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Name ___________________________ Period __________ Date ___________ 8-3 STUDENT PACKET MATHLINKS GRADE 8 STUDENT PACKET 3 PATTERNS AND LINEAR FUNCTIONS 1 3.1 Geometric Patterns • Describe sequences generated by geometric patterns using tables, graphs, and verbal descriptions. • Plot ordered pairs that satisfy a given condition. • Develop recursive and explicit rules that describe sequences. 1 3.2 Number Patterns • Use verbal descriptions, tables of numbers, and symbols to describe numerical sequences. • Use inductive reasoning to develop recursive and explicit rules that describe sequences. • Use rules to find inputs and outputs of functions. 8 3.3 Saving for a Purchase • Use numbers, graphs, equations, and words (the “fourfold way”) to solve problems. • Recognize that some real-world situations can be modeled using linear functions. • Informally connect the y-intercept to a context. 15 3.4 Skill Builders, Vocabulary, and Review 24 MathLinks: Grade 8 (Student Packet 3) Patterns and Linear Functions 1 WORD BANK Word or Phrase Definition or Explanation Example or Picture function explicit rule (input-output rule) inductive reasoning linear function ordered pair recursive rule y-intercept MathLinks: Grade 8 (Student Packet 3) 0 Patterns and Linear Functions 1 3.1 Geometric Patterns GEOMETRIC PATTERNS Summary (Ready) Goals (Set) We will extend geometric “toothpick” patterns. We will use numbers, pictures, symbols, and words (“the fourfold way”) to describe these patterns. • • • Describe sequences generated by geometric patterns using tables, graphs, and verbal descriptions. Plot ordered pairs that satisfy a given condition. Develop recursive and explicit rules that describe sequences. Warmup (Go) 1. Label the horizontal axis and the vertical axis 2. Label the quadrants I, II, III, IV. 3. Plot the points for each ordered pair. Connect the points with line segments to form a polygon. (2, 3), (2, -5), (-6, -5), (-6, 3) 4. Name the shape. 5. Find its perimeter. 6. Find its area. MathLinks: Grade 8 (Student Packet 3) 1 Patterns and Linear Functions 1 3.1 Geometric Patterns TRIANGLES The fourfold way refers to a collection of four ways to approach and represent a math problem, using numbers, pictures, words, and symbols. 1. Fill in the entire table below before completing the next page. A Geometric Pattern Build and draw the first several steps suggested by this pattern. Step # (Input) Table Number of Break apart numbers toothpicks to look for a pattern (Output) Step 1 1 5 Step 2 2 Step 3 3 Step 4 4 Step 5 5 (do not build or draw step 30) MathLinks: Grade 8 (Student Packet 3) . . . 30 2 Patterns and Linear Functions 1 3.1 Geometric Patterns TRIANGLES (Continued) 2. Transfer the data from the previous page into the table. 3. Title the graph and label the horizontal and vertical axes. 4. Graph the data points. 5. Describe a rule to find the number of toothpicks (output) for the triangle pattern in two ways. Start with ____, and then add ____ each step. (This is called a recursive rule.) Number of toothpicks (Output,y) Step # (Input, x) Multiply the step number by ____, and then add ____. (This is called an explicit rule.) 6. How many toothpicks are in step #50? _____ 7. Which step number has exactly 59 toothpicks? _____ 8. What is the output for step #0? _____ Write it as an ordered pair. ( ____, ____ ) Since this coordinate is graphed on the y-axis, we call this value the y-intercept. 9. Look at any two consecutively graphed points from left to right. When counting from any one point to the next, we can count _____ units up and then 1 unit to the right. 10. Circle the elements of the fourfold way that were used in this problem. numbers pictures words MathLinks: Grade 8 (Student Packet 3) symbols 3 Patterns and Linear Functions 1 3.1 Geometric Patterns RECTANGLES 1 1. Fill in the entire table below before completing the next page. A Geometric Pattern Table Number of Build and draw the first several steps Step # Break apart numbers toothpicks suggested by this pattern. (Input) to look for a pattern (Output) Step 1 1 7 Step 2 2 Step 3 3 Step 4 4 Step 5 5 (do not build or draw step 30) MathLinks: Grade 8 (Student Packet 3) . . . 30 4 Patterns and Linear Functions 1 3.1 Geometric Patterns RECTANGLES 1 (Continued) 2. Transfer the data from the previous page into the table. 3. Title your graph, label the horizontal and vertical axes, And graph the data points. 4. Describe a recursive rule for the output in the rectangle pattern with words. Start with ____, and then add ____ each step. Number of toothpicks (Output,y) Step # (Input, x) 5. Describe an explicit rule for the output in the rectangle pattern with words. Multiply the step number by ____, and then add ____. 6. How many toothpicks are in step #50? _____ 7. Which step number has exactly 58 toothpicks? _____ 8. Find the y-intercept (step #0) for this graph. _____ Write it as an ordered pair. ( ____, ____ ) 9. Look at any two consecutively graphed points from left to right. When counting from any one point to the next, we can count _____ units up and then 1 unit to the ________. 10. Circle the elements of the fourfold way that were used in this problem? numbers pictures words MathLinks: Grade 8 (Student Packet 3) symbols 5 Patterns and Linear Functions 1 3.1 Geometric Patterns RECTANGLES 2 1. Fill in the entire table below before completing the next page. A Geometric Pattern Build and draw the first several steps suggested by this pattern. Table Step # (Input) Number of toothpicks (Output) Break apart numbers to look for a pattern Step 1 1 Step 2 2 Step 3 3 Step 4 4 Step 5 5 (do not build or draw step 30) MathLinks: Grade 8 (Student Packet 3) . . . 30 6 Patterns and Linear Functions 1 3.1 Geometric Patterns RECTANGLES 2 (Continued) 2. Transfer the data from the previous page into the table. 3. Title your graph, label the horizontal and vertical axes, And graph the data points. 4. Write a recursive rule for the output. 5. Write an explicit rule for the output. Number of toothpicks (Output, y) Step # (Input, x) 6. How many toothpicks are in step #50? _____ 7. Which step number has exactly 96 toothpicks? _____ 8. What is the output for step #0? _____ Write it as an ordered pair. ( ____, ____ ) This point is called the _______________________. Look at any two consecutively graphed points from left to right. When counting from any one point to the next, we can count _____ units up and then 1 unit to the right. 9. Consider the triangle and two rectangle problems you have now done. Which pattern depicts the greatest rate of change from one step to another? How do you know? MathLinks: Grade 8 (Student Packet 3) 7 Patterns and Linear Functions 1 3.2 Number Patterns NUMBER PATTERNS Summary (Ready) Goals (Set) We will observe and extend number sequences and find recursive and explicit rules for number patterns. • • • Use verbal descriptions, tables of numbers, and symbols to describe numerical sequences. Use inductive reasoning to develop recursive and explicit rules that describe sequences. Use rules to find inputs and outputs of functions. Warmup (Go) Inductive reasoning is a form of reasoning in which the conclusion is supported by the evidence, but it is not proved. 1. Use inductive reasoning to continue each toothpick pattern. Step # Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 (build, then sketch below) _______ _______ _______ _______ Number of toothpicks 2. Use words to describe a recursive rule for the number of toothpicks. 3. Use words to describe an explicit rule for finding the number of toothpicks based upon the step number. MathLinks: Grade 8 (Student Packet 3) 8 Patterns and Linear Functions 1 3.2 Number Patterns RECURSIVE RULES A recursive rule for a sequence of values is a rule that specifies each value based on previous values in the sequence. In order to determine a sequence by a recursive rule, an appropriate number of starting values for the sequence must be identified. Use inductive reasoning to continue each number pattern. Then describe each pattern with a recursive rule in words. 1. Number Pattern A 1, 5, 9, 13, _____, _____, _____ 2. Number Pattern B Recursive Rule: Start with _____ and then add _____ each step. Recursive Rule: 3, 7, 11, 15, _____, _____, _____ 3. Number Pattern C Recursive Rule: 6, 10, 14, 18, _____, _____, _____ 4. For patterns A-C, why is it NOT sufficient to describe each with a recursive rule of “add 4”? 5. You can now see 7 terms for each sequence. Why might it be difficult to find the 100th term in these sequences with a recursive rule? 6. Make up another number pattern and write a recursive rule. Number Pattern D MathLinks: Grade 8 (Student Packet 3) Recursive Rule: 9 Patterns and Linear Functions 1 3.2 Number Patterns EXPLICIT RULES An explicit rule (or input-output rule) is a rule that establishes explicitly an output for each input value. Study the arithmetic used from step to step. Then complete each step using inductive reasoning, and explain each number pattern in words. 1. Number Pattern E Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 1+4 2+4 3+4 ___ + 4 = 5 = _____ = _____ = _____ Step 5 Explicit Rule: The output is equal to the step number plus _______ 2. Number Pattern F Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 1•4+6 2•4+6 3•4+6 _______ + 6 = _____ = _____ = _____ = _____ Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 1•3–3 2•3–3 3•3–3 = _____ = _____ = _____ Step 5 Explicit Rule: 3. Number Pattern G Step 1 Step 5 Explicit Rule: MathLinks: Grade 8 (Student Packet 3) 10 Patterns and Linear Functions 1 3.2 Number Patterns RECURSIVE AND EXPLICIT RULES In each table: • Assume the pattern continues with no surprises. • Find the output value for an input value of 4 for each table. • Write the recursive rule and explicit rule for each. • Find the output value when the input value is 100 for each table. 1. Input Output Value Value 10 1 2 14 3 18 + ___ + ___ + ___ 4 100 2. Input Output Value Value 1 3 2 6 3 9 4 100 Recursive rule (operates on output values): Recursive rule: Explicit rule (operates on the input values): Explicit rule: 3. Input Output Value Value 1 4 4. Input Output Value Value 1 2 2 7 2 5 3 10 3 8 4 100 4 100 Recursive rule: Recursive rule: Explicit rule: Explicit rule: MathLinks: Grade 8 (Student Packet 3) 11 Patterns and Linear Functions 1 3.2 Number Patterns PRACTICE WITH EXPLICIT RULES Fill in the blanks and find an explicit rule for each input-output table. Remember that the rule has to work for every entry in the table. Careful! The input values are different for each table. 1. Input Value Output Value 1 2. Input Value Output Value -4 0 1 2 -3 1 3 3 -2 2 5 4 -1 3 7 10 3. -5 -7 23 Explicit Rule (words) Explicit Rule (words) Input Value Output Value 0 Input Value Output Value 0 1 -2 2 10 3 -6 4 20 5 -10 6 30 7 -14 -6 4. -11 -10 8 Explicit Rule (words) Explicit Rule (words) MathLinks: Grade 8 (Student Packet 3) 12 Patterns and Linear Functions 1 3.2 Number Patterns USING SYMBOLS TO WRITE EXPLICIT RULES Explicit rules are useful for finding the output for any step. Using symbols is usually much more efficient than using words. A function is a rule that assigns to each input value exactly one output value. • • For each table, write an explicit rule in words and symbols. Find each missing input or output value. 1. Input Output Explicit rule in words: To get the output value, multiply the Value Value input (x) (y) value by ____ and then add _____. 1 4 2 7 3 10 4 13 Explicit rule in symbols: y = _______________ If (the input value) x = 0, then (output value) y = ______. Use the table. The output increases by _____ each time the input increases by 1. 100 31 2. Input Value (x) Output Value (y) 1 6 2 12 3 18 4 24 Explicit rule in words: Explicit rule in symbols: y = _______________ If x = 0, then y = ______. The output increases by _____ each time the input increases by 1. 50 -30 3. Which elements of the fourfold way were used in problems 1 and 2 above? MathLinks: Grade 8 (Student Packet 3) 13 Patterns and Linear Functions 1 3.2 Number Patterns USING SYMBOLS TO WRITE EXPLICIT RULES (Continued) • • For each table, write an explicit rule in words and symbols. Find each missing input/output value. 4. Input Value (x) Output Value (y) 1 8 2 14 3 20 4 26 Explicit rule in words: Explicit rule in symbols: y = _______________ If x = 0, then y = ______. The output increases by _____ each time the input increases by 1. 200 50 5. For the explicit rule (in symbols) in problem 4, what number is the multiplier of x? _____ What number is added to the product? _____ 6. Careful! Input values are not consecutive integers: Input Output Explicit rule in words: Value Value (x) (y) 1 7 Explicit rule in symbols: _____________________________ 3 19 y-intercept: _____ 5 31 For this table, notice that the output increases by _____ each time 7 43 the input increases by 2. What is the change in output each time the input increases by 1? _____ 50 601 MathLinks: Grade 8 (Student Packet 3) 14 Patterns and Linear Functions 1 3.3 Saving For a Purchase SAVING FOR A PURCHASE Summary (Ready) Goals (Set) We will use input-output equations, tables, and graphs to find out how much time is needed to save for purchases. • • • Use numbers, graphs, equations, and words (the “fourfold way”) to solve problems. Recognize that some real-world situations can be modeled using linear functions. Informally connect the y-intercept to a context. Warmup (Go) 1. Use the rule given below to determine the output numbers. Rule: Multiply each input number by 3 and then add 5 to get each output number. Input Number (x) Output Number (y) 10 (10)(3) + 5 = 35 1 0 9 11 20 2. What is an equation for this rule? Use x for input and y for output. y = _________________ 3. Recall that a function is a rule that assigns to each input value a unique output value. Could this rule represent a function? Explain. MathLinks: Grade 8 (Student Packet 3) 15 Patterns and Linear Functions 1 3.3 Saving For a Purchase CAMERA: INSTRUCTIONS A digital camera costs $240. (a) Julie wants to save for the camera. She has $100 in the bank as a starting amount (initial value), and she is going to save $10 each month. (b) Christina also wants to save for the camera. She has $40 in the bank as a starting amount (initial value), and she is going to save $25 each month. How many months will it take Julie and Christina to each save up for the digital camera? 1. What is the cost of the digital camera? _________ 2. What is the amount that Julie still needs to save? ___________ 3. What is the amount that Christina still needs to save? __________ We will explore how to write equations (explicit rules) that can be used to determine the amount that each girl saved at the end of any month. 4. Let m represent the amount of money that Julie and Christina are going to deposit in their bank accounts each month. For Julie, m = __________ For Christina, m = __________. 5. Let b represent the amount that Julie and Christina each already have in the bank to start. For Julie, b = __________ For Christina, b = __________. 6. How much will Julie have saved after 1 month? _______ after 2 months? _______ 7. How much will Christina have saved after 1 month? _______ after 2 months? _______ MathLinks: Grade 8 (Student Packet 3) 16 Patterns and Linear Functions 1 3.3 Saving For a Purchase CAMERA: TABLES 1. Use the information on the previous page to complete the tables and find equations. JULIE CHRISTINA m = $___ per month, b = $___ in the bank m = $___ per month, b = $___ in the bank x (# of months) y (total amount saved) 0 10(0) + 100 = 100 1 10(___) + 100 = _____ 2. Write an equation for the amount that Julie saved (y) at the end of any month (x). y = __________________ MathLinks: Grade 8 (Student Packet 3) x (# of months) y (total amount saved) 3. Write an equation for the amount that Christina saved (y) at the end of any month (x). y = __________________ 17 Patterns and Linear Functions 1 3.3 Saving For a Purchase CAMERA: GRAPHS Total amount saved (y) 1. Use the data from the tables on the previous page to make graphs representing the total amount of money that Julie and Christina will save each month. Use one color for Julie’s graph and another color for Christina’s graph. $40 $20 0 2 4 Number of Months (x) MathLinks: Grade 8 (Student Packet 3) 18 Patterns and Linear Functions 1 3.3 Saving For a Purchase CAMERA: QUESTIONS Use any combination of tables, graphs, or equations to answer the questions. 1. Who starts out with more money in the bank? __________________ How do you know? At what ordered pair is this represented on the graph? (_____, _____) Because it is on the y-axis, we call it a y-intercept. 2. Who is saving at a faster rate? _____________________ How do you know? 3. When will both girls have saved the same amount of money? _______________ How do you know? The location on a graph where lines meet is called a point of intersection. 4. How long will it take Julie to save for the camera? _______________ 5. How long will it take Christina to save for the camera? _______________ 6. Who will be the first to save enough money for the camera? _______________ 7. Write an equation that describes the amount of money y that Julie has saved after x months. y = ___________________ 8. Write an equation that describes the amount of money y that Christina has saved after x months. y = ___________________ The equations you wrote for Julie and Christina are linear functions in the form y = mx + b. 9. For Julie’s equation: m = ________ 10. For Christina’s equation: b = _______ MathLinks: Grade 8 (Student Packet 3) m = ________ b = _______ 19 Patterns and Linear Functions 1 3.3 Saving For a Purchase PRINTER: INSTRUCTIONS AND TABLES A printer costs $150. (a) Theresa wants to save for a printer. She has $10 in the bank to start, and she is going to save $20 each month. (b) Cary also wants to save for the printer. She has $25 in the bank to start, and she is going to save $15 each month. How many months will it take Theresa and Cary to each save up for the printer? To find the total amount saved, use the equation form y = mx + b. Theresa m = $20 per month b = $10 in the bank Cary m = $_____ per month b = $_____ in the bank y = _______________ y = _______________ x (# of months) y (total amount saved) MathLinks: Grade 8 (Student Packet 3) x (# of months) y (total amount saved) 20 Patterns and Linear Functions 1 3.3 Saving For a Purchase PRINTER: GRAPHS AND QUESTIONS Use the data from the tables on the previous page to make graphs representing the total amount of money that Theresa and Cary will save each month. Use one color for Theresa’s graph and another color for Cary’s graph. Label your axes and title your graph. Then answer the questions using the tables, graphs, or equations. 1. Who starts out with more money in the bank? In other words, which amount of money represents the greater initial value? How do you know? 2. Who is saving at a faster rate? How do you know? 3. When will both girls have saved the same amount of money? On the graph, this is called a point of _______________________________ 4. How long will it take Theresa to save for the printer? 5. How long will it take Cary to save for the printer? 6. Who will be the first to save enough money for the printer? 7. Write an equation that describes the amount of money y that Theresa has saved after x months. 8. Write an equation that describes the amount of money y that Cary has saved after x months. MathLinks: Grade 8 (Student Packet 3) 21 Patterns and Linear Functions 1 3.3 Saving For a Purchase BRIAN’S PROBLEM: INSTRUCTIONS AND TABLE Brian wants to save for a camera and then a printer. A digital camera costs $240 and a printer costs $150. He has $100 saved in the bank and is going to save $20 each month. 1. Cost of camera: ____________ x (# of months) y (amount saved) 2. Cost of printer: _____________ 3. Total amount Brian still needs to save to purchase both: _____________ To find the total amount saved, use the equation: y = mx + b m = the amount of money Brian is going to deposit in his bank account each month b = the amount of money Brian already has in the bank x = the number of months he has been saving y = total amount saved 4. Write an equation in y = mx + b form to show the total amount of money Brian has saved at the end of each month. MathLinks: Grade 8 (Student Packet 3) 22 Patterns and Linear Functions 1 3.3 Saving For a Purchase BRIAN’S PROBLEM: GRAPH AND QUESTIONS 1. Make a graph to show the total amount of money Brian has saved each month. Total amount saved (y) $400 $300 $200 $100 0 5 10 15 20 Number of months (x) 2. Brian wants to buy the camera first. How long will it take Brian to save for the camera? How do you know? 3. Then Brian will buy the printer. How long will it take him to save for the printer, after he purchases the camera? How do you know? 4. Suppose Brian decided to buy the printer first. How long would it take Brian to save for the printer? Why is this number of months different than your answer to #3 above? MathLinks: Grade 8 (Student Packet 3) 23 Patterns and Linear Functions 1 3.4 Skill Builders, Vocabulary, and Review SKILL BUILDERS, VOCABULARY, AND REVIEW SKILL BUILDER 1 Compute. 1. 2.35 + 3.047 2. 18.2 – 6.8 3. 13.7 + 25.5 4. 4.5448 – 1.2 5. 1 2 + 4 3 6. 4 2 − 5 15 7. 3 2 1 + 5 3 8. 3 2 1 − 5 3 9. 0.6 + 10. 5 3 Find the area and perimeter of a rectangle with side lengths of 1 and 2 inches. 16 4 P = __________ 4 1 − 5 2 A = __________ Name the property illustrated by each equation. 11. 0 + (-24) = -24 _________________________________________________ 12. -16 + 16 = 0 ____________________________________________________ 13. (-59)(37) = (37)(-59) ______________________________________________ MathLinks: Grade 8 (Student Packet 3) 24 Patterns and Linear Functions 1 3.4 Skill Builders, Vocabulary, and Review SKILL BUILDER 2 Compute. 1. 7 + (-2) 2. -2 + 11 3. -12 – 9 4. 4 – 13 5. -7 + (-9) 6. -8 – (-7) 7. 5 – 11 8. 75 – (-25) 9. -60 – (20) Circle the expression that has a value that is different than the value of the other expressions. 10. 2–8 -2 + 8 2 + (-8) - 8−2 11. 7 + (-4) 7–4 4−7 -7 – 4 12. 3−9 -9 – 3 9 + (-3) 9–3 13. Which statement is not true? a. -12 – 12 = -24 b. -12 – (-12) = 0 c. -12 + (-12) = 24 d. 12 – (-12) = 24 Evaluate each expression for x = 14. x + 2y MathLinks: Grade 8 (Student Packet 3) 1 3 and y = . 8 4 15. 1 x+y 16. x2 + y2 25 Patterns and Linear Functions 1 3.4 Skill Builders, Vocabulary, and Review SKILL BUILDER 3 Continue each pattern below. 1. -6, -11, -16, -21, _______, _______, _______ 2. 2 1 2 , 1 , 2, 2 , _______, _______, _______ 3 3 3 Solve each equation using a mental strategy. 3. 10 – b = -3 4. k−2 = -3 -6 5. -8 = 8 + n 6. 30 = -5(m + 2) 7. 2x + 3 = x + 5 8. 3 (x – 4 ) = -12 9. Translate the verbal inequality into symbols, solve it mentally, and graph the solution(s). a. Words: b. Symbols (let n = the number): A number times 2 is less than 18. c. Solution(s): MathLinks: Grade 8 (Student Packet 3) d. Graph: 26 Patterns and Linear Functions 1 3.4 Skill Builders, Vocabulary, and Review SKILL BUILDER 4 1. Draw the next step suggested by this pattern. Then complete the table and find a rule for the number of toothpicks at step n. step1 Step # step 2 0 Number of toothpicks 1 step 3 2 3 4 step 4 5 50 n 9 Break apart numbers to look for a pattern 2. Label the horizontal and vertical axes and graph the data points. 3. Recursive Rule: Start with ______ toothpicks, and then __________________ each step. 4. Explicit Rule: Explain what operations to perform on the input value to arrive at the corresponding output. 5. In which step number are there exactly 87 toothpicks? MathLinks: Grade 8 (Student Packet 3) 27 Patterns and Linear Functions 1 3.4 Skill Builders, Vocabulary, and Review SKILL BUILDER 5 1. Draw the next step suggested by this pattern. Then complete the table and find a rule for the number of toothpicks at step n. step1 Step # step 2 0 Number of toothpicks 1 step 3 2 3 4 step 4 5 50 n 8 Break apart numbers to look for a pattern 2. Label the horizontal and vertical axes and graph the data points. 3. Recursive Rule: Start with ______ toothpicks, and then _____________________ each step. 4. Explicit Rule: Explain what operations to perform on the input value to arrive at the corresponding output. 5. In which step number are there exactly 92 toothpicks? MathLinks: Grade 8 (Student Packet 3) 28 Patterns and Linear Functions 1 3.4 Skill Builders, Vocabulary, and Review SKILL BUILDER 6 Continue each number pattern. Then write a recursive rule consistent with the pattern, using a full sentence for each. 1. 2, 5, 8, 11, _____, _____, _____ 2. 7, 10, 13, 16, _____, _____, _____ 3. -4, -1, 2, 5, _____, _____, _____ Write an explicit rule for each input-output table in words. Use a full sentence for each rule. 4. Input Value Output Value 0 5. Input Value Output Value 1 1 1 5 2 9 -1 Input Value Output Value -5 -9 -3 2 -10 -6 -2 -3 15 -3 -1 -4 21 Rule: MathLinks: Grade 8 (Student Packet 3) 6. 0 23 Rule: 20 Rule: 29 Patterns and Linear Functions 1 3.4 Skill Builders, Vocabulary, and Review SKILL BUILDER 7 For each equation, find the output values (y) for the given input values (x). Graph the ordered pairs for each equation using a different color pencil. Connect the points for each equation. 1. y=x x y 0 5 -5 2. y = 2x x y 0 3 -3 3. y= x 1 x 2 y 0 4 -4 4. How are the graphs of the equations the same? 5. How are the graphs of the equations different? MathLinks: Grade 8 (Student Packet 3) 30 Patterns and Linear Functions 1 3.4 Skill Builders, Vocabulary, and Review SKILL BUILDER 8 For each equation, find the output values (y) for the given input values (x). Graph the ordered pairs for each equation using a different color pencil. Connect the points for each equation. 1. y = 2x + 3 x y 0 1 -2 2. y = 2x x y 0 4 -3 3. y = 2x – 4 x y 0 4 -1 4. How are the graphs of the equations the same? 5. How are the graphs of the equations different? MathLinks: Grade 8 (Student Packet 3) 31 Patterns and Linear Functions 1 3.4 Skill Builders, Vocabulary, and Review FOCUS ON VOCABULARY Across Down 3 In the coordinate plane, the orientation of the x-axis is ____. 1 A rule that assigns to each input value a unique output value. 5 A rule that specifies each value based on previous values. 2 “The ____ way.” (pictures, numbers, symbols, and words) 7 y = mx + b is a ____ function 4 Another name for coordinates: ____ pair 8 A form of reasoning in which the conclusion is supported by the evidence, but is not proved. 6 An input-output rule. 9 In the coordinate plane, the orientation of the y-axis is ____. MathLinks: Grade 8 (Student Packet 3) 32 Patterns and Linear Functions 1 3.4 Skill Builders, Vocabulary, and Review SELECTED RESPONSE Show your work on a separate sheet of paper and choose the best answer(s). 1. What is the best recursive rule for the following input-output table? A. B. C. D. input value 1 2 3 4 output value -4 -2 0 2 Increase by 2 for each step. Start at 1 and increase by 1 at each step. Start at 1 and increase by 2 each step. Start at -4 and increase by 2 for each step. 2. What is an explicit rule for the following input-output table? input value (x) 1 2 3 4 output value (y) 4 7 10 13 A. y=x+3 B. y=x+1 C. y = 3x + 1 D. y = 3x 3. Sierra is saving for a printer that costs $150. She has an initial amount of $75 already saved in the bank and is going to save $35 each month. If x represents the number of months and y represents the total amount saved, which equation shows the total amount of money Sierra will have at the end of each month? A. y = 35x + 75 B. MathLinks: Grade 8 (Student Packet 3) y = 35x + 150 C. y = 75x + 35 D. y = 75x + 150 33 Patterns and Linear Functions 1 3.4 Skill Builders, Vocabulary, and Review KNOWLEDGE CHECK Show your work on a separate sheet of paper and write your answers on this page. 3.1 Geometric Patterns 1. Use inductive reasoning to sketch step 4. Then complete the table, and write a recursive rule in words and an explicit rule in words and symbols for the number of toothpicks at every step. step 1 step 2 Step # (x) step 3 1 2 3 step 4 4 5 … 20 # of toothpicks (y) 3.2 Number Patterns Write recursive and explicit rules in words for each input-output table. 2. input output 1 2 3 4 5 5 7 9 11 13 3. input 5 3 10 0 -4 output 26 16 51 1 -19 3.3 Saving for a Purchase 4. Write the following explicit rule using symbols: To find each output number, multiply each input number by 4, and then add 2. Then use the rule to complete the table. Input (x) Output (y) 0 3 -10 40 -100 MathLinks: Grade 8 (Student Packet 3) 34 Patterns and Linear Functions 1 3.4 Skill Builders, Vocabulary, and Review HOME-SCHOOL CONNECTION Here are some questions to review with your young mathematician. 1. Write an equation for this explicit rule (input-output rule): To get each output number (y), multiply each input (x) by 25, and then add 15. What is the output value for an input value x = 100? 2. Use inductive reasoning to sketch the next stage of the pattern. Then complete the table, and write an explicit rule in words and symbols. Step 1 Step # (x) Step 2 1 2 3 Step 3 4 Step 4 5 Number of squares (y) Rule (words): Rule (symbols): MathLinks: Grade 8 (Student Packet 3) 35 Patterns and Linear Functions 1 3.4 Skill Builders, Vocabulary, and Review This page is intentionally left blank. MathLinks: Grade 8 (Student Packet 3) 36 Patterns and Linear Functions 1 3.4 Skill Builders, Vocabulary, and Review This page is intentionally left blank. MathLinks: Grade 8 (Student Packet 3) 37 Patterns and Linear Functions 1 3.4 Skill Builders, Vocabulary, and Review COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS – MATHEMATICS STANDARDS FOR MATHEMATICAL CONTENT 8.EE.8a Analyze and solve pairs of simultaneous linear equations. Understand that solutions to a system of two linear equations in two variables correspond to points of intersection of their graphs, because points of intersection satisfy both equations simultaneously. 8.EE.8c Solve real-world and mathematical problems leading to two linear equations in two variables. For example, given coordinates for two pairs of points, determine whether the line through the first pair of points intersects the line through the second pair. 8.F.2 Compare properties of two functions each represented in a different way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal descriptions). For example, given a linear function represented by a table of values and a linear function represented by an algebraic expression, determine which function has the greater rate of change. 8.F.3 Interpret the equation y = mx + b as defining a linear function, whose graph is a straight line; give examples of functions that are not linear. For example, the function A = s2 giving the area of a square as a function of its side length is not linear because its graph contains the points (1,1), (2,4) and (3,9), which are not on a straight line. 8.F.4 Construct a function to model a linear relationship between two quantities. Determine the rate of change and initial value of the function from a description of a relationship or from two (x, y) values, including reading these from a table or from a graph. Interpret the rate of change and initial value of a linear function in terms of the situation it models, and in terms of its graph or a table of values. STANDARDS FOR MATHEMATICAL PRACTICE MP1 Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. MP2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. MP4 Model with mathematics. MP8 Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning. © 2013 Center for Math and Teaching MathLinks: Grade 8 (Student Packet 3) 38