Because My Father Always Said He Was the

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Sherman Alexie
Sherman Alexie

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Willem Dafoe
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Christopher Columbus
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Mariah Carey
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W. E. B. Du Bois
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Benjamin Grierson
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Because My Father Always Said He Was the
Only Indian Who Saw Jimi Hendrix Play 'The
Star−Spangled Banner' at Woodstock
Sherman Alexie
Online Information
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Only Indian Who Saw Jimi Hendrix Play 'The Star−Spangled Banner' at Woodstock
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Table of Contents
Author Biography.........................................................................................................2
Plot Summary................................................................................................................4
Victor's Father.......................................................................................................8
Victor's Mother.....................................................................................................8
Reservation Relationship....................................................................................10
The Power of Music............................................................................................11
Point of View......................................................................................................13
Historical Context.......................................................................................................15
The Persian Gulf War.........................................................................................15
Native Americans in the Early 1990s.................................................................15
Native−American Activism................................................................................16
Critical Overview........................................................................................................18
Table of Contents
Critical Essay #1..........................................................................................................21
Critical Essay #2..........................................................................................................26
Critical Essay #3..........................................................................................................31
Media Adaptations......................................................................................................45
Topics for Further Study............................................................................................46
Compare & Contrast..................................................................................................47
What Do I Read Next?................................................................................................49
Further Reading..........................................................................................................51
Copyright Information...............................................................................................55
"Because My Father Always Said He Was the Only Indian Who Saw Jimi Hendrix
Play 'The Star−Spangled Banner' at Woodstock" was first published in Sherman
Alexie's 1993 short story collection, The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven.
Although Alexie, a Spokane/Coeur d'Alene Indian, had previously published three
books, this collection gave him much greater exposure and was a critical and popular
success. In 1998, when Alexie adapted part of the collection into a movie entitled
Smoke Signals, the bookand Alexiereceived even more exposure. Alexie is one of
many late twentieth−century Native−American authors who have found acceptance
with the general public in recent years. Many feel this literary renaissance was sparked
by N. Scott Momaday's Pulitzer Prize−winning 1968 novel, House Made of Dawn,
which details the alienation of the modern Native American in American society.
Like many of Alexie's works, the stories in this collection all take place on or around
the Spokane Indian Reservation in Washington State, where Alexie grew up, and
detail the many hardships that Native Americans face on reservations. In addition,
many of the stories draw upon characters created in Alexie's earlier works. In
"Because My Father Always Said He Was the Only Indian Who Saw Jimi Hendrix
Play 'The Star−Spangled Banner' at Woodstock," one of these characters, Victor,
recalls his father's separation from the family through several forms of escape. The
story addresses the turbulent nature of reservation relationships, the widespread use of
alcohol among Native Americans, and the power of music. Most importantly, the story
underscores the struggle to survive against the loss of cultural identity. The story can
be found in the paperback version of The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven,
which was published by HarperPerennial in 1994.
Author Biography
Alexie was born on October 7, 1966, in Spokane, Washington. A Spokane/Coeur
d'Alene Indian, Alexie grew up in Wellpinit, Washington, on the Spokane Indian
Reservation. At birth, Alexie was diagnosed with hydrocephalusan abnormal swelling
of the brain and head due to excess fluidand he underwent brain surgery at six months.
The hydrocephalus gave Alexie an enlarged skull, which prompted merciless teasing
by other children on the reservation. As a result, Alexie spent most of his time alone,
reading in the Wellpinit School Library.
Alexie's father, an alcoholic, was frequently absent from home, while Alexie's mother
worked as a clerk at the Wellpinit Trading Post and sewed quilts to support Alexie and
his five siblings. Alexie transferred to a mostly white high school in Reardenthirty
miles off the reservationto get the credits he needed to attend college. Alexie was
accepted by the high school community and became captain of the basketball team
and class president. He graduated with honors in 1985 and was awarded a scholarship
to Gonzaga University in Spokane. However, the pressure to fit in led him to abuse
alcohol for the first time in his life. In 1987, he dropped out and moved to Seattle,
where he worked busing tables. The same year, he gave up drinking and enrolled at
Washington State University, where he took a poetry class taught by Alex Kuo. After
reading Alexie's first poem, Kuo told Alexie that he should be a writer. Inspired,
Alexie produced several poems and short stories by the time he graduated in 1991. In
1992, he published his first two books, a poetry collection entitled I Would Steal
Horses and a poetry and short fiction collection entitled The Business of
Fancydancing. The latter was named the 1992 Notable Book of the Year by the New
York Times Book Review.
In 1993, Alexie proved to be even more prolific, publishing three books: a poetry
collection entitled First Indian on the Moon; a poetry collection entitled Old Shirts &
New Skins; and a collection of short stories entitled The Lone Ranger and Tonto
Fistfight in Heaven. The last title, which includes the story "Because My Father
Author Biography
Always Said He Was the Only Indian Who Saw Jimi Hendrix Play 'The
Star−Spangled Banner' at Woodstock," attracted the attention of both critics and
readers. The book received even greater exposure when Alexie used part of it as the
basis for his screenplay for the film Smoke Signals (1998). In 1995, Alexie published
his first novel, Reservation Blues, which won the American Book Award the
following year. Alexie's recent works include a short−story collection entitled The
Toughest Indian in the World (2000) and a collection of poetry and short stories
entitled One Stick Song (2000). In addition to his published writing, Alexie is also
noted for his performances, particularly his poetry readings. In June 2001, Alexie
became the first four−time winner of the World Heavyweight Championship Poetry
Bout, an annual challenge held in Taos, New Mexico. Alexie still lives and works in
Author Biography
Plot Summary
"Because My Father Always Said He Was the Only Indian Who Saw Jimi Hendrix
Play 'The Star−Spangled Banner' at Woodstock" begins with the narrator, Victor,
remembering his father. Victor's father quickly becomes the focal point of the story, as
Victor explains how his father went to prison after beating up a National Guard private
at a peace demonstration. The event was heavily documented, since Victor's father
was a Native American. Victor recalls how, even though somebody new was killed
every day in prison, his father was able to escape any serious confrontations. After he
was released, Victor's father hitchhiked to Woodstock, where he saw Jimi Hendrix
play "The Star−Spangled Banner."
Victor notes that, twenty years later, his father had played his Jimi Hendrix tape with
the live song on it over and over again. He also notes the ritual that he and his father
had followed when playing the tape. When Victor would hear his father come in late
at night from drinking, Victor would start the tape. His father would listen for a little
while, then pass out at the kitchen table, while Victor would fall asleep under the table
by his father's feet. Victor notes that his father felt guilty about this ritual and so in the
mornings would try to make it up to Victor by telling him stories. Sometimes these
stories centered on Victor's mother, whom his father remembers as very beautiful. In
fact, Victor notes that as the years went by and his parents' relationship deteriorated,
Victor's father remembered his wife as increasingly more beautiful.
Victor notes how his parents had a violent relationship, which was often based on
nights of heavy drinking and making love. Victor talks more about his relationship
with his father, citing one memory in particular, a drive home from a basketball game
in blizzard−like conditions. Jimi Hendrix's version of "The Star−Spangled Banner"
comes on the radio, inspiring Victor to talk to his father something they did not often
do. After the song is over, Victor tells his father that he is sad that his generation has
not had a real war to fight. His father tells him that he is lucky and that there is only
war and peace in life, with nothing in between.
Plot Summary
On another occasion, Victor's father tells him about the first time that he danced with
Victor's mother, a conversation that leads his father into talking about how kids in
Victor's generation know nothing about romance or music. Victor remembers how he
used to stay awake at night listening to his parents making love, a concept that is alien
to his white friends. Victor thinks that this positive experience makes up for the
negative experience of watching his parents fight all the time. Victor notes that
sometimes he would listen to his parents making love while dreaming about his father
at Woodstock and says that he has seen footage of the music festival. However, Victor
also admits that he still does not know what it was like for his father.
Victor recalls how his father drove them to Seattle a few years back to visit Jimi
Hendrix's grave. While his father idolizes Hendrix, his mother is derogatory towards
Hendrix's drug−related death. This disagreement turns into a fight, and Victor notes
that, in contemporary Native−American marriages, fights get more destructive as the
relationship falls apart. With the increasing number of fights, Victor's father buys a
motorcycle as a means of escape from his life. While the bike helps his father cut
down on his drinking, it also closes him off even more from his family. One night,
Victor's father wrecks the bike and almost dies in the accident. Victor's mother
supports her husband while he gets well, but after that she returns to her old life as
traditional Native−American dancer.
Victor talks about his father's ability to alter his memories and says that this is
something he has learned from his father. Victor remembers how his father moved
away and how his mother raised him after that. Victor talks to his mother, asking her
why his father left, and she says that Victor's father would rather be alone than hang
around other people. After he leaves, Victor catches his mother looking through old
photographs and realizes that she misses his father but that she does not want him
back. Victor starts listening to blues music and thinks that he can identify with how his
father felt at Woodstock.
One night, Victor imagines his father pulling up on his motorcycle and asking Victor
if he wants to go for a ride. Victor realizes that it is not real but goes along with the
Plot Summary
illusion, anyway. He goes outside to wait for his father, and when his mother comes
outside to fetch him from the cold night, he says that he knows his father is coming
back. Victor's mother wraps him in a blanket and goes back to sleep. Victor stays up
all night waiting and imagining, then finally goes back inside to have breakfast with
his mother.
Plot Summary
Victor is the narrator, who talks about the events that lead to his father leaving him
and his mother. Victor has grown up in a household defined by sex and violence.
When he was young, his father went to prison for two years for beating up a National
Guard private at a peace demonstration. When his father returns, Victor watches his
parents fight constantly, which is a negative experience, although it is canceled out in
his mind by the positive experience of listening to his parents make love. Victor has
difficulty communicating with his father, who has a hard time opening up. However,
Jimi Hendrix's version of "The Star−Spangled Banner," as well as other music,
becomes a medium through which Victor is able to talk to his father. In one
conversation with his father, Victor says that he wishes that his generation had a war
to fight. His father says he is lucky that they are in peacetime, especially since Native
Americans should not be fighting for a country that has been killing them from its
very beginning.
Victor's father often talks about his past relationship with Victor's mother, which he
remembers fondly. However, Victor's mother tells her son a different story. Victor
realizes that his father remembers the past as he would have liked it to be, not as it
was, and that his father has passed this belief in false memories and the imaginary to
Victor. When Victor's father ultimately leaves, Victor has trouble remembering the
exact way that it happened. After his father leaves, Victor listens to a lot of music,
especially the blues. One night, when Victor is missing his father the most, he
imagines his father's motorcycle pulling up to their house to take him for a ride.
Although he knows it is not real, Victor goes along with the illusion and waits on the
porch all night for his father. In the morning, he goes inside and shares a breakfast
with his mother.
Victor's Father
Victor's father lives his life in the past, which eventually drives him away from Victor
and his mother. Victor's father has lived a hard life. When he was young, he attended a
peace demonstration, where he ended up beating a National Guard private. This action
earned him two years in prison, where he was constantly under the threat of being
killed or molested. After getting out of prison, Victor's father hitchhiked to Woodstock
to see Jimi Hendrix play "The Star−Spangled Banner." Based upon this experience,
Jimi Hendrix becomes the most important person in his life. After his many nights of
drinking, Victor's father comes home to listen to Hendrix until he passes out. Music is
one of the few ways that Victor's father is able to open up to Victor, and when he does,
he tells Victor that kids his age do not understand romance or music. However,
Victor's mother lets Victor know that his father is not good at either romance or music.
The relationship between Victor's parents is volatilebased mainly on drunken parties
and lovemakingalthough Victor's father remembers it as being better in the past. In
fact, Victor notes that his father has the ability to remember things as they should have
been, not as they really were. Because of this, as the relationship with his wife
deteriorates, Victor's father remembers her as being increasingly more beautiful in the
past. This inability to let go of false memories, as well as his inability to open up to his
family, eventually pushes Victor's father away from the family. When Victor's father
buys a motorcycle, this situation gets even worse, because he now has a means of
literally escaping his home life. He rides his motorcycle until he crashes it, and after
he recovers, he leaves Victor and his mother. He travels to various locations in the
West and sends frequent postcards to Victor, although the frequency lessens with time.
Victor's Mother
Victor's mother used to be a traditional Native−American dancer. She met her husband
at a party where they were the only two Native Americans. Although Victor's father
has fond memories of their time together, his mother tells Victor that his father was
Victor's Father
always half crazy. She says that their best times were when he fell into a drunken
sleep while they were making love. Victor's parents have little in common beyond
their drunken parties and lovemaking. They fight constantly, which eventually drives
them apart. When Victor's father ultimately leaves them, Victor and his mother try to
go on with their lives, but they both miss Victor's father and look through old pictures
of him. When Victor goes on the porch one cold night to wait for his father to come
back, Victor's mother covers Victor in a blanket and leaves him to his thoughts. In the
morning, Victor's mother shares a breakfast with her son.
Victor's Father
War The story describes both physical and cultural wars. Victor references actual
wars, such as Vietnam, when he remembers how his father beat a guard at a peace
demonstration. In the photograph of the event, Victor notes his father's warlike
appearance, saying, "my father is dressed in bellbottoms and flowered shirt, his hair in
braids, with red peace symbols splashed across his face like war paint." Later, when
Victor tells his father that "my generation of Indian boys ain't ever had no real war to
fight," Victor's father says that he is "lucky" that there are no wars going on and that
there is only "war and peace with nothing in between." Victor's father also questions
Victor's desire to fight for a country that has "been trying to kill Indians since the very
beginning." Victor notes that cultural wars take place off the reservation, too, such as
when his father goes to prison for beating the guard. "Although his prison sentence
effectively kept him out of the war, my father went through a different kind of war
behind bars." In prison, Victor's father, like everybody else, lives under the constant
threat of being killed by someone from a different culture. As he notes to Victor:
"We'd hear about somebody getting it in the shower or wherever and the word would
go down the line. Just one word. Just the color of his skin."
Reservation Relationship
In the story, Victor describes what relationships are like on a reservation. One of the
biggest social problems on reservations is alcoholism, and both of Victor's parents are
heavy drinkers. Says Victor, "My mother and father would get drunk and leave parties
abruptly to go home and make love." Alcohol and sex form the foundation of their
marriage, which is destructive and unstable. Says Victor, "their love was passionate,
unpredictable, and selfish." Victor also compares modern Native−American marriages
on reservations to traditional Native−American marriages. "A hundred years ago, an
Indian marriage was broken easily. The woman or man just packed up all their
possessions and left the tipi." However, since early settlers first started intruding on
Native−American lands, Native Americans have become focused on cultural and
physical survival. As a result, when a modern Native−American marriage deteriorates,
"it's even more destructive and painful than usual," as Victor notes. This is because
modern Indians tend to "fight their way to the end, holding onto the last good thing,
because our whole lives have to do with survival."
The Power of Music
Music serves many purposes in the story. For Victor's father, music becomes an
escape from his daily reality, especially when it is coupled with alcohol. For example,
Victor notes how his father listens to his tape of Jimi Hendrix's "The Star−Spangled
Banner" repeatedly while drinking. Says Victor, "He'd sit by the stereo with a cooler
of beer beside him and cry, laugh, call me over and hold me tight in his arms." Later in
the story, Victor's father buys a motorcycle and attaches "an old cassette player to the
gas tank so he could listen to music." The motorcycle and music are an effective
combination for escaping his situation, so much so that Victor's father "stopped
drinking as much" and "didn't do much of anything except ride that bike and listen to
music." Music also becomes a means of communication between Victor and his
father, who has a hard time opening up. Says Victor, "Music turned my father into a
reservation philosopher. Music had powerful medicine."
In particular, Jimi Hendrix's version of "The Star−Spangled Banner" becomes a
catalyst for getting Victor and his father to talk about Victor's mother, war, and what it
means to be a Native American. Says Victor, "Those were the kinds of conversations
that Jimi Hendrix forced us to have. I guess every song has a special meaning for
someone somewhere." Music also becomes a passion for Victor, who sees it both as a
means of gaining insight into life and as a way of understanding his father. At one
point, Victor notes why he wanted to play the guitar. Says Victor, "I just wanted to
touch the strings, to hold the guitar tight against my body, invent a chord, and come
The Power of Music
closer to what Jimi knew, to what my father knew." Even after Victor's father has left
the family, music is a way for Victor to connect with him. Victor listens to the blues
and thinks: "That must have been how my father felt when he heard Jimi Hendrix.
When he stood there in the rain at Woodstock."
The Power of Music
Point of View
The story is told from the first person point of view, a fact established by the use of
the word "my" in the first sentence of the story: "During the sixties, my father was the
perfect hippie, since all the hippies were trying to be Indians." In first person works,
the story is narrated by one of the characters, who gives the reader his or her view of
the events in the work. first person narratives like this one are very personal. Since
Victor talks to readers directlyinstead of having his thoughts and feelings related to the
reader through an outside, third person narratorreaders feel closer to Victor.
As Victor remembers his father's life and experiences, the setting changes several
times. These setting changes are not arbitrary. Each time, the setting is important to
the narrative. When the story begins, Victor is remembering his father's arrest at a
Vietnam peace demonstration. His experiences in Walla Walla State Penitentiary, the
next setting that Victor describes, are important because they highlight the war theme
of the story. Also, because he survives his prison experience, Victor's father is inspired
to go to the Woodstock Festival. Says Victor, he "got out of prison just in time to
hitchhike to Woodstock to watch Jimi Hendrix play 'The Star−Spangled Banner." This
experience instills a deep love of Hendrix and his song in Victor's father, and becomes
the controlling force in his lifeand by extension, in Victor's life.
Victor remembers one of the rituals in their relationship, which involved playing
Hendrix's version of "The Star−Spangled Banner" for his father when he came home
from a night of drinking. Says Victor, "My father would weep, attempt to hum along
with Jimi, and then pass out with his head on the kitchen table." Meanwhile, Victor
"would fall asleep under the table" and stay with his father until the morning. Even the
reservation setting where Victor grows up plays an important role in the story. Victor's
father feels the need to escape his reservation lifeand his familyand tries to do so
through music and alcohol. In fact, Victor directly associates alcohol problems with
reservation life at one point, when he is describing what it was like the night he
thought his father might come back for him. Says Victor, "It was so quiet, a
reservation kind of quiet, where you can hear somebody drinking whiskey on the
rocks three miles away."
In the story, Jimi Hendrix's music becomes a living force in the lives of Victor and his
father. In this way, Alexie uses personification, a literary technique by which a
non−human object or ideain this case Hendrix's recorded musicis described as having
human qualities. Says Victor, "Jimi Hendrix and my father became drinking buddies.
Jimi Hendrix waited for my father to come home after a long night of drinking." This
is technically impossible, since music is not alive and so does not have human
consciousnessa necessary prerequisite to being able to "wait" for anything. On another
occasion, Hendrix's music helps ensure that Victor and his father get home safely in
near−blizzard conditions. Victor and his father are driving on treacherous roads, when
suddenly Hendrix's version of "The Star−Spangled Banner," the favorite song of
Victor's father, comes on the radio. Says Victor, "My father smiled, turned the volume
up, and we rode down the highway while Jimi led the way like a snowplow."
Victor notes that his father idolizes Hendrix so much that, at one point, he "packed up
the family and the three of us drove to Seattle to visit Jimi Hendrix's grave." This
unnatural obsession with Hendrix helps to further isolate Victor's father from his
family, which eventually leads to the divorce between Victor's parents. Victor asks his
mother, "Was it because of Jimi Hendrix?" Victor's mother notes that Hendrix did play
a part in the divorce: "This might be the only marriage broken up by a dead guitar
Historical Context
The Persian Gulf War
The Persian Gulf War, also known simply as the Gulf War, began on August 2, 1990,
when Iraq invaded Kuwaitpresumably in an attempt to steal the small country's large
oil supply. Although the United Nations Security Council imposed economic
sanctions on Iraq, Saddam Hussein, Iraq's leader, continued to increase his military
forces in Kuwait. On August 6, the United States and its allies began to occupy nearby
Saudi Arabia to prevent an attack on the Saudi oil supply. This combined military
buildup was known as Operation Desert Shield. On November 29, the United Nations
Security Council gave Hussein a deadline of January 15, 1991, to peacefully withdraw
his forces. At the same time, the Security Council authorized the use of force by the
United States and its allies if Hussein did not comply. Hussein ignored the deadline,
and on January 18, Operation Desert Storm was launched. Under the leadership of
United States General Norman Schwarzkopf, the United States and its allies began a
sustained aerial assault on Iraq and effectively destroyed Iraq's military forces;
government and military installations; transportation and communication networks;
and oil refineries. On February 24, the allies launched Operation Desert Sabre, a
ground assault from Saudi Arabia into Kuwait and southern Iraq that faced relatively
little resistance. On February 28, President George Bush called a cease−fire.
Native Americans in the Early 1990s
The 1990 United States census revealed that roughly two million Native Americans
were living in the country, an increase of more than 40 percent since 1980. This
increase made Native Americans one of the fastest−growing ethnic groups, even
though they were still less than 1 percent of the United States population. More than
60 percent of Native Americans lived in urban areas such as Los Angeles, although
most were in the habit of returning to reservations for annual visits. The census also
Historical Context
revealed some disturbing facts about the social problems that many Native Americans
continued to face, including lack of education, poverty, and alcoholism. Of the more
than one million Native Americans who were twenty−five years or older, roughly 65
percent had finished high school, while less than 10 percent had completed a
bachelor's degree or higher level of education. In addition, Native Americans were the
poorest population group in the United States. More than 27 percent of
Native−American families were living below the poverty level. The median household
income for all Native Americans was less than twenty thousand dollars per year, while
on reservations, it was even lowerthirteen thousand dollars per year. However, one of
the biggest social problems, especially on reservations, was alcoholism.
Native−American alcoholism rates were three times as high as those in the rest of the
United States, and occurrences of fetal alcohol syndrome births were also high.
Native−American Activism
Two hot issues in Native−American activism in the early 1990s were the protection of
burial lands and artifacts and the preservation of religious freedom. In the 1980s,
federal agencies such as museums retained Native−American human remains and
sacred artifacts, when many spiritual leaders preferred that these items be laid to rest
in the earth. Concerned Native−American organizations lobbied heavily to have these
burial items returned to them. In 1990, these groups scored a victory when Congress
passed the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA). The
act required all universities, museums, and other agencies that received federal funds
to inventory any Native−American bones, human remains, and sacred artifacts that
they held. In addition, these agencies were required to notify the tribal governments
that they held these artifacts and to return any or all of these items to the respective
tribal governments upon request.
The passing of this act signaled a victory for Native Americans on a culturally
important issue. However, in the area of religious freedom, Native Americans were
dealt two significant setbacks by the United States Supreme Court in the late 1980s
Native−American Activism
and early 1990s. In 1978, Congress had passed the American Indian Freedom of
Religion Act, which stated that the federal government would work to protect Native
Americans' right to practice their traditional, tribal religions. This included giving
Native Americans access to sacred sites on federal lands. However, in 1988, in Lyng v.
Northwest Indian Cemetery Protective Association, the Supreme Court ruled that the
National Forest Service could build a road that passed through sacred
Native−American sites on federal lands.
In addition, in 1990s Employment Division, Department of Human Resources of
Oregon v. Smith, the Supreme Court ruled that individual states could outlaw religious
practices of the Native American Church. This shocked many Native Americans, since
they had thought these practices were federally protected by the 1978 American Indian
Freedom of Religion Act as well as by the First Amendment. The issue at stake was
the use of peyote, a stimulant drug. Two Native−American drug counselors had been
fired for using the drug in a legally sanctioned Native American Church ritual and had
been denied unemployment compensation by the state of Oregon since the use of
peyote violated state law.
Native−American Activism
Critical Overview
When The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven was published by the Atlantic
Monthly Press in 1993, it was the first of Alexie's books to be published by a major
press. The book has been received well by audiences, and most critics give it high
marks, too. Some critics note that the book shares themes that are common in Alexie's
first three books. Says Susan B. Brill, in her 1997 entry on Alexie in the Dictionary of
Literary Biography: "Survival is perhaps the omnipresent theme of these four books."
On a similar note, in her Winter 2000/2001 Ploughshares article, Lynn Cline notes
that Alexie's work "carries the weight of five centuries of colonization, retelling the
American Indian struggle to survive, painting a clear, compelling, and often painful
portrait of modern Indian life."
Specific critical discussion on The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven is often
marked by a definition of what the book actually is. Many label the book a collection
of short stories, but critics like Alan R. Velie believe that it is not so easily classified.
Says Velie, in his 1994 review of the book for World Literature Today, it is
"somewhere between a novel and a collection of short stories." Regardless of how
people classify it, the book has greatly increased Alexie's esteem in many critics' eyes.
Velie praises Alexie, saying that the book "establishes him not only as one of the best
of the Indian writers but as one of the most promising of the new generation of
American writers."
A reviewer for Kirkus Reviews notes in 1993 that, in the book, "The history of defeat
is everpresent; every attempt to hold onto cultural tradition aches with poignancy."
Velie is one of many reviewers who notes the characters' feelings of "despair, guilt,
and helplessness," a factor of life on the reservation, where people often "give up on
life and lapse into unemployment and alcoholism." Several critics note that Alexie
employs characters that he created in his earlier works. However, in her 1994 review
of the book for Western American Literature, Andrea−Bess Baxter says that, although
Alexie is covering old ground, "this work is more personal, autobiographical at times."
Critical Overview
Since The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven was one of five books that
Alexie published within two years, it is not surprising that some of the books share
common themes and characters. However, not all critics appreciate this. In fact, one
critic, Reynolds Price, thinks that Alexie's rapid output is affecting his quality. Price,
in his 1993 review of The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven for the New
York Times Book Review, notes: "There is very little plot in any of themplot in the
sense of consecutive action with emotional outcome." Price asks: "Has Sherman
Alexie moved too fast for his present strength?"
Very few critics have singled out "Because My Father Always Said He Was the Only
Indian Who Saw Jimi Hendrix Play 'The Star−Spangled Banner' at Woodstock."
However, of those who have commented specifically on the story, the reviews have
been positive. In his 1993 review of the book for the Review of Contemporary Fiction,
Brian Schneider praises Alexie's narrative voice in the story, saying that it "resonates .
. . with a passion that sees the irony in the flower power movement's co−opting of
mostly American Indian values." Finally, Leslie Marmon Silko, an acclaimed
Native−American author, notes in a 1995 Nation article that the story is her "favorite"
in the collection.
Critical Overview
• Critical Essay #1
• Critical Essay #2
• Critical Essay #3
Critical Essay #1
Poquette has a bachelor's degree in English and specializes in writing about
literature. In the following essay, Poquette discusses Alexie's use of point of view to
underscore the message of cultural struggle in "Because My Father Always Said He
Was the Only Indian Who Saw Jimi Hendrix Play 'The Star−Spangled Banner' at
In her article about Alexie for Ploughshares, Lynn Cline notes: "His work carries the
weight of five centuries of colonization, retelling the American Indian struggle to
survive, painting a clear, compelling, and often painful portrait of modern Indian life."
As a modern Native−American child, Victor, the narrator, feels the effects of this
colonization, too. Like most children, Victor relies on the examples set by his parents
to provide him with the cultural instruction he needs to survive in the world.
Unfortunately, his parents represent two extremes, making it difficult for him to form
any solid beliefs. In fact, at one point when discussing his parents' genetic
contributions to his makeup, he says he "was born a goofy reservation mixed drink."
Although this specific example is referring to the alcoholic nature of his parents, it
also serves to underscore Victor's mixed cultural education. While Victor is exposed
to Native−American traditions through his mother, his father abandons tradition in
favor of addictive American influences.
When Victor's mother is mentioned in the story, there is often a reference to her
traditional Native−American background. Victor's father recognizes the traditional
qualities of his wife, and often tells stories about her to his son. On one occasion, his
father remembers the first time he met her. "I thought she was so beautiful. I figured
she was the kind of woman who could make buffalo walk on up to her and give up
their lives." In addition to associating Victor's mother with a traditional buffalo hunt,
Victor's father also notes her former status as a Native−American dancer. Says
Victor's father, "I remember your mother when she was the best traditional dancer in
the world." In fact, when Victor's father is in the hospital, his mother sings "Indian
Critical Essay #1
tunes under her breath, in time with the hum of the machines hooked into my father."
Victor's mother is most happy when she is involved with Native−American traditions,
such as her dancing. As soon as her husband does not need her to stay with him in the
hospital, "she went back to the life she had created. She traveled to powwows, started
to dance again."
When he is a young man, Victor's father also tries to maintain his Native−American
identity and values, by demonstrating at a Vietnam antiwar event. However, since he
looks like a hippie and "all the hippies were trying to be Indians," his attempts at
asserting his Native−American identity are thwarted. As Victor notes, "Because of
that, how could anyone recognize that my father was trying to make a social
statement?" In his review of the short−story collection for the Review of
Contemporary Fiction, Brian Schneider cites this event as an example of the power of
"Alexie's narrative voice," which "sees the irony in the flower power movement's
co−opting of mostly American Indian values." When Victor's father beats up a
National Guard private, he is sent to prison for two years. When he gets out, he goes to
Woodstock, where he really begins to be assimilated into the American culture.
While his father is at Woodstock, Victor notes that: "My mother was at home with me,
both of us waiting for my father to find his way back home to the reservation."
However, once he has gone to prison, Victor's father has found his way off the
reservationat least in a figurative sensefor the rest of his life. From the time he leaves
prison, he begins trying to escape his reality through American influences, the first of
which is the trip to Woodstock to hear distinctly American rock music. In fact, his
choice of Hendrix's "The Star−Spangled Banner" is symbolic. "The Star−Spangled
Banner" is America's national anthem, and represents the solidarity of the country.
When people sing the anthem, it is generally to express their pride and support for
their country and government. As a young man, Victor's father is rebellious, and
lashes out against icons of the government, such as the National Guard private. His
prison experience changes his tune, literally, and he soon starts to be assimilated into
many aspects of American culture, starting with his endless replaying of Hendrix's
"The Star−Spangled Banner."
Critical Essay #1
He also drinks large quantities of alcohol, which is another effect of assimilation. As
Fred Beauvais notes in a 1998 article for Alcohol Health & Research World, Native
Americans did not have access to strong alcohol prior to European colonization. Says
Beauvais: "The distillation of more potent and thus more abusable forms of alcohol
was unknown." Besides providing Native Americans with access to alcohol, Beauvais
notes that colonists also set a bad example. Says Beauvais: "Extreme intoxication was
common among the colonists and provided a powerful model for the social use of
alcohol among the inexperienced Indian populations." Like his music, Victor's father
uses alcohol as a form of escape from his life. On a typical night, he will "come home
after a long night of drinking" to listen to Hendrix until he passes out in a drunken
By modeling alcoholism as a way of life, Victor's father is increasing the chance that
Victor will become one of the many Native Americans who learn this addictive
behavior from their parents. However, when he is sober, Victor's father becomes more
responsible, and tries to save his son from harm by educating him politically. For
example, during one conversation, Victor's father talks about the commercial quality
of the Persian Gulf War, which he says only benefited the rich. Says Victor's father:
"Should have called it Dessert Storm because it just made the fat cats get fatter."
Victor's father also speaks out about the historical mistreatment of Native Americans
by the United States. He discourages Victor's youthful desire to fight a war by asking
him: "why the hell would you want to fight a war for this country? It's been trying to
kill Indians since the very beginning."
However, despite these occasional discussions in which Victor's father rebels against
the United States, for the most part he has agreed to his assimilation. He tells Victor
that Native−American children have been hearing drums so long that "you think that's
all you need. Hell, son, even an Indian needs a piano or guitar or saxophone now and
again." The acceptance of all of these American instruments is a further sign that
Victor's father is no longer fighting hard to maintain his cultural identity as a Native
American. Victor notes as much when he remarks that, although his father "was the
drummer" in his high school band, "I guess he'd burned out on those. Now, he was
Critical Essay #1
like the universal defender of the guitar." As the reviewer for Kirkus Reviews notes of
the short−story collection: "The history of defeat is ever−present; every attempt to
hold onto cultural tradition aches with poignancy."
Victor's father's dependence on music, alcohol, and other American influences
eventually separates him from his wife and son. In addition, when his marriage starts
to fall apart, Victor's father does not follow tradition. As Victor notes, "A hundred
years ago, an Indian marriage was broken easily. The woman or man just packed up
all their possessions and left the tipi." However, times have changed. When modern
Native−American relationships start to deteriorate, Victor notes that "Indians fight
their way to the end, holding onto the last good thing, because our whole lives have to
do with survival." At a certain point, the fighting gets so bad that Victor's father buys a
motorcycle, and uses it to totally get away from the situation. Says Victor: "With that
bike, he learned something new about running away. He stopped talking as much,
stopped drinking as much. He didn't do much of anything except ride that bike and
listen to music."
In addition to escaping his life through music, alcohol, or riding his motorcycle,
Victor's father has also gained the ability to change his negative memories. As Victor
puts it: "If you don't like the things you remember, then all you have to do is change
the memories." For example, as the relationship between Victor's parents falls apart,
Victor's father remembers his mother as increasingly more beautiful. Says Victor, "By
the time the divorce was final, my mother was quite possibly the most beautiful
woman who ever lived." Victor's mother usually gives her son a different story than
what he hears from his father. At one point, Victor's father tells him that Victor's
generation does not know anything about music or romance. However, when Victor's
mother describes her husband's failed attempts at playing the guitar, she demonstrates
that he is also bad at romance. Says Victor's mother, "His eyes got all squeezed up and
his face turned all red. He kind of looked that way when he kissed me, too." Victor
notes that his father's example has taught him how to change his own memories. This
becomes evident when Victor discusses the separation from his father. He describes
the event from three different points of view: his father's memory, his own memory,
Critical Essay #1
and his mother's memory. He is confused as to which version really happened, which
is understandable, gives the mixed−culture environment in which he has grown up.
When his father leaves, Victor notes that, while "white fathers" have been abandoning
their children forever, "Indian men have just learned how. That's how assimilation can
In the story, Victor grows up in an environment where he is subjected to both his
mother's traditional Native−American values and his father's addiction to American
influences. However, the latter are much more prominent. The mentions of Victor's
father and his problems far outweigh his father's failed attempts to preserve his
cultural heritage as well as any traditional associations with Victor's mother. In the
end, Alexie is trying to show how, with each successive generation, the
Native−American identity can be eroded some more, as children learn destructive
American habits for themselves. In fact, it is fitting that Alexie focuses part of his
story on Victor's memory, since if this cultural erosion trend continues, the
Native−American identity could become a memory itself. Alexie seems to suggest this
idea at the very end of the story, when Victor goes outside his house to wait for his
father, who he has imagined is coming to get him. Says Victor: "It was so quiet, a
reservation kind of quiet, where you can hear somebody drinking whiskey on the
rocks three miles away." When a colonized culture loses its heritage, it dies, as
emphasized by the profound silence. All that is left over is the negative effect of
assimilation, which in this case is represented by the sound of a person drinking alone
in the dark. As Alan R. Velie notes in his review of the collection in World Literature
Today: "A major theme of the book is the feeling of despair, guilt, and helplessness
that overcomes Indians as they and their friends and relatives give up on life and lapse
into unemployment and alcoholism."
Source: Ryan D. Poquette, Critical Essay on "Because My Father Always Said He
Was the Only Indian Who Saw Jimi Hendrix Play 'The Star−Spangled Banner' at
Woodstock," in Short Stories for Students, Gale, 2003.
Critical Essay #1
Critical Essay #2
Dunham holds a bachelor's degree in English literature and a master's degree in
communication. In the following essay, Dunham considers Alexie's story in relation to
the impact of assimilation on Indian culture.
In Alexie's "Because My Father Always Said He Was the Only Indian Who Saw Jimi
Hendrix Play 'The Star−Spangled Banner' at Woodstock," the narrator, Victor, uses
the word "assimilation" to describe how attributes of one culture are adopted by
another culture, often resulting in the destruction of the culture adopting them. He
On a reservation, Indian men who abandon their children are treated worse than white
fathers who do the same thing. It's because white men have been doing that forever
and Indian men have just learned how. That's how assimilation can work.
"Because My Father Always Said He Was the Only Indian Who Saw Jimi Hendrix
Play 'The Star−Spangled Banner' at Woodstock" is Victor's account of how
assimilation works in his family. He shows how his father's fascination with American
popular culturenamely his obsession with pop music icon Jimi Hendrixtears apart his
family and undermines the values of his Indian culture.
Alexie begins the story by making a statement about assimilation with Victor's very
first sentence: "During the sixties, my father was the perfect hippie, since all the
hippies were trying to be Indians." The irony here is that Victor's father was not the
perfect hippie. He had long hair, wore bellbottoms, smoked pot, dropped acid, loved
rock and roll, and protested the United States' involvement in Vietnam, but he did not
stand for peace. He was a warrior at heart, and the first thing Victor relates about him
is how he severely beat a National Guard private with a rifle at a peace rally. Such an
opening is significant because it creates a powerful image that introduces the reader to
the story's main theme: failure to assimilate in an appropriate manner has destructive
Critical Essay #2
As a result of that incident, Victor says, his father was arrested and sent to prison, but
he got out just in time to hitchhike to Woodstock, where he witnessed a musical
performance that changed him forever: Jimi Hendrix playing "The Star−Spangled
Banner." His father tells him that it was just what he needed at that point in his life:
"After all the s I'd been through, I figured Jimi must have known I was there in the
crowd to play something like that. It was exactly how I felt." Victor claims that he
"[doesn't] have any clue about what it meant for [his] father to be the only Indian who
saw Jimi Hendrix play at Woodstock" and understands its significance only in terms
of the consequences of his father's resulting obsession with Hendrix.
One consequence is frequent arguments between his parents. Although Victor does not
recount every argument, the reader is led to believe that most of them had to do with
Jimi Hendrix. The particular argument that Victor speaks about occurred during a
family trip to Hendrix's grave in Seattle. Commenting on the untimely nature of
Hendrix's death, his father said, "Only the good die young," to which his mother
replied, "No, only the crazy people choke to death on their own vomit." The ensuing
dispute was not unlike the many others that Victor witnesses in his parents' marriage.
As he says, "I was used to these battles."
Another consequence is his father's inward retreat, at first characterized by lone bouts
of heavy drinking and later by frequent disappearances from the house. Victor
remembers how his mother once tried to explain his father's behavior to him: "Your
father just likes being alone more than he likes being with other people. Even me and
you." But, this explanation is not entirely accurate. As Victor recalls, even when his
father wanted to be alone, Jimi was always somebody he liked to be with. They began
as "drinking buddies," with his father spending long evenings laughing, crying, and
drinking beer while listening to Jimi play "The Star−Spangled Banner" on the stereo.
They ended as traveling companions, with his father's desire to drink giving way to a
new desire: getting away for hours, even days, on his new motorcycle with an old tape
player strapped to the gas tank.
Critical Essay #2
The final consequence is his parents' divorce and the subsequent abandonment by his
father. At the time of his father's near fatal motorcycle accident, Victor relates, his
mother had already decided she did not want to be married to him anymore. She had
had enough of the arguing, the drunkenness, and the disappearances. She visited him
in the hospital and helped nurse him back to health by quietly singing Indian tunes to
him, but after he recovered, they separated for good. Understanding what happened,
Victor asks his mother, "Was it because of Jimi Hendrix?," to which she replies, "Part
of it, yeah. This might be the only marriage broken up by a dead guitar player." What
is interesting about his mother's reply is that she only lays part of the blame on
Hendrix. The remainder of the blame rests with both his father and mother.
Victor's father is to blame for the manner in which he responds to Jimi Hendrix's
performance of "The Star−Spangled Banner" at Woodstock. This is not to say that his
feelings at the time were inappropriate. They were, in fact, warranted and entirely
justifiable. After all, here was Jimi Hendrix playing the American national anthem at
an event where patriotism was less than fashionable and during a time when racial and
political unrest were greater than at any point in America's history. And there was
Victor's father, living like an outcast in what was once the land of his fathers, heir to
prejudice and years of inequitable government polices, able to identify, better than
most, with Jimi Hendrix's soulful rendition of the American national anthem. But,
instead of inspiring him to live a richer and more meaningful life and encouraging him
to bravely face the challenges of living in a racially polarized world, it impaired his
ability to live at all, causing him to retreat into his own world. As he tells Victor, "I
ain't interested in what's real. I'm interested in how things should be."
Unfortunately for Victor's father, it never occurs to him that he could be a force for
positive change in the world, that he could help make things the way they should be.
Like much of the music of the 1960s, "The Star−Spangled Banner" at Woodstock was
a "call to arms," a rallying cry for people such as Victor's father to fight for justice in
an unjust world. Victor's father, however, chose to surrender rather than fight. This,
too, is how assimilation can work. "The Star−Spangled Banner" at Woodstock should
have motivated him to help make a difference in the world, but instead it alienated him
Critical Essay #2
from the world. "The Star−Spangled Banner" at Woodstock should have energized
him to help make the world a better place, but instead it immobilized him, making him
unfit for service to the world and his family.
As a result of having to live with her husband's immobilizing obsession with Hendrix,
his mother retreats to the life she knew when she was younger. She travels to
powwows and begins to dance again. She immerses herself in the music, customs, and
traditions of her native culture. In so doing, she finds a refuge from the destructive
effects of the foreign culture that violated the sanctity of her home with motorcycles
and guitars. Her response to Hendrix, then, is a rejection of assimilation and, hence, a
rejection of her husband. Such is her part in the breakup of their marriage.
Interestingly enough, Victor is never trapped between the two distinctly different
worlds in which his parents lived. He is a loving son who looks at both sides with
sympathy and compassion. Victor sees how his father's obsession with Hendrix breaks
apart his family. He also sees how his mother's rejection of white American pop
culturewith Jimi Hendrix ironically includedcontributes to the breakup. But, because
of his own appreciation of Hendrix, Victor comes to the conclusion that assimilation is
something far more complex than simply adopting white men's bad behavior.
After his father leaves for good, Victor draws comfort from the music of Jimi Hendrix
and Robert Johnson. He says, "On those nights I missed him most I listened to music.
Not always Jimi Hendrix. Usually I listened to the blues. Robert Johnson mostly." On
one particular night, Victor imagines that he hears his father's motorcycle outside and
his father yelling, "Victor, let's go for a ride." He goes out and finds the driveway
empty, so he stands on the porch all night and imagines he hears motorcycles and
guitars. The fact that Victor can derive comfort from these sounds is significant
because it is a response unlike what his father's would have been. Instead of causing
him despair, these sounds offer the hope that maybe someday his father will return
home. These sounds of American pop culture are an inspiration for this Indian boy to
go on; so when the sun comes up and shines brightly, he knows that it is time to go
inside and have breakfast with his mother. This, too, is how assimilation can work.
Critical Essay #2
This is how assimilation should work.
Source: Timothy Dunham, Critical Essay on "Because My Father Always Said He
Was the Only Indian Who Saw Jimi Hendrix Play 'The Star−Spangled Banner' at
Woodstock," in Short Stories for Students, Gale, 2003.
Critical Essay #2
Critical Essay #3
In the following essay, DeNuccio examines selection of stories from Alexie's
collection, looking closely at how the Native−American characters "wage daily battle
against small humiliations and perennial hurts."
The Spokane Indian characters in Sherman Alexie's short story collection The Lone
Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven wage daily battle against small humiliations and
perennial hurts. Situated on a reservation where the Department of Housing and Urban
Development (HUD) houses, the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) trucks, and
commodity foods continually mirror paternalism and dependency, and where "tribal
ties" and a cohesive "sense of community" have waned, Alexie's characters confront
the dilemma of how to be "real Indians," of how to find "their true names, their adult
names," of how to find a warrior dignity and courage when it is "too late to be
warriors in the old way," of how to ameliorate what Adrian C. Louis has termed "the
ghost−pain of history"that haunting sense of personal and cultural loss that generates a
paralyzing sense of ineffectuality. They struggle to cope with passivity, cynicism, and
despair to find healing for the pain that turns into self−pity and the anger that turns
into self−loathing.
One of Alexie's characters, Thomas Buildsthe−Fire, a Spokane storyteller, articulates a
useful image for understanding the distress and anguish these characters experience:
"There are things you should learn," he tells Victor and Junior, two young Spokanes
who either narrate or are featured in 18 of the collection's 22 stories. "Your past is a
skeleton walking one step behind you, and your future is a skeleton walking one step
in front of you." Indians, thus, are always "trapped in the now." But the skeletons are
"not necessarily evil, unless you let them be." Because "these skeletons are made of
memories, dreams, and voices," and because they are "wrapped up in the now," it
becomes imperative to "keep moving, keep walking, in step with your skeletons." To
stop or slow down, to "slow dance" with one's skeletons, risks being caught "in the
in−between, between touching and becoming," the immediately felt and the
Critical Essay #3
potentially experienced. Such a situation severs the necessary relation between the
structure of experience that at any one moment has shaped each life and the structure
of ongoing time to which that life must continuously adapt and in which it develops.
Keeping in step is not easy, however, for "your skeletons will talk to you, tell you to
sit down and take a rest, [. . .] make you promises, tell you all the things you want to
hear." They can "dress up" as seductive women, as a best friend offering a drink, as
parents offering gifts. But, "no matter what they do," Thomas warns, "keep walking,
keep moving."
Thomas's image of the skeletons suggests that Indian subjectivity is dialogic, an
interplay of perspectives and points of view that Bakhtin describes as "a plurality of
unmerged consciousness." The self is positioned in a social space replete with
memories, dreams, and voices that invite attention and response, that must be
accommodated and negotiated if the self as an individual and a tribal subject is to
emerge. Such negotiation, although paramount, is never easy. Memories, dreams, and
voices form a dense network of social significations. They bear traces, are mediated
by social relations and cultural dynamics, are inflected by family, friends, lovers,
traditions, mass media, history. The term Indian names a subject position traversed by
competing claims, saturated by multiple insinuations, the confusion or mastering force
of which can induce a capitulation that Thomas identifies as failing to keep "in step
with your skeletons." Such capitulation forecloses choice, and the result is often
self−sabotage. Commenting on what appears to a white state trooper as an
unmotivated suicide by a successful tribal member, Junior notes that "when we look in
the mirror, see the history of our tribe in our eyes, taste failure in the tap water, and
shake with old tears, we understand completely." To "keep moving, keep walking, in
step with your skeletons," then, suggests the necessity of listening to and answering
the multiple voices that clamor for attention, a process of accommodation and
negotiation that resists totalization and keeps the self "unconsummated" and
"yet−to−be" (Art and Answerability . . .), moving always toward "becoming" rather
than trapped "between touching and becoming," moving so that some coherent story
of the self can be discovered. Thomas's image of the skeletons resonates throughout
the collection's 22 stories, precisely because so many characters have fallen out of step
Critical Essay #3
and, thus, are suspended, passively and destructively, in a seemingly incoherent
Approximately enough, the collection's opening story, "Every Little Hurricane,"
displays the provenance of those elements that problematize Indian subjectivity.
Significantly, Alexie sets the story at a New Year's Eve party ushering in 1976, the
bicentennial year. Nine−year−old Victor, whose parents are hosting the party,
awakens to what he thinks is a hurricane but is really a metaphor Alexie uses to
represent Victor's experience of the intensifying anger and painful memories,
unleashed by alcohol, that circulate among the Indian partygoers. Victor's father, for
instance, remembers his father being spit on at a Spokane bus stop; his mother
remembers being involuntarily sterilized by an Indian Health Service (IHS) doctor
after Victor's birth; his uncles Adolph and Arnold fight savagely because each reminds
the other of childhood poverty so great that they hid crackers in their bedroom so they
wouldn't have to go to bed hungry. Lying in his basement bedroom, Victor thinks he
sees the ceiling lower "with the weight of each Indian's pain, until it was just inches
from [his] nose." As the adults' drunken rage fills the house, it blends with and feeds
Victor's own nightmare fears of drowning in the rain, of alcoholic "fluids swallowing
him." for at the age of five he had witnessed at a powwow an Indian man drown after
passing out and falling "facedown into the water collected in a tire track." "Even at
five," the narrator notes, "Victor understood what that meant, how it defined nearly
everything." Seeking the comfort of physical connection, he lies between his
unconscious parents, and, putting a hand on each of their stomachs, feels "enough
hunger in both, enough movement, enough geography and history, enough of
everything to destroy the reservations." As this image suggests, the confluence of past
currents of suffering meet in Victor.
Given the intensity of the pain that presses upon Indian subjectivity, it is not surprising
that the adults and their children get caught "in the inbetween, between touching and
becoming." The now of felt experience becomes ceaseless repetition of what has been.
Without a viable counterbalance of Spokane culturea point Alexie implies by setting
his opening story on the eve of America's bicentennial festivitiesthe self appears
Critical Essay #3
finalized, unmodifiable because personal history appears consumed by the totalizing
narrative of History. There is no sense of particularity, of difference that prevents the
self from being absorbed into the larger culture's dominant narrative, no way to
position the self so that its story unfolds within, not into, ongoing time, no
"outsidedness" (Speech Genres . . .) where the choice to keep moving in step with
one's skeletons keeps the impinging or "touching" now provisionally open to
Victor's father, for example, has stopped walking in step with his skeletons altogether
by retreating into an idealized moment twenty years earlier. Active in the Vietnam
War protest movement and jailed for assaulting a National Guardsman, Victor's father
endures two years of racial warfare in prison. On his release, he hitchhikes to
Woodstock, arriving just in time to hear Jimi Hendrix's performance of "The
Star−Spangled Banner." "'After all the [sh] I'd been through,"' he tells Victor, "' I
figured Jimi must have known I was there in the crowd to play something like that. It
was exactly how I felt."' Twenty years later, he still plays the song and dissolves into
tears in memory of a pure moment of connection and understanding, from which he
views all his subsequent life as a declension. At thirteen, Victor finds he cannot
penetrate his father's self−imposed exile from the painful memories of those twenty
years and, thus, Victor loses the potentially usable experiences, the realized
knowledge, those twenty years contain. David Murray has noted that "the absent or
failed father," a common feature in Indian texts, often symbolizes "the rupture and
absence of guidelines from the past, and consequent alienation from a cultural
heritage." "'I ain't interested in what's real,"' Victor's father tells him. "'I'm interested in
how things should be."' What Victor learns from his father is a strategy that shields
him from pain but surrenders the connectedness to events that opens them to meaning:
"instead of remembering the bad things, remember what happened immediately
before. That's what I learned from my father."
Consequently, the struggle to sort through fractious memories, dreams, and voices
dogs Victor into young adulthood. In the story "A Drug Called Tradition" Big Mom,
the Spokane Tribe's spiritual leader, gives Victor a small drum as a "pager" to
Critical Essay #3
summon her in times of need. Victor doubts the drum's efficacy and admits he has
never used it. Yet, even after Big Mom dies, he keeps it "really close," because it is
"the only religion I have," and "I think if I played it a little, it might fill up the whole
world." Victor is situated at a boundary between cultural rejection and cultural
connection, torn between skepticism toward the heritage of traditional spirituality and
the desire to retain that heritage as a possible source of plenitude to "fill up" a world
seemingly bereft of continuity. Much the same irresolution marks his relationship with
the storytelling Thomas, whom he has bullied since childhood and whose stories he
ignores, precisely because, for Victor, those stories register cultural loss. Yet, Victor
admits, when Thomas "stopped looking at me, I was hurt. How do you explain that?"
The story "All I Wanted To Do Was Dance" a opens with Victor drunk and reeling
wildly on barroom dancefloor. Suddenly, he sees "the faces of his past. He recognized
Niel Armstrong and Christopher Columbus, his mother and father, James Dean, Sal
Mineo, Natalie Wood." He then recalls himself as a young boy, "fancydancing in the
same outfit his father wore as a child." Looking "into the crowd for approval," he sees
his mother and father, "both drunk" and staggering, the "other kind of dancing" that
"was nothing new." The continuous history of Euro−American dominance,
emblematize by Columbus and Armstrong, coupled with the shameful spectacle of his
parents, have invalidated fancydancing as a culturally specific signifying practice by
which he can position himself within a localized system of meaning. In its place
Hollywood supplies a mass−mediated construction, the rebel without a cause, a
subject position at once disenfranchising and inauthentic.
Similarly, a bewildering mix of personal experience, memory, dream, and history
affects Junior in "The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven." Living in Seattle
and involved in a loving but contentious relationship with a white kindergarten
teacher, Junior dreams she is "a missionary's wife" and he is "a minor war chief" who
is her clandestine lover. Her husband discovers their relationship and shoots him.
"Disembodied," Junior watches as his murder provokes massive and bloody warfare
between several tribes of Indians and the U.S. Cavalry. Junior's "most vivid image of
that dream," however, is three mounted soldiers playing "polo with a dead Indian
Critical Essay #3
woman's head," an image he at first considers "a product of my anger and
imagination," but which he subsequently discovers in histories of war in "the Old
West" and journalistic accounts of atrocities "in places like El Salvador." This blurring
of internal and external, wherein private nightmare is simultaneously public record
disseminated across space and time, terrifies Junior. He finds himself both inside and
outside his own experience, caught in the seam between past and present, agent and
object, at once the author of a unique narrative expressing his own "anger and
imagination" and an authored character in an old and ongoing story of racial hatred.
The dream is and is not his own; he is himself and a historical clone. Moreover, the
dream redoubles this ambiguity: killed early on, he haunts the scene, a disembodied
witness of the carnage his sexual relationship with the white woman has produced. At
some level, then, Junior experiences his cross−racial relationship as transgressive, a
betrayal, perhaps, of tribal hopes that, as "a smart kid" and "former college student,"
he would provide the model for a "new kind of warrior."
Returning to the reservation, Junior attempts to reestablish a connection with his
personal past through basketball: "I'd been a good player in high school, nearly great.
[. . .] I liked the way the ball felt in my hands and the way my feet felt inside my
shoes." The pleasure of recapturing his skill is short−lived, however; the entire history
of Indianwhite relations repeats itself on the night he is "ready to play for real." After
some initial success, the white son of the reservation BIA chief takes control of the
game away from Junior. "He was better that day," Junior admits, "and every other
day." The basketball court, like the battlefield he dreamed of in Seattle, becomes for
Junior a scene of failure and betrayal. The "BIA kid needed to be beaten by an
Indian," and the watching tribal members have invested their hopes in him, "one of
their old and dusty heroes." The white boy, however, "played Indian ball, fast and
loose," and, having appropriated the Indian style, Junior knows he is "better than all
the Indians there."
The next day Junior drives to Spokane and takes a job "typing and answering phones"
for a "high school exchange program." The racial anonymity he finds as a detached
telephone voice is compromised when his Seattle lover calls. "The connection was
Critical Essay #3
good," Junior notes, an ironic counterpoint to the lack of emotional clarity
characterizing their conversation.
"What's going to happen to us?" I asked her and wished I had the answer for myself.
"I don't know," she said. "I want to change the world."
The desire to direct change is not an option for Junior; as his dream and the basketball
game have demonstrated, he can only experience its consequences. His relationship
with his white lover, he realizes, is riven by an unbridgeable racial difference that
distributes unequally the capacity for, even the imagining of, performative agency.
The woman he remembers, "whose ghost has haunted" him, is, irreconcilably, a "real
person" he can never know, a person whose otherness remains irreducible.
At their worst, the contending memories, voices, and dreams reach a kind of critical
mass that impels Victor and Junior to racial abjection. In "Amusements," Victor
comes across a fellow tribesman, Dirty Joe, lying in a drunken stupor on a carnival
midway. In an attempt to dissociate himself from a sight that evokes the contemptuous
laughter of passing white tourists, Victor plays a practical joke on Dirty Joe by putting
him on a roller coaster. When a crowd of whites gathers, their "open mouths grown
large and deafening" with laughter, Victor suddenly realizes his complicity with those
whites in a long history of cultural degradation. He has been, he sees, a "court jester"
who has poured "Thunderbird wine into the Holy Grail," a freak like "the Fat Lady"
and "the Dog−Faced Boy" an "Indian who offered up another Indian like some treaty."
Victor recognizes, in other words, that he has reduced himself from speaking subject
of his own discourse to sign in official discourse, effectually removing himself from
his own history. His complicity is a cultural forgetting or dismembering that,
according to ethnologist Robert Cantwell, permits "parts and pieces of social identity"
to signify only insofar as they comport with and consolidate the cultural myths of
society at large. "[L]ike some treaty," then, Victor's betrayal of Dirty Joe, multiplied
by many others many times, has contributed to "the folding shut of the good part of
[the] past."
Critical Essay #3
Junior, too, realizes the complicity involved in his denial of Indian identity. While in
college he attended a basketball game after partying with a group of whites from his
dormitory. One of the players on the opposing team is a twenty−eightyear−old who
has overcome his inner−city Los Angeles upbringing and a stint in prison. Junior
realizes that he and the basketball player "had a whole lot in common. Much more in
common than I had with those white boys I was drunk with." Nevertheless, he joins in
the vicious taunting that greets the player's entrance on the court, an act that in its
replication of white bigotry and in its defiance of shared experience actually
constitutes self−subversion. Little wonder, then, that Junior describes his time in the
city in terms of debilitating ineffectuality: "'It's like a bad dream you never wake up
from. [. . .] Standing completely stilt on an escalator that will not move, but I didn't
have the courage to climb the stairs by myself."' Like Victor, Junior is immobilized by
the kind of double consciousness W. E. B. Dubois describes as "the sense of always
looking at one's self through the eyes of others, of measuring one's soul by the tape of
a world that looks on in amused contempt and pity."
Alexie's Indian characters are caught, as Bakhtin puts it, in the "framework of other
people's words" about them, a framework that can "finalize and deaden" the self. But
Alexie also demonstrates that in his characters "there is always something that only
[they themselves] can reveal, in a free act of self−consciousness and discourse,
something that does not submit to an externalizing second−hand definition" (Problems
. . .). And Alexie again uses the Spokane storyteller Thomas Builds−the−Fire to
explain this resistant something.
We are all given one thing by which our lives are measured, one determination. Mine
are the stories which can change or not change the world. It doesn't matter which as
long as I continue to tell the stories. [. . .] They are all I have. It's all I can do.
Thomas's "one determination" posits subjectivity as both determined and particular,
given, and its own measure of value. There is a personal narrative that unfolds within
the larger culture's master narrative, which situates an individual subjectivity within
the cultural topography and keeps it in step with the skeletons of past and future. For
Critical Essay #3
Thomas, only recognizing and choosing to follow that "one determination" matters.
Thomas himself is widely ignored by his tribe, yet he tells his stories, stories that he
does not author but that come to him from the culturally specific ground to which he is
connected and which his storytelling articulates. What Thomas transmits, then, is the
persistence and adaptability of Spokane signifying practices.
Indeed, those of Alexie's characters in step with their skeletons have in common a
connection, or a re−connection, to tribal tradition. Victor's Aunt Nezzy, by donning
the "heaviest beaded dress" she has made and finding "the strength to take the first
step, then another quick one," overcomes 30 years of casual cruelty by her family and
the memory of being hoodwinked into a tubal ligation by an IHS administrator. Nezzy
then "heard drums, she heard singing, she danced. Dancing that way, she knew things
were beginning to change"; for, as she had earlier predicted, the woman "who can
carry the weight of this dress on her back [. . .] will save us all." Victor's mother, after
her husband's desertion, "traveled to powwows, started to dance again. She was a
champion traditional dancer when she was younger." Having revived her traditional
dancing ability enables her to provide a countering nurture to the emptiness caused by
her husband's abandonment, not just for herself, but for thirteen−year−old Victor as
well. After a night spent futilely waiting for his father's return, Victor "knew it was
time to go back inside to my mother. She made breakfast for both of us and we ate
until we were full." Uncle Moses responds to the "unplanned kindness" of his young
friend Arnold by telling it to him as a story, thereby creating, as the title of the story
indicates, a "good story," one to be repeatedas the narrator himself is doingand that,
like Moses's house, "would stand even years after Moses died," to nourish "the tribal
imagination" and "ensure survival." The twenty−year−old narrator of "Jesus Christ's
Half−Brother Is Alive and Well on the Spokane Indian Reservation" accedes to
tradition by accepting responsibility for an infant whose life he has saved. Raising
young James saves the narrator as well. He learns that "we should be living for each
other instead [of dying] for each other," and that such solicitude generates an ethic of
reciprocal care: "I know when I am old and sick and ready to die that James will wash
my body and take care of my wastes. He'll carry me from HUD house to sweathouse
and he will clean my wounds. And he will talk and teach me something new every
Critical Essay #3
Victor and Junior both manage to find their "one determination" and, thereby,
negotiate the contentious memories, dreams, and voices that attenuate their lives. In
"All I Wanted To Do Is Dance," Victor has returned "home" to the reservation from
the city and a failed romance with a white woman, an experience, he says, that seemed
like "being lost in the desert for forty years." Despondent and drinking heavily, he
meets a Cherokee who tells him that "the difference between a real Indian and a fake
Indian" is that "a real Indian got blisters on his feet;" a "fake Indian got blisters on his
ass." The allusion to the 1,200−mile Trail of Tears, a literal wandering in the desert
more profoundly painful than the self−pity occasioned by a lost love, is not lost on
Victor. He realizes that fancydancingall he ever really wanted to do also blisters the
feet. His "one determination" authenticates him as a "real Indian." The story
concludes, aptly enough, on a crest of conjunctions, progressive verbs, and modals
that suggest possibility will become probability:
And he was walking down this road and tomorrow maybe he would be walking down
another road and maybe tomorrow he would be dancing. Victor might be dancing.
Yes, Victor would be dancing.
And, presumably, getting blisters!
Junior gets a new name that, in its honest acknowledgment of "the worst thing I ever
did" his hateful taunting of the inner−city Los Angeles basketball playerreconciles him
to and releases him from that guilt−laden memory and the larger personal failures it
has come to emblematize. "I was special," Junior explains, "a former college student, a
smart kid. I was one of those Indians who was supposed to make it. [. . .] I was the
new kind of warrior." Instead, Junior left college, fled the city, and left behind a son
whom he is allowed to see only six days a month. Junior's new name is given by
Norma Many Horses, a widely respected "cultural lifeguard," according to Junior,
"watching out for those of us that were so close to drowning." After revealing his
Critical Essay #3
secret to Norma, Junior notes that "she treated me differently for about a year," and he
assumes she "wouldn't ever forgive me." She does, however, and signals her
forgiveness by giving Junior a "new Indian name": Pete Rose. "[Y]ou two got a whole
lot in common," she explains. After all his "greatness, he's only remembered for the
bad stuff" and "[t]hat ain't right." Sometime later, Norma seeks Junior out:
"Pete Rose," she said. "They just voted to keep you out of the Hall of Fame. I'm sorry.
But I still love you."
"Yeah, I know, Norma. I love you, too."
Where Junior had previously denied, out of self−abnegating shame, someone with
whom he had "a whole lot in common," he now acknowledges a commonality of
experience that frankly concedes not just his error, but also its ineradicability, its
permanence a part of his psychological terrain. Although it is unfair that an entire life
is marked by "the bad stuff," accepting such a condition requires courage and breaks
the cycle by which past failures are repeated in the present. In giving him a "true"
name, an "adult" namethe lack of which Thomas identified as "the problem with
Indians these days," Norma, the "cultural lifeguard," has taught Junior what he thought
he could never learnforgiveness and opened for him the possibility of an identity he
thought he had forfeiteda "new kind of warrior."
It is important to see that in linking Thomas's "one determination" to a localized
cultural practice Alexie is not advocating a simple return to some traditional tribal
past. Such a return ignores Thomas's point that the past and future are "wrapped up in
the now," It is a retreat into cultural monologism that, politically, serves bureaucratic
interests because, pragmatically, it disjoins past and present, thereby avoiding the
necessity, or even the inclination, of situating oneself in relation to modem day
realities, to "the now" Moreover, a traditional tribal past simply no longer exists. It has
been coopted, and that co−optation has altered Indian subjectivity. Alexie's frequent
use of "five hundred years" as a sort of grammatical intensifier makes clear that
history has redefined what being Indian means. Victor points to a hybridization that
Critical Essay #3
has attenuated biological identity and vitiated cultural identity: "all the years have
changed more than the shape of our blood and eyes. We wear fear like a turquoise
choker, like a familiar shawl"
The pun on "choker" figures all too well a point Adrian C. Louis makes in his novel
Skins: Indians have "learned to oppress themselves." Likewise, Junior reflects on
"pain, how each of us constructs our past to justify what we feel now. How each
successive pain distorts the preceding" to the point where nothing is "aboriginal or
recognizable." Having internalized the otherness by which they have historically been
defined, Indians become like the transistor radio that the narrator of the story
"Distances" finds. Though "no imperfection" is evident on its exterior, it does not
work. The problem, he suggests, "the mistakes," are "inside, where you couldn't see,
couldn't reach." Or, like the diabetes Junior has inherited from his father, five hundred
years of history have ceased working "like a criminal, breaking and entering," instead,
for Indians in the late 20th century, it works "just like a lover, hurting you from the
The apparently naturalized historical forces that have decentered and determined
Indian subjectivity certainly compromise the ability to discern and to choose to affirm
the "one determination" that Thomas opposes to the derailing skeletons of past and
future. Yet, those of Alexie's characters who refuse to stop, who stay in step, do
manage to see "inside," do manage to conduct a clarifying introspection, do choose to
align themselves with some still viable traditional practice that prevents "the folding
shut of the good part of [their] past" and that works through and in time as a usable
ground for identity construction, that establishes the self as a structure of relation
between past, present, and future. Indeed, Thomas teaches Victor this lesson in the
aptly named story "This Is What It Means to Say Phoenix, Arizona." Feeling that "[h]e
owed Thomas something" for helping fund their trip to Phoenix to claim the cremated
remains of his father, Victor offers Thomas half his father's ashes. Thomas accepts the
gift and tells a story:
Critical Essay #3
"I'm going to travel to Spokane Falls one last time and toss these ashes into the water.
And your father will rise like a salmon, leap over the bridge, over me, and find his
way home. It will be beautiful. His teeth will shine like silver, like a rainbow. He will
rise, Victor, he will rise."
Victor had in mind a similar method of disposing of the ashes but acknowledges,
"[. . .] I didn't imagine my father looking anything like a salmon. I thought it'd be like
cleaning the attic or something. Like letting things go after they've stopped having any
"Nothing stops, cousin," Thomas said, "nothing stops."
Thomas demonstrates to Victor the power of Spokane myth to synthesize the twin
domains of private and tribal experience and reveals the boundary that Victor has
imposed between them as a restriction, not constituent, of identity. Thomas challenges
Victor's belief that he can sweep his father from memory, abandon the father, who
abandoned him. Thomas's story inserts Victor's father in a process−laden narrative that
assigns cultural significance to a father whom Victor had considered obsolescent and
dispensable. In effect, then, Thomas's story forces Victor to reread and, thus,
reinterpret his father as a cultural tie, a point of continuity with the past, a fusion of
"historical memory and subjectivity" (Said . . .) that never "stops," that, like the mythic
phoenix, will always "rise," a continual story of self emerging "from the ash of older
Stories, then, teach survival. They re−member, bridging the rupture created by "what
we have lost," reconnecting time to aspect, past and present to progressive and
perfective. Talking stories yields something "aboriginal and recognizable," something,
as Thomas says, "by which our lives are measured." In the story "Family Portrait,"
Junior, contemplating his hands, is led to an acute realization of cultural loss:
Critical Essay #3
Years ago, the hands might have held the spear that held the salmon that held the
dream of the tribe. Years ago, the hands might have touched the hands of the
dark−skinned men who touched medicine and the magic of ordinary gods.
He then recalls a story his father told about "the first television he ever saw." It had
"just one channel and all it showed was a woman sitting on top of the same television.
Over and over until it hurt your eyes and head." That image, persistently reflexive,
depicts the kind of storytelling Alexie himself enacts: an unsparing examination of
what is gone and what remains. That, Junior declares, is "how we find our history."
And repossess it, too, for although such storytelling must, of necessity, measure
"heartbreak" and "fear," it also becomes the means "by which we measure the
beginning of all our lives," the means "by which we measure all our stories, until we
understand that one story" the official historiography"can never be all." Like the
television that continuously frames the image it continuously represents, broadcasting
in the present its backward gaze, Alexie's storytelling links "now" with "then," Indian
lives with "five hundred years of convenient lies," repeatedly, for though "it hurt[s]
your eyes and head" it speaks survival.
Source: Jerome DeNuccio, "Slow Dancing with Skeletons: Sherman Alexie's The
Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven," in Critique, Vol. 44, No. 1, Fall 2002,
pp. 86−96.
Critical Essay #3
Media Adaptations
Alexie's official website,, features a wide variety of resources on
the author, including a biography, interviews, information on his books and films, and
details about his current projects.
Several stories from The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven, especially "This
Is What It Means to Say Phoenix, Arizona," were drawn on for the film adaptation
Smoke Signals. The film, written by Alexie, was billed as the first film with an
all−Native−American cast and crew. It was produced by ShadowCatcher
Entertainment and released by Miramax Films in 1998. The film, which featured
Adam Beach in the role of Victor, won the 1998 Sundance Film Festival's audience
award. It was published as a screenplay by Talk Miramax Books in 1998 and was
released on VHS and DVD from Miramax Home Entertainment in 2001.
Media Adaptations
Topics for Further Study
Choose another culture in history that has been affected by colonization. Compare this
civilization to the Native−American civilization, paying particular attention to the
effects on the culture's identity and ability to govern itself.
Choose one Native American who grew up on a reservationbesides Alexiewho has
become a success. Compare this person's life story to Alexie's life story, focusing on
any social factors that helped lead to each person's success.
On a map of the current United States, plot the various methods that were used to
acquire each area from Native Americans, including a date and description at the site
of each major land acquisition. On a separate map, outline each current, federally
funded Native−American reservation, including the date it was founded and a short
description. Compare the two maps.
Choose an actual band member who played at Woodstock, research this person's life,
and put yourself in this person's place at the music festival. Write a journal entry that
sums up one day of your Woodstock experience, using your research to support your
Jimi Hendrix became famous and died within a very short time. Research other young,
twentieth−century music stars, actors, or other celebrities who have died from alcohol
or drug abuse, and discuss any trends among these deaths. Finally, discuss efforts that
are being made both within the entertainment community and by outsiders to prevent
these deaths.
Topics for Further Study
Compare & Contrast
Late 1960s: The Woodstock Music and Art Fair, one of the most famous rock
festivals in history, is held August 15−17, 1969, on a farm in Bethel, New York. It is
organized by four inexperienced promoters, who encounter massive problems when
the festival draws ten times more people than they expected, taxing the available food,
water, and medical resources. Still, despite these and other problems such as drug
overdoses, most remember Woodstock fondly, and it quickly becomes a legend.
Today: Two Woodstock revivalsone on the twenty−fifth anniversary in 1994 and one
in 1999are also memorable, but for different reasons. The first revival features better
organization, while at the second, a riot breaks out. However, both fail to live up to the
legend of the original.
Late 1960s: In 1969, a group of Native Americans calling themselves the Indians of
All Tribes seizes Alcatraz, the island−based prison in San Francisco Bay that has been
closed since 1963. The group intends to turn the decaying prison facility into a
Native−American university, cultural center, and museum. They claim that this is
within their rights, because an 1868 Sioux treaty says they can occupy government
surplus land like Alcatraz. They offer to buy the island for twenty−four dollarsthe
same price that white settlers paid to Native Americans for Manhattan island three
centuries ago. They occupy Alcatraz peacefully for twenty months, ignoring requests
by the federal government to leave, until they are removed by federal marshals in
Today: Since its inception in 1972, the Golden Gate National Recreation Areathe
largest urban park in the worldhas administered control over Alcatraz. There are few
attempts to renovate or repair the facility, in which some areas are still unsafe and
closed off to the public. Despite this fact, Alcatraz is attracting almost one million
visitors annually by the mid−1990s.
Compare & Contrast
Late 1960s: N. Scott Momaday, a Native−American author, wins the Pulitzer Prize
for fiction in 1969 for his novel House Made of Dawn. The novel depicts the
difficulties Native Americans face when trying to fit in among other Americans, and it
helps spark an increase in fiction and nonfiction writing by and about Native
Today: Alexie is one of many Native−American authors who have earned critical and
popular success with works that depict the plight of the modern Native American.
Other authors include Louise Erdrich and Leslie Marmon Silko.
Compare & Contrast
What Do I Read Next?
Like many of his works, Alexie's The Business of Fancydancing (1992), a collection
of poems and short stories, depicts life on the Spokane Indian Reservation. In this
collection, Alexie created characters and addressed themes that he has visited again in
subsequent works.
Alexie's first novel, Reservation Blues (1995), once again features characters that
Alexie made famous in his earlier collections, including Victor from "Because My
Father Always Said He Was the Only Indian Who Saw Jimi Hendrix Play 'The
Star−Spangled Banner' at Woodstock." The story details the experiences of Coyote
Springs, an all−Native−American, Catholic rock band from the Spokane Indian
Reservation, which gets its big break after the band members acquire the guitar of
blues legend Robert Johnson.
When Alexie was in his influential poetry class at Washington State University, his
professor, Alex Kuo, suggested that he read Songs from This Earth on Turtle's Back
(1983). The book, an anthology of Native−American poetry edited by Joseph Bruchac,
inspired Alexie to write his first poem.
In 1984, Louise Erdrich, a woman of Chippewa Indian and German−American
heritage, published her book Love Medicine. Although some have labeled it a novel,
others consider it a collection of interlinked short stories like The Lone Ranger and
Tonto Fistfight in Heaven. The multiplenarrator book tells the stories of two
Native−American families living in and around a reservation. Erdrich issued an
expanded version of the book, which is the first in a series, in 1993.
Much of Alexie's fiction and poetry draws upon experiences from his own life. Alexie
has also written autobiographical essays. In Here First: Autobiographical Essays by
Native American Writers (2000), editors Arnold Krupat and Brian Swann collect
essays from Alexie and more than twenty other writers.
What Do I Read Next?
N. Scott Momaday's Pulitzer Prize−winning novel, House Made of Dawn (1968), is
commonly acknowledged as the work that sparked the modern renaissance in
Native−American literature. The novel tells the story of Abel, a Native American who
returns home from fighting in World War II and has trouble adjusting to life in the
modern Anglo world.
What Do I Read Next?
Further Reading
Allen, Paula Gunn, Off the Reservation: Reflections on Boundary−Busting,
Border−Crossing Loose Cannons, Beacon Press, 1999.
In this collection of essays, Allen examines the boundaries between Anglo and
Native−American cultures from a feminine perspective, critiquing many of the
conventions of Western society in the process.
McDermott, John, and Eddie Kramer, Hendrix: Setting the Record Straight, Warner
Books, 1992.
This book is the definitive account of Hendrix's music career. Written entirely from
first person accounts including the recollections of Kramer, Hendrix's influential
producerthe book gives in−depth, behindthe−scenes coverage of the rock legend.
Nies, Judith, Native American History: A Chronology of a Culture's Vast
Achievements and Their Links to World Events, Ballantine Books, 1996.
Nies gives a thorough timeline of the major events in Native−American history. Using
a two−column format, she places these events next to the other world events from the
same year, giving readers a context within which to place the Native−American
events. The book covers prehistoric times until 1996, and each major time period is
prefaced by a short overview.
Peat, F. David, Lighting the Seventh Fire: The Spiritual Ways, Healing, and Science of
the Native American, Birch Lane Press, 1994.
Peat, a physicist and author, first came in contact with the scientific beliefs of Native
Americans in the 1980s. In this book, he gives a complete overview of science in the
Native−American culture, including ceremonies of renewal, sacred mathematics,
Further Reading
healing and disease, time, and language.
Rosenman, Joel, John Roberts, and Robert Pilpel, Young Men with Unlimited Capital:
The Story of Woodstock, Scrivenery Press, 1999.
Although the Woodstock Music and Art Fair of 1969 has become a landmark event of
an age, many people are unaware that the festival was generated through an
advertisement placed by Rosenman and Roberts in the New York Times. This book
gives a behind−the−scenes look at the creation of Woodstock and at the event itself,
which spawned a number of complaints, lawsuits, a death, births, medical
emergencies, and other unforeseen problems for the festival organizers.
Thornton, Russel, ed., Studying Native America: Problems and Prospects, University
of Wisconsin Press, 1999.
Thornton, a Cherokee Indian and professor of anthropology at the University of
California, Los Angeles, collects a number of essays by various contributors. The
essays concern the various issues involved in developing Native−American studies
programs that are culturally and historically accurate. Most contributors address the
fact that traditional academic methods do not always work for Native−American
Further Reading
Alexie, Sherman, "Because My Father Always Said He Was the Only Indian Who
Saw Jimi Hendrix Play 'The Star−Spangled Banner' at Woodstock," in The Lone
Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven, Atlantic Monthly Press, 1993, pp. 24−36.
Baxter, Andrea−Bess, Review of Old Shirts and New Skins, First Indian on the Moon,
and The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven, in Western American Literature,
Vol. 29, No. 3, November 1994, pp. 277−80.
Beauvais, Fred, "American Indians and Alcohol," in Alcohol Health and Research
World, Vol. 22, No. 4, 1998, p. 253.
Brill, Susan B., "Sherman Alexie," in Dictionary of Literary Biography, Vol. 175:
Native American Writers of the United States, Gale Research, 1997, pp. 3−10.
Cline, Lynn, "About Sherman Alexie," in Ploughshares, Vol. 26, No. 4, Winter
2000−2001, pp. 197−202.
Price, Reynolds, "One Indian Doesn't Tell Another," in the New York Times Book
Review, October 17, 1993, pp. 15−16.
Review of The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven, in Kirkus Reviews, July 1,
Schneider, Brian, Review of The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven, in the
Review of Contemporary Fiction, Vol. 13, No. 3, Fall 1993, pp. 237−38.
Silko, Leslie Marmon, "Big Bingo," in the Nation, Vol. 260, No. 23, June 12, 1995,
pp. 856−58, 860.
Velie, Alan R., Review of The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven, in World
Literature Today, Vol. 68, No. 2, Spring 1994, p. 407.
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The following sections, if they exist, are offprint from Beacham's Encyclopedia of
Popular Fiction: "Social Concerns", "Thematic Overview", "Techniques", "Literary
Precedents", "Key Questions", "Related Titles", "Adaptations", "Related Web Sites".
© 1994−2005, by Walton Beacham.
The following sections, if they exist, are offprint from Beacham's Guide to Literature
for Young Adults: "About the Author", "Overview", "Setting", "Literary Qualities",
"Social Sensitivity", "Topics for Discussion", "Ideas for Reports and Papers". ©
1994−2005, by Walton Beacham.
Purpose of the Book
The purpose of Short Stories for Students (SSfS) is to provide readers with a guide to
understanding, enjoying, and studying novels by giving them easy access to
information about the work. Part of Gale's“For Students” Literature line, SSfS is
specifically designed to meet the curricular needs of high school and undergraduate
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college students and their teachers, as well as the interests of general readers and
researchers considering specific novels. While each volume contains entries on
“classic” novels frequently studied in classrooms, there are also entries containing
hard−to−find information on contemporary novels, including works by multicultural,
international, and women novelists.
The information covered in each entry includes an introduction to the novel and the
novel's author; a plot summary, to help readers unravel and understand the events in a
novel; descriptions of important characters, including explanation of a given
character's role in the novel as well as discussion about that character's relationship to
other characters in the novel; analysis of important themes in the novel; and an
explanation of important literary techniques and movements as they are demonstrated
in the novel.
In addition to this material, which helps the readers analyze the novel itself, students
are also provided with important information on the literary and historical background
informing each work. This includes a historical context essay, a box comparing the
time or place the novel was written to modern Western culture, a critical overview
essay, and excerpts from critical essays on the novel. A unique feature of SSfS is a
specially commissioned critical essay on each novel, targeted toward the student
To further aid the student in studying and enjoying each novel, information on media
adaptations is provided, as well as reading suggestions for works of fiction and
nonfiction on similar themes and topics. Classroom aids include ideas for research
papers and lists of critical sources that provide additional material on the novel.
Selection Criteria
The titles for each volume of SSfS were selected by surveying numerous sources on
teaching literature and analyzing course curricula for various school districts. Some of
the sources surveyed included: literature anthologies; Reading Lists for
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College−Bound Students: The Books Most Recommended by America's Top
Colleges; textbooks on teaching the novel; a College Board survey of novels
commonly studied in high schools; a National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE)
survey of novels commonly studied in high schools; the NCTE's Teaching Literature
in High School: The Novel;and the Young Adult Library Services Association
(YALSA) list of best books for young adults of the past twenty−five years. Input was
also solicited from our advisory board, as well as educators from various areas. From
these discussions, it was determined that each volume should have a mix of “classic”
novels (those works commonly taught in literature classes) and contemporary novels
for which information is often hard to find. Because of the interest in expanding the
canon of literature, an emphasis was also placed on including works by international,
multicultural, and women authors. Our advisory board members—educational
professionals— helped pare down the list for each volume. If a work was not selected
for the present volume, it was often noted as a possibility for a future volume. As
always, the editor welcomes suggestions for titles to be included in future volumes.
How Each Entry Is Organized
Each entry, or chapter, in SSfS focuses on one novel. Each entry heading lists the full
name of the novel, the author's name, and the date of the novel's publication. The
following elements are contained in each entry:
• Introduction: a brief overview of the novel which provides information about its
first appearance, its literary standing, any controversies surrounding the work,
and major conflicts or themes within the work.
• Author Biography: this section includes basic facts about the author's life, and
focuses on events and times in the author's life that inspired the novel in
• Plot Summary: a factual description of the major events in the novel. Lengthy
summaries are broken down with subheads.
• Characters: an alphabetical listing of major characters in the novel. Each
character name is followed by a brief to an extensive description of the
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character's role in the novel, as well as discussion of the character's actions,
relationships, and possible motivation. Characters are listed alphabetically by
last name. If a character is unnamed—for instance, the narrator in Invisible
Man−the character is listed as “The Narrator” and alphabetized as “Narrator.” If
a character's first name is the only one given, the name will appear
alphabetically by that name. • Variant names are also included for each
character. Thus, the full name “Jean Louise Finch” would head the listing for
the narrator of To Kill a Mockingbird, but listed in a separate cross−reference
would be the nickname “Scout Finch.”
• Themes: a thorough overview of how the major topics, themes, and issues are
addressed within the novel. Each theme discussed appears in a separate
subhead, and is easily accessed through the boldface entries in the
Subject/Theme Index.
• Style: this section addresses important style elements of the novel, such as
setting, point of view, and narration; important literary devices used, such as
imagery, foreshadowing, symbolism; and, if applicable, genres to which the
work might have belonged, such as Gothicism or Romanticism. Literary terms
are explained within the entry, but can also be found in the Glossary.
• Historical Context: This section outlines the social, political, and cultural
climate in which the author lived and the novel was created. This section may
include descriptions of related historical events, pertinent aspects of daily life in
the culture, and the artistic and literary sensibilities of the time in which the
work was written. If the novel is a historical work, information regarding the
time in which the novel is set is also included. Each section is broken down
with helpful subheads.
• Critical Overview: this section provides background on the critical reputation of
the novel, including bannings or any other public controversies surrounding the
work. For older works, this section includes a history of how the novel was first
received and how perceptions of it may have changed over the years; for more
recent novels, direct quotes from early reviews may also be included.
• Criticism: an essay commissioned by SSfS which specifically deals with the
novel and is written specifically for the student audience, as well as excerpts
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from previously published criticism on the work (if available).
• Sources: an alphabetical list of critical material quoted in the entry, with full
bibliographical information.
• Further Reading: an alphabetical list of other critical sources which may prove
useful for the student. Includes full bibliographical information and a brief
In addition, each entry contains the following highlighted sections, set apart from the
main text as sidebars:
• Media Adaptations: a list of important film and television adaptations of the
novel, including source information. The list also includes stage adaptations,
audio recordings, musical adaptations, etc.
• Topics for Further Study: a list of potential study questions or research topics
dealing with the novel. This section includes questions related to other
disciplines the student may be studying, such as American history, world
history, science, math, government, business, geography, economics,
psychology, etc.
• Compare and Contrast Box: an “at−a−glance” comparison of the cultural and
historical differences between the author's time and culture and late twentieth
century/early twenty−first century Western culture. This box includes pertinent
parallels between the major scientific, political, and cultural movements of the
time or place the novel was written, the time or place the novel was set (if a
historical work), and modern Western culture. Works written after 1990 may
not have this box.
• What Do I Read Next?: a list of works that might complement the featured
novel or serve as a contrast to it. This includes works by the same author and
others, works of fiction and nonfiction, and works from various genres, cultures,
and eras.
Other Features
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SSfS includes “The Informed Dialogue: Interacting with Literature,” a foreword by
Anne Devereaux Jordan, Senior Editor for Teaching and Learning Literature (TALL),
and a founder of the Children's Literature Association. This essay provides an
enlightening look at how readers interact with literature and how Short Stories for
Students can help teachers show students how to enrich their own reading experiences.
A Cumulative Author/Title Index lists the authors and titles covered in each volume of
the SSfS series.
A Cumulative Nationality/Ethnicity Index breaks down the authors and titles covered
in each volume of the SSfS series by nationality and ethnicity.
A Subject/Theme Index, specific to each volume, provides easy reference for users
who may be studying a particular subject or theme rather than a single work.
Significant subjects from events to broad themes are included, and the entries pointing
to the specific theme discussions in each entry are indicated in boldface.
Each entry has several illustrations, including photos of the author, stills from film
adaptations (if available), maps, and/or photos of key historical events.
Citing Short Stories for Students
When writing papers, students who quote directly from any volume of Short Stories
for Students may use the following general forms. These examples are based on MLA
style; teachers may request that students adhere to a different style, so the following
examples may be adapted as needed. When citing text from SSfS that is not attributed
to a particular author (i.e., the Themes, Style, Historical Context sections, etc.), the
following format should be used in the bibliography section:
“Night.” Short Stories for Students. Ed. Marie Rose Napierkowski. Vol.
4. Detroit: Gale, 1998. 234−35.
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When quoting the specially commissioned essay from SSfS (usually the first piece
under the “Criticism” subhead), the following format should be used:
Miller, Tyrus. Critical Essay on “Winesburg, Ohio.” Short Stories for
Students. Ed. Marie Rose Napierkowski. Vol. 4. Detroit: Gale, 1998.
When quoting a journal or newspaper essay that is reprinted in a volume of SSfS, the
following form may be used:
Malak, Amin. “Margaret Atwood's “The Handmaid's Tale and the
Dystopian Tradition,” Canadian Literature No. 112 (Spring, 1987), 9−16;
excerpted and reprinted in Short Stories for Students, Vol. 4, ed. Marie
Rose Napierkowski (Detroit: Gale, 1998), pp. 133−36.
When quoting material reprinted from a book that appears in a volume of SSfS, the
following form may be used:
Adams, Timothy Dow. “Richard Wright: “Wearing the Mask,” in Telling
Lies in Modern American Autobiography (University of North Carolina
Press, 1990), 69−83; excerpted and reprinted in Novels for Students, Vol.
1, ed. Diane Telgen (Detroit: Gale, 1997), pp. 59−61.
We Welcome Your Suggestions
The editor of Short Stories for Students welcomes your comments and ideas. Readers
who wish to suggest novels to appear in future volumes, or who have other
suggestions, are cordially invited to contact the editor. You may contact the editor via
email at: [email protected] Or write to the editor at:
Editor, Short Stories for Students
Gale Group
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27500 Drake Road
Farmington Hills, MI 48331−3535
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