feb;13(1):10-8.
24.Escribano L, Garcia Montero AC, Nunez R, Orfao A.
Flow cytometric analysis of normal and neoplastic
mast cells: role in diagnosis and follow-up of mast
cell disease. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am.
2006 Aug;26(3):535-47.
17. Afrin LB. Presentation, diagnosis and management
of mast cell activation syndrome. In: Murray DB,
editor. Mast cells: phenotypic features, biological
functions and role in immunity. Hauppauge: Nova
Science Publishers, Inc.; 2013. p. 155-232.
18.
Georgin-Lavialle S, Lhermitte L, Dubreuil P,
Chandesris MO, Hermine O, Damaj G. Mast cell
leukemia. Blood. 2013 Feb 21;121(8):1285-95.
19.Georgin-Lavialle S, Aguilar C, Guieze R, Lhermitte
L, Bruneau J, Fraitag S, et al. Mast cell sarcoma:
a rare and aggressive entity--report of two cases
and review of the literature. J Clin Oncol. 2013
Feb 20;31(6):e90-7.
20.Ryan RJ, Akin C, Castells M, Wills M, Selig MK,
Nielsen GP, et al. Mast cell sarcoma: a rare and
potentially under-recognized diagnostic entity with
specific therapeutic implications. Mod Pathol.
2013 Apr;26(4):533-43.
21.Horny HP, Sotlar K, Valent P. Evaluation of mast
cell activation syndromes: impact of pathology
and immunohistology. Int Arch Allergy Immunol.
2012;159(1):1-5.
25.Dewachter P, Castells MC, Hepner DL, MoutonFaivre C. Perioperative Management of Patients
with Mastocytosis. Anesthesiology. 2013 Oct 16.
26.
Carter MC, Uzzaman A, Scott LM, Metcalfe
DD, Quezado Z. Pediatric mastocytosis: routine
anesthetic management for a complex disease.
Anesth Analg. 2008 Aug;107(2):422-7.
27.Cardet JC, Akin C, Lee MJ. Mastocytosis: update
on pharmacotherapy and future directions. Expert
Opin Pharmacother. 2013 Oct;14(15):2033-45.
28.Verstovsek S. Advanced systemic mastocytosis:
the impact of KIT mutations in diagnosis,
treatment, and progression. Eur J Haematol. 2013
Feb;90(2):89-98.
29.Ustun C, DeRemer DL, Akin C. Tyrosine kinase
inhibitors in the treatment of systemic mastocytosis.
Leuk Res. 2011 Sep;35(9):1143-52.
30.Jennings S, Russell N, Jennings B, Slee V, Sterling
L, Castells M, et al. The Mastocytosis Society
Survey on Mast Cell Disorders: Patient Experiences
and Perceptions. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract.
2014;2(1):70-6.
Special Edition 2014 | 31
2014 Supporting Members*
Dr. Lawrence Afrin
TITANIUM
December 2012
Georgia S. Deifendorf
COPPER
June 2013
Rebekah Hines
COPPER
December 2012
Anne D. Ewart
SILVER
June 2013
Sandy Johnson
COPPER
January 2013
Cynthia Scott
COPPER
June 2013
Rita U. Kelly
COPPER
January 2013
Cary Wasinger
COPPER
June 2013
Stephanie King
COPPER
January 2013
Patricia Zarb
TITANIUM
June 2013
Stephen Botticello
COPPER
July 2013
Stanley &
Penny Boney
TITANIUM
Janet Nordstrom
COPPER
February 2013
Mishele &
Casey Cunningham
PLATINUM
July 2013
Terry Lambert
COPPER
February 2013
Kristine Greer
COPPER
July 2013
S. Scott Roth
PLATINUM
March 2013
Erin Kolb
COPPER
July 2013
Steve Uebelhor
GOLD
March 2013
L. Dale Lincoln
COPPER
July 2013
Jerri Askling
COPPER
April 2013
Regina Rentz
COPPER
August 2013
Craig Ciarlelli
GOLD
April 2013
Mike & Velma Rinks
PLATINUM
August 2013
Martha W. Grant
GOLD
April 2013
Jill & Ken Shuck
COPPER
August 2013
Dee Klein
COPPER
April 2013
Dr. Janice Chiappone
COPPER
September 2013
D.K. Selover
GOLD
April 2013
Rick & Doris Hoopes
TITANIUM
September 2013
Andrew & Valerie Slee
Stephen Walker
SILVER
PLATINUM
April 2013
April 2013
Mark Humphrey
COPPER
September 2013
Gary & Dona Shockey
COPPER
September 2013
Susan Yadon
COPPER
April 2013
Beth Zinman
COPPER
September 2013
Dr. Michelle Burnett
SILVER
May 2013
Jean & Tom Hammen
GOLD
October 2013
Jim & Betty McKee
GOLD
May 2013
G.J. & Linda Leitch
SILVER
October 2013
Tara Notrica
COPPER
May 2013
Timothy Milicich, Sr.
COPPER
October 2013
Debra Schankweiler
SILVER
May 2013
Cynthia Bemis
COPPER
June 2013
Carolyn &
Nicholas Chingros
GOLD
June 2013
*Members who have given beyond their annual $35 dues when renewing their
membership or starting a membership are considered Supporting Members.
(This does not include those who made major contributions to other initiatives/
funds such as the Walk-a-thon or the TMS Conference, but rather designates
different levels of donations made at time of membership dues)
January 2013
Donations
Research Fund
General Fund
Stine, Jullian H – Memory of Jane Bradpiece
Greer, Kristine & Mark
LaRose, Jennifer – McKenzie White Research Memorial Fund
St. Aubin, Lisa – Pfizer Foundation Match
Baracco, Charles & Karen – McKenzie White Research Memorial Fund
United Way of Central New Mexico
Hadjin, James G. – In Memory of Marianne Hadjin
Hadjin, James G.
Robinson Run Local #1501. – In Memory of Charolotte Craig
Elsbey, MarkAlmas, Dawn
Square Inc. – Beth Zinman
United Way – Granite United Way
Sarah Gittleman Memorial Fund
United Way of Central New Mexico
Gittleman, Barbara – Leslie & Neal Sobol 25th Anniv.
Varn, June – Kaiser Permanente Community Giving Campaigh
In Memory of Charlotte Craig
Solhaug, David R – Solhaug Grafik
Cortland Women of the Moose No 341
McNally, Margaret & John
Michael, Ernest & Nancy....
Shuck, Jill & Ken
2013 South Carolina Conference
United Way of Central New Mexico
Boney, Stanley & Penny
Blueprint Medicines Corporation
Smith, Elizabeth
Rogne, Nichole
Bowerman, Diane
Anonymous - Cash
32 | The Mastocytosis Chronicles
THANK YOU!
Support Group Contacts
United States
Arkansas
[email protected]
Chicago
Patti DalBello
847-767-4916
[email protected]
Colorado
Jan Marie Smith
719-221-9304
[email protected]
Florida
Michele Kress/Sandy Johnson
[email protected]
Illinois/Missouri
Cheri Smith
618-444-6000
[email protected]
Kansas City
Cheri Smith
618-444-6000
[email protected]
Michigan
Julia Stewart
Barbara Gittleman
248-545-7145
[email protected]
Midwest
[email protected]
Minnesota
Mishele Cunningham
952-905-6778
[email protected]
Nebraska
Jim and Betty McKee
[email protected]
Northeast
Rita Barlow
413-862-4556
[email protected]
New Jersey
Marge Holtzman
[email protected]
NY-Long Island
Michele Kress
631-944-2913
longi[email protected]
Northern California
Michelle Lamanna
[email protected]
North Carolina
Sharon Renfroe
[email protected]
North Central
Mishele Cunningham
[email protected]
Southeast
Patty Smith
[email protected]
St. Louis
Cheri Smith
618-444-6000
[email protected]
Southwest
[email protected]
Texas
[email protected]
Utah
Tiffany McKibben
[email protected]
Ohio
Allie Barnett/ Linda Buchheit
[email protected]
Virginia
Kay Butler
804-642-1542
[email protected]
Oklahoma
Christal Boxberger
405-255-2299
[email protected]
Washington DC
Patricia Beggiato
[email protected]
Pacific Northwest
Lisa Sterling
[email protected]
Pennsylvania
Kathie Murphy
[email protected]
South Carolina
Celeste Thomason
864-325-8840
[email protected]
Southern California
Davita Greenwald and Janet Bender
[email protected]
NY (Central/North/West)
Len Margolis
[email protected]
Special Edition 2014 | 33
The Mastocytosis Society
PO Box 129 Hastings, NE 68902-0129
Membership Application Form
!
Name: ________________________________ Child Member’s Name:____________________
!
Address: ______________________________________________________________________
!
City: ___________________________State:_______Zip:__________Country:______________
!
Phone: __________________________ E-Mail:_____________________________________
!
Member: _____ Relative _______Spouse_____Child______Caregiver ______Friend ________
!
Membership Type: New ($35)_______ Renewal ($35) _______Supporting Member _______
!
Applicant Information (please type or print):
Supporting Members are listed in The Mastocytosis Chronicles and will receive a thank you gift.
Copper Member ( $75 )
________
Silver Member ( $150 )
________
Gold Member ( $250 )
________
Platinum Member ( $500 ) ________
Titanium Member ( $1000 ) ________
!
Check Enclosed_____ Money Order Enclosed _____ Paid Online _____
Online Payment Option: http://www.tmsforacure.org/membership_form.php
!
Would you like to double your annual contribution to include a donation to the Angel Fund for
individuals with a mast cell disease that are unable to pay the annual membership fee of $35?
Yes _____ No ______ Total amount to be paid :____________(i.e., $35 dues plus one (1) Angel Fund donation of $35 is $70 total)
Make check or money order payable to The Mastocytosis Society, and send to:
The Mastocytosis Society, c/o Treasurer, P.O. Box 129, Hastings, NE 68902-0129
!
ANGEL FUND WAIVERS
Patients who are unable to afford to pay dues at this time can have their dues waived through the “Angel
Fund Program”. This Program was established to assist Patients with a Mast Cell Disorder to pay their
dues. If you would like for your dues to be paid through the “Angel Program” due to financial
hardship, please send a letter requesting an Angel Fund Waiver (to the address above) or an email to
[email protected]
Those who are interested in learning more about the disease who are not patients but would like
their membership fee waived because of financial difficulties may send a letter to the Board of Directors
(to the address above) or an email to [email protected] requesting a waiver which may be
34 | The Mastocytosis Chronicles
The Mastocytosis Society, Inc., PO Box 129, Hastings, NE 68902-0129
!
The Mastocytosis Society
!
PO Box 129 Hastings, NE 68902-0129
Membership Application Form
ANGEL FUND WAIVER
!
!
Name: ________________________________ Child Member’s Name:____________________
!
Address: ______________________________________________________________________
!
City: ___________________________State:_______Zip:__________Country:______________
!
Phone: __________________________ E-Mail:_____________________________________
!
Member: _____ Relative _______Spouse_____Child______Caregiver ______Friend ________
!
Applicant Information (please type or print):
Membership Type: New ______Renewal _______
!
!
ANGEL FUND WAIVERS
Patients who are unable to afford to pay dues at this time can have their dues waived through the
“Angel Fund Program”. This Program was established to assist Patients with a Mast Cell
Disorder to pay their dues. If you would like for your dues to be paid through the “Angel
Program” due to financial hardship, please send a letter requesting an Angel Fund Waiver
(to the address above) or an email to: [email protected]
!
Those who are interested in learning more about the disease who are not patients but would like
their membership fee waived because of financial difficulties may send a letter to the Board of
Directors (to the address above) or an email to: [email protected] requesting a waiver
which may be approved through another fund.
Preferred Chronicle distribution method: E-mail ____ U.S. Mail ____ International Mail ____
The Mastocytosis Society, Inc., PO Box 129, Hastings, NE 68902-0129
Special Edition 2014
| 35
The Mastocytosis Chronicles
P.O. Box 129
Hastings, NE 68902
Return Service Requested
Visit the Mastocytosis Society website at
www.tmsforacure.org
20th Anniversary Annual Conference
September 18th- 20th, 2014 - Rochester, MN
Save the date now for the 20th anniversary of The Mastocytosis
Society annual meeting. It is going to be held at the Double Tree
by Hilton Rochester/Mayo Clinic Area.
Preliminary schedule is as follows:
Sept 17th- CME day for physicians and nurses 8am- 4pm
Sept 17th- Meet and Greet for patients 6pm-9pm
Sept 18th- Registration at 8am- educational sessions all day
Sept 19th- Registration at 8am- educational/support sessions all day
Sept 20th- Walk-A-Thon and 5K, educational/support sessions,
20th anniversary dinner
We hope everyone will join us in celebrating 20 years of
The Mastocytosis Society.

Similar documents

×

Report this document