V E G E T A R I A N Veggie Meatloaf

Document technical information

Format pdf
Size 993.1 kB
First found Jun 9, 2017

Document content analysis

Language
English
Type
not defined
Concepts
no text concepts found

Persons

Carl Friedrich Gauss
Carl Friedrich Gauss

wikipedia, lookup

Steven Davis
Steven Davis

wikipedia, lookup

Organizations

Places

Transcript

VOLUME XXVI, NO 4
www.vrg.org
Vegetarians on Classic TV · Costa Rican Cuisine
VEGETARIAN
J O U R N A L HEALTH E COLOGY E THICS
Is Your Sugar
Really Vegan?
An Update on Refining Practices
Veggie
Meatloaf
To Serve During All of Your
Holiday Festivities!
Walnut, Onion, and Carrot Rice Loaf (page 6)
$4.50 USA/$5.50 CANADA
School Lunches
Made Simple
NUTRITION HOTLINE
SUZANNE HAVALA HOBBS
DrPH, MS, RD
This issue’s Nutrition
Hotline helps readers
identify healthful
convenience foods
that can help cut
the time and effort
needed to prepare
home-cooked meals.
QUESTION: “I’d like to prepare more
meals at home but don’t have time
to make many foods from scratch.
What do you suggest?”
ANSWER: Eating more meals at
home—rather than out—usually
results in fewer calories and better
nutrition. But home cooking
doesn’t mean you have to soak
beans and make sauces from
scratch. Shortcuts are OK if you
use high-quality ingredients.
And, let’s face it, convenience
foods are a necessity for most
of us. I know few people who
have the time to press and fill
fresh ravioli and then clean and
chop vegetables for a green salad
to go with it. Therefore, carefully
chosen, ready-to-use products
can save time and make homecooked meals possible.
So, what makes a product
“high-quality?” Generally, the best
foods are as close to their natural
state as possible. They contain
few—if any—artificial flavorings
or colorings, minimal sodium
and added sugar, and no partially
hydrogenated vegetable oil, the
biggest source of trans fat. If the
product is a bread or a cereal,
it is made with the whole grain.
Preferably, the ingredients are
organic. Here are some examples:
z
2
Ready-to-eat vegetables. For
instance, grab some prewashed
salad greens, chopped vegetables for a stir-fry, a coleslaw
mix, or peeled baby carrots.
Do you lose nutrients when
vegetables are cut up and left
to sit on supermarket shelves?
Sure, but what’s left is still full
of what’s good for you. Also,
you will pay more if someone
else peels your carrots for you.
But if these items save you
lots of prep time and help
you to eat more vegetables,
they’re worth it.
z
Canned beans. Cans of black
beans, pinto beans, garbanzo
beans, and kidney beans are
staples found in many vegetarian homes. One reason is
because they’re so quick to
prepare. Just open a can, rinse
the beans in a colander, and
add them to salads, soups,
chili, casseroles, burritos, or
rice. Do canned beans contain
more sodium than soaked,
dried beans? Yes, but rinsing
removes most of the added
sodium.
z
Pasta sauce. Bottled tomato
sauces are higher in sodium
than those you would make
from scratch with fresh tomatoes. Served over whole wheat
linguine with steamed vegetables and a salad, though, they
can be part of an overall nutritious meal. Look for brands
made with organic tomatoes,
such as Muir Glen.
z
Seasoning short-cuts. Buy bottled,
minced garlic and use it by
the spoonful. It tastes nearly
as good as fresh, and it beats
garlic powder for flavor. Also
good are fresh (refrigerated)
basil pesto and bottled sundried tomatoes. I buy mine
at large warehouse clubs.
(Continued on page 21)
Issue Four 2007 VEGETARIAN JOURNAL
MANAGING EDITOR: Debra Wasserman
SENIOR EDITOR: Keryl Cryer
EDITORS: Carole Hamlin,
Jane Michalek, Charles Stahler
NUTRITION EDITORS: Reed Mangels, PhD, RD,
Suzanne Havala Hobbs, DrPH, MS, RD
NUTRITIONAL ANALYSES: Suzanne Hengen
COVER PHOTO AND STYLING: Anita Lombri, Linda Long
ART CONTRIBUTORS: Vonnie Crist, Rowen Leigh
CARTOON CONTRIBUTORS: The Thomas Brothers
VRG VOLUNTEER COORDINATOR
AND CATALOG MANAGER: Jeannie McStay
WEB DEVELOPMENT/RESEARCH: John Cunningham
RESEARCH DIRECTOR: Jeanne Yacoubou
DEVELOPMENT: Sid Bravmann
RESTAURANT GUIDE/MEMBERSHIP: Sonja Helman
VRG ADVISORS: Arnold Alper, MD;
Nancy Berkoff, EdD, RD; Catherine Conway, MS, RD;
Jim Dunn; Suzanne Havala Hobbs, DrPH, MS, RD;
Enette Larson-M
Meyer, PhD, RD; Reed Mangels, PhD, RD;
Jerome Marcus, MD; Virginia Messina, MPH, RD;
Brad Scott, MBA; Wayne Smeltz, PhD
COPYRIGHT 2007 BY THE VEGETARIAN
RESOURCE GROUP, INCORPORATED
PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.
The Vegetarian Journal (ISSN 0885-77636) is
p u b l i s h e d q u a r t e r l y . T h e c o n t e n t s o f Vegetarian
Journal a n d o u r o t h e r p u b l i c a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g w e b
i n f o r m a t i o n , a r e n ot i n t e n d e d t o p r o v i d e p e r s o n a l
medical advice. Medical advice should be obtained
from a qualified health professional. We often
depend on company statements for product
and ingredient information. It is impossible to be
100% sure about a statement, info can change,
people have different views, and mistakes can be
made. Please use your own best judgement about
whether a product is suitable for you. To be sure,
do further research or confirmation on your own.
SUBMISSIONS: We do not accept unsolicited
manuscripts. Please send a query letter first.
ADVERTISING: Vegetarian Journal does not
ac cept paid advertising. We do review
vegetarian products.
E-M
MAIL: Contact The VRG via e-m
mail at [email protected]
The VRG’s Worldwide Web page is <www.vrg.org>.
CHANGE OF ADDRESS: Please send change
of address to P.O. Box 1463, Baltimore, MD
21203. You may also e-m
mail a change
of address to [email protected]
FOR INFORMATION, CALL (410) 366-VVEGE.
Also, if you do not want your name traded
to other organizations, please let us know.
www.vrg.org
FEATURES
6 · Loafing Around
Debra Daniels-Zeller brings hearty veggie loaves to your table.
11 · Not Just PB & J
Reed Mangels, PhD, RD, packs school lunches that are sure to please.
15 · Is Your Sugar Vegan?
An Update on Sugar Processing Practices
Jeanne Yacoubou, MS, investigates the ongoing use of bone char.
22 · Vegging Out with Kung Fu and Star Trek
Richard Marranca examines vegetarian ideologies on classic TV shows.
25 · Shakti Restaurant
Enjoy vegan-friendly dining in Costa Rica with Elizabeth Striebel.
26 · VRG Selects Two $5,000 Scholarship
Winners for 2007
DEPARTMENTS
Nutrition Hotline
2
How can convenience foods help create home-cooked meals?
Note from the Coordinators
4
Letters to the Editors
5
Veggie Bits
14
Notes from the VRG Scientific Department
19
Vegan Cooking Tips
20
Simple Sweeteners, by Chef Nancy Berkoff, RD, EdD, CCE.
Silver Anniversary Donors
27
Scientific Update
28
Book Reviews
31
Catalog
33
Vegetarian Action
35
A Healthy Morning, by Melody Austin.
Great Resources from The VRG!
Back Cover
The Vegetarian Journal is one project of The Vegetarian Resource Group. We are a nonprofit
organization that educates the public about vegetarianism and the interrelated issues of health,
nutrition, ecology, ethics, and world hunger. To receive Vegetarian Journal in the USA, send
$20 to The Vegetarian Resource Group, P.O. Box 1463, Baltimore, MD 21203.
VEGETARIAN JOURNAL Issue Four 2007
3
NOTE
R E A C H I N G O UT
TO T H E
FROM THE
COORDINATORS
YOUNGER GENERATION
A
prime purpose of The VRG is to make it easier for our children, grandchildren, and future generations to be vegetarian. In this issue, we are
excited to announce the winners of our two $5,000 college scholarships
for student activists. (See page 26.) High school student Melody Austin sharpens
her journalistic skills by writing about Morning Sunday’s outreach on page 35.
And Reed Mangels shares some helpful ideas for school lunches on page 11.
We did a live experiment by having four non-vegetarian 8- and 9-year-old boys
to an overnight vegan birthday party. Interestingly, there were zero problems with
our kid-friendly menu. For dinner, we had pasta, corn on the cob, and garlic bread,
with each child (of course) wanting his pasta served differently. The vegan took
his with tomato sauce; one boy wanted his plain; another only wanted his with
butter, though he was happy with New Balance trans fat-free margarine, as long
as he called it butter; another requested the sauce on the side; and the fifth needed
his pasta with soy sauce.
Though we had lots of ‘junk’ ready to put out, the children were happy with
pretzels and veggie sticks, and no one asked for carbonated beverages, just the water
and the juices offered. The vegan cake was a huge hit. It was actually made using
a Duncan Hines mix and Ener-G egg replacer. Last year, we served Nancy Berkoff’s
vegan cake recipe from Vegan in Volume, which also was a treat for the children.
It held together even better than the Duncan Hines cake. We also have other cake
recipes on our website at <www.vrg.org/recipes/vegancakes.htm>.
For breakfast, we provided cut-up fruit (which was devoured), Whole Foods
and Van’s vegan mini-waffles, toasted mini-bagels, and (at the kids’ request) leftovers
from dinner the night before. At other times, we have successfully served Tofutti
Cuties, Morningstar Farms burgers, Lightlife Hotdogs, and Amy’s Toaster Pops
to meat-eating children, usually with requests for more.
Though our birthday party menu sounds relatively simple, it worked with these
kids. We think a positive attitude, a simple menu, and refraining from making
a big deal out of the foods being vegan or vegetarian works best. Similarly, we
have found that going ethnic with Chinese or Italian cuisine usually pleases most
meat-eaters more than having them try what they consider unusual natural foods.
If people are used to gourmet meals, there is a grand array of vegetarian foods to
please their palates. If people want simplicity, then that’s okay, too.
Thank you to everyone—the food companies, wholesalers, retailers, vegetarian
groups, activists, donors, volunteers, parents, teachers, researchers, scientists, health
professionals, vegetarian kids, and others—for taking on their very different yet
undeniably important roles in making our world a more vegetarian place. You are
assisting vegetarian families today and changing the world for generations of human
and non-human animals to come.
Debra Wasserman & Charles Stahler
Coordinators of The Vegetarian Resource Group
4
Issue Four 2007 VEGETARIAN JOURNAL
letters
VRG’s MEMORIAL
AND HONORARY
GIFT PROGRAM
Michigan Veg Group
Adds VRG Materials
to Their Presentations
In honor of:
Good Afternoon, Sonya:
I just received the information
that you sent me. Thank you for
the timely response. I am thrilled
with the quality of the materials.
I am especially excited about the
children’s information, the ADA
position paper, and the pediatric
manual. Great stuff! It couldn’t
have arrived at a better time.
Northern Vegans (www.northern
vegans.com) is hosting a vegan
potluck tomorrow. We are expecting several new people and will
be giving a presentation on “Why
Vegan.” The materials will be a
welcome complement to the presentation. I will keep in touch and
let you know when we need more.
Thank you again for working
with us.
Sincerely,
Natasha G., via e-mail
Please send acknowledgement to:
Name:
Address:
Toronto Vegetarians
Love VJ, Especially
Useful Poll Data
How often have you wanted to
make a gift in honor of a loved
one or friend but weren’t sure
which charities are vegetarianfriendly, pro-environmental, or
pro-animal rights? Please remember The Vegetarian Resource
Group. You can make a gift in
memory of a loved one or as a
living tribute to honor someone
you care about on a special occasion, such as a wedding or birth.
We’ll send an acknowledgement
to you and to the recipient(s) you
choose. Your gift will support
educational outreach programs
and help promote vegetarianism.
Memorials & Honorary Gifts
In memory of:
My name and address:
Name:
Address:
Make checks payable to The Vegetarian
Resource Group, P.O. Box 1463, Baltimore,
MD 21203.
Generous donations were made in memory
of Julie Kerr by Gordon Dow, the Sovereign
Family, and others.
Thank you to the following volunteers for coordinating VRG outreach booths: Ryan Andrews, RD,
and Mark Rifkin, RD, in Maryland; Phil Becker
in San Francisco; Jessica Dadds in Washington
State; Chef Ralph Estevez and Elsa Spencer in
Virginia; Lisa Martin in Colorado; and Reed
Mangels, PhD, RD, in Massachusetts.
VEGETARIAN JOURNAL Issue Four 2007
How are things at VRG? FYI, I
volunteer most Saturdays at the
Toronto Vegetarian Association
(<www.veg.ca>) in the resource
center, and we all enjoy reading
Vegetarian Journal when it comes
in. The vegetarian census comes
in handy all the time!
Jason, Owner of www.tastebetter.com
Editors’ Notes: The latest VRG poll
information is always available
online at <www.vrg.org/nutshell/
faq.htm#poll>. Also, TVA hosts
an annual festival each September.
Call-A-Dietitian Day
Answered My Veggie
Health Questions
Dear VRG:
I want to thank you and Mark
Rifkin for offering the nutrition
call-in service. I just got off my
phone call and so appreciate the
time, assistance, and consideration.
A great big THANK YOU!
Judie H., via e-mail
Editors’ Note: Call-a-Dietitian Day
gives you the opportunity to have
general vegetarian and vegan nutrition questions answered by Mark
Rifkin, MS, RD, LDN, a longtime
VRG volunteer. To learn more about
Call-a-Dietitian Day, please e-mail
The VRG office at [email protected] or
call (410) 366-8343.
Be advised that Call-a-Dietitian
Day sessions are not individualized
nutritional counseling.
Letters to the Editors can be sent to: Vegetarian Journal, P.O. Box 1463, Baltimore, MD
21203. You may also e-m
mail your letters to [email protected]
Coming in the Next Issue:
VEGAN CHEESECAKES
Plus: Vegan Fare from India, All About L-Cysteine,
Vegetarian-Friendly Books for Kids, and more!
5
Loafing Around
by Debra Daniels-Zeller
I
1960S, WHEN MY MOTHER AND
father went out for the evening, mom always let
me select one of the four varieties of frozen TV
dinners that Swanson’s offered at that time. I always
chose meatloaf with mashed potatoes. A guilty pleasure, I always looked forward to this mass-produced
frozen dinner. But I often picked the loaf apart with
my fork and wondered about the ingredients. What
were they? And what held them together?
I’m sure those frozen dinners sparked my quest
for the perfect loaf, but I found few vegetarian loaf
recipes until the late ’60s. By the end of the 1970s,
however, there was at least one veggie loaf recipe in
every natural foods cookbook. By 1980, I’d baked
countless loaves—soy, millet, carrot, rye, buckwheat,
and endless variations of the ubiquitous lentil loaf
featured in many ’70s cookbooks.
Over the years, though, vegetarian loaves gained a
bad reputation. Sadly, many early recipes came out of
the oven resembling bricks and were just about as appetizing. If you followed a typical recipe as it was written,
you wouldn’t have to worry about not having enough
food to go around. No one wanted a second helping.
But daydreams of creating a savory, sliceable loaf
transport me back to a dinner with my best friend’s
family in 1972. They were vegetarians, and her mother
had an almost instinctive ability to analyze ingredients
and combine them to make memorable dishes. She
once baked a loaf composed of cooked red beans and
rice mashed with sweet caramelized onions, chopped
jalapeños, sage, and toasted pecans. Each plain white
dinner plate cradled warm, savory loaf slices and mashed
potatoes topped with homemade gravy. On the side
were steamed green beans and sliced fresh tomatoes
gathered from the garden. It looked like a styled food
picture from a magazine. And the amazing flavors and
texture of that loaf remained with me for years.
I was excited about the prospect of creating and
eating a number of vegetarian loaves for a month, but
when I told my husband, he groaned. I shouldn’t have
been surprised because not every loaf I’d made over the
years turned out like the loaf my friend’s mother made.
6
N THE EARLY
I admit, there is a certain mystique about creating
a loaf that slices with good texture and a balance of
flavors. But skill at loaf perfection comes from practice
at selecting ingredients and allowing yourself to play
with food possibilities. Add too much liquid or too
many beans, and the loaf is moist and heavy. Not
enough holding power (wheat gluten or egg replacers),
and each slice crumbles into pieces. For years, making
adjustments with various recipe ideas, I found it was
trial and many errors. Family and friends were often
reluctant loaf tasters, enduring more than one failure.
At least the dogs rejoiced over loser loafs.
But each dud was a stepping stone, spurring me
to make loaves that impressed even my biggest critic—
me. When the month was over and the recreated
recipes complete, I realized no leftovers had gone to
the dogs. The Southwestern Polenta Loaf disappeared
in one day, and my husband and I wanted more. And
my husband took Chickpea Loaf (page 8) topped with
Smooth Adobo Sauce (page 10) in tortillas for lunch
for days. He combined Fire-Roasted Tomato Bread Loaf
(page 10) with black beans and added Chipotle Barbecue
Sauce (page 10) to make unique burritos. I reheated
loaf slices and topped them with sauce, gravy, or vegetables. Or I put a slice on toasted whole wheat bread
with all the fixings—mustard, vegan mayonnaise, lettuce, pickles, and tomatoes.
Thank goodness we’ve moved beyond frozen mystery meat dinners, and I don’t have to feel guilty about
ingredients. Nowadays, a loaf is a pleasure. These are
my favorite versions.
WALNUT, ONION, AND
CARROT RICE LOAF
(Makes one 9 x 5-iinch loaf or 8 servings)
*Pictured on the cover.
This recipe is inspired by the “Walnut Cheddar Loaf ”
recipe in the classic vegetarian book Diet for a Small
Planet by Frances Moore Lappé. If you don’t like walnuts,
use another variety, such as pecans or hazelnuts.
Issue Four 2007 VEGETARIAN JOURNAL
1 Tablespoon oil
1 cup chopped onions
1 cup diced carrots
Water, if needed
11/4 cups cooked brown rice (any variety)
11/2 cups dried bread crumbs
1/2 cup lightly toasted, chopped walnuts
1/2 cup silken tofu, beaten
1/2 teaspoon oregano
1/4 teaspoon pepper
1/4 teaspoon garlic powder
Heat a heavy skillet over medium
heat. Add oil and onions and
sauté the onions until soft. Stir
in carrots, cover, and cook until
carrots are soft. Add a small
amount of water, if necessary.
Remove from heat.
Preheat oven to 350 degrees.
Line a loaf pan with parchment
paper.
In a large mixing bowl, blend
the sautéed vegetables and cooked
rice with the bread crumbs, walnuts, tofu, oregano, pepper, and
garlic powder. Mix well. Place
mixture in the prepared loaf
pan and bake for 40 minutes
or until done.
Total calories per serving: 199
Carbohydrates: 26 grams
Sodium: 155 milligrams
Fat: 8 grams
Protein: 6 grams
Fiber: 3 grams
SOUTHWESTERN
POLENTA LOAF
(Makes one 9 x 5-iinch loaf or 8 servings)
Sun-dried tomatoes are available
in jars in the salad dressing aisle
of most any grocery store. Look for
adobo sauce on the international
aisle of the grocery store or, better
yet, make your own with the
Smooth Adobo Sauce recipe
on page 10.
Leftover slices of this loaf are
good sautéed for breakfast with
smoky tempeh strips.
VEGETARIAN JOURNAL Issue Four 2007
Vegetable oil spray
3 cups water
3/4 cup polenta (coarse cornmeal)
2-33 Tablespoons adobo sauce or salsa
1/4 teaspoon salt
1 cup frozen corn or corn scraped fresh
from the cob
1/2 cup chopped sun-d
dried tomatoes
Smooth Adobo Sauce to finish
Lightly oil a loaf pan. Combine
ingredients in a medium saucepan
and bring to a boil. Reduce heat
to medium-low and cook for 20
minutes, stirring frequently. When
mixture is very thick and cornmeal is cooked, scoop it out into
the loaf pan. Spread to smooth.
Let sit for half an hour before slicing. Drizzle Smooth Adobo Sauce
(page 10) over each slice.
Note: You can alter the flavors
in this recipe by adding any of
the following to the saucepan
while cooking:
z
One-half cup of chopped olives,
nuts, or dried cranberries
z
One cup of diced steamed
sweet potatoes or carrots
z
Chopped raw parsley or
cilantro
Total calories per serving: 78
Carbohydrates: 17 grams
Sodium: 194 milligrams
Fat: <1 gram
Protein: 2 grams
Fiber: 2 grams
10 Loaf Tips
1) Use a 9 x 5-inch loaf pan,
smaller loaf pans for individual servings, or a square
baking pan.
6) To impart a smoky flavor,
add adobo sauce or chipotle
chili powder.
2) Oil or parchment paper
lining a loaf pan insures
easy removal.
7) For crunch, lightly toast
various nuts or sunflower
or sesame seeds. Blend
in right before baking.
3) Balance heavy ingredients
with light cooked whole
grain components, such
as rice, quinoa or millet,
or bread crumbs. Beans,
potatoes, sweet potatoes,
and tofu add moisture
and heaviness.
8) Caramelized onions add
sweet tones. If you don’t
like onions, lightly sauté
carrots or red peppers, or
add some sweet potatoes.
You can also squeeze in a
tiny amount of agave nectar
to balance the other flavors.
4) Bread crumbs and ground
flaxseeds blended with
water help create a more
sliceable loaf. Grind your
own flaxseeds in a spice
or clean coffee grinder.
9) If you’re not sure whether
a loaf is done, it’s best to
bake it for 5 more minutes.
Wait 10 minutes before
removing from pan.
5) To replace salt, try adding
chopped dulse (a sea vegetable), chopped olives,
or capers.
10) Loaves are dry by nature
and call for a topping,
whether gravy, pasta sauce,
salsa, barbecue sauce, or
even sautéed vegetables.
7
PECAN-LLENTIL LOAF
(Makes one 9 x 5-iinch loaf or 8 servings)
To cook the buckwheat, bring 1 cup
of water to a boil and add 1/2 cup
buckwheat. Simmer until grains
are soft. I like to use shiitake mushrooms, but button or cremini mushrooms also work well in this recipe.
Preheat the oven to 325 degrees and
lightly toast the nuts for 10 minutes.
1 cup red lentils
11/2 cups water
11/2 teaspoons oil
1/2 cup finely chopped onions
6 mushrooms, coarsely chopped
teaspoon garlic powder
1/8-1/4 teaspoon cayenne
1/2 teaspoon salt
1 cup cooked raw buckwheat
2-33 Tablespoons tomato paste or Smooth
Adobo Sauce (page 10)
Vegetable oil spray, if needed
2 Tablespoons ground flaxseeds
6 Tablespoons water
1 cup bread crumbs
1/2 cup lightly toasted chopped pecans
or walnuts
1/4
Combine lentils and water in
a medium saucepan. Bring to
Quick Fix
Burger Tips
The recipes in this article yield delicious veggie loaves, but some make
incredible vegetable burgers as well. Here are a few things to keep in
mind if you want to make an impressive burger from these recipes:
z
Of the recipes in this article,
Pecan-Lentil Loaf or Chickpea
Loaf are the best bets for
making patties or burgers.
z
Thoroughly mix ingredients.
Blending the ingredients as
smoothly as possible is essential to make burgers. A food
processor helps but isn’t
essential. I used a potato
masher and got good results.
z
z
8
Measure out approximately
a third of a cup of the mixture. Flatten into a patty not
more than a 1/2-inch thick.
The thinner the patty, the
faster it will cook.
Vegetarian burgers are more
delicate than meat-based
burgers. It’s easier to fry in
a little oil. A non-stick pan
will work, but you won’t get
a nice crispy crust. You can
also broil or grill the patty.
Cook until browned on one
side, then turn carefully.
z
To grill, use a vegetable grid
so pieces don’t fall into the
fire.
z
Cook for approximately 5
to 7 minutes on each side or
until the bottoms are crispy.
z
z
Set out a variety of condiments. Mustards, chutneys,
salsas, barbecue sauce or
ketchup, pickles, chopped
onions, avocados, and lettuce
are just a few examples.
You can prepare the burger
mixture a day ahead and
refrigerate until ready to
use, if desired.
a boil, reduce heat, and simmer
for 20 minutes or until lentils are
soft and water is absorbed. Add
a little more water as lentils cook,
if needed.
While the lentils cook, heat
a skillet over medium heat. Add
oil, onions, and mushrooms.
Cover with a lid that fits directly
over the onions and mushrooms
and sweat the onions until soft.
Remove lid and add garlic powder,
cayenne, and salt. Continue to stir
and cook until mushrooms are soft
and have released their juices.
When lentils are done and
the water has been absorbed,
remove from heat, stir, and mash.
Stir in cooked vegetables, buckwheat, and tomato paste or
Smooth Adobo Sauce (page 10).
Blend well.
Preheat oven to 350 degrees.
Line a 9 x 5-inch loaf pan with
parchment paper or lightly oil
the pan.
Blend flaxseeds and water in
a blender or with a hand blender
until frothy and thick. Stir this
mixture into the loaf with the
bread crumbs and nuts. Press
mixture into the loaf pan. Bake
for 45 minutes.
Top this loaf with Chipotle
Barbecue Sauce (page 10) or with
ketchup.
Total calories per serving: 240
Carbohydrates: 34 grams
Sodium: 249 milligrams
Fat: 7 grams
Protein: 11 grams
Fiber: 7 grams
CHICKPEA LOAF
(Makes one 9 x 5-iinch loaf or 8 servings)
Inspired by the “Chickpea Loaf ”
recipe in The New York Times
Natural Foods Cookbook, chickpeas—also called garbanzo beans—
contribute a nutty flavor and great
texture to this loaf. If you can’t find
Issue Four 2007 VEGETARIAN JOURNAL
a large cans of chickpeas, use two
15-ounce cans. Potato starch helps
hold this loaf together.
Total calories per serving: 246
Carbohydrates: 33 grams
Sodium: 423 milligrams
3 Tablespoons ground flaxseeds
cup cold water
1 Tablespoon oil
1 onion, diced
Vegetable oil spray, if needed
One 25-oounce can chickpeas (garbanzos),
drained and rinsed
1/4 cup Chipotle Barbecue Sauce (page 10)
or Smooth Adobo Sauce (page 10)
2 Tablespoons potato starch
1 cup crushed crackers, such as saltines
1/4 cup chopped black olives
1/2 cup lightly toasted walnuts or pecans
RED BEAN AND MILLET
LOAF WITH SWEET
POTATOES AND
MUSHROOMS
1/2
Mix the flaxseeds and cold water
in a blender or with a hand
blender. Blend on high until the
texture is very thick.
Heat a heavy skillet over medium heat. Add oil and onions and
stir. Place a lid directly over the
onions and sweat until onions are
transparent. Remove lid and continue to cook until onions brown.
Meanwhile, preheat oven to
350 degrees. Oil a loaf pan or line
it with parchment paper. Combine
the chickpeas and sauce in a large
bowl. Thoroughly mash chickpeas
with a potato masher. Sprinkle
potato starch and crackers over
chickpeas. Stir in, and then add
olives and nuts. When everything
is blended, stir in the flaxseedwater mixture.
Press the mixture into the
loaf pan. Bake for 1 hour or until
browned on top. Remove loaf
from oven and then from the pan.
If the loaf needs further cooking,
you can set it on a pizza screen
and put it back in the oven for a
few minutes. When done, let it sit
for 15-20 minutes before slicing.
Top with your favorite gravy,
tomato sauce, or adobo sauce.
VEGETARIAN JOURNAL Issue Four 2007
Fat: 10 grams
Protein: 7 grams
Fiber: 6 grams
(Makes one 9 x 5-iinch loaf or 8 servings)
This layered loaf crumbles a little
when warm but becomes more solid
as it cools. I like to make it a day
ahead, then slice and fry it with
a little oil. Served with mashed
potatoes and gravy, this recipe is
great comfort food.
To cook millet, simmer 1 cup
of millet in 13/4 cups water for 20
minutes. Use the remainder of the
millet to reheat as a hot breakfast
cereal in the morning.
1 cup chopped mushrooms
1 Tablespoon oil
1 cup diced sweet potatoes
Water, if needed
1/2 cup silken tofu
2 Tablespoons salsa (optional)
2 Tablespoons potato starch
One 15-oounce can red beans, drained
and rinsed
1/2 cup cooked millet
1 cup rye bread, cut into small cubes
1/2 cup thawed frozen corn or corn scraped
fresh from the cob
1 teaspoon chopped rosemary
teaspoon salt
1/2 cup toasted, finely chopped nuts,
any variety (optional)
1/2
Heat a heavy skillet over mediumhigh heat. Add mushrooms and
dry fry until they release their
juices. Reduce heat. Add oil and
sweet potatoes, cover, and cook
until sweet potatoes are soft.
Add a little water, if necessary,
to keep potatoes from sticking.
When potatoes and mushrooms
are done, remove approximately
a 1/2-cup and combine with tofu,
salsa, and potato starch. Mix well.
Set aside.
Preheat oven to 350 degrees.
Line the baking pan with parchment paper. In a large mixing
bowl, combine the red beans,
millet, and rye bread and mash
together until blended. Stir in
the tofu mixture, corn, rosemary,
salt, and nuts. Mix well. Spread
half of this mixture into the loaf
pan. Place the remaining mushrooms and sweet potatoes over the
layer, and then spread the remaining beans and millet mixture on
top. Pat down. Bake for 45 minutes. Remove from oven and
invert on cooling rack to cool.
Total calories per serving: 141
Carbohydrates: 24 grams
Sodium: 380 milligrams
Fat: 3 grams
Protein: 5 grams
Fiber: 5 grams
9
FIRE-RROASTED TOMATO
BREAD LOAF
(Makes one 8 x 8-iinch baking dish or
8 servings)
I loved my grandmother’s no-frills,
Depression-era, bread and tomatoes
dish so much I created a stuffinglike loaf out of her main ingredients.
Artisan bread works best for this
recipe because the dense texture
holds up when it is saturated with
the tomato juice. (Regular sandwich
bread falls apart.) Look for agave
nectar in natural foods stores. If you
can’t find it, use maple syrup.
2 Tablespoons oil
1 small yellow onion, peeled and chopped
1 cup chopped mushrooms
3 cloves garlic, pressed, or 1/4 teaspoon
garlic powder
Dash of hot sauce
One 28-oounce can fire-rroasted or plain
diced tomatoes
4 heaping cups cubed artisan bread
1/2 Tablespoon agave nectar or maple
syrup
2 teaspoons dried basil
1/2 teaspoon dried marjoram
1/2 teaspoon salt
Vegetable oil spray to prepare pan
Heat oil and sauté onions until
soft. Add mushrooms. Continue
cooking until mushrooms are soft
and have released their juices.
In a large mixing bowl, combine onion-mushroom mixture
with the remaining ingredients.
Blend well. Let ingredients sit
for half an hour before baking.
Preheat oven to 350 degrees.
Place mixture in a lightly oiled
8 x 8-inch baking pan and bake
for 30 minutes or until firm.
Total calories per serving: 135
Carbohydrates: 22 grams
Sodium: 514 milligrams
10
Fat: 3 grams
Protein: 4 grams
Fiber: 2 grams
SMOOTH ADOBO SAUCE
(Makes approximately 11/4 cups or
ten 2-TTablespoon servings)
This sauce is hot and spicy. A little
goes a long way. Look for dried
chipotle chilies in natural foods
or specialty grocery stores.
This sauce will keep for a few
weeks in the refrigerator. For longterm storage, freeze in an ice cube
tray so you have small useable portions. Thaw a cube or two in the
refrigerator when ready to use.
5 dried chipotle chilies
red or yellow onion, minced
1/4 cup rice or cider vinegar
1/4 cup ketchup
2 cloves garlic, pressed
1/4 teaspoon salt
21/2-33 cups water
1/2
Combine all ingredients in a small
saucepan. Bring to a boil. Reduce
heat and simmer for 2 hours or
until the sauce is reduced by half.
Remove chilies from the sauce,
remove stems, and add chilies
back to the sauce. Purée all sauce
ingredients in a blender. Place
sauce in a glass container, cover,
and refrigerate. The sauce is hot
and spicy, so add sparingly.
Total calories per serving: 12
Carbohydrates: 3 grams
Sodium: 131 milligrams
Fat: <1 gram
Protein: <1 gram
Fiber: <1 gram
CHIPOTLE BARBECUE
SAUCE
(Makes approximately 11/4 cups or
ten 2-TTablespoon servings)
A chipotle chili is a smoked jalapeño.
It imparts smoky tones to any dish.
You can find dried chipotle chilies
in natural foods and specialty stores.
You can also get a can of smoked
jalapeños in adobo sauce at a
grocery store. Look for those in
the same aisle as tortillas, refried
beans, and salsa. These are difficult
to remove from the sauce, so use
only one smoked jalapeño.
Freeze the remainder of these
canned chilies for future use. Line
a baking sheet with parchment
paper and spread the chilies out
in a single layer to freeze. When
the chilies are frozen, slip them
into a plastic bag and store until
you need them.
Liquid smoke is available at
many grocery stores, but its inclusion
isn’t vital to the recipe.
One 15-oounce can unsalted diced
tomatoes
2 dried chipotle chilies
1/2 cup water
1/2 cup finely diced onions
1 Tablespoon molasses
1 teaspoon prepared mustard
1/8 teaspoon garlic powder
1/4 teaspoon salt
Dash of liquid smoke (optional)
Combine all ingredients in a
small saucepan. Cover and simmer for 30 minutes. Remove lid
and continue to simmer to desired
consistency. Remove chipotle
chilies before serving. Serve this
sauce as is for a chunky texture,
or purée it to create a smoother
consistency.
Total calories per serving: 16
Carbohydrates: 4 grams
Sodium: 71 milligrams
Fat: <1 gram
Protein: <1 gram
Fiber: 1 gram
Debra Daniels-ZZeller is a frequent
contributor to Vegetarian Journal.
Her most recent article, Thickeners,
appeared in Issue 1, 2007. A resident
of Washington State, she has authored
Local Vegetarian Cooking: Inspired
Recipes Celebrating Northwest Farms.
Issue Four 2007 VEGETARIAN JOURNAL
Not Just PB & J
Tips for Packing a Lunch Box That’s Sure
to Please By Reed Mangels, PhD, RD
N
O ONE EVER TOLD ME THAT ONCE MY DAUGH-
ter started kindergarten, I’d be packing a
lunch 180 days a year. Let’s see, 180 days
times 13 years of school, times 2 kids—that’s a lot of
lunches! “Can’t you just let them buy lunch sometimes?”
my co-workers ask. I’ve thought about it, but the only
vegan-ish option at the elementary school is peanut
butter and jelly, and at $2 plus for a sandwich, it seems
crazy not to make lunches. The middle schools and
high schools have a few more options, but my kids
prefer homemade lunches.
What are the secrets of an appealing lunch? Good
food goes a long way, whether it’s leftovers or something planned especially for that day. Fun is important
also—sandwiches cut into cute shapes, a clever note,
or a colorful napkin. One of my daughter’s friends
had a family tradition of having a peanut butter and
chocolate chip sandwich on the first Wednesday of
the month, something she looked forward to eagerly.
Just spread bread with peanut butter, sprinkle on a
spoonful or two of vegan chocolate chips, press gently
into the peanut butter, and top with another slice of
bread. Even as simple a treat as a little bag of popcorn
sprinkled with nutritional yeast or a homemade cookie
can brighten up the day.
One way to jazz up the lunch box is to pack a theme
lunch occasionally. A lunch can be based on a letter
of the alphabet. For “A,” try alphabet soup, apple slices
with almond butter, an applesauce muffin, and apricot
fruit leather. Another idea is to base a lunch on a color.
Veggie chili, a fruit cup with watermelon and strawberries, and cherry tomatoes make for a Really Red Lunch.
Other themes could be based on animals, a shape, the
season, a holiday, or foods from another country.
Here are some lunch preparation tips as well as
some lunch box ideas my family has enjoyed.
Lunch Packing FAQs
How do you have time to pack a lunch?
Planning ahead can markedly reduce the amount
of time needed to put together a lunch. Think
about what you’re making for dinner and if you
need to make a little extra to put in a lunch box
the next day. Veggie burgers, soups, pasta, stir-fries,
pizza, beans and rice, lasagna, barbecued tofu or
seitan, and chili are all examples of foods that can
be gently warmed and sent for the next day’s lunch.
Leftover pasta salad, hummus, grain salad, or sushi
doesn’t even need heating. Make extra pancakes for
breakfast one morning and pack them in the lunch
box another day with a small container of maple
syrup. If you’re sending soy yogurt or soup, make
a quick batch of muffins for breakfast that morning
and tuck a muffin into the lunch box, too. Quick
breads, like banana or pumpkin bread, can also
be made the night before.
VEGETARIAN JOURNAL Issue Four 2007
It really helps to jot down ideas for quick and
easy lunches your kids like. There’s nothing worse
than looking for inspiration in an unsympathetic
refrigerator at 6 a.m. If you’re not sure whether your
kids will like a recipe or product, give it a test run
on the weekend or during the summer.
Do as much as you can the night before and
get your kids to help. For example, soymilk can be
poured into a bottle, pretzels or cut-up vegetables
packaged, utensils put in the lunch box, and dips
or spreads made in the evening for the next day.
What are some ideas for entrées?
One way to think about the main dish in a lunch
box is by category—beans, soy products, nuts and
nut butters, and pasta and other grains. Some ideas
from each category can be found on the next page.
11
Beans
Vegetarian baked beans, beans and rice, bean
burritos or tacos, bean dip with tortilla chips,
a bean burger on a bun, a hummus wrap,
hummus with vegetable dippers, chili, lentil
soup, sloppy lentils, falafel in pita bread,
curried chickpeas
Soy products
Tofu burger or tofu hot dog in a bun, deli
slices on a sub roll with tomatoes and shredded
lettuce, soy yogurt, chicken-less nuggets, barbecue tofu, tofu ‘egg’ salad (tofu mashed with
vegan mayonnaise, mustard, celery, pickle relish,
and seasonings), English muffin pizza with soy
pepperoni
Nuts and nut butters
Nut butter spread on apple slices, nut butter
dip with pretzels and carrot sticks, nut butter
and crackers (If your school doesn’t allow
peanut butter, try soy nut butter instead.)
Pasta and other grains
Pasta salad, pasta and tomato sauce, noodles
with peanut sauce, rice salad, ramen noodle
soup with tofu cubes, sushi, rice balls, pancakes
or waffles
MAPLE YOGURT DIP FOR FRUIT
(Serves 1)
Pack this recipe into your child’s lunch box with fruit
dippers like apple slices, strawberries, seedless grapes,
orange sections, or pineapple chunks. Baby carrots
are also delicious with this dip.
One 6-oounce carton or 3/4 cup plain soy yogurt
1 Tablespoon maple syrup
1/2 teaspoon lemon juice
1/4 teaspoon vanilla extract
Combine all ingredients. It’s easiest to do this in a
small container—not the yogurt carton—and then
put the container right into the lunch box.
12
What if my child wants to have a
lunch that looks like everyone else’s?
Sandwiches are a super way to blend into the
crowd. Nut butter and jelly looks the same
whether the lunch box is vegan or not. Deli slices
between two pieces of bread look remarkably like
your child’s friend’s sandwich. Many schools post
the cafeteria menu online, publish it in the paper,
or send home a monthly lunch calendar. Your child
may like to have lunch box food that is similar
to the cafeteria food—chicken-less nuggets, a tofu
hot dog, pasta with tomato sauce, or a taco.
What about food safety?
The key to lunch box safety is making sure that
hot foods stay hot and cold foods stay cold. Use
a plastic thermos to pack hot foods. To help food
stay hot, pour boiling water into the thermos, cover,
and let it sit for 10 minutes, pour out the water,
and then add the hot food. Use an insulated lunch
box and frozen cold packs to keep food cold.
I’d like to put a note in my child’s lunch
box, but I’m not sure what to write.
Jokes, word scrambles, a comic clipped from yesterday’s paper, a sticker, a geography fact, a limerick
or other short rhyme, a note from the family dog
or cat, a small origami figure, a quick drawing,
or whatever else you can tuck in.
Total calories per serving: 157
Carbohydrates: 30 grams
Sodium: 24 milligrams
Fat: 2 grams
Protein: 4 grams
Fiber: <1 gram
PEACH-M
MANGO MUFFINS
(Makes 12 muffins)
These muffins, along with Maple Yogurt Dip and fruit,
can be the basis for a “Think Spring” lunch box. Tuck
in pictures of flowers or a packet of seeds to plant at home.
1 cup peach juice
1 cup rolled oats (regular or quick but not instant)
Vegetable oil spray to prepare muffin cups
1/2 cup whole wheat pastry flour
1/2 cup unbleached all-p
purpose flour
Issue Four 2007 VEGETARIAN JOURNAL
1 teaspoon baking powder
teaspoon baking soda
3 Tablespoons wheat germ
1/4 cup canola oil
1/4 cup vegan brown sugar
11/2 teaspoons Ener-GG egg replacer or 11/2 teaspoons ground
flaxseed
1/4 cup water
1/2 cup fresh or thawed frozen mango cut into small pieces
1/2
The night before, combine the peach juice and oats and
refrigerate overnight.
The next morning, preheat oven to 400 degrees.
Spray 12 muffin cups with oil. Combine flours, baking
powder, baking soda, and wheat germ in one bowl.
In another bowl combine canola oil and sugar.
Blend egg replacer or flaxseed with water and add to
oil mixture. Add dry ingredients and mix well. Stir in
the mangos. Portion batter into muffin cups and bake
25 minutes or until done. Cool in pan on a cooling
rack 2-3 minutes. Remove from pan to finish cooling.
Total calories per muffin: 132
Carbohydrates: 19 grams
Sodium: 96 milligrams
Fat: 5 grams
Protein: 2 grams
Fiber: 1 gram
EARLY MORNING PASTA SALAD
(Serves 3)
This salad is made from leftovers and can be put together
quickly. Pack with lemonade, blueberries, a red checked
napkin, and a scattering of plastic ants for a “Picnic in
a Lunch Box.”
11/2 cups cooked leftover pasta
cup cooked or drained canned beans
1/2 cup thawed frozen mixed vegetables, peas, or corn or 1/2 cup
of any chopped cooked or raw vegetables that your child likes
2 Tablespoons reduced-ffat salad dressing that your child likes
(A mild Italian or sesame ginger works well with this recipe.)
1 Tablespoon vegan mayonnaise
1 Tablespoon orange or pineapple juice
1/2
Toss pasta, beans, and vegetables together. In a small
bowl, mix salad dressing, mayonnaise, and juice together
and pour over pasta mixture. Combine gently, adding
more dressing to moisten if needed.
Total calories per serving: 177
Carbohydrates: 29 grams
Sodium: 196 milligrams
Fat: 4 grams
Protein: 7 grams
Fiber: 4 grams
VEGETARIAN JOURNAL Issue Four 2007
HUMMUS ROLL-UUPS
(Serves 1)
This recipe puts a fun twist on the classic hummus wrap.
cup prepared or purchased hummus
1 whole wheat tortilla
Shredded carrots, lettuce, and/or chopped olives (optional)
1/4
Spread the tortilla with hummus, completely and evenly
covering the tortilla. Sprinkle on finely chopped vegetables and olives and press down gently. Gently roll
the tortilla up into a tube. Use a sharp knife to slice
the rolled-up tortilla into 6 or 8 slices. Each slice
will look like a spiral or a cinnamon roll. Pack the
slices into a container, cut side up.
Total calories per serving: 226
Carbohydrates: 35 grams
Sodium: 350 milligrams
Fat: 6 grams
Protein: 7 grams
Fiber: 4 grams
PEANUT BUTTER BALLS
(Makes seven 2-bball servings)
These bite-sized treats will supply lots of energy for the
playground. Pack several of them with the Hummus RollUps above or with hummus on a bagel, cherry tomatoes,
and grapes. Then, add a note on a round piece of paper
for a “Round and Round Lunch.”
cup smooth peanut butter (or other nut butter or soy butter)
cup rice syrup
2 Tablespoons wheat germ
1 cup lowfat granola cereal, crushed or crumbled to eliminate
any large chunks
Toppings, such as flaked coconut or chopped nuts (optional)
1/2
1/4
Stir together all ingredients except toppings. Roll the
mixture into 14 balls, adding more granola if the mix
is too sticky or liquid to work with. If you want to use
toppings, sprinkle each topping on a plate and roll the
balls in the toppings to coat.
Total calories per serving: 211
Carbohydrates: 26 grams
Sodium: 142 milligrams
Fat: 10 grams
Protein: 6 grams
Fiber: 2 grams
Reed Mangels, PhD, RD, is one of VRG’s Nutrition Advisors.
She is the co-aauthor of Simply Vegan and the most recent
American Dietetic Association position paper on vegetarian diets.
13
veggie bits
Clif Kids Makes Snacking and
Lunch-Packing Easy and Fun
Clif Kid is a new child-friendly line
of products from the company
that brought those popular
energy bars to market. Their
Organic ZBaRs are chewy, baked
whole grain snacks that come in
three vegan varieties, each drizzled
with stripes of chocolate on top. The Chocolate
Brownie sports a fudgy taste and texture, while the
Peanut Butter flavor is aromatic with nutty goodness.
Plus, the Chocolate Chip variety will make you feel
good about giving your kids cookies for dessert!
Another product that recently made its debut is
Organic Twisted Fruit. These snacks, reminiscent of
Fruit Roll-Ups, are made almost entirely of organic
ingredients, but the real appeal is their fun, rope-like
strands that can be eaten whole or pulled apart for
additional thrills. Organic Twisted Fruit is available
in four flavors—Sour Apple, Strawberry, Tropical
Twist, and the particularly tangy Mixed Berry.
Clif Kid products are available from many retailers
that carry natural foods. For more information, contact Clif Bar, Inc., at 1610 5th Street, Berkeley, CA
94710-1715. The company’s phone number is (800)
254-3227, and its website is <www.clifbar.com>.
Incredible Spreadable Sheese
Sheese is a Scottish company that
produces one of the largest arrays
of vegan cheeses around. Their
newest offerings include Creamy
Sheese, 9-ounce tubs of soft, cream
cheese-like spreads in five fantastic
flavors. The Original would feel right at home on
any toasted bagel, the Chives evokes a perfect baked
potato, and the Garlic & Herb is simply daring raw
veggies to come in for a dip. In addition, the CheddarStyle will have all of your party guests reaching for
the crackers, while the Mexican-Style, with its hint
of salsa, will have them grabbing for the corn chips.
These products are available at some natural foods
stores, from online retailers, and through Sheese’s
distributor in the United States, Black Duck Imports,
LLC. Write to the company at 706 East Pine Street,
Suite #7, Orlando, FL 32801, or call (407) 401-4153.
Their website is <www.blackduckimports.com>.
14
For a Spoon Full of Sugar...
Florida Crystals produces an incredible family of items
made from organic sugar cane and processed without
the use of bone char or any other animal byproducts.
Among the company’s most sought-after confections
are its Organic Brown Sugar and its Organic Powdered
Sugar. Both products easily replace their traditional
white sugar counterparts, adding the same ease of use
and sweetness to baked goods, drinks, and more!
Contact Florida Crystals Corporation at P.O. Box
33402, West Palm Beach, FL 33402, or call the company at (877) 835-2828. More information is available
at the company’s website, <www.floridacrystals.com>.
Hot Cereals for Cold Mornings
Quinoa (pronounced “keen-wa”)
is a staple in South American diets,
and it’s starting to gain a foothold
north of the equator as well. AltiPlano
Gold has introduced this wheat- and
gluten-free grain in an instant hot
cereal form that’s similar to oatmeal
in many ways. This simple-to-prepare
product comes in five hearty varieties—Chai Almond,
Natural, Oaxacan Chocolate, Orange Date, and Spiced
Apple Raisin—so a different flavor will entice you from
even the coziest bed every morning of the workweek.
Write to AltiPlano Gold, LLC, at P.O. Box 156678,
San Francisco, CA 94115-6678, or call the company
at (415) 380-5050. You can learn more about these
products at <www.altiplanogold.com>.
Please Pass the Gravies!
’Tis the season for veggie turkey, mashed potatoes, and
other foods that just taste better when swimming in a
puddle of vegan gravy. Leahey Foods offers three glutenfree mixes that will liven up your holiday get-togethers.
Their No Chicken Golden Gravy adds a savory mushroom flavor to vegetables, while their No Beef Brown
Gravy is a wonderful topping for potatoes in many
forms. Plus, the unique No Beef Mexican Style Gravy
provides a spice combination ideal for any taco, burrito,
or bean dish. Can’t decide on a single flavor? Leahey
offers a Sampler Pack that includes one pouch of each.
For more information, contact Leahey Foods at
4630 Richmond Road, Suite 265, Cleveland, OH
44128, or call the company at (866) 9-LEAHEY.
Their website is <www.leaheyfoods.com>.
Issue Four 2007 VEGETARIAN JOURNAL
Is Your Sugar Vegan?
An Update on Sugar Processing Practices
By Jeanne Yacoubou, MS
I
1997, THE VEGETARIAN RESOURCE GROUP
published an article on sugar refining, focusing
in particular on the char derived from cow bones
that is used as a filter to whiten cane sugar during the
refining process. In this report, The VRG revisits the
issue of bone char use in the sugar industry, examines
emerging practices for refining sugar, and discusses
alternatives to sugar refined with bone char.
N
WHERE THE SUGAR INDUSTRY STANDS
TODAY
The sugar industry’s practices haven’t changed much
over the past decade. The same large American cane
sugar companies that were operating then are still in
business and have bought out smaller operations in
the United States. There are a few small cane sugar
companies, but there are really only two large cane
sugar enterprises—Imperial/Savannah Foods (Dixie
Crystal) and Florida Crystals. Florida Crystals owns
American Sugar Refining (Domino Foods) as well as
the C&H Sugar Company, both of which now call
bone char “natural charcoal.”
The two major companies refine most of the sugar
sold on store shelves in the United States. The majority
of this sugar is produced and consumed domestically,
although some of the sugar sold by American Sugar
Refining is purchased from Australia or Brazil. (By
comparison, much of the sugar in packaged products
sold in the United States is imported.)
The U.S. companies still use cow bone char as
the preferred filter for cane sugar. The exception is a
plant that American Sugar Refining owns in Yonkers,
NY, which uses an ion exchange system that cost $30
million. Their refining process is quite different and
involves liquid sugar that cannot be filtered through
bone char. Jeffrey Robinson, Technical Director of
American Sugar Refining, said the Yonkers, NY, plant
is only the company’s fourth-highest producing plant
of five plants, yielding approximately 4 million pounds
of sugar per day. On another note, Paul Caulkins, the
Corporate Quality Assurance Manager of Imperial/
VEGETARIAN JOURNAL Issue Four 2007
Savannah Foods, said his company is seriously looking
into overhauling its filtering system at a price tag of $25
million because there have been recent improvements
in ion exchange filter technology.
In 1997, The VRG reported that Refined Sugars,
Inc., maker of Jack Frost sugar, used granular carbon
instead of bone char. Refined Sugars was one of the
companies bought out by Domino, which uses bone
char for most of its sugars. (See the table on page 18
for the names of Domino’s non-organic and organic
brands that are not filtered through bone char.) Jack
Frost sugar is still being produced at their Yonkers plant.
It is available in New York and northern Pennsylvania
and constitutes approximately 0.5 percent of Domino’s
total sugar production.
Imperial Sugar produces a turbinado sugar that has
not been processed through bone char. The Imperial
Sugar Company is part owner of Wholesome Sweeteners, which produces several brands of sweeteners that are
not filtered through bone char. (See table on page 18.)
VegNews published a 2006 article stating that a small
cane sugar company, U.S. Sugar Corporation, uses a
‘new’ sugar refining process that does not involve bone
char. U.S. Sugar has not responded to several phone
calls that The VRG has made regarding their cane
sugar refining process.
WHY BONE CHAR IN THE FIRST PLACE?
The average consumer’s love affair with white, sweet
foods prompted the sugar industry to develop a sugar
refining process that would yield ‘pure’ white crystals.
Hundreds of years ago, sugar refiners discovered that
bone char from cattle worked well as a whitening filter,
and this practice is now the industry standard.
Sugar cane has held an approximately 50 percent
market share of sugar in recent history, with sugar from
sugar beets taking the rest. Beet sugar is not refined
in the same way as cane sugar. Bone char filtering is
never used in beet sugar processing.
Unfortunately for consumers buying prepackaged,
sweetened foods or those eating out, it is difficult to
15
know the source of the white refined sugar that these
foods contain.
Consumers should be forewarned that making a
company inquiry will not usually resolve their concerns
because many manufacturers purchase both sugar produced from sugar beets and sugar produced from sugar
cane. Robinson stated, “Common practice at many
manufacturers is to store refined sugar from both
sources in the same bin, thereby co-mingling the two.”
It is likely that a certain prepackaged or restaurantserved food may contain both cane and beet sugar.
Proportions of each in any given serving probably
vary over time.
THE EXACT ROLE OF BONE CHAR
IN SUGAR REFINING
A bone char filter acts like a crude filter and is most
often used first in cane sugar refining. To sugar scientists, it is a ‘fixed bed adsorption’ filter, meaning that
particles unlike itself stick to it. It is also the most efficient filter for removing colorants; the most frequently
found colorants are amino acids, carboxylic acids,
phenols, and ash.
The bone char is not as good at removing impurities such as inorganic ions, so after being put through
bone char, sugar may be passed through activated charcoal or an ion exchange system as well. The sugar also
goes through several different filters to remove larger
particles. Nevertheless, bone char filters are the most
efficient and most economical whitening filters, thereby
maintaining their position as the industry’s cane sugar
filter of choice.
Connie Hunter, Consumer Relations Specialist
for Domino Sugar and the C&H Sugar Company,
said the bones used to make bone char come from
“non-European cattle.” Robinson told us that American
Sugar Refining purchases its bone char from a Scottish
company, which did not respond to our inquiries.
He said that he has been told these bones come from
cattle that have died naturally in Brazil, India, Morocco,
Nigeria, and Pakistan. The bones are sun-dried and
incinerated for 12 hours at more than 700 degrees
Celsius. During the burning process, all organic matter
that may be present—including viruses, bacteria, and
proteins—is destroyed, leaving only an inert granular
substance that is 10 percent elemental carbon and 90
percent calcium hydroxyapatite.
The other major company that sells bone char to
the sugar industry is the American Charcoal Company,
which was started in 2002 and is located in Wyoming.
According to American Charcoal representative Craig
16
Giles, the company gets its bone char in ready-to-sell
form from Brazil’s cattle industry. Imperial/Savannah
Foods purchases its bone char from both the Scottish
company and American Charcoal.
HOW MUCH BONE CHAR IS USED?
Paul Caulkins, the Corporate Quality Assurance
Manager of Imperial/Savannah Foods, said that little
bone char can be obtained from a single cow “since
only the dense bones of the animal, such as the pelvic
bones, can be used.” After checking with his suppliers,
Caulkins informed us that “one cow averages 82 pounds
of total bone. About one-fourth to one-fifth of the total
weight (between 17 and 20 pounds per animal) is the
load-bearing bone used for char (due to its strength).
Since our yield conversion to char from that is approximately 50 percent, on average, one cow will produce
nine pounds of bone char.”
Sugar companies purchase large quantities of bone
char for several reasons, the first being the sheer size
of their operations. Large commercial filter columns
often measure 10 to 40 feet high and five to 20 feet
wide. Each column, which can filter 30 gallons of
sugar per minute for 120 hours at a time, may hold
70,000 pounds of char. If nine pounds of char is produced by one cow and 70,000 pounds are needed to
fill a column, a simple math calculation reveals that
the bones of almost 7,800 cattle are needed to produce
the bone char for one commercial sugar filter. (We did
not receive a verification of this estimate from another
source.) Furthermore, each refining plant may have
several large filter columns.
Companies use up their supplies of bone char relatively quickly. Since bone char is the first filter used
in the sugar refining process, its granules absorb large
amounts of colorants and impurities. This means that
the overall working life for bone char granules may be
“...those who wish to avoid
bone char processing
altogether (should) purchase
organic sugar and consume
foods that list only organic
sugar or evaporated cane
juice as sweeteners.”
Issue Four 2007 VEGETARIAN JOURNAL
reduced significantly. In general, bone char may last
for five to 10 years, depending on the volume of raw
material filtered through it and the level of impurities
in the sugar. The bone char may be rejuvenated several
times by burning it at 9,500 degrees in a kiln for 20
minutes, but this typically occurs only once.
Over time, some of the char disintegrates and
becomes too small in particle size to filter anymore, so
that portion is screened off. Also, colorants and other
impurities begin to permanently fill the bone char’s
microscopic holes, compromising its effectiveness.
These impurities make the char heavy, and it can’t be
volatilized off when rejuvenated in a kiln. Even with
the massive quantities of bone char that industries
secure, these factors contribute to the need to replenish
their bone char stores regularly.
At this time, the cane sugar industry believes that
only more cow bone char can fill the same roles as well
as bone char. Other technologies, such as reverse osmosis, have been under study for a long time, but they
don’t perform as well as bone char does at the high
temperatures used in the refining process. Perhaps
by the time of our next update on the sugar industry,
bone char will no longer be a mainstay of sugar refining, especially since Caulkins stated that the prices of
bone char, activated carbon, and ion exchange technologies are comparable. What’s needed is improved technology, consumer pressure on the industry to change
its refining methods, and the capital investment—a tall
order for now but maybe a reality one day.
ORGANIC SUGAR: ALWAYS BONE CHAR-FREE
The increasing popularity of organic foods in the United
States has bolstered the production of the organic sugar
industry. In fact, The VRG is happy to report that there
is a large market niche for organic sweeteners.
To maintain its organic integrity, organic sugar is
only minimally processed or not refined at all. Since
bone char is not on the National Organic Program’s
National List of Allowed and Prohibited Substances,
certified USDA organic sugar cannot be filtered through
bone char. In fact, the technical directors of both
Imperial Sugar and American Sugar Refining told
us that organic sugars are only milled and never go
to the refinery where the bone char filters are located.
A common processing aid, lime, is used as a clarifying agent in organic cane sugar processing, removing
cane fibers and field debris. Since lime is on the
National List, it can be used in organic sugar production. However, because the lime itself is synthetic,
no organic sugar processed in this manner can ever
VEGETARIAN JOURNAL Issue Four 2007
be certified 100% USDA Organic; the maximum
certification it can receive is 95% certified organic.
Consequently, any sugar-containing product made
with organic sugar can achieve only a 95% certified
organic rating.
There are a few organic clarifying agents, such as
the seeds of the drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera) and
the edible fruit of Cordia myxa, that could produce
100% certified organic sugar. However, Dr. Stephen
Clarke, Director of Technical Services at Florida
Crystals, said, “These aids are a substitute for the
polyacrylamide materials that we conventionally use
in clarification and not for the lime that is used for
pH adjustment. The ‘natural’ flocculants are basically
acidic polysaccharides extracted from succulent plants
similar to aloe.” Clarke informed The VRG that Florida
Crystals tested some organic clarifying agents approximately two years ago, but their performance was “poor
and inconsistent.” He did say, “Although the potential
is there, the real problem is that another crop has to
be grown and processed.”
Another reason why bone char is not used in organic
sugar production is that its decolorizing function is
neither needed nor desired. U.S. organic laws do not
have any strict standards regarding the color of organic
sugar (like those that exist for conventional white sugar).
Unrefined sugar is naturally light tan to brown, and
the medium to darker colored sugars are often described
as ‘golden.’ “Retail customers seem to prefer this color
and associate it with a more natural, less processed
product,” stated Tom Hasenstaub, the Organic Program
Manager at Florida Crystals. He added that the natural
color of organic sugar “has been somewhat problematic
to certain industrial customers who are trying to formulate organic processed products to emulate the color
profiles of their conventional products.”
At the present time, most organic sugar used in the
United States is imported from Paraguay, Brazil, and
Mexico. Florida Crystals is the only U.S. producer of
organic sugar, with approximately 4,000 acres of rotating organic sugar cane and rice in production and an
additional 900 acres planned for the upcoming growing
season. However, this quantity meets only 20 percent
of U.S. demand. Approximately 80 percent of all
organic sugar produced in the U.S. is used in industries
manufacturing sugar-containing products, while 20
percent is purchased directly by consumers.
The table accompanying this article (page 18) lists
the brands of organic sweeteners that we have determined to be bone char-free, based on correspondence
with the manufacturers.
17
Bone Char-Free Sugars
Produced by U.S. Companies
COMPANY
C&H Sugar
BRAND NAME(S)
C&H Pure Cane Washed Raw Sugar
C&H Pure Cane Certified Organic Sugar
Cumberland Packing Company
Domino Sugar
Sugar in the Raw
Domino Demerara Washed Raw Cane Sugar
Domino Pure Cane Certified Organic Sugar
Florida Crystals
Florida Crystals Demerara Natural Sugar
Organic Evaporated Cane Juice (granulated
and powdered)
Golden Granulated Evaporated Cane Juice
Florida Crystals Milled Cane Natural Sugar
Florida Crystals Certified Organic Natural Sugar
Great Eastern Sun
Hain Celestial Group
Sweet Cloud Organic Raw Cane Sugar
Hain Organic Brown Sugar
Hain Organic Powdered Sugar
Shady Maple Farms
Tropical Traditions
Wholesome Sweeteners
Shady Maple Farms Granulated Maple Sugar
Rapadura Whole Organic Sugar
Light Muscovado Sugar
Dark Muscovado Sugar
Sucanat (granulated and powdered)
Organic Sucanat (granulated and powdered)
NOTE: 100% Pure Beet Sugar is not passed through a bone char filter.
18
Issue Four 2007 VEGETARIAN JOURNAL
Today in the United States, all organic sugar is
produced from sugar cane. According to Ruthann
Geib, the Vice President of the Sugar Beet Growers
Association, there is no organic sugar beet production
in the United States at this time. Clarke noted, “There
are no technical reasons preventing the production
of organic beet sugar; it has been done in Europe.”
WATCH OUT FOR BONE CHAR:
TIPS FOR CONSUMERS
On your next trip to the sugar aisle at the grocery,
you may notice many bags of sugar that are labeled
“100% Pure Cane Sugar.” Most likely, this sugar was
refined using bone char. In contrast, sugar in bags
labeled “100% Pure Beet Sugar” was never passed
through a bone char filter.
Questions soon arise about sugar labeled, for
instance, “Granulated Sugar.” There is no way to tell
based on this phrase alone whether the sugar had been
filtered through bone char. The phrase “100% Sugar”
is equally ambiguous. Supermarket chains that purchase
sugar from a large sugar company but label it as their
own may not indicate which type of sugar it is.
Brown sugar is made by adding molasses to refined
white sugar. Therefore, companies that use bone char
to produce their white sugar will also use it to produce
their brown sugar. The same is true for confectioner’s
sugar, which is refined white sugar with added cornstarch. Invert sugar is filtered through the use of bone
NOTES
FROM THE
char. Fructose may but does not typically involve a
bone-char filter. Molasses, turbinado, demerara, and
muscovado sugars are never filtered through bone char.
Evaporated cane juice is also bone-char free. If in doubt
about any product, concerned consumers should direct
inquiries to the manufacturer.
For now, The VRG suggests that those who wish to
avoid bone char processing altogether purchase organic
sugar and consume foods that list only organic sugar
or evaporated cane juice as sweeteners. Eating prepackaged foods and/or restaurant foods that contain refined
white sugar will always be questionable.
When discussing ingredients, information changes
and mistakes can be made. Please use your own best
judgment about whether a product is suitable for you.
We encourage everyone to be reasonable and realistic.
Use this article with other information to assist you in
making personal decisions, not as a standard that you
or others may not be able to achieve. Don’t let smaller
issues get in the way of larger dietary or ethical decisions.
Always be encouraging to others and do the best you
can, taking into account that neither you nor the
world is perfect.
Jeanne Yacoubou is Research Director for The Vegetarian
Resource Group and holds master’s degrees in philosophy,
chemistry, and education. She wrote Vegetarian Certifications
on Food Labels — What Do They Mean? for VJ Issue 3, 2006.
VRG SCIENTIFIC DEPARTMENT
VRG IN THE NEWS
VRG Nutrition Advisor Reed Mangels, PhD, RD, was interviewed for stories about vegetarian diets in Newsweek,
the Scranton Times, and L.A. Parent magazine. In addition, she has been interviewed numerous times for the
For the Love of Produce show on KSVY Radio in Sonoma, California. Reed and VRG Nutrition Advisor Suzanne
Havala Hobbs, DrPH, RD, with vegetarian nutritionist Ginny Messina, MPH, RD, submitted a letter to the
New York Times concerning the Times publishing an op-ed in which the writer made numerous erroneous and
misleading claims about vegetarian and vegan diets for children. VRG’s Food Service Advisor Nancy Berkoff, RD,
EdD, CCE, is celebrating the seventeenth year of her syndicated Healthy Eating column. The weekly column covers
the healthy aspects of eating a plant-based diet.
VRG OUTREACH
VRG’s Food Service Advisor Nancy Berkoff, RD, EdD, CCE, has been working with Sharon and Don Christensen
and their Vegan Culinary Academy ([email protected]), located in the Napa Valley, CA, to develop new
courses. The VCA offers consulting to health care facilities that would like to add vegan meals to their menus,
has private vegan chefs, and offers long- and short-term vegan culinary classes.
VEGETARIAN JOURNAL Issue Four 2007
19
Vegan Cooking Tips
Simple Sweeteners
W
By Chef Nancy Berkoff, RD, EdD, CCE
E ALL KNOW THAT FRUITS AND GRAINS
should be our usual ‘sweet’ choice, but
sometimes you just gotta give in to sugar.
When the occasion calls for using sugar, you’ll need
to select the correct form for the desired results. You
have many options, but this article will concentrate
on a few of the most popular ones.
Vegan sugar can come from sugar cane, beets,
dates, and other naturally sweet plants. Some vegan
sugars are a bit darker than conventional granulated
sugar and may be a bit coarser in texture. You can refer
to the article on pages 15-19 of this issue of Vegetarian
Journal for a rundown on vegan sugar.
DRY SWEETENERS
Vegan sugar, such as Florida Crystals or Sucanat, can
be used as is to top cookies or pies right out of the oven.
As the baked products cool, some of the sugar will melt,
and some will remain as crystals. This creates a sweet,
crunchy topping. If a fruit salad is not quite as sweet
as you’d like, you can toss the salad, very frugally, with
vegan sugar. For an old-fashioned and attractive side
dish, appetizer, or dessert, sprinkle vegan sugar over
a pink grapefruit half, a thick slice of fresh pineapple,
or pitted fresh peaches. Place on a cookie sheet or
broiler pan and broil for a minute until the sugar is
melted. Serve hot and bubbly.
If you’d like to create your own vanilla sugar, gently
slit a whole vanilla bean in several places and plunge
it in the middle of a bowl or jar of vegan sugar. Cover
and let it sit for several days, stirring occasionally. Vanilla
sugar can be stirred into hot coffee, tea, or grain beverages or into soy or rice milk. It can also be used to
lightly top pancakes, waffles, hot or cold cereal, yogurt,
or sliced fruit.
POWDERED SUGAR
If a non-vegan baking recipe calls for ‘sugar,’ you can
generally use any vegan sugar. If your recipe calls for
‘powdered sugar’ or ‘confectioners’ sugar,’ you can
20
create your own vegan version by grinding vegan sugar
in a food processor, coffee grinder, or spice mill. If you
have lots of time and muscle, you can place the sugar
between sheets of waxed paper and use a hammer or
rolling pin to grind it until smooth. The finished product should be the consistency of cornstarch.
Powdered sugar can be sprinkled by hand or placed
in a spice-sprinkling canister. This gadget—which looks
like a short, fire hydrant-shape can with a removable,
perforated top—is available in most stores with kitchen
supply areas, in large grocery stores, and online. They
are inexpensive and should last a very long time.
Powdered sugar can be sprinkled alone or com-
Quick Frostings
For special occasions, create a rich cake or cupcake
frosting by combining 1/2 cup vegan margarine
with 1/4 cup vegan cream cheese, 2 Tablespoons
vanilla soy or rice milk, 2 teaspoons vanilla extract,
and 4 cups powdered vegan sugar until very well
blended. This will make a plain frosting, but you
can spice it up with the following splashes and
dashes:
H For a lemon frosting, add 1 Tablespoon lemon
juice and 2 teaspoons lemon zest.
H For a chocolate frosting, add 3 Tablespoons
unsweetened cocoa powder.
H For a mocha frosting, add 2 Tablespoons
unsweetened cocoa powder and 1 Tablespoon
instant coffee powder.
H For a green tea frosting, add 1 Tablespoon green
tea powder and 1 teaspoon lemon zest.
This makes about three cups of frosting, enough
to frost two 9-inch cakes or approximately 24
cupcakes.
Issue Four 2007 VEGETARIAN JOURNAL
bined with ground cinnamon; powdered ginger; dried,
ground orange zest; or your favorite spice. You can use
powdered sugar in place of frosting to top carrot cake,
gingerbread, zucchini bread, or cupcakes. Create a
dessert pancake by topping hot pancakes with a thin
layer of fruit preserves, sliced strawberries, and a sprinkle of powdered sugar.
VEGAN CHOCOLATE
There are many vegan chocolate bars on the market.
Beyond eating chocolate, think about using it as a
dessert ingredient. We tried some Terra Nostra Organic
rice milk-based chocolate bars as a coating for chocolate-covered fruit. We broke the plain chocolate bars
(not the ones with fruits or nuts) into small pieces
and placed them in a microwaveable bowl. We added
approximately 1/4-inch of water and microwaved until
the chocolate seemed to become soft, approximately
45 seconds on HIGH for 1/2 cup of chocolate. This
can easily be done on top of the stove, stirring while
NUTRITION HOTLINE
(Continued from page 2)
z
Soup starters. Several companies make ready-to-eat
soups that can also be used as a base for other dishes.
Try organic vegetable or mushroom broth by
Pacific Natural Foods, sold in aseptic quart boxes.
Trader Joe’s carries a similar product, also organic
and packaged in aseptic quart boxes. Their Organic
Tomato & Roasted Red Pepper Soup, for example,
can be cooked with whole wheat elbow macaroni
or barley and your choice of minced vegetables.
Pick up the low-sodium varieties of these products
when at all possible.
z
Staple grains. I keep Hodgson Mill Whole Wheat
Veggie Rotini and Trader Joe’s Organic Whole
Wheat Rotelle Pasta in my pantry at all times.
Cooked, whole grain pasta tossed with pesto and
toasted pine nuts or with olive oil and minced
garlic is a quick and healthful main course. Also
try Near East whole grain blends, such as brown
rice with roasted pecans and garlic or Mediterranean
Curry couscous. Cooked rice is good mixed with
rinsed canned beans for burrito filling.
VEGETARIAN JOURNAL Issue Four 2007
melting the chocolate. Stir the melted chocolate until
it is smooth, and allow to cool for one minute.
While the chocolate is cooling, place your fruit of
choice on a sheet of waxed paper or a non-stick cookie
sheet. The fruit could be fresh, small whole strawberries
that have been washed and patted dry, dried apricots
or figs, dried pineapple or mango chunks, or (if you
have a lot of patience) fresh raspberries. Gently dip
each piece of fruit halfway into the chocolate, swirl
around to coat, and replace on the waxed paper or
baking sheet. Allow to harden for approximately 3045 minutes at room temperature before serving.
If you’d like to make a very fast fudge, melt approximately 1 cup of crumbled vegan chocolate or vegan
chocolate chips, 1 Tablespoon of nonhydrogenated
vegan margarine, vegan sugar to taste, and a touch
of vanilla extract in the microwave or on the stovetop
until the chocolate is melted. Stir very well to combine.
Pour into a glass bowl, gift tins, or muffin cups, and
allow to thicken, which usually takes at least an hour.
There are many other ready-to-eat convenience products out there. In the grocery store, study nutrition
labels and ingredient lists, giving bonus points to
packaged foods with short lists of wholesome ingredients. Then, use those products to help you get through
busy days with health-sustaining, home-cooked meals.
21
Vegging Out with
Kung Fu and Star Trek
I
by Richard Marranca
T WAS NOT LONG AGO WHEN BEING VEGETARIAN
was looked upon as eccentric or radical, but thanks
to many cultural and spiritual changes, this is no
longer the case. Humans always find new influences
and evolve, and fortunately, some of the virtues stick.
For millennia, cultural heroes were hunters and
warriors with giant egos—see Gilgamesh, Achilles,
or the variations on the cowboy archetype. Of course,
spiritual journeyers have always existed—and they
popped out on television in the 1960s and 1970s in
the guises of Mr. Spock (Leonard Nimoy) from Star
Trek and Kwai Chang Caine (David Carradine) from
Kung Fu. Nimoy and Carradine acted brilliantly, with
strength and dignity, showing the nuances of these
complex characters and humor, too.
On Kung Fu, “The
Shaolin acolytes and
priests... could do
amazing feats of skill
and strength. Yet
they were Buddhist
vegetarians.”
Whatever promotes vegetarianism and consciousness is a good thing, and looking back, I was fortunate
to have been influenced by these programs—the ideas
rang true and showed brilliant alternatives to conventional living. They were part of the matrix of other revolutions at the same time, such as the interest in Asian
philosophy, civil rights, women’s rights, animal rights,
the flowering of arts and music, environmentalism,
global thinking, and space exploration.
Isn’t it interesting that TV showcased two outsiders
of mixed ethnic origins whose philosophy, way of being,
and looks were exotic, even strange? After all, it wasn’t
Captain Kirk, Dr. McCoy, or Scotty who was vegetarian, nor was it likely that any of the cowboys or storekeepers on Caine’s trail were refraining from meat.
22
In fact, that’s often how humans present utopian ideals;
they exist in another era. There was once a time when
people were virtuous, or there will be a time…
Let’s take a look at these voyagers from the past
and future—Caine from the 19th century and Spock
from the 23rd century. Typical of mythic heroes, Caine
was an orphan. His father had been an American sailor
and his mother Chinese. During a fierce rain, young
Caine sat outside the door of the Shaolin Monastery
(in China) until the venerable ones let him in. Even
then, he had courage and physical strength, and not
all boys were accepted or later made it through the
grueling asceticism.
The Shaolin acolytes and priests were experts in
philosophy and mindfulness but also in the fighting
art of kung fu. They were masters of chi, that pervasive
energy that exists within and all around us. Chi represents the boundless, flowing universe. And Shaolin
fighting skills were amazing; they had learned from
great masters and from the animal kingdom (the praying mantis and other creatures) and could perform
amazing feats of skill and strength.
Yet they were Buddhist vegetarians. Buddhism
recognizes that all is suffering and that one must promote compassion and meditation to enter nirvana, a
numinous and transcendent state of being. Buddhism
recognizes the interdependence of all life forms. The
first precept—“Do not kill”—is founded upon compassion and unity. According to Professor Sumalee
Mahanarongchai of Thannasat University in Bangkok,
“The existence of humans and animals is
harmoniously based on causal law. In the
far course of transmigration, there is not one
living being that has never been our father,
mother, sister, son, daughter, or any form
of kinship in various degrees.”
Vegetarianism was part of the Shaolin creed, their
method of conscious living and denial of samsara, the
whirlpool of society. Shaolin priests were aware of life
on a small and large scale, realizing as such Buddhists
do, that Indra’s Net of Gems is full of reflections, that
Issue Four 2007 VEGETARIAN JOURNAL
each is part of the whole, as each human, plant, or
animal shares in nature’s bounty—interdependence.
Reaching maturity, Caine passed all the tests of skill
and knowledge and became one of the great monks
of his monastery. Caine was ready to go forth into the
world as a beacon of peace; that’s what he learned from
Master Po (Keye Luke) and others. But life often throws
seemingly terrible things at good people.
It had been Master Po’s lifelong desire to visit the
Forbidden City during a special festival. So it was that,
amidst a long line of pilgrims, Master Po and Caine met
on the road. Everything was beautiful and timeless—
master and disciple reunited. Suddenly, the emperor’s
nephew emerged on a litter. The guards shoved Master
Po aside, but the blind master casually threw the guard.
After all, bullies need an education, too.
Another guard threw a spear into Master Po’s body.
For once, Caine wasn’t mindful and threw the spear
into the emperor’s nephew. Master Po forgave Caine
“Caine equated the
birth of the buffalo’s
calf with that of the
hunter’s baby; the
hunter had an opening
of enlightenment and
stopped his murder
spree.”
for his trespass as his beloved mentor died in his arms.
With a secret society and a variety of killers on his trail,
Caine left China. He chose the American West because
he also wanted to find his half-brother.
Each episode had action, nature, mystery, and a life
lesson. In Cry of the Night Beast (1974), Caine stopped
a hunter from killing a buffalo and her calf. (That was
a normal occurrence in American history; the buffalo
population plummeted from 200 million to just a few
thousand.) Caine said that the purpose of the buffalo
was “to grow, to live.” In fact, Caine braved dangers
and found milk to care for the calf when it strayed
from its mother. He equated the birth of the buffalo’s
calf with that of the hunter’s baby; the hunter had
an opening of enlightenment and stopped his murder
spree. The hunter even said he would become a farmer.
In another episode, Caine witnessed a bank robbery.
The robbers shot at him, but he wouldn’t pick up a gun
to shoot back. Of course, later on, he knocked them
VEGETARIAN JOURNAL Issue Four 2007
out in his own way. At one point, he said to the sheriff’s
son (who was impressed with Caine’s ability to shoot
a bow) that he did not believe in harming animals and
eating animal flesh. For Kwai Chang Caine, archery was
a meditation; the archer became one with the target.
In the episode when Caine found his brother, he
didn’t want to ride a horse, even though others were
pursuing them on horseback. He didn’t want to burden
the horse. He only got on the horse because his brother
was in trouble and he didn’t want them to become
separated; even then, he apologized to the horse.
This was new for TV, and while many found it
fascinating, I suspect that others found it a bit strange.
Yet it had long-range influences on our culture. Viewers
might have tuned in because Kung Fu featured the Old
West and had its share of bars and dancing girls and
cowboys and fist fights. However, along the way, they
breathed in this new way of being that echoed back
to Asia’s axial age. Others were already living a similar
path and found reflections of their own beliefs.
When I shared this essay, some friends talked about
their enthusiasm for Kung Fu, Star Trek, and the subsequent Trek spin-offs. Several mentioned that Caine
and Spock were heroes to them. One person also mentioned that, in an episode of The Next Generation, characters spoke of a cruel era when humans experimented
on animals. The dream of axial age logic and compassion converged in the brilliance of Star Trek’s Mr. Spock.
Although Star Trek hurls us into imagination and
utopian possibility, the issues of life are analogous. The
mind, with its fight-or-flight response, creates similar
dramas and dilemmas whether on earth or in the far
reaches of outer space. Science fiction (myth and science
in fictional form) is an arena to explore new ideas and
ways of being, such as time travel or universal peace.
The Starship Enterprise had as its mission “to boldly
go where no man has gone before, to seek out new
civilizations.” The colorful, multicultural, wise, and
courageous crew helped others in both typical and
strange ways—the hero’s quest on a galactic scale. It’s
ironic that the crew (just like Caine) was peaceful but
always found itself fighting out of dangerous situations.
They contended with tribes as well as advanced civilizations and all kinds of menacing natural phenomena,
from gangsters and Klingons and Romulins to deathly
energy fields. This is because television needs drama
even more than philosophy, but it’s also reflective of
human consciousness, so full of paradoxes, personae,
threats, territoriality, shadows, and violence.
Spock was a science officer and second in command after Captain Kirk (William Shatner). He was
23
a hybrid—his father was a Vulcan diplomat, and his
mother was an emotional human—whose planet had
turned to peace after millennia of violence. Vulcan, one
can say, is the dream of earthlings—will we get there?
Spock was extremely capable and logical, an überman.
He was brilliant, with an encyclopedic mind, and many
times saved the Enterprise from destruction. In fights
he was unbeatable.
If Kirk could beat Spock at chess, it is only because
sometimes illogic wins out. Spock could play music,
and in one episode, he most closely identified with
some ‘hippies’ looking for utopia, whereas the hippies
referred to Kirk as “Herbert.”
“Spock realized things
were wrong.... He even
stated, ‘I’ve eaten
meat and enjoyed it,’
in a disgusted way.”
In the time-traveling episode All Our Yesterdays
(1969), Spock, Kirk, and Dr. McCoy (DeForest Kelly)
visited a doomed planet named Sarpeidon. For everyone to escape, an old librarian assisted in transporting
them to some period of history. The Atavachron sent
Kirk to the 18th century, where he was accused of witchcraft, while Spock and McCoy vanished into an ice age.
Returning to atavistic behavior, Spock soon fell in love
with Zarabeth, a beautiful woman who had gotten
on the bad side of her government and was sent into
oblivion. Spock tasted meat and nearly killed McCoy.
Soon, he realized things were wrong and looked for a
way back. He even stated, “I’ve eaten meat and enjoyed
it,” in a disgusted way.
In another time-travel episode, The City on the Edge
of Forever (1967), Kirk, Spock, and McCoy were sent
into the 1930s by the Guardian of Forever. McCoy
saved a woman named Edith Keeler (who ran a soup
kitchen), which threw history out of kilter and would
have allowed the Nazis to win World War II. Kirk and
Spock must allow history to take its normal course.
The complication was that Kirk has fallen in love with
Edith. While Spock worked on a primitive computer
to examine the permutations of history and to know
what actions to take, Kirk went to the store and bought
bologna and bread for himself and vegetables for Spock.
In other episodes and in subsequent movies, we saw
more of Spock’s peculiarities—he could put people to
sleep with the Vulcan neck pinch; he could read minds
by using the Vulcan Mind Meld. In Star Trek IV: The
Voyage Home, he saved Earth from destruction by melding with Gracie the whale (in San Francisco in 1986)
and found out she was pregnant. He meditated, too.
In some Star Trek movies, Spock became more spiritual
and monkish, more like Kwai Chang Caine. I wonder
if there is a message here, that all this technological
wizardry will bring us back to where we began in the
spiritual traditions.
These programs, based on wisdom and right action,
influenced millions of viewers. We may not realize
what was achieved because it was done with undeniable shrewdness. In fact, vegetarianism was something
authentic and taken for granted; it was the right thing
to do based on compassion and logic. The achievements
of Caine and Spock were not for themselves but for
others. True to their nature of the spiritual path, they
did not look to the fruits of their labor. As if waves
rolling from a tossed stone, wisdom reaches us—from
long ago or from the musings on a shining future.
Richard Marranca had a Fulbright to teach American literature
and culture at the University of Munich from 2002 to 2005.
Presently, he teaches and writes fiction, essays, and poetry.
Bequests
VRG depends on the generous contributions of our members and supporters to continue our educational projects. Though
the world may not become vegetarian in our lifetimes, we realize that we are planning and working for future generations.
Š Your will and life insurance policies enable you to protect your family and also to provide a way to give long-lasting
support to causes in which you believe. Naming The Vegetarian Resource Group in your will or life insurance policy
will enable us to increase our work for vegetarianism.
Š One suggested form of bequest is: I give and bequeath to The Vegetarian Resource Group, Baltimore, Maryland, the sum
of
dollars (or if stock, property, or insurance policy, please describe).
Š To be sure your wishes are carried out, please speak with your attorney specifically about writing the correct information
in your will.
24
Issue Four 2007 VEGETARIAN JOURNAL
Shakti Restaurant
Vegan-Friendly Dining in Costa Rica
F
INDING VEGAN MEALS WHEN TRAVELING CAN BE
difficult. Fortunately, in downtown (el centro)
San José, Costa Rica, there is a vegetarianfriendly restaurant that has been serving healthy traditional and local foods since 1987. Located a couple
of blocks from the nation’s court and justice buildings,
the Shakti Restaurant serves complete plates-of-the-day,
salads, soups, veggie burgers, fresh juices, and more.
With plenty of seating, the Shakti Restaurant has
a dedicated and reliable staff. On your first visit, order
the plate-of-the-day, called ‘el especial del dia’ in Spanish.
This will be a complete and satisfying lunch—fresh
juice, salad, soup, brown rice, beans, vegetables, and a
small postre (pudding) for dessert, all for under US$5.
SHAKTI RESTAURANT
Location: Avenida 8, Calle 11 / 13,
Barrio La Soledad, San José,
Costa Rica
To a taxi driver: 100 metros al sur de la parada de
los buses a Turrialba (100 meters
south of the Turrialba bus stop)
Phone: 222-4475 (You can place takeout orders as well.)
Hours: 7 A.M. to 5 P.M., Monday
through Saturday
The owners are a great young Costa Rican couple,
Heika Castro and Raul Salas, who have proudly worked
their business for years. Customers come and go, enjoying hearty (or light) meals at reasonable prices and
drinking juices like el vampiro (the vampire), el digestivo,
or even a potentsex juice (orange, pineapple, and ginger
whizzed together). The tables fill and turn again as
dishes are served piping hot or fresh-tossed. From raw
to steamed to casseroled to baked, vegetarian and vegan
eating can be had with confidence at the Shakti.
Costa Rica is full of freshness, from the air to the
sea, from the volcanoes to the clouds. Everything grows
here—blackberries, kiwi, taro root, orange mandarins,
miniature vegetables, and leafy lettuces, to name just
a few items. There is an abundance of options. If you
VEGETARIAN JOURNAL Issue Four 2007
look in the right places, you can get some great vegan
dishes. Keep in mind that, generally, the pesticide laws
in Central America are lax. Ask for organics wherever
you go to create the awareness and a demand in the
marketplace for the importance of clean produce.
PATACONES
Request patacones (tasty munchies) wherever you visit
in Costa Rica. They are especially well done on the
country’s Caribbean side and in San José. Basically,
patacones are mashed and fried plantains. They are
round and slightly thicker than a corn chip, but they
too are served as a food to dip into salsa, guacamole,
or frijoles molidos (puréed beans).
Here is how to make them:
1) Gather four green plantains, your closest bottle
of vegetable or light olive oil, and some salt.
2) To peel a plantain, cut the tips off of each end.
Carefully slice the skin down one side (taking care
not to cut the plantain itself ) and pry the skin off
with your fingers.
3) Cut the peeled plantains into 1-inch (3 centimeter)
thick chunks.
4) Heat oil on medium heat until hot; fry the plantain
pieces on both sides until they are golden.
5) Flatten the fried plantains, gently, to approximately
1/4-inch (1 centimeter) thick. Use the bottom of a
glass, bowl, or jar to flatten the plantains or place
the plantains between two pieces of waxed paper
or in plastic baggies and then flatten. Press gently,
or the plantains will smash and stick to everything.
6) Fry again in the hot oil until both sides are golden
brown and crispy to your personal taste. Drain the
fried plantains on a paper towel before serving, and
sprinkle with a little salt for flavor.
7) Serve with dips, melted vegan cheese, hot peppers,
or scrambled tofu with tomatoes and onions. Also,
they are a great side dish with grains or soups and
as bocas (appetizers).
Thanks to Elizabeth Striebel for contributing this article to VJ .
She is vegan and has lived in Costa Rica for many years.
25
VRG SELECTS TWO $5,000 COLLEGE
SCHOLARSHIP WINNERS FOR 2007
Thank you to an anonymous donor who funded
two VRG $5,000 college scholarships for high school
students who have actively promoted vegetarianism.
Once again, this year, we have received applications
from across the spectrum. Finalists varied from a student raised on a cattle farm to an immigrant from a
meat-eating culture who didn’t really know English
until sixth grade but spoke on vegetarianism in front
of his whole school. Another student did a four-year
research project on vegetarianism. Though some of
the applicants were hard-core protestors or came from
vegetarian families, many were from conservative religious backgrounds and were more traditional in their
outlook. We wish we had funding to give scholarships
to more individuals, but following a difficult decision
process, we’re proud to announce that this year’s winners are Nora Allen from Connecticut and Jason Levy
from Illinois.
NORA ALLEN
Nora stated, “After speaking with my
boss at the grocery store where I work
in Connecticut, we began carrying
Yves’ Veggie Cuisine Products, including deli ‘meats’ and chili bowls (containing TVP), as well as soy macaroni
and cheese. We also started carrying
some Tofutti products, such as the fudgesicles and pintsized containers. While they had Amy’s and Morningstar
Farms products before I had requested them, they are
now... adding new products. (I had to request those
burger crumbles!) I have noticed a growing increase
in how many meat substitutes people are buying, as
well as products such as soymilk. The Boca and Amy’s
products seem to do the best, and Silk soymilk is very
popular as well. Many of my friends’ parents have also
been keeping some of these items for me in their houses
and now consume them themselves.”
Nora told VRG about another one of her projects:
“As for some exciting news, I am working with one
of the dietitians at the nursing home where I work.
She and the food services director are in the process
of adding more vegetarian-friendly items. Some recent
successes have been adding veggie burgers available as
26
an alternate daily, as well as peanut butter and jelly
sandwiches. They are now keeping soymilk on hand,
and the dietitian is also developing a new cycle of
menus. I am helping her to find one meat-free alternate daily (not including fish!). I also explained that
vegetarians don’t eat fish, and it is now no longer
served to vegetarian patients. I lent her a few of my
cookbooks, as well as provided her with some useful
websites to share with the kitchen.”
For two of her interest patches for Girl Scouts,
Nora used veganism in the requirements, including
preparing vegan meals for meat-eating teenagers and
teaching them about the vegan diet. While at a field
hockey camp on a college campus, she had a long talk
with the food services manager. He was thrilled to hear
all her suggestions, as he needed ideas for an incoming
vegan student, which he never had before.
Nora chose a college that is not completely veganfriendly. “I did this because I am intent on leaving my
mark on the school,” she said. “I welcome a challenge
and know that I am paving the way for future vegan
students. I spoke to the dining services and am going
to work with them on planning a more extensive vegan
menu. A weekly vegan option will not suffice—I’m a
person, I still need to eat every day!”
Nora hopes to be a registered dietitian and to incorporate veganism into her career. “With all I have gained
from going vegan, I feel it is only right by sharing what
I’ve learned. By becoming a dietitian, I hope to show
how the vegan diet can be the solution for everyone.”
JASON LEVY
Jason Levy was the president and
founder of the first animal rights
group at Elgin High School in Elgin,
Illinois. As a result of collecting nearly
600 signatures from students and faculty, he convinced his school cafeteria
to serve veggie burgers as well as a
fried vegetable and rice dish. Even with
all of the activists she works with, Marta Holmberg
from PETA plainly stated, “Jason is AMAZING.”
Jason’s group sponsors monthly information tables
at school, which is the maximum frequency allowed.
Issue Four 2007 VEGETARIAN JOURNAL
Jason convinced his teachers to use humane mouse
traps instead of glue traps. He has also written articles
about vegetarianism for the school newspaper and has
placed pro-vegetarian ads in the publication. In addition, he’s organized a movie screening at school, where
he showed a pro-vegetarian movie and provided vegan
food literature.
Jason has been highly active in his community as
well. He has influenced local restaurants that provide
vegetarian meals to post stickers in the windows indicating so, and he hosts a vegetarian table one night a week
at a local music venue called The Clearwater Theater.
He also organizes animal rights demonstrations around
town, where he’s done everything from dressing up like
a giant chicken to donning a zombie costume.
Jason works at a business that sells and mail orders
popcorn. He has set up a vegetarian display at his workplace and has even developed vegan varieties of its
products, using Earth Balance for the margarine and
Road’s End for a cheese popcorn. He believes people
will buy these for both health and ethical reasons.
On a personal level, Jason said he convinced his
mother, his grandmother, numerous friends, classmates,
and teachers to go vegetarian. Jason’s perfect life in five
years would be to live in a world that lives by ahimsa
(non-violence), where people are practicing non-violence in all aspects of their lives, including when they
sit down to dinner. He stated, “Unfortunately, this
does not look as if this will be likely to happen within
the next five years, but until then, I will work tirelessly
for that day to come. Hard work is not unheard of in
my family. My mother works hard seven days a week
just to make ends meet. I plan to major in political
science so that I can some day have an active role in
politics and work for a pro-vegetarian candidate or
organization.”
The VRG will award two $5,000 scholarships
in 2008. Visit <www.vrg.org> to apply.
You must be a graduating high school
senior in 2008. The deadline is Wednesday,
February 20, 2008. If you wish to fund
an additional scholarship, call (410)
366-8343 or e-mail [email protected]
We greatly appreciate the support
of the following individuals/businesses
in honor of VRG’s Silver Anniversary!
$50 Supporters
Emily Thayer Campbell Š Fred J. Carrier Š Barbara Lovitts Š Tom Lowdenkamp Š Jo Marie
Elsie P. Mitchell Š Marilyn Montenegro Š Mrs.Winston’s Green Grocery, Inc Š Sammy Munoz
Celia Marie Pechak Š James Rademacher Š Richard Schwartz Š Barbara Shiffler
Soyfoods Association of North America Š Joan Stahl Š E. Weiss
George Warner Williams Š Meredith Wright
$100 Sustaining Member
John Astin Š Carol and Ron Burmeister Š Sarah Ellis, RD Š Judy Hecht Š Carol J. Heller
David Herring, MS Š Daniel Romeo Š Bill Shurtleff Š Wayne Smeltz and Annabelle Simpson
$500 Contributors
Desiree Carlson, MD
$1,000+ Garden of Health
Anonymous Š David McLaughry and Susan Petrie
VEGETARIAN JOURNAL Issue Four 2007
27
SCIENTIFIC UPDATE
By Reed Mangels,
PhD, RD, FADA
A REVIEW OF RECENT SCIENTIFIC PAPERS RELATED TO VEGETARIANISM
Adequate Calcium Important
for Vegan Bone Health
How much calcium do vegans need? A recently published study from the U.K. helps to provide the answer.
Researchers from Oxford University studied more than
34,000 adults. Subjects included meat-eaters, fish-eaters,
lacto-ovo vegetarians, and vegans. Subjects were asked
about their diet and exercise habits and if they had had
a fractured bone in the past six years. Average calcium
intakes of vegans were lower than the other groups, and
more than three-quarters of the vegans had a calcium
intake below the U.K. recommendation of 700 milligrams of calcium daily. Approximately 1,800 subjects
reported one or more fractures, with the wrist, arm,
and ankle being the most common fracture sites.
Vegans had a 30 percent higher fracture rate than the
other groups. When only those vegans who consumed
at least 525 milligrams of calcium a day were examined, the difference in fracture rates among the groups
disappeared. In other words, meat-eaters, fish-eaters,
lacto-ovo vegetarians, and vegans getting at least 525
milligrams of calcium all had a similar risk of fracturing a bone, while vegans with lower calcium intakes
had a higher risk of fracture. Protein intake did not
appear to affect fracture risk in this study. These results
suggest that it is important for vegans to get adequate
calcium from sources like kale, bok choy, collards,
mustard greens, calcium-set tofu, calcium-fortified
soymilk or juice, or a calcium supplement.
Appleby P, Roddam A, Allen N, Key T. Comparative
fracture risk in vegetarians and nonvegetarians
in EPIC-Oxford. Eur J Clin Nutr 2007 Feb 7.
Advance online publication.
How Many Fruits and
Vegetables Do You Eat?
The U.S. Dietary Guidelines recommend eating at
least three to five servings of fruit and four to eight
servings of vegetables daily. However, a 2005 survey
of close to 350,000 adults in the U.S. found that, on
average, people in the United States eat 1.6 servings
28
of fruit and 3.2 servings of vegetables, well below recommendations.1 When we look at teens, the numbers
are even more troubling. On average, high school-aged
boys and girls ate less than two servings of vegetables
and less than two servings of fruit daily.2 Students ate
fewer fruits and vegetables as they moved from junior
to senior high school and after high school graduation.
This is of special concern because the teen years are
times when lifelong dietary habits are being developed
and because kids who eat more fruits and vegetables
have stronger bones. We know vegetarians are above
average in many ways. We hope that one of these is
the number of servings of fruits and vegetables eaten.
1
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2007.
Fruit and vegetable consumption among adults—
United States, 2005. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly
Rep 56:213-17.
2
Larson NI, Neumark-Sztainer D, Hannan PJ, Story
M. 2007. Trends in adolescent fruit and vegetable
consumption, 1999-2004. Project EAT. Am J Prev
Med 32:147-50.
People Who Eat a Plant-Based
Diet Live Longer
A large study that is being conducted in 10 European
countries aims to look at dietary patterns and health in
older people. More than 500,000 people, age 60 and
older, are included in this investigation. In one part of
this project, approximately 74,000 participants were
divided into three groups based on their dietary pattern. One group, which had the highest ‘plant-based’
score, had high intakes of vegetables, fruit, dried beans,
grains, and vegetable oils. People in this group tended
to be from France, Greece, Italy, and Spain. Another
group, with the lowest ‘plant-based’ score had high
intakes of meat, dairy products, margarine, and potatoes and low intakes of fruits, vegetables, and grains.
Many people from Sweden and Denmark were in this
group. A third group was intermediate with medium
amounts of fruits, vegetables, meat, and dairy products
and an intermediate ‘plant-based’ score. The group
with the highest ‘plant-based’ score had a markedly
Issue Four 2007 VEGETARIAN JOURNAL
lower mortality (risk of dying from any cause) than
either of the other two groups. These results are similar
to those seen in California Seventh-day Adventists and
in elderly Japanese. Eating a more plant-based diet
appears to lead to a longer life.
Barnia C, Trichopoulos D, Ferrari P, et al. 2007.
Dietary patterns and survival of older Europeans:
the EPIC-Elderly Study (European Prospective
Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition). Public
Health Nutr 10:590-98.
Harvesting Vegetables and
Grains May Result in Fewer
Animal Deaths Than Many
Previously Thought
Both academic research and media reports have popularized the idea that harvesting crops like wheat, soybeans, and corn kills large numbers of mice, voles, and
other field animals. Because these crops are the basis
of many vegetarians’ diets, some have used these findings to question the ethical basis of vegetarian and
vegan diets. A new report examining the issue, however,
concludes there is little evidence to support this view.
Andy Lamey, a doctoral student at the University of
Western Australia, has re-examined an earlier analysis
by Steven Davis, an animal scientist at Oregon State
University, which concluded that a relatively small
number of animals were killed to produce grass-fed
beef. Lamey raises key questions about the number
of animal deaths caused by farm machinery compared
to those due to animal predators and about the statistics
that Davis used. In addition, Lamey points out that
animal agriculture poses many more risks to humans
(such as slaughterhouse accidents) than does vegetable
production. Based on his analysis, Lamey concludes
that vegetarians and vegans should not change their
diets due to a concern about field animal deaths.
Lamey A. 2007. Food fight! Davis versus Regan on the
ethics of eating beef. J Soc Philosph 38:331-48.
300,000 people in the United States are diagnosed with
this cancer, and the incidence rate is rising. Researchers
in Australia studied more than 1,000 adults over an 11year period to see which factors were associated with
skin cancer. Even when factors like sun exposure and
skin color were taken into account, people who ate a
lot of red or processed meat and high-fat dairy products
had a greater risk of developing squamous cell cancer.
This was especially true for people who had already
had skin cancer. Those eating more fruits, vegetables,
and whole grains and having a lower fat diet had a 54
percent lower risk of developing squamous cell cancer.
Of course, the most important way to reduce risk of
skin cancer is to avoid excess sun exposure and to use
sunscreen. Eating generous amounts of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains can also reduce your risk.
Ibiebele TI, van der Pols JC, Hughes MC, et al. 2007.
Dietary pattern in association with squamous
cell carcinoma of the skin: a prospective study.
Am J Clin Nutr 85:1401-1408.
More Reasons to Eat Organic
Most people would agree that organically produced
foods are better for the environment because synthetic
fertilizers and pesticides are not used. Several recent
studies also suggest that organically grown foods have
a higher level of some key nutrients than do conventionally grown foods. A study1 of organically grown
kiwis found that they had higher levels of vitamin C,
potassium, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus.
Organically grown kiwis also had a darker green color
and a thicker skin and tended to ripen faster than conventionally grown kiwis.
Organically grown wheat was shown to be comparable to conventionally grown wheat in terms of the
quality of baked products made from each kind of
wheat and the nutritional value.2 Despite not being
treated with fungicides, organically grown wheat was
no more likely to be contaminated with fungus than
conventionally grown wheat.
1
Amodio ML, Colelli G, Hasey JK, et al. 2007. A
comparative study of composition and postharvest
performance of organically and conventionally
grown kiwifruits. J Sci Food Agric 87:1228-36.
2
Mader P, Hahn D, Dubois D, et al. 2007. Wheat
quality in organic and conventional farming:
results of a 21 year field experiment. J Sci Food
Agric (in press).
Diet and Skin Cancer
Skin cancers, including melanoma, basal cell cancer,
and squamous cell cancer, are the most common of all
cancers. New research suggests that diet may play a role
in the development of at least one kind of skin cancer,
squamous cell cancer. Each year, between 200,000 and
VEGETARIAN JOURNAL Issue Four 2007
29
Special Gift Rates
for Vegetarian Journal
25% Off Vegetarian Journal Subscription Rates
Give your friends, relatives, and yourself a gift subscription to Vegetarian Journal for the holidays.
The recipients of your gifts will be reminded of your thoughtfulness four times over the course
of the year as the new issues of Vegetarian Journal appear in their mailboxes! Until December 31,
2007, we will be happy to send your Vegetarian Journal gift subscription and your personalized
note to anyone in the United States for the special price of $15 per subscription ($27 to Canada
and Mexico; $37 to other foreign countries), which represents a savings of 25% off our regular
subscription rate. This offer expires on December 31, 2007.
Feel free to copy these order forms and to mail in as many gift subscriptions as you would like.
Mail $15 (in U.S. funds; see above for foreign rates) per gift to Vegetarian Journal, P.O. Box 1463,
Baltimore, MD 21203. Or you can charge your gift orders over the phone with a MasterCard or
Visa by calling (410) 366-8343 Monday through Friday between 9 A.M. and 5 P.M. EST.
Vegetarian Journal
Holiday Gift Subscription
Vegetarian Journal
Holiday Gift Subscription
Name:
Address:
Name:
Address:
Zip:
Zip:
Special Message:
Special Message:
From:
From:
Vegetarian Journal
Holiday Gift Subscription
Vegetarian Journal
Holiday Gift Subscription
Name:
Address:
Name:
Address:
Zip:
Zip:
Special Message:
Special Message:
From:
From:
30
Issue Four 2007 VEGETARIAN JOURNAL
reviews
VEGAN
SUCCESS:
SCRUMPTIOUS,
HEALTHY,
VEGAN
RECIPES FOR
BUSY PEOPLE
By Susan Daffron and James H. Byrd
Vegan Success is written in a casual,
friendly manner, as if your neighbor just dropped in to share some
cooking tips. It contains a vegan
glossary, a shopping list (including
brand names the authors prefer
but not all of the fruits and vegetables that you will need for the
recipes), label-reading tips to avoid
non-vegan ingredients, and substitution suggestions. Then, the
authors get right to the recipes,
which are generally simple to prepare, easy to modify for different
tastes, and delicious.
The book includes sections
on Tofu, Tempeh, Lentils, and
Beans; Vegetable-Centered Dishes;
and Vegan Sandwiches; among
others. Even longtime vegans will
find new ideas for using tofu and
vegetables. My family liked the
Slow-Roasted Tofu, the Baked
Eggplant, and the Real Gravy,
and my 17-year-old test subjects
loved the Berry Cobbler.
The book would have benefited
from more careful editing to avoid
factual mistakes, such as the inclusion of butter (a non-vegan ingredient) in one recipe, and missing
instructions. (Do I really want
to sauté a whole onion?) The use
of the word “vegan” in so many
recipe titles was redundant given
VEGETARIAN JOURNAL Issue Four 2007
the name of the book. Additionally, there are no nutritional
analyses. However, the authors
definitely make clear that being
vegan does not mean sacrificing
delicious taste, a variety of ingredients, or quick meals.
Vegan Success: Scrumptious, Healthy,
Vegan Recipes for Busy People (ISBN
0974924512) is published by Logical
Expressions, Inc. The 224-ppage book
retails for $19.95 and can be purchased
online at <www.vegansuccess.com> or
in bookstores. Reviewed by Jane Michalek.
HOT DAMN &
HELL YEAH!
RECIPES
FOR HUNGRY
BANDITOS
AND THE
DIRTY SOUTH VEGAN
COOKBOOK
By Ryan Splint and Vanessa Doe
This book offers two primarily
vegan cookbooks in one. Both
were originally written in a ’zine
format but are now presented
in book form, each starting from
one of the book’s covers. You’ll
find sauces (including Bourbon
Whiskey BBQ Sauce), breads, side
dishes, soups and chilies, main
dishes, and plenty of desserts.
Among the creative recipes
that Ryan Splint shares in Hot
Damn and Hell Yeah! are Hush
Puppies (delicious served with
red beans and rice), Cranberry
Scones, Vietnamese-Style Curry,
Mighty Chewy Brownies, and
Apple Enchiladas.
Vanessa Doe’s creations in
The Dirty South Vegan Cookbook
include Rosemary Sweet Biscuits,
Fake Fried Chicken (made with
seitan), Injera (Ethiopian bread)
with Ethiopian stews, Blackeye
Pea Cakes, and Espresso Cake.
Black-and-white, hand-drawn
illustrations are included in this
book. Nutritional analyses are
not provided, and not all the
recipes are low in fat.
Hot Damn & Hell Yeah! Recipes
for Hungry Banditos and The Dirty South
Vegan Cookbook ( I S B N 0 9 7 7 0 5 5 7 0 1 )
is published by Microcom Publishing
and is available in bookstores or online
a t < w w w . m i c ro c o s m p u b l i s h i n g . c o m > .
Reviewed by Debra Wasserman.
ALIVE IN 5
By Angela Elliott
Recipes in most
raw food cookbooks necessitate
many ingredients and a great deal
of the chef ’s time, which makes
Alive in 5 all that much more
refreshing. This book’s gourmet
raw recipes can be prepared in five
minutes. Readers will enjoy dishes
such as Unbelievable Chili (made
with sun-dried tomatoes, avocados,
almonds, plus more), Zippy ‘Tuna’
Rolls (made with raw sunflower
seeds), and Life’s a Bowl of Cherries Sorbet (cherries and agave
nectar). Note the recipes do not
include nutritional information.
Alive in 5 (ISBN 1-557067-2202-66)
is published by Book Publishing Company.
This 128-ppage book retails for $14.95
and can be found in local bookstores
or ordered online. Reviewed by Debra
Wasserman.
31
reviews
SIX ARGUMENTS FOR A
GREENER DIET
By Michael F. Jacobson,
PhD, and the Staff
of the Center for Science
in the Public Interest
Did you know that a lacto-ovo
vegetarian diet uses 54 percent less
energy and generates 52 percent
fewer greenhouse gases and 50
percent less sulfur dioxide equivalents than a typical American diet?
How about that, if everyone in
the U.S. went vegetarian, we could
expect a health care cost savings of
as much as $84 billion annually?
Or that the saturated fat and cholesterol in animal products are
responsible for 65,000 fatal heart
attacks every year? Did you know
that farm animals use twice as
much water as the 9 million people
living in the New York City area?
Or that 140 million cows, pigs,
and sheep and 9 billion chickens
and turkeys are slaughtered annually in the United States?
These are some of the facts
presented in Six Arguments for a
Greener Diet. Michael Jacobson
and the staff at the Center for
Science in the Public Interest
(CSPI) have done a masterful
job of documenting many of the
problems of an animal-based diet,
advising consumers about ways
to change their eating habits,
and making recommendations
to change national policy. The six
arguments mentioned in the title
are less chronic disease and better
overall health, less food-borne illness, better soil, more and cleaner
water, cleaner air, and less animal
32
suffering. (In the interest of disclosure, I wrote the chapter on
chronic disease but have no financial interest in this book.)
The book’s lively writing style
and colorful illustrations make
it an entertaining and engrossing
text. Some readers may be troubled
by the fact that, while this book
promotes moving towards vegetarianism and provides resources for
those choosing a vegetarian diet,
it does not suggest that everyone
become vegetarian.
I believe that Six Arguments
for a Greener Diet offers a means
to introduce many people who
are not yet vegetarian to the benefits of reducing animal product
consumption, not only to help
themselves but to help the environment and reduce animal suffering.
Even if you’re already convinced
that it’s best to eliminate animal
products from your diet, Six
Arguments will give you the facts
that you need to convince others
to move towards a vegetarian diet.
Six Arguments for a Greener Diet
(ISBN 0-889329-0049-11) is published by CSPI.
It has 256 pages and retails for $14.95.
You can order this book at <www.Eating
Green.org>. Reviewed by Reed Mangels,
PhD, RD.
APPETITE
FOR PROFIT
By Michele Simon
Have you ever wondered why, rather
than healthy food
options, junk food is always featured in commercials, in your
child’s classroom, in sports arenas,
or just about anywhere you look
today? Michele Simon, a public
health lawyer and activist, explains
the reasons this occurs in her new
book, Appetite for Profit.
Why is it so difficult to put
an end to this practice? You’ll read
about the food industry lobbying
at the local and national level,
front groups, and other tactics that
greatly influence nutrition policy.
Discover why major food companies engage in massive public relations campaigns to protect their
livelihood and to deflect the threat
of government regulations and
lawsuits. For instance, have you
ever witnessed companies that
produce unhealthful food products
donating money for exercise programs in your community? This is
just one tactic they use to bolster
their image. Food companies also
realize they will not have to change
their practices if they keep consumers focused on education and
individual choice. In other words,
place all the emphasis on individual responsibility rather than corporate responsibility.
While reading this book, I
couldn’t help but think how little
has changed on this front in more
than 30 years. In the mid-1970s,
I worked with NYPIRG (a Nader
group) to get rid of junk food
in vending machines. In many
ways, it seemed hopeless back
then; today, the situation is even
more dire with all the corporate
buy-outs and resulting power in
the hands of a few. Nevertheless,
Michele Simon offers her readers
concrete ways to fight back.
Appetite for Profit (ISBN 1-556025-99329) is published by Nation Books. This 416page book retails for $14.95 and can be
found in local bookstores. Reviewed by
Debra Wasserman.
Issue Four 2007 VEGETARIAN JOURNAL
VRG Catalog
Books
Meatless Meals for Working People—
Quick and Easy Vegetarian Recipes ($12)
by Debra Wasserman. We recommend
using whole grains and fresh vegetables.
However, for the busy working person, this
isn’t always possible. This 192-page book
contains over 100 fast and easy recipes
and tells you how to be a vegetarian within
your hectic schedule using common, convenient foods. Spice chart, low-cost meal
plans, party ideas, information on fast food
restaurants, soy dishes, and more. Over
90,000 copies in print.
Simply Vegan ($14.95) by Debra Wasserman and Reed Mangels, PhD, RD, CCE.
These 224 pages contain over 160 quick
and easy vegan recipes, a complete vegan
nutrition section, and a list of where to
mail order vegan food, clothing, cosmetics,
and household products. Vegan menus
and meal plans. Over 85,000 copies sold.
VEGETARIAN JOURNAL Issue Four 2007
Conveniently Vegan ($15) by Debra
Wasserman. Prepare meals with all the
natural foods products found in stores today,
including soymilk, tempeh, tofu, veggie hot
dogs. . . . You’ll find 150 recipes using convenience foods (including canned beans)
along with grains, fresh fruits, and vegetables. Menu ideas, product sources, and food
definitions included. (208 pp.)
The Lowfat Jewish Vegetarian
Cookbook—Healthy Traditions
from Around the World ($15) by Debra
Wasserman. Over 150 lowfat international
vegan recipes with nutritional breakdowns,
including Romanian Apricot Dumplings,
Pumpernickel Bread, Russian Flat Bread,
Potato Knishes, North African Barley
Pudding, and much more. Menu suggestions and holiday recipes. (224 pp.)
Vegan Passover Recipes ($6) by Chef
Nancy Berkoff. This 48-page booklet features vegan soups and salads, side dishes
and sauces, entrées, desserts, and dishes
you can prepare in a microwave during
Passover. All the recipes follow Ashkenazi
Jewish traditions and are pareve.
Vegan Meals for One or Two—Your Own
Personal Recipes ($15) by Nancy Berkoff,
EdD, RD, CCE. Whether you live alone, are
a couple, or are the only one in your household who is vegetarian, this 216-page book
is for you. Each recipe is written to serve one
or two people and is designed so that you
can realistically use ingredients the way they
come packaged from the store. Information
on meal planning and shopping is included,
as well as breakfast ideas, one-pot wonders,
recipes that can be frozen for later use,
grab-and-go suggestions, everyday and
special occasion entrées, plus desserts and
snacks. A glossary is also provided.
Vegan in Volume ($20) by Nancy Berkoff,
EdD, RD. This 272-page quantity cookbook
is loaded with terrific recipes serving 25.
Suitable for catered events, college food
services, restaurants, parties in your own
home, weddings, and much more.
No Cholesterol Passover Recipes ($9) by
Debra Wasserman. Includes 100 eggless
and dairyless recipes. Seder plate ideas.
(96 pp.)
Vegan Handbook ($20) edited by Debra
Wasserman and Reed Mangels, PhD, RD.
Over 200 vegan recipes and vegetarian
resources. Includes sports nutrition, seniors’
guide, feeding vegan children, recipes
for egg-free cakes and vegan pancakes,
Thanksgiving ideas, vegetarian history,
menus, and more. (256 pp.)
Vegan Microwave Cookbook ($16.95) by
Chef Nancy Berkoff, RD, EdD, CCE. This 288page cookbook contains 165 recipes, some
of which take less than 10 minutes to cook.
It also includes information for converting
traditional recipes to the microwave,
microwave baking and desserts, making
breakfasts in a snap, and suggestions
and recipes for holidays and parties.
33
addresses many circumstances of living as a
vegetarian. You will find answers for everything from food ingredients to veggie kids
to how to cook tofu. Includes 35 popular
recipes as well as sources for thousands
more. A perfect gift for a new vegetarian
or for a seasoned vegan looking for
unusual items, such as vegan bowling
shoes or ballet slippers.
Vegan Menu for People with Diabetes ($10)
by Nancy Berkoff, EdD, RD, CCE. This 96page book gives people with (or at risk for)
diabetes a four-week meal plan, exchange
listings for meat substitutes and soy products, and recipes for enjoyable dishes, such
as Creamy Carrot Soup, Tangy Tofu Salad,
Baked Bean Quesadillas, and French Toast.
Vegan and Vegetarian FAQ—Answers
to Your Frequently Asked Questions ($15)
by Davida Gypsy Breier and Reed Mangels,
PhD, RD. Based on answers given to some
of the over 150,000 visitors every month
to The Vegetarian Resource Group website
<www.vrg.org>, this 272-page guide
Order Form
For Children and Teens
Leprechaun Cake and Other Tales ($10) by
Vonnie Crist, recipes by Debra Wasserman.
A vegan story/cookbook for children ages 8-11,
with glossary of cooking terms. (128 pp.)
The Soup to Nuts Natural Foods Coloring
Book ($3) by Ellen Sue Spivak.
The Teen’s Vegetarian Cookbook ($9.99)
by Judy Krizmanic. This book is packed with
health info, easy recipes, college cuisine,
glossary terms, and more. (186 pp.)
Bumper Stickers
Bumper Stickers ($1 each, 10+ $.50 each)
“Be Kind to Animals—Don’t Eat Them”
“Vegetarians Are Sprouting Up All Over”
Vegetarian Journal’s Guide to Natural
Foods Restaurants in the U.S. and Canada
($18). Whether you’re traveling on business
or planning a much-needed vacation, this
book is certain to make your dining experiences better. This fourth edition lists more
than 2,200 restaurants, vacation spots, and
local vegetarian groups to contact for more
info about dining in their areas. (448 pp.)
Vegetarian Journal
Vegetarian Journal subscriptions are $20
per year in the U.S., $32 in Canada/Mexico,
and $42 in other countries.
Reprints from Vegetarian Journal
Non-Leather Shoes, Belts, Bags, etc. ($5)
Guide to Food Ingredients ($6)
To order, mail to The Vegetarian Resource Group, P.O. Box 1463, Baltimore, MD 21203; place your order over the phone Mon-FFri 9 a.m.
to 5 p.m. EST at (410) 366-88343; fax your order form to (410) 366-88804; or order online at our website <www.vrg.org>.
‰ Check or Money Order (Enclosed)
ITEM
QUANTITY
PRICE
SUBTOTAL
Vegetarian Journal Subscription _______________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
SUBTOTAL $
SHIPPING AND HANDLING* $
MARYLAND RESIDENTS, ADD 5% SALES TAX $
DONATION $
TOTAL $
34
Credit Card ‰ VISA ‰ MasterCard
NAME
ADDRESS
CITY
ZIP
PHONE (
)
CREDIT CARD #
EXPIRATION DATE
SIGNATURE
STATE
COUNTRY
*SHIPPING AND HANDLING CHARGES
For orders under $25, add $6 ($10 Canada/Mexico) for shipping.
For orders over $25, shipping is free within the continental U.S.
For other foreign orders, inquire about shipping charges first.
Issue Four 2007 VEGETARIAN JOURNAL
Vegetarian Action
A Healthy Morning By Melody Austin
M
SUNDAY HETTLEMAN, AN ACTIVIST
become vegetarian for health reasons, like Morning
who raises health and environmental awareSunday herself. A few years ago, her doctors told her
ness in the African-American community in
that she needed to lessen the amount of meat in her
Baltimore, knows that it isn’t always easy to find healthdiet to help control her asthma. Morning Sunday took
ful meal options. However, it is even more difficult for
their advice to a whole new level and decided to share
members of lower income minority groups who live
her knowledge with anyone who would listen.
in the underprivileged areas. “Vegetarianism
For a project that has the potential to
is a wonderful thing, but it’s not available
make such a big impact, producing Cable
to all people in the city,” she said.
Crabs has required fairly little effort. “It’s
Morning Sunday was used to having
very easy,” she explained. “I record a tape,
ripe fruits and fresh vegetables available
I send it in, and they play it a few times
everywhere she went in her native Hawaii,
a week until I send another one.”
but once she moved to Baltimore, “I couldn’t
In addition to these projects, Morning
eat the way I was used to!” She related a
Sunday contributes to other activities that
story about how she once walked 10 blocks
aim to educate all ages. She has started the
looking for something healthful to eat. She
Urban Conservative Core to teach children
Morning Sunday
had reason to believe that she was not the
in Baltimore about the animals that share
only one in her neighborhood who craved fresh fruits
Gaia (Mother Earth) with them. She is also working
and vegetables. She also thought that many people
with political organizations, such as the Black Greens
weren’t making healthful food choices and wouldn’t
of Baltimore, that educate the public and promote
consider a lifestyle like vegetarianism simply because
healthier eating habits within the community.
they didn’t know much about it.
The resources that Sunday Morning uses for her
She decided to do something about that. She knew
shows and outreach activities are easily accessible to
that many people who could benefit from her message
the public. Her main sources of information are health
didn’t have regular Internet access, so she wrote to local
professionals and books from the health sections of
radio stations for two years, looking for opportunities
public libraries. She also takes advantage of resources
to share with a large audience how enjoyable eating
that can address her questions about nutrition, such as
vegetarian meals can be. Eventually, WEAA 88.9 FM
the Call-a-Dietitian Day that The Vegetarian Resource
in Baltimore, the radio station owned by Morgan State
Group sponsors one Friday each month.
University, made her the host of her own show, The
Why is promoting vegetarianism in one’s commuEnvironmental Report. The show focused on environnity a good thing? “Vegetarianism is like the spokes
mental and health information and advised vegetarians
on the wheel of a bike,” Morning Sunday said. “The
and others who were curious about vegetarian diets
healthy spokes are necessary to keep the wheel, which
about getting proper nutrition from a plant-based diet.
is our bodies, in good shape. When the wheels are
Morning Sunday’s next step was to try her hand
taken care of, they let the bike move, and the bike
at television. All this took was calling the county’s
is our community.” If most people do their parts to
executive office, and someone simply connected her
take care of the environment, animals, and themselves,
to Baltimore’s public access station. She developed and
their entire community will reap the benefits.
hosted a show called Cable Crabs that helps viewers
Melody Austin is a student at Butler University. She wrote this
avoid having a ‘crabby’ food experience without meat.
article during a high school internship with The VRG.
In particular, the show addressed an audience that has
ORNING
VEGETARIAN JOURNAL Issue Four 2007
35
Great Resources from The VRG!
Vegetarian Journal isn’t the only form of information that The Vegetarian Resource Group provides for its members and
the public. Make sure that you check out these other helpful resources!
Online Version of Vegetarian Journal’s
Guide to Natural Foods Restaurants
VRG-NEWS E-Mail Newsletter
Going on a trip? Get the most up-to-date listings for vegetarian,
vegan, or veggie-friendly restaurants from the online version
of The Guide to Natural Foods Restaurants in the U.S. and
Canada. Just visit <www.vrg.org/
restaurant/index.htm> to find
details about establishments in
all 50 U.S. states, all of Canada’s
provinces and territories, and
Puerto Rico!
VRG-NEWS is a free electronic newsletter
that provides subscribers with a calendar
of upcoming vegetarian events across the
United States, vegan recipes, fast food chain
and ingredient updates, product reviews,
announcements about new books and free
samples, and all the latest news from VRG. This update keeps
tens of thousands of readers current about veggie happenings
until the next issue of Vegetarian Journal comes their way.
See <www.vrg.org/vrgnews/index.htm> to subscribe!
The VRG Parents’ List
Local Events E-Mail Newsletter
Are you raising a vegetarian or vegan child? If so, join The
VRG Parents’ List on Yahoo! Groups and begin exchanging
ideas with more than 1,000 other moms and dads of veggie
kids. Discussions range from creating tasty snacks for toddlers
to attending non-vegetarian gatherings,
from helping kids handle peer
pressure to shopping for leather
and wool alternatives! You don’t
even need a Yahoo! ID to join,
just an e-mail address. Go to
<http://groups.yahoo.com/
group/vrgparents/> to sign up!
Do you live in Maryland; Washington,
D.C.; northern Virginia; or southern
Pennsylvania? Then you might
be interested in signing up for
The VRG’s Local Events e-mail
newsletter. You will get all of the details
about local events, vegetarian potlucks, and
other veg-friendly events in Baltimore and the surrounding
areas. The newsletter also lets subscribers know about volunteer days at The VRG’s office and outreach opportunities,
such as conferences and fairs, throughout the Mid-Atlantic.
To sign up, send an e-mail request to [email protected]
VRG-
For More Information, Call (410) 366-8343 or Visit WWW.VRG.ORG!
g
VR .
CHANGE SERVICE REQUESTED
THE VEGETARIAN RESOURCE GROUP
VEGETARIAN JOURNAL
P.O. BOX 1463
BALTIMORE, MD 21203
www.vrg.org
Printed on recycled paper!
News
NONPROFIT ORG.
U.S. POSTAGE
PAID
BALTIMORE, MD
PERMIT NO. 9169

Similar documents

×

Report this document