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TOURISMOS is an international, multi-disciplinary, refereed (peerreviewed) journal aiming to promote and enhance research in all fields of
tourism, including travel, hospitality and leisure. The journal is published
twice per year by the Interdepartmental Program of Postgraduate Studies in
Tourism Planning, Policy & Management of the University of the Aegean,
54 Michail Livanou Street, GR-82100, Chios, Greece. Phone: +30-2271035322, Fax: +30-22710-35399, E-mail: [email protected], website:
http://www.chios.aegean.gr/tourism
Full-text articles of TOURISMOS can be downloaded freely from the
journal website, at http://www.chios.aegean.gr/tourism/journal.htm
© University of the Aegean. Printed in Greece. Some rights reserved.
This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution Noncomercial - No Derivatives Works 3.0 Licence Unported. You are free
to copy, distribute, display and perform the work as long as you give the
original author(s) credit, do not use this work for commercial purposes, and
do not alter, transform, or build upon this work. For any reuse or
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Any of these conditions can be waived if you get permission from the
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to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco,
California, 94105, USA.
Volume 5, Number 2, Autumn 2010
Print ISSN: 1790-8418, Online ISSN: 1792-6521
INDEXING & ABSTRACTING COVERAGE:
CIRET (Centre International de Recherches et d'Etudes Touristiques), www.cirettourism.com
CAB Abstracts (CABI), http://www.cabi.org
CitEc (Citations in Economics), http://citec.repec.org
DOAJ (Directory of Open Access Journals), www.doaj.org
EBSCO Publishing, http://www.ebscohost.com
EconBiz, http://www.econbiz.de
ECONIS, http://www.econis.eu
EconPapers, http://econpapers.repec.org
Economists Online, http://www.economistsonline.org
EZB (Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek), http://rzblx1.uni-regensburg.de/ezeit
IDEAS (Internet Documents in Economics Access Service), http://ideas.repec.org
ICI (Index Copernicus International), http://www.indexcopernicus.com
INOMICS, http://www.inomics.com
Intute Social Sciences Index, http://www.intute.ac.uk/socialsciences
Leisure, Recreation & Tourism Abstracts, http://www.cabi.org
Murdoch University Australian Tourism Research Database,
http://wwwlib.murdoch.edu.au/guides/arts/internet/tourism.html#journals
National Library of Australia, http://catalogue.nla.gov.au
NEP (New Economics Papers), http://nep.repec.org
NewJour (Electronic Journals & Newsletters), http://library.georgetown.edu/newjour
Open J-Gate, http://www.openj-gate.org
RePEc (Research Papers in Economics) http://www.repec.org
Rural Development Abstracts, http://www.cabi.org
SCOPUS (Elsevier Bibliographic Databases), www.info.scopus.com
SocioNet, http://socionet.ru/
SRC (Scentific Reference Cosmos), http://www.srcosmos.gr/srcosmos
ZBW (German National Library of Economics), http://www.zbw.eu
1
TOURISMOS
An International Multidisciplinary Journal of Tourism
EDITOR- IN-CHIEF
Paris Tsartas, University of the Aegean, Greece
EDITOR
Evangelos Christou, University of the Aegean, Greece
CO-EDITORS
Haris Coccosis, University of Thessaly, Greece
Gerasimos Zacharatos, University of Patras, Greece
BOOK REVIEWS & CONFERENCE REPORTS EDITOR
Marianna Sigala, University of the Aegean, Greece
EDITORIAL ASSISTANT
Konstantina Tsiakali, University of the Aegean, Greece
SCIENTIFIC BOARD:
Bill Bramwell, Sheffield Hallam University, United Kingdom
Richard Butler, University of Surrey, United Kingdom
Chris Cooper, University of Queensland, Australia
Jafar Jafari, University of Wisconsin-Stout, U.S.A.
David Harrison, London Metropolitan University, United Kingdom
Chris Ryan, University of Waikato, New Zealand
John Swarbrooke, Sheffield Hallam University, United Kingdom
John Tribe, University of Surrey, United Kingdom
Francois Vellas, University of Toulouse, France
EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD
Amal Aboufayad, Lebanese University, Lebanon
George Agiomyrgianakis, Hellenic Open University, Greece
George Anastasopoulos, University of Patras, Greece
Konstantinos Andriotis, Cyprus University of Technology, Cyprus
Vassilis Angelis, University of the Aegean, Greece
David Airey, University of Surrey, United Kingdom
Teoman Alemdar, Bilkent University, Turkey
Sofia Avgerinou-Kolonia, National Technical University of Athens, Greece
2
Thomas Baum, University of Strathclyde, United Kingdom
Eleni Briasouli, University of the Aegean, Greece
Dimitrios Buhalis, Bournemouth University, United Kingdom
Nevenka Čavlek, University of Zagreb, Croatia
Konstandinos Chatzimichalis, Harokopion University, Greece
Kaye Chon, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong SAR China
Lorant Denes David, Károly Róbert Főiskola, Hungary
Alex Deffner, University of Thessaly, Greece
Vasiliki Galani-Moutafi, University of the Aegean, Greece
Hugo Goetch, Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Italy
Antti Haahti, University of Lapland, Finland
Michael Hall, University of Otago, New Zealand
Atsuko Hashimoto, Brock University, Ontario, Canada
Svetlana Hristova, University Neofit Rilski, Bulgaria
Olga Iakovidou, Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki, Greece
Elizabeth Ineson, Manchester Metropolitan University, United Kingdom
Zoran Ivanovic, University of Rijeka, Croatia
Peter Jones, University of Surrey, United Kingdom
Jay Kandampully, Ohio State University, USA
Ioannis Karamanidis, T.E.I. of Thessaloniki, Greece
Panagiotis Kassianidis, T.E.I. of Thessaloniki, Greece
Hanan Kattara, Alexandria University, Egypt
Saad Al-Deen Kharfan, Tishreen University, Syria
Fotis Kilipiris, T.E.I. of Thessaloniki, Greece
Maria Kousi, University of Crete, Greece
Metin Kozak, University of Mugla, Turkey
Dimitrios Lagos, University of the Aegean, Greece
Maria Lekakou, University of the Aegean, Greece
Pericles Lytras, T.E.I. of Athens, Greece
Leonidas Maroudas, University of the Aegean, Greece
Cynthia Mayo, Delaware State University, USA
Audrey Mc Cool, University of Nevada - Las Vegas, USA
Andreas Papatheodorou, University of the Aegean, Greece
Alex Paraskevas, Oxford Brookes University, United Kingdom
Harald Pechlaner, Katholische Universität Eichstätt-Ingolstadt, Germany
Mukesh Ranga, CSJM University, Kanpur, India
Gordana Reckoska, University of Bitola, former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Chris Roberts, University of Massachusetts, USA
Ana-Isabel Rodrigues, Polytechnic Institute of Beja, Portugal
Odysseas Sakellaridis, University of the Aegean, Greece
Alexis Saveriades, Cyprus University of Technology, Cyprus
3
Ian Senior, Emirates Academy, United Arab Emirates
Konstandina Skanavi, University of the Aegean, Greece
Pantelis Skagiannis, University of Thessaly, Greece
Marios Soteriades, T.E.I. of Crete, Greece
Ioannis Spilanis, University of the Aegean, Greece
Theodoros Stavrinoudis, University of the Aegean, Greece
Snezana Stetic, University of Novi Sad, Serbia & Montenegro
Marianthi Stogiannidou, University of the Aegean, Greece
Theano Terkenli, University of the Aegean, Greece
Rodoula Tsiotsou, University of Macedonia, Greece
Adriana Mirela Tomescu, University of Oradea, Romania
Stelios Varvaressos, T.E.I. of Athens, Greece
Cleopatra Veloutsou, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom
Maria Vodenska, University of Sofia, Bulgaria
Sandra Watson, Napier University, United Kingdom
Craig Webster, College of Tourism and Hotel Management, Cyprus
Hannes Werthner, University of Innsbruck, Austria
Elfrida Zefi, University Fan Noli of Korca, Albania
4
TOURISMOS
An International Multidisciplinary Journal of Tourism
Volume 5, Number 2, Autumn 2010
CONTENTS
EDITORIAL
13
RESEARCH PAPERS:
THE TOURIST SECTOR: THE ITALIAN EXPERIENCE
Alfonso Marino
15
This work takes into account a theoretical discussion about the
relationship between the private and public sectors with specific reference
to Italy. It argues that three contexts are important, namely the ‘task’,
‘normative’ and ‘organisational’ environments. The second part of the
paper reports some findings from research in progress. This describes the
attitudes of Italian staff working in the public sector of tourism to the
issue of the relationship between the public and private sector. South
Italian managers rank motivational factors highly, while north Italian
managers seem more concerned about issues of co-ordination and the
quality of service provision.
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE PERCEPTION OF RISK AND THE
DECISION MAKING PROCESS OF TRAVEL OF FRENCH TOURISTS:
THE CASE OF EGYPT
29
Tare Sayed Abdel Azim
This exploratory study was conducted in order to investigate the impact
of socio-demographic variables “age, sex, familial situation,
qualification, profession, income per capita”, international tourism
experience, and tourism experience in Egypt on the decision making
process of travel under the effect of the risk factor “terrorist attacks of
last April, 2006, in Sinai, Egypt». For this purpose, a two decision making
process probabilities have been estimated by the ordinal logit model.
5
IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF ECOTOURISM THROUGH ADVANCING
EDUCATION AND TRAINING OF GREEK ECO-TOUR GUIDES: THE
ROLE OF TRAINING IN ENVIRONMENTAL INTERPRETATION 49
Constantina Skanavis & Christos Giannoulis
In Greece, environmental interpretation is in its infancy as an academic
field. In particular, there are no nature guides or specific conservation
objectives, and there is no professional training for non formal
environmental educators and/or interpreters. The ultimate scope of this
paper is to reveal the necessity of integrating environmental interpretation
in the training of Greek Ecotour guides.The focus is based on developing
abilities which could enable Greek Ecotour guides to communicate and
interpret the significance of the environment, promote minimal impact
practices, ensure the sustainability of the natural and cultural
environment, and motivate visiting tourists to evaluate the quality of life in
relation to larger ecological or cultural concerns. The rationale
underpinning this objective is that by providing accurate and effective
interpretation of ecotourism sites as well as monitoring and modelling
environmental responsible behaviour, the outcome will be to promote
positive impacts of tourism and alleviate negative ones Local community
will be encouraged to participate in environmental management of
ecotourism settings. Furthermore, connecting ecotourism commitment to
returning benefits, particularly economic and employment ones to local
communities, it stresses that training local people to be interpretive
guides, helps achieving not only ecological sustainability but also
economic sustainability. Once trained, guides may encourage conservation
action amongst both tourists and the local community.
FOUR WHEEL DRIVE TOURISM AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
OPPORTUNITIES FOR REMOTE AREAS
69
Andrew Taylor & Dean Carson
Desert areas account for around 70% of Australia’s landmass but are
home to less than 3% of the population. The economies of many desert
areas have been described as marginal or peripheral. Tourism is an
important economic activity for desert destinations and one sector, four
wheel drive tourism, has been gaining increasing attention. This paper
examines the spending patterns of four wheel drive visitors to desert
regions of the Northern Territory of Australia and compares them to nonfour wheel drive leisure visitors for a five year period from 2000 to 2004.
In addition to assessing the amount of expenditure (overall and per day),
the research investigates whether there were differences in expenditure
items and the dispersal of expenditure among destinations. This
information can help inform decisions about levels of investment for
attracting the four wheel drive market which might be justified, and the
types of product opportunities that might arise from a growing market.
6
CAUSALITY BETWEEN ECONOMIC GROWTH AND TOURISM
EXPANSION: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM TRENTINO - ALTO
ADIGE
87
Juan Gabriel Brida, Andrea Barquet & Wiston Adrián Risso
This paper investigates the causal relations between tourism growth,
relative prices and economic expansion for the Trentino-Alto
Adige/Südtirol, a region of northeast Italy bordering on Switzerland and
Austria. Johansen cointegration analysis shows the existence of one
cointegrated vector among real GDP, tourism and relative prices where
the corresponding elasticities are positive. Tourism and relative prices are
weakly exogenous to real GDP. A variation of the Granger Causality test
developed by Toda and Yamamoto is performed to reveal the unidirectional causality from tourism to real GDP. Impulse response analysis
shows that a shock in tourism expenditure produces a fast positive effect
on growth.
RECREATION IN THE AREA OF RIVER ARDAS: THE VIEWS OF
ELEMENTARY SCHOOL PUPILS
99
Evangelos Manolas, Stylianos Tampakis, Stergios Gkaintatzis &
Soultana Mavridou-Mavroudi
River Ardas in Greece is an area of outstanding natural beauty and used
as a recreation area. Each year the area is visited by people of all ages.
Children visit the place either with their school or with their parents. It is
important therefore to study their views about the river as a recreation
area. The children asked were pupils of the 5th and 6th grade of the
elementary schools of the region. These pupils completed a questionnaire
in their classrooms. Almost all of these children had visited the area
before. The majority of the children declare satisfied from their visit in the
area and assess the landscape positively. However, most of the children
have a less positive view about the provided recreation services. The
majority of them also think the river constitutes a danger to their safety as
well as the safety of the other children. Through the use of hierarchical
loglinear analysis it becomes obvious that the pupils who declare from
totally to very satisfied regarding their visit in the recreation area of Ardas
also find that the provided recreation services range from very good to
good. The same pupils also believe that that the river constitutes from very
small to fair danger to their safety and visit the place more than five times
a year. In addition, the pupils who visit the area more than five times a
year think that the river constitutes from very small to fair danger to their
safety. Most of the pupils think that the diversity of plants ranges from big
to very big while the diversity of animals ranges from small to very small.
There is a need for improved infrastructure in the area, e.g. observatories,
so that pupils can discover the wild animals that live there. The love of the
7
children for animals becomes obvious from the fact that they do not wish
the prohibition of pets in the place. Most of the pupils like the idea of
camping in the area with their parents but the idea of doing so with their
fellow pupils is even more popular. The children think that their parents
would find it easier to grant permission to them to camp in the area if they
themselves accompanied their children and not if their children did so
together with their fellow pupils. Through the test of independence it
becomes obvious that the will of the children to camp in the area depends
on the will of their parents.
UNDERSTANDING TOURISM DEVELOPMENT: A
REPRESENTATIONAL APPROACH
Elina Meliou & Leonidas Maroudas
115
The article investigates hotel employees and postgraduate students’
representations of “tourism development”, using social representations
theory. Data from a sample of eighty participants were collected on Chios
Island, Greece. To reveal social representations a word association
procedure was applied followed by a correspondence analysis. The
analysis attempts to map the meanings associated with “tourism
development” and to pinpoint the links between those meanings. Results
highlight differences and similarities in the representation of “tourism
development” according to individuals’ social membership, offering an
interesting insight for employers and educators.
CASE STUDIES:
THE EVOLVING SERVICE CULTURE OF CUBAN TOURISM: A CASE
STUDY
129
Tony L. Henthorne, Babu P. George & Alvin J. Williams
The case examines the impressive growth of tourism in Cuba. It analyzes
tourism development in a society striving to navigate its way economically
amid numerous social and political challenges. The Cuban experiment
with tourism is a short-term mega success.
However, it is highly
uncertain whether long-term sustainability can be maintained without the
appropriate managerial changes at all levels. This paper highlights
challenges in the tourism employment sector – training, supervisory
issues, and performance evaluation, within a centrally-controlled
bureaucratic system. Of specific interest is the disconnection between the
natural hospitability of the Cuban people and low levels of tourist
satisfaction stemming from a lack of professional hospitality. The paper
concludes by focusing on the high relevance of the Cuban cultural identity
as a key motivator undergirding the demand for tourism. However, with
the rapid growth of tourism, strains are occurring in the cultural realm,
thus requiring immediate policy intervention for sustained positive results.
8
THE NATURE OF CULTURAL CONTRIBUTION OF A COMMUNITYBASED HOMESTAY PROGRAMME
145
Kalsom Kayat
An exploratory study utilizing qualitative approach was undertaken in
2005 to better understand the cultural contribution of a community-based
homestay to both the rural communities and the visitors. The particular
homestay, namely the Kampung Pelegong Homestay Programme (KPHP),
is located in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. The study finds that while living
culture is the core product component, education, entertainment and
enrichment are important contributions of the cultural rural tourism
product of KPHP to the visitors. In addition, an important finding
indicates that this particular tourism product is unique as it stresses on
establishing relationship (‘Sillatul-rahim’ in Malay) between hosts and
guests whereby these relationships continue for years through letters,
phone conversations, and emails. The programme also increases social
cohesion among the hosts and contributes to their commitment to preserve
and to provide knowledge on local customs and daily routine to enhance
tourist experience.
DESTINATION MARKETING THROUGH A UTILITY BUSINESS
MODEL: THE CASE OF CYPRUS
161
Haris Machlouzarides
Traditional business models that used to govern the operations of travel
and tourism businesses defined in a rigid way their functional areas and
the relationships among them. The advent of Information and
Communication Technologies (ICT) has driven the transformation of these
business models into novel destination marketing models. The Cyprus
Tourism Organisation (CTO) recognising the need of establishing an
explicit model for managing the process of destination marketing has
developed an integrated marketing model to guide the management of the
destination’s marketing process. Moreover, the CTO, aiming at enhancing
the country’s tourism industry electronic marketing deployment levels, has
put in place a utility business model that aims at optimising the industry’s
potential to engage in integrated marketing activities. The key for
optimising the destination’s marketing processes is the successful
implementation of the model through the integration of traditional with
electronic marketing activities.
IMAGES OF EGYPT IN UNITED KINGDOM TOUR OPERATORS’
BROCHURES
179
Sabreen J. Abd El Jalil
Tour operators and travel agents play a double role as distribution
channels and image creators with tourist brochures playing an important
9
role in the image creation process. This paper assesses tourist images of
Egypt in the United Kingdom through content analysis of the brochures of
United Kingdom tour operators using 35 image attributes which are rated
on a 5-point Likert scale. Most of the brochures in the United Kingdom
market present Egypt and its physical attractions - beaches, historical
sites, luxury accommodation - extremely positively although clearly they
have a vested interest in doing this. They are however silent on certain
aspects of the destination which have received negative comments in the
literature - the real lifestyles of local people and their friendliness and
hospitality, the local cuisine and safety and security.
RESEARCH NOTES:
HOW THE LANGUAGE WORKS: A BIOGRAPHY OF HEGEMONY193
Maximiliano Korstanje
The following notes of research are aimed at disusing succinctly how
language works into a tourist organization founding hegemony, conflict
and a hierarchal order among involved groups. Basically, it contains the
own individual experiences in a rent a car organization where English
language is taken not only as a skilful instrument for work but also in a
real mechanism to maintain hegemony over the rest of staff.
Methodogically, we conducted an ethnographic from 2004 to 2008 in well
famous rent a car company who authorities asked us not to reveal the real
name. Hypothetically, we will call this company as Rentaldays. Findings
should be circumscribed and interpreted in the contexts wherein they have
been examined.
TOURISM DEVELOPMENT AND RESIDENTS’ ATTITUDE: A CASE
STUDY OF YAZD, IRAN
203
Hamidreza Rastegar
The Yazd residents look at tourism development with a promising future to
bring more income to the area that can be shared. Investors search to find
new attractive business and middle and low classes in the community look
to find better job opportunities. This paper assesses the attitude and
perception of local residents toward this fast growing industry and also
their expectation of authority regarding tourism development in Yazd city.
A questionnaire was designed based on five point Likert scale and total
320 usable questionnaires were collected from local residents. Though the
result shows positive attitude of local people towards tourism development
but they are not totally satisfied with tourism management in the area.
BOOK REVIEWS:
10
CULTURES OF MASS TOURISM
Deepak Chhabra
INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS TRAVEL IN THE GLOBAL
ECONOMY
Marianna Sigala
213
217
THE CULTURAL LIFE OF AUTOMOBILE: ROADS OF CINETIC
MODERNITY
221
Maximiliano Korstanje
CONFERENCE REPORTS:
TOURISM AWAY FROM THE MAINSTREAM: THE TRAVEL AND
TOURISM RESEARCH ASSOCIATION CANADA CONFERENCE 225
Statia Elliot
FORTHCOMING EVENTS
231
JOURNAL AIMS AND SCOPE
233
NOTES FOR CONTRIBUTORS
239
11
12
EDITORIAL 1
This is the tenth issue of TOURISMOS, finishing its fifth year of publication
(volume five). In the previous nine issues, our multidisciplinary journal aimed
at justifying the rationale behind introducing yet another journal in tourism
academic studies. Capitalising on this effort, we now focus on furthering our
scope and consolidating our position in both conceptual developments and
practical applications in tourism.
In this context, the present issue is significantly larger than previous ones, and
it contains seven research papers, four case studies and two research notes
with an international flavour. The research papers address a number of topics
namely risk and decision-making in tourism, tourism development in Italy,
education for ecotourism, rural tourism development, growth and tourism
expansion in Alto Adige, river tourism, and factors for tourism development.
With respect to the case studies, various interesting topics are examined, such
as service culture in Cuban tourism, cultural contribution of community-based
homestay programs, destination marketing in Cyprus, and image analysis of
Egypt. Last, two interesting research notes are presented, namely language
working and hegemony, and tourism development in Iran.
Based on the previous analysis, we trust that you will enjoy reading the
present issue, and we look forward to presenting you our next issue in spring
2011!
Paris Tsartas
Editor-in-Chief
Evangelos Christou
Editor
© University of the Aegean. Print ISSN: 1790-8418, Online ISSN: 1792-6521
13
14
TOURISMOS: AN INTERNATIONAL MULTIDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF TOURISM
Volume 5, Number 2, Autumn 2010, pp. 15-27
UDC: 338.48+640(050)
THE TOURIST SECTOR: ITALIAN EXPERIENCE
1
Alfonso Marino
Second University of Naples
This work takes into account a theoretical discussion about the relationship
between the private and public sectors with specific reference to Italy. It argues
that three contexts are important, namely the ‘task’, ‘normative’ and
‘organisational’ environments. The second part of the paper reports some
findings from research in progress. This describes the attitudes of Italian staff
working in the public sector of tourism to the issue of the relationship between the
public and private sector. South Italian managers rank motivational factors
highly, while north Italian managers seem more concerned about issues of coordination and the quality of service provision.
Keywords:
Italian tourist sector, south and north, Productivity and efficiency,
Quantitative and qualitative approach.
JEL Classification: L83, M1, O1
INTRODUCTION
In Europe, it is a cliché to state that the demand for tourism services
has increased significantly over the last few decades. Many public and
private organisations have recognised (Korres, 2008) a potential for
adding to tourism supply in areas that were previously not considered
attractive destinations (Aaker, Kumar, Day, 2003) for tourists. At the
local level, (Beirman, 2003) particularly in Southern Europe, tourism has
often been seen as a means of generating economic prosperity (Gartner,
2000) and playing a role previously attributed to manufacturing.
Additionally, tourism can enable public authorities to achieve a variety of
social objectives, such as improving employment (Commission of the
European Communities, 2005) and the physical environment of an area.
One can highlight the experience of Naples and Genoa, new investments
by the European Union and private/public actors that are changing the old
manufacturing areas of each of these cities in the new and competitive
tourist arena. In this context (Lindberg, Andersson, Dellaert, 2001) the
different experience of the Italian Tourist Sector (ITS) will be
© University of the Aegean. Print ISSN: 1790-8418, Online ISSN: 1792-6521
15
Alfonso Marino
investigated. Certainly the proportion of GDP of Italy related activities
has increased significantly during last decades (Italian Tourism Council,
2008).
The European Tourist Sector (ETS) is, as elsewhere, a complex
sector (Divisekera, 2003. Dwyer, Forsyth, Spurr, Vanho, 2003), that
interweaves both tangible assets and intangible experiences. These, from
a management viewpoint, (Davies, 2003) are linked by:
• a marketing approach;
• the human resources; and
• the capacities of management.
A second factor is that one has to identify a changing relationship
between the public and private sectors of the industry (Bendell, Font,
2004). These changes affect the attractiveness of destinations, the modes
of regulation of the private sector (Patsouratis, Frangouli,
Anastasoupolos, 2005), and the consequences of tourism development
(Russell, Faulkner, 2004) on social and physical environments (O'Neill,
Carlsen, 2001). To examine such changing relationships requires
consideration of the following issues:
• the different cultural values of human resources and capacity of
management;
• how members of different organisations (public and private), perceive
the purpose of these organisations;
• the importance of the organisational life cycle, here the literature
emphasises the stages of birth, youth, mid - life and maturity;
• the different historical roles of the organisation and financing of
private and public sectors.
THE ITALIAN TOURIST SECTORS: A NEW LOGIC AND A
CULTURAL CHALLENGE
In recent years there has been an increasing interest in the use of
management theory (Italian Tourism Council, 2008) within the Italian
Tourist Sectors. This interest has two aspects: first, an interest in the
application of management theory in the tourist sector. This takes the
form of importing ideas and methods developed in and for the private
sector. The assumption is that the private sector is superior to the public
sector in specific ways: private sector organisations are more costconsciousness, more inclined to implement modern personnel
management and more capable of developing corporate culture as a
steering instrument. Such a debate considers facets like incentives for
productivity and particularly the necessity to create in the tourist sector
16
TOURISMOS: AN INTERNATIONAL MULTIDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF TOURISM
Volume 5, Number 2, Autumn 2010, pp. 15-27
UDC: 338.48+640(050)
some reliable measures of management efficiency. The second aspect is
an interest in the use of management theory in the study of the tourist
sector. Here the aim is somewhat different: do theories and concepts from
management theory help us to understand the tourist sector better? What
should be the extent and nature of tourist sector? How do we change the
role of the tourist sector? From 2000 the public sector in Italy has become
less important than previously, the policy objectives are now:
• reducing the budget of public tourist sector;
• reducing government involvement in the public tourist sector;
• easing problems of public sector pay determination;
• encouraging employee share ownership.
This debate about the difference between public and private tourist
sector is not new (Sasser et. al., 1978). Many of the early writers stressed
privatisation in their discussion of planning and extensive public tourist
sector controls (Liu, 2003). Equally, many of the problems of regulation
have long been recognised. Such a debate raises (Commission of the
European Communities, 2005) many issues, including:
• the characteristics of the task the public tourist sector are supposed to
carry out;
• the normative foundation of their work and;
• the authorities, political bodies and other units they have to deal with.
These three elements are referred to as the ‘task context’, the
“normative context’ and the “organisational context’.
The task context
The tourist experience is typically produced by two production
circuits. The first relates to travel patterns and motivations. The second is
more diffuse and complicated. It concerns the general policy goal for
which the specific services can be seen as a means and an end. In this
latter approach tourism is not about an individual’s concerns, but about
the reproduction and development of their country’s culture. In this way
the public tourist sector carries out both aggregative and integrative
functions. On the one hand they must take as a point of departure citizens’
needs (aggregation); on the other hand they socialize and regulate citizen
behaviour (integration).
The normative context
The normative context contains the consideration, principles and
demands to which the tourist sector must generally relate. In this way we
17
Alfonso Marino
find many varying elements, all of which can be seen as restrictions on
internal processes and the way in which services are produced and
distributed. The issues here relate to resource use, the productivity and
efficiency of services and quality of those services.
The organisational context
This element involves a specification of the overall structure into
which an organisation fits. The main approach here is that typically the
tourist sector is enmeshed in a political and economic macrostructure
which has a coordinating and decisive influence over the organisation (the
visible hand) as opposed to the private sector which is assumed to
respond to a ‘rational’ allocation of resources (the invisible hand). The
visible hand stresses the concepts of a policy system, and the
administration of resources as a collective goal. In this context the
political system views the tourist sector as omni comprehensive system
where the different institutions can be considered as a part of whole. In
practice, the omni comprehensive system is fragmented and there can be
considerable conflict between the signals and actions emanating from the
different parts. The administration of resources as a collective goal is
linked to the concept of public budget. Here two aspects are underlined;
the first is a formal aspect - when the public sector dispenses a sum of
money, it can then place special demands on its use - the second is an
operative aspect - can a public budget be understood as economic and
normative action?
International experiences
The last ten years has seen a remarkable reduction in the public
tourist sector (notably in Germany and Great Britain) At the same time, it
is not clear if other European (Blake, Sinclair, Campo, 2006) countries
are developing policies of deregulation or privatisation versus regulation
or a mix between the two options. Pertinent questions include:
• what determines the balance between public and private system of
rule, between the formal and informal system and with what
consequences?
• what are the consequences of the regulatory system for distribution,
services and social values?
• how, why and with what effect do such systems change and evolve?
In these circumstances it is striking that the economic theory of how
to change the role of the public tourist sector is so weak. There are
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examples of the theoretical analysis of the public tourist sector. These
studies provide some interesting insights into quality services, prices, or
quantities which are under the control of the public sector. They do not,
however, provide very much guidance on the different context (task,
normative and organisational) that the public tourist sector must take into
account.
THE CASE - STUDY: ITALIAN TOURIST SECTOR
The Italian tourist sector is illustrative of the different, disjointed
interests between administrative- political and economic aspects. First,
the sectors may be considered as comprising of three areas as shown in
Figures 1. Thus it must interact with the surrounding economic and social
environment for which it should fulfil a role of regulating the social and
economic processes. The tourist sector is not the result of a simple
addition of the performance of all units. On the contrary it depends on a
relationship existing among all tourist sector units, among the different
economic and social goals and between these and the political action of
visible hand. To start from this assumption means surrendering the omni
comprehensive idea of a tourist sector and replacing it with one of
networks of complementary but often competing units. In the next
paragraphs, after the methodology, starting from task, normative and
organisational context, will be showed the items of questionnaire and the
results of research.
METHODOLOGY
The sample of Italian public managers was selected during April
2007, the interviews has started during April 2008. The high number of
managers in two different areas of country (south and north) and in
different regions within the areas, 750 south Italian public managers and
750 north Italian public managers, have take many time for organised the
contact and the visit in the different organisations (small and medium
firms). A large part of interviews 70% has been made in the local public
agency of two areas. From Figures 1 it can be said the Italian public
sector of tourism is characterised by:
• a presence of one large public national agency and a presence of
a few large companies (provider area);
• a presence of small firms (allotment of duties area) with at most
ten employees and,
• a presence of a consumer good area.
19
Alfonso Marino
First and second areas has been investigated by questionnaire, that
take into account three different contest of analysis:
• social background variables;
• productivity variables;
• efficiency variables.
The second and third part of questionnaire comprised 30 pre developed, 15 for each part, Likert statements, designed to measure the
productivity and efficiency variables. Specifically, respondents were
asked to indicate the level of criticises on a seven point scale, ranging
“strongly criticises” (7) to low criticises (1) by different items of second
and third part.
The 30 Likert statements were explored by principal components
factor analysis and varimax rotation, which resulted in a four - factor
solution, two for each countries. The purpose of factor analysis
(Calantone et. al., 1989) was to combine the statements into a set factors
that were deemed to represent a first organisational types linked to the
interviews of managers into different countries. The internal consistency
of each factor was examined by Cronbach’s alpha tests. All the alpha
coefficients were above 0.5, which means that high correlation existed
between the items.
The results of research
These issues were examined by questioning a sample of Italian and
Spanish managers in the public sector of the tourism industry. These were
distributed by geographical and educational attainment as shown in tables
1 and 2. Table 2 shows the general lack of tertiary sector educational
qualifications among the staff. What is not shown is that staff were
predominantly male.
Table 1 Number of managers for different regions
South Italian public managers Norh Italian public managers
33% south land
33% north est land
33% south island sicilia
33% middle – norht (exp. lazio) land
33% south island sardegna
33% north – ovest land
Total managers 750
Total managers 750
The purpose of factor analysis, which resulted in a three factor
solution, was to combine the statements into a set factors that were
deemed to represent the organisational types linked to the interviews of
managers into different areas. Specifically, items with higher loadings, 16
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factors, (see table 3) were considered (alpha coefficients above 0.5) as
more important and as having a greater influence (Hair et al., 1995) on
organisational types.
Table 2 Managers education level for different regions
South Italian public managers
Norh Italian public managers
University
8%
University
19%
Secondary high school
26%
Secondary
high
school
30%
Jounior high school
22%
Jounior
high
school
28%
No education level
44%
No
education
level
23%
Total 100% (77% male)
Total 100 (80% male)
Table 3 Factor analysis Italian public managers
Factor name and items
Mean
improving productivity south public managers
5.00
S.D.
Factor loading
0.83
motivational factors to entry
5.24
1.56
0.77
the role of public management
5.13
1.58
0.64
control of public sector
5.20
1.37
0.59
coordination of public sector
5.62
1.44
0.62
improving productivity north public managers
5.73
0.90
relations customers - allotment of duties
5.20
1.38
0.54
low level of information technology
5.16
1.38
0.50
private control
6.14
1.10
0.80
private coordination
6.24
1.22
0.87
improving efficiency south public managers
5.26
work organisation as a problem
5.20
1.55
0.76
mutual help relation with other agency
5.01
1.05
0.63
job stability
5.16
1.12
0.51
salary
5.12
1.10
0.68
improving efficiency north public managers
Alpha
0.80
5.73
0.81
managerial culture
5.70
1.23
0.74
quality of service
5.17
1.50
0.71
credit and information by bank
5.24
1.38
0.55
public legislation
5.34
1.48
0.65
21
Alfonso Marino
Managers were asked about what they saw as the critical points for
improving productivity. The results are categorised in table 4. South
Italian managers emphasised motivational factors to entry, especially
incentives for productivity and training, and then factors described as ‘the
form of management’ and ‘coordination of the tourist sector’. North
Italian public managers considered the first element to be ‘coordination’
and ‘control of public sector’. Both groups of managers underline the
necessity of a new normative context and strongly criticize the role of a
‘National Public Agency.
Table 4 Factor loading items linked to the critical points for
improving productivity
South public managers
North public managers
motivational factors to entry
(0.77) relations customers allotment
of
duties
(0.54)
the role of public management
(0.64) low level of information
technology (0.50)
control of public sector
(0.59)
private
control
(0.80)
coordination of public sector
(0.62) Private
coordination
(0.87)
For the items linked to efficiency (see table 5) the critical factors are,
for the south managers: ‘work organisation’, ‘mutual help relationships
with other agencies’ and ‘salary’. In the first element managers underline
the absence of gerarchical influences and ‘professionality’ linked to the
service supply. The second element is the necessity to change, for the
better, the mutual help relationships with other agencies. In this case the
managers underline the modalities by which the different members of
organisation undertake their specific tasks, professional functions and
roles. These modalities particularly concern the relations of exchange and
their characteristics, linked again to the absence of gerarchical influence.
Salary is the last element; the managers argue that individual economic
reward should be taken into account to improve productivity and
efficiency. North managers underline the importance of ‘managerial
culture’ and ‘quality of service’ in terms of paying more attention to the
specific managerial culture of the sector and the needs of its users. One
important bottle neck of this second aspect, (quality of service) is linked
to the relations between customers and the allocation of duties with
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reference to the need for a quick response about the coordination and
control of information flows.
Table 5 Factor loading items linked to the critical points for
improving efficiency
South public managers
North public managers
work organisation as a problem
(0.76)
managerial
culture
(0.74)
mutual help relation with other agency (0.63) quality of service
(0.71)
job stability
(0.51)
credit and information
by bank
(0.55)
salary
(0.68)
public
legislation
(0.65)
Starting from tables 4 and 5, the data showed three different
organisational types:
the insensitive organisation; the main characteristics refer to low
attention to the identification of user's needs, and to productivity and
efficiency. This configuration is present in a large part of Italy,
particularly in the south and islands. These types of organisation takes
into account for improving productivity:
- motivational factors to entry (0.77);
- the role of public management (0.64),
and for improving efficiency:
- work organisation as problem (0.76);
- salary (0.68).
the fortuitously sensitive organisation; it shows interest in the
knowledge of user's needs, and productivity and efficiency. This
configuration is present in a large part of south and islands and the middle
north. In south and islands these types of organisation, takes into account
for improving productivity:
- control of public sector (0.59);
- coordination of public sector (0.62);
for improving efficiency:
- mutual help relation with other agency (0.63);
-job stability (0.51).
In middle north these types of organisation takes into account for
improving productivity:
- relations customers - allotment of duties (0.54);
- low level of information technology (0.50);
23
Alfonso Marino
for improving efficiency:
- public legislation (0.65);
- credit and information by bank (0.55).
the sensitive organisation; an organisation that shows great interest in
user's requests, and productivity and efficiency. This configuration is
present in a large part of north. These types of organisation takes into
account for improving productivity:
- private control (0.80);
- private coordination (0.87);
for improving efficiency:
- managerial culture (0.74);
- quality of service (0.71).
CONCLUSION
This work indicates that the theory of regulation versus privatisation
does not provide very much guidance on the different task, normative and
organisational contexts of tourism. It also argues that while change is
possible, such change must take into account the different experiences
and culture of the two areas of Italy and the different market opportunities
of each. Of over-riding importance is a needed change in terms of values
and operative decisions.
We have tried to draw on organisational types to help understand two
central question. The first concerning the theory of regulation versus
privatisation in the Italian tourist sectors; the second querying the
appropriate role of the public tourist sector and how it can be changed. It
appears that the political decision for greater privatisation has been made
in Italy, but simply replacing a public sector by a private sector to
replicate the functions of the former is not enough. The values and culture
of service in order to produce a tangible economic and social return, is
underline in the north. South Italy to replace one bureaucracy by another
is not progress. In addition there are different configurations in the same
areas, for ex middle and north versus south. Such a view rejects a stance
whereby the normative context can be regarded as ultimate and
unchanging. It must instead be seen as under constant development and
re-interpretation. The theory of regulation and the role of public tourist
sector is an open question and therefore, in the diagnosis of reform versus
privatisation, actually there isn’t a one best way for European tourist
sector and a single element or problem is rarely sufficient to analyse the
relationship between public and private tourist sectors. A kind of
diagnosis that reflects the nature of different systems and contributes to
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the discovery of strategic key areas in which a change could produce a
better performance for the service and users is a more productive
approach.
FIGURE1 ITALIAN TOURIST SECTOR
PROVIDERS
AREA
HOTELS AND
RENTING
(bus cars)
TRANSPORT
COMPANIES
NATIONAL
PUBLIC
AGENCY
TOUR
ORGANISERS
ALLOTMENT
OF
DUTIES
AREA
TOUR
OPERATORS
TRAVEL
AGENCY
SINGLE
CUSTOMERS
CONSUMER
GOODS
AREA
OTHER
CUSTOMERS
BIG
CUSTOMERS
FIRMS
FAMILIES
25
Alfonso Marino
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Calantone, R.J., Benedetto, A., Hakam, A. & Bojanic, D.C. (1989). Multiple
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Centro Studi TCI.. (2008), Annuario del turismo, Roma.
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Davies, B. (2003). The role of quantitative and qualitative research in industrial
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No.2, pp.129-143.
Divisekera, S. (2003). A model of demand for international tourism. Annals of
Tourism Research, Vol. 30, No.1, pp. 31-49.
Dwyer, L., Forsyth, P., Spurr, R. & Vanho, T. (2003). Tourism's contribution to a
state economy: a multi-regional general equilibrium analysis. Tourism
Economics, Vol. 9, No.4, pp.431-448.
Gartner, W.C. (2000). Image and sustainable tourism systems. In S. Wahab and J.
J. Pigram (Eds.) Tourism Development and Growth-the challenge of
sustainability (pp. 179-198), London-New York: Routledge.
Hair, J.F., Anderson, R.E., Tatham, R.L. & Black W.C. (1995). Multivariate data
analysis with readings. Hemel Hempstead: Prentice-Hall.
Korres, G.M. (2008). The role of innovation activities in tourism and regional
growth in Europe. Tourismos, Vol. 3, No.1, pp.135-153.
Lindberg, K., Andersson, T.D. & Dellaert, B.G.C. (2001). Tourism development:
assessing social gains and losses. Annals of tourism research, Vol. 28,
No.4, pp.1010-1030.
Liu, Z. (2003). Sustainable tourism development: a critique. Journal of
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O'Neill, M. & Carlsen, J. (2001). Service quality evaluation at events through
service mapping. Journal of travel research, Vol. 39, No.4, pp.380-390.
Patsouratis, V., Frangouli, Z. & Anastasoupolos, G. (2005). Competition in
tourism among the Mediterranea countries. Applied Economics, Vol. 37,
No.16, pp.1865-1860. London, Routledge.
Russell, R. & Faulkner, B. (2004). Entrepreneurship, chaos and tourism area
lifecycle. Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 31, No.3, pp.556-579.
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Sasser, W.E., Olsen, R.P. & Wychoff, D.D. (1978). Management of service
operations: texts cases and readings. Boston: Allen & Bacon.
SUBMITTED: JUNE 2009
REVISION SUBMITTED: NOVEMBER 2009
ACCEPTED: DECEMBER 2009
REFEREED ANONYMOUSLY
Alfonso Marino ([email protected]) is an Associate Professor at Second
University of Naples, economy and business organizations Craet
Laboratory [Connection between Search and Economic Activity of the
Territory] Aversa.
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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE PERCEPTION
OF RISK AND THE DECISION MAKING PROCESS
OF TRAVEL OF FRENCH TOURISTS: THE CASE OF
EGYPT
Tare Sayed Abdel Azim
Minia university
1
This exploratory study was conducted in order to investigate the impact of sociodemographic variables “age, sex, familial situation, qualification, profession,
income per capita”, international tourism experience, and tourism experience in
Egypt on the decision making process of travel under the effect of the risk factor
“terrorist attacks of last April, 2006, in Sinai, Egypt». For this purpose, a two
decision making process probabilities have been estimated by the ordinal logit
model.
Keywords:
Risk, tourism experience, Decision making process of travel Sociodemographic variables, tourist behaviour.
JEL Classification: L83, M1, O1
INTRODUCTION
When tourists perceive travel to be less pleasurable due to actual or
perceived risks, they exercise their freedom to select other destinations
(Green et al., 2003).
As with risk perceptions, when safety concerns are introduced into
travel decisions, they are likely to become the overriding factors, altering
the context of conventional decision-making models and causing
travellers to amend travel plans (George, 2003).
(Sonmez et al., 1999; Floyd and Gray, 2004) note that travel statistics
from around the world clearly suggest that tourism demand decreases as
the perception of risks associated with a destination increases (Floyd et
al., 2003).
It is expected that risk-averse consumers will purchase more prepackaged trips and spend fewer nights abroad visiting fewer destinations.
© University of the Aegean. Print ISSN: 1790-8418, Online ISSN: 1792-6521
29
Tare Sayed Abdel Azim
Tversky and Shafir (1992) showed that buyers who have hard
decisions to make would delay making those decisions (Money and
Crotts, 2003).
Roehl and Fesenmaier (1992) determined that risk perception,
although it is considered as a situation specific, has an impact on travel
behaviour. Indeed, the risks that potential travellers associate with a
destination can contribute to forming lasting images of that destination.
Changing such as image will require long and costly marketing efforts.
Risk perceptions and feelings of safety during travel appear to have
stronger influence on avoidance of regions than likelihood of travel to
them. If a tourist feels unsafe and threatened during his or her stay, he or
she is not likely to return to that destination (Dimanche and Lepetic,
1999).
As a form of protective behaviour, travellers can alter their
destination choices; modify their travel behaviour; or if they decide to
continue with their travel plans, acquire information on terrorism,
political turmoil, heavy crime, and health risks. Those who decide to
travel despite risks are advised by various sources “i.e., travel magazines,
government advisories, internet” to avoid displays of wealth, to keep a
low profile, to vary daily routines during lengthy business trips, and to fly
economy class, since hijackers are known to prefer first class to establish
their temporary headquarters (Sonmez et al., 1999).
Sonmez (1998) suggests that when faced with the threat of terrorism,
tourists tend to engage in a number of behaviours including substituting
risky destinations with safer alternatives and generalizing potential risks
to other countries in the region affected. She also notes that tourists
exhibit cultural variations in their reactions, with US tourists most likely
to perceive higher levels of risk in foreign destinations (Floyd and al.,
2003).
Tourist decisions to stay home or choose safer destinations are
translated into significant losses for the tourism industry of the country
suffering from terrorism (Sonmez et al., 1999).
Individuals planning their holidays are less likely to choose a
destination with a higher threat of terrorist attacks. Host countries
providing tourism services, which can be easily substituted are therefore,
negatively affected by terrorist attacks to a substantial extent (Frey et al.,
2004).
It is likely that tourists may postpone their visit until the situation
appears to have calmed down. But, more likely, activity will be redirected
to destinations, which appear to be safer. The extent to which this occurs
is likely to vary with the market segment. Thus, for business travellers or
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those visiting friends and relatives in a specific place, the ability to
relocate is likely to be less than for those who are on vacation and are
travelling for pleasure (Wall, 1996).
Sonmez (1998) noted that the reaction to terrorism among tourists is
frequently delayed by about three months as people have already made
their plans and are willing to change them (Floyd et al., 2003).
The immediate effect of a terrorism event is likely to be cancellation
of bookings to the location in which the event took place. Those
scheduled to pass through the destination may try to re-route. There is
also likely to be a reduction in new bookings. Although it is uncertain
how long the effect of a terrorist event is likely to last, the immediate
result is likely to be a reduction in the number of visitors. The corollary of
this situation is that for those who persist in visiting the area, there may be
bargains, cheap flights, reduced accommodation rates and lack of
crowding (Wall, 1996).
Terrorist attacks against tourists now represent the Egyptian tourism
industry’s greatest challenge. The Dahab bombing on April 24 was the
fifth attack against tourists or tourism infrastructure in Egypt within the
space of 18 months. Since October 2004, over 125 people have been
killed and many hundreds injured in the five attacks. The three most
serious incidents occurred on the Sinai. Terrorist attacks over the past 18
months represent the resumption of a pattern of terrorism which targeted
tourists during the 1990s and culminated in the Luxor massacre of
November 1997 in which 58 foreign tourists were shot dead.
The lengthy pause in terrorist attacks against tourists in Egypt
between late 1997 and late 2004 marked a period of significant
international inbound tourism growth to Egypt. Tourist arrivals more than
doubled from 3, 9 million to 8, 1 million during the seven year period.
After Luxor, Egypt’s government and tourism industry instituted a broad
range of major security measures for tour groups, hotels and resorts, the
transportation network and major attractions (Beirman, 2006).
Five suicide bomb attacks hit the Sinai Peninsula in April 2006, three
rocked the Southern Sinai resort of Dahab on April 24, 2006 and two
occurred at Al-Gurah in North Sinai on April 26.
The Dahab bombing killed 20 people, including six foreigners, and
injured some 90 others, among them 27 foreigners, while the Al-Gurah
bombing killed no one but the two bombers themselves (Xinhua News
Agency, 2006).
The latest bombings were followed by Twin suicide attacks targeting
members of the multinational force and observers “MFO” peacekeeping
mission near the “MFO” base in the town of Al-Gura, approximately 15
31
Tare Sayed Abdel Azim
miles west of Gaza. The “MFO” was established following the 1979
Camp David Accords. The first attacker ran in front of a passing vehicle
carrying Egyptian police and MFO officers. The second attacker rode a
bicycle and detonated a bomb he was carrying after Egyptian police
rushed to the scene following the initial attack. In both instances, only the
bombers were killed. Significantly, two MFO officers were after the
deadly attacks in Sharm El-Sheikh in August 2005 (Zambelis, 2006).
The impact of the bombings on tourism in the town Dahab is likely to
be devastating, at least in the short term. Mohamed Amin, a receptionist
at the beachfront Ali Baba Hotel, who was sitting at the front desk when
the force of an explosion rocked him from his chair, says that "with the
exception of one room booked by journalists here to cover the explosions,
all the other reservations have been cancelled though this is our high
season and we were booked till mid- June.
Security was immediately tightened following the attacks, with extra
forces manning checkpoints around the resort (Halawi, 2006).
This research investigates French tourist behaviour in period of risky
situations. This study was conducted in the Department of CharenteMaritime in France about 21 days after the Dahab attacks which happened
on 25 April 2006.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of sociodemographic and economic variables “age, sex, familial situation,
qualification, profession, yearly income per capita”, international tourism
experience, and tourism experience in Egypt on the perception of risk and
on the decision making process of travel under the risk factor “terrorist
attacks of last April, 2006, at Dahab, Sinai, Egypt”. We try to answer to
the following questions: Do respondents’ socio-demographic and
economic characteristics have an impact on their perception of risk and
the decision making process of travel to Egypt? Could the international
experience of travel of respondents be used as a mean to measure the
reaction of individuals towards risk? Could the experience of travel in
Egypt be a predictor of the perception and the decision making process of
travel to Egypt under the effect of the risk factor? And finally, could the
policy of prices-cuts in the case of the existence of risk of travel to Egypt
be an effective way to attract individuals to travel to Egypt?
Sample and variables
The survey instrument consisted of three sections: the first one
measures the socio-demographic and economic characteristics of
respondents “sex, age, familial situation, qualification, profession, income
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per capita”, the second one measures individuals’ international tourism
experience, past tourism experience in Egypt and the extent of
information sources about the Egyptian destination and finally the third
one measures information about the decision making process of travel to
Egypt after the terrorist attacks of last April, 2006, in Sinai, Egypt against
foreign tourists and tourist establishments.
The population consisted of French citizens. From 15 May to 13 June
2006, a total 231 randomly selected through the combination between
direct interviews, mail, and electronic mail. Places of distribution were
the following:
- Hotel Mercure “La Rochelle”, Maritime museum “La Rochelle”,
Aquarium “La Rochelle”, The University La Rochelle “Direct
interviews”.
- Website of the University La Rochelle.
- The department 17 “Charente Maritime”: envelopes were sent to
samples randomly selected according to the Annuary of France
Telecom “included the official letter of the Faculty of Flash,
University La Rochelle, three papers questionnaire and paid
envelope for the answer”. Only 165 questionnaires are valid.
.
Profile of respondents
Table “1” gives some descriptive statistics about socio-demographic
and economic variables. One counts more women than men having
answered the questionnaire. Women play an important role in the
selection of a destination and the collection of information. So, it is not
surprising to obtain more women. Since about an individual on two lives
in couple “married or not”, one can think that women who answer for the
household.
Cosenza and Davis (1981) show that the influence of each one of the
couple is different according to the family cycle life. However, some
studies show that women play an important role in the decision to travel
after 45 years. So, the role of the wife in the family concerning holiday's
decision-making changed across stages in the family life cycle. Moreover,
holiday's decision is most often the result of a joint decision-making
process between husband and wife (Nickerson and Jurowski, 2001).
Among the various types of diplomas, the “other diploma”
corresponds to persons having obtained a professional diploma of a level
lower than the baccalaureate. One quarter of the population has a diploma
lower than the baccalaureate. The number of the superior diplomas is
33
Tare Sayed Abdel Azim
relatively high; it is primarily that this population takes more vacations
abroad.
Table 1. Descriptive statistics about sociodemographic variables
Number
Percent
97
68
58.8
41.2
Age
Less than 36 years old
Between 36 and 45 years old
Between 46 and 55 years old
More than 55 years old
99
29
46
20
60.0
17.6
27.9
12.1
Familial situation
Bachelor
Married – coupled
Widow – divorced
75
72
18
45.5
43.6
10.9
Qualification
Without diploma
Bac ; bac+2
Bac+3 ; bac+4 ; bac+5
PhD, Post Doc
Other diploma
16
59
55
11
24
9.7
35.8
33.3
6.7
14.6
Sex
Female
Male
Table (2) gives some descriptive statistics about professional
variables. One third of the population circled an annual income lower than
10,000 € and nearly 10% have an annual income higher than 40,000 €.
More than one individual on three is a worker or employee and
nearly one on 5 is a chef of a company or belongs to the Superior class.
Some studies (Tocquer and Zins, 1999) for example, show that the
relation between professional status and tourism is not clear. However,
wages are generally proportional to professional status and incomes play a
big role in the tourism consumption. High-income earners are more
susceptible to travel (Weaver and Opperman, 2000). So, it seems that a
relation between professional status and holidays exists (Raboteur, 2000).
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Table 2. Descriptive statistics about professional variables
Number
Percent
Income “in 1000 €”
Less than 10
44
26.7
Between 10 and 20
38
23.0
Between 20 and 27
30
18.2
Between 27 and 40
22
13.3
More than 40
16
9.7
No answer
15
9.1
Professional status
Worker – employee
Artisan – commercant – farmer
Liberal profession
Superior cadre – chef of a company
Out-of-labour force
Other “included unemployed”
61
7
11
37
12
37
Table 3. Descriptive statistics about travel
Number
Travel experience in Egypt
Yes
23
No
142
37
4.2
6.7
22.4
7.3
22.4
Percent
13.9
86.1
International travel experience “number”
None
1
2
3
4
5 and more
42
30
33
23
8
29
25.5
18.2
20.0
13.9
4.8
17.6
Source of information about Egypt
Travel agency
Internet
Television
Friends
Brochures
Books
29
45
72
47
24
89
17.6
27.3
43.6
28.5
14.5
40.0
35
Tare Sayed Abdel Azim
Table (3) gives some descriptive statistics about travel experience
abroad en general and Egypt en particular in addition to individuals’
sources of information about Egypt. Whereas, one individual on four
didn’t make any trip, one individual on five carried out during the last
three years at least 5 international trips. However, very few numbers of
respondents went to Egypt “hardly one individual on six”.
Television and books are the principal sources of information used to
recognize Egypt followed by internet and the conversations with friends.
The booklets and travel agencies are the least solicited.
Descriptive analysis of the impact of a terrorist attack on the
decision making process of travel
In order to measure a modification of behaviour following an attack
such as the last terrorist attack of April 2006 in Sinai “Egypt”, several
questions were asked to respondents. The first type of information relates
to the decision of travel to Egypt following a terrorist attack. Three
possibilities are considered:
- Travel to Egypt is maintained and no modification is made to the
potential trip.
- Travel to Egypt is maintained but its characteristics were modified:
its duration was reduced or its date of departure was delayed.
- Travel to Egypt is cancelled, the individuals having decided not to
visit Egypt or to modify their destination.
Table 4. Impact of the price and terrorist attacks on the decision
making process of travel to Egypt
Number
Decision making process of travel to Egypt under the
effect of a terrorist attack
Any change
47
Delay reservation or/and reduce the length of stay
60
Cancel the travel to Egypt
58
Decision making process of travel after a drop in
prices
Yes
46
No
66
No answer
53
36
Percent
28.5
36.4
35.1
27.9
40.0
32.1
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With regard to the decision of modification of travel plan following
the attack, one notes that approximately an individual on four maintains
his trip without any modification and one on three decides to cancel his
trip “this does not mean that he will not travel, but he can have changed
the destination”.
The problem of security in a country seems to lead to relatively
important changes of behaviour. From this analysis, we try to determine
the characteristics which can have an effect on this decision. For this
purpose, the ordinal logit model.
Once this first information obtained, a wave of question relating to
the prices was posed. The question is then to know if, a fall in the prices
could modify the decision to maintain, modify or cancel travel to Egypt.
One person on three did not answer the asked question (table 5).
Among the respondents, less than one person out of three would
modify his decision following a fall in the cost of the trip. In the
continuation of the analysis, conditionally in the decision of modification
of travel, I are interested in the effect of a fall in the price of travel. In
particular, I measured the various probabilities of modification of decision
following this fall.
In relation to answers. For lack of information, we removed the
respondents not having answered the question relating to their behaviour
following a fall in the price of travel, although that can introduce a bias.
Table 6 gives the distribution.
Table 5. Sample repartition between the two decisions
After a drop in After a terrorist attack decision process
Size Percent
prices, the
to travel to Egypt is:
decision
making
process is:
Unchanged
Changed
Cancelled
Unchanged
12
18
36
66
46,8
“row %”
18,2
27,3
54,5
“colomn %”
34,3
36,7
63,3
Changed
23
31
21
75
53,2
“row %”
30,7
44,3
28,0
“colomn %”
63,2
63,3
36,8
Size
35
49
57
A little more than one person out of two did not modify his behaviour
following a fall in the price of travel.
37
Tare Sayed Abdel Azim
Among the people who indicated not to modify their behaviour
following a fall in the price of travel, nearly four respondents out of five,
had stated to modify or cancel their travel following an attack in the case
of a fall of prices.
At the same way, among the respondents who were eager to modify
their behaviour following a fall in the prices, one on five stated to cancel
his trip following an attack and one on three stated anything to modify.
More half of the respondents having stated not to modify their trip
initially, stated to modify it following a fall in the prices. This answer
does not seem coherent. There are two explanations could be advanced.
Perhaps, the first one is related to an increase in the duration of the
stay; the second one is related to for example, an expectation of low levels
of the quality of the potential tourist services.
Only one respondent on four was ready to reconsider his decision of
cancellation of travel following a fall in the price. Safety thus seems more
important than the price. About half of the respondents having stated to
modify their behaviour were ready to modify it again following a fall in
the price of travel.
Econometric analysis of the decision making process of travel
The two decision making process probabilities have been estimated
by discrete choice models.
Effect of terrorist attack on the decision making process of travel
First, the aim of the model is to estimate the probability of travel to
Egypt under the effect of the risk factor represented in the Dahab terrorist
attacks: any change, delay reservation, reduce length of stay or seek
another destination than Egypt or cancel travel. So I use an ordinal logit.
Socio-demographic and travel characteristics have been introduced.
Estimated results are given in table 4.9.12.
When woman answers the questionnaire, the probability of cancelling
travel increases. It seems that woman is risk – adverse more than men so,
she prefers to change travel.
Some socio-demographic variables such as the marital status, the age,
the level of studies, the socio-professional category or the income per
capita seem to have an effect on the probability of travelling to Egypt
following an attack. This result is not surprising because we saw that
these variables can influence the decision of travel.
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The divorced or widower individuals as well as the individuals who
are still living in couple have a stronger probability to cancel travel than
the single ones. This result is compatible with the idea according to which
the couples, divorced or the widowers have generally, a family and
children or little children. They thus feel more in responsibility than the
single people and are consequently more risk-adverse than the single
people.
All things being equal, the fact of being old between 36 and 45 years
increases the probability of cancelling travel. In this case, one could
attribute this result to the family. On average, when these people have
children, the latter are still young and under the responsibility of their
parents.
Information on the family structure “the number and the age of the
children” would have made it possible to perceive these effects. This
result is compatible with the fact that the inactive people tend not to
cancel their travel.
Table 6. Estimation of the probability of travelling to Egypt under
the effect of a terrorist attack
Intercept 1
Intercept 2
Familial situation
reference :Bachelor”
Widow – divorced
Married – concubain
Sex “ref : man”
Woman
Age “Ref :less than 36 years”
Betwen 36 and 45 years
Between 46 and 55 years
More than 55 years
“Ref : with diploma”
Without diploma
Professional diploma
Professional status
Worker – employee
Coefficient
1,54
1,20
Standar
d error
0,29
0,10
T-test
5,28
12,42
0,72
0,49
0,27
0,18
2,64
2,71
0,33
0,16
2,09
0,56
-0,48
-0,54
0,22
0,25
0,35
2,57
-1,91
-1,56
-0,73
0,13
0,41
0,32
-1,8
0,42
-0,90
0,23
-3,9
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Tare Sayed Abdel Azim
Other “included unemployed”
Artisan – commercant – farmer
Out-of-the labour force
Income “ref : less than 10000€”
Between 10000 and 27000 €
Between 27000 and 40000 €
More than 40000 €
No answer
Travel experience
Travel to Egypt
Number of international travel
Source of information about Egypt
Travel agency
Internet
Television
Friends
Brochure
Books
-0,63
-0,57
-1,43
0,26
0,52
0,37
-2,44
-1,09
-3,9
0,18
-0,99
-0,56
-0,23
0,22
0,26
0,32
0,31
0,85
-3,8
0,03
-1,76
-0,28
-0,17
0,25
0,05
-1,13
-3,49
0,58
-0,35
0,14
-0,25
-0,06
-0,31
0,22
0,17
0,16
0,16
0,21
0,15
2,63
-2,13
0,86
-1,54
-0,29
-2,04
Note: Coefficients significance levels : 10 per cent, 5 per cent and 1 per cent.
The effect of the diploma is less significant. It appears that only
respondents having no diplomas feel not concerned by the attacks. These
last have a larger probability to maintain their travel than others. In this
context, this result is compatible with the fact that workers and employees
tend not to cancel their travel.
It may be that, the latter having on the one hand, a few chances to
travel and, on the other hand, prepared their travel from a long - time “for
reason of price and/or timetable” they are ready to travel in spite of the
risk related to the insecurity.
The international experience of travel is rather favourable to any
change of travel plan. The more the number of trips carried out abroad is
important, the more the probability of maintaining travel to Egypt is great.
This probability would be stronger in the case if respondents visited
Egypt before.
These individuals, having certain experience of travel to foreign
countries, do not fear of the attacks and the political instabilities. May be
also, these individuals travel for professional reasons. They can cancel
their travel with difficulty.
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Lastly, the means used to acquire information about Egypt do not
have all the same effect. Obtaining information by a travel agency
increases the probability of cancelling travel to Egypt. But, the
information acquired using Internet or through the books increases the
probability of not modifying travel.
People who seek with themselves specified information about a
country, perhaps they could be more motivated than others to go to it.
They prepared well their travel and do not wish really to modify it, even
following an attack.
Effect of fall in prices on the decision making process of travel after
a terrorist attack
Once this estimate carried out, we estimate the probability of being
able to modify once again their choices following a fall in prices of travel.
Persons not having answered the question relating to the fall in prices
were removed from this second analysis because of the possible bias of
selection.
In this second stage, the objective is to see how the decision taken
following a fall in the prices can evolve/move. Here, the idea is to
calculate the probability of reconsidering the decision of modification or
cancellation of travel. I work conditionally with the first decision.
Maddala (1981) shows that an effective estimate is obtained by
replacing the decisions to modify or cancel travel following a terrorist
attack by the probabilities estimated to modify or cancel travel, calculated
starting from the preceding estimate.
The considered model is probit. The results of this estimation are
given in the table (7).
The larger the probability of cancelling travel to Egypt is, the more
the probability of not modifying this decision following a fall in prices is.
The decision taken initially to cancel travel is thus independent of the
price of travel. Following the shock undergone “in our case, the terrorist
attack” the demand for travel for these households becomes null.
But, the probability of modifying his behaviour will increase with the
probability of modifying his travel. The modification considered is not
specified in the investigation but it can be of two types: positive or
negative. The fall in the prices is associated with maintenance of travel
such as it had been considered before the attack “not to reduce the length
of stay or not to delay the date of departure”. Here, one considers a
positive modification of the decision.
41
Tare Sayed Abdel Azim
Table 7. Estimation of the probability to travel to Egypt after the
drop of prices
Intercept
Probability of decision making process
of travelling
to Egypt under the effect of a terrorist
attack :
no change “reference”
Delay reservation or/and length of stay
Seek another destination than Egypt or
cancel the travel
Familial situation “reference : Bachelor”
Widow – divorced
Married – concubain
Professional status
Worker – employee
Artisan – commercant – farmer
Out-of-the labour force
Income “ref : less than 10000€”
Between 10000 and 27000 €
Between 27000 and 40000 €
More than 40000 €
No answer
Travel experience
Information about Egypt
Many travels
Egypt
coefficient
-0,14
Standard
error
0,74
t-test
-0,19
1,40
1,32
1,06
-1,08
0,55
-1,98
0,48
-0,39
0,29
0,20
1,51
-1,97
0,04
-0,33
-0,84
0,20
0,63
0,45
0,2
-0,52
-1,88
0,49
-0,13
0,32
0,90
0,26
0,26
0,31
0,47
1,85
-0,5
1,02
1,93
0,20
-0,34
-0,17
0,06
0,21
0,27
3,17
-1,62
-0,64
Note : Coefficients significance levels : 10 per cent, 5 per cent and 1 per
cent.
Travel to Egypt is thus an ordinary good, i.e., following a fall in the
price of the good, the demand of the good increases. The substitution
effect is thus higher than the revenue effect. The fall in the prices is
associated with a complete cancellation of travel. One considers here a
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negative modification of the decision. When the price of travel drops, the
demanded quantity drops and is cancelled.
One is here in the presence of a good of Giffen. This reasoning is true
if it is supposed that the households associate this fall in the prices to a
bad quality of services. Another explanation is possible; it could be that
the households associate this fall in the prices to a strong insecurity, fear
to go in a country not very safe in their eyes leads them to cancel travel.
The instability of the decision i.e. probability of modifying his
behaviour following a fall in the prices of travel concern rather the
households having weak incomes “between 10000 and 27000 euros”
divorced, widowers and people having used several sources to inform
themselves about at the destination “Egypt”.
The decision taken about travel following a terrorist attack is more
stable for the couples, the artisans, the commercants, the inactive ones and
also those who have great experience of travel. Here, this last result can
be associated to professional constraints.
Some simulations
From the results obtained, simulations were computed. The
explanatory variables associated to the income, the professional status, the
marital status and the experience of travel were taken at the average value
of the sample.
Concerning the probabilities of decision of travel to Egypt following
a terrorist attack, 6 scenarios were considered (table 8). The three first
ones are associated to the 3 extreme situations: the probabilities of
maintaining, of modifying, of cancelling travel are respectively fixed at 1.
One notes that, among the people not modifying, in a certain way
“with a probability of 1, the probabilities associated with the two other
alternatives being null” their travel following the attack, one respondent
on two could travel following the fall in prices of travel.
When an individual decides to modify his travel plan in a certain
way, 9 times out of 10, a fall in the prices would lead to a new
modification of his travel plan. Lastly, knowing that the travel is
cancelled with probability “one”, less than two respondents out of ten
reconsider their decision.
The 3 other scenarios are based on the minimal, maximal or average
values “S1” of the probabilities of changes following a terrorist attack.
The results validate those obtained by scenarios from 1 to 3.
43
Tare Sayed Abdel Azim
The larger the probability of modifying travel plan is, the more the
probability of reconsidering this choice is great. If this probability is
fixed, one notes that the larger the probability of cancelling the voyage is,
the more the probability of modifying his choice following a fall in the
prices is weak.
Table 8. Simulation of the probability to change the decision after
the drop of prices according to different scenarios
After a terrorist attack travel to Egypt is:
Scenarios
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
Unchange
d
1
0
0
0.84
0.28
0.00
Changed
Cancelled
0
1
0
0.15
0.45
0.08
0
0
1
0.01
0.27
0.92
Probability of change the
decision after a drop in
prices
0.50
0.92
0.14
0.59
0.64
0.19
CONCLUSION
This exploratory study was carried out in order to investigate to look
at the impact of socio-demographic variables “age, sex, familial situation,
qualification, profession, income per capita”, international tourism
experience, and tourism experience in Egypt on the decision making
process of travel under the effect of the risk factor “terrorist attacks of last
April, 2006, in Sinai, Egypt”.
For this purpose, the two decision making process probabilities have
been estimated by the ordinal logit model.
Effect of fall in prices on the decision making process of travel after a
terrorist attack has been estimated by the probit model.
The study reveals that women are more sensitive than men in relation
to the decision making process of travel under the effect of the risk factor,
as the econometric analysis confirmed that the more travel to Egypt in
period of terrorist attacks is risky, the more the probability that women
would cancel travel is great.
This result is conformed to the results of many studies concerned
with the investigation of the perception of risk’s difference between men
and women, for example the study conducted by Carr (1999).
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UDC: 338.48+640(050)
In addition, the study revealed that single people are less likely to
cancel their decision of travel than those live in couple or even divorced
or widowers.
It was revealed that those aged between 36 and 45 years old are more
likely to cancel their travel.
It appears that only the people having no diploma feel not concerned
with the attacks. These last have a larger probability to maintain their
travel than others. This result is compatible with the fact that the workers
and the employees tend not to cancel their travel.
It was found that those who have more international experience of
travel tend not to modify their decision of travel to Egypt despite the
existence of the element of risk. As observed that the more the number of
trips carried out abroad is important, the more the probability of
maintaining travel to Egypt is large.
With regard to the effect of information sources individuals used to
recognise the Egyptian destination, one could observe that those who
have information about Egypt through a travel agency are likely to cancel
travel, whereas information acquired by internet or through books is
related to the probability to modify travel.
In fact, this result is very important for decision-makers in promoting
Egypt abroad. They have to pay more attention to their relationships with
French travel agencies who play an important role in forming the attitude
of the French tourist demand. They have to exert more effort in
collaborating with these intermediaries of travel and try to provide them
with sufficient information about Egypt in order to avoid their negative
reactions towards Egypt en particular in period of crises.
With regard to the effect of fall in the prices on the decision making
process of travel after a terrorist attack, the results revealed that the larger
the probability of cancelling travel to Egypt is, the more the probability of
not modifying this decision following a fall in the prices is strong.
Also in the context of the effect of fall the in prices of travel, the
results revealed that the more the revenue is low, the more the probability
to modify his behaviour is high as respondents having weak incomes
“between 10000 and 27000 euros yearly” expressed their desire to change
their decision in the case of falling in the prices. With regard to the
familial status, the results revealed also that divorced, widowers
individuals had participated those having lower incomes in the possibility
to modify their behaviour because of fall in the prices of travel. Finally, it
was clear that using different sources of information about Egypt had a
significant effect on the probability to modify their decisions of travel to
Egypt as a result of fall in the prices.
45
Tare Sayed Abdel Azim
On could deduce from this result that the strategy of price-cuts which
could be conducted by Egyptian tourism professionals could be applicated
in order to attract certain types of French tourists who could accept to
travel despite the high level of risk. But, we have to pay attention in this
matter as this type of tourists belongs to inferiour levels of incomes who
would not be profitable for the tourism affaires, from the one hand, may
be these tourists would not concerned with the level of quality of tourist
services and from the other hand their power of purchase is weak. In the
long tem, this could deform the image of the Egyptian destination as it
could be perceived as a destination of low-level of quality. Consequently,
that could make other important types of tourists who search for the
quality, give up travelling to Egypt at all.
The results revealed also that decision taken about travel following a
terrorist attack is more stable for the couples, the artisans, the
commercants, the inactive ones and also those who have a great
experience of travel. Here, this last result can be associated to
professional constraints.
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Zambelis, C. (2006). Sinai bombings mark latest in pattern of Symbolic attacks in
Egypt. Terrorism Focus, May 2, Vol. 3, Issue 17.
Weaver, D. & Opperman, M. (2000). Tourism management. New York, John
Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
SUBMITTED: OCTOBER 2009
REVISION SUBMITTED: FEBRUARY 2010
ACCEPTED: MARCH 2010
REFEREED ANONYMOUSLY
Tared Sayed Abdel Azim ([email protected]) is a Lecturer at Minia
University, Faculty of tourism and hotels, Tourist studies department,
Minia City, Egypt.
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IMPROVING QUALITY OF ECOTOURISM THROUGH
ADVANCING EDUCATION & TRAINING OF GREEK
ECO-TOUR GUIDES: THE ROLE OF TRAINING IN
ENVIRONMENTAL INTERPRETATION
1
Constantina Skanavis
University of the Aegean
Christos Giannoulis
University of Ioannina and University of the Aegean
Environmental interpretation in Greece is in its infancy as an academic field.
There are no nature guides or specific conservation objectives, and there is no
professional training for non formal environmental educators and/or interpreters.
The a of this paper is to reveal the necessity of integrating environmental
interpretation in training of Greek Ecotour guides.The focus is on developing
abilities which could enable Greek Ecotour guides to communicate and interpret
the significance of the environment, promote minimal impact practices, ensure the
sustainability of the natural and cultural environment, and motivate visiting
tourists to evaluate the quality of life in relation to larger ecological or cultural
concerns. The rationale underpinning this objective is that by providing accurate
and effective interpretation of ecotourism sites as well as monitoring and
modelling environmental responsible behaviour, the outcome will be to promote
positive impacts of tourism and alleviate negative ones Local community will be
encouraged to participate in environmental management of ecotourism settings.
Furthermore, connecting ecotourism commitment to returning benefits,
particularly economic and employment ones to local communities, it stresses that
training local people to be interpretive guides, helps achieving not only ecological
sustainability but also economic sustainability. Once trained, guides may
encourage conservation action amongst both tourists and the local community.
Keywords:
Environmental Educators’ training, Environmental Interpretation,
non formal Environmental Education, eco-tour guides, Greece
JEL Classification: L83, M1, O1
INTRODUCTION
Protected areas such as national parks and reserves now cover more
than 12% of the world’s land area (Chape et al. 2005). Natural heritage
© University of the Aegean. Print ISSN: 1790-8418, Online ISSN: 1792-6521
49
Constantina Skanavis & Christos Giannoulis
sites or nature reserves like National Parks and Wildlife play a major role
in conserving sensitive ecosystems. Irrelevant of their status are by
definition lands or waters which, we presume, would be threatened now
or in the future by ill-conceived human activities. Typically, the
underlying goal of management is to sustainably preserve the qualities
and features contained in these natural heritage areas in such a way that
the benefits they provide (whether ecological, economic, scientific, scenic
or cultural) can be continued indefinitely and indeed perpetuated (Ham et
al. 1993). Thus, protected areas, by definition, ensure the concept of
sustainable development. However, the increasing visitation of natural
areas (Bushell 2003; Eagles & McCool 2002; Newsome et al. 2002)
mandates an appropriate management of these areas in order to ensure its
sustainability. There are a number of management tools available which
endeavour to minimise environmental impacts of eco-tourists. One such
management tool is environmental interpretation. Freeman Tilden was the
first author who defined environmental interpretation describing it as “an
educational activity which aims to reveal meanings and relationships
through the use of original objects, by first hand experiences and by
illustrative media, rather than simply to communicate factual
information” (Tilden, 1977: 8).
People who deliver interpretive programs call themselves
interpreters, educators, naturalists, nature guides, docents, tour guides, or
heritage interpreters. Interpretation can be personal (i.e. talks, interpreterled hikes, campground programs, etc.) or non-personal (i.e. exhibits,
waysides, films, and publications). Interpreters strive to foster a sense of
care and stewardship among visitors toward the resource. Interpretive
programs occur not only in government administered settings including
national parks, national forests, fish and wildlife refuges, and reservoir
areas, but also at state government managed parks, highways, and
waterways. Private and non-profit entities employ environmental
interpretation in museums, zoos, aquariums, historic buildings, and theme
parks (Chen, 2003). The field of environmental interpretation has grown
out of the perceived need to conserve and manage natural heritage, and to
enhance the experience of visitors and tourists. An important role of
environmental interpretation is to attempt to educate visitors (in informal
free-choice learning settings) (Skanavis et 2005) to the complex natural
resource issues, associated with national and local protected areas and
sensitive ecotourism settings. Besides its educational and recreational
functions, environmental interpretation can also contribute to public
relations and people management (Packer, 2004). Environmental
interpretation is vital to the rapidly growing ecotourism industry, as well
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as other forms of sustainable tourism, because it involves educating
tourists about the consequences of their actions and encourages them to
engage in sustainable behaviours (Weiler and Ham 2001).
In Greece, ecotourism constitutes a small but developing part of
tourism (WTO 2001; Skanavis et al. 2004; Svoronou and Holden 2005).
In countries such as Greece, despite the obvious role that environmental
interpretation could play, the vast majority of interpreter guides in the
ecotourism industry lack formal training in environmental interpretation
(Merimman and Brochu 2004). The ultimate scope of this paper is to
reveal the necessity of integrating environmental interpretation in the
training of Greek non formal environmental educators by assisting them
in the development of abilities which could enable them to communicate
and interpret the significance of the environment as well as to be engaged
in sustainable management practices. The rationale underpinning these
objectives is that by providing accurate and effective interpretation of
ecotourism sites and by monitoring and modelling environmental
responsible behaviour, positive impacts of tourism will be promoted and
negative ones will be alleviated. Furthermore, it will encourage local
community’s participation in environmental management of ecotourism
settings (Black et al. 2001).
Connecting ecotourism commitment to returning benefits,
particularly economic and employment ones to local communities, it
stresses the importance of training local people to be interpretive guides.
As a result this helps achieving not only ecological sustainability but also
economic sustainability. Once trained, guides may encourage
conservation action amongst both tourists and the local community.
While there is some evidence that trained guides have become involved in
conservation projects following their training long-term, a follow-up with
tourists and trained guides is needed in order to identify whether this is
actually occurring and what mechanisms might be needed in order to
strengthen it. This paper aims to develop a training model for interpretive
guide training in Greece. This will be accomplished not only by critically
examining training programmes in developed and less developed
ecotourism countries, where environmental interpretation is already an
established science field in the management of sensitive ecotourism areas,
but also by taking into consideration the special social settings and
environment of Greece in which it will take place (Ham et al. 1993).
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Constantina Skanavis & Christos Giannoulis
EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND
INTERPRETATION IN PROTECTED AREAS: SETTING THE
SCENE
Throughout the past decade, the World Commission on Environment
and Development (WCED) has laid out the framework of the problems
facing the global community. Sustainable development has captured
people’s attention and acquired the status of a global buzzword. Indeed,
today nearly all political leaders, policymakers, and program
administrators can speak the language of sustainable development and
many are incorporating its ideas into their future policies. Sustainable
development is offered by some as an alternative to past models of
development that had focused primarily on economic growth and had
addressed environmental, social, and health concerns on an individual and
often contradictory basis. Defined as “development that meets the need of
the present without compromising the ability of future generations to
meet their needs” (WCED, 1987: 43), sustainable development recognizes
the interlocking and systematic nature of these concerns. In this manner,
sustainable development offers a unique possibility to move beyond
viewing the different crises as challenges to the current system.
Sustainable development perceives these same crises and challenges as
opportunities to reorient and reorganize society around a different
paradigm (Qablan, 2005). To comprehend this paradigm, the concepts of
sustainable development should be holistically and critically understood
and contrasted to alternative approaches to the environment. As with
other industrial sectors and fields of academic study tourism research has
also responded to the popularization of the concept of sustainable
development (Hunter, 2003). In fact, the concept of Sustainable Tourism
has evolved in parallel with the related concept of sustainable
development (Pridham, 1999). However, to realize the shift to sustainable
development and by induction to sustainable tourism, education has to
play a vital role. UNECE strategy for Education for Sustainable
Development (2004) clearly states: “it is important to support non formal
and informal ESD activities, since they are an essential complement to
formal education, not least for adult learning”.
Protected areas traditionally provide non formal learning
opportunities. The central mission of protected areas, such as national
parks and sensitive ecotourism settings is conservation education: using
the motivating power of natural places and living organisms to inform,
inspire and motivate people to participate in environmental protection
(Nareshwar, 2006). Protected areas and other sensitive ecotourism
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settings provide an important medium through which people can acquire
information, develop ideas and construct new visions for themselves and
society (Packer and Ballantyne, 2004). Indeed, for many people the
information they encounter while being at nature parks may offer the only
opportunity to learn about their bonds to the environment, or to their
history and culture (Moscardo, 1998). Interpretive sites often encourage
visitors to question their values, attitudes and actions regarding
contentious issues and consider themselves active agents of education and
change (Uzell 1998; Uzell and Ballantyne, 1998). At a more profound
level effective interpretation can have a “transformative” effect by
inducing among participants a deeper understanding of the nature and
consequent adherence to a more ethical and environmental ethos in the
attitudes and/or lifestyle of participants (Fennel and Weaver, 2005)
A statement often attributed to Tilden, but in fact found by Tilden in
a US Park Service Administrative manual (Markwell, K. 1996), is the
following: “Through interpretation we reach understanding, through
understanding we come to appreciation, through appreciation we
accomplish protection”. The more visitors and local inhabitants
understand a park’s features the more they appreciate them and the more
likely they will care for them – and by caring, the chances of the park to
be sustainably protected are greatly enhanced (Harmon, D. 2003). This
statement is at the core of many interpretive programs operating today in
protected areas and ecotourism settings. Interpreting one or more aspects
of a resource involves more than presenting information about it. It
involves bringing it to life in ways which actively engage those present;
what Tilden referred to as “Provocation”. Therefore the central principle
of interpretation is to assist resource conservation, which is the heart of
sustainable tourism development (Kuo, 2002). Such activities are similar
to the belief held by both the environmental education movement and by
advocates for more ecologically sustainable tourism, that expose to
nature. An opportunity to enhance one’s understanding of nature, leads to
a greater sense of appreciation and hence commitment to its protection
and conservation (Markwell, 1996). Ecotourism is generally considered
as the most typical form of sustainable tourism (Soteriades and
Varvaressos, 2003). Ecologically Sustainable Tourism has its primary
focus on experiencing natural areas that foster environmental and cultural
understanding, appreciation and conservation (NEAP, 2000 cited in
Newson, 2001). Education is at the heart of ecotourism and interpretation
is frequently the method by which the education message is delivered
(Christie and Mason 2003)
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Constantina Skanavis & Christos Giannoulis
The goals and interpretative activities in these traditional free-choice
learning settings intersect with values, objectives and mainly the vision of
the United Nations Decade for Sustainable: “to provide critical reflection
and greater awareness and empowerment so that new visions and
concepts can be explored and new methods and tools developed”
(UNECE, 2004). The role of teachers and educators is crucial in helping
their audience to think and act critically. Educators need to make links
among ecological issues, the community, and the economy to foster
audience understanding and acceptance of sustainable development
(Qablan, 2005). To promote sustainability goals, specialized training
programs must be developed for all walks of life including the
sustainable. Chapter 36 of Agenda 21, ‘Promoting Education, Public
Awareness, and Training’, specifically identifies four major thrusts: (1)
improving the quality of and access to basic education, (2) reorienting
existing education to address sustainable development, (3) developing
public understanding and awareness, and (4) training. It encourages all
sectors—including business, industry, universities, governments,
nongovernmental organizations, and community organizations to train
people for environmental management positions, in addition to training
employees at all levels in sustainability issues related to their jobs
(McKeown and Hopkins 2003). In these four Education for Sustainable
Development (ESD) efforts, formal education systems are encouraged to
work closely within their local communities, which means
communicating and collaborating with both non formal and informal
sectors of the educational community (Mckeown and Hopkins 2003).
Nature or Interpretive Centres in nature heritage areas can unite
communities and enable their neighbours to save their treasured places,
manage their land with sustainability in mind and show the children how
to value and nurture life. In this regard nature centres can serve the goals
of ESD in protected areas. A critical factor for accomplishing nature
centres ESD goals is the professional training of its personnel. UNECE
strategy for ESD (2004) underlines: “appropriate initial training and retraining of educators and opportunities for them to share experiences are
extremely important for the success of ESD.”
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ECOTOUR GUIDES, ENVIRONMENTAL INTERPRETERS, NON
FORMAL ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATORS: THE PROBLEM OF
TERMINOLOGY
The terms non formal environmental educator, interpretive guide and
eco-tour guide are often used interchangeably in literature, making
reference to the same field of activities. This lack of standardization is
considered a source of confusion to practitioners, the broad public and
decision makers (Wohlers, 2005). This obviously is an important reason
why the National Association of Interpretation has started a definitions
project “to work towards a consensus on a glossary of terms in the non
formal education field. (NAI, Business Plan, 2007:7, cited in Wohlers.
2005). To avoid confusion as well as identify the roles each profession
has, it is necessary to clearly define each of the terms used.
While there are various definitions of a tour guide, an internationally
accepted definition given by the International Association of Tour
Managers and the European Federation of Tourist Guide Associations
(EFTGA) is that a “tour guide is a person who guides groups, individual
visitors from abroad or from the home country around the monuments,
sites and museums of a city or region; to interpret in an inspiring and
entertaining manner, in the language of the visitor's choice, the cultural
and natural heritage and environment” (Black and Ham 2005). In
particular, the ecotour guide can play a vital role in the ecotourism
experience in protecting the natural and cultural environment by
performing a number of roles such as interpreter of the environment,
motivator of environmentally responsible behaviour and conservation
values, and specialist information giver (Black and Ham 2005).
According to Ballantyne and Hughes (2001) an ecotour guide is someone
employed on a paid or voluntarily basis that conducts paying or nonpaying tourists around an area or site of natural and / or cultural
importance utilizing the principles of ecotourism and interpretation.
Among its roles the guide’s educational role has been regarded as the
most important (Christie and Mason 2003).
Environmental Interpreter or Heritage interpreter is someone who
practices the art of environmental interpretation. Since environmental
interpretation is considered an aspect of non formal environmental
education (Knapp 1997; 2003) and conversely education a part of the
interpretational process (Luck 2003; Newsome et al 2002) an
environmental interpreter is usually specified as a non formal
environmental educator / outdoor educator or informal educator. Their
profession title interchanges with reference to the programs they deliver.
55
Constantina Skanavis & Christos Giannoulis
Zuefle (1997) states: “Interpreters can educate and educators can
interpret. Some folks do both…” However, while interpretation can
contribute to an educational program, environmental education is part of a
larger system with an established curriculum, educational goals and
specific learning objectives. Field trips that have pre-trip activities, posttrip activities and educational elements in the trip itself that tie into the
larger environmental educational curriculum of the school are educational
activities. Field trips that leave the interpreter to present whatever she or
he wishes, without trying to align with a curriculum are usually
considered interpretive programs. Both of these approaches can be of high
quality and valuable to the children, but the latter is considered to be a
recreational activity, even though the audience is a captive one. Viewing
interpretive activities as “awareness” activities that lead to education
experiences is reasonable but it does not make interpretive programming
equivalent to environmental education programs (Brochu and Merriman
2008).
Interpreters are often the main awareness/educational source for
many visitors to natural and cultural protected areas, either through
personal contact or through interpretive publications, exhibits or films.
Therefore they influence the reputation of the area and the organization,
credibility and support of the community. Environmental/ Natural
heritage Interpreters play a critical role in increasing sustainable
development practices (Adams, 2004). The profession of the interpreter is
to facilitate (not dictate) the individual’s personal connections to the
natural resource and to develop their own unique meanings (Chen, 2000).
Non formal environmental educators are agents ensuring the sustainability
of the natural and cultural environment, and motivating visitors and local
inhabitants to consider their own lives in relation to broader ecological or
cultural concerns (Christie and Mason 2003).
In view of the previous definitions it is illustrated that environmental
interpretation and people who perform it is the link between ecotour
guides and environmental educators (see figure 1). The rationale
underpinning this figure is that ecotour guides can influence visitors
through two key strategic points: role modelling of appropriate
behaviours and the education they provide to group through
interpretation. Cohen (1985) states that guides generally play dual roles of
“pathfinder” and “mentor”. The role of the mentor resembles the role of
teacher, instructor, or advisor (Dahles, 2002).
Environmental interpreters’ principles are essential for ecotour
guides. Analogical is the influence of environmental educators when
practising in non formal/free-choice learning settings.
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Figure 1. The link between ecotour guides environmental
interpreters and environmental educators
Environmental
Interpeter
Weiler and Ham (1999) emphasize the guide’s central role of
interpretation and education (Dioko and Unakul 2005; Randal and Rollins
2005). Through the non formal environmental education used in
interpretation, ecotour guides have the opportunity to increase knowledge,
foster positive attitudes and promote environmentally responsible
behaviours (Ballantyne & Hughes 2001; Haig & McIntyre 2002). Taking
into consideration the previous conceptual framework we employ for the
purposes of this paper the term ecotour guide as a general term, which
embraces the lineaments of environmental interpreter and/or non formal
environmental educator.
BENEFITS AND NEEDS FOR ECOTOUR GUIDING TRAINING
Ecotour Guides have many responsibilities: they are expected to
provide organization and management of the tour; facilitate interaction
with the host community; provide leadership; and deliver interpretation.
As Weiler and Ham (2001) underline “interpretation lies at the heart and
soul of what ecotourism is, and what ecotourism can and should be
doing”. The use of personal interpretation as a preferential medium,
means that the role of the guide becomes a critical one (Ballantyne &
Hughes 2001). Personal interpretation delivered by tour guides is still
considered to be the best and most effective medium (Armstrong and
Weiler, 2002). Ecotour guiding represents one of the primary means by
which members of the local community can partake in the benefits that
ecotourism brings. More highly trained and qualified ecotour guides,
allows an even more enhanced level of participation and more benefits to
be drawn from the effects of tourism (Dioko and Unakul, 2005).
Environmental training of tour guides (Herbereich, 1998) in the
ecological sustainable tourism can help both visitors and local residents in
57
Constantina Skanavis & Christos Giannoulis
the conservation, preservation, and proper interpretation of the nature.
Interpretative activities can adhere to the sites’ originality as well as their
natural and aesthetic value.
The role of the tour guide is not only an important one, but also one
of influence. Studies have shown that guides have significant influence
over the visitors’ behaviour. As result, the visitors’ impact on the
environment is minimized, management strategies are properly explained
and safety messages are supported (Reisinger & Steiner, 2006). To be
employable, to be competent and to keep stakeholders happy, guides need
training, often extensive training (Ham and Weiler 2000). Howes &
Ingamells (1994) and Saunders (1989) underlining that: not all staff of a
nature centre are well suited to this role and thus so specifically trained
staffed are required. As in any profession, work experience is vital. It
seems sensible to recruit staff specifically trained for the field or to help
them access this training while employed (Armstrong and Weiler, 2003).
This professional development is especially important since informal
educators often have not been taught how to educate (Robertson, 2003).
Education personnel is often hired to teach in non formal educational
settings for their content expertise and have little systematic teacher
training (Taylor, 2006). This is particularly true in the case of
environmental education where it is often a natural resource professional,
who is responsible for educating the public at the informal education site.
According to Bainer et al (2000) although nature professionals are well
trained to address resource related needs, many of these professionals
“have serious problems with serving people”. Magil (1992) found that too
often they are either, not trained, minimally trained, or disciplined to
understand and manage social interactions and to use basic education
principle. Moreover, research by Simmons (1998) revealed that teachers
using various nature settings for environmental education expressed the
need for special training as well as a desire for more training before they
took their students to this place.
Most of the research in the area of environmental interpretation and
education has focused on the evaluation of environmental programs and
the impact they have on the knowledge and attitude of the park visitor,
not on the role of the park interpreter (Taylor and Galdarelli, 2004).
Research of Roggenbuck et al 1992 reports that trained guides devoted
more time and attention to communicating the natural and cultural history
of a natural resource. Black et al. (2001) cite that training has been
instrumental in increasing the awareness of environmental and sociocultural impacts caused by ecotourism. Such awareness leads to minimal
impact behaviour by both visitors and residents to sites and allows the
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effective enforcement of park regulations. Training enables guides to
encourage conservation, to act as mediators between hosts and guests, to
provide quality service and customer satisfaction as well as deliver
effective visitors’ experience. Christie & Mason (2003) cite the lack of a
theoretical base, benchmarks, or best practice principles in the profession
despite its long history. Calls for more professionalism, required
standards, appropriate training and better delivery skills are frequently
made and punctuate most discourse on tour-guiding (Christie and Mason,
2003; Dioko and Unakul 2005). Cherem (1977) argues that because
guides are primarily interpreters and only secondarily subject specialists,
guides should be the subjects of more formal courses in interpretive
methods, field courses, research, and even theory (cited in Christie and
Mason, 2003). Knudson et al (1995/2003) acknowledge that it is vital that
interpreters are trained.
Economic Value of Guides Training and Certification
Taking into consideration the previous remarks, Carver et al. (2003)
provide a graphical view showing how one could determine the economic
value of interpretation as well as how professional training and
certification could affect the social value and quality of interpretation in a
given site (see figure 2). The vertical axis represents the cumulative dollar
value of what society is willing to pay (WTP) to preserve a resource. The
horizontal axis represents the number of people (users and non-users)
surveyed by Carver et al (2003). The line WTPW/O represents the rank
ordered maximum willingness to pay across individuals for the resource
without interpretive services. The vertical line intercepts the highest
dollar amount an individual is willing to pay to preserve the resource. The
horizontal intercept represents the point where the willingness-to-pay for
the next person equals zero.
Furthermore, a second and third willingness to pay which includes
interpretation but no training and certification: WTPW/I and interpretation
with training and certification: WTPW/I&C. To derive an economic value
one could use the difference of the value of interpretation in WTP
function. The difference between WTPW/I and WTPW/I&C represents the
marginal social benefits of a certification program (represented by area A
in figure 2). In particular, the difference in WTP is due to change in
quality. These changes can be due to additional education, training and
certification of interpreters (Carver et al, 2003).
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Constantina Skanavis & Christos Giannoulis
Figure 2. A Graphical View of the Value of Interpretation and its
extention through Training and Certification
WTP: willingness to pay.
WTPW/O: willingness to pay across individuals without interpretive services.
WTPW/I: interpretation but no training and certification.
WTPW/I&C: interpretation with training and certification.
Source: Carver et al. 2003
In western developed countries the study of environmental
interpretation is more and more mature with the help of other academic
fields (Ham, 2002). Ecotour Interpretive guiding is acknowledged as a
profound profession by official bodies worldwide.
Greece now has 27 National Parks, among which 11 Ramsar sites for
the protection of wetlands. These protected areas are affected by serious
management and protection problems. Two of the most significant
problems are dearth of specialized personnel and inadequate provision of
information and services to tourist visitors (Beriatos, 2005). Although the
term of Ecotourism has been established in the Greek tourism market
since the late 1980s (Svoronou and Holden, 2005), there is no significant
link between available natural resources and appropriate tourist activities
(Beriatos, 2005). Nowadays in Greece the majority of the ecotourism
clientele is occasional in nature, in that the individuals are likely to be
involved in a number of other tourist activities, and the ecotourism
planning for the protected areas reflects this perspective.
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At the Research Centre of Environmental Education and
Communication, at the University of the Aegean, we studied a group of
individuals running small ecotourism enterprises in Greece. The research
resulted that ecotourism clientele is mostly males in the age group of 2660 with basic educational background. Half of them depend on
ecotourism business to meet their financial needs. They present a high
degree of environmental activism and a thorough understanding of their
environmental education needs. They were ready to financially commit in
the environmental protection process and were willing to accept
environmental education. (Skanavis et al., 2004).
The only place which recruits local inhabitants as ecotour guides is
one of the most precious biotopes of Greece, Dadia Forest Reserve. These
guides are trained locally by the nongovernmental organization, WWF
which is the main administrator manager of the local nature centre
(Svoronou and Holden, 2005; Buckley, R. 2003). Conducted ecotours in
these areas usually last approximately fifteen minutes. During these tours
emphasis is given of the empowerment of the affective variable of
visitor’s environmental attitudes. The cognitive variables are confined to
mere descriptions of biodiversity. Human interventions to any kind of
environmental conservation initiative are not addressed (Hovardas and
Stamou 2006).
The School of Tourist Guides in Greece, a state school belonging to
the Ministry of Tourism, is compulsory for guides in all museums, sites,
monuments, churches etc and the study program lasts for 2.5 years. All
guides in Greece are national guides- which means, they have a guiding
permission to work in the whole country- and not local guides like in
other countries. The 75% of the funds come form the European Union
Fund for Training via Greek Government and the 25% originates from
Greek Ministry itself (Cookson Phillip, 2006). Judging by the courses
offered, there is a lack of specialization in ecotour guiding and there is an
absence of any kind of training in the interpretation or the non formal
environmental education fundamentals. To the contrary according to the
curriculum there is a strong focus to tour guiding in historical and
archaeological sites with less emphasis to natural heritage sites. The
curriculum lacks of sustainable tourism or ecotourism courses.
A school for National Parks and Recreation areas Caretaker-Guides
offered by the Public and Private Vocational Training Institutes which
are placed under the auspices of Organization of Vocational Education
and Training also exists in Greece. The national authority providing
accreditation of the certificates, entitled as Vocational Training Diploma
I.E.K, given by the above Institutes, is the Greek Ministry of Education
61
Constantina Skanavis & Christos Giannoulis
and Religious Affairs. The prerequisite for acceptance to these Institutes
is a Certificate of Unified Upper Secondary School (EL) or a Certificate
of Technical Vocational Educational School B´ level (ΤΕΕ) The studies
last two years including a six months period of practical training.
The graduates of these programs can work in organizations managing
national parks, protected areas, small woods and forests, as well as in
facilities of mountain tourism, game reserves, zoological parks-gardens,
botanical gardens, of environmental education, etc. The recognition of the
Vocational Training Diploma I.E.K. as a qualification for appointment in
the public sector is regulated by Presidential Decree no.267/2003 (Official
Journal of the Hellenic Republic 240 / Vol. Α / 16-10-2003). The
professional rights of this specialty are regulated by Presidential Decree
no.267/2003 (Official Journal of the Hellenic Republic 240 / Vol. Α / 1610-2003). The assessment of the content of the courses offered for this
certification resulted in that interpretation subject is lightly covered in one
course, specifically the one of Public Relations.
Therefore in Greece, there are no certification programs offered at
University Level which address the census of the environmental
interpretation as a separate field and this is something that needs to be
addressed carefully.
CONCLUSION
The voluntary participation at a non formal environmental
educational program is encouraged from its association with
entertainment. Based on this association, the participant gets actively
involved in a pleasant non formal educational activity and the possibility
of an apathetic response is minimized. In the development of such
conditions, according to the principles of environmental interpretation,
main emphasis is placed on the cooperative and interdependent
communication between the sources of transmitting and receiving
environmental messages. According to the environmental interpretation
guidelines, the educational process is productive when the environmental
trainer approaches the learners as active participants of the educational
experience and avoids acting as an authoritarian who just informs them
about the visited area.
Determining role in the accomplishment of such a goal is the
development of an appropriate educational program for the training of the
involved ecotour guides at the Greek protected area sites. Such a program
should be based on the fact that sustainable tourism has to be an
experience that can promote responsible environmental behavior. The
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well organized environmental education training of the ecotour guides is
the only way that can ensure the successful results that the environmental
interpretation profession is in need. By educating the ecotour guides, their
environmental knowledge, communication and interpretation skills will
be built and in general their environmental profile will be shaped. Then
we would be able to refer to the environmental interpretation programs as
ones that can contribute to the promotion of environmental awareness,
knowledge, attitude and behaviour of the participants on top of a pleasant
recreational experience in nature.
Those responsible for training non formal environmental educators
must take into serious consideration the uniqueness of the non formal
setting such as the case of protected areas and the related teaching
challenges. They should assist non formal environmental
educators/interpreters in developing an awareness of the specific
contextual factors (e.g., the audience, teaching in a public setting, learner
needs, time limitations, institutional guidelines and expectations)
involved. Also, trainers of the non formal educators need to emphasize on
how they can make full use of the specific non formal educational
experience.
Critical analysis of teaching conceptions and the various contextual
factors involved allows the non formal environmental educator to have a
greater success potential over his/her practice. In addition, practitioners in
formal environmental education settings, according to Brennan’s (1997)
view, could gain much from the processes of non formal environmental
education. A good example is the challenge of educating in a limited
time-frame while multiple obstacles emerge.
Following a training program based on standardized profession
priorities could come in conflict with local needs. Therefore, this possible
complication needs be explored. An appropriate model for establishing a
regional training program for Greek environmental interpreters is an
urgent issue that must be addressed. In this regard, further research in
protected areas sites is mandated. The objective is to better codify this
training model as well as to understand effective practices for promoting
learning among non formal participants (Taylor, 2006). Such a model
must adhere to the principles laid out earlier in the paper and must
balance the requirements of both local stakeholders in Greece and the
fulfilment of the global values related to the protection of natural heritage
areas.
63
Constantina Skanavis & Christos Giannoulis
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SUBMITTED: DECEMBER 2009
REVISION SUBMITTED: APRIL 2010
ACCEPTED: MAY 2010
REFEREED ANONYMOUSLY
Constantina Skanavis ([email protected]) is a Professor in
Environmental Education, Didactics and Communication and director of
the Research Centre of Environmental Education and Communication at
the Department of Environment at the University of the Aegean,
Mytilene, Lesvos Island, Greece.
Giannoulis Christos ([email protected]) is a Ph.D. Candidate
in Environmental Communication and Interpretation at the University of
Ioannina and he holds the position of the research associate at the
Research Centre of Environmental Education and Communication at the
Department of Environment at the University of Aegean, Mytilene,
Lesvos Island, Greece.
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FOUR WHEEL DRIVE TOURISM AND ECONOMIC
DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR REMOTE
AREAS
1
Andrew Taylor
Charles Darwin University
Dean Carson
Charles Darwin University
Desert areas account for around 70% of Australia’s landmass but are home to
less than 3% of the population. The economies of many desert areas have been
described as marginal or peripheral. Tourism is an important economic activity
for desert destinations and one sector, four wheel drive tourism, has been gaining
increasing attention. This paper examines the spending patterns of four wheel
drive visitors to desert regions of the Northern Territory of Australia and
compares them to non-four wheel drive leisure visitors for a five year period from
2000 to 2004. In addition to assessing the amount of expenditure (overall and per
day), the research investigates whether there were differences in expenditure
items and the dispersal of expenditure among destinations. This information can
help inform decisions about levels of investment for attracting the four wheel
drive market which might be justified, and the types of product opportunities that
might arise from a growing market.
Keywords:
Four wheel drive tourism, Desert tourism,
contribution of tourism, Remote area tourism
Economic
JEL Classification: L83, M1, O1
INTRODUCTION
From a tourism perspective, desert Australia has been described as
marginal, remote, or peripheral (Carson and Harwood, 2007). While up to
70% of Australia’s mainland landmass can conceivably be defined as
‘desert’, less than 3% of the total Australian population live in desert
regions (Desert Knowledge Cooperative Research Centre, 2007) and the
four largest towns have populations of less than 30,000 residents. There
are typically very large distances between towns, and they are connected
by limited transport networks. For example, Alice Springs, the best
© University of the Aegean. Print ISSN: 1790-8418, Online ISSN: 1792-6521
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Andrew Taylor & Dean Carson
known desert town, has a resident population of around 25 000, and is
515 kilometres by road from the nearest substantial settlement (Tennant
Creek with a population of 1,500). Alice Springs is 2,930 kilometres by
road from Sydney. Alice Springs is in the Northern Territory, but is 1,525
kilometres by road from the capital, Darwin (Jacaranda, 2006).
The states and territories of Australia have established regional
tourism associations (RTAs) who are responsible for coordinating tourism
marketing and fostering business networks within their jurisdictions.
There are 85 such RTAs in Australia, with 11 situated in desert regions
(Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2005) mainly in the Northern Territory,
Queensland, Western Australia and New South Wales (Figure 1). In 2005,
an estimated 4.5 million visitors spent at least one night in one or more
desert destinations as defined by these RTA boundaries. Of concern for
desert tourism in Australia, this figure represented a decrease over the
previous four years (by 15% from the peak visitation experienced in
2001) compared with a smaller decrease in visitor numbers of six percent
for Australia as a whole (Tourism Research Australia, 2005a, 2005b).
Notably, the international market share for desert areas declined from
20% of all visitors to just 13%. Nonetheless, tourism remains an
important economic activity in desert destinations.
Figure 1. Desert areas of Australia
In addition to decline in visitor numbers, desert tourism has seen
increasing concentrations of visitors at a small number of iconic sites
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(such as Ayer’s Rock/ Uluru and King’s Canyon in the Petermann region)
and in the larger population centres, and diminishing diversity in the trip
patterns of desert visitors (Desert Knowledge Australia, 2005). Around
30% of the desert tourism market in Australia is on organised tours, and
there is evidence that fewer tour alternatives are offered now than in past
years (Carson & Taylor, 2006). Tours tend to focus on sightseeing at the
icon sites and, there is limited variance in the average lengths of stay for
desert destinations (Carson, Middleton, & Jacobsen, 2007). In summary,
it can be argued that relatively fewer people are visiting desert Australia,
they are visiting fewer attractions and destinations, and the market is
becoming increasingly homogenised.
These trends have had important economic implications for the desert
tourism sector. They imply a lack of innovation in terms of new product
offerings and accessing new markets. Fostering innovation in the desert
will require collaboration between suppliers and customers, which the
literature argues needs to be led by small firms and relatively independent
travellers, particularly in peripheral destinations (Stuart, Pearce, and
Weaver, 2005). Small firms are more likely than large firms to have
decision makers interacting with customers on a regular basis. They are
more able to change their business practices in response to customer
needs (McKelvey and Texier, 2000). At the same time, relatively
independent travellers are better positioned to make spontaneous
consumption choices, to change their itineraries in-trip, and to negotiate
individual arrangements with product suppliers (Hyde and Lawson,
2003).
It has been reported elsewhere (Schmallegger and Carson, 2007) that
the key independent travel markets for desert Australia are likely to
include self-drive tourists and international backpackers. Research by
Tremblay et al (2005) and Desert Knowledge Australia (2005) has
focused on the self-drive markets for desert Australia. In particular, the
four wheel drive or “off road” market has been identified as having high
growth potential and a number of characteristics that make it attractive to
desert destinations. Carson and Taylor (2006) suggested that these
include:
 A capacity, and desire, to access more remote destinations;
 Trip patterns which include multiple destinations and
frequent movement between destinations;
 Relatively flexible itineraries; and
 Relatively high rates of repeat visits.
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Andrew Taylor & Dean Carson
There is no widely accepted definition of four wheel drive tourism.
The use of a four wheel drive vehicle as a form of transport is a
prerequisite, however this research is interested in travel where there is a
stronger link between the vehicle and the travel experience. A ‘product
market’ view of tourism (Scott, 2002) sees consumers and suppliers
interact in the marketplace using a shared set of concepts (Rosa, et al.
1999). In the case of four wheel drive tourism, the evidence suggests that
some consumers view the vehicle as key to the travel experience (witness,
for example the proliferation of four wheel drive recreation clubs across
Australia and internationally), destinations and tourism product suppliers
distribute experiences with ‘four wheel drive’ in the label (and with
infrastructure specifically targeted at four wheel drive travellers), and
there is a facilitating industry of vehicle manufacturers, accessory
providers and others who market their services through an explicit link
between the vehicle and some touristic concepts. The dialogue between
consumers and suppliers (and other organisations) helps construct a
language about the experience so that the definition becomes meaningful
for all parties (Aaker and Joachimsthaler, 2000). A simple product market
definition of 4WD tourism may therefore be (although other definitions
are possible):
Tourism experiences which the consumer and supplier perceive as
heightened in value by the use of 4WD vehicles.
This definition allows for experiences to be on or off-road, to be
completely dominated by use of the four wheel drive vehicle, or to have
that activity as part of a broader trip experience. Surveys by Taylor and
Prideaux (2008) suggest that four wheel drive travellers develop a sense
of belonging to the destinations they visit, and so are likely to actively
engage in destination development through activities such as
infrastructure maintenance and product promotion. Four wheel drivers are
motivated to explore the landscape, undertake activities in remote
locations (birdwatching, fossicking etc) or to test the capabilities of the
vehicle and driver. The research by Carson and Taylor (2006) and Taylor
and Prideaux (2008) is part of a multi-disciplinary study of four wheel
drive tourism in desert Australia sponsored by the Desert Knowledge
Cooperative Research Centre, a collaboration between universities,
government agencies and private enterprise aiming to conduct research
that contributes to improved livelihoods for desert people. Prior to this
research, very little was known about four wheel drive tourism in any
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environment, although a small number of studies have considered
environmental impacts (for example, Priskin, 2003).
Some optimism regarding the potential for four wheel drive tourism
to provide economic benefits for Aboriginal settlements in desert
Australia has been observed. Desert Knowledge Australia (2005), for
example, report on the future of outback tourism as being favourable
economically for local Aboriginal communities. However, the reasons for
such optimism are unclear. They appear to lie mainly in assertions of the
(growing) size of the market, and the level of contact between the markets
and otherwise isolated settlements. There has been no published research
into the expenditure patterns of four wheel drive travellers, nor of the
economic flows arising from that expenditure. Cartan and Carson (2009)
have argued that settlements along desert tracks (the main attractions for
many four wheel drive travellers) have largely failed to create innovative
and economically significant ventures. They suggest that any economic
benefits are more likely to accrue to businesses in major service centres
and places of origin than to the more remote and smaller desert
settlements. In desert Australia, this might translate to major urban
centres, particularly Alice Springs (Northern Territory), Mt Isa
(Queensland), Broken Hill (New South Wales) or Kalgoorlie (Western
Australia) attracting a disproportionate amount of trip expenditure.
Four wheel drive travellers are likely to spend large amounts of
money on their vehicles, purchasing (and then preparing) them for desert
trips, or in hiring them in situ. Taylor and Carson (2007) also reported
that desert trips are relatively long, and travellers spend relatively long
periods of time preparing for them. Along with visiting multiple
destinations and a higher tendency to repeat visit (Carson and Taylor,
2008), these may be indicators of economic activity. However, the
relationship between trip structures and more direct measures of
economic value, particularly at local and regional levels, is problematic.
There are issues with estimating expenditure, attributing expenditure to
specific destinations or activities, and assessing the worth of multipliers.
The difficulties in discerning the economic contribution are exacerbated
for multiple destination trips which are very common to desert itineraries.
Dwyer and Forsyth (1997) have summarised the literature relating to
measurement of economic benefits of particular types of tourism
activities. The most common measures used were total trip expenditures
and average daily expenditure per visitor. While these measures provide
some summary, it may be more meaningful at a local level to investigate
what products and activities are purchased (Wilton and Nickerson, 2006).
Research has also attempted to identify the determinants of expenditure
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Andrew Taylor & Dean Carson
within market segments (see McKay, et al, 2002, for example).
Demographic, socio-economic and touristic variables have been
correlated in various ways with rates of expenditure, types of products,
and activities consumed. Coupling an understanding of expenditure items
with the dynamics of local supply can provide insights into local
economic benefits (Supradist, 2004). For example, expenditure on
souvenirs manufactured outside the region may have less economic
impact than expenditure on services involving higher local inputs.
Estimates of trip spending, particularly on activities such as motoring
(MacKay, Andereck, and Vogt, 2002) or recreational boating (Lee, 2001)
may be confused by expenditure relating to purchasing and maintaining
the craft or vehicle. Lee, for example, found that visitors from more
distant origins spent less in the destination on food and fuel, having made
more of these purchases before leaving home. Dwyer and Forsyth (1997)
recognise that more sophisticated measures of economic yield are
required to understand the impacts of a market on a destination, but they
also acknowledge the high cost of collecting and analysing data for such
measures. The recommendation is therefore to use a variety of measures,
including total expenditure, expenditure on specific items, expenditure
per day, and length of stay. Relatively high yield markets tend to have
higher daily expenditure and higher lengths of stay.
Consequently, this paper examines the spending patterns of four
wheel drive visitors to desert regions in the Northern Territory of
Australia and compares them to non-four wheel drive leisure visitors to
the same destinations. The study examines data from a five year period
2000 to 2004. In addition to assessing the amount of expenditure (overall
and per day), the research investigates whether there were differences in
the items of expenditure and the dispersal of expenditure among
destinations. This information can inform decisions about the level of
investment in attracting the four wheel drive market that might be
justified, and the types of product opportunities that might arise from the
market.
METHODS
Tourism NT is the government destination marketing organisation
(DMO) for the Northern Territory. The Northern Territory includes four
of Australia’s eleven desert RTAs – Alice Springs, Petermann,
MacDonnell and Barkly. Between 1997 and 2004, Tourism NT conducted
a survey of around 4,500 visitors to the Northern Territory each year
called the Northern Territory Travel Monitor (NTTM). The NTTM
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included two questions which can be used to identify four wheel drive
tourists. Respondents were asked the mode of transport they used to travel
between destinations in the Northern Territory. “Four wheel drive” was a
response option. Between 2000 and 2004, 3,893 respondents (33%) who
had visited a desert region in the Northern Territory had accessed these
destinations by four wheel drive vehicle. Respondents were also asked
about the activities they had undertaken while in the Northern Territory.
Included among these were “four wheel driving”. Between 2000 and
2004, 3,345 respondents (28%) who had visited a desert region in the
Northern Territory claimed to have done four wheel driving as an activity.
Neither of these variables corresponds exactly with the product
market definition of four wheel driving provided in the introduction.
Visitors travelling by four wheel drive may be simply describing the type
of vehicle, rather than attributing any enhancement of the experience to
having that vehicle. On the other hand, where the experience is enhanced,
or even dependent upon, the four wheel drive vehicle, respondents may
not identify four wheel driving as a separate activity. It is likely, however,
that the cohort of four wheel drive travellers who do meet the definition
for this research have answered either that they travelled by four wheel
drive vehicle or that they did four wheel driving as an activity. For the
purposes of this research, a desert four wheel drive tourist is considered to
be one who spent at least one night in a desert region in the Northern
Territory, and who either travelled by four wheel drive between
destinations or cited four wheel driving as an activity. For the period 2000
to 2004 this produced a sample of 4,860 respondents, or 40% of all leisure
visitors to desert areas of the Northern Territory. The potential
misclassification of some respondents is accepted as a limitation of using
a secondary data set.
Table 1. Study sample sizes
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
Total
Full NTTM
sample
4,036
3,648
3,791
3,736
4,084
19,295
Leisure
visitors
3,351
2,955
2,957
2,939
2,989
15,191
Leisure &
visited desert
2,763
2,446
2,407
2,317
2,128
12,061
Leisure, visited
desert and 4WD
1,094
915
1,057
912
882
4,860
Desert 4WD as
% of total
39.6%
37.4%
43.9%
39.4%
41.4%
40.3%
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Andrew Taylor & Dean Carson
The NTTM used recall questions to collect expenditure for the entire
travel party during the 24 hours prior to completing the survey form.
Accommodation expenditure was collected based on the actual cost of the
accommodation (for the whole travel party) on the night the survey was
completed. The location of the accommodation provider was recorded
and coded to a sub-region within the Northern Territory. This enabled the
region in which the survey was completed to be identified. This approach
yielded a sample of 6,235 surveys completed in desert areas of the
Northern Territory for the period 2000 to 2004, of which 38% (2,339)
were completed by four wheel drive travellers.
The expenditure items produced by this method included:
 Cost of accommodation tonight (accom$) - the
accommodation cost for the entire travel party for the night
on which the respondent filled out the survey form.
 Money spent on individual items (item a-n$) - expenditure
by the travel party during the past 24 hours. Items collected
were:
• Food and drinks
• Cultural tours/shows by Indigenous people
• Other tours in the NT
• Transport within the NT
• Aboriginal art work/ artefacts
• Shopping/
gifts/
souvenirs/
Entertainment/
admission fees/ other incidental expenses
 Total travel party expenditure on items (total$) = total of
expenditure on items [item a-n$ listed above] in past 24
hours excluding accommodation
 Total expenditure (exp_ttl) = total travel party expenditure
in past 24 hours including accommodation [ (exp_ttl) =
total$ + accomm$]
 Estimated total expenditure for travel party on the entire trip
(tot_exp). This variable was collected in fixed dollar ranges
(for example, ‘less than $500’and ‘$3,001 - $5,000’)
Total expenditure by the entire travel party for the entire trip was
calculated in a three step approach. Firstly accommodation costs were
summed with the combined travel party expenditure on individual items
during the past 24 hours. This excluded expenditure on transport used to
reach the Northern Territory. Secondly, nights spent in the Northern
Territory were calculated by summing the nights spent at each overnight
stop with the nights in transit, where visitors travelled overnight in a bus
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or other vehicle. If the number of nights recorded against an overnight
(night1 to night 10) stop was not stated (‘99’) these night were excluded
from the calculation of total nights in the Northern Territory to avoid
artificial inflation of this figure. Likewise, if nights in transit (tran_ngt)
was recorded as ‘99’ this variable was excluded. The two variables were
multiplied out so that the calculation of total trip expenditure reads as:
Total expenditure=
(accom$+food$+toursc$+toursg$+trans$+aborig$+shop$+entrtn$+oth
er$) *
(night1+night2+night3+night4+night5+night6+night7+night8+night9+
night10+ tran_ngt))
This approach reduced the available sample marginally to 6,062 of
which 37% (2,247) were four wheel drive travellers. A very small number
of records (six) had expenditure of more than $10,000 recorded against
them for a period of 24 hours. These were removed because of their
distortional impact on total expenditure data given that there were no
commonly discernable characteristics to suggest they might represent one
particular market more so than another.
Consideration was given to using per person expenditure in the
analysis. However, the composition of four wheel drive travel parties was
very similar to others in terms of both the number of individuals in the
party and the type of group. For example, two thirds of travel parties for
both groups were comprised of two people and only a very small
proportion of four wheel drive parties (three percent) and others (two
percent) consisted of more than four persons. Similarly around 45% of
both four wheel drive parties and others were travelling as adult couples
and 20% were travelling alone. Slightly more four wheel drive parties
(13%) than others (nine percent) were travelling as family groups. Based
on these comparisons it is viable to expect little difference in expenditure
results produced on a travel party basis when compared to those produced
for individuals.
In addition to expenditure, the NTTM asked about activities and
places visited in the Northern Territory as well as the types of
accommodation used at each destination. These variables have been used
as supporting evidence to the expenditure data as a means of addressing
issues of respondent recall for expenditure items.
The direct expenditure approach used here has limitations for
comparing expenditure behaviour between four wheel drive travellers to
others in desert areas. First, the 24 hour recall period applied to recording
expenditure on individual items may attribute some expenditure to desert
77
Andrew Taylor & Dean Carson
regions where it did not occur when travellers enter a desert region from a
non-desert region. Secondly, the process of extrapolating expenditure
during the 24 hour period to represent total trip expenditure has
limitations insofar as it can at best be considered an approximation.
Expenditure amounts on individual items are likely to fluctuate between
regions and during different stages of the trip (for example, close to
arrival, during the trip proper, and pre-departure). Data on non-essential
items like tours, Aboriginal attractions and arts, and entertainment may be
particularly problematic because the extrapolation of the past 24 hours
expenditure of these items by multiplying by the number of nights spent
in the Northern Territory may be less representative of actual expenditure
than for items like fuel, food and shopping which are consumed more
regularly.
RESULTS
A substantial proportion of both four wheel drive (39%) and other
travel parties (43%) said they had a planned budget of more than $9,000
for their trip in the Northern Territory. This figure excludes transport to
the Northern Territory and pre-booked items. Average recorded daily
expenditure on all items was five percent lower for four wheel drive
travellers at $368 compared to $384 for other desert travellers (Table 2).
However, average expenditure for the entire trip to the Northern Territory
(again excluding transport to the Northern Territory and pre-booked
items) was markedly higher for four wheel drive travellers at $4,370
compared to $3,028 for other travellers. More than two thirds of four
wheel drive and other traveller expenditure was in desert regions. The
32% higher average total trip expenditure by four wheel drive travellers
reflects their tendency to stay more nights in the Northern Territory (at
eighteen on average compared to thirteen for others) and to visit more
destinations on their trip (at five compared to four). And while both
groups spend on average three nights in each desert and non desert
location, four wheel drivers spend more nights in total in the desert at ten
compared to seven.
Accommodation expenditure in desert areas by four wheel drive
travellers averaged $79 per day compared to $98 for other travellers. This
represented 21% and 25% of average daily expenditure respectively.
Total expenditure in desert areas on accommodation averaged $605 for
four wheel drive travellers and $502 for others (Table 2). Four wheel
drive travellers were more likely to use caravan parks (58% compared
with 40%) and less likely to use hotels (14% compared with 24%) or
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hostels (18% compared with 28%). During their trip, four wheel drive
travellers spent an average of $627 on food and beverages in desert areas
which was significantly (37%) higher than for other travellers ($404). On
a daily basis the comparison shows a relatively marginal difference at $73
and $70 respectively, or 20% and 18% of all travel party expenditure.
Transport costs were inclusive of airfares within the Northern
Territory, fuel, car rental, and public transport costs. Desert four wheel
drive travellers spent on average close to double ($486 compared to $252)
during their trip on these items. On a daily basis the difference was also
noticeable averaging to $68 per day for four wheel drivers and $47 for
others, or 18% and twelve percent of daily travel party expenditure for the
respective groups. Four wheel drive travellers to the desert spent an
average of $62 per day on general (other than Aboriginal) tours,
compared with $75 for other travellers. Tours represented 17% of total
trip expenditure by four wheel drivers and 29% by others. The combined
expenditure of desert travellers on Aboriginal cultural attractions, and arts
and crafts comprised seven percent of average daily four wheel drive
travel party expenditure and eleven percent for others. This represents $25
and $40 per day respectively. These items were one of only two where
total expenditure in the desert by four wheel drivers ($264) was less than
for others ($296).
The combined expenditure of desert travellers on Aboriginal cultural
attractions, and arts and crafts comprised seven percent of average daily
four wheel drive travel party expenditure and eleven percent for others.
This represents $25 and $40 per day respectively. These items were the
others for which total expenditure in the desert by four wheel drivers
($164) was less than for others ($214). Daily expenditure in the desert on
shopping (other than food and beverages) and souvenirs, as well as
admission fees to entertainment venues formed a relatively minor
component of the average daily expenditure of desert travellers at around
seven percent and three percent respectively for both four wheel drivers
and others. The relative contribution of these items to total expenditure in
the desert extrapolated to $317 compared to $226 by others.
Four wheel drive travellers spent an average of $29 more per day
($380) than other travellers in destinations other than Alice Springs
(where average daily expenditure was $351). The average length of stay
in Alice Springs for four wheel drive travellers was five nights and
thirteen nights in other desert areas. Non-four wheel drive travellers
averaged four nights in Alice Springs and nine in other desert areas. The
additional expenditure in other (compared to Alice Springs) areas by four
wheel drivers was comprised of accommodation ($37 per day above other
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Andrew Taylor & Dean Carson
desert travellers) and transport ($17 per day). While non four wheel drive
travellers spent $58 per night more in destinations outside Alice Springs,
this was almost completely accounted for by their additional expenditure
on accommodation.
Table 2. Expenditure on items
Accommodation
Food & drinks
Aboriginal tours
& shows
Other tours
Transport within
the NT
Aboriginal art &
crafts
Pleasure,
shopping &
souvenirs
Entertainment &
admission fees
Other expenses
Total
Average daily
expenditure
% of daily
expenditure
Total expenditure
in desert areas
% daily desert
expenditure
4WD
visitors
$79
Others
$98
4WD
visitors
21%
Others
25%
4WD
visitors
$605
Others
$502
4WD
visitors
22%
Others
24%
$73
$70
20%
18%
$627
$404
22%
19%
$9
$62
$19
$75
3%
17%
5%
19%
$59
$428
$93
$392
2%
15%
4%
19%
$68
$47
18%
12%
$486
$252
17%
12%
$16
$21
4%
5%
$105
$123
4%
6%
$29
$27
8%
7%
$215
$155
8%
7%
$12
$20
$368
$12
$16
$384
3%
5%
100%
3%
4%
100%
$102
$165
$2,792
$71
$114
$2,106
4%
6%
100%
3%
5%
100%
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS
The research found that four wheel drive travellers spent more on
their total trip than other visitors to desert Northern Territory. The
average daily expenditure was similar, so the difference in total
expenditure was accounted for by the longer lengths of stay in the
Northern Territory by four wheel drivers. Of further note, the additional
nights were a result of visits to additional destinations. In other words,
four wheel drive travellers delivered similar economic benefits to more
destinations than other travellers. While average daily expenditure was
similar for four wheel drive and other desert travellers, the composition of
the expenditure was quite different. Four wheel drive travellers spent less
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on accommodation and Aboriginal tourism products, and more on
transport and food and beverages.
Four wheel drive travellers tended to select caravan park
accommodation even where hotel or hostel accommodation was available
and preferred by other travellers and chose not to consume Aboriginal
tourism products in destinations where other travellers did consume them.
This has enormous implications as, on the one hand, four wheel drive
travellers, while spending less, show a preference for accommodation
types which are more likely to be locally owned and managed rather than
part of a national or international hotel or hostel group. The economic
contribution of these is likely to be more direct for the region. On the
other hand, there have been limited opportunities for Aboriginal cultural
tourism enterprises to benefit from four wheel drive travel. Either the
nature of the products that have been available or the method of their
distribution has not matched the demands of the market. Not only did four
wheel drive travellers spend more on transport within desert Northern
Territory, they appeared to spend more frequently, refuelling regularly as
they travelled. There are only three airports in the Northern Territory with
regularly scheduled commercial services, and two of these are in the
desert (Alice Springs and Yulara near Uluru/ Ayer’s Rock). Most tours
originate from Alice Springs or Yulara and payment for these is made
once. It is likely that the transport expenditure by four wheel drive
travellers has had greater local economic implications than that by other
desert visitors.
Expenditure on food and beverages appeared similar for four wheel
drive and other desert travellers. It is quite possible, however, that the
nature of this expenditure was different for the two groups. Higher use of
caravan parks and commercial camping grounds by four wheel drive
travellers implies they prepared their own meals rather than eating out at
restaurants in which case the economic benefits would be distributed in a
different way. A greater difference in expenditure on organised tours may
have been expected between four wheel drive and other travellers. Four
wheel drive travellers by definition have their own transport, and have a
lesser need to go on organised tours to do their sightseeing. However, the
definition of four wheel drive traveller used in this research would include
those who went on a four wheel drive tour (and therefore selected have
done a ‘four wheel drive activity’) and those (particularly international)
travellers who rented a four wheel drive vehicle for at least part of their
visit to desert Australia. Tours may have been taken during the non-four
wheel drive trip phases.
81
Andrew Taylor & Dean Carson
Expenditure on attractions and souvenirs was relatively low for both
four wheel drive and other travellers. It is unclear whether these products
have been inherently unimportant, or whether the existing product
offerings have lacked appeal. A consistent pattern of product preferences
has emerged from the research. This may reflect the desired experiences
of the market, or it may reflect the homogenised structure of the tourism
industry in desert Australia that was observed by Carson, Middleton and
Jacobsen (2007) and Cartan and Carson (2009). In summary, four wheel
drive travellers appear to offer economic benefits for desert destinations
at least equivalent to those provided by other markets. The advantage of
the market is that they provide income for more destinations, without
compromising the income to more popular destinations. This research has
only superficially associated expenditure patterns with yield potential, and
further research is required here. There is a different pattern of
expenditure regarding individual items (accommodation, food and
beverage, tours etc.), and this will have implications for product
development and the accrual of local benefits.
Economic analysis of tourism behaviour is difficult, and researching
such behaviour is generally subject to limitations. Beyond the limitations
of the data previously noted, the research reported here has been able to
only partly address some of the key issues in understanding the economic
implications of four wheel drive tourism activity in desert Australia. This
research has treated the four wheel drive market as homogenous, however
it may be that certain segments within the market have higher or lower
yield potential. Taylor and Prideaux (2008) have provided some clues as
to the nature of some of the differences such as a segment with a vent for
testing their skills and their vehicle capabilities to a segment which seeks
to do primarily non-four wheel drive activities. Likewise, different
destinations may experience different levels of economic benefit. While
there is a need for further research into the economic value of four wheel
drive tourism in desert Australia, the research here has demonstrated that
the market is likely to make a similar overall daily contribution as other
desert travellers. There may be advantages in stimulating four wheel drive
development in localised desert destinations because their contribution
extends over longer travel periods and to more destinations. Destination
marketing agencies are advised to increase their understanding of what
the four wheel drive market wants, and invest in products which meet
these expectations.
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SUBMITTED: OCTOBER 2009
REVISION SUBMITTED: JANUARY 2010
ACCEPTED: FEBRUARY 2010
REFEREED ANONYMOUSLY
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Andrew Taylor ([email protected]) is a Senior Research Fellow
with the Population and Tourism Studies Group within the School for
Social Policy and Research at Charles Darwin University, Ellengowan
Rd, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia.
Dean Carson ([email protected]) is Principal Research Fellow
with the Population and Tourism Studies Group within the School for
Social Policy and Research at Charles Darwin University, Ellengowan
Rd, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The work reported in this publication was supported by funding from
the Australian Government Cooperative Research Centres Programme
through the Desert Knowledge CRC; the views expressed herein do not
necessarily represent the views of Desert Knowledge CRC or its
participants.
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CAUSALITY BETWEEN ECONOMIC GROWTH AND
TOURISM EXPANSION: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE
FROM TRENTINO-ALTO ADIGE
1
Juan Gabriel Brida
Free University of Bozen-Bolzano
Andrea Barquet
Free University of Bozen-Bolzano
Wiston Adrián Risso
Free University of Bozen-Bolzano
This paper investigates the causal relations between tourism growth, relative
prices and economic expansion for the Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, a region of
northeast Italy bordering on Switzerland and Austria. Johansen cointegration
analysis shows the existence of one cointegrated vector among real GDP, tourism
and relative prices where the corresponding elasticities are positive. Tourism and
relative prices are weakly exogenous to real GDP. A variation of the Granger
Causality test developed by Toda and Yamamoto is performed to reveal the unidirectional causality from tourism to real GDP. Impulse response analysis shows
that a shock in tourism expenditure produces a fast positive effect on growth
Keywords:
economic
growth;
tourism
expenditure;
Johansen
cointegration test; Granger causality; Trentino- Alto Adige.
JEL Classification: L83, M1, O1
INTRODUCTION
International tourism, on which we focus in this paper, is recognized
to contribute to long-run growth through diverse channels. This belief that
tourism can promote, if not, plainly, cause long-run economic growth is
known in the literature as the Tourism-Led Growth Hypothesis (TLGH).
Since Shan and Wilson (2001) proposed TLGH, several remarkable
researches suggesting the validity of this hypothesis appeared as Balaguer
and Cantavella (2002) and Cortez -Jimenez and Paulina (2006) for Spain;
© University of the Aegean. Print ISSN: 1790-8418, Online ISSN: 1792-6521
87
Juan Gabriel Brida, Andrea Barquet & Wiston Adrián Risso
Dritsakis (2004) for Greece; Gunduz & Hatemi-J (2005) and Katircioglu
(2008) for Turkey; Louca (2006), Noriko & Motosugu (2007), and Gani
(1998) for small islands; Eugenio-Martín et al. (2004) for high and
medium income Latin American Countries; Oh (2005) for Korea and Kim
et al. (2006) for Taiwan. Similarly, Proença and Soukiazis (2005) denote
unidirectional causality from tourism to growth in Portuguese regions,
Brida et al. (2008) for Mexico, Gahli (1976) for Hawaii, and Fayissa et al.
(2007) for 42 African countries. Bidirectional causality was demonstrated
by Cortez-Jimenez & Paulina (2006) for Italy, Durbarry (2004) for
Mauritius and Shan & Wilson (2001) for China. As Lanza et al. (2003),
Lee & Chang (2008) pointed the unidirectional causality from tourism to
growth for OECD countries, as well ασ bidirectional for non OECD ones.
This study seeks to contribute to resolve the questions on the TLGH
in the region of Trentino-Alto Adige region of Italy by testing a
cointegration, constructing a Vector Autoregression (VAR) model and
consequently, setting up a long-run effect of these variables (that is,
tourism, relative prices and economic growth) for the Trentino-Alto
Adige region. The hypothesis is tested empirically by using the
cointegration test by Johansen (1988), Johansen and Joselius (1990) and
Johansen (1995). Granger Causality test is not recommendable when there
is a cointegration relationship, in so far, the Toda and Yamamoto (1995)
modified version of the Granger Causality test (Granger, 1988) is applied.
The paper is organized as follows. In the next section we describe the
data of Trentino Alto Adige region considered for the research and the
main characteristics of these variables. Section 3 introduces the model
specification. In Sections 4 and 5 the results from the empirical analysis
and the comparisons with other researches are presented. Finally, Section
6 presents the concluding discussion and further comments.
DATA AND METHODOLOGY
The tourism sector is very relevant to explain develop in Trentino
Alto Adige region. Similarly with the levels of world’s GDP data
provided by World Travel and Tourism Council, tourism in the region
represents a 10% of the GDP. Trentino Alto Adige has become the Italian
region with more tourism investment during the last 40 years. This could
be explained by two reasons. On the one hand the strong support of public
investment, subsidies and promotional activities by the government of the
province could have generated this growth in tourism. On the other hand
the shock in tourism could have generated a fast growth of the region
economy. Moreover, considering than 60% of the guests in the region are
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Germans and 20% are Italians (ASTAT (2008)) the importance of the
relative prices could affect the decision of doing tourism in Trentino Alto
Adige. Furthermore, there is a regional policy to encourage promotional
activities on German markets.
In this study the GDP of Trentino-Alto Adige is used to measure the
value of economic growth (Bodie, Alex, and Alan (2001)). Annual time
series of GDP (y) were constructed based on ISTAT information
concerning the growth rate of GDP from 1980 to 2000 (constant prices of
1995) meanwhile time series from 2000 to 2006 (constant prices 2006)
were provided by ASTAT. The variable of Tourism (tt) was obtained
from Earning of Tourism, proxy by Hotel and Restaurants, series at
constant prices of 2000 from 2000 to 2006 adjusted by series of
Commerce, Hotels and Restaurants at prices of 1995 from 1980 and 2000;
and Services at prices of 2000 for the year 2007. Relative prices (p)
between Trentino-Alto Adige and Germany are considered as a proxy
variable of external competitiveness, obtained by Prices of a single room
in Alto Adige from 1988-2006 provided by the Institute for Economic
Research of the Chamber of Commerce, Industry and Agriculture of
Bolzano, adjusted by Consumer Prices Index of Italy 1980-1988, divided
by the Consumer Prices in Germany (IMF).
Considering GDP per capita, tourism expenses per capita and relative
prices in Trentino Alto Adige region (taking as base 1980) the last two
have almost the same growth performance. Figure 1 show that after 2000
tourism per capita decrease meanwhile GDP per capita is stable. This
evolution of Tourism and Relative Prices could suggest that the increase
of tourism have generated inflation in the region and then this point is
relevant to study also causality.
Figure 1. Evolution of GDP per capita, Tourism per capita and
Relative Prices
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
GDP per capita
Tourism per
capita
89
Juan Gabriel Brida, Andrea Barquet & Wiston Adrián Risso
MODEL SPECIFICATION
To test the causality between the variables we specify a Vector Auto
Regressive (VAR):
U= (Ln y, Ln tt, Ln p)
(1)
The main purpose is to search long-run relationship among the three
variables, but a Vector Error Correction model is applied to model the
short-run dynamics. Firstly, unit root test are applied to study the
stationarity of the series. When the variables of interest are non-stationary
or exhibit a unit root, the procedures of conventional econometric
technique may not be appropriate (Engle and Granger (1987); Enders
(1995)). Granger and Newbold (1974) pointed out that in the presence of
non-stationary variables, an OLS regression might become a spurious
regression, thereby leading to biased and meaningless results. In growing
economies economic time-series data are likely to be non-stationary.
Therefore, prior to testing a long-run equilibrium relationship between
tourism expansion and economic growth, the Augmented Dickey–Fuller
(Dickey and Fuller (1981)) test is used to examine the presence of a unit
root for all the study variables, meanwhile the KPSS test that has the null
hypothesis of stationarity, would test the contrary hypothesis. In case of
non-stationarity we apply the Johansen cointegration test in order to
detect long-run relationships in the data. The two-step procedure by Engle
and Granger (1987) assumes the existence of only one cointegrating
relationship. The general procedure proposed by Johansen (1988) has the
advantage of testing all the possible cointegrating relationships. Then
weak exogenity is tested in the model. Finally, Toda and Yamamoto
causality test is applied in order to analyze causality between the
variables. Engle and Granger (1987) and Granger (1988) noted that if two
time-series variables are cointegrated, then at least one -directional
Granger-causation exists. The existence of a stable long-run relationship
(cointegrating relationship) between economic growth and tourism
expansion implies that the two variables are causally related at least in
one direction. As final
a
step, to answer the question regarding the
direction of causation, the Granger causality tests were performed: Since
two series of economic growth and tourism expansion are cointegrated of
order (1,1), a VAR model can be constructed in terms of the levels of the
data (Engle and Granger (1987)).
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EMPIRICAL RESULTS
A first step in cointegration analysis is to check the stationarity of the
series considering that regressions could produce significant OLS
parameter and high R-square but the residuals could be non-stationary.
To analyze the stationarity of the series two complementary unit root
tests are implemented: the Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) with null
hypothesis of nonstationarity and the KPSS that has the null hypothesis of
stationarity. According to the results in tables 1 and 2 (unit root tests for
the variables in levels and in differences) time series are integrated
processes of first order, I(1). Hence, we have to study the existence of a
cointegrating relationship.
Table 1. Unit rooth test result: Level
Variable
Lny
Lntt
Lnp
Unit Root Test
ADF
KPSS
ADF
KPSS
ADF
KPSS
Constant
-1.52
0.62
-8.28*
0.61
-4.11*
0.67
Trend, Constant
-0.93
0.17
-2.78
0.18
-0.71
0.15
Without Trend,
Const.
-3.1*
-
0.88
-
-12.2*
-
* Null Hypothesis Rejection at 5%
Table 2. Unit rooth test result: First difference
Variable
Δ Lny
Δ Lntt
Δ Lnp
Unit Root Test
Constant
Trend, Constant
ADF
6.24*
-7.18*
KPSS
0.28*
0.08*
ADF
-2.62
-5.16*
KPSS
0.7
0.13*
ADF
-2.86
-3.44
Without Trend,
Const.
-1.66
-
-2.82*
-
-1.63
KPSS
0.45*
0.072
*
-
* Null Hypothesis Rejection at 5%
Following Banerjee et al. (1993), searching for cointegration is
searching for a statistical equilibrium between variables tending to grow
over time. In so far, a second step is to model the discrepancy of this
equilibrium by a Vector Error Correction (VEC) model. The VEC shows
91
Juan Gabriel Brida, Andrea Barquet & Wiston Adrián Risso
how the variables come back to the equilibrium after suffering a shock. In
order to obtain the optimal VEC model we applied the minimum AICcriterion, suggesting a lag length of two. To determine the number of
cointegrating equations, the Johansen maximum likelihood method
provides both trace and maximum eigenvalue statistics. Note in Table 3
that trace test detect the existence of one cointegrating vector at 5% level.
A third analysis to avoid inference problems is to check the weak
exogeneity of the model in order to prevent incorrect signs (McCallum
(1984)). Considering separately the weak exogeneity of the variables, we
observe that tourism expenditure is exogenous. Table 4 presents the joint
hypothesis of exogeneity for Lntt and Lnp (α2=α3=0). The test indicates a
test statistic of 0,836 and the hypothesis of weak exogeneity cannot be
rejected at 5% level (note p-value = 0.65).
Table 3. Unrestricted Cointegration Rank Test
Trend Assumption: No deterministic trend
Series: Real GDP, Tourism, Relative Prices
Hypothesized No. Eigenvalue Trace
0.05 Critical
of CE
Stat.
Value
None*
0.559
37.72
35.19
At most 1
0.347
17.24
20.26
At most 2
0.23
6.55
9.16
Trace test indicates 1 cointegrating eqn(s) at the 0.05 level
* Denotes rejection of the hypothesis at the 0.05 level.
**MacKinnon-Haug-Michelis (1999) p-values
Prob.**
0.026
0.124
0.153
Table 4. Weakly exogeneity test
Cointegrating Restrictions: H0: A(2,1)=0, A(3,1)=0
Restrictions identify all cointegrating vectors; LR test for biding
restrictions (rank=1)
Chi-square(2): 0,836; p-value: 0,65>0,05
Cointegrating Vector after exogeneity
Lny
Lntt
Lnp
constant
1
-0.246
-0.017
-5.469
t-statistics
[-7.68]
[-0,52]
[19.89]
A(2,1) and A(3,1) are the adjustment coefficients in the Lntt and
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Lnp equations of the VEC, respectively.
Cointegration by itself does not indicate the direction of the causal
relationship. Granger (1988) proposed a test to study causality, that can be
captured from the VAR model, but since variables are integrated it
application is invalid. Toda and Yamamoto (1995) suggest an alternative
procedure, estimating VAR model with (k+dmax) lags, where k is the
standard optimal number of lags and dmax is the maximal order of
integration that we suspect might occur in the process. Considering the
estimated VAR we test Granger causality only using the first k lags. In
this case we test with 3 lags (k= 2 the optimum lag level and dmax= 1
optimum number of serial integration with a unit root)
If we consider the following equation from VAR model:
β1Lny-1+β2Lny-2+β3Lny-3+β4Lntt-1+β5Lntt-2+β6LnttLnyt= β0+
β8Lnp-2+ β9Lnp-3+β10
(2)
3+β7Lnp-1+
The null hypothesis of non-causality from Tourism to GDP should be
H0: β4 = β5 = 0. This hypothesis is tested using Wald test 2.
Table 5 shows the results for all the variables.
Null hypothesis
Table 5. Granger Causality Test
F-statistic
Tourism does not Granger Cause Growth
Growth does not Granger Cause Tourism
Prices does not Granger Cause Growth
Growth does not Granger Cause Prices
Prices does not Granger Cause Tourism
Tourism does not Granger Cause Prices
6,826
1,511
3,249
4,746
0,209
2,486
pvalue
0.033*
0,469
0,197
0,093
0.9
0,288
* Indicates rejection of the null hypothesis at 5%.
The following Equation 3 shows the long-run equilibrium after
testing weak erogeneity of tourism and relative prices:
Lny = 0.223462 (Lntt) + 0.029182 (Lnp) – 5,2874 (3)
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Juan Gabriel Brida, Andrea Barquet & Wiston Adrián Risso
Summarizing, tourism and relative prices are weakly exogenous and
in the long-run, tourism Granger-cause real GDP of Trentino-Alto Adige
and an increase in tourism demand by 100% produces an increment of
22% of the real product of the region. Moreover, as it is shown in the
below impulse-response figure 2, after a shock in the number of foreign
tourists real GDP in Trentino-Alto Adige there is a continuous growth,
meanwhile present a initial contraction and then a growth in case of
relative price shock. In this figure is pointed out the effect of a shock in
tourism and relative prices over the Trentino-Alto Adige economy
growth. Meanwhile a shock in relative prices show a J-curve shape
(Magee, 1973) producing first a negative response (real devaluation) for
seven quarters and then a positive reaction on the real GDP, a shock in
tourism positively affects the long-run real GDP.
Figure 2. Impulse Response Functions of GDP
Response to Cholesky One S.D. Innovations
Response of Y to TT
Response of Y to P
.025
.025
.020
.020
.015
.015
.010
.010
.005
.005
.000
.000
-.005
-.005
-.010
5
10
15
20
25
30
-.010
5
10
15
20
COMPARING RESULTS
In comparison with the papers mentioned in the introduction that
support TLGH, we can remark for this study, that there is a unidirectional
causality as in the following researchs: Balaguer and Cantavella (2002)
for Spain, Brida et al.(2008) for Mexico, Eugenio-Martín et al. (2004) for
high and medium income Latin American Countries, Gunduz and
Hatemi-J (2005) for Turkey, Lanza et al.(2003) and Lee and Chang
(2008) for OECD countries, Noriko and Motosugu (2007) for the Amami
islands and Proença and Soukiazis (2005) for Portugal. Moreover, we
obtained Granger causal relationship between tourism and economic
growth.
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There is a cointegration relationship between the three variables, and
affects positively economic growth. The corresponding elasticity of
tourism demand has a significant effect on economic growth (22%). That
provides the necessary arguments to support TLGH for Trentino-Alto
Adige. In comparing the Trentino-Alto Adige elasticity of 0.22, that is
higher than the old-tourism economies (as Spain-0.06, Italy-0.08 and
Portugal- 0.01) and below the higher tourism potential countries (as
Mexico-0.67 or Mauritius 0.77), we can consider that the region is in the
average of the developed economies. Moreover, whereas the response of a
shock in prices would generate a J-curve shape, in comparison with
higher tourism potential countries, there is not causality from the relative
prices to the economic growth.
CONCLUSIONS
This paper shows that international tourism expenditure positively
impacts Trentino-Alto Adige economy. The elasticity of real GDP to
tourism expenditure (0,22) shows that an increment of 100% in the
tourism expenditure produces an increment of almost 22% of the real
product. However relative prices produce positive but low effect (0.03).
The results indicate that the TLGH is empirically supported for the
Trentino-Alto Adige economy.
Causality testing shows that the number of international tourists
visiting South Tyrol and the relative prices between Trentino Alto Adige
and Germany are weakly exogenous and that, in the long-run, they
Granger-cause real GDP. In conclusion, enthusiastic tourist-attracting
policies as a means of economic development may be effective, and
tourism policies to stimulate new tourism demand should be essential to
take Trentino-Alto Adige from an average to a higher tourism potential
region. In this way the effect of relative prices could take more relevance
over the real GDP.
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ENDNOTES
1. Granger causality test uses the LR test to contrast the null hypothesis.
However, as Toda and Yamamoto (1995) point out that Wald and LR test
are asymptotically equivalent, so, is correct to test the hypothesis with
Wald test.
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Juan Gabriel Brida, Andrea Barquet & Wiston Adrián Risso
SUBMITTED: SEPTEMBER 2009
REVISION SUBMITTED: DECEMBER 2009
ACCEPTED: JANUARY 2010
REFEREED ANONYMOUSLY
Juan Gabriel Brida ([email protected]) is an Assistant
Professor at the School of Economics and Management, Free University
of Bolzano, Bolzano-Italy.
Andrea Barquet Fassio ([email protected]) is
Research Assistant at the School of Economics and Management - Free
University of Bolzano, Bolzano-Italy.
Wiston Adrián Risso ([email protected]) is Research Assistant at
the School of Economics and Management - Free University of Bolzano,
Bolzano-Italy.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Our research was supported by the Provincia Autonoma di Bolzano and
the Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, project "Tourism, Growth,
Development and Sustainability: The Case of the South Tyrolean
Region".
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RECREATION IN THE AREA OF RIVER ARDAS:
THE VIEWS OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL PUPILS
1
Evangelos Manolas
Democritus University of Thrace
Stylianos Tampakis
Democritus University of Thrace
Stergios Gkaintatzis
Elementary School of Dikaia
Soultana Mavridou-Mavroudi
Elementary School of Dikaia
River Ardas in Greece is an area of outstanding natural beauty and used as a
recreation area. Each year the area is visited by people of all ages. Children visit
the place either with their school or with their parents. It is important to study
their views about the river as a recreation area. The children asked were pupils of
the elementary schools of the region. All of these children had visited the area
before. The majority of the children declare satisfied from their visit in the area
and assess the landscape positively. However, most of them have a less positive
view about the provided recreation services. Through the use of hierarchical
loglinear analysis it becomes clear that pupils who declare from totally to very
satisfied regarding their visit in the recreation area of Ardas also find that the
provided recreation services range from very good to good. The same pupils also
believe that that the river constitutes from very small to fair danger to their safety
and visit the place more than five times a year. In addition, the pupils who visit
the area more than five times a year think that the river constitutes from very
small to fair danger to their safety. Most of the pupils think that the diversity of
plants ranges from big to very big while the diversity of animals ranges from
small to very small. There is a need for improved infrastructure in the area, e.g.
observatories, so that pupils can discover the wild animals that live there. The
love of the children for animals becomes obvious from the fact that they do not
wish the prohibition of pets in the place. Most of the pupils like the idea of
camping in the area with their parents but the idea of doing so with their fellow
pupils is even more popular. The children think that their parents would find it
easier to grant permission to them to camp in the area if they themselves
accompanied their children and not if their children did so together with their
© University of the Aegean. Print ISSN: 1790-8418, Online ISSN: 1792-6521
99
Evangelos Manolas, Stylianos Tampakis, Stergios Gkaintatzis & Soultana MavridouMavroudi
fellow pupils. Through the test of independence it becomes obvious that the will of
the children to camp in the area depends on the will of their parents.
Keywords:
river Ardas, recreation, elementary school pupils
JEL Classification: L83, M1, O1
INTRODUCTION
River Ardas (290 km) is located in the Balkans in SE Europe. River
Ardas is tributary to the River Evros. River Ardas springs from Bulgaria,
from the Koula mountains, and runs through the northern section of the
Prefecture of Evros, Greece, for 36 km in a W-E direction. River Ardas
joins River Evros at the area of the Kastanies village in NE Evros and
then enters Turkey. Its name in ancient times was Arpissos or Artiskos.
River Ardas is very important to the people who live in the nearby
town of Orestiada but also the inhabitants of the surrounding area. The
river is economically important for its water resources and many other
services associated with it. One could mention the fact that the river
irrigates an area of 200,000 ha in the Prefecture of Evros but also
activities such as fishing, hunting, sport, recreation and generally
everything that could be characterized as recreation.
River Ardas and its surrounding area is an area of outstanding natural
beauty. Of particular beauty is the part of that area which has been
developed by the Municipality of Vissa as a recreation area. Elementary
or high school students visit the area through daily school excursions or
with their parents in their free time. In the management of a recreation
area the final goal is the enjoyment of those who use it (Douglass, 2000).
The elimination of whatever problems exist in the area will have to be a
priority for all those who are interested for the development of that area
(Karanikola & Tampakis, 2006). The investigation, therefore, of the view
of pupils for the recreation area of river Ardas on problems which,
according to them, would need to be solved, is a prerequisite for the
success of any effort by the responsible authorities for the development of
the area.
In particular, we are interested in studying the frequency of visits of
the children in the area either with their family or their school, how they
evaluate the landscape (natural beauty of the area), the diversity of wild
animals and plants of the area, the provided recreation services as well the
extent to which they perceive the river as danger to their safety. In
addition, the pupils were asked if they threw garbage outside the rubbish
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bins and if they would like pets to be allowed in the area. Also, in order to
investigate the extent to which the children feel close to nature, the
children were asked if they would like to camp in the area (even for one
night) either with their family or with their fellow pupils and if their
parents would like to accompany them or allow them to camp in the area
together with their fellow pupils.
RESEARCH METHOD
The research was carried out in November 2008 through the use of
self-management questionnaires. In the research participated the total of
the pupils of the 5th and 6th grade (11 and 12 years old) of primary
education schools in the region of Northern Evros. Although the research
was about the problems of the recreation area of river Ardas, nevertheless,
the questionnaires were completed in the classrooms. The reason we
chose to do so was the fact that it would have been difficult for the pupils
to complete the questionnaire if this was done in the actual area around
the river, during their excursion, but also the fact that their concentration
would have been greater if they completed the questionnaire in their
classrooms rather than in area of the river.
The total of the pupils asked were 444, all of whom were present in
the classroom the day the questionnaire was distributed. From those 444
pupils, two declared that they had not visited the area and for this reason
they were not included in the research. So, the population under research
was 442 pupils, 50.9% of whom were enrolled in the 5th grade and 49.1%
in the 6th grade. From those pupils 51.1% were boys and 48.9% were
girls.
For the variables “degree of satisfaction” and “services provided”,
“danger to safety” and “frequency of visit”, frequency analysis was
carried out for more than two criteria. In particular, loglinear analysis was
used.
Prior to carrying out loglinear analysis, it was decided to examine the
expected frequencies in the contingency table (Siardos, 1999). A large
number of expected frequencies (more than 20%) of less than 5 but not
lower than 1, possibly leads to a loss in the effectiveness of the applied
analysis (Tabachick & Fidell, 1989). This examination is carried out
through control of bivariate contingency tables (Norusis, 1994; Frangos,
2004). Classes were grouped together in order to satisfy the above
criteria.
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Our data are classified in accordance with 4 criteria and expressed in
terms of frequencies. The null hypothesis, Ho, is that the 4 criteria are
fully independent from each other.
It is unlikely that this assumption will be accepted, but the analysis
will give information on the strength of various interrelations and this will
be included in a model that expresses the interrelations between the data
(Frangos, 2004).
In order to estimate the degree of correspondence between the model
and the data, statistical tests of optimum adjustment were used. Statistical
significance shows that the model under examination does not reflect
accurately the observed frequencies, while statistical non-significance
means that the model under examination is adjusted to the observed
frequencies. The statistical test used is the test Χ2 (Howitt & Gramer,
2003).
Finally, in order to interpret the model of optimum adjustment, we
present the data in the form of one or two – dimensional tables (Howitt &
Gramer, 2003).
Also, in all the possible pairs of variables “camping with the family”,
“participation of parents in camping”, “camping with fellow pupils” and
“by the permission of parents” the test of independence was applied.
The assumption of independence refers to the independence of two
features while the criterion used is Χ2 (Mendenhall, 1979; Kiohos, 1993;
Steel, Torrie & Dickey, 1997; Makrakis, 1997; Pagano & Gauvreau,
2000; Retiniotis, 2004). In the test of independence of features the null
hypothesis which is tested is “Ho: there is no difference between the
variables”.
In order for the test of independence to be credible the expected
frequencies should not be smaller than 1, while those which are smaller
than 5 should not exceed 20% of the total (Koliva-Machaira & MporaSenta, 1995; Gnardellis, 2003; Siomkos & Vasilikopoulou, 2005).
The statistical test Χ2 is based on the comparison between expected
and observed frequencies and is carried out via the Crosstabs procedure of
the statistical program SPSS (Apostolakis & Kastania, 1994; Howitt and
Gramer, 2003; Frangos, 2004). The sampling distribution of the quantity
Χ2 (under the condition that the two variables are independent) is
approached by the distribution Χ2 with ν=(r-1)(k-1) degrees of freedom
(Kiohos, 1993; Gnardellis, 2006).
However, neither the measurement of intensity nor the determination
of the nature of the (probable) relation between the variables result from
the statistical Χ2 (its value depends on the size of the sample) (Tsantas,
Moisiadis, Bagiatis & Chatzipantelis, 1999). In categorical variables
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meaningful measures are only the intensity and measures which are based
on the statistical Χ2, and in particular the phi coefficient, Gramer’s V
coefficient and the correlation coefficient (Tsantas, Moisiadis, Bagiatis &
Chatzipantelis, 1999; Retiniotis, 2004). The phi coefficient also examines
the direction between the variables (Siomkos & Vasilikopoulou, 2005).
The SPSS statistical package was used to analyze the data.
RESULTS
River Ardas and its surrounding area is an area of outstanding natural
beauty but most people like to visit a section of the river which has been
shaped as a recreation area by the local authorities, i.e. the Municipality
of Vissa. 51.1% of the pupils with their families visit the area from 1 to 5
times a year, 22.9% from 6 to 10 times, 14.5% from 11 to 20 times, 6.1%
more than 20 times a year, while 5.4% say they have never visited the
area with their family. In a similar question regarding visiting the area
with the school, 83.9% say they visit the area once a year, 13.1% more
than once, while 2.9% has never visited the area. This means that the
schools of the area visit the place at least once a year. So, visits of the area
by pupils are as follows: 45.5% of the pupils visit the area from 1 to 5
times a year, 25.6% from 6 to 10 times, 17.9% from 11 to 20 times while
11.1% more than 20 times a year.
The majority of the pupils are satisfied from their visits in the area.
28.1% declare that they are totally satisfied, 34.8% very satisfied and
27.6% satisfied. A little satisfied are 7.2% of the pupils, not at all satisfied
0.7% while 1.6% of the pupils did not answer the question. Therefore,
river Ardas and its surrounding area, both at family and school level, is a
popular destination.
Regarding evaluation of the landscape (the natural beauty of the area)
the opinions of the pupils are the following: 59.3% think it is very good,
27.6% good, 11.5% fair, 0.2% bad and 0.7% very bad. 0.7% of the pupils
did not answer the question.
The visitors in a recreation area require of that area to be wellorganized and have the proper facilities. We see, therefore, that the
provided recreation services in the area can be the subject for great
improvement (Chatzistathis & Ispikoudis, 1995). Regarding the
evaluation of the recreation services provided, 14.9% of the pupils think
they are very good, 38.2% good, 30.8% fair, 13.6% bad and 1.8% very
bad. 0.7% of the pupils did not answer the question. Generally, visitors
hold similar opinions. In a similar research regarding visitors of Ardas,
3.4% think they are very good, 36.4% good, 42.7% fair, 14% bad, 3.2%
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very bad while 0.3% of the visitors did not answer the question
(Tampakis, Karanikola, Tsantopoulos & Tomadakis, 2005).
Regarding evaluation of the diversity of species in and around river
Ardas, the pupils think that that of plants is large, whereas the diversity of
wild animals, is quite restricted. In particular, regarding the diversity of
plant species 18.8% of the pupils think is very large, 34.8% large, 30.5%
fair, 9% small, and 5.4% very small while 1.4% of the pupils did not
answer the question. Regarding the diversity of wild animal species
20.6% of the pupils think it is very small, 30.3% small, 39.1% fair, 5.9%
big and 2.5% very big, while 1.6% of the pupils did not answer the
question.
The love for animals is also evident from the fact that 59.5% of the
pupils do not seem to be disturbed by the presence of animals, e.g. dogs,
etc. while, at the same time, they think that animals should be allowed in
the area. 29% of the pupils declare that animals should not be allowed in
the area while 11.5% did not know how to answer the question. In a
similar research project regarding the area of river Ardas, 48.4% of the
visitors think that animals should be allowed in the area, 21.5% that
animals should not be allowed while 30.1% did not know the answer
(Tampakis, Karanikola, Tsantopoulos & Tomadakis, 2005). However,
irrespective of the above views, in areas in which children play or in areas
visited by children, for reasons of health, animals should not be allowed.
Although the river’s water constitutes for this particular recreation
area a comparative development advantage, a large percentage of pupils
think that the water constitutes a danger both to their own safety and the
safety of other children. In particular, 26.9% think this is a great danger,
25.1% fair, 17.6% very big, 16.1% small, and 14% very small, while
0.2% of the pupils did not answer the question.
Prior to the application of loglinear analysis, we examined the
crossing table (Table 1) and observed that all expected frequencies are
bigger than 5, and hence, there is no problem with low expected
frequencies. We further observed that there is a disparity between the
observed and the expected frequencies. This indicates that the assumption
of the full independence of these four criteria is incorrect.
Applying hierarchical loglinear analysis, after the removal of the
correlation term of fourth and third class, it was established that the most
appropriate model was the one which includes the impact and the
interaction of the variables divided by two. We have interaction per 4 and
3 criteria, because the Χ2 for the Pearson test is 4.482 with probability
(p)=0.723 and because the Χ2 likelihood ratio is 4.608 with probability
(p)=0.708. The above are confirmed by the “null” controls for the
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interaction of k terms and terms of higher degree, as well as the “null”
controls for the interaction of k terms (Norusis, 1994). As shown in table
2, there is no interaction per 4 criteria because the value of probability (p)
= 0.3509. In addition, there is no interaction per 3 criteria because the
value of probability (p) = 0.5704. However, there is interaction per 2
criteria because the probability (p) < 0.05. Indeed, in the four pairs of
variables “degree of satisfaction” – “services provided”, “degree of
satisfaction” – “danger to safety”, “degree of satisfaction” – “frequency of
visit” and “danger to safety” – “frequency of visit”, there is significant
statistical interaction.
Table 1. Cross-tabulation of the four variables
Degree of
satisfaction
Services
provided
Very good
- Good
Very small - Fair
Big - Very big
Total
Totally satisfied Very satisfied
Fair
- Ver bad
Very small - Fair
Big - Very big
Total
Very good
- Good
Very small - Fair
Big - Very big
Total
Satisfied - Not
at all satisfied
Fair
- Ver bad
Frequency of visit
Danger to safety
Very small - Fair
Big - Very big
Total
1-5 times > 5 times
Count
Expected Count
Count
Expected Count
Count
Expected Count
Count
Expected Count
Count
Expected Count
Count
Expected Count
Count
Expected Count
Count
Expected Count
Count
Expected Count
Count
Expected Count
Count
Expected Count
Count
Expected Count
31
41.4
34
23.6
65
65.0
22
26.1
19
14.9
41
41.0
14
15.0
18
17.0
32
32.0
19
22.2
39
35.8
58
58.0
76
65.6
27
37.4
103
103.0
46
41.9
20
24.1
66
66.0
15
14.0
15
16.0
30
30.0
17
13.8
19
22.2
36
36.0
Total
107
107.0
61
61.0
168
168.0
68
68.0
39
39.0
107
107.0
29
29.0
33
33.0
62
62.0
36
36.0
58
58.0
94
94.0
In order to interpret the interactions, we should first present all the
data in the form of four tables (Crosstabs). From table 3 we see that the
pupils who declare totally to very satisfied from their visit in the
recreation area of Ardas find the provided recreation services from very
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Evangelos Manolas, Stylianos Tampakis, Stergios Gkaintatzis & Soultana MavridouMavroudi
good to good. Those who declare satisfied to not at all satisfied evaluate
the provided services from fair to very bad.
Table 2. Nullity controls.
k
df
L.R. Χ2
Pearson Χ2
Probability
Iteration
0.3514
0.5767
0.0000
0.0000
0.870
3.796
85.915
143.849
0.3509
0.5792
0.0000
0.0000
3
4
2
0
0.0000
0.0000
0.5672
0.3514
57.934
82.120
2.925
0.870
0.0000
0.0000
0.5704
0.3509
0
0
0
0
Probability
Tests that k-way and higher order effects are zero.
4
3
2
1
1
5
11
15
0.869
3.813
71.830
116.186
Tests that k-way effects are zero
1
2
3
4
4
6
4
1
44.356
68.017
2.944
0.869
k: the number of effects being zero; df:degrees of freedom.
Table 3. Cross-tabulation of the “degree of satisfaction” and
“services provided” variables.
Degree of
satisfaction
Count
Totally satisfied
Expected Count
- Very satisfied
Residual
Count
Satisfied - Not at
Expected Count
all satisfied
Residual
Count
Total
Expected Count
Services provided
Very good
- Good
168
146.9
21.1
62
83.1
-21.1
230
230.0
Fair
- Ver bad
108
129.1
-21.1
94
72.9
21.1
202
202.0
Total
276
276.0
156
156.0
432
432.0
From table 4 we see that the pupils who declare totally to very
satisfied from their visit to river Ardas believe that regarding their safety
the river constitutes from a very small to moderate danger, while those
who declare from satisfied to not all satisfied they think that danger in the
river ranges from big to very big.
From table 5 we see that the pupils who declare from totally to very
satisfied from their visit to Ardas they visit the river more than five times
a year, while those who declare from satisfied to not at all satisfied visit
the area a few times a year (from one to five).
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Finally, from table 6 we see that the pupils who think that the river
constitutes from very small to moderate danger to their safety visit the
river more than five times a year, while those who think that the river
constitutes from big to very big danger to their safety visit the area from
one to five times a year.
When using the area 73.8% of the pupils declare that they do not
throw garbage outside of the rubbish bins. However, 18.1% say that they
do throw garbage outside the rubbish bins and 8.1% did not answer the
question.
69.5% of the pupils see positively the idea of camping in the area
with their parents even for one night. 24% of the pupils are against
camping in the area while 6.6% say they do not know how to answer the
question. Indeed, in a percentage of 45.5% say that their parents too
would like to camp with them, while 28.5% declares the opposite. 26% of
the pupils did not answer the question.
Table 4. Cross-tabulation of the “degree of satisfaction” and
“danger to safety” variables
Degree of
satisfaction
Count
Totally satisfied
Expected Count
- Very satisfied
Residual
Count
Satisfied - Not at
Expected Count
all satisfied
Residual
Count
Total
Expected Count
Danger to safety
Very small Fair
177
154.5
22.5
65
87.5
-22.5
242
242.0
Big Very big
100
122.5
-22.5
92
69.5
22.5
192
192.0
Total
277
277.0
157
157.0
434
434.0
Table 5. Cross-tabulation of the “degree of satisfaction” and
“frequency of visit” variables.
Degree of
satisfaction
Count
Totally satisfied
Expected Count
- Very satisfied
Residual
Count
Satisfied - Not at
Expected Count
all satisfied
Residual
Count
Total
Expected Count
Frequency of visit
1-5 times
107
126.5
-19.5
91
71.5
19.5
198
198.0
> 5 times
171
151.5
19.5
66
85.5
-19.5
237
237.0
Total
278
278.0
157
157.0
435
435.0
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Evangelos Manolas, Stylianos Tampakis, Stergios Gkaintatzis & Soultana MavridouMavroudi
Table 6. Cross-tabulation of the “danger to safety” and “frequency
of visit” variables.
Danger to safety
Count
Very small - Fair Expected Count
Residual
Count
Big - Very big Expected Count
Residual
Count
Total
Expected Count
Frequency of visit
1-5 times
88
111.2
-23.2
113
89.8
23.2
201
201.0
> 5 times
156
132.8
23.2
84
107.2
-23.2
240
240.0
Total
244
244.0
197
197.0
441
441.0
In a similar question regarding camping in the area, even for one
night, with their fellow-pupils, 88.9% says they would like to do so. 7.9%
of the pupils answer the question negatively while 3.2% does not know
the answer to that question. However, the pupils think that their parents
would be more negative on that issue. In particular, 34.4% of the pupils
believe that they will have the permission of their parents to do that,
37.1% believe they will not have the permission of their parents while
28.5% say that they do not know the reaction of their parents to that issue.
In the above variables the test of independence was applied. It is
important to note that before we applied the test of independence we
grouped the answers “No” and “I do not know”. Through the test of
independence we tested the null hypothesis: Ho: there is no difference
between the variables.
In order to save time we cite only the results for the variables for
which the null hypothesis is rejected. In particular, for the following
variables:
a) “camping with family” – “parents would like to camp”
b) “camping with family” – “camping with fellow pupils”
c) “parents would like to camp” – “parents would permit camping”
d) “camping with fellow pupils” – “parents would permit camping”
For the above pairs of variables we have zero cells (0.0%) with
expected frequency smaller than 5. So, the necessary hypothesis in order
to use Pearson’s Χ2 is satisfied.
For the first pair of variables the value of Pearson’s Χ2 is 16.173 with
1 degree of freedom while the correlation is statistically significant with
level of significance a < 0.005. This shows that there is a strong
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correlation between the variables “camping with family” and “parents
would like to camp”.
Also, we would have reached the same conclusion if we had used
Yates’ continuity correction (in tables 2X2). The value Χ2 with continuity
correction is 15.350 with 1 degree of freedom while the correlation is
statistically significant with level of significance a < 0.005. We are led to
the same conclusion by the value Χ2 of the likelihood ratio which is
16.523 with 1 degree of freedom while the correlation is statistically
significant with level of significance a < 0.005. This test is sometimes
used as an alternative to Pearson’s Χ2 while for larger samples it is
approximately the same (Tsantas, Moisiadis, Bagiatis & Chatzipantelis,
1999).
In addition, referring to the direction of the results, we see that the
pupils who declare that they desire to camp with their parents in the area
of Ardas also think that their parents would like to camp with them, while
the pupils who do not answer or answer negatively regarding the idea of
camping believe that their parents will answer negatively or that they do
not know their reaction.
Also, we are led to the same conclusion by the phi coefficient which
equals 0.191 (positive) with the correlation between the variables being
statistically significant (a < 0.005). Gramer’s V coefficient is 0.191 while
the correlation is statistically significant (a < 0.005). If one of the two
dimensions of the table is 2, the V coefficient is identical with the phi
coefficient (Retiniotis, 2004). The coefficient of contingency is 0.188
with the correlation between the variables being statistically significant (a
< 0.005).
For the second pair of variables the value of Pearson’s Χ2 is 24.454
with 1 degree of freedom while the correlation is statistically significant
with level of significance a < 0.005. This shows that there is a strong
correlation between the variables “camping with parents” and “camping
with fellow pupils”. We are led to the same conclusion by the value Χ2
with continuity correction which is 22.855 with 1 degree of freedom
while the correlation is statistically significant with level of significance a
< 0.005. We are also led to the same conclusion by the Χ2 value of the
likelihood ratio which is 22.354 with 1 degree of freedom while the
correlation is statistically significant with level of significance being a <
0.005.
Also, referring to the direction of the results, we see that the pupils
who declare that they want to camp with their parents in the area of Ardas
also declare that they want to do the same with their fellow pupils, while
the pupils who do not answer or answer negatively regarding camping
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Evangelos Manolas, Stylianos Tampakis, Stergios Gkaintatzis & Soultana MavridouMavroudi
with their parents do not answer or answer negatively regarding camping
with their fellow pupils.
We are also led to the above conclusion by the phi coefficient which
equals 0.235 (positive) with the correlation between the variables being
statistically significant (a < 0.005). Gramer’s V coefficient also gets the
same value while the coefficient of contingency is 0.229 and the
correlation between the variables is statistically significant (a < 0.005).
For the third pair of variables the value of Pearson’s Χ2 is 12.925
with 1 degree of freedom while the correlation is statistically significant
with level of significance a < 0.005. This shows that there is a strong
correlation between the variables “parents would like to camp” and
“parents would permit camping”. Also, we are led to the same conclusion
by 1) the value Χ2 with continuity correction 12.212 with 1 degree of
freedom and statistically significant correlation with level of significance
a < 0.005 and 2) the value Χ2 of the likelihood ratio which is 12.929 with
1 degree of freedom and statistically significant correlation with level of
significance a < 0.005.
Although referring to the direction of results we see that the pupils
who believe that their parents would like to camp with them in Ardas also
believe that their parents would allow them to camp in the area of the
river with their fellow pupils. This is in contradiction with the pupils
where a negative or no answer in the first variable leads to a negative or
no answer in the second variable.
Also, we are led to the same conclusion by the phi coefficient which
is equal to 0.171 (positive) while the correlation between the variables is
statistically significant (a < 0.005). In addition, the Gramer V coefficient
gets the same value while the coefficient of contingency is 0.169 and the
correlation between the variables is statistically significant (a < 0.005).
For the fourth pair of variables the value of Pearson’s Χ2 is 9.871
with 1 degree of freedom while the correlation is statistically significant
with level of significance a < 0.005. This shows that there is a strong
correlation between the variables “camping with fellow pupils” and
“parents would allow camping with fellow students”. Also, we are led to
the same conclusion by 1) the value Χ2 with continuity correction 8.895
with 1 degree of freedom and statistically significant correlation with
level of significance a < 0.005 and 2) the value Χ2 of the likelihood ratio
which is 11.235 with 1 degree of freedom and statistically significant
correlation with level of significance a < 0.005.
Also, referring to the direction of the results we see that the students
who declare that that they wish to camp with their fellow pupils in the
river Ardas also believe that their parents would allow them to do so,
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while the pupils who do not answer or answer negatively regarding the
idea of camping with their fellow pupils also believe that their parents
would not allow them to do so or they do not know if their parents would
give them such permission.
Also, we are led to the same conclusion by the phi coefficient which
is equal to 0.149 (positive) while the correlation between the variables is
statistically significant (a < 0.005). In addition, the Gramer V coefficient
gets the same value while the coefficient of contingency is 0.148 and the
correlation between the variables is statistically significant (a < 0.005).
DISCUSSION – CONCLUSIONS
The recreation area of Ardas is a popular destination for family and
school excursions. The children can entertain themselves and get to know
the natural environment in the area. Pupils from the fifth and sixth grade
of the primary schools of the area, almost in their entirety, have visited
the area, and to a great degree declare satisfied from their visit and
evaluate the place positively. However, the pupils are not as positive
about the recreation services provided which shows that these services
need to be improved.
The majority of the pupils believe that the diversity of plants ranges
from big to very big, while the diversity of wild animals ranges from
small to very small. The opinion pupils have regarding the diversity of
animals in the area may be improved either by teaching the children
methods by which animals are approached and observed or by
constructing the appropriate infrastructure, e.g. building an observatory
for observing birds from a distance, creating the appropriate facilities for
observing fish in the water, etc. Such facilities are important if the
recreation area of the river Ardas is to be improved.
Children love animals. Indeed, the majority of pupils does not wish
the prohibition of animals in the area, e.g. dogs, etc. Whatever
improvements may occur in the area of river Ardas should take into
account both the sensitivity of the children but also the rules for hygiene
and safety which are dictated for areas which constitute a playground for
children. One solution would be to divide the place in areas where
animals would be allowed and where animals would not be allowed.
The existence of water is an important factor for the development of
any recreation area. The river, therefore, is the reason parents and children
visit the area. Most of the time the quantity of water in the river is quite
limited which means that it does not really constitute a real danger to
children. The truth is that as a result of their effort to protect their children
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parents exaggerate in their behavior and pass the message that the river is
dangerous to small children. Teachers during daily excursions also
prohibit the children to get near to the river but such behavior can be
excused because of the great responsibility they have towards children but
also because of the large number of pupils under their supervision.
Building a low wooden fence at the river bank would strengthen the sense
of safety of the pupils as well as the image of the river as an organized
recreation area.
Through the application of loglinear analysis we found that in four
pairs of variables there is significant statistical interaction. We see that the
pupils who declare from totally to very satisfied from their visit in the
recreation area of Ardas find the provided recreation services from very
good to good, believe that the river constitutes from very small to fair
danger to their safety and visit the river more than five times per year.
Indeed, the pupils who visit the area more than five times per year believe
that the river constitutes from very small to fair danger to their safety.
Therefore, by improving the provided recreation services and
strengthening the sense of safety in the area the result will be increased
satisfaction and more visits in the area.
A small percentage of pupils say that they throw garbage outside the
rubbish bins provided. Such negative behavior by the pupils could be
explained by the fact that during an excursion pupils are usually less
disciplined but also by the fact that there is no sufficient number of
rubbish bins. However, this behavior by the children does not seem to be
related to the area but seems a daily habit. We should mention that at the
end of a school excursion the teachers organize the cleaning of the place
getting all pupils to clean the area. A better idea would be for teachers to
care for the cleaning of the area at all times during the excursion and not
only at the end of the excursion. One of the goals of such excursions is
the training of pupils in appropriate behaviors.
Daily excursions offer pupils many stimuli but spending the night
and camping in the area, either with their family or their school is a great
experience which will never be forgotten. Most of the pupils (69.5%) see
positively the idea of camping with their family in the area (even for one
night) and believe that their parents would approve such an idea (45.5%).
The idea of camping in the area with their fellow pupils is more popular
among pupils (88.9%), but they think that it would be more difficult for
their parents to approve such an idea as only 37.1% of the pupils believe
that their parents would do so.
Camp is a great place for children to escape their everyday life and
find adventure and excitement, all while enjoying the natural world
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around them. A camp setting offers the opportunity to try new activities
that might not otherwise be available, e.g. sing silly songs around a camp
fire, hike beautiful foot trails, go on scavenger hunts, and create arts and
crafts projects. Children often shine at camp, as they are enveloped in a
non-competitive and creative atmosphere. This allows them to express
themselves through collecting, digging and exploring, or whatever way
they feel most comfortable. Camp is often regarded as an important
source of self discovery and personal inspiration.
Through the test of independence it becomes obvious that there is a
strong correlation among the four pairs of variables. In particular, we see
that a) the pupils who declare that they wish to camp with their family in
the area of Ardas also believe that their parents would like to camp with
them, b) the pupils who declare that they wish to camp with their family
in the area of Ardas also wish to camp there with their fellow pupils,
c) the pupils who believe that their parents would like to camp with them
in the area also believe that their parents would also allow them to camp
in the area with their fellow pupils and d) the pupils who declare that they
wish to camp in the area with their fellow pupils also believe that their
parents would allow them to do so. From the above it becomes obvious
that the will of the children to camp in the area of river Ardas depends on
the will of their parents. Camping in nature is also a means for bringing
children closer to it. Perhaps, we should encourage such efforts if we want
to decrease the fears children have for nature as well as make them realize
that they are part of nature.
REFERENCES
Apostolakis, I.A. & Kastania, A.N. (1994). Decision Making Using SPSS/PC+.
Thessaloniki, A. Stamoulis Publications.
Chatzistathis, A. & Ispikoudis, I. (1995). Protection of Nature and Landscape
Architecture, 2nd edition. Thessaloniki, Giapoulis Publications.
Douglass, R.W. (2000). Forest Recreation, 5th edition. Prospect Heights,
Waveland Press, Inc.
Frangos, C.K. (2004). Market Research Methodology and Data Analysis with the
Application of the Statistical Package SPSS for Windows. Athens,
Interbooks Publications.
Gnardellis, C. (2003). Applied Statistics. Athens, Papazisis Publications.
Gnardellis, C. (2006). Data Analysis Using SPSS 14.0 for Windows. Athens,
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Howitt, D. & Gramer, D. (2003). Statistics with SPSS 11 and Windows, Athens,
Klidarithmos.
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Evangelos Manolas, Stylianos Tampakis, Stergios Gkaintatzis & Soultana MavridouMavroudi
Karanikola, P. & Tampakis, S. (2006). The Recreation Area of River Ardas: An
Evaluation of Problems by Visitors. Geotechnika Epistimonika Themata,
Series VI, Vol. 17, Issue 2, pp.17-28.
Kiohos, P.A. (1993). Statistics. Athens, “Interbooks” Publications.
Koliva-Machaira, F. & Mpora-Senta, E. (1995). Statistics, Theory and
Applications. Thessaloniki, Zitis Publications.
Makrakis, V.G. (1997). Data Analysis in Scientific Research using SPSS. Athens,
Gutenberg Publications.
Mendenhall, W. (1979). Introduction to Probability and Statistics, 5th edition.
Massachusetts, Duxbury Press.
Norusis, M.J. (1994). SPSS Advanced Statistics 6.1. Chicago, SPSS Inc.
Pagano, M. & Gauvreau, K. (2000). Elements of Biostatistics. Athens, “Ellin”
Publications.
Retiniotis, S.N. (2004). Statistics: From Theory to Practice with SPSS 11.0.
Athens, New Technologies Publications.
Siardos, G. (1999). Multivariate Statistical Analysis. Issue A΄. Thessaloniki, Zitis
Press.
Siomkos, G.I. & Vasilikopoulou, A.I. (2005). Applying Analysis Methods in
Market Research. Athens, Stamoulis Publications.
Steel, R.G.D., Torrie J.H. & Dickey D.A. (1997). Principles and Procedures of
Statistics a Biometrical Approach, 3rd edtion. Boston, WCB/McGraw-Hill.
Tabachick, B.G. & Fidell, L.S. (1989). Using Multivariate Statistics, 2nd edition.
New York, Harper and Row.
Tampakis, S., Karanikola, P., Tsantopoulos, G. & Tomadakis, I. (2005).
Recreation in the Area of River Ardas: The Views of Visitors. Proceedings
of the 12th National Forestry Conference, 2-5 October 2005, Drama, Vol. I,
pp.247-258.
Tsantas, N., Moisiadis, C., Bagiatis, N. & Chatzipantelis, T. (1999). Data Analysis
using Statistical Packages. Thessaloniki, Zitis Publications.
SUBMITTED: AUGUST 2009
REVISION SUBMITTED: NOVEMBER 2009
ACCEPTED: DECEMBER 2009
REFEREED ANONYMOUSLY
Evangelos Manolas ([email protected]) is an Assistant Professor
at the Department of Forestry and Management of the Environment and
Natural Resources, Democritus University of Thrace, Orestiada, Greece.
Stylianos Tampakis ([email protected]) is Assistant Professor at
the Department of Forestry and Management of the Environment and
Natural Resources, Democritus University of Thrace, Orestiada, Greece.
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Stergios Gkaintatzis ([email protected]) is headmaster at the
Elementary School of Dikaia, Dikaia, Greece.
Soultana Mavridou-Mavroudi ([email protected]) is a teacher at the
Elementary School of Dikaia, Dikaia, Greece.
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UNDERSTANDING TOURISM DEVELOPMENT: A
REPRESENTATIONAL APPROACH
1
Elina Meliou
University of the Aegean
Leonidas Maroudas
University of the Aegean
The article investigates hotel employees and postgraduate students’
representations of “tourism development”, using social representations theory.
Data from a sample of eighty participants were collected on Chios Island, Greece.
To reveal social representations a word association procedure was applied
followed by a correspondence analysis. The analysis attempts to map the
meanings associated with “tourism development” and to pinpoint the links
between those meanings. Results highlight differences and similarities in the
representation of “tourism development” according to individuals’ social
membership, offering an interesting insight for employers and educators.
Keywords:
tourism development, social representations, word
associations, hotel employees, tourism education
JEL Classification: L83, M1, O1
INTRODUCTION
Throughout the world, tourism development is considered to have
significant social and economic impact and implications, encompassing
the links between people and institutions that are involved in this
development (Pearce and Butler, 1999). In literature, a lively discussion
exists on the development of tourism, its rapid and continuing growth, its
processes and consequences. However, little attention has been paid to the
meaning and symbolism of that development. According to Sharpley and
Talfer (2002) tourism development seems to be an “ambiguous concept”
both semantically and in terms of its means and objectives. Such an
ambiguity implies that “tourism development” does not have a universally
agreed definition (Gartner, 1996). In this sense, investigating how people
© University of the Aegean. Print ISSN: 1790-8418, Online ISSN: 1792-6521
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Elina Meliou & Leonidas Maroudas
make sense of “tourism development” especially those who are actively
involved with it, such as hotel employees and tourism students, is of
particular interest. In order to grasp a picture on meanings and beliefs of
hotel employees and tourism students and how those meanings are
applied in social reality, a socially oriented approach is required. The
study reported here describes the social representations of “tourism
development”.
The phenomenon of tourism has long been examined by various
writers and has been defined differently by different theoretical
disciplines. The importance and value of social representation theory in
tourism studies has been outlined in previous research (i.e Pearce,
Moscardo and Ross, 1996; Andriotis and Vaughan, 2003). According to
Pearce et al (1991) social representations can be used to understand how
different groups think about tourism and the results can be taken into
account in the tourism planning process. Thus, adopting a social
representation approach indicates that psychologists can contribute to a
better understanding of what tourism development really implies, by
providing a theoretical and interpretive framework to examine
individuals’ responses to tourism proposals.
In this article, questions central to the meaning and the social
construction of “tourism development” will be explored. In particular the
study focuses on mapping the representations of students aiming at a
given professional field and hotel employees, contributing to the dialogue
on social representation theory in tourism studies. Moreover, by
identifying similarities and differences the article aims to pinpoint the
relationship between representations and occupational status offering an
interesting insight for employers and educators. The cultural context of
the student milieu serves as a vehicle for representations favourable to a
more societal perspective of the world and condemns, though not always
explicitly, mechanistic discourses and worldviews. In other words,
educational discourse transmits not just knowledge, but also conceptions
of the world and of the place of human society in it (Korfiatis, Stamou
and Paraskevopoulos, 2004). In agreement with Christou (1999: 684)
“education allows individuals or groups to become controllers of change,
rather than victims of it”. Thus, it is hypothesised that students’
representations will not be primarily structured by an instrumental
dimension of tourism development. On the other hand, the cultural
context in which hotel employees move differs profoundly from the
students’ milieu. Their working environment and personal implication in
the tourism industry lead them to adopt a more individualistic dimension
of tourism development.
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The article starts by outlining the key points of social representation
theory. The second part presents the methodological principles and
procedure that leads to the empirical results. Finally, conclusions are
drawn which consider both the implications of the similarities and
differences between hotel employees and students. In depth understanding
of the lay discourse on “tourism development” sheds light on the
construction of a worldview of the study populations, helping educators
and employers to identify real concerns and issues.
THEORY OF SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS
Drawing on the work of Serge Moscovici (1963), social
representations are built on shared knowledge and understanding of
common reality. Social representation theory developed for the study of
lay knowledge (Moscovici, 1961), addresses issues which are also of
concern to other theoretical framework and research traditions, such as
culture, common sense and shared cognition. But the theory is especially
relevant for understanding new societal events in rapid change (Lahlou,
1996). Tourism development appears to be an interesting topic for the
attention of a social representations framework.
The key point is that social representations constitute collective
systems of meaning which may be expressed, or whose effects may be
observed in values, ideas and practises (Duveen and Lloyd, 1993). Social
representation theory specialised on a crossroads, at the articulation
between individuals and social, and between symbolic and real
(Moscovici, 1982). They are embodied in habitual behaviour, in formal
and informal communication, allowing us to construct a framework of
references that facilitates our interpretations of reality and guides our
relations to the world around us. In other words, social representations are
products of interconnectedness between people and processes of
references through which we conceive the world (Deaux and Philogène,
2001).
In agreement with Doise, Clémence and Lorenzi-Cioldi (1993) social
representations are organising principles of symbolic relationships
between individuals and groups. Thus, as it is described by Deaux and
Philogène (2001) a first assumption on which this definition is grounded
is that various members of a population under study share common views
about a given social issue. However, social representation theory implies
that variations of these meanings depend upon group memberships held
by individuals, as they are anchored in other collective symbolic realities.
The view which group members maintain about a social object is specific
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Elina Meliou & Leonidas Maroudas
for the group and, hence, the object itself takes on group specific social
characteristics. Talk and overt action provide the frame of description of
these characteristics. Images, and verbal metaphors, as they are used in
everyday life, are the basic means for understanding and grasping of the
world (Bauer and Gaskel, 1999). As a consequence, social representation
theory is a “constructivist as well as a discursively oriented approach”
(Wagner et al, 1992: 96). In order to understand tourism development the
current study adopts the word association method. Exploring social
representations and how and why these may differ when we locate social
actors by taking into account their social positioning, offers an
understanding for the development of better educational and managerial
approaches.
WORD ASSOCIATIONS
To elicit social representations of hotel employees and tourism
students, linguistic material, such as the free associations of words
method, was used. This technique is considered to minimise the
researcher bias typically created by closed questionnaires, as the answers
produced are unfiltered and spontaneous. It is based on the assumption
that giving a stimulus word and asking the respondent to freely associate
what ideas come to his or her mind gives relatively unrestricted access to
mental representations of the stimulus term (Wagner, Valencia and
Elejabarrieta, 1996; Hirsh and Tree, 2001; Hovardas and Korfiatis, 2004).
The resulting free associations data has the benefit that it can be relatively
easy formalised and utilised in a wide range of ways. Free association
tasks have frequently been used for the study of social representations and
it is also considered to be a very useful technique to use at the beginning
of an empirical research on social representations (De Rosa, 198). By
viewing tourism development in the context of other reference points, it is
possible to see likely anchors and frames people used to make and thus
understand the reality of the social actor.
METHODOLOGY
Participants
Data were collected on the island of Chios, located in the North
Aegean Sea, Greece. A random sample of tourism personnel, who
interact in their workplace with tourists, selected from a list of medium
and large-sized hotel in Chios was chosen. Also, students mainly on a
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postgraduate course on tourism management participated in the study. A
convenience sample of eighty participants completed the survey.
Respondents aged from 20 to 57 years old with females making up 68%
of the sample. 45% of students reported having work experience in the
hospitality industry and 47% of hotel employees had been educated in
tourism management. Taking that into account and in accordance with the
theory of social representations, respondents were divided in four more or
less equally balanced groups for further analysis, according to their
education and work experience, the general hypothesis being that shared
social insertions lead to specific interactions that modulate social
representations. Thus, group 1 consists of students who have work
experience (45%), group 2 refers to students with no work experience
(55%), group 3 consists of educated hotel employees (47%) and finally
53% of the hotel employees had no education (group 4).
Procedure
To elicit free associations, hotel employees, contacted in their
workplace, were invited to participate in the study and to complete a word
association task anonymously, after the agreement of the hotel manager.
Students’ responses were collected as a classroom exercise. The survey
was run during November 2008. Each participant was asked to provide
the first five thoughts or images coming to his/her mind when thinking
about “tourism development”. To secure as many responses as possible,
instructions and the survey were kept short.
Data analysis
Respondents’ associations generated by this technique took the form
of either single word responses or short statements. Before running the
statistical analysis, the responses were slightly simplified. The
associations freely provided by participants were reduced to synonyms.
Lengthy associations were reduced to their keywords. Also to have a
more manageable number of associations, data were further coding
keeping the most frequently and all-encompassing associated words,
providing thematic categories.
To map the representational filed of the respondents, a data-base with
the associations obtained was built. An analysis for each group and the
stimulus world “tourism development” provided the frequencies of word
associations. Pearson’s x2 was performed in order to examine the
existence of a relation between groups and the associations (x2= 68,026,
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Elina Meliou & Leonidas Maroudas
p<0, 0001, level of significance 0, 05). The relation was afterwards
visualized using Correspondence Analysis. The technique aims to convert
a table of numbers into a plot of points, usually on two dimensions. The
proximity between a pair of points is used to interpret the underlying
relationship between the points. For instance, the closely aligned points
reveal a strong relationship (Chen, 2001). Reading such a data table
provides information on the relations between individual’s group
membership and their responses to the stimulus word “tourism
development”. In this case, CORA
“not only detects a link between various social representations
components but also sheds light on the relationship between these
representational components and individual integration into groups”
(Doise, Clemence and Lorenzi-Cioldi, 1993:113).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Frequencies of appearance of associations to the stimulus word
“tourism development” provided by each group are presented in table 1.
Table 1. Top 10 respondents’ free associations
Association “tourism development”
G1
G2
G3
G4
1
accommodation
6
20
11
10
2
transportation
1
4
8
8
3
service behaviour
5
10
26
17
4
environment
14
18
5
10
5
emotion
21
3
13
11
6
needs managing
7
6
9
6
7
money
10
18
12
14
8
authorities
11
5
6
3
9
advertising
1
5
1
0
1
6
1
0
10 cultural activities
Results show that “tourism development” is not only represented in
material and economic terms but rather that the concept has important
cultural, moral and political dimensions for participants.
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Tourism development was anchored in images of accommodation
and transportation, indicating a material dimension of the concept.
However, one may think, that this instrumental aspect of the term also
reflects a local problem fro residents of Chios about the future of tourism
in the area. Chios is not one of the most popular destinations, compared
to other Greek islands. Thus, the development of infrastructures and
facilities appears to be of great importance for the locals and a priority
closely linked to tourism planning.
Moreover, “money” was amongst the most important issues,
indicating the significance that participants attribute to the economic
impacts of tourism. The contribution of tourism development to the
economic growth of a country or region is outlined in several studies (i.e
Sinclair 1998; Coccosis and Tsartas, 2001; Chi-ok-oh, 2003). Important
economic benefits are derived from tourism development. In this sense,
tourism represents for participants a source of regional and personal
development.
The association “authorities”, including national and local, implies
the role and actions of the state and underlines the need for improving
policy and planning (i.e. authorities should act, female respondent, 25
years old). Participants attribute an important role to government, which
has a central-planning and co-ordinating responsibility in encouraging
input from industry representatives and the general public. In this sense
the association “authorities” is counter to a framework of beliefs and
expectations of how things ought to be. Hence tourism development is a
political issue symbolising a broad range of societal concerns.
The concept also evoked emotive associations not only directed
mentioned as “emotions” but equally in respondent’s description of the
meanings of their association such as hope, joy (male respondent, 27
years old). Here it is evident that the concept has also an affective
dimension for participants, who represent tourism development in a set of
values. However, respondents were able to see that tourism development
“needs managing” indicating the lacking of adequate management
measures. In this sense the process of development is associated with
managed changes that create conditions for the improvement of those
concerned with such development (Zhenhua-Liu, 2003).
Additionally, participants outline the importance of environment
which needs to evolve through effective planning. Tourism development
has an ecological dimension, in the way that it interacts with and impacts
upon environment (May, 1991). Problems arise when tourism
development does not take environment into consideration. Maintain the
quality of the environment has been a crucial issue for tourism policy in
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Elina Meliou & Leonidas Maroudas
Greece since the 1990s, which has led to the effort to promote practices
aiming at sustainable tourism development (Andriotis, 2001; Tsartas
2003). “Environment” reflects this ecological aspect of tourism
development and in a more accurate way it may be seen as a way of
expressing ideals, associated with health and freedom. In this sense, the
concept implies a human-nature relationship and has a moral dimension
for participants.
An opposition is found between a more materialistic view of tourism
development, on the one hand, and “service behaviour”, on the other,
which indicates the human aspect of tourism development. This implies
that participants see themselves as potential actors, involved in the
process of development. Lastly, respondents’ answers had references to
the objectives (cultural activities, sustainability) and the means
(advertising) of achieving development, signifying that participants are
aware of critical factors and issues at stake in the development of tourism.
In summary “tourism development” besides being associated to
instrumental values, it was also associated to other items designating
intrinsic values, which are not less trivial. Interestingly enough, with the
exception of a few, no negative associations seem to appear in the content
of tourism development representation. According to Tsartas (2003)
views about tourism differ among residents of islands where tourism has
already been developed such as Myconos, Santorini or Corfu and among
residents of islands in the initial stages of tourism, where more positive
views towards tourism development are registered. As mentioned earlier,
Chios is not one of the most popular destinations for tourists, compared to
other Greek islands. In this sense “development” is conceptualised in a
positive manner as it appears to be synonymous with progress.
The joint plot (figure 1) derived from the analysis highlights the
differences between participants’ positioning and the associations to
“tourism development”. Visual inspection shows clearly that the principal
axis of dimension one separates the words near to the top on the right
(cultural activities, advertising, sustainability) from “service behaviour”
and “transportation” on the left. The cluster consisting of “transportation”
and “service behaviour” is associated with both groups of hotel
employees, who seem to have several commonalities. Tourism
development is represented as the reflection of the individual
preoccupation, indicating nonetheless a social-relational aspect (service
behaviour). Hotel employees are the intermediaries between tourists and
places (Ryan, 2002). Their representations are lead primarily by their
professional practices and goals, rather than by education. Slightly
statistical differences appear none the less, but there were not related to
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these associations. Hence, representations of group 3 and group 4 seem to
take into account many competing anchorings other than education. Close
to group 2 there is a strong clustering of associations centring around the
sociocultural and the environmental significance of “tourism
development”. These associations of current societal issues related to
tourism development show that participants of group 2 are highly
influenced by the educational context, as they associate tourism
development with current societal issues, underlying the importance of
alternative forms of tourism and adopting a more collective point of
view. The last group, consisting of students having working experience,
falls into the right-hand side of the axis. Individuals in group 1 are
concerned with the political dimension of the concept, of how things
ought to be. In this sense they distinguish themselves from others.
Figure 1. Biplot Tourism Development
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Elina Meliou & Leonidas Maroudas
CONCLUSIONS
The current study investigated hotel employees’ and tourism
students’ representations of “tourism development” using an associative
imagery task. The results show that hotel employees and tourism students
share a common representational field that moves from an economic
dimension to a more holistic approach of tourism development, taking in
a wider range of variables. Tourism development is not only associated
with economic growth but also has social, cultural, political and
ecological implications for respondents. Recognising the validity of these
perceptions of which ethical and moral dimensions are an integral part,
highlights the necessity of taking into account social values and practices
when planning.
However, differences appear among groups of participants as diverse
sets of responsibilities are established and shape which representation
people favour for their system of knowledge about tourism development
(Pearce and Mosacndo, 1999). Representations can never be neutral. They
are intertwined in a circuit of culture in which identity, meaning and
behaviour are constructed and continually produced (Buzinde, Santos and
Smith, 2006). In other words, professional practices and goals and
educational background influence the way individuals are located in
relation to the peripheral components of the representation of “tourism
development”. In an environment of increasing complexity (Tas, 1988),
as the tourism industry and specifically the hotel sector, individuals’
social insertion influence the way they see the world. Their concerns and
preoccupations should be taken into account in tourism policy and
planning.
Social representations are vectors of change (Deaux and Plilogène,
2001). Employers and educators could make a substantial contribution to
improving tourism and to projecting the future together, as business and
society are interwoven (Knowls et al, 1999). Education may provide the
framework for the enrichment of social representations of hotel
employees and tourism students, allowing “greater flexibility for the
individual or organisation to choose its own destiny and influence its
surrounding environment” (Christou, 1999: 684)”. Education and training
imparted to actual and potential actors of tourism development, such as
tourism students, can improve the understanding of tourists’ expectations
and thus contribute to a hospitable welcome (Ryan, 2002). Based on
participants’ concerns, emphasis should be given to programmes of soft
tourism development, focusing at the promotion of environmental
awareness and cultural sensitivity (Eccles and Costa, 1996). This implies
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also a change in the organisational culture, since successful development
doesn’t depend only on isolated training programmes. Educators should
motivate students to contribute to an improvement in industry practices
(Amoah and Baum, 1997).There are now a number of enterprises using
quality management standards and these standards are also related to the
management and protection of environment (Tsartas, 2003).
Successful tourism development is thus the outcome of a complete
appreciation of these perceptions and the way in which they are
incorporated in the development process. Policy makers should match the
preferences of actual and potential actors that are involved in the process
of development. Collaborative structures between policy makers,
educators, employers and local authorities should be created, allowing the
participation of representatives of different interests in the decisionmaking processes. If tourism development is handled appropriately
broader social goals can be achieved that contribute to the overall wellbeing of society.
Social representation theory appears therefore to be particularly
challenging and instrumental in the study of tourism. It offers an in depth
understanding of social thinking enabling privileged relationships to be
revealed. However, the study described here, is only a lexical projection
of social representations limited by the linguistic investigation method
and the small sample. In an attempt to offer some possible directions for
research, individuals’ common representational field as well as the
interrelation between individual differences (in terms of membership and
practices) should be the object of further study.
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SUBMITTED: SEPTEMBER 2009
REVISION SUBMITTED: DECEMBER 2009
ACCEPTED: JANUARY 2010
REFEREED ANONYMOUSLY
Elina Meliou ([email protected]) is a Lecturer of Organisational
Behaviour at the University of the Aegean, Department of Business
Administration, Chios, Greece
Leonidas Maroudas ([email protected]) is an Associate Professor of
Management at the University of the Aegean, Department of Business
Administration, Chios, Greece
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THE EVOLVING SERVICE CULTURE OF CUBAN
TOURISM: A CASE STUDY
1
Tony L. Henthorne
University of Nevada
Babu P. George
University of Southern Mississippi
Alvin J. Williams
University of South Alabama
The case examines the impressive growth of tourism in Cuba. It analyzes tourism
development in a society striving to navigate its way economically amid numerous
social and political challenges. The Cuban experiment with tourism is a shortterm mega success.
However, it is highly uncertain whether long-term
sustainability can be maintained without the appropriate managerial changes at
all levels. This paper highlights challenges in the tourism employment sector –
training, supervisory issues, and performance evaluation, within a centrallycontrolled bureaucratic system. Of specific interest is the disconnection between
the natural hospitability of the Cuban people and low levels of tourist satisfaction
stemming from a lack of professional hospitality. The paper concludes by focusing
on the high relevance of the Cuban cultural identity as a key motivator
undergirding the demand for tourism. However, with the rapid growth of tourism,
strains are occurring in the cultural realm, thus requiring immediate policy
intervention for sustained positive results.
Keywords: Tourism in Cuba, tourist satisfaction.
JEL Classification: L83, M1, O1
TOURISM IN CUBA
Cuba is poised to become the next big destination within the
Caribbean (WTO, 2007). Cuba’s first tourism zenith in the 1950s is wellknown, as is the industry’s collapse following the U.S. economic
embargo, initiated in the 1960s. The “new age” of Cuban international
tourism development dates to the mid-1970s, but gained new urgency as
© University of the Aegean. Print ISSN: 1790-8418, Online ISSN: 1792-6521
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Tony L. Henthorne, Babu P. George & Alvin J. Williams
the country entered the “Special Period” of economic near-collapse,
following the fall of the Soviet Union, in the late 1980s and early 1990s.
During the 1993-94 timeframe, policy-makers targeted tourism, the sugar
industry, and biotechnology the most promising in terms of long-range
economic development. Thus, being one of the select national economic
initiatives, Cuban tourism achieved considerable development support
during the 1990’s. By the mid 90’s, tourism surpassed the sugar industry
as the primal source of Cuba’s hard currency. Cuba travel and tourism
capital investment is estimated at CUP1,154.7 mn (US$1,154.7 mn),
which is 16.7% of total investment in 2007. By 2017, this should reach
CUP1,890.5 mn (US$1,890.5 mn), which accounts for 16.9% of total
investment (WTTC, 2007). Despite the prevailing difficulties, this sector
is the only one that exhibited an annual growth rate of nearly 20 %.
(Henthorne and Miller, 2003).
Figure 1. Map of Cuba
For the last three years, Cuba has consistently exceeded two million
visitors annually, with the overwhelming majority from Canada, U.K.,
Spain, Italy, Germany, France, and Mexico, in descending order (Cuban
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Portal of Tourism, 2007). The 20% growth rate in Cuban tourism far
exceeds the World Tourism Organization’s prediction of a 4-6 % increase
in international tourism, coupled with a 6% increase in average tourism
expenditures. For the year 2006, the average growth in international
tourism arrivals globally remained approximately 4.5% (WTO, 2007).
According to an estimate by WTTC (2007), Cuban tourism is expected to
generate CUP5,348.3 mn (US$5,348.3 mn) of economic activity in 2007,
growing in nominal terms to CUP9,525.2 mn (US$9,525.2 mn) by 2017.
With such a phenomenal growth record, the Cuban tourism industry has
assumed a pivotal position in the national economy.
However, the haste to expand Cuba’s international tourism industry
in the early years, spawned many mistakes, including sub-standard
construction, uncontrolled sex tourism, tumultuous relations with
international investment partners, and poorly trained service staffs
(Martín de Holán and Phillips, 1997). Power brokers, both legitimate and
illegitimate, took advantage of the chaos that ensued during this period of
unplanned and rapid growth. Economic changes with no corresponding
change in the political system reduced the overall efficacy of the reforms.
One example of the reduction in effectiveness due to the disconnect
between political and economic systems occurred in the political
bureaucracy. While the economic arena was progressing rapidly, the topdown-dominated vertical reporting system that characterized the political
institutions remained unchanged, thus stifling further economic
momentum. Cervino and Bonache (2005) make the following statements
regarding the Cuban government and tourism – “the state retains a
predominantly guiding role in economic production and this directly
affects the implementation of western style management processes and
systems. This limits many hotel managers in their efforts to reach
efficient and effective performance.” This phenomenon is clear when you
see how government planners rapidly expanded the number of hotel
rooms, but with relatively little attention to other, related, supporting
industries. This resulted in perceptions of less than stellar services and
lapses in customer satisfaction. By some estimates, this caused the
tourism industry in the early 1990s to have a multiplier effect of less than
one - the country lost money for every tourism dollar it collected. Since
the Cuban Ministry of Tourism (MINTUR) was not formed until 1994, it
had a minimal role in conceptualizing, planning, developing and
implementing a coherent tourism policy. Thus, tourism development was
largely fragmented and uncoordinated across a half-dozen national quasistate corporations.
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Meanwhile, externally, Cuba faced an increasingly competitive
market, both within the Caribbean region and globally. But, for the near
term, prospects for Cuba’s tourism growth remain almost robust. One
indicator of this robustness was the attraction of a record 65,280 tourists
in one day – Valentine’s Day 2006. This was a first in the history of
modern Cuban tourism, post 1959. Hotel capacity is another key indicator
of growth in the 1990s. By 2003, the country boasted hotel capacity of
40,000+ rooms, accounting for approximately US$20 million annual
earnings. Hotel earnings increased by 15 percent in 2004. The earnings
come not only from leisure tourism, but also from conventions,
conferences, and other events. For instance, according to the Cuban
Ministry of Tourism, Cuba organized more than 300 international events,
including a couple of mega-events, in 2006. However, such growth does
not necessarily translate into sustained industrial growth for the future or
overall economic development for the country.
GAINING EMPLOYMENT IN THE TOURISM INDUSTRY
At a typical Cuban restaurant, you could be shown to your table by a
civil engineer, your order taken by a computer programmer, and your
meal prepared by an attorney. Cuba's tourism industry represents one of
the best opportunities for citizens of all ages to gain some measure of
financial freedom. Tourism continues to account for a dominant source of
employment and foreign exchange earnings (Miller and Henthorne,
1997). The Cuban travel and tourism sector employment is estimated at
587,000 jobs in 2007, 11.2% of total employment, or 1 in every 8.9 jobs.
By 2017, this should total 715,000 jobs, 13.4% of total employment or 1
in every 7.5 jobs (WTTC, 2007).
The brain-drain from the traditional employment sectors to tourism
has invited considerable attention from a major cross-section of the Cuban
population. Many people are abandoning their jobs as engineers,
attorneys, medical and health care professionals, and teachers to work in
jobs that provide immediate dollars. The majority of Cubans, regardless
of their educational attainment, make fairly low wages, with employees in
the tourism sector earning only slightly more. However, tourist workers
have the added benefit of receiving gratuities, which can be substantial.
The rapid rise in tourism has attracted a diverse employee population,
enticed by the salaries and the lucrative opportunity for tips. The
unofficial earnings from gratuities explain why young Cuban
professionals choose to work in the tourism industry rather than their own
fields of study.
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Given the relative attractiveness of jobs in the Cuban tourism
industry, there is a tremendous supply-demand imbalance regarding
basic-level jobs as housekeepers, waiters, cooks, bartenders, hostesses, or
activity directors. However, securing one of these coveted positions is a
relatively onerous undertaking. Applicants looking to work in tourism
must first be accepted to a Formatur School for Tourism Education.
Founded in 1995, 18 Formatur Schools are dispersed across Cuba and
they provide extensive training programs for current and aspiring
employees in the ever-growing tourism industry. Concentrated in areas of
heavy tourism, the schools focus on the specific type of tourism
distinctive to a particular region. For example, the schools clustered
around Varadero primarily train students to work in resort properties
because of the prevalence of this type of tourist activity in this region.
Admittance to a Formatur School requires advance screening for
admission. The demand for certain types of hospitality and tourismrelated skill sets determine the number of students accepted into the
program (Wood and Jayewardene, 2003). If local hotels need 100
waitresses, for example, only 100 students are accepted. Applicants must
be high school graduates and not over age 35. In addition, the student
must live in the same locale as the school and the prospective place of
employment. An additional note that provides a contextual backdrop, is
that for the most part those accepted into Formatur Schools typically have
relatively good connections in the political system.
Regardless of their previous education (many applicants already have
degrees from a four-year university), generally, students attending a
Formatur School receive two years of intense training. The single
exception is a one-year training period for housekeeping positions. Thirty
percent of the training is devoted to theory, with the rest of the time being
spent on practical applications. Many students actually work in their
prospective positions, in internship-type roles, as part of their training.
While in training, students receive no compensation, other than tips.
During this period of close supervision, their performance in the various
work settings is reported to the school. It is not unusual for a student to be
asked to leave the program before completion because he or she has not
met the school's standards.
This employment process is somewhat inscrutable. The duration of
the training seems unduly long. Also, many hotels and restaurants are
slightly over-staffed. At hotels in Havana, for example, it is not unusual to
find four employees running a small snack bar in the lobby, and three or
four doormen are on duty at all times, day and night. This overstaffing
leads to an increase in the cost of doing business, at least from a western
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management perspective. Despite this lengthy training period and heavy
emphasis on staffing, service levels in Cuban hotels and restaurants would
not be considered responsive from the perspective of most foreign
tourists. There is a major gap between foreign tourist expectations and
the capacity of the current Cuban tourism infrastructure to deliver or
exceed expectations.
However, mediocre service is basically reflective of a poor
professional orientation as opposed to their lack of willingness to
perform. In recent advertisements, Cuban tourism authorities have begun
to highlight people and service providers as the true jewels of Cuban
tourism. They are projected as sincere, fun-loving, open-hearted and
willing to extend every courtesy to cater to tourists’ needs. In some
instances, tourist service-providers may develop personal accords with
tourists, even inviting visitors to their homes and offering traditional
island cuisine and rum. However, the situation would further improve if
the government ceased the practice of “tourism apartheid” upon its
citizens. For practical purposes, the government, so as to minimize the
negative impacts of tourism, keeps the population as separate as possible
from the tourists thereby minimizing the positive benefits associated with
these contacts as well. There are small signs that this form of tourism
apartheid may be abating. In fact, current Cuban leader Raul Castro has
moved in this direction by permitting Cuban citizens to stay in hotels as
long as they pay in the US dollars. This is a major break with past
government policy and a key step forward in making the Cuban people
feel more engaged in developing the tourism sector.
At least some types of jobs in Cuban tourism have come under severe
criticism. Some employees engage in selling sex and other socially
undesirable services to foreigners, with the expectation that the foreigners
will marry them and take them out of Cuba. The popular terminology for
this is jineterismo, literally meaning horseback riding. Jineterismo is
currently a hotly debated issue in Cuba and is most often seen as a
consequence of tourism. It is widely perceived to be antithetical to the
revolutionary narrative of global brotherhood and racial-socio equality.
However, sex tourism in Cuba preceded the Castro-led revolution. In the
early 1950’s, Cuba was notoriously known as the “brothel of the
Caribbean.” The Castro government wished to eliminate prostitution
tourism and the initiatives were largely successful—but only until the
breakdown of the Soviet block and the subsequent Cuban economic crisis.
The new hospitality and tourism education strategy released in 2003
aimed to correct the negative aspects associated with tourism and
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hospitality jobs from their roots and it has begun to show some positive
results.
Confederación de Trabajadores de Cuba
The majority of Cuban hotels and resorts are joint ventures with
foreign investors. Except for some upper management positions, the
majority of the hotel employees are Cubans. Almost all belong to one
confederation of unions, the government sanctioned Confederación de
Trabajadores de Cuba (CTC), which represents the 3 million union
members of Cuba who are organized in 19 national unions. Union
membership is encouraged, and every workplace is organized. The Cuban
Revolution occurred in 1960 but it is a living reality of the work-lives of
Cuban people. The Cuban union movement encompasses over 97 percent
of Cuba's workers. The CTC is controlled by the Cuban Communist
Party, which are also the managers of the enterprises that employ the
laborers. The head of the CTC is a member of the Communist Party's
political bureau, its highest body.
Views differ concerning the functions of the CTC. According to the
state, the working class is in power and runs Cuban society. Unions
advocate for the workers in a cooperative relationship with the socialist
government. In the sectors of Cuba where workers are employed in joint
ventures, the Cuban Ministry of Labor operates a special office – in some
ways similar to a union hiring hall – that provides labor for foreign
corporations. This practice, in effect, prevents companies from hiring
workers of their choice. If a problem develops with a worker, the
company must discuss it with the Cuban manager and the union. If the
worker needs training or replacement, he or she must return to the
Ministry of Labor office.
A recent report by the U.S. State Department presents another fresh
perspective. Foreign investors who engage in joint ventures with the
Cuban government find themselves carefully controlled. As noted,
investors must hire their workers through state agencies. The Cuban
government appropriates about 95 percent of the salaries of these workers
and pays them in domestic currency while charging the joint venture in
hard currency. It is the CTC's responsibility to ensure that government
production goals are met. The CTC does not act as a traditional trade
union, promoting worker rights or observance of labor law and it does not
protect the right to strike.
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Workers who attempt to engage in non-governmental union activities
face government harassment and persecution, even though the state
disclaims these practices in international forums. Workers have lost their
jobs for their political beliefs, including refusal to join the official union.
Although several small independent labor organizations have been
formed, they function without legal recognition and cannot represent
workers effectively.
Pax Christi International, a non-governmental peace movement, has
extensively studied Cuban labor practices in tourism and has in its report
vehemently criticized certain aspects of the same. There is a long list of
criticisms of Cuban labor practices. Some of the more egregious areas of
labor concerns include: (1) the lack of the right to choose the place of
employment, the nature of such employment, wages to be received for
said work; (2) no rights to select their own labor unions or to strike or to
ask for better working conditions or to criticize working conditions or
supervisors; (3) Cuban workers are prohibited from freely negotiating
wages.
Additionally, Cuban workers lack the right to open their own
businesses, must not employ more than four people (all of whom must be
relatives). Cuban workers must perform non-paid work and attend long
political rallies as directed by the Communist Party. Workers are
encouraged to spy on their neighbors and to report activity that is
perceived as counter to the Party’s directives. Pax Christi International
also notes that, the foreign companies that invested in Cuba, instead of
being a force against Cuba’s repressive policies, actively encourage
further human rights violations by their refusal to include codes of
conduct or best business practices which would protect the rights of their
Cuban employees (Source: Pax Christi Cuba Report-Tourism, 2000).
Government travel and tourism operating expenditures in Cuba in
2007 are expected to total CUP188.9 mn (US$188.9 mn) or 5.7% of total
government spending (WTTC, 2007). While this is a significant amount,
there is no conspicuous improvement in the material conditions of the
genuine stakeholders of tourism – the workers. Perceptible changes in
labor, social, and political policies impacting the tourism industry, would
necessarily have led to more efficient and effective outcomes in the
tourism sector and thus, the entire Cuban economy. The multiplier effect
of government changes would have sparked a more orderly and bettermanaged approach to the burgeoning tourism arena.
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TOURISTS’ PERSPECTIVES
In part because of U.S. government restrictions to travel, American
citizens typically do not think of Cuba as a viable vacation alternative.
Contrarily, the Cuban government welcomes U.S. citizens - even going as
far as to not stamp U.S. passports at immigration. Given the U.S. travel
constraints, the vast majority of Cuba's tourism comes from Europe,
Canada, and Latin America. It is obvious that the Cuban government is
going to great lengths to ensure that tourism continues to grow. The
question that has not been broached until recently is ‘how do the tourists
feel about their travel experiences in Cuba.’ One of the coauthors of this
case conducted a short survey on customer service while visiting the
country in the early 2000s. Potential survey participants were identified
and approached in the lobbies of various Cuban hotels (primarily in
Havana and Varadero). A total of 130 potential participants were
approached. This convenience sampling method resulted in 90 individuals
agreeing to answer questions regarding their tourist experiences in Cuba,
yielding an effective response rate of approximately 70 percent.
Respondents were asked to rate the service they received in
restaurants and hotels. The survey also asked questions about their travel
experience, their language skills, and where they stayed while in-country.
Additionally, respondents were asked to relate any other experiences they
had encountered while in the country. The majority of the surveys took
place in Havana. Seventy-five percent of those surveyed were visiting
Cuba for the first time. About 80% of those tourists were well-traveled.
Most of them had been to Europe, Latin America, and North America,
while 36% had also traveled to Asia, Africa, and other locations. Only
39% of those surveyed spoke Spanish and 94% of the Spanish-speaking
tourists felt like facility with the language enhanced the probability of
receiving much better service. About three-fourths of the tourists were
between the ages of twenty-five and fifty-five.
When asked to rate the quality of service received on a scale from 1
[poor] to 5 [excellent], those surveyed rated the overall quality of service
at 3 [moderate]. Interestingly, a large percentage of return visitors to
Cuba believed service had improved since their previous visit. Some
indicated that for the most part service was not fast, but at the same time
they had limited expectations in this third-world country. A male
respondent from Greece was surprised that Cuba was not more developed.
One female respondent stated that waiters and other restaurant workers
worked very hard and succeeded in providing her vegetarian dietary
requirements. This same respondent encountered problems locating
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Tony L. Henthorne, Babu P. George & Alvin J. Williams
information about tours and felt that the noise level (music volume) was
far too high, especially at night. Others voiced extreme displeasure about
food quality and service, thus leading them to rule out a return visit to
Havana. Some referred to the hotel and restaurant staff as being lazy and
indifferent. While others said that the help seemed "scared" or "shy"
which made them appear non-helpful—when in fact they may just be
confused. A man from the U.K. said that the "Cuban people have too deep
a sense of the importance of their own dignity to become good servicesector employees in much less than a generation." However, one tourist
observed that Havana employees seemed more motivated to provide
quality service, relative to service-providers in the more rural areas of the
country.
Still others enjoyed the city of Havana, their hotel and its people.
However, they perceived the city of Havana as dirty and crowded. One
respondent compared it to Harlem in the United States. An Italian
respondent stated that he and his wife could not wait to leave. Some were
shaken by the living conditions of the people in Havana. Others
experienced trouble because of the language barrier. For the most part,
tourists believed Cuba was learning about tourism and that the country
was trying hard to improve the tourism industry and infrastructure. Some
indicated that while the service was less than expected, the helpful and
pleasant attitudes of the Cuban people more than made up for some of the
other shortfalls.
Provided below is a summary of the perceptions expressed in the
customer satisfaction survey (in a scale from 1 [low] to 5 [high]):
Survey Question
The service I received here was provided with a
helpful, positive attitude
Generally speaking, service personnel anticipated
my needs
Overall Rating
4
3
Any requests I have are responded to in a timely
manner
3
Service personnel here really know how to do their
job
2
When I make a request, I am confident that it will
2
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be completed to my satisfaction
Service personnel do their jobs correctly.
2
The service personnel that I deal with will really try
to understand my particular situation and want to
4
help
This survey, although simple, generally implies that service
personnel, though wanting to be helpful, are not able to do so. This can
be partially explained by the lack of proper guest services training or the
absence of systems and procedures that support the service staff in
successfully executing their duties and responsibilities.
A vast majority of tourists visiting Cuba are package tourists. This is
a means to overcome the purported risks and uncertainties involved in
traveling through a communist country (Simon, 1995). But, many free
independent travelers who have experienced the joys of public transport
and the cuisines of small street side restaurants in Cuba would disagree
with this assessment. They believe the cushion of protection, technically
called ‘the environmental bubble’, provided by the tour operators to their
customers greatly minimizes the chances of authentic experiences. One of
the problems often confronted by independent travelers used to be was the
unpredictable service and lack of cleanliness of trains. To overcome this
challenge, Cuban tourism authorities initiated a national tourist
transportation agency, Viazul, which offers more professionally-managed
tourist-oriented services to the country's principal tourist destinations via
road and rail. Renting cars and drivers also represent a key means of
transport for independent travelers. The availability of these services
allow for more customized itineraries, including independent exploration.
One of the best things about Cuba is staying in what are known as
“Casas Particulares”, which is the vernacular for home stay. Tourists
experiencing this form of Cuban hospitality considered Casas Particulares
as one of the rare means through which one can come to know the true
spirit of Cuba and its people. These home stay experiences allow visitors
to learn and see the real Cuban culture that exists beneath socialist
ideologies and slogans.
Cuba is a paradox of experiences leading many visitors feeling as
though they have truly spent time in a place that is so markedly different
from anywhere else, from both positive and negative perspectives. This
perception is evident from a scan of the blogs posted by visitors to Cuba.
Given that Internet connections in Cuba are unreliable, slow, expensive,
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and highly censored, tourists generally post travel experiences only after
they return home.
MAINTAINING A UNIQUE CULTURAL IDENTITY
Though Cuban people have grown somewhat uneasy of living in the
past, they are extremely proud of their culture (Rundle, 2001). Thus, any
loss of its pure identity is to be attributed to the international market
pressure and the influence of a globalizing mass media. The Cuban state
has slowly begun to submit more power to the civil society by allowing
citizens to participate in the decision-making processes of the nation and
recognizing them as consumers of universal popular culture. However,
interestingly, people do not fully utilize the scope of freedom provided to
them. Contrary to popular belief, the Cuban people continue to favor their
system of governance and believe in the traditional ideals. They cleverly
weigh up which factors of their socialist structure are superfluous and
which factors must remain unaffected in order to maintain cohesion with
their cultural identity.
Even these days, Cuban art hangs in every public place as ever; and,
murals make the outsides of buildings come to life. Statues adorn public
parks immortalizing freedom fighters of the past. Cuban music permeates
through the streets of Old Havana. The market area is alive with local
citizens-turned-merchants attempting to capture their portion of
entrepreneurial success. A rhythm of contentment is somewhat evident as
Cubans greet visitors in passing. Cubans are warm, compassionate,
dignified, and immensely proud of their immediate and more long-term
cultural heritage. Cubans, the majority of which are fairly well-educated,
enjoy conversations with tourists and are eager to learn. The people are
the linchpin to the vibrancy and sustainability of the tourism industry in
Cuba. Long-term success is predicated on more effectively engaging the
Cuban people in a multi-dimensional approach to tourism. A ‘systems
view’ of tourism, with its people at the center, hold the key to
strengthening the total infrastructure necessary for sustained effectiveness
at both the micro and macro levels.
CONCLUSIONS
Cuba’s tourism industry is of great interest – and concern – to the
entire Caribbean region. Furthermore, Cuba’s approach to tourism
planning and development has become a model for tourism development
throughout the Caribbean and beyond. It has been more than 15 years
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since Cuba began to open up its beautiful landscape, beaches, culture,
traditions, history, folklore, and its people to the broader world. This time
frame affords a unique opportunity to take a retrospective view of
tourism, as well as to set the foundation for stronger, more focused,
customer-friendly initiatives leading to the prospects of more value and
greater contributions to the Cuban economy and people.
The conventional view of this region is that its resources are highly
homogenous: all of the islands have sun and beaches, they all compete for
the same market with essentially the same product, they all grow the same
crops, etc (Strizzi and Meis, 2001). Reflecting this view, the region’s
marketing strategies are strikingly generic and similar across the many
destinations. But, as the material presented in the case clearly suggests,
under socialism, Cuba has cultivated a distinctive cultural identity and its
associated cultural resources. Cuba’s ‘brand’ of tourism is unique,
desirable, and heavy with potential. Sustained success of Cuban tourism
depends upon projecting its distinctiveness and developing and executing
systematic and systemic marketing campaigns that offer prospective
visitors and unparalleled tourist experience. In addition to marketing
promises, Cuba has to have an adroit customer service delivery mentality
to meet the ever-escalating demands of consumers inundated with an
array of tourist options around the globe. Cuban tourism must practice
market segmentation at its very best. Cuba must focus on cultivating
experiences that cannot be duplicated in the Caribbean or elsewhere.
The Cuban mystique is still attractive and alluring as a marketing
tool. This mystique has been enjoyed mostly by non-U.S. tourists. While
U.S. residents account for over half of all tourists to the Caribbean region,
the number of Americans visiting Cuba is relatively miniscule (Padilla
and McElroy, 2007). If political winds change, which many astute
observers expect, the post-Castro era promises to open the door to the
mega market in the U.S. for Cuban tourism. Tourism planners should be
carefully preparing for this eventuality.
As noted elsewhere, the Cuban travel industry has prepared for
various post-Fidel Castro scenarios for quite some time. The emergence
of Raul Castro as leader has heightened the prospects of a ‘thawing’ of
relations with the U.S. In preparation for a possible change in relations
between the two adversaries, almost a dozen Cuban harbors have been
identified by major U.S. cruise lines in anticipation of a major cruise
boom. Likewise, major U.S. hotel chains, through their foreign
subsidiaries, have entered into ‘handshake agreements’ with properties
throughout Cuba. Many overseas Cuban business executives have
positioned themselves appropriately in anticipation of the opening of the
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Tony L. Henthorne, Babu P. George & Alvin J. Williams
doors of their motherland to waves of foreign capital (Greenberg, 2007).
Professional travel agents expect that the U.S. administration will slowly
relax the ‘Trading with the Enemies Act’ that has severely restricted U.S.
tourists in Cuba for almost half a century. The ‘Special Period’ of
scarcities and crises in the post-Soviet decade has by now forced the
Cuban government to relax some foreign ownership-related laws. The
current president, Raul Castro, and his successors cannot continue to
ignore the enormous potential for U.S. tourists to totally remake the fabric
of Cuban tourism. This is especially the case, given Cuba’s urgent need
to increase its foreign currency reserves. Its current national fiscal
position is unsustainable in the long run. Given this complex,
interdependent scenario, the future of tourism in the Caribbean is sure to
be radically different from past (Clive, 2006). This also means that, along
with the dramatic resurgence of Cuban tourism, the rest of the Caribbean
will have to face a behemoth. Cuba has the potential to be the ‘lion’ in
dominating Caribbean tourism, given its potential. However, Cuba’s
genuine resurgence as a tourism player in the region and beyond is
predicated on an integrative approach by visionary strategic planners,
committed to masterful implementation. Cuban tourism, in concert with
other regional efforts, can reshape the power of tourism in this sector of
the world. Focused, synergistic, and creative actions of all stakeholders
will make a lasting imprint on the tourism landscape of this area.
REFERENCES
Bonache, J. & Cervino, J. (2005). Hotel management in Cuba and the transfer of
best practices. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality
Management, Vol. 17, No.6, pp.455-468.
Clive, J. (2006). Cuba after Castro: What does it mean for Barbados?
Http://barbadosfreepress.wordpress.com/2006/04/19. Accessed the 3 rd of
June 2008.
Cuban Portal of Tourism. (2007). www.cubatravel.cu. Accessed the 21 st of
September 2007.
Encyclopedia Britannica World Atlas. Http://www.britannica.com/eb/atlas) –
Map of Cuba
Greenberg, P. (2007). Preparing for a Cuban vacation after Castro.
Http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/19034753/print/1/displaymode/1098.
Accessed the 1 st of June 2008.
Henthorne, T. & Miller, M. (2003). Cuban tourism in the Caribbean context: A
regional impact assessment. Journal of Travel Research, Vol. 42, No.1,
pp.84-93.
Martín de Holán, P. & Phillips, N. (1997). Sun, sand, and hard currency: Tourism
in Cuba. Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 24, No.4, pp.777-795.
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Miller, M. & Henthorne, T.L. (1997). Investment in the New Cuban Tourism
Industry: A Guide to Entrepreneurial Opportunities. Westport, CT:
Quorum.
Padilla, A. & McElroy, J.L. (2007). Cuba and Caribbean tourism after Castro.
Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 34, No.3, pp.649-672.
Pax Christi Cuba Report-Tourism. (2000). The European Union and Cuba:
Solidarity or Complicity? Http://www.passievoorvrede.nl. Accessed the 21
st of September 2007.
Rundle, M.L.B. (2001). Tourism, social change, and jineterismo in Cuba. In S.
Courtman (Eds.) The Society for Caribbean Studies Annual Conference
Papers, Vol. 2, pp.1-12.
Simon, F. (1995). Tourism development in transitional economies: The Cuba
case. Columbia Journal of World Business, Vol. 30, No.1, pp.26-39.
Strizzi, N. & Meis, S. (2001). Challenges facing tourism markets in Latin America
and the Caribbean region in the new millennium. Journal of Travel
Research, Vol. 40, pp.183-192.
Wood, P. & Jayewardene, C. (2003). Cuba: Hero of the Caribbean? A profile of
its tourism education strategy. International Journal of Contemporary
Hospitality Management, Vol. 15, No.3, pp.151-155.
WTO. (2007). Another record year for world tourism. UN WTO World Tourism
Barometer, Vol. 5, No.1, pp.1-3.
WTTC. (2007). Cuba travel and tourism: Navigating the path ahead. The 2007
Travel & Tourism Economic Research, pp.10-20.
SUBMITTED: JULY 2009
REVISION SUBMITTED: SEPTEMBER 2009
ACCEPTED: OCTOBER 2009
REFEREED ANONYMOUSLY
Tony L. Henthorne ([email protected]) Ph.D., Department of
Tourism & Convention Administration, University of Nevada, Las Vegas,
William F. Harrah College of Hotel Administration, USA.
Babu P. George ([email protected]) is an Assistant Professor,
College of Business, University of Southern Mississippi, USA.
Alvin J. Williams ([email protected]) is an Distinguished
Professor of Marketing, Mitchell College of Business, University of
South Alabama, USA.
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THE NATURE OF CULTURAL CONTRIBUTION OF A
COMMUNITY-BASED HOMESTAY PROGRAMME
1
Kalsom Kayat
University Utara Malaysia
An exploratory study utilizing qualitative approach was undertaken in 2005 to
better understand the cultural contribution of a community-based homestay to
both the rural communities and the visitors. The particular homestay, namely the
Kampung Pelegong Homestay Programme (KPHP), is located in Negeri
Sembilan, Malaysia. The study finds that while living culture is the core product
component, education, entertainment and enrichment are important contributions
of the cultural rural tourism product of KPHP to the visitors. In addition, an
important finding indicates that this particular tourism product is unique as it
stresses on establishing relationship (‘Sillatul-rahim’ in Malay) between hosts
and guests whereby these relationships continue for years through letters, phone
conversations, and emails. The programme also increases social cohesion among
the hosts and contributes to their commitment to preserve and to provide
knowledge on local customs and daily routine to enhance tourist experience.
Keywords:
Cultural tourism, community-based tourism, homestay,
qualitative study.
JEL Classification: L83, M1, O1
INTRODUCTION
Aside from its potential contribution to sustainable development,
community-based cultural rural tourism is said to be able to bring
immediate benefits to both the hosts and guests. A case study of a French
Acadian region on an island in eastern Canada undertaken by MacDonald
and Jolliffe (2003) indeed reveals that cultural rural tourism in that region
has the potential to become short and long-term economic tools to its
rural communities (the hosts) and that this type of tourism provides
education, entertainment, and enrichment to the guests. This paper
discusses the extent of these same outcomes from a cultural rural tourism
product in Malaysia, namely the Kampung Pelegong Homestay
Programme (KPHP).
© University of the Aegean. Print ISSN: 1790-8418, Online ISSN: 1792-6521
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Kalsom Kayat
Kampung Pelegong is a village in the state of Negeri Sembilan,
Malaysia which is located 15 km from the capital city of Seremban and
30 km from the Kuala Lumpur International Airport. Most of the village
ancestors were immigrants from West Sumatra settled in Negeri
Sembilan, bringing along their Minangkabau culture. As Negeri Sembilan
is the only state in Malaysia that practices Minangkabau customs and
culture, the state government is keen to turn it as an important tourism
product for the state by developing several of its communities as cultural
tourism destinations. When the government began to develop rural
tourism, specifically through homestay programmess in the rural area, the
community of Kampung Pelegong established its own homestay
programme consisting of several homestay operators in August, 1996.
The homestay programme hosted 500 guests annually between 1997 to
2002, and the number increased to 900 guests in 2003 and to 1633 guests
in 2004 (Fatimah, 2005). Kampung Pelegong is felt to be a good case for
examining the outcomes of a cultural rural tourism product in Malaysia.
To date, there is no site-specific research on how cultural rural
tourism in Malaysia, such as the community-based homestay
programmes, translates into its intended outcomes. The overall objective
of the study is to gain better understanding of the cultural rural tourism
product in the form of Kampung Pelegong Homestay Programme and its
contributions to the visitors and operators.
METHODS
The study is primarily exploratory in nature in that it elucidates
perceptions regarding the situation of and outcomes from Kampong
Pelegong Homestay Programme development. The methodology adopted
for this study was thus guided by an aim to analyze visitors and residents’
voices themselves, an approach which anthropologists have used to
produce some particularly insightful accounts (Black, 1996). Central to
the investigation was the extent of benefits it brings to the two groups.
The selection of respondents from the two groups for interview was
by purposive sampling whereby respondents who where in the best
position to provide information required were purposefully selected
(Sekaran, 1992). This sampling technique, known as purposive sampling,
was deemed appropriate as the category of people having the information
that were sought for was limited within the time constraints of the study.
At the beginning of the study, several individuals within each group were
asked to participate in the interviews and were asked to identify any other
key informants that they knew of. This generated a total list of potential
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respondents. Attempts were made to contact each of these individuals via
email and telephone. This resulted in 12 key informants (5 visitors and 7
residents) who agreed to participate in the in-depth, semi-structured
interviews which were conducted face-to-face in Malay and/or English.
The interviews were conducted by the researcher through personal
conversations. Initial interview questions followed those used in
MacDonald and Jollife (2003) study which include respondent
observation on the development and progress of tourism in the area, and
their attitudes and perceptions of rural tourism development in Kampong
Pelegong. Questions were open ended in order to gain more spontaneous
opinions and to avoid the potential bias from restricting responses to the
researcher’s own fixed categories (Ryan, 1995). The interviews were,
when conducted in a formal situation, tape-recorded or, when conducted
during more informal or unplanned situations, written in the form of notes
with reflections in field diaries. Transcriptions of the tape-recorded
interviews and the reflections were done immediately after the fieldwork.
Transcripts for each taped interview and field notes were checked for
internal consistency and corroborated with other interviews and notes. A
qualified translator assisted in translating transcripts of conversations in
Malay into English. Analysis of the interviews for meaning, salience and
connections followed the ‘framework’ approach developed by Ritchie and
Spencer (1995). The fieldwork and analysis were conducted over a period
of 6 months in 2005.
STUDY FINDINGS
Cultural Contributions to the Visitors
This study explores the nature of cultural benefits contributed by
KPHP to its visitors. Interview questions to the five guests (V1: a teacher
from Singapore; V2: a journalist; V3: a participant of a motivational
training program; V4: a university student; and V5: a familiarization trip
participant) who had stayed with the homestay operators in Kampung
Pelegong focus on the uniqueness of KPHP as a tourism product and how
the homestay experience had benefit them. Findings from the interviews
with each of these respondents are discussed in the following section.
Respondent V1
This respondent is a teacher from Singapore who had joined a cocurriculum activity organized by her school. The school had used the
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service of a travel agent in Singapore to arrange their trip to Kampung
Pelegong. The group, which consisted of 12 fifteen-year olds and two
teachers, took the train from Tanjung Pagar Station in Singapore to Tiroi
Station in Seremban. At Tiroi, a group of the Homestay Programme
Association members waited for them and transported them to their
village where they spent three “unordinary and enjoyable” days.
According to her:
“Our stay there was unordinary and enjoyable. The
operators took care of us like we are their kids! They explained
everything they do, maybe they wanted us to understand why
they do things a certain way. Some of our group members had
never stayed in villages before; they didn’t know how villages
look and feel like, so this trip is good for them…We observed the
ways the community worked together…they are very
organized…the visit around the village is really good, we had
the opportunity to get to know many trees and plants…the
cultural show was a real treat, we really had a good time during
the mock wedding…it was really nice. The food and boarding
are not the essential parts of our stay, if we want hotel standard
comfort and luxury, we would have gone to the hotels. We came
here to observe and widen our knowledge and experience...”
Respondent V2
This respondent, a “self-declared urban yuppie” visited Kampong
Pelegong Homestay as part of her job assignment. This is what she had to
say about his experience staying at the homestay:
“One of the members of the homestay commitee showed me
the fruit and vegetable farms including the village’s landmark
160-year-old rubber tree. He also introduced me around.… I
was introduced to authentic Malay and Minangkabau cuisine,
including their ‘lemak cili api’. I even had a free lesson on how
to prepare this dish. One of the operators reflected on how she
once taught a Japanese school group how to make ‘lepat
pisang’, how they had so much fun even though their ‘lepat’
failed to look like ordinary lepat, and the satisfaction shown by
the group when they eventually tasted their ‘lepat’.….. I had a
chance to help them feed their free-ranged chicken!...The room
is okay, but we only need the room for sleep and a place to
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change…we are not here to stay in the room, we are here to
learn different things.”
Respondent V3
This 15-year old girl stayed at KPHP during a motivational workshop
organized by the Kuala Lumpur City Hall which she attended in 2004.
The early part of the workshop took place in Kuala Lumpur, and another
took place in KPHP. Coming from Kuala Lumpur, the respondent was not
familiar with Kampong life. “Everything seems so different in the
Kampong,” she says, “but I am glad that I had a chance to experience the
Kampong hospitality. Those kampong people are too friendly; my foster
mother spoilt me so much, now I really miss them.” She elaborated on
what she gained from her stay in Kampung Pelegong:
“I learnt to appreciate simple things, I learnt how to share,
and I learnt not to do many things myself. From my experience
with Kampong Pelegong, I see that Malaysia is rich with
cultural customs and unique characteristics. Not all places in
Malaysia are like KL, Malaysia has many natural resources and
beauty. I had a chance to see how the villagers work, how they
earn their living. They are not so backward, they know about
many things that are modern. But, their way of livings is still
kampong style. I want to go back to Pelegong again, now that I
know how to get there. I want to bring my friends there
too…during my stay we did several activities like learning about
the names of trees, spending time at the small waterfall, learning
how to cook, we also had an art class there, and we learnt about
basket weaving… If the rooms are equipped with air
conditioning system, then it would be more okay…but without it
is also okay. This is why homestay is different, if there is airconditioning, the concept would have perhaps been different”
Respondent V4
This respondent is a student at a local higher learning institute that
had been to Kampong Pelegong during a study trip. He comes from a
rural community himself. He recalled back his experience in Kampong
Pelegong:
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Kalsom Kayat
“During that time, the lecturer, who was also our advisor
for the association, took us to Pelegong as one of the association
activities, because it was close to campus. There we were
involved in many activities like night trekking and telematch. We
went during fruit season, so we were able to eat durians. I see
that Pelegong has the potential to become a tourism product, the
kampung people also strive in that direction; they have become
professionals. They are different, because their culture is
slightly different from the culture found in other places in
Malaysia...the Negeri Sembilan people, their culture...different
because they have the matriarchal culture. So, if you go there,
they talk a lot about the matriarchal culture, marriage customs,
and their cultural activities. Another uniqueness is the special
treatment that is given by the operator family, that I cannot
forget... I am also a village person, so their lifestyle is also the
same, but the community of Kampung Pelegong seems to be very
cooperative and very organized”.
Respondent V5
"Here, you are able to enjoy the warm hospitality of your operator
family and be a part of the local household by joining them in their daily
activities," explained this respondent who was a participant of a
familiarization program to Kampong Pelegong Homestay Program
organized by Tourism Malaysia. He added, “The operators are always
willing to let you know about the origins of the village and the rich
history it holds… there are also several small business enterprise there.
Each household has one product that they can sell to the visitors, some
sell baskets, and others sell traditional herbs…we had a chance to look at
these enterprises.” On a question posed by the researcher about what the
product of Kampong Pelegong Homestay Program, the respondent
explained his perception about the product, “It is a cultural product that
let the visitors learn about the community’s resources and ways of life. It
is different from other types of holidays…the food and hospitality of the
operator families gives it more flavour…”
Testimonies from the operators and observations by the researcher
are also useful in the discussion of this study objective. It is observed that
elderly family members of the operators are always ready and interested
to entertain guests with stories about the history of their families, their
village, and their culture. “I am always excited to see the way they look at
us when we tell stories…I always talk about myself, about the origins of
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this kampong, about the old times. They also want to find out about many
things… I really like if the committee announced that tourists or foster
children are coming…sure...not so quiet then,” explained an elderly
woman whose daughter is one of the homestay operators. The desire to
welcome guests can be considered euphoric. Operators like to talk about
sweet experience and memories they had with their guests. They are very
excited and are very optimistic about the future of their homestay
program. They tolerate differences and they know what is expected from
the visitors. They vow to not let outsiders belittle their culture but to teach
them about it instead. Children of the operators are also getting used to
seeing groups of tourists in their village. It is observed that they enjoy
watching the cultural show with the tourists and that they are very
hospitable to the tourists. It is also observed that a strong social cohesion
exist in the community during the homestay activities. Additionally, the
ability and opportunity for them to share their traditional culture, their
knowledge, and part of their lives with outsiders are considered very selfsatisfying.
It can be inferred from the preceding transcripts that education,
entertainment and enrichment together with the accommodation, food and
hospitality are important components of the cultural rural tourism product
of KPHP. An explanation given by Levitt (1983) is useful to describe
these components. He suggests that there are four components of a
product (Figure 1). The innermost core represents the generic product.
This component is the rudimentary item (tangible or intangible) without
which there would be no product. For KPHP, the living culture (close-knit
community with strong ties and work ethics that is able to work together,
their warmth and sincere hospitality) may be the generic component of
their product; without them then this product cannot be called the
‘cultural rural tourism product’. However, as Levitt points out, simply
offering the generic product only allows a producer entrance into the
marketplace; any community that has a living culture can enter the
market. It in no way ensures success. First, customers’ main expectations
about the product must be met.
The expected component of Levitt’s product concept represents
customers’ minimal expectations that exceed the generic product itself.
The generic product cannot be sold unless those expectations are met. For
homestay guests, expected attributes could include its education element
including the logistics and activities required to observe the cultural show,
knowledgeable operators that can educate them, and a clean and safe rural
environment, as well as bedrooms, rest rooms and food services. These
may represent minimum purchase conditions to some guests. For
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example, even though a rural community may have abundant and
interesting cultural resources, visitors may not visit that area due to
known and visible safety issue in that area (the expectation of a safe rural
environment is not met).
McNeill categorizes these first two components (generic and
expected) of Levitt’s product factor as hygiene factors. These factors are
variables of the product that are “must-haves”. They do not motivate the
sale of the product itself, but lack of them can “de-motivate” the sale
(McNeill, 1999). First, in order to gain an edge in the marketplace,
destinations must look beyond the minimal expectations of a tourism
product and explore how they might augment it. As Levitt explains,
augmented product attributes are those offerings that go beyond what
customers think they need or have become accustomed to expect.
Augmentations can differentiate one product from another, and can give a
competitive advantage to producers who effectively augment their
products (Levitt, 1983). For KPHP, augmented product components
include cultural activities offered by the group of operators to the visitors.
While many cultural rural tourists may not expect these components, they
may be motivated to visit a destination offering such augmentation over
another destination that does not.
Figure 1. Cultural Rural Tourism product concept for Kampong
Pelegong Homestay Program
Activities such
as cultural
performances
activities
Education,
entertainment,
enrichment,
accommodation,
food & hospitality
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3. Augmented
Living culture
2. Expected
1. Generic
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Cultural Contributions to the Residents
Economic contribution from the homestay programme to the
individual operators and to the Kampong Pelegong Homestay Programme
committee was examined in the study. According to a member of the
committee, payment received from a group of visitors that came to the
homestay programme is credited into the committee’s treasury account.
The treasurer will then pay for the expenditures involved in operating the
group such as payment to operators, welcome drink, transportation,
cultural show, kampong feast, village tour and management (Table 1).
Each operator is paid RM40 for each guest per night. An interview with
an operator revealed that hosting a guest would cost roughly about RM23
(3 meals, electric and water). This brings to a marginal profit of RM17
per guest per night (Table 2). As most of the operators have the capacity
to accommodate a maximum of three guests per night for each group
received by the homestay program, the income could increase threefold.
Table 1. Costs and Profits to the Association (20 Visitors)
Receipt from a 20 pax guests (RM110 per pax,
one night and two days stay)
RM2,200
Less: Payment to operators = RM40 x 20 pax x 1
night
Less: Welcome drink
Less: Morning tea
Less: Transportation
Less: Cultural show
Less: Village tour
Less: Management
RM800
Profit to the Association
RM300
RM50
RM50
RM30
RM650
RM100
RM220
(Source: Fatimah Basiron, 2004)
A resident who operate his home as a homestay claims the
programme brings little income but “…the money that is obtained from
this homestay is …well…not to say it is little…it is not even a lot…but this
is not about money or profit. Getting involved in this programme does not
require a lot of capital…the work I have done to my home like building a
new toilet for the visitors and the paint work and home decoration… it is
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Kalsom Kayat
not just meant for the guest, those are also for our own good, we just want
to make our house beautiful, we also want to live here right? ” Another
operator explained that it is difficult to differentiate between the homestay
costs and their own family expenses as they do not have separate accounts
for food, electricity and water. However, there is an indication from the
interviews with the operators that income from the homestay is very much
welcomed, especially for the female operators who are normally not
employed elsewhere, and it definitely comes in handy for the youngsters
who helped around in shows, activities, cleaning, and ferrying the visitors
with their motorcycles. As visitors frequently purchase locally produced
goods such as herbal medication and handicrafts as souvenirs, the
homestay program is seen as an outlet for the local small scale producers
of this type of goods. The village’s Womens’ Group also benefit from the
homestay as they formed catering services for the homestay guests during
the Kampong Feast activity. They are also involved in local food display
and exhibition, which in turn contribute to the preservation of the
traditional food and way of cooking.
Table 2. Costs and Profits to the Individual Operator (1 Visitor)
Receipt from a guest
RM40
Less: Costs of meals, electric & water
Profit to individual operator
RM23
RM17
(Source: Research fieldwork, 2005)
The rest of the payments involved are for the local caterers (for
welcome drink and feast), for the cultural show performers, to those who
are involved in local transport, and for others who assisted in facilitating
the activities. Relevant individuals who assisted in managing the group
are also paid for their effort and time. Thus, receipts from visitors to
Kampong Pelegong Homestay Programme are distributed to the villagers
who are involved in the programme.
Part of the receipt from the visitors is retained in the association
account. For example, the surcharge for a group of 20 guests that
requested a package of 1 night and 2 days stay in the homestay program is
RM2,200 (RM110 per guest), yielding a profit of RM300 to the
association (Table 1). Profit from the homestay program, which came to a
total of RM26,560 by 2004 (table 3), is used by the association to
purchase supplies and material deemed necessary to run the program. The
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association had also sent several committee members to participate in the
State’s Tourism Overseas Sales Mission to expose them to the industry.
“We have sent members to Japan to gain experience on marketing
(pricing and packaging),” explained a member of Kampong Pelegong
Homestay Program Committee proudly about the committee’s
achievements. Youths who are involved in the cultural performances were
sent for training and performances elsewhere in Malaysia as part of the
committee’s effort to preserve the cultural elements of traditional dances
and music.
The association works very closely with the Village Development
and Security Committee, headed by the village headman. The Village
Development and Security Committee oversees the development of the
village and the main contribution to the committee is the prize money that
they won from competitions organized by several agencies which are
involved in the development of rural areas throughout Malaysia.
Examples of the competitions are ‘The Cleanest Village’, ‘The Most
Beautiful Village’ and ‘The Most Entrepreneurial Village’. Both
committees may combine resources to implement community projects to
beautify the village. The homestay and the seriousness shown by the
community succeeded in convincing rural government agencies to
improve infrastructure in the village, thus benefiting the whole
community regardless of their involvement with the homestay
programme.
Table 3. Kampong Pelegong Homestay Program Income and profit
(1996 – 2004)
Year
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
Total
Number of guests
530
30
410
415
472
569
658
908
1633
5625
(Source: Fatimah Basiron, 2004)
Receipts
5,870
12,600
13,050
19,500
38,850
41,737
52,116
183,723
Profit
760
1,370
1,690
3,300
4,860
5,250
8,420
25,650
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Kalsom Kayat
Interviews with the residents indicate that they did not feel guests
bring bad influence as the guests appreciate and respect the local culture.
All of the residents interviewed in the study mentioned that they had
established friendships with several of their guests as they fondly show
letters that they receive from the guests from their countries. Some of the
visitors had even returned to visit their hosts, bringing with them their
friends and families.
The appreciation shown by the tourists toward their village in turn
make the villagers appreciate it themselves. The operators perceive the
homestay programme as a community project that is driven by the
community for the community. Some of them felt that the homestay
creates an opportunity for them to be involved in the country’s tourism
development, as explained by one of the operator:
“I am excited and thankful because the government has
introduced homestay…introduced us to homestay…the
government really supports homestay all over Malaysia. Now we
know the importance of tourists in developing the country…we
know more about the tourists…because we receive tourists from
all over the world. This homestay is not hard to organize, as
long as we want to…the government also provides training. I
read in the newspapers...homestay is one way people in rural
areas can get involved in tourism endeavours…count me as
being proud because I am part of the tourism industry, right…!”
Nevertheless, the interviews revealed perceptions among the resident
participants of the existence of middleman that reap profit in the process
of getting visitors to the programme. “They really help us in getting
tourists that want to stay in this homestay…the ones that want to use our
homestay; if no tourists come, it would be difficult…but it seems that they
are the ones that get a lot of profit...a lot of money, we only get a little,”
urged a resident. However, it is not clear who these middlemen are as
most of the visitor groups came through the State Tourism Council the
programme committee or travel agencies. An operator indicated that the
motivational consulting companies that bring their training groups take
advantage of the homestay program to gain profit. In addition, one of the
operators suggested that she would like to see the price charged to the
visitors by the committee to be increased as she felt that the price they are
charging now is low. This finding seems to contradict the earlier
indication that income was not the reason they participated in the
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homestay programme; there is a hint here that they indeed look forward
for the income from the program.
One of the residents specifically gave the indication of his frustration
for not being given any guests amid being a certified homestay operator.
According to him:
“the committee should have a fair way of distributing the
guests…we have received many groups this year…I have not
received a single one yet…where is the justice…when I ask, they
said it was because there was a single complaint made once by a
Japanese guest…just that one time…they should give me a
chance, give me the same as others.”
The researcher tried to get some feedback from a committee member
about this accusation about this and was given this reply,
“…a guest complains about the service he provides, we
can’t just give another guest to him…it was like this, he gave the
Japanese guest…Japanese school kid…taste some ‘sambal
belacan’…he said the kid really wanted to try it…he should have
informed the kid that the ‘sambal’ was very hot/spicy, he should
give warning…but he didn’t…the kid tried and immediately felt
the spiciness…then he laughed at the kid…the kid complained to
the teacher and the teacher told us…not good…should feel
ashamed…so we don’t think we should give any more (visitors)
to him.”
CONCLUSION
Kampung Pelegong Homestay Programme displays the
characteristics of a cultural rural tourism product. Tourists that came to
the programme enjoy the cultural experience and the knowledge that they
gain by staying in the homes of the community and by partaking in the
organized activities; these findings coincide with findings from earlier
research on cultural tourism in Canada (MacDonald and Jolliffe, 2003).
The programme is a unique tourism product that provides sensible
alternative for tourists who are looking for alternatives. In addition, an
important finding indicates that this particular tourism product is unique
as it stresses on establishing relationship (‘Sillatul-rahim’ in Malay)
between hosts and guests whereby these relationships continue for years
through letters, phone conversations, and emails.
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The findings of the present study support earlier findings by Ministry
of Culture, Arts and Tourism (2001) that hosts and participants display
euphoric desire to welcome guests. Whatever shortcomings they have in
their home facilities that may reduce the level of comfort received by the
guests they compensate with their warm hospitality. Cultural gap exists at
a minimum in Kampung Pelegong. The hosts wanted to earn extra income
while having foreign guests and sharing their daily lives with the tourists.
Having visitors in their homes through the homestay programmes are
indications that they are ‘accepted’ by the association. As part of Malay
culture, hosts are expected to celebrate and be hospitable to guests that
come to their homes. Income from the homestay operation can be
considered to be marginal. But leakage may be very low as most services
are produced locally. At a glance, the overall social and cultural impacts
are likely to be positive as the program seems to increase social cohesion
among the hosts and villagers and their commitment to preserve and to
provide knowledge on local customs and daily routine in this in turn helps
to enhance the tourist experience, similar to findings by MacDonald and
Jollife (2003).
Findings from the study include some early feedbacks and
perceptions about the programme from the hosts and guests. The
programme is an outstanding community development tool, but only if it
works. To ensure that community-based tourism like this one works,
Beeton (2006) suggests that it is most important to explore local
community attitudes toward the programme. It is useless to find out late
that the locals have negative perceptions about the programme as it would
be more difficult to reverse the damage.
Community-based tourism aims to create a more sustainable tourism
industry, focusing on the host community in terms of planning and
maintaining tourism development. Pearce (1992) suggests that
community-based tourism presents a way to provide an equitable flow of
benefits to all affected by tourism through consensus-based decisionmaking and local control of development. Thus, it is important to know if
consensus-based decision-making and local control of development takes
place in this homestay programme.
REFERENCES
Beeton, S. (2006). Community Development through Tourism. Collingwood,
Landlink Press.
Black, A. (1996). Negotiating the tourists gaze: The example of Malta. In J.
Boissevain (Eds.) Coping with Tourists: European Reactions to Mass
Tourism, Oxford: Berghahn Books.
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Fatimah Basiron. (2004). Personal Conversation.
Fatimah Basiron. (2005). Personal Conversation.
Levitt, T. (1983). The Marketing Imagination. New York, Free Press.
MacDonald, R. & Jolliffe, L. (2003). Cultural rural tourism: evidence from
Canada. Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 30, No.9, pp.307-322.
McNeill, R.G. (1999). What is a Product/Service and how is it Connected to
Competitive Advantage. Http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~rgm/ha400/class/productservice/productservice/lesson3-1.html. Accessed the 12 th of June 2001, at
9:05.
Ministry of Culture, Arts and Tourism. (2001). Rural Tourism Plan. Kuala
Lumpur: Ministry of Culture, Arts and Tourism.
Pearce, P.L. (1992). Alternative tourism: concepts, classifications and questions.
In V.L. Smith and W.R. Eadington (Eds.) Tourism Alternatives: Potentials
and Problems in the Development of Tourism, New York: John Wiley and
Sons.
Sekaran, U. (1992). Research Methods for Business: A Skill Building Approach,
2nd edition. New York, John Wiley and Sons.
Ritchie, J. and Spencer, L. (1995). Qualitative data analysis for applied policy
research. In A. Bryman and R. Burgess (Eds.) Analyzing Qualitative Data,
London: Routledge.
Ryan, C. (1995). Researching Tourist Satisfaction: Issues, Concepts, Problems.
London, Routledge.
SUBMITTED: JUNE 2009
REVISION SUBMITTED: OCTOBER 2009
ACCEPTED: NOVEMBER 2009
REFEREED ANONYMOUSLY
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DESTINATION MARKETING THROUGH A UTILITY
BUSINESS MODEL: THE CASE OF CYPRUS
1
Haris Machlouzarides
Cyprus Tourism Organisation
Traditional business models that used to govern the operations of travel and
tourism businesses defined in a rigid way their functional areas and the
relationships among them. The advent of Information and Communication
Technologies (ICT) has driven the transformation of these business models into
novel destination marketing models. The Cyprus Tourism Organisation (CTO)
recognising the need of establishing an explicit model for managing the process of
destination marketing has developed an integrated marketing model to guide the
management of the destination’s marketing process. Moreover, the CTO, aiming
at enhancing the country’s tourism industry electronic marketing deployment
levels, has put in place a utility business model that aims at optimising the
industry’s potential to engage in integrated marketing activities. The key for
optimising destination’s marketing processes is the successful implementation of
the model through ntegration of traditional with electronic marketing activities.
Keywords:
Destination Marketing, Electronic Marketing, Travel and Tourism,
ICT.
JEL Classification: L83, M1, O1
INTRODUCTION
In the process of achieving their marketing objectives, Destination
Marketing
Organisations
(DMOs)
deploy
Information
and
Communication Technologies (ICT) in diverse ways and extends.
The early ICT deployment days, in regards to electronic marketing,
were marked by the development of brochure-like web sites, which had as
a primary purpose the representation of the DMOs’ products and services.
These web sites were characterised by limited interaction with the users,
replicating the organisations’ offline marketing brochures (Chaffey et al.,
2003).
DMOs soon realised the real marketing value of ICT towards
reaching different groups of customers through innovative marketing
© University of the Aegean. Print ISSN: 1790-8418, Online ISSN: 1792-6521
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Haris Machlouzarides
methods (Sigala, 2004). Modern electronic marketing deployment times
involve the execution of models that provide DMOs with a plethora of
options towards satisfying particular customer needs through interactive
and direct marketing techniques (Sargeant & West 2001).
The modern electronic marketing business models provide DMOs
with the capacity to utilise ICT for achieving their strategic marketing
objectives. Through the selection of the most appropriate electronic
marketing methods, DMOs can maximise their reach towards their
customers and business partners, while facilitating their internal processes
(Philips, 2003).
The process of establishing an electronic marketing business model
for a DMO is comprised by four basic steps (Osterwalder, 2002):
1.
The first step involves the definition of the products or services
that the DMO offers, which deliver a considerable value to its
customers.
2. The DMO’s value networks need then to be defined. These
identify the DMO’s partners and internal structures that are
necessary to create value to the organisation’s products or
services.
3. The third step of the process involves the recognition and the
definition of the DMO’s customers and the channel structures
that the DMO shall deploy to service them.
4. Finally, the DMO’s revenue model that will describe the specific
techniques through which the DMO will generate income needs
to be defined.
A DMO can establish its electronic marketing business model based
on the four steps identified and maintain it by continuously evaluating its
marketing environment based on the above process (Rayport & Jaworski
2001). Electronic marketing business models evolve continuously and can
be categorised in many different ways (Timmers, 1998; Eisenmann, 2002;
Rappa, 2005).
TRAVEL AND TOURISM BUSINESS MODELS
The travel and tourism industry, being highly dynamic by its nature,
requires the deployment of electronic marketing business models to
efficiently promote and distribute products and services towards
satisfying particular customer needs in business-to-business (B2B) or
business-to-customer (B2C) markets. The intangible nature of the travel
and tourism product in relation to its sensitivity to internal and external
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environmental threats, have driven travel and tourism organisations to
adopt ICT to enhance their marketing activities (Kotler et al., 2006).
Traditionally, travel and tourism organisational models were grouped
into five major functional categories that supported the tourism buying
process (Law et al., 2003). These models along with example
organisations are presented in Table 1 below.
Table 1. Traditional travel and tourism organisational models
Organisation Model
Tourism Product Management
Travel and Tourism Organisers
Transportation Providers
Accommodation Providers
Food
and
Entertainment
Providers
Example Organisation
National and Regional Tourism
Organisations
Travel Agents and Tour Operators
Airlines, Car Rentals, etc.
Hotels, Villas, Apartments, etc.
Restaurants, Bars, etc.
The relationship between these models was very well defined and
difficult to yield. However, the advent of ICT has led to the evolution of
the way traditional travel and tourism organisations supported the tourism
buying process, and has driven them to employ robust electronic
marketing models for achieving their strategic marketing objectives
(Rodriguez, 2003). This change has led to the formation of novel
destination marketing models augmenting the tourism buying process.
For the purpose of facilitating the process of destination marketing
planning, Kotler et al. (1999) proposed a model, comprising of the five
primary reference points identified below:
i. The tourist: Understanding the tourist needs and desired
experience from a destination is the key to enable successful
relationship marketing.
ii. The destination: The successful management of the set of
available products and services that create the total experience
and value proposition to the tourist distinguish a successful
destination.
iii. Tourism services suppliers: The management of independent
suppliers of tourism services and the implementation of policies
to sustain their interdependencies will provide mutual benefits
and long-term economic returns.
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iv. The local population (citizens): The satisfaction of the long-term
needs and wants of the local population will sustain the
destination’s development.
v. The public-private interest coordinator: The coordination and
facilitation of the interests of both the public and private sectors
through effective communication will enable the destination’s
economic growth.
While many authors (Frew, 2005; Buhalis, 2003) have provided a
multiplicity of perspectives on the tasks required for guiding the process
of destination marketing planning, the above conceptual model facilitates
the exploration of the criteria that contribute to the successful attainment
of multi-stakeholder goals, which are often the norm for DMO’s
marketing planning.
Since destination marketing planning models continuously advance
and in view of the fact that they can be categorised in many different
ways (Demetriades & Baltas 2003), below a functional approach to their
categorisation is presented:
A. Destination Management Organisation (DMO) Model: The
DMO model describes organisations that have as their core
business the management of the tourism product; National and
Regional Tourism Organisations (Schaumann, 2005). NTOs,
starting with their natural requirement to distribute up to date
information, have utilised ICT to augment the process of
knowledge management (Mertins, et al., 2003). Through the
deployment of ICT, NTOs have managed to capture information,
share and distribute it across their partners and customers and
create knowledge for utilising it towards achieving their
marketing objectives (Liautaud, et al., 2001).
B. Low-Cost Airline Model: The low-cost airline model describes
flight transportation providers that provide airline tickets at low
prices in exchange for eliminating many traditional passenger
services (Driver, 2001). Low cost airlines are characterised by
operational efficiency and usually provide a single passenger
class and a simple fare scheme. Low cost airlines’ requirement
for operational efficiency has driven the evolution of traditional
Electronic Distribution Systems (EDS) into Global Distribution
Systems (GDS).
GDS have enabled the distribution of
unreserved seating to B2B and B2C markets in real time (Mintel,
2003).
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C. Online Travel Intermediary Model: This model describes
organisations that manage and distribute travel and tourism
products and services by combining them to provide packaged
holidays (Buhalis & Licata 2002). The inherent requirement of
Online Travel Intermediaries for up to date information for
product availability and pricing, as well as the perishability of
the travel and tourism products and services has driven the
extension of Global Distribution Systems (GDS) to support
direct distribution of travel and tourism products and services
across B2B and B2C markets. Modern GDS facilitate real-time,
dynamic distribution of travel and tourism products and services
across the world.
D. Travel Search Engine (TSE) Model: The TSE model describes
organisations that focus on the facilitation of the tourism buying
process through the provision of specialised tools for helping
customers search, compare, select and purchase the most fit for
purpose travel and tourism products and services. TSE’s deploy
modern ICT to facilitate transactions in business-to-business
(B2B), business-to-customer (B2C), and customer-to-customer
(C2C) markets. By totally supporting the tourism buying process
(Briggs, 2001), TSE’s can achieve the tangibilisation of travel
and tourism products and services (Shostack, 1977).
While in the past travel and tourism organisations questioned the
need for electronic marketing business model deployment, today the
question that needs to be answered is how to optimise the deployment of
electronic marketing business models to survive competition and
maximise the benefits out of their utilisation. Today’s dynamic tourism
market drives travel and tourism organisations to implement the above
destination marketing planning models in diverse ways, in an attempt to
stay competitive and maximise their market share (Law, et al., 2003). In
an environment where customers’ needs are constantly changing based on
the availability of relevant up to date information, travel and tourism
organisations need to devise novel methods to support the augmented
tourism buying process.
THE CTO’S INTEGRATED MARKETING MODEL
The Cyprus Tourism Organisation (CTO) has always aimed to fulfil
customers’ needs to the maximum possible level, being aware of the
significance of customer satisfaction towards loyalty and retention.
Following its customers’ new behavioural characteristics, the CTO has
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developed an integrated marketing model (Machlouzarides, 2009) that
guides the realisation of best practices across alternative communication
channels among the destination’s stakeholders. The developed marketing
model aims at facilitating the effectiveness of the CTO’s global marketing
activities as well as supporting the marketing actions carried out by the
destination’s stakeholders in an attempt to supply customers with
authentic experiences. The results of the implementation of the model will
involve the optimisation of the Cyprus’ destination marketing process, by
enabling the maximisation of customers’ satisfaction. Figure 1 presents
the CTO’s integrated marketing model.
The model begins by capturing customers’ needs during the initial
stage of the buying process, which deals with awareness. At this stage the
customer identifies the need to purchase a product or service and begins
exploring about it. The CTO along with the destination’s stakeholders are
expected to instigate customers’ attention at this stage by promoting the
destination’s products and services through the appropriate
communication channels.
Once the customer’s attention has been acquired by the CTO and the
destination’s stakeholders, the customer begins to seek for information
about the destination’s products or services in the available information
space. The customer at this stage aims at discovering detailed information
about the product or service under consideration towards formulating
specific requirements (product characteristics, price, convenience, etc).
Once specific requirements have been formulated, the customer tries to
find detailed information about the provider(s) of the product or service
under consideration and evaluates the opportunity cost of not choosing
the next best alternative. The CTO and the destination’s stakeholders at
this stage are expected to provide explicit information about available
products and services and distribute this information through the
appropriate communication channels towards engaging the customer in a
process that will facilitate higher possibilities of sale leads.
The customer is ready for purchasing the relevant product or service
when all the questions around it have been answered and the relevant
product or service has been recognised as the one which provides
maximum satisfaction to the customer’s needs. At this stage the customer
seeks guidance on how to purchase the selected product or service. The
CTO and the destination’s stakeholders should provide at this stage the
required processes and support services to guide the customer through the
purchasing/conversion process.
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Figure 1. The CTO’s Integrated Marketing model
The customer enters the fourth stage as soon as the order for the
relevant product or service is placed. Now, the customer seeks for
cognitive closure and affirmation (Choi, et al., 2008) through the
feedback provided that by the supplier and is applicable to the specific
product or service that was purchased. The CTO and the destination’s
stakeholders are expected to support the customer’s cognitive processes
by providing feedback and support information at this stage, as well as by
enabling online customer care and support services. Moreover, the CTO
and the destination’s stakeholders should provide relevant cross-selling
offers to the customer.
The fourth stage extends to cover the period of the customer’s visit to
the destination. Here, the CTO and the destination’s stakeholders are
expected to provide customer care and support services. Through the
provision of traditional and electronic customer support services they will
manage to maintain close contact with the customers in an attempt to
anticipate and satisfy their expectations. This will be possible through the
analysis of the relevant customers’ information to derive their individual
preferences and employ the appropriate procedures to support them across
the time and place dimensions (NOST, 2005).
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During the final stage of the model, the customer expects to receive
post purchase communication relevant to the purchased products or
services, for completing the buying process’s stages of cognitive closure
and affirmation (Choi, et al., 2008). Additionally, the customer will
expect to have the appropriate means that will enable the provision of
feedback ratings relevant to the products or services purchased. In the
case where the customer requested to receive news and promotions about
the destination’s products and services the CTO and the destination’s
stakeholders are expected to communicate relevant offers to the customer
which should encourage customer retention.
Three major foundations, namely, Real-time Customer Segmentation,
Customer Experience Management and Marketing Performance
Management underpin the developed model’s implementation. These
foundations enable the maximisation of the model’s performance as they
enable the successful management of the dynamic marketing processes
that result out of the interactive nature of this model.
The CTO and the destination’s stakeholders will only be able to
optimise the model’s performance through closely monitoring these three
underpinning factors. Failure to manage these factors will have adverse
results on the effectiveness of the model negatively impacting the
destination’s dynamic marketing processes.
By utilising real-time customer segmentation the CTO and the
destination’s stakeholders will attain effective management of customer
targeting throughout the model’s stages (Hass, 2005). Real-time customer
segmentation involves the analysis of the information resulting from
every interaction with the customer leading to customisation of the
product offering to satisfy the customer’s expectations. Through the
knowledge that will result from real-time customer segmentation the
development of new customer segments will be possible, as well as the
evolution of existing ones towards the realisation of more efficient
marketing activities.
Customer experience management during all the stages of the model
will increase customer satisfaction and provide for extending and
sustaining long lasting relationships (ETC, 2008). The management of
customer experiences will only be feasible through the design and
delivery of customised products and services that will facilitate the
satisfaction of customers’ expectations. The CTO and the destination’s
stakeholders will manage to optimise the customer’s purchasing process
only through closely managing customer experiences. This will provide
for the establishment of long lasting relationships with the customers,
which will be founded upon authentic experiences.
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Marketing performance management enables the monitoring and
control of real marketing outcomes in relation to marketing investments.
The need for marketing performance management is now becoming more
imperative than ever before since there is a direct relationship between
measurability and profitability, which is becoming more apparent through
electronic marketing techniques (Hair, et al., 2003). The deployment of
advanced metrics that evaluate the performance of the CTO and the
destination’s stakeholders’ marketing activities at every stage of the
model as well as collectively throughout the lifetime of a customer, will
determine the destination’s marketing model effectiveness.
The implementation and close supervision of the aforementioned
underpinning factors will enable the successful deployment of the
developed integrated marketing model for the CTO and the destination’s
stakeholders, which will enhance customer satisfaction and facilitate the
growth of long lasting relationships with customers.
FRAMEWORK FOR DEPLOYING A UTILITY BUSINESS MODEL
Despite the fact that the Cyprus tourism industry has been long
established it is still based on small – medium companies (SME’s), a
factor that hinders its dynamism to adopt new marketing models (Kotler,
et al., 2006). Additionally, accommodation establishments in Cyprus have
traditionally used as their main distribution channel the tour operators
(who book their rooms early in the season), resulting in low investment in
alternative distribution channels. The above mentioned characteristics of
the tourism industry are considered as an obstacle to the introduction of
modern marketing techniques.
Cyprus was ranked 24th, out of 130 countries, in the Travel &
Tourism Competitiveness Index 2008 (World Economic Forum, 2008)
scoring 4.9 out of 7. In particular, regarding the industry’s ICT
infrastructure indicator, Cyprus was ranked 37th, scoring only 3.7 out of
7.
Based on the data residing on the CTO accommodation database, in
2008, only 64% of the licensed accommodation establishments had an
email address while only 53% had their own website. The disappointing
numbers regarding the accommodation establishments’ ICT infrastructure
can be explained based on the aforementioned characteristics of the
Cyprus tourism industry.
The results of a survey carried out for the e-business watch (EC,
2006), illustrated that on the totality of the Cyprus tourism sector, which
is comprised by Accommodation, Restaurants and Catering Services, and
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Travel Agencies and Tour Operators, 82% had internet access (EU
average 93%), while only 42% of them had broadband internet access
(EU average 69%).
With the advent of electronic distribution channels, visitors are
searching and booking online, customising their packages according to
their individual needs (Wang & Fesenmaier 2006). An accommodation
establishment that does not have an online presence will fail to even be
presented as an option to the visitor and as a result it will be omitted.
In an era that being online is not enough, tourism enterprises in
Cyprus need to establish strong online presence through online marketing
campaigns and modern distribution strategies (Marcussen, 2008). The
industry’s nature, however, along with the scarcity in availability of
qualified labour make this a very hard task for tourism enterprises in
Cyprus to perform. Cyprus was ranked 112th regarding the availability of
qualified labour in the Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2008
(World Economic Forum, 2008) scoring 4.7 out of 7.
The seriousness of the situation was recognised by the Cyprus
government, which recently established at the Cyprus University of
Technology the department of Tourism and Hotel Management where
higher level education will be provided to individuals for entering the
tourism industry.
Following a CTO’s initiative, a number of regional and thematic
tourism boards have been established in an attempt to resolve the
industry’s inherent problems. These tourism boards are being funded by
the CTO and are expected to resolve many of the industry problems that
are related to the limitations mentioned above.
Additionally, the Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Tourism has
published a subsidisation scheme through which SME’s may receive
funding for introducing ICT at three different levels. The first level
involves the introduction of basic ICT to the SME’s, while the second
level involves the establishment of a web presence. The third level
involves the introduction of business management applications as well as
electronic commerce solutions.
Furthermore, research and development projects that are funded by
the European Union’s Structural Funds, the Cyprus Research Promotion
Foundation and other funding organisations are continuously undertaken
by various institutions around Cyprus to promote the industry’s
dynamism towards adopting new marketing models.
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Through the actions taken, the tourism industry’s competitive levels
are expected to evolve and develop to an extent that will reflect its overall
maturity standards.
The CTO, aiming at enhancing the country’s tourism industry
electronic marketing deployment levels, is employing a utility business
model that will optimise the industry’s potential to engage in modern
electronic marketing activities. Through the framework for deploying a
utility business model, illustrated in Figure 2, the CTO aims to provide
the services that are required by the industry in a reliable and usable
environment (Malhotra, 2000). The provision of these services will be
facilitated by business partners through service level agreements that will
set the ground for a sustainable business environment.
Figure 2. Framework for deploying a utility business model
The proposed model aims to serve customers at all business levels
through three distinct customer service paths (Distribution Channels),
namely, Extranet - B2B, Intranet - B2E and Internet - B2C, as well as to
facilitate communities and transactions among customers (C2C).
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Haris Machlouzarides
The provision of content to the alternative customer segments will be
facilitated by a series of underlying media. The completeness, timeliness
and accuracy of the provided content will guide the quality of
communication during the process and will enable the facilitation of high
customer satisfaction levels.
A series of web-based applications will be utilised for processing the
customer requests and enable usable procedures that will facilitate task
oriented interactions. The procedures will relate to all stakeholders, whose
profiles will be securely kept in a central storage, which will be the
foundation of the proposed framework’s infrastructure.
Customers interacting with individual tourism businesses through the
electronic marketing channels that will be created by the utility business
model described above may be segmented based on their (Hass, 2005):
1. Accessibility; Ease to reach them efficiently,
2. Differential; Responsiveness differences to different
marketing mix,
3. Actionability; Product or service availability for segment,
4. Measurability; Ease to measure their size and purchasing
power,
5. Substantial; Size and profitability of the segment.
Segmenting customers based on the above criteria will enable
tourism businesses to formulate and refine customer profiles, which will
lead to personalised interactions. Tourism businesses, through deploying
the possessed knowledge about the specific customer segments, will be
able to dynamically optimise their marketing mix, towards providing
customised interaction experiences at an individual segment level.
The challenge encountered by the individual tourism businesses, in
the process of formulating their marketing action plans, is finding the
correct balance between traditional and modern marketing channels. The
implementation of a well-balanced marketing action plan that will involve
the exploitation of traditional as well as modern marketing channels will
significantly enhance the process of achieving the individual tourism
businesses’ marketing objectives.
Modern electronic marketing channels should be deployed to enable
the process of identifying and analysing specific target market’s demands
and distributing quality products and services to satisfy those demands,
providing customer value in pursue of customer satisfaction.
The distinguishing feature that electronic marketing channels provide
in contrast to traditional ones is the wealth of information that can be
generated during the process that can be deployed to enhance the
effectiveness of the channels at the velocity at which everything moves.
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Consequently, electronic marketing enabled marketing processes can be
constantly managed in an efficient manner towards achieving a
competitive advantage.
Tourism businesses will deploy electronic marketing methods to
manage their marketing processes by facilitating their relationships with
customers in pursue of sustainable tourism development. Individual
customer interaction with the individual tourism businesses’ electronic
marketing channels can be managed through the identification and
analysis of the individual behaviour and preferences, thus providing a
unique experience at every point of contact.
The ability of the tourism businesses to analyse, segment and target
customers in real time through the deployment of the utility business
model described above will enable the provision of unique customer
experiences, engaging customers, leading into strong customer
relationships. Operating within the strategic market – product segments
(CTO, 2004), the individual tourism businesses can further segment
customers based on their behavioural and preference patterns.
The analysis of the information about customer interaction through
the multiplicity of electronic marketing channels will enable the tourism
businesses to continuously refine individual segment profiles in an
attempt to enhance customer interaction. The outcome of the above
process will be the generation and management of strong customer
relationships towards achieving tourism businesses’ marketing objectives.
CONCLUSIONS
In pursuing the paradigm proposed, the CTO will manage to gain a
comprehensive understanding of customers’ expectations, which will
enable new strategic directions for facilitating their satisfaction. As a
result, the destination’s marketing operations will be optimised, impacting
positively the sustainable development of the Cyprus tourism industry.
The proposed paradigm is premised on the belief that in a highly
competitive business environment, the only way forward for the CTO is
by maximising the effectiveness of its marketing efforts worldwide. This
could only be achieved through the integration of its marketing processes
and the facilitation of the industry’s marketing processes for enabling the:
• Improvement of the destination’s communication efficiency with
its customers,
• Enhancement of the destination’s brand image,
• Enrichment of customer service through alternative marketing
channels,
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Haris Machlouzarides
•
Facilitation of customer profiling and the achievement of
relationship marketing,
• Improvement of knowledge distribution across the tourism
industry,
• Reinforcement of tourist loyalty as a result of increased customer
satisfaction.
The interactive nature of electronic marketing actions will assist the
CTO in the process of identifying its customers’ preferences for
delivering value adding services, towards building long term relationships
with them. In the process of pursuing a customer orientation strategy, the
Cyprus tourism industry is advised to segment customers according to
their value to the destination, so as to optimise the implementation of the
destination’s retention strategies.
Keeping and serving the right customers is a process that entails
reasonable understanding of their preferences towards delivering value
adding services. Appreciating customers’ variances on demographic and
experience variables will provide insights for the industry’s marketing
executives, towards planning and implementing effective customer
acquisition and retention strategies. Segmentation of customers should be
connected to customer behaviour profiling in order to derive knowledge
about the range of value adding services that are expected to be delivered
to specific customer segments.
During the process of realisation of the proposed paradigm, the
industry should continuously evaluate the outcomes against the relevant
objectives to ensure its effective implementation. Reconsidering value
adding services and understanding customers’ current needs as well as
anticipating their future desires are among the critical criteria that need to
be assessed in order to stay competitive in the modern marketplace.
Therefore a key factor for the successful attainment of the destination’s
strategic objectives is the synchronisation of the electronic marketing
activities with the traditional marketing activities.
Hence, the CTO should create holistic marketing plans that should
involve a comprehensive approach that will lead to customer engagement
through a combination of integrated marketing activities. This will drive
the industry towards serving the customer’s preferences more efficiently
and will enable new strategic directions for benefiting the destination
from enduring customers’ relationships.
Through the integrated marketing approach, the CTO will manage to
establish a common knowledge repository which will enable the
derivation of valuable conclusions about understanding customers’
preferences and segmenting them according to their value to the
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destination. The integration of knowledge management models with the
CTO’s strategic objectives will enable the execution, management and
monitoring of integrated marketing campaigns across alternative
communication channels that will facilitate interaction with the customers
in an attempt to satisfy their varying needs at a personalised level.
By enabling the provision of integrated marketing services to the
customers, the CTO will manage to improve customer satisfaction and in
extend build long lasting relationships with customers towards gaining a
competitive edge.
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SUBMITTED: MAY 2009
REVISION SUBMITTED: SEPTEMBER 2009
ACCEPTED: OCTOBER 2009
REFEREED ANONYMOUSLY
Haris Machlouzarides ([email protected]) is an IT eMarketing
Officer at the Cyprus Tourism Organisation, Marketing Department,
Lefkosia, Cyprus.
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IMAGES OF EGYPT IN UNITED KINGDOM TOUR
OPERATORS’ BROCHURES
Sabreen J. Abd El Jalil
Minia University
1
Tour operators and travel agents play a double role as distribution channels and
image creators with tourist brochures playing an important role in the image
creation process. This paper assesses tourist images of Egypt in the United
Kingdom through content analysis of the brochures of United Kingdom tour
operators using 35 image attributes which are rated on a 5-point Likert scale.
Most of the brochures in the United Kingdom market present Egypt and its
physical attractions - beaches, historical sites, luxury accommodation - extremely
positively although clearly they have a vested interest in doing this. They are
however silent on certain aspects of the destination which have received negative
comments in the literature - the real lifestyles of local people and their
friendliness and hospitality, the local cuisine and safety and security.
Keywords:
Brochures, content analysis, Egypt, tour operators, tourist
image, UK tourist market
JEL Classification: L83, M1, O1
INTRODUCTION
Competitive advantage not only depends on the quality of a
destination’s tangible attributes but also on the quality of its intangible
attributes, such as service quality and image (Hernadez-Lobato et al.,
2006). The success or failure of destinations depends on their images in
the minds of potential tourists abroad and the effective management of
those images by destination managers (Sonmez and Sirakaya, 2002).
Egypt as a tourist destination has been unable to achieve its tourist aims
and has not maintained a good share of the international tourist market,
despite its unique tourist attractions. This may result from its tourist
image abroad.
Formal information sources, such as brochures, have an important
impact on image formation of a destination (Beerli and Marten, 2004).
© University of the Aegean. Print ISSN: 1790-8418, Online ISSN: 1792-6521
179
Sabreen J. Abd El Jalil
According to Molina and Esteban (2006) tourism brochures have a direct
influence on destination image formation and on the destination choice
process. Destination marketers need to understand what to include in
brochures, before placing their promotional strategies in tourist markets.
The aim of this paper is to assess tourist images of Egypt as a tourism
destination in the UK tourist market. The assessment is undertaken
through a review of the relevant destination image literature and content
analysis of UK tour operators’ brochures collected from travel agencies in
UK high street travel agencies. 35 image attributes are identified and
rated on a 5-point Likert scale. The paper concludes that while the
brochures are extremely positive about Egypt’s physical attractions beaches, historical sites, luxury accommodation – they are silent on some
aspects of the tourism product which have received some negative
comments in the literature.
LITERATURE REVIEW
Tourist image is considered an important aspect of a country’s
general image. Every destination has an image, but some destinations
have stronger images than others (Sonmez and Sirakaya, 2002; Marino,
2008). The intangibility of tourism products means that their image is the
only way which potential tourists have of comparing destinations and
choosing between them and therefore it is important to create and transmit
favourable images to potential tourists in target markets (O’Leary and
Deegan, 2005; Marino, 2008). Hernadez-Lobato et al. (2006, p.344)
define tourism destination images as ‘a mental schema developed by a
tourist on a basis of impressions’.
Studies of destination images can be traced back to the 1970s, when
Hunt examined the role of image in tourism development (Hunt 1975
cited in Ekinci and Hosany, 2006). Many researchers have discussed
image formation components, for instance Gartner (1993) and White
(2004) explain that images are formed by three different but interrelated
components: cognitive, affective and conative. Gunn (1988a; 1988b)
demonstrated also that images are conceived at a number of levels,
namely, organic, induced and modified-induced. Gunn also argues that
images are slow to change, so regular assessment is very important.
A clear understanding of tourist images of a destination is essential
for developing successful marketing strategies (Sonmez and Sirakaya,
2002). Kokosalakis et al. (2006) assert that destination marketers should
promote destination images distinctively enough to achieve competitive
advantage and that they should direct the image marketing campaigns not
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only at potential tourists but also at residents. Molina and Esteban
(2006:1041) emphasise that ‘destination image is formed from
communication inputs throughout one’s lifetime, including suggestions
made by family and friends, television programs, movies, books,
magazines, guides, brochures, and advertisements’. Brochures as a means
of promotion play an essential role in the formation of the tourist’s
destination-induced image (Sirakaya and Sonmez, 2000).
Tourist images of Egypt
Tourism in Egypt has suffered from neighbourhood security and
international and national political crises. The number of tourists
decreased during the Second Gulf War (1990-1991). Numbers also
decreased in 2000 as a result of the Al-Aksa Intifada in Palestine (Steiner,
2007) and in 2002 during the American invasion of Iraq. Egypt’s tourism
statistics still suffer from poor security in the Middle East region (e.g. as a
result of Israel and the ongoing Palestinian problem). The terrorism
attacks on the World Trade Centre in New York on 11 September 2001
similarly had a negative impact on tourism in Egypt with the number of
tourists decreasing by over 50% (Mansfeld and Winckler, 2004; Steiner,
2007).
Egyptian tourism has also suffered from national crises, such as the
terrorism attacks which targeted tourists from 1990 to 2006. Of these, the
most damaging crisis occurred in Luxor in 1997 when 58 tourists were
shot by terrorists and resulted in large numbers of tour operators
cancelling their reservations for the 1997/1998 season (The Specialist
National Councils, 1998). Some tourist-generating countries, such as
Japan and Switzerland, issued statements warning their citizens against
travelling to Egypt (El Beltagy, 1998) and hotel occupancy in Luxor and
Aswan reached its lowest levels ever at only 10% (Awad, 1998). These
tourism crises negatively impacted on the tourist images of Egypt in
international tourist markets.
According to Baloglu and Mangaloglu (2001) tourist images of Egypt
in the United States have both positive and negative attributes. For
instance, Egypt was perceived to score well in terms of its historical and
culture attractions, accommodation, value for money, friendly people,
beautiful natural attractions and good climate. However it was scored
badly in terms of its local food, nightlife and entertainment, personal
safety, good quality of infrastructure and standards of hygiene and
cleanliness. Baloglu and Mangaloglu (2001) demonstrate also that the
most frequently-mentioned positive responses for Egyptian image
181
Sabreen J. Abd El Jalil
attributes were historic, ancient ruins, archaeology, old, fascinating,
exciting, stimulating, exotic, colourful and attractive. The most
frequently-mentioned negative responses were dangerous, unreliable,
militaristic and terrorism.
The importance
intermediaries
of
the
destination
image
held
by
Potential tourists usually have limited knowledge about tourist
destinations not previously visited from media and tourist intermediaries
(Um and Crompton, 1999). Baloglu and Mangaloglu (2001) emphasise
the importance of destination tourist images held by tour operators and
travel agents in the tourism distribution and information system. Tour
operators and travel agents are opinion formers for their consumers - their
images about destination have an important influence on the decisionmaking processes of potential tourists (Lawton and Page, 1997).
Therefore in the destination selection process, tour operators and travel
agents play a double role as distribution channels and image creators.
They present new definitions of the destination tourist product for their
consumers, rather than presenting the tourist product according to
consumers’ perceived images (Reimer, 1990). Local tourist intermediaries
in Egypt do not have enough power to independently enhance or modify
the destination image. They depend on cooperation with international
tourist intermediaries and media in major tourist markets (Steiner, 2007).
Tourism Brochures as images creators
Despite the development of electronic information sources for
tourism activities, public authorities in charge of tourism development
and mega tour operators still allocate enormous sums to the production of
brochures (Segui-Llinas and Capella-Cervera, 2006). It is argued that
potential tourists compare tourist brochures then make their choice for a
preferred destination (Molina and Esteban, 2006). Potential tourists use
an affective choice mode for expressing destination attributes, such as the
pictures in brochures, and an information-processing mode to evaluate
attributes, such the price and the quality of tourist facilities (Goossens,
1994). Tain-Cole and Crompton (2003) assert that tourism brochures
should meet three main objectives and influence: image formation;
destination choice; satisfaction.
Molina and Esteban (2006) assert that destination image formation
can be predicted by only two attributes of brochures: luring and sense of
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wonder. They argue that the brochures are a conventional communication
tool frequently used in public and private tourism activities and brochures
are designed to be informational, promotional, and lure. Andereck (2005)
is convinced that tourism brochures have more influence on
inexperienced tourists than repeat tourists.
Many researchers ranked brochures as one of the most important
information sources for tourist attractions, for instance O’Leary and also
Andereck and Caldwell 1993 (cited in Andereck, 2005) ranked brochures
as the third most commonly-used information source by tourists.
Yamamoto and Gill 1999 (cited in Andereck, 2005) found brochures to be
one of the two most important sources of information for Japanese
tourists. Andereck (2005) reported that brochures were ranked the fifth
most-common source of information. Researchers have analysed tourism
brochures from different perspectives - some of them focusing on the
brochure text and others focusing on the pictures. Tuohino, (2001)
analyses destination images in two ways: images of tourism professionals
and images of tourist brochures. The brochure analysis focuses on the
picture-text relation as well as on the general appearance and style of the
brochures.
METHODOLOGY
The research out lined in this paper was based on an analysis of the
tourist images of Egypt presented by tour operators to the UK tourist
market. Selected sample of brochures to be analysed were produced by
main tour operators in the United Kingdom tourist market. Seventeen
brochures, most of them produced by Thomas Cook, Thomson, Kuoni
and Airtours for the 2008/2009 season, were collected from local travel
agents located in three major United Kingdom cites: Cardiff, Liverpool
and London. The brochures selected were divided into two categories: the
first category included Egypt together with other country destinations
destinations, the second presented Egypt as a specific destination.
The research survey focuses on the brochure pictures and textual
comments. After reviewing other image attributes and measurement
scales (Echtner and Richie, 1991; Getz and Sailor, 1993; Baloglu and
Mangaloglu; 2001; Hayes and Macleod, 2006; Molina and Esteban, 2006;
Marino, 2008), 35 image attributes were selected for investigating the
tourist image of Egypt (see Table 1). Each attribute was rated by the
researcher on a 5-point Likert scale (very positive, positive, neither
positive nor negative, negative, very negative). A sixth ‘not applicable’
category was offered for image attributes.
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Sabreen J. Abd El Jalil
Table 1. Attributes used to measure tourist images of Egypt in 17
brochures produced by UK tour operators
Attributes
Natural attractions
- Coral reefs
- River Nile
- Beaches
- Desert (Safari)
Rich landscape
Historical attraction
- Pyramids
- Ancient
- Temples
- Tombs
- Islamic Architectures
(Cairo)
Accommodation facilities
Weather
Local food (cuisine)
Value for money
Active
tourism
(sports
activities)
- Diving
Local infrastructure
Safety and security
Unpolluted environment
Night
life
and
entertainments
Hygiene and cleanliness
Friendly and hospitably
people
Local life and customs
Shopping facilities
Luxury
Magical,
majestic,
memorable
Mysterious, unique
Festival,
events
and
conferences
Relaxing and comforting
Sunny
Luxor
Red Sea
Camels
This study used content analysis as an unstructured technique to
measure tourist destination images as presented in tourist brochures of
Egypt. Albers and James (1988), Crompton (1979 cited in Jenkins, 1999),
Pritchard (2001) and Segui-Llinas and Capella-Cervera (2006) also used
this technique to analyse tourism brochures to measure destination
images. According to Finn et al. (2000 cited in Segui-Llinas, and CapellaCervera 2006) content analysis is a quantitative means of analysing
qualitative data by counting frequencies in categories with different
meanings. Pine and Gilmore (1999) suggest that content analysis of
brochures and leaflets should integrate both qualitative and quantitative
dimensions. Jenkins (1999), Hall and Valentin (2005) and O’Leary and
Deegan (2005) indicate that the content analysis technique can be used to
analyse written and photographic information, such as guidebooks and
tourism brochures. They also highlight that content analysis can provide a
great deal of information about the image projected of tourist destinations.
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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Visualization of the Egyptian tourist product was presented through
photographs and these were supplemented by textual comments. Most of
the brochures (94%) emphasised the enjoyability of tourist places in
Egypt. In general positive images of Egypt as a tourist destination were
presented by the United Kingdom tour operators’ brochures. All the
brochures focused mainly on beach tourism, as well as historical tourism.
The brochures emphasised on the luxury accommodation (96%).
Historical and ancient tourist images were the most popular images
although some brochures (24%) such as Kouni (2008), Airtours (2008),
and Thomson (2008) refer to the diversity of the Egyptian tourist product.
For instance the Thomson brochure commented that:
When you picture Egypt what springs to mind? Rippling
desert sands? Majestic pyramids? The River Nile? Well
think again, because these days it’s all about the beaches. A
relaxing alternative to the fabled treasure of ancient Egypt,
the fashionable resorts that make up the Red Sea Riviera are
now considered to be the place to holiday. You’re talking
luxurious hotel complexes, golden sandy beaches, and, of
course, diving centres.
(Thomson, 2008:16)
Most of the brochures focused on the Pyramids (88%) and temples
(78%). This is not unusual - many tourist destinations marketing
strategies spotlight their cultural and heritage attractions (Kokosalakis et
al, 2006). Bryce (2007) demonstrated this also in his study emphasising
that Egypt was presented and promoted in European tourism brochures
with two dimensions - ancient Pharaonic Egypt and modern beach
(sun/sand/sea) tourism. The Pharaonic, the oriental and the mystery
images are the dominant popular images of Egypt. The River Nile is
presented positively in about half of the brochures. It is always linked to
cruises and Luxor city which is presented very positively in all brochures.
Islamic images of Old Cairo are also presented positively in some
brochures (35%) through photographs of Islamic architecture. The
images of Cairo and the rest of Egypt in all the brochures were dominated
by camels and Pyramids. The brochures used words such as: magical;
majestic; memorable; mysterious; unique, to describe the historical and
natural tourist attractions of Egypt.
Although all brochures showcased the superb beaches in the Red Sea
region, only half of them commented on the coral reefs as underwater
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attractions. Some of them (33%) demonstrated diving activities.
However not one of the brochures mentioned the north-western coastal
resorts on the Mediterranean Sea. Hence the image of Egypt as a
destination for the sports activities (active tourism) focuses only on the
Red Sea resorts. The tourist image of Egypt constructed through
photographs of historical and recreational landscapes is not connected to
local people, local culture and local identity. In other words the Egyptian
tourist image is mostly based on physical landscape rather than Egypt’s
rich cultural heritage and its local people, local culture and local
identities.
There were no local people at all in the most of brochures (80%), if
local people were shown it was in a negative terms - of poor people and
dirty children in crowded streets, but images of the wider cross-section of
real local people and real lifestyles was not presented in the brochures.
There are no textual comments or photographs showing local people and
tourists interacting in most of the brochures (79%). Some of them (21%)
present Bazaar sellers and camel owners dealing with tourists. Thereby
images of Egypt’s friendly and hospitable people are not presented in
brochures. This may impact negatively on perception of safety because
depicting local people with tourists in the same picture gives a feeling of
safety and security, especially in destinations such as Egypt which have
suffered from different tourism crises, particularly terrorism. One
brochure also refers indirectly to the unsafe situation in Egypt through
publishing the address of internet site (www.fco.gov.uk) which provides
advice tourists before they travel. In August 2008 this site warned
potential tourists not to travel to Egypt because the risk of terrorism
remained.
Apart from night shots the weather was always shown as being
sunny. This may reflect two images: positive for beaches and negative for
historical sites in summer when temperatures can soar. All the brochures
focused on the desert landscapes of Egypt but only a few (18%)
demonstrates positively the desert tourist activities, such as safari tours
and Bedouin tent celebrations. Most of the brochure pictures (88%)
referred positively to the unpolluted environment. All brochures
demonstrated a very positive image of Egypt as a value for money
destination through explicit comparison of the prices of tourist
programmes and tourist nights in Egyptian hotels with prices in other
comparable destinations. The brochures emphasise that these destinations
do not have the same attractions as Egypt but their prices are higher than
Egyptian prices.
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Some negative attributes of the tourist image of Egypt are missing in
the United Kingdom tour operators’ brochures. Most of the brochures
(88%) did not mention the Egyptian local food as a key part of the total
tourist product. This may be so as not to draw attention to negative
images relating to low standards of hygiene as mentioned by Baloglu and
Mangaloglu (2001). The standard of local infrastructure and
transportation is not mentioned or pictured at all in the brochures - again
this may be because of perceptions of its low standards. Similarly most of
the brochures (82%) did not focus on the night life or entertainments.
Although Egypt has many Bazaars in all its tourist places, many of
the brochures did not picture or comment on these shopping facilities. It
may be that these retail outlets do not have a good relationship with the
tour operators producing the brochures. Many modern and new aspects of
the Egyptian tourist product - festivals, conferences, bird watching, diving
to observe ancient architecture underwater - are not pictured or
commented on at all in the brochures,. Most of the brochures (88%)
portrayed tourists either singly or in couples. The United Kingdom tour
operators’ brochures are clearly not aiming the Egyptian tourism product
at families - this may give the impression that Egypt not suitable for
family tourism.
CONCLUSION
The research investigates the tourist image of Egypt held by the
United Kingdom tour operators through analysis of a sample (17) of their
brochures. A 5-item Likert scale was developed to content analyse 35
Egyptian image attributes. Clearly the tour operators producing the
brochures have a vested interest in the consumer purchasing the tourist
products portrayed and therefore are likely to be silent on any negative
aspects of the destination image. They are extremely positive about
Egyptian physical tourist attractions (e.g. beaches, historical sites,
accommodation). They are silent on the real lifestyles of Egyptian local
people and their friendliness and hospitality, Egyptian cuisine, the safety
and security. This echoes Baloglu and Mangaloglu (2001) observation on
the food and security. One of the tour operators (First Choice) protected
the company by making reference, albeit in small print, to the foreign aid
commonwealth office website which provides travel advisors for UK
citizens. In terms of the diversity of the Egyptian tourism product the
brochures sell the destination short - they do not draw attention to certain
tourist products, such as the attractions of the birdwatching, the potential
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of Egypt as a conference destination, festival tourism or desert tourism
(safari).
The managers of the tourist product in Egypt should pay attention to
the quality of the local infrastructure and the quality of the tourist services
and facilities to realise the tourists’ satisfactions. Thereby they can
modify and enhance their tourist image. According to Marino (2008),
natural and manmade (physical) tourist resources available in the
destinations can assure comparative advantage. But to assure competitive
advantage needs more ability to use and manage these natural and manmade resources over the long term. Destination managers also need to
manage their relationship with United Kingdom tour operators and try to
complete the blanks on missing image attributes and enhance negative
image attributes. The marketers of the Egyptian tourist product should
establish and manage an image strategy for the United Kingdom market
and other key international tourist markets based on the promotion,
pricing and distribution channel efforts.
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SUBMITTED: APRIL 2009
REVISION SUBMITTED: AUGUST 2009
ACCEPTED: SEPTEMBER 2009
REFEREED ANONYMOUSLY
Sabreen J. Abd El Jalil ([email protected]) is a Lecturer at
Minia University, Department of Tourism Studies, Minia University, El
Minia, Egypt.
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ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The author would like to thank Professor Eleri Jones, Director of
Research at Cardiff School of Management, UWIC for her helpful
comments and support for completion of this paper.
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HOW THE LANGUAGE WORKS: A BIOGRAPHY OF
HEGEMONY
Maximiliano Korstanje
University of Palermo
1
The following notes of research are aimed at disusing succinctly how language
works into a tourist organization founding hegemony, conflict and a hierarchal
order among involved groups. Basically, it contains the own individual
experiences in a rent a car organization where English language is taken not only
as a skilful instrument for work but also in a real mechanism to maintain
hegemony over the rest of staff. Methodogically, we conducted an ethnographic
from 2004 to 2008 in well famous rent a car company who authorities asked us
not to reveal the real name. Hypothetically, we will call this company as
Rentaldays. Findings should be circumscribed and interpreted in the contexts
wherein they have been examined.
Keywords:
Tourism - English – Hegemony – Ethnography Rental Company
JEL Classification: L83, M1, O1
INTRODUCTION
Recently studies had devoted many attention in emphasizing that
acculturation is present in the encounter among hosts and guests (Dann,
2005) (Schluter, 2005) (Nash, 2001) (Maccannell, 2003) (Santana, 2006),
however less attention was given to the influence of languages in process
of governance inside the tourist system. Therefore, language looks to be
an essential aspect in human life since it assigns sense to our
phenomenological world. Everything beyond the boundaries of languages
is impossible to be reconstructed by our brain. Not only languages
determine our behaviour in social life reinforcing solidarity and
reciprocity but also generate conflicts and exclusion for out-group
members.
Daily, tourist professionals are in touch with people who speak with
more than one language. As an institution that generates social well© University of the Aegean. Print ISSN: 1790-8418, Online ISSN: 1792-6521
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Maximiliano Korstanje
being, tourism is encouraged by countries as a form of alleviating poverty
and offsetting the economic imbalances (Cala, 2003) (Santana, 2006)
(Douglas, 1996). In recent years, anthropology focuses on how
“demonstration effects” in residents allow them adopting from their
guests certain practices that not always are positive (Buckhart and
Medlik, 1974) (Kadt, 1995) (Santana, 2006).
As the previous argument given, this piece is aimed at describing our
individual experiences in a tourist organization situated in rent-a-car
market in Buenos Aires wherein English skills have been recently
considered as exclusive criterion in the process of recruitment. However,
these new measures based on the necessity of professionalization will
contrast with older workers who had a weak knowledge of such a
language. That way, it is hypothesized that English is working as an
hierarchal instrument whose end is to maintain hegemony from an elite
over the rest of staff. Methodogically, we have conducted ethnography
from 2004 to 2008 inside a famous rent a car company whose authorities
asked us not to reveal the real name.
Under such a circumstance, this company will be termed as
Rentaldays. The following findings are only general and part of a greater
investigation approach.
THE INITIAL DISCUSSION
As earlier noted, language should anthropologically be deemed as a
system formed by symbolic components that human being recur to better
their own interaction (Bram, 1961). In Berger and Luckmann, language
comprises an expression of human ability of communicating. By means
of stereotypes, these complex systems contribute to re-construct previous
experiences according to a line denoting place and time issues. The sense
of words are understood in contrast with their opposite, for example white
only can be caught in relation with black while there is with here or today
with tomorrow (Berger and Luckmann, 1972). For that reason, language
becomes in a preliminary process for human socialization.
In spite of above mentioned issues, some groups intents to take the
power creating a distinction with the other members as a real hierarchy to
keep the own privileged rank in the society. In other terms, prestige and
social distinction works as mechanism that helps the elite monopolizing
hegemony over the rest of population. Under this circumstance, languages
are utilized as a way of distinction since it separates people according to
shared signs and codes (Veblen, 1974:403-406). In past, patricians in
Ancient Rome sent theirs sons to study in Greece whereas Indians learnt
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Persian as well as Arabic as an alternative option; besides Russian
aristocrats afforded to learn French as better form not to be understood
(Bram, 1961). Returning to the scientific discourse that nothing is bleared
in mind outside the mother tongue; in United States of America a
indigenous tribe well-known as Hopi does not use any words for denoting
time such as past, present and future; like it is distinction of this culture,
Hopi had not further reference about destiny or history but in contrast
they had 6 different words to refer shaking acts that western idioms
disregard (Saphir, 1941:80) (Lee Whorf, 1971: 245) (Schutz, 1974:20-50)
(Searle, 1997:28-35).
Nonetheless not all scholars support this thesis, Von Humboldt and
Terwillinger emphatisized each language is able to be translated (most
likely not literarily) without any problems. The fact is that languages are
capable to follow certain similarity and be conditioned by each
environment. In consequence, each word may be very well translated
from one to another idiom keeping differences of grammar but remaining
the essence (Humboldt, 1999) (Terwillinger, 1968). For D. Chandler,
even Saphir-Hypothesis appears to be illustrative there are some aspects
that would be kept on discussing. Initially, terms and words must not be
translated using the same construes but in many cases they would be
passed from one to another tongue utilizing analogical meanings
(Chandler, 2002). For better or worse, grammar and language provide
with some constructions which help developing the human environmental
adaptation; paradoxically, like culture the language ties but it divides at
the same time (Hall, 1989) (Keen, 1982).
The capacity to imagine our world is internalized historically inside
our psychological ego. Symbols and signs follow adaptation processes
(Green, 2002) (Casullo, 2004). Somehow, the name (as a code) is not
only capable to be analyzed but also provide with certain identity. In this
sense, the degree of acculturation in tourism may be very well studied
taking in mind three instances: a) ethnocentric, b) admiration and c)
curiosity. At first instance, whenever two unknown sides encounter each
other, one of them generate specific pretexts and excuses as to why the
proper culture is considered in superiority of conditions in comparison
with the others. That way, ethnocentrism is aimed at justifying
dominance-related practices, such as prejudice, discrimination and
sexism. In these lines of thought, Santana (2006) collected a couple of
studies wherein stereotypes turned in prejudices in residents at tourist
destination. The second typology appears when anyone or both groups
adopt unconditionally the foreigner cultural values regardless the possible
negative consequences; one example for this is the xenophile. Finally,
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Maximiliano Korstanje
curiosity refers when someone opted to interact with a third party moving
by curiosity and scientific knowledge. But ¿what does really happen when
tourists and residents face?.
Tourism: guests and hosts encounter
The urban rules put pressure on the workers determining certain style
of life in and beyond the “working contexts”; all who are inserted in a
stressful scenario will have to choice on their holidays destination situated
in remote sites. By the complexity at time of studying tourism social
issues separately. Social anthropology classifies the effects of tourism
development in two types: a) over certain territory wherein social
structure is modified and b) upon the role of tourists and their
expectations in holidays. Many have argued that (mentioning several
research examples) traveler practices produce negative effects on host
regions. Tourist system encompasses three parts: a) dynamic, b) static and
c) consequential (Santana, 2006).
Under such a context, Santana-Talavera argues that demand of
services and consumption in tourist-generating countries works as a
vehicle towards the dynamic of system while tourist-receiving countries
are characterized by having the population with their basic needs
unsatisfied. For instance, static component is made up for certain
attributes regarding local environment such as hotels, restaurants,
museums and attractions of other nature. Whereas modern citizens choose
paradisiacal destination for their vacations, peripheral communities do
their best to capture and capitalize such fluxes inside their tourist offering.
The last concept here appears to be related to entropy. By means of
that, the system in question is restored. The inequalities surfaced in the
interaction of guests and hosts are based in two mainstream causes: a) a
faster development and b) an alteration of customs and rules in the
residents. Some other key issues to emerge from studies in United States
and Europe prove that most rapid a tourist project is planned and finished
more likely to experience unwanted consequences (Santana, 2006).
Sometimes, hosts changed certain traditions or customs as well as proper
form of expressing themselves. By adopting a foreigner language, local
community experiences an acculturation process. Gradually, certain
words are replaced by common expression that alienates their own world.
As J. Derrida reminded, “the hospitality is linked to language” (Derrida,
2006).
This is the reason as to why a sustainable analysis must consider the
implicitness of language in hosts. Even though considerable attentions
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have been devoted to the relationship between hosts and guests interaction
on tourist destination, little attention was indeed given to the role of
language in acculturation process. The next lines of this notes of research
are a synthesis afterwards a work-field of four years. Technically, the role
of observer was occulted and systematically recorded using non-invasive
methodologies. For other hand, the observation totaled 1.000 days with
emphasis on January, February, March, August and November from 2004
to 2008. Additional information of this survey is aimed at focusing on
phenomenological theories.
How the language works
Rentaldays is Leader Company on rent a car trade for more than 10
years and have presence in almost 24 locations in Argentina and beyond.
Internally, the organization is based on three structures: one Chief
executive Officer, three Managers, 10 local supervisors and more than 70
agents.
The process of recruitment is defined in four stages: at the first phase,
the applicant is tested by a battery of psychology exams; once the
enrollment is formally done, the new employee is socialized about the
rules and procedures of the company emphasizing on the kindness with
the client. In a third and fourth facets, employees are guided by managers
to develop their own curricula. Formally, even though English is a
prerequisite for being part of rentaldays, upper-management gradually
opted not to follow all these inducement process in all cases. In part, this
was because the higher expenditures implied the contract of psychologists
and other experts. That way, in the lapse of one year (in 2005) only the
applicants to upper appointments were tested in other language and skills.
Furthermore, the scoring system, applied on employees by increasing
the degree of sales, played a key role in exacerbating the conflicts
between managers and agents. After further examination, since the system
of awards was expressed in money, agents not only increased their
efficiency in the attendance of renters but also used their language
limitations to force them to accept other optionals such as baby seats or
additional insurances. Of course, the terms and conditions of the
agreement between renters and company was orally explained and
accepted voluntarily by a sign. However, renters who do not communicate
in Spanish come across with a surprise at time of closing the rental.
Anthropologically, interviews demonstrated that agents constructed a
discourse to validate their practices with political reminiscences. To the
question about their resistance of learning English, agents answered a
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Maximiliano Korstanje
declination of their cultural identity in association with the policies of
United States in Middle East as a negative pretext of expansion. In other
cases, involved employees pointed out interests in learning a foreigner
language but have no time to accomplish their studies. Whatever the case
may be, their concerns were aimed at emphasizing the importance of
English’s advance in the business world.
On the other side of the river, managers stated that English is of
pivotal importance in future times not only to reinforce the bondage with
renter but also in promoting future appointments abroad. In fact, the
manager’s concerns stressed the possibility to work abroad in a country of
First World in United States of Europe where other subsidiaries of the
company lie. Unlike for agents in manager’s discourse, English was an
instrument for assuring a well-being beyond Argentina and widen the
possibilities for a potential migration. Quite aside from this, one of main
problems found in this organization was the dissociation between
instructions of managers as well as sales-related policies and the practices
followed by agents in all dimensions. These glitches were not provoked
by English it-self, but such an idiom broadened the gap between ones and
others.
As a result of this, at the bottom of pyramid we have found front desk
employees who have daily dealing with foreigner tourists. Even if it is
obligatory to contract employees with a good level, in fact only a 15% of
whole staff read, write and speak fluid in English. In past, customer
manager told informally us that many complaints would have been
avoidable whether front desk staff had enough knowledge of English to
bolster a conversation and capitalizes the needs of renters. At time of
returning at home, a considerable number of consumers do not know how
the rental charges composed are.
After further examination, English works in Rentaldays in two
different ways: for one hand, it encourages discrepancies between
customers and employees; as we have already noted, this point was
negative for the company since renters did not interpret how they were
charged after rental. For the other, we had found many instances wherein
the lack of English was an excuse to overcharge the renter and earn more
than due in commissions and fees. Basically, each time a Rental is opened
renter must sign an agreement where he or she engaged to honor all
clauses specified there as well as all preferred optionals. Once signed the
agreement, renter had not any right to claim. The document in question
was entirely written in Spanish and scarcely is being translated to English
in writing. In case of legal disputes, agents provide with signed
Agreement and renter is pledged to pay involuntarily.
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Four years of ethnography results in many interviews, observations
and dataset that were published in many other articles; most likely the
following lines will be fruitful for other researchers. In fact, findings are
obviously summarized because of time and space limitations:
CONCLUSION
It is not surprising that English was used into this organization as a
mechanism to create certain difference among all involved groups. The
surplus in this organization forced these groups not only enter in conflict
each other, but with renters. Under such a perspective, the privileged
groups have been observed promoting hegemony basing that distinction
on certain skills they manage such as English. Some employees (10 over
60) demonstrate to feel admiration by English but mysteriously have
several problems to understand and learn it (hegemony). A major part of
English speakers looked to despise the colleagues who lack of such
ability.
Based on a superiority criterion, English speakers earn wages more
than twice in relation with non-English speakers while these last ones
uses that for earning more over-commission fees. In a lapse of one year,
there would be computed more than 40 percentage of whole complaints
related to communication problems because of front-desk employees were
unable to speak English with foreigner renters. Finally, just a couple of
interviewed employees (5 over 60) lacked of interest in learning English
whereas only 2 (over 60) rejected the financial possibility given by the
company to conduct futures courses in such a idiom (resistance). By the
way, all efforts for the organization to provide to staff a course to learn
English failed because of different reasons. Higher rates of absence in
agents were found. This means that event though company made the
pertinent arrangements for these courses, workers demonstrated any
interests in assisting. The encounter between guests and hosts facilitate
diverse internal process of hegemony, cohesion as well as resistance
around certain skills but in detriment of others.
All these outcomes were not only interesting since there is no
previous background in tourism literature about how language creates in
organization certain hierarchal circles but also may open still to be
investigated in futures approaches. Immediately, there would be some
surfaced questions: ¿how may Spanish work in English speaker tourist
organization?; ethically, ¿is the language an instrument for creating
hegemony or an excuse to take advantage from absent-minded
outlanders?.
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REFERENCES
Berger, P. & Luckmann, T. (1972). The Social Construction of Reality. Buenos
Aires, Amorrortu.
Bram, J. (1967). Language and Society. Buenos Aires, Editorial Paidos.
Buckhart, A. & Medlik, S. (1974). Tourism: past, present and future. London,
Heinemann.
Cala, B. (2003). Una mirada antropológica a la Institución social del turismo.
Revista Pasos, Vol. 1, No.2, pp.173-180.
Casullo, M.M. (2004). El Nombre del hijo: paternidad, maternidad y
competencies simbolicas. Psicodebate, Vol. 4, No.2, pp.2-10.
Chandler, D. (2002). Semiotics: the basics. Londres, Routledge.
Dann, G. (2005). The theoretical State of the State-of-the-Art in the sociology and
anthropology of tourism. Tourism Analysis, Vol. 10, No.1, pp.3-15.
Derrida, Jacques. (2006). The Hospitality. Buenos Aires, De la Flor Edition.
Douglas, M. (1996). How Institution think. Madrid, Alianza Editorial.
Green, A. (2002). Idées Directrices pour une psychanalyse contemporaine. Paris,
Presses Universitaires de France.
Hall, E. (1989). Beyond Culture. New York, Anchor Books.
Humboldt, Von W. (1999). Humboldt on language: on the diversity of human
language construction and its influence on mental development of the
human species. Cambridge, Harvard University Press.
Kadt, de E. (1995). Tourism ¿a passport to development?. Perspectives about
social and cultural effects in developing countries. Madrid, Endymion.
Keen, E. (1982). A Primer Phenomenological Psychology. Lanham, University
Press of America.
Maccannell, D. (2003). The tourist, a new theory of leisure class. Moia, Ed.
Melusina.
Saphir, E. (1941). Language, Culture and Personality. Menasha, Saphir Memorial
Publications.
Santana Talavera, A. (2006). Anthropology and Tourism: ¿new hordes, old
cultures?. Madrid. Ariel Editors.
Schluter, R. (2005). Hospitality and Tourism Research. Buenos Aires, CIET.
Schutz, A. (1974). El Problema de la Realidad Social. Buenos Aires, Amorrortu.
Searle, J. (1997). La construcción de la Realidad Social. Barcelona, Editorial
Paidos.
Terwilliger, R. (1968). Meaning and Mind. Londres, Oxford University Press.
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SUBMITTED: MAY 2009
REVISION SUBMITTED: JULY 2009
ACCEPTED: AUGUST 2009
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REFEREED ANONYMOUSLY
Maximiliano E. Korstanje ([email protected]) is a Lecturer at
University of Palermo, Department of Economics, Buenos Aires,
Argentina.
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TOURISM DEVELOPMENT AND RESIDENTS’
ATTITUDE: A CASE STUDY OF YAZD, IRAN
Hamidreza Rastegar
University of Pune
1
The Yazd residents look at tourism development with a promising future to bring
more income to the area that can be shared. Investors search to find new
attractive business and middle and low classes in the community look to find
better job opportunities. This paper assesses the attitude and perception of local
residents toward this fast growing industry and also their expectation of authority
regarding tourism development in Yazd city. A questionnaire was designed based
on five point Likert scale and total 320 usable questionnaires were collected from
local residents. Though the result shows positive attitude of local people towards
tourism development but they are not totally satisfied with tourism management in
the area.
Keywords: Tourism development, Yazd (Iran), Local residents, Attitude.
JEL Classification: L83, M1, O1
INTRODUCTION
In general residents’ attitudes towards tourism development can be
improved by increasing both tangible and intangible benefits that these
populations receive from involving directly in decision-making processes.
As Choi & Sirakaya (2006) indicate host community attitudes towards
tourism is one of important indicators for sustainable tourism
development. A number of factors can influence residences’ perceptions
about benefits of tourism development and, hence, the extent of their
support. Both community participation and recognition of the role of
traditional values consistently having recognized as a fundamental to the
success of development projects (Alexander 2000).
Stakeholder involvement in the tourism development is a critical
factor for success, yet there are many examples of local communities
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Hamidreza Rastegar
being excluded or only minimally involve in the initial planning and
management (Hough 1998; Jacobson 1991; West &Brechin 1991; Heinen
1993; Durbin & Ralambo 1994). There are different levels of people in
community which need different levers for motivation and satisfaction
which should be identified. Negative attitudes towards tourism
development often arise from poor relationship between local resident and
authority, problems with distributions of benefits to local population and
lack of local involvement in the decision-making and/ or management.
The key to successful implementation of tourism programs is in actively
addressing relevant factors with residence who traditionally have been
ignored but who today are recognized as the main stakeholders in the
process.
The study aimed to identify residence
a) attitude and perceptional towards tourism development,
b) feeling about management of tourism in the area,
c) involvement in tourism sector and receiving tangible and
intangible benefits and at the end,
d) suggest a strategic planning for sustainable tourism development
in the area.
LITERATURE REVIEW
As travel and tourism industries are among the words fastest growing
industries and are the major source of foreign exchange earning for many
developing countries (Megan Epler Wood 2002), it is very important to
study socioeconomic impact of these industries. Community participation,
a Western paradigm in natural resource management and utilization, is
currently much discussed in sustainable tourism development research
(Agrawal 2000, Archabald and Naughton-Treves 2001, Brohman 1996,
Inskeep 1991, Prentice 1993, Simmons 1994 and Straede and Helles
2000).
It is thought that only when local communities are involved in
decision-making, can their benefits be ensured and their traditional
lifestyles and values respected (Gunn 1994, Lankford and Howard 1994,
Linderberg and Johnson 1997, Mitchell and Reid 2001, Sheldon and
Abenoja 2001, Timothy 1999 and Wells 1996). Ashley and Roe (1998)
suggest that tourism can involve and affect local residents without being
driven and controlled by community and therefore there can be many
forms of their involvement. These may include a range of involvement
from passive to active and include lease agreement, concessions,
partnership and active involvement in businesses. Involvement of local
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community can have many positive incomes include: a) public values and
opinions are incorporated in the decision-making process ( Beierle 1998,
Carmin, Darnall & Mil Homens 2003) b) new ideas are generated
(Carmin, Darnall & Mil Homens 2003, Fiorino 1990) c) empowerment of
community (Scheyvens 1999) d) a cost effective process ( Beierle 1998)
e) a reduction in conflict and lawsuits (Beierle 1998, Carmin, Darnall &
Mil Homens 2003, Simrell King & Feltey 1998, Steelman 2001).
Usually the local government is responsible to introduce and
implement the program in the area but there is seldom perfect relationship
between key stakeholders. Finding out the local resident attitude towards
tourism development can be a proper way to understand the success of the
program in the area that have been previously discussed by researcher
such as Ross (1992), Ryan &Montgomery (1994), Mac Cool & Martin
(1994), Hernandez et al (1996), Lankford (1994) and Lankford & Howard
(1994). All these studies shows local people have more positive attitude
towards tourism development when they have right to involve in
decision-making and management of the programs. Unfortunately there is
lack of research on tourism development in the selected study area which
leads to a sustainable tourism development.
STUDY AREA
Officially the Islamic Republic of Iran and formerly known
internationally as Persia (from 600 BC until 1935), is a country in Central
Eurasia located on the northeastern shore of the Persian Gulf and Oman
Sea and the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. Iran is the 18th largest
country in the world in terms of area at 1,648,195 km², and has a
population of over seventy million.
With a long-standing and proud civilization, Persian culture is among
the richest in the world. Two and a half millennia of inspiring literature,
thousands of poets and writers, magnificent and impressive architecture,
live customs dating back to Zoroastrians over 3000 years ago, and other
unique characteristics of the nation are rivaled by only a few countries. It
is rich with the history of humanity and has a high concentration of
archaeological sites ( Zendeh Del 20001). Among the ceremonies still
being held are Norouz (Iranian New Year), Charshanbeh Suri (last
Wednesday of the year), Sizdah Bedar (thirteenth day of spring) and
Yalda Night (the longest night of the year).
The province of Yazd is situated in center of Iran with area of 73467
km2. The capital of the province is Yazd with the population of more than
505,037 people, located 1230 meter above the sea level with mean annual
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Hamidreza Rastegar
temperature and precipitation of 18.9 C0 and 64mm (NGDIR 2009). The
province of Yazd is dry for two basic reasons, firstly Yazd is located on
the arid belt of the world, and secondly is very far from Persian Gulf,
Oman Sea and the Iranian lakes, as well as the humid currents of the sea.
One of the important factors which makes the weather moderate and also
suitable for living, is being surrounded by high mountains, which affect
the weather.
Beautiful green valleys, wonderful country sides, marvelous springs,
pleasant peaks and hill sides, caves, protected wild life fields (the
protected wild areas "Kalmand" and "Bahadoran" with and area of 250
hectares and the protected area of "Kooh Bafq& areez" with an area of
100 hectares are very interesting for their location on the edge of the
central desert of Iran which caused an unique varieties of desert plants
and animals like: Asiatic cheetah, wild goat and so on) and more
importantly the wonderful desert views of the province are very attractive
for foreign and domestic tourists. Cultural attractions of the province are
remarkable. The rich legacy of the people’s culture shows nice and old
traditions of the Zoroastrians as well as the now Muslims which consist
together a marvelous tourism attraction. The native Zoroastrians of the
province hold their traditional ceremonies in different occasions every
year, and observing them doing so, is attractive for tourists from different
cultures. The native Zoroastrians of the province still speaks their old
language and practice all their traditional ceremonies in that language.
The old part of city is made out of clay and adobe; it seems that it has
risen out of sand. Yazd's architecture is unique. During its long history,
Yazd and its residents have adapted themselves to the desert surrounding.
Majority of international tourists, who enter Iran, visit Yazd as a historical
city. According to Yazd provincial Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and
Tourism Department, during March 2008-2009, 28,521 foreign tourists
and 202,615 Iranian tourists toured historical monuments and natural sites
in Yazd province. Moreover most of the international visitors were from
European countries including Germany, France, Spain and Italy as well as
Asian states of China, Japan and Korea in addition to several African
countries. The province has more than 2,800 beds in 40 hotels (Yazd
province had only 25 hotels in 2005, which increased to 40 in 2008) (Iran
Daily 2009).
METHODOLOGY
A questionnaire was designed to measure the attitude of local people
about tourism activity in the area and socio-cultural impacts of these
activities in Yazd. In the first step one rapid approach to the main
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tourist’s areas of Yazd was done to get familiar with the area and the
situation of tourists activities over there. All the items of the interest were
measured using a multiple-item measurement scale. All measures used a
five-point likert-type response format; with strongly agree to strongly
disagree. A list of measurement item was developed using from the
review of the literature related to this study. All the questions were
translated from English to Persian to ensure the respond can understand
them correctly and each questionnaire was filled by an interview up to 30
minutes. From 350 questionnaires, 320 usable questionnaires were
completed for analyzing. Apart from this questionnaire informal
interviews were done by author with local people and tourism authority of
Yazd city. The study was done during May and June 2008.
RESULT
The majority of respondent are male with 61 percent and 39 percent
female answered the questions. The level of education shows 27 percent
under diploma, 43 percent diploma, 23 percent bachelor, 6 percent master
and 1 percent have doctorate degree. The age group of the respondents
shows 33 percent between 15-25, 50 percent between 25-40 and 17
percent have 45 years old and above.
In term of income only 15% have income of less than 250$ per
month 49%, 250$ to 500$ and 36% having more than 500$ per month.
Regarding employment 26% indicate that they have jobs related tourism
activity, however it shows the direct employment in tourism sector and by
considering the indirect engagement the number will increase. There are
different engagements in tourism sector among respondent like: working
in the kitchen of the hotels and restaurants, working as guide and owning
souvenir shops. Majority of respondent (76%) mostly young people
(85%) vote in favor of tourism activity and development in the area. The
main reason for their support of tourism development is creation of job
opportunity (37%) and more income (25%) and 71% indicate that tourism
is one of the most important factors for development in the area. However
most of old people (above 45) believe it has negative impact on local
culture. The main complain about tourism activity by respondent is
negligence of local people as a main stakeholder by authority that kept
them away of decision making in the tourism policy and programs. The
shopkeepers believe that their association must have more authority to
decide about the future programs related tourism activity. The main
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Hamidreza Rastegar
concern for employee in tourism sector is off-season and some look at it
as a temporary job.
CONCLUSION
The study shows the expectation of young people in the community
of tourism is high and they believe that this sector should bring a
significant change to their lives. The old people look at it with more
doubt, especially when it comes to cultural changes that may tourism
bring to the area. Failure to identify the interest of even a single primary
stakeholder group may result in failure of the entire process (Clarkson
1995). Tourism has been known to trigger a cascade of social, ecological,
cultural and economic changes not easily managed by local residents
(Belsky 1999). As tourists enjoy in local area and use local sources for
completing their enjoyment and travel, they are also in charge of local
people and their culture and heritage. Awareness of tourists affects their
behavior towards local community and indigenous people. The growth of
the industry in urban destinations presents various challenges such as
protection of environment, conservation of heritage, preservation of social
fabric and cultural values, and maintenance of a desired quality of life for
residents (Timur & Getz, 2008)
Yazd city has many attractions for different kinds of tourism
especially heritage tourism. Addition to this most of the local people have
positive attitude about future of tourism in their area and look at it with a
promising future. It can be a gold opportunity that must be used by
authority to develop the sustainable activity in the area. But involvement
of local people in decision-making is less and it caused dissatisfaction in
the area. However overview of peer-reviewed articles, Agrawal and
Redford (2006) found that newly generated local jobs and incomes
were the most common “indicators of success” but it alone cannot ensure
the sustainable tourism. Problem of off season and fluctuating in income
in the area can come from lack of awareness about nature of tourism
among those who are involved in this sector. In this condition during low
season cash flow ends and financial incentives disappear and the members
of community who are involved in the tourism activities will receive less
income during the low season. This problem can be like an epidemic
which destroys all same genes in one area. When people shift entirely
from other income sources, they become vulnerable to boom-bust cycle
and seasonal fluctuations of the tourism markets (Elper Wood 2002). So
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fluctuation in tourist numbers is a disadvantage for those household not
receiving income from other productive activities.
According to Scheyvens (1999) there are four kinds of empowerment
which can help local communities to reduce the negative impacts of
tourism in their area such as: economical, psychological, social and
political empowerments. Local community need to be empowered to
decide what forms of tourism facilities and programmes they want to be
developed in their area, and how the tourism costs and benefits are to be
shared among different stakeholders.
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Belsky, J. (1999). Misrepresenting Communities: The Politics of CommunityBased Rural Ecotourism in Gales Point Manatee, Belize. Rural Sociology,
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Brohman, J. (1996). New Directions in Tourism for Third World Development.
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Choi, H.C. & Sirakaya, E. (2006). Sustainability indicators for managing
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Durbin,J.C. & Ralambo, J.A. (1994) The role of local people in the successful
maintenance of protected areas in Madagascar. Environmental
Conservation, Vol. 21, pp.115-120
Epler Wood, M. (2002). Ecotourism: Principles, Practices and Policies for
Sustainability. New York, United Nations Publications.
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Fiorino, D.J. (1990). Citizen participation and en-vironmental risk: A survey of
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Gunn, C. (1994). Tourism Planning: Basics, Concepts, Cases. Washington DC,
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Heinen, J.T. (1993). Park- people relations in Kosi Tappu Wildlife reserve, Nepal:
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Hernandez, S.A., Cohen, J. & Garcia, H.I. (1996).Residents attitudes towards an
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Hough, J.L. (1988) Obstacles to effective management of conflicts between
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countries. Environmental conservation, Vol. 15, pp.129-136.
Inskeep, E. (1991). Tourism Planning: An Integrated and Sustainable
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SUBMITTED: AUGUST 2009
REVISION SUBMITTED: JANUARY 2010
ACCEPTED: FEBRUARY 2010
REFEREED ANONYMOUSLY
Hamidreza Rastegar ([email protected])
Environmental Sciences, University of Pune, India.
Department
of
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BOOK REVIEW
1
Cultures of Mass Tourism
Mike Crang, Pau Obrador Pons & Penny Travlou, editor (2009).
Ashgate
Extant work on mass tourism has centered on the notion of
unreasonable demands of mass tourists on the host community and
environment impacts. It has mostly projected hosts as the vulnerable
population. Against the stereotype image of the mass tourism phenomena,
the editors of ‘Mass Tourism’ offer a unique and interesting perspective.
Social and cultural discourse beyond the mundane and stereotype
assertions is offered in a conceptual and exploratory manner. The editors
argue that “dominant perspectives on tourism have failed to provide an
adequate basis for exploring the cultural dimension of mass tourism”
(2009:3). To address this lacuna, their book focuses on the mundane and
banal aspects of mass tourism and provides an insight into the some of the
key sites of mass tourism such as the villa, the swimming pool, the beach,
the island, the resort and the coastal hotel.
The book presents selected pieces of work which focus on mass
cultures and cultural implications of mass tourism. Chapter two examines
the recent progression of Moroccan mass tourism towards a ‘cultural
tourism of sorts’ and the government’s attempt to shrug off the ‘mass
tourism destination image. The new tourism plan focuses on promoting
Morocco as a cultural tourism destination of the Mediterranean. As
articulated by the authors, “the aim of this new vision is to create a new
culture of hospitality able to accommodate mass arrivals from Europe,
new, more sophisticated, expressions of colonial aesthetics and new forms
of secure and easy-to-reach Oriental exoticism” (Minca and Borghi
2009:23). The authors examine contents of different promotional material
employed to project this image and reflect on the sale of this colonial
nostalgia strategy and its applications for contemporary Morocco thereby
implying a new cultural turn in Moroccan mass tourism. Crang and
Travlou (2009) in chapter three unpack the discourse on how beach and
scenery images are produced for mass tourists. Competing and
complementary imagery of Corelli’s island as a landscape and as a beach
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Deepak Chhabra
resort, produced by the film of Captain Corelli’s Mandolen, the book, and
touristic experience on the island, is discussed.
Chapter four titled presents a discourse on the contested practices and
imaginations of an island that has received extensive visual
representations by film media and tourism promotion images. It presents
the way the beach and scenery are unpacked for tourists. The
Mediterranean destination depicts plural messages as a result of select
film exposure and tourism media. The author maintain that not only do
the tourism promotion and “film both refigure the island but also incite a
desire to visit or explore the island, they are doing so as part of the
ongoing discourse of Greekness, Mediterranean-ness and indeed the
nature of holidays.” (Crang and Travlou 2009:77). It is argued that
meanings and sense of place can be blurred through multiple story
narrations. Tourism creates a spectacle and myth of destinations and what
is viewed is a landscape is filtered through media and film perspectives.
The concept of ‘phantasm’ is introduced. What is mass tourism is a
mediated phenomenon, both from the perspective of mass tourists’
disposition and the supplier initiatives.
Pons in Chapter five highlights the significance of coastal hotels and
the hotel pool as a tourist experience. The author argues that mass tourism
is justified only on the basis of economic principles and continues to be
labeled as a corpse providing mundane and banal experiences. The author
argues that mass tourism spaces are inhabitable and carry a stigma with
them. Research is conducted at two hotel pools to draw attention to “the
pressures and pleasures of sociality which inhabit the coastal hotel and
reflect on the nature of social relations between people in the highly
commodified and fleeting environments of mass tourism” (Pons 2009:92).
According to the author, mass tourism environments are capitalist spaces
discarded as ‘unhomely and vacant” (Pons 2009:94) and this has led to an
unprecedented increase in the development of generic landscapes which
can be termed as ‘uninhabitable spatialities.’ The author rather presents a
pessimist picture of coastal hotels and labels them as “sites of pure
coincidence, a spatial desert, trackless and depthless” (Pons 2009: 94).
The ethics of conviviality and mundane forms of hospitality are
emphasized. The authors examine the mundane, fleeting, and fun seeking
experiences of mass tourism at the Mediterranean using the lens of neotribalism which creates fluid, spontaneous and ephemeral gatherings. The
example of the hotel pool is used to demonstrate notions of conviviality
and hedonism. This is portrayed as promoting negative forms of
relaxation, liberation and retreat. Pool, in this context becomes a cultural
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laboratory subject to gazing, contrived sociality of landscape, and banal
projections of fun.
Issues of familiarity associated with mass tourism are discussed in
Chapter six. Highly desired quotidian rituals define the daily life such as
having drinks and conversations together, thereby conveying a sense of
the familiar. The beach is encountered as a familiar place, thereby
implying acceptance of a number of activities and ways of seeing,
smelling, touching, listening, and moving around deemed to be
appropriate, natural, on that beach such as visiting the beach every
morning at around the same time, walking in a certain manner, looking at
the sea and people in specific way etc. (Caletrio 2009:117). The author
further introduce the concept of ‘elective belonging’ and argue that
“attachment to a place is not derived from a familiarity with a face-to-face
community but from a relational sense of place, a capability to assess a
place in relation to others and fit one’s biography within its social,
economic, and cultural dynamics” (2009:121). Resorts are thereby
projected as ‘complex entities.’
Chapters seven and eight focus two distinct tourist segments:
residential tourists and youth tourists. Chapter seven examines the
behavior, disposition and experience of British migrants in Spain. It
presents an interesting insight into the mindset of this category of visitors.
A double edged relationship with Spain is “circumscribed by the fact that
for them Spain symbolizes holiday and escape but they insist they are not
tourists themselves” (O’Reilly 2009: 130). At the same time, “they
declare a love of Spain while reminding each other that they are guests
here” (2009:130). Costa del Sol residential tourism is both “co-created
and co-creating” in the sense that the “second home owners joined by
retirees, bar and restaurant owners and other needed to provide services,
and as time passes, younger immigrants join” (O’Reilly 2009: 135). The
settled tourists further facilitate migration of others and this is a never
ending cycle of interaction with the Mediterranean landscape and
modification of it and the self. Many times, these residential tourists play
the role of hosts but continue to carry the feeling that they are guests
themselves, thereby balancing their experience act. Chapter 8 focuses on
the mobility of another category of mass tourists- the youth tourists and
examines why they travel. Concepts of liminality and hedonism are
examined to explain what motivates youth tourists to travel to unattractive
crowded places. Knox places them in the ‘serious tourist’ category in their
pursuit of popular cultural tourism. They carry the familiar and exotic
with them such as garage music and clubbing while at the same time
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Deepak Chhabra
demanding a taste of him by demanding authentic British foodstuffs in
Greece.
Today mass tourism has now branched out in multiple directions. It
has created a serious form of youth leisure, a cultural setting and a place
for hedonic fun such as swimming and sunbathing. The editors conclude
by emphasizing that mass tourism has its own story to tell from historical
and spatial perspectives. They argue that “mass tourism in the
Mediterranean is not a free floating phenomenon that is imposed on the
destination but is closely tied to the place and the landscape where it
occurs” (Pons, Crang and Tralou 2009: 169). The book proposes a
situated thinking approach to understand how tourist activity is grounded
within a social and geographical environment in the Mediterranean.
In summary, this book facilitates a dialogue between the culture of
mass tourists, the visited landscape and its suppliers. It is both thoughtful
and thought provoking and will benefit the graduate and scholarly
audience. The presentation is of high quality although at some stages,
content in some chapters is repeated and fails to grasp attention. A more
pronounced case study-based discourse might have addressed this issue.
In sum, the authors’ contribution in moving beyond the popular discourse
and myth of mass tourism is noteworthy. Some of the notions set forth by
this volume can be extended through future scholarship by first dispelling
the notion of banality and hedonism sought by mass tourists. Mass
tourists are not homogeneous although they comprise of large numbers of
people who move in a short space of time to places of leisure interest. Just
because all happen to be at one place at the same time and present a
crowded image facilitated by ease of access and carefully crafted
distribution and promotional strategies of international or national
operators, does not mean that their activities are banal or they seek the
mundane.
Deepak Chhabra
Deepak Chhabra ([email protected]) School of Community
Resources & Development, Arizona State University, Phoenix.
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BOOK REVIEW1
International Business Travel in the Global Economy
Jonathan V. Beaverstock, Ben Derudder, James Faulconbridge,
Frank Witlox, editor (2010).
Ashgate, Surrey, UK
Although globalization, technology, management and other many
trends are mushrooming the size of business travel, there is a lacuna in the
literature addressing this market segment. In this vein, the aim of this
book is to explore the role, the nature and the impacts of business travel in
the twenty-first century by including most of the important debates
associated with the causes, motivations for and the measurement of
business travel. To achieve that, the book is consisted of 12 chapters
contributed by twenty international researcher with various backgrounds.
Book chapters provide a wide and multiple perspective of the factors
influencing the nature, flows and impacts of business travel including
sociology, management and globalisation factors, technology factors (e.g.
aircraft technology and information & communication technology),
political factors (e.g. air sky liberalisation) and economic factors (e.g. fuel
costs). The book chapters are structured into three sections addressing the
following three major topics: a) the role of the airline industry in the
international business travel and the changing nature of provision; b) the
role of mobility in international business activities; and c) the sociology
of international business travel, its role and effects in the global economy.
All chapters are well written in an easy-to-read format and structure
providing practical and research evidence of their arguments as well as a
wide literature review of the topic that they analyse.
The book starts with an introductory chapter written by the book
editors (Jonathan V. Beaverstock, Ben Derudder, James Faulconbridge
and Frank Witlox) explaining the aims and the structure of the book.
The first section of the book consists of four chapters exploring the
forms and geographical spatialities of business travel. The chapter written
by John Bowen gather and debate data showing the spetial development
of airline business class services, while the chapter by Ben Derudder,
Lomme Devriendt, Nathalie Van Nuffel and Frank Witlox examines the
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Marianna Sigala
validity of "busines class air travel" data for studying the geography of
"business travel" at large and presents an analytical framework that allows
for meaningful comparisons of the spatiality of different types of travel
flows. The next chapter contributed by Jonathan Beaverstock and James
Faulconbridge, reports on some of the most important characteristics of
the patterns of overseas' residences' business visits to the UK and UK
residences' business visits abroad from late 1970s onwards. The last
chapter of this section, written by Lucy Budd and Phil Hubbard, focuses
on the growth of an emerging form of business travel namely private-jet
and it examines its consequences on the networked geographies of the
global economy.
The second book sections includes three chapters exploring the
mobility regimes and requirements of firms. The first chapter written by
John Salt explores business travel within the broader portfolios of
mobility developed by large international companies that serve several
roles such as career development, project planning and implementation,
staff rotation and attendance of a wide range of meetings. The second
chapter contributed by James Wickham and Alessandra Vecchi
contextualise the taxonomy of business travel by presenting findings of a
case study about the business travel of an Irish software company that
show that business travel replicates rather than destabilizes managerial
hierarchies. The last chapter written by Sven Kesselring and Gerlinde
Vogl examine the social consequences of the intensification and
extensification of corporate travel activities for employees.
The four chapters in the third section of the book examine the causes
and consequences of business travel. The first chapter written by Aharon
Kellerman sets the scene by comparing business and leisure travel at the
international level from several basic perspectives: motivations and goals,
relative magnitude, spatial patterns and interrelationships between both
types of travellers. The second chapter written by Claus Lassen
conceptualises business travel as a structural output of work and business.
The chapter uses data from international business travel amongst
knowledge workers in two Danish organisations in order to demonstrate
that the travel needs of international professionals should be understood
in conjunction with a number of social obligations and compulsions of
face-to-face meeting. The next chapter written by Andre Jones continues
the debate that the motives for international business travel are much
more complex than an amorphous set of "work requirements" by
examining the nature, form and function of mobility in the professional
business service sector. The last chapter written by John Martin Denstadli
and Mattias Gripsrud assess the qualities of video-conferencing and
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information and communication technologies for evaluating their four
potential impacts (i.e. complementary, substitutional, modification and
neutral) on business travel.
Overall, this is an easy-to-read book that provides under one cover a
rich set of international studies showing the size, nature, motives and
impacts of business travel. The book nicely integrates theoretical
concepts, analytical tools and research findings from many disciplines and
perspectives for broadly analysing the phenomenon of business travel.
Overall, the book provides a nice rethinking and update of business travel
in the twenty-one century. The book constitutes a comprehensive
reference book and useful source of numerous studies to graduate
students, university faculty, and professionals alike that are interesting to
study and further understand the crucial market segment of business
travel.
Marianna Sigala
Marianna Sigala ([email protected]) is an Assistant Professor at the
University of the Aegean, Department of Business Administration, Chios,
Greece.
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BOOK REVIEW
The cultural life of Automobile: roads of cinetic modernity
1
Giucci, Guillermo, editor (2007), University of Quilmes Press
The present review focuses on the work of Guillermo Guicci
regarding the cultural and historical life of automobile in modernity, an
interesting research published recently in 2007 by the University of
Quilmes Press, Argentina. On his introductory chapter, author argues that
cars symbolized a social upward for people who lived in the lapse from
1900 to 1940. Following this, he sees in the car, a machine which has
transcended the boundaries of economies, languages and times. Basically,
this new invention not only saved the time of many workers but also
entailed new paradigms associated to more freedom, prestige,
independence and autonomy. Most certainly, automobile should be
seriously considered as a way of emancipation that has been characterized
the life of many generations throughout the world.
Under such a context, in first chapter Guicci examines the historical
origin of Henry Ford as the father of cars and mass-production. Even
though Ford has not invented the automobile in such, he extended and
developed its usage for all population inside United States and beyond. In
general, declared as a staunch enemy of history, Ford decided to create a
new cult that exacerbates the role played by technology and future in the
life of lay-people. His success, of course, was associated to his intention
to improve the style of life in consumers who were relegated to
peripherical position in the market. From Ford´s point of view, a
sustainable system of production should be only possible in combination
with other factors such as: an increase in salaries and a subsequent rates
reduction. Finally, in 1942 Ford released his book entitled My life and
Work wherein he emphasized that work was part of human’s nature as
well as technology was a vehicle towards the happiness and development.
However, his thesis rested on shaky foundations.
In the second and third chapter, Giucci addresses the question as to
whether the Ford´s industries fascinated people within United States. In
particular, Ford encouraged tours-related yields wherein visitors can
observe how a car was assembled. These sites promptly were visited by
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Korstanje, Maximiliano E.
miles of tourists who contemplated astonished how these devices were
created following the pattern of rationality. Like in Taylor and Fayol,
Management literature owes an immense gratitude to Ford because he
was the first owner in promoting a coordinated performance at work.
Even though, there was not occurred a set of conditions for the expansion
of cars in the third-world, outside United States, distributors sold their
products from Rhodesia to China. In the case of Latin America, wherein
the instable political regimes in combination with a poor road net, the
automobile was not adopted until 1930. The moot point here was that
local managers not only were astonished by the opportunities of this
device, but also they travelled to Detroit to learn the different involved
processes in assembly. For 1960, the society takes a critical view about
automobile since certain problems such as traffic jams, accidents and
pollution surface. In regards to this, crashes cars, a popular game among
our children, was an invention of Ralph Nader who concerned about the
risks of driving. For other hand, Giucci reminds us that from that decade
onwards, many scholars devoted considerable attention in studying the
negative effects of cars in daily social life, ranging from Braudillard to
Mcluhan. That way, terms such as alienation, mass-consumption,
capitalism, human’s degradation and destruction are some association that
scholars and journalists linked to automobile.
For that reason, it is not surprising that in fourth chapter, our author
analyzes the different factors that constituted cars in a symbol of massconsumption in our modern times. At a first glance, aristocracies began to
drive long distances as a form of social prestige and distinction.
Undoubtedly, novelty played a pivotal role in such a process. Secondly,
sellers organized public events such as traces and exhibitions in the
different cities of Latin America with the end of promotion and
advertising. As a result of this, automobile was a thing notably valorized
as an instrument for people to demonstrate their outstanding feats; routine
and monotony in daily work found in driving a new way of recreation. A
couple of year later, it became in a sign of sport and healthy whenever the
first international trace, Paris-Bordeaux-Paris, appeared in 1985.
Lastly, in posterior chapters Giucci brings into view that automobile
jeopardizes the role played by tradition and static since it promises a new
form of mobility wherein the symbolic distinction prevails. Rapidly,
nature is being transformed as a tourist attraction and at the hands of cars
emerge the camping grounds self-oriented to recreation and resting
purposes. Just there, where certain distrust characterized the view of
people against primitivism, today natural and stenographic landscapes are
lived as a form of staged-authenticity.
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Giucci emphasizes that technological advances follow a previous and
contradictory dynamic of production and acquisition. It is not surprising
that inventions imply a tension between groups which pursue traditional
and social upward interests. Even if, as he acknowledges the automobile
was an inescapable reality in the inception of XX century, the promises of
social upward wakes up resistance and distrust of conservative sectors. In
consequence, advertising investments aims at imposing the massconsumption as a form of emulating success while automobile diversifies
into many models and sizes. Each one of them had a clear message:
displacement was not only a way to divide the importance of people but
also a ritual for achieving the happiness. As a whole, Giucci once and
once again throughout the book argues that automobile in western –and
the world- generated a real technical-productive revolution wherein legalrational logic paved the pathway for the advent of cinetic modernity.
We have so far highlighted all points of this interesting book as
objective as possible. Also we strongly believe that professor Giucci had
the enough merits to consider his work as one of best studies of
automobile written in Spanish. Basing his observations on a combination
of historical, bibliographical, photographic and literature evidence, Giucci
sets forward a well-researched investigation relating the historical
background of modernity and automobile. Nevertheless, some issues
should be re-considered in the light of a critical point of view. From a
general perspective, after further examination Giucci does not explain
how and why automobile worked as a reproducer of modernity by
imposing cultural changes such as the passion for vertigo and speed. In
part, that seems to be the point since author gives excessive importance to
the role played by this engine in the modernity’s inception. As one of
many other technical advances, the automobile is not other thing than a
part of a broader process which culminates with capitalism. Secondly, this
work would be improved whether author introduces in his development
statistical information regarding the level of production in the time-frame
he is considering. In other words, there is no evidence that outlines a
scientific correlation between the emergence of automobile and
modernity. From the beginning to the end, Giucci handles a set of
narrations and tales that sound convincing and intend cyclically about the
same, but do not prove the afore-mentioned hypothesis.
Korstanje, Maximiliano E.
Korstanje, Maximiliano E. ([email protected]) is Lecturer at
Palermo University, Department of Economics, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
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CONFERENCE REPORT
Tourism Away from the Mainstream: The Travel and Tourism
1
Research Association Canada Conference
The Canadian Chapter of the Travel and Tourism Research Association held its
2009 conference in Ontario, under the theme of “Tourism Away from the
Mainstream”. As a counter to the long established tradition of mass tourism, the
conference sessions explored new traveler demands for authenticity and unique
experiences, emerging destinations, and niche product offers. Researchers and
marketers must address critical issues such as sustainability, and develop new
and differentiated approaches in order to advance in the rapidly changing world
of travel and tourism. The conference highlights are shared in hopes of
supporting this direction.
Keywords:
conference report, niche tourism, TTRA
INTRODUCTION
The Canadian Chapter of the international Travel and Tourism
Research Association (TTRA), winner of the 2009 Best Chapter
Achievement Award, held its annual conference in Guelph, Ontario in
October 2009. The achievement award is presented to the chapter that
best furthers the mission of TTRA through spirit, innovation,
effectiveness and creativity. The Canadian chapter conference is the
association’s primary means of fostering the value and use of quality
tourism research and marketing, bringing together academics,
practitioners, and students in a forum of exchange.
The 2009 conference theme, “Tourism Away from the Mainstream”,
reflects both social and economic trends toward more individuality,
authenticity and unique travel experiences, encompassing emergent topics
such as niche tourism in urban fringes, cultural quarters and rural roads,
as well as a diversity of experiences ranging from sport to war tourism.
Even the conference location, 100 kilometers west of Toronto, is away
from urban crowds, in itself part of the appeal to seekers of an alternative
to mass tourism.
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Statia Elliot
The conference attracted 135 delegates, largely representative of
three groups of travel and tourism researchers: (i) college and university
faculty and graduate students, (ii) public sector bureaucrats from
municipal, provincial and federal organizations with tourism-related
mandates, and (iii) private sector research suppliers, consultants and
associations. The majority of delegates were Canadian, with coast-tocoast representatives from nine provinces and two territories, embellished
by a small contingent of Americans and one European delegate, Dr.
Dominique Vanneste, Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium, who has a
serendipitous link to Guelph. Poet John McCrae, author of In Flanders
Fields, was born in Guelph, and wrote his celebrated Remembrance Day
poem in Belgium while on active duty during World War I. Dr. Vanneste
presented her study of war tourism in the Conference Centre’s aptlynamed Flanders Room.
STUDENT EVENTS AND CASE STUDY
The TTRA Canada Chapter conference-related activities have grown
over the years, and in 2009 covered five days of events. Pre-conference,
the University of Guelph hosted an inaugural Undergraduate Tourism
Student Day for 175 delegates from 11 area colleges and universities.
The morning began with an inspirational presentation by Bruce Poon Tip,
founder and CEO of Gap Adventures. His dedication to communitybased tourism, the environment, and social justice charged the student
audience with ambitions to move tourism toward a better future. The
balance of the morning was dedicated to presentations of options for
graduate studies led by Dr. Marion Joppe, University of Guelph, followed
by a networking lunch. The afternoon presenters represented key sectors
of the tourism industry, including Chris Jones, Vice President of the
Tourism Industry Association of Canada, and Vicky Lymburner,
President of the Ontario Tourism Education Council. To match the
greater sophistication in tourism operations and marketing, the speakers
stressed to the students the need for skilled communicators, researchers
and managers, capable of thriving in an industry that is increasingly
competitive, wired, and global.
The next morning featured the fifth annual Student Research
Symposium, an opportunity for graduate students to present their thesis
research in a professional setting of peers. Eight student papers were
accepted for presentation and four for poster display. The best
presentation award was won by Stephen Gilmour, University of Waterloo,
for his study of Ontario snowmobile tourism’s response to climate
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variability and change. As a collection, the student work was reflective of
the shift from traditional tourism, with topics ranging from culinary
festivals to farm stays.
A popular component of the TTRA Canada Chapter Conference is
the Research Case Study.
Despite unseasonably cold weather,
participants toured an agricultural research station, brewery, farm, and
retail market to experience agri-tourism from field to plate. There is
nothing like a team building exercise through a corn maze in the cold to
bring delegates together! The case tour research component was extended
by featuring a culinary tourism panel as part of the main conference the
following day. Gastronomer Anita Stewart, restaurateur, Bob Desautels,
and entrepreneur Amy Strom of Strom’s Farm, a working farm but also a
significant farm attraction, shared their experiences in the
commercialization and marketing of local produce. With the growth in
food and wine tourism, and greater consumer awareness of, and interest in,
place origin, their timely stories illustrated the value and impact of
applied research to make food-related products and experiences marketready.
CONFERENCE SESSIONS
Given the extent of possibilities now open to tourism hosts and
developers, much research is needed to understand the behaviour of the
new tourist, and the viability of the new experiences. Table 1 lists the
topics of the conference sessions that took place over a two-day period,
delivered by over 50 presenters. The following is a summary of highly
rated sessions selected as illustrative of the type of research underway,
and the practitioner-focused outcomes of interest to both researchers and
marketers.
Table 1. TTRA Canada Chapter Conference 2009 Session Topics
Aboriginal Eco-Tourism
Cultural Tourism
Culinary Tourism
Emerging Markets
Global Tourism
Heritage Tourism
Hospitality, Food and Beverage
International Tourism
Issues and Trends
Marketing and Management
Measuring Tourism
Niche Tourism
Rural Tourism
Shades of Tourism
Tourist Behaviour and Motivations
World Heritage Tourism Research
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Statia Elliot
A highlight of the conference was the opening keynote address,
delivered by Dr. Eddie Friel, Expert-in-Residence at the Hospitality and
Research Center, Niagara University, titled “Reinventing places: the
challenges of a post industrial age”. More than ever, places today have to
identify why anyone should be interested in them. Increasingly, the unit
of analysis of economic performance is the city region. Dr. Friel not only
entertained with humor, personal stories and genuine sensibility, he
illustrated the import of arts and cultural industries, and the potential of
small communities by sharing his own experiences in Glasgow and
beyond, where he has helped redefine place.
Another highlight was the Tourist Behaviour and Motivations session.
University of Calgary graduate student, Vincent Tung, presented his
thesis research on the essence of a memorable travel experience. Tung
identified salient travel experience factors by analyzing the content of 208
interviews to identify the most frequently recollected elements of a
destination. He found social and family experiences to be most salient,
and recommends an integration with specific destination activities (e.g.
sightseeing, hiking, camping, skiing, shopping, gambling) to create
effective memory points.
The Niche Tourism session was also highly rated by attendees.
Presentations included an assessment of the Prince Edward County Taste
Trail, a self-guided culinary route along the north shore of Lake Ontario
(by Richard Wade, Hersch Jacobs and Karen Pun, Ryerson University).
Surveyed trail users, though hard to find, were highly satisfied with the
trail, the published trail guide, and the trail wineries. The assessment also
surveyed retail operators, the majority of whom recognized the
importance of locally sourced products, and producers, who
acknowledged the financial benefits of the trail, albeit a small percentage
of income for most. Another noteworthy presentation by Tony Fisher,
Canadian Sport Tourism Alliance, explored the differences among sport
tourists. Lastly, Scott Forrester and Martha Barnes (Brock University)
examined the impacts of an artificial white-water river development that
was a catalyst for revitalizing a decaying downtown urban core, and
linking together an extended park system, as a case study of municipal
revitalization.
The Emerging Markets session was led by Kent Stewart, Western
Management Consultants and colleagues, and effectively told the story of
how the Canadian Badlands, an emerging destination, moved from
strategy to action. Dave Pierzchala of Ipsos Reid provided a quantitative
look at how Canadians are looking to new markets as they tighten their
belts during economic strive.
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The Cultural Tourism and Rural Tourism sessions explored the
challenges of attracting travelers to unique tourism experiences, such as
cultural festivals in multi-ethnic neighborhoods of Toronto (McClinchey
and Carmichael, Wilfrid Laurier University), genealogy tourism in Nova
Scotia (Darlene MacDonald, Department of Tourism, Culture and
Heritage), and cultural tourism in Colombia, where several challenges
hinder tourism development, including lack of community preparedness,
lack of resources, intrusion of outside groups, and fragmentation of
interests (Blanca Camargo, Texas A&M University).
Individual sessions of note included a study of two dark tourism
attractions in Winnipeg, Manitoba by Laura Jane Bissell and Kelly
MacKay (University of Manitoba). An assessment of visitor motivations
to a cemetery and a ghost tour resulted in relatively low scores of dark
motives on a motivation scales, suggesting that these particular sites, like
many, are paler attractions. Jackie Dawson (University of Waterloo) and
colleagues studied last chance tourism and found that for visitors to the
‘polar bear capital of the world’ in Churchill, Manitoba, the vulnerability
of polar bears in the region was motivation to view the bears before they
are gone. The paradox of last chance tourism is that as tourist demand
increases for endangered destinations, so too does the speed of their
demise.
The second keynote was a particularly strong address by Allan Gregg,
Chairman, Harris/Decima. Gregg, one of Canada’s most respected
research professionals and political analysts, looked from our past to the
future of tourism, connecting the economy, public opinion, business and
government issues. The conference ended with a plenary session on the
World Heritage Tourism Research Network. Spearheaded by Dr. E.
Wanda George, Mount Saint Vincent University, this international
initiative of Canadian and international social scientists have launched a
collaborative and comparative research program focused on growing
concerns associated with the UNESCO World Heritage designation. The
network explores the complex relationships between heritage planners
and tourism destination managers to advance understanding of issues
critical to the future of world heritage sites. Post-conference, Parks
Canada hosted a satellite session, where a small group of delegates
discussed current research initiatives pertinent to parks.
CONCLUSION
While Tourism Away from the Mainstream covered a range of topics
relevant to this thematic field, the commonalty evident across the
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Statia Elliot
conference presentations was the significant shift in product focus,
traveler behaviour, and critical issues. The traditional approach to
maximizing visitation at a sun, sea or surf destination is changing,
affected by new demands for unique and memorable experiences, the
challenges of global warming, environmental and social equity, and
greater opaque and connected networks. These concurrent influences are
a call for researchers to explore, and a call for marketers to develop new
and differentiated strategies.
The dialogue has started, but we have
much more to talk about, at TTRA’s Canada Chapter Conference in
Quebec City, October 2010.
Statia Elliot
University of Guelph
ENDNOTES
The accepted refereed submissions are available to conference attendees
and members. For more information about TTRA’s Canada Chapter, visit
http://www/ttracanada.ca.
Statia Elliot ([email protected]) is an Assistant Professor at the
University of Guelph, School of Hospitality and Tourism Management,
Canada.
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FORTHCOMING EVENTS
60th AIEST Congress, “Tourism development after the crisis: Coping
with global imbalances and contributing to the millennium goals”,
Johannesburg, South Africa, 12-16 September 2010. For more
information visit: http://www.aiest.org
EuroCHRIE 2010 Conference, “Passion for hospitality excellence”,
Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 25-28 October 2010. For more information
visit: http://www.eurochrie2010.nl
ATLAS Annual Conference, “Mass tourism versus niche tourism”,
Limassol, Cyprus, 3-5 November 2010. For more information visit:
http://www.atlas-euro.org
Consumer Behaviour in Tourism Symposium, organised by the Free
University of Bozen-Bolzano, Bruneck/Brunico, Italy, 1-4 December
2010. For more information visit: http://cbts2010.unibz.it
ENTER 2011, “e-Tourism Conference: Present & Future Interactions”,
Innsbruck, Austria, 26-28 January 2011. For more information visit:
http://www.enter2011.org
5th International Conference on Services Management, New Dehli,
India, 19-21 May 2011. For more information visit: http://www.jsriimt.in/sconf2011
Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Management & Marketing,
Istanbul, Turkey, 19-24 June 2011. For more information visit:
http://lists.wsu.edu/mailman/listinfo/httrc
I-CHRIE Annual Conference, Denver, Colorado, 20-23 July 2011. For
more information visit: http://www.chrie.org
2011 Conference on Social Media & Tourism, Verona, Italy, 21-23
October 2011. For more information visit:
http://www.cpe.vt.edu/mpd.htmsocialmedia/index.html
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TOURISMOS
An International Multidisciplinary Journal of Tourism
AIMS & SCOPE
TOURISMOS is an international, multi-disciplinary, refereed (peerreviewed) journal aiming to promote and enhance research in all fields of
tourism, including travel, hospitality and leisure. The journal is published
by the University of the Aegean (in Greece), and is intended for readers in
the scholarly community who deal with different tourism sectors, both at
macro and at micro level, as well as professionals in the industry.
TOURISMOS provides a platform for debate and dissemination of
research findings, new research areas and techniques, conceptual
developments, and articles with practical application to any tourism
segment. Besides research papers, the journal welcomes book reviews,
conference reports, case studies, research notes and commentaries.
TOURISMOS aims at:
•
•
Disseminating and promoting research, good practice and
innovation in all aspects of tourism to its prime audience
including educators, researchers, post-graduate students, policy
makers, and industry practitioners.
Encouraging
international
scientific
cooperation
and
understanding, and enhancing multi-disciplinary research across
all tourism sectors.
The scope of the journal is international and all papers submitted are
subject to strict blind peer review by its Editorial Board and by other
anonymous international reviewers. The journal features conceptual and
empirical papers, and editorial policy is to invite the submission of
manuscripts from academics, researchers, post-graduate students, policymakers and industry practitioners. The Editorial Board will be looking
particularly for articles about new trends and developments within
different sectors of tourism, and the application of new ideas and
developments that are likely to affect tourism, travel, hospitality and
leisure in the future. TOURISMOS also welcomes submission of
manuscripts in areas that may not be directly tourism-related but cover a
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topic that is of interest to researchers, educators, policy-makers and
practitioners in various fields of tourism.
The material published in TOURISMOS covers all scientific, conceptual
and applied disciplines related to tourism, travel, hospitality and leisure,
including: economics, management, planning and development,
marketing, human resources, sociology, psychology, geography,
information and communication technologies, transportation, service
quality, finance, food and beverage, and education. Manuscripts published
in TOURISMOS should not have been published previously in any
copyright form (print or electronic/online). The general criteria for the
acceptance of articles are:
• Contribution to the promotion of scientific knowledge in the
greater multi-disciplinary field of tourism.
• Adequate and relevant literature review.
• Scientifically valid and reliable methodology.
• Clarity of writing.
• Acceptable quality of English language.
TOURISMOS is published twice per year (in Spring and in Autumn).
Each issue includes the following sections: editorial, research papers,
research notes, case studies, book reviews, conference reports, industry
viewpoints, and forthcoming events.
JOURNAL SECTIONS
Editorial
The Editorial addresses issues of contemporary interest and provides a
detailed introduction and commentary to the articles in the current issue.
The editorial may be written by the Editor, or by any other member(s) of
the Editorial Board. When appropriate, a “Guest Editorial” may be
presented. However, TOURISMOS does not accept unsolicited editorials.
Research Papers
For the Research Papers section, TOURISMOS invites full-length
manuscripts (not longer than 6000 words and not shorter than 4000
words) from a variety of disciplines; these papers may be either empirical
or conceptual, and will be subject to strict blind peer review (by at least
three anonymous referees). The decision for the final acceptance of the
paper will be taken unanimously by the Editor and by the Associate
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Editors. The manuscripts submitted should provide original and/or
innovative ideas or approaches or findings that eventually push the
frontiers of knowledge. Purely descriptive accounts are not considered
suitable for this section. Each paper should have the following structure:
a) abstract, b) introduction (including an overall presentation of the issue
to be examined and the aims and objectives of the paper), c) main body
(including, where appropriate, the review of literature, the development of
hypotheses and/or models, research methodology, presentation of
findings, and analysis and discussion), d) conclusions (including also,
where appropriate, recommendations, practical implications, limitations,
and suggestions for further research), e) bibliography, f)
acknowledgements, and g) appendices.
Case Studies
Case Studies should be not longer than 3500 words and not shorter than
2500; these articles should be focusing on the detailed and critical
presentation/review of real-life cases from the greater tourism sector, and
must include - where appropriate - relevant references and bibliography.
Case Studies should aim at disseminating information and/or good
practices, combined with critical analysis of real examples. Purely
descriptive accounts may be considered suitable for this section, provided
that are well-justified and of interest to the readers of TOURISMOS. Each
article should have the following structure: a) abstract, b) introduction
(including an overall presentation of the case to be examined and the aims
and objectives of the article), c) main body (including, where appropriate,
the review of literature, the presentation of the case study, the critical
review of the case and relevant discussion), d) conclusions (including
also, where appropriate, recommendations, practical implications, and
suggestions for further study), e) bibliography, f) acknowledgements, and
g) appendices. All Case Studies are subject to blind peer review (by at
least one anonymous referee). The decision for the final acceptance of the
article will be taken unanimously by the Editor and by the Associate
Editor.
Research Notes
Research Notes should be not longer than 2000 words and not shorter
than 1000; these papers may be either empirical or conceptual, and will be
subject to blind peer review (by at least two anonymous referees). The
decision for the final acceptance of the paper will be taken unanimously
by the Editor and by the Associate Editors. The manuscripts submitted
may present research-in-progress or my focus on the conceptual
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development of models and approaches that have not been proven yet
through primary research. In all cases, the papers should provide original
ideas, approaches or preliminary findings that are open to discussion.
Purely descriptive accounts may be considered suitable for this section,
provided that are well-justified and of interest to the readers of
TOURISMOS. Each paper should have the following structure: a)
abstract, b) introduction (including an overall presentation of the issue to
be examined and the aims and objectives of the paper), c) main body
(including, where appropriate, the review of literature, the development of
hypotheses and/or models, research methodology, presentation of
findings, and analysis and discussion), d) conclusions (including also,
where appropriate, recommendations, practical implications, limitations,
and suggestions for further research), e) bibliography, f)
acknowledgements, and g) appendices.
Book Reviews
Book Reviews should be not longer than 1500 words and not shorter than
1000; these articles aim at presenting and critically reviewing books from
the greater field of tourism. Most reviews should focus on new
publications, but older books are also welcome for presentation. Book
Reviews are not subject to blind peer review; the decision for the final
acceptance of the article will be taken unanimously by the Editor and by
the Book Reviews Editor. Where appropriate, these articles may include
references and bibliography. Books to be reviewed may be assigned to
potential authors by the Book Reviews Editor, though TOURISMOS is
also open to unsolicited suggestions for book reviews from interested
parties.
Conference Reports
Conference Reports should be not longer than 2000 words and not shorter
than 1000; these articles aim at presenting and critically reviewing
conferences from the greater field of tourism. Most reports should focus
on recent conferences (i.e., conferences that took place not before than
three months from the date of manuscript submission), but older
conferences are also welcome for presentation if appropriate. Conference
Reports are not subject to blind peer review; the decision for the final
acceptance of the article will be taken unanimously by the Editor and by
the Conference Reports Editor. Where appropriate, these articles may
include references and bibliography. Conference reports may be assigned
to potential authors by the Conference Reports Editor, though
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TOURISMOS is also open to unsolicited suggestions for reports from
interested parties.
Industry Viewpoints
Industry Viewpoints should be not longer than 1500 words and not
shorter than 500; these articles may have a “commentary” form, and aim
at presenting and discussing ideas, views and suggestions by practitioners
(industry professionals, tourism planners, policy makers, other tourism
stakeholders, etc.). Through these articles, TOURISMOS provides a
platform for the exchange of ideas and for developing closer links
between academics and practitioners. Most viewpoints should focus on
contemporary issues, but other issues are also welcome for presentation if
appropriate. Industry Viewpoints are not subject to blind peer review; the
decision for the final acceptance of the article will be taken unanimously
by the Editor and by the Associate Editors. These articles may be
assigned to potential authors by the editor, though TOURISMOS is also
open to unsolicited contributions from interested parties.
Forthcoming Events
Forthcoming Events should be not longer than 500 words; these articles
may have the form of a “call of papers”, related to a forthcoming
conference or a special issue of a journal. Alternatively, forthcoming
events may have the form of a press release informing readers of
TOURISMOS about an event (conference or other) related to the tourism,
travel, hospitality or leisure sectors. These articles should not aim at
promoting sales of any products or services. The decision for the final
acceptance of the article will be taken by the Editor.
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TOURISMOS
An International Multidisciplinary Journal of Tourism
NOTES FOR CONTRIBUTORS
Manuscript Submission Procedure
Manuscripts should be written as understandably and concisely as
possible with clarity and meaningfulness. Submission of a manuscript to
TOURISMOS represents a certification on the part of the author(s) that it
is an original work and has not been copyrighted elsewhere; manuscripts
that are eventually published may not be reproduced in any other
publication (print or electronic), as their copyright has been transferred to
TOURISMOS. Submissions are accepted only in electronic form; authors
are requested to submit one copy of each manuscript by email attachment.
All manuscripts should be emailed to the Editor-in-Chief (Prof. Paris
Tsartas, at [email protected]), and depending on the nature of the
manuscript submissions should also be emailed as follows:
• Conference reports should be emailed directly to the Conference
Reports
Editor
(Dr.
Vasiliki
Galani-Moutafi),
at
[email protected]
• Book reviews should be emailed directly to the Book Reviews
Editor (Dr. Marianna Sigala), at [email protected]
• Full papers and all other types of manuscripts should be emailed
directly to the Associate Editor (Dr. Evangelos Christou), at
[email protected]
Feedback regarding the submission of a manuscript (including the
reviewers’ comments) will be provided to the author(s) within six weeks
of the receipt of the manuscript. Submission of a manuscript will be held
to imply that it contains original unpublished work not being considered
for publication elsewhere at the same time. Each author of a manuscript
accepted for publication will receive three complimentary copies of the
issue, and will also have to sign a “transfer of copyright” form. If
appropriate, author(s) can correct first proofs. Manuscripts submitted to
TOURISMOS, accepted for publication or not, cannot be returned to the
author(s).
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Manuscript Length
Research Papers should be not longer than 6000 words and not shorter
than 4000. Research Notes should be not longer than 2000 words and not
shorter than 1000. Case Studies should be not longer than 3500 words and
not shorter than 2500. Book Reviews should be not longer than 1500
words and not shorter than 1000. Conference Reports should be not
longer than 2000 words and not shorter than 1000. Industry Viewpoints
should be not longer than 1500 words and not shorter than 500.
Forthcoming Events should be not longer than 500 words. Manuscripts
that do not fully conform to the above word limits (according to the type
of the article) will be automatically rejected and should not be entered
into the reviewing process.
Manuscript Style & Preparation
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•
•
•
•
•
240
All submissions (research papers, research notes, case studies, book
reviews, conference reports, industry viewpoints, and forthcoming
events) must have a title of no more than 12 words.
Manuscripts should be double-line spaced, and have at least 2,5 cm
(one-inch) margin on all four sides. Pages should be numbered
consecutively.
The use of footnotes within the text is discouraged – use endnotes
instead. Endnotes should be kept to a minimum, be used to provide
additional comments and discussion, and should be numbered
consecutively in the text and typed on a separate page at the end of
the article.
Quotations must be taken accurately from the original source.
Alterations to the quotations must be noted. Quotation marks (“ ”)
are to be used to denote direct quotes. Inverted commas (‘ ‘) should
denote a quote within a quotation. If the quotation is less than 3 lines,
then it should be included in the main text enclosed in quotation
marks. If the quotation is more than 3 lines, then it should be
separated from the main text and indented.
The name(s) of any sponsor(s) of the research contained in the
manuscript, or any other acknowledgements, should appear at the
very end of the manuscript.
Tables, figures and illustrations are to be included in the text and to
be numbered consecutively (in Arabic numbers). Each table, figure or
illustration must have a title.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The text should be organized under appropriate section headings,
which, ideally, should not be more than 500-700 words apart.
The main body of the text should be written in Times New Roman
letters, font size 12.
Section headings should be written in Arial letters, font size 12, and
should be marked as follows: primary headings should be centred and
typed in bold capitals and underlined; secondary headings should be
typed with italic bold capital letters; other headings should be typed
in capital letters. Authors are urged to write as concisely as possible,
but not at the expense of clarity.
The preferred software for submission is Microsoft Word.
Authors submitting papers for publication should specify which
section of the journal they wish their paper to be considered for:
research papers, research notes, case studies, book reviews,
conference reports, industry viewpoints, and forthcoming events.
Author(s) are responsible for preparing manuscripts which are clearly
written in acceptable, scholarly English, and which contain no errors
of spelling, grammar, or punctuation. Neither the Editorial Board nor
the Publisher is responsible for correcting errors of spelling or
grammar.
Where acronyms are used, their full expression should be given
initially.
Authors are asked to ensure that there are no libellous implications in
their work.
Manuscript Presentation
For submission, manuscripts of research papers, research notes and case
studies should be arranged in the following order of presentation:
• First page: title, subtitle (if required), author’s name and surname,
affiliation, full postal address, telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail
address. Respective names, affiliations and addresses of co-author(s)
should be clearly indicated. Also, include an abstract of not more
than 150 words and up to 6 keywords that identify article content.
Also include a short biography of the author (about 50 words); in the
case of co-author(s), the same details should also be included. All
correspondence will be sent to the first named author, unless
otherwise indicated.
• Second page: title, an abstract of not more than 150 words and up to
6 keywords that identify article content. Do not include the author(s)
details, affiliation(s), and biographies in this page.
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•
•
Subsequent pages: the paper should begin on the third page and
should not subsequently reveal the title or authors. In these pages
should be included the main body of text (including tables, figures
and illustrations); list of references; appendixes; and endnotes
(numbered consecutively).
The author(s) should ensure that their names cannot be identified
anywhere in the text.
Referencing Style
In the text, references should be cited with parentheses using the “author,
date” style - for example for single citations (Ford, 2004), or for multiple
citations (Isaac, 1998; Jackson, 2003). Page numbers for specific points or
direct quotations must be given (i.e., Ford, 2004: 312-313). The
Reference list, placed at the end of the manuscript, must be typed in
alphabetical order of authors. The specific format is:
• For journal papers: Tribe, J. (2002). The philosophic practitioner.
Annals of Tourism Research, Vol.29, No.2, pp.338-357.
• For books and monographs: Teare, R. & Ingram, H. (1993).
Strategic Management: A Resource-Based Approach for the
Hospitality and Tourism Industries. London, Cassell.
• For chapters in edited books: Sigala, M. and Christou, E. (2002). Use
of Internet for enhancing tourism and hospitality education: lessons
from Europe. In K.W. Wober, A.J. Frew and M. Hitz (Eds.)
Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism, Wien:
Springer-Verlag.
• For papers presented in conferences: Ford, B. (2004). Adoption of
innovations on hospitality. Paper presented at the 22nd EuroCHRIE
Conference. Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey: 3-7 November
2004.
• For unpublished works: Gregoriades, M. (2004). The impact of trust
in brand loyalty, Unpublished PhD Tourismos. Chios, Greece:
University of the Aegean.
• For Internet sources (if you know the author): Johns, D. (2003) The
power
of
branding
in
tourism.
Ηttp://www.tourismabstracts.org/marketing/papers-authors/id3456.
Accessed the 12th of January 2005, at 14:55. (note: always state
clearly the full URL of your source).
• For Internet sources (if you do not know the author): Tourism supply
and demand. Ηttp://www.tourismabstracts.org/marketing/papers242
•
authors/id3456. Accessed the 30th of January 2004, at 12:35. (note:
always state clearly the full URL of your source).
For reports: Edelstein, L. G. & Benini, C. (1994). Meetings and
Conventions. Meetings market report (August), 60-82.
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