History of Popular Music National 4/5

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Katy Perry
Katy Perry

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Eric Clapton
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Marie Curie
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Transcript

History of Popular Music
National 4/5
1
Ragtime
Your teacher will select the most appropriate activities from the following options:
Performing
Learning Outcomes: You will work on your own or as part of a group, learning to
play a piece of ragtime music. Different parts and instruments will be available and,
with help from your teacher, the part you should choose should be the most
appropriate for your ability. You may also be given time to work on an individual
programme of music.
Success Criteria: You can play or sing your part accurately and in time with others,
where appropriate. You can recognise strengths and areas for improvement in your
playing.
Understanding Music
Learning Outcomes: Through reading information and carrying out practical tasks,
you will learn about the history and development of ragtime music.
Success Criteria: You can recognise and describe the following concepts:
• Melodic: vamp
• Rhythm/tempo: syncopation
• Style: ragtime
Composing Skills
Learning Outcomes: You will begin to learn about chord progressions.
Success Criteria: You can make up your own 4 bar chord progression from a given
selection of chords.
Technology/literacy
Learning Outcomes: You will use the internet to research more information on
ragtime music and one of the famous ragtime composers.
Success Criteria: You can present your findings in your own words and in your
choice of format, e.g. Powerpoint, information poster, talk to the class etc.
2
Ragtime
What is ragtime music?
• A melody with a ‘ragged’ rhythm, which is set against a very steady bass.
• The ‘ragged’ rhythm is known as syncopation.
• The accompaniment uses a vamp.
History:
• Invented in New Orleans.
• Developed in the 1890s in the saloons, gambling halls and cafes of the Southern
States of the USA.
Interesting information:
• Most of the bars and dance halls were small and could not accommodate a full
band so, in its early days, ragtime was usually played on the piano.
• It was the first black music to be accepted by white people.
Using a keyboard, learn to play a vamp based on the chords of G, C and D:
G = G, B, D
C = C, E, G
D = D, F#, A
1. Make up a 4 bar chord sequence using the chords above.
2. For each bar, your left hand will play low notes. It should play the main (first)
note of the chord on beat 1 and either the third or fifth note on beat 3,
e.g. for one bar of the chord of G the left hand will play:
3. For each bar, your right hand will play notes near the middle of the keyboard.
It should play the three note chord on beats 2 and 4,
e.g. for one bar of the chord of G the right hand will play:
4. Now put both parts together.
Extension:
Try doing steps 1 and 2 just using your left hand to play the vamp.
3
The most well-known ragtime composer was Scott Joplin. His most
popular piece, The Entertainer, was made famous in the film ‘The Sting’,
as well as being used in adverts such as Felix cat food.
Scott Joplin became famous through the publication of his piece The Maple Leaf Rag
in 1899. Below is an easy version of the start of the piece, which you can try to play
if you want:
Maple Leaf Rag (Scott Joplin)
Find out some more information on ragtime music and one of the
following composers of the genre: Scott Joplin, Charles ‘Cow-Cow’
Davenport, George Botsford and Joseph Lamb.
You can choose how you present your findings, e.g. Powerpoint,
information poster, talk to the class etc.
You should use the internet to find out the following information, e.g.
http://www.jazzinamerica.org/LessonPlan/5/1/250 and by using a
search engine.
1. Find out the influences ragtime drew from both European and African music.
2. Write a brief biography of your chosen ragtime artist.
3. List the names of some of their ragtime compositions.
4. Find audio of the pieces you listed in task 4 and listen to them.
Include the web links to the audio files in your presentation. Ragtime was
invented before records, tapes or CDs existed. Find out how piano rags were
captured so they could be played back.
5. Find out how ragtime influenced the development of jazz music.
4
Jazz
Your teacher will select the most appropriate activities from the following options:
Performing
Learning Outcomes: You will work on your own or as part of a group, learning to
play a piece of jazz music. Different parts and instruments will be available and, with
help from your teacher, the part you should choose should be the most appropriate for
your ability. You may also be given time to work on an individual programme of
music.
Success Criteria: You can play or sing your part accurately and in time with others,
where appropriate. You can recognise strengths and areas for improvement in your
playing.
Understanding Music
Learning Outcomes: Through reading information and carrying out practical tasks,
you will learn about the history and development of jazz music.
Success Criteria: You can recognise and describe the following concepts:
• Melodic: scat singing,
• Rhythm/tempo: dotted rhythms, moderato
• Texture/structure/form: walking bass
• Timbre/dynamics: clarinet, con sordino (muted), pizzicato (plucked),
trombone, trumpet
• Style: swing
Composing Skills
Learning Outcomes: You will work with a partner and will learn about some common
features of jazz music through improvisation.
Success Criteria: You can create an improvisation using notes from the appropriate
blues scale, while following the 12 bar blues chord structure.
5
Jazz
What is jazz music?
• A style which uses improvisation as a key element.
• Combines ‘blue’ notes, syncopation and different rhythms all playing together
(polyrhythms).
History:
• Originated at the beginning of the 20th century.
• Took ideas from blues music as well as African and European music.
Interesting information:
• There are different types of jazz music, such as Dixieland, swing, bebop and jazzfunk.
• Swing music has a medium (moderato) to fast tempo and a distinctive ‘lilting’
rhythm:
During the 1920’s the black bandleader Fletcher Henderson began the trend towards
bigger jazz bands, with 10 or more players rather than the previous 5 or 6. These
bands became known as Big Bands and they played swing music.
Swing band instruments:
• reeds
• brass
• rhythm
clarinet, 2 alto saxophones, 2 tenor saxophones
3 trumpets, 3 trombones
piano, guitar, double bass, drums
A solo brass or reed instrument might improvise against a written backing or riff
played by all the other instruments. Swing music is often based on the 12 bar blues
form.
There were many famous swing band leaders, the most famous being Glenn Miller.
His hit ‘In The Mood’ is based on the 12 bar blues pattern and uses dotted rhythms:
In The Mood (Glenn Miller)
6
The National Youth Jazz Orchestra (NYJO) is an
ensemble made up of the most musically gifted young
British jazz musicians, with most of the current
generation of top British jazz musicians having risen
through its ranks.
NYJO is classed as a big band, which performs music of the jazz and swing eras. It
features:
• brass (most often trumpets and trombones)
• woodwind (usually saxophones)
• rhythm section (drums, double bass or bass guitar, piano and guitar).
A main feature of big band music is improvised solos from different performers.
Listen to a piece performed by NYJO and work out which instrument(s) have an
improvised solo. Also, as you listen, try and pick out as many different instruments as
you can and listen to a few seconds of what they are doing.
A View From The Hill - NYJO
Scat singing
What is scat singing?
• Where a singer recreates the sound of an instrument, using their voice.
• They use improvisation: random vocables and syllables, or without words at all.
• Scat melodies are often variations on scales, arpeggios and riffs, based on a
musical structure.
Interesting information:
• Different singers use different types of sounds, depending on the instrument they
want to imitate or the sounds they like: Betty Carter used sounds such as “louieooie-la-la-la”, while Sarah Vaughan used “shoo-doo-shoo-bee-ooo-bee”.
• Ella Fitzgerald, Louis Armstrong, Bobbie McFerrin and Amy Winehouse have all
experimented with scat singing.
Amy Winehouse used scat singing in her first album, Frank. In the following
excerpt, she scats before and with a saxophone solo:
In My Bed (Amy Winehouse)
7
A common type of bass line used in blues and jazz music is a walking bass. On the
piano, the bass line is played by the left hand, as it uses low pitched notes.
A walking bass has a very regular on the beat rhythm, making it sound like footsteps:
On a keyboard, using your left hand (or on a guitar) play the walking bass to
get used to how it sounds.
8
Louis Armstrong (1901-1971), nicknamed Satchmo, was an American
jazz trumpeter, bandleader, singer and actor. Considered one of the
most influential jazz artists, he is known for songs such as “What A
Wonderful World” and “We Have All The Time In The World”
Did you know?
• Louis Armstrong’s musical training began in reform school, where he was sent
for 18 months at the age of 12 for firing a pistol in the air as a joke.
• He bent the conventional rules of jazz and swing by playing both in front of
and behind the beat. This syncopation influenced some of the greatest jazz
musicians such as Miles Davis and Dave Brubeck.
• Allegedly, he dropped his lyric sheet while recording the song “Heebie
Jeebies”. Without dropping a beat, he kept going with random gibberish, which
became known as scat singing.
Basin Street Blues was first published in 1926 and made famous in a recording by
Louis Armstrong in 1928. As you listen to his piece, try and recognise all of the
concepts below:
Melody/harmony
Rhythm/tempo
Instruments/voices
and how they are
used
Dynamics
Major tonality
Trumpet melody with grace notes
Imitation by clarinet and trombone
Improvisation
Scat singing
Swing rhythm on drum kit
Simple time, 4/4
Dotted rhythms
Andante
Piano – introduction, melody, accompaniment
Trumpet – melody, improvisation
Clarinet – imitation, countermelody, improvisation
Trombone – imitation
Drum kit – swing rhythm, accompaniment
Double bass – pizzicato/plucked, bass line, walking bass
Solo voice – melody, scat singing
mf, mezzo-forte or f, forte
Diminuendo
Basin Street Blues (Louis Armstrong)
9
Miles Davis (1926-1991) was an American jazz musician, trumpeter,
bandleader and composer who was a pioneer for developing different
jazz styles, including bebop and cool jazz.
Did you know?
• Miles Davis began playing trumpet at the age of 13.
• His career stalled when he became a heroin addict, and his most successful
period followed him kicking his habit.
• He married and was divorced three times.
• He was accused of being racist, because of comments against white people.
• A number of medical conditions caused his death, including pneumonia,
respiratory failure and a stroke.
With your teacher, discuss the concepts below, then, as you listen to the piece, try and
recognise the features:
Melody/harmony
Rhythm/tempo
Instruments/voices
and how they are
used
Dynamics
Minor tonality
Improvisation on trumpet and double bass
Chords on piano
Simple time, 4/4
Syncopation
Trumpet – con sordino/muted, melody, improvisation
Drum kit – swing rhythm
Double bass – pizzicato, walking bass, improvisation,
melody
Piano – chords, accompaniment
mf, mezzo-forte or f, forte
Diminuendo
Accents/sfz/sforzando
Dear Old Stockholm (Miles Davis)
10
You are going to work with a partner to create some jazz improvisation,
basing your music on the 12 bar blues chord structure and using question and
answer.
1. For the accompaniment you will need to be able to play the chords of C major,
F major and G major.
Choose to use either a keyboard with a jazz or swing rhythm and single or
fingered chords or a guitar.
2. For the melody you will need to be able to play the notes of the blues scales of
C, F and G (shown below).
Choose to use keyboard, guitar, tuned percussion or an orchestral instrument
(you may need your notes transposed).
3. Experiment with improvising some melodies based on the notes of one of the
blues scales that you played over the page. Try and make the rhythm of your
improvisation interesting, incorporating syncopation.
4. Line 1:
You and your partner are going to create question and answer. Partner 1 should
use the notes of the C blues scale to compose a one bar melody. This tune will
be played in bars 1 and 3.
Partner 2 should use the C blues scale notes to compose a one bar melody
which mainly ascends. This tune will be played in bar 2. Partner 2 should then
make up another C blues scale melody which descends. This will be played in
bar 4.
Play through the first four bars of melody and listen to the question and
answer.
11
5. Line 2:
Make up a 2 bar melody based on notes from the F blues scale. Imitate this
melody in the next 2 bars, moving the pattern to fit the C blues scale.
6. Line 3:
Make up a 1 bar melody based on the notes from the G blues scale, starting on
a G. Use a sequence for the next bar, moving the pattern down to start on an F.
Finally, decide on a 2 bar melody using the notes of the C blues scale, which
makes the piece sound finished. A good way to make a piece sound finished is
to end with the main note of the chord on a long note.
7. Choose one partner to play the whole melody and the other to play the
accompaniment. Practise the piece together then perform it to others when you
are ready.
8. Share your ideas with other pairs and discuss strengths and areas for
improvement in each composition and in your own playing.
Asessment questions
How well have we experimented with and developed our musical ideas?
How effective and imaginative is our piece?
Does our piece make musical sense?
Does our piece convey our creative intention? (e.g. does it fit the jazz style?)
What would I do differently next time and why?
12
Reggae
Your teacher will select the most appropriate activities from the following options:
Performing
Learning Outcomes: You will work on your own or as part of a group, learning to
play a piece of reggae music. Different parts and instruments will be available and,
with help from your teacher, the part you should choose should be the most
appropriate for your ability. You may also be given time to work on an individual
programme of music.
Success Criteria: You can play or sing your part accurately and in time with others,
where appropriate. You can recognise strengths and areas for improvement in your
playing.
Understanding Music
Learning Outcomes: Through reading information and carrying out practical tasks,
you will learn about the history and development of reggae music.
Success Criteria: You can recognise and describe the following concepts:
• Rhythm/tempo:,syncopated.
• Style: reggae
Technology/literacy
Learning Outcomes: You will use the internet to research more information on reggae
music and Bob Marley.
Success Criteria: You produce an eye-catching and easy to read Powerpoint
presentation of at least 8 slides, providing the answers to the questions you
researched in your own words.
13
Reggae
What is reggae music?
• A style which is most easily recognised by the off-beat rhythmic accents on beats
2 and 4. These are usually played by guitar or piano, or both.
• The drums emphasise beat 3 rather than the usual downbeat of beat 1.
• The bass line is often syncopated.
History:
• Began in Jamaica in the late 1960s.
Interesting information:
• There are different types of jazz music, such as Dixieland, swing, bebop and jazzfunk.
• Bob Marley (1945–1981) is the most famous reggae musician. His song Three
Little Birds has appeared in many films, such as Shark Tale, I Am Legend and
Marley and Me:
Three Little Birds (Bob Marley)
You are going to research more about reggae music and Bob Marley so you
can produce a Powerpoint presentation. While you do this, you will listen to
reggae music by different artists.
Your Powerpoint will need to have pictures and at least 8 slides. It should
be eye-catching, easy to read, interesting and in your own words.
Below are some of the things you should find out and include in your presentation.
See if you can find out anything else that is unusual that other groups may not have
included in their presentations.
1. In your own words, give a brief overview of reggae music.
2. Write a brief biography of Bob Marley’s life, including information on his
religious beliefs.
3. Detail the social issues of his homeland and how these influenced his music,
giving examples of songs (and some of their lyrics) which were connected with
these social issues.
4. Pick 2 reggae songs (at least one by Bob Marley) and identify the distinctive
features of the music in each song, e.g. mention the instruments and how they
are used (linking this to the reggae style of music), any rhythmic or melodic
patterns and harmonies. Use your concept lists to guide your thinking.
Extension task:
5. Select one of your chosen 2 reggae songs, find out the chord structure and learn
to play it in a reggae style on your choice of instrument.
14
Gospel
Your teacher will select the most appropriate activities from the following options:
Performing
Learning Outcomes: You will work as part of a group, learning to sing a section from
a piece of gospel music. You may also be given time to work on an individual
programme of music.
Success Criteria: You can play or sing your part accurately and in time with others,
where appropriate. You can recognise strengths and areas for improvement in your
playing.
Understanding Music
Learning Outcomes: Through reading information and carrying out practical tasks,
you will learn about the history and development of gospel music.
Success Criteria: You can recognise and describe the following concepts:
• Melodic: imitation, major tonality,
• Rhythm/tempo: syncopated
• Texture/structure/form: strophic
• Timbre/dynamics: backing vocals
• Style: gospel
15
Gospel
What is gospel music?
• Christian music with dominant vocals, typically depicting personal religious
experiences and stressing the importance of salvation.
• Four-part harmony, with the melody in the highest voice.
• Catchy, often syncopated rhythms.
• Generally strophic, in major tonality.
• Common instruments used include piano or Hammond organ, drums, tambourine,
bass guitar and electric guitar.
History:
• Began in America in the 19th century.
• Developed within both the white (European American) and black (African
American) communities in the USA.
Interesting information:
• The films Sister Act and Sister Act II have a musical focus on gospel music.
Mama, I Want To Sing is a gospel musical about the life of Doris Troy, an
American R&B singer. Raised in the church, she is discovered as a singer
and wants to pursue a career in pop music. However, her mother disapproves
of her daughter turning to secular music, away from her religious roots.
Doris learns to follow her dreams while navigating the often treacherous
world of celebrity and remaining true to herself and her family.
He’ll Be Your Strength from Mama, I Want To Sing
Sister Act and Sister Act II feature a Las Vegas lounge singer who witnesses
a murder and seeks refuge in the local church, disguising herself as a nun. At
first, she struggles with the discipline at the nunnery and is punished for
sneaking in to a nearby bar by being made to join the terrible choir. The
choir vote for ‘Sister Mary Clarence’ to take over as choir director and she
teaches them to be better singers. In the sequel, she teaches music at a school
in a rough area which is doomed for closure.
Hail Holy Queen from Sister Act
At the start of the following excerpt a lead singer alternates with backing vocals.
There is also imitation:
Oh Happy Day from Sister Act II
16
Rock
Your teacher will select the most appropriate activities from the following options:
Performing
Learning Outcomes: You will work on your own or as part of a group, learning to
play a piece of rock music. Different parts and instruments will be available and, with
help from your teacher, the part you should choose should be the most appropriate for
your ability. You may also be given time to work on an individual programme of
music.
Success Criteria: You can play or sing your part accurately and in time with others,
where appropriate. You can recognise strengths and areas for improvement in your
playing.
Understanding Music
Learning Outcomes: Through reading information and carrying out practical tasks,
you will learn about the history and development of rock music.
Success Criteria: You can recognise and describe the following concepts:
• Timbre/dynamics: distortion, pitch bend, reverb, rolls
• Style: rock
Technology/literacy
Learning Outcomes: You will use the internet to research more information on rock
guitarists. You may be given homework to find out more about famous rock bands.
Success Criteria: You can prepare a demonstration of your knowledge and
understanding of the given areas in your own words, using your own choice of
format, e.g. visual presentation, by giving a talk etc.
17
Rock
What is rock music?
• A style influenced by many genres such as rock ‘n’ roll, rhythm & blues, country,
folk, jazz and classical music.
• Often features electric or acoustic guitars, with a strong rhythm section of bass
guitar, drum kit and keyboard instruments such as piano, organ or, since the
1970s, synthesisers.
• Saxophone and blues-style harmonica are sometimes used as solo instruments.
History:
• Popular from the 1960s onwards.
• Guitarists began exploring a wider range of tonal effects.
Interesting information:
• The rock style influenced the creation of the Rock Band and Guitar Hero games.
The electric guitar was invented in 1931, to allow jazz
musicians to play more loudly. It uses a magnetic pickup to
convert the vibration of its strings in to electrical impulses. The
signal is then amplified and the resulting sound is played
through a loudspeaker.
Jimi Hendrix (1942-1970) was an American musician and
singer-songwriter who is widely considered to be the greatest
electric guitarist in music history, and a pioneer of the use of
distortion. Despite a short career in the spotlight, he was one of
the most influential musicians in his era, being influenced by
blues artists to create new sounds on the guitar.
Distortion is an effect created by using overdrive, where the gain of the preamplifier
is increased until the sound becomes fuzzy:
1. Plug an electric guitar in to the amp, via a lead.
2. Set the volume control on the guitar to 100%.
3. Turn the volume control on the amp to 0% and turn the gain control
up to 75%.
4. Turn the volume control up until the sound is at the desired volume.
5. Play something on the guitar. The tone should be distorted.
6. Turn the gain control down and play again. Compare the ‘clean’ sound
with the distorted sound.
18
Reverb is an effect that gives the feel and tone of playing in a certain type of room.
The sound becomes blurry as the notes are sounded before fading away.
Pitch bend (also known as bending) is a technique where a guitarist presses a string
on the fretboard then bends it to one side after sounding the string with the other
hand. This shifts the pitch of the slightly and gives the guitar melody a more vocal
quality.
As you listen to Purple Haze by Jimi Hendrix, try and recognise all of the concepts
below:
Melody/harmony
Minor tonality
Rhythm/tempo
Simple time, 4/4
Instruments/voices
and how they are
used
Electric guitar – melody, distortion, pitch bend, chords,
accompaniment
Bass guitar – bass line, accompaniment
Drum kit – rock beat, drum fills, rolls
Male singer – lead vocals, reverb, syllabic
f, forte
Dynamics
Purple Haze (Jimi Hendrix)
Jimi Hendrix also popularised the use of the wah-wah pedal, which he combined with
pitch bend and distortion:
Voodoo Child (Jimi Hendrix)
In 2003 and updated in 2011, Rolling Stone magazine published a list called ‘The 100
Greatest Guitarists of All Time’, with the most recent top 5 consisting of Jimi
Hendrix, Eric Clapton, Jimmy Page, Keith Richards and Jeff Beck.
Pick one of the names listed above and find out some information on
how they were influential in the development of guitar music:
1. Mention their influences, the types of guitars and amplifiers they
used and their style of playing (including use of effects).
2. Go to a website such as Artist Direct and watch videos of your
chosen artist performing so you can see their style of performing
and how the instruments are played, especially if there is any
improvising.
19
Homework – Rock Music
1. Decide whether you would prefer to present your findings in the form of a talk
or an information poster to be displayed on the classroom wall.
2. Choose one (or more) of the famous rock bands from the selection below (if
you haven’t heard of them, choose the band with the logo you like best):
AC/DC
The Eagles
Nirvana
U2
Aerosmith
Black Sabbath
The Doors
Fleetwood Mac
Guns ‘n’ Roses
Led Zeppelin
Pink Floyd
Queen
Rolling Stones
The Who
ZZ Top
Van Halen
3. Find out some information about the band, e.g. lead singer, other band
members and the instruments they play(ed), when they became famous, if
they’re still together, if they won any awards, if they have been involved in any
controversy etc.
4. Listen to or watch three songs by your rock band (you should be able to find
music by them on Grooveshark or Artist Direct). Pick your favourite. Say why
you chose it over the other two songs and create a brief listening guide for your
audience: say which instruments/voices play and what they do (e.g. electric
guitar – plays melody with distortion, male voice – lead vocals, piano –
accompaniment/chords etc.).
20
Pop
Your teacher will select the most appropriate activities from the following options:
Performing
Learning Outcomes: You will work on your own or as part of a group, learning to
play a piece of pop music. Different parts and instruments will be available and, with
help from your teacher, the part you should choose should be the most appropriate for
your ability. You may also be given time to work on an individual programme of
music.
Success Criteria: You can play or sing your part accurately and in time with others,
where appropriate. You can recognise strengths and areas for improvement in your
playing.
Understanding Music
Learning Outcomes: Through reading information and carrying out practical tasks,
you will learn about the history and development of pop music. You will learn more
about chord progressions.
Success Criteria: You can identify where the chord changes, and begin to be able to
recognise chords I, IV, V or VI. You can recognise and describe the following
concepts:
• Texture/structure/form: chorus, middle 8, verse
• Timbre/dynamics: backing vocals
• Style: pop, rapping
Composing Skills
Learning Outcomes:
You will create your own rap.
Success Criteria: You can write appropriate lyrics and perform them clearly, in time
with the beat.
Technology/literacy
Learning Outcomes: You may wish to use the internet and Audacity to find drum
samples and loop them.
Success Criteria: You can select a suitable drum loop as a basis for your rap and
successfully loop it enough times to create a 1-2 minute ostinato.
21
Pop
What is pop music?
• A style often geared towards the youth market.
• Relatively short and simple love songs, with a cheerful feel to the music.
• Songs are usually strophic and structured using verse and chorus.
• Songs sometimes also include a middle 8, for voices and instruments or just
instruments.
History:
• Began in the mid-1950s.
• Created as a softer alternative to rock ‘n’ roll.
Interesting information:
• Many pop singers perform under new names: Katy Perry is really Katheryn
Hudson, Jay-Z is Shawn Carter, Bruno Mars is Peter Hernandez, Jessie J is Jessica
Cornish, P!nk is Alecia Moore and Lady Gaga is Stefani Germanotta.
• The 1990s saw the rise of the manufactured pop band. Manager Simon Cowell
auditioned for the image as well as the sound of his singers, ploughing money in
to marketing the new band so they would appeal to teenagers and young adults.
His manufactured pop group Spice Girls had 9 UK and US No.1 singles and their
first album ‘Spice’ is the best selling album, by a female group, of all time.
An excerpt of Katy Perry’s song Hot ‘n’ Cold is below. Copy the lyrics in to your
jotter, leaving a space between each line:
D
We used to be just like twins, so in sync,
The same energy now’s a dead battery,
Used to laugh ‘bout nothing, now you’re plain boring,
I should know that you’re not gonna change.
D
‘Cause you’re hot then you’re cold, you’re yes then you’re no,
You’re in then you’re out, you’re up then you’re down,
You’re wrong when it’s right, it’s black and it’s white,
We fight, we break up, we kiss, we make up.
Hot ‘n’ Cold (Katy Perry)
22
You are going to learn more about chord changes by completing two tasks.
Your teacher will play the excerpt several times.
1. Underline every word where you think the chord changes.
The first chord change is completed for you (“be” in the first line).
There should be 15 chord changes in the verse.
There should be 7 chord changes in the chorus.
Hint: look for patterns in the chord structure which may make it easier for you
to work it out when there are lots of changes.
2. Above each of your underlined words, write either the chord number (I, IV, V
or VI) or the chord name (D, G, A or Em).
The music is in the key of D major and starts on chord I. This has been
completed for you.
Use this information to help you complete the rest of your underlined chords:
Chord I = D
Chord IV = G
Chord V = A
Chord VI = Em
3. In a small group, use a guitar or keyboard to learn to play the four chords:
Play the chord progression you thought the song used. Does it sound right?
If not, try playing a different chord progression until you think you have found
the one that sounds right.
Your teacher will confirm the correct order once you have completed this task.
23
Follow the structure as you listen to the pop song ‘Up All Night’ by Take That,
listening to how the main (lead) vocals are in harmony with backing vocals:
Instrumental
Introduction
Sometimes I see your face looking at me
All your love and grace smiling at me
All the things we had and never understood.
Verse 1
At times it cuts me up thinking of you
All the hope has gone, wasted on you
All the talks we had never did no good.
Verse 2
Oh maybe I don't need you to save me
I just want you to help me cos you're keeping me up all night
I'm so tired of waiting, waiting here for nothing.
I should be up all night with you.
Chorus
Pour another glass while I watch the bottle disappear
While I watch the morning light appear,
Thinking about you.
Verse 3
Oh maybe I don't need you to save me
I just want you to help me cos you're keeping me up all night
I'm so tired of waiting, waiting here for nothing.
I should be up all night with you.
Chorus x2
I met this girl last night and she said, 'Why won't you marry me?'
He met this girl last night and she said, 'Why won't you marry me?'
But I'm too young for that, too dumb for that,
Too broke for that, too tired for that,
Too proud for that and I'm too gone for that,
Would you like to come back to my flat?
Middle 8
Oh maybe I don't need you to save me
I just want you to help me cos you're keeping me up all night
I'm so tired of waiting, waiting here for nothing.
I should be up all night with you.
Chorus x2
Come on just say you'll stay.
Outro
Now pick your own choice of pop song and analyse its structure, using the
words: introduction, verse, chorus, middle 8, instrumental and outro,
where appropriate.
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Rap
What is rap music?
• Spoken or chanted rhyming lyrics, which are performed in time to a beat.
• The rhythm and rhymes of the lyrics and how they interact is called the “flow”.
• Lyrics often use alliteration, similies and metaphors.
History:
• Most common in hip-hop music, from the end of the 1970s.
• Has become popular feature of popular music in recent years.
Interesting information:
• Rapping is also known as MCing.
• A successful rapper must have vocal presence, clear enunciation and good breath
control.
• There are different categories of rap, e.g. party rhymes, social and political issues,
crime and materialism.
The film 8 Mile is based on a young man’s troubled life and his decision
to turn his life around to become a famous rapper, as he enters rap battle
competitions against established rappers to try and make his name. It stars
Eminem, a successful American rapper, record producer, songwriter and
actor whose real name is Marshall Mathers and who uses the alter ego
Slim Shady.
The song ‘Lose Yourself’ by Eminem tells the story of his character’s struggle to
make it as a rapper, and his determination to succeed. Listen to an extract from the
song and follow the story that Eminem raps, with the words to the chorus printed
below:
Lose Yourself (Eminem)
Chorus: “You better lose yourself in the music, the moment
You own it, you better never let it go,
You only get one shot, do not miss your chance to blow,
This opportunity comes once in a lifetime, yo.”
25
The six excerpts below are taken from songs in a variety of styles, all of which
feature rapping by different artists. Listen to each of the excerpts then choose your
favourite:
Gangsta’s Paradise
Coolio
Read All About It
Professor Green
No Sleep Til Brooklyn
The Beastie Boys
Where Is The Love
Black Eyed Peas
Airplanes
B.O.B
Il Manors
Plan B
Ask your teacher for a copy of the lyrics to your chosen rap excerpt and, as part of a
group, learn to rap along with the track. Listen carefully to the beat of the backing
and make your rap rhythmic and in time, paying attention to the story you are telling
so you can perform with more feeling.
26
Write your own rap
On your own or with others, you are going to write your own rap. From what you
heard in the excerpts above, different rappers have different styles. As you go through
the steps, you will discover what style suits your rap the best.
1. Pick a topic for your rap. Choose whether you want to make a club record or rap
about a topic of political or personal importance. Decide whether you want to keep
your tone positive or negative and try to present your subject from a unique point of
view.
2. Brainstorm. Before embarking on your rap lyrics, brainstorm key words, phrases
and ideas that you want to include, based on your chosen topic. These will help shape
the content and mood of your rap.
3. Pick a beat. Either choose a rhythmic backing from the range of styles available
on a keyboard or use a drum sample from a website such as
http://ccmixter.org/view/media/samples/browse and edit it using Audacity to make
the sample loop (play over and over again to make it last for longer). Your teacher
will give you a worksheet for instructions on how to use Audacity. Your rap should
last between 1-2 minutes.
4. Write your lyrics. Choose ideas from your brainstorm list that inspire you and use
them to come up with a rap that is true to you and that gets across the message you
want to portray. Use an online thesaurus or dictionary if you need help finding words.
5. Practise your rap. Work with your sample to fit your lyrics in, making it rhythmic
(catchy sounding) and in time with the beat. Remember to speak clearly so the words
are heard and understood.
6. Record and playback your rap. Record your rap and listen back to it and your
classmates’ raps, using the following questions as a self-assessment guide:
(a) Was our/their rap clear? (e.g. could you hear and understand the story?)
(b) Were our/their words in time with the beat?
(c) Did the piece convey our creative intention?
(d) What would I do differently next time and why?
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