Knives and Smallwares A CHAPTER 10

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Knives and
Section 10.1 Knives
Section 10.2 Smallwares
paragraph is a group of
sentences that develop one
central idea. Write a paragraph
describing one type of knife and
its main uses. Include a topic
sentence, supporting sentences,
and an ending sentence.
Writing Tips
Focus on the main idea of your
Write clear and simple sentences
to express your meaning.
Use the dictionary to help you
find additional words.
Knives and smallwares are important
tools in any professional kitchen. Why
is it important to know how to choose,
care for, and use knives?
Learn to use,
clean, and
knives safely.
Reading Guide
Stay Engaged One way to stay engaged when reading is to
turn each of the headings into a question, and then read the
section to find the answers. For example, Knife Safety and
Care might be, “How can I use knives safely?”
Read to Learn
Content Vocabulary
Key Concepts
stainless steel
Categorize knives by their specific
Demonstrate basic knife skills.
Explain proper knife safety and
Main Idea
Knives are the most commonly used
kitchen tools. Therefore, it is important
for a chef to know the construction,
use, and maintenance of knives.
roll cut
Academic Vocabulary
Graphic Organizer
Use a spider map like the one below to list the five parts of a knife. Fill in each
branch with details about that part of a knife.
Parts of
a Knife
Graphic Organizer Go to this book’s Online Learning Center at for a printable graphic organizer.
Chapter 10
NCTM Geometry Use
visualization, spatial
reasoning, and geometric
modeling to solve problems.
NCTM Number and
Operations Understand
the meanings of operations
and how they relate to one
NSES F Students should
develop an understanding
of personal and community
Social Studies
Continuity, and Change
Apply key concepts such as
chronology and change to
explain, analyze, and show
connections among patterns of historical change
and continuity.
NCTE National Council of Teachers
of English
NCTM National Council of Teachers
of Mathematics
NSES National Science Education
NCSS National Council for the
Social Studies
Knives and Smallwares
Knife Construction
Knives are the most commonly used
kitchen tools. They are an important part
of any chef’s tool kit. A kitchen tool is an
implement that is used in the kitchen.
Accomplished chefs can perform countless
valuable tasks with a sharp knife. To perform
these tasks, however, chefs must be familiar
with knife construction and type. They must
also use proper cutting techniques and knife
safety. Finally, chefs must know how to care
for knives properly so that they will last.
To know which knife to use for a specific
task, you must have a working knowledge of
the different parts of a knife.
High-carbon stainless steel does not rust or
discolor and can be sharpened easily. This is
the most common metal used for knives in
the professional kitchen.
The tang is the part of the blade that continues into the knife’s handle. Some knives
have full tangs, while others have partial
tangs. A full tang is as long as the whole knife
handle. Knives used for heavy work, such as
chef’s knives and cleavers, should have a full
tang. Knives used for lighter work, such as
paring knives and utility knives, may have a
partial tang.
The blade of a high-quality, professional
knife is made of a single piece of metal. The
metal has been cut, stamped, or forged into
the desired shape. The metals most often used
for the knife blade are stainless steel and highcarbon stainless steel.
Stainless steel is a hard, durable metal
made of chromium and carbon steel. It does
not rust or discolor. Stainless steel also will not
transfer, or pass to foods, a metallic taste. The
main drawback is that it is hard to sharpen.
High-carbon stainless steel is a mix of iron,
carbon, chromium, and other metals. This
metal combines the best features of stainless steel and carbon steel, but it is expensive.
Knife handles can be made of several types
of material, including plastic, vinyl, and hard
woods such as rosewood and walnut. Because
you will hold the knife for long periods of
time, the handle should feel comfortable in
your hand. Your hand may cramp from using
a handle that is either too small or too large.
Manufacturers make various sizes of handles.
Try different sizes to find one that fits.
The tang is attached to the knife handle with
rivets. A rivet is a metal fastener. For comfort
and sanitation, the rivets should be smooth
and lie flush with the handle’s surface.
Bolster or
Cutting edge
Parts of a Knife Knives used for heavy work should have a tang that runs the entire
length of the handle. Why do you think this is?
Unit 4
The Professional Kitchen
Serrated Slicer
Types of Knives Chefs use a variety of knives in the kitchen for different tasks. Which
knife would you choose to cut bread slices?
Some knives have a shank, or bolster, in
the spot where the blade and handle come
together. Knives with a bolster are very strong
and durable. The bolster helps prevent food
particles from entering the space between the
tang and the handle.
Types of Knives
A chef chooses knives according to the
type of food that she or he is preparing. For
example, chopping onions requires a different knife than one used for slicing bread.
Chef’s Knife
The chef’s knife, also called a French knife,
is the most important knife in the chef’s tool
kit. This all-purpose knife has an 8- to 14-inch
triangular blade. It can be used for peeling,
trimming, chopping, slicing, and dicing. The
10-inch chef’s knife is used for general work in
a commercial kitchen. A skilled chef can also
use this knife to cut large foods, such as meat,
poultry, and fish, into smaller pieces. A smaller
knife, but similar in shape to a chef’s knife, is
the utility knife. A utility knife is an all-purpose
knife with a 5- to 7-inch blade. It is used mainly
for peeling and slicing fruits and vegetables.
Drawing and Cutting Angles
When two straight lines have the same endpoint, they form an angle. The size of an angle is
measured in degrees, and written as a number
between 0 and 360 followed by the degree (°)
symbol. Common reference angles are 0°, 45°,
90°, and 180°. Angles measuring 0° and 180° are
straight lines. A 90° angle is a right angle, and a
45° angle is halfway between a straight line and
a right angle.
In cooking, angle measures are often used to
help you visualize how to hold a knife. Sketch a
10° angle and a 60° angle on a piece of paper,
and practice cutting each of these angles on a
raw potato.
Math Concept Measuring Angles Use a
protractor to measure angles. If you do not have
a protractor, you can estimate the degrees by
picturing the common reference angles.
Starting Hint If you have a protractor, use it
to draw exact 10° and 60° angles. You can also
estimate the appearance of these angles without a protractor. A 10° angle is very small, while
a 60° angle is two-thirds of the way between a
straight line and a right (90°) angle.
NCTM Geometry Use visualization, spatial reasoning, and
geometric modeling to solve problems.
Chapter 10
Knives and Smallwares
Tournée Knife
British troops capture
New Amsterdam and
rename it New York
King Louis XIV of
France decrees that all
dinner knife points be
ground down to reduce
A Most Useful Tool
nives are some of man’s oldest tools. The earliest
knives, used approximately 2 million years ago,
were made of flint. Much later in history, man began
to make knives from copper and bronze. In the early
1900s, advancements in steel manufacturing led to
the development of the knives that are used in professional kitchens today.
Historical Application
Create a time line that traces the history of the knife,
starting with a picture of an early knife. Finish with a
picture of a modern chef’s knife and label its parts.
NCSS II B Time, Continuity, and Change Apply key concepts
such as chronology and change to explain, analyze, and show
connections among patterns of historical change and continuity.
Fillet Knife
The fillet knife has an 8- to 9-inch blade
with a pointed tip. The blade may be rigid or
flexible. It is mainly used to fillet fish.
Butcher Knife
The butcher knife has a 6- to 14-inch rigid
blade whose tip curves up at a 25-degree angle.
It is sometimes called a scimitar (=si-m`-+t&r)
because its curved blade resembles a saber by
that name. You can use the butcher knife to
cut meat, poultry, and fish.
Define What is a
paring knife?
Knife Skills
The slicer has a long, thin blade that is
ideal for cutting large foods such as meat and
poultry. The tip of this knife may be pointed
or rounded. The blade may be rigid or flexible. The slicer’s blade may also be serrated
(s`[email protected]), meaning that it is toothed like a
saw. You can use a serrated slicer to slice coarse
foods without crushing or tearing them.
Boning Knife
A small knife with a thin, angled 5- to 7inch blade, the boning knife is used to remove
bones from meat, fish, and poultry and trim fat
from meat. The blade may be rigid or flexible.
Rigid blades are used for heavier work. Flexible
blades are used for lighter work.
Paring Knife
The paring knife has a rigid blade that is
only 2 to 4 inches long. You can use this knife
to pare a thin outer layer or peel from fruits
and vegetables. To pare means to trim off.
Similar in size to the paring knife, the tournée
(t|[email protected]) knife has a curved blade that looks like
a bird’s beak. It is used to trim potatoes and
vegetables into shapes that look like footballs.
Unit 4
The Professional Kitchen
One of the most important skills you will
learn is how to use a knife properly. You will use
a knife to perform many different tasks, from
boning fish to paring fruits, slicing bread, and
dicing or mincing vegetables. The more you
practice, the more efficient you will become.
You can grip a knife in several different
ways. Comfort and the task at hand will help
you determine which grip to use. As a general
rule, grip the knife firmly but not so tightly
that your hand gets tired. Avoid placing your
index finger on the top of the blade.
To make safe, even cuts, you need to guide
the knife with one hand while you hold the
food firmly in place with the other hand. Curl
the fingertips on the hand that holds the food.
This will help you avoid accidental cuts. Use
the sharp edge of the blade to do the cutting.
A sharp knife is the safest knife to use. Use
smooth, even strokes, and never force the
blade through the food. Report dull knives to
a supervisor for sharpening.
Grip the knife by placing four fingers on
the bottom of the handle and the thumb
against the side of the blade.
Grip the knife by placing three fingers on
the bottom of the handle, the index finger
flat against the blade on one side, and the
thumb on the other side. This grip offers
extra control and stability.
a Knife
Grip the knife by placing four fingers on
the bottom of the handle and the thumb
firmly against back of the blade.
Knife Cuts
It is important to cut foods into uniform
pieces, or pieces that are even in shape and
size, so that they cook evenly. Uniform sizes
also make the finished product more visually
appealing. When you use a properly sharpened knife, you can avoid bruising foods such
as onions and tomatoes. The basic cutting
techniques include slicing, mincing, and dicing. You can also roughly chop foods when
visual appeal is not important, such as for
stock vegtables. A rough chopped item, often
vegetables, is called concassé.
When you slice food, you will use a chef’s
knife to cut it into large, thin pieces. To slice
safely, make sure the flat side of the food is
down so that it will not slip. If necessary, cut
a piece of the food to create a flat surface. You
can make many different specialty slices
Chiffonade To chiffonade (+shi-f`-=n&d)
means to finely slice or shred leafy vegetables
or herbs. This cut is often used to make certain garnishes.
Rondelle A rondelle (r&n-=del), or round,
is a disk-shaped slice. Rondelles are made
from cylindrical fruits or vegetables, such as
cucumbers or carrots.
Diagonal A diagonal cut results in an
oval or elongated slice of a cylindrical fruit
or vegetable. The technique used to slice a
diagonal is similar to the one used for a rondelle except that you must hold the knife at an
angle to get an oval-shaped slice.
Roll Cut A roll cut, or oblique cut, is
done by first cutting a cylindrical fruit or vegetable as for a diagonal cut, rolling the fruit
or vegetable by 180 degrees, and then doing
another diagonal cut. This exposes more of
the surface of the vegetable to decrease cooking time.
Chapter 10
Knives and Smallwares
Cut Food
With your fingertips curled back, grip the
food to be cut with your thumb and three
fingertips. Holding the knife in your other
hand, keep the tip of the knife on the cutting
board, and lift the knife’s heel.
Use the second joint of your index finger
as a guide as you slice with a smooth, even,
downward motion. To make slices of equal
size, adjust your index finger as you work. As
you slice, move your thumb and fingertips
down the length of the food, using the tip of
the knife as the support.
Use the same grip as described in Method A.
Slice the food into the desired thickness by
using the second joint of your index finger
to guide you. Lift the tip of the knife and cut
by moving the knife slightly toward you and
down through the food.
Unit 4
The Professional Kitchen
Use your wrist, not your elbow, to move the
knife. Do not apply too much downward
pressure. Your wrist serves as the support for
this slicing method. The weight of the knife
should be doing most of the work.
Make a
Chiffonade Cut
Wash and de-stem the vegetable’s leaves as
needed. Stack several leaves on top of one
another and roll them tightly.
Holding the rolled leaves tightly, finely
slice them.
On a cutting board, hold the knife perpendicular to the food and make even slices.
On a cutting board, hold the knife at the
desired angle to the food being cut and
make even slices.
Make a
Rondelle Cut
Peel the food if desired.
Make a
Diagonal Cut
Peel the food if desired.
Chapter 10
Knives and Smallwares
Stack the slices
and cut them
into uniform
sticks. These
sticks should
be of the same
thickness as
the slices.
To make a small dice, make a ¼-inch cut
perpendicular to the length of a batonnet.
A 3⁄8-inch cut from a 3⁄8-inch stick makes a
medium dice. A 5⁄8-inch cut from a 5⁄8-inch
stick creates a large dice. Making a 1⁄8-inch
cut from a julienne makes a cube called a
Hold the tip of the knife on the cutting board
with a flat hand. Use a rocking motion to
mince the diced food with the knife’s heel.
Peel the food if desired and square off the
sides. Trim the food to the proper length for
the slices you will make. Cut slices of the
desired thickness.
Dice food using the same technique shown
Unit 4
The Professional Kitchen
and True Knives
Using four fingers to guide the knife, hold
the knife at a 20-degree angle against the
whetstone. If you use a three-sided whetstone, start with the coarsest surface and
end with the finest.
Press down on the blade, keeping it at the
20-degree angle. Gently draw the knife forward across the stone.
Gently bring the knife off the stone.
Turn the knife over and repeat steps 1–4,
using strokes of equal number and pressure.
Food that is cut into very small pieces is
minced (=min(t)sd). This technique is used most
often on items such as shallots and garlic. To
dice a food, use a chef’s knife to cut julienne
and batonnet sticks into 1∕8- to 5∕8-inch cubes.
Julienne Julienne (j<-l#-=en) cuts are
∕8-inch thick matchstick-shaped cuts. Carrots
are often cut julienne.
Batonnet Batonnet (=b&-t%-+n&) cuts are
¼-inch thick matchstick-shaped cuts. Some
restaurants serve batonnet-cut fried potatoes.
Brunoise Brunoise (br<n-=w&z) cuts are 1∕8inch thick cubes often cut from julienne cuts.
Describe How do
Hold the steel with the hand that you do not
write with. Place your arm in front of you at
a 60-degree angle.
Hold the knife in the hand that you write
with. Rest the blade against the inner side of
the steel at a 20-degree angle.
Keeping the knife at a 20-degree angle,
slowly draw the blade along the entire
length of the steel.
Repeat step 7 several times on each side of
the blade until the knife edge is straightened.
After you use the steel, carefully wipe the
blade to remove any particles of metal.
Knife Safety and Care
Now that you know how to select and use
knives safely, you need to know how to care
for them properly. Sanitize knives after each
use and always store knives properly. To keep
your knives in good condition, keep them
sharp and clean. You will use a sharpening
stone to keep your knives sharp. A whetstone
is a sharpening stone made of either silicon
carbide or stone. It may have up to three sides,
with grains ranging from coarse to fine. After
you have sharpened your knife, a steel is used
to keep the blade straight and to smooth out
irregularities. This process is called trueing. A
steel can be used daily to keep knives sharp.
you mince food?
Chapter 10
Knives and Smallwares
Use these knife safety guidelines:
Always use the correct knife for the task.
Always use a sharp knife. You will need to
use more force with a dull knife.
Always cut with the blade facing away
from your body.
Always use a cutting board.
Never let the knife’s blade or handle
hang over the edge of a cutting board or
a table.
Carry a knife by the handle with the point
of the blade straight down at your side.
The sharp edge should face behind you.
Do not try to catch a falling knife.
When you pass a knife to someone, lay
the knife down on the work surface, or
carefully hold the dull side of the blade
with the handle facing out.
Never use a knife to open a can or pry
something apart.
Never leave a knife in a sink filled with
water. Someone could reach into the sink
and be cut.
Carefully wipe the blade from its dull side
so you do not cut yourself.
Knife Sanitation
When you keep your knives clean, you can
protect the dish you are making from crosscontamination. The temperature and drying
process in dishwashers causes knife handles to
dry out and crack. Always wash the knife you
have used by hand. Wash knives in hot, soapy
water after every cutting task and before you
store them. Let knives air dry thoroughly after
you wash, rinse, and sanitize them.
Knife Storage
To prevent damage to blades or to people,
knives must be stored safely. A convenient
way to store knives is in a slotted knife holder.
A slotted knife holder should be hung on a
wall, not on the side of a table.
A knife kit is a safe, handy storage unit for
a large knife collection. Individual slots keep
each knife safely in place. Custom-built drawers are another storage option. Special slots
hold each knife in place.
Explain Why is
knife sanitation important?
Review Key Concepts
1. Explain the use of a boning knife.
2. Categorize the different types of cuts involved in
dicing food.
3. Demonstrate proper knife storage.
Practice Culinary Academics
4. Procedure Coat a small piece of cheese with
cinnamon. Cut the coated cheese with your knife,
and then cut an uncoated piece of cheese with
the same knife.
Analysis What happens to the knife and the clean
piece of food? What does this tell you about crosscontamination? Write a paragraph to explain.
NSES F Develop an understanding of personal and community
Unit 4
The Professional Kitchen
5. Julio dices a potato into equal-size cubes using a
medium dice. If he stacks six of the potato cubes on
top of one another, how tall will the stack be?
Math Concept
Multiplying Fractions To
multiply when a fraction is involved, convert
any mixed or whole numbers to improper
fractions. Multiply the numerators to get the new
numerator, then multiply the denominators to
get the new denominator.
Starting Hint Determine the number of inches
in a medium dice. Multiply this number by 6,
which you should rewrite as 6⁄1. Reduce the result
to lowest terms if necessary.
NCTM Number and Operations Understand the meanings of
operations and how they relate to one another.
Check your answers at this book’s Online
Learning Center at
How many
different tools
do you use in the
Reading Guide
Buddy Up for Success One advantage to sharing your
notes with a buddy is that you can fill in gaps in each other’s
information. You can also compare notes before you start
quizzing each other.
Read to Learn
Key Concepts
Select appropriate tools and
smallwares for specific tasks.
Illustrate proper smallwares
cleaning and sanitation.
Main Idea
Smallwares are hand tools, pots, and
pans used for cooking. It is important
for a chef to know the proper use and
care of smallwares.
Content Vocabulary
English Language
NCTE 12 Use language
to accomplish individual
hand tools
heat transfer
Academic Vocabulary
NCTM Number and
Operations Understand
the meanings of operations
and how they relate to one
Social Studies
Graphic Organizer
Use a series of events chain like the one below to show the five steps to use
when you clean and sanitize smallwares. Fill in one step of the process in each
Graphic Organizer
Go to this book’s
Online Learning Center
for a printable
graphic organizer.
Chapter 10
NCSS V B Individuals,
Groups, and Institutions
Analyze group and institutional influences on people,
events, and elements of culture in both historical and
contemporary settings.
NCTE National Council of Teachers
of English
NCTM National Council of Teachers
of Mathematics
NSES National Science Education
NCSS National Council for the
Social Studies
Knives and Smallwares
Smallwares Selection
Every restaurant has a supply of hand
tools, pots, and pans used for cooking called
smallwares. Stainless steel and wooden hand
tools, aluminum pots, and copper-bottomed
pans are some smallwares.
Handheld items used to cook, serve, and
prepare food are known as hand tools. Hand
tools are often used to cut and prepare fruit
and vegetables. Hand tools include slicers,
peelers, corers, cutters, and melon ballers.
The majority of hand tools are made of stainless steel, aluminum, or plastic.
Choose Appropriate Tools
The tools in a professional kitchen may
look similar to home tools. However, most
home kitchen tools cannot withstand, or hold
up to, the heavy use of a foodservice kitchen.
NSF International, previously known as
the National Sanitation Foundation, tests
tools for construction, comfort, and safety:
Tools, equipment, and their coatings must
be nontoxic and should not affect the
taste, odor, or color of food.
Surfaces that come into contact with food
must be smooth.
Tools and equipment must be easily
External corners and angles must be
smooth and sealed.
Internal corners and edges must be
smooth and rounded.
Waste must be easily removed from tools,
equipment, and their coatings.
Coatings and exposed surfaces must resist
chipping and cracking.
Small Bites Aluminum Warnings Be careful not to use
stainless steel utensils with aluminum cookware.
Stainless steel utensils can scrape off a thin layer
of aluminum and cause certain foods to become
discolored. Tomatoes and other foods that are high
in acid will chemically react with the aluminum.
Unit 4
The Professional Kitchen
Measuring Equipment
Accurate volume measures are essential to
the success of recipes. They also help control
portion size and costs.
Measurements are usually needed for an
item’s weight or volume. Weight is the heaviness of a substance, while volume is the space
occupied by a substance.
Choose Cookware
Cookware plays an essential role in the
professional kitchen. Cookware in any wellequipped kitchen includes pots, pans, and
baking dishes. Pots and pans may be made of
stainless steel, aluminum, copper, cast iron,
or ceramics.
Heat Transfer
When you select cookware, you must consider heat transfer. Heat transfer is a measure of how efficiently heat passes from one
object to another. The gauge, or type and
thickness of the material, determines how
well it transfers heat.
Copper has a high heat transfer rating.
However, it is expensive and difficult to clean.
That is why many professional kitchens
choose to use aluminum-covered or stainless
steel-covered pots and pans. Some kitchens
also use cookware with copper-lined bottoms
or cast-iron cookware.
Aluminum Aluminum is a common
metal used for commercial cookware because
it is lightweight, inexpensive, and rust free. It
is also fairly heat efficient. However, aluminum may react chemically with some foods.
Stainless Steel Stainless steel is virtually
rust free. However, it is a poor and uneven
heat conductor. Stainless steel pots often have
an added layer of aluminum or copper on the
bottom for better heat transfer.
Explain Why are
the bottoms of stainless steel pots and pans
usually lined with another type of metal?
Hand Tools
Vegetable Peeler A vegetable peeler is
commonly used to shave the skin of fruits
and vegetables. It can also be used to make
delicate garnishes, such as carrot curls and
chocolate curls.
Apple/Fruit Corers Push the corer
through the center of the fruit so that the
core comes out in one long, round piece.
Small corers can be used on fruits such as
apples and pears, while large corers are used
on fruits such as pineapples and grapefruits.
Tomato Corer A tomato corer is
used to core and remove tomato stems.
It can also remove vegetable markings,
apple seeds, and potato eyes.
Kitchen Shears Kitchen shears are used
to tackle a variety of cutting chores, such
as snipping string and butcher’s twine,
trimming artichoke leaves, and dividing taffy.
Cutting Board Cutting boards are made
from wood, plastic, or composite materials.
They should have a smooth surface free of
any deep scratches, nicks, gouges, or scars.
Cheese Slicer A cheese slicer is used to
cut slices from hard or semihard cheeses.
Chapter 10
Knives and Smallwares
Hand Tools
Butter Curler The
surfaces of a butter
curler produce garnishes
ranging from curls
to grooves to marblesized balls. Make sure
the butter is cold and
the blade has been
warmed in hot water.
Pizza Cutter A pizza
cutter cleanly slices baked
pizza into serving pieces.
Egg Slicer An egg
slicer works by placing
a peeled, hard-cooked
egg in the hollow of
the slicer. Push the tool
down and the wires
will slice the egg or cut
it into wedges. There
are two kinds of egg
slicers. One makes round
shapes and the other
makes wedge shapes.
Zester A zester is used to remove tiny strips
from the outer surface of citrus peels, which
add visual interest and flavor to foods. It can
also be used on vegetables, such as carrots
and radishes, to add shavings to salads.
Zesters work best on fresh, firm fruits and
Melon Baller A melon baller or
Parisienne scoop is used to scoop out
smooth balls from many foods, such as
cheese, butter, and melons. The scoops
range in size and shape, and sometimes
have scalloped edges.
Whisks Balloon whisks are light and bouncy
with a rounded end. They are ideal for beating
egg whites or light batters. Rigid whisks are
longer and have heavier, thicker wires. Rigid
whisks can mix thick sauces and batters.
Unit 4
The Professional Kitchen
Solid, Perforated, and Slotted Spoons
Spoons are used to scoop, skim, mix, and
serve. Perforated and slotted spoons are used
to lift and drain foods from the liquid in which
the food cooks.
Rubber, Straight, and Offset Spatulas
A rubber spatula has a broad, flexible rubber or
plastic tip on a long handle. It is used to scrape
food from the inside of bowls and pans, or fold in
whipped cream or egg whites. A straight spatula,
or palette knife, has a long, flexible blade with
a rounded end. It is used to scrape bowls and
spread icing on cakes. An offset spatula, or turner,
has a broad, bent stainless steel blade. It is used
to lift and turn foods such as pancakes.
Chef’s Fork A chef’s fork, also known as a
braising fork, is used to lift and turn large cuts
of meats and other items. It is also used to hold
heavy pieces of food during carving.
Tongs Tongs are
spring-action or
scissor-type tools used
to pick up items such
as meats, vegetables,
or ice cubes.
Skimmer A skimmer
has a flat, perforated
surface to remove food
from stocks and soups.
It is also used to skim
impurities from the
tops of liquids.
Tenderizer Each side
of a meat tenderizer
has different-size
tooth-like points that
are made of aluminum
or steel. These points
tenderize meat by
breaking up and
bruising muscle fibers.
Chapter 10
Knives and Smallwares
Hand Tools
Strainers Strainers have a cup-shaped
body made of perforated mesh. The
holes range from extra-fine to coarse.
Strainers can be used to drain pasta,
vegetables, and stocks after cooking.
Chinois or China Cap A chinois
(sh#n-=w&z), or China cap, is a coneshaped metal strainer used for straining
sauces and stocks. A pestle (=pe-s`l),
or a round, bat-like instrument, can be
used to press very soft food through the
China cap.
Colander A colander is a large, perforated
bowl used to rapidly drain water from cooked
foods. It is also used to rinse food items before
Food Mill A food mill is a bowl-like
container with disks used to purée and strain
food. Disks are available in varying degrees of
coarseness or fineness.
Box Grater Four-sided graters are the
most common. Each side has differentsize holes that determine the size of the
grated food pieces, from slices to shreds
to crumbs.
Funnel A funnel is used to pour liquid
from a large container into a smaller
container, such as from a pot into a
bottle. Funnels are available in several
different sizes and materials.
Unit 4
The Professional Kitchen
Pie Dividers Pie dividers are circular tools that
contain six openings, each the size of a piece of pie.
Pressing the tool over the pie marks the dish into
the designated number of slices.
Pastry Tools Pastry bags are filled
with icing or other soft foods for
hand-squeezed pastry decorating and
assembly. They can be made of nylon,
plastic-lined cotton, or disposable
paper. Pastry tips fit onto the pastry
bags and shape the flow of food as it is
squeezed out of the bag. A pastry brush
is used to brush liquid onto dough
before, during, or just after baking.
Rolling Pins A rolling pin is used to stretch and roll
dough. Most rolling pins are made of hardwood, but
marble may also be used. Rolling pins with grooves
that add patterns or fancy designs to dough are also
available. French rolling pins do not have handles.
Bench Scraper This hand-held rectangular
tool has a stainless steel blade and a sturdy
handle. It is used to scrape surfaces and cut
dough into equal pieces.
Food Molds Food molds can turn foods such as
gelatins, custards, and puddings into eye-catching
shapes. Food in liquid form is poured into the mold
and allowed to set.
Vegetable Brush With their short, tough
bristles, vegetable brushes are used to clean
dirt off of vegetables.
Chapter 10
Knives and Smallwares
Measuring Equipment
Portion Scale A portion scale is a
type of spring scale used to determine
the weight of an ingredient or portion of
food. It can be reset to zero so that you
can measure individual ingredients.
Electronic Scale An electronic, or
digital, scale weighs an item when it is
placed on its tray. The weight is displayed
in numbers on a digital readout rather
than by a needle. This readout is more
accurate than a portion scale.
Balance Scale A balance scale is used
to measure most baking ingredients. The
ingredients being weighed are placed on one
side while weights are placed on the other
side. When the two sides are balanced, the
ingredients weigh the same as the weights.
Volume Measures Volume is measured
in 8-, 16-, 32-, 64-, and 128-ounce quantities.
Volume measures are made of metal, which
can withstand heavy use.
Unit 4
The Professional Kitchen
Liquid Measures Liquid measures also
measure volume, and come in 1 cup, 1 pint,
and 1-, 2-, and 4-quart sizes. The lip or spout
of the measure helps prevent spills and
makes pouring easier.
Measuring Spoons Measuring spoons
are available in sets and usually include
measurements of ¼, ½, 1 teaspoon, and
1 tablespoon for volume. Stainless steel
is recommended because it is less likely
to warp or change shape.
Ladle A ladle is used to portion liquids such
as sauces and soups. Its long handle enables
you to reach to the bottom of a deep pot
or pan. The capacity, ranging from 1 to 16
ounces, is marked on the handle.
Chapter 10
Knives and Smallwares
Stockpot A stockpot has straight sides and
is taller than it is wide. A stockpot is used to
cook large quantities of liquid on the range,
such as stocks or soups. Some stockpots have
a spigot at the bottom so that liquid can be
drained off without lifting the pot.
Saucepan A saucepan has a long
handle and straight sides. It is primarily
used for heating and cooking food in
liquid. Saucepans come in many sizes.
Saucepot The saucepot is similar in
shape to a stockpot, only not as deep.
The saucepot is used for rangetop
Sauté Pans There are two types of
sauté pans: a pan with straight sides
and a pan with sloped sides. Both
are used to sauté and fry foods. The
sloped pan allows the chef to flip
items without using a spatula.
Unit 4
The Professional Kitchen
Wok A wok is useful for fast rangetop
cooking. The wok’s height and sloped
sides are well suited for tossing
ingredients, an essential step in stir-frying.
Once food has been cooked, it can be
pushed to the side of the pan, leaving the
hot center free for new ingredients.
Cast-Iron Skillet A cast-iron skillet is a
heavy pan that can withstand high heat. It
is useful for frying and sautéing a variety of
items when steady, even heat is desired.
Hotel Pans The cooked foods in a steam table
are held in hotel pans. Hotel pans are often used
to store refrigerated food and hold casseroles
during baking. They come in many different sizes.
Roasting Pan A roasting pan is used to
roast various types of meat and poultry. A
lift-out rack that fits in the bottom of the pan
allows fat and juices to drain off the food.
Chapter 10
Knives and Smallwares
Sheet Pan Sheet pans come in half and full
sizes. They can be used to bake biscuits, cookies,
sheet cakes, rolls, and meats such as bacon and
Stainless Steel Mixing Bowls A wellequipped kitchen has several different-size
stainless steel mixing bowls. These are used
to combine, mix, and whip ingredients.
Springform Pan A springform pan is
used to bake soft, sticky mixes, such as
cheesecake. It has an insert that rests in
the bottom of the pan, and the sides are
closed with clasps. Opening the clasps
gently releases the cake.
Pie Pan Traditional pies are baked
in pie pans. Deep pie pans are slightly
wider to accommodate deep-dish
fruit and meat pies.
Unit 4
The Professional Kitchen
Loaf Pan A loaf pan, also known as a bread
pan, is used to bake loaf-shaped foods, such as
pound cake, meat loaf, and some breads.
Muffin Pan Different kinds of muffins
and cupcakes can be baked in muffin
pans. Muffin pans come in various sizes.
Tart Pan A tart pan is used to bake
items with delicate crusts, such as tarts
and quiches. The sizes range from 4.5 to
12.5 inches in diameter, and from 0.75
to 1.25 inches high. It has either fluted or
smooth sides.
Tube Pan An aluminum tube pan
is used to bake tube-shaped desserts,
such as angel food cake. It may have a
removable bottom.
Chapter 10
Knives and Smallwares
Cleaning and
You must thoroughly clean and sanitize
tools and utensils to destroy bacteria.
Follow these steps to hand-wash and sanitize smallwares in a three-compartment sink:
1. Scrape and prerinse smallwares.
2. Fill the first sink with 110°F (43°C)
water and detergent. Wash smallware
thoroughly with a brush. Drain and
refill the water as needed.
3. Fill the second sink with water at
about 110°F (43°C) or use running
water with an overflow. Rinse the
smallwares to remove all traces of
4. Fill the third sink with 171°F (77°C)
water. Some health codes require
foodservice facilities to use 180°F
(82°C) water. Sanitizers require specific
temperature water to work correctly.
Add the sanitizing agent in the amount
and temperature of water that is listed
on the container. Submerge smallwares
for about 30 seconds.
5. Remove and air dry smallwares in
a clean area. Do not dry smallwares
with a towel. Towel drying can
recontaminate them by spreading
Summarize Explain
how to sanitize smallwares.
Review Key Concepts
1. Explain how to select appropriate kitchen tools.
2. Compare aluminum and stainless steel cookware.
Practice Culinary Academics
English Language Arts
3. You have read about smallware and seen
your teacher demonstrate the use of some of
them. Choose some food items, and then write
instructions on how to choose and demonstrate
the appropriate hand tools, how to clean and
store the hand tools you are using, and any safety
precautions that are necessary.
NCTE 12 Use language to accomplish individual purposes.
Social Studies
4. Research the activities of NSF International.
Choose one of its programs and write a short
report describing the activities of that program.
What does that program do and how does it
affect the foodservice industry?
NCSS V B Individuals, Groups, and Institutions Analyze
group and institutional influences on people, events, and
elements of culture in both historical and contemporary settings.
Unit 4
The Professional Kitchen
5. Imagine that you own a sandwich shop. You need
slices of Cheddar cheese to make sandwiches
for your customers. A 1-pound block of cheddar
cheese from your supplier is 6 inches long. If you
use a cheese slicer to cut the entire block into
equal 3⁄16-inch slices, how many slices of cheese
will you have?
Math Concept Dividing Fractions To divide
when a fraction is involved, convert any mixed or
whole numbers to improper fractions. An improper
fraction has a numerator that is equal to or larger
than its denominator. Multiply the first fraction by
the reciprocal of the second fraction. Reduce to
lowest terms.
Starting Hint You must divide 6 inches (or 6⁄1)
by 3⁄16 inch. Replace the second fraction with
its reciprocal by reversing the numerator and
denominator: 16⁄3. Multiply the two fractions
to find the number of Cheddar cheese slices.
NCTM Number and Operations Understand the meanings of
operations and how they relate to one another.
Check your answers at this book’s Online
Learning Center at
Review and Applications
Chapter Summary
Chefs use many types of knives to prepare food.
The parts of a knife are the blade, tang, handle, rivet, and bolster. Basic cutting techniques
include slicing, dicing, and mincing. When using
a knife, be sure to use the correct type of knife.
Make sure the knife you use is sharp. After using
the knife, wash, rinse, and sanitize it, then put it
away. Smallwares include hand tools, cookware,
and measuring tools. Smallwares must be made
of nontoxic materials, be easily cleaned, and
be resistant to chipping and cracking. Properly
clean and sanitize smallwares after each use.
Content and Academic Vocabulary Review
1. Write your own definition for each content and academic vocabulary term.
Content Vocabulary
stainless steel (p. 252)
tang (p. 252)
rivet (p. 252)
bolster (p. 253)
serrated (p. 254)
pare (p. 254)
chiffonade (p. 255)
rondelle (p. 255)
diagonal (p. 255)
roll cut (p. 255)
julienne (p. 259)
batonnet (p. 259)
brunoise (p. 259)
whetstone (p. 259)
trueing (p. 259)
smallwares (p. 262)
hand tools (p. 262)
weight (p. 262)
volume (p. 262)
cookware (p. 262)
heat transfer (p. 262)
Academic Vocabulary
transfer (p. 252)
uniform (p. 255)
withstand (p. 262)
gauge (p. 262)
Review Key Concepts
2. Categorize knives by their specific tasks.
Demonstrate basic knife skills.
Explain proper knife safety and storage.
Select appropriate tools and smallwares for specific tasks.
Illustrate proper smallwares cleaning and sanitation.
Critical Thinking
7. Imagine that you work for a catering company. You are creating vegetable appetizers
for a party. Which knives will you need and why?
8. Analyze measuring techniques. Why might you use a portion scale to measure
ingredients for a cake?
9. Evaluate knife quality. If you have a limited budget but want to purchase some quality
knives, which two knives would you purchase first? Why?
10. Imagine that a coworker at a restaurant needs to scald milk for a recipe. There is an
aluminum pot and a stainless steel pot available. Which should he use, and why?
Chapter 10
Knives and Smallwares
Review and Applications
Academic Skills
English Language Arts
11. Create a Radio Ad Choose one piece of
equipment from this chapter, either a knife or
smallwares. Create a radio script to advertise the
knife or smallwares you chose. The script should
contain dialogue that mentions the most useful
features of your equipment. Use language that
is likely to sell the product to a professional chef.
NCTE 12 Use language to accomplish individual purposes.
12. Heat Conduction The way that metal conducts
heat is very important to how well it cooks food.
Procedure Choose a few pans made out of
different types of metals and heat the same
food item in each pan. Use a thermometer to
measure how quickly the food item heats in
each pan.
Analysis Note your observations and then
make conclusions about the heat conductivity
of each material. Compare your results with
the class.
NSES B Develop an understanding of the structure and
properties of matter.
13. Use a Balance Scale Paris recently purchased
two large, identical-weight blocks of cheese,
but has since discarded the wrapper that shows
how much they weigh. She has also used
exactly one-third of one of the blocks. If she
places the full block of cheese on the left side
of a balance scale, and the partial (two-thirds)
block of cheese on the right side along with
a 2-pound weight, causing the scale to be in
balance, how much does the full block weigh?
Math Concept Solving Equations with Like
Terms In an algebraic equation, like terms
are those that contain the same variable (for
example, 2x and 3x). Simplify equations with
like terms by using addition or subtraction to
combine all like terms.
Starting Hint Use x to represent the weight of a
full block of cheese. Write an algebraic equation
with the contents of the left side of the balance
scale on the left side of the equation, and the
contents of the right side of the balance scale on
the right side of the equation. Combine all terms
containing x and solve for x.
NCTM Algebra Represent and analyze mathematical
situations and structures using algebraic symbols.
Certification Prep
Directions Read the questions. Then, read the answer choices
and choose the best possible answer for each.
14. What angle should you use to sharpen a chef’s knife?
a. 20 degrees
b. 25 degrees
c. 60 degrees
d. 90 degrees
15. What utensil should you use to serve spaghetti from a
steam table?
a. offset spatula
b. tongs
c. ladle
d. spoon with holes
Unit 4
The Professional Kitchen
Sharpen your test-taking
skills to improve your
kitchen certification
program score.
Test-Taking Tip
In a multiple-choice test, the answers
should be specific and precise. Read
the questions first, and then read all the
answer choices before you choose. Eliminate answers that you know are incorrect.
Review and Applications
Real-World Skills and Applications
Self-Management Skills
Technology Applications
16. Plan Ahead Imagine that you have been asked
to prepare a three-course meal that includes
a garden salad, beef stew, and strawberry
shortcake. Find recipes for these dishes. Using
the recipes, determine which types of knives
and pieces of smallwares you will need to
prepare the dishes.
18. Make a Chart Use a word processing or
desktop publishing program to make a chart to
illustrate one of the following: types of knives,
types of measuring equipment, or types of
cookware. Include illustrations of each piece
of equipment along with a short description of
the item and its uses. Share your chart.
Interpersonal and Collaborative
Financial Literacy
17. Make Purchasing Decisions Divide into
groups of two or three as directed by your
teacher. Imagine that you are chefs for a
restaurant and you must purchase new knives
for the kitchen. Research knives together and
come to a decision about which will be the
best purchase for your restaurant. Why did you
choose the knives you did?
19. Sharpen Knives Sharpening knives regularly
can help extend the life of your knives. Assume
that a good knife-sharpening kit including a
whetstone costs $50. A knife-sharpening service
charges you $15 to sharpen your knives. If you
sharpen your knives yourself once per week,
how many times will you need to sharpen your
knives before the knife-sharpening kit is the
more cost-effective choice?
Use the culinary skills
you have learned in
this chapter.
Choose Knives and Smallwares
20. Choose Equipment for a Restaurant In this lab, you will determine the appropriate
equipment to be purchased for a small restaurant. You will consider various factors
and then make your choice.
A. Create your menu. Create a basic menu for a sandwich shop that serves simple
lunches and dinners.
B. Consider your equipment. Consider the equipment you would need for your
menu. You do not have much kitchen space, so try to determine which knives and
smallwares could be used for more than one task.
C. Consider your preparation needs. Decide whether you will prepare most of your
food or if you will have some food prepared and delivered.
Create Your Evaluation
D. List your choices. Make your final determination of which
After the class discussion, write down
knives and smallwares you will choose for the sandwich
any revisions you would make to your
shop and make a list of your choices.
list. Why did you choose the revisions
E. Support your choices. Discuss your choices with the class.
you did? Was it because of something a
Answer the following questions: 1) Why do you believe you
classmate said? Describe what took place
need the equipment you chose? 2) What equipment would
in the discussion that made you change
you need to care for your knives and smallwares?
your mind. Also describe anything that
took place in the discussion that you
disagreed with and explain why you continue to disagree.
Chapter 10
Knives and Smallwares

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